Church Worker Handbook -- What You Didn`t Learn in Bible College

Church Worker Handbook -- What You Didn`t Learn in Bible College
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Church Workers Handbook
What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
©2004, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
This on-line book is
filled with practical
information that you
may not have learned
in Bible college or
seminary. If you
haven't already learned
this information in the
school of hard knocks,
you need this book.
This is something
anyone who serves in
any capacity in a
church (from senior
pastor up to janitor)
must have.
G. Edwin Lint, Th.B., M.A
Click to Send E-Mail
DiskBooks Electronic Publishing
G. Edwin Lint,
Owner and Primary Author
PO Box 473 -- Mechanicsburg, PA 17055
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Church Worker Handbook --1--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Master Table of Contents
1. Speaking and Praying in Public................................................................6
Teaching, preaching, oral prayer
2. You Can Be a Teacher, Too ...................................................................11
Including links to the three-hour sound track of a live workshop.
How to Be an Educator Even though You've Never Been to College
3. Outcome-Based Education (OBE) .........................................................29
Facts and Fiction for evangelical Christian parents and educators
4. Church Music ..........................................................................................37
Directing Worship, Providing Special Music, Working with a Volunteer
Ten Commandments for Worship Leaders
and Worship Teams ............................................................................50
5. Creating True Friendship in Your Church............................................57
6. Shopping For and Using a Microcomputer............................................67
7. Using Audio-Visual Equipment ..............................................................75
8. Basics of Desktop Publishing...................................................................87
9: Using Mikes and Using a Sound System .............................................. 109
10. Making a Broadcast-Quality Recording of Your Church Service.... 121
For broadcast or tape ministry
11. Church Publicity and Public Awareness............................................ 130
12. How to Publish on the Web ................................................................. 139
13. Planning and Conducting a Public Meeting....................................... 151
14. Planning a Children's Program [such as at Christmas time] ........... 161
15. Broadcasting a Recording of Your Church Service ......................... 164
on Internet Radio
16. Supervision and Administration of Sunday School Programs ......... 176
17. E-mail Basics ........................................................................................ 187
Church Worker Handbook --2--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
18. Understanding Church Ceremonies:.................................................. 202
Baptism -- Communion Dedication, Building -- Dedication, Infant -- Funeral -- Marriage -- Membership -- True
Love Waits
Church Worker Handbook --3--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Chapter 1: Speaking and
Praying in Public
Church Worker Handbook
What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
These guidelines may seem simplistic at first. However, if you follow them carefully, they
can greatly amplify the effectiveness of your teaching, preaching and oral prayer.
Avoid verbal garbage
You may recognize verbal garbage as expressions such as:
..., uh..., um..., like [out of context], you know [out of context], like you know,
and oh uh, etc. ad infinitum. There is nothing more annoying than to have a
person begin a verbal presentation by holding a microphone close to the lips
and emit one of these pieces of verbal garbage before speaking an actual
word. Granted verbal garbage is used to fill time until something important
comes to mind. At least have the presence of mind to keep the mike away from
your mouth until you have an actual word to say.
Wrong:...uh ... ummm... Welcome to the first session of the series on better
public speaking.
Better: [pause, with dead air] Welcome to the first session of the series on
better public speaking.
Avoid excessive use of okay? and right?
Example: Now we're going to talk about better public speaking, Okay? First,
I'll give you a few guidelines. Okay? And then you'll have a chance to show
me what you can do, right?
Avoid excessive use of "go ahead and".
Example: Now we're going to "go ahead and" talk about better public speaking,?
First, I'll give you a few guidelines. And then we'll "go ahead and" give you a
chance to show me what you can do, okay?
Church Worker Handbook --4--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Avoid public use of "you guys"
This term has come into common usage in recent years but it clearly falls
under the category of Verbal Garbage. If you're working as a server in a
restaurant, it may be acceptable to say, "Are you guys ready for dessert
now?" This may be acceptable but if I were the manager, I'd train the servers
to avoid "You guys" entirely.
Here's an example of breaking both of the last two rules. In a morning
worship service in a large church, one of the associate pastors was leading the
congregation in public prayer. At the end of the prayer, he said,
"You guys can go ahead and be seated now."
You don't need a Bible college or seminary degree to know that this is not
acceptable platform behavior!
If you are an instructor of students in a class of public
speaking, allow me suggest an instructional strategy:
Equip the classroom with an electric buzzer that has a loud, unpleasant
sound. An inexpensive battery powered buzzer such as found in some board
games is fine. Have your students take turns speaking extemporaneously on a
topic of their own choosing. As soon as you hear verbal garbage, press the
buzzer. Add interest by forming teams and having competition. Surrender the
buzzer button to students who are making progress and allow them to serve as
monitor. Do not pass students until they can speak three minutes on a topic of
your choosing without hearing the buzzer.
In verbal prayer, avoid excessive use of the Lord's name [vain
repetition in the language of the King James Version]
Use the Lord's name in the beginning of your prayer, as a form of address. Once you, the
Lord, and your audience all know to whom you are speaking, it is not necessary to keep using
His Name every couple words. I hear Father God and Lord used to excess in this way.
In verbal prayer, avoid the Elizabethan pronouns for deity: such as
thee, thou, thine.
In 1611, when the King James Version of the Bible was published, these pronouns were
used in everyday speech, not just when talking to or about God. Today, it is perfectly all
right to use modern language pronouns in all church activities, even in prayer. In fact,
using Elizabethan pronouns may make you sound pompous.
Church Worker Handbook --5--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Evangelical ministers and worship leaders usually pronounce the word Amen as ay-men,
instead of ahh-men. The ahh-men pronunciation is usually reserved for use in the
traditional, old-line churches, or when Amen appears in the lyrics of a choral response or
While I'm on the topic of evangelical pronunciations, let me touch on pronouncing Bible
names, places, and books of the Bible. The best advice I can give is to listen to educated
evangelicals on television or radio and choose a role model. If you pronounce Bible names
and places like the following do, you won't be far from wrong: Dr. Billy Graham, Franklin
Graham, Dr. John Hagee, Dr. D. James Kennedy, are examples of well-spoken
Evangelical preachers.
However, Freda Keet is an educated Israeli anchorperson that speaks
frequently in evangelical churches in support of the nation of Israel. She
pronounces the prophet Isaiah as Eye-ZYE-uh instead of Eye-ZAY-uh. I
would continue to talk about Isaiah as Eye-ZAY-uh until Dr. Billy Graham
and the others named above call him Eye-ZYE-uh. If you and Freda Keet are
calling him Eye-ZYE-uh when most other evangelicals call him Eye-ZAY-uh,
you run the risk of sounding pompous and pretentious.
Avoid frequent references to the time of day.
This afternoon, this evening, and tonight are often abused in this way. Only the mentally
impaired need constant reminders of the time of day. Frequent references to the time of day
is verbal garbage, even if it is done by professional announcers on TV. The now-retired Tom
Brokaw was a frequent offender in this regard.
September 11, 2001
This black date in American history now appears often in print and speeches. The correct
pronunciation of this date is nine-eleven, and not 9-1-1. 9-1-1 is a phone number and not a
date. If you are having an emergency, dial 9-1-1, and when you talk or write about
September 11, it's 9/11 or nine-eleven.
Don’t say I could care less, when you mean to say, "I couldn't care
If you doubt that you use some of these poor speech habits, tape yourself in a
real life public speaking situation, and then go ahead and listen to yourself,
okay? See what you think.
Here's a couple more frequent errors to avoid:
It's Daylight Saving Time, not Daylight Savings Time.
It's Safe Deposit Box, not Safety Deposit Box.
Church Worker Handbook --6--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Rehearse it, but don't read it
Be well prepared and even well rehearsed. However, only those skilled in reading off a
TelePrompTer should ever try to read a speech, lesson, sermon, or even prayer.
When presenting a story to young students: (a) read the story during your preparation
time and absorb the gist of what it says; (b) if you can't remember the details of the story,
write some cues on 3x5 cards; if you have pictures to hold up, tape your cue cards to the
back of the pictures; (c) when presenting the story, look the students straight in the eyes
and "tell" them the story; (d) if the story is from a book with pictures, hold the book
facing the group and turn the pages as you TELL the story. This technique makes your
presentation more effective and helps you keep better control of the group.
For students who are "too old" for stories, limit your in-class reading to scripture and
passages of lasting literary value. Always read scripture from a Bible and not the
quarterly. The students must see God's authority for what you teach as the Bible and not
something from a publishing house. Don't read anything else from the quarterly, either.
The material in the teacher's edition should be read during your preparation time and
then woven into your classroom presentation. As a general rule, the contents of the
teacher’s quarterly seldom rise to the level of lasting literary value.
Simple Steps for Preparing an Oral
The first step in preparing for a verbal presentation is to make an outline of all the major
points you want to cover. Think through this outline and memorize the major points.
The second step is to mentally rehearse the presentation while working from your outline.
If you have trouble keeping on target during a mental rehearsal, talk out loud. Even make
a tape recording.
If you still have trouble making your rehearsal flow along your outline, memorize small
segments such as important paragraphs, illustrations, and anecdotes.
The third step is to learn your outlined presentation so well that when you look down at
your notes, a bullet or key word will trigger an entire segment of your presentation in
your mind.
The fourth step is to continue mentally rehearsing your presentation so it will flow in your
mind from point to point. I often do this mental rehearsal while I am lying in bed, waiting
to go to sleep.
Church Worker Handbook --7--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
A Sample Prayer Outline
Although your oral prayers will sound better if not read from a script, there is nothing
wrong with praying from a simple basic outline.
[Your prayers during private devotion may stay more focused if you pray
them orally, also.]
Here's an example:
Salutation: Heavenly Father, we greet you as the Great God of all the universe.
Thanksgiving: Thank you for your love, thank you for your Plan of Salvation, thank you
for being willing to send your Son to die on the cross, thank you for your Holy Spirit
who's in the world today, to guide, direct, guard and protect from harm and evil seen and
unseen. Thank you, Jesus, for being willing to come. We salute you as our Lamb of God
and Coming King.
The topic and type of prayer will control who and what you pray for.
An offertory prayer will mention "the gifts and the givers".
An invocation will mention the worshippers who have gathered,
and all those who pray, sing, and preach.
A benediction will ask for protection for those who travel to their
homes, etc.
G. Edwin Lint
Please note: The hypertext e-mail link above is hot [active] when you are connected to the Internet
through your ISP. The same will be true of all hypertext links through the text of this ebook.
Church Worker Handbook --8--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Chapter 2: You Can Be a
Teacher, Too
Church Worker Handbook
For an expanded version of this chapter, click this link
What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
Guidelines For Christian Educators and
Teachers Who Have No Formal Training in
Teaching Techniques
Sunday School Teachers ... Christian education administrators and supervisors ... Pastors
... Church school and vacation Bible school workers ... Home Schoolers ... Corporate
Trainers ...... Scout Leaders ... Parents ... Church Board and School Board Members ...
Anyone involved in teaching something to anybody
You Can Be a Teacher, Too is written for persons who have educational
responsibilities on the job or in the community, but who have no college work
in education.
Contents of This Chapter
Introduction .......................................................................................................11
Self-Evaluation Checklist ...................................................................................11
The Four Basic Skills Of Effective Teaching ....................................................13
1. Compassion .....................................................................................................14
2. Communication...............................................................................................15
3. Content ............................................................................................................17
4. Control.............................................................................................................23
--Contingency Contracting .......................................................................24
--Positive Reinforcement ..........................................................................24
--Behavior Shaping ...................................................................................24
--Delayed Reinforcement ..........................................................................25
--Time Out.................................................................................................25
Supervision and Administration of Christian Education Programs..................... 26
Links to the sound track of a three-hour workshop [Free]
For an expanded version of this document, click this link
Church Worker Handbook --9--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
You have known people who have done an excellent job teaching you things, but who have
had no college degrees, no certificates, and no status as a professional educator. You have
known other people with college degrees and teacher certification, but no real ability to
teach anything to anyone.
What makes the difference?
These guidelines will explain what can make that difference and show how you can be an
effective Christian educator or teacher, even without professional training and
certification as a teacher.
First, let me introduce myself, and explain my personal qualifications. This is not to brag.
However, you have a right to know that I'm not just writing off the top of my head.
Although this book is designed to show how you can be an effective teacher even though
you've never been to college a day in your life, I do have a college education and state
teaching certificates.
I have a master's degree in education and six education certificates from two states. I have
over 36 years experience as a professional educator and have worked as a teacher,
supervisor, principal, assistant superintendent, and education advisor for a state
department of education. Right now, I'm an educational consultant specializing in the
areas of curriculum development and microcomputer utilization.
The following education certificates hang on my office wall, to my left, as I write this:
Elementary Principal
Supervisor of Curriculum and Instruction
General Elementary Supervisor
Elementary Teacher
Supervisor of Special Education
Special Education Teacher
Self-Evaluation Checklist
Now, let let's find out about you. I'd like you to think about your own abilities by
completing the self-evaluation checklist shown below.
Church Worker Handbook --10--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Check each item that describes you.
I am intelligent. I may not have a high IQ but I am able to learn new things.
Intelligence is defined here as the ability to learn new things, not the amount of
knowledge you already have.
I have horse sense. In other words, I am a stable thinker. I have street smarts.
I have a college degree, but it's not in education.
I have a high school diploma, but no formal training as a teacher.
I know a good teacher when I see one. I may not be able to put my evaluation into
technical terms but I still know good teaching when I see it.
I know when teachers are doing a good job with my children. This is true even when
I can't spend a lot of time in the classroom during school.
I am a parent and want to help my children with their homework. I want to help
them when they need help, not just do it for them.
I am a parent who is home-schooling my children (by teaching them at home.) I
don't have any professional training as a teacher, but I still want to do a good job as
their teacher.
I am a teacher's aid. SomeTimes I see my teacher doing things that don't look like
good teaching to me. With just a little training, I think I could do as good a job, or
maybe even better.
I am a Sunday school teacher, scout leader, or other type of volunteer. I like to work
with children in my spare time, and want to do the best possible job I can in helping
them to learn new things.
I am a corporate trainer or in-service training coordinator. My job description
involves helping new employees develop basic skills and current employees master
advanced skills.
I am a supervisor on my job. In addition to overall supervision, I am responsible for
training my employees to do things.
Church Worker Handbook --11--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
I am a business person who is good at my job. I'd like to teach high school kids the
things I have learned out here in the real world.
I am an elected member of a school board or church board. I take my job seriously
and want to help the children in our community get the quality education for which
their parents are paying taxes.
I am a member of a steering committee at my school. We're working on a districtwide program to improve the quality of our education. I want to help but I'm not
sure I know what I'm talking about.
I am thinking about a career in education. All my life, I've dreamed about being a
teacher. I'd sure like to get off to a good start.
I have been appointed or hired into an administrative capacity. However, I have no
training or experience in how to supervise and evaluate teachers or other education
Now look back over your self-evaluation. Each time you've checked an item, this is an
indication that you need to read You Can Be a Teacher, Too.
The Four Basic Skills Of Effective Teaching
You need these skills regardless of the age or circumstances of the students involved.
Sunday school ... Junior church ... Vacation Bible school ... Day care ... kindergarten ...
elementary school ... middle school ... high school ... college ... graduate school ... preservice and in-service training -- there are no exceptions to these rules.
If you fail to master these four concepts, you'll never be an effective teacher, regardless of
the number of college degrees you earn or professional certificates you acquire.
Here they are, listed in order of importance:
1. Compassion:
This is your ability to treat other persons as you like to be treated, as Jesus stated in the
Golden Rule.
Church Worker Handbook --12--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
2. Communication:
This is your ability to transport ideas, concepts, and facts from your brain to someone
else's brain.
3. Content:
This is the accumulation of information that you are responsible for conveying to your
students. If it's not in your brain, you need to know how to teach your students to find it.
4. Control:
This is your ability to structure the learning environment so all students have a chance to
learn. If you've mastered skills one through three, number four pretty much takes care of
You may have developed or learned these skills in the school of hard knocks. Or, you may
have acquired these skills in a formal teacher training program in college. Regardless of
how it happened, if you have these skills, you are an effective teacher. If you do not
demonstrate these skills in the way you deal with your students, you are not an effective
teacher. I know that's blunt. But that's it.
If you're reading this book on the fly, stop and jot down these four words:
Make a bookmark. Later, when you have more time, you can come back and read the fine
1. Compassion
Good teachers like people. In other words, good teachers are people people. They like
people in general and students in particular. This doesn't mean good teachers never get
annoyed at what students do. However, this momentary annoyance is never translated
into psychological or physical abuse. Teachers who don't like students should find other
areas of service.
Perhaps you are still in high school and are considering a career as a professional
educator. I want to talk with you specifically for the next paragraph or so. The rest of you
can tune in also, if you want.
Church Worker Handbook --13--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
By now, you surely know if you like people well enough to teach them. If
you're serious about a career in education, your budding resume should show
some evidence of this career preference. If it doesn't, it's not too late to start
volunteering right now. Your church and Sunday school, the scouts, or even
your school district may be looking for help in working with kids. Don't wait
until you take student teaching in your senior year of college to discover that
you really don't like kids well enough to teach them. By then, it may be too
late to make a career change without a significant loss of time and money.
The effective teacher must:
1. Develop a positive relationship with the learner
This can happen best in a one-to-one situation outside of the structure of the formal
learning environment. Make sure you know the student's name and that he/she knows
yours. Find out his/her interests, favorite things to do, and information about the family.
It is easier to communicate with and control a student who knows and respects you as a
2. Make the learner feel at ease in the learning situation
Be friendly, smile a lot, even crack a joke or two.
3. Be alert for signs of physical discomfort or illness
Never deny a student his/her right to use the restroom as required. (Younger students
should be encouraged to use the restrooms during pre-session.) If you suspect students are
finding the restroom more interesting than your class, do something about your class. You
don't have to be a certified teacher to know that no one learns well when all powers of
concentration are focused on the constricture of the sphincter muscles. I'm not sure how
this fixation on restricting access to the restroom got such a prominent place in education.
It's surely not born out of compassion.
4. Avoid sarcasm and ridicule
Since you are striving to place the learner at ease, these attitudes and actions have no
place in the learning environment, unless you're a drill instructor and teaching at
Quantico. The military establishment seems convinced that it takes sarcasm and ridicule
to make good soldiers. (I'm not sure that's true, but it's too late to change them now.)
5. Praise in public and reprimand in private
We'll talk more about discipline in the section on Control. For now, remember that the
watch-word is Compassion.
Church Worker Handbook --14--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
2. Communication
The ability to share ideas with others is critical to the teaching process. A gifted musician
or athlete may have the ability to perform but not the ability to teach someone else to
perform. At the same time, another musician or athlete can be an average performer
while teaching the gifted performer how to do a better job.
Every once in a while, you'll find an expert in a content area who is also an expert
communicator. That person is more precious than rubies in the educational environment.
Effective teaching is hard work.
The teaching process is mentally and physically exhausting, when you're doing a good job.
Right now, I'm talking about the communication process, especially. The business of
getting information from your brain to the brains of your students is hard work. When
folks talk about how good teachers have it, working five hours a day, for ten months a
year -- forget it. The teacher who is an effective communicator is equal parts of showman,
clown, actor, mime, and orator. And a five-hour day? Forget that, too! No full-time
teacher worth his/her salt works a mere five hours a day.
Here is a frequently-quoted fallacy:
"Those who can -- do. Those who can't, -- teach."
Here is the truth of the matter: "Some who can do, can also teach. Some who can do a
little, can teach a lot. Some who can do a lot, can't teach at all."
To be an effective communicator, you must master the following processes and concepts:
1. Begin with the known and relate it to the unknown.
Regardless of your theological orientation, history records the fact that Jesus Christ was a
Master Teacher. He was at His best when He taught with parables. A parable is taking
what is "known" and relating it to the "unknown."
Jesus had less than four years to teach twelve men His basic philosophies. Although these
men, known in the Bible as disciples, were intelligent, there is no record that they had any
theological training (excluding the Apostle Paul). So, what did Jesus talk about when he
was teaching His disciples? The simple things of life that were known to all: bread, water,
light, salt, sheep, doors, farmers, and families.
Here's an activity you can use to test your ability to communicate with the learner by
relating to things that are known.
Draw a simple diagram, made up of a triangle, a rectangle, a circle, and a straight line.
Make sure all elements of your drawing are adjacent to each other or connected in some
way. Label the elements A, B, C, and so forth. Click for a Sample.
Church Worker Handbook --15--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Now seat three people at a table and stand in from of them. Keep your picture of the
diagram out of sight. Tell them how to reproduce your diagram on their paper, using
simple instructions. Don't respond to any questions except "Will you repeat that, please?"
Don't look at their papers while they're still drawing.
When you say "Draw a box," the unanswered questions may be: "How big is the box?"
How should I hold my paper?" "Do you want an outline or a 3-D picture of a box?
Next you might say "Draw an outline of a shoe box." Now the unanswered questions will
be fewer because your students already know the shape of a shoe box.
You will be on your way to being an effective communicator when you can get a small
group of adults to reproduce your diagram in the proper size and configuration on their
paper. Now try it with children.
2. Adjust your presentation to the initial learning level of the students.
Not only do you need to begin with the known, you need to start with demonstrations and
activities with which the students can have instant success. Example: When teaching
students to read, at least 93 percent of the words used in the lesson should be words they
already know.
3. Remember that you have not taught until the learner has learned.
When my youngest daughter was failing algebra in high school, my wife, Nancy, and I had
a conference with the teacher. I pointed out that the failing grade had to be shared equally
between student and teacher. Since Jessi was intelligent and had excellent language skills,
there was no reason why she couldn't learn algebra. Therefore, it was up to the teacher to
find teaching methods which could communicate algebra facts and concepts from the
teacher's brain to the student's brain. Teaching and learning go hand in hand.
3. Content
A working knowledge of the Plan of Salvation is the foundation on which all Christian
education lesson content must be built. The primary purpose of the Bible is to share this
Plan of Salvation with us. If we, in turn, are to share it with our students, we must
understand it ourselves. By the way, the Plan of Salvation is not learned by memorizing a
packaged witnessing program such as the Four Spiritual Laws, the Roman Road, or the
Kennedy "Evangelism Explosion" plan. The Plan of Salvation is the Biblical concept on
which these witnessing programs are built. It must be the concept on which your teaching
is based as well.
Here is a simple outline of the Plan of Salvation with sample scripture references. If you
don't understand it, study it. When you do understand it, memorize it. When you've
memorized it, build your teaching around it.
Church Worker Handbook --16--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
The Plan Of Salvation
A. In the beginning God created human beings for fellowship with Him and worship of
Him. Gen. 1:26-27
B. Our first ancestors, Adam and Eve, broke God's law about eating the fruit of the Tree
of the Knowledge of Good and Evil. Gen. 3:6-8.
C. The penalty for breaking God's law was then, and always has been, death. Gen. 2:17.
D. But God had mercy and developed a temporary plan of animal sacrifices so man could
be saved from His death penalty. Gen. 3:21, Gen. 4:4-5, Gen. 22:9-13, Lev. 1:4.
E. After hundreds of years of animal sacrifices, the point in history arrived for God to
reveal his permanent plan of salvation: The sacrifice of His only Son as the Lamb of
God. Luke 1:41, John 1:29.
F. Until the Rapture, the only way to escape God's death penalty for sin is to accept the
sacrifice of His Son, Jesus Christ. John 14:6, Acts 4:12.
G. In Heaven, Jesus Christ is known as The Lamb, the highest and most exalted title of all.
Rev. 5:6.
In mastering general content, you must:
1. Know what your students need to know when your instruction is
Many educators refer to this process as "Outcome-Based Education" . Unfortunately,
outcome-based education has a bad reputation in some church circles because if has been
unfairly paired with liberal philosophies of education, religion, and politics. See the OBE
Chapter of Church Worker Handbook for more on this topic. For now, you need to know
that good teaching always is aimed at the outcome, not the method.
The terms Outcome and Objective both relate to the concept of knowing the target of your
teaching, and can be used more or less interchangeably.
2. Know the difference between Learning Objectives, Methods, and
The Learning Objective is the specific skill you are teaching.
A Method is a game or activity which you use to help your students achieve the
Learning Objective.
Church Worker Handbook --17--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Materials are the tangible things you use to carry out the Methods as you move the
students toward the Learning Objective.
This difference between Objectives and Methods/Materials is a fairly simple concept, but
many teachers fail to understand the distinction. Teachers often decide on what to teach
based on the contents of their closet, or the items listed in the school supply catalog -rather than the educational needs of their students.
3. Be able to break a task into sequential learning objectives
The "sequence" is the order you will teach the tasks.
Here's a simple process for writing and sequencing objectives. Example: You want your
students to be able to cook an egg.
A. Separate that task into its separate sub-tasks. Use 3x5 cards to write
down the things you want the students to learn, one item per card. Use objectives only and
not methods or materials. "Play musical chairs" is not an objective, it's a method. Don't
worry about what comes first or last at this time. Just write. Leave the top inch of the card
blank for rewording the objective later.
B. Now write an objective at the top of each card, and begin each
objective with a present-tense verb.
Comment for trained teachers:
Resist the habit to begin each objective with a stock phrase such as, "The student will be
able to". Such surplus verbiage just clutters up the scenery without saying anything
significant. Of course you want the "student to be able to..." That's a given. The purpose of
education is help students to be able to do things. When you begin each objective with a
verb, you get the action up front where you and the student can see it.
In the example below, you are teaching students to prepare an egg:
Cracks egg
Greases pan
Decides on type of egg to prepare
Sets burner temperature
Etc., etc.
Church Worker Handbook --18--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
C. Last, put your 3x5 cards in the order you wish to teach the
objectives. You can sequence your objectives in order of difficulty or logical order.
When preparing an egg, the hardest thing to do may be to crack the egg.
4. Identify appropriate methods and materials for teaching specific
learning objectives.
Here lies a major pitfall for the untrained (as well as trained) teacher. Do you use a
method or material because it is familiar, readily available, and popular with the
students? Or do you seek out methods and materials that are ideally suited for teaching a
particular objective?
In outcome-based education, each method and material is specifically selected as being
best suited for helping the students achieve a particular objective.
5. Adjust methods and materials to meet the learning styles of the
A method or material that worked with last year's group may not be suitable for this
class. The seminar leader may have had a great idea but it just won't work for you. Tailor
your methods by adapting, adjusting, and augmenting what others have found successful.
If a student has a specific ability or disability, select methods and materials that tend to
maximize abilities and minimize disabilities.
6. Test what the students have learned.
Testing can be as simple as asking a few verbal questions after telling a story: "How did
the man who couldn't walk get to see Jesus? Why did his friends make a hole in the roof?
What did Jesus think when a sick man came down out of the ceiling on a rope?" Or,
testing for older students can be in the form of a written quiz or performance monitoring.
In the example of cooking the egg above, one form of evaluation would be to eat the egg:
does it look, smell, and taste good?
The true purpose of testing is not to give grades but to discover what has been learned. Of
course, no test can ever truly measure intelligence or knowledge. A test measures
performance and from that performance, we draw inferences on what has been learned.
The much talked-about IQ (intelligence quotient) test shows how a given student or group
of students performs mentally in comparison to most students of the same age.
For example, Johnny is 10 years old. We say his chronological age (CA) is 10. However,
when tested, he is able to do the mental work of the average 8-year-old. We say his mental
age (MA) is 8.
Church Worker Handbook --19--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
We then arrange this basic information into a division problem. In the answer (quotient),
we drop the decimal and call the number a percent.
MA / CA = IQ
(In these examples, the slash mark (/) means divided by.)
8 / 10 = 80
Johnny can do 80% of the mental work of an average 10-year-old, so we say his
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is 80.
Let's try another example. Jenny is also 10. However, when she is tested, she can do the
mental work of a student who is 12. Again, this information is put into a simple division
MA / CA = IQ
12 / 10 = 120
Of course many students will do the mental work of students their own age. Then the IQ
equation looks like this:
MA / CA = IQ
10 / 10 = 100
7. Talk to the students, don't teach at them.
Good teachers don't sound like "teachers". They sound like a normal person talking to a
group of normal persons. Tape your lessons and listen to yourself teach. Watch your
volume and pitch. If you always use high volume and pitch, you have nowhere to go when
you want to add emphasis.
8. Tell it, don't read it.
When presenting a story to young students: (a) read the story during your preparation
time and absorb the gist of what it says; (b) if you can't remember the details of the story,
write some cues on 3x5 cards; if you have pictures to hold up, tape your cue cards to the
back of the pictures; (c) when presenting the story, look the students straight in the eyes
and "tell" them the story; (d) if the story is from a book with pictures, hold the book
facing the group and turn the pages as you TELL the story. This technique makes your
presentation more effective and helps you keep better control of the group.
For students who are "too old" for stories, limit your in-class reading to scripture and
passages of lasting literary value. Always read scripture from a Bible and not the
quarterly. The students must see God's authority for what you teach as the Bible and not
Church Worker Handbook --20--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
something from a publishing house. Don't read anything else from the quarterly, either.
The material in the teacher's edition should be read during your preparation time and
then woven into your classroom presentation.
9. For preschool and primary-age students, do all writing in
upper/lower case manuscript (printing) style.
This kind of writing provides more visual cues than solid capitals. All students, even
adults, can profit from the visual cues of upper/lower case writing. This applies when the
copy is type-set, as well as hand-written.
When you type in solid caps, the copy is harder to read than when you use normal
upper/lower case. The human eye and brain use graphic cues to help decode printed
characters into words and ideas. Look at the word girl, for example. The G goes below the
line, and the L goes above it. On the other hand, GIRL is a solid block with fewer visual
cues than girl.
Anyone who can read, can read solid caps. Solid caps just cause subliminal irritation,
something you want to avoid.
10 Know the difference between concepts and facts.
Fact: Jesus had 12 disciples.
Concept: Jesus trained His disciples to carry on His work after He was gone.
11. Prepare a lesson plan.
The plan should be in outline format so it can be used for quick reference during the
lesson. During your preparation time, learn the lesson so well that while you are teaching,
a quick glance at your lesson plan can trigger the next sequence of events. It doesn't have
to be a script that is read word for word. In fact, you already know you should seldom
read anything to students unless it has lasting literary value.
All good teachers rehearse their lessons. Beginners may need to do this with an audience
(from within the family or friends). As you get more experienced, you may do your
rehearsing mentally. When I know I am going to speak before a group, I always do a
mental rehearsal. Some of this activity involves actual mental word-for-word dialogue
between me and the group.
Scripture Memorization.
When teaching memory verses, make sure the students understand the concept and
context of the verse. Here are the four elements of scripture memorization, listed in order
of importance. The example is: "Jesus wept." John 11:35.
Church Worker Handbook --21--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Concept: "Jesus had human emotions and feelings, just like we do. When He was
sad, He cried." The concept has primary importance because here is where the
kernel of truth lies. If a student forgets the text, forgets, the reference, forgets the
context, but remembers the concept -- he/she has indeed hidden God's word in the
Context: "A very good friend named Lazarus had died and the man's sisters were
very sad. Their sorrow made Jesus sad, too." The context gives the setting for the
verse: What is happening? Where is this happening? Why is this happening? Who is
speaking? To whom is this person speaking? A knowledge of the context helps
students remember the concept of the verse. In addition, this knowledge helps the
student guard against false teachings that are based on scripture quoted out of
Reference: "John 11:35" . The ability to find a scripture verse in the Bible gives
the student opportunity for further study of the concept and context.
Text: "Jesus wept." As a general rule, the King James Version should be used
for memorization. The language of the KJV has a literary quality not found in the
modern-language translations. However, the students should understand that the
Elizabethan pronouns (thee, thy, thine, thou) were not reserved for deity in 1611
when the KJV was translated. Therefore, they have no divine significance now.
4. Control
In any society, control is necessary or chaos results. This applies to teachers and students,
There is a philosophical difference between discipline and punishment. The purpose of
discipline is to improve future behavior. The purpose of punishment is to provide a
negative reward for past behavior. Try to think in terms of discipline and not punishment.
To have control in your classroom, you must:
1. Establish rules and limits. Your students may act like they don't want limits but
many humans thrive in a controlled environment. Make sure everyone knows and
understands your rules.
2. Enforce established rules and limits. Don't make empty threats. You may
say, "The next time you talk without raising your hand, you will sit in the time-out chair 2
minutes." But if you say it, make sure you do it. Count on one thing: you will be tested by
your students.
Church Worker Handbook --22--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
3. Understand and be able to use the basic principles of such
behavioral techniques as contingency contracting, positive reinforcement, behavior
shaping, and delayed reinforcement.
Contingency contracting:
A contingency contract is based on an if/then statement and God is the original
contingency contractor. In the Old Testament He said, "IF you obey my laws, THEN all
land you walk on will be yours and every battle you fight you will win." In the New
Testament He says, "IF you will accept Jesus Christ as your personal Savior, THEN you
may have eternal life."
For younger students, contracts are always verbal. For older students, they may be
written. Here are some sample classroom contingency contracts:
IF you will be quiet during the story, THEN you may have a snack.
IF you don't touch the microphone, THEN you may stand in the front row of
the cherub choir.
IF you memorize 10 of the 13 memory verses for this quarter, THEN I will
give you a new Bible.
Positive reinforcement:
Many students (of all ages) exhibit poor behavior because they want your attention and/or
the attention of the rest of the group. The trick is to reward positive behavior while
ignoring negative behavior. (Negative behavior that involves danger to self or others
should not be ignored. Use a more structured technique such as time out.) Instead of
giving a handful of Fruit Loops to everyone as a snack, try using them as positive
reinforcers. When you see Tom, Dick, and Harry misbehaving, do this: "Mary is in her
seat and ready for the story. Mary gets a Fruit Loop. Joe is in his seat and he gets a Fruit
Loop. Billy is quiet. He gets a Fruit Loop, too." Say absolutely nothing to or about Tom,
Dick, or Harry. If their negative behavior is based on a need for attention, this technique
will get to them over a period of time.
Behavior shaping:
SomeTimes a child cannot meet your rules and standards. Therefore, you must accept,
and reinforce his/her ability to conform on a graduating scale. Use this technique in
connection with positive reinforcement. Harry is a new student in the community who has
never been to Sunday school before. At first, you might reinforce him with a Fruit Loop
for not disturbing others while he is out of his seat. Later, you reinforce him for being in
his seat even though he is not attending to what you are doing. Over successive sessions,
Church Worker Handbook --23--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
you can gradually increase the requirements for reinforcement until he performs on the
same level as the other students.
Delayed reinforcement
(Token economy):
A token economy is based on delayed reinforcement. Again, God invented delayed
reinforcement: Blessed are you when men shall revile you for my name sake...for great is
your reward in Heaven. Instead of using edibles (Fruit Loops) for immediate
reinforcement, use tokens for delayed reinforcement. You can make tokens out of small
squares of colored construction paper.
Time out:
You will find the need for a time out area where students can go whose negative behavior
cannot be tolerated. This may be a corner of the room (a time-honored tradition) or a
chair. Keep time out periods short. You might use an egg timer to keep track of the time.
As a general rule, give one minute of time out for each year of the student’s age. You may
need different time-out areas for different students. In Sunday school, the ultimate time
out may be returning the child to his/her parent(s) for the rest of the period -- and don't
be afraid to use it unless that's what the child wants.
Be consistent across programs
In order for behavior techniques to be effective, your program must be consistent across
all Sunday school and junior church programs. Behavioral techniques have less chance of
working if all adults involved in the program are not using the same reinforcement
procedures. This is especially true for students with behavior problems. Involved adults
must confer on the various techniques that will be used.
Not all troubled students are troublesome.
SomeTimes the quiet child may need your attention but doesn't know an acceptable way
to compete for it. One of the benefits of positive reinforcement is the boost the self-concept
of such a child gets each time the Fruit Loops or blue tokens are passed around for good
G. Edwin Lint
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Church Worker Handbook --24--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Supervision and Administration of Christian
Education Programs
The basic concepts of the following guidelines can apply to secular education programs, also
The most common trap into which a Christian education manager can fall sounds
something like this:
Question: Aren't these people volunteers who work as a good-will service to their church
and for God?
Answer: All the more reason to apply sound educational management principles! We are
doing far more than preparing these students for life. We are preparing these students for
eternity! By definition, eternity is heaven or hell forever, worlds without end.
Basic principles for all quality education, secular as well as Christian.
1. Each educator will have a written job description and relevant
performance standards. Of course, such a job description should reference
competence in our four main areas: compassion, communication, content, control.
2. All educators will receive pre-service and in-service training in how
to fulfill the requirements of their job descriptions and meet minimum performance
3. Each educator will be given a regular performance evaluation to
assess on-the-job competence as measured against the relevant job description and
performance standards. Such an evaluation will include the following areas: compassion,
communication, content, control.
4. Educators who show evidence of failing to perform satisfactorily
will participate in a corrective action program designed to improve performance in
the deficient area(s).
5. Educators who fail to respond to an appropriate corrective action
program will be considered for dismissal.
6. Dismissal will be the final disciplinary action, following these
progressive disciplinary actions:
a) Verbal reprimand.
b) Written reprimand.
Church Worker Handbook --25--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
c) Suspension.
7. All new workers entering the program will be interviewed in terms
of the likelihood that they will be able to perform satisfactorily in reference to the
relevant job description and performance standards.
You Can Be a Teacher, Too
You’re invited to listen to this three-hour recording of a live workshop conducted
by G. Edwin Lint, MA for a group of Christian educators at the Christian Life
Assembly, Camp Hill, Pennsylvania, in 1988.
Make sure your speakers are turned on. Then, click the segment of your choice.
All downloads are free!
Part 1 Introduction; Compassion; Communication [Including the Flutophone
Part 2 Communication continued; Diagram drawing demonstration; Content,
lesson planning curriculum development
Part 3 Content continued; student evaluation; tell the story instead of read it;
Facts and Concepts; scripture memorization.
Part 4 Control: contingency contracting; positive reinforcement; behavior
shaping; delayed reinforcement [token economy]; time out;
After your segment has downloaded, your Windows Media Player [or equal]
should kick in and you will be able to hear the sound of my voice.
