cybersecurity awareness - OCTANe Technology Innovation Forum

cybersecurity awareness - OCTANe Technology Innovation Forum
Our commitment
J.P. Morgan devotes significant resources to
maintaining the security of our computer
systems, software, networks and other
technology assets against attempts by
unauthorized parties to access or destroy
confidential data, disrupt service or cause other
damage. Worldwide, nearly 1,000 employees
are focused on our cybersecurity efforts,
including working with local government and
law enforcement agencies and other businesses
to maintain our defenses and enhance our
resilience to threats. These efforts will only
intensify in the coming years.
Driving toward
a cultural shift
The internet is woven into everything we do.
Cybercrime is a growing and serious threat.
These facts of life make it essential that all of
us consciously make fraud prevention part of
our daily activities.
These pages identify eight areas of serious
vulnerability—and provide detailed steps
to help protect yourself, your assets and
personal information.
Wi-Fi hotspots
Home networks
Mobile security
Social engineering
Passwords are your
first line of defense
Hackers use multiple dictionaries of English and foreign words,
names and linguistic patterns to identify password roots. Their
guessing strategies break two-thirds of all passwords existing today.
Create strong passwords
What to avoid
• Add complexity by combining upperand lowercase letters, numbers and
• Do not disclose your passwords online
or give them to anyone.
—— Avoid using words that can be found
in a dictionary.
—— Never use your name, social security
number, address or other personal
information (e.g., pet name) that can
be easily found online.
• Go long—we suggest at least 10–14
—— Adding a “space” can make your
password stronger.
• Create password tiers.
—— Use separate passwords for systems,
user accounts and documents.
—— Change your passwords three to four
times a year.
• Store passwords in a safe place or use
a secure password management tool.
• Do not store your passwords where
they can be seen/found by others
(e.g., on a Post-It note stuck to your
• Do not click the “Remember My
Password” option on various sites.
• Do not use the same password for
multiple accounts.
• Do not create common passwords.
• Do not include profile or personal
information posted on social media,
networking or other internet sites.
long and complex is best
Avoid short and
sweet passwords
The longer and more complex you
make your password, the more secure
it will be.
Use a phrase instead of
a word
Pick a phrase you will remember,
such as: Rover went to market.
Run the words together and:
• Capitalize some letters.
• Substitute numerals and symbols
where it makes sense.
< 1 minute
< 1 minute
< 1 minute
> 100 years
or try something like this:
2BorNot2B_ThatIsThe? > 100 years
4Score&7yrsAgo > 100 years
Happy_Birthday_2_me > 100 years
• Use acronyms, or abbreviate, as needed.
Or double a short password to
increase length and strength.
> 2 years
Create a password “root” and
use it across all accounts
Using variations on a basic password
“theme” can make it easier to
remember. Do not use the same
password for multiple accounts.
For e-commerce sites
1LUV2_by_SHZ For online banking
1LUV2_uz_$$ For a car service
1LUV2_uz_LIMOS > 2 years
> 2 years
> 2 years
Sign up for a password management service
There’s only one master password to memorize: The system automatically creates
a complex password anytime you need or change one.
Email providers can’t guarantee
your cybersecurity
Hackers attack email providers to gain access to user accounts. Or
they directly attack individual email accounts, using phishing, malware,
social engineering and other scams.
Limit your exposure
In addition, to safeguard your information:
Maintain at least four separate
email accounts, as in the following
• Enable two-factor authentication in
your email service when available to
receive a text when there is a log-in
from a new computer.
For business
[email protected]
For friends and family
[email protected]
For important alerts
[email protected]
For sites that require an
email address as a user ID
[email protected]
• Use data encryption to transmit
personal information. Encoding the
information makes it impossible for
those without the encryption keys to
read it.
• Employ spam filters to reduce the risk
of malicious software and phishing
scams (spam represents 66% of all
email traffic1).
Symantec 2014 Internet Security Threat Report, Volume 19.
follow an ongoing cybersecurity regimen
Routinely check email account settings
Criminals hacking into your account can change your settings to forward
your mail to their own accounts.
Adjust email account settings
Prevent incoming images from automatically downloading.
Be selective with business and personal email addresses
Create separate email accounts: one for business, another for friends and family—
and don’t use them interchangeably. Share addresses with family, friends and trusted
business associates on a need-to-know basis.
Do not email personal information
Social security or credit card numbers should not be sent over the internet.
Use strong and unique passwords
Create a 10–to-14-character password for every email account. Change it three or
four times a year.
