Low-power Radio-frequency Devices Technical Regulations

Low-power Radio-frequency Devices Technical Regulations
Telecom Technical Regulations
Test Requirements
Low Power 0002 (LP0002)
28 June, 2011 revised
Low-power Radio-frequency Devices
Technical Regulations
June, 2011
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Contents
Preface
1
TERMINOLOGY............................................................................................................................. 1
2
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS......................................................................................................... 4
3
CONFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS (BY FREQUENCY RANGES).............................................7
3.1
3.1.1
3.2
3.2.1
3.3
3.3.1
3.4
Operation within the band 1.705-10MHz(Frequency bands:1.705-10 MHz.)................................7
Type of device: any radiated device............................................................................................. 7
Operation within the band 13.553-13.567 MHz............................................................................7
Type of device: any radiated device............................................................................................. 7
Operation within the band 26.29 - 27.28 MHz.............................................................................7
Type of device: any radiated device............................................................................................. 7
Operation within the bands 40.66 - 40.70 MHz and above 70 MHz.............................................7
3.4.1
Type of device: perimeter protection systems ..............................................................................7
3.4.2
Type of device: intermittent or periodic devices............................................................................8
3.4.3
Type of device: any radiated devices except for those described in Section 3.4.1 and 3.4.2.......9
3.5
3.5.1
3.6
3.6.1
3.7
3.7.1
3.8
Operation within the band 49.82-49.90MHz.................................................................................9
Type of device: any radiated device............................................................................................. 9
Operation within the band 72.0-73.0MHz...................................................................................10
Type of device: Auditory assistance device. An intentional radiator used to provide auditory
assistance to a handicapped person or persons. Such a device may be used for auricular
training in an education institution, for auditory assistance at places of public gatherings, such
as a theater, auditorium or meeting............................................................................................ 10
Operation within the band 88.0-108.0MHz.................................................................................10
Type of device: any radiated device...........................................................................................10
Operation within the bands 174.0-216.0 MHz and 584MHz-608MHz.........................................10
3.8.1
Type of device: Operation under the provisions of this Section is restricted to biomedical
telemetry devices which are the intentional radiators used to transmit measurements of either
human or animal biomedical phenomena to a receiver...............................................................10
3.8.2
Type of device: Operation under the provisions of this Section is restricted to biomedical
telemetry devices which are the intentional radiators used to transmit measurements of either
human or animal biomedical phenomena to a receiver. Such device is restricted to operate only
in hospitals but does not extend to mobile vehicles, such as ambulances, even if those vehicles
are associated with a health care facility.....................................................................................11
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3.9
Operation within the band 216-217MHz.....................................................................................11
3.9.1
Type of device: The purpose is for voice or data transmission, but two-way communications is
prohibited. The applicable devices are listed below:...................................................................11
3.10 Operation within the bands 2400.0-2483.5MHz, 5725.0-5875.0MHz and, 24.0-24.25GHz........12
3.10.1 Type of device: Intentional radiators employing frequency hopping spread spectrum or digital
modulation techniques................................................................................................................ 12
3.10.2 Type of device: any radiated device...........................................................................................15
3.11 Operation within the bands 2435.0-2465.0MHz, 5785.0-5815.0MHz, 10500.0-10550.0MHz and,
24075.0-24175.0MHz................................................................................................................. 15
3.11.1 Type of device: Intentional radiators used as field disturbance sensors are devices that
establishes a radio frequency field in its vicinity and detects changes in that field resulting from
the movement of persons or objects within its range, while excluding perimeter protection
systems. .................................................................................................................................... 15
3.12 Operation within the bands 2.9-3.26GHz, 3.267-3.332GHz, 3.339-3.3458GHz and, 3.3583.6GHz
3.12.1 Type of device: Automatic vehicle identification systems, AVIS, which use swept frequency
techniques for the purpose of automatically identifying transportation vehicles..........................16
3.13. Operation within the band 57.0-64.0GHz
3.13.1 ype of device: the provisions shown in this Section are only restricted to the products for High
Density Fixed Service (HDFS) which is used for Short Range Multimedia Broadband Networks
indoors.
3.14 Operation within the band 76.0-77.0GHz...................................................................................17
3.14.1 Type of device: restricted to vehicle-mounted field disturbance sensors used as vehicle radar
systems. The transmission of additional information, such as data, is permitted provided the
primary mode of operation is as a vehicle-mounted field disturbance sensor. Operation under
the provisions of this section is not permitted on aircraft or satellites.........................................17
4
CONFORMANCE SPECIFICATION OF SPECIAL DEVICES......................................................18
4.1
Tunnel radio systems: An intentional radiator utilized as a communication transceiver by the
people work in the tunnel........................................................................................................... 18
4.2
Cable locating equipment: An intentional radiator used intermittently by trained operators to
locate buried cables, lines, pipes and similar structures or elements. Operation entails coupling
a radio frequency signal onto the cable, pipe, etc. and using a receiver to detect the location of
that structure or element............................................................................................................ 18
4.3
Radio control devices: including the remote controlled devices for model toys, industrial
purposes and also the radio data transceivers...........................................................................18
4.3.1
The remote controlled devices for model toys: The remote controlled devices for model toys:
including a model aircraft device or a model surface craft device...............................................18
4.3.2
Radio controlled devices for industry: Radio frequency transceiver used only in the factory
building for transmitting digital control signal .............................................................................20
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4.3.3
Radio data transceiver: Radio transceiver used restricted inside the building for voice, images
and data communication. ........................................................................................................... 20
4.4
Citizens band radio service. ................................................................................................................................ 21
4.5
Family radio service。........................................................................................................................................ 22
4.6
Low power wireless microphone and wireless earphone.....................................................................................23
4.7
Unlicensed national information infrastructure devices. ............................................................24
4.8
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) devices operating in UHF band. ...................................27
4.9
Auto, motorcycle theft-proof remote control...............................................................................28
4.10 Assistive vision disabled communication devices.......................................................................29
4.11 Medical Implant Communications Service (MICS): is a medical service system specifically for
transmitting data in support of diagnostic or therapeutic functions between an external
programmer/control transceiver and an active medical implant transceiver placed in the human
body. ....................................................................................................................................... 29
5
INSPECTION RULES................................................................................................................... 32
Appendix Measurement on low power radio frequency devices.............................................................37
Appendix I Measurement on intentional radiators...................................................................................37
Appendix II Measurement Guidelines for Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum........................................45
Appendix III Measurement Guidelines for Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Systems...................47
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Telecom Technical Regulations
Test Requirements
Low Power 0002 (LP0002)
29 August, 2007 revised
Low-power Radio-frequency Devices Technical Regulations
Preface
This regulation is formulated based on Section 1 of Article 50 of ”Telecommunications Act” and Section
1of Article 5 of “Administrative Regulations on Low Power Radio Waves Radiated Devices”. It consists of five
chapters: Chapter 1 explains the related terminology. Chapter 2 lists the general requirements on the operating
bands, radiated field intensity, performances and manufacture, installation, possession, import and sales. The
Low-power radio-frequency devices in this chapter are not restricted to the use except otherwise regulated by
other laws (codes). Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 are conformity specifications. In these two chapters, limitation on
the frequency bands and radiated field intensity is restricted and corresponding to the frequency bands and the
type of device. Those not stipulated in these two Chapters shall comply with the provisions in Chapter 2.
Chapter 5 covers test requirements of type approvals on low-power radio-frequency devices.
1
Terminology
1.1 Radio frequency (RF) energy: Electromagnetic energy at any frequency in the radio spectrum (locating
in the frequency range) between 9 kHz and 300 GHz.
1.2 Carrier: Radio frequency energy generated by the Low power radio frequency devices before
modulation. In other words, the carrier wave without been modulated.
1.3 Spurious emissions: Emissions on a frequency (or frequencies) which are outside the necessary
bandwidth and the level of which may be reduced without affecting the corresponding transmission
of information. Spurious emissions include harmonic emissions, parasitic emissions, intermodulation
products and frequency conversion products, but exclude out-of-band emissions.
1.4 Out-of-band emissions: Due to modulation process, emissions on a frequency (or frequencies) which
are outside the necessary bandwidth. The spurious emission is exclusive.
1.5 Unwanted emissions: Encompass spurious emissions and out-of-band emissions.
1.6 Necessary bandwidth: Under regulations, the bandwidth required to ensure necessary speed and
quality of transmitted information.
1.7 Instantaneous frequency: The time rate of change in phase in radians divided by 2π, the unit is Hz.
1.8 Peak frequency deviation: The half the difference between the maximum and minimum values of the
instantaneous frequency.
1.9 Harmful interference: Any emission, radiation or induction that endangers the functioning of a radio
navigation service or of other safety services or seriously degrades, obstructs or repeatedly
interrupts a radio communications service operation served by legal radio communication business
enterprise.
1.10 Damped waves: The strength of the radio wave increases rapidly and then decreases gradually until nil.
1.11
Effective radiated power (e.r.p): The product of the power supplied to the antenna and its gain
relative to a half-wave dipole in a given direction.
1.12
Unlicensed national information infrastructure (U-NII) devices
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(1)
Average symbol envelope power: The average symbol envelope power is the average, taken over all
symbols in the signaling alphabet, of the envelope power for each symbol.
(2)
Digital modulation: The process by which the characteristics of a carrier wave are varied among a set
of predetermined discrete values in accordance with a digital modulating function as specified in
document ANSI C63.17-1998.
(3)
Emission bandwidth: For purposes of this subpart the emission bandwidth shall be determined by
measuring the width of the signal between two points, one below the carrier center frequency and
one above the carrier center frequency, that are 26 dB down relative to the maximum level of the
modulated carrier. Determination of the emissions bandwidth is based on the use of measurement
instrumentation employing a peak detector function with an instrument resolution bandwidth
approximately equal to 1.0 percent of the emission bandwidth of the device under measurement.
(4)
Peak power spectral density: The peak power spectral density is the maximum power spectral
density, within the specified measurement bandwidth, within the U-NII device operating band.
(5)
Peak transmit power: The maximum transmit power as measured over an interval of time of at most
30/B (where B is the 26 dB emission bandwidth of the signal in hertz) or the transmission pulse
duration of the device, whichever is less, under all conditions of modulation. The peak transmit power
may be averaged across symbols over an interval of time equal to the transmission pulse duration of
the device or over successive pulses. The averaging must include only time intervals during which
the transmitter is operating at its maximum power and must not include any time intervals during
which the transmitter is off or is transmitting at a reduced power level.
(6)
Power spectral density: The power spectral density is the total energy output per unit bandwidth from
a pulse or sequence of pulses for which the transmit power is at its peak or maximum level, divided
by the total duration of the pulses. This total time does not include the time between pulses during
which the transmit power is off or below its maximum level.
(7)
Pulse: A pulse is a continuous transmission of a sequence of modulation symbols, during which the
average symbol envelope power is constant.
(8)
Transmit power: The total energy transmitted over a time interval of at most 30/B (where B is the 26
dB emission bandwidth of the signal) or the duration of the transmission pulse, whichever is less,
divided by the interval duration.
(9)
Transmit power control (TPC): A feature that enables a U-NII device to dynamically switch between
several transmission power levels in the data transmission process.
(10) Channel availability check: A check during which the U-NII device listens on a particular radio
channel to identify whether there is a radar operating on that radio channel.
(11) Dynamic frequency selection (DFS): is a mechanism that dynamically detects signals from other
systems and avoids co-channel operation with these systems, notably radar systems.
(12) DFS Detection threshold: The required detection level defined by detecting a received signal strength
(RSS) that is greater than a threshold specified, within the U-NII device channel bandwidth.
(13) Channel move time: The time needed by a U-NII device to cease all transmissions on the current
channel upon detection of a radar signal above the DFS detection threshold.
(14) In-service monitoring: A mechanism to check a channel in use by the U-NII device for the presence of
a radar.
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(15) Non-occupancy period: The required period in which, once a channel has been recognized as
containing a radar signal by a U-NII device, the channel will not be selected as an available channel.
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2
General requirements
The low-power radio-frequency devices shall be self-contained with no external or readily accessible
controls which may be adjusted to permit operation in a manner inconsistent with the provisions.
2.2 Antenna requirement: Low-power radio frequency transmitter or transceiver(receiver) shall utilize a
permanently, half- permanently attached antenna or uses a unique coupling at the antenna and at any
cable connector between the transmitter and the antenna. The antenna shall be omni-directional type.
The manufacturer may design the unit so that the user can replace a broken antenna, but the use of a
standard antenna jack or electrical connector or other than authorized is prohibited. Such standard
connectors are for example: BNC, F type, N type, M type, UG type, RCA, SMA, SMB, and other
standard type antenna connectors.
2.3 For Low-power radio-frequency devices that is designed to be connected to the public utility (AC)
power line, the radio frequency voltage that is conducted back onto the AC power line on any
frequency or frequencies, within the band 150 kHz to 30 MHz, shall not exceed the limits in the
following table, as measured using a 50 [mu]H/50 ohms line impedance stabilization network (LISN).
The lower limit applies at the boundary between the frequency ranges.
2.1
Conducted limit (dBuV)
Frequency of emission
(MHz)
Quasi-peak
Average
0.15-0.5
66 – 56(Note)
56 – 46(Note)
0.5-5
56
46
5-30
60
50
Note: Decreases with the logarithm of the frequency.
2.4 The low-power radio-frequency devices that produce damped waves are prohibited.
2.5 The low-power radio-frequency devices must not be altered by changing the frequency, enhancing
emission power, adding external antenna, and modification of original design characteristic as well as
function.
2.1 The operation of the low-power radio-frequency devices is subject to the conditions that no harmful
interference is caused. The user must stop operating the device immediately should harmful
interference is caused and shall not resume until the condition causing the harmful interference has
been corrected.
Moreover, the interference must be accepted that may be caused by the operation of an authorised
communications, or ISM equipment.
2.2 The fundamental frequency of any low-power radio-frequency devices are restricted in any of the
operation bands listed below; The spurious emissions are permitted in any of frequency band listed
below and shall meet the field strength requirement of 2.8:
Frequency (MHz)
Frequency (MHz)
Frequency (MHz)
0.090 - 0.110
162.01 - 167.17
3500.0 - 4400.0
0.490 - 0.510
167.72 - 173.20
4500.0 - 5250.0
2.172 - 2.198
240.00 - 285.00
5350.0 - 5460.0
3.013 - 3.033
322.00 - 335.40
7250.0 - 7750.0
4.115 - 4.198
399.90 - 410.00(Note 1)
8025.0 - 8500.0
5.670 - 5.690
608.00 - 614.00
9000.0 - 9200.0
6.200 - 6.300
825.00 - 915.00
9300.0 - 9500.0
8.230 - 8.400
935.00 - 1240.0
10600 - 12700
12.265 - 12.600
1300.0 - 1427.0
13250 - 13400
13.340 - 13.430
1435.0 - 1626.5
14470 - 14500
14.965 - 15.020
1660.0 - 1755.0
15350 - 16200
16.700 - 16.755
1805.0 - 1850.0
17700 - 21400
19.965 - 20.020
2200.0 - 2300.0
22010 - 23120
25.500 - 25.700
2310.0 - 2390.0
23600 - 24000
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37.475 - 38.275
2483.5 - 2500.0
31200 - 31800
73.500 - 75.400
2655.0 - 2900.0
36430 - 36500
108.00 - 138.00
3260.0 - 3267.0
38600 + (Note 2)
149.90 - 150.05
3332.0 - 3339.0
156.70 - 156.90
3345.8 - 3358.0
Note 1: 402 MHz - 405 MHz MICS systems (Section 4.11) are excluded.
Note 2: 76 GHz - 77 GHz vehicular radar systems (Section 3.13) are excluded.
2.8
2.9
Except higher limit as specified elsewhere in other section, the emissions from the low-power radiofrequency devices shall not exceed the field strength levels specified in the following table and the
level of any unwanted emissions shall not exceed the level of the fundamental emission. The tighter
limit applies at the band edges.
Frequency (MHz)
Field strength (micro-volts/meter)
Measurement
distance (meters)
0.009 - 0.490 (included)
2,400/Freq.(kHz)
300
0.490 (excluded) - 1.705
(included)
24,000/Freq.(kHz)
30
1.705 (excluded) - 30 (excluded)
30
30
30 (included) - 88 (included)
100
3
88 (excluded) -216 (included)
150
3
216 (excluded) -960 (included)
200
3
above 960 (excluded)
500
3
The field strength radio frequency 9-90 kHz, 110-490 kHz and 1000 MHz above stipulated in the above
table shall be measured according to an average detector and comply with Section 5.15.2, while others
shall be measured using CISPR quasi-peak detector. Those not specified above shall comply with
Section 5.5 and the frequency bands measurement of radiated emission has to comply with Section
5.14.
2.10 The low-power radio-frequency devices on the market must be accompanied with operation manual or
instructions. Sample copies for both should be sent for review together with the device approval
application (manual in draft is temporarily acceptable but the final copies must be sent afterwards.) The
operation manual must contain all the necessary information for proper installation and operation of the
device by the users. The necessary contents are:
(1) The control, adjust, and on/off operation of the device to is not caused violation of to the
“Administrative regulations on low power radio waves radiated devices”.
