Church Workers Handbook
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Church Workers Handbook
What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
©2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
G. Edwin Lint, BS, Th.B., M.A
.Author
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For more information on any topic in this book, feel free to contact
me:
G. Edwin Lint, -- diskbooks@comcast.net
PO Box 473
Mechanicsburg, PA 17055 USA
717-697-8122
G. Edwin Lint, Th.B., M.A.
Quick Index for Posts to My
Night Watchman Blog
A culture war rages all around us. I am stationed in a
watchtower, on top of the wall, watching the night. If I see danger
approaching in any form, from any quarter, I will sound the
alarm!
"Watchman, what of the night? The watchman said, The
morning cometh"… Isaiah 21:11, 12
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Read -- Learn -- Enjoy -- Share
Navigation Tip: When you click a link below, you will go to my
Night Watchman blog. You may stay there and scroll through the
listed posts. Or, you may use your browser's Back button to come
back here and click on a specific blog post link:
1. Obama: Oh, Yes! I’m the Great Pretender
2. Governor Sarah Palin: Greta Van Susteren is “On the
Record”
3. Obama: is he an illegal alien, is he a literary fraud, or is he
both?
4. Sack Lunches for Iraq-bound Soldiers
5. Obama has first press conference since election
6. Sad Report about Governor Sarah Palin as McCain’s
Running Mate
7. Obama Names Rahm Emanuel as White House Chief of
Staff
8. Jack Cashill, Obama, Ayers: a Progress Report on Literary
Fraud
9. Introduction to the Night Watchman Blog
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G. Edwin Lint, Th.B., M.A.
Master Table of Contents
1. Speaking and Praying in Public ................................................................. 4
Teaching, preaching, oral prayer
2. You Can Be a Teacher, Too ..................................................................... 12
Including links to the three-hour sound track of a live workshop.
How to Be an Educator Even though You've Never Been to College
3. Outcome-Based Education (OBE) .......................................................... 34
Facts and Fiction for evangelical Christian parents and educators
4. Church Music ........................................................................................... 43
Directing Worship, Providing Special Music, Working with a
Volunteer Orchestra
Ten Commandments for Worship Leaders
and Worship Teams ............................................................................. 57
5. Creating True Friendship in Your Church ............................................ 63
6. Shopping For and Using a Microcomputer ............................................ 76
7. Using Audio-Visual Equipment ............................................................... 85
8. Basics of Desktop Publishing .................................................................... 99
9: Using Mikes and Using a Sound System ............................................... 123
10. Making a Broadcast-Quality Recording of Your Church Service .... 135
For broadcast or tape ministry
11. Church Publicity and Public Awareness ............................................. 145
12. How to Publish on the Web .................................................................. 155
13. Planning and Conducting a Public Meeting ....................................... 170
14. Planning a Children's Program [such as at Christmas time] ............ 182
Church Workers Handbook --2-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
15. Broadcasting a Recording of Your Church Service .......................... 186
on Internet Radio
16. Supervision and Administration of Sunday School Programs ......... 198
17. E-mail Basics.......................................................................................... 209
18. Understanding Church Ceremonies .................................................... 224
Baptism – Communion -- Dedication, Building -- Dedication, Infant -- Funeral -- Marriage -Membership -- True Love Waits
Church Workers Handbook --3-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Chapter 1: Speaking and
Praying in Public
Church Workers Handbook
What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
These guidelines may seem simplistic at first. However, if you follow them carefully,
they can greatly amplify the effectiveness of your teaching, preaching and oral
prayer.
Avoid verbal garbage
You may recognize verbal garbage as expressions such as:
..., uh..., um..., like [out of context], you know [out of context], like you
know, and oh uh, etc. ad infinitum. There is nothing more annoying
than to have a person begin a verbal presentation by holding a
microphone close to the lips and emitting one of these pieces of verbal
garbage before speaking an actual word. Granted verbal garbage is
used to fill time until something important comes to mind. At least have
the presence of mind to keep the mike away from your mouth until you
have an actual word to say.
Example:
Wrong:...uh ... ummm... Welcome to the first session of the series on
better public speaking.
Better: [pause, away from the mike, with dead air] Welcome to the first
session of the series on better public speaking.
Avoid excessive use of okay? and right?
Example: Now we're going to talk about better public speaking, Okay?
First, I'll give you a few guidelines. Okay? And then you'll have a
chance to show me what you can do, right?
Church Workers Handbook --4-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Avoid excessive use of "go ahead and".
Example: Now we're going to "go ahead and" talk about better public
speaking,? First, I'll give you a few guidelines. And then we'll "go ahead
and" give you a chance to show me what you can do, okay?
Avoid public use of "you guys"
This term has come into common usage in recent years but it clearly
falls under the category of Verbal Garbage. If you're working as a
server in a restaurant, it may be acceptable to say, "Are you guys ready
for dessert now?" This may be acceptable but if I were the manager, I'd
train the servers to avoid "You guys" entirely.
Here's an example of breaking both of the last two rules. In a morning
worship service in a large church, one of the associate pastors was
leading the congregation in public prayer. At the end of the prayer, he
said,
"You guys can go ahead and be seated now."
You don't need a Bible college or seminary degree to know that this is not
acceptable platform behavior!
If you are an instructor of students in a class of public
speaking, allow me suggest an instructional strategy:
Equip the classroom with an electric buzzer that has a loud, unpleasant
sound. An inexpensive battery powered buzzer such as found in some
board games is fine. Have your students take turns speaking
extemporaneously on a topic of their own choosing. As soon as you hear
verbal garbage, press the buzzer and as them to be seated. Add interest
by forming teams and having competition. Surrender the buzzer button
to students who are making progress and allow them to serve as
monitor. Do not pass students until they can speak three minutes on a
topic of your choosing without hearing the buzzer.
Church Workers Handbook --5-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Guidelines for Leading a Group in Oral
Responsive Prayer
When it is appropriate to conclude a salvation message with an
invitation for a group of persons to follow you in responsive oral prayer,
follow these guidelines:
1. Make the total prayer brief, concise, and to the point.
2. Use a memorized outline instead of rambling on and on.
3. Use phrases and terms that are clearly understandable to
someone whose knowledge of Evangelical worship may be limited
to the message you have just delivered.
4. Pause after each phrase long enough for the group to repeat the
phrase you have just given.
5. Time each pause by repeating the phrase under your breath.
6. Take a breath and start the next phrase.
7. Following the last two rules will prevent the prayer of a large
number of persons from becoming a cacophony!
8. Here is a sample responsive prayer to illustrate content and
phraseology:
Heavenly Father, I am sorry for my sins [Pause for the time
it takes you to repeat this phrase under your breath] I promise
I won’t sin any more. [Pause] Thank you for sending Jesus
Christ to die on the cross [Pause] I now accept Jesus as my
personal sin sacrifice. [Pause] I promise to study the Bible
daily and pray every day. [Pause] Amen
In verbal prayer, avoid excessive use of the
Lord's name [vain repetition in the language of the King
James Version]
Use the Lord's name in the beginning of your prayer, as a form of address. Once
you, the Lord, and your audience all know to whom you are speaking, it is not
necessary to keep using His Name every couple words. I hear Father God and
Lord used to excess in this way.
Church Workers Handbook --6-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
In verbal prayer, avoid the Elizabethan pronouns for deity: such
as thee, thou, thine
In 1611, when the King James Version of the Bible was published, these
pronouns were used in everyday speech, not just when talking to or about
God. Today, it is perfectly all right to use modern language pronouns in all
church activities, even in prayer. In fact, using Elizabethan pronouns may
make you sound pompous.
Avoid excessive use of the word just in prayer
Example: “Father, we just come to you in prayer. . .”The word just is
grammatically correct but it can become a verbal crutch when used too much.
This use of just seemed to start out with young worshippers in the 70s. As
those young people have grown into pastors and teachers, just is becoming
accepted usage.
Is it Ay-men or Ahh-men
Evangelical ministers and worship leaders usually pronounce the word Amen
as ay-men, instead of ahh-men. The ahh-men pronunciation is usually
reserved for use in the traditional, old-line churches, or when Amen appears
in the lyrics of a choral response or hymn.
While I'm on the topic of evangelical pronunciations, let me touch on
pronouncing Bible names, places, and books of the Bible. The best advice I
can give is to listen to educated evangelicals on television or radio and choose
a role model. If you pronounce Bible names and places like the following do,
you won't be far from wrong: Dr. Billy Graham, Franklin Graham, Dr. John
Hagee, and Dr. D. James Kennedy are examples of well-spoken Evangelical
preachers.
However, Freda Keet is an educated Israeli anchorperson who speaks
frequently in evangelical churches in support of the nation of Israel. She
pronounces the prophet Isaiah as Eye-ZYE-uh instead of Eye-ZAY-uh.
I would continue to talk about Isaiah as Eye-ZAY-uh until Dr. Billy
Graham and the others named above call him Eye-ZYE-uh. If you and
Freda Keet are calling him Eye-ZYE-uh when most other evangelicals
call him Eye-ZAY-uh, you run the risk of sounding pompous and
pretentious.
Avoid frequent references to the time of day.
This afternoon, this evening, and tonight are often abused in this way. Only the
mentally impaired need constant reminders of the time of day. Frequent
references to the time of day is verbal garbage, even if it is done by
professional announcers on TV. The now-retired Tom Brokaw was a frequent
offender in this regard. Ann Curry has joined the club.
September 11, 2001
This black date in American history now appears often in print and speeches.
The correct pronunciation of this date is nine-eleven, and not 9-1-1. 9-1-1 is a
phone number and not a date. If you are having an emergency, dial 9-1-1,
and when you talk or write about September 11, it's 9/11 or nine-eleven.
Bring and Take
Bring and take usually relate to personal transportation. However, they are so
consistently misused in print and verbally; it may be too late to do anything
now. So, this may be the last time you ever see this warning in print.
Bring means "to move an item to a nearer place from a more distant one."
Take means the opposite: "To carry to a more distant place from a nearer
one."
Examples:
Bring that file over here. Take this package to the post office.
Just today, I saw this rule broken on a national pharmacy web page.
Customers were consistently advised to bring a prescription to your doctor. The
correct usage would be to take a prescription to your doctor.
Don’t say I could care less, when you mean to say, "I couldn't
care less."
Here's a couple more frequent errors to avoid
It's Daylight Saving Time, not Daylight Savings Time.
Church Workers Handbook --8-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
It's Safe Deposit Box, not Safety Deposit Box.
If you doubt that you use some of these poor speech habits, record
yourself in a real life public speaking situation, and then go ahead and listen
to yourself, okay? See what you think. The recording won’t lie.
Rehearse it, but don't read it
Be well prepared and even well rehearsed. However, only those skilled in
reading off a TelePrompTer should ever try to read a speech, lesson, sermon,
or even prayer.
When presenting a story to young students:
(a) read the story during your preparation time and absorb the gist of what it
says; (b) if you can't remember the details of the story, write some cues on 3x5
cards; if you have pictures to hold up, tape your cue cards to the back of the
pictures; (c) when presenting the story, look the students straight in the eyes
and "tell" them the story; (d) if the story is from a book with pictures, hold
the book facing the group and turn the pages as you TELL the story. This
technique makes your presentation more effective and helps you keep better
control of the group.
For students who are "too old" for stories, limit your in-class reading to
scripture and passages of lasting literary value. Always read scripture from a
Bible and not the quarterly. The students must see God's authority for what
you teach as the Bible and not something from a publishing house. Don't read
anything else from the quarterly, either. The material in the teacher's edition
should be read during your preparation time and then woven into your
classroom presentation. As a general rule, the contents of the teacher’s
quarterly seldom rise to the level of lasting literary value.
Simple Steps for Preparing an Oral
Presentation
1. The first step in preparing for a verbal presentation is to make an outline of
all the major points you want to cover. Think through this outline and
memorize the major points.
Church Workers Handbook --9-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
2. The second step is to mentally rehearse the presentation while working from
your outline. If you have trouble keeping on target during a mental rehearsal,
talk out loud. Even make a recording.
3. If you still have trouble making your rehearsal flow along your outline,
memorize small segments such as important paragraphs, illustrations, and
anecdotes.
4. The third step is to learn your outlined presentation so well that when you
look down at your notes, a bullet or key word will trigger an entire segment of
your presentation in your mind.
5. The fourth step is to continue mentally rehearsing your presentation so it will
flow in your mind from point to point. I often do this mental rehearsal while I
am lying in bed, waiting to go to sleep.
A Sample Prayer Outline
Although your oral prayers will sound better if not read from a script, there is
nothing wrong with praying from a simple basic outline.
[Your prayers during private devotion may stay more focused if you
pray them orally, also.]
Here's an example:
Salutation: Heavenly Father, we greet you as the Great God of all the universe.
Thanksgiving: Thank you for your love, thank you for your Plan of Salvation, thank
you for being willing to send your Son to die on the cross as our sin sacrifice so we
don’t have to die for our sins, thank you for your Holy Spirit who's in the world
today, to guide, direct, guard and protect from harm and evil seen and unseen.
Thank you, Jesus, for being willing to come to Earth. We salute You Jesus Christ as
our Lamb of God and Coming King.
Intercession:
The topic and type of prayer will control who and what you pray for.
An offertory prayer will mention "the gifts and the givers".
An invocation will mention the worshippers who have
gathered, and all those who pray, sing, and preach.
Church Workers Handbook --10-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
A benediction will ask for protection for those who travel to
their homes, etc.
G. Edwin Lint
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Church Workers Handbook --11-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Chapter 2: You Can Be a
Teacher, Too
Church Workers Handbook
For an expanded version of this chapter, click this link
What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
Guidelines for Christian Educators and
Teachers Who Have No Formal Training in
Teaching Techniques
Sunday School Teachers ... Christian education administrators and supervisors ...
Pastors ... Church school and vacation Bible school workers ... Home Schoolers ...
Corporate Trainers ...... Scout Leaders ... Parents ... Church Board and School
Board Members ... Anyone involved in teaching something to anybody
You Can Be a Teacher, Too is written for persons who have educational
responsibilities on the job or in the community, but who have no college
work in education.