Church Worker Handbook --26--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Chapter 3: Some Real Facts
About Outcome-Based
Church Worker Handbook
What They Didn't Teach You in Bible College and Seminary
Some Real Facts About Outcome-Based Education
(OBE) of Special Interest to Evangelicals
Author's note: I wrote these facts originally March 10, 1993, while I was
working for the Pennsylvania Department of Education as an education
adviser. Now, I am retired from public education and working as an
educational consultant. I still feel the same way. [For what it's worth, I'm a
born-again Christian and a registered Republican.]
G. Edwin Lint, M.A. -- March 10, 1999
Much has been written and said against outcome-based education
from the political and theological perspectives. Now, consider the
OBE Fact 1: Outcome-Based Education is a method for organizing
how we run our schools.
There is no inherent evil in it, contrary to the beliefs of many evangelicals. The concept of
OBE doesn't promote homosexuality, secular humanism, occult practices, immorality, the
new age, or a new world order. Not by itself, it doesn't.
OBE Fact 2: Outcome-Based Education is nothing but a
You can use a wheelbarrow to haul fresh fruits and vegetables. Or, you can use a
wheelbarrow to haul garbage. Outcome-Based Education can provide good education if
the outcomes, methods, and materials are good.
Church Worker Handbook --27--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Or-- Outcome-Based Education can provide rotten education if the content of the
curriculum is poor (or evil).
OBE Fact 3: Just exactly what is OBE?
Outcome-Based Education is just what the name implies. Instead of being time-based, it is
outcome-based. Students get credit for learning specific things-- which are known as
learning-outcomes-- not just for putting in their time. For example, if a child can read at
the third grade level on the first day of kindergarten, true Outcome-Based Education says
that instruction should start at the third or fourth grade level-- not way down at the Fun
with Dick and Jane level.
OBE Fact 4: With time-based education,
WHEN a student learns a skill or fact is more important than WHETHER or not he or she
learns it.
OBE Fact 5: With Outcome-Based Education, time is irrelevant.
WHETHER a skill is learned is the important thing.
OBE Fact 6: If Outcome-Based Education is new, what is it replacing?
For over 100 years, public schools in the United States have been organized according to
calendar-based and clock-based education. Most public schools are in session 180 days a
year, five and one half hours a day, for 13 years, counting kindergarten. So, OutcomeBased Education is replacing Time-Based Education.
OBE Fact 7: Outcome-Based Education is driven by three cardinal
laws of learning:
A. Don't teach a skill that has already been learned. This annoys students.
B. Don't teach a skill that will never be used. This bores students.
C. Don't teach a skill until the student is ready. This frustrates students.
Most children come to school loving it. What makes them start to dislike it? Being bored.
Being annoyed. Being frustrated. We adults hate anything that bores, annoys, and
frustrates us, too.
Church Worker Handbook --28--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
OBE Fact 8: Outcome-Based Education can be of particular value to
students who attend private day schools or who are being schooled at
Since the critical issues are what is known, not when it is learned, students can move into
or out of an OBE program without experiencing gaps or overlaps in their education.
OBE Fact 9: Gifted students may stand to gain the most from
Outcome-Based Education.
The converse is true; gifted students may lose the most if it is not fully implemented.
Consider the TV sitcom Doogie Howser, a story of a teenager who became a physician
while still in his early teens. With Outcome-Based Education, any child could be a real-life
Doogie Howser if he or she has the mental ability to learn-- while still in the elementary
grades-- the things a fledgling doctor needs to know in order to enter med school.
OBE Fact 10: Concerned parents can do some useful things to help a
child's education, with or without OBE in place.
First, keep a close eye on WHAT is being taught in terms of the planned courses and the
outcomes. Make sure that wheelbarrow is hauling fresh fruits and vegetables and not
hauling garbage. And second-- get involved in what the school is doing. Go to PTA
meetings. Don't miss parent-teacher conferences. Even offer to volunteer to serve as an
unpaid teacher aid.
And if you smell garbage, yell loud and long!!!
G. Edwin Lint
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Church Worker Handbook --29--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Behind the Scenes at a State Department of
The revised curriculum regulations spelled out in Chapter 5 of the
Regulations of the [Pennsylvania, USA] State Board of Education made it
possible to implement outcome-based education. When these regulations were
published in the Pennsylvania Bulletin, July 24, 1993, it caused quite a bit of
consternation among many evangelicals. At this time, my duties at the
Pennsylvania Department of Education included attending many of the
training and implementation seminars designed to help put OBE into place. In
addition, I was a member of a work group that drafted a section of the
original required outcomes.
The e-mail messages which follow show the stand I took regarding the
relationship of OBE to the mindset of evangelicals. Make special note of the
comments made by my supervisors at the end of this section.
08:33am - Mon, Nov 30, 1992
To: Joe Bard [Then Commissioner of Basic and Secondary Education]
From: Ed Lint CC: Jim Tucker, Linda Rhen
This is in regard to the rumors I hear that Don Carroll [then Secretary of
Education] is planning to debate Peg Luksic [then potential candidate for
Pa. governor] on issues surrounding OBE. Since she is an evangelical (as
well as a Republican), you and Don may wish to consider some relevant
issues on how evangelicals view OBE. Since my January report on this issue
to Jim Tucker, which he in turn forwarded to you, I have learned more
about the ongoing controversy between evangelicals and the supporters of
OBE. (I am attaching that January exchange to the end of this message, for
your review.)
First, let me say I am certainly an evangelical. I was raised in an
evangelical home and earned Bachelor of Science in Bible and Bachelor of
Theology degrees from an evangelical college, before going on for a
Master's in educational supervision and administration. Therefore, I am in
a position to see both sides of the issue.
By definition, an evangelical believes in the Bible as the divinelyinspired word of God and in his/her responsibility to share the truths of
the Bible with others. (Hence the term "evangelical"; the word
"fundamentalist" is a media term which is not used inside the evangelical
Second, I firmly believe in the merits of outcomes-based education. Bill
Spady [a major national author on OBE] says the one-room school was the
Church Worker Handbook --30--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
forerunner of modern OBE concepts. It may not be a total coincidence that
I spent 5.5 years of my 8 elementary years in such a school with eight
grades in one room and one teacher. (Northumberland County, 1940-41; 194448.) I further believe that WHETHER rather than WHEN is the primary issue
in all education.
Next, let me give you an update on the situation in my own church. I met
with the "God and Country Committee" and presented my view that OBE is not
out of harmony with traditional evangelical values. At first, my fellow
worshippers had a hard time believing that a born-again Christian could be
a professional educator working in the Department of Education. Once I
established my credibility, we went on to have a fruitful discussion. I
emphasized the importance of getting involved with the local strategic
planning groups as well as the curriculum development committees working
on school district planned courses. [In Pa., all curriculum must be in
"planned course" format, including lists of outcomes and means to achieve
those outcomes]. I didn't change everyone's mind but the fire left their
eyes and we were able to talk rationally. I had a subsequent meeting with
the education subcommittee of this God and Country Committee and that was
positive also. At that time, they asked me for a list of districts in the
region by strategic planning wave so they could start getting involved in
the process.
Let me move on to some comments about evangelicals and their concerns
about public education.
1. Evangelicals include blue-collar workers or professionals in some field
unrelated to education. They tend to favor stressing the 3 Rs and are not
interested in affective areas, as a rule.
2. There is a concern that values-free sex education will be more
prevalent under OBE, including condom distribution.
3. The use of the term "lifestyle" is a lightening rod. To an evangelical,
this term conjures up visions of alternative lifestyles which are not
consistent with traditional family values. The solution: we should stop
using this term.
4. There is fear of the occult. This probably comes from other states ...
which have had tinges of the occult creeping into the curriculum. This
spring, I heard Chuck Colson on the radio trashing Pennsylvania's OBE
thrust. He may be an excellent lawyer and an effective minister in
prisons, but he clearly lacked facts on OBE. He seemed to be influenced by
things which are happening in other states where there is evidence of
supernatural powers such as witchcraft in curricular materials .... With
many nationally-syndicated radio and TV programs aimed at evangelicals,
the thinking and philosophies by people like Chuck Colson are evident in
their own philosophies.
5. There is fear of the New Age movement. For the last 2,000 years, we
have been in the Age of Pisces, the dispensation of Jesus Christ. The "new
age" is the dispensation of man (secular humanism) where there are no
Church Worker Handbook --31--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
moral absolutes. This is the true meaning of the song, "This is the
Dawning of the Age of Aquarius." Evangelicals are opposed to anything
which hints of New Age or secular humanism. The bottom line of all this:
Although there is no real evidence to support it in Pennsylvania,
evangelicals feel there's a real link among OBE and New Age, Secular
Humanism, and the occult. Some states with so-called progressive education
ideas have had hints of these elements. Therefore, some people have
extrapolated this to mean that because OBE is new, it will lead directly
to contamination by these things which are feared.
When I speak to groups of concerned parents, here's what I say:
If you fear unwanted intrusions into your schools' curriculum, you should
look to planned courses. This is the community's real line of defense. In
Pennsylvania with it's commitment to local control, nothing can be taught
legally unless it is supported by a planned course. If it's not in the
planned course, it shouldn't be in a lesson plan. And if it's not in a
lesson plan, it shouldn't be taught. OBE or no OBE
Now here's a copy of my e-mail message in January, 1993 to Jim Tucker, the
director of my bureau:
This is in follow up to our table conversation at the awards luncheon
January 10. At that time, we were discussing the recent radio talk show
programs regarding public reaction to Chapter 5 [the curriculum chapter of
the revision to the Regulation of the Pa. State Board of Education].
Since then, I have been alert to what's going on in the community in this
regard. On January 16, I picked up a copy of an open letter in the foyer
of our church (Christian Life Assembly in Camp Hill). This letter talked
about the church's concerns pertaining to revising Chapter 5, specifically
in the area of the Learning Outcomes. I scheduled an "unofficial" meeting
with two of the Associate Pastors in an attempt to learn more about the
nature of their concerns. At this meeting, I told them:
A. Chapter 5 with its emphasis on outcome-based education rather than
traditional clock-hours and credits was at the cutting edge of what is
good about the national concern for improving our schools.
B. The language of Goal 11 (Appreciating and understanding others) was as
close to the teachings of Jesus Christ regarding interpersonal
relationships as a public education document could come.
C. The local school district, through its Strategic Plan and the
subsequent planned courses, had total control of the actual instruction
which would be presented to the students.
D. A complete education for a student of any age includes the affective as
well as the cognitive domain. At first, one of the associate pastors took
Church Worker Handbook --32--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
a strong position that the school had no business teaching in the
affective domain and that this was the sole responsibility of the home and
church. Later, his opposition seemed to boil down to concerns about such
terms as "lifestyle".
Let me suggest that during the revision of the learning outcomes which
relate to the affective domain, we include recognized representatives of
the evangelical movement, in general, and of the Christian day school and
home-school movements in particular. It's better to have these people in
on the discussions from the ground up than to have them seeing words like
"lifestyle" as an issue of contention later on.
E-Mail Comments From Joe Bard And Jim Tucker (Note Dates)
*** Comment from JAT - Tucker, James A.; 01/23/92 02:16pm:
Ed, this was a very proactive and positive step to take, and I appreciate
it. I will share your experience with Commissioner Bard.
*** Comment from JFB - Bard, Joseph F.; 01/23/92 02:32pm:
I second your comment, Jim. Ed's comments were cogent and intellectually
substantive. How would he like to be our Coordinator of Sectarian
*** Comment from JAT - Tucker, James A.; 01/23/92 05:25pm:
Ed, your work did not go unnoticed or unappreciated; I feel certain that
it may go yet further up the chain of command. Thanks again.
*** Comments from
commend you for a
real help to both
this with Joe and
JAT - Tucker, James A.; 10/22/92 03:20pm: Ed, again I
thoughtful and provocative presentation that should be a
Joe and Don in their deliberations. Thanks for sharing
with me.
*** Comments from JFB - Bard, Joseph F.; 10/22/92 02:56pm:
Ed, Thank you so much. This is very
helpful information to have from an
evangelical perspective. It certainly
helps me respond more understandingly
rather than riding roughshod over
concerns I have trouble validating.
Church Worker Handbook --33--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
This is a summary of the OBE workshop which Spady [a national OBE author]
and company presented at Hatboro-Horsham School District May 14-15, 1992:
1 Spady's OBE stresses two key concepts: WHETHER is more important than WHEN,
and education is the process of preparing persons for adult life.
2 This version of OBE is consistent with what good ... educators have been talking about
for years.
3 Spady uses three key terms to describe "curriculum". In descending order of value, they
**A. Traditional, based on subject matter content.
**B. Transitional, based on higher-order competencies
Transformational, based on complex role performance in authentic contexts (preparation
for adult life).
4 Spady emphasizes the importance of designing curriculum from the top down and
delivering it from the bottom up.
End of OBE Chapter
G. Edwin Lint
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Church Worker Handbook --34--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Chapter 4: Church Music
Church Worker Handbook -- What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
This section on church music contains practical
guidelines for directing worship, coordinating special
music, and working with a volunteer orchestra.
Table of Contents for This Chapter
Leading Worship .........................................................................................................36
How Long Should Worship Last?................................................................................37
Don't Try To Improve on the Old Hymns ..................................................................38
Projecting Words onto a Screen ..................................................................................38
You're not singing a solo! .............................................................................................39
Carry a Tune and Sing on Pitch...................................................................................39
Understand Time Signature .........................................................................................40
Understand Pickup Notes .............................................................................................40
Give a Strong Down Beat .............................................................................................40
Give Consistent Motions for Each of the Major Time Signatures .............................41
Give Clear Indications of Volume, Holds, Cuts, and Repeats ....................................42
Pick the Right Songs .....................................................................................................42
Set the Right Tempo (Speed)........................................................................................42
The Value of an Evangelical Pianist ............................................................................42
Providing Special Music ...............................................................................................44
Make and Post a Schedule ............................................................................................44
Serve As a Resource Person for Your Special Singers................................................44
Put Words with Your Instrumental Music..................................................................45
Working with a Volunteer Orchestra ..........................................................................46
Pick the Right Song in the Right Key ..........................................................................46
Gospel Music and Contemporary Music .....................................................................47
Leading Worship
Who Is Leading Whom?
As a worship leader, you know you are directing the worship team, orchestra, piano and
organ, and the choir. They, in turn, are directing the congregational singing. Therefore, it
is important that the song leading guidelines included in this chapter are clearly
understood by the pianist, organist, and the members of the choir. It might be a good idea
Church Worker Handbook --35--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
to download this chapter and print it out. Of course, you can import it into your word
processor and make your own modifications first. When you have it the way you want it,
make copies for key people in your music program.
Waving your arms aimlessly can be good exercise. In fact, there is a theory that symphony
conductors grow to such a ripe, old age because of the exercise their upper chest receives.
That may or may not be true. However, this is true. Unless all persons directly involved in
the music program have a common understanding of the signals you are using, the most
you are doing is getting exercise. The worst you are doing is looking foolish, and perhaps
bringing discredit to the cause of Christ.
You don't need to know how to read or write music to become an effective worship leader.
You don't need to know how to play a musical instrument, either. However, there are
some things you do need to be able to do, and these absolutes are listed below:
How Long Should Worship Last?
Can you remember when the song service consisted of a couple of songs out of the hymnal
plus a couple of choruses, known well enough to the congregation to make the projection
screen unnecessary? I can.
Now, the song service, known as "worship" may seem to be a test of the endurance of the
worshippers. Worship leaders and worship teams tend to be young and energetic and
surely exceed in endurance many of us more senior worshippers.
Years ago, I learned a rule in a physical education course I was taking that went
something like this:
Always terminate an activity while the students are still enjoying it
and wanting more.
Worship leaders: this rule may apply here, also. Terminate the singing, clapping, and handraising while the worshippers are still enjoying it, not when they show signs of being tired of
Of course, the clock has something to do with it, especially if you have a large
congregation with limited parking and more than one consecutive service.
If you have invited special guests to participate in the service, make sure you don't allow
the worship phase to detract from what the special guests have been invited to come and
do. This is especially true if the guests are going to present a musical package.
Consult with your guests before the service. See if they would like to be the worship
leaders. If there will be live music, see if their organist/pianist would like to participate in
worship. [My wife and I sang in a regional gospel singing group for several years. Our
Church Worker Handbook --36--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
preference was to have the local leader sing a "warm-up" chorus and then turn the
service over to us.]
The absolute final authority on how long worship singing should last is not the clock, or
the musical guests, but the leading of the Holy Spirit.
Don't Try To Improve on the Old Hymns
Don't try to spice up the old hymns with strange tempos and chord progressions. When
you've been singing a traditional hymn for fifty-plus years, you won't take kindly to a new
tempo full of syncopation and other surprising breaks in the original tempo. And when
you're used to singing along with the congregation and harmonizing as you go, strange
and fancy chords won't be much fun, either.
Attention worship leaders: When a major segment of your congregation is older
and used to traditional worship, save the strange and fancy stuff for a worship service that
is made up mostly of younger people and newer Christians.
Projecting Words onto a Screen
Many churches are now singing lyrics projected onto a screen, instead of singing from
hymnals or chorus books. This practice brings up some practical and legal issues:
Legibility is more important than art. A standard serif font, such as Times New
Roman New Roman, in a large, bold, face is the most legible.
Combinations of yellow and black may be more legible than other color
Avoid textured backgrounds and even logos. Keep the background plain. Just
because you can doesn't mean you should.
Make sure your projections are legal: Christian Copyright Licensing International
Now there's an easy and affordable solution for churches that reproduce songs... or
would like to.
• It's called the Church Copyright License. It can loose your music department
from the rigid demands of the copyright law and leave you free to legally copy
over 150,000 songs and hymns. Here are just some of the ways the Church
Copyright License allows you to copy songs:
1. Project songs from your overhead, slide projector, or computer software such
as PowerPoint].
Church Worker Handbook --37--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
2. Record your worship service on tape.
3. Copy songs in bulletins that you hand out before worship service.
You're not singing a solo!
You may be a very accomplished soloist and often sing solos with a handheld mike.
However, don't "sing a solo" while you're leading worship. Resist the temptation to suck
up to the mike so that your amplified voice overpowers the congregation and acts as a
deterrent to their participation in the song service. If you're using a handheld mike, when
you announce a song, either switch the mike off or hold it away from your face as the
accompanist(s) finish the introduction and you start to sing. If you're using a mike
mounted to the pulpit, either step back when you start to sing, or arrange with the people
running sound to turn you down when you sing and back up to normal levels when you
I enjoy sitting beside my wife in a large congregation and singing harmony with her. She
usually sings the second part [alto] and I sing the third part [baritone.] Since most people
in the congregation are singing melody [lead; soprano], this gives us the illusion of singing
in three-part harmony. We were married in 1956 and sang harmony for a couple years
before then, while we were going together.
But when a worship leader starts singing loudly into a handheld mike, his/her leading is a
deterrent to Nancy and my lifelong habit of congregational harmonizing. I usually just
drop out and let the worship leader have sole access to the stage for a solo. I just don't
care to compete with all that electronic bellowing.
An exception to this rule is the occasion when you are teaching a new chorus to the
congregation and they don't have the words.
Carry a Tune and Sing on Pitch
If you can't do both of these, you probably aren't even reading this chapter. However,
since a lot of worship leaders are men, I need to talk specifically about singing on pitch, as
it relates to men.
First, find a lady who is a good singer and can read music, Have her check you out on
singing on pitch. This may be your wife, mother, choir director, friend, anyone. I'll call
her your helper. Ask your helper to sing a simple song, like "Jesus Loves Me." Now you
try to sing the same song with her in unison. Singing in unison means you are both singing
the same notes in the same octave. When I was teaching elementary school, I had a female
music teacher come into my room who tried to teach adolescent boys to sing unison with
the girls by having the boys sing an octave lower. This is wrong, and I tried to tell her so.
Look at a choir arrangement that has men and women singing unison. The notes for the
Church Worker Handbook --38--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
sopranos and altos are in the treble clef, and the notes for the tenors and basses are in the
bass clef. However, the ABCDEFG values of those notes are identical. A man's voice
quality has a different timbre than a woman's, but the pitch is not automatically an octave
lower. It's different but not lower.
I said all that to say this. Make sure you are not singing an octave lower than the ladies
who are singing soprano when you are leading the congregational singing. You should be
singing in unison with them.
Understand Time Signature
The time signature is given at the beginning of each bar of music, expressed as a fraction,
such as 4/4. The top number in this fraction tells you how many beats there are to a
measure. The bottom number tells you what kind of note gets one beat. In the 4/4
example, there are 4 beats to a measure and a quarter note gets one beat.
Understand Pickup Notes
Now things get a little tricky. The pickup note(s) is what's left over from the beats that
were used in the last measure of the song. In other words, the pickup notes plus the last
measure of the song must equal the number of beats per measure, as shown in the bottom
number of the time signature.
Let's use the old chorus Give Me Oil in My Lamp as an example. The time signature is 4/4.
The last measure of the song consist of a dotted half note, that gets 3 beats on the word
Day . . . Since the last measure doesn't have a full 4 beats, there will be a pickup note(s)
equaling one beat. The first two words of the song are "Give me . . ." The notes for these
two words are both eighth notes, and 2 eighths equal one quarter. This 1 quarter plus the
3 quarters in the last measure equal the full 4 beats that all measures in this song must
Now the easy part: you signal these 2 pickup notes with a sweeping upward motion of
your hand, followed by a downward motion to signal the first beat of the song.
Give a Strong Down Beat
We had to talk about pickup notes so you could understand this next point: the down beat.
As the name implies, the down beat is given with a straight-down motion of the hand. It
should be your most firm and distinctive movement while leading.
What is a down beat, you ask? The first note of every measure is a down beat. In the
example of Give Me Oil in My Lamp, the first 2 notes are pickups, signaled with an upward
motion: "Give me . . . " The next word, "oil", is the first beat of the first full measure, and
is a down beat. You will learn a little later that each time signature is conducted with a
Church Worker Handbook --39--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
specific motion pattern of your arm. However, you can more or less do what you want to
do with all the other beats in the measure as long as you end with your hand at the top,
ready for a strong down beat for the first note of the next measure.
Give Consistent Motions for Each of the Major
Time Signatures
Many songs we sing in church are in 3/4, or 4/4 time. I'll try to diagram how the beats are
3/4 Time:
The down beat is a downward motion of the hand, from 3 to 1
on the diagram. The second beat is straight across to the right,
and beat 3 is a curve up to the top, ready for another down
beat at the beginning of the next measure. A pickup note is
from 2 to 3.
4/4 Time:
The down beat is a downward motion of the hand, from 4 to 1
on the diagram. The second beat is up and to the left. The third beat is from 2
to 3, straight across to the right, and beat 4 is a curve up to the top, ready for
another down beat at the beginning of the next measure. A pickup not is from
3 to 4.
The diagrams above show approximate motions and can be reversed from left to right if
you are left handed or have a preference. The important thing is to always give the down
beat in exactly the same way. If you do this, any pianist, organist, choir member, or
orchestra member in the country will know exactly what you are doing. It is not necessary
to be flamboyant or flashy. Remember to keep self under control; your objective is to
glorify God.
By the way, there is one thing to avoid-- waving your arm in a figure eight pattern no
matter what the time signature. That is a sure sign you are just creating a breeze, and
don't really know what you're doing.
Church Worker Handbook --40--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Give Clear Indications of Volume, Holds, Cuts,
and Repeats
These signals tend to vary from person to person. The important thing is to be consistent.
As a general rule, these signals are given with the non-dominant hand. (This would be the
left hand for a right-handed person.) Here are some examples:
Increase Volume: Palm up, a little higher with each measure if you want more volume.
Decrease Volume: Palm down, a little lower with each measure if you want less volume.
Hold: Palm down, curved, and moving horizontally for as long as the hold is to last..
Hold to Hum: Starts similar to Hold. The Hum begins when the thumb and index finger
meet. (This signal is used when directing a choir and is seldom used in congregational
Cuts: Sharp downward motion of both hands.
Repeats: Wally Laxon (of Wally and Ginger Laxon) used to signal Repeat Chorus by
holding his left hand in the shape of the letter C so the choir and instruments could see it.
The worship leaders in our church tend to rotate the left hand in small, low circles when
they want to repeat.
Pick the Right Songs
The familiarity of the songs picked for the song service is important. It's nice to learn a
new song or chorus but it's better to do this when visitors are less likely to be in the
Set the Right Tempo (Speed)
This brings me back to my first point. You direct the piano and organ and they direct the
congregation. Take charge of the song with the first down beat, and don't let it get out of
hand. Too fast a tempo or too a slow tempo can ruin a good song. Remember you are
directing. The piano and organ are following your lead.
The Value of an Evangelical Pianist and
The job of a worship leader is made much easier if you have the services of a true
evangelical pianist. The arrangements in the hymnal are very dull and unimaginative.
They consist of solid, four-note chords with few frills because they were written to be sung
Church Worker Handbook --41--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
in four-part harmony. However, evangelical singing has given rise to a style of piano and
organ playing that expands the basic melody and harmony into a lively and vibrant
accompaniment. This kind of accompaniment greatly enhances the congregational singing
and special music.
Such a pianist can play any song in any key by ear. Anyone used to hearing hymns played
straight from the hymnal will be thrilled by great evangelical accompaniment. Some
might call this kind of playing a skill. Others might say it is a talent. I am convinced it is a
gift straight from the Lord.
Mom, playing in her living room, in 1963 [Captured from 8 mm home movie film]
At this point, I'd like to honor my Mom, Madlein Strohl Lint, 1912-1971. Mom was an
evangelical pianist in the strictest sense of the word. She could play any song in any key,
Church Worker Handbook --42--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
by ear or by note. After hearing a song once, she could play it with full improvisations,
without ever seeing the printed music.
It's dangerous to start a list because I'm sure I'll forget someone who should be on it. But
here are a few examples of this kind of evangelical pianist/organist:
[Nancy and I have first hand knowledge of their playing. We have sung or played
instruments to their accompaniment.]
Betty Masterman, Marceille Harrison, Brenda Reed, Pearl Culp, Jean
Crissinger, Danny Conrad, Dorothy Passmore, Aletha Leatherman, Bill
Wray, Nina Wislocky, Irene Kennedy, ad infinitum.
Providing Special Music
You may be doing the providing in the sense of doing the singing yourself. Or, you may be
coordinating the special music program by selecting and scheduling the special singers.
Make and Post a Schedule
If you are the special music coordinator, the first step is to find out who can sing specials.
If you don't already know, schedule a music night and call for volunteers to fill the entire
program. You may find families and groups of friends who will be able to sing in
ensembles that you would never have known about if they weren't invited to volunteer.
Back in the 70s, I was working part-time as a DJ at a local radio station. Every once in a
while, I'd schedule a singspiration where I'd invite anyone who wanted to sing on the
radio, and who didn't have a professional recording, to come to the local Church of the
Nazarene [Mifflinburg, PA USA] and make a tape recording. I also recorded the worship
services at this church for broadcast every Sunday afternoon, so I had a connection.
People came from many churches to make their tapes so they could hear themselves on
the radio the following week. My point is that the chance to volunteer brought out all
kinds of hidden talent.
After you know about the singers, make up a schedule for at least a month at a time. Try
to get a balance in your schedule in terms of the kinds of groups and type of music. For
example, you may prefer contemporary Christian music, but don't forget that some of us
like southern style gospel music, also. [If you don't know about this kind of music, make
sure you watch the Bill Gaither Homecoming Choir special TV broadcast as they are
heard in your area.] Make sure you have a good mix.
Serve As a Resource Person for Your Special Singers
Use the following guidelines to help your special singers do a better job:
Church Worker Handbook --43--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Singing Harmony by Ear
Singing harmony by ear is more art, or a gift, than science. When two people sing
together, one sings melody and the other sings the first harmony part. When three people
sing, the third person sings the second harmony part. The trick is to stay on your own part
and off the other person's part. In a duet, the harmony singer should be singing First
Harmony most of the time. At Times, the singers will flip-flop melody and harmony, with
the harmony someTimes above the melody and someTimes below it in pitch.
A. The First Harmony Part. This part may be known as alto or tenor. However, it is
defined by the fact that the chords it uses are based on thirds. A third is the third
step on the scale..
B. The Second Harmony Part. This part is based on fifths, the fifth step on the scale.
C. Singing Bass. Bass is always the lowest pitched part, but it is never consistently the
melody an octave lower. Here again, singing bass by ear is more art than science.
The best way to learn to sing bass is sit next to a person who knows how to sing bass
and just listen, singing along softly.
Stacking Parts in a Mixed Group (when singing harmony by ear.)
As a general rule, men should sing the higher pitched parts and women the lower pitched
parts. As a man's voice goes higher, the timbre gets lighter. As a woman goes lower, the
timbre gets heavier. This fact increases the chances the voices will blend.
The Key May Be the Key
Singing harmony by ear in a mixed group can be effected by the key the song is written
(pitched) in. For example, a mixed trio will do better on songs written in E flat, F, and G.
This may be why the early Bill Gaither and Lanny Wolfe songs are written in these keys.
The first harmony part [sung by a man] will tend to be above the melody with the second
harmony part [sung by a woman] below the melody.
Put Words with Your Instrumental Music
An instrumental interlude may be very inspirational, but only if the congregation knows
the words to the sang that the piano, organ, or orchestra is playing. For example, The Old
Rugged Cross is always inspirational regardless of the instrument being used. As the
instrument is playing the notes, 98% of the members of the congregation are singing the
words in their mind because they know them from childhood.
However, this may not be equally true of a newer song like Dottie Rambo's We Shall
Behold Him. Those who know the words to this powerful song will be greatly blessed.
However, those who don't know the words to We Shall Behold Him will hear it as just a
pretty song, but not necessarily all that inspirational.
Church Worker Handbook --44--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
While the congregation is hearing an instrumental rendition of a song like We Shall
Behold Him, why not project the words on a [overhead projector or character generator]
screen? Then everyone can be equally blessed by the music.
Working with a Volunteer Orchestra
There is a place for a trained and conducted orchestra that reads orchestral scores and
makes beautiful music. However, this section is dedicated to the volunteer orchestra that
plays along with the congregational singing on Sunday nights and plays the offertory as
well. There may be a fair amount of freelance improvising as well.
Such a group will tend to be made up of a mixture of high school kids who can read music
and who may use the orchestra version of the church hymnal, more experienced players
who can transpose music out of the hymnal, and a few old salts [like myself] who can play
any part, including the melody and both harmony parts by ear.
Transposing. Some instruments, like trumpet, trombone, and clarinet, are pitched in the
key of B flat, instead of the key of C, the key the piano and organ are pitched in. This
means that players of such instruments must transpose their music up one full step to be
in pitch with the piano and organ. When such a transposition is done, two flats are
subtracted from the key and two sharps are added to the key.
The chart below shows what happens to the keys when music is transposed:
5 flats
3 flats
4 flats
2 flats
3 flats
1 flat
2 flats
Key of C
1 flat
1 sharp
Key of C 2 sharps
1 sharp
3 sharps
2 sharps
4 sharps
3 sharps
5 sharps
4 sharps
6 sharps
Most people who play by ear hate an increasing number of sharps. Some who read music
don't care for sharps, either.
Pick the Right Song in the Right Key
If you're the Sunday night worship leader and have a volunteer orchestra, you may be
able to make or break them by the keys of the songs you pick. The keys of 4 flats, 3 flats,
Church Worker Handbook --45--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
and 2 flats are good, with 4 flats being the best. Don't go above 1 sharp. The best songs of
all tend to be 4/4 time and pitched in 4 flats.
Perhaps your orchestra members aren't as bothered by sharps as I am. If not, great! But
if they are, just keep an eye on the key. You may be surprised how good they'll sound on
songs like Such Love, Glory to His Name, When the Roll Is Called Up Yonder, and Leaning
On the Everlasting Arms.
Gospel Music and Contemporary Music
Singing News, the printed voice of Southern Gospel music
CCM, the printed voice of contemporary Christian music
Attention: Ministers of music, Special
music coordinators, worship leaders,
Gospel radio Program Directors and DJs
Perhaps the sharpest division in church and Christian music is between Gospel and
Contemporary music. Many Christian radio stations fail to have a balance in their play
lists between Gospel and Contemporary music. This fact is based on the personal
preferences of the radio staff rather than the numbers of listeners that prefer one kind of
music more than another.
This same kind of dichotomy may exist in the kinds of music your choir and special
singers use in your church's worship services. There should be a balance in church music
just as there should be a balance in a radio station's play list.
If you have difficulty distinguishing between the terms Gospel Music and Contemporary
Music, perhaps a review of short lists of performers and recording artists in both
categories will help. If you find yourself listening to and attending concerts in the first
section, you are more likely to enjoy Gospel music. The converse is true. Or, you can click
the websites of the Singing News or CCM Magazine above. Or, better still, pick up the
current copy at your local Christian book store.
Church Worker Handbook --46--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Gospel Music
Bill and Gloria
Ann Downing
Amy Grant
Dave Kyllonen
DC Talk
Gold City
Margaret Becker
Janet Pascal
Michael W. Smith
Jeff and Sheri Easter Mylon LeFevre,
John Starns
Karen Peck
Out of the Grey
Kelly Nelon
Point of Grace
Squire Parsons
Steven Curtis Chapman
Wayne Watson
Ivan Parker
The Goodmans
These lists are examples only and are by no means complete.
If you're having trouble telling the difference between Gospel and Contemporary music,
listen to a TV broadcast by Bill Gaither and the Homecoming Choir. If you can't find
them on TV, visit a Christian book store and buy a copy of a Gaither video.
Bill and Gloria Gaither have written many Gospel songs including the following: He
Touched Me, Because He Lives, The King Is Coming, There's Something About That Name.
The Gaither Homecoming Choir is comprised of many of the well-known names in Gospel
music who recorded during the last three decades.
One word of warning: regardless of your preference in music style, make sure the music
you use and enjoy brings glory to Deity. Many Contemporary songs tend to emphasize
pronouns that have antecedents that are presumably Deity, but they often fail to use God,
Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit by name.
Gospel Music and Contemporary Music
Singing News, the printed voice of Southern Gospel music
CCM, the printed voice of contemporary Christian music
If you have Internet access and speakers on your computer, you can enjoy Christian
music on the Internet. Just click this link to get started.
G. Edwin Lint
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Church Worker Handbook --47--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Ten Commandments for Worship
Leaders and Worship Team
Church Worker Handbook-What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
Church Worker Handbook Table of Contents
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Why do we even need a Ten Commandments for Worship Leaders? Here’s why…
• There are thousands of tithe-paying worshippers in evangelical congregations across
the country whose taste and preferences in Christian music style are not being
represented or even given serious consideration. These unrepresented worshippers
are the ones who ask merely for a music mix that includes an occasional song in the
Gospel style instead of a steady diet of praise and worship and contemporary music.
1. You shall remember the primary purpose for your being up in front of the
congregation during praise and worship.
As the worship leader, you are responsible to set the pace for the rest of the team in
assuring that everything should be done in a fitting and orderly way. 1 Cor. 14:40.
Church Worker Handbook --48--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Every team member should be a role model of how to participate enthusiastically
yet reverently in the worship experience.
2. You shall covenant with your self and the others in your group to do everything
from behind the cross of Christ.
Everything you do, say, and wear should be designed to render yourselves invisible
with Christ and His cross plainly visible.
3. You shall consult with the senior pastor regarding how he/she would like the
worship block to fit into the flow of the rest of the service.
Worship services will change from Sunday to Sunday as a result of various activities
and events such as: Communion, baby dedications, special presentations, and
special speakers. Make sure you know the senior pastor’s thinking regarding how
the worship block is to fit into the total service. All thinking senior pastors will have
preferences; make sure you know what they are. Of course, I am assuming that no
thinking senior pastor would expect the worship to go for a fixed period of time,
regardless of what else is happening in the service.
Learn to back time: You may like to begin the worship block with a six-minute slow
and rather heavy worship chorus with several repeats and key changes culminating
in the congregation standing with hands raised. Let’s say you have two morning
services. After the first service, the senior pastor may say the worship block ran
about six minutes long and crowded the special speaker’s close with prayer around
the altar. He/she may ask you point blank to cut the worship block short by six
If you don’t get a direct order to shorten your block, volunteer to do so and do it by
cutting off the opening six minutes. The easiest way to shorten the worship block
may be to cut down on the multitudinous repetitions of the same worship song.
4. You shall use a mix of music styles that approximates the preferences of the
If you are called a worship leader and you have a group assisting you called a
worship team, the chances are very strong that the style of music is very heavy on
the praise and worship side. Just a few minutes ago, I did an Advanced Google
Church Worker Handbook --49--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
search on the phrase “praise and worship” and here is the data from that search:
about 1,340,000 for "praise and worship" in 0.18 seconds.
I did a second Advanced Google search on the phrase “southern Gospel music” and
here is the data from that search: about 87,300 for "southern gospel music" in 0.08
I did a third and final Advanced Google search on the phrase “contemporary
Christian music” and here is the data from that search: about 207,000 for
"contemporary christian music" in .13 seconds.
These three Google searches only prove one thing: the Christian music audience is
comprised of persons with a range of musical preferences ranging from Gospel
songs to Christian rock. There is no right and wrong regarding styles of Christian
music; just differences.
However, these differences can be very important to members of your congregation.
Several years ago, I had a conversation with a Minister of Music about 75 miles
north of the Mason-Dixon Line that went something like this [Paraphrased]:
“Why don’t you use more Gospel music with the choir selections and special
“I don’t think Southern Gospel would go over too well in this area.”
I said, “Gospel music has nothing to do with geography. Bill and Gloria Gaither [the
king and queen of Gospel music] are from Indiana.”
When the Gaithers held one of their Homecoming concerts in a major nearby arena,
the response was so strong they had to add a second night to the program. Nancy
and I were a little lax in buying our tickets and our seats were up in the nosebleed
section, close to the rafters. The concert was done in the round with plenty of largescreen monitors so we enjoyed it immensely in spite of the height. [This was one of
the last times Vestal Goodman sang in public before her death.]