(2) Warnings against any adjustments to the device which may violate the regulations. The manual
should suggest that all these adjustments be carried out or be monitored by specialist who has
expertise on radio frequency devices maintenance.
(3) Warnings against any replacements of components (ICs, transistors, and so on) which may lead
to the violation to the regulations.
(4) Articles 12 and 14 of Administrative Regulations on Low Power Radio Waves Radiated Devices
2.11 If transmitter and receiver of the low-power radio-frequency device are sold in one set, the
corresponding type approval review documents should be presented; otherwise the transmitter and
receiver should be applied for approval together. The receiver radiated field strength must not exceed
the emission specified in Section 2.8 and receiver shall not receive, demodulate frequency listed in
Section 2.7.
2.12 The characteristic of transceiver shall be tested per CNS standards. If in-country standards not found,
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shall be tested based on US EIA, IEEE, ANSI standards and FCC 47 CFR Part 2 associated test
requirement.
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3
Conformance specifications (by frequency ranges)
4.1
Frequency bands:1.705-10 MHz.
3.1.1
Type of device: any radiated device.
(1) Fundamental emission:
(1.1) If the bandwidth of the emission is less than 10% of the center frequency, the field strength shall
not exceed 15 microvolts/meter or (the bandwidth of the device in kHz) divided by (the center
frequency of the device in MHz) microvolts/meter at a distance of 30 meters, whichever is the
higher level.
(1.2) If the bandwidth of the emission is equal and greater than 10% of the center frequency, the field
strength of any emission within the band 1.705-10.0 MHz shall not exceed 100 microvolts/meter
at a distance of 30 meters.
(2) Unwanted emission: The field strength of unwanted emissions shall not exceed the general radiated
emission limits in Section 2.8.
(3) The field strength are based on measurement instrumentation employing an average detector and
must meet the peak emissions of Section 5.14.
Note: Bandwidth is determined at the points 6 dB down from the modulated carrier.
4.2
Operation within the band 13.553-13.567 MHz
3.2.1
Type of device: any radiated device.
(1) Fundamental emission: The field strength of any emissions within this band shall not exceed 10
millivolts/meter at 30 meters.
(2) Unwanted emission: The field strength of unwanted emissions shall not exceed the general radiated
emission limits in Section 2.8.
(3) The frequency tolerance: The frequency tolerance of the carrier shall be ±0.01%. This frequency
tolerance shall be maintained for a temperature variation of -20 to +50°C at normal supply voltage,
and for a variation in the primary supply voltage within ±15% of the rated supply voltage at a
temperature of 20°C. For battery operated equipment, the equipment tests shall be performed using
new battery. In the mean time, it shall meet the requirement of Section 5.18.
4.3
Operation within the band: 26.29 - 27.28 MHz
3.3.1
Type of device: any radiated device.
(1) Fundamental emission: The field strength of any emissions within this band shall not exceed 10
mV/meter at 3 meters (measurement instrumentation employing an average detector). The
provisions in section 5.14 for limiting peak emissions apply.
(2) Unwanted emission: The field strength of unwanted emissions shall not exceed the general radiated
emission limits in Section 2.8.
4.4
Operation within the band: 40.66 - 40.70 MHz and above 70 MHz
3.4.1
Type of device: perimeter protection systems
(1) Note: A perimeter protection systems employs RF emissions to sense field disturbance, and to
detect movement within the protected area.
(2) Operation within the band: 40.66 - 40.70 MHz
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(3) Fundamental emission: (measurement instrumentation employing an average detector)
(3.1) Perimeter protection system: The field strength of any emissions within this band shall not
exceed 500 microvolts/meter at 3 meters.
(3.2)
The provisions in Section 5.14 for limiting peak emissions apply.
(4) Unwanted emission: The field strength of unwanted emissions shall not exceed the general radiated
emission limits in Section 2.8.
(5) The frequency tolerance: The frequency tolerance of the carrier shall be ±0.01%. This frequency
tolerance shall be maintained for a temperature variation of -20 to +50°C at normal supply voltage,
and for a variation in the primary supply voltage within ±15% of the rated supply voltage at a
temperature of 20°C. For battery operated equipment, the equipment tests shall be performed using
new battery. In the mean time, it shall meet the requirement of Section 5.17.
3.4.2
Type of device: intermittent or periodic devices.
(1) Operation within the bands 40.66-40.70MHz and above 70MHz.
(2) The bandwidth of the emission shall be no wider than 0.25% of the center frequency for devices
operating above 70MHz and below 900MHz. For devices operating above 900MHz, the emission
shall be no wider than 0.5% of the center frequency. Bandwidth is determined at the points 20dB
down from the modulated carrier.
(3) For devices operating within the frequency band 40.66 - 40.70 MHz, the bandwidth of the emission
shall be confined within the band edges and the frequency tolerance of the carrier shall be 0.01%.
This frequency tolerance shall be maintained for a temperature variation of -20 to +50 C at normal
supply voltage, and for a variation in the primary supply voltage within 15% of the rated supply
voltage at a temperature of 20 C. For battery operated equipment, the equipment tests shall be
performed using new battery. In the mean time, it shall meet the requirement of Section 5.17.
(4) Types of operation: Choose one between (4.1) and (4.2).
(4.1)
The device is restricted to the transmission of a control signal such as those used with alarm
systems, door openers, remote switches, etc. Continuous transmissions, such as Radio control
of toys, video, or data are not permitted. Periodic transmissions at regular predetermined
intervals are not permitted. However, polling or supervision transmissions used in security or
safety applications are allowed if the periodic rate of transmission does not exceed more than
one second duration per hour for each transmitter.
(4.1.1)
For operation in 314-316MHz and 433-435MHz: A manually operated transmitter shall
employ a switch that will automatically deactivate the transmitter within not more than 5
seconds being released. A transmitter activated automatically shall cease transmission
within 5 seconds after activation.
(4.1.2)
For operation in frequencies other than (4.1.1): A manually operated transmitter shall
employ a switch that will automatically deactivate the transmitter within not more than 5
seconds of being pushed. A transmitter activated automatically shall cease transmission
within 5 seconds after activation.
(4.2)
The device has automatic control mechanism such that each transmission time is shorter
than 1 second, and stop duration of a transmission period is longer than 10 seconds and is not
shorter than transmission time multiplied by 30.
(5) Field strength of fundamental emissions:
(5.1)
In addition to the provisions of Section 2.7, the field strength of emissions from intentional
radiators at 3 meters operated under this section 4.1 shall not exceed limits in the table below
(measurement instrumentation employing an average detector, CISPR quasi-peak detector is
accepted as well): The tighter limit applies at the band edges.
Fundamental frequency (MHz)
Field strength of fundamental
emissions (microvolts/meter)
Unwanted emissions
(microvolts/meter)
40.66-40.70
2250
225
70 -130 (included)
1250
125
130 (excluded) -174 (included)
1250-3750(Note 1, 2)
125-375(Note 1, 2)
174 (excluded) -260 (included)
3750
375
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Note:
260 (excluded) -470 (included)
3750-12500(Note 1, 2)
375-1250(Note 1, 2)
above 470 (excluded)
12500
1250
1. With linear interpolations, the formulas for calculating the maximum permitted fundamental
field strengths are as follows:
(1.1)
for the band 130-174MHz, μV/m at 3 meters = 56.81818 x (frequency bands, MHz)
-6136.3636
(1.2)
for the band 260-470MHz, μV/m at 3 meters = 41.6667 x (frequency bands, MHz)
-7083.3333
2. The maximum permitted unwanted emission level is 20dB below the maximum permitted
fundamental level, or meets the requirement of Section 2.8, whichever is less. If the field
strength is based on measurement instrumentation employing an average detector, it must
meet the peak emissions of Section 5.14.
(5.2)
In addition to the provisions of Section 2.7, the field strength of emissions from intentional
radiators at 3 meters operated under this section 4.2 shall not exceed limits in the table below
(measurement instrumentation employing an average detector, CISPR quasi-peak instrumentation
is accepted as well): The tighter limit applies at the band edges.
Fundamental frequency (MHz)
Field strength of fundamental
emissions (microvolts/meter)
Unwanted emissions
(microvolts/meter)
40.66-40.70
1000
100
70 -130 (included)
500
50
130 (excluded) -174 (included)
500-1500(Note 1, 2)
50-150(Note 1, 2)
174 (excluded) -260 (included)
1500
150
260 (excluded) -470 (included)
1500-5000(Note 1, 2)
150-500(Note 1, 2)
above 470 (excluded)
5000
500
Note: 1. With linear interpolations, the formulas for calculating the maximum permitted fundamental
field strengths are as follows:
(1) for the band 130-174MHz, μV/m at 3 meters = 22.72727 x (frequency bands, MHz)
-2454.545
(2) for the band 260-470MHz, μV/m at 3 meters = 16.6667 x (frequency bands, MHz)
-2833.3333
2. The maximum permitted unwanted emission level is 20dB below the maximum permitted
fundamental level, or meets the requirement of Section 2.8, whichever is less. If the field
strength is based on measurement instrumentation employing an average detector, it must
meet the peak emissions of Section 5.14.
3.4.3
Type of device: any radiated devices except for those described in Section 3.4.1 and 3.4.2.
(1) Operation within the band: 40.66 - 40.70 MHz
(2) Fundamental emission: The field strength of any emissions within this band shall not exceed 1
millivolts/meter at 3 meters.
(3) Unwanted emission: The field strength of unwanted emissions shall not exceed the general radiated
emission limits in Section 2.8.
(4) The frequency tolerance: The frequency tolerance of the carrier shall be ±0.01%. This frequency
tolerance shall be maintained for a temperature variation of -20 to +50°C at normal supply voltage,
and for a variation in the primary supply voltage within ±15% of the rated supply voltage at a
temperature of 20°C. For battery operated equipment, the equipment tests shall be performed using
new battery. In the mean time, it shall meet the requirement of Section 5.17.
4.5
Operation within the band: 49.82-49.90MHz
3.5.1
Type of device: any radiated device.
(1) Fundamental emission: The field strength of any emission within this band shall not exceed 10
-9-
millivolts/meter at 3 meters (measurement instrumentation employing an average detector). The
provisions in Section 5.14 for limiting peak emissions apply.
(2) Unwanted emission:
(1.3)
The field strength of any emissions appearing in the bands 49.81-49.82MHz and 49.9049.91MHz shall be attenuated at least 26dB below the level of the unmodulated carrier or to
the general limits in Section 2.8, whichever permits the higher emission levels.
(1.4)
The field strength of any emissions below 49.81MHz (exclusive) or above 49.91MHz
(exclusive) shall not exceed the general radiated emission limits in Section 2.8.
(1.5)
Use measurement instrumentation employing an average detector function to measure at 3
meters. Field strength greater than 20 μV/m shall be recorded in the test report.
(3) For a home-built intentional radiator, the following standards may be employed:
4.6
(1.6)
The RF carrier and modulation products shall be maintained within the band 49.8249.90MHz.
(1.7)
The total input power to the device measured at the battery or the power line terminals shall
not exceed 100mW under any condition of modulation.
(1.8)
The antenna shall be a single element, 1 meter or less in length, permanently mounted on
the enclosure containing the device.
(1.9)
Emissions outside of this band shall be attenuated at least 20dB below the level of the
unmodulated carrier.
Operation within the band 72.0-73.0MHz
3.6.1
Type of device: Auditory assistance device. An intentional radiator used to provide auditory
assistance to a handicapped person or persons. Such a device may be used for auricular training
in an education institution, for auditory assistance at places of public gatherings, such as a
theater, auditorium or meeting.
(1) Fundamental emission: The field strength of any emission within this band shall not exceed 80
millivolts/meter at 3 meters (measurement instrumentation employing an average detector). The
provisions in Section 5.14 for limiting peak emissions apply.
(2) Bandwidth: Emissions from the intentional radiator shall be confined within a band 200kHz wide
centered on the frequency bands. The 200kHz band shall lie wholly within the frequency range of
72.0-73.0MHz.
(3) The field strength of any emissions radiated on any frequency outside of the specified 200kHz band
shall not exceed 1500 microvolts/meter at 3 meters.
4.7
Operation within the band: 88.0-108.0MHz
3.7.1
Type of device: any radiated device.
(1) Fundamental emission: The field strength of fundamental emissions shall not exceed 250
microvolts/meter at 3 meters (measurement instrumentation employing an average detector). The
provisions in Section 5.15.2. for limiting peak emissions apply.
(2) Emissions from the intentional radiator shall be confined within a 200kHz band, which shall lie wholly
within the frequency range of 88.0-108.0MHz.
(3) The field strength of any emissions radiated on any frequency outside of the specified 200kHz band
shall not exceed the general radiated emission limits in Section 2.8.
4.8
Operation within the bands: 174.0-216.0 MHz, 584MHz-608MHz
3.8.1
Type of device: Operation under the provisions of this Section is restricted to biomedical telemetry
devices which are the intentional radiators used to transmit measurements of either human or
animal biomedical phenomena to a receiver.
(1) Frequency bands: 174-216MHz.
(2) The field strength of any emissions radiated within the specified 200kHz band shall not exceed 1500
microvolts/meter at 3 meters.
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(3) Outside band emission: The field strength of any emissions within this band shall not exceed 150
millivolts/meter at 3 meters.
(4) Bandwidth: Emissions from the intentional radiator shall be confined within a 200kHz band, which
shall lie wholly within the frequency range of 174-216MHz.
(5) Above measurement instrumentation employing an average detector. The provisions in Section 5.14
for limiting peak emissions apply.
3.8.2
Type of device: Operation under the provisions of this Section is restricted to biomedical telemetry
devices which are the intentional radiators used to transmit measurements of either human or
animal biomedical phenomena to a receiver. Such device is restricted to operate only in hospitals
but does not extend to mobile vehicles, such as ambulances, even if those vehicles are
associated with a health care facility.
(1) Frequency bands: 174-216MHz, 584-608MHz.
(2) Fundamental emission: The field strength of emissions radiated shall not exceed 50 millivolts/meter
at 3 meters (measurement instrumentation employing an average detector).
(3) Outside band emission: The field strength of outside the specified band shall not exceed the general
radiated emission limits in Section 2.8.
(4) At least 5.5km away from the 64dBuV/m field strength contour of a broadcasting, TV broadcast
station or an associated TV booster station is needed. At least 3.1km away from the 74dBuV/m field
strength contour of a low power TV or a TV translator station is needed.
(5) Shall be installed by professional person. Before installation, shall evaluate the radio environment
and the user shall retain assessment record. Biomedical telemetry devices must not cause harmful
interference to licensed TV broadcast stations or to other authorized radio services. If harmful
interference occurs, the interference must either be corrected or the device must immediately cease
operation on the occupied frequency.
4.9
Operation within the bands 216-217MHz
3.9.1
Type of device: The purpose is for voice or data transmission, but two-way communications is
prohibited. The applicable devices are listed below:
- Auditory assistance communication: Such as hearing aid devices, hearing assistant devices
for handicapped individuals, language translation assistance equipments, assistant listening
devices (except for assistant microphones), and assistant guiding devices.
- Health care related communications for the patient.
(1) Transmitting channels: There are three types of transmission Channels.
(1.1)
Standard Channel: channel number from n=1 to n=40, the center frequencies are 216.0125 +
(n-1) x 0.025MHz with a channel bandwidth of 25kHz and the frequency tolerance is 0.005%.
(1.2)
Wide-band Channel: channel number from n=41 to n=60, the center frequencies are 216.025 +
(n-41) x 0.05MHz with a channel bandwidth of 50kHz and the frequency stability is 0.005%.
(1.3)
Narrow-band Channel: channel number from n=61 to n=260, the center frequencies are
216.0025 + (n-61) x 0.005MHz with a channel bandwidth of 5kHz, an authorized bandwidth
(the maximum permitted tranmitted bandwidth) of 4kHz, and the frequency stability is
0.00015%.
(2) Output power: No more than 100mW (e.r.p).
(3) Unwanted emission: The unwanted emission shall be attenuated below to the fundamental power P (in
unit of W) as following,
(3.1)
Transmitters with standard-band channel:
(3.1.1)
Emissions 12.5kHz to 22.5kHz away from the channel center frequency: at least 30dB.
(3.1.2)
Emissions more than 22.5kHz away from the channel center frequency: At least 43 + 10
log(P) dB.
(3.2)
Transmitters with wide-band channel:
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(3.2.1)
Emissions 25kHz to 35kHz away from the channel center frequency: at least 30dB.
(3.2.2)
Emissions more than 35kHz away from the channel center frequency: At least 43 + 10
log(P) dB.
(3.3)
Transmitters with narrow-band channel:
(3.3.1)
On any frequency within the authorized bandwidth: 0dB.
(3.3.2)
On any frequency removed from the center of the authorized bandwidth by a displacement
frequency fd (in kHz) of more than 2kHz up to and including 3.75kHz: The lesser of 30 + 20
(fd - 2) dB, or 55 + 10 log (P) dB, or 65dB.
(3.3.3)
On any frequency beyond 3.75kHz removed from the center of the authorized bandwidth:
At least 55 + 10 log(P) dB.