Access email only from secure networks
Avoid using public Wi-Fi hotspots.
Be alert to social engineering attempts
Scammers often counterfeit company logos, names and symbols to deceive
unsuspecting individuals.
Keep corporate and personal email communications
separate from each other
Don’t conduct business through your personal email account, and vice versa.
Every device on the
internet can be hacked
Hackers create clones of well-known websites to capture user
credentials: the passwords, social security numbers, credit card
information, etc. They then use the stolen information to access
your banking and other accounts.
Precautions to take online
• Keep your browser software up-to-date.
• Maintain a medium or higher level of
security on your browser settings.
• Make sure the web address of any
e-commerce site or online banking
service begins with https://.
—— Some browsers show a padlock icon
next to the https:// to indicate a
secure/encrypted connection.
—— Remember: http:// is not secure.
• Log out after using an internet banking
service to ensure your session has closed.
• Keep your data cookies and browser
cache clear so that hackers cannot
access your history and obtain
• Keep pop-ups and ads blocked, and
never respond to pop-ups asking you
to submit or resubmit your log-in
• Be mindful of the sites you visit:
—— Avoid sites that provide illegal
downloads or illegal content
(e.g., file sharing): Even if you do
not download any files, you are
vulnerable to viruses that can infect
your computer. (This malware can
attack your browser and change
your home page without you being
aware of it.)
—— Hackers increasingly target children
on gaming websites.
What to avoid
• Do not download anything from
unknown sources: Download/install
software only from online sources
you trust.
• D
o not allow your internet browser or
websites you visit to remember your
passwords or credit card information.
• D
o not link accounts across websites­—
in case one gets compromised:
—— Many sites allow you to log in using
Facebook, Gmail, etc. Maintain
separate accounts.
whenever possible
Regularly check your banking and credit card transaction histories
Also check statements for suspicious transactions.
Enable private browsing whenever possible
Prevent cookies and browsing history from being stored/saved to your device.
Use trusted bookmarks for important sites­—not email links or pop-ups
Close windows containing pop-up ads or unexpected warnings using the X in the upper
right-hand corner. Avoid clicking either the ad’s “close” button or anywhere within the
window to close it.
Do not buy anything promoted in a spam message
Even if it’s not a scam, your purchase encourages spamming.
Use two-factor authentication when it’s available
You confirm your ID in two steps each time you use an ATM—with a debit card
and PIN. Do the same online: Use a password and a code sent to you via text,
email or call to access your account. You will receive an alert if someone logs in
from a new computer.
Wi-Fi hotspots are very
convenient—and very dangerous
Hotspots and public Wi-Fi links have become popular with cyber
criminals—who use them to collect log-ins, emails, payment information
and more. Use public hotspots only if you absolutely must—and be sure
to take the right precautions.
A very real danger
NEVER use a hotspot for banking or
shopping transactions, or to send or
store private information.
Use a Virtual Private Network (VPN)
service to create a secure browsing
session (i.e., to ensure that all of your
data is encrypted as it passes through
the network). VPNs are a low-cost way
to create a baseline level of security
on public Wi-Fi access points. Note:
Most chat/IM sessions are NOT secure.
Disable ad hoc networking, which
allows direct computer-to-computer
transmissions, bypassing the
router. This can allow an adversary
to connect directly to your laptop
and gain access to your computer
and data.
Turn off file-sharing before you
connect to a hotspot so that other
users cannot gain access to your files.
Do not allow automatic connections
to nonpreferred networks. Your
device could be automatically
connected to a public network,
including those established for
criminal purposes (e.g., to steal data).
Make sure a firewall is installed, and
enable it before using a hotspot. Both
Windows-enabled devices and Macs
have built-in firewalls.
balance security with convenience
Every device is at risk
Laptops, smartphones and tablets are all susceptible to wireless security risks.
Use your mobile phone network
When you access websites that store or require sensitive information, use your mobile
provider network instead of a public Wi-Fi connection.
Be suspicious of all Wi-Fi hotspots
Do not connect to sites you don’t know or recognize. Also, don’t assume a Wi-Fi link
is legitimate: Hackers can create a fraudulent access point that’s identical to one that’s
legitimate. Instead, use a Virtual Private Network (VPN), which allows only authorized
users to access the network so data cannot be intercepted.
Protect all your devices
Install robust anti-malware and security solutions—and update them regularly.
Be aware of your surroundings
Internet cafes, libraries, airports, subways and other public places are popular
with shoulder surfers: People who look over your shoulder to see what’s displayed
on your screen.