Contents of This Chapter
•
•
•
Introduction ........................................................................................................... 13
Self-Evaluation Checklist ...................................................................................... 14
The Four Basic Skills Of Effective Teaching ..................................................... 15
1. Compassion ........................................................................................................ 17
2. Communication .................................................................................................. 18
3. Content................................................................................................................ 20
4. Control ................................................................................................................ 27
**Contingency Contracting........................................................................ 27
**Positive Reinforcement ........................................................................... 28
**Behavior Shaping .................................................................................... 28
**Delayed Reinforcement ........................................................................... 28
Church Workers Handbook --12-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
**Time Out .................................................................................................. 28
•
•
Supervision and Administration of Christian Education Programs ..................... 30
Links to the sound track of a three-hour workshop [Free] .................................... 31
For an expanded version of this document, click this link
Church Workers Handbook --13-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Introduction
You have known people who have done an excellent job teaching you things, but
who have had no college degrees, no certificates, and no status as a professional
educator. You have known other people with college degrees and teacher
certification, but no real ability to teach anything to anyone.
What makes the difference?
These guidelines will explain what can make that difference and show how you can
be an effective Christian educator or teacher, even without professional training and
certification as a teacher.
First, let me introduce myself, and explain my personal qualifications. This is not to
brag. However, you have a right to know that I'm not just writing off the top of my
head. Although this book is designed to show how you can be an effective teacher
even though you've never been to college a day in your life, I do have a college
education and state teaching certificates.
I have a master's degree in education and six education certificates from two states.
I have over 36 years experience as a professional educator and have worked as a
teacher, supervisor, principal, assistant superintendent, and education advisor for a
state department of education. Right now, I'm an educational consultant
specializing in the areas of curriculum development and microcomputer utilization.
The following education certificates hang on my office wall, to my left, as I write
this:
Elementary Principal
Supervisor of Curriculum and Instruction
General Elementary Supervisor
Elementary Teacher
Supervisor of Special Education
Special Education Teacher
Church Workers Handbook --14-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Self-Evaluation Checklist
Now, let let's find out about you. I'd like you to think about your own abilities by
completing the self-evaluation checklist shown below.
Check each item that describes you.
I am intelligent. I may not have a high IQ but I am able to learn new things.
Intelligence is defined here as the ability to learn new things, not the amount of
knowledge you already have.
I have horse sense. In other words, I am a stable thinker. I have street smarts.
I have a college degree, but it's not in education.
I have a high school diploma, but no formal training as a teacher.
I know a good teacher when I see one. I may not be able to put my evaluation
into technical terms but I still know good teaching when I see it.
I know when teachers are doing a good job with my children. This is true even
when I can't spend a lot of time in the classroom during school.
I am a parent and want to help my children with their homework. I want to
help them when they need help, not just do it for them.
I am a parent who is home-schooling my children (by teaching them at home.)
I don't have any professional training as a teacher, but I still want to do a
good job as their teacher.
I am a teacher's aid. Sometimes I see my teacher doing things that don't look
like good teaching to me. With just a little training, I think I could do as good
a job, or maybe even better.
I am a Sunday school teacher, scout leader, or other type of volunteer. I like to
work with children in my spare time, and want to do the best possible job I
can in helping them to learn new things.
Church Workers Handbook --15-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
I am a corporate trainer or in-service training coordinator. My job
description involves helping new employees develop basic skills and current
employees master advanced skills.
I am a supervisor on my job. In addition to overall supervision, I am
responsible for training my employees to do things.
I am a business person who is good at my job. I'd like to teach high school
kids the things I have learned out here in the real world.
I am an elected member of a school board or church board. I take my job
seriously and want to help the children in our community get the quality
education for which their parents are paying taxes.
I am a member of a steering committee at my school. We're working on a
district-wide program to improve the quality of our education. I want to help
but I'm not sure I know what I'm talking about.
I am still in high school and I’m thinking about a career in education. All my
life, I've dreamed about being a teacher. I'd sure like to get off to a good start.
I have been appointed or hired into an administrative capacity. However, I
have no training or experience in how to supervise and evaluate teachers or
other education personnel.
Now look back over your self-evaluation. Each time you've checked an item, this is
an indication that you need to read You Can Be a Teacher, Too.
The Four Basic Skills of Effective Teaching
You need these skills regardless of the age or circumstances of the students involved.
Sunday school ... Junior church ... Vacation Bible school ... Day care ... kindergarten
... elementary school ... middle school ... high school ... college ... graduate school ...
pre-service and in-service training -- there are no exceptions to these rules.
If you fail to master these four concepts, you'll never be an effective teacher,
regardless of the number of college degrees you earn or professional certificates you
acquire.
Church Workers Handbook --16-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Here they are, listed in order of importance:
1. Compassion:
This is your ability to treat other persons as you like to be treated, as Jesus stated in
the Golden Rule.
2. Communication:
This is your ability to transport ideas, concepts, and facts from your brain to
someone else's brain.
3. Content:
This is the accumulation of information that you are responsible for conveying to
your students. If it's not in your brain, you need to know how to teach your students
to find it.
4. Control:
This is your ability to structure the learning environment so all students have a
chance to learn. If you've mastered skills one through three, number four pretty
much takes care of itself.
You may have developed or learned these skills in the school of hard knocks. Or,
you may have acquired these skills in a formal teacher training program in college.
Regardless of how it happened, if you have these skills, you are an effective teacher.
If you do not demonstrate these skills in the way you deal with your students, you
are not an effective teacher. I know that's blunt. But that's it.
If you're reading this book on the fly, stop and jot down these four words:
Compassion
Communication
Content
Control
Church Workers Handbook --17-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Make a bookmark. Later, when you have more time, you can come back and read
the fine print.
1. Compassion
Good teachers like people. In other words, good teachers are people people. They
like people in general and students in particular. This doesn't mean good teachers
never get annoyed at what students do. However, this momentary annoyance is
never translated into psychological or physical abuse. Teachers who don't like
students should find other areas of service.
Perhaps you are still in high school and are considering a career as a professional
educator. I want to talk with you specifically for the next paragraph or so. The rest
of you can tune in also, if you want.
By now, you surely know if you like people well enough to teach them. If
you're serious about a career in education, your budding resume should
show some evidence of this career preference. If it doesn't, it's not too
late to start volunteering right now. Your church and Sunday school,
the scouts, or even your school district may be looking for help in
working with kids. Don't wait until you take student teaching in your
senior year of college to discover that you really don't like kids well
enough to teach them. By then, it may be too late to make a career
change without a significant loss of time and money.
The effective teacher must:
1. Develop a positive relationship with the learner
This can happen best in a one-to-one situation outside of the structure of the
formal learning environment. Make sure you know the student's name and
that he/she knows yours. Find out his/her interests, favorite things to do, and
information about the family. It is easier to communicate with and control a
student who knows and respects you as a person.
2. Make the learner feel at ease in the learning situation
Be friendly, smile a lot; even crack a joke or two.
3. Be alert for signs of physical discomfort or illness
Church Workers Handbook --18-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Never deny a student his/her right to use the restroom as required. (Younger
students should be encouraged to use the restrooms during pre-session.) If you
suspect students are finding the restroom more interesting than your class, do
something about your class. You don't have to be a certified teacher to know
that no one learns well when all powers of concentration are focused on the
constricture of the sphincter muscles. I'm not sure how this fixation on
restricting access to the restroom got such a prominent place in education. It's
surely not born out of compassion.
4. Avoid sarcasm and ridicule
Since you are striving to place the learner at ease, these attitudes and actions
have no place in the learning environment, unless you're a drill instructor and
teaching at Quantico. The military establishment seems convinced that it
takes sarcasm and ridicule to make good soldiers. (I'm not sure that's true,
but it's too late to change them now.)
5. Praise in public and reprimand in private
We'll talk more about discipline in the section on Control. For now,
remember that the watch-word is Compassion.
2. Communication
The ability to share ideas with others is critical to the teaching process. A gifted
musician or athlete may have the ability to perform but not the ability to teach
someone else to perform. At the same time, another musician or athlete can be an
average performer while teaching the gifted performer how to do a better job.
Every once in a while, you'll find an expert in a content area who is also an expert
communicator. That person is more precious than rubies in the educational
environment.
Effective teaching is hard work.
The teaching process is mentally and physically exhausting, when you're doing a
good job. Right now, I'm talking about the communication process, especially. The
business of getting information from your brain to the brains of your students is
hard work. When folks talk about how good teachers have it, working five hours a
day, for ten months a year -- forget it. The teacher who is an effective communicator
Church Workers Handbook --19-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
is equal parts of showman, clown, actor, mime, and orator. And a five-hour day?
Forget that, too! No full-time teacher worth his/her salt works a mere five hours a
day.
Here is a frequently-quoted fallacy:
"Those who can -- do. Those who can't, -- teach."
Here is the truth of the matter: "Some who can do, can also teach. Some who can do
a little, can teach a lot. Some who can do a lot, can't teach at all."
To be an effective communicator, you must master the following processes and
concepts:
1. Begin with the known and relate it to the unknown.
Regardless of your theological orientation, history records the fact that Jesus
Christ was a Master Teacher. He was at His best when He taught with
parables. A parable is taking what is "known" and relating it to the
"unknown."
Jesus had less than four years to teach twelve men His basic philosophies.
Although these men, known in the Bible as disciples, were intelligent, there is
no record that they had any theological training (excluding the Apostle Paul).
So, what did Jesus talk about when he was teaching His disciples? The simple
things of life that were known to all: bread, water, light, salt, sheep, doors,
farmers, and families.
Here's an activity you can use to test your ability to communicate with the
learner by relating to things that are known.
Draw a simple diagram, made up of a triangle, a rectangle, a circle, and a straight
line. Make sure all elements of your drawing are adjacent to each other or
connected in some way. Label the elements A, B, C, and so forth. Click for a Sample.
Now seat three people at a table and stand in from of them. Keep your picture of the
diagram out of sight. Tell them how to reproduce your diagram on their paper,
using simple instructions. Don't respond to any questions except "Will you repeat
that, please?" Don't look at their papers while they're still drawing.
When you say "Draw a box," the unanswered questions may be: "How big is the
box?" How should I hold my paper?" "Do you want an outline or a 3-D picture of a
box?
Church Workers Handbook --20-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Next you might say "Draw an outline of a shoe box." Now the unanswered questions
will be fewer because your students already know the shape of a shoe box.
You will be on your way to being an effective communicator when you can get a
small group of adults to reproduce your diagram in the proper size and
configuration on their paper. Now try it with children.
2. Adjust your presentation to the initial learning level of the students.
Not only do you need to begin with the known, you need to start with
demonstrations and activities with which the students can have instant
success. Example: When teaching students to read, at least 93 percent of the
words used in the lesson should be words they already know.
3. Remember that you have not taught until the learner has learned.
When my youngest daughter was failing algebra in high school, my wife,
Nancy, and I had a conference with the teacher. I pointed out that the failing
grade had to be shared equally between student and teacher. Since Jessi was
intelligent and had excellent language skills, there was no reason why she
couldn't learn algebra. Therefore, it was up to the teacher to find teaching
methods which could communicate algebra facts and concepts from the
teacher's brain to the student's brain. Teaching and learning go hand in hand.
3. Content
A working knowledge of the Plan of Salvation is the foundation on which all
Christian education lesson content must be built. The primary purpose of the Bible
is to share this Plan of Salvation with us. If we, in turn, are to share it with our
students, we must understand it ourselves. By the way, the Plan of Salvation is not
learned by memorizing a packaged witnessing program such as the Four Spiritual
Laws, the Roman Road, or the Kennedy Evangelism Explosion plan. The Plan of
Salvation is the Biblical concept on which these witnessing programs are built. It
must be the concept on which your teaching is based as well.
Here is a simple outline of the Plan of Salvation with sample scripture references. If
you don't understand it, study it. When you do understand it, memorize it. When
you've memorized it, build your teaching around it.
Church Workers Handbook --21-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
The Plan of Salvation
A. In the beginning God created human beings for fellowship with Him and
worship of Him. Gen. 1:26-27
B. Our first ancestors, Adam and Eve, broke God's law about eating the fruit of
the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil. Gen. 3:6-8.
C. The penalty for breaking God's law was then, and always has been, death.
Gen. 2:17.
D. But God had mercy and developed a temporary plan of animal sacrifices so
man could be saved from His death penalty. Gen. 3:21, Gen. 4:4-5, Gen. 22:913,
Lev. 1:4.
E. After hundreds of years of animal sacrifices, the point in history arrived for
God to reveal his permanent plan of salvation: The sacrifice of His only Son as
the Lamb of God. Luke 1:41, John 1:29.
F. Until the Rapture, the only way to escape God's death penalty for sin is to
accept the sacrifice of His Son, Jesus Christ. John 14:6, Acts 4:12.
G. In Heaven, Jesus Christ is known as The Lamb, the highest and most exalted
title of all. Rev. 5:6.
In mastering general content, you must:
1. Know what your students need to know when your instruction
is over.
Many educators refer to this process as "Outcome-Based Education" .
Unfortunately, outcome-based education has a bad reputation in some church
circles because if has been unfairly paired with liberal philosophies of
education, religion, and politics. See the OBE Chapter of Church Workers
Handbook for more on this topic. For now, you need to know that good
teaching always is aimed at the outcome, not the method.
The terms Outcome and Objective both relate to the concept of knowing the target of
your teaching, and can be used more or less interchangeably.
Church Workers Handbook --22-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
2. Know the difference between Learning Objectives, Methods,
and Materials.
The Learning Objective is the specific skill you are teaching.
A Method is a game or activity which you use to help your students achieve the
Learning Objective.
Materials are the tangible things you use to carry out the Methods as you
move the students toward the Learning Objective.
This difference between Objectives and Methods/Materials is a fairly simple
concept, but many teachers fail to understand the distinction. Teachers often
decide on what to teach based on the contents of their closet, or the items
listed in the school supply catalog -- rather than the educational needs of their
students.
3. Be able to break a task into sequential learning objectives
The "sequence" is the order you will teach the tasks.
Here's a simple process for writing and sequencing objectives. Example: You
want your students to be able to cook an egg.
A. Separate that task into its separate sub-tasks. Use 3x5
cards to write down the things you want the students to learn, one item
per card. Use objectives only and not methods or materials. "Play
musical chairs" is not an objective, it's a method. Don't worry about
what comes first or last at this time. Just write. Leave the top inch of the
card blank for rewording the objective later.
B. Now write an objective at the top of each card, and
begin each objective with a present-tense verb.
Comment for trained teachers: Resist the habit to begin each objective
with a stock phrase such as, "The student will be able to". Such surplus
verbiage just clutters up the scenery without saying anything
significant. Of course you want the "student to be able to..." That's a
given. The purpose of education is help students to be able to do things.
When you begin each objective with a verb, you get the action up front
where you and the student can see it.
Church Workers Handbook --23-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
In the example below, you are teaching students to prepare an egg:
Cracks egg
Greases pan
Decides on type of egg to prepare
Sets burner temperature
Etc., etc.