(4) The operation of this device shall not interfere with legal communications.
(5) The operational location of this device is limited to educational and trainging facilities, guided facilities,
nursing facilities, families, or indoor usage.
(6) If the device is not entirely within a building, the tip of the antenna shall not exceed 30.5m above the
ground.
4.10
Operation within the bands 2400.0-2483.5MHz, 5725.0-5875.0MHz, 24.0-24.25GHz
3.10.1
Type of device: Intentional radiators employing frequency hopping spread spectrum or digital
modulation techniques.
(1) Frequency bands:
(1.10) 2400 -2483.5 MHz
(1.11)
5725.0-5850.0MHz
(2) The maximum peak output power:
(2.1)
For frequency hopping systems in the 2400-2483.5MHz band employing at least 75 hopping
channels, and all frequency hopping systems in the 5725-5850MHz band: below 1 Watt
(inclusive).
(2.2)
According to other limits (Section 6.1.2), all other frequency hopping systems in the 24002483.5 band excluded by Section 2.1: below 0.125 Watt (inclusive).
(2.3)
For systems using digital modulation in the 2400-2483.5MHz, and 5725-5850MHz bands:
below 1 Watt.
In addition to the peak output power described in Appendix 2 for measurement, the
maximum conducted output power may also be used.
Maximum Conducted Output Power is defined as the average of all symbols of the
signaling alphabet delivered to all antennas and antenna when the transmitter is operating at
its maximum power level. The average must not include any time intervals during which the
transmitter is off or is transmitting at a reduced power level. If multiple modes of operation are
possible (e.g. alternative modulation methods), the maximum conducted output power is the
highest total transmit power occurring in any mode.
(3) Limits of antenna gains:
(3.1)
For fixed, point-to-point operations, the following conditions shall be met:
(3.1.1)
For systems operated in the 2400-2483.5MHz, the peak conducted output power of the
intentional radiator is reduced by 1dB for every 3dB when the directional gain of the
antenna exceeds 6dBi.
(3.1.2)
Systems operated in the 5725-5850MHz band may employ transmitting antennas with
directional gain greater than 6dBi without any corresponding reduction in transmitter peak
conducted output power.
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(3.2)
(3.3)
In addition to Section 3.1, for systems employing transmitting antenna with directional gain
greater than 6dBi, the peak conducted output power from the intentional radiator shall be
reduced by the amount in dB that exceeds 6dBi.
Transmitters that emit multiple directional beams, simultaneously or sequentially, for the
purpose of directing signals to individual receivers or to groups of receivers shall comply with
the following requirements:
(3.3.1)
If the transmitter employs an antenna system that emits multiple directional beams but
does not emit multiple directional beams simultaneously, the total output power conducted
to the array or arrays that comprise the device shall not exceed the limit specified in
paragraph 3.10.1 (2) of this section. However, the total conducted output power shall be
reduced by 1dB below the specified limits for each 3dB that the directional gain of the
antenna/antenna array exceeds 6dBi. The directional antenna gain shall be computed as
follows:
(A) The directional gain shall be calculated as the sum of 10log (number of array elements
or staves) plus the directional gain of the element or stave having the highest gain.
(B) A lower value for the directional gain than that calculated in paragraph (A) of this
section will be accepted if sufficient evidence is presented, e.g., due to shading of the
array or coherence loss in the beam forming.
(3.3.2)
If a transmitter employs an antenna that operates simultaneously on multiple directional
beams using the same or different frequency channel(s), the power supplied to each
emission beam is subject to the power limit specified in this section (3.3.1). If transmitted
beams overlap, the power shall be reduced to ensure that their aggregate power does not
exceed the limit specified in this section (3.3.1). In addition, the aggregate power
transmitted simultaneously on all beams shall not exceed the limit specified in this section
(3.3.1) by more than 8dB.
(3.3.3)
Transmitters that emit a single directional beam shall operate under the provisions of 3.1
and 3.2 of this section.
(4) The antenna specification is not subject to the requirement of Section 2.2.
(5) Limits on emissions outside the frequency band:
In any 100kHz bandwidth outside the frequency band in which the spread spectrum or digitally
modulated intentional radiator is operating, the radio frequency power that is produced by the
intentional radiator below that in the 100kHz bandwidth within the band that contains the highest
level of the desired power, the attenuation shall be as below:
(5.1) The attenuation shall be at least 20dB when the conducted power is measured according to the
Appendix II of this part, based on either an RF conducted or a radiated measurement.
(5.2) The attenuation shall be at least 30dB when the conducted power is measured according to the
paragraph (2)(2.3) of this section (3.10.1).
In addition, radiated emissions which fall in section 2.7 the restricted bands must also comply with
the radiated emission limit specified in section 2.8.
(6) Other limits:
(6.1)
Frequency hopping systems:
(6.1.1)
Frequency hopping systems shall have hopping channel carrier frequencies separated by
a minimum of 25kHz or the 20dB bandwidth of the hopping channel, whichever is greater.
However, frequency hopping systems operated in 2400-2483.5MHz with output power not
greater than 125mW, the intervals of hopping channel carrier frequencies shall not be less
than 25kHz or two thirds of the 20dB bandwidth of the hopping channel, whichever is
greater. The system shall hop to channel frequencies that are selected at the system
hopping rate from a pseudorandomly ordered list of hopping frequencies. Each frequency
must be used equally on the average by each transmitter. The system receivers shall have
input bandwidths that match the hopping channel bandwidths of their corresponding
transmitters and shall shift frequencies in synchronization with the transmitted signals.
(6.1.2)
Frequency hopping systems in the 2400-2483.5MHz band shall use at least 15 nonoverlapping channels. The average time of occupancy on any channel shall not be greater
than 0.4 seconds within a period of 0.4 seconds multiplied by the number of hopping
channels employed. Frequency hopping systems which use fewer than 75 hopping
frequencies may employ intelligent hopping techniques to avoid interference to other
transmissions.
(6.1.3)
Frequency hopping systems operating in the 5725-5850MHz band shall use at least 75
-13-
hopping frequencies. The maximum 20dB bandwidth of the hopping channel is 1MHz. The
average time of occupancy on any frequency shall not be greater than 0.4 seconds within
a 30 second period.
(6.2)
Digital modulation techniques system:
(6.2.1)
For digitally modulated systems, the minimum 6dB bandwidth shall be at least 500 kHz.
(6.2.2)
For digitally modulated systems, the peak power spectral density conducted from the
intentional radiator to the antenna shall not be greater than 8dBm in any 3kHz band
during any time interval of continuous transmission.
(6.3)
The hybrid system: The hybrid systems employ a combination of both frequency hopping and
digital modulation techniques.
(6.3.1)
The frequency hopping operation of the hybrid system, with the direct sequence operation
turned off, shall have an average time of occupancy on any frequency not to exceed 0.4
seconds within a time period in seconds equal to the number of hopping frequencies
employed multiplied by 0.4.
(6.3.2)
The digital modulation operation of the hybrid system, with the frequency hopping turned
off, shall comply with the power density requirements of those specified in paragraph
6.2.2 Digital modulation techniques system of Section 6.2 Other limits.
(6.4)
Frequency hopping spread spectrum systems are not required to employ all available
hopping channels during each transmission. However, the system, consisting of both the
transmitter and the receiver, must be designed to comply with all of the regulations in this
section should the transmitter be presented with a continuous data (or information) stream. In
addition, a system employing short transmission bursts must comply with the definition of a
frequency hopping system and must distribute its transmissions over the minimum number of
hopping channels specified in this section.
(6.5)
The incorporation of intelligence within a frequency hopping spread spectrum system that
permits the system to recognize other users within the spectrum band so that it individually
and independently chooses and adapts its hopsets to avoid hopping on occupied channels is
permitted. The coordination of frequency hopping systems in any other manner for the
express purpose of avoiding the simultaneous occupancy of individual hopping frequencies
by multiple transmitters is not permitted.
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3.10.2
Type of device: any radiated device.
(1) Frequency bands:
(1.1)
2400.0-2483.5 MHz
(1.2)
5725-5875 MHz
(1.3)
24.0-24.25 GHz
(2) Fundamental emission: Field strength limits are specified at a distance of 3 meters. Emissions
radiated outside of the specified frequency bands, except for harmonics, shall be attenuated by at
least 50dB below the level of the fundamental or to the general radiated emission limits in Sec. 2.8,
whichever is the lesser attenuation.
Fundamental frequency
(MHz)
Field Strength of
Fundamental Emmisions
(millivolts/meter)
Field Strength of of Harmonics
Emmisions (microvolts/meter)
2400-2483.5
50
500
5725-5875
50
500
24000-24250
250
2500
(3) Measurement instrumentation employing an average detector. The provisions in Section 5.14 for
limiting peak emissions apply.
4.11
Operation within the bands 2435.0-2465.0MHz, 5785.0-5815.0MHz, 10500.0-10550.0MHz, 24075.024175.0MHz
3.11.1
Type of device: Intentional radiators used as field disturbance sensors are devices that
establishes a radio frequency field in its vicinity and detects changes in that field resulting from
the movement of persons or objects within its range, while excluding perimeter protection
systems.
(1) Frequency bands:
(1.1)
2435.0 - 2465.0 MHz
(1.2)
5785 -5815 MHz
(1.3)
10500 -10550 MHz
(1.4)
24075 -24175 MHz
(2) The field strength of fundamental emissions and harmonics emissions within these bands specified at
a distance of 3 meters shall comply with the following table:
Fundamental frequency
(MHz)
Field Strength of
Fundamental
Emmisions
(millivolts/meter)
Field Strength of of
Harmonics Emmisions
(microvolts/meter)
2435-2465
500
1.6
5785-5815
500
1.6
10500-10550
2500
25.0
24075-24175
2500
25.0
(3) Outside band emission: Emissions radiated outside of the specified frequency bands shall be
attenuated by at least 50dB below the level of the fundamental or to the general radiated emission
limits in Section 2.8., whichever is the lesser attenuation.
(4) The emission limits are based on measurement instrumentation employing an average detector. The
provisions in Section 5.14 for limiting peak emissions apply.
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4.12
Operation within the bands 2.9-3.26GHz, 3.267-3.332GHz, 3.339-3.3458GHz, 3.358- 3.6GHz
3.12.1
Type of device: Automatic vehicle identification systems, AVIS, which use swept frequency
techniques for the purpose of automatically identifying transportation vehicles.
(1) Frequency bands:
(1.1)
2.9-3.26GHz
(1.2)
3.267-3.332GHz
(1.3)
3.339-3.3458GHz
(1.4)
3.358-3.6GHz
(2) Radiated emission limits:
(2.1)
The field strength anywhere within the frequency range swept by the signal shall not exceed
3000 microvolts/meter/MHz at 3 meters in any direction.
(2.2)
An AVIS, when in its operating position, shall not produce a field strength greater than 400
microvolts/meter/MHz in any direction within ±10 degrees of the horizontal plane.
(2.3)
The field strength of radiated emissions outside the frequency range swept by the signal shall
be limited to a maximum of 100 microvolts/meter/MHz at 3 meters, measured from 30MHz to
20GHz for the complete system.
(2.4)
The emission limits are based on measurement instrumentation employing an average
detector. The provisions in Section 5.14 for limiting peak emissions apply.
(2.5)
The signal emission from the AVIS shall occur only when the vehicle to be identified is within
the radiated field of the system.
(2.6)
Statements included in the operation instructions: “during use the antenna may not be
pointed within ±XX degrees of the horizontal plane.”(Note)
Note: The double asterisks in condition three (XX) shall be replaced by the responsible party with
the angular pointing restriction necessary to meet the horizontal emission limit specified in
(2.2).
(3) Type of Antenna: A horn antenna or other comparable directional antenna for signal emission.
(4) The sweep repetition rate: From 4,000 sweeps per second to 50,000 sweeps per second.
(5) The test report shall contain the following contents:
(5.1)
Measurements of field strength denoted by microvolts/meter/MHz along with the intermediate
frequency of the spectrum analyzer or equivalent measuring receiver.
(5.2)
The angular separation between the direction at which maximum field strength occurs and
the direction at which the field strength is reduced to 400 microvolts/meter/MHz at 3 meters.
(5.3)
A photograph of the spectrum analyzer display showing the entire swept frequency signal
and a calibrated scale for the vertical and horizontal axes; the spectrum analyzer settings that
were used shall be labeled on the photograph.
(5.4)
The results of the frequency search for spurious and sideband emissions from 30 MHz to 20
GHz, exclusive of the swept frequency band, with the measuring instrument as close as
possible to the unit under test.
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4.13
Operation within the band 57.0-64.0GHz
3.13.1
Type of device: the provisions shown in this Section are only restricted to the products for High
Density Fixed Service (HDFS) which is used for Short Range Multimedia Broadband Networks
indoors.
(1) Limits on emission levels:
(1.1) The average power density of any emission, measured during the transmit interval, shall not
exceed 9μW/cm2 , as measured 3 meters from the radiating structure; and the peak power
density of any emission shall not exceed 18μW/cm2, as measured 3 meters from the radiating
structure.
(1.2) The average emission levels shall be calculated, based on the measured peak levels, over the
actual time period during which transmission occurs.
(1.3) Peak power density shall be measured with an RF detector that has a detection bandwidth that
encompasses the 57-64GHz band and has a video bandwidth of at least 10MHz, or using an
equivalent measurement method.
(2) Limits on spurious emissions:
(2.1) The power density of any emissions outside the 57-64GHz band shall consist solely of spurious
emissions.
(2.2) Radiated emissions below 40GHz shall not exceed the general limits in Section 2.8 of this part.
(2.3) Between 40GHz and 200GHz, the level of these emissions shall not exceed 90pW/cm2 at a
distance of 3 meters.
(2.4) The levels of the spurious emissions shall not exceed the level of the fundamental emission.
(3) Limits on the total peak transmitter output power
(3.1) For the transmitters with an emission bandwidth of larger than 100MHz,the total peak
transmitter output power shall not exceed 500mW.
(3.2) Transmitters with an emission bandwidth of not greater than 100MHz must limit their peak
transmitter output power to the product of 500mW times their emission bandwidth divided by
100MHz.
(3.3) For the purposes of this paragraph, emission bandwidth is defined as the instantaneous
frequency range occupied by a steady state radiated signal with modulation, outside which the
radiated power spectral density never exceeds 6dB below the maximum radiated power
spectral density in the band, as measured with a 100kHz resolution bandwidth spectrum
analyzer. The center frequency must be stationary during the measurement interval, even if not
stationary during normal operation (e.g. for frequency hopping devices).
(3.4) Peak transmitter output power shall be measured with an RF detector that has a detection
bandwidth that encompasses the 57-64GHz band and that has a video bandwidth of at least
10MHz, or using an equivalent measurement method.
(3.5) For radiated measurement, corrections to the transmitter output power may be made due to the
antenna and circuit loss.
(4) This frequency tolerance shall be maintained for a temperature variation of 0 to +50°C at normal
supply voltage, and for a variation in the primary supply voltage within ±15% of the rated supply
voltage at a temperature of 20°C Fundamental emissions must be contained within 57GHz-64GHz
during all conditions of operation.. For battery operated equipment, the equipment tests shall be
performed using new battery. In the mean time, it shall meet the requirement of Section 5.17.
4.14
3.14.1
(1)
(2)
Operation within the band 76.0-77.0GHz
Type of device: restricted to vehicle-mounted field disturbance sensors used as vehicle radar
systems. The transmission of additional information, such as data, is permitted provided the
primary mode of operation is as a vehicle-mounted field disturbance sensor. Operation under the
provisions of this section is not permitted on aircraft or satellites.
Frequency bands:76-77GHz.
Radiated emission limits:
(2.1)
If the vehicle is not in motion, the power density of any emission within the bands specified in
this section shall not exceed 200nW/cm2 at a distance of 3 meters from the exterior surface of
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(2.2)
(2.3)
the radiating structure.
For forward-looking vehicle-mounted field disturbance sensors, if the vehicle is in motion, the
power density of any emission within the bands specified in this section shall not exceed
60μW/cm2 at a distance of 3 meters from the exterior surface of the radiating structure.
For side-looking or rear-looking vehicle-mounted field disturbance sensors, if the vehicle is in
motion the power density of any emission within the bands specified in this section shall not
exceed 30μW/cm2 at a distance of 3 meters from the exterior surface of the radiating
structure.
(3)
The power density of any emissions outside the operating band shall consist solely of spurious
emissions and shall not exceed the following:
(3.1) Radiated emissions below 40GHz shall not exceed the general limits in Section 2.8 of this rule.
(3.2) Radiated emissions outside the operating band and between 40GHz and 200GHz shall not
exceed the following:
(3.2.1) For forward-looking vehicle-mounted field disturbance sensors: 600pW/cm 2 at a distance of
3 meters from the exterior surface of the radiating structure.
(3.2.2) For side-looking or rear-looking vehicle-mounted field disturbance sensors: 300pW/cm 2 at a
distance of 3 meters from the exterior surface of the radiating structure.
(3.3) For radiated emissions above 200GHz from field disturbance sensors operating in the 7677GHz band: the power density of any emission shall not exceed 1000pW/cm 2 at a distance of
3 meters from the exterior surface of the radiating structure.