In a separate conversation, I asked this same Minister of Music a similar question.
He said, “Any music that gives glory to God is Gospel music.” This man chose to
ignore the fact that the Gaither Homecoming videos are selling like hotcakes across
Church Worker Handbook --50--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
the country, and that people drive for hours to attend one of the regional Gaither
Homecoming Concerts.
In radio jargon, a music mix means a play list that consists of a variety of music
styles so your sound will appeal to the widest possible audience. A member of a
radio audience has a powerful tool at his/her fingertips. It’s called a tuning knob or
a preset button. However, a worshipper sitting in the pews of your church has no
such luxury and is limited to one of the following options:
• Sing when told to sing, clap when told to clap, stand when told to stand, smile
when told to smile; be good sheep.
• Time their arrival at the house of worship to coincide with the end of the
praise and worship block.
• Find another church with a music mix that includes some Gospel music.
Here’s a novel idea. Why not conduct a church-wide survey of music tastes and
preferences. Let the people speak through a form. You may be amazed at the results. If
the people don’t get a chance to vote with their pencil, they may vote with their wallet
or their feet!
5. You shall not rehearse the worship block to the extent that spontaneity and
flexibility are lost because you are following a rehearsed worship routine.
This is a touchy one. Above, I say everything should be done decently and in order.
Now, I’m saying don’t rehearse. You are thinking, how can the worship block can be
done decently and in order if we don’t rehearse. In You Can Be a Teacher, Too I
talk about Lesson Plans. Teachers should always do lesson plans but that is not to
say they should rehearse. I’ll copy this section here for your convenience:
Prepare a lesson plan.
The plan should be in outline format so it can be used for quick reference
during the lesson. During your preparation time, learn the lesson so well that
while you are teaching, a quick glance at your lesson plan can trigger the next
sequence of thoughts or events. Your lesson plan shouldn't be a script that is
read word for word. In fact, you already know you should seldom read
Church Worker Handbook --51--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
anything to students unless it has lasting literary value. Lesson plans seldom
All good teachers rehearse their lessons. Beginners may need to do this with
an audience (from within the family or friends). Or, teach to a tape recorder
and then play it back as you listen critically. As you get more experienced, you
may do your rehearsing mentally. When I know I am going to speak before a
group, I always do a mental rehearsal. Some of this activity involves actual
mental word-for-word dialogue between the group and me.
Let me extrapolate from the Lesson Plan segment above and apply it to the worship
• Select the songs, their keys, and any key modulations [changing to another
key, usually higher.]
• Do a dry run by yourself to get an idea of the time to be consumed. Replicate
the tempo and repeats that will be used in live worship.
• Make sure the instrumentalists know the worship plan and are well prepared
to musically support the singing, smoothly and effortlessly.
6. You shall not use strange arrangements of well-know hymns with unusual chord
progressions and rhythm patterns.
Many churches with worship teams and leaders project the words to the songs onto
a screen. When such churches do mix in a number found in the hymnal, they
sometimes use a strange arrangement with unfamiliar chords and tempos. If your
worshippers are looking at the words only [no notes] and the chords are unfamiliar,
you are forcing them to sing in unison. One of the most beautiful segment of
evangelical worship is thereby lost: singing in harmony.
My wife, Nancy, is a life-long alto. She has both read and harmonized alto as long as
she has been able to carry a tune. When a worship team presents her with a familiar
hymn, nothing but words, and unfamiliar chords, she is forced to give up and drop
out of active participation in the praise and worship block. The melody [soprano] of
most humans are out of her vocal range, there are no notes to read, and she can’t
harmonize because the chords are unfamiliar. This is an especially bitter pill
Church Worker Handbook --52--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
because the occasional hymn is usually one of the few songs in the praise and
worship block that she recognizes.
7. You shall not ask the congregation to remain standing for more than two successive
music selections.
Prayerfully seek the mind of the Holy Spirit regarding why you are asking the
people to stand in the first place, and for how long.
• Out of reverence for God?
• To make it easier for them to sing?
• To make it easier for them to move into the aisles and dance in the spirit or
come forward for prayer?
• To measure the limits of their physical endurance?
• To demonstrate your authority over them?
8. You shall not permit the amplified voices of the worship team nor the drums and
brass of the worship band to drown out the vocal participation of the congregation.
If you want the congregation to sing with you, don’t overpower them with
amplification and drums.
9. You shall covenant to follow the leading of the Holy Spirit in terms of the songs that
are sung and especially the number of times each song is repeated.
While I was in college, I learned that teachers should always stop a physical activity
while the students were still enjoying it.
10. If you are leading worship for an outdoor camp-meeting type service, you shall not
lead the congregation in your standard fare of “praise and worship” songs and
choruses. This is especially true if a large segment of the congregation has been
getting the senior discount for several years.
Church Worker Handbook --53--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
This summer, Nancy and I make our annual visit to the camp meeting where we met
back in 1952. After a year of praise and worship music, we were looking forward
with great anticipation to some of the old-time camp meeting music on which we
were raised.
Guess what? The worship leader had us stand to sing [you guessed it] praise and
worship songs! I sadly placed the Spirit-Filled Songs paperback hymnal [©1956
John T. Benson] back down on the wooden bench. Maybe next year.
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Church Worker Handbook --54--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Chapter 5: Creating True
Friendship in Your Church
Church Worker Handbook -- What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
Many churches specialize in five-second fellowship. These guidelines
take you beyond that to real, substantive friendship.
Five-Second friendship
The smile is bright, the handshake is firm, and the voice is warm. And then it's over, all in
less than five seconds. The locale is the vestibule of any number of evangelical churches
and this little scenario is played out over and over again. Just a long succession of fivesecond friendships, one after another. Some of these five-second friendships may be
during the service while everyone is invited to move around and shake hands, usually
while singing a song like The Family of God.
Maybe your church has interesting services and beautiful facilities. Your pastor may be a
strong Bible teacher and your church may offer an active program. But what about the
friendship? Is too much of it of the five-second variety, at least for visitors and those not
closely associated with the church?
The growing practice of stationing "greeters" at the entrances of the church is creating
opportunities for two-second friendship. These well-meaning greeters are asked to extend
a smiling handshake to all who enter. SomeTimes I feel like I’m running the gauntlet
down a row of these smiling greeters!
Self-Evaluation Check List
Take a few minutes and measure the friendship Quotient of your church. Score your
congregation on a scale of 5 to 1, with 5 being Usually and 1 being Seldom.
5-4-3-2-1 Do you have assigned and trained greeters who meet people as they come in?
5-4-3-2-1 Do you have a system for registering first-time visitors?
5-4-3-2-1 Do you have an organized system of follow-up for each registered visitor?
5-4-3-2-1 Do you have an organized friendship program that is specifically designed to
integrate new constituents into the social fabric of the congregation?
Church Worker Handbook --55--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
5-4-3-2-1 Do you take an inventory of the training and experience of new persons in your
5-4-3-2-1 Do you have a "safety net" for assuring that no individual or family goes
through a time of great need without the spiritual and material support of the
5-4-3-2-1 Do you have organized age-group activities that are designed to touch the lives of
all constituents on a frequent basis?
5-4-3-2-1 Do you have a new converts support and training program?
5-4-3-2-1 Do you have a spiritual crisis-intervention program?
Now, how did your church score? There are no national norms for this little selfevaluation quiz but a perfect score is 50. If you scored your church below 40, it may be
failing in some important friendship responsibilities.
Let's discuss each of the items on the quiz:
Assigned Greeters
Everyone should greet visitors with a smile and the right hand of friendship. However,
what is everyone's responsibility may become no none's responsibility. Therefore, it is
important to assign persons to the specific job of helping visitors feel at home. Give these
greeters a written job description, and train them in how to carry out their duties. The
smile and the handshake are just one small part of the greeter's responsibility. The
primary duties and responsibilities can include the following:
A. Learn the faces and names of the regular attendees so visitors may be spotted and
greeted. In a large congregation, it will be next to impossible to identify every visitor and
never greet a regular attendee as a visitor. However, an effort should be made to this end.
B. Help parents of small children find the nursery, junior church, and Christian education
facilities. The greeter must know or have access to the appropriate destination of each
person in the family.
C. Get assistance for an elderly worshipper who may need help with stairs or even
walking. Be aware of assistance the church can provide for persons with disabilities, such
as aids for the hearing impaired.
The Art of Shaking Hands
Believe it or not, there is a right and wrong way to shake hands.
Church Worker Handbook --56--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Keep the hand open until your hand makes contact with the other hand where
the web joins the thumb and forefinger.
Maintain contact for the count of two.
Make your grip firm.
Carry your Bible, purse, or briefcase in your left hand, keeping the right hand
free for shaking.
After shaking hands, wash your hands before eating, or touching a baby's
Grip the hand around the fingers. Make sure the contact is web to web.
Cause pain, especially for an elderly person who may have arthritis.
Offer a dead fish as a hand-shake. Make the contact firm, not painful, and for
the count of two.
Have a tissue or anything else in your hand while shaking.
Maintain excessive contact. Observe the two-count rule.
Use the left hand to cover the right hand while shaking -- unless this is a
special greeting for a special person.
Don't offer your right hand if the other person's right hand is temporarily or
permanently incapacitated. Be alert and offer your left hand so your left hand
can meet their left hand.
Never touch a baby's hand when you're shaking hands with visitors!!!
A baby's hand is frequently in the mouth. You don't want all the germs you
have collected from the last several dozen hands you have shaken to be
transmitted to the baby's mouth! One new mother I know felt more
comfortable taking her new-born out to a public restaurant than to her own
church, because church people are more like to touch the baby’s hand.
Visitor Registration
A practical method of visitor registration should be developed which is appropriate for
the physical layout and traffic patterns of your church. However it is done, no first-time
visitor should walk out your door within leaving a written record of some kind. One
Church Worker Handbook --57--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
church our family has attended takes attendance by passing attendance pads down each
pew. Each person attending is asked to print his/her name and give a phone number.
During the early part of the week, the pastoral staff goes over these lists and contacts each
person who is new to the constituency. By the way, this church has outgrown two
sanctuaries and is well on the way to outgrowing the third. I wonder why
Organized Visitor follow-up
Every first-time visitor who lives within reasonable driving distance of your church should
receive a follow-up within the coming week. A form letter, even when generated by a
computer to include a personalized salutation, barely meets the definition of follow-up if
that's all the visitor gets. A nice balance is a phone call from the pastor or a member of the
staff plus a personal visit from someone who lives in the same general area as the visitor.
As a general rule, visitors expect someone from the church office to contact them.
However, a personal visit from a reasonably close neighbor will have maximum impact.
Organized Friendship Program
This is the most important element of your church friendship program. It's only listed
fifth here because in the chronological sequence of events, the other four occur first. Of
course, the operant word here is "organized". Left to their own devices, your parishioners
will friendship with each other after a fashion. They will gravitate into quartets and small
groups for out-of-church activities. However, a lack of structure and organization makes
it difficult for the new person or family to integrate. As stated above, what everyone
should do no one may end up doing. An organized friendship program is so critical
because the evangelical life style carries basic prohibitions against the very activities
which the non-believer considers to be the foundation stones of social activity: drinking in
bars and dancing. Since human beings are naturally gregarious and need social
interaction, the church must provide a social life that replaces what the world considers to
be normal social activity. An action plan for providing organized friendship activities
might include the following elements:
A. When you register visitors, get key information that will be needed in helping them
fit into the social life of the church. Include such things as age range, marital status,
type of employment, ages of children, and favorite leisure time activities.
B. Recruit persons and families from among your regular constituents who are
interested in making new friends. Make sure you have information on these
members of your friendship team that parallels that which you collect from visitors.
C. Match the interests of visitors with members of the church "friendship team."
D. Facilitate friendship activities based on the commonalties of the new people and the
members of your friendship team.
Church Worker Handbook --58--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
This kind of a computerized friendship program is similar to commercial dating services
that match persons of comparable interests.
Church Database
The following list of database fields are an example of what your database can look like.
Adapt these fields to meet your own needs. The comments for various fields can help you
customize your database.
Last Name: If you have a first name and last name field, you can sort by last name only.
First Name
City, State, Zip: If your constituency covers more than one city or state, you will need
separate fields for City, State, and Zip.
Occupation or School: If you include the name of schools, you can sort your children by
school attended.
Date of Birth: The Y2K near fiasco made us all aware that year must be expressed as a
four-digit numeral.
Date of First Contact
Date First Attended
Date Saved
Date joined church
Date Married
Salutation: You may want to address children by first name and adults in a more formal
SS Class
Church Worker Handbook --59--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Other Church Activity:
Hobbies, Special Interests: You may want to expand these last two fields to include many
variables. This is how you can sort your records by commonality of interests and
activities. This kind of expanded database will be needed to maintain the Inventory of
Training and Experience described below.
Inventory Of Training And Experience
The best way to make persons feel welcome in your congregation is to give them
something meaningful to do that draws on their experience and training. And, the best
way to ask people to do things is to find out what they already know how to do. During the
early 60's I ran a training class for Civil Defense emergency shelter managers. While I'm
thankful none of my students needed the training I gave, I did learn an important lesson
from the training. The first thing a shelter manager was to do after his/her charges had
assembled in a shelter was to take a complete inventory of who knew how to do what. In
the face of a real emergency, it would be extremely important to know such things as who
knew something about medicine, who knew how to work with children, and who had
leadership experience.
Use normal discretion in recruiting new people to work in your church.
1. Baby Christians should be weaned off the bottle of the Milk of the Word before they
are involved in programs designed to help other Christians to grow.
2. Use your state or community's background check for persons who will be working
with children. If your state or community has no formal background check, develop
one of your own. You can't run the risk of recruiting people to work with children
who have a history of posing a threat to the sexual or physical welfare of children.
3. Develop a screening process for all new church workers. Include a panel of church
leaders and include some people who specialize in this kind of work in the
4. Include a probation period when a new person is "hired". Remember, it may be far
easier to deny "permanent status" to a prospective "employee" who is less than
satisfactory than to dismiss an established "employee" who is proving to be
Family "Safety Net"
No evangelical church would knowingly allow a person or family in need of support to go
through a time of stress without offering some kind of aid. However, as a church grows
larger, the chances for such a need to go unnoticed increases. Therefore, the church must
organize a support network that is designed to identify persons in need and the type of
Church Worker Handbook --60--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
assistance required. A casserole, a baby-sitter, or a custom taxi can be just what is needed
to help an individual or family over a rough spot.
The key to such a safety net is organization. One large church in a metropolitan area
broke the congregation down by zip codes. Each Zip code had a leader and a crew of
assistants who identified needs and recruited volunteers. Help was provided exactly where
it was needed with minimum effort on the part of any one individual.
Organized Age-Group Activities
Evangelicals are exhorted to "come out from among them and be ye separate". However,
there is a big difference between being separate and being alone. Being separate may
reduce the degree to which our spiritual sensitivities are eroded. Being alone is depressing.
Therefore, the church must facilitate group activities that are both spiritually safe and
socially stimulating. Children, teens, young adults, parents-- everyone can profit from
getting together for fun and relaxation. Some of these group activities are spontaneous
and need no organizational stimulus from the church. For those persons not included in
spontaneous activities, the church must provide planning and execution through the
Sunday school, youth organization, or singles ministries.
Organized Home Bible Study
The first-century Christian church didn't exist, not as a building, that is. These early
Christians worshipped in each other's homes. All Christians should study the Bible in
personal devotions. And certainly all should go to church. However, there's something
special about getting together in each other's homes to study the Bible. Of course you'll
have to encounter certain obstacles such as baby-sitting, limiting refreshments, and
observing the New Testament warning about idle gossip.
New Converts Support And Training Program?
You may want to review a book I have on the Web titled First Steps: The Care and
Feeding of Baby Christians. This book was first written during the early 70s while I has
operating a mobile shopping mall witnessing program. However, the content is
appropriate for supporting and training new converts.
Spiritual Crisis-Intervention Program
We've all seen the 9-1-1 dramatizations of what happens when there's a medical or
physical crisis of some kind. Every church should have a spiritual 9-1-1 operation that is
poised to spring into action at a moment's notice in a time of need. Emergency Medical
Technicians spend enormous amounts of time and energy to provide the person power
needed to make a 9-1-1 system operational, to sustain physical life. And the Bible calls
physical life a vapor, or hay. Can we do any less to sustain the eternal soul?
Church Worker Handbook --61--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
These e-mail letters
from readers of this chapter sure made me think. My prayer is that the Holy
Spirit will seek out the author of this letter and apply the Balm of Gilead to
her lonely heart as well as the hearts of her husband and family. May the rest
of us pray for the Holy Spirit to guide us in all our interpersonal relationships
so this kind of thing doesn't happen in our churches. GEL
Letter #1:
This must be the handbook all the churches I've attended used. People
are reduced to name, address, phone numbers, 'friendship' to occasional pot luck dinners
after service, a summer picnic, etc, at which older members cluster into closed groups,
newcomers left sitting alone. I remember an afternoon at a picnic at which I walked over
(note I walked over) several groups, stood there like a dummy a few minuets waiting for
someone to notice and bring me into the 'circle, before I walked away. I spoke to exactly
two people all afternoon, those two, only briefly. Beyond a few '2 count' handshakes, that
is. Lots of those, their eyes already moving way to look for their next 'contact' before the 2
counts was even over! I recall several pot luck dinners that I spoke to NO ONE except
those I spoke to first, and then, it was very brief.
Follow up after I joined was one phone call from a woman that seemed new at this,
reminding me to be sure to come to Sunday School. Nothing in the way of interest in who I
am, my life, my faith, etc. Nothing. I went there almost two years. Because no one ever
talked to me, really strange, since I am very sociably and outgoing, and usually have NO
trouble finding people to talk to, make friends most anywhere, was really trying, and no
one knew anything about me, or my life. Since they didn't know anything about me,
wasn't interested in talking to me, they supplied out of their own imaginations their OWN
ideas about my 'lifestyle'. Since they never saw me with a husband, but knew I had adult
children, and 'heard' I had an ex-husband, they presumed me still divorced, alone.
Since I am attractive, outgoing, friendly, they assumed me to be 'shopping the market'.
When I attended EVERY service and bible study session, hung onto every word the
preacher/teacher spoke, always was the first to be ready to answer his questions or make
comments, I was not only 'shopping', but had set my 'sights' on HIM! Since they from
time to time noticed various 18 wheelers parked in front of my home on a busy highway
for a night here and there or a few days at a time they had nick named my home the area
'truck stop' with 'overnight sleeping privileges'. None had bothered to get to know me,
talk to me. It's not a 'secret' that I've been married to my husband for 6 years now, OR
that he's a long haul truck driver who has changed jobs a number of Times, and changed
trucks often within some of those jobs.
Church Worker Handbook --62--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
I don't go there anymore. An attempt at another didn't last long, either. This is a
rural/small town community, and the vine (and I don't mean the one of Christ) runs
through them all. By the third week, the noses were tilted up and the heads turning away.
At that point, I had not yet learned what had been presumed, and was being told about
me. And no one bothered to come to me about ANY of it.
I talk to others that are 'unchurched', I'd say 8 out of 10 have similar stories, and it is why
THEY don't go to church anymore.
Churches advertise, evangelize, revivalize, to get new people INTO the churches, then how
do they treat them? And of course, they sit back and shake their heads at all us that
seemed to start out fine, but must not have been 'really saved' after all, because we just
fizzled out, quit coming. No one from any of these churches ever came to me to ask about
these things I was judged guilty of, OR to ask why I had stopped coming. I DID present to
the pastor of one what had come back to me through that 'vine' that was being spread
about me. He would hardly speak to me. Told me I wasn't going to cause trouble like this
in HIS church!
Maybe you need to add another chapter or two to your handbook.
I'm also amazed, and find offensive, the comment in you book, that I also hear often in
churches, that the standard socializing place for non believers are bars and clubs! I know
many non believers, and almost NONE EVER even go to a bar! Only a very tiny percent
of the population DOES! Most 'socialize' at things such as sporting events, fishing, golf,
etc, or backyard barbecues, etc. Get real, folks!
I've gone back to my non churched friends. FRIENDS. Shall I underline that word? While
you use 'friendship' I don't think the word 'friend' or 'friendship' appears at all in your
text! No wonder. I can't imagine calling any of the ones I've met there friends, either.
Church Worker Handbook --63--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Letter #2:
Churches are full of "fellowship" but, no friendship!
I have had no luck in meeting any one in church I am married with one twelve-year old
child. Most of the people in my church say they are too busy to go out for a cup of coffee
or to come over for a visit.
We have been members for four years, I am planning on not going back after next
Sunday. We have lived here 11 years and all 9 churches we have been to have been too
busy to get to know us. I have 3 pages in my phone book with numbers of church people I
have called in the last four years. In our present church, no one has ever called me or my
husband or son.
I have prayed for over 10 years for a friend for myself and my husband to no avail. my
son's friends are all from school.
What good is church?
End of Letters
G. Edwin Lint
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Church Worker Handbook --64--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
6. Shopping For and Using a
Church Worker Handbook
What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
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This chapter is written for those who know absolutely nothing about computers and want to
learn. This chapter won't tell you everything you need to know, but it is a starting point.
Chapter 7, Basics of Desktop Publishing, talks about using computers to print high quality
camera-ready originals.
Table of Contents
Macintosh or Windows?
Why is the Mac easier to run?
A Beginner's Glossary
Should Our Church Wait for New Developments or Buy Now?
Where Should We Shop?
Church Worker Handbook --65--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
What Do We Need to Know about Computers?
When shopping for a computer, you'll need to make the following choices.
Macintosh or Windows?
Your first choice is the type of computer you want to buy. The Apple Macintosh is the
easiest computer in the world to learn to use. The iMacs are also colorful. However, prices
may be a little higher than computers that run Windows.
I started out with an Apple IIe computer running ProDOS. Apple no longer makes the IIe
but they do make the Macintosh line. Later, I moved up to a Macintosh G3. Now, I'm
using a Dell Dimension Windows computer. All IBM computers and all their clones run
Is the Mac easier to run?
Many people claim it is. One reason is that back in the 1980s, Apple Computer perfected
the graphical user interface (GUI) for use on the Macintosh which involves the mouse and
windows. Although both the Macintosh and Windows computers use the mouse, things run
a little smoother on the Mac. If you want a second opinion, make sure you talk to a person
who has used both Macintosh and Windows. Macintosh users are fond of telling the world
that IBM stands for I've Been Misled.
In about 1989, while working as a Macintosh computer coordinator for the Pennsylvania
Department of Education, I had a visit by an IBM rep from Boca Raton, Florida. He was
bursting with pride to show me their version of Windows. He said it had the look and feel
of the Mac. I said if it did, Apple would sue. Actually, this was a piece of junk in
comparison to the Mac of that day. The version of Windows he showed me was full of
bugs and was no way as instinctive to use as the Mac.
Apple did sue but they settled out of court. However, Microsoft made the smart move of
licensing everyone to put their version of Windows on the computers they built. Apple, on
the other hand, kept the original version of Windows for the Macs they built. Windows 3.0
was better than the beta version I saw. Each successive version became better than the
previous version as Microsoft continued to strive to give Windows the look and feel of the
Additional choices. You'll need to made choices about RAM, Speed, and hard drive
capacity. You can use the glossary below to help you understand these terms and how to
make the best choices for your use.
Church Worker Handbook --66--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
A Beginner's Glossary
As you shop for a computer, you'll need to have a basic understanding of these terms.
CD-ROM: This stands for Compact Disk, Read-Only Memory. If you've used an audio
compact disk, a computer CD is the same concept. Read-only memory means this device
can play back but it can't record [burn] a new CD. In this way it's like a phonograph
player. Most new computers have a CD unit that both plays back and records [reads and
If you want your computer to play DVDs [Digital Video Discs], you can pay a little extra
for a drive that will both play DVD movies and make copies of existing DVDs. This may
be important to you if you have one of the new video cameras that records onto a DVD.
Database: a software program that can be used to store and sort lists of data, such as
names and addresses. A database consists of records and fields. In a Christmas card list,
each name on the list is a record. Each category of information is a field: name, address,
city, state, zip, phone, etc. at infinitum.
Drawing: a software program which can be used to draw and paint with the mouse.
Flat Panel Display [FPD]: Original computers used CRT [cathode ray tube] monitors,
similar to TV sets. FPD monitors are much lighter and take up much less physical space
on your desk. If you have a choice, ask for an FPD.
Floppy drive: This is a device which can record and play back 3.5-inch computer disks.
Each such disk can hold up to 1.4 megabytes of data. Warning: computer manufacturers
no longer consider the floppy drive standard equipment. If you want one, you have to ask
for it at the time you are placing your order.
Hard drive: a high capacity drive which is installed inside the computer or a cabinet of its
own. When shopping, your computer should have a hard drive capacity of at least 40 gigs.
Zip Drive. [Optional] The zip drive uses a larger disk that holds 100-250 megs of memory.
An external zip drive is nice for backing up your important work files each night, for
archiving stuff you no longer want to keep on your hard drive, and for sharing large
amounts of data with other zip drive users. Your new computer will run without a zip
drive, however
Speakers: If you want your computer to play sound, as is necessary when listening to
Internet radio, you will want to specify that speakers be included.
Hardware: the computer and printer are considered hardware.
Megabyte: One megabyte (mb) is equal to about ten thousand typewritten characters
Church Worker Handbook --67--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Modem: a hardware item that allows the computer to communicate across phone lines or
the cable.
Internet Access: Computers and the Internet are now thought of together, just as salt and
pepper. While it is true that the Internet brings to any computer world-wide access to
information and music, it also brings the potential for unlimited evil in the form of all
levels of pornography, obscenity, vulgarity, and the occult. Fortunately, some ISPs feature
safe Internet service that can filter out the filth.
Internet delivery comes in three basic forms:
Dial-up: This is the original delivery method via standard phone lines and a modem
to connect the phone line to the computer.
Cable: This method features high speed always-on Internet service that travels
along with the TV service and terminates in a cable modem. The modem is then
connected to the computer with a short cable or to a wireless access point router.
Wireless: If a church, office, or home is equipped with a wireless access point
router, this router broadcasts the Internet signal to all computers within range that
are equipped with wireless cards. Range may depend on the size and layout of the
building. My computer is equipped with a Lynksys Wireless Access Point Router
and is located on the ground floor of our home. It drives my computer, in the same
room, my wife's computer, upstairs in her office, and our notebook computer
equipped with a wireless card. We can take the notebook anywhere in our home and
always have Internet access.
Wireless Security: Sometimes, people with notebook computers and wireless cards will
cruise the neighborhood, looking for unprotected wireless signals. For this reason, your
wireless internet signal should be password protected. This is especially true for people
living in apartment houses or condos. A neighbor on another floor or right next to you
may be siphoning off your Internet signal, and degrading your potential speed, if it is not
password protected.
Notebook computer: [Originally known as a laptop] My guess is that this type of portable
computer is no longer known as a laptop because of the heat generated by extended use.
The Macintosh version of a notebook computer is known as a PowerBook.
Wireless card: Your new notebook computer should be equipped with a wireless card,
ready to work right out of the box. This means that any place that advertises wireless
Internet access is a place where you can open your notebook and access the Internet.
Restaurants, such as Starbucks, and hotel/motel chains are starting to offer high speed
Internet access.
A mouse is still nice: Most notebook computers don't come with a mouse as standard
equipment. Instead, they offer a small surface where you can move your fingertips to
Church Worker Handbook --68--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
control the mouse pointer and two buttons where you can Right Click and Left Click.
However, I find this touch pad to be very annoying. When I bought my notebook, I also
bought an optical mouse. [An optical mouse has no rolling ball and will work on almost
any smooth surface such as a magazine.] Such a mouse will be fitted with a USB jack and
you can plug it right in to the back of the computer. I always travel with my optical mouse
in a pocket of my notebook carrying case.
Unfortunately, the optical mouse can't correct the worst problem created by the touch
pad. It moves the keyboard back about three inches from the front edge of the computer.
If you are a touch typist and learned to type by subconsciously memorizing the position of
all the keys on the keyboard, moving the keys three inches in any direction may drive you
to become a hunt and pecker again! Perhaps the young people don't have as much trouble
with change as we older folk.
Operating system: there are two popular operating systems; Macintosh made by Apple,
and Windows, made by Microsoft. The Macintosh operating system exists only on
Macintosh computers made by Apple and features the mouse pointing device and
windows for displaying data. The Windows system was made by Microsoft and gives the
look and feel of the Macintosh. Windows can be found on just about any computer except
the Macintosh. Both companies [Apple and Microsoft] are continually releasing new
versions of their operating systems. For example, this Windows computer is using
Windows XP.
RAM: Random access memory. This is the volatile "memory" of the computer; however,
it only lasts while the computer is on. When the computer is turned off, the only thing that
exists when the computer is turned on again is what was "saved" to a floppy disk or to a
hard drive. When shopping, your computer should have at least 512 Mb of RAM. The
more RAM, the more programs can be held in memory at one time.
Software: the programs that enable a computer to do work are known as software. These
programs are sold on CDs. When the owner gets them home, they are copied to [installed
onto] the hard drive. It is illegal to make more than one installed copy of software. Some
new computers come with software preinstalled. This is known as a software bundle.
Speed: the number of calculations per second the computer's microprocessor can
accomplish is measured in gigahertz (GHz). When shopping, your computer should have a
speed of at least 2.80GHz.
Spreadsheet: a software program which can be used to calculate numbers just like an oldfashioned spreadsheet. However, a spreadsheet can recalculate the final result if only one
variable is changed.
Telecommunications: a software program which can be used to communicate across
telephone lines or cable.
Church Worker Handbook --69--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Word processor: a software program which can be used to write anything from a short
note to a full-length novel.
Should Our Church Wait for New Developments or
Buy Now?
This chapter was updated in September 2005. By the time you read it, the computer trade
shows and journals will be trumpeting another advance in the computer world that is, at
this moment, still in draft format in someone's word processor. The longer you wait, the
farther your church will fall behind.
As the power and sophistication go up, the price comes down. For example, I paid $2,000
for my Apple IIe computer in 1984, complete with 128K RAM and two 5.25-inch floppy
drives. That computer is a Model-T Ford in comparison to the computer I'm writing on
right now.
I bought this Windows PC in 2005 for $856 [after all rebates] with the following features:
40 GB Hard Drive
CD Burner
17" Flat-Panel Display
Microsoft Office Small Business Edition 2003
[MS Word, PowerPoint, MS Outlook etc]
Floppy drive
I could have bought an ink-jet printer capable of 300 dpi resolution for an extra $100.
Where Should We Shop?
Computer stores. This is the best place to buy a computer. If you have a question or
problem, or something goes wrong, there is a good chance you'll be able to find help right
in the store. However, you may find the prices to be higher in such stores.
Discount office supply stores and department stores. These stores may give you the best
selection of brand names and price ranges. The prices here may be lower than computer
stores, but there is little chance that anyone in the store will be able to help you with your
questions and problems. If something goes wrong, you'll have access to the manufacturer's
800 number. However, some companies do not have a toll-free number for software
problems; only hardware problems. If the computer fails during the warranty, you may
have to ship it away for service. If you are totally dissatisfied within a specified period of
time, your money may be refunded.
Computer catalogs. Mail order catalogs may give you the best prices. However, you'll
have to factor in shipping charges when you do comparison shopping. If you have
Church Worker Handbook --70--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
questions or problems, expect about the same level of service as you'll get in office supply
and department stores.
What Do We Need to Know about Computers?
How long does it take to visit the Smithsonion Institution in Washington, DC? You can
spend a couple hours, a couple days, or a couple weeks. And, you can approach your
mastery of the computer in the same way. You can learn to write a simple letter in a
couple hours. Or, you can spend all your spare time for the next ten years and still be
The best way to learn to use a computer is to study what you need to know right now. Save
other tasks until you need to know how to do a particular task.
Here's a list of instructional objectives you can use in various computer tasks for yourself
and your family.
Introductory skills
Uses computer keyboard for playing simple games
Uses computer keyboard for drill and practice activities
Uses computer keyboard for typing simple messages on e-mail and for writing simple
Uses computer keyboard for entering data via dumb terminals
Uses computer keyboard for writing stories and articles
Uses computer keyboard for entering data in database and spreadsheet documents
Uses computer keyboard for learning QWERTY and Dvorak touch systems
Explains difference between temporary random access memory (RAM) and disk storage
Uses on-line help screens to learn about an application
Integrates keyboard with mouse to edit documents
Uses mouse to point, select, drag, and draw simple shapes
Distinguishes between hardware and software functions
Distinguishes among mainframe, mini, and desktop computers
General skills
Uses manual to achieve a software product's potential
Installs software from floppy disks to a hard drive
Troubleshoots problems via manufacturer's manuals
Determines when help is needed with a technical problem
Saves document to a specific disk, folder, or directory
Backs up documents on a separate disk to prevent accidental loss of data
Deletes unneeded documents from disks
Interacts with other peripherals on a local area network (LAN)
Copies and moves data between documents
Deletes blocks of data
Church Worker Handbook --71--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Uses mail merge capability of word processor and database applications
Formats report for printer
Uses translation software to convert documents between disk operating systems
Saves document as a text (ASCII) file for import or translation
Imports and exports data between documents
Understands tab/comma separated database and spreadsheet structure
Understands fixed-length field database and spreadsheet structure
Uses scanner to convert line drawing or photo into computer graphic
Uses scanner to convert hard copy text or numerals into computer document
Word processor
Uses word processor keyboard commands, when available, instead of mouse
Copies and moves data within document
Indents, nests, and hangs paragraphs
Finds and replaces specific text segments and formatting codes throughout document
Creates and modifies tab tables
Edits document from hard copy draft
Visualizes edits which need to be made and makes those edits on screen
Runs document through spelling and grammar checker
Uses on-line thesaurus
Formats document for the printer
Sets up database structure
Understands relationship between record and field
Defines data fields for entering text, numerals, date, time, graphics
Establishes rules for selecting records for display and printout
Sorts records according to specific field(s)
Prints reports and mailing labels from database records
Sets up spreadsheet structure
Creates spreadsheet formulae to answer 'what if' questions
Formats worksheet report for printer
Prints worksheets or exports worksheets to another document
Uses e-mail systems
Uses telecommunications software to interact with remote systems
Configures a modem for a specific remote system
Uses modem to access remote database and transfer files
Uses a commercial on-line service such as CompuServe, America on Line, or Prodigy
Uses an Internet Service Provider such as Netcom.
Navigates the Internet with a web browser such as Netscape.
Church Worker Handbook --72--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Desktop publishing (DTP)
Imports word processor document and graphics into DTP document
Formats flyer, newsletter page, and brochure
Places text blocks and graphic elements on a page
Creates odd/even headers and footers, with embedded page numbers
Prints camera-ready originals ready for duplication
Paints, draws, and designs with mouse and other input peripherals
Uses music interface (MIDI) to play and compose music
Used digital photography to enhance computer projects
Understands rules for handling and using data disks
Plugs/unplugs common computer peripherals
Distinguishes between hardware and software problems
Provides incidental maintenance for local printer: clears jams; loads paper; replaces
ribbon, toner cartridge, or ink cartridge
Understands characteristics of dot matrix, printwheel, ink jet, and laser printers
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Church Worker Handbook --73--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Chapter 7: Guidelines for the
Use of Audio Visual Equipment
Church Worker Handbook -- What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
This is a set of guidelines to help those who encounter some of the older AV
devices: cassette, reel to reel and cassette tape recorders, movie projector,
slide projector, film strip projector, overhead projector, and CD audio
recorder. If you don't have any of these items in your AV inventory, skip this
Most churches have an assortment of AV equipment. These guidelines are designed as an
aid to church workers who may not be trained or experienced in the proper use of these
AV equipment was bought to be used. Some church workers decline to use it because of
one or more of the following reasons:
1. The equipment is too expensive and we don't want to waste it.
2. If we use it we might break it.
3. We're saving it for something important.
4. If something happens to it we may be held responsible.
Your church should consider the following policy regarding AV equipment:
It is the responsibility of each worker to become familiar with the operation and
proper utilization of all equipment items related to his/her particular program.
We cannot realize a return on our investment in expensive equipment unless it is
used. Therefore, no equipment is too expensive or valuable to be used by properly
trained workers in pursuit of program goals and objectives.
Anything made by man is subject to mechanical failure. Workers who use
equipment properly and experience breakdown due to normal wear and tear or
manufacturer's defect should not feel personally responsible. It is far more
expensive to allow valuable equipment lie idle than it is to properly use it and repair
A properly trained and reasonably careful worker will not be held responsible for
equipment that fails during normal use.
Church Worker Handbook --74--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
It is the responsibility of the worker to report any and all malfunctions or
equipment failures immediately.
Tape Recorder
The tape recorder is a very versatile audiovisual tool and can be used in support of a wide
variety of church activities.
Most recorders use cassette tapes. Their lengths are shown on the label as C-xx [with a
numeral replacing the xx.] The numeral indicates the length of the tape in minutes. A C90 means the tape will run a total of 90 minutes; 45 minutes on each side.
The tape always moves from left to right as you look at the tape, with label side facing you
and the open tape facing down. Although some portable recorders require you to insert
the tape with tape side facing up, and tape moving from right to left, you can still visualize
the tape movement as left to right.
Some recorders use 1/4 inch tape and are known as reel to reel recorders.. The tape is
customarily wound on a seven inch reel in lengths of from 1,200 to 1,800 ft. The length of
the tape will depend upon the type of plastic backing used. Some tapes are thinner and
much more tape can be wound on one seven inch reel.
Digital Audio CD Recorder
Most of the newer computers have the capability to burn [record] compact disks [CDs]. It
is possible to buy a stand-alone digital audio CD recorder that works much like the
cassette and reel to reel recorders work. The primary difference is the CD recorder uses
blank CDs instead of cassette or reel tapes.
The blank CDs for such a recorder should be marked music or sound, instead of data. A
typical blank CD for a CD recorder will be marked MUSIC CD-R and will hold up to 80
minutes of recorded material [700 meg].