C. Last, put your 3x5 cards in the order you wish to
teach the objectives. You can sequence your objectives in order of
difficulty or logical order. When preparing an egg, the hardest thing to
do may be to crack the egg.
4. Identify appropriate methods and materials for teaching
specific learning objectives.
Here lies a major pitfall for the untrained (as well as trained) teacher. Do you
use a method or material because it is familiar, readily available, and popular
with the students? Or do you seek out methods and materials that are ideally
suited for teaching a particular objective?
In outcome-based education, each method and material is specifically selected
as being best suited for helping the students achieve a particular objective.
5. Adjust methods and materials to meet the learning styles of the
students.
A method or material that worked with last year's group may not be suitable
for this class. The seminar leader may have had a great idea but it just won't
work for you. Tailor your methods by adapting, adjusting, and augmenting
what others have found successful.
If a student has a specific ability or disability, select methods and materials
that tend to maximize abilities and minimize disabilities.
6. Test what the students have learned.
Church Workers Handbook --24-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Testing can be as simple as asking a few verbal questions after telling a story:
"How did the man who couldn't walk get to see Jesus? Why did his friends
make a hole in the roof? What did Jesus think when a sick man came down
out of the ceiling on a rope?" Or, testing for older students can be in the form
of a written quiz or performance monitoring.
In the example of cooking the egg above, one form of evaluation would be to
eat the egg: does it look, smell, and taste good?
The true purpose of testing is not to give grades but to discover what has been
learned. Of course, no test can ever truly measure intelligence or knowledge.
A test measures performance and from that performance, we draw inferences
on what has been learned.
The much talked-about IQ (intelligence quotient) test shows how a given
student or group of students performs mentally in comparison to most
students of the same age.
For example, Johnny is 10 years old. We say his chronological age (CA) is 10.
However, when tested, he is able to do the mental work of the average 8-yearold. We say his mental age (MA) is 8.
We then arrange this basic information into a division problem. In the answer
(quotient), we drop the decimal and call the number a percent.
MA / CA = IQ
(In these examples, the slash mark (/) means divided by.)
8 / 10 = 80
Johnny can do 80% of the mental work of an average 10-year-old, so we say
his Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is 80.
Let's try another example. Jenny is also 10. However, when she is tested, she
can do the mental work of a student who is 12. Again, this information is put
into a simple division problem:
MA / CA = IQ
12 / 10 = 120
Church Workers Handbook --25-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Of course many students will do the mental work of students their own age.
Then the IQ equation looks like this:
MA / CA = IQ
10 / 10 = 100
7. Talk to the students don't teach at them.
Good teachers don't sound like "teachers". They sound like a normal person
talking to a group of normal persons. Tape your lessons and listen to yourself
teach. Watch your volume and pitch. If you always use high volume and pitch,
you have nowhere to go when you want to add emphasis.
8. Tell it, don't read it.
When presenting a story to young students: (a) read the story during your
preparation time and absorb the gist of what it says; (b) if you can't
remember the details of the story, write some cues on 3x5 cards; if you have
pictures to hold up, tape your cue cards to the back of the pictures; (c) when
presenting the story, look the students straight in the eyes and "tell" them the
story; (d) if the story is from a book with pictures, hold the book facing the
group and turn the pages as you TELL the story. This technique makes your
presentation more effective and helps you keep better control of the group.
For students who are "too old" for stories, limit your in-class reading to
scripture and passages of lasting literary value. Always read scripture from a
Bible and not the quarterly. The students must see God's authority for what
you teach as the Bible and not something from a publishing house. Don't read
anything else from the quarterly, either. The material in the teacher's edition
should be read during your preparation time and then woven into your
classroom presentation.
9. For preschool and primary-age students, do all writing in
upper/lower case manuscript (printing) style.
This kind of writing provides more visual cues than solid capitals. All
students, even adults, can profit from the visual cues of upper/lower case
writing. This applies when the copy is type-set, as well as hand-written.
When you type in solid caps, the copy is harder to read than when you use
normal upper/lower case. The human eye and brain use graphic cues to help
Church Workers Handbook --26-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
decode printed characters into words and ideas. Look at the word girl, for
example.
girl
The G goes below the line, and the L goes above it.
On the other hand, GIRL is a solid block with fewer visual cues than girl.
GIRL
Anyone who can read, can read solid caps. Solid caps just cause subliminal
irritation, something you want to avoid.
10 Know the difference between concepts and facts.
Fact: Jesus had 12 disciples.
Concept: Jesus trained His disciples to carry on His work after He was
gone.
11. Prepare a lesson plan.
The plan should be in outline format so it can be used for quick reference
during the lesson. During your preparation time, learn the lesson so well that
while you are teaching, a quick glance at your lesson plan can trigger the next
sequence of events. It doesn't have to be a script that is read word for word. In
fact, you already know you should seldom read anything to students unless it
has lasting literary value.
All good teachers rehearse their lessons. Beginners may need to do this with
an audience (from within the family or friends). As you get more experienced,
you may do your rehearsing mentally. When I know I am going to speak
before a group, I always do a mental rehearsal. Some of this activity involves
actual mental word-for-word dialogue between me and the group.
Scripture Memorization.
When teaching memory verses, make sure the students understand the
concept and context of the verse. Here are the four elements of scripture
Church Workers Handbook --27-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
memorization, listed in order of importance. The example is: "Jesus wept."
John 11:35.
1.
Concept: "Jesus had human emotions and feelings, just like we do.
When He was sad, He cried." The concept has primary importance
because here is where the kernel of truth lies. If a student forgets the text,
forgets, the reference, forgets the context, but remembers the concept -he/she has indeed hidden God's word in the heart.
2. Context: "A very good friend named Lazarus had died and the man's
sisters were very sad. Their sorrow made Jesus sad, too." The context gives
the setting for the verse: What is happening? Where is this happening?
Why is this happening? Who is speaking? To whom is this person
speaking? A knowledge of the context helps students remember the
concept of the verse. In addition, this knowledge helps the student guard
against false teachings that are based on scripture quoted out of context.
3. Reference: "John 11:35" . The ability to find a scripture verse in the
Bible gives the student opportunity for further study of the concept and
context.
4. Text: "Jesus wept." As a general rule, the King James Version
should be used for memorization. The language of the KJV has a literary
quality not found in the modern-language translations. However, the
students should understand that the Elizabethan pronouns (thee, thy,
thine, thou) were not reserved for deity in 1611 when the KJV was
translated. Therefore, they have no divine significance now.
4. Control
In any society, control is necessary or chaos results. This applies to teachers
and students, also.
There is a philosophical difference between discipline and punishment. The
purpose of discipline is to improve future behavior. The purpose of
punishment is to provide a negative reward for past behavior. Try to think in
terms of discipline and not punishment.
To have control in your classroom, you must:
1. Establish rules and limits. Your students may act like they don't
want limits but many humans thrive in a controlled environment. Make sure
everyone knows and understands your rules.
Church Workers Handbook --28-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
2. Enforce established rules and limits. Don't make empty threats.
You may say, "The next time you talk without raising your hand, you will sit
in the time-out chair 2 minutes." But if you say it, make sure you do it. Count
on one thing: you will be tested by your students.
3. Understand and be able to use the basic principles of such
behavioral techniques as contingency contracting, positive
reinforcement, behavior shaping, and delayed reinforcement.
Contingency contracting:
A contingency contract is based on an if/then statement and God is the original
contingency contractor. In the Old Testament He said, "IF you obey my laws,
THEN all land you walk on will be yours and every battle you fight you will win."
In the New Testament He says, "IF you will accept Jesus Christ as your personal
Savior, THEN you may have eternal life."
For younger students, contracts are always verbal. For older students, they may be
written. Here are some sample classroom contingency contracts:
IF you will be quiet during the story, THEN you may have a snack.
IF you don't touch the microphone, THEN you may stand in the front
row of the cherub choir.
IF you memorize 10 of the 13 memory verses for this quarter, THEN I
will give you a new Bible.
Positive reinforcement:
Many students (of all ages) exhibit poor behavior because they want your attention
and/or the attention of the rest of the group. The trick is to reward positive behavior
while ignoring negative behavior. (Negative behavior that involves danger to self or
others should not be ignored. Use a more structured technique such as time out.)
Instead of giving a handful of Fruit Loops to everyone as a snack, try using them as
positive reinforcers. When you see Tom, Dick, and Harry misbehaving, try this:
"Mary is in her seat and ready for the story. Mary gets a Fruit Loop. Joe is in
his seat and he gets a Fruit Loop. Billy is quiet. He gets a Fruit Loop, too."
Say absolutely nothing to or about Tom, Dick, or Harry. If their negative
behavior is based on a need for attention, this technique will get to them over
a period of time.
Church Workers Handbook --29-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Behavior shaping:
Sometimes a child cannot meet your rules and standards. Therefore, you must
accept, and reinforce his/her ability to conform on a graduating scale. Use this
technique in connection with positive reinforcement. Harry is a new student in the
community who has never been to Sunday school before. At first, you might
reinforce him with a Fruit Loop for not disturbing others while he is out of his seat.
Later, you reinforce him for being in his seat even though he is not attending to
what you are doing. Over successive sessions, you can gradually increase the
requirements for reinforcement until he performs on the same level as the other
students.
Delayed reinforcement
Token economy:
A token economy is based on delayed reinforcement. Again, God invented delayed
reinforcement: Blessed are you when men shall revile you for my name sake...for
great is your reward in Heaven. Instead of using edibles (Fruit Loops) for
immediate reinforcement, use tokens for delayed reinforcement. You can make
tokens out of small squares of colored construction paper.
Time out:
You will find the need for a time out area where students can go whose negative
behavior cannot be tolerated. This may be a corner of the room (a time-honored
tradition) or a chair. Keep time out periods short. You might use an egg timer to
keep track of the time. As a general rule, give one minute of time out for each year
of the student’s age. You may need different time-out areas for different students. In
Sunday school, the ultimate time out may be returning the child to his/her parent(s)
for the rest of the period -- and don't be afraid to use it unless that's what the child
wants.
Be consistent across programs
In order for behavior techniques to be effective, your program must be consistent
across all Sunday school and junior church programs. Behavioral techniques have
less chance of working if all adults involved in the program are not using the same
reinforcement procedures. This is especially true for students with behavior
problems. Involved adults must confer on the various techniques that will be used.
Church Workers Handbook --30-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Not all troubled students are troublesome.
Sometimes the quiet child may need your attention but doesn't know an acceptable
way to compete for it. One of the benefits of positive reinforcement is the boost the
self-concept of such a child gets each time the Fruit Loops or blue tokens are passed
around for good behavior.
G. Edwin Lint
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Church Workers Handbook --31-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Supervision and Administration of Christian
Education Programs
The basic concepts of the following guidelines can apply to secular education
programs, also
The most common trap into which a Christian education manager can fall sounds
something like this:
Question: Aren't these people volunteers who work as a good-will service to their
church and for God?
Answer: All the more reason to apply sound educational management
principles! We are doing far more than preparing these students for life. We
are preparing these students for eternity! By definition, eternity is heaven or
hell forever, worlds without end.
Basic principles for all quality education, secular as well as
Christian.
1.
Each educator will have a written job description and
relevant performance standards. Of course, such a job description
should reference competence in our four main areas: compassion,
communication, content, control.
2.
All educators will receive pre-service and in-service training
in how to fulfill the requirements of their job descriptions and meet
minimum performance standards.
3.
Each educator will be given a regular performance
evaluation to assess on-the-job competence as measured against the
relevant job description and performance standards. Such an evaluation will
include the following areas: compassion, communication, content, control.
4.
Educators who show evidence of failing to perform
satisfactorily will participate in a corrective action program
designed to improve performance in the deficient area(s).
Church Workers Handbook --32-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
5.
Educators who fail to respond to an appropriate corrective
action program will be considered for dismissal.
6.
Dismissal will be the final disciplinary action, following these
progressive disciplinary actions:
a) Verbal reprimand.
b) Written reprimand.
c) Suspension.
7.
All new workers entering the program will be interviewed in
terms of the likelihood that they will be able to perform satisfactorily in
reference to the relevant job description and performance standards.
You Can Be a Teacher, Too
Workshop
You’re invited to listen to this three-hour recording of a live workshop
conducted by G. Edwin Lint, MA for a group of Christian educators at the
Christian Life Assembly, Camp Hill, Pennsylvania, in 1988.
Make sure your speakers are turned on. Then, click the segment of your
choice.
All downloads are free!
Part 1 Introduction; Compassion; Communication [Including the
Flutophone demonstration
Part 2 Communication continued; Diagram drawing demonstration;
Content, lesson planning curriculum development
Church Workers Handbook --33-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Part 3 Content continued; student evaluation; tell the story instead of read
it; Facts and Concepts; scripture memorization.
Part 4 Control: contingency contracting; positive reinforcement; behavior
shaping; delayed reinforcement [token economy]; time out;
After your segment has downloaded, your Windows Media Player [or equal]
should kick in and you will be able to hear the sound of my voice.
Church Workers Handbook --34-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Chapter 3: Some Real Facts
About Outcome-Based
Education
Church Workers Handbook
What They Didn't Teach You in Bible College and Seminary
Some Real Facts About Outcome-Based
Education (OBE) of Special Interest to
Evangelicals
Author's note: I wrote these facts originally March 10, 1993, while I was
working for the Pennsylvania Department of Education as an education
adviser. Now, I am retired from public education and working as an
educational consultant. I still feel the same way. [For what it's worth,
I'm a born-again Christian and a registered Republican.]
G. Edwin Lint, M.A. -- March 10, 2008
*****
Much has been written and said against outcome-based
education from the political and theological perspectives. Now,
consider the facts:
OBE Fact 1: Outcome-Based Education is a method for
organizing how we run our schools.
There is no inherent evil in it, contrary to the beliefs of many evangelicals.
The concept of OBE doesn't promote homosexuality, secular humanism,
occult practices, immorality, the new age, or a new world order. Not by itself,
it doesn't.
Church Workers Handbook --35-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
OBE Fact 2: Outcome-Based Education is nothing but a
wheelbarrow.
You can use a wheelbarrow to haul fresh fruits and vegetables. Or, you can
use a wheelbarrow to haul garbage. Outcome-Based Education can provide
good education if the outcomes, methods, and materials are good.
Or-- Outcome-Based Education can provide rotten education if the content of
the curriculum is poor (or evil).
OBE Fact 3: Just exactly what is OBE?