(3.4) For field disturbance sensors operating in the 76-77 GHz band, the spectrum shall be
investigated up to 231 GHz.
(4)
Fundamental emissions must be contained within the frequency bands specified in this section
during all conditions of operation. Equipment is presumed to operate over the temperature range
-20 to +50°C with an input voltage variation of 85% to 115% of rated input voltage, unless
justification is presented to demonstrate otherwise.
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4
Conformance specification of special devices
4.15
Tunnel radio systems: An intentional radiator utilized as a communication transceiver by the
people work in the tunnel.
(1) Frequency bands: any frequency.
(2) Installation regulation: Operation of a tunnel radio system including intentional radiator and all
connecting wires shall be contained solely within a tunnel.
(3) Radiated emission limits: The total electromagnetic field from a tunnel radio system on any
frequency or frequencies appearing outside of the tunnel shall not exceed
the limits shown in Section 2.8. It shall follows Section 2.3 if apply voltage
on the public utility power lines.
(4) The antenna specification is not subject to the requirement of Section 2.2.
4.16
Cable locating equipment: An intentional radiator used intermittently by trained operators to locate
buried cables, lines, pipes and similar structures or elements. Operation entails coupling a radio
frequency signal onto the cable, pipe, etc. and using a receiver to detect the location of that
structure or element.
(1) Frequency bands: 9-490 kHz.
(2) The peak output power: Under any type of modulation technique shall be subject to the following
limits.
(2.1)
9-45 (exclusive) kHz: 10 watt.
(2.2)
45-490kHz: 1 watt.
(3) Modulation technique: any kind of non-voice modulation technique.
(4) It shall follows Section 2.3 if apply voltage on the public utility power lines.
(5) The antenna specification is not subject to the requirement of Section 2.2.
4.17
3.17.1
Radio control devices: including the remote controlled devices for model toys, industrial purposes
and also the radio data transceivers.
The remote controlled devices for model toys: The remote controlled devices for model toys:
including a model aircraft device or a model surface craft device.
(1) Limitation:
(1.1) It is for one-way communications only.
(1.2) It is not allowed to use in airport or aviation restriction area.
(1.3) It is subject to the military regulations whenever use in the military restricted area.
(1.4) It shall follow “Administrative regulations on remote controlled model aircraft device” when
use remote controlled model aircraft device.
(2) Frequency bands:
(2.1)
The frequencies listed below is for any type of model surface craft device operation:
26.995, 27.045, 27.095, 27.120, 27.136, 27.145, 27.195, 27.245MHz.
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(2.2)
The frequency bands listed below is for model aircraft device operation only:
72.0 - 72.99 MHz, channel bandwidth is 20 kHz.
(2.3)
The frequency bands listed below is for model surface craft device operation only:
75.41 - 75.99 MHz, channel bandwidth is 20 kHz.
(3) Effective radiated power (e.r.p): Under any modulation technique, the carrier power of the radio
controlled device shall not exceed the following limits.
(3.1)
26 -27MHz: model surface craft device: 4W; model aircraft device: 0.75 watt.
(3.2)
72-73MHz: 0.75 watt.
(3.3)
75-76MHz: 0.75 watt.
(4) Modulation technique: any kind of non-voice modulation technique.
(5) Bandwidth: within ±4kHz.
(6) The frequency tolerance:
(6.1)
26-27MHz: The frequency tolerance of the carrier shall be ±0.005%. This frequency
tolerance shall be maintained for a temperature variation of -20 to +50°C at normal supply
voltage, and for a variation in the primary supply voltage within ±15% of the rated supply
voltage at a temperature of 20°C. For battery operated equipment, the equipment tests shall
be performed using new battery. In the mean time, it shall meet the requirement of Section
5.17.
(6.2)
72-76MHz: The frequency tolerance of the carrier shall be ±0.002%. This frequency
tolerance shall be maintained for a temperature variation of -20 to +50°C at normal supply
voltage, and for a variation in the primary supply voltage within ±15% of the rated supply
voltage at a temperature of 20°C. For battery operated equipment, the equipment tests shall
be performed using new battery. In the mean time, it shall meet the requirement of Section
5.17.
(7) Unwanted emission:
(7.1)
26-27MHz:
(7.1.1) Emissions ±4kHz (exclusive) to ±8kHz (exclusive) from the channel center frequency:
At least 25 dB.
(7.1.2) Emissions ±8kHz (exclusive) to ±20kHz (exclusive) f from the channel center frequency:
at least 35dB.
(7.1.3) Emissions more than ± 20kHz (exclusive) from the channel center frequency: at least
43 + 10 log (max. output power) dB.
(7.2)
72-76MHz:
(7.2.1) Emissions ±4kHz (exclusive) to ±8kHz (inclusive) from the channel center frequency: At
least 25 dB.
(7.2.2) Emissions ±8kHz (exclusive) to ±10kHz (inclusive) from the channel center frequency:
at least 45dB.
(7.2.3) Emissions ±10kHz (exclusive) to ±20kHz (inclusive) from the channel center frequency:
at least 55dB.
-20-
(7.2.4) Emissions more than ± 20kHz (exclusive) from the channel center frequency: at least
56 + 10 log (max. output power) dB.
-21-
3.17.2
Radio controlled devices for industry: Radio frequency transceiver used only in the factory
building for transmitting digital control signal.
(1) Frequency bands: Limited to the following frequency.
Channel
Frequency (MHz)
Channel
Frequency (MHz)
1
480.050
7
480.200
2
480.075
8
480.225
3
480.100
9
480.250
4
480.125
10
480.275
5
480.150
11
480.350
6
480.175
12
480.400
(2) Effective radiated power (e.r.p): shall not exceed 10 mW.
(3) Modulation technique:F1D, F2D.
(4) Bandwidth: within 8.5kHz.
(5) The frequency tolerance: within 4ppm. This frequency tolerance shall be maintained for a
temperature variation of -20 to +50°C at normal supply voltage, and for a variation in the primary
supply voltage within ±15% of the rated supply voltage at a temperature of 20°C. For battery
operated equipment, the equipment tests shall be performed using new battery. In the mean time, it
shall meet the requirement of Section 5.17.
(6) Peak frequency deviation: within ±2.5kHz.
(7) Spurious emissions: more than 53dB (-53dBc) to the fundamental, or within 2.5μW (e.r.p).
3.17.3
Radio data transceiver: Radio transceiver used restricted inside the building for voice, images
and data communication.
(1)
Frequency bands: Restricted to the 10 channels below only, the 10th channel is for control
purpose.
(1.1) Restricted to the 6 channels below only,
Channel
Frequency (MHz)
1
429.1750
2
429.1875
3
429.2000
4
429.2125
5
429.2250
6
429.2375
(1.2) Restricted to the 10 channels below only,
Channel
Frequency (MHz)
Channel
Frequency (MHz)
1
429.8125 / 449.7125
6
429.8750 / 449.7750
2
429.8250 / 449.7250
7
429.8875 / 449.7875
3
429.8375 / 449.7375
8
429.9000 / 449.8000
-22-
4
429.8500 / 449.7500
9
429.9125 / 449.8125
5
429.8625 / 449.7625
10
429.9250 / 449.8250
(2) Effective radiated power (e.r.p): shall not exceed 10 mW.
(3) Modulation technique:F1D, F2D,F1E,F2E,F1F,及 F2F.
(4) Bandwidth: within 8.5kHz..
(5) Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio : Larger than 40dB
(6) For control channel, the duration of each transmission shall be less than 0.2 seconds and the silent
period shall be greater than 2 seconds. For other channel, the duration of each transmission shall
be less than 40 seconds and the silent period shall be greater than 2 seconds.
(7) The frequency tolerance: within 4ppm. This frequency tolerance shall be maintained for a
temperature variation of -20 to +50°C at normal supply voltage, and for a variation in the primary
supply voltage within ±15% of the rated supply voltage at a temperature of 20°C. For battery
operated equipment, the equipment tests shall be performed using new battery. In the mean time, it
shall meet the requirement of Section 5.17.
(8) Peak frequency deviation : within ±2.5kHz.
(9) Spurious emissions: more than 53dB (-53dBc) to the fundamental, or within 2.5μW (e.r.p).
4.3.4. Special note for compliance approval.
(1) The module compliance approval shall be conducted if end user is accessible to replace plug-in
type detector module. Each module should contain the whole frequency detection circuit including
the oscillator. Plug-in type oscillation crystal is not part of the frequency detector module and cannot
be altered by the used.
(2) The antenna must be integral attached onto the Low-power radio-frequency devices. External
antenna is not allowed. It shall be vertical polarization and zero gain compared to half-wave dipole
antenna.
(3) The frequency of the Low-power radio-frequency devices should be generated by crystal.
4.18
Citizens band radio service.
4.4.1 Transmitter:
(1)
Frequency bands: from 26.965MHz to 27.405MHz in total 40 channels (as table below)). The
channel 9 shall be specially marked for emergency call only.
Channel
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Frequency
(MHz)
26.965
26.975
26.985
27.005
27.015
27.025
27.035
27.055
27.065
27.075
Channel
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Frequency
(MHz)
27.085
27.105
27.115
27.125
27.135
27.155
27.165
27.175
27.185
27.205
-23-
Channel
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Frequency
(MHz)
27.215
27.225
27.235
27.245
27.255
27.265
27.275
27.285
27.295
27.305
Channel
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
Frequency
(MHz)
27.315
27.325
27.335
27.345
27.355
27.365
27.375
27.385
27.395
27.405
(2)
(3)
Channel interval: 10 kHz.
The frequency tolerance: within ±20ppm. This frequency tolerance shall be maintained for a
temperature variation of -20 to +50°C at normal supply voltage, and for a variation in the primary
supply voltage within ±15% of the rated supply voltage at a temperature of 20°C. For battery
operated equipment, the equipment tests shall be performed using new battery. In the mean time, it
shall meet the requirement of Section 5.17.
(4)
Effective radiated power (e.r.p): within 5W.
(5)
Modulation technique:
(5.1) AM (A3E): amplitude modulation below ±100%.
(5.2) FM (F3E): the peak frequency deviation is within ±2.5kHz.
(6)
Power in the adjacent channels:
-24-
(6.1) AM (A3E): The same as 7.1
(6.2) FM (F3E): no more than 20 nW under normal testing conditions.
(7)
Spurious emissions:
(7.1) AM (A3E):
(7.1.1) Emissions ±4kHz to ±8KHz from the channel center frequency: at least 25dB.
(7.1.2) Emissions ±8kHz to ±20 Hz from the channel center frequency: at least 35dB.
(7.1.3) Emissions more than ±20kHz from the channel center frequency: at least 53 + 10 log10
(output power) dB.
(7.2.)
FM (F3E):
(7.2.1) When the transmitter is operating, the spurious power in the following frequency bands
should not be more than 4nW::
41 MHz-68MHz, 87.5MHz-118MHz, 162MHz-230MHz, 470MHz-862MHz
(7.2.2) In addition to those specified in 7.2.1, the e.r.p of spurious power in the frequencies from
25MHz to 1GHz should not be more than 0.25μW.
(7.2.3) In addition to those specified in 7.2.1 and 7.2.2, the e.r.p. of spurious power in the
frequencies from 1GHz to 2GHz should not be more than 1μW.
(7.2.4) When the transmitter is in standby, the e.r.p of spurious power in the frequencies from
25MHz to 1GHz should not be more than 2nW, and in the frequencies from 1GHz to 2GHz
should not be more than 20nW.
4.4.2 The receiver:
(1.1.)
4.19
4.5.1
Unwanted emission: The field strength of unwanted emissions shall not exceed the general
radiated emission limits in Section 2.8.
Family radio service
Frequency bands: It is limited to the following 14 channels. (the total channel number displayed
shall not be over 14)
Channel
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Frequency (MHz)
467.5125
467.525
467.5375
467.550
467.5625
467.575
467.5875
Channel
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Frequency (MHz)
467.60
467.6125
467.625
467.6375
467.650
467.6625
467.675
4.5.2 Effective radiated power (e.r.p): below 1 Watt.
4.5.3 Modulation technique:F3E/F2D.
4.5.4 Bandwidth: within 12.5kHz.
4.5.5 The frequency tolerance: within 3ppm. This frequency tolerance shall be maintained for a
temperature variation of -20 to +50°C at normal supply voltage, and for a variation in the primary
supply voltage within ±15% of the rated supply voltage at a temperature of 20°C. For battery
operated equipment, the equipment tests shall be performed using new battery. In the mean
time, it shall meet the requirement of Section 5.17.
-25-
4.5.6 Peak frequency deviation : within ±2.5kHz.
4.5.7 Audio response: within 3.125kHz.
4.5.8 Unwanted emission: within 50W (e.r.p).
4.5.9 Receiver: within 20nW (e.r.p).
4.5.10 The antenna shall be vertically polarized and integral structure with transmitter.
4.5.11 The connecting to the external power is allowed, but the effective radiated power shall not
exceed 1 Watt.
4.5.12 FRS is allowed to use for one-way or two-way voice or no-voice communications.
4.5.13 Non-voice communications, which shall not encryption capability, is limited to establish voice
communications, send text messages, emergency messages, or location information:
(1) A non-voice emission is limited to squelch tones, such as CTCSS (Continuous Tone Controlled
Squelch System) and CDCSS (Continuous Digital Controlled Squelch System) to establish or
continue communications. If the tones are audible (more than 300 Hertz), it must last no longer
than 15 seconds at one time. If the tone is subaudible (300 Hertz or less), it may be transmitted
continuously
(2) The FRS unit may transmit digital data containing text messages, emergency messages, GPS
information, or requesting location information from one or more other FRS units. Digital data
transmissions must be initiated by a manual action or command of a user, except that an FRS
unit receiving an interrogation request may automatically respond with its location. Digital data
transmissions shall not exceed one second, and shall be limited to no more than one digital
transmission within a thirty-second period, except that an FRS unit may automatically respond
to more than one interrogation request received within a thirty-second period. FRS units are
prohibited from transmitting data in store-and-forward packet operation mode.
4.5.14 It is not allowed to connect to public telecommunications system.
4.20
Low power wireless microphone and wireless earphone
4.6.1
Note: A low power wireless microphone is used for transmission of voice or music by radio
waves to remote receiving equipments.
4.6.2 Frequency bands:
(1) 227.1 - 227.4 MHz, 229.4 - 230.0 MHz, 231.0 - 231.9 MHz
(2) 794.0 - 806.0 MHz
4.6.3 Transmitter part:
(1) Channel bandwidth: no more than 200kHz.
(2) Effective radiated power (e.r.p)::
(2.1) Operation within the bands 227.1-227.4MHz, 229.4-230.0MHz, 231.0-231.9MHz
Channel Bandwidth
e.r.p limit
No more than 50kHz
No more than 10mW.
Below 200kHz, above 50kHz (exclusive)
No more than 5mW
(2.2) Operation within the bands 794.0-806.0MHz: No more than 10mW.
-26-
(3) Frequency deviation: equal or less than ±75kHz.
(4) Frequency stability: below 25ppm (inclusive).
Over a temperature variation of -20 to +50°C at normal supply voltage, and for a variation in the
primary supply voltage within ±15% of the rated supply voltage at a temperature of 20°C. For
battery operated equipment, the equipment tests shall be performed using new battery. In the
mean time, it shall meet the requirement of Section 5.17.
1. Spurious emission (e.r.p):
4.6.4
In operation
Equal or less than 250nW
Standby
Equal or less than 2nW
Receiver part:
(1) Spurious emission (e.r.p): below 2nW.
4.6.5.
The antenna attached to transmitter shall be an integral structure.
4.21
Unlicensed national information infrastructure devices
4.7.1 Note:
(1) Intentional radiators operating in the frequency bands 5.25-5.35GHz, 5.470-5.725GHz and 5.7255.825 GHz that use wideband digital modulation techniques and provide a wide array of high data
rate mobile and fixed communications for individuals, businesses, and organizations.
(2) Parties employing U-NII devices to provide criticalcommunications services should determine if
there are any nearby Government radar systems that could affect their operation.
(3) Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) device shall not transmit on channels which
overlap the 5.600-5.650 GHz band if this device supports below function:
(3.1)This device supports Master Mode.
(3.2)This device supports Client Mode with Ad-Hoc function.
4.7.2
Power limits:
(1) For the band 5.25-5.35GHz, the peak transmit power over the frequency band of operation shall not
exceed the lesser of 50mW or 4dBm + 10log B, where B is the 26dB emission bandwidth in MHz. In
addition, the peak power spectral density shall not exceed 4dBm in any 1MHz band. If transmitting
antennas of directional gain greater than 6dBi are used, both the peak transmit power and the peak
power spectral density shall be reduced by the amount in dB that the directional gain of the antenna
exceeds 6dBi.
(2) For the band 5.470-5.725GHz, the peak transmit power over the frequency band of operation shall
not exceed the lesser of 250mW or 11dBm + 10log B, where B is the 26dB emission bandwidth in
MHz. In addition, the peak power spectral density shall not exceed 11dBm in any 1MHz band. If
transmitting antennas of directional gain greater than 6dBi are used, both the peak transmit power
and the peak power spectral density shall be reduced by the amount in dB that the directional gain
of the antenna exceeds 6dBi.