The advantages of the digital audio CD recorder over the cassette tape recorder are as
1. CDs are more durable than tape.
2. CDs may be used in any regular CD player; since cassette tapes will go the way of
the eight-track tapes, it makes sense to position yourself to go with CDs.
If you are comfortable using a cassette recorder to make broadcast-quality recordings,
you should be able to use a CD audio recorder with little trouble.
Church Worker Handbook --75--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Caution: High-end cassette and CD recorders may not have inputs for
mikes. Apparently manufacturers assume that purchasers of such
equipment will already have a mike mixer for providing mike input.
General Controls
The majority of the tape recorders manufactured today are operated by very similar
controls. These may be push buttons or levers and may be marked by a variety of
symbols. They tend to achieve the same function.
1. Play. This control operates the forward operation of the tape transport mechanism
and will play back recordings that have already been made.
2. Stop. This control stops the forward motion of the recorder during either the
play/record or fast forward/rewind functions.
3. Record. Pressing Play and Record simultaneously will start the recording. Caution:
It is possible to record on top of previous recordings you have made and erase those
recordings. However, this is unlikely to happen with a commercial cassette
recording because a safety tab has been removed along the edge of the cassette
opposite the tape. You can provide this same precaution with recordings you make
by removing this safety tab. Note: if you change your mind and decided to record
over a recording with has been protected by the removal of this safety tab, you can
reuse this tape by placing a small piece of tape over the tab hole.
4. Fast Forward. This control permits rapid forward advance of the tape for the
purpose of picking up a recording in the middle or near the end of a cassette.
5. Rewind. This control permits rapid reverse of the tape for the purpose of returning
to the beginning of a recorded portion.
6. Caution: The fast forward-rewind controls should never be moved from one
direction to another without pausing in the neutral position and allowing the tape to
come to a complete stop. Some recorders have quick change controls that permit
this action to made safely, but check before you try it.
7. Speed. Most reel to reel tape recorders are manufactured with at least two speeds:
7.5 ips (inches per second) and 3.75 ips. This designation refers to the speed at which
the tape is drawn across the recording head. It should be noted that higher quality
recordings result with the use of the fastest speed available on the machine.
Anything below 3.75 should be reserved for voice recording only. Piano music
should never be attempted at anything but 7.5.
Church Worker Handbook --76--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
8. There is an obvious relationship between the recording speed and the recording
time for a given reel of tape. For example, a 1200 ft. reel of tape will run for 45
minutes at 7.5 ips and for 90 minutes at 3.75 ips.
9. Pause. The pause or instant stop control is used to freeze the tape instantaneously
for editing or special effects. Putting the recorder in record mode plus Pause will
enable you to monitor your recordings levels before actually starting the recording.
Threading the Tape
On most reel to reel tape recorders, the transport mechanism carries the tape from left to
right. Therefore the full or feed reel should be placed on the left hand spindle and the
empty or takeup reel should be placed on the right spindle. The tape should come off the
reel with the coated (dull) side towards the top or back of the machine. The sound is
actually captured on this coated side.
Pull off enough free tape to reach through the head channel and around the takeup reel
two or three Times. During this process make sure the tape is not twisted with the coated
side toward the bottom or front of the recorder. If this happens, normal recording or
playback is impossible.
Tape Counter. The counter is used for indexing the tape. This permits the location of a
specific portion even though it may be in the middle or near the end of a 90-minute tape.
Many counters actually measure each revolution of the feed reel on its axis. However,
some counters measure real time in minutes and seconds.
The counter should always be set to zero at the point the first recording on the tape is
begun. Each time this tape is reused, it will be possible to pick up an indexed recording by
allowing the tape to run until sound begins, stopping it instantly, and setting the counter
to zero.
The counter should always be used when making a recording. At the time the recording is
begun, check the counter and make a note of its setting. It will then be possible to turn to
the exact point the recording began without playing hide and seek games with the fast
forward and rewind controls.
Suggested Procedure for Making Recordings
1. Advance or rewind tape to a section that you do not wish to keep. It is important to
remember that the record process automatically erases anything previously
recorded on that section of the tape.
2. Plug in microphone or know the exact location of a built-in condenser mike.
3. Place on pause and press Play and Record simultaneously. This will place the
recorder in the record mode but tape will not start to advance until you are ready.
Church Worker Handbook --77--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
4. With the machine in this mode an adjustment can be made of the proper recording
level. As a general rule the volume control should be set in the middle of its range
for recording. However, if the sound source is particularly loud or close, it may be
necessary to back it off to about 1/3 of its range. If the sound source is faint or far
from the microphone the volume control should be advanced to its maximum.
5. Most recorders have some sort of recording level indicator. It may be a needle on a
VU (volume units) meter or a LED [light-emitting diode] display. Less expensive
recorders may have ALC (automatic level controls) that cannot be adjusted. If you
can adjust the volume, it should be adjusted so that the distort level of recording is
indicated only on the higher peaks of sound. If a distort level is indicated
continuously this means you will get a poor recording with an unpleasant, distorted
6. After the proper recording level has been established, release the pause control and
the recording will begin.
7. It is not always necessary to use the pause in the record mode to establish proper
recording level. If you're recording similar sounds or under similar circumstances
you may be able to estimate the recording level.
8. It is possible to eliminate much of the noise of starting and stopping the tape
recorder during the record mode by keeping the volume turned down when starting
the machine and then quickly advancing it to the desired level. The reverse is done
when the machine is stopped. Turn the volume down and then push the stop button.
9. Avoid handling the microphone or touching the microphone wire during recording.
This will result in an unpleasant rustling, thumping or crackling sound that detracts
from the recording. It is also important that papers not be rustled or shuffled near
the microphone. (A very realistic sound of a forest fire can be achieved by
crumbling large sheets of newspaper in front of a sensitive microphone.)
Direct Recording
It is possible to record sound from another tape recorder, a radio, or a television set
without using a microphone. This is known as direct or line recording and is achieved by
connecting the output of any audiovisual device to the auxiliary input of the tape recorder.
In this manner a recording can be made without worrying about ambient noise in the
room. Furthermore, the quality of the recorded sound can be up to 95% of the quality of
the original sound.
A special cord is required for this type of recording. The cord must be fitted with proper
male plugs on either end for matching the female output jacks of the machine originating
the sound and the female input jacks of the tape recorder being used to record the sound.
Church Worker Handbook --78--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
The average user of a tape recorder may feel uncomfortable in setting up for a direct
recording. It is not something so complicated, however, that cannot be mastered by any
program person who knows how to record with a recorder under normal circumstances.
Tip: If the plugs fit the jacks, and you don't hear an unpleasant buzzing
sound, the chances are quite good that an acceptable recording will be made.
These suggestions may be applied to movie, film strip, slide and overhead projectors.
A projector may be used in any room regardless of the amount of light in the room. The
machine is simply moved closer to the surface being used for projection until the image is
bright enough. The following rule should be remembered: as the projector is moved closer
to the screen, the image becomes smaller and brighter; as the projector is moved away
from the screen the image becomes larger and dimmer. It is best to have a darkened room
for a big picture but an undarkened room can be used if a smaller picture is satisfactory.
The projector should be positioned, elevated, and pre-focused (area of light with sharp
edges) before the film is threaded. All these preparations should be completed before the
audience is assembled for the show.
A projector should not be moved after use until the lamp has had a chance to cool. The
lamp may be cooled by running the fan with the lamp off. The lamp is very easily
damaged when it is hot.
All projectors should be handled with care. This is particularly important when going
through doorways and on stairways.
Screens and Projector Surfaces
A silver lenticular screen provides the ideal projection surface. A beaded glass screen can
be used if the light environment is not as critical. In the absence of a screen it is possible to
use any light-colored surface. A large piece of white construction paper makes an ideal
screen for small group viewing at short projection distances. The back of a wall map or
chart can also be used as a screen with good results.
Projection equipment with brighter projected images require less sophisticated projection
surfaces. As a general rule the overhead projector has the greatest versatility in this
regard followed by the 35 mm slide projector, 35 mm filmstrip projector and 16 mm
movie projector in descending order.
Audience seating patterns are very important in relationship to the screen and projection
surface. The projected image appears to be most sharp and bright when viewed from
immediately behind the projector. [Move around the room and view the image from
different angels when setting up a show.] As the viewer moves away from the projector to
Church Worker Handbook --79--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
either side, the image appears to be less bright in relation to the distance from the
projector. This decrease in brightness is more noticeable when using auxiliary projection
Viewers should not be permitted to sit close to the front of the room at the extreme right
or left of the screen.
Film Strip Projector
The film strip projector is a useful educational tool for showing still pictures. The
projector uses 35mm film in a continuous roll of from 36 to 100 frames.
Threading the Projector
1. Always handle the film strip by the edge. Finger prints on the projected areas will
be detrimental to the projected image.
2. Make sure the film has been rewound. The first frame should read focus, followed
by a title frame. If the first frame says "the end" simply rewind the strip manually
and start at the beginning.
3. Insert film in channel at top of projector making sure film is pushed down to the
level of the advance knob. A sprocket wheel on the axle of the advance knob will
then pull the film through the machine.
Framing the Image:
The machine is constructed to advance the film one frame for each click of the advance
knob. In order to align the frame, turn the framing control on the axle of the advance
After the entire filmstrip has been projected advance it out of the machine and rewind
manually, holding the film by the edges.
Automatic Filmstrip Projector
The automatic filmstrip projector uses a mechanical film advance activated by an audio
signal from a sound track. The advance of the frames is thereby synchronized to the sound
Church Worker Handbook --80--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Slide Projector
Loading Slides into Carousel Slide Reel
1. Remove locking ring in top center of reel.
2. Insert slide in numbered compartments upside down with coated (dull) side toward
the lower numeral.
3. Replace locking ring.
4. Check bottom of reel making sure slot on edge of metal plate is lined up with the
blank space between slide 1 and slide 80.
5. Place projection reel on top of machine with zero pointed toward mark on right side
of machine (facing screen).
Basic Controls
1. Fan. This control runs the fan motor without activating the projection lamp. It is
used after a show for cooling the lamp.
2. Low. This control activates the fan and projection lamp at a low light intensity. This
is used for short projection distances or for previewing slides.
3. High. This activates the projection lamp at its highest light intensity.
4. Reverse. This activates the slide changing mechanism from a higher to a lower
numbered slide.
5. Forward. This activates the slide changing mechanism from a lower to a higher
numbered slide.
6. Select. This control has a dual function.
a. When a slide is in the projection chamber, the select control will eject the slide
back into the reel without advancing the reel to the next position. With the
locking ring removed, the slide can then be taken from the reel for editing
b. With the select control depressed, the slide reel can be rotated freely on its
spindle. In this way individual slides can be selected without unnecessary
changer action. The carousel must be returned to zero to remove it from the
7. Timer. Slides can be projected automatically by moving the timer control from
manual to one of the numeral designations. The numerals represent the number of
Church Worker Handbook --81--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
seconds each slide will remain on the screen before advancing to the next highest
numeral. All automatic changes go from a lower to a higher numbered slide. It is
possible to override the timer by pushing the forward button. Make sure the timer
dial is returned to manual before attempting to remove the reel from the machine.
Manual Projection. It is practical to project a limited number of loose slides
without using the Carousel reel. Simply place the slide in the projection chamber making sure
it is upside down with the dull or coated side toward the screen. The slide is ejected from the
chamber by pressing the select button.
The Overhead Projector
The overhead projector is designed to project an image from a transparent film. A light
source below a glass projection table shines through the transparency and on to a mirror
in the projection head and hence to the screen.
Basic Controls
1. Focus. The image is focused by turning a knob that raises or lowers the projection
head on the metal upright.
2. Elevate. The image is raised or lowered on the screen by adjusting the mirror on the
projection head.
3. Framing. The image can be further adjusted and framed on the screen by moving
the transparency on the light table.
Making Transparencies
1. Grease Pencil. The simplest method of making a transparency is to write on an
acetate sheet with a grease pencil. Unfortunately, this is not a permanent image and
can be smudged with a pointer or finger.
2. Photocopier. A permanent transparency can easily be made by making a copy of
any image with transparency film in the paper tray. Make sure the transparency
film is rated for a photocopier.
3. Laser Printer. High-quality transparencies can be made with a laser printer, with
laser transparency film in the paper tray.
4. CAUTION: Your transparency film must be rated for a laser printer. Do not use
film rated for a photo copier or you may damage the printer.
5. Adding Color to Transparencies
Church Worker Handbook --82--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
6. Transparencies made on clear sheets can be enhanced through the use of a colored
pen or pencil by cutting out bits of adhesive acetate for attaching them to specific
areas of transparency.
7. Additional details can be added to a transparency through the use of an overlay.
The basic transparency is made and projected with the additional detail added by
means of a second transparency that is laid down on the first.
8. Framing. All transparencies should be framed before projection. This provides a
clear, sharp border around the transparency and makes it much easier to handle.
There is also a provision for indexing information.
9. Commercially Prepared Transparencies. A wide variety of commercially prepared
transparencies are available on almost any subject. These include simple
transparencies in black and white, transparencies in color, and relatively
complicated overlays.
Chief Advantages of the Overhead Projector
A bright and sharp image can be projected in an ordinary room lit in normal
fashion by natural or artificial light.
A large image can be projected at a relatively close projection distance permitting
the instructor to stand in front of and face the group while operating the equipment.
16 MM Movie Projectors
16 mm movie projectors are becoming less popular with the increased popularity of the
VCR and the DVD. However, these guidelines are provided in case you still have a movie
Terms to Understand:
1. Sprocket. A roller with little lugs on the outside edge that match the holes in the
edge of the film. The sprocket usually has a cover that snaps up to permit threading.
2. Gate. A channel in front of the lamp through which the film must pass. The lens
may swing out to open the gate or the gate cover may simply snap forward to permit
3. Loop. A 'U' of film usually formed above and below the gate.
4. Sound Drum. A large smooth roller with no little lugs.
5. Feed Reel. The reel with the film on it.
Church Worker Handbook --83--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
6. Take-Up-Reel. The empty reel on which the film will be wound as it is projected.
1. Most projectors have a two-position control for the motor. The first position runs
the motor only and the second runs the motor and the lamp.
2. The amplifier is usually turned on with the volume knob. If the projector has a
separate switch for "exciter lamp", be certain this is turned on.
3. The film speed control should be set for "sound", unless a silent movie is shown.
This control changes the speed at which the film is projected. Sound film: 24 frames
per second. Silent film: 18 frames per second.
Reels. The feed reel should be placed on the spindle that does not turn when the
projector is running in a forward direction. The film should come off the front of the reel
with the sprocket holes toward the operator. The holes in the film must match the lugs on
the sprocket. The feed reel and the take-up reel will always turn in the same direction.
Threading: (General instructions for all projectors)
1. Pull off a few feet of film.
2. Place film over top sprocket and close over.
3. Form loop, pass through gate, form lower loop.
4. Pass film over or around sound drum.
5. Pass film over lower sprocket, close cover, and run onto take-up reel.
Most projectors have basic threading information printed right on them.
1. The film must be free of the machine and must travel directly from the take-up reel
back to the feed reel.
2. The lamp should not be on during rewind.
3. When showing a movie of more than one reel, all reels may be shown one after the
other. Use the feed reel of the first reel of the film as the take-up reel for the second
reel of the film. All reels should be rewound at the end of the show.
Caution: During the rewind, reels are moving very rapidly. Keep hands, hair, etc.
free of spinning reels. Serious injury and/or damage to the film or projector can result.
Church Worker Handbook --84--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Failure to Rewind: The film should be rewound by the person who used it
last. The film distributors' request "Do Not Rewind" is ignored by everyone except the
last person to use the film.
If a picture appears on the screen upside down the film probably was not rewound. Reverse
reels, rewind, and project.
The user should splice all breaks using regular polyester splicing tape.
Do not use office tape. If splicing tape is not available, lap broken ends and splice
Video Cassette Recorder [VCR]
There are several formats of VCRs. However, the most popular, and the acknowledged
standard, is VHS. Therefore, all comments here will relate to VHS format. In addition,
these comments are of a general nature and apply to regular VCRs as well as VCR largescreen projectors.
Playback of a previously-made recording will be all we will discuss here. If you want to
made a recording, consult your VCR's owner manual.
General Controls
The majority of the VCRs manufactured today are operated by very similar controls.
They tend to achieve the same function.
Inserting Tape. Insert the tape with the tape window facing up and the label
facing you. Make sure the small arrow is pointing toward the back of the machine.
1. Play. This control operates the forward operation of the tape transport mechanism
and will play back recordings that have already been made.
2. Stop. This control stops the forward motion of the recorder during either the play
or fast forward/rewind functions.
3. Fast Forward. This control permits rapid forward advance of the tape for the
purpose of picking up a recording in the middle or near the end of a cassette.
4. Rewind. This control permits rapid reverse of the tape for the purpose of returning
to the beginning of a recorded portion.
Church Worker Handbook --85--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
5. Speed. Most VCRs will switch to the playback speed which is equal to the speed of
the recording. If this does not happen, you may need to change the speed.
6. Pause/Still. The pause or instant stop control is used to freeze the tape
instantaneously for special effects.
7. Eject. This control ejects the tape.
Tape Counter.
The counter is used for indexing the tape. This permits the location of a specific portion
even though it may be in the middle or near the end of a two-hour tape. Early counters
measured each revolution of the feed reel on its axis. However, counters on newer VCRs
measure real time in minutes and seconds.
The counter should always be set to zero at the point the first recording on the tape is
begun. Each time this tape is reused, it will be possible to pick up an indexed recording by
allowing the tape to run until the picture begins, stopping it instantly, and setting the
counter to zero.
The counter should always be used when making a recording. At the time the recording is
begun, check the counter and make a note of its setting. It will then be possible to return
to the exact point the recording began without playing hide and seek games with the fast
forward and rewind controls.
Set Up
Make sure the program portion of the tape is ready to play before your audience
assembles. Your audience shouldn't have to sit through the FBI warning about unlawful
duplication, or other similar material.
If your VCR's controls are hard to read in the dark, you may want to mark those controls
with colored vinyl tape.
G. Edwin Lint
Please note: The hypertext e-mail link above is hot [active] when you are connected to the
Internet through your ISP. The same will be true of all hypertext links through the text of
this ebook.
Church Worker Handbook --86--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Chapter 8: Basics Of Desktop
Information to help you use WYSIWYG [What You See Is What You Get]
page formatting software and a high-resolution laser printer to make cameraready originals ready to take to the printer.
Church Worker Handbook What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
Contents for This Chapter
Introduction .................................................................................................................82
Process ..........................................................................................................................83
A Flier or a Full-length Book .......................................................................................83
A Printer's Short Lexicon ............................................................................................83
Ten Cardinal Rules:
1. Save every 15 minutes ..............................................................................................84
2. Create and save on the hard drive; back up on 3.5-inch disks
or an external hard drive daily ....................................................................................84
3. Start with a dummy (nothing personal) ..................................................................85
4. Write With The Carriage Returns Visible .............................................................85
5. Never Use The SPACE BAR, Return Or Tab Key To Format A Paragraph .......85
6. Print In Laser/Ink Jet Fonts Only............................................................................85
7. Use Times New Roman for Body Text (Serif) .........................................................86
8. Use Arial or Helvetica for Headings (Sans Serif) ...................................................86
9. Watch Odds And Evens ...........................................................................................86
10. Use White Space To Separate A Paragraph From Its Head.................................86
Other Rules:
11. Compose In Geneva 12 ..........................................................................................87
12. Get The Format Right For The First Paragraph .................................................87
13. White Space ............................................................................................................87
14. Limit Number Of Fonts Per Page .........................................................................87
15. Forget Courier ........................................................................................................87
16. Forget Underlining .................................................................................................88
17. Type Body Text In Upper/Lower Case .................................................................88
18. Emphasize And Break Up Your Work With Headings .......................................88
19. Use A Variety Of Heading Layouts .......................................................................89
20. Beware Of "Smart Quotes" ...................................................................................89
Church Worker Handbook --87--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
21. You Can Say A Lot With Bullets ..........................................................................89
22. Charts And Cover Spines ......................................................................................90
23. Reinforce Your Handouts With Visuals ...............................................................90
24. Guidelines For Name Badges ................................................................................90
25. Know Your Printer's Limitations .........................................................................91
26. Know The Primary Graphic Types .......................................................................91
27. Follow These Major Steps To Prepare A Document
For Publication With A Page Formatting Program Such As PageMaker.................92
28. Text Formatting Tips In PageMaker ....................................................................93
29. Use Keyboard Shortcuts .........................................................................................93
Tips For Data Entry
30. Spell Out Acronyms ...............................................................................................94
31. Get The Person's Name Right ...............................................................................94
32. Abbreviations .........................................................................................................94
33. Collecting Information From Application Forms ................................................94
34. Omit Titles ..............................................................................................................95
35. Mailing Addresses Can Be Complicated ...............................................................95
36. Take Your Time .....................................................................................................95
37. Use And and not &..................................................................................................96
38. Hyphens, Dashes, And Automatic Hyphenation ..................................................96
39. The First Shall Be First ..........................................................................................96
40. Teachers: We Teach Students ...............................................................................96
41. Watch Mixed Upper And Lower Case ..................................................................96
Appendix A: Desktop Publishing Glossary ................................................................97
With the advent of desktop publishing, your church can give a typeset appearance to all
your handouts and training materials, including throwaways such as your weekly
All that is needed is:
1. A microcomputer.
2. A high-end word processor [such as Microsoft Word or WordPerfect]
or page formatting software [such as PageMaker] for the Macintosh or
3. An ink-jet printer (starts at $100), or a laser printer.
4. The knowledge to use them.
Church Worker Handbook --88--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
5. A print shop that is willing to print multiple copies from your cameraready originals, for a fee, or course.
The process is very simple:
Create your document with your computer and print the cameraready originals(s) with your printer.
Take your originals to the print shop. My print shop will let me send
PageMaker files over the phone line; maybe yours will, too.
A Flier or a Full-length Book
You can use desktop publishing techniques for a one-page Sunday school picnic flier, or a
full-length book. My first novel, Gone, was written on a Macintosh computer with a
Microsoft Word word processor. Camera-ready originals were printed or an Apple
LaserWriter laser printer. These originals were mailed to BookCrafters (140 Buchanan
Street, Chelsea, MI 48118); [they could have been sent by modem or on a disk.] The
completed printed and bound books were shipped back to me by truck.
Desktop publishing is the use of a microcomputer and a laser/ink jet printer to produce
camera-ready originals that have a typeset appearance. Desktop publishing includes, but
is not limited to, the use of page formatting software such as PageMaker. In fact, high-end
word processors (such as Microsoft Word or WorkPerfect include features that may be
used in many desktop publishing routines.
Gutenberg put the printed page in the hands of the people. Now, the desktop publishing
revolution, with products like "what-you-see-is-what-you-get" (pronounced "WHIZZYwig") word processors and the laser/ink jet printer, has put the typesetting of the page in
the hands of the people. The technology of Gutenberg's day required that a printer "mind
his Ps and Qs" because those letters were so easy to confuse in a type case.
That's what these guidelines are about: helping you to mind your desktop publishing Ps
and Qs. The modern microcomputer and laser/ink jet printer can make your successes
look glorious. However, they can also make your failures look dismal.
A Printer's Short Lexicon
Printers and publishers tend to feel that we desktop upstarts may misuse timehonored printing terms. We probably do, and I will follow suit in these guidelines.
To set the record straight, however, here are the proper definitions for the following
Church Worker Handbook --89--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Typeface, or just face: The physical appearance of a set of characters, such as Times
New Roman or Arial or Helvetica. Desktop publishers in general tend to use "font"
instead of "face."
Typestyle: A general enhancement for a typeface, such as: BOLD, ITALIC, or
Font: A typeface in a particular point size is a font. Times New Roman 12 and Times
New Roman 18 are fonts.
Leading (ledding): Controlling the amount of vertical space between lines of type.
Kerning: Controlling the amount of horizontal space between letters of a word.
The following documents were used as resources in compiling these guidelines
LaserWriter Manual(s), Apple Computer, Inc., 1988, et al.
The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage, Times Books, 1976
The Gregg Reference Manual, McGraw Hill, 1977
The Ten Cardinal Rules
1. Save every 15 minutes
Your computer remembers nothing that is not saved to disk. Saving at least every 15
minutes will keep you from losing more than you would want to replace if someone kicks
the plug out of the wall or maintenance turns off the power to work on the outlet in the
next room. Make sure you know the folder or disk you are saving to when you make your
first save. Afterwards, your computer will remember that location and always save to it.
2. Create and save on the hard drive; back up
on zip disks, 3.5-inch disks or an external
hard drive daily
As a general rule, you should create and save all files on your hard drive, not on a zip
disk or a 3.5-inch floppy disk. The failure rate for floppy disks is much higher than for
a hard drive.
At the end of each work day, you should back up all important data files on a zip disk, a
3.5-inch disk, an external hard drive, or server designated for backup purposes. If a file is
Church Worker Handbook --90--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
lost or damaged, or if your computer dies overnight, these disks will enable you to
continue working without a major loss of data.
I use an Iomega 750 Zip Drive to back up each file I work on, using an Iomega
software program called Iomega Automatic Backup. Each time I save a file to my hard
drive, Iomega Automatic Backup automatically saves a copy of this file to my zip drive.
3. Start with a dummy (nothing personal)
Make a pencil-and-paper mockup of the general layout of your project. This is especially
important for folded brochures. For example, be very sure you know the position of the
first and last page of a 4-page brochure.
4. Write With The Carriage Returns Visible
Get into the habit of writing with your carriage returns visible. If you're using a
Macintosh or Windows word processor, you'll probably have a paragraph symbol button
on your tool bar for clicking carriage returns ¶ on and off. If you don't have a carriage
return symbol on your tool bar, check your menus for all characters or invisible.
5. Never Use The SPACE BAR, Return Or Tab
Key To Format A Paragraph
Never use the space bar, tab, or Return key to indent, center, or otherwise format a
paragraph. Use standard formatting commands, only. If you don't know how to format a
paragraph, just type straight text for now. Then, get help from someone who does know. Tab
stops, extra spaces and carriage returns which are used to format a paragraph cause
permanent damage, which may need to be corrected with individual clicks of the mouse. This
is a time-consuming, irritating, and potentially expensive process.
6. Print In Laser/Ink Jet Fonts Only
These fonts are designed to give the best appearance to your text. Dot matrix fonts look
relatively crude and amateurish when printed to a laser/ink jet printer. Use them for
special effects, only.
Before printing your document, replace any dot matrix fonts with laser/ink jet printer
fonts, even though you composed in a dot matrix font like Geneva.
As a general rule, dot matrix fonts (the ones to avoid when printing to the laser/ink jet
printer) have geographic names, such as Geneva, New York, Monaco, and Chicago.
laser/ink jet printer fonts have non-geographic names such as Times New Roman, Arial or
Helvetica, Palatino, and Courier.
Church Worker Handbook --91--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
7. Use Times New Roman For Body Text (Serif)
Use a serif font for the body of your text. Times New Roman is the common serif font for
the laser/ink jet printer. A serif font has little "handles" on the characters that tend to
make them flow together and make them easier to read.
8. Use Arial or Helvetica for Headings (Sans
Use a sans serif font (without handles) for headings and numerals. Arial or Helvetica (not
Narrow Arial or Helvetica) is the best sans serif font for the laser/ink jet printer. See a
printer manual for more information on serif and sans serif fonts.
9. Watch Odds And Evens
When a document's pages are printed back to back, the odd pages are on the right and the
even pages are on the left. A chapter or major division usually begins on an odd page, on
the right.
If your pages are numbered in the corners, the even page numbers are in the left corner
and the odd page numbers are in the right.
A document which is to be printed back to back and bound should have a gutter down the
center. This means the right edge of the even pages and the left edge of the odd pages will
have wider margins. This extra space may be specified in the document layout [setup]
screen of your word processor.
10. Use White Space To Separate A Paragraph
From Its Head
Use the before/after command in the paragraph format dialog box to separate a heading
from its paragraph. This standoff may be measured in points or fractions of an inch.
Twelve points of space equals a line of 12 point text. Remember that you can control the
size of carriage returns in the same way you control the size of characters. (This rule is not
being observed here in the interest of showing more text on a single screen.)
11. Compose In Geneva 12
Compose your document in a font which is comfortable to read on the screen, such as
Geneva 12. (The PageMaker story editor uses Geneva 12 only.) This font is especially easy
to read if you are using a small monitor screen.
Church Worker Handbook --92--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
12. Get The Format Right For The First
When you press Return at the end of a formatted paragraph to begin a new paragraph,
the formatting will be carried over.
A paragraph's formatting and tab stops may be stored in its carriage return symbol. To
apply a paragraph's formatting to a new paragraph, copy the carriage return of a
formatted paragraph to the clipboard and then paste it onto a new paragraph's selected
carriage return.
Your word processor may give you even more power in formatting paragraphs by using
the Style feature.
13. White Space
Insert white space before and after a series of paragraphs with the before/after commands
in the paragraph dialog box. Use the first line indent command instead of Tab. If you use
this as a general rule, you can adjust space in a whole block of text with a single command
in the format paragraph dialog box.
14. Limit Number Of Fonts Per Page
Although the computer is able to print multiple fonts on a page, too many fonts quickly
reach the point of diminishing return. As a general use Times New Roman for body and
Arial or Helvetica bold for headings.
15. Forget Courier
Don't use Courier (or any other non-proportional font) unless you want to create an oldfashioned (pre-IBM Selectric) typewritten effect for some special reason. The whole idea
of desktop publishing is to avoid the typewritten look and give your work a typeset look.
In typewriter (non-proportional) spacing, the letter "i" gets the same amount of
horizontal space as the letter "m". In proportional spacing, however, the amount of
horizontal space is proportionate to the width of the letter. Ms and Ws get much more
space than Is. [wwwwwiiiii]
Attention Teachers: If you are typing material to be read by your readers, you
may want to use Courier because it looks more like manuscript writing than
proportional fonts.
Church Worker Handbook --93--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
16. Forget Underlining
Never use underlining to provide emphasis for a heading. Underlining has the opposite
effect. It weakens text and makes it cluttered and harder to read. On the old-fashioned
typewriter, you had three ways to emphasize a heading: capitalization, underlining, and
letter-spacing (or some combination of the three). However, now that you have joined the
computer-driven desktop publishing revolution, leave underlining behind!
Did I hear someone ask why underlining is in a word processor's character dialog box if it
isn't being used? If you are printing to a daisy wheel printer, italic may not be available.
Therefore, underlining is needed to properly type footnote and bibliographic entries.
However, it has little place in the laser/ink jet printer world.
Special Note: When you are typing text that is to be part of a web
page on the Internet, there is another reason to avoid underlining
entirely. On a web page, underlining gives the expectation that will be
a hypertext link that may be clicked upon.
17. Type Body Text In Upper/Lower Case
Type your body text in normal upper/lower case, not in solid caps. Limit solid caps to
headings and brief sections where you want to provide emphasis. When you type in solid
caps, the copy is harder to read than when you use normal upper/lower case. The human
eye and brain use graphic cues to help decode printed characters into words and ideas.
Look at the word girl, for example. The G goes below the line, and the L goes above it. On
the other hand, GIRL is a solid block with fewer visual cues than girl.
Anyone who can read, can read solid caps. Solid caps just cause subliminal irritation,
something you want to avoid.
18. Emphasize And Break Up Your Work With
Desktop publishing lets you vary your heading emphasis with such enhancements as
italics, bold, outline, shadow, small caps, or all five. (But NOT underlining.) You must
type in upper/lower case in order to use the small caps enhancement.
Some word processors allow you to use very large headings with font scaling. The limit is
usually 127 points. If your font dialog box allows you to enter your own size, try a numeral
above 72 and see what you get.
Church Worker Handbook --94--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
19. Use A Variety Of Heading Layouts
Here are some examples but you can use your own sense of style and proportion:
The freestanding sidehead is generally considered to be the second level in a heading
breakdown. The point size should be somewhere between the centered head and the
paragraph sidehead.
This Is a Paragraph Sidehead. If you need a third level of breakdown, the paragraph sidehead is useful. As a general rule, the point size is the same as the paragraph text but in
bold; use Arial or Helvetica (instead of Times New Roman) to provide emphasis.
20. Beware of “Smart Quotes” [These are smart quotes]
This is an option with some word processors that makes quotation marks look more
professional. If you are preparing text for E-Mail or publishing on the Web, it may be
necessary to turn off smart quotes before typing the E-Mail message or other document.
Quotation marks and apostrophes may be transmitted as strange characters, if you do not
turn off smart quotes.
21. You Can Say A Lot With Bullets
• You can say a lot with short statements set off in separate paragraphs. These are
known as bullets. A bullet is often led with a symbol of some kind that draws
your attention. This is an example of a paragraph hung under a bullet.
Special characters may be available through the use of the various keys. To see what's
available, you may need to refer to the word processor's manual. Some computers have
special fonts (such as Dingbats or Whingdings) that may be used for bullets. Each
character of the keyboard will produce a special symbol when that font is used. You'll
need a guide to show you what produces what.
Bullets usually look best when they are part of a hung paragraph. A hung paragraph is
where the second and all subsequent lines wrap under the indent of the first line. Some
word processors have a button on the tool bar that creates bullets automatically. You may
not be able to change an automatic default bullet leader, however.
Church Worker Handbook --95--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
22. Charts And Cover Spines
As a general rule, charts and other graphics that are printed horizontally on the page
should be bound to be read from the right. In other words, odd pages are bound along the
top edge and even pages are bound along the bottom edge.
When you use ring binders with transparent vinyl pockets for inserting cover designs,
inserting can be a problem. If text flows along the length of the spine, the insert must read
right side up when the book is lying face up. If both vertical and horizontal text are used
on the same spine insert, the text must be read in both the bookshelf and the face-up
23. Reinforce Your Handouts With Visuals
The computer/laser/ink jet printer combination makes great overhead transparencies.
WARNING: Make sure your transparency film is suitable for use with a laser printer.
Never use regular copier transparency film in a laser printer. The higher heat may cause
the film to melt against moving parts of your printer and cause serious damage.
When creating transparencies, observe these simple rules:
Use a sans serif font only, such as Arial or Helvetica.
Keep your point size at 18 or above; this is 18 point.
Limit the content of a single transparency to three
main points and a couple of subpoints, under each
main point.
Never place a large block of small text on a screen
and expect people to read it. Observe the 18 point rule
at all Times, including the text of memos and letters.
24. Hello, My Name Is ... Guidelines For Name
1. Set all text in Arial or Helvetica bold for maximum legibility at a distance.
2. Place the name at the top, in 18 point, if possible. This is the most important item on
a name tag. Allow up to two lines so longer names (especially hyphenated names)
may wrap.
Church Worker Handbook --96--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
3. Place the company or agency name next, in 12 or 14 point, if possible.
4. The company or workshop logo is always at the bottom. This is the least important
item on a name tag since it is the same for every person.
25. Know Your Printer's Limitations
A. Beware of solid fills. A laser/ink jet printer prints at a resolution of 300 to 600 dots per
square inch (dpi). Therefore, it may not be able to do a good job on solids, especially if
they require more than one revolution of the roller when printing. By comparison, a
professional laser printer may print at 2400 dpi or more. Instead of solids, use a grayscale
of 80% or less, or use a shade pattern.
B. Maintain a minimum margin of .25 to .5 inches. The laser/ink jet printer cannot print
to the edge of the paper. A job with a graphic which is bled to the edge should be printed
by a professional print shop and then trimmed to specs.
26. Know The Primary Graphic Types
A. Bit Map (as done in a paint program such as MacPaint). Significant resizing may cause
an unpleasant moire pattern to develop.
B. PICT (picture, such as drawn in MacDraw).
C. TIFF (Tag Image File Format, such as created by scanning a photograph). TIFF
graphics are memory hogs and may quickly grow to a meg or more.
D. EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) as done in Adobe Illustrator. This graphic is stored as a
series of numeric specifications and then translated when printed. The quality is excellent
but it is also a memory hog. [A simple 4.5x6 inch graphic I did for a wedding program
quickly grew to 24 megs.
E. JPEG [.jpg] This is the format for photographs.
Click art collections are available in a variety of formats.
27. Follow These Major Steps To Prepare A
Document For Publication In A Page
Formatting Program Such As PageMaker.
A. Make a dummy that shows how the pages flow and the rough location of graphics
and stories.
Church Worker Handbook --97--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
B. Set page features. Page orientation and other features may be changed after the
publication is started. However, it is best to make as many decisions as possible at
the beginning.
C. Set up master pages. A master page contains the elements which will appear on all
pages of the finished product. Headers, footers, columns, and page numbers are
examples of items normally placed on master pages.
D. Place the graphics or placeholders in their approximate locations. It is important to
do this step before flowing text, so it will wrap around graphics.
E. Type text in a word processor or the PageMaker Story Editor. Spell check.
F. Place text. Use Autoflow. If you want to control and thread text page by page, hold
down the shift key. If you don't hold down shift, Autoflow will add pages as needed
to accommodate incoming text.
G. Screen-proof your work. Then, spell check the document again. As an added
precaution, have a co-worker proof the work.. You are your own worst proof reader
and many spell checkers can't detect errors in grammar and syntax. If you read this
piece carefully, I'm sure you'll see ample proof of what I've just said.
H. If this document will be printed in a word processor only:
1. Insert the header/footer and imbed the page numbering command. If you are not
using a header/footer, turn on the auto-numbering. If you are printing on both
sides, specify separate header/footer layouts for odd and even pages.
2. Use the ruler to enter paragraph formatting commands. The ruler controls the
layout of the line in which the cursor is flashing. If you select a section of text, the
ruler controls the selected area. Remember that the ruler is available in both the
header/footer window and the footnote window. If you set up a paragraph
format and/or a series of tab stops, that format will be carried over into
successive paragraphs when you press RETURN.
3. Paginate. Check each page break for appropriateness. Force page breaks as
needed. For example, if a heading is separated from the paragraph it heads, force
a break right above the heading with the paragraph format dialog box.
Remember you can force a page break to come sooner but you can't delay one.
Try to avoid using hard page breaks because they may ruin your pagination if
you make additional edits. However, if you always want a page break to come at
a certain spot regardless of future editing, use a hard break.