Outcome-Based Education is just what the name implies. Instead of being
time-based, it is outcome-based. Students get credit for learning specific
things-- which are known as learning-outcomes-- not just for putting in their
time. For example, if a child can read at the third grade level on the first day
of kindergarten, true Outcome-Based Education says that instruction should
start at the third or fourth grade level-- not way down at the Fun with Dick
and Jane level.
OBE Fact 4: With time-based education,
WHEN a student learns a skill or fact is more important than WHETHER or
not he or she learns it.
OBE Fact 5: With Outcome-Based Education, time is irrelevant.
WHETHER a skill is learned is the important thing.
OBE Fact 6: If Outcome-Based Education is new, what is it
replacing?
For over 100 years, public schools in the United States have been organized
according to calendar-based and clock-based education. Most public schools
are in session 180 days a year, five and one half hours a day, for 13 years,
counting kindergarten. So, Outcome-Based Education is replacing TimeBased Education.
OBE Fact 7: Outcome-Based Education is driven by three
cardinal laws of learning:
Church Workers Handbook --36-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
A. Don't teach a skill that has already been learned. This annoys students.
B. Don't teach a skill that will never be used. This bores students.
C. Don't teach a skill until the student is ready. This frustrates students.
Most children come to school loving it. What makes them start to dislike it?
Being bored. Being annoyed. Being frustrated. We adults hate anything that
bores, annoys, and frustrates us, too.
OBE Fact 8: Outcome-Based Education can be of particular
value to students who attend private day schools or who are
being schooled at home.
Since the critical issues are what is known, not when it is learned, students can
move into or out of an OBE program without experiencing gaps or overlaps in
their education.
OBE Fact 9: Gifted students may stand to gain the most from
Outcome-Based Education.
The converse is true; gifted students may lose the most if it is not fully
implemented. Consider the TV sitcom Doogie Howser, a story of a teenager
who became a physician while still in his early teens. With Outcome-Based
Education, any child could be a real-life Doogie Howser if he or she has the
mental ability to learn-- while still in the elementary grades-- the things a
fledgling doctor needs to know in order to enter med school.
OBE Fact 10: Concerned parents can do some useful things to
help a child's education, with or without OBE in place.
First, keep a close eye on WHAT is being taught in terms of the planned
courses and the outcomes. Make sure that wheelbarrow is hauling fresh fruits
and vegetables and not hauling garbage. And second-- get involved in what
the school is doing. Go to PTA meetings. Don't miss parent-teacher
conferences. Even offer to volunteer to serve as an unpaid teacher aid.
And if you smell garbage, yell loud and long!!!
Church Workers Handbook --37-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
G. Edwin Lint
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Church Workers Handbook --38-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Behind the Scenes at a State Department of
Education
The revised curriculum regulations spelled out in Chapter 5 of the
Regulations of the [Pennsylvania, USA] State Board of Education made
it possible to implement outcome-based education. When these
regulations were published in the Pennsylvania Bulletin, July 24, 1993, it
caused quite a bit of consternation among many evangelicals. At this
time, my duties at the Pennsylvania Department of Education included
attending many of the training and implementation seminars designed
to help put OBE into place. In addition, I was a member of a work
group that drafted a section of the original required outcomes.
The e-mail messages which follow show the stand I took regarding the
relationship of OBE to the mindset of evangelicals. Make special note of
the comments made by my supervisors at the end of this section.
======================================
08:33am - Mon, Nov 30, 1992
To: Joe Bard [Then Commissioner of Basic and Secondary Education]
From: Ed Lint CC: Jim Tucker, Linda Rhen
This is in regard to the rumors I hear that Don Carroll [then
Secretary of Education] is planning to debate Peg Luksic [then
potential candidate for Pa. governor] on issues surrounding OBE.
Since she is an evangelical (as well as a Republican), you and Don
may wish to consider some relevant issues on how evangelicals view
OBE. Since my January report on this issue to Jim Tucker, which he in
turn forwarded to you, I have learned more about the ongoing
controversy between evangelicals and the supporters of OBE. (I am
attaching that January exchange to the end of this message, for your
review.)
First, let me say I am certainly an evangelical. I was raised in an
evangelical home and earned Bachelor of Science in Bible and Bachelor
of Theology degrees from an evangelical college, before going on for
a Master's in educational supervision and administration. Therefore,
I am in a position to see both sides of the issue.
By definition, an evangelical believes in the Bible as the divinelyinspired word of God and in his/her responsibility to share the
truths of the Bible with others. (Hence the term "evangelical"; the
Church Workers Handbook --39-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
word "fundamentalist" is a media term which is not used inside the
evangelical movement.)
Second, I firmly believe in the merits of outcomes-based education.
Bill Spady [a major national author on OBE] says the one-room school
was the forerunner of modern OBE concepts. It may not be a total
coincidence that I spent 5.5 years of my 8 elementary years in such a
school with eight grades in one room and one teacher. (Northumberland
County, 1940-41; 1944-48.) I further believe that WHETHER rather than
WHEN is the primary issue in all education.
Next, let me give you an update on the situation in my own church. I
met with the "God and Country Committee" and presented my view that
OBE is not out of harmony with traditional evangelical values. At
first, my fellow worshippers had a hard time believing that a bornagain Christian could be a professional educator working in the
Department of Education. Once I established my credibility, we went
on to have a fruitful discussion. I emphasized the importance of
getting involved with the local strategic planning groups as well as
the curriculum development committees working on school district
planned courses. [In Pa., all curriculum must be in "planned course"
format, including lists of outcomes and means to achieve those
outcomes]. I didn't change everyone's mind but the fire left their
eyes and we were able to talk rationally. I had a subsequent meeting
with the education subcommittee of this God and Country Committee and
that was positive also. At that time, they asked me for a list of
districts in the region by strategic planning wave so they could
start getting involved in the process.
Let me move on to some comments about evangelicals and their concerns
about public education.
1. Evangelicals include blue-collar workers or professionals in some
field unrelated to education. They tend to favor stressing the 3 Rs
and are not interested in affective areas, as a rule.
2. There is a concern that values-free sex education will be more
prevalent under OBE, including condom distribution.
3. The use of the term "lifestyle" is a lightening rod. To an
evangelical, this term conjures up visions of alternative lifestyles
which are not consistent with traditional family values. The
solution: we should stop using this term.
4. There is fear of the occult. This probably comes from other states
... which have had tinges of the occult creeping into the curriculum.
This spring, I heard Chuck Colson on the radio trashing
Pennsylvania's OBE thrust. He may be an excellent lawyer and an
effective minister in prisons, but he clearly lacked facts on OBE. He
Church Workers Handbook --40-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
seemed to be influenced by things which are happening in other states
where there is evidence of supernatural powers such as witchcraft in
curricular materials .... With many nationally-syndicated radio and
TV programs aimed at evangelicals, the thinking and philosophies by
people like Chuck Colson are evident in their own philosophies.
5. There is fear of the New Age movement. For the last 2,000 years,
we have been in the Age of Pisces, the dispensation of Jesus Christ.
The "new age" is the dispensation of man (secular humanism) where
there are no moral absolutes. This is the true meaning of the song,
"This is the Dawning of the Age of Aquarius." Evangelicals are
opposed to anything which hints of New Age or secular humanism. The
bottom line of all this: Although there is no real evidence to
support it in Pennsylvania, evangelicals feel there's a real link
among OBE and New Age, Secular Humanism, and the occult. Some states
with so-called progressive education ideas have had hints of these
elements. Therefore, some people have extrapolated this to mean that
because OBE is new, it will lead directly to contamination by these
things which are feared.
When I speak to groups of concerned parents, here's what I say:
If you fear unwanted intrusions into your schools' curriculum, you
should look to planned courses. This is the community's real line of
defense. In Pennsylvania with it's commitment to local control,
nothing can be taught legally unless it is supported by a planned
course. If it's not in the planned course, it shouldn't be in a
lesson plan. And if it's not in a lesson plan, it shouldn't be
taught. OBE or no OBE
Now here's a copy of my e-mail message in January, 1993 to Jim
Tucker, the director of my bureau:
==========================================
Jim:
This is in follow up to our table conversation at the awards luncheon
January 10. At that time, we were discussing the recent radio talk
show programs regarding public reaction to Chapter 5 [the curriculum
chapter of the revision to the Regulation of the Pa. State Board of
Education].
Since then, I have been alert to what's going on in the community in
this regard. On January 16, I picked up a copy of an open letter in
the foyer of our church (Christian Life Assembly in Camp Hill). This
letter talked about the church's concerns pertaining to revising
Chapter 5, specifically in the area of the Learning Outcomes. I
scheduled an "unofficial" meeting with two of the Associate Pastors
Church Workers Handbook --41-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
in an attempt to learn more about the nature of their concerns. At
this meeting, I told them:
A. Chapter 5 with its emphasis on outcome-based education rather than
traditional clock-hours and credits was at the cutting edge of what
is good about the national concern for improving our schools.
B. The language of Goal 11 (Appreciating and understanding others)
was as close to the teachings of Jesus Christ regarding interpersonal
relationships as a public education document could come.
C. The local school district, through its Strategic Plan and the
subsequent planned courses, had total control of the actual
instruction which would be presented to the students.
D. A complete education for a student of any age includes the
affective as well as the cognitive domain. At first, one of the
associate pastors took a strong position that the school had no
business teaching in the affective domain and that this was the sole
responsibility of the home and church. Later, his opposition seemed
to boil down to concerns about such terms as "lifestyle".
Let me suggest that during the revision of the learning outcomes
which relate to the affective domain, we include recognized
representatives of the evangelical movement, in general, and of the
Christian day school and home-school movements in particular. It's
better to have these people in on the discussions from the ground up
than to have them seeing words like "lifestyle" as an issue of
contention later on.
==========================================
E-Mail Comments From Joe Bard And Jim Tucker (Note Dates)
*** Comment from JAT - Tucker, James A.; 01/23/92 02:16pm:
Ed, this was a very proactive and positive step to take, and I
appreciate it. I will share your experience with Commissioner Bard.
*** Comment from JFB - Bard, Joseph F.; 01/23/92 02:32pm:
I second your comment, Jim. Ed's comments were cogent and
intellectually substantive. How would he like to be our Coordinator
of Sectarian Relations?
*** Comment from JAT - Tucker, James A.; 01/23/92 05:25pm:
Ed, your work did not go unnoticed or unappreciated; I feel certain
that it may go yet further up the chain of command. Thanks again.
Church Workers Handbook --42-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
*** Comments from JAT - Tucker, James A.; 10/22/92 03:20pm: Ed, again
I commend you for a thoughtful and provocative presentation that
should be a real help to both Joe and Don in their deliberations.
Thanks for sharing this with Joe and with me.
*** Comments from JFB - Bard, Joseph F.; 10/22/92 02:56pm:
Ed, Thank you so much. This is
very helpful information to have
from an evangelical perspective.
It certainly helps me respond more
understandingly rather than riding
roughshod over concerns I have
trouble validating.
Church Workers Handbook --43-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
OUTCOME-BASED EDUCATION (OBE) VIA
WILLIAM G. SPADY
This is a summary of the OBE workshop which Spady [a national OBE
author] and company presented at Hatboro-Horsham School District May
14-15, 1992:
1
Spady's OBE stresses two key concepts: WHETHER is more important than
WHEN, and education is the process of preparing persons for adult life.
2
This version of OBE is consistent with what good ... educators have been
talking about for years.
3
Spady uses three key terms to describe "curriculum". In descending order of
value, they are:
**A. Traditional, based on subject matter content.
**B. Transitional, based on higher-order competencies
Transformational, based on complex role performance in authentic
contexts (preparation for adult life).
4
Spady emphasizes the importance of designing curriculum from the top down
and delivering it from the bottom up.
End of OBE Chapter
G. Edwin Lint
Please note: The hypertext e-mail link above is hot [active] when you are connected to the Internet
through your ISP. The same will be true of all hypertext links through the text of this ebook.
Church Workers Handbook --44-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Chapter 4: Church Music
Church Workers Handbook -- What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and
Seminary
This section on church music contains practical
guidelines for directing worship, coordinating
special music, and working with a volunteer
orchestra.
Table of Contents for This Chapter
Leading Worship ............................................................................................................. 43
How Long Should Worship Last? .................................................................................. 43
Don't Try To Improve on the Old Hymns .................................................................... 44
Projecting Words onto a Screen .................................................................................... 44
You're not singing a solo! ................................................................................................ 45
Carry a Tune and Sing on Pitch ..................................................................................... 46
Understand Time Signature ............................................................................................ 46
Understand Pickup Notes ................................................................................................ 46
Give a Strong Down Beat ................................................................................................ 47
Give Consistent Motions for Each of the Major Time Signatures .............................. 47
Give Clear Indications of Volume, Holds, Cuts, and Repeats ..................................... 48
Pick the Right Songs ........................................................................................................ 49
Set the Right Tempo (Speed) .......................................................................................... 49
The Value of an Evangelical Pianist ............................................................................... 49
Providing Special Music .................................................................................................. 51
Make and Post a Schedule ............................................................................................... 51
Serve As a Resource Person for Your Special Singers ................................................. 51
Put Words with Your Instrumental Music.................................................................... 52
Working with a Volunteer Orchestra ............................................................................ 53
Pick the Right Song in the Right Key ............................................................................ 54
Gospel Music and Contemporary Music ....................................................................... 54
Ten Commandments for Worship Leaders and Worship Team Members ............... 56
Church Workers Handbook --45-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Leading Worship
Who Is Leading Whom?
As a worship leader, you know you are directing the worship team, orchestra, piano
and organ, and the choir. They, in turn, are directing the congregational singing.
Therefore, it is important that the song leading guidelines included in this chapter
are clearly understood by the pianist, organist, and the members of the choir. It
might be a good idea to download this chapter and print it out. Of course, you can
import it into your word processor and make your own modifications first. When
you have it the way you want it, make copies for key people in your music program.
Waving your arms aimlessly can be good exercise. In fact, there is a theory that
symphony conductors grow to such a ripe, old age because of the exercise their
upper chest receives from all the arm waving. That may or may not be true.
However, this is true. Unless all persons directly involved in the music program
have a common understanding of the signals you are using, the most you are doing
is getting exercise. The worst you are doing is looking foolish, and perhaps bringing
discredit to the cause of Christ.
You don't need to know how to read or write music to become an effective worship
leader. You don't need to know how to play a musical instrument, either. However,
there are some things you do need to be able to do, and these absolutes are listed
below:
How Long Should Worship Last?