(3) For the band 5.725-5.825GHz, the peak transmit power over the frequency band of operation shall
not exceed the lesser of 1 W or 17dBm + 10log B, where B is the 26dB emission bandwidth in MHz.
In addition, the peak power spectral density shall not exceed 17dBm in any 1MHz band. If
transmitting antennas of directional gain greater than 6dBi are used, both the peak transmit power
and the peak power spectral density shall be reduced by the amount in dB that the directional gain
of the antenna exceeds 6dBi. However, fixed point-to-point U-NII devices operating in this band may
-27-
employ transmitting antennas with directional gain up to 23dBi without any corresponding reduction
in the transmitter peak output power or peak power spectral density. For fixed, point-to-point U-NII
transmitters that employ a directional antenna gain greater than 23 dBi, a 1 dB reduction in peak
transmitter power and peak power spectral density for each 1 dB of antenna gain in excess of 23 dBi
would be required. Fixed, point-to-point operations exclude the use of point-to-multipoint systems,
omnidirectional applications, and multiple collocated transmitters transmitting the same information.
The operator of the U-NII device, or if the equipment is professionally installed, the installer, is
responsible for ensuring that systems employing high gain directional antennas are used exclusively
for fixed, point-to-point operations.
(4) The peak transmit power must be measured over any interval of continuous transmission using
instrumentation calibrated in terms of a rms-equivalent voltage. The measurement results shall be
properly adjusted for any instrument limitations, such as detector response times, limited resolution
bandwidth capability when compared to the emission bandwidth, sensitivity, etc., so as to obtain a
true peak measurement conforming to the above definitions for the emission in question.
(5) The peak power spectral density is measured as a conducted emission by direct connection of a
calibrated test instrument to the equipment under test. If the device cannot be connected directly,
alternative techniques acceptable to the National Communications Commission may be used.
Measurements are made over a bandwidth of 1 MHz or the 26 dB emission bandwidth of the device,
whichever is less. A resolution bandwidth less than the measurement bandwidth can be used,
provided that the measured power is integrated to show total power over the measurement
bandwidth. If the resolution bandwidth is approximately equal to the measurement bandwidth, and
much less than the emission bandwidth of the equipment under test, the measured results shall be
corrected to account for any difference between the resolution bandwidth of the test instrument and
its actual noise bandwidth.
(6) The ratio of the peak excursion of the modulation envelope (measured using a peak hold function) to
the peak transmit power (measured as specified above) shall not exceed 13dB across any 1MHz
bandwidth or the emission bandwidth whichever is less.
4.7.3
Unwanted emission: The peak emissions outside of the frequency bands of operation shall be
attenuated in accordance with the following limits:
(1) For transmitters operating in the 5.25-5.35GHz and 5.470-5.725GHz band: all emissions outside of
the 5.25-5.35GHz and 5.470-5.725GHz band shall not exceed an EIRP of -27dBm/MHz.
(2) For transmitters operating in the 5.725-5.825GHz band: all emissions within the frequency range
from the band edge to 10 MHz above or below the band edge shall not exceed an EIRP of
-17dBm/MHz; for frequencies 10MHz or greater above or below the band edge, emissions shall not
exceed an EIRP of -27dBm/MHz.
(3) The above emission measurements shall be performed using a minimum resolution bandwidth of
1MHz. A lower resolution bandwidth may be employed near the band edge, when necessary,
provided the measured energy is integrated to show the total power over 1MHz.
(4) Unwanted emissions below 1GHz must comply with the general field strength limits set forth in
Section 2.8. Further, any U-NII devices using an AC power line are required to comply also with the
conducted limits set forth in Section 2.3.
(5) The field strength of unwanted emissions shall not exceed the general radiated emission limits in
-28-
Section 2.7.
(6) When measuring the emission limits, the nominal carrier frequency shall be adjusted as close to
the upper and lower frequency block edges as the design of the equipment permits.
-29-
4.7.4
(1) The device shall automatically discontinue transmission in case of either absence of information to
transmit or operational failure. These provisions are not intended to preclude the transmission of
control or signaling information or the use of repetitive codes used by certain digital technologies to
complete frame or burst intervals. Applicants shall include in their application for equipment
authorization a description of how this requirement is met.
(2) Transmit Power Control (TPC) and Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS):
(2.1) Transmit power control (TPC): U-NII devices operating in the 5.47~5.725GHz band shall
employ a TPC mechanism. The U-NII device is required to have thecapability to operate at
least 6dB below the mean EIRP value of 30dBm. A TPC mechanism is not required for
systems with an e.i.r.p. of less than 500mW.
(2.2) Radar detection function of Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS): U-NII devices operating in
the 5.47-5.725 GHz bands shall employ a DFS radar detection mechanism to detect the
presence of radar systems and to avoid co-channel operation with radar systems. The
minimum DFS detection threshold for devices with a maximum EIRP of 200mW to 1W is
-64dBm. For devices that operate with less than 200 mW EIRP the minimum detection
threshold is -62dBm. The detection threshold is the received power averaged over
1microsecond referenced to a 0dBi antenna. The DFS process shall be required to provide a
uniform spreading of the loading over all theavailable channels.
(2.2.1) Operational modes. The DFS requirement applies to the following operational modes:
(i) The requirement for channel availability check time applies in the master operational
mode.
(ii) The requirement for channel move time applies in both the master and slave
operational modes.
(2.2.2) Channel availability check time: A U-NII device shall check if there is a radar system
already operating on the channel before it can initiate a transmission on a channel and
when it has to move to a new channel. The U-NII device may start using the channel if no
radar signal with power level greater than the interference threshold values listed above is
detected within 60 seconds.
(2.2.3) Channel move time: After a radar’s presence is detected, all transmissions shall cease on
the operating channel within 10 seconds. Transmissions during this period shall consist of
normal traffic for a maximum of 200ms after detection of the radar signal. In addition,
intermittent management and control signals can be sent during the remaining time to
facilitate vacating the operating channel.
(2.2.4) Non-occupancy period: A channel that has been flagged as containing a radar system,
either by a channel availability check or in-service monitoring, is subject to a nonoccupancy
period of at least 30 minutes. The non-occupancy period starts at the time when the radar
system is detected.
4.7.5
Within the 5.25-5.35GHz band, U-NII devices will be restricted to indoor operations to reduce any
potential for harmful interference to co-channel MSS operations
-30-
4.7.6
The operation of the U-NII devices is subject to the conditions that no harmful interference is
caused. The user must stop operating the device immediately should harmful interference is
caused and shall not resume until the condition causing the harmful interference has been
corrected.
4.7.7
Manufacturers of U-NII devices are responsible for ensuring frequency stability such that an
emission is maintained within the band of operation under all conditions of normal operation as
specified in the user manual.
4.7.8
The antenna specification is not subject to the requirement of Section 2.2.
4.22
4.8.1
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) devices operating in UHF band
Note: Operation in the 922-928MHz band under the provisions of this Section is restricted to the
RFID devices empolying frequency hopping or digitally modulated techniques systems. Passive
tag devices are not subjected to this section.
4.8.1.1 Power limit:
(1) Installed areas and the maximum peak output power limit:
(a) For devices installed indoor or specific area: the maximum peak output power limit up to 1W
(inclusive).
(b) For devices installed outdoor: the maximum peak output power limit up to 0.5W (inclusive).
(c) As shown in paragraph (a), “specific area” is specified to particular, closed and restricted
fields with management (for both indoor and outdoor).
(2) If transmitting antennas of directional gain greater than 6dBi are used, the peak output power
from the intentional radiator shall be reduced by the amount in dB that exceeds 6dBi.
4.8.1.2 The antenna specification is not subject to the requirement of Section 2.2.
4.8.1.3 Radiated emission limits:
In any 100kHz bandwidth outside the frequency band in which the spread spectrum intentional
radiator is operating, the radio frequency power shall be at least 20dB below that in the 100kHz
bandwidth within the band that contains the highest level of the desired power, based on either
an RF conducted or a radiated measurement. In addition, radiated emissions which fall in
section 2.7 the restricted bands must also comply with the radiated emission limit specified in
section 2.8.
4.8.1.4 Other limits:
(1) Frequency hopping systems:
(a) Frequency hopping systems shall have hopping channel carrier frequencies separated by a
minimum of 25 kHz or the 20 dB bandwidth of the hopping channel, whichever is greater. The
system shall hop to channel frequencies that are selected at the system hopping rate from a
pseudorandomly ordered list of hopping frequencies. Each frequency must be used equally
on the average by each transmitter.
(b) Hopping channels and 20dB bandwidth limits: If the 20 dB bandwidth of the hopping channel
is less than or equal to 250 kHz, the system shall use at least 12 hopping frequencies. If the
20dB bandwidth of the hopping channel is greater than 250 kHz, the system shall use at least
6 hopping frequencies. The maximum allowed 20dB bandwidth of the hopping channel is
500kHz.
(c) Frequency hopping systems, the average time of occupancy on any frequency each times
shall not exceed 0.4 seconds within a time period in seconds equal to the number of hopping
channels employed multiplied by 0.4.
(2) Digital modulation techniques system:
(a) For digitally modulated systems, the minimum 6dB bandwidth shall be at least 500kHz.
-31-
(b)
For digitally modulated systems, the peak power spectral density conducted from the
intentional radiator to the antenna shall not be greater than 8dBm in any 3kHz band during
any time interval of continuous transmission.
(3) The hybrid system: The hybrid systems employ a combination of both frequency hopping and
digital modulation techniques.
(a) The frequency hopping operation of the hybrid system, with the direct sequence operation
turned off, shall have an average time of occupancy on any frequency each times shall not
exceed 0.4 seconds within a time period in seconds equal to the number of hopping channels
employed multiplied by 0.4.
(b) The digital modulation operation of the hybrid system, with the frequency hopping turned off,
shall comply with the power density requirements of those specified in (b) of Digital
modulation techniques system of Section 2 Other limits in this section 4.8.1.4.
(4) Frequency hopping spread spectrum systems are not required to employ all available hopping
channels during each transmission. However, the system, consisting of both the transmitter and
the receiver, must be designed to comply with all of the regulations in this section should the
transmitter be presented with a continuous data (or information) stream. In addition, a system
employing short transmission bursts must comply with the definition of a frequency hopping
system and must distribute its transmissions over the minimum number of hopping channels
specified in this section.
(5) The incorporation of intelligence within a frequency hopping spread spectrum system that
permits the system to recognize other users within the spectrum band so that it individually and
independently chooses and adapts its hopsets to avoid hopping on occupied channels is
permitted. The coordination of frequency hopping systems in any other manner for the express
purpose of avoiding the simultaneous occupancy of individual hopping frequencies by multiple
transmitters is not permitted.
4.8.2 Type of device: any radiated devices except for the frequency hopping systems of described in
Section 4.8.1.
(1) Frequency bands: 922-928 MHz
(2) Radiated emissions limits: All field strength limits are specified at a distance of 3 meters. The
field strength of fundamental and harmonic emissions shall comply with the limits shown in the
table below. Emissions radiated outside of the specified frequency bands, except for harmonics,
shall be attenuated by at least 50dB below the level of the fundamental or to the general
radiated emission limits in Section 2.8, whichever is the lesser attenuation.
Fundamental
Frequency (MHz)
Field Strength of Fundamental
(mv/m)
Field Strength of Harmonics
Emission (μv/m)
922-928
50
500
(3) The emission limits are based on measurement instrumentation employing an average
detector. The provisions in Section 5.15.2 for limiting peak emissions apply.
4.23
Auto, motorcycle theft-proof remote control
(1) Frequency bands: 467.4625 - 467.4875 MHz
(2) Output power: No more than 0.5 W (e.r.p)
(3) Unwanted emission: The field strength of unwanted emissions shall not exceed the general
radiated emission limits in Section 2.8.
(4) Only for transmitting control signals.
(5) The frequency tolerance:
Shall be maintained within ±3ppm of the operating bands. This frequency tolerance shall
be maintained for a temperature variation of -20 to +50°C at normal supply voltage, and for a
variation in the primary supply voltage within ±15% of the rated supply voltage at 20°C. For
battery-powered equipment, the equipment tests shall be performed using new battery.
(6) Types of operation:
-32-
(6.1)
(6.2)
4.24
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
4.25
Devices with manual operation must be fitted with a switch. Emissions shall be stopped
within 5 seconds after you push and release the switch.
For devices with automatic control mechanism: The duration of each emission shall be less
than 5 seconds. The off time between emission cycles shall be greater than 5 seconds.
Emissions are prohibited after 2 minutes of each trigger or state change.
Assistive vision disabled communication devices
Frequency bands: 475.5 - 476.5 MHz
Output power: No more than 0.5 W (e.r.p)
Unwanted emission: The field strength of unwanted emissions shall not exceed the general
radiated emission limits in Section 2.8.
The frequency tolerance:
The frequency tolerance of the carrier shall be ±0.01%. This frequency tolerance shall be
maintained for a temperature variation of -20 to +50°C at normal supply voltage, and for a variation
in the primary supply voltage within ±15% of the rated supply voltage at 20°C. For battery-powered
equipment, the equipment tests shall be performed using new battery.
Medical Implant Communications Service (MICS): is a medical service system specifically for
transmitting data in support of diagnostic or therapeutic functions between an external
programmer/control transceiver and an active medical implant transceiver placed in the human
body.
4.11.1
(1)
Terminology:
Emission bandwidth: The emission bandwidth shall be determined by measuring the width of the
signal between two points, one below the carrier center frequency and one above the carrier center
frequency, that are 20dB down relative to the maximum level of the modulated carrier. Determination
of the emissions bandwidth is based on the use of measurement instrumentation employing a peak
detector function with an instrument resolution bandwidth approximately equal to 1% of the emission
bandwidth of the device under measurement.
(2) MICS communications session: is a collection of transmissions that may or may not be continuous,
between co-operating medical implant devices and accessories.
(3) MICS channel: is any continuous segment of spectrum that is equal to the emission bandwidth of
the device with the largest bandwidth that is to participate in a MICS communications session.
4.11.2
Frequency bands: 402 - 405 MHz
4.11.3
Measurement requirements on MICS transceivers:
Apply to medical implant transceivers placed in the human body and programmer/control
transceivers:
(1) Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP):
(1.1)
The maximum EIRP for MICS transmitter stations is 25 microwatts in any 300kHz band.
(1.2)
The antenna associated with any MICS transmitter must be tested with the transmitter.
Caculate EIRP with the radiated field strength at 3-meter distance to the EUT.
(1.3)
The equivalent radiated field strength at 3 meters for 25 microwatts EIRP is 18.2mV/m when
measured on an open area test site, or 9.1mV/m when measured on a test site equivalent to
free space such as a fully anechoic test chamber.
(1.4)
In either case, compliance is based on measurements using a peak detector function and
measured over an interval of time when transmission is continuous and at its maximum power
level. In lieu of using a peak detector function, instrumentation techniques set forth in ANSI
C63.17-1998, Section 6.1.2.2.1 or Section 6.1.2.2.2 may be used in determining compliance
with the above specifications.
(2) Emission bandwidth:
(2.1)
Maximal emission bandwidth: 300 kHz.
(2.2)
The authorized bandwidth of the emission from a programmer/control transceiver shall not
exceed 300kHz. Full duplex or half duplex communications can be adopted provided that the
total amount of bandwidth utilized by all of the MICS channels employed in such a MICS
communications session does not exceed 300kHz.
-33-
(3)
Unwanted emission:
(3.1)
Any unwanted emissions shall not exceed the level of the fundamental emission.
(3.2)
Emissions within the MICS band (402-405 MHz) more than 150 kHz away from the center
frequency of the spectrum the transmission is intended to occupy, will be attenuated below the
transmitter output power by at least 20dB. Compliance with this limit is based on the use of
measurement instrumentation employing a peak detector function with an instrument
resolution bandwidth approximately equal to 1.0 percent of the emission bandwidth of the
device under measurement.
(3.3)
Emissions 250kHz or less that are above and below the MICS band (402-405MHz) will be
attenuated below the maximum permitted output power by at least 20dB. Compliance with this
limit is based on the use of measurement instrumentation employing a peak detector function
with an instrument resolution bandwidth approximately equal to 1.0 percent of the emission
bandwidth of the device under measurement.
(3.4)
Unwanted emissions more than 250kHz outside of the MICS band shall not exceed the
general radiated emission limits in Section 2.8.
(4) The frequency tolerance: Each transmitter in the MICS service must maintain a frequency stability
of ±100 ppm of the operating frequency over the range: 25 to 45°C in the case of medical implant
transmitters; and (2) 0 to 55°C in the case of medical implant programmer/control transmitters.
4.11.4
Measurement requirements on implant transmitters:
(1) For a transmitter intended to be implanted in a human body, the following test fixture must be used
to simulate operation of the implant under actual operating conditions.