4. To prevent a page break in the middle of a paragraph: (a) select the
paragraph(s) involved, (b) enter the Paragraph dialog box and click on Keep
Lines Together, (c) press RETURN to close the dialog box, repaginate the
document, (d) confirm from the screen or PREVIEW that the page will break as
Church Worker Handbook --98--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
you want it to do. Certain combinations of the following factors will give you too
much white space at the bottom of the pages:
Large font size
Small pages
Long paragraphs
If this happens, reverse the process described above and take off the Keep Lines
Together feature.
28. Text Formatting Tips In PageMaker
A. Type text in feature boxes and headings without the justify command, even though the
majority of the page is justified.
B. Keep a heading together with at least two lines of the following paragraph. Use the
paragraph format dialog box to control this. If necessary, invoke a premature page break.
C. Use the general rule of no more than two fonts per page. Macintosh and Windows
computers make it very easy to apply various fonts, but use discretion. This may be a case
when less is more.
29. Use Keyboard Shortcuts
If you are a touch typer who learned on a regular typewriter, you'll love the keyboard
shortcuts you can use with most computer applications. If you learned to type on a
Macintosh or Windows computer, you'll probably feel more comfortable with the mouse.
However, you'll never be a power user until you can break the mouse habit and use the
keyboard when a keyboard command is available. For a touch typer, the hand is still
faster than the mouse.
With many applications, you can pull down the menus to see which keyboard commands
are available for the various functions. To use a keyboard command: (a) hold down the
special key, such as the CONTROL key, and (b) while holding down the CONTROL key,
tap the action key. Since all keys on the computer are repeat keys, it is critical to tap the
action key, not press it.
Tips For Data Entry
30. Spell Out Acronyms
In a first reference, spell out the phrase represented by the acronym, with the acronym in
parentheses. In subsequent references, the acronym may be used alone. Example: This
Church Worker Handbook --99--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
booklet was produced by DiskBooks Electronic Publishing (DBEP). The author of the
DBEP Guides ...
31. Get The Person's Name Right
Use full names when possible: Thomas A. Jones, F. Scott Doe. If there is a doctorate, spell
it out in a first reference and then use the Dr. title thereafter: C. Everett Koop, M.D.; Dr.
Koop. Dr. is used before the full name when part of a mailing address, Dr. C. Everett
Koop, but not in a signature block:
C. Everett Koop, MD
Surgeon General
32. Abbreviations
When abbreviating company or agency names, omit both periods and spaces, unless the
entity prefers otherwise. Be careful of plural abbreviations. Do not use an apostrophe
unless the context requires that possession be shown. Examples: All the CEOs attended
the workshop. Each CEO's name tag was printed on a laser printer.
33. Collecting Information From Application Forms
There is no way to control what people may write on applications when applying to attend
a workshop or seminar. However, you can control how that data is entered in a database
and reproduced in subsequent agendas, name tags, and lists of participants.
Example: Applicants from the same agency (Allegheny Intermediate Unit 3) may show the
following information when filling out forms:
Allegheny IU
IU 3
Allegheny IU #3
Intermediate Unit #3
In each case, this agency should be translated as Allegheny IU 3. After registration
information has been entered in a data base, sort each involved field in alphabetical order.
This will enable you to quickly identify and correct errors and inconsistencies, especially if
the data has been entered by more than one person.
Church Worker Handbook --100--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
34. Omit Titles
In a list of names or on an agenda, omit all titles such as Miss, Mrs., Ms., Mr., and Dr. If
you wish to show a doctorate, it should be abbreviated in its proper form after the name.
(A person with a DR before the name may be a doctor of medicine, philosophy, education,
dentistry, or veterinary medicine).
Jane Doe, MD
John Doe, Ph.D.
James Doe, D.D.S.
Joanne Doe, Ed.D.
A title is used with a full name when it is part of a mailing address. A title may be used
with a surname only in a second reference but do not use Miss or Mrs. unless you know
for a fact that the woman does not prefer Ms. As a general rule, a woman who prefers
Miss or Mrs. will be less annoyed by Ms. than will be the case when the converse is true.
35. Mailing Addresses Can Be Complicated
A rural address should be written Route x, Box xx or Rt. x, Box xx. R.D. (Rural Delivery) and
R.F.D. (Rural Free Delivery) are obsolete. Use the U.S. Postal Service two-letter abbreviations
for a state's name. However, use conventional abbreviations when the name of the state is not
part of a mailing address.
Harrisburg PA 17105
He lives in Harrisburg, Pa. (or Penna.)
The United States Postal Service (USPS) prefers that mail addresses be typed in solid caps
without punctuation.
36. Take Your Time
Write time as 8:30 A.M. or 4:30 p.m.
These forms should not be used: 8:30am or 4:30 pm
37. Use And ...
Avoid using & (ampersand) unless it is part of a tradename or a lack of space demands it.
Don't use the symbol @ unless it is part of a price, formula, or e-mail address.
Church Worker Handbook --101--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
38. Hyphens, Dashes, And Automatic Hyphenation
A dash joins a range of Times in an agenda, and is longer than a hyphen. (If your software
can't produce a dash, use two hyphen (--). Non-breaking hyphens join the components of a
phone number so they are not separated by word wrap. Breaking hyphens are used by the
hyphenation command to automatically break words at the end of lines. Never hyphenate
a word manually by typing a hyphen. Such a hyphen will prevent proper word wrap after
a future edit or font change. Invoke the hyphenation command instead. However, during
automatic hyphenation, you can type a hyphen in a dialog box to force a word break at a
specific spot.
Typewriters are an out-of-date means of writing reports. (Breaking hyphens)
9:30 -- 10:00 A.M. Registration (Dash)
717-697-8122 (Non-breaking hyphens)
39. The First Shall Be First
Try to list names with first name first. If the names are drawn from a database file, both
FIRST and LAST should have separate fields. Then they can be listed and displayed
properly but sorted by last name.
40. Teachers: We Teach Students
Use student and not child when referring to person(s) being taught or trained. A child is a
person of a specific age range. The word student does not imply a particular age range.
Anyone can be a student, including you and me. It is inappropriate to refer to a 19-yearold as a child. Never use a disability as a noun or adjective. Incorrect: the disabled
students are..., the handicapped require.... The preferred usage is students/persons with
41. Watch Mixed Upper And Lower Case
The computer world is hung up on mixing upper and lower case in trade names.
When keying these terms and others like them, always preserve the upper/lower case mix,
even when the remainder of a heading is in solid caps. Where a registered trademark is
involved, the capitalization is part of that trademark.
Church Worker Handbook --102--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Example of a headline:
Appendix A: Desktop
Publishing Glossary
Body and headings: as a general rule, a bold sans serif font (such as Arial or
Helvetica) is best for headings and titles, while a plain serif font (such as Times New
Roman) is better for body text. As of this writing, Time Magazine follows the general
model of bold sans serif font for headings and plain serif font for body.
Body: a paragraph or paragraphs under a heading.
Brochure: a handout that describes a process, product, or event.
Bullet: a short, descriptive statement; may be part of an outline; often started with an
eye-catching symbol.
Camera-ready original: a clean copy of a product which is ready for quantity
duplication; in desktop publishing, camera-ready originals are often created with a
laser/ink jet printer.
Carriage return: the symbol which marks the end of a paragraph.¶
Click art: graphic images which are available for instant use in a document.
Compose: the act of combining text and graphics to create a product ready for
Desktop publishing: the use of a computer and a high-resolution printer to produce
camera-ready originals that will have a typeset appearance. The production of an original
may use one or more applications. Desktop publishing may involve the use of page
formatting software such as PageMaker. High-end word processors (such as Microsoft
Word and WordPerfect) include features that may be used in many desktop publishing
DPI: dots per square inch, the measure of the resolution of a printer.
Church Worker Handbook --103--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Dummy: a rough layout of a document to give a general idea of the appearance of the
printed product.
Font: the ability of a computer and printer to create printed characters in a specific
style, such as Times New Roman, Arial or Helvetica A professional printer may consider a
font to be a typeface in a particular point size such as Times New Roman 12 or Times New
Roman 18.
Footer: information that appears at the bottom of every page in a section of a
manuscript. A footer may include an embedded page number. See "header" .
Format: selecting the fonts, indenting, spacing, and other appearance features that are
appropriate for a specific document or segment of a document.
Graphics: the elements of a format that are not textual in nature; usually images,
borders, or frames.
Grayscale: in a black and white document, the percentage of a filled area that is black
as opposed to white; zero percent grayscale is white and 100 percent is black. Percents
between 0 and 100 are varying shades of gray.
Gutenberg: the inventor of movable type, in the 1500's. Before movable type, a page of
text was created by carving it out of a block of wood. Gutenberg is credited with putting
the printed page in the hands of the common people. The Holy Bible was the first book
printed with moveable type. Now, the desktop publishing revolution, with
microcomputers and high resolution printers, has put the typesetting of the page in the
hands of the people.
Gutter: space along the inside margins of a book's pages that allows for the binding
process. When the book is to be bound in an office with a process such as spiral binding,
the typical gutter is an extra half inch along both inside margins.
Header: information that appears at the top of every page in a section of a manuscript.
A header may include an embedded page number. See "footer" .
High-end, as in high-end word processor: applications that have advanced features
useful when creating camera-ready originals. Microsoft Word and WordPerfect are
considered high-end word processors.
Hung: a form of indenting a paragraph where the first line is not indented and all
remaining lines are indented an equal distance. Hung paragraphs are often begun
with a bullet and a tab stop. (See "bullet" .) If a typist attempts to hang a paragraph
manually by using the space bar, return, and tab keys, the file will be damaged in a
Church Worker Handbook --104--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
way which will make it impossible to make future edits while maintaining the
current font. [This paragraph is hung under a black dot bullet.]
Imbedded page number: including a word processor's pagination command in the
text of the header or footer. With Macintosh and Windows word processors, this is as
simple as clicking the page number icon while the header/footer window is open and the
cursor is flashing.
Justification, full right: a block of text where all lines end at the same point along
the right margin, creating a straight line.
JPEG: Format for electronic publishing of photos. With Windows, the extension is .jpg
[.jpg pictures files travel very well in e-mail messages.]
Kerning: controlling the amount of horizontal space between letters of a word.
Keyboard shortcuts: using key combinations to give a command instead of pulling
down a menu with the mouse and selecting a command. The hand (with fingers on the
keyboard) is usually quicker than the mouse, after the keyboard shortcuts have been
Layout: the combination of text and graphics to create a printable product.
Leading (ledding): the amount of vertical space between lines of type.
Margins: the space between the edge of the paper and the beginning of text or graphics
(top, bottom, left, right). For manuscripts which are to be bound into books, the left/right
margins will be known as inside and outside. The inside margin will include a specified
amount of space to accommodate the binding, known as a gutter.
Original: a sheet that comes out of a printer, before it has been copied. Originals should
be used for duplication, instead of duplicating a copy of an original.
Page breaks: the point at which the software starts another page. You can use a hard
page break command to start another page before the copy gets down to the bottom
margin. However, you cannot delay a page break past the bottom of the page without
making changes to the format. These formatting changes can include a smaller font size,
less leading/kerning, a margin change, or a more compact font.
Page formatting software: all high-end word processors can create camera-ready
originals of desktop publishing quality. However, page formatting software, such as
PageMaker for Macintosh and Windows, can offer more powerful options.
Church Worker Handbook --105--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Paginate: putting numbers on the pages. All application used in desktop publishing can
number pages automatically. Therefore, it is unwise to manually type page numbers at the
point you assume a page will break. Future editing, such as adding or deleting text, may
cause the pages to break out of synch with the typed page numbers.
Proportional spacing: the letter "i" takes up less horizontal space than the letters
"w" or "m" . In a non-proportional font, all characters are given the same amount of
horizontal space, giving the text a typewritten (amateurish look). "Courier" is an
example of a non-proportional font, while "Times New Roman" is
Printer: the device that creates a camera-ready original from a document created on a
microcomputer with desktop publishing software. To be used in desktop publishing, a
printer needs two criteria: a resolution of at least 300 dpi (dots per square inch), and the
ability to print proportionally-spaced fonts. Laser/ink jet printers can meet both these
criteria. Dot matrix and daisy wheel printers cannot. [Such printers are fast becoming
Printer, Laser: This is the first choice for desktop publishing. Resolutions begin at 300
dpi and speeds begin at about ten pages per minute.
Printer, Ink jet: This is the second choice for desktop publishing. Resolutions begin at
300 dpi but speeds are as slow as one page or less per minute.
Printer, Daisy wheel: A device that receives information from a computer and prints
it on paper by using a circular printwheel containing a molded character for each key on
the keyboard. Such printers are often called "letter quality" because the product is judged
good enough to mail to someone. Daisy wheel printers are comparatively slow and noisy as
the printwheel pecks away at the paper. A daisy wheel printer is generally considered to
be unsuitable for desktop publishing because of the limited choices of fonts and styles.
Printer, Dot matrix: A device that receives information from a computer and prints
it on paper by using a printhead containing stiff wires. Characters are formed when a
specific configuration of the wires strike the ribbon. The principle is similar to the way
numbers are displayed on a sports score board. A dot matrix printer is generally
considered to be unsuitable for desktop publishing because of the low resolution of the
Resolution: degree to which a printer can create a typeset appearance in a cameraready original, measured in dots per square inch (dpi). The minimum resolution for
desktop publishing is considered to be 300 dpi.
Church Worker Handbook --106--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Sans serif font: the term "serif" refers to the little ornamental tails on such letters as
Fs, Ts, and Ls. The term "sans" is Latin for without. Therefore, a sans serif font is one
without tails. Arial or Helvetica is a commonly used sans serif font.
Scaling: a proportional increase or decrease of the size of a graphic.
Scanner: an office machine which can "take a picture" of a printed page and turn it
into a computer word processor or graphic file. A scanner uses a process called optical
character recognition to create a word processor file from a printed page, complete with
automatic word wrap and tab stops.
Serif font: A serif font has little "handles" on the characters that tend to make them
flow together, making blocks of text easier to read. Times New Roman is the classic serif
Shade pattern: Many applications offer the option to fill a graphic area with a wide
variety of fill patterns.
Smart quotes: quotation marks which look like regular printed characters instead of
double apostrophes. Warning: the command used by a word processor to create smart
quotes may be translated as an odd character when a document is saved as a text (ASCII)
file for use over E-Mail; in such a case, the smart quotes option should be turned off
before a file is sent over E-Mail.
Spine: the bound edge of a book If text flows along the length of a spine, it must be read
when the book is lying face up. If both vertical and horizontal text are used on the same
spine, the respective text must read in both the bookshelf and the face-up positions.
Typeset: an appearance that seems to have been created by setting type and printing
with a movable type press.
Typeface, or just face: the physical appearance of a set of characters, such as Times
New Roman or Arial or Helvetica. Desktop publishers tend to use "font" instead of face.
Typestyle: a general enhancement for a typeface, such as: BOLD, ITALIC, or
OUTLINE. OUTLINE may be available on Macintosh computers but not on Windows
Word processor: a computer program which allows the typist to create pages of
electronic text which can be saved to disk as a computer file, and printed with a printer on
paper. Standard features of a basic word processor include the following: automatic word
wrap; block copy, move, and delete; global search and replace; spell checking.
Church Worker Handbook --107--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Word wrap: the process used by a word processor to automatically end a line of text at
the margin and start a new line. The typist never presses RETURN until it is time to start
a new paragraph. Failure to observe this rule may make it impossible to make future edits
while maintaining proper margins.
WYSIWYG: Desktop publishing acronym for What You See Is What You Get. This
means the printer prints the page as it appears on the screen. Pronounced "WHIZZYwig."
Church Worker Handbook --108--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Chapter 9: Using Mikes and
Using a Sound System
Church Worker Handbook -- What You Didn't Learn in Bible
College and Seminary
Warning: This chapter is not intended to replace the operating instructions
provided by your equipment manufacturer. This is merely a general, quickreference aid for administrative personnel or the occasional user. This chapter
should be reviewed by the sound person (or committee) to assure that it is
consistent with your church's equipment and policies. If this material is
outdated or incorrect regarding the equipment your church is using, this
chapter should yield in every instance.
Table of Contents for This Chapter
Using Mikes for Speaking and Singing ......................................................................102
Using a Sound System.................................................................................................103
Sound Glossary ...........................................................................................................107
Using Mikes for Speaking and Singing
If you are unfamiliar with the terms used in this
section, please review the Sound Glossary on Page
108 before going any further.
The microphone is the most frequently used audio device in the church -- and the most
frequently misused, also. Here are a few tips to help you avoid some of the more common
The most common problem is acoustic popping. This is caused when a puff of air from
your mouth hits the diaphragm inside the mike. In normal speech, the initial consonants B
and P cause what speech clinicians call "plosives." They cause a puff of air to leave the
mouth. The corrective action is simple: mike distance and angle. If you hear a pop while
Church Worker Handbook --109--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
speaking or singing, hold the mike a little farther from your mouth, and slightly below
your airstream. If you're at the pulpit, step back a half step.
The result of a pop will be heard in the speaker as a dull thud.
Warning: The engineer in the sound booth cannot take corrective action if there
is popping. You must make the correction by changing the distance and/or angle
at the mike!
In general, a handheld mike should be no closer to your mouth than the width of your
closed fist and no farther from your mouth than the distance from the tip of your thumb
to the tip of your little finger, when your hand is spread.
Singing usually requires less amplification than speaking, so hold the mike a little closer
for speaking.
The tip of the mike should be a little below the airstream of your voice to help prevent
A mike can detract from your appearance when held too close. If your mike has a yellow
windscreen, the view from the floor level where the congregation is sitting may make it
look like you're eating a lemon sherbet cone.
In addition to popping, poor mike technique can cause distortion. This makes the sound
heavy and blurred. This cannot be corrected in the sound booth. The engineer can only
turn down the level, so the distorted sound won't be as loud. However, the distortion will
still remain. You've probably heard plenty of distortion at a restaurant that calls diners to
their available table over a handheld mike.
When two or more people are singing together, all persons should keep about the same
distance between mouth and mike. The engineer can only balance volume levels, but the
chance of getting a blended sound is greater if the mike distances are comparable.
Church Worker Handbook --110--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Singing with a Sound Track
Here again, the engineer will be able to get a good balance between the voice and track if
there is no distortion, in addition to no popping. This is especially important if the sound
track includes one or more voice tracks as well as the accompaniment track.
When the mike is held too close, it can change the illusion the audience has of the relative
presence of the singer and the track; the singer will seem very close with the
accompaniment far away.
Making a Sound Check
You'll seldom get the luxury of making a sound check in a full house. However, you should
use performance volume and presence during your pre-service sound check even though
the church is practically empty. Don't use a tiny, timid voice during your sound check if
you plan to use a big, dramatic voice during the performance. Engineers don't like those
kinds of surprises; your audience won't, either.
Handle Your Mike with Kid Gloves
Some mikes are well insulated against external sound. Keep an ear tuned to extraneous
sound that you may cause by the way you handle your mike and act accordingly. If your
mike has an on/off switch, slide it, don't snap it. Your engineer should have your level
down while you're doing noisy things like taking the mike out of the clip at the top of a
stand. However, if you know the mike is hot (on), slightly twist it counterclockwise while
you take it off the stand.
Is This Mike On?
Never blow into a mike to see if it's on. In addition to making an unpleasant sound, the
moisture from your breath isn't good for the mike. Without an audience, speak into the
mike using the same distance and volume you'll be using for an audience. Include a couple
plosives for this check, like the Peter Piper nursery rhyme. If an audience is present, tap
the tip of the mike gently or rub it with your fingertips.
That unpleasant howling and whistling sound is called "feedback." It happens when
sound travels from the speakers back into the mike from too short a distance. Feedback is
most likely to occur in a relatively small room while using a portable sound system at a
high volume level. To control feedback in such a situation, move a little farther from the
mike and stop speaking until the feedback subsides If the feedback is violent and you're
sure it's your mike, turn off your mike switch until your level is reduced at the amp. You
Church Worker Handbook --111--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
may also try to shield your mike from the speakers with your body. If the mike is
handheld, point it at a point in the room where there are no speakers. A room with a low
ceiling and speakers in the ceiling is very prone to feedback.
Using a Sound System
If you are unfamiliar with the terms used in this section, please review the Sound
Glossary on Page 108 before going any further.
Color-Code Your System.
Your mikes and amp/mixer controls can be marked with colored vinyl tape. I have used
this tape in the following colors: red, yellow, blue, green, tan, white, black. It is especially
important to tape-mark handheld and wireless mikes, and less important to color-code
pulpit and other fixed-mount mikes.
Special Singers.
Instruct your regular special singers to use the same color mikes for the sound check and
for the performance. Suggestion: Each time a group sings, save the settings you made
during the pre-service sound check. These settings will be a good starting point the next
time this same group sings.
Miking the piano.
There are two schools of thought for miking a grand piano: under the piano below the
sounding board and above the strings. Ben Speer of the famous Speer family is known
throughout gospel music as an excellent sound man. When the Speers sang at our church
in the mid-70s while Ben was still traveling with the group, here's how he miked the
piano: under the piano with the mike pointing straight up at the sounding board.
Ben Speer now works for Bill Gaither as his sound director, for taping and
on-stage presentations of the Homecoming music events.
Mike Hardware.
Always manipulate mike hardware by grasping the metal shell of the plug, not the rubber
collar or the cord. If your hardware is the professional 3-pin connector format, it will be
very reliable. However, there are four separate solder connections inside each plug unit so
some care is indicated.
To plug a mike into a jack, grasp the metal shell of the plug, match the three pins with the
three little holes, and push firmly until a distinct click is heard. To unplug, depress the
thumb latch with one hand and pull plug straight out with the other hand. Do not twist.
Church Worker Handbook --112--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
There will be a thumb latch on the wall jack and on the female plug at the end of the mike
If the regular mike cord is not long enough, the cord from another mike can he used as an
extension. Remove the cord from the second mike and connect the two cables.
Troubleshooting A Mike That Is Not Working
--Is the amp on?
--Is the mike switch on? UP is usually ON.
--Is the amp's mike channel turned to the proper level?
--Is the mike plugged into the right wall jack?
If you've made these checks with no results, try another mike
Cassette Tapes.
Always protect a tape you want to save by removing the safety tab from the back edge of
the cassette with a knife point. With the cassette flat on the table and the tape-edge facing
you, the tab on the left rear corner will protect the upper side (Side A) of the cassette.
With that tab removed it will be impossible to put the deck into record mode and thereby
erase a valuable recording. If you ever change your mind and want to record on that tape
again, just cover the tab-hole with a small piece of tape and it's reusable.
Be sure your tape is on cue before the service begins. Do this by playing the tape until you
hear the first note of music. Stop the deck immediately, remove the cassette, and use a pen
barrel to rewind the tape by one revolution of the feed reel.
WARNING: Most cassettes have a non-recording leader of clear tape at the beginning.
Use your pen barrel to wind past this leader before starting your recording.
Auxiliary Inputs And Outputs
You can use the following audio devices with your sound system by patching between your
AUX in or out and the other device's AUX in or out. This may be done with these kinds of
Tape deck
Visitor's mixer
CD Recorder
Church Worker Handbook --113--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Take these precautions when patching these kinds of devices into your
Turn the power off on the both devices.
Make sure the input or output on the other device has one of the following labels: [or a
comparable term]
** AUX
** Line
** AV
** Tape
Never patch an output marked SPEAKER to any of the input
labels shown above.
Make sure your amp's level is down for the channel you are using; then experiment with
gradually increasing the level.
Of course all experimentation of this type should be done before the service begins.
Duplicating Music And Sound Track Tapes
The copyright law forbids photocopying or duplicating any music unless it is in the public
domain and marked P.D. -- or you have the expressed permission of the copyright owner.
Music producers frown on copying sound track tapes and this should not be done in any
way that will pervert the sale of an original tape. Never loan a copy of a sound track tape
to another church or organization. Either loan the original or do nothing.
Church Worker Handbook --114--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Sound Glossary
Airstream. The flow of air from your mouth to the mike while speaking or singing.
Ambient sound. Background noise that gets mixed in with the target sounds. In a
recording of a sermon, for example, some ambient sound is desirable from the house
mike(s) to give a sense of resonance and reverberation, as in a large auditorium. Too
much ambient sound will make the recording seem mushy, hollow, or booming.
Headphones are required to discern the proper balance of ambient sound and target
sound. See Presence.
Amp, for amplifier. An electronic device that receives electronic signals from mikes, tape
decks, or mixers. The signals are mixed together, increased, and sent over wires to
speakers as amplified sound.
AUX [or line] inputs. The jacks on an amp, mixer, deck, or other audio device that is
receiving a line input from a similar audio device.
Boom. A rod-type device that attaches to the top of a mike stand and permits horizontal
as well as vertical positioning of a mike. Especially useful for persons who sing while
playing the piano.
Broadcast-quality. A tape recording that is appropriate for use on the air in terms of
such factors as levels, ambient sound, balance, and mixing.
Bulk Eraser. A special electromagnet with a momentary-on switch for erasing an
entire tape in just a few seconds. Should not be used close to tapes that are to be saved.
Tape decks have erase heads that erase previous recordings. The bulk eraser, however,
erases the whole tape instead of just the portion that is being recorded.
Cable. The wire that carries signals from one device to another.
Connector, 3-Pin. (Also known as a Cannon plug.) The hardware that enables cables
to be connected to mikes and amps. A 3-pin connector is generally used with low
impedance systems.
Deck. The equipment for recording or playing back a cassette, CD, or reel tape. It
requires an external amp or earphones for hearing the sound since it does not have a built
in amplifier such as a "tape recorder" .
Church Worker Handbook --115--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Distortion. An unpleasant characteristic of sound that has been recorded or amplified
at above zero level, or with the mike held too close to the mouth. [The sound in a
restaurant when reservation availabilities are announced is often badly distorted.]
Equalization (EQ) Enhancing the highs (treble) and lows (bass) to give the overall
sound the most pleasing effect.
Warning: There is a fine line between crisp and shrill when you
advance the highs, so be careful. If you think you may have
crossed over into shrill, get a second opinion from a person that is
at last fifteen years older than you.
Feedback. Squealing, howling, or ringing sounds from the speakers caused by the
sound cycling through the mikes and speakers when the mike levels are too high and/or
the mikes are too close to the speakers. Feedback is less common with low impedance
Female. Audio jacks that receive male plugs. This distinction is similar to that used in
the plumbing industry.
Flat. A mid-range equalization adjustment that emphasizes neither highs nor lows.
Hot. A mike that is on and working; a mike with the level too high.
High Impedance. (High-Z) A mike system that uses 2-wire cable, is limited to
relatively short cable runs from amp to mike, and that is subject to feedback problems.
High impedance equipment is usually cheaper than low impedance.
House Mikes. The mikes that are used to record/amplify the overall sound in the room
in addition to a particular speaker or singer. House mikes are usually mounted high in the
room and not directed at any particular sound source. With a portable system in a room
with a high ceiling, put the house mike(s) on a mike stand that is extended to its
maximum; point the mike straight up at the ceiling.
House. This is a general term that refers to the room in which the sound system is
Jack. The hole into which a plug is inserted. A chassis-mount jack is permanently
fastened to a piece of audio equipment. A wall-mount jack is fastened to the wall, usually
with a face plate. An in-line jack, also known as a female plug, is part of a cable assembly.
Church Worker Handbook --116--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Level. The sensitivity of a mike to sound, as controlled by a volume control; another
term for volume.
Line Input, Output. The circuits of a tape deck that receive audio signals from
another audio device and that send signals to another audio device. LINE IN is for
recording. LINE OUT is for playing back. Tapes may be duplicated by patching: From
LINE OUT of the playback deck or amplifier to LINE IN of the recording deck. Such a
recording may be made in a noisy room since no mikes are involved. Also known as
"direct recording."
Line Matching Transformer. Converts a low impedance mike signal to a high
impedance signal; will have a 3-pin connector at one end and a quarter-inch phone plug at
the other. Fits on the end of the mike cord and plugs into the high impedance mike jack of
your audio device. Should cost about $10 at your mall radio supply store.
Low Impedance (Low-Z). Opposite of High Impedance. Less feedback, longer
cable runs, requires 3-conductor shielded cable and 3-pin connectors.
Male. Audio hardware items that are plugged into jacks or female plugs. See ''female''.
Mike (or Mic) for microphone. The device that captures sound and feeds it into an amp,
mixer, deck, or other audio device.
Mike inputs. The jacks on an amp, mixer, deck, or other audio device that is receiving
sound. Many mike inputs are switchable between mike and line. In the line position, such
an input can receive a line (but not amplified) signal from an amp, mixer, deck, or other
audio device. If a line input is sent into a mike input in the mike [rather than line or AUX]
position, the probable result will be distortion.
Mixer. An electronic device that mixes the audio from several (at least 4) mikes and 1 or
2 auxiliary sources before sending it to a main amp. A mixer has the same level output as
a tape deck and cannot drive speakers. A mixer may have a mike level output to permit it
to be daisy-chained with other mixers.
Mixing. Blending sounds from multiple sources and of multiple types to achieve a
pleasant overall sound. Effective mixing may require some music knowledge or
appreciation as well as electronic capability. Headphones are required.
On Cue. The process of setting up a tape or CD cut so it will begin to play when turned
on with a minimum of dead air. The term is also used in radio to signify the position of the
pot that switches the input to an auxiliary cue amp. The "on cue, position is one notch
lower than the lowest point on the dial. In radio, two turntables or CD players with cueing
capability will permit a DJ to play music nonstop. While one selection is playing, the other
Church Worker Handbook --117--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
is being cued through the auxiliary cue amp/speaker. They are then alternated in that
manner. To cue a tape or record, play it until you hear the first note of music, stop
immediately, and back up past that first note. The distance between the cue point and the
first note must permit the deck or turntable to achieve normal playing speed without
wowing (off-speed distortion) the first note.
CDs are easiest to cue by following this process:
1. Make sure you have the proper selection and note the track number.
2. Place the CD player on PAUSE
3. Press PLAY
Patch Cord. A relatively short cable with connectors at both ends. The patch cord
connects two audio devices, such as a deck and an amp, or two decks. CAUTION: Audio
plug hardware is not standardized. A church system may use several different formats.
Make sure the plug on the end of your patch cord matches the jack on the audio device.
Plug. The hardware on the end of a mike cable or patch cord that is inserted into a jack.
Pop. A form of unpleasant audio distortion that is caused by excessive breath sounds
entering the mike during speaking or singing. The initial consonants B and P are called
plosives and are known for causing pops. Popping can be reduced by keeping the mike
below the breath stream (slightly below the chin) and/or moving the mike farther from the
mouth. Some people, because of the characteristics of their speech, are very prone to
popping and must take special precautions.
Pot, for potentiometer. Originally, a rotary-type volume control knob on a radio control
board or other audio device. In radio jargon, pot now means the slide-type control units
found on current equipment. Slide pots are more practical because they permit instant
visual scanning of the relative position of each pot.
Presence. The sense of how close the sound source is to the mike. If you're recording
speech, such as a sermon, the combination of mike distance and level setting should give a
close-up presence. If the mike is too far from the speaker, there will be too much ambient
sound mixed in with the speech to have a good sense of presence. When making a
recording for a tape ministry or radio broadcast, the ideal setting is a mix of close
presence and ambient sound to give a sense of realism. Headphones are required to get a
good mix. See Ambient sound.
Quarter-Inch Phone Plug/Jack. Also called a banana plug. The standard
hardware item on headphones.
Church Worker Handbook --118--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
RCA Phono Plug/Jack. The basic hardware item for connecting stereo components
and speakers. The jacks on the back plates of tape decks are usually RCA phono jacks.
Sound Check. This is a simple process of making sure the mike levels are set properly
before the service/performance begins.
Speaker. The audio device that receives amplified signals from the amp and produces
sound. The mike is never referred to as a "speaker".
Track. A prerecorded sound track; an individual sound source on such a sound track.
VU meter. A dial-face meter that measures the input to or output from an audio device
or channel in volume units, Distortion may be a problem if the needle rides in the red area
above zero level. Current devices tend to be equipped with LED (light-emitting diode)
meters instead of the dial-face style. These meters display a sliding bar of light instead of a
moving needle. In stereo equipment, each channel has a meter.
Windscreen. An external or internal guard over the end of a mike for reducing
popping or wind noise.
Zero Level. +/- 0 decibels on the VU meter or the LED level display.
G. Edwin Lint
Please note: The hypertext e-mail link above is hot [active] when you are connected to the
Internet through your ISP. The same will be true of all hypertext links through the text of
this ebook.
Church Worker Handbook --119--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Chapter 10: Guidelines for
Making Broadcast-Quality Tape
Recordings of Your Worship
Or Putting Your Service On the Air Live
Plus Introduction to: How to Broadcast Your Church Service on the Internet
Non-technical tips and guidelines on how to make a broadcast-quality tape
recording, ministry tapes, or broadcast your service live
Church Worker Handbook -- What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
Warning: This chapter is not intended to replace the operating instructions
provided by your equipment manufacturers. This chapter should be reviewed by
the sound person (or committee) to assure that it is consistent with your church's
equipment and policies. If this material is out-dated or incorrect regarding the
equipment your church is using, this chapter should yield in every instance.
Table of Contents for This Chapter
Introduction ................................................................................................................116
Terms and Procedures ...............................................................................................116
Minimum Hardware Requirements...........................................................................116
On the Air Rules ........................................................................................................117
Recording Engineer ...................................................................................................117
Making the Right Connections...................................................................................118
Setting Up House Mikes for Ambient Sound ............................................................119
"On the Air" Procedures ...........................................................................................119
Starting and Stopping the Tape ................................................................................119
Congregational Singing and the Worship Leader ....................................................120
Piano ............................................................................................................................121
House Mikes ...............................................................................................................121
Smooth Cross-Fading And Level Adjustments .........................................................121
Keep Your Heads Clean ............................................................................................122
Opening and Closing Announcement with Legal ID ...............................................122
Selecting the Tape ......................................................................................................122
Making Your Tape Fit The Available Time Slot ......................................................123
Audition Your Own Broadcast .................................................................................123
Church Worker Handbook --120--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
These guidelines will help you make a broadcast-quality tape recording or live
broadcast for use on your local radio station. They will also help you make a
quality master when duplicating cassettes for your tape ministry. Of course,
you can broadcast your service live by letting the radio station run a phone
line into your house sound system. That connection may be adequate for
preaching but will not be satisfactory for congregational singing.
Committment and effort are required to make broadcast-quality recordings for either
broadcasting or sending out your tapes in a tape ministry. If you are going to charge
people for the tapes you make, you are also responsible for exercising good Christian
stewardship. You should do all you can to make the quality of your recordings as high as
More about quality later.
Terms and Procedures
If you are not familiar with certain terms and procedures used in this chapter, please
consult Chapter 8: Using Mikes and Using a Sound System. Chapter 8 includes an extensive
Glossary of terms at the end of the chapter.
Minimum Hardware Requirements
You may be surprised at how economical it will be to start a radio ministry. You will need at
least the following items to put a taped or live worship service on the air, or to make quality
master recordings for your tape ministry.
1. A free-standing CD Recorder. [Not a CD burner that requires a computer.] Such a
device should cost under $300 and will enable you to record up to 80 minutes onto a
standard CD with excellent fidelity. Caution: Such a recorder uses Music CD-R
recording blanks, not to be confused with CD blanks to be used in a computer CD
burner. Two-tray models will enable you to duplicate CDs, also. All radio stations
will be able to play your CDs.
2. Or, a high-fidelity stereo cassette deck, a DAT (digital audio tape) deck. Of course
the DAT deck will give you the best results with CD-quality sound. However, not all
radio stations are equipped to play back DAT tapes. Look before you leap, into
DAT equipment. This item may not be essential for a live broadcast.
3. A mixing board for mixing the output of your house sound system with at least two
house mikes and one piano mike. I have a small recording studio in my home so I
bought a 5-channel Realistic mixer (three mike channels, one Tape channel, and one
Church Worker Handbook --121--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
AUX channel) for about $100 at our local mall Radio Shack. Avoid battery-powered
mixers; get one that plugs into an AC outlet.
4. High-speed Tape Duplicator. [Not needed unless you have a tape ministry.] If you
are able to make a stereo master recording, make sure you duplicate your copies in
stereo, also.
On the Air Rules
The fact you are "on the air" should never interfere with the way the Holy Spirit works in
your worship. However, you can use some common sense rules to make your service sound
1. All speaking should be done at a microphone. Even though the live congregation
may be able hear off-mike speaking, the radio congregation may not be able to hear
at all or may hear hollow or barrel-like sound.
2. All music and special activities should be announced. People who attend can follow
the order of service in the bulletin, but members of your radio audience may have
no idea what is happening without verbal announcements.
3. All participants should start to speak/sing within seconds after their activity is
announced. If the activity is music, the accompaniment should start immediately
after the announcement. To avoid dead aid between the announcement and the start
of the activity, have all participant sit within a short walk of the mike they will be
using, and/or start moving to the mike in time to arrive there seconds after the
announcement has been made. This rule is more important for radio than for TV.
With TV, the audience can see pending action.
4. If you are taping the service, the pastor and other persons on the platform should
know when the tape is rolling and you are "on the air." At one church I worked at, I
placed a large clock on the side wall with a small red light beneath it. Both clock and
light were wired to a switch beneath my counter in the sound room. Before the
service started, I set the clock for 1:30 P.M., the time the service was broadcast
When I stopped the tape for the announcements or any other reason, I flipped that
switch; the clock stopped and the red light went off. When I started the tape again, I
flipped the switch on.
Recording Engineer
You will need a full-time "recording engineer" any time you are making a quality
recording or broadcasting live. This is a full-time job while you are "on the air" and can't
be done while you are running the house sound system, also. Such a recording engineer
should have experience mixing sound or should be trained by someone who has sound
mixing or broadcast experience.