Can you remember when the song service consisted of a couple of songs out of the
hymnal plus a couple of choruses, known well enough to the congregation to make
the projection screen unnecessary? I can.
Now, the song service, known as "worship" may seem to be a test of the endurance
of the worshippers. Worship leaders and worship teams tend to be young and
energetic and surely exceed in endurance many of us more senior worshippers.
Years ago, I learned a rule in a physical education course I was taking that went
something like this:
Church Workers Handbook --46-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Always terminate an activity while the students are still
enjoying it and wanting more.
Worship leaders: this rule may apply here, also. Terminate the singing, clapping, and
hand-raising while the worshippers are still enjoying it, not when they show signs of
being tired of it.
Of course, the clock has something to do with it, especially if you have a large
congregation with limited parking and more than one consecutive service.
If you have invited special guests to participate in the service, make sure you don't
allow the worship phase to detract from what the special guests have been invited to
come and do. This is especially true if the guests are going to present a musical
package.
Consult with your guests before the service. See if they would like to be the worship
leaders. If there will be live music, see if their organist/pianist would like to
participate in worship. [My wife and I sang in a regional gospel singing group for
several years. Our preference was to have the local leader sing a "warm-up" chorus
and then turn the service over to us.]
The absolute final authority on how long worship singing should last is not the
clock, or the musical guests, but the leading of the Holy Spirit.
Don't Try To Improve on the Old Hymns
Don't try to spice up the old hymns with strange tempos and chord progressions.
When you've been singing a traditional hymn for fifty-plus years, you won't take
kindly to a new tempo full of syncopation and other surprising breaks in the
original tempo. And when you're used to singing along with the congregation and
harmonizing as you go, strange and fancy chords won't be much fun, either.
Attention worship leaders: When a major segment of your congregation is
older and used to traditional worship, save the strange and fancy stuff for a worship
service that is made up mostly of younger people and newer Christians.
Projecting Words onto a Screen
Many churches are now singing lyrics projected onto a screen, instead of singing
from hymnals or chorus books. This practice brings up some practical and legal
issues:
Church Workers Handbook --47-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
•
•
•
•
Legibility is more important than art. A standard serif font, such as Times
New Roman, in a large, bold, face is the most legible.
Combinations of yellow and black may be more legible than other color
combinations. In a recent service I attended, the projected image consisted of
white characters with a light constantly-changing background. Clearly the art
of the projected image was more important than legibility.
Avoid textured backgrounds and even logos. Keep the background plain. Just
because you can doesn't mean you should.
Make sure your projections are legal: Christian Copyright Licensing
International [CCLI]
Now there's an easy and affordable solution for churches that reproduce
songs... or would like to.
• It's called the Church Copyright License. It can loose your music
department from the rigid demands of the copyright law and leave you free
to legally copy over 150,000 songs and hymns. Here are just some of the
ways the Church Copyright License allows you to copy songs:
1. Project songs from your overhead, slide projector, or computer
software such as PowerPoint].
2. Record your worship service on tape.
3. Copy songs in bulletins that you hand out before worship service.
You're not singing a solo!
You may be a very accomplished soloist and often sing solos with a handheld mike.
However, don't "sing a solo" while you're leading worship. Resist the temptation to
suck up to the mike so that your amplified voice overpowers the congregation and
acts as a deterrent to their participation in the song service. If you're using a
handheld mike, when you announce a song, either switch the mike off or hold it
away from your face as the accompanist(s) finish the introduction and you start to
sing. If you're using a mike mounted to the pulpit, either step back when you start
to sing, or arrange with the people running sound to turn you down when you sing
and back up to normal levels when you speak.
I enjoy sitting beside my wife in a large congregation and singing harmony with her.
She usually sings the second part [alto] and I sing the third part [baritone.] Since
most people in the congregation are singing melody [lead; soprano], this gives us the
illusion of singing in three-part harmony. We were married in 1956 and sang
harmony for a couple years before then, while we were going together.
Church Workers Handbook --48-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
But when a worship leader starts singing loudly into a handheld mike, his/her
leading is a deterrent to Nancy and my lifelong habit of congregational
harmonizing. I usually just drop out and let the worship leader have sole access to
the stage for a solo. I just don't care to compete with all that electronic bellowing.
An exception to this rule is the occasion when you are teaching a new chorus to the
congregation and they don't have the words.
Carry a Tune and Sing on Pitch
If you can't do both of these, you probably aren't even reading this chapter.
However, since a lot of worship leaders are men, I need to talk specifically about
singing on pitch, as it relates to men.
First, find a lady who is a good singer and can read music, Have her check you out
on singing on pitch. This may be your wife, mother, choir director, friend, anyone.
I'll call her your helper. Ask your helper to sing a simple song, like "Jesus Loves
Me." Now you try to sing the same song with her in unison. Singing in unison means
you are both singing the same notes in the same octave. When I was teaching
elementary school, I had a female music teacher come into my room who tried to
teach adolescent boys to sing unison with the girls by having the boys sing an octave
lower. This is wrong, and I tried to tell her so. Look at a choir arrangement that has
men and women singing unison. The notes for the sopranos and altos are in the
treble clef, and the notes for the tenors and basses are in the bass clef. However, the
ABCDEFG values of those notes are identical. A man's voice quality has a different
timbre than a woman's, but the pitch is not automatically an octave lower. It's
different but not lower.
I said all that to say this. Make sure you are not singing an octave lower than the
ladies who are singing soprano when you are leading the congregational singing.
You should be singing in unison with them.
Understand Time Signature
The time signature is given at the beginning of each bar of music, expressed as a
fraction, such as 4/4. The top number in this fraction tells you how many beats there
are to a measure. The bottom number tells you what kind of note gets one beat. In
the 4/4 example, there are 4 beats to a measure and a quarter note gets one beat.
Understand Pickup Notes
Church Workers Handbook --49-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Now things get a little tricky. The pickup note(s) is what's left over from the beats
that were used in the last measure of the song. In other words, the pickup notes plus
the last measure of the song must equal the number of beats per measure, as shown
in the bottom numeral of the time signature.
Let's use the old chorus Give Me Oil in My Lamp as an example. The time signature
is 4/4. The last measure of the song consist of a dotted half note, that gets 3 beats on
the word Day . . . Since the last measure doesn't have a full 4 beats, there will be a
pickup note(s) equaling one beat. The first two words of the song are "Give me . . ."
The notes for these two words are both eighth notes, and 2 eighths equal one
quarter. This 1 quarter plus the 3 quarters in the last measure equal the full 4 beats
that all measures in this song must have.
Now the easy part: you signal these 2 pickup notes with a sweeping upward motion
of your hand, followed by a downward motion to signal the first beat of the song.
Give a Strong Down Beat
We had to talk about pickup notes so you could understand this next point: the
down beat. As the name implies, the down beat is given with a straight-down motion
of the hand. It should be your most firm and distinctive movement while leading.
What is a down beat, you ask? The first note of every measure is a down beat. In the
example of Give Me Oil in My Lamp, the first 2 notes are pickups, signaled with an
upward motion: "Give me . . . " The next word, "oil", is the first beat of the first full
measure, and is a down beat. You will learn a little later that each time signature is
conducted with a specific motion pattern of your arm. However, you can more or
less do what you want to do with all the other beats in the measure as long as you
end with your hand at the top, ready for a strong down beat for the first note of the
next measure.
Give Consistent Motions for Each of the
Major Time Signatures
Many songs we sing in church are in 3/4, or 4/4 time. I'll try to
diagram how the beats are signaled:
3/4 Time [Above, right] The down beat is a downward
motion of the hand, from 3 to 1 on the diagram. The
second beat is straight across to the right, and beat 3 is a
curve up to the top, ready for another down beat at the
Church Workers Handbook --50-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
beginning of the next measure. A pickup note is from 2 to 3.
4/4 Time: [Above] The down beat is a downward motion of the hand, from 4
to 1 on the diagram. The second beat is up and to the left. The third beat is
from 2 to 3, straight across to the right, and beat 4 is a curve up to the top,
ready for another down beat at the beginning of the next measure. A pickup
not is from 3 to 4.
The diagrams above show approximate motions and can be reversed from left to
right if you are left handed or have a preference. The important thing is to always
give the down beat in exactly the same way. If you do this, any pianist, organist,
choir member, or orchestra member in the country will know exactly what you are
doing. It is not necessary to be flamboyant or flashy. Remember to keep self under
control; your objective is to glorify God.
By the way, there is one thing to avoid-- waving your arm in a figure eight pattern
no matter what the time signature. That is a sure sign you are just creating a breeze,
and don't really know what you're doing.
Give Clear Indications of Volume, Holds,
Cuts, and Repeats
These signals tend to vary from person to person. The important thing is to be
consistent. As a general rule, these signals are given with the non-dominant hand.
(This would be the left hand for a right-handed person.) Here are some examples:
Increase Volume: Palm up, a little higher with each measure if you want more
volume.
Decrease Volume: Palm down, a little lower with each measure if you want less
volume.
Hold: Palm down, curved, and moving horizontally for as long as the hold is to last..
Hold to Hum: Starts similar to Hold. The Hum begins when the thumb and index
finger meet. (This signal is used when directing a choir and is seldom used in
congregational singing.)
Cuts: Sharp downward motion of both hands.
Repeats: Wally Laxon (of Wally and Ginger Laxon) used to signal Repeat Chorus by
holding his left hand in the shape of the letter C so the choir and instruments could
Church Workers Handbook --51-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
see it. The worship leaders in our church tend to rotate the left hand in small, low
circles when they want to repeat.
Pick the Right Songs
The familiarity of the songs picked for the song service is important. It's nice to
learn a new song or chorus but it's better to do this when visitors are less likely to be
in the service.
Set the Right Tempo (Speed)
This brings me back to my first point. You direct the piano and organ and they
direct the congregation. Take charge of the song with the first down beat, and don't
let it get out of hand. Too fast a tempo or too a slow tempo can ruin a good song.
Remember you are directing. The piano and organ are following your lead.
The Value of an Evangelical Pianist and
Organist
The job of a worship leader is made much easier if you have the services of a true
evangelical pianist. The arrangements in the hymnal are very dull and
unimaginative. They consist of solid, four-note chords with few frills because they
were written to be sung in four-part harmony. However, evangelical singing has
given rise to a style of piano and organ playing that expands the basic melody and
harmony into a lively and vibrant accompaniment. This kind of accompaniment
greatly enhances the congregational singing and special music.
Such a pianist can play any song in any key by ear. Anyone used to hearing hymns
played straight from the hymnal will be thrilled by great evangelical
accompaniment. Some might call this kind of playing a skill. Others might say it is a
talent. I am convinced it is a gift straight from the Lord.
Church Workers Handbook --52-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Mom, playing in her living room, in 1963 [Captured from 8 mm home movie film]
At this point, I'd like to honor my Mom, Madlein Strohl Lint, 1912-1971. Mom was
an evangelical pianist in the strictest sense of the word. She could play any song in
any key, by ear or by note. After hearing a song once, she could play it with full
improvisations, without ever seeing the printed music.
It's dangerous to start a list because I'm sure I'll forget someone who should be on
it. But here are a few examples of this kind of evangelical pianist/organist:
[Nancy and I have first hand knowledge of their playing. We have sung or played
instruments to their accompaniment.]
Church Workers Handbook --53-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Betty Masterman, Marceille Harrison, Brenda Reed, Pearl Culp, Jean
Crissinger, Danny Conrad, Dorothy Passmore, Aletha Leatherman, Bill
Wray, Nina Wislocky, Irene Kennedy, ad infinitum.
Providing Special Music
You may be doing the providing in the sense of doing the singing yourself. Or, you
may be coordinating the special music program by selecting and scheduling the
special singers.
Make and Post a Schedule
If you are the special music coordinator, the first step is to find out who can sing
specials. If you don't already know, schedule a music night and call for volunteers to
fill the entire program. You may find families and groups of friends who will be able
to sing in ensembles that you would never have known about if they weren't invited
to volunteer.
Back in the 70s, I was working part-time as a DJ at a local radio station. Every once
in a while, I'd schedule a singspiration where I'd invite anyone who wanted to sing
on the radio, and who didn't have a professional recording, to come to the local
Church of the Nazarene [Mifflinburg, PA USA] and make a tape recording. I also
recorded the worship services at this church for broadcast every Sunday afternoon,
so I had a connection. People came from many churches to make their tapes so they
could hear themselves on the radio the following week. My point is that the chance
to volunteer brought out all kinds of hidden talent.
After you know about the singers, make up a schedule for at least a month at a time.
Try to get a balance in your schedule in terms of the kinds of groups and type of
music. For example, you may prefer contemporary Christian music, but don't forget
that some of us like southern style gospel music, also. [If you don't know about this
kind of music, make sure you watch the Bill Gaither Homecoming Choir special TV
broadcasts as they are heard in your area.] Make sure you have a good mix.
Serve As a Resource Person for Your Special Singers
Use the following guidelines to help your special singers do a better job:
Church Workers Handbook --54-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Singing Harmony by Ear
Singing harmony by ear is more art, or a gift, than science. When two people sing
together, one sings melody and the other sings the first harmony part. When three
people sing, the third person sings the second harmony part. The trick is to stay on
your own part and off the other person's part. In a duet, the harmony singer should
be singing First Harmony most of the time. At Times, the singers will flip-flop
melody and harmony, with the harmony sometimes above the melody and
sometimes below it in pitch.
A. The First Harmony Part. This part may be known as alto or tenor. However,
it is defined by the fact that the chords it uses are based on thirds. A third is
the third step on the scale.
B. The Second Harmony Part. This part is based on fifths, the fifth step on the
scale.
C. Singing Bass. Bass is always the lowest pitched part, but it is never
consistently the melody an octave lower. Here again, singing bass by ear is
more art than science. The best way to learn to sing bass is sit next to a person
who knows how to sing bass and just listen, singing along softly.
Stacking Parts in a Mixed Group (when singing harmony by ear.)
As a general rule, men should sing the higher pitched parts and women the lower
pitched parts. As a man's voice goes higher, the timbre gets lighter. As a woman
goes lower, the timbre gets heavier. This fact increases the chances the voices will
blend.
The Key May Be the Key
Singing harmony by ear in a mixed group can be effected by the key the song is
written (pitched) in. For example, a mixed trio will do better on songs written in E
flat, F, and G. This may be why the early Bill Gaither and Lanny Wolfe songs are
written in these keys. The first harmony part [sung by a man] will tend to be above
the melody with the second harmony part [sung by a woman] below the melody.