(2) For measurement purposes to determine compliance with emission limits, the radiating
characteristics of an implant transmitter placed in a test fixture should approximate those of an
implant transmitter placed in a human body. An appropriate human torso simulator for testing
medical implant transmitters consists of a cylindrical Plexiglas container with a size of 30±0.5cm by
76±0.5cm with a sidewall thickness of 0.635±0.05cm. It must be completely filled with a material
that is sufficiently fluidic that it will flow around the implant without any voids (the saline cannot be
used). The dielectric and conductivity properties of this material must match the dielectric and
conductivity properties of human muscle tissue at 403.5MHz. All emissions measurements will be
made using the above specification at a nominal temperature of 20-25°C. A stand for the implant
inside the container must be provided that permits the radiating element or elements of the implant
to be positioned vertically and horizontally. The stand should also support any additional implant
leads associated with the therapeutic function in a fixed repeatable manner. The implant must be
mounted 6 cm from the sidewall and centered vertically within the container. The above fixture shall
be placed on a turntable such that the implant transmitter will be located at a nominal 1.5-meter
height above ground and at a 3-meter distance from the measurement antenna.
(3) A formula for a suitable tissue substitute material refers to FCC 47CFR Part95.639 (f) (2) (ii) or ETSI
EN 301839-1 Appendix C.
4.11.5
Measurement requirements on the medical implant programmer/control transmitters
(1) Frequency monitoring: Medical implant programmer/control transmitters must incorporate a
mechanism for monitoring the channel or channels that the MICS system devices intend to occupy.
Before a medical implant programmer/control transmitter initiates a MICS communications session,
the following criteria must be met:
(1.1) Within 5 seconds prior to initiating a communications session, circuitry associated with a medical
implant programmer/control transmitter must monitor the channel or channels the MICS system
devices intend to occupy for a minimum of 10 milliseconds per channel.
(1.2) Based on use of an isotropic monitoring system antenna, the monitoring threshold power level
must not be more than 10 logB (Hz) - 150 (dBm/Hz) + G (dBi) where B is the emission bandwidth
of the MICS communication session transmitter having the widest emission and G is the medical
implant programmer/control transmitter monitoring system antenna gain relative to an isotropic
antenna.
(1.3) If no signal in a MICS channel above the monitoring threshold power level is detected, the medical
implant programmer/control transmitter may initiate a MICS communications session involving
transmissions to and from a medical implant device on that channel. If a channel meeting the
criteria in Section 4.11.5 (1.2) of this section is unavailable, the channel with the lowest ambient
power level may be accessed.
(1.4) When a channel is selected prior to a MICS communications session, it is permissible to select an
alternate channel for use if communications is interrupted, provided that the alternate channel
selected is the next best choice using the above criteria. The alternate channel may be accessed
in the event a communications session is interrupted by interference. The following criteria must
be met:
(i) Before transmitting on the alternate channel, the channel must be monitored for a period of at
least 10 milliseconds.
-34-
(ii) The detected power level during the monitoring period must be no higher than 6 dB above the
power level detected when the channel was chosen as the alternate channel.
(iii) In the event that this alternate channel provision is not used by the MICS system or if the
criteria in (i) and (ii) are not met, a channel must be selected using the access criteria specified
in Section 4.11.5 (1.1) through Section 4.11.5 (1.3).
(2) MICS communications sessions initiated by a medical implant event are not required to use the
access criteria set forth in Section 4.11.5 (1).
(3) Measurement procedure on frequency monitoring mechanism refers to requirements set forth in ESTI
EN 301 839-1.
4.11.6 Programmer/control transceivers: Shall meet requirements in Section 2.8.
4.11.7 Programmer/control devices using AC power line shall meet limits of power-line conducted
emissions in Section 2.3.
-35-
5
5.1
Inspection rules
For swept frequency equipment, measurements shall be made with the frequency sweep stopped at
those frequencies chosen for the measurements to be reported.
5.2
Measurements of radio frequency emissions conducted to the public utility power lines shall be
performed using a 50 ohm/50 uH line impedance stabilization network (LISN).
5.3
Field strength measurements shall be made, to the extent possible, on an open field site. Test sites
other than open field sites may be employed if they are properly calibrated so that the measurement
results correspond to what would be obtained from an open field site. In the case of equipment for
which measurements can be performed only at the installation site, such as perimeter protection
systems, carrier current systems, and systems employing a "leaky" coaxial cable as an antenna,
measurements for verification or for obtaining a grant of equipment authorization shall be performed at
a minimum of three installations that can be demonstrated to be representative of typical installation
sites.
5.4
For intentional radiators, measurements of the variation of the input power or the radiated signal level
of the fundamental frequency component of the emission, as appropriate, shall be performed with the
supply voltage varied between 85% and 115% of the nominal rated supply voltage. For battery
operated equipment, the equipment tests shall be performed using a new battery. A preliminary
measurement should be performed to determine the configuration and condition that produces the
highest emission for the final measurement as follows:
(5.4.1) with the EUT powered in turn from both ac and dc (battery) power, if the device has these
capability.
(5.4.2) with the EUT supplied in turn with the appropriate modulation and without modulation, if the
modulation of carrier can be controlled.
(5.4.3) for hand-held or body-worn devices, the EUT shall be rotated through three orthogonal axes.
5.5
To the extent practicable, the device under test shall be measured at the distance specified in the
appropriate rule section. The distance specified corresponds to the horizontal distance between the
measurement antenna and the closest point of the equipment under test, support equipment or
interconnecting cables as determined by the boundary defined by an imaginary straight line periphery
describing a simple geometric configuration enclosing the system containing the equipment under
test. The equipment under test, support equipment and any interconnecting cables shall be included
within this boundary.
5.5.1
At frequencies at or above 30 MHz, measurements may be performed at a distance other than
what is specified provided measurements are not made in the near field except where it can be
shown that near field measurements are appropriate due to the characteristics of the device; and
it can be demonstrated that the signal levels needed to be measured at the distance employed
can be detected by the measurement equipment. Measurements shall not be performed at a
distance greater than 30 meters unless it can be further demonstrated that measurements at a
distance of 30 meters or less are impractical. When performing measurements at a distance
other than that specified, the results shall be extrapolated to the specified distance using an
extrapolation factor of 20dB/decade (inverse linear-distance for field strength measurements;
inverse-linear-distance-squared for power density measurements).
5.5.2
At frequencies below 30 MHz, measurements may be performed at a distance closer than that
specified in the regulations; however, an attempt should be made to avoid making
measurements in the near field. When performing measurements at a closer distance than
specified, the results shall be extrapolated to the specified distance by either making
measurements at a minimum of two distances on at least one radial to determine the proper
extrapolation factor or by using the square of an inverse linear distance extrapolation factor (40
dB/decade).
5.5.3
When the measurement distance is other than the distance specified, the test report shall
indicate the extrapolation method used during the measurement.
5.5.4
Measurements shall be performed at a sufficient number of radials around the equipment under
test to determine the radial at which the field strength values of the radiated emissions are
maximized. The maximum field strength at the frequency being measured shall be reported.
5.6
Equipment under test shall be adjusted, using those controls that are readily accessible to or are
intended to be accessible to the consumer, in such a manner as to maximize the level of the
emissions. For those devices to which wire leads may be attached by the consumer, tests shall be
performed with wire leads attached. The wire leads shall be of the length to be used with the
equipment if that length is known. Otherwise, wire leads one meter in length shall be attached to the
equipment. Longer wire leads may be employed if necessary to interconnect to associated
peripherals.
-36-
5.6.1 For tabletop EUT, the requirements for configuration of power-line conducted emission test is as
following:
(1) Interconnecting cables that hang closer than 40cm to the ground plane should be folded
forming a bundle 30 to 40cm long, hanging approximately in the middle between ground plane
and test table.
(2) I/O cable not connected to a peripheral shall be bundled in center to keep the cable away from
the grounding surface by 40 cm approximately. The end of the cable may be terminated if
required using correct terminating impedance.
(3) LISN at least 80cm from nearest part of EUT chassis. The excess power cord of EUT shall be
bundled close to the center of the cord. Non-EUT equipment needs not to be bundled.
(4) Rear of EUT, including peripherals, shall be all aligned and flush with rear of tabletop. Rear of
tabletop shall be 40cm removed from the vertical conducting plane.
5.6.2 For floor-standing EUT, the requirements for configuration of power-line conducted emission test
is as following:
(1) Excess interconnecting cable shall be bundled in center and the bundling shall not exceed
40cm.
(2) LISN is 80cm from nearest part of EUT chassis. The excess power cord of EUT and
peripherals shall be bundled in center to appropriate length.
(3) I/O cable that are not connected to a peripheral shall be bundled in center. The end of the cable
may be terminated if required using correct terminating impedance.
(4) EUT and all cables shall be insulated from ground plane by 3 to 12mm of insulating material.
5.6.3 For tabletop EUT, the requirements for configuration of radiated emission test is as following:
(1) Interconnecting cables that hang closer than 40cm to the ground plane should be folded
forming a bundle 30 to 40cm long, hanging approximately in the middle between ground plane
and test table.
(2) I/O cable not connected to a peripheral shall be bundled in center to keep the cable away from
the grounding surface by 40 cm approximately. The end of the cable may be terminated if
required using correct terminating impedance.
(3) Rear of EUT, including peripherals, shall be all aligned and flush with rear of tabletop.
(4) The power cords of EUT and peripheral drape to the floor and need not to be bundled.
5.6.4 For floor-standing EUT, the requirements for configuration of radiated emission test is as
following:
(1) Excess interconnecting cable shall be bundled in center and the bundling shall not exceed
40cm.
(2) The excess power cord of EUT and peripherals shall be bundled in center to appropriate
length.
(3) I/O cable that are not connected to a peripheral shall be bundled in center. The end of the
cable may be terminated if required using correct terminating impedance.
(4) EUT and all cables shall be insulated from ground plane by 3 to 12mm of insulating material.
5.7
For a composite system that incorporates devices contained either in a single enclosure or in separate
enclosures connected by wire or cable, testing for compliance with the standards shall be performed
with all of the devices in the system functioning. If an intentional radiator incorporates more than one
antenna or other radiating source and these radiating sources are designed to emit at the same time,
measurements of conducted and radiated emissions shall be performed with all radiating sources that
are to be employed emitting. A device which incorporates a carrier current system shall be tested for
compliance with whatever rules would apply to the device.
5.8
If the device under test provides for the connection of external accessories, including external
electrical input signals, the device shall be tested with the accessories attached. The device under test
shall be fully exercised with these external accessories. The emission tests shall be performed with
the device and accessories configured in a manner that tends to produce maximized emissions within
the range of variations that can be expected under normal operating conditions. Only one test using
peripherals or external accessories that are representative of the devices that will be employed with
the equipment under test is required. All possible equipment combinations do not need to be tested.
The accessories or peripherals connected to the device being tested shall be unmodified,
commercially available equipment.
5.9
If the equipment under test consists of a central control unit and an external or internal accessory(ies)
(peripheral) and the party verifying the equipment or applying for a grant of equipment authorization
-37-
manufactures or assembles the central control unit and at least one of the accessory devices that can
be used with that control unit, testing of the control unit and/or the accessory(ies) must be performed
using the devices manufactured or assembled by that party, excluding any other needed devices
which the party does not manufacture or assemble. If the party verifying the equipment or applying for
a grant of equipment authorization does not manufacture or assemble the central control unit and at
least one of the accessory devices that can be used with that control unit or the party can demonstrate
that the central control unit or accessory(ies) normally would be marketed or used with equipment
from a different entity, testing of the central control unit and/or the accessory(ies) must be performed
using the specific combination of equipment which is intended to be marketed or used together. Only
one test using peripherals or external accessories that are representative of the devices that will be
employed with the equipment under test is required. All possible equipment combinations do not need
to be tested. The accessories or peripherals connected to the device being tested shall be unmodified,
commercially available equipment.
5.10
If the individual devices in a composite system are subject to different technical standards, each such
device must comply with its specific standards. In no event may the measured emissions of the
composite system exceed the highest level permitted for an individual component.
5.11
Modular transmitter: In order to be considered a modular transmitter, the device must be a complete
RF transmitter, and can be installed on different platforms.
The modular transmitter shall meet the following requirements:
(1.1)
The modular transmitter must have its own RF shielding.
(1.2)
The modular transmitter must have buffer for modulation/data inputs, if such inputs are
provided.
(1.3)
The modular transmitter must have its own power supply regulation.
(1.4)
The modular transmitter must comply with the antenna requirements of Section 2.2. Any
antenna used with the module, with specifications presented, must be tested under maximum
output power and maximum gain of the transmitter.
(1.5)
The modular transmitter must not be inside another device during testing. It can be installed on
an extending fixture.
(1.5.1)
DC or AC power lines and data input/output lines connected to the module must not contain
ferrites, unless they will be marketed with the module and instructions.
(1.5.2)
Length of these lines shall be length typical of actual use or, if that length is unknown, at
least 10cm.
(1.5.3)
Any accessories, testing fixture, peripherals, or support equipment connected to the module
during testing shall not be modified.
5.12
Measurements on intentional radiators or receivers, shall be performed and, if required, reported for
each band in which the device can be operated with the device operating at the number of
frequencies in each band specified in the following table:
Frequency range over
which device operates
Number of
frequencies
Location in the range of operation
1Mhz or less
1
Middle
1-10 MHz
2
More than 10Mhz
3
One near the top and the other near the bottom
One near the top, one near the bottom and another
near the center
5.13
The amplitude of spurious emissions that are attenuated more than 20dB below the permissible value
need not be reported unless specifically required elsewhere in this standard.
5.14
Frequency measurement range:
5.14.1 The spectrum shall be investigated from the lowest radio frequency signal generated in the
device, without going below 9 kHz, up to the tenth harmonic of the highest fundamental
frequency or to 40 GHz, whichever is lower. If the intentional radiator operates at or above 10
GHz and below 30 GHz: to the fifth harmonic of the highest fundamental frequency or to 100
GHz, whichever is lower. If the intentional radiator operates at or above 30 GHz: to the fifth
harmonic of the highest fundamental frequency or to 200 GHz, whichever is lower.
5.14.2 Particular attention should be paid to harmonics and subharmonics of the carrier frequency as
well as to those frequencies removed from the carrier by multiples of the oscillator frequency.
Radiation at the frequencies of multiplier stages should also be checked.
-38-
5.15
Specifications of measuring equipement: The conducted and radiated emission limits shown in this
rule are based on the following, unless otherwise specified elsewhere in this rule.
5.15.1 On any frequency or frequencies below or equal to 1000MHz, the limits shown are based on
measuring equipment employing a CISPR quasi-peak detector function and related
measurement bandwidths, unless otherwise specified. The specifications for the measuring
instrument using the CISPR quasi-peak detector can be found in Publication 16 of the
International Special Committee on Radio Interference (CISPR) of the International
Electrotechnical Commission. As an alternative to CISPR quasi-peak measurements, the
responsible party, at its option, may demonstrate compliance with the emission limits using
measuring equipment employing a peak detector function, properly adjusted for such factors as
pulse desensitization, as long as the same bandwidths as indicated for CISPR quasi-peak
measurements are employed.
Note: For pulse modulated devices with a pulse-repetition frequency of 20 Hz or less and for which
CISPR quasi-peak measurements are specified, compliance with the regulations shall be
demonstrated using measuring equipment employing a peak detector function, properly adjusted
for such factors as pulse desensitization, using the same measurement bandwidths that are
indicated for CISPR quasi-peak measurements.
5.15.2 On any frequency of frequencies above 1000MHz, the radiated limits shown are based upon the
use of measurement instrumentation employing an average detector function. When average
radiated emission measurements are specified in the regulations, including emission
measurements below 1000MHz, there is also a limit on the radio frequency emissions, as
measured using instrumentation with a peak detector function, corresponding to 20dB above the
maximum permitted average limit for the frequency being investigated unless a different peak
emission limit is otherwise specified in the rules. Unless otherwise specified, measurements
above 1000MHz shall be performed using a minimum resolution bandwidth of 1MHz.
Measurement of AC power line conducted emissions are performed using a CISPR quasi-peak
detector, even for devices for which average radiated emission measurements are specified.
5.15.3 Unless otherwise specified, when the radiated emission limits are expressed in terms of the
average value of the emission, and pulsed operation is employed, the measurement field
strength shall be determined by averaging over one complete pulse train, including blanking
intervals, as long as the pulse train does not exceed 0.1 seconds. As an alternative (provided the
transmitter operates for longer than 0.1 seconds) or in cases where the pulse train exceeds 0.1
seconds, the measured field strength shall be determined from the average absolute voltage
during a 0.1 second interval during which the field strength is at its maximum value. The exact
method of calculating the average field strength shall be submitted with the test report.
5.16
Modulation applied: Unless specified in the individual test instructions or when modulation is needed
to produce a transmitted signal (e.g. single-sideband suppressed carrier transmitters), modulation
does not need to be applied during testing. When modulation is specified in individual tests, the
following provisions can be applied:
5.16.1 For voice-only modulated devices (200 to 3000Hz) except cordless telephones, a 1000Hz sine
wave at 100dB SPL (0dB SPL is 20μPa) shall be applied 10cm from the microphone.
5.16.2 If the EUT is modulated from internal sources, then the internal sources shall be applied.
5.16.3 If the EUT is equipped with input terminals for external modulation, modulating signals of sine
wave shall be applied at the maximum rated level and appropriate frequency.