Church Worker Handbook --122--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Your recording engineer needs to wear headphones and watch the levels of all inputs at all
times. Your church may have been sending out tapes for years without a recording
engineer watching the levels while a recording is being made. Now is the time to change all
Making the Right Connections
Run patch cords among your house sound system, your mixer, and your recording tape
deck. Most likely, these audio devices will have RCA phono jacks on their input/output
panels. If they do, you can use the garden variety audio cables which come with audio
devices. If there is a combination of types of audio hardware on the jack panels, you may
need to buy patch cords with the right male/female hardware at each end.
Run patch cords as follows:
From House Sound System Line Out
To Mixer AUX In
From Mixer Line Out
To Record Tape Deck Line In
or To the radio station for a live broadcast.
If you can get a second Line Out signal from the cassette deck which plays your sound
tracks, run a patch cord-From Sound Track cassette deck Tape Out
To Mixer Tape In
By having independent control of the sound track, you can achieve a better balance
between the track and the voices during special singing.
Patching in a Guest Sound System
Your guest singers may have a mixer or sound system they prefer to use. Such a patch
may be made directly to your house sound system or to your radio mixer. Even though
your guests plan to use their own amplification, your recorded sound will have broadcast
quality if you patch as follows:
From: Guest Sound AUX, LINE, or TAPE OUT
To: Mixer Tape In
Caution: When you use the Tape channel to receive AUX, Line, or Tape
signals, make sure the mixer for this channel is switched to Tape and not
Church Worker Handbook --123--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Note: The input/output jacks on these audio devices may be labeled AUX, Line, or Tape.
As a general rule, these terms mean the same thing as far as audio device compatibility is
Setting Up House Mikes for Ambient Sound
If you want a stereo effect for ambient audience sound, you'll need one mike for the left
channel and one for the right. Mount them as high as you can and as far apart as is
practical. Set the pan pots on a stereo mixer to send the sound on the left side of the house
to the left channel and vice verse.
Don't count on the pulpit or choir mikes to provide a good level of ambient sound with
nice overtones of reverberation and resonance. Without mixing in the ambient sound of
house mikes, the song service will likely sound like a concert by the worship leader,
instead of a round, full sound of hundreds of people singing. To achieve this effect, you
will need a mix ratio of about 10% worship leader and 90% house mikes. More on this
later on.
"On the Air" Procedures
Author's note: I originally wrote these procedures for recording our 8:30 Sunday
morning worship for broadcast Sunday afternoons 3:30-5:00 P.M. Our sound
booth at that time was equipped with a 16-channel mixer for recording purposes
only, in addition to the house sound board. The recording mixer has separate
channels for pulpit mike, piano, organ, choir loft (4), orchestra, special singers,
cassette sound tracks, CD sound tracks, and so forth. You may not have this
flexibility, or your facilities may be much better. Therefore, I have adapted these
procedures to the 5-channel $100 mixer I described above. If you are able to run
a separate mike to the piano and jack that into mixer channel 3, you will have a
little more flexibility.
Starting and Stopping the Tape
If you are running a CD Recorder instead of tape deck, replace each reference to
tape with CD.
Setup. The first time you start the tape for a particular service, have the deck in record
mode with the pause button engaged, and have the mixer's master volume all the way
down. Press the Counter Reset button.
Starting the Tape:
1. Release PAUSE.
2. With tape rolling, increase the master volume to normal broadcast level.
For the first start in the program, this master volume increase may be
Church Worker Handbook --124--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
gradual. After a short stop for a break in the service, the increase should be
rather swift.
3. Start the clock.
Making a brief stop in the tape:
1. Swiftly move the mixer's master volume to OFF.
2. Press PAUSE.
3. Stop the clock.
Restarting tape after a brief stop:
1. Release PAUSE.
2. Swiftly increase the mixer's master volume to broadcast level.
3. Start the clock.
Always follow this sequence each time you start/stop the tape. This procedure will make it
less likely that anyone will notice a break in the action, especially if you increase/decrease
the mixer's master volume smoothly but swiftly.
Wearing Headphones
Headphones should be worn at all times it is necessary to mix and balance sound. It is
impossible to mix sound effectively by watching meters only, or listening to house sound.
Watching Meters
Volume level meters should be kept near 0 level at all times. If two recording devices are
being used, such as a reel deck and a CD deck, it would be ideal to use a test tone to set the
record volume of both at 0 level. It is better to have meters peaking at +0 occasionally,
than to have them consistently at -0 level.
Congregational Singing and the Worship Leader
Special note: All references to ON and OFF relate to the recording level
volume control. On means level up to correct level for this part of the service.
OFF means level all the way down.
After the song has been announced and as the pianist/organist plays the introduction to
the song, cross fade the pulpit [AUX] all the way down and both left and right house mikes
up to 0 level. The only sound of the worship leader's voice should be what is picked up by
the radio house mikes from sanctuary house speakers. The Pulpit mike [AUX] should be
OFF (volume all the way down) before the congregation begins to sing.
Church Worker Handbook --125--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Exception: if the worship leader is teaching a new chorus, perhaps as a solo at
first, leave the pulpit mike [AUX] up as the chorus begins. As the
congregation picks up the song, gradually increase the house mikes volume
and decrease the pulpit mike [AUX], until the pulpit mike [AUX] is off.
Important Note: You will not have a broadcast-quality recording if you
have the worship leader singing at full volume doing the
congregational singing. As a general rule, the pulpit mike [AUX]
should be OFF when the congregation is singing. Mix in sound from
the house mikes in lieu of the worship leader singing from the pulpit.
Otherwise, your recording will feature a solo by the worship leader
during the congregational singing. That may be good or bad,
depending on who your worship leader is. [If I'm your worship leader,
it would be bad!]
Smooth Cross-Fading And Level Adjustments
All changes in levels should be made smoothly with no audible seam in the source of
sound. For example, after the worship leader has announced a song, the scenario should
be something like this: Keep pulpit [AUX] at same level while bringing up house mikes
from -30 to +/-0 to pick up congregational singing. Then, turn pulpit mike [AUX] off
smoothly but quickly. By the time the worship leader sings the first note, the pulpit mike
[AUX] should be completely off, with house mikes carrying the bulk of recorded sound.
Keep level of piano up to about -15 during congregational singing. The headphones play a
critical role in setting the piano level. The level should be high enough to hear the sound of
the piano tinkling in the background but not loud enough to draw attention to the piano
House Mikes
The house mikes play a critical role in giving the recording a live, stereo effect. This is true
even during special music and the preaching. With the house mikes set at low levels (but
not OFF), your recording will tend to have a natural resonance and reverberation.
The following house mike levels are baselines and should be modified by what you hear in
the headphones:
Congregational singing -- +0
Special music -- -25
Applause, laughter, greetings among worshippers -- +0
Sermon, prayer -- -30
Church Worker Handbook --126--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Opening and Closing Announcement with Legal ID
Work with your radio station to make an announcement to be recorded on a cart (radio
version of an 8-track continuous-loop cartridge). This announcement can be worded to be
appropriate for play at the beginning, middle and end of your broadcast.
The FCC prefers that stations give a legal identification within 2 minutes of the top of the
hour. A legal ID consists of the call letters plus the station location, with nothing between.
It would be a good idea to include a legal ID in your announcement. Here are some
examples of legal and non-legal IDs:
Legals: [Nothing separating the call letters and the location of the station.]
This is WJJR Mifflinburg
This is the voice of Eastern Pilgrim College at 96.7 on your FM Stereo dial:
WABI-FM Allentown
This is WVMM at 90.7 on the dial, Grantham-Harrisburg
You're listening to WVMM, coming to you from the campus of Messiah
College, Grantham-Harrisburg.
Selecting the Tape
Use quality tape. Cheap tape may sound cheap on the air. If you're taping a service which
has to fit into a 60-minute time slot, it would be ideal to have a cassette which runs for 60
minutes non-stop. However, such cassette tape is too thin to be reliable. For broadcast
work, use a C-90 cassette which runs 45 minute on each side. If your deck is auto-reverse
in the record mode, it can be set to reverse and keep right on recording till the end of the
90 minutes.
Keep Your Heads Clean
A tape deck's record and playback heads pick up a film of oxide from the passage of the
tape after extended use. This accumulation can make your recordings sound dull and
mushy. How often do you clean heads? I clean the heads of each tape deck I use once a
week, whether they need it or not. You can use a cotton swab and a head-cleaning solution
to clean the heads. Or, you can buy a head-cleaning cassette at your mall Radio Shack for
about $5. I use one with three pads that you moisten with cleaning fluid: an oscillating pad
in the center for the heads and one on either side for the capstans. You'll be surprised at
how quickly these pads turn brown from the accumulation of tape oxide. This cleaner is
ideal for auto-reverse tape decks and it's essential for cleaning the heads in your car's
cassette deck.
Church Worker Handbook --127--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Making Your Tape Fit The Available Time Slot
You can get your tape to fit into a 60-minute slot by using a stop watch to keep track of
elapsed tape time. Let's say a service runs 80 minutes from the beginning of the song
service until the end of the pastor's altar invitation. Your pastor has told you he wants the
altar invitation to be included in the broadcast. Before the tape is put on the air, cue it to a
point 20 minutes into the service. This point may be after the congregational singing but
before the worship choruses-- and the altar invitation will be included. If you are able to
stop the tape for the announcements or any other segments of the service deemed less
essential, you will be able to use that much more of the congregational singing.
Audition Your Own Broadcast.
Always make a cassette recording of your service on the air. This will give you a chance to
hear yourself as other hear you and make necessary corrective actions.
If you are archiving your services for later listening on the Internet, spot check these
archives to assure that your recordings are consistently achieving the standard of
broadcast quality.
G. Edwin Lint
Please note: The hypertext e-mail link above is hot [active] when you are connected to the
Internet through your ISP. The same will be true of all hypertext links through the text of
this ebook.
Church Worker Handbook --128--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Chapter 11: Church Publicity
and Public Awareness
Getting the most out of print and broadcast media
with little or no expense.
Church Worker Handbook
What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
Contents of This Chapter
Get a Web Page on the World Wide Web Of the Internet ............................ 123
Public Service Announcements ..................................................................... 124
Writing PSAs .................................................................................................... 125
Getting Your PSA on the Air. .......................................................................... 126
Typing your PSA and sending it to stations. ................................................ 126
Recruiting talent to record your PSA on a cart. ........................................... 127
Commercial Announcements (Spots) ........................................................... 127
News Releases ................................................................................................. 127
Talk Shows ........................................................................................................ 127
Newspapers ...................................................................................................... 127
News Releases ................................................................................................. 127
Display Ads ....................................................................................................... 125
Brochures and Handouts................................................................................. 125
Glossary Of Terms Related To Publicity and Public Awareness ............... 128
Church Publicity and Public Awareness
Your church may have many activities that you do not consider special enough to warrant
a one-paragraph news release or public service announcement [PSA] . Remember that
each time your church's name appears in print or on the air, you are building a sense of
name recognition in the minds of prospective worshippers. Therefore, it will be to your
advantage to develop an action plan for developing and maintaining a program for
Church Publicity And Public Awareness.
Church Worker Handbook --129--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Consider these steps:
Select a public relations coordinator. Give this person responsibility for
coordinating all publicity and public awareness activities for the entire church
Select a public relations contact person in each program of the church.
Use these guides and other similar materials to assure that all public relations
workers have the necessary skills to make sure that your community is fully aware
of all worship and special activities conducted by your church.
Options To Consider
There are several options you can use to provide information to your community,
Web Page on the Internet
Radio and Television Stations
Brochures and Posters
The pages that follow give descriptions of these options.
Get a Web Page on the World Wide Web Of the
As more and more people get home computers and have access to the Internet, having a
Web Page will be an option capable or reaching more and more people. However, a local
congregation should consider the type and number of people this investment of time,
money, and energy will reach.
The fact that you are reading this from a web site shows you're aware of how to access
information on the net. You may be less well informed on how to get information onto the
web. You will find a full chapter in the Church Worker Handbook titled Chapter 12: How
to Publish on the Web. Although this chapter focuses on the Dreamweaver software
program, the same basic principles apple for the html generators produced by Microsoft,
Claris, Adobe, and others.
Options to consider. There are several ways to get a page on the web. All of these options
require you to consider the following:
Church Worker Handbook --130--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Communication: Remember that your primary purpose is to use the Internet
to communicate information about your church, not make a big splash with lots of
eye candy.
Brevity: This isn't the best place for a sermon, just as you wouldn't print a
sermon in the Saturday night newspaper display ad.
Accuracy: Make sure your e-mail link and any links to other sites are working
properly. Test them weekly, and every time a change is made to your web page.
Option 1: Use a free church web page service like Churches dot Net A basis template is
used for all churches. You fill in the blanks from a standard form on line. Before you fill
in one of these forms, look at several of the entries and see how the information on the
form will translate onto your proposed new web page.
Option 2: Use someone from your church to create a page for you. A local business
may even let you ride on their server at no cost to you.
Option 3: Hire someone or a company to do a web page for you. This will cost some
money. However, more [in terms of animated graphics and frames] may not be better.
Remember the warnings about brevity and the primary role of communication above.
Promote your site: No matter how you create your web page, you need to promote its
URL. Click the link at the begging of this paragraph for an article I've written on this
Radio and Television Stations
Public Service Announcements [PSAs]
A major section of these guidelines is devoted to PSAs. They appear to offer the best
return on your investment of time and money.
Public Service Announcements, or PSAs as they're known by broadcasters, can be an
inexpensive but effective way of telling people about your worship services. Although the
FCC requires stations to run a minimum number of these free PSAs, and show this on
their program logs, the traffic managers and on-air personnel may not give PSAs the same
priority as commercial spots.
Stations in larger urban markets may be less inclined to run PSAs above the minimum
daily number than stations in smaller, more rural markets. On the other hand, a
nonprofit station may be more inclined to give nonprofit entities, such as churches, more
consideration for running PSAs than would a commercial station.
Church Worker Handbook --131--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Nonprofit stations may have more time on their program logs for PSAs because they are
not running commercial announcements [spots]. In fact, they may be looking for quality
PSAs to use as fill.
Broadcast stations run by the clock. If a scheduled program runs shorter than expected, a
PSA may be used for fill. However, spots have a higher priority than PSAs. If the program
log calls for a 60-second spot at a specific time, that spot will be run as scheduled because
money is involved. On the other hand, a 10-second PSA may serve as fill, and be
sandwiched in between a time check and a station break. The issue here is federal
compliance vs. profit margin.
Writing PSAs
The first sentence in a PSA is the most important and must contain all the critical
information. If a DJ or VJ needs a quick 10-second fill, he/she may grab your copy and
just read the first sentence on the air. If that happens, you want that first sentence to
carry maximum punch.
Warning: Be careful about mailing publicity copy provided by a music
group or an evangelist without a rewrite. Use your guest's copy as a resource
as you write the PSA according to these guidelines. I have seen very few
publicity announcements that follow the guides established in this section. Too
many times, the person who writes the copy tries to make a statement of
writing skills, or tries to glorify the subject of the copy.
A good rule to follow when writing PSA copy is to make that first sentence provide the
basic information in the following order: who, what, when, where.
Who: Deciding on the who may be the most important part of the job. As a general rule,
name the singers or speaker and let that be the who: The Gospel Spot Lights. The Who is
seldom your church or sponsoring agency.
What: The what tells about what is happening: will be in concert ... or, will be singing in
special services ...
When: This is a simple statement of day and time: this Friday, March 15, at 7:30 P.M. ...
Where: Here's where you mention your church or agency. A simple statement of
location: at the Bethany Community Church, just off routes 11 and 15 in Liverpool.
The complete first sentence of this example PSA now reads:
The Gospel Spot lights will be in concert this Friday, March 15, at 7:30 P.M.
at the Bethany Community Church, just off routes 11 and 15 in Liverpool.
Church Worker Handbook --132--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
If only one sentence gets on the air, this is the kind of critical information you
want people to hear.
In the second sentence, you can include such information as "a freewill offering will be
received and everyone is welcome" and "a supervised nursery is provided for infants and
toddlers up to 18 months." Save the hype about how wonderful your guests are and all the
wonderful things they have done for the second and following paragraphs.
Getting Your PSA on the Air.
Try to get personally acquainted with the personnel at your local station. Key people will
The General Manager, who is in charge of the overall operation of the station.
The Program Director, who makes sure that every hour of the broadcast day is
filled with programming.
The Traffic Manager, who schedules the appearance of program segments, spots,
and PSAs on the program log.
If the station is large and you don't have easy access to the general manager or program
manager, make a special point to become acquainted with the traffic manager. Ask the
following questions about PSAs at this particular station:
1. What is the preferred length? Standard lengths are 60, 30, and 10 seconds.
2. Do you prefer written or recorded PSAs?
3. If the preference is written, what is the preferred format?
4. If a station's preference is for recorded PSAs, is your station's talent willing
to record PSAs from copy we provide? Will your station record PSAs using
copy we provide and talent we recruit or provide?
Typing your PSA and sending it to stations.
Make a mailing list of radio and TV stations in your service area and do not omit cable
companies. They often offer video bulletin boards that scroll continuously. If you don't
know the specific preferences regarding format, type your copy in double space and give a
contact person who will be available to provide more information.
WARNING: Avoid making copies of copies. After the second or third
generation, the copies begin to get muddy, spotted, speckled, and unsuitable
for public distribution.
Church Worker Handbook --133--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Save your originals in a safe place and use nothing but the originals to create additional
Recruiting talent to record your PSA on a cart.
First, ask the station to record your PSA using a familiar DJ. Or, if you or someone you
know has radio announcing experience, or professional recording experience, try to make
arrangements with the station to have such a person go in and make a tape.
Avoid asking someone without announcing or recording experience to make a PSA unless
they are a known person in some realm. Amateur recording artists are a turnoff, even
though they may be articulate and well-spoken in real life. The mike seems to bring out
the worst in amateurs.
Commercial Announcements (Spots)
While broadcast stations are required by the FCC to air a certain number of PSAs in a
broadcast day, they are not required to give your particular agency any specific degree of
exposure. If you want something specific said a specific number of times and in a
particular way, you may have to pay for it by buying some spots. Spots are often sold in
package deals. For example, you may be able to buy 20 thirty-second spots in a five day
period. Be sure your contract specifies the times your spots will be scheduled. If you want
them aired in drive time, your contract should say so.
News Releases for broadcast
Local stations are always looking for local news. Write up a news release and send it to the
stations in your area, using the same mailing list you use for sending out PSAs. You may
get an interview, or even an on-location TV news team if the station sees your activity as
having news value. If you don't get a response on your first mailing, keep trying.
Remember, you are competing with a variable over which you have no control: the news
the rest of your community is creating that day. Keep trying, and you may be successful,
on what stations call a slow news day.
Talk Shows
Never pass up a chance to appear on a talk show. If you don't feel comfortable in front of
a mike or camera, find someone in your church who does. Talk shows producers are
always looking for new material. What you have to say may be of more substance than
what is often heard on talk shows.
Newspapers offer two means of getting your word out: news releases and display ads.
Church Worker Handbook --134--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
News Releases for publication
News items are free, but subject to the editor's perception of whether what you are doing
is newsworthy. Develop a mailing list of newspapers in your area and send each paper a
news release each time you have an event. As a general rule, write the first paragraph of
your news release like a broadcast PSA. In later paragraphs, amplify with additional
Display Ads
This is a sure way of getting your information in front of the public, but the cost can be
high for high circulation papers. Ad rates are calculated on the basis of the column inch,
which is one column wide and one inch deep (long).
Shopping Guides
Don't pass up the give-away shopping guides when considering newspapers for news
releases, display ads, and classified ads. These papers may be more inclined to run your
news release, and the ad rates may be lower than conventional newspapers.
Brochures And Handouts
Print materials that have been printed on 60-pound glossy enamel paper in four colors can
be very impressive. However, this kind of expenditure may not be the best investment of
your public awareness dollars. Your standard of quality should be subdued elegance. This
means neat and impressive, not sloppy.
Posters can be put up on public bulletin boards, at super markets and malls. Keep the
information minimal and keep the font size at 18 points or larger. Be just as diligent at
taking down posters after an activity as you are at tacking them up. Stale posters in public
places can be counter productive in terms of creating good will.
Some copy shops offer an enlargement service for camera-ready copy. Shops with such a
service will blow up a letter size original to poster size, which you may find suitable for
posting on super market bulletin boards.
Glossary Of Terms Related To Publicity and
Public Awareness
Camera-ready -- A term that describes a page of text that is ready to go to the printer
for duplicating.
Cart -- Public service announcements (PSAs) and commercial announcements (spots) are
often recorded on carts for easy access. A radio cart (for continuous-loop cartridge) is the
Church Worker Handbook --135--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
size, shape and design of an old-fashioned 8-track stereo tape cartridge. Video carts are
similar to VHS tapes.
Click art -- Assortments of computer images that can be imported into a word
processor or desktop publishing document with the click of mouse.
Copy -- This is the script that is read when an announcer records a PSA or spot.
Desktop publishing -- Microcomputers equipped with certain software can give the
appearance of the printed page to a product done in an office or home. For more
information, see Basics of Desktop Publishing, in this booklet. Software that can create
columns of text in proportional spacing, and, a printer that can print at a resolution of at
least 300 dots per square inch, are needed to give your product the appearance of being
published by a commercial printer.
DPI -- Dots per (square) inch, the measurement of the resolution of a laser or ink-jet
Drive Time -- The periods of the day commuters are in their cars on the way to and
from work or school, presumably listening to the radio. Commercial radio stations are not
likely to log more then the minimum number of PSAs during drive time.
Fill -- Stations run by the clock and fill (such as PSAs) may be needed to bridge the gap
between programs when a program runs short.
Graphical user interface (gui) -- A user-friendly means of connecting the power
of a microcomputer with the person doing the work. Such systems utilize the mouse, pulldown menus, and point-and-click routines to do complicated tasks. The Macintosh
computer, as well as Windows and Windows software, all use a graphical user interface.
Gutenberg -- This German printer of the 1500s put the printed page in the hands of the
common man, with his development of moveable type. Desktop publishing has put the
printing of the page in the hands of the common man, also.
Half tone -- A glossy photograph which has been prepared for printing. Most
photocopiers are not able to print text and glossy photographs without making the photos
looks muddy.
Log -- Each radio and TV station keeps a program log that shows the nature, time, and
type of all broadcasts. PSAs, spots, and programs are shown on the log.
Mouse -- A pointing and selecting device that is used in Macintosh computers, Windows
software, and other computer applications that use a graphical user interface.
Church Worker Handbook --136--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
News release -- Local stations and papers are always looking for local news. Write up
a news release and send it to the station or paper. You may get an interview, or even an on
location TV news team if the station sees your activity as having news value.
PSA -- Public Service Announcement. This is a message from a nonprofit organization
that is broadcast in the public interest. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
requires all radio and television stations to broadcast a specified number of PSAs per
broadcast day. The minimum number may be two per hour, but a station often runs more
than the minimum as fill during non drive time or non prime time periods.
Public access TV -- Check with your cable company about time on your local public
access cable channel. Wayne's World, of Saturday Night Live fame, is a crude and
frequently disgusting parody of a public access TV program.
Resolution -- The ability of a laser printer to print fine detail, measured in dots per
(square) inch. The higher the number of dots per inch, the better the resolution. Desktop
publishing requires a printer that can produce at least a resolution of 300 dpi.
Spot -- Commercial announcements are called spots. Commercial establishments buy
spots for the same purpose they buy newspaper advertising.
Talk show -- This is a growing opportunity to get the word out on your services. Radio
talk show guests may appear in person or by phone to be interviewed and to answer
questions from callers. Local TV talk shows may require you to be in the studio.
Tri-fold -- A page folded in thirds. When an 8.5 x 11-inch page is printed in three
columns along the 11-inch side, tri-folding that page gives the appearance of a brochure.
Twenty (20) pound -- The term pound expresses the thickness of a sheet of paper: 20
is standard, 16 is light, 60 is heavy.
Typeset --A print style that gives a typeset appearance. The spacing is proportional,
according to the actual width of the letters.
G. Edwin Lint
Please note: The hypertext e-mail link above is hot [active] when you are connected to the
Internet through your ISP. The same will be true of all hypertext links through the text of
this ebook.
Church Worker Handbook --137--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Chapter 12: How to Publish on
the Web
Church Worker Handbook
What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
Non-technical (and non-html) guidelines on how to
use off the shelf software to publish on the Web
Table of Contents for This Chapter
Publishing on the Web is a multistep process. Each step in this process will be explained in
this chapter, as listed below:
The Purpose of These Guidelines .........................................................................135
Why Publish on the Web? ......................................................................................135
Introduction ...........................................................................................................136
The Life Story of a Novel.......................................................................................136
The Publishing Process..........................................................................................137
Subscribe to an Internet Service Provider............................................................137
Learn to use an html translator ............................................................................137
Organize your work on your hard drive ..............................................................137
Write in Microsoft Word word processor ............................................................137
Export Your Work in Word html format ............................................................138
Import Your Work into an HTML Translator like Dreamweaver.....................138
Rent space on a server ...........................................................................................138
Consider getting your own domain name.............................................................138
Test your page with a browser ..............................................................................140
Publish your page ..................................................................................................140
Publicize your page ................................................................................................140
Church Worker Handbook --138--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
This glossary includes some terms that you must understand in order to get the
most out of this chapter. Skim through these terms. If you do not understand the
meaning of a term within the web publishing context, take a moment to learn its
meaning before reading on.
Add or Submit: The process of registering your URL with a search engine in order
that others may use it as a resource as a result of a search.
Anchors. An anchor lets the reader go from one point to another by clicking a link. This
is especially useful for setting up a table of contents or for letting the reader go back to the
top of the page with one click.
Browser: A software program that enables you to surf the web and visit different
locations. Microsoft's Internet Explorer is probably the most popular browser. Netscape
runs a close second.
Clipboard; cut, copy, paste: A portion of your computer's RAM (read only
memory) that is reserved for the process of moving text or graphics within a document or
between documents.
Domain name: A designation that is reserved for exclusive use by a person or
organization throughout the Internet. In the URL:, is my domain name.
Dot com: The pronunciation of the following component of many commercial URLs:
.com com represents the fact that the owner of the domain is a commercial organization.
As a general rule, it is a good idea for churches to use a Dot Org [.org] domain name.
Drag: Holding down the mouse button while moving a text block or object to another
File transfer protocol (ftp): A software program that transfers files from your
computer up to your server, or vice versa. Voyager is a good ftp program for Windows.
Fetch is a popular ftp program for the Mac. (While Fetch is doing its thing, the mouse
pointer becomes a little running dog with its tail wagging.) An ftp program may be standalone, like Voyager or Fetch. Or, it may be part of the HTML translator.
Hierarchical file structure (hfs): The file organization developed by Apple
Computer for the Macintosh, and later adopted by Microsoft for Windows. HFS allows
Church Worker Handbook --139--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
you to nest folders within folders and to view (sort) a window's contents by such variables
as name, date, size, and kind.
HTML (hypertext markup language): A simple programming language which
is used to write files which are published on the Internet; when written as .html this is an
extension to file names published on the Internet. .htm is sometimes used as an extension
when a file is to be served from server that does not tolerate 4-character extensions.
HTML translator: A software program that allows the user to type in plain English
and have the file saved in html format. Dreamweaver is the html translator that was used
to finalize this page.
http: (Hypertext transfer protocol) Many URLs on the web begin with this
acronym. Example:
Internet Service Provider (ISP): A company that gives individuals and
businesses access to the Internet via phone lines or cable. Many ISPs charge about $20.00
a month for unlimited access via a local phone number or cable.
Key words: Words which represent the content of a web site so a user can find that
web site by using a search engine.
Link: The relationship between one file on the Internet and another. Clicking a link in
one file will cause the user to be transferred to the destination link, even though that
destination is on the other side of the world. You may return to your original location by
clicking the back button on your browser.
Mouse pointer: The arrow image that moves across the page when the mouse is
moved. When the pointer moves across an area where text may be typed, it becomes an Ibeam and will create an insertion point (with flashing cursor) when clicked. When the
pointer moves across a clickable link in an Internet document, it becomes a pointing index
finger and will send the user to the destination of that link when clicked.
Dreamweaver by Macromedia: An html translator that runs on Windows computers.
Promote: Registering a URL with search engines so it's location will be retrieved when
a user is looking for that kind of resource.
Publish: Uploading a document to a server where it will be accessible on the Internet.
This is easily done via ftp software.
Search engine: A searchable database of information about many Web pages, and
software to conduct the search. A popular search engine is Google.
Church Worker Handbook --140--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Server: Computer hardware and software capable of storing many files and making
them accessible to users on the Internet. Web hosting companies rent space on their large
servers to individuals and businesses. A block of 30 megs should cost about $10.00 a
month. You can have your web files on your own computer but upload [save them] onto
your server where they will be available to the world. It's usually a good practice to have
your files in two locations, as a backup. If a catastrophe strikes the server you are renting
and all your files are lost, the files on your own computer will be your backup. The
converse of this is true.
Softspider: A program which lets you enter key words and other important
information about your site one time, then crawls around the Internet and registers this
information with many search engines. Traffic Seeker is a good program for Windows.
Surf: Traveling to various locations on the Internet. Similar to channel surfing on your
cable TV set.
URL: Universal Resource Locator: The URL that represents this file is:
Web: The Internet; the worldwide network of phone lines that connects computers and
World Wide Web: In a URL, www. represents World Wide Web.
WYSIWYG: An acronym used in desktop publishing (DTP), for the phrase "What you
see is what you get." A true desktop publishing WYSIWYG program like PageMaker
really does let you see it on the screen before you put it on paper. However, WYSIWYG
should not be used in connection with html translators because what you see on the
HTML translator screen may be quite a bit different from what a web user will see on a
browser screen while on line.
The Purpose of These Guidelines
This chapter is designed to augment, not supplant, the documentation that comes with your
html translator and word processor. If something in this chapter is in conflict with what your
html translator provides, this chapter yields in every instance.
Why Publish on the Web?
I publish on the Web for the following reasons:
1. Publication can be fairly instant. I can write something this minute and within the
hour, it can be available for the whole computer world to read and download.
Church Worker Handbook --141--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
2. I, and only I (and my wife), decide what I am going to publish and not publish. I don't
have to read rejection letters from publishers who for whatever reasons don't want to
publish my work. I am renting 35 megs of storage space on a server on Long Island. If
it will fit in that amount of space, I can publish it. By the way, the amount of publishing
I have done to date, as outlined above, fits in 35 megs storage space on the server, with
room to spare. If I want to publish more, I can rent more.
3. I have the potential of worldwide distribution. According to the last monthly report
from my server, my files were accessed by readers in 50 countries.
When I retired from 37 years in public education in December, 1994, I had a major
retirement goal: to publish on the World Wide Web of the Internet. I had already written two
full-length novels with one of them in hard copy. Both of them were on disk. In addition, I
had a number of other educational and inspirational writings on disk. I wanted the world to
be able to know and read what I had written and would write.
The Life Story of a Novel
The first full-length book I wrote was a novel about the rapture of Jesus Christ, titled Gone.
Gone was written in the late 70s on an IBM Selectric typewriter. Imagine typing a 200-page
novel on a typewriter! I submitted my proposal to publishers great and small and
accumulated a fat file of rejection notices.
Gone was revised and retyped in 1984 on my then-new Apple IIe computer using the
AppleWorks word processing module. Now I had a novel on disk. The publishers weren't
impressed, though. More rejection notices.
In 1986, I imported the Gone files into a Macintosh using Microsoft Word word processing
software. The desktop publishing revolution had arrived. Now I had the capability to produce
camera-ready originals of publication quality using a laser printer. I contracted with a
publishing company in Michigan to print and bind 3,000 copies of Gone.
However, I lacked the distribution contacts and some of that original run is still in storage.
In March of 1996, I published Gone on the Web. The files that had been typed on an IBM
Selectric typewriter, been retyped on an Apple IIe, imported into a Macintosh, and copied to
a html translator, were now available to the world! As of November 1, 1997, the Gone Home
Page had been hit 5703 times.
The extent to which I have achieved my retirement goal of publishing on the Web can be
viewed at the following URL:
Church Worker Handbook --142--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
I am a teacher and an author but I am not a computer programmer. I know next to nothing
about writing in hypertext markup language (html) or any other Internet language. However,
I have been able to utilize my user-friendly Macintosh computer and user-friendly html
translators such as Dreamweaver. I have now gone on to Windows 98. [Not as user friendly as
the Mac but much more so than Windows 3.1, the first version of Windows I used.]
Here Is A Brief Explanation Of The Steps In
The Publishing Process:
A. Subscribe to an Internet Service Provider (ISP) that gives you unlimited
access for a flat rate via a local phone number, if you haven't already done so. I use
Comcast.Net , which charges about $20.00 a month.
B. Learn to use an html translator, such as Dreamweaver, if you haven't already
done so. A translator like this lets you type in plain English and automatically converts
what you type into hypertext markup language (html). Microsoft makes FrontPage for
Windows. Adobe and Claris make html programs, also.
Before you start to type in a word processor, learn the formatting features of your html
program. Some indenting, hanging, and nesting features that you take for granted in your
word processor may not be available in your html program. With Dreamweaver, you can
export a Microsoft Word file in html format and import this file into Dreamweaver.
Virtually all formatting will remain intact, including tables!
Some times, an html translator is referred to as a WYSIWYG html program. Such a
program does not exactly show you on the screen what a web client will see on the browser
screen while on line. Therefore, you must keep checking your work with a web browser
before it leaves your desktop and gets published to the whole world.
C. Organize your work on your hard drive.
Dreamweaver can manage your site files and synchronize them with your server.
However, I have found it just as easy to manage my own sites. I keep over 300 pages (files)
I have on the Internet in a single folder on my hard drive, and in a single folder up on my
D. Write in Microsoft Word word processor.
The combination of Dreamweaver and Microsoft Word will let us export Word as html.
Dreamweaver will import the Word html file intact.
However, other word processors and html combinations may not be so kind. You may
have to observe the following cautions: Don't use "smart quotes". This is a feature with
some word processors that makes quotation marks and apostrophes look more
Church Worker Handbook --143--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
professional. When you are preparing text for or e-mail or your html translator, it will be
necessary to turn off smart quotes. Quotation marks and apostrophes may be transmitted
as strange characters, if you do not turn off smart quotes.
Special Note: If you do use smart quotes or the option key, the worst that will happen is
you will get strange characters. When you check your creation with a browser, watch for
any bugs that need further editing.
Special Note: Make sure you know how to use your computer's clipboard to copy and
paste. This link will help.
E. With Dreamweaver and MS Word, you will export the Word
document as an html file.
Then, in Dreamweaver, you will import the Word html document with all formatting
intact, including tables.
With other word processor and html programs, you may need to copy your work to your
html program with the clipboard.
F. Format your page in the html program.
You may continue to edit and fine tune the file while in Dreamweaver.
Setting anchors. An anchor lets the reader go from one point to another by clicking a
link. This is especially useful for setting up a table of contents or for letting the reader go
back to the top of the page with one click.
Placing graphics in your document:
Use graphics sparingly. I suggest their use be limited to logos and photos of principals in
your document. Any use of graphics will slow the loading of your file to some extent.
G. Rent space on a server.
You will need to rent space on a server. Here's the best price I have found. Click to learn
more. BizLand.Com gives an excellent balance of economy and technical support.
Note: Before you rent space, check out your own ISP. You
may be able to get a small amount of free space on their
server. This could be enough to get you started.
H. Consider getting your own domain name. This seems a little extreme at
first. However, when you consider you can keep it for life at $35 per year, the cost is
minimal. The biggest advantage of having your own domain is that you can keep it forever
and never have to change your file names if you change your server. I just went through a
Church Worker Handbook --144--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
server change a few years ago and I hope to never go through that again. If you use
BizLand, you can select your own domain name [assuming it's not already taken].
My home page file name is:
No one else in the world can call themselves If I move all my files to a server
in California tomorrow, all my business will follow me from Long Island right across the
country to the Pacific coast.
The full name of a file on the Internet is called a URL, for Universal Resource Locator.
The periods are pronounced as dot and are as important as any other part of the URL. By
the way, absolutely no typos are allowed when typing a URL. A single character can make
the difference between the file you want and a File Not Found message from the server.
Case (upper or lower) is also critical. On some servers, such as mine which runs under
UNIX, the wrong case can give you an error message. Develop the habit of typing file
names in all lower case characters; most people do.
http://www. This is the standard prefix for all http URLs on the Web.
diskbooks This is the name I have chosen for my domain.
.org This is the fact that this is an organization. .edu would indicate an educational
entity. .gov would be a government entity. Of course, .com is for commercial enterprises
and therefore should not be used by churches.
cw11. This is the file name for this chapter on the World Wide Web.
html The fact that this file is written (by the html translator) in hypertext markup
Reminder: when you are linking a file to another file in your account folder
on your server, you only need to use the file name plus the .html extension;
when you are linking to a file outside your server, you need the full URL.
File names should be short because they will be part of the URL. And, they must always
end with the extension .html [Some servers require you to use .htm as your file extension.
Be sure you know which to use before you continue.]
Warning: Don't forget the dot before the html and make sure the last character of the
extension is a lower case l and not a numeral 1.
For example, the URL for the Home Page of Church Worker Handbook is shown below.
Church Worker Handbook --145--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
If you're careful, you may be able to type this error free one time (I couldn't). However, if
you copy it to your clipboard and then paste it into the Link window of your html
translator, it will be error-free time after time.
You may be wondering how you can get a copy of a URL for your clipboard. There are
two common sources:
1. If you visit a page on the web which you want to link to, the URL will appear at the
top of the page, in what Microsoft Internet Explorer calls the Address: Netscape
calls the name of the URL the Netsite window. When it's selected (highlighted), use
the copy command. Clicking alternately in the page and the Address window will
select and deselect the URL.
2. When you see a link on the web you would like to copy to your clipboard, click and
hold the mouse button while the pointer is a pointing finger while over this link. (On
a Mac, click and hold the single mouse button; on a Windows PC, click and hold the
right mouse button.) A little menu will appear and one of your choices is to copy this
link. Once it's on your clipboard, you can paste it into the Link To: window. Or
anywhere else, for that matter.