Put Words with Your Instrumental Music
An instrumental interlude may be very inspirational, but only if the congregation
knows the words to the song that the piano, organ, or orchestra is playing. For
example, The Old Rugged Cross is always inspirational regardless of the instrument
being used. As the instrument is playing the notes, 98% of the members of the
Church Workers Handbook --55-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
congregation are singing the words in their mind because they know them from
childhood.
However, this may not be equally true of a newer song like Dottie Rambo's We Shall
Behold Him. Those who know the words to this powerful song will be greatly
blessed. However, those who don't know the words to We Shall Behold Him will
hear it as just a pretty song, but not necessarily all that inspirational.
While the congregation is hearing an instrumental rendition of a song like We Shall
Behold Him, why not project the words on an [overhead projector or character
generator] screen? Then everyone can be equally blessed by the music.
Working with a Volunteer Orchestra
There is a place for a trained and conducted orchestra that reads orchestral scores
and makes beautiful music. However, this section is dedicated to the volunteer
orchestra that plays along with the congregational singing on Sunday nights and
plays the offertory as well. There may be a fair amount of freelance improvising as
well.
Such a group will tend to be made up of a mixture of high school kids who can read
music and who may use the orchestra version of the church hymnal, more
experienced players who can transpose music out of the hymnal, and a few old salts
[like myself] who can play any part, including the melody and both harmony parts
by ear.
Transposing
Some instruments, like trumpet, trombone, and clarinet, are pitched in the key of B
flat, instead of the key of C, the key the piano and organ are pitched in. This means
that players of such instruments must transpose their music up one full step to be in
pitch with the piano and organ. When such a transposition is done, two flats are
subtracted from the key and two sharps are added to the key.
The chart below shows what happens to the keys when music is transposed:
SONGS
ARE
WRITTEN TRANSPOSED
IN
TO
5 flats
3 flats
4 flats
2 flats
3 flats
1 flat
Church Workers Handbook --56-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
2 flats
1 flat
Key of C
1 sharp
2 sharps
3 sharps
4 sharps
Key of C
1 sharp
2 sharps
3 sharps
4 sharps
5 sharps
6 sharps
Most people who play by ear hate an increasing number of sharps. Some who read
music don't care for sharps, either.
Pick the Right Song in the Right Key
If you're the Sunday night worship leader and have a volunteer orchestra, you may
be able to make or break them by the keys of the songs you pick. The keys of 4 flats,
3 flats, and 2 flats are good, with 4 flats being the best. Don't go above 1 sharp. The
best songs of all tend to be 4/4 time and pitched in 4 flats.
Perhaps your orchestra members aren't as bothered by sharps as I am. If not, great!
But if they are, just keep an eye on the key. You may be surprised how good they'll
sound on songs like Such Love, Glory to His Name, When the Roll Is Called Up
Yonder, and Leaning On the Everlasting Arms.
Gospel Music and Contemporary Music
Singing News, the printed voice of Southern Gospel music
CCM, the printed voice of contemporary Christian music
Attention: Ministers of music, Special
music coordinators, worship leaders,
Gospel radio Program Directors and
DJs
Perhaps the sharpest division in church and Christian music is between Gospel and
Contemporary music. Many Christian radio stations fail to have a balance in their
play lists between Gospel and Contemporary music. This fact is based on the
personal preferences of the radio staff rather than the numbers of listeners that
prefer one kind of music more than another.
Church Workers Handbook --57-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
This same kind of dichotomy may exist in the kinds of music your choir and special
singers use in your church's worship services. There should be a balance in church
music just as there should be a balance in a radio station's playlist.
Church Workers Handbook --58-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Gospel Music
Allison Durham
Speer Ann Downing
Booth Brothers
Bill and Gloria
Gaither and the
Homecoming Choir
Ernie Haase and
Signature Sound
Gold City
Ivan Parker
Janet Pascal
Jeff and Sheri Easter
John Starns
Karen Peck
Squire Parsons
Talleys
Contemporary
Music
Ayiesha Woods
Barlow Girl
Bethany Dillon
Casting Crowns
David Crowder Band
Kutless
Newsboys
Parachute Band
Reliant K
Skillet
Switchfoot
Third Day
Thousand Foot Krutch
Toby Mac
These lists are examples only and are by no means complete. In the case of the
contemporary list, this talent was on stage at the 2007 Creation Musicfest at Mount
Union, Pa.
If you're having trouble telling the difference between Gospel and Contemporary
music, listen to a TV broadcast by Bill Gaither and the Homecoming Choir. If you
can't find them on TV, visit a Christian book store and buy a copy of a Gaither video.
Bill and Gloria Gaither have written many Gospel songs including the following: He
Touched Me, Because He Lives, The King Is Coming, There's Something About That
Name. The Gaither Homecoming Choir is comprised of many of the well-known names
in Gospel music who recorded during the last three decades.
One word of warning: regardless of your preference in music style, make sure the
music you use and enjoy brings glory to Deity. Many Contemporary songs tend to
emphasize pronouns that have antecedents that are presumably Deity, but they often
fail to use God, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit by name.
Gospel Music and Contemporary Music
Singing News, the printed voice of Southern Gospel music
CCM, the printed voice of contemporary Christian music
If you have Internet access and speakers on your computer, you can enjoy Christian
music on the Internet. Just click this link to get started.
Church Workers Handbook --59-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Ten Commandments for
Worship Leaders and Worship
Team Members
Church Workers Handbook-What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
© 2008, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Send E-mail
Introduction:
Why do we even need a Ten Commandments for Worship Leaders? Here’s why…
• There are thousands of tithe-paying worshippers in evangelical congregations
across the country whose taste and preferences in Christian music style are
not being represented or even given serious consideration. These
unrepresented worshippers are the ones who ask merely for a music mix that
includes an occasional song in the Gospel style instead of a steady diet of
praise and worship and contemporary music.
1. You shall remember the primary purpose for your being up in front of the
congregation during praise and worship.
As the worship leader, you are responsible to set the pace for the rest of the
team in assuring that everything should be done in a fitting and orderly way. 1
Cor. 14:40. Every team member should be a role model of how to participate
enthusiastically yet reverently in the worship experience.
2. You shall covenant with yourself and the others in your group to do
everything from behind the cross of Christ.
Everything you do, say, and wear should be designed to render yourselves
invisible with Christ and His cross plainly visible.
Church Workers Handbook --60-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
3. You shall consult with the lead pastor regarding how he/she would like the
worship block to fit into the rest of the service.
Worship services will change from Sunday to Sunday as a result of various
activities and events such as: Communion, baby dedications, special
presentations, and special speakers. Make sure you know the lead pastor’s
thinking regarding how the worship block is to fit into the total service. All
thinking lead pastors will have preferences; make sure you know what they
are. Of course, I am assuming that no thinking lead pastor would expect the
worship to go for a fixed period of time, regardless of what else is happening
in the service.
Learn to back time: You may like to begin the worship block with a sixminute slow and rather heavy worship chorus with several repeats and key
changes culminating in the congregation standing with hands raised. Let’s say
you have two morning services. After the first service, the lead pastor may say
the worship block ran about six minutes long and crowded the special
speaker’s close with prayer around the altar. He/she may ask you point blank
to cut the worship block short by six minutes.
If you don’t get a direct order to shorten your block, volunteer to do so and do
it by cutting off the opening six minutes. The easiest way to shorten the
worship block may be to cut down on the multitudinous repetitions of the
same worship song.
4. You shall use a mix of music styles that approximates the preferences of the
congregation.
If you are called a worship leader and you have a group assisting you called a
worship team, the chances are very strong that the style of music is very heavy
on the praise and worship side. Just a few minutes ago, I did an Advanced
Google search on the phrase “praise and worship” and here is the data from
that search: about 1,340,000 for "praise and worship" in 0.18 seconds.
I did a second Advanced Google search on the phrase “southern Gospel
music” and here is the data from that search: about 87,300 for "southern
gospel music" in 0.08 seconds.
I did a third and final Advanced Google search on the phrase “contemporary
Christian music” and here is the data from that search: about 207,000 for
"contemporary christian music" in .13 seconds.
Church Workers Handbook --61-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
These three Google searches only prove one thing: the Christian music
audience is comprised of persons with a range of musical preferences ranging
from Gospel songs to Christian rock. There is no right and wrong regarding
styles of Christian music; just differences.
However, these differences can be very important to members of your
congregation. Several years ago, I had a conversation with a Minister of
Music about 75 miles north of the Mason-Dixon Line that went something like
this [Paraphrased]:
“Why don’t you use more Gospel music with the choir selections and special
music?”
“I don’t think Southern Gospel would go over too well in this area.”
I said, “Gospel music has nothing to do with geography. Bill and Gloria
Gaither [the king and queen of Gospel music] are from Indiana.”
When the Gaithers held one of their Homecoming concerts in a major nearby
arena, the response was so strong they had to add a second night to the
program. Nancy and I were a little lax in buying our tickets and our seats
were up in the nosebleed section, close to the rafters. The concert was done in
the round with plenty of large-screen monitors so we enjoyed it immensely in
spite of the height. [This was one of the last times Vestal Goodman sang in
public before her death.]
In a separate conversation, I asked this same Minister of Music a similar
question. He said, “Any music that gives glory to God is Gospel music.” This
man chose to ignore the fact that the Gaither Homecoming videos are selling
like hotcakes across the country, and that people drive for hours to attend one
of the regional Gaither Homecoming Concerts.
In radio jargon, a music mix means a play list that consists of a variety of
music styles so your sound will appeal to the widest possible audience. A
member of a radio audience has a powerful tool at his/her fingertips. It’s
called a tuning knob or a preset button. However, a worshipper sitting in the
pews of your church has no such luxury and is limited to one of the following
options:
• Sing when told to sing, clap when told to clap, stand when told to stand,
smile when told to smile -- like all good sheep.
• Time their arrival at the house of worship to coincide with the end of
the praise and worship block.
Church Workers Handbook --62-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
• Find another church with a music mix that includes some Gospel music.
Here’s a novel idea. Why not conduct a church-wide survey of music tastes and
preferences. Let the people speak through a form. You may be amazed at the
results. If the people don’t get a chance to vote with their pencil, they may vote
with their wallet or their feet!
5. You shall not rehearse the worship block to the extent that spontaneity and
flexibility are lost because you are following a rehearsed worship routine.
This is a touchy one. Above, I say everything should be done decently and in
order. Now, I’m saying don’t rehearse. You are thinking, how can the worship
block be done decently and in order if we don’t rehearse. In You Can Be a
Teacher, Too I talk about Lesson Plans. Teachers should always do lesson
plans but that is not to say they should rehearse. I’ll copy this section here for
your convenience:
Prepare a lesson plan.
The plan should be in outline format so it can be used for quick
reference during the lesson. During your preparation time, learn the
lesson so well that while you are teaching, a quick glance at your lesson
plan can trigger the next sequence of thoughts or events. Your lesson
plan shouldn't be a script that is read word for word. In fact, you
already know you should seldom read anything to students unless it has
lasting literary value. Lesson plans seldom do.
All good teachers rehearse their lessons. Beginners may need to do this
with an audience (from within the family or friends). Or, teach to a
recorder and then play it back as you listen critically. As you get more
experienced, you may do your rehearsing mentally. When I know I am
going to speak before a group, I always do a mental rehearsal. Some of
this activity involves actual mental word-for-word dialogue between the
group and me.
Let me extrapolate from the Lesson Plan segment above and apply it to the
worship plan:
• Select the songs, their keys, and any key modulations [changing to
another key, usually higher.]
• Do a dry run by yourself to get an idea of the time to be consumed.
Replicate the tempo and repeats that will be used in live worship.
Church Workers Handbook --63-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
• Make sure the instrumentalists know the worship plan and are well
prepared to musically support the singing, smoothly and effortlessly.
6. You shall not use strange arrangements of well-know hymns with unusual
chord progressions and rhythm patterns.
Many churches with worship teams and leaders project the words to the songs
onto a screen. When such churches do mix in a number found in the hymnal,
they sometimes use a strange arrangement with unfamiliar chords and
tempos. If your worshippers are looking at the words only [no notes] and the
chords are unfamiliar, you are forcing them to sing in unison. One of the most
beautiful segments of evangelical worship is thereby lost: singing in harmony.
My wife, Nancy, is a life-long alto. She has both read and harmonized alto as
long as she has been able to carry a tune. When a worship team presents her
with a familiar hymn, nothing but words, and unfamiliar chords, she is forced
to give up and drop out of active participation in the praise and worship
block. The melody [soprano] of most songs are out of her vocal range, there
are no notes to read, and she can’t harmonize because the chords are
unfamiliar. This is an especially bitter pill because the occasional hymn is
usually one of the few songs in the praise and worship block that she
recognizes.
7. You shall not ask the congregation to remain standing for more than two
successive music selections.
Prayerfully seek the mind of the Holy Spirit regarding why you are asking the
people to stand in the first place, and for how long.
• Out of reverence for God?
• To make it easier for them to sing?
• To make it easier for them to move into the aisles and dance in the spirit
or come forward for prayer?
• To measure the limits of their physical endurance?
• To demonstrate your authority over them?
8. You shall not permit the amplified voices of the worship team nor the drums
and brass of the worship band to drown out the vocal participation of the
congregation.
If you want the congregation to sing with you, don’t overpower them with
amplification and drums.
Church Workers Handbook --64-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
9. You shall covenant to follow the leading of the Holy Spirit in terms of the
songs that are sung and especially the number of times each song is repeated.
While I was in college, I learned that teachers should always stop a physical
activity while the students were still enjoying it.
10. If you are leading worship for an outdoor camp-meeting type service, you
shall not lead the congregation in your standard fare of “praise and worship”
songs and choruses. This is especially true if a large segment of the
congregation has been getting the senior discount for several years.
Nancy and I often make a visit to the camp meeting where we met back in
1952. Recently, we visited this cam and after a year of praise and worship
music, we were looking forward with great anticipation to some of the oldtime camp meeting music on which we were raised.
Guess what? The worship leader had us stand to sing [you guessed it] praise
and worship songs! I sadly placed the Spirit-Filled Songs paperback hymnal
[©1956 John T. Benson] back down on the wooden bench. Maybe next year.
Church Workers Handbook --65-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Chapter 5: Creating True
Friendship in Your Church
Church Workers Handbook -- What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
Many churches specialize in five-second fellowship. These
guidelines take you beyond that to real, substantive friendship.
Five-Second friendship
The smile is bright, the handshake is firm, and the voice is warm. And then it's over,
all in less than five seconds. The locale is the vestibule of any number of evangelical
churches and this little scenario is played out over and over again. Just a long
succession of five- second friendships, one after another. Some of these five-second
friendships may be during the service while everyone is invited to move around and
shake hands, usually while singing a song .