5.17
Unless the operation of EUT requires different range, the ambient temperature and humidity shall be
within the range of 10°C to 40°C and 10% to 90% respectively.
5.18
Battery operating end point: For battery operated only device, the frequency stability shall be
measured with supplying the EUT primary voltage at the battery operating end point which is
specified by the manufacturer and record the frequency.
5.19
Frequency response: if measurement of frequency response is specified in individual provision, the
test data should cover a range of 100Hz to 5000Hz.
5.20
RF exposure assessment: If RF Exposure Assessment is required in individual provision, the
requirements are as following.
5.20.1 For purposes of RF exposure assessment requirements, Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) shall
be measured as transmitters whose radiating structures are designed to be used within 20
centimeters of the body of the user. Limits are as follows:
-39-
Position
Whole-Body
Partial-Body
Hands, Wrists, Feet and
Ankles
Occupational/Controlled
Exposure (W/kg)
0.4
8.0
20.0
General Population/Uncontrolled
Exposure (W/kg)
0.08
1.6
4.0
Note 1: Whole-Body SAR is averaged over the entire body, partial-body SAR is averaged over any 1
gram of tissue defined as a tissue volume in the shape of a cube. SAR for hands, wrists, feet
and ankles is averaged over any 10 grams of tissue defined as a tissue volume in the shape
of a cube.
Note 2: At frequencies above 6.0GHz, SAR limits are not applicable and MPE limits for power density
should be applied at 5cm or more from the transmitting device.
5.20.2 For purposes of RF exposure assessment requirements, Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE)
shall be measured, if separation distance of at least 20 centimeters is normally maintained
between radiating structures and the body of the user or nearby persons. Limits are as follows:
(1) Limits for Occupational/Controlled Exposure
Frequency Range
(MHz)
0.3-3.0
Electric Field
Strength (V/m)
Magnetic Field
Strength (A/m)
Power Density
(mW/cm2)
Averaging Time
(minutes)
614
1.63
*100
6
1842/f
4.89/f
*900/f2
6
30-300
61.4
0.163
1.0
6
300-1,500
-----
-----
f/300
6
1,500-100,000
-----
-----
5.0
6
3-30
Note 1: asterisk (*) is plane-wave equivalent power density.
Note 2: f is the testing frequency in MHz.
(2) Limits for General Population/Uncontrolled Exposure
Frequency Range
(MHz)
0.3-3.0
3-30
30-300
300-1,500
1,500-100,000
Electric Field
Strength (V/m)
Magnetic Field
Strength (A/m)
Power Density
(mW/cm2)
Averaging Time
(minutes)
614
1.63
*100
30
1842/f
4.89/f
*180/f2
30
27.5
0.073
1.0
30
-----
-----
f/1500
30
-----
-----
1.0
30
Note 1: asterisk (*) is plane-wave equivalent power density.
Note 2: f is the testing frequency in MHz.
-40-
Appendix Measurement on low power radio frequency devices
Appendix I Measurement on intentional radiators
I.
Note:
The following procedure may be used as a guide for determining compliance of international radiators
operation on frequencies above 30 MHz that can be tested on an open site with certain regulatory
requirements.
II.
Test items:
(I) AC power line conducted emission measurements setup: applies only to EUTs that operate from public
utility powerlines.
1. The ac power line conducted emission test site shall meet requirement of CNS13306-1; The measuring
instruments, containing the LISN, shall meet requirement of CNS13306-1.
2. The EUT shall be configured in accordance with CNS13438. If the EUT uses a detachable antenna,
these measurements shall be made with a suitable dummy load connected to the antenna output
terminals; otherwise, the tests shall be made with the antenna connected and, if adjustable, fully
extended.
3. Use the type and length of interface cables specified in 5.6 and connect them to the interface ports on
the EUT. In accordance with 5.6.1, the bundle should be secured with masking tape or any other
nonconducting material that will not affect the measurements.
4. Connect the EUT power cord to one LISN and connect the peripheral or support equipment power
cords to a separate LISN. AC power for all LISNs is to be obtained from the same one power source. If
the EUT power cord is long enough to be bundled, the bundle should be secured with masking tape or
any other nonconducting material that will not affect the measurements. Power cords of non-EUT
equipment do not require bundling. Drape ac power cords of non-EUT equipment over the rear edge of
the table, and route them down onto the floor of the ac powerline conducted emission test site to the
second LISN. Power cords of floor-standing accessory equipment may be routed in any convenient
fashion atop the reference groundplane or insulating material specified in 5.6.2. Power cords of
peripheral equipment should not be draped over the top of an LISN.
5. The EUT shall be supplied with the appropriate modulation. If the EUT transmit only pulse modulation
and has coding switches, these shall be set to the position that produces the maximum duty cycle
during measurements.
(II) AC power line conducted emission measurements:
1. Check the calibration of measuring instrument using either an internal calibrator or a known signal level
from an external signal generator.
2. A spectrum analyzer or other instrument providing spectral display is recommended for exploratory ac
powerline conducted emission measurements. Connect the measuring instrument to the RF port of a
section of the LISN supplying current to the EUT using a suitable length of coaxial cable. Terminate all
other RF ports of the LISN in 50-ohm resistive. Set the 6dB bandwidth of the measuring instrument to
not less than 10 kHz and the detector function to the peak mode. Set the controls on the measuring
instrument to enable viewing the entire frequency range for which limits are specified.
3. Activate the EUT and the measuring instrument. The EUT should be set to transmit on any one
convenient frequency in its rated range.
4. Exercise the EUT in all modes of operation as specified in 5.4. Accessory equipment connected to the
EUT shall be exercised individually.
5. Use the procedure in 5.8 to determine the arrangement of the EUT system that produces the emission
with the highest amplitude relative to the limit. The EUT may be turned off and on to determine which
emissions emanate from it.
-41-
6. Repeat step 5 with the measuring instrument connected to the RF port of the other LISN section
supplying the EUT with ac power.
Note: Measurement are to be made only on emanations at the RF ports of the LISNs connected to the
EUT.
7. Select the EUT arrangement and mode of operation that produced the highest emission relative to the
limit for final ac powerline conducted emission measurements. If the EUT is moved to a final ac
powerline conducted emission test site from an exploratory conducted emission test site, be sure to remaximize the highest emission according to 5.8. Set the bandwidth and the detector function of the
instrument to measure the final ac powerline conducted emission from the EUT.
8. Repeat step 7 with the measuring equipment connected to the RF port of the other LISN section
supplying the EUT with ac power.
9. Record the EUT arrangement, mode of operation, and interconnect cable or wire positions used for
final ac powerline conducted emission measurements. This can be done with either diagrams or
photographs.
(III) Radiated emission measurements setup:
1. The measuring instruments shall conform to the requirements in CNS13306-1.
2. The EUT shall be positioned on a turntable as specified in 5.6 and configured as “AC power line
conducted emission measurements setup”.
3. If operated from ac power, connect the power cord of the EUT and of any accessory equipment to the
ac power source receptacle located on the turntable. If the battery operated, begin the tests with a new
or a fully charged battery installed in the EUT. The AC power cords of the EUT and accessories do not
require bundling. Drape all ac power cords of equipment tested on a tabletop over the rear edge of the
table and route them down onto the turntable surface to the ac receptacle. AC power cords of floorstanding equipment may be routed in any convenient fashion.
4. If the EUT is provided only with an adjustable permanently attached antenna, it shall be tested with this
antenna extended to its maximum length. If the EUT is provided with terminals for connection of an
external antenna, connect the antenna normally used with the EUT to these terminals, and position it in
a typical location or orientation.
5. The EUT shall be supplied with modulation as specified in Section 5.16. If the EUT transmits only
pulsed modulation and has coding switches, these shall be set to the position that produces the
maximum duty cycle during measurements.
(IV)Radiated emission measurement:
1. Check the calibration of measuring instrument using either an internal calibrator or a known signal level
from an external signal generator.
2. A spectrum analyzer or other instrument providing a spectral display is recommended for exploratory
radiated measurements. The frequency range may be scanned in segments or in its entirely depending
on the rated frequency range of the measurement antenna [see NOTE under step 5], and the
resolution and noise floor of the measuring instrument. Set the 6dB bandwidth of the measuring
instrument to 100kHz or greater and the detector function to the peak mode. Set the display on the
measuring instrument to enable viewing of emissions. Adjust the sweep speed control so the analyzer
display is calibrated. Video filter is not used for measurement.
Note:I.
II.
If ambient radio or TV signals are of such magnitude or spacing that emission from the EUT
may be hidden, the scan width control can be set to 10 MHz per division or less to identify
EUT emission. Use of a bandwidth less than 100kHz may be helpful.
The bandwidth of the measuring instrument shall be wider than the pulse repetition frequency
of the transmitted signal to measure its maximum peak level.
3. Activate the EUT and the measuring instrument. If the EUT operates over a range of frequencies, set it
to one of the number of frequencies specified in 5.12.
-42-
Note: These exploratory tests shall be run with the EUT powered in turn from both ac and dc (battery)
power, if the device has these capabilities, to determine which power source produces the
highest emission relative to the limit.
4. Exercise the EUT as specified 5.4. Accessories connected to the EUT shall be exercised
independently.
5. Use a procedure in 5.8 to maximize emission from the EUT and note the EUT latitude, arrangement,
operating mode, and interconnect cable or wire positions that produce the highest emission relative to
the limit. In addition, exploratory radiated emission testing of hand-held or body-worn devices shall
include rotation of the EUT through three orthogonal axes to determine the latitude that produces the
highest emission relative to the limit.
Note: Exploratory scanning of radiated emission. A broadband antenna is recommended for
exploratory scanning of radiated emission. It shall be necessary to change to other measurement
antennas during this process to cover the complete frequency range of the test.
6. Tune the spectrum analyzer to the next segment of the frequency spectrum to be scanned, and repeat
step 3 through 5 until the frequency range of interest has been investigated. When radiation
measurements are required on an EUT on more than one operating frequency, repeat setp 3 through 5
for each additional frequency.
7. Select the EUT arrangement, operating mode, and interconnecting cable or wire positions from step 5
that produced the highest emission relative to the limit to use for final radiated measurements. Set the
bandwidth and the detector function as specified in appropriated section.
8. It is recommended that highest emission relative to the limit be remaximized per Section 5.8 before
performing final measurements, even if the EUT is not moved from a exploratory to a final radiated
emission test site, because slight variations in cable or wire positions can cause large variations in
signal amplitude. Only slight variation in cable movements should be needed to remaximize the highest
emission again.
Note: The same measurement antenna and distance should be used for remaximizing the highest
emission relative to the limit at the final radiated emission test site.
9. Place the measurement antenna the distance from the EUT specified in the appropriate regulations.
10. Follow the procedure to measure final radiated emission from the EUT on the number of frequencies
specified. When average detector function limits are specified for a pulse-modulated transmitter, the
average level of emission may be found by measuring the peak level of the emissions and correcting
them with the duty cycle detailed as follows:
Note: It may be necessary to use multiple measurement antennas during this process to cover the
complete frequency range of the test.
10.1 Turn on the transmitter, and set it to transmit the pulse train continuously.
10.2 Tune a spectrum analyzer to the transmitter, carrier frequency, and set the spectrum analyzer
resolution bandwidth wide enough to encompass all significant spectral components. The video
bandwidth should be at least as wide as the resolution bandwidth.
10.3 Set the spectrum analyzer vertical scale (amplitude) to the linear mode and the analyzer frequency
scan to 0 Hz. If necessary, move the receiving antenna closer to the device to obtain a convenient
signal level.
10.4 Connect a storage oscilloscope to the video output of the spectrum analyzer that is used to
demodulate and detect the pulse train.
10.5 Adjust the oscilloscope settings to observe the pulse train, and determine the number and width of
the pulses, as well as the period of the train.
10.6 Measure the pulsewidth by determining the time difference between the two half-voltage points on
the pulse.
10.7 When the pulse train is less than 100 ms, including blanking intervals, calculating the duty cycle by
averaging the sum of the pulswidths over one complete pulse train. Alternatively, or when the
pulse train exceeds 100 ms, calculate the duty cycle by averaging the sum of the pulsewidths over
the 100 ms width with highest average value.
-43-
10.8 Multiply the peak-detector field strength (expressed in uV/m) of an emission from a transmitter
using pulsed modulation by the duty cycle just measured to determine the average detector field
strength of that emission for comparison to the average detector limit.
10.9 If regulations do not require radiated measurements above 1 GHz, proceed to step 13. If radiated
measurements above 1 GHz are required, an instrument capable of measuring both peak and
average detector function signals shall be used. Set the bandwidth of this instrument to 1 MHz and
the detector function to the peak mode.
11. If all of the emission levels above 1 GHz as measured with the peak detector function comply with the
average limit specified by the appropriate regulations, proceed to step 13. If any of thess emission
levels exceed the average lkimit but comply with the peak limit, proceed to step 12.
12. Set the detector function of the measuring instrument to the average mode and remeasure only those
emissions form step 11 that complied with the peak limits but exceed the average limits.
13. Record the EUT arrangement, operating mode, and cable or wire positions used for final radiated
emission measurements. This can be done with either diagrams or photographs.
14. Where radiated measurements are required on an EUT on more than one operating frequency, the
report shall list the field strength measured at the fundamental frequency, the field strength of the three
highest harmonic or spurious emissions relative to the limit, and the field strength of the three highest
restricted band emissions relative to the limit and the frequencies on which these were observed, for
each operating frequency measured.
Note: For the purposes of this standard, spurious emissions shall include out-of-band emissions
typically associated with or generated by the modulating signal.
(V) Operating frequency measurement
1. Operating frequency measurements may be made at ambient room temperature if it is within the range
of +15 to +25 °C; otherwise, an environmental temperature test chamber set for a temperature of +20
°C shall be used. If possible, an antenna should be connected to the EUT, because use of dummy load
could affect the output frequency of the EUT. If the EUT is equipped with or uses an adjustable length
antenna, it should be fully extended.
2. Supply the EUT with nominal AC voltage, or install a new or fully charged battery in the EUT. Turn the
EUT on, and couple its output to the frequency counter or precision frequency measurement
instrument which is capable of measuring the required frequency tolerance of the EUT.
Note: For purposes of measurement, place the measurement antenna at a distance (15 cm, for
example) close to the EUT by connecting to the measurement instrument with a suitable length
of coaxial cable.
Tune it to one of the number of frequencies required in Section 5.12. Adjust the location of the
measurement antenna and the controls on the measuring instrument to obtain a suitable signal level. A
level that will not overload the measuring instrument, but is strong enough to allow measurement of the
fundamental frequency of the EUT. Turn the EUT on and record the operating frequency at startup and
two, five, and ten minutes after the EUT is energized. Four measurements in total are made.
3. Turn the EUT off, and place it inside an environmental chamber if appropriate. Allow about 30 minutes
for the chamber to stabilize at +20°C before proceeding.
4. If there is more than one frequency for measurement, turn the EUT off to allow enough time to stablize
to environmental temperature. Set the EUT to a new operating frequency, and repeat step 3 until the
number of frequencies specified in 5.12 are measured.
(VI)Frequency stability with respect to temperature
1. Place the EUT in an environmental temperature test chamber, and supply the EUT with nominal AC
voltage, or install a new fully charged battery in the EUT. If possible, an antenna should be connected
to the EUT, because use of dummy load could affect the output frequency of the EUT. If the EUT is
equipped with or uses an adjustable length antenna, it should be fully extended.
-44-
2. Supply the EUT with nominal ac voltage, or install a new or fully charged battery in the EUT. Turn the
EUT on, and couple its output to the frequency counter or precision frequency measurement
instrument which is capable of measuring the required frequency tolerance of the EUT.
Note: For purposes of measurement, place the measurement antenna at a distance (15 cm, for
example) close to the EUT by connecting to the measurement instrument with a suitable length
of coaxial cable.
Tune it to one of the number of frequencies required in Section 5.12. Adjust the location of the
measurement antenna and the controls on the measuring instrument to obtain a suitable signal level. A
level that will not overload the measuring instrument, but is strong enough to allow measurement of the
fundamental frequency of the EUT.
3. Turn the EUT off, and place it inside an environmental temperature chamber at the highest specified
temperature. For devices that are normally operated continuously, the EUT may be energized while
inside the test chamber. For devices that have oscillator heaters, energize only the heater circuit while
the EUT is inside the chamber.
4. While maintaining a constant temperature inside the environmental chamber, turn the EUT on and
record the operating frequency at startup and two, five, and ten minutes after the EUT is energized.
Four measurements in total are made.
5. If there is just one frequency for measurement, skip to step 6; otherwise, turn the EUT off to allow
enough time to stablize to environmental temperature. Set the EUT to a new operating frequency, and
repeat step 4 until the number of frequencies specified in 5.12 are measured.
6. Repeat step 4 and 5 for the EUT with the test chamber set at the lowest temperature. Before
proceeding measurement, make sure the test chamber is stablized.