A secure home network
requires a secure router
Hackers can easily penetrate an open or insufficiently secured
wireless network. Once inside, they can intercept your internet traffic
and capture personal data, including the IDs and passwords you use
online at banks, shopping sites and forums.
Limit your exposure
If your router is not well protected, a
hacker can take control of it and pose as
you (e.g., use your IP address) to commit
a cybercrime—in addition to stealing your
personal data:
• Every router is sold with a factorydefault username and password. To put
multi-layered protection in place, you
should change your:
—— Router’s default password
—— Router’s name/SSID
—— Wireless network password
• Turn off your home’s wireless network
when it’s not in use, thereby limiting
the amount of time it is susceptible to
• Stop your router from broadcasting
your home network’s name (SSID).
It is unnecessary and may invite
unauthorized users to try and access
your network.
• Use a network monitoring app to
scan your network to see if you have
unwanted users or devices on your
• Visit a site like
for tutorials on how to adjust the
security settings of wireless routers.
You will find instructional videos from
several manufacturers.
secure your router
Turn on encryption with a strong password
WPA2 is currently the strongest home encryption.
WEP is less secure and should never be used.
Turn on the router firewall
Wireless routers may be shipped with the firewall turned off. Make sure it is turned on.
Replace the router’s preset password
Most people forget to do this, but you should ensure that the router password is not the
same as the one for your wireless network.
Change your router’s name or SSID—and create two networks
Create a guest network, identifying it as your primary network (e.g., Joe’s Network).
Your guest network can have Wi-Fi access that is broadcast. Set up a secure network for
yourself. Do not broadcast its name or give out its SSID to anyone. This network should
have a name that cannot be easily guessed by others (e.g., TZPX3Y4).
Update the router’s wireless network password
This is called the network security key. Have one for both guest and secure networks.
Keep your router’s firmware up-to-date
Install all security patches. Replace your router every three years (firmware is not
always updated by the manufacturer on older routers).
Have strong passwords on all devices connected to your network
Smart TVs, home security cameras, printers, thermostats, etc., all need to protect
against unwanted external access.
Establish secure guest and personal networks
Netgear, Linksys and Apple Airport all support additional guest networks.
Mobile devices are
under increased attack
As we all become more dependent on smartphones and tablets for
banking, shopping and social networking, it’s critical to protect your
mobile devices.
Precautions to take
• Adjust your security settings to restrict
others’ access to your data via wireless
and Bluetooth connections.
• Avoid clicking on ads: Ad-blocking
apps exist for both Android and Apple
devices, and browser settings can be
adjusted to limit ad-tracking.
• Download an app such as
MyPermissions—Privacy Shield (available
for iOS and Android), which will scan
your device and tell you which apps are
accessing your information.
• Update the apps on your device when
new versions become available, as
these often include security patches.
• If you think your device has been
infected with malware:
—— Contact either the device maker or
your mobile phone carrier for help.
—— Install a security app to scan and
remove malware-infected apps.
—— Do not try going into the device’s
operating system (e.g., don’t jailbreak
or root your phone). This lessens the
device’s security level/protection.
secure your mobile devices
Keep your phone or computer locked
Make sure it is password protected at all times.
Keep the device’s operating system software up-to-date
Ensure you have the latest security patches.
Encrypt sensitive information
If your mobile device or laptop has data encryption features, use them.
Monitor how apps behave on your phone
Keep track of permission access/requests from apps installed on your device.
Download an app such as MyPermissions—Privacy Shield to scan your device.
Use a reputable anti-malware/virus program and update regularly
Mobile devices are susceptible to the same risks as your home/office computers.
Turn off Bluetooth when you don’t need the connection
Your device will be less vulnerable both to cyber attacks and a drained battery.
Choose a smartphone with anti-theft security features
If your phone is lost or stolen, having remote access to it will allow you to lock it,
wipe the data stored on it and identify its location.
Back up your mobile devices
Regularly backing up to your home computer or cloud network ensures you will
have access to information if your device is lost, stolen or corrupted.
Malware is a serious
and persistent threat
Criminals use malware to steal or destroy your data—in the process,
compromising the security and integrity of the equipment and/or
systems you use.
Things aren’t always
what they seem
• Don’t ignore the warnings. Install
anti-virus software and pay attention
to warnings you receive, such as when
you are trying to access an unsafe site
on the internet.