Maybe your church has interesting services and beautiful facilities. Your pastor
may be a strong Bible teacher and your church may offer an active program. But
what about the friendship? Is too much of it of the five-second variety, at least for
visitors and those not closely associated with the church?
The growing practice of stationing "greeters" at the entrances of the church is
creating opportunities for two-second friendship. These well-meaning greeters are
asked to extend a smiling handshake to all who enter. Sometimes I feel like I’m
running the gauntlet down a row of these smiling greeters!
Self-Evaluation Check List
Take a few minutes and measure the friendship Quotient of your church. Score your
congregation on a scale of 5 to 1, with 5 being Usually and 1 being Seldom.
5-4-3-2-1
Do you have assigned and trained greeters who meet people as
they come in?
Church Workers Handbook --66-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
5-4-3-2-1
Do you have a system for registering first-time visitors?
5-4-3-2-1
Do you have an organized system of follow-up for each registered
visitor?
5-4-3-2-1
Do you have an organized friendship program that is specifically
designed to integrate new constituents into the social fabric of the
congregation?
5-4-3-2-1 Do you take an inventory of the training and experience of new
persons in your constituency?
5-4-3-2-1 Do you have a "safety net" for assuring that no individual or family
goes through a time of great need without the spiritual and
material support of the congregation?
5-4-3-2-1 Do you have organized age-group activities that are designed to
touch the lives of all constituents on a frequent basis?
5-4-3-2-1 Do you have a new converts support and training program?
5-4-3-2-1 Do you have a spiritual crisis-intervention program?
How did your church score? There are no national norms for this little selfevaluation quiz but a perfect score is 50. If you scored your church below 40, it may
be failing in some important friendship responsibilities.
Let's discuss each of the items on the quiz:
Assigned Greeters
Everyone should greet visitors with a smile and the right hand of friendship.
However, what is everyone's responsibility may become no none's
responsibility. Therefore, it is important to assign persons to the specific job
of helping visitors feel at home. Give these greeters a written job description,
and train them in how to carry out their duties. The smile and the handshake
are just one small part of the greeter's responsibility. The primary duties and
responsibilities can include the following:
Church Workers Handbook --67-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
A. Learn the faces and names of the regular attendees so visitors may be
spotted and greeted. In a large congregation, it will be next to impossible to
identify every visitor and never greet a regular attendee as a visitor.
However, an effort should be made to this end.
B. Help parents of small children find the nursery, junior church, and
Christian education facilities. The greeter must know or have access to the
appropriate destination of each person in the family.
C. Get assistance for an elderly worshipper who may need help with stairs or
even walking. Be aware of assistance the church can provide for persons
with disabilities, such as aids for the hearing impaired.
D. Know exactly the location of the nearest restroom for families that may
have traveled a significant distant to get to your church.
The Art of Shaking Hands
Believe it or not, there is a right and wrong way to shake hands.
Do:
Keep the hand open until your hand makes contact with the other hand
where the web joins the thumb and forefinger.
Maintain contact for the count of two.
Make your grip firm.
Carry your Bible, purse, or briefcase in your left hand, keeping the
right hand free for shaking.
After shaking hands, wash your hands before eating, or touching a
baby's hand.
Don't:
Grip the hand around the fingers. Make sure the contact is web to web.
Cause pain, especially for an elderly person who may have arthritis.
Church Workers Handbook --68-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Offer a dead fish as a hand-shake. Make the contact firm, not painful,
and for the count of two.
Have a tissue or anything else in your hand while shaking.
Maintain excessive contact. Observe the two-count rule.
Use the left hand to cover the right hand while shaking -- unless this is a
special greeting for a special person.
Don't offer your right hand if the other person's right hand is
temporarily or permanently incapacitated. Be alert and offer your left
hand so your left hand can meet the visitor’s left hand.
Never touch a baby's hand
when you're shaking hands with visitors!!! A baby's hand is frequently
in the mouth. You don't want all the germs you have collected from the
last several dozen hands you have shaken to be transmitted to the
baby's mouth! One new mother I know felt more comfortable taking
her new-born out to a public restaurant than to her own church,
because church people are both hand shakers and are more likly to
touch the baby’s hand.
Visitor Registration
A practical method of visitor registration should be developed which is appropriate
for the physical layout and traffic patterns of your church. However it is done, no
first-time visitor should walk out your door within leaving a written record of some
kind. One church our family has attended takes attendance by passing attendance
pads down each pew. Each person attending is asked to print his/her name and give
a phone number. During the early part of the week, the pastoral staff goes over
these lists and contacts each person who is new to the constituency. By the way, this
church has outgrown two sanctuaries and is well on the way to outgrowing the
third. I wonder why
Organized Visitor follow-up
Every first-time visitor who lives within reasonable driving distance of your church
should receive a follow-up within the coming week. A form letter, even when
generated by a computer to include a personalized salutation, barely meets the
Church Workers Handbook --69-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
definition of follow-up if that's all the visitor gets. A nice balance is a phone call
from the pastor or a member of the staff plus a personal visit from someone who
lives in the same general area as the visitor. As a general rule, visitors expect
someone from the church office to contact them. However, a personal visit from a
reasonably close neighbor will have maximum impact.
Organized Friendship Program
This is the most important element of your church friendship program. It's only
listed fifth here because in the chronological sequence of events, the other four occur
first. Of course, the operant word here is "organized". Left to their own devices,
your parishioners will friendship with each other after a fashion. They will gravitate
into quartets and small groups for out-of-church activities. However, a lack of
structure and organization makes it difficult for the new person or family to
integrate. As stated above, what everyone should do no one may end up doing. An
organized friendship program is so critical because the evangelical life style carries
basic prohibitions against the very activities which the non-believer considers to be
the foundation stones of social activity: drinking in bars and dancing. Since human
beings are naturally gregarious and need social interaction, the church must provide
a social life that replaces what the world considers to be normal social activity. An
action plan for providing organized friendship activities might include the following
elements:
A. When you register visitors, get key information that will be needed in helping
them fit into the social life of the church. Include such things as age range,
marital status, type of employment, ages of children, and favorite leisure time
activities.
B. Recruit persons and families from among your regular constituents who are
interested in making new friends. Make sure you have information on these
members of your friendship team that parallels that which you collect from
visitors.
C. Match the interests of visitors with members of the church "friendship team."
D. Facilitate friendship activities based on the commonalties of the new people
and the members of your friendship team.
This kind of a computerized friendship program is similar to commercial dating
services that match persons of comparable interests.
Church Workers Handbook --70-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Small Groups
According to those who study church growth, research has shown that seven
smaller groups for every hundred people attending Sunday worship, is the
minimum required for growth.
To learn more about the current interest in small groups, do an Advanced Google
Search with small groups, church in the Find web pages that have all these words
field. On
March 25, 2008, the results were about 10,600,000 in .19 seconds!
Church Workers Handbook --71-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Church Database
To understand how a database works, you need to understand these basic terms:
Criteria: Telling the database to sort records according to specific alpha or
numeric values: Example: Zip Code equals 17055, or 17050, or 17011. Marital
status equals married.
Field: Each record will contain individual fields that contain specific bit on
information on a person or family. Name, address, phone are examples of
fields.
File: This is a product of database software [such as FileMaker Pro]. A
database file is comprised of numerous individual records.
Record: Each constituent in your church will have a record comprised of
specific fields.
Report: Example: A report can be produced by sorting specific fields
according to certain criteria: Boys and girls living with single parents with
birth dates greater than 2012 and less than 2020.
Sort: Arranging a file by a specific field is called a sort. Files may be sorted by
alpha fields [such as name, city, occupation] or numeric fields [such as phone
number and zip code.]
The following list of database fields are an example of what your database can look
like. Adapt these fields to meet your own needs. The comments for various fields can
help you customize your database.
Last Name: If you have a first name and last name field, you can sort by last
name only.
First Name
Address
City, State, Zip: If your constituency covers more than one city or state, you
will need separate fields for City, State, and Zip.
Phone
Church Workers Handbook --72-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Occupation or School: If you include the name of schools, you can sort your
children by school attended.
Date of Birth: The Y2K near fiasco of 1999 made us all aware that year must
be expressed as a four-digit numeral.
Spouse
Parent(s)
Date of First Contact
Date First Attended
Date Saved
Date joined church
Marital status
Date Married
Salutation: You may want to address children by first name and adults in a
more formal way. Dear Nancy, Dear Mrs. Hile.
Title: [Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms., Dr.,]
SS Class
Choir
Orchestra
Vocals
Other Church Activity:
Hobbies, Special Interests: You may want to expand these last two fields to
include many variables. This is how you can sort your records by
commonality of interests and activities. This kind of expanded database will
be needed to maintain the Inventory of Training and Experience described
below.
Church Workers Handbook --73-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Inventory of Training and Experience
The best way to make persons feel welcome in your congregation is to give them
something meaningful to do that draws on their experience and training. And, the
best way to ask people to do things is to find out what they already know how to do.
During the early 60's I ran a training class for Civil Defense emergency shelter
managers. While I'm thankful none of my students needed the training I gave, I did
learn an important lesson from the training. The first thing a shelter manager was
to do after his/her charges had assembled in a shelter was to take a complete
inventory of who knew how to do what. In the face of a real emergency, it would be
extremely important to know such things as who knew something about medicine,
who knew how to work with children, and who had leadership experience.
Use normal discretion in recruiting new people to work in your church.
1. Baby Christians should be weaned off the bottle of the Milk of the Word
before they are involved in programs designed to help other Christians to
grow.
2. Use your state or community's background check for persons who will be
working with children. If your state or community has no formal background
check, develop one of your own. You can't run the risk of recruiting people to
work with children who have a history of posing a threat to the sexual or
physical welfare of children.
3. Develop a screening process for all new church workers. Include a panel of
church leaders and include some people who specialize in this kind of work in
the community.
4. Include a probation period when a new person is "hired". Remember, it may
be far easier to deny "permanent status" to a prospective "employee" who is
less than satisfactory than to dismiss an established "employee" who is
proving to be unacceptable.
Family "Safety Net"
No evangelical church would knowingly allow a person or family in need of support
to go through a time of stress without offering some kind of aid. However, as a
church grows larger, the chances for such a need to go unnoticed increases.
Therefore, the church must organize a support network that is designed to identify
persons in need and the type of assistance required. A casserole, a baby-sitter, or a
custom taxi can be just what is needed to help an individual or family over a rough
spot.
Church Workers Handbook --74-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Another area of ministry would be a group of "movers" with the time, knowledge,
and equipment to help individuals and families with local moves.
The key to such a safety net is organization. One large church in a metropolitan
area broke the congregation down by zip codes. Each Zip code had a leader and a
crew of assistants who identified needs and recruited volunteers. Help was provided
exactly where it was needed with minimum effort on the part of any one individual.
Organized Age-Group Activities
Evangelicals are exhorted to "come out from among them and be ye separate".
However, there is a big difference between being separate and being alone. Being
separate may reduce the degree to which our spiritual sensitivities are eroded. Being
alone is depressing. Therefore, the church must facilitate group activities that are
both spiritually safe and socially stimulating. Children, teens, young adults, parents
-- everyone can profit from getting together for fun and relaxation. Some of these
group activities are spontaneous and need no organizational stimulus from the
church. For those persons not included in spontaneous activities, the church must
provide planning and execution through the Sunday school, youth organization, or
singles ministries.
Organized Home Bible Study
The first-century Christian church didn't exist, not as a building, that is. These
early Christians worshipped in each other's homes. All Christians should study the
Bible in personal devotions. And certainly all should go to church. However, there's
something special about getting together in each other's homes to study the Bible. Of
course you'll have to encounter certain obstacles such as baby-sitting, limiting
refreshments, and observing the New Testament warning about idle gossip.
New Converts Support and Training
Program?
You may want to review a book I have on the Web titled First Steps: The Care and
Feeding of Baby Christians. This book was first written during the early 70s while I
was operating a mobile shopping mall witnessing program. However, the content is
appropriate for supporting and training new converts.
Church Workers Handbook --75-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Spiritual Crisis-Intervention Program
We've all seen the 9-1-1 dramatizations of what happens when there's a medical or
physical crisis of some kind. Every church should have a spiritual 9-1-1 operation
that is poised to spring into action at a moment's notice in a time of need.
Emergency Medical Technicians spend enormous amounts of time and energy to
provide the person power needed to make a 9-1-1 system operational, to sustain
physical life. And the Bible calls physical life a vapor, or hay. Can we do any less to
sustain the eternal soul?
These e-mail letters
from readers of this chapter sure made me think. My prayer is that the
Holy Spirit will seek out the author of this letter and apply the Balm of
Gilead to her lonely heart as well as the hearts of her husband and
family. May the rest of us pray for the Holy Spirit to guide us in all our
interpersonal relationships so this kind of thing doesn't happen in our
churches. GEL
Letter #1:
This must be the handbook all the churches I've attended used.
People are reduced to name, address, phone numbers,
'friendship' to occasional pot luck dinners after
service, a summer picnic, etc, at which older members
cluster into closed groups, newcomers left sitting
alone. I remember an afternoon at a picnic at which I
walked over (note I walked over) several groups, stood
there like a dummy a few minuets waiting for someone to
notice and bring me into the 'circle, before I walked
away. I spoke to exactly two people all afternoon,
those two, only briefly. Beyond a few '2 count'
handshakes, that is. Lots of those, their eyes already
moving way to look for their next 'contact' before the
2 counts was even over! I recall several pot luck
dinners that I spoke to NO ONE except those I spoke to
first, and then, it was very brief.
Follow up after I joined was one phone call from a
woman that seemed new at this, reminding me to be sure
Church Workers Handbook --76-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
to come to Sunday School. Nothing in the way of
interest in who I am, my life, my faith, etc. Nothing.
I went there almost two years. Because no one ever
talked to me, really strange, since I am very sociably
and outgoing, and usually have NO trouble finding
people to talk to, make friends most anywhere, was
really trying, and no one knew anything about me, or my
life. Since they didn't know anything about me, wasn't
interested in talking to me, they supplied out of their
own imaginations their OWN ideas about my 'lifestyle'.
Since they never saw me with a husband, but knew I had
adult children, and 'heard' I had an ex-husband, they
presumed me still divorced, alone.