(VII) Frequency stability with respect to input voltage
1. Operating frequency measurements may be made at ambient room temperature if it is within the range
of +15 to +25 °C; otherwise, an environmental temperature test chamber set for a temperature of +20
°C shall be used. If possible, an antenna should be connected to the EUT, because use of dummy load
could affect the output frequency of the EUT. If the EUT is equipped with or uses an adjustable length
antenna, it should be fully extended.
2. Supply the EUT with nominal AC voltage, or install a new or fully charged battery in the EUT. Turn the
EUT on, and couple its output to the frequency counter or precision frequency measurement
instrument which is capable of measuring the required frequency tolerance of the EUT.
Note: For purposes of measurement, place the measurement antenna at a distance (15 cm, for
example) close to the EUT by connecting to the measurement instrument with a suitable length
of coaxial cable.
3. Turn the EUT on, and tune it to one of the number of frequencies required in Section 5.12. Adjust the
location of the measurement antenna and the controls on the measuring instrument to obtain a suitable
signal level. A level that will not overload the measuring instrument, but is strong enough to allow
measurement of the fundamental frequency of the EUT. Turn the EUT off, and place it in an
environmental chamber. Allow about 30 minutes for the chamber to stabilize at +20 °C before
proceeding. A level that will not overload the measuring instrument, but is strong enough to allow
measurement of the fundamental frequency of the EUT. Turn the EUT on and record the operating
frequency at startup and two, five, and ten minutes after the EUT is energized. Four measurements in
total are made.
-45-
4. If there is just one frequency for measurement, skip to step 5; otherwise, turn the EUT off to allow
enough time to stablize to environmental temperature. Set the EUT to a new operating frequency, and
repeat step 3 until the number of frequencies specified in 5.12 are measured.
5. If the EUT is powered from the ac power line, supply it with 85% of the nominal ac voltage and repeat
step 3 and step 4. If the EUT is battery-operated supply it with the lowest working voltage.
6. If the EUT is powered from the ac power line, supply it with 115% of the nominal ac voltage and repeat
step 3 and step 4.
(VIII) Occupied bandwidth measurements
1. Check the calibration of measuring instrument using either an internal calibrator or a known signal level
from an external signal generator.
2. A spectrum analyzer or other instrument providing spectral display is recommended for. Video filter is
not used for measurement.
Note: In order to measure the modulated signal properly, a resolution bandwidth that is small compared
with the bandwidth required. Under some circumstance, the improper measurement will be made
due to too small bandwidth. Thus, the resolution bandwidth of the measuring instrument shall be
set to a value greater than 5% of the bandwidth requirements. When no bandwidth requirements
are specified, the resolution bandwidth of the measuring instrument is given in the following
table:
Fundamental frequency
(MHz)
0.009 to 30
30 to 1000
1000 to 4000
Minimum resolution
bandwidth (kHz)
1
10
100
3. Supply the EUT with nominal ac voltage, or install a new or fully charged battery in the EUT. Turn the
EUT on, and set it to any convenient frequency within its operating range. Set a reference level on the
measuring instrument at –26 dB below the unmodulated carrier. Take modulated frequency into
consideration, adjust resolution bandwidth, sweep speed, and sweep range and display calibrated.
4. Apply modulation signal(s) as specified in 5.16 and measure the frequencies of the modulated signal
from the EUT where it is the specified number of dB below the reference level set in step 3. This is the
occupied bandwidth. The measured result may be done with plotted graphs or photographs of the
measuring instrument display.
(IX) Input power measurements
1. If possible, an antenna should be connected to the EUT, because use of dummy load could affect the
output frequency of the EUT. If the EUT is equipped with or uses an adjustable length antenna, it
should be fully extended.
2. Supply the EUT with nominal ac voltage, or install a new or fully charged battery in the EUT. Typical
modulation shall be applied to the EUT during these tests.
3. Turn the EUT on and tune it to any one convenient frequency specified in Section 5.12. For
measurement of the input power to the final RF stage, while varying the input modulation sources,
measure the voltage at the supply to the final RF stage of the EUT, and the current in to that stage,
using a dc voltmeter and ammeter of appropriate ranges respectively. The input power to the final RF
stage is the product of these values. For input power measurements on an intentional radiator, use a
voltmeter and ammeter and measure, as appropriate, either the ac or dc voltage and current at the ac
power cord or battery input terminals of the intentional radiator. Again, the input power is the product of
these values.Turn the EUT on and tune it to any one convenient frequency specified in Section 5.12.
-46-
For measurement of the input power to the final RF stage, while varying the input modulation sources,
measure the voltage at the supply to the final RF stage of the EUT, and the current in to that stage,
using a dc voltmeter and ammeter of appropriate ranges respectively. The input power to the final RF
stage is the product of these values. For input power measurements on an intentional radiator, use a
voltmeter and ammeter and measure, as appropriate, either the ac or dc voltage and current at the ac
power cord or battery input terminals of the intentional radiator. Again, the input power is the product of
these values.
-47-
(X) Effective radiated power measurements
1. Test arrangement is as field strength radiation measurement
2. Set the resolution bandwidth of measuring instrument per 5.15.2. The video bandwidth is not less than
resolution bandwidth. In order to enable viewing of emissions, set the sweep speed, and sweep range
on the measuring instrument enough to cover all tested frequencies.
3. The receiving horizontal polarization antenna shall be raised or lowered through 1 to 4 meter height
range until a maximum reading is obtained on the measuring instrument, the EUT shall be rotated
through 360° around a horizontal axis until a higher maximum signal is received. This level shall be
recorded as reference level.
4. Repeat step 3 until all frequencies need to be measured are complete.
5. Repeat step 4 with search antenna in vertical polarized orientations.
6. Replace the EUT with a transmitting antenna (tuned dipole antenna for frequency no more than 1GHz
and horn antenna for frequency above 1 GHz) in horizontally polarized orientation and as the same
polarized orientation with search antenna. Connect the tuned dipole antenna to a standard signal
generator (SG). Tune SG to the frequency obtained from above steps as well as set SG at an
appropriate output level. Rise and lower the search antenna to get the highest value on the
measurement instrument, and then hold this position. Adjust the SG output to get an identical value
derived from step 3 on measurement instrument. Record this value for result calculated.
7. Repeat step 6 until all frequencies need to be measured are complete.
8. Repeat step 7 with both transmitting antenna and search antenna in vertical polarized orientations.
9. If the antenna gain of EUT relative to dipole antenna (or isotropic antenna) is known, then the ERP (or
EIRP) can be derived from the product of conducted output power at antenna terminal and the antenna
gain.
-48-
Appendix II Measurement Guidelines for Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
I.
Bandwidth:
Make the measurement with the spectrum analyzer’s resolution bandwidth (RBW) =100 kHz and video
bandwidth >= RBW. In order to make an accurate measurement, set the span > RBW.
II.
The peak output power:
This is a RF conducted test. Use a direct connection between the antenna port of the transmitter and
measurement instrument, through suitable attenuation. Set the RBW > 6dB bandwidth of the emission
or use a peak power meter.
III.
Spurious emissions:
1. RF antenna conducted test:
1.1
Set RBW=100kHz, Video bandwidth (VBW) > RBW, scan up through 10th harmonic.
1.2
All harmonics/spurious must be at least 20 dB down from the highest emission level within the
authorized band as measured with a 100 kHz RBW.
2. Radiated emission test:
IV.
2.1
Applies to harmonics/spurs that fall in the restricted bands listed in Section 2.7. The maximum
permitted average field strength is listed in Section 2.8.
2.2
A pre-amp (and possibly a high-pass filter) is necessary for this measurement. For measurements
above 1GHz, set RBW=1MHz, VBW=10Hz, Sweep=auto.
2.3
If the emission is pulsed, modify the unit for continuous operation. Use the settings shown above,
then correct the readings by subtracting the peak-average corrector factor.
Power spectral density
1. Use a direct connection between the antenna port of the transmitter and measurement instrument,
through suitable attenuation. Locate and zoom in on emission peak(s) within the pass band. Set
RBW=3kHz, VBW>RBW, sweep = (SPAN/3 kHz). The peak level measured must no greater than
+8dBm.
2. If devices with spectrum line spacing equal to or less man 3 kHz, the resolution bandwidth must be
reduced below 3kHz until the individual lines in the spectrum are greater than 3kHz. The
measurement data must then be normalized to 3kHz by summing the power of all the individual
spectral lines within a 3kHz band to determine compliance.
V.
Alternative method:
If antenna conducted tests cannot be performed on this device, radiated tests to show compliance with
the various conducted requirements of Section 3.10.1 are acceptable. As stated previously, a pre-amp
must be used in making the following measurements.
1. Calculate the transmitter's peak power using the following equation:
E
30 PG
d
-49-
E is the measured maximum fundamental field strength in V/m.
G is the numeric gain of the transmitting antenna with reference to an isotropic radiator.
d is the distance in meters from which the field strength was measured.
P is the power in W.
P
( Ed ) 2
30G
2. Measure the power spectral density as follows:
2.1
Tune the analyzer to the highest point of the maximized fundamental emission. Reset the
analyzer to a RBW = 3kHz, VBW > RBW, span = 300kHz, sweep = 100 seconds.
2.2
From the peak level obtained, derive the field strength, E. Using equations shown above,
calculate a power level for comparison to the +8 dBm limit.
-50-
Appendix III Measurement Guidelines for Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Systems
I.
Carrier frequency separation:
(I)
The EUT must have its hopping function enabled.
(II)
Use the following spectrum analyzer settings:
1. Span = wide enough to capture the peaks of two adjacent channels.
2. Resolution (or IF) Bandwidth (RBW) >= 1% of the span; Video (or Average) Bandwidth (VBW)
>= RBW.
3. Sweep = auto; Detector function = peak; Trace = max hold
4. Use the marker-delta function to determine the separation between the peaks of the adjacent
channels.
II.
Number of hopping frequencies:
(I)
The EUT must have its hopping function enabled.
(II)
Use the following spectrum analyzer settings:
1. Span = the frequency band of operation.
2. Resolution (or IF) Bandwidth (RBW) >= 1% of the span; Video (or Average) Bandwidth (VBW)
>= RBW.
3. Sweep = auto; Detector function = peak; Trace = max hold
III. Time of occupancy (Dwell Time):
(I)
The EUT must have its hopping function enabled.
(II)
Use the following spectrum analyzer settings:
1. Span = zero span, centered on a hopping channel; RBW = 1 MHz; VBW >= RBW
2. Sweep = as necessary to capture the entire dwell time per hopping channel.
3. Detector function = peak; Trace = max hold
4. If possible, use the marker-delta function to determine the dwell time. If this value varies with
different modes of operation (e.g., data rate, modulation format, etc.), repeat this test for each
variation.
IV. 20 dB bandwidth:
(I) Use the following spectrum analyzer settings:
1. Span = approximately 2 to 3 times the 20 dB bandwidth, centered on a hopping channel.
2. RBW >= 1% of the 20 dB bandwidth; VBW >= RBW
3. Sweep = auto; Detector function = peak; Trace = max hold
4. The EUT should be transmitting at its maximum data rate. Allow the trace to stabilize. Use the
marker-to-peak function to set the marker to the peak of the emission.
5. Use the marker-delta function to measure 20 dB down bandwidth of the emission. If this value
varies with different modes of operation (e.g., data rate, modulation format, etc.), repeat this test
for each variation.
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V. The peak output power:
(I) Use the following spectrum analyzer settings:
1. Span = approximately 5 times the 20 dB bandwidth, centered on a hopping channel.
2. RBW > 1% of the 20 dB bandwidth of the emission being measured; VBW >= RBW
3. Sweep = auto; Detector function = peak; Trace = max hold
4. Use the marker-to-peak function to set the marker to the peak of the emission. The indicated
level is the peak output power.
5. Please note above regarding external attenuation and cable loss.
VI. Band-edge compliance of RF conducted emissions:
(I) Use the following spectrum analyzer settings:
1. Span = wide enough to capture the peak level of the emission operating on the channel closest
to the band edge, as well as any modulation products which fall outside of the authorized band of
operation
2. RBW = 1% of the span; VBW >= RBW.
3. Sweep = auto; Detector function = peak; Trace = max hold
4. Set the marker on the emission at the band edge, or on the highest modulation product outside of
the band, if this level is greater than that at the band edge.
5. Enable the marker-delta function, then use the marker-to-peak function to move the marker to the
peak of the in-band emission. The marker-delta value now displayed must comply with the limit
specified in this Section.
6. Using the same instrument settings, enable the hopping function of the EUT.
7. Follow the same procedure listed above to determine if any spurious emissions caused by the
hopping function also comply with the specified limit.
VII. Spurious RF conducted emissions
(I) Use the following spectrum analyzer settings:
1. Span = wide enough to capture the peak level of the in-band emission and all spurious emissions
(e.g., harmonics) from the lowest frequency generated in the EUT up through the 10 th harmonic.
Typically, several plots are required to cover this entire span.
2. RBW = 100 kHz; VBW >= RBW.
3. Sweep = auto; Detector function = peak; Trace = max hold
4. Set the marker on the peak of any spurious emission recorded. The level displayed must comply
with the specified limit.
VIII. Spurious radiated emissions
(I) This test is required for any spurious emission or modulation product that falls in a Restricted
Band, as defined in Section 2.7.
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(II) It must be performed with the highest gain of each type of antenna proposed for use with the EUT.
Use the following spectrum analyzer settings:
1. Span = wide enough to fully capture the emission being measured
2. RBW = 1 MHz for f >= 1 GHz, 100 kHz for f < 1 GHz; VBW >= RBW.
3. Sweep = auto; Detector function = peak; Trace = max hold
4. Follow the guidelines in Appendix 1 with respect to maximizing the emission. A pre-amp and a
high pass filter may be required for this test, in order to provide the measuring system with
sufficient sensitivity. The peak reading of the emission, after being corrected by the antenna
factor, cable loss, pre-amp gain, etc., is the peak field strength, which must comply with the limit
specified in Section 5.15.2.
5. Now set the VBW to 10 Hz, while maintaining all of the other instrument settings. This peak level,
once corrected, must comply with the limit specified in Section 2.8.
6. If the dwell time per channel of the hopping signal is less than 100 ms, then the reading obtained
with the 10 Hz VBW may be further adjusted by a “duty cycle correction factor” in an effort to
demonstrate compliance with the Section 2.8 limit.
IX.
Alternative test procedures:
If antenna conducted tests cannot be performed on this device, radiated tests to show compliance with
the peak output power limit specified in Section 3.10.1 (2) and the spurious RF conducted emission
limit specified in Section 3.10.1 (5) are acceptable. As stated previously, a pre-amp, and, probably, a
high pass filter, are required for the following measurements.
(I)
Calculate the transmitter's peak power using the following equation:
E
30 PG
d
E is the measured maximum fundamental field strength in V/m.
G is the numeric gain of the transmitting antenna with reference to an isotropic radiator.
d is the distance in meters from which the field strength was measured.
P is the power in W.
( Ed ) 2
P
30G
(II) The spurious RF conducted emission
Use the following spectrum analyzer settings:
1. Span = wide enough to fully capture the emission being measured
2. RBW = 100 kHz; VBW >= RBW.
3. Sweep = auto; Detector function = peak; Trace = max hold
4. Measure the field strength of both the fundamental emission and all spurious emissions with
these settings. The measured field strength of all spurious emissions must be below the
measured field strength of the fundamental emission by the amount specified in 3.10.1 (5). This
is only applied on spurious emissions not fall in restricted band.
-53-
(III) Marker-delta method:
In making radiated band-edge measurements, there can be a problem obtaining meaningful data
since a measurement instrument that is tuned to a band-edge frequency may also capture some inband signals when using the resolution bandwidth (RBW) required by measurement procedure in
Chapter 5. In an effort to compensate for this problem, the following technique is for determining
band-edge compliance.
1.
Perform an in-band field strength measurement of the fundamental emission using the RBW
and detector function required by Section 5.15.2 for the frequency being measured. For
transmitters operating above 1 GHz, use a 1 MHz RBW, a 1 MHz VBW, and a peak detector.
Repeat the measurement with an average detector (i.e., 1 MHz RBW with 10 Hz VBW).
Note: For pulsed emissions, other factors must be included. Also, please note that radiated
measurements of the fundamental emission of a transmitter operating under 3.10.1 are not
normally required, but they are necessary in connection with this procedure.
2.
Choose a spectrum analyzer span that encompasses both the peaks of the fundamental
emission and the band-edge emission under investigation. Set the analyzer RBW to 1% of the
total span (but never less than 30 kHz) with a video bandwidth equal to or greater than the RBW.
Record the peak levels of the fundamental emission and the relevant band-edge emission.
Observe the stored trace and measure the amplitude delta between the peak of the fundamental
and the peak of the band-edge emission. This is only a relative measurement to determine the
amount by which the emission drops at the band-edge relative to the highest fundamental
emission level.
3.
Subtract the delta measured in step (2) from the field strengths measured in step 1. The
resultant field strengths are then used to determine band-edge compliance as required by
Section 2.7.
4.
The above "delta" measurement technique may be used for measuring emissions that are
up to two "standard" bandwidths away from the band-edge, where a "standard" bandwidth is the
bandwidth specified by Section 5.15.2 for the frequency being measured.
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