I. Test your page with a web browser while your file is on your desktop. If you
are linking between two pages on your hard drive, the links will work on your desktop
just like on the web, only faster.
To use a web browser to check the output of your html translator, follow these
1. Save your most recent changes with the html translator.
2. Open the web browser, pull down File, and select Open. Then use your dialog box to
find the file you have been working on.
3. Compare what you see on the translator screen with what you see on the browser
screen. You will be most likely to see discrepancies in line and paragraph spacing.
J. Publish your page by copying (uploading) your completed page onto your server.
The best way to copy a single file is with a file transfer protocol (ftp) program such as
Fetch for the Mac or Voyager for Windows. You should be able to drag the file icon into
the window of the ftp browser.
K. Publicize (Promote) your page by submitting it to as many search engines as
possible. [See below.]
Church Worker Handbook --146--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Organize Your Work on Your Hard Drive
This section requires some understanding of the Mac and Windows hierarchical file
structure (hfs) I recommend that you keep all your html files in a single folder, both on
your hard drive and on your server.
Each file you publish may exist in at least two versions on your hard drive, as listed below:
A. The original version of a file as typed in your word processor.
B. The html version of this file that has been created by your html translator.
This version of your file should be in the same folder with all your other web
Promote Your New Website
After you've set up your Website, make sure you promote it by registering it with as many
search engines and link lists as possible. Many are free, so all it takes is a little boring
work. You can have the best Website in the world, but if no one knows about it, what good
can it do?
If you're running Windows 95/98 or higher, you have the option of buying a program
known as Traffic Seeker. This program will let you enter key words and other important
information about your site one time. Then, the software crawls all over the web and
registers your site in thousands of locations. If you have more time than money, you will
need to spend hours on the Internet, going from search engine to search engine, and
registering your page. At this writing, TrafficSeeker costs a mere $50 for the regular
version, and $100 for the professional version.
You can download an examination version of TrafficSeeker at the following URL:
Whether you work manually or automatically with TrafficSeeker, it won't hurt for you to
understand a little of what happens when you register your website.
Search Engines
A search engine is a searchable database of information about many Web pages, and
software to conduct the search. Your job is to get listed in those searchable databases. A
good starting place is Google.
Here's a few pointers:
1. Make a simple text file which contains key information about your page. As a
minimum, this file should include:
Church Worker Handbook --147--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Complete URL (spelled correctly)
Your e-mail address
A title for your site. It will be ideal if this title can include one or two key words that
a search engine will look for during a search.
A short paragraph that describes your site.
2. Place this file on your desktop and shrink it down to the minimum size possible.
3. As a registration form comes up, use the clipboard to copy key information from your
simple text file to the form. This is absolutely essential when entering your URL. Don't
trust your ability to type that URL correctly. I never do. Simple things like your name or
phone number may be typed faster from the keyboard. But never your URL.
Sometimes you will have a hard time finding a form to use when you want to enter
information. All you can find is a way to do a search. The key words you are looking for
are Add or Submit, or any of their synonyms. For some reason, the Add and Submit links
are sometimes in very fine print. If you can't find a way to submit a URL, look for a
mailto link and email the information from your text file: is
my mailto: link) If you can find neither a place to submit your URL or a mailto: link, skip
that one and go to the next one.
Some search engines give you a chance to verify your link before the submission is
finalized. If you get that chance, take it. This way you can be sure that your URL has been
entered correctly. Your page should come to the screen when you click the test link.
You may have to wait two or three weeks or more before you are able to find your page
with a search engine. Be patient. Keep on registering your page in as many places as you
can. After a while, people will start hitting your page.
Link Lists
When you have gotten your page listed with as many search engines as possible, then start
with the link lists. For some reason, some people like to maintain lists of links, often called
free-for-all lists [FFA]. Use the same simple text file as you used for the search engines and
start listing. Makes a good rainy (or snowy) day activity. By the way, this activity is timeconsuming and boring. If you don't have an Internet Service Provider that gives you
unlimited access via a local phone number, you better start looking for one before you
launch a major publicizing project.
Reciprocal Links
Sometimes when you're visiting a search engine or link list, you'll see an offer to place you
on a link list if you will link your page to their location. You need to set up a page of links
Church Worker Handbook --148--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
to other pages. I call mine Links to Other Resources. You can visit it and see how I have
set mine up.
Good luck in your web publishing venture. There may never be another
activity in your life whereby you will make a greater impact on a larger
number of people with a smaller amount of effort.
G. Edwin Lint
Please note: The hypertext e-mail link above is hot [active] when you are connected to the
Internet through your ISP. The same will be true of all hypertext links through the text of
this ebook.
Church Worker Handbook --149--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Chapter 13: Planning and
Conducting a Public Meeting
Church Worker Handbook -- What You Didn't Learn in Bible College
and Seminary
Table of Contents for this Chapter
Introduction.............................................................................................. 144
Picking a Time ......................................................................................... 144
Making a Reservation ............................................................................. 145
Publicizing Your Meeting ....................................................................... 146
Giving Directions..................................................................................... 146
Making Name Badges ............................................................................. 147
Planning and Conducting Registration ................................................ 148
Collecting information from application forms.................................... 149
Creating an Agenda ................................................................................ 150
Using Tab Commands to Set Up the Agenda [A tutorial] .................. 152
Arranging Seating ................................................................................... 152
Following Your Agenda .......................................................................... 153
You have been appointed by the church board to conduct a planning session for a series of
community Bible studies to be held during the coming year. This chapter will walk you
through the various steps you will need to take to make this a successful meeting. Some of
the specifics are real and others are fictional. For example there really is a Hoss's Steak
and Seafood House and the food really is reasonable and delicious.
The sample meeting discussed in this chapter will be fairly small, low key, and low budget.
However, someday, you may be planning and conducting a regional conference of several
hundred participants. Learn on a small meeting and then you'll be better prepared for a
larger one.
Picking a Time
Since it has already been decided that the Community Bible Study will be held the fourth
Thursday of every month, it makes sense to hold your planning meeting on a Thursday.
The church board has recommended that the Bible studies be held from Noon till 1:00
P.M. in a brown bag-lunch environment.
Church Worker Handbook --150--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
A bag lunch will be okay for the eventual Bible studies but you want this first planning
meeting to be a little nicer. So you decide to have it a local restaurant.
Making a Reservation
Food makes your planning a little more complicated, with such things as menu, price, and
smoking to be considered. Hoss's Steak and Seafood House sounds good. The menu ranges
from an all-you-can eat food bar for under $6 to prime steaks and lobster. Hoss's is smoke
free and centrally located, close to the Gettysburg exit of the Pennsylvania Turnpike.
You've eaten there many times and you know the food is good. [Try to avoid making a
meeting reservation at a restaurant you've never visited.]
First hurdle crossed: you've picked the location; it'll be at Hoss's.
Second hurdle: make the reservation. The person who takes your reservation assures you
your group will have a private room for about 50 people. She asks for your name and you
say Jane Doe. She asks for the type of affair and you say a "planning meeting". She writes
in the reservation book: Jane Doe, planning meeting. You hang up, pretty pleased with
yourself. Everything's all set for the meeting. Right? Read on!
On the day of the meeting, your baby sitter is late in arriving and you are fifteen minutes
late in getting to Hoss's.
When the first person arrives for the meeting, this dialog takes place.
"I'm here for the Community Bible Study Luncheon."
The hostess looks in the reservation book and says, "Oh, are you with Jane
Doe's group?"
"I don't know any Jane Doe. I'm here for the Community Bible Study."
"It says here Jane Doe's having a planning meeting at Noon. Is that your
"I don't know anything about Jane Doe's meeting. I thought I was coming to
the Community Bible Study Luncheon. Maybe I have the wrong place or the
wrong day. Good-bye."
This scenario is fictional but a similar thing happened to me at Hoss's. [I stayed for lunch
until the mix-up was fixed up.
Follow these steps in making a reservation for your meeting:
1. Know the name of your meeting. If the meeting doesn't have a name, give it
one. You must give a meeting name when you make a reservation.
Church Worker Handbook --151--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
2. Make sure the reservation clerk records this name in the reservation book.
It's okay to give your name but make sure the clerk writes it down.
3. If the reservation doesn't ask for a meeting name, offer one. Sometimes,
reservations are taken by people who are not skilled in public relations.
This identical meeting name should be used from this point on regarding this meeting: in
the church bulletin, on posters or flyers, and on the restaurant/hotel marquee or meeting
Publicizing Your Meeting
Go to Chapter 10: Church Publicity and Public Awareness for detailed information on how
to publicize your meeting with little or no cost.
Giving Directions
Preparing written directions may be a gift or it may be an acquired skill. If you're not
sure you have either, follow these steps for preparing directions:
Drive the travel route from the main traffic artery to your meeting place in
your car. Use your trip odometer to make note of the mileage between various
As you drive the route, make special note of the marked route numbers.
Strangers will appreciate route numbers rather than street signs and
landmarks. Of course, if there are no route numbers, give whatever
information will be helpful.
How many times have you diligently followed directions to a meeting
place with left and right turns at landmarks, only to realize the
whole thing was following a marked route number?!
If you are giving directions in an urban area, give tips on the street layout.
Example: The north-south streets are alphabetized and the east-west streets
are numbered.
An ideal set of directions has both narrative descriptions and a map. My
personal preference is narrative descriptions; never omit that. Here's a
sample narrative on how to get to Hoss's from Harrisburg:
Follow I-83 South across the Susquehanna River to the junction with Pennsylvania Route
581 West. Follow 581 West 3.5 miles to the U.S. 15 South exit. Follow U.S. 15 South 3.5
miles to the first exit after the entrance to the Pennsylvania Turnpike. One half mile past
the turnpike, take the Mechanicsburg/Bowmansdale Exit off Route 15. When you come off
the exit ramp, turn right at the stop sign. Go .5 mile to the first traffic light, Gettysburg
Church Worker Handbook --152--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Pike. Go one half mile to the entrance to the Country Market Nursery, on the right. As
you enter the nursery complex, Hoss's will be on your right.
Author's note: I have never clocked that route on my trip odometer so I
estimated the distances.
For additional information on making name badges, printing an agenda, and
managing registration data, go to Chapter 7: Basics of Desktop Publishing.
Making Name Badges or Tent-card Style Place Cards
Name badges are an absolute must if there is a good chance that attendees at your meeting
will not know each other. Such badges can run from the do-it-yourself Hello, My Name Is
type to computer-generated ones laser-printed on colored card stock, printed in color ink,
encased in plastic windows and spring-clipped to the lapel. There is a right and a wrong
way to do both kinds. We'll look at some guidelines.
The ideal procedure for any name badges is to make them up before the registration
starts. If you are having self registration, array the badges in alphabetical order.
[Tent-style Place Cards may be made from folded card stock and hand-written with
standard broad-tip markers. However, Avery also makes tent cards for computer
If participants are writing their own names, provide identical sharpie-style fiber-tip
markers with indelible [non-smear] ink. Avoid standard broad-tip markers.
Always provide the writing instruments. Never allow participant to use their own
pencil or ball pen.
Computer-generated; laser or ink-jet printer
1. The Avery label company provides a wide range of name badges and
tent cards. Many productivity computer programs provide a drop-down
menu of Avery numbers. Select the product number on the Avery box
and your software will automatically format your badge or tent card in
terms of size.
Hello, My Name Is [Peel and stick, with space to write a name]
2. Follow these rules for laying out the content of your badge:
Omit redundant information. For example, it is not necessary to
include the name of the meeting; most folks will know where they
are. If all attendees are from the same church, from the same city, or
even from the same state, it is not necessary to include this
Church Worker Handbook --153--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
information on each badge. The less information [clutter] a badge
contains, the more legibility there will be from a distance.
Set all text in Helvetica bold for maximum legibility at a distance.
Place the name at the top, in 18 point, if possible. This is the most
important item on a name tag. Allow two lines for the longer names
which will wrap.
Place the church name and city next, in 14 point, if possible.
Place the meeting logo last if there is one. This is the least important
item on a name badge since each is the same.
Here is an example of the content of Jane Doe's badge:
Jane Doe
Christian Life Assembly
Planning and Conducting Registration
When planning for a large meeting, always use a pre-registration process, consisting of the
following elements:
a. Registration form that is to be filled out in advance and mailed in.
b. A database consisting of key information of all registrants. Usually such a database
includes the following fields:
Title: Mr., Mrs., Ms., Dr.
Name: If your software cannot merge first and last name in a mailing address,
you will need a Last Name field so you can alphabetize your list.
Church, or other relevant organization or agency
Street address
City, State , Zip: you will need three separate fields if you will want to sort by
city, state, or zip.
Country, if international participation is likely
Church Worker Handbook --154--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
E-mail: Someone will need to scrutinize these very carefully because
handwritten e-mail addresses may not follow the requirements of e-mail
protocol: no spaces, an @ sign to separate the username on the left, from the
delivery system on the right. Here is a sample:
Computer-generated name badges drawn from the information in the
registration database.
The registration arrangement should allow participants to flow smoothly through the
process with a minimum of writing and minimum of waiting to register. If you have asked
participants to pre-reregister, you should use your registration database to create an
alphabetized list of expected participants.
The ideal registration setup consists of three steps:
1. Place a check beside your name on an alphabetized list.
2. Pick up your name badge and/or tent card.
3. Pick up the agenda and other needed materials.
Elapsed time for moving through this process [chatting and visiting excluded]: 15 seconds.
Collecting information from application forms
These guidelines take precedence over what people may write on applications when
attending a workshop or seminar. Over the years, I have conducted dozens of meetings
and workshops requiring filling out and mailing in a pre-registration form. The contents
run from ludicrous to sad.
Example: Applicants from the same church may show the following information when
filling out forms which ask for home church:
Church of the Nazarene
Crossroads Church of the Nazarene
First Church of the Nararene
Lewisburg Church of the Nazarene
In each case, church should be entered as Crossroads Church of the Nazarene, it's official
After registration information has been entered in a data base, sort each involved field in
alphabetical order. This will enable you to quickly identify and correct errors and
inconsistencies. This is especially important when the data will be displayed in a list of
Church Worker Handbook --155--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
meeting participants and used to generate name tags and printed lists of participants. If
you don't know the official name of a church or organization, find out.
Omit Titles
In a list of names or on an agenda, omit all titles such as Miss, Mrs., Ms., Mr., and Dr. If
you wish to show a doctorate, it should appear in its proper form after the name.
Name badges or agenda listings
Jane Doe, D.D. [doctor of divinity]
John Doe, Ph.D. [doctor of philosophy]
James Doe, Th.D. [doctor of theology]
Mailing address:
Dr. Jane Doe
Dr. John Doe
Dr. James Doe
A title is used with a full name when it is part of a mailing address. A title may be used
with a surname only in a second reference but do not use Miss or Mrs. unless you know
for a fact that the woman does not prefer Ms. As a general rule, a woman who prefers
Miss or Mrs. will be less annoyed by Ms. than will be the case when the converse is true.
More about Mailing Addresses.
A rural address should be written Route x, Box xx or Rt. x, Box xx. R.D.[rural delivery]
and R.F.D. [rural free delivery] are obsolete. Use the U.S. Postal Service two-letter
abbreviations for a state's name. However, use conventional abbreviations when the name
of the state is not part of a mailing address.
Box 2211
Harrisburg PA 17105
He has a post office box in Harrisburg, Pa.
Creating an Agenda
Most formal meeting should have an agenda. Don't avoid it because you don't have a lot to
say. People like to know what to expect and who's involved. Here's an example of an
agenda for the Community Bible Study planning session, expanded into a one-day
[Lines marked with an asterisk [*] may be omitted from the agenda but should be
included in a publicity flyer or poster]
Church Worker Handbook --156--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Planning Session
for the Community Bible Study
Thursday, March 10, 2005
9:00 a.m.
Hoss's Steak and Seafood House
*1234 Gettysburg Pike
Mechanicsburg, 17055
Jane Doe, Chair
Registration and Coffee:....................................................................... 8:00 8:55
Invocation:....................................................................................................... 9:00
Rev. Paul J. Wislocky, Senior Pastor,
Christian Life Assembly, Millville
Morning Break: ................................................................................. 10:30 10:45
Lunch from the menu:......................................................................... 12:30 1:30
Afternoon Break: .................................................................................. 2:30 2:45
Benediction: Pastor Wislocky: ....................................................................... 5:00
Church Worker Handbook --157--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Using Tab Commands to Set Up the Agenda [A tutorial]
The agenda above was made with the Microsoft Word word processor by using the Tab
dialog box. Follow these steps when setting up an agenda or any similar document:
1. Type the text that appears along the left margin of your document first, pressing
Return at the end of each line.
Select [highlight] these lines of text.
Determine the point at which you want the text along the right margin to end. In
this agenda, we have chosen to use the point of 6.5 inches.
Pull down the Format menu and select Tabs.
Find the Tab Stop Position box in the upper left corner of the Tabs dialog box;
type 6.5
Click to select Right Alignment
Click to select Leader 2 … [Leader 2 is a series of dots from the point you press the
tab key to where you type in the time.] You have a choice of None [no leader],
dashes ----, or underscores _____.; I prefer dots …
Click OK
Click to get a flashing cursor [insertion point] at the exact point where the text
along the left margin ends. In this case, it will be coffee
10. Voila! You automatically get a line of dots …. across the page to the 6-5 inch point.
11. Now type the text that is to appear along the right margin. You’ll notice that the
text you type at the end of the dots … ends [remains justified] at the 6.5 inch point.
12. Repeat this process for all lines of the agenda.
13. Since one of the alignment options is decimal point, the Tabs dialog box is an
excellent [only logical] way to set up financial reports, even when the decimal
places vary. The decimal points will always line up under each other!
Arranging Seating
For additional information on using projection devices during your meeting, go to Chapter
6: Using Audio-Visual Equipment
When you have an opportunity to control the seating arrangements, follow these
Church Worker Handbook --158--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
1. If interactive discussion of a fairly small group will be the primary activity of the
meeting, place the chairs in a circle.
Use a semicircle if a projection device, chalkboard, or flip chart will be used.
2. If a larger group of participants will be seated in movable [stacking or folding] chairs,
have the front of the room be along a long wall, the left/right of the room be along the
short walls.
Example for 45 chairs.
2. If the participants will be seated at tables, follow Rule 2 above but have the tables in a
horseshoe, with the open side toward the front of the room.
If interactive discussion will be the primary activity of the meeting, place the tables in a
hollow square or rectangle, with a small opening for the chairperson to enter.
When tables are used and there is a good chance that participants will not know each
other's names, it's a good idea to provide tent cards with names.
Following Your Agenda
Sometimes there will be extenuating circumstance that prevent you from sticking to the
printed agenda, but make a since effort to do so.
Start on time
Take breaks and lunch on time
Resume activity on time
Adjourn on time
Church Worker Handbook --159--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Chapter 14: Planning a
Children's Program
Church Worker Handbook --What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
This chapter is written about Christmas programs for children because I wrote it in
December 1999. However, it may apply equally for programs during other times of the year,
such as: Easter, VBS [vacation Bible school], Thanksgiving.
You can augment this chapter with other chapters in Church Workers Handbook, such as:
2. You Can Be a Teacher, Too
3. Church Music
8: Using Mikes and Sound System
9. Making a Broadcast-Quality Recording of Your Church Service
Contents of This Chapter
Plan ahead ..............................................................................................................152
Pick the program director with great care. ..........................................................153
Give all the children a role. ...................................................................................153
Try to make the program interesting and informative. .......................................153
Pick singable songs for soloists and groups to sing ..............................................154
Make sure instruments have been tuned
right before the performance begins.....................................................................154
7. Make it easy for children to practice new songs...................................................154
8. Make sure young children use the restroom right before the service. ................154
9. Put the children on first [not after the song leader has led the congregation in
four verses of four carols.].....................................................................................154
10. Position mikes out of reach of all but featured performers. ................................154
11. Dismissing children to parent's or approved guardian's custody. ......................154
1. Plan ahead
It's generally true that parents and extended family members love to see their own
children up front. However, they will love it even more if there's evidence of a little
planning and some attention to a program that is designed to give glory to God.
Make sure the designated program director and his/her helpers get a copy of this chapter
or something similar before any work is done on planning or preparing the program. It
will be better if the leader and helpers read this kind of information before work is started
on the program, After it is all over, they may be smart enough to sense that it could have
been better with some careful planning but by then, it's too late.
Church Worker Handbook --160--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
2. Pick the program director with great care.
Never select the director by default, just because this person is the youth/children's pastor,
Sunday school superintendent, a school teacher, or the pastor's wife. The following
characteristics should govern the selection of the leader, regardless of the job description
for the rest of the year.
Pick a woman: Music will play a major role in the program and it's a known
fact that a woman can teach young children to sing a new song better than a man.
Boys whose voices have not started to change don't respond as well to a man as a
Pick a woman with successful experience working with young
children: This experience can come from a variety of sources; mother, Sunday
school teacher, school teacher, or all of the above.
Pick a woman who is musically inclined: She may not be a fantastic
musician but she should be able to carry a tune.
3. Give all the children a role.
Each child should be in the program in some capacity or another: One church program I
saw recently even had all the nursery children in the program; their parents were invited
onto the platform and the parents introduced themselves and their babies.
4. Try to make the program interesting and informative.
Resist the temptation to pass out numerous little ditties with the children parading up to
recite them. One retired program director I know real well [my wife, Nancy] wrote
Christmas programs that I feel were interesting, informative, and inspirational. Two that
come to mind are The Great Census and From the Manger to the Cross. Or,
you can incorporate little-known Biblical Christmas facts such as those found at the
following link: Christmas Meditation Moments.
5. Pick singable songs for soloists and groups to sing.
Remember, your most valuable assistants in your program are the parents [probably the
mothers] of the children in it. If you're using a published program, chances are there will
be some songs that are new to everyone, including the director. If you have the
opportunity to pick the songs, pick some that are familiar. By the way, not all Christmas
carols are especially singable.
Not so long ago, I heard a preschool choir try to sing Some Children See Him. While the
words of this carol are absolutely appropriate for a preschool choir, the melody will
Church Worker Handbook --161--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
require both singers of unusual ability and a leader of unusual skill in teaching young
children to sing on pitch. It would help if she were a music major from Houghton College,
too! Sadly, this group of young singers lacked both.
6. Make sure instruments have been tuned before the performance
Last Christmas, I attended a rather extravagant Christmas program in a large evangelical
church. Admission was by ticket only [the place was packed to the rafters], there was a
Christmas drama with live animals, and there was a fairly large orchestra comprised of
adults and some high school students, directed by a full-time employee of the church. But,
when the overture began, it was immediately evident that the orchestra was out of tune.
Ouch! No competent public high school band director would ever give the downbeat to a
stage full of untuned instruments. Let's be sure we give Jesus our best, especially on His
birthday, of all days!
7. Make it easy for children to practice new songs.
If you are using a program with a recorded sound track, duplicate some tapes for the
families to use in learning new songs. Collect the tapes after the program for making
practice tapes another time. If you're worried about copyright violations, most publishers
won't consider it a copyright violation unless what you have done keeps them from
making a sale. When you buy a sound track, never make a copy for another group to use in
their program.
8. Make sure young children use the restroom right before the service.
[See section 9 below]
9. Put the children on first [not after the song leader has led the
congregation in four verses of four carols.]
The children are the main attraction, not carol singing by the congregation. Start the
program with one verse and chorus of Joy to the World or Oh Come, All Ye Faithful. Then,
get out of the way and let the children do their thing. If you feel a need for a carol sing, do
that after the children are finished with their program.
10. Position mikes out of reach of all but featured performers.
You can count on one thing: children who can't carry a tune in a bucket [often boys] will
grab a mike or stand right in front of it and drown out everyone else. No one thinks this is
really funny except the family of the chief offenders. If you want to amplify a group of
children, position the mikes on high stands above their heads and pointed down at them.
Or, suspend omnidirectional mikes from the ceiling but out of reach of the children.
Instruct soloists to hold a hand held mike about 6 inches below the chin.
Church Worker Handbook --162--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
11. Dismissing children to parent's or approved guardian's custody.
Your church should have a written policy for the security and custody of minor children.
Make sure that in the excitement and confusion of a Christmas program, this policy is not
These guidelines may be too late to use this Christmas.
File them away and use them next year or any time you have a special children's program.
Church Worker Handbook --163--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Chapter 15: Broadcasting Your
Church Service on Internet
Church Worker Handbook--What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
You may be asking, "Why should our church fool around with
Internet radio? Here are a few reasons:
For as little as $9.95 per month, you can make your church service available to
everyone in the whole world who has Internet access. This number is growing
You may not be ready to tackle the technology involved with such a project but
chances are your church already has people who are aware of Internet radio and
would be more than ready to serve the Lord in this capacity.
Therefore, an Internet radio broadcast ministry could serve two classes of people:
the worldwide listeners who will have access to your service, and the people in your
church who will be blessed by having this new and exciting means of service.
This chapter is based on your prior knowledge of basic routines involving your church's
sound system and broadcasting over standard AM or FM radio stations. If you lack
knowledge in either of these areas, return to these chapters to refresh your information:
5. Shopping For and Using a Microcomputer
8: Using Mikes and Using a Sound System
9. Making a Broadcast-Quality Recording of
Your Church Service
Church Worker Handbook --164--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Outline of the Sequence of Events for Creating
an Internet Radio Broadcast of Your Church
Before you get started with this project, make you sure you
have the full approval of your pastor and the church board.
This chapter is not intended to replace the
operating instructions provided by your
equipment and software manufacturers. This
chapter should be reviewed by a person that is
well versed in Internet Radio procedures as well as
the sound person (or committee) to assure that it
is consistent with your church's equipment and
policies. If this material is outdated or incorrect
regarding the equipment and software your church
is using, this chapter should yield in every
Desktop or
With hot links to free software
Download a free copy of the MP3 player of your
choice for test purposes
Download a free copy of MusicMatch JukeBox,
the software needed to copy a regular analog
cassette tape of your church service to digital
MP3 format.
As of 4/15/01, Gateway Computer sold their
Essential 500 computer with the free version of
MusicMatch JukeBox preinstalled. These guides
are based on MMJB Version 7.5.
Set up MMJB for recording an MP3 copy of a
cassette recording of your church service.
Or, if you are able to use a CD audio recorder,
Church Worker Handbook --165--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
you will need to use settings for making a digital
[not analog] MP3 file of your church service.
Apply for and create a radio station for your
church at the on-line Live365.Com radio server.
Download a free copy of 365Easyloader, the
software needed to upload an MP3 file to your
radio server.
Make a broadcast-quality recording of your
church service on cassette, reel-to-reel tape, or
audio CD recorder as detailed in Chapter 9 of the
Church Workers Handbook. Or use previouslyrecorded tapes if they are of broadcast quality..
Use MusicMatch JukeBox or equal to encode
[record] your prerecorded church service as an
MP3 file at the appropriate kbps bitrate. This
will be saved to the hard drive of your computer.
We suggest a hard drive of at least 20 gbs so you
won’t soon run out of space.
Use 365Easloader to upload your church
service’s new MP3 file, using the appropriate
bitrate, and correct user name and password for
your new radio station.
Add your new church service MP3 file to your
play list; create one if one does not already exist.
Download and use the Studio365 software to do
such maintenance items as add and delete MP3
files from your playlist, save a changed playlist,
start and stop broadcast.
Your church service may now be heard around
the world where there is Internet access by
everyone that has a computer, a modem that
accepts the bitrate of your broadcast, and an
MP3 player. Live365 provides a free player
during a first-time listener's setup. Or any player
such as RealAudio, Winamp, or SoundJam may
be used. Until you record and upload more
Church Worker Handbook --166--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
services, this one service will play all day, every
Everywhere Publicize your new radio station, and the link to
your broadcast, everywhere. Use the techniques
outlined in Chapter 12 about publishing on the
Next week, repeat steps 5, 6, 7, and 8
If you already have a library of recorded church
services, use these tapes to repeat steps 5, 6, 7,
and 8 until your 100 mgs of storage is full.
After your 100 megs of storage is full, you may
delete the oldest church service in your MP3
library to make room for newer church services.
Sequence of Events for Creating an Internet Radio
Broadcast of Your Church Service
Download a free copy of the MP3 Player365
2. Apply for and create a radio station for your church
at the on-line
Live365.Com radio server. You will be asked to fill out a simple form, where you will
select a name for your program and a name for the DJ. Here is an example:
NazareneWorship, Pastor_Judy_Carney
Of course, you will be asked to give a credit card for paying for your new Internet radio
station. The cost begins at $9.95 a month when you pay annually.
This link will take you to a page where you can see Broadcast
Packages, Features,
Use your clipboard to copy this URL into your browser's address window.
You will be asked to create a password. Something like: pilotpttx
[You Nazarenes may recognize this as Pilot Point, Texas!] Make sure you write it down
and remember where you wrote it.
Church Worker Handbook --167--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
You will also need to select the target bit rate for your audience, based on the speed of the
modem and the size of the MP3 files you want to create and store. It is my opinion that 16
kpbs/28K modem speed is about right for a recording of a church service. This is
considered AM radio quality. Also, you probably want to go with mono instead of stereo,
especially if your church sound board is not set up for stereo. Stereo also makes MP3 files
that are much larger than mono
Before you broadcast, you will need to create a play list. Your play list will appear on the
screen when Live365 is playing your program, so be a little more informative. Example:
Morning Worship from Church of the Nazarene
3. Download a free copy of MusicMatch JukeBox [MMJB], the software
needed to copy a regular cassette tape or CD recording of your church service to digital
MP3 format.
Click to download a free copy MMJB
Create a folder on your desktop for storing your MP3 files
Set up your copy of MMJB as follows:
1. Click the Options button and select View.
2. From the View menu, select Recorder
3. With the Recorder on the screen, click Options again and select Settings,
followed by Recorder tab.
4. Under Recorder tab, everything should be unchecked except Custom Quality,
Recording Source, and CD Recording Mode.
Set these as follows:
Custom Quality: Drag the slider to 16 kbps [if you are broadcasting for 28K
Recording Source: Set drop down box to Line In [If you have a CD recorder,
your source will be digital.
CD Recording Mode: Analog, if you are using a conventional analog cassette
Click the Tracks Directory button. Find the scroll button [square button with
three dots ... to the right of the Directory for New Songs field. Scroll to the
new folder you have created to store your MP3 files.
Church Worker Handbook --168--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
My New Tracks directory is:
C:\WINDOWS\Desktop\Up radio
4. Prepare the MMJB recorder for recording a copy of your church
service cassette in MP3 format:
• Use a regular patch cord with an RCA plug on one end and a mini-plug on the
other end to connect the Line Out jack of your cassette recorder to the LineIn jack of your computer. Consult your computer's manual if you're not sure
where the Line-in jack is located.
• Make a test copy from the cassette to your computer.
• Test the test copy with your computer’s MP3 player. As a rule, if you doubleclick the test MP3 file, it should play via your computer’s MMJB. If it does
not, trouble shoot by reviewing the steps thus far.
On my Gateway computer, I had trouble finding the proper LineIn jack in the back of the tower so I could make a recording from
my cassette recorder to the computer. When I got the wrong jack
by accident, my MP3 recording were blank until I found the right
5. With the MMJB recorder on the screen, click the refresh button to
clear any previous titles
These instructions and examples will be for making an analog recording with a cassette or
reel to reel recorder. If your church service is recorded on a CD, treat your recording as
you would any other digital CD.
1. Click the Options button at the top of the MMJB. Select Settings, and then the
Recorder tab.
2. Set the Custom Quality as MP3 CBR with your choice of kbps. Set Recording Source
as Line In. Set CD Mode as Analog.
3. In the main Recorder window, you will see the words Artist and Album. Click Artist
and it will be selected. While it is selected, type First Baptist Church. Click Album
and type Morning Worship: 10:30 A.M.
4. Click in the title field and the following text will be selected: Edit track name here
before beginning. Type
5. April 17, 2005
Church Worker Handbook --169--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Check the Record level, especially if the playback level is not loud enough.
MusicMatch says that the record level should not need attention. Our experience is
that is not exactly true.
Here's how to check the Record level
Double-click the speaker icon in the task bar. A single click
brings up a Volume slider and mute button. A second click
brings up the Master Volume control panel. Select
Options>Properties. In the Properties dialog box, click the
Recording button and in the window, check the functions you
plan to use. Of course, you will want to click LINE IN. Click OK.
Now you will see a Recording Control Panel for your selected
functions. Adjust the sliders to suit and make sure the needed
function is checked at the bottom of the panel. The LINE IN
volume level should not be above 25% of maximum to start.
5. Cue the cassette recording to the beginning of sound.
6. Poise the mouse button right on the recorder’s REC button.
As soon
as you hear sound from the cassette, click REC and the recording will start on the
7. It will be best to make a continuous recording on the computer of the
entire service. If you need to change or reverse tapes, do so as quickly as possible and do
not stop the computer recorder. If you stop the recorder, you will create another MP3
recording. Then you will need to assure that part 2 always follows part 1 in the play list. To put it mildly, this will be a nuisance!
8. Download a free copy of 365Easyloader Use the EasyLoader to upload your
new MP3 file to
If you have a cable or DSL connection, your upload process will be fairly fast. However, if
you have a dial-up connection and 57K modem, you may need to be on line quite a while
to upload one 90-minute church service. Be sure you have a phone that someone will not
be using during this time and that your ISP has a local access number.
You will need the following information to upload an MP3 file:
Location of the folder where you have stored the file you are uploading
Church Worker Handbook --170--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Your member name, selected at the time you first signed up with Live365.Com
Target bit rate [Modem speed of your target audience]
9. Add your new church service MP3 file to your play list; create one if
one does not already exist.
When your new MP3 file arrives at your broadcast site, it will be placed in your
library. Find it in the library and select it.
Click the Add button and it will be placed in your playlist window.
Make sure the location is the order in which you want the new file to be played.
If the file is out of order, you can move it up or down in the order by selecting the
file and clicking the UP or Down button.
Navigating Around Your Radio Station in order to do maintenance
Download and use the Studio365 software to do maintenance work on your radio
The screen shot below shows the Studio365 software at work for one of my radio
station stations: Something Beautiful.
Studio365 allows you to so such maintenance tasks as:
• Create a new playlist.
• Add files to an existing playlist.
• Delete files from an existing playlist.
• Control the order items will appear in a playlist.
Church Worker Handbook --171--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
10. Next week, repeat the process until your 100 megs of storage is full. Then
each week, delete the oldest service from your play list to make room for the newest one.
11. Publicize your broadcast near and far.
Your Internet radio station is just like any other URL on the Internet: if you don't
publicize, no one will know about it. And if no one knows about it, no one will listen.
At first, your most likely listeners will be near: shut-ins, kids from your
church that are away at college, missionaries your church may support, and anyone else
that may already have an interest in your church. To publicize your broadcast to such
persons, click the Tell Your Friends about Your Station icon. This is a yellow envelope
down near the bottom of the broadcast page, after you log in. When you click this button,
you will get an e-mail message that includes your broadcast URL. It will look something
like this:
Check out one of my radio stations at
Church Worker Handbook --172--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Make sure you publicize your radio broadcast on your church web page. Load a clickable
icon with your program's URL. Then all a prospective listener needs to do is click on your
"broadcast" icon.
Also, you will want to include your radio URL in all the church e-mail signatures. In other
words, include your station URL on everything you publish, digitally as well as in hard
copy, just as you do your telephone number.
Later, your listeners may be far: Visit this link to learn more on how to publicize any
Internet web site, including Internet Radio Stations.
This chapter of Church Workers Handbook was written when Internet Radio
was in its infancy. My first Internet broadcast went out April 15, 2000 and this is being
written August 12, 2000 and updated March 31, 2005. By the time you read this, Internet
Radio may be far more advanced than this chapter covers.
Glossary of Terms
If you click the link above, you will go to the Live365.Com glossary. Or, you can scroll
down and read the glossary I have prepared for this page.
The terms in this list pertain specifically to Internet Radio
broadcasting. If you don't understand terms that relate to
your church's sound system or traditional AM or FM
broadcasting, return to those chapters for review.
Computer terms will not be included unless they have a
specific application to Internet Radio. If you need to
review computer terms, return to Chapter 5. Shopping
For and Using a Microcomputer
Convert. EasyLoader has a setting that makes it possible to change an MP3 file from
one kbps to another.
EasyLoader A Live365.Com utility that uploads MP3 files from a computer's hard
drive to Live365.Com Once such MP3 files have been uploaded, they are stored in your
MP3 Library on Live365.Com and need no longer be stored on your computer's hard
Internet Radio
Internet radio is based on the concept of streaming audio. An
Internet radio server (such as Live365.Com) sends out a stream of audio signals in the
Church Worker Handbook --173--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
form of MP3 files over the phone lines, with each stream, or station, having a specific [and
usually long] URL. Those who want to listen to a specific program, set their web browsers
to the URL of the radio station they want to hear. The browser then directs the stream of
audio to an MP3 player inside the computer, such as Winamp [for Windows] or
SoundJam [for Windows or Macintosh]. The computer then plays the incoming stream of
audio signals through its sound board and speaker system.
[Kilobits per second] This is the speed at which MP3 files travel along the phone
lines. This speed is set when the file is created by the MusicMatch JukeBox. It can also be
converted when the MP3 file is uploaded by EasyLoader. The higher modem speed
required to play your music, the higher the kbps rating. For example, a 56K file is
broadcast at 32kpbs. A 28K file is broadcast at 16kbps. We have found that analog
recordings from a cassette sound good when processed at 32K [16kbps]. This makes your
broadcast available for more listeners. In addition, an hour-long 28K file [16 kbps] takes
up less storage space on the radio server than a 56K file [16 kbps]. Warning: the speed at
which the file is recorded by a digital MP3 recorder and uploaded must be the same in
order for the broadcast to take place properly.
Live365.Com MP3 Library.
The place on the Live365.Com server where your
MP3 files are stored. You may store up to 100 mgs of MP3 files at the entry price of $9.95.
Live365.Com Play List.
This is the order in which you want your MP3 files to be
played. You may not want them to be played in the order they have been uploaded into
your MP3 Library. For church service broadcasting, your play list will probably be in
chronological order, with the last uploaded being the first played etc.