• Be careful what you click and
download. Clicking unfamiliar links
can expose you to malicious software
programs that scan your computer or
track keystrokes, including passwords
and account numbers.
• Some programs intentionally
include malware. When installing,
pay attention to message boxes and
the fine print. Cancel any installation if
you believe it may be harmful.
• Be wary of suspicious-looking
email. Even email from people you
know can contain malware links or
attachments if their accounts have
been compromised.
• Be careful following links in
incoming email. Whenever possible,
visit websites by entering the desired
address directly in your browser.
• Scan files with security software
before opening. Do not assume
emailed files or those given to you on a
disc or flash drive are safe.
• Do not trust pop-up windows
asking you to download software.
Their goal is to convince you that your
computer has been infected and that
downloading the software will take
care of the problem. Close this window
immediately, making sure not to click
on anything inside the pop-up window.
• Most file-sharing sites are illegal
and should be avoided. There is
very little policing for malware in these
types of services. Malware can be
disguised as a popular movie, album
or program.
reduce your risk of a malware infection
Keep your security software, web browser and operating systems up-to-date
Install anti-virus and anti-malware software only from a trusted source
Regularly update your software and scan your system often.
Turn on automatic updates
Take advantage of this valuable anti-virus software option.
Make sure your firewall is ON
Update settings to maximize protection for all network locations—home, work, public.
Do not install software you did not specifically seek out
Do not download software from untrustworthy or unknown sources. Remove/uninstall
software you are no longer using.
Avoid using USB and other plug-in devices
It’s impossible to know if a USB device is completely safe. Use online storage as
an alternative.
Back up computer data
Use a CD, DVD or network to ensure you have access to your information in the event
your computer or mobile device becomes corrupted.
Watch what you click
Do not click on links in pop-ups or spam—even those claiming to offer anti-virus
software. They may also install spyware.
Social engineering can
leave you vulnerable to fraud
Social media, such as Facebook or LinkedIn, can give hackers
a wealth of information about you—which can be used to
steal your assets or information.
Guard against social
engineering online
• Limit the information you give out.
Criminals will search Facebook, Twitter
and other social media for information
about you and use it to defraud you,
your family and/or your friends.
• Don’t put personal/financial
information in emails (or follow
links sent to you in emails even if
they come from trusted sources).
• Contact the email sender by phone
or a new email window (do not hit
“reply”) to ask the sender if the
email you received is valid.
• Pay attention to the URL. Malicious
websites look identical to real ones,
but the URL may use a spelling
variation or different domain. (For
example, does it say .net when it
should say .com?)
• Don’t enter sensitive information
on websites unless you see
proper security (the URL should
begin with: https://).
And via telephone
• Confirm an unknown caller’s
identity: Ask for the full and correct
spelling of their name, a call back
number, and an explanation for why
the information is needed.
• Be wary of impersonators: Validate
the source through official public
• Do not supply information about
other people: Have the caller contact
the appropriate individual directly
if you are asked for someone else’s
vigilance is the best defense
Google yourself
See what information is available about you online—and limit it. Use website privacy
settings to avoid widely sharing your information.
Verify callers’ identities
Contact a company/organization directly if you receive a call from an unknown representative.
Be alert to phishing attempts
These take many forms, including: attachments you haven’t asked for; directives
to change your password to something specific, such as 12345; and/or payment
instructions to a new address.
Recognize the warning signs of fraudulent email
Poor grammar, misspelled words, overuse of capital letters, urgent or threatening
language, sender names/addresses that are vague or incorrect are all indicators that
something is wrong.
Defend against having your email hijacked
Even if the sender is someone you know, if you unexpectedly receive an email with
a link or attachment, contact the sender to verify authenticity before opening links or
downloading content.
Do not automatically follow payment instructions you receive in an email
First validate the instructions, either by telephone or in person.
Keep your software up-to-date
Hackers use social engineering techniques to test if software or security measures are
out-of-date, and exploit those weaknesses.
If you think your accounts have been compromised:
• Contact your financial institutions immediately and close the accounts
• Check for unknown charges
• Immediately change your passwords
We can help
Please contact your J.P. Morgan team at once if
you believe your identity or personal information has
been stolen, or if you think your accounts have been
compromised in some way.
This document is provided for educational and informational purposes only and is not intended
to address every aspect of the subject discussed herein. Any reproduction, retransmission,
dissemination or other unauthorized use of this document or the information contained herein by
any person or entity is strictly prohibited.
© 2015 JPMorgan Chase & Co. All rights reserved. 0115-0064-02 r7
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