The type of audio file that is required to send sound along a phone line to a
computer that is equipped with an MP3 tuner such as 365Player, Winamp, or SoundJam.
[This is the type of file we will use in this chapter for broadcasting a church service.]
MusicMatch Juke Box [MMJB]
A Windows-only computer application that will
enable you to create MP3 files from the line output of a cassette recorder. This is the use
we will make of MMJB when broadcasting your church services.
Radio Server
A website, such as, that hosts radio programs and
broadcasts audio streams on a specific URL.
Streaming Audio A continuous flow of audio signals in the form of an MP3 file.
Universal Resource Locator. This term applies to radio servers, such as
Live365.Com as well as to all other web hosts.
Church Worker Handbook --174--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Chapter 16: Supervision and
Administration of Sunday
School Programs
Church Worker Handbook--What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
Table of Contents for This
Introduction: ...............................................................................................................166
1. Teacher Training ....................................................................................................168
2. Chain of Command and Table of Organization....................................................168
3. Major program Goals ............................................................................................169
4. Job Descriptions ......................................................................................................170
5. Performance Standards ..........................................................................................171
6. Regular Observation...............................................................................................171
7. Performance Evaluation .........................................................................................172
8. Regular Reappointment of All Workers................................................................172
9. Corrective Actions and Praise ...............................................................................173
Glossary ......................................................................................................................174
Warning: This chapter may include html links that will take you to other sites on the Internet if
you click them
The term Sunday School is being used in it's broadest sense possible. We are
talking here about any structured program the church operates to improve
the knowledge and behavior of any group of students, regardless of the
chronological age of the students involved or the time of day or day of the
week of the time slot involved. This includes everything from children's
programs run in the traditional morning time slot usually reserved for
Sunday school, to adult Bible study programs held Wednesday night from 7 to
9 PM. And everything in between.
Church Worker Handbook --175--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
And, the term Sunday School Managers means all persons that are responsible
for making sure School school programs are carried out according to sound
management and education practices.
The most common trap into which a Sunday school manager can fall sounds something
like this:
Question: Aren't these teachers/workers toiling as a
good-will service to this church?
Answer: There may be no money involved but there is
time. The teacher's time, the student's time, the
supervisor's time. Most importantly, there is the
eternal destiny of the souls of the students involved.
Therefore, we can all do no less than adhere to the following principles of sound
management and instruction:
Basic principles for all quality instruction:
Detailed descriptions of these points will follow later in this chapter...
Each teacher and each manager will have a written job description and relevant
performance standards. Of course, a teacher's job description should reference
competence in four main areas:
content, and
All teachers will receive pre-service and in-service training in how to fulfill the
requirements of their job descriptions and meet minimum performance standards.
Each teacher will be given a regular performance evaluation to assess on-the-job
competence as measured against the relevant job description and performance
standards. Such an evaluation will include the following areas: compassion,
communication, content, and control.
Teachers who show evidence of failing to perform satisfactorily will participate in a
corrective action program designed to improve performance in the deficient area(s).
Church Worker Handbook --176--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Teachers who fail to respond to an appropriate corrective action program will be
considered for dismissal.
Dismissal will be the final disciplinary action, following these progressive
disciplinary actions:
a) Verbal reprimand.
b) Written warning.
c) Written reprimand.
d) Suspension.
1. Teacher Training
All teachers need to be trained in the basic concepts of sound teaching practice. This
includes everyone from the college graduates with teaching certificates to the pastors.
Those who come in regular direct contact with students need training for the obvious
reason. But, pastor and administrators need the same training, also, so they can provide
realistic leadership and role modeling for their subordinates.
I have written a chapter for this book called, You Can Be a Teacher, Too. You can use this
material as the foundation for your basic training. There is an expanded version of this
same material at this link.
This material has been written specifically for persons that have no formal or certification
in education and teaching.
2. Chain of Command and Table of Organization
Exodus 18:13-27:
Moses listened to his father-in-law and did everything he said. 25 He
chose capable men from all Israel and made them leaders of the
people, officials over thousands, hundreds, fifties and tens. 26 They
served as judges for the people at all times. The difficult cases they
brought to Moses, but the simple ones they decided themselves.
This famous passage from Exodus contains the story of how Jethro, the father-in-law of
Moses, was used of God to help Moses create the Bible's first chain of command. Since
that day, this simple concept has been used by legal systems, armies, and governments
across the world to organize large groups of people and get things done efficiently and
Church Worker Handbook --177--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
The typical large church may have a table of organization that looks something like the
sample chart above. Of course, teachers/workers would be listed below the Associate
Pastors in a full-size Table of Organization.
It is God's plan that every large organization has some variation of the
Jethro/Moses style of a Table of Organization.
The relationships must be clearly drawn and understood by all concerned.
The Table of Organization must be reflected in such things as the writing of major
program goals, job descriptions, performance standards, and performance
3. Major Program Goals
Here is a sample three-part Major Program Goal for any Sunday school.
1. Bring students into a personal relationship with Jesus,
2. Help keep them true to Jesus, and
3. Help all believers replicate themselves as frequently as possible.
Before you begin to think about job descriptions, you need to put in writing why you do
what you do. Some folks call this a mission statement. I prefer to call this effort "Stating
Major Program Goals". Probably the difference in the terms is largely semantic. Either
way, the key concept in both mission statements and program goals is Why? Why do we
do, what we do, when we do it, and how we do it?
Let's go back to the sample table or organization shown above and look at the traditional
Senior Pastor with associate pastors for children, youth, and adults.
Starting at the top of the chart, here is an assortment of major program goals a senior
pastor might consider, depending on doctrinal emphasis of the congregation and/or
Church Worker Handbook --178--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Everyone touched by this church will come to the knowledge of Jesus Christ as a
Personal Savior.
All believers will become effective personal evangelists within the community.
All believers will be filled with the Holy Spirit in a second, definite, instantaneous
work of grace.
All believers will be baptized in the Spirit as evidenced by speaking in unlearned
languages as the Spirit given them utterance.
All believers will be immersed in water as a profession of faith.
Etc. etc. etc.
Here are a few sample goal statements for the pastors for children, youth, and adults.
Children will learn to treat the church as God's house.
Children will treat each other with respect and will avoid all forms of psychological
and physical bullying.
Teens will learn the dangers of illicit sex, drugs, drinking, and smoking as the
normal, logical way to live and not just as a list of Divine prohibitions.
Teens will learn to share their faith with friends as the logical extension of living
normally and according to their Operator's Manual.
Adults will learn to open their arms and homes to visitors in the true spirit of
Christian hospitality and friendship and will avoid closed groups and cliques.
4. Job Descriptions
A job description should be written by the immediate supervisor of the worker involved,
and reviewed/approved by this supervisor's immediate supervisor. This review is usually
done in conjunction with a regularly-scheduled performance evaluation but no less often
than once per year.
All workers in any organization need a job description that spells out in sufficient written
detail the work that is to be done and how it is to be done. Such a job description must be
presented to each worker when they are considered for appointment and should be
available for periodic review by both the workers and the supervisor.
Here are some sample elements for various job descriptions. You can use your
imagination from here:
Maintain an atmosphere of order and decorum that is conducive to reverence for
God's House and good learning.
Church Worker Handbook --179--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Encourage all students to treat others as persons of worth, including students and
Uses students' current knowledge of known things to help them learn about the
abstract concepts of the Bible. [Jesus' type of teaching with parables.]
Treats all students of all ages with dignity and respect.
Follows the work rules spelled out in the workers handbook. [Another entire
chapter could be written about developing a worker handbook.]
Makes an effort to improve teaching skills by attending in-service training classes.
The next step in the management process is to spell out performance standards that are
both realistic and measurable.
5. Performance Standards
Any supervisor worth his/her salt can tell the difference between a good worker and a
poor worker. Yes, there are some poor workers in any organization, even if that
organization is dedicated to the cause of Christ. Now, how is the supervisor going to sort
out the good workers from the poor workers. You guessed it! By applying the written
performance standards to the written job description.
There are differences of opinion as to how performance standard should be written.
Should they be based on the excellent worker that we want all other workers to emulate?
For this discussion, let's describe a good, average worker who is in the middle of the
traditional performance range. He/she can do better, and worse with more or less effort:
[Apply this scale to the sample job description elements shown above]
5 Excellent -- All the Time
4 Very Good -- Much of the Time
3 Good -- Usually
2 Fair -- Frequently
1 Poor -- Seldom
0 Unsatisfactory -- Never
6. Regular Observation
During my first two years of classroom teaching, I can't remember my principal making a
formal observation visit in my classroom. Oh, he was in and out a lot; my room was right
next to his office. But he never came in and sat down to review my lesson plans, never did
Church Worker Handbook --180--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
a formal observation, never had a post-observation conference with me. If I did indeed
become an effective teacher by the end of my probationary period, it was in spite as his
supervision and not because of it.
We need to talk about the regular aspect of observation. Many supervisors base their
evaluations of their teachers on such things as casual contacts and conversations and not
sit-down observations.
7. Performance Evaluation
Each worker should be given a regular performance evaluation to assess on-the-job
competence as measured against the relevant job description and performance standards.
Such an evaluation will include the following areas: compassion, communication, content,
and control.
During the probationary period, a formal evaluation should be done every 30 days with no
less than 30 minutes of in-room observation to be done by the immediate supervisor. Such
an observation should be followed by a sit-down interview to discuss how well the work
met the performance standards during the observation.
When I was a school principal, I used a videotape recorder when I did an observation of
teachers in the classroom. Of course, this was done with the teacher's prior permission
and no one saw the tapes but the teacher and myself.
No one likes to be observed by a supervisor, especially when carrying a camera. But after
a while, the teachers got used to it and so did the students. I always chose an area of the
room to film from that would be least disruptive to the normal activities of the classroom.
After the observation, the teacher and I would sit down and watch the tape. To tell the
truth, the tape often did much of the work. Teachers' comments would include such things
I can't believe I said/did that!
Look at that. That is awful!
I'll never do that again!
Using a video camera is something that worked for me but not all supervisors may feel
comfortable with that much technology during a formal observation. [I did this back in
the 70s when video recorders were bulky and not nearly as unobtrusive as today’s
camcorders. You decide.
Church Worker Handbook --181--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
8. Regular Reappointments
When a Sunday school worker has been appointed to work in the church education
program, it should be clearly understood by all concerned that such an appointment is not
for life, as is the case with the US Supreme Court Justices. The initial appointment should
be for a probationary period, such as 90 days.
If this probationary period is completed successfully, a full appointment should be made
for one year.
9. Praise and Corrective Actions
If you are in the business of manufacturing and selling widgets for profit, your
organization would have a formal program for handling praise for good
performance and corrective actions for poor performance. In this work, you
are dealing with never-dying souls and their eternal destiny.
Therefore, you should be no less diligent in dealing with praise and
When a worker is performing in the fair or lower range of the scale we talked about
above, it's time to begin the Discipline/Praise Ladder. Everyone knows about the
discipline ladder but there's a praise ladder, too, and it should be used when Excellent and
Very Good performance is observed in connection with a particular practice or event.
Here is the traditional Correction Ladder:
[Always remember to praise in public and reprimand in private.]
1. The first time you, the supervisor, are displeased about something, have a private
informal meeting with the worker. Discuss your feelings about the matter and give
the worker a chance to talk freely, also.
2. If the same situation persists, have a more formal [closed-door, sit-down] meeting
and follow it up with a written letter of reprimand that summarizes what was talked
about at the meeting. This letter of reprimand should include the chances of
dismissal if the problem persists.
3. If the same situation still persists, have another meeting and tell the worker that
he/she will be suspended from service for one period/session and follow this up with
a letter documenting what was discussed at the meeting and the details of the
4. If the problem continues, give the worker a Notice of Dismissal.
Church Worker Handbook --182--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Of course good work requires that you use the Praise Ladder:
Informal comments and notes of praise
Letters of commendations
Public recognition of good work in a staff meeting
Warning: Strive to maintain equality and sincerity with your
Church Worker Handbook --183--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Chain of command: The plan of organization suggested to Moses by his father-inlaw, Jethro in Exodus 18:13-27.
Communication: The ability to share ideas and skills with others. Example: a
musician or athlete can be an average performer while teaching a gifted performer how to
do a better job.
Compassion: Liking people in general well enough to teach them.
Content: Knowing what to teach and how to teach it.
Control: Using organized classroom rules and behavioral programming to improve
Corrective action: The sequential application of the Discipline Ladder [See Discipline
Discipline Ladder: The sequence of events taken by management when a worker's
service is not satisfactory. The typical sequence is: Verbal Warning[s], Written
Warning[s], Letter[s] of Reprimand, Period[s] of Suspension, Notice of Dismissal.
Immediate supervisor: The person on the table of organization who is responsible
for a given worker's day to day activities and for his/her regular performance evaluation.
In-service training: Training in job skills for workers who are already assigned and
Jethro; Exodus 18:13-27: The man who suggested to Moses the classic table of
Job description: A written description of the duties for which a worker is responsible.
Letter of Reprimand: A step on the Discipline Ladder.
Major program goals: A written description of what an organization is supposed to
be doing; the mission statement.
Notice of Dismissal: The final step on the Discipline Ladder.
Church Worker Handbook --184--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Observation: The process used by a supervisor to evaluate a worker's ability to work
according to the job description.
Performance evaluation: A written report on a worker's performance, based on
formal observation as well as day to day contacts.
Performance standards: The degree to which a worker is working according to the
job description.
Pre-service training: Training in work skills before a worker begins to serve.
Reappointment: The renewal of an informal contract to perform according to the job
Student: Anyone who is taught regardless of chronological age.
Sunday school managers: The persons assigned by the church to oversee the
Sunday school program.
Sunday school: Any form of a church training program regardless of the age of the
students or training schedule.
Table of organization: The classic means of getting a large job done by a small
group of people. See Exodus 18:13-27
G. Edwin Lint
Please note: The hypertext e-mail link above is hot [active] when you are connected to the Internet
through your ISP. The same will be true of all hypertext links through the text of this ebook.
Church Worker Handbook --185--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Chapter 17: E-mail Basics
e-mail: electronic mail
Church Worker Handbook--What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
© 2005 DiskBooks Electronic Publishing
Click for a Free-Standing Version of This Chapter on the Internet
This page is written with Microsoft Outlook Express [OE] 6.0 e-mail browser in mind.
You can visit the Microsoft Internet Explorer Home Page and download a free bundle
that contains Internet Explorer [IE] 6.0 browser plus Outlook Express. However, many of
these tips and pointers will work with an earlier version of OE and other e-mail browsers,
The information in this page is designed to help you become an efficient and effective user
of e-mail by showing you some tips and pointers of mostly a cosmetic rather than a
technical nature. For matters pertaining to obtaining the e-mail services of an Internet
Service Provider [ISP] and getting connected, you need to select an ISP and get your
technical information from that ISP.
Contents of This Page
Introduction ....................................................................................................... 180
Check your e-mail regularly ............................................................................ 181
Activate the Spell Checker .............................................................................. 181
Activate Rich Text Format [HTML].................................................................. 182
Use Your Address Book .................................................................................. 182
Automatic additions to your address book ................................................... 183
Adding addresses to your address book by typing ..................................... 184
Creating Groups in your address book.......................................................... 184
Creating and Using a Signature...................................................................... 185
Using the BCC [Blind Carbon Copies] Address Field ................................. 186
to Keep E-mail Addresses Confidential
Sending and Saving Attachments .................................................................. 186
Sending Digital Pictures [Using a digital camera] ........................................ 187
Including pictures with an e-mail message .................................................. 188
Forward with care ............................................................................................. 189
Glossary............................................................................................................. 190
Church Worker Handbook --186--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
E-mail is here to stay and is a key component of the digital revolution. You can learn to
use e-mail even though you've never touched a typewriter. And, age is not a factor. My
Mother-in-law is approaching 90 years of age and had never touched a typewriter before
2001. However, she now uses e-mail regularly to correspond to her extended family and
you can, too. She may type slowly and likes to use fonts of at least 24 points, but her
messages are clearly understandable. My wife gave her parents a computer she had
outgrown, thinking that her Dad would be the primary user, since he already knew how to
type. However, Nancy's mother took an interest in the computer and has soaked up
everything we have been able to teach her about the Internet and e-mail.
Being able to type is a definite plus when it comes to using e-mail with ease and efficiency.
I have my Dad, Rev. J. Franklin Lint, to thank for the degree of typing ability I may have.
I can still remember him going head to head with the high school principal back in the
early 50s about my taking typing. The principal thought I didn't need typing because I
was in the College Prep course and not the business course. Of course, Dad said, "He of all
people needs to take typing because he's going to college." Dad seldom last an argument
that involved logic and he didn't lose that one, either!
I started using e-mail in October, 1981. Since then, I checked my e-mail every working
day until I retired in December, 1994. Since retirement, I have checked my e-mail every
day, including weekends and holidays. I check my e-mail the first thing when my
computer boots up in the morning. And, the last thing I do before putting my computer to
sleep in the evening is check my e-mail.
When I came home from the hospital in May 1996, following quintuple heart bypass
surgery, the first thing I did was read my accumulated e-mail, and [with my wife's help]
respond as needed.
Check your e-mail regularly.
Have you ever heard of anyone who didn't check their USPS mail box daily? I haven't! As
soon as the mail delivery person walks/drives away, we're right there, checking to see
what we got. Most often, it's catalogs and bills.
We need to give our e-mail this same level of diligent devotion. Check your email at least once a day. I check mine several times a day.
Activate the Spell Checker.
For some strange reason, off is the default setting for the spell checker instead of on.
Therefore, you have to take the proactive step of turning the spell checker on. Never
Church Worker Handbook --187--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
assume you are a good enough typist or speller to ever send an e-mail without activating
your spell checker. The OE spell checker is not as powerful as the one in your favorite
word processor but it will catch all of your spelling errors if not your grammar errors.
1. Get the Inbox window on the screen.
2. Pull down the Tools menu and select Options.
3. Click the Spelling tab at the top of the screen.
4. Make sure the following options are checked:
Always check spelling before sending
Suggest replacements for misspelled works
Activate Rich Text Format [HTML]
Outlook Express gives you a choice of two typing formats: Plain Text and Rich Text with
Plain Text being the default setting???
Plain Text Format: This is just plain vanilla with no chocolate and no sprinkles.
Rich text Format: This format enables you to format the text of your message with such
things as bold, italics, and color. In fact, most of the text formatting features available in
your word processor are available. Most important is the ability to add pictures, both in
line with your text or as attachments to your message.
To activate Rich Text format:
1. Open Outlook Express [OE] and get a new message on the screen.
2. Pull down the Format menu and make sure a black dot is showing beside Rich Text
[html] and that a check is showing beside Send pictures with message.
3. If the black dot and check are not showing, select them successively and these
features will be activated until you deactivate them at some future date.
Use Your Address Book.
Before you can use your OE address book, you need to understand some rules about email addresses:
An e-mail address is composed of two basic parts separated by the @ symbol. The @
symbol is made by holding down the shift key and typing the numeral 2. Usually all
characters of an e-mail address are in lower case and there may be no spaces. Most people
Church Worker Handbook --188--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
accept this rule and learn to read and write e-mail addresses according to it. But if you
don't like to see yourname, you can use an underscore instead of a space: your_name
The information to the left of @ is how you wish to be identified [User Name] and the
information to the right of @ is the Internet service that is providing you with e-mail.
Here is my business e-mail address as an example:
E-mail is absolutely unforgiving of any typos. If you make a mistake in the way you type
the address, your e-mail most likely will go nowhere except into the ozone layer. The
unforgiving nature of e-mail is the main reason for using your address book to both send
messages and store addresses.
Adding addresses to your address book by typing.
1. Open OE without a message showing. You will see a button marked Addresses at
the top of the screen. Or, when a message is showing, pull down the Tools menu and
select Address Book
2. Click the New button and select New Contact. [OE will call the persons listed in the
address book Contacts]
3. Fill in the name fields with how you want your mail to appear when your contact
gets it. Let's say you are planning on writing to your parents. You could put Mr.
and Mrs. John Doe in the name fields. Or you could make it sound more personal
and put in Dad and Mother. I have chosen to put in Dad and Mother.
4. You will need to know the exact spelling of your parents' e-mail address. I know my
parents' e-mail address is Therefore, I carefully type this in
the E-mail addresses field and double check it to make sure there are no typos.
5. Click Add and then click OK. You have just added Dad and Mother to your address
book. When you write to them from now on, just start typing Dad and Mother in the
To: field. If you only have one address beginning with D, all you have to type is D.
But if you have several starting with D [Dave, Donna, Dean, etc] you will have to
keep typing Dad and Mother until you get to the point where OE recognizes Dad
and Mother. In this example, you would have to type Dad before OE would take
over and complete the addressing for you.
6. Remember: when you type in the address in the To: field, start slowly typing their
real name, not That is their e-mail address but OE translates
Dad and Mother into
7. Have faith and do it this way. It really works!
8. Now you are ready to add another address to your address book.
Church Worker Handbook --189--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Special Note: If you are having difficulty getting your copy of OE to work as described on
this page so far, try this:
Make sure you are at the OE Inbox page.
Pull down Tools and select Options
Click the Send tab
Read all the options at the Send tab and make sure everything is checked the way
you want it to be.
Automatic additions to your address book:
So far, you have learned how to type an address for Dad and Mother. But, today you get
an unexpected e-mail from Aunt Elizabeth. OE will automatically add her name to your
address book if you reply to a message from her. Today, you also get a message from a
business associate that needs no reply. You can also add this address to your address book
without typing it in:
1. Look at the message carefully. At the top of the left side of the message, you should
see the word From: with this contact's name beside it.
2. Double click on your associate's name and OE will give the first screen of the
Properties of this person's e-mail information.
3. Click on the Add to Address Book button and your business associate will be added
to your book!
Creating Groups in your address book.
A Group in an OE address book is a list of contacts that is saved under a certain name you
create. If you find yourself sending the same e-mail message to people with common
properties or characteristics, you need to create a group. For example, here are two
groups I have in my address book. Ed Lint Family and Big Family. The first is made up of
my wife, my four children, and any of the spouses who may have their own e-mail
addresses. Big Family is everyone on Nancy's and my sides of the family that have e-mail
addresses. For example, if I want to write to my immediate family, I click in the To: field
and start typing Ed Lint Family. At the present time, all I have to type is the E and OE
finishes typing Ed Lint Family. I write my message and click Send. Bang! Everyone in our
immediate family gets the message. To create a Group, follow these steps:
1. Open your Address Book and select New and New Group.
2. Give your new group a short name. In this example we'll call it Family
Church Worker Handbook --190--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
3. Click Select Members
4. All contacts currently in your address book will be in the left column. Everyone in
the Family group will appear in the right column.
5. Click a name in the left column to highlight it. [Or, double-click a name in the left
6. Click the Select button in the middle and it will appear in the right column as a
member of your Family group.
7. If a contact appears in the Family group in error, click on it to select it and then
press the Delete key on your keyboard.
8. When you are finished adding contacts to your Family group, click OK and you will
be able to see your Family group in a Properties window. Look at it closely and
make sure it's the way you want it to be.
9. If it is, click OK and close out of OE before you try to use your new Group.
10. The next time you have a message to send to your whole family, type Family in the
To: field and it will go to all you have placed in this group. Family is used here as an
example. You can have groups called such names as Teachers, Students, Board
Members, Customers, Friends, etc, etc.
Creating and Using a Signature.
A signature is a saved block of text that you use any time you need to paste this block. This
feature is called Signature because it is frequently used to close an e-mail message. You
can create and use Signature by following these steps:
1. Make sure the OE screen is showing Create Mail in the upper left corner of the
2. Click on the Create Mail button to get a blank message form. Type the block of text
you wish to use as your Signature in the message block of this blank form.
3. Select [highlight] the text in your signature and copy it to the clipboard. [Press
4. Pull down the Tools menu and select Options
5. Click on the Signatures tab along the top of the Options dialog box.
6. Click the New button. Signature #1 will appear in the Signatures box.
7. Click in the Edit Signature box to get an insertion point [flashing cursor.] Also,
make sure the Text button beside this box is clicked.
Church Worker Handbook --191--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
8. Paste the contents of the clipboard at the insertion point. [Press Control V}
9. Click Apply and then click OK. Your new signature is now stored and ready for use.
10. When you want the signature to appear at the insertion point, pull down the Insert
menu and select Signature.
11. A menu of the names of your stored signatures will be displayed. Click on your
choice and press Return. Your signature will appear at the insertion point.
12. You may rename or remove a signature by returning to the Signature dialog box:
Use the BCC [Blind Carbon Copies] Address Field
to Keep E-mail Addresses Confidential.
When you send a message to a group [list], all the e-mail addresses in the group will be
published for everyone to see. In this age of mass spamming, some folks don't care to have
their e-mail address put on public display. Here's how you can use the BCC field to keep
the e-mail address of your recipients completely confidential:
1. With an e-mail message on the screen, pull down the View menu and select All
Headers. This will cause a check mark to appear beside All Headers. And this field
will be toggled on.
2. The BCC field will now appear between the CC and the Subject fields.
3. Type the Group name and any other addressing information in this new BCC field.
4. Leave the To: field blank when addressing your message.
5. When such a message is sent, Undisclosed Recipient: will appear in the To: field of
everyone who gets your message.
6. The BCC field will not even be seen by the recipients, maintaining complete
Sending and Saving Attachments.
Attaching a file to your e-mail message is a handy and powerful way of moving
information via the Internet. Evil people have learned it is just as easy to cause damage
and mayhem so beware. We are assuming that the readers of this page want to learn about
attachments for good reasons. To attach file[s] to an e-mail message:
Church Worker Handbook --192--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
1. Know where on your computer this file[s] is located. If you have this file buried in a
folder several levels deep in your C drive, it may be a good idea to create a folder on
the desktop for holding files to be attached.
2. Attach the file[s] before you write the message in the message area. I have made the
mistake of clicking Send without making the attachment.
3. With the new message on the desktop, click the Attach button marked with a paper
clip icon.
4. OE will open a window for you to browse to the location of the attachment.
5. If you are attaching more than one file from the same folder, hold down Control and
then click each file to be attached. [When you hold down Control, your selections do
not need to be consecutive.]
6. When your selection[s] has been made, click the Attach button.
7. Now your attachment[s] will show in the Attach window below Subject, along with
the file name and size of each.
8. Now complete the rest of your e-mail message: To: CC: etc.
Saving attachments: Many attachments you will just read and either file or delete. When
you get attachment[s] you want to save, here's how to do it:
Right click on a file icon in the attachment window
If there is more than one attachment to this e-mail message, you may elect to Save
Follow the prompts very carefully. I suggest you save first to the desktop and then
you can file the attachments where they belong.
Sending Digital Pictures [Using a digital camera].
Sending and receiving pictures via e-mail is a lot of fun. Of course, the digital camera has
made this not only possible but relatively easy. [Picture phones are not covered on this
page.] A digital camera stores a computer file of a picture on a storage device inside the
camera [often called a smart card.]
These picture files are then downloaded to your computer where they may be printed,
sent via e-mail, or inserted into a web page. I use an Olympus 2.1 megapixel camera. This
suits my needs for sharing pictures with family and friends. I have two 8 mb smart cards
that will hold 16 pictures each at the highest resolution. I also have a 64 mb card that will
hold over 120 high resolution pictures. Once the pictures have been downloaded to my
computer and stored on a zip drive, a smart card may be erased and used over and over
Church Worker Handbook --193--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
again. Digital cameras are hard on batteries so I always carry a spare set of batteries as
well as a spare smart card in my camera case.
Here's the process I use for sending pictures from my digital camera via e-mail:
1. Download the picture files from the camera's smart card to a folder on my desktop I
call pix. Each picture file gets a default extension of .jpg
2. Use the software that came with the camera [Camedia] to resize each picture. At the
highest resolution, the pictures come out of my camera as 1600 pixels wide. It is
possible to send a picture this wide via e-mail but it will be so large, the recipient
will have to scroll continually to see the whole thing.
3. When I first started sending pictures via e-mail, I made this mistake. My brother
said he loved the pictures but there was just too much of them. That's what brothers
are for.
4. By trial and error, I learned that 400 to 600 pixels as the greater dimension was just
about right for sending my pictures via e-mail so that's what I always use. When I
change the 1600 to 500, the other dimension changes proportionally.
5. I also use the Olympus Camedia software to brighten the picture, if it is rather dark
and muddy. Cropping is possible to cut away parts of the picture that do not contain
valuable content.
6. The last step is to rename the picture with a filename that will mean something to
me. Olympus gives each picture a numeral for a name but I want file names that tell
me something about the content of the picture. For example, the next big event on
our family's calendar is my granddaughter's birthday. Here name is Tori. So the file
names for the pictures of Tori's party will look something like this:
toricake.jpg [Tori's birthday cake]
torigifts.jpg [Tori opening her gifts]
toricandles.jpg [Tori blowing out her candles]
etc, etc, etc.
Including pictures with an e-mail message.
Here's an example of how I send .jpg picture files with my e-mail messages:
1. Compose an e-mail message for Big Family that tells about Tori's party and
includes some pictures.
Church Worker Handbook --194--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
2. Make sure the insertion point is where I want a picture to appear. [Click in the text
field to get an insertion point.]
3. Pull down the Insert menu and select Picture.
4. OE will give me a window where I can navigate to the folder that holds the pictures
of Tori's party.
5. I'll select the picture I want, based on the descriptive file names I see, and bang!
6. The picture will appear in the message, right at the insertion point.
7. This process of inserting pictures in the text of your message is called the Inline
method. You may also send pictures by using the Attach command. Your pictures
will not appear in the text with the Attach method, but they will be displayed below
the text.
There are a few warnings you need to heed when sending pictures in your e-mail message:
Your ISP or the ISP of your recipients may have limits on the number of pictures
you can send in a single message.
People who use freebee e-mail [service that is free] may be able get fewer pictures
per message, or none at all.
People who have a dial-up connection to the Internet may need to take a walk
around the block while your pictures download to their screen. If your recipients
have a broadband connection to the Internet [Cable or DSL], the pictures will
appear much more quickly.
Saving pictures: Many pictures you will just look at and either file or delete. When
you get picture[s] you want to save, here's how to do it:
Right click on the picture you want to save.
Select Save picture as
OE will give you a Save window with the file name highlighted. While this file name
is still selected, rename it with a name you will recognize in the future.
Make sure you see where OE will be saving the picture; browse to a new location if
you want another one.
Forward with care.
Church Worker Handbook --195--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Forwarding what you think are valuable messages is easy with e-mail. Just click the
Forward button and address your message as you would normally do. There is even a
space for typing in any comments you may want to use as an introduction.
However, when you forward the easy way, OE puts a hash mark [>] at the beginning of
every line. If a message has been forwarded to you and you forward it to a bunch of new
people, the hash marks are multiplied. The text becomes increasingly difficult to read
until it's easier to click Delete then try to read a forwarded message.
Not so long ago, I received a forwarded message that had over 100 hash marks on it. You
need to be able to use your computer's clipboard to forward properly.
Here's the right way to forward a message that will be as clean as when you first looked at it:
1. Click in the text box of the message you like.
2. Pull down Edit and choose Select All. [Or press Control-A]
3. This action will select [highlight] everything in the message box.
4. Pull down Edit and Select Copy. [Or press Control-C]
5. This action will copy the entire message that you like onto your computer's
clipboard. You always have to select something before you can copy it.]
6. Create a new message, add the recipient[s] and subject.
7. Click in the text box and make sure you see the cursor flashing there.
8. Pull down Edit and select Paste. [or press Control-V]
9. This action will paste the entire message that you like from your clipboard into your
new message. [>>>No hash marks will be included!>>>]
10. Now, use your address book to send this new, pristine message far and wide. There
won't be a single hash mark in the whole carload!
11. If you want to keep the addresses of your recipients confidential be sure to use the
BCC field for all addresses and leave the To: field blank
Church Worker Handbook --196--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Webmail VS. Outlook Express
Up to this point on this page, we have been talking about the features of the email browser
by Microsoft known as Outlook Express [OE]. Many email users, however, have never
used OE. They use a version of webmail provided by their Internet Service Provider [ISP].
For example, my ISP is Comcast, and Comcast has it's webmail at
However, I only use the Comcast version of webmail when I am forced to do so for certain
maintenance tasks relating to the 6 mailboxes attached to my Comcast email account.
Other than performing maintenance tasks, I don't access my webmail email program
from one month to the next.
However, webmail does one major advantage over the classier OE email browser. With
your webmail account, you can access your email to send and receive anywhere in the
world that has access to the Internet. All you need are:
o Your user name and password.
A computer what has access to the Internet.
On the other hand, you can use OE only from your own computer where you have
configured OE to access your email.
If you are going to use OE from another computer to access your email, your will need to
configure OE on that computer by using the following codes:
A local or toll-free phone number for your ISP. Otherwise, you will need to be
prepared to pay toll charges back to your ISP for as long as you on line
The following codes:
Type server
Incoming mail
Outgoing mail
If you are travelling away from your home computer, make sure you have your ISP's toll free
technical support phone number; you may need help to get connected.
How to get OE service from your ISP:
1. It will be ideal if you can both be on the Internet and talk to tech support at the same
time. Two lines or one line plus a cell phone will do.
2. Make sure you know exactly what user name and password you are currently using to
access email via your ISP's webmail.
3. Call your ISP's toll free technical support number.
4. Tell a technicial you want to use Outlook Express to access your email.
Church Worker Handbook --197--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
5. You will be told to get OE on your screen, pull down the tools menu, and select
6. The tech support person will walk you through the process to use OE to access your
email. Have fun!
@: This symbol is part of every e-mail address and divides the sender's user name from
the domain or ISP that is initiating the mail action. Here is an example:
Activate: The process of making a software feature functional, often by placing a checkmark in a box.
Address book: The place in an e-mail browser where e-mail addresses are stored for quick
Attachments: Files or pictures that travel along with an e-mail message and may be
viewed and saved by the recipient.
BCC: Blind carbon copies; when e-mail addresses are added in this field, the recipient will
not be able to see where copies are being sent; when a group is placed in this field and no
names are in the To: field, recipients will not be able to tell who else got a copy of the
Browse: Navigating through the folders and disks on your own computer to find a specific
Browser, e-mail: A software program designed to send and read e-mail messages.
CC: Carbon copies; addresses placed in this field will get copies of this message; recipients
will be able to see the e-mail addresses placed in this field.
Clipboard: A storage segment in the memory of your computer for temporary storage of
data during the processes of copy, cut, and paste.
Compose: The act of writing an e-mail message with a browser.
Contact: OE calls the names in your address book Contacts.
Default: The settings of software as the user first sees it before making any changes.
Delete: The act of erasing e-mail; when the delete key on the keyboard is pressed while
data or objects are selected, they will disappear.
Church Worker Handbook --198--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Dial-up connection: Access to the Internet via a phone line and a modem.
Digital pictures: Pictures taken by a digital camera and stored as computer files inside the
memory of the camera; such pictures are usually downloaded to a computer where they
can be used in a variety of way, including inserting in e-mail messages.
E-mail: Electronic mail that travels over the Internet and may be read and sent via an email browser.
Forward: Sending an e-mail message to one or more other e-mail addresses.
Group: A list of e-mail addresses that share a common interest, such as: family,
coworkers, customers, etc.
Hash mark: The mark [<] the e-mail browser puts in the left margin of a message when it
is forwarded. Messages that are forwarded repeatedly will become unsightly with
accumulated hash marks.
Hyperlink: Text with an embedded URL.
Inbox: The location in an e-mail browser where incoming e-mail is first seen.
ISP: Internet Service Provider. Comcast and America on Line [AOL] are ISPs.
Jpg: The extension that must be at the end of a Windows jpeg photo filename. Example:
Megapixel: A measurement to show the resolution capability of a digital camera, as in: 2.1
Members: The addresses in a specific group in your address book.
Message window: The large text block where you type an e-mail message.
Name fields: The place in your address book where you type the first, middle, and last
names of your contacts.
Options: This is a selection of the Tools menu that lets you choose the various features
available for Outlook Express.
Outlook Express: [OE] is the e-mail browser discussed in this page.
Pixel: A pixel (short for "picture element") is one of thousands of tiny spots in a grid on a
display screen or printed sheet. These spots, or blocks, are individually colored in order to
show images on computer screens, and represent the smallest elements that may be
manipulated to create graphics. © Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved. "Pixel,"
Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2000. © 1993-1999 Microsoft Corporation. All rights
Church Worker Handbook --199--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Properties: The characteristics of a contact in your address book.
Rename: Changing the file name of a picture from a series of numerals to a meaningful
Resolution: The degree to which a digital picture looks crisp and sharp.
Rich Text Format [HTML]: In OE, this is the ability to format text in much the way you
would do with a word processor. The opposite of Plain Text.
Scrolling: When an image is too large for the screen, scroll bars appear at the edges of the
screen that let you move the image so you can see all of it.
Select: Highlighting text or an object so the computer can work with this selection in some
Send: The button on your e-mail browser that lets you send an e-mail message on it's way.
Signature: This is a saved block of text that you use any time you need to paste this block.
This feature is called Signature because it is frequently used to close an e-mail message.
You create a new Signature by accessing the Tools>Options menu. You can access your
stored Signatures by pulling down the Insert menu.
Smart card: A memory device inside a digital camera that stores the jpg files that make
up pictures. An 8 mb card will hold about 16 picture at high resolution.
Subject: The field where you give a short description of the contents of your e-mail
message. It's considered poor form to leave it blank or always use Hi as your subject.
Tab: The selections across the top of a screen where there are several submenus to choose
from. In OE, the Options screen has numerous tabs such as: Spelling, Read, Send,
Signatures, etc.
To: The field where you type the e-mail address of the recipients of your message;
multiple addresses may be placed in this field, separated by a semicolon; OE will complete
an e-mail address as soon as you type enough characters to make it unique for all the
contacts in your address book.
Tools: One of the menus at the top of the Inbox screen of OE.
Church Worker Handbook --200--  2005, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
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