Since I am attractive, outgoing, friendly, they assumed
me to be 'shopping the market'. When I attended EVERY
service and Bible study session, hung onto every word
the preacher/teacher spoke, always was the first to be
ready to answer his questions or make comments, I was
not only 'shopping', but had set my 'sights' on HIM!
Since they from time to time noticed various 18
wheelers parked in front of my home on a busy highway
for a night here and there or a few days at a time they
had nick named my home the area 'truck stop' with
'overnight sleeping privileges'. None had bothered to
get to know me, talk to me. It's not a 'secret' that
I've been married to my husband for 6 years now, OR
that he's a long haul truck driver who has changed jobs
a number of Times, and changed trucks often within some
of those jobs.
I don't go there anymore. An attempt at another didn't
last long, either. This is a rural/small town
community, and the vine (and I don't mean the one of
Christ) runs through them all. By the third week, the
noses were tilted up and the heads turning away. At
that point, I had not yet learned what had been
presumed, and was being told about me. And no one
bothered to come to me about ANY of it.
I talk to others that are 'unchurched', I'd say 8 out
of 10 have similar stories, and it is why THEY don't go
to church anymore.
Church Workers Handbook --77-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Churches advertise, evangelize, revivalize, to get new
people INTO the churches, then how do they treat them?
And of course, they sit back and shake their heads at
all us that seemed to start out fine, but must not have
been 'really saved' after all, because we just fizzled
out, quit coming. No one from any of these churches
ever came to me to ask about these things I was judged
guilty of, OR to ask why I had stopped coming. I DID
present to the pastor of one what had come back to me
through that 'vine' that was being spread about me. He
would hardly speak to me. Told me I wasn't going to
cause trouble like this in HIS church!
Maybe you need to add another chapter or two to your
handbook.
I'm also amazed, and find offensive, the comment in you
book, that I also hear often in churches, that the
standard socializing place for non believers are bars
and clubs! I know many non believers, and almost NONE
EVER even go to a bar! Only a very tiny percent of the
population DOES! Most 'socialize' at things such as
sporting events, fishing, golf, etc, or backyard
barbecues, etc. Get real, folks!
I've gone back to my non churched friends. FRIENDS.
Shall I underline that word? While you use 'friendship'
I don't think the word 'friend' or 'friendship' appears
at all in your text! No wonder. I can't imagine calling
any of the ones I've met there friends, either.
Church Workers Handbook --78-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Letter #2:
Churches are full of "fellowship" but, no friendship!
I have had no luck in meeting any one in church I am
married with one twelve-year old child. Most of the
people in my church say they are too busy to go out for
a cup of coffee or to come over for a visit.
We have been members for four years, I am planning on
not going back after next Sunday. We have lived here 11
years and all 9 churches we have been to have been too
busy to get to know us. I have 3 pages in my phone book
with numbers of church people I have called in the last
four years. In our present church, no one has ever
called me or my husband or son.
I have prayed for over 10 years for a friend for myself
and my husband to no avail. My son's friends are all
from school.
What good is church?
End of Letters
G. Edwin Lint
Please note: The hypertext e-mail link above is hot [active] when you are connected to the Internet
through your ISP. The same will be true of all hypertext links through the text of this ebook.
Church Workers Handbook --79-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
6. Shopping For and Using a
Microcomputer
Church Workers Handbook
What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
© 1996, 2008, G. Edwin Lint
Consultation Services Available
This chapter is written for those who know absolutely nothing about computers and
want to learn. This chapter won't tell you everything you need to know, but it is a
starting point.
Chapter 7, Basics of Desktop Publishing, talks about using computers to print high
quality camera-ready originals.
Table of Contents
Choices
Macintosh or Windows?
Why is the Mac easier to run?
A Beginner's Glossary
Should Our Church Wait for New Developments or Buy Now?
Where Should We Shop?
What Do We Need to Know about Computers?
Choices
When shopping for a computer, you'll need to make the following choices.
Macintosh or Windows?
Your first choice is the type of computer you want to buy. The Apple Macintosh is
the easiest computer in the world to learn to use. The iMacs are also colorful.
However, prices may be a little higher than computers that run Windows.
Church Workers Handbook --80-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
I started out with an Apple IIe computer running ProDOS. Apple no longer makes
the IIe but they do make the Macintosh line. Later, I moved up to a Macintosh G3.
Now, I'm using a Dell Dimension Windows computer. All IBM computers and all
their clones run Windows.
Is the Mac easier to run?
Many people claim it is. One reason is that back in the 1980s, Apple Computer
perfected the graphical user interface (GUI GOO-ee) for use on the Macintosh
which involves the mouse and windows. Although both the Macintosh and Windows
computers use the mouse, things run a little smoother on the Mac. If you want a
second opinion, make sure you talk to a person who has used both Macintosh and
Windows. Macintosh users are fond of telling the windows world that IBM stands
for I've Been Misled.
In about 1989, while working as a Macintosh computer coordinator for the
Pennsylvania Department of Education, I had a visit by an IBM sales rep from Boca
Raton, Florida. He was bursting with pride to show me their version of Windows.
He said it had the look and feel of the Mac. I said if it did, Apple would sue.
Actually, this was a piece of junk in comparison to the Mac of that day. The version
of Windows he showed me was full of bugs and was no way as instinctive to use as
the Mac.
Apple did sue but they settled out of court. However, Microsoft made the smart
move of licensing everyone to put their version of Windows on the computers they
built. Apple, on the other hand, kept the original version of Windows for the Macs
they built. Windows 3.0 was better than the beta version I saw. Each successive
version became better than the previous version as Microsoft continued to strive to
give Windows the look and feel of the Mac.
Additional choices. You'll need to made choices about RAM, Speed, and hard drive
capacity. You can use the glossary below to help you understand these terms and
how to make the best choices for your use.
A Beginner's Glossary
As you shop for a computer, you'll need to have a basic understanding of these
terms.
A mouse is still nice: Most notebook computers don't come with a mouse as
standard equipment. Instead, they offer a small surface where you can move your
fingertips to control the mouse pointer and two buttons where you can Right Click
and Left Click. However, I find this touch pad to be very annoying. When I bought
Church Workers Handbook --81-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
my first notebook, I also bought an optical mouse. [An optical mouse has no rolling
ball and will work on almost any smooth surface such as a magazine.] Such a mouse
will be fitted with a USB jack and you can plug it right in to the back of the
computer. I always travel with my optical mouse in a pocket of my notebook
carrying case.
Unfortunately, the optical mouse can't correct the worst problem created by the
touch pad. It moves the keyboard back about three inches from the front edge of the
computer. If you are a touch typist and learned to type by subconsciously
memorizing the position of all the keys on the keyboard, moving the keys three
inches in any direction may drive you to become a hunt and pecker again! Perhaps
the young people don't have as much trouble with change as we older folk.
Cable: This Internet delivery method features high speed always-on Internet service
that travels along with the TV service and terminates in a cable modem. The modem
is then connected to the computer with a short cable or to a wireless access point
router.
CD-ROM: This stands for Compact Disk -- Read-Only Memory. If you've used an
audio compact disk, a computer CD is the same concept. Read-only memory means
this device can play back but it can't record [burn] a new CD. In this way it's like a
phonograph player. Most new computers have a CD unit that both plays back and
records [reads and writes].
If you want your computer to play DVDs [Digital Video Discs], make sure you get a
drive that will both play DVD movies and make copies of existing DVDs. This may
be important to you if you have one of the new video cameras that records onto a
mini DVD [such as the Sony HandyCam.]
Database: a software program that can be used to store and sort lists of data, such
as names and addresses. A database consists of records and fields. In a Christmas
card list, each name on the list is a record. Each category of information is a field:
name, address, city, state, zip, phone, etc. at infinitum.
Dial-up: This is the original Internet delivery method via standard phone lines and a
modem to connect the phone line to the computer.
Drawing: a software program which can be used to draw and paint with the mouse.
Flat Panel Display [FPD]: Original computers used CRT [cathode ray tube]
monitors, similar to TV sets. FPD monitors are much lighter and take up much less
physical space on your desk. If you have a choice, ask for an FPD.
Church Workers Handbook --82-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Floppy drive: This is a device which can record and play back 3.5-inch computer
disks. Each such disk can hold up to 1.4 megabytes of data. Warning: computer
manufacturers no longer consider the floppy drive standard equipment. If you want
one, you have to ask for it at the time you are placing your order.
Gigabyte [GB]: For drive storage capacity, 1 gigabyte = 1,000,000,000 bytes (or one
billion bytes].
Hard drive: a high capacity drive which is installed inside the computer or a cabinet
of its own. When shopping, your computer should have a hard drive capacity of at
least 80 gigs.
Hardware: the computer and printer are considered hardware.
Internet Access: Computers and the Internet are now thought of together, just as
salt and pepper. While it is true that the Internet brings to any computer worldwide access to information and music, it also brings the potential for unlimited evil
in the form of all levels of pornography, obscenity, vulgarity, and the occult.
Fortunately, some ISPs feature safe Internet service that can filter out the filth.
Megabyte [MB]: One megabyte is equal to about ten thousand typewritten
characters
Modem: a hardware item that allows the computer to communicate across phone
lines or the cable.
Notebook computer: [Originally known as a laptop] My guess is that this type of
portable computer is no longer known as a laptop because of the heat generated by
extended use. The Macintosh version of a notebook computer is known as a
PowerBook.
Operating system: there are two popular operating systems; Macintosh made by
Apple, and Windows, made by Microsoft. The Macintosh operating system exists
only on Macintosh computers made by Apple and features the mouse pointing
device and windows for displaying data. The Windows system was made by
Microsoft and gives the look and feel of the Macintosh. Windows can be found on
just about any computer except the Macintosh. Both companies [Apple and
Microsoft] are continually releasing new versions of their operating systems. For
example, this Windows computer is using Windows XP.
RAM: Random access memory. This is the volatile "memory" of the computer;
however, it only lasts while the computer is on. When the computer is turned off, the
only thing that exists when the computer is turned on again is what was "saved" to
Church Workers Handbook --83-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
a floppy disk or to a hard drive. When shopping, your computer should have at least
512 Mb of RAM. The more RAM, the more programs can be held in memory at one
time.
Software: the programs that enable a computer to do work are known as software.
These programs are sold on CDs. When the owner gets them home, they are copied
to [installed onto] the hard drive. It is illegal to make more than one installed copy
of software. Some new computers come with software preinstalled. This is known as
a software bundle.
Speakers: If you want your computer to play sound, as is necessary when listening
to Internet radio, you will want to specify that speakers be included.
Speed: the number of calculations per second the computer's microprocessor can
accomplish is measured in gigahertz (GHz). When shopping, your computer should
have a speed of at least 2.80GHz.
Spreadsheet: a software program which can be used to calculate numbers just like
an old-fashioned spreadsheet. However, a spreadsheet can recalculate the final
result if only one variable is changed.
Telecommunications: a software program which can be used to communicate across
telephone lines or cable.
USB: The Universal Serial Bus was designed to allow many peripherals to be
connected using a single standardized interface socket and to improve the plug-andplay capabilities by allowing devices to be connected and disconnected without
rebooting the computer.
Wi-Fi: (pronounced wye fye and often spelled WiFi, is the common name for a
popular wireless technology used in home networks, mobile phones, video games
and more. WiFi is supported by nearly every personal computer operating system
and most advanced game consoles.
Wireless card: Your new notebook computer should be equipped with a wireless
card, ready to work right out of the box. This means that any place that advertises
wireless Internet access is a place where you can open your notebook and access the
Internet. Restaurants, such as Starbucks, and hotel/motel chains are starting to
offer high speed Internet access.
Wireless Security: Sometimes, people with notebook computers and wireless cards
will cruise a neighborhood, looking for unprotected wireless signals. For this reason,
your wireless internet signal should be password protected. This is especially true
Church Workers Handbook --84-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
for people living in apartment houses or condos. A neighbor on another floor or
right next to you may be siphoning off your Internet signal, and degrading your
potential speed, if it is not password protected.
Wireless: If a church, office, or home is equipped with a wireless access point
router, this router broadcasts the Internet signal to all computers within range that
are equipped with wireless cards. Range may depend on the size and layout of the
building. My computer is equipped with a Lynksys Wireless Access Point Router
and is located on the ground floor of our home. It drives my computer, in the same
room, my wife's computer, upstairs in her office, any notebook computer equipped
with a wireless card that is brought into the house. Visitors can take a WiFi
notebook computer anywhere in our home and always have Internet access.
Word processor: a software program which can be used to write anything from a
short note to a full-length novel.
Zip Drive. [Optional] The zip drive uses a larger disk that holds 100-250 megs of
memory. An external zip drive is nice for backing up your important work files each
night, for archiving stuff you no longer want to keep on your hard drive, and for
sharing large amounts of data with other zip drive users. Your new computer will
run without a zip drive, however.
Some definitions have been enhanced via Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia
Should Our Church Wait for New Developments
or Buy Now?
This chapter was updated in March 2008. By the time you read it, the computer
trade shows and journals will be trumpeting another advance in the computer
world that is, at this moment, still in draft format in someone's word processor. The
longer you wait, the farther your church will fall behind.
As the power and sophistication go up, the price comes down. For example, I paid
$2,000 for my Apple IIe computer in 1984, complete with 128K RAM and two 5.25inch floppy drives. That computer is a Model-T Ford in comparison to the computer
I'm writing on right now.
I bought this Windows PC in 2005 for $856 [after all rebates] with the following
features:
Church Workers Handbook --85-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
40 GB Hard Drive
CD Burner
17" Flat-Panel Display
Microsoft Office Small Business Edition 2003
[MS Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Outlook etc]
Speakers
Floppy drive
I could have bought an ink-jet printer capable of 300 dpi resolution for an extra
$100.
Where Should We Shop?
Computer stores. This is the best place to buy a computer. If you have a question or
problem, or something goes wrong, there is a good chance you'll be able to find help
right in the store. However, you may find the prices to be higher in such stores.
Discount office supply stores and department stores. These stores may give you the
best selection of brand names and price ranges. The prices here may be lower than
computer stores, but there is little chance that anyone in the store will be able to
help you with your questions and problems. If something goes wrong, you'll have
access to the manufacturer's 800 number. However, some companies do not have a
toll-free number for software problems; only hardware problems. If the computer
fails during the warranty, you may have to ship it away for service. If you are totally
dissatisfied within a specified period of time, your money may be refunded.
Computer catalogs. Mail order catalogs may give you the best prices. However,
you'll have to factor in shipping charges when you do comparison shopping. If you
have questions or problems, expect about the same level of service as you'll get in
office supply and department stores.
What Do We Need to Know about Computers?
How long does it take to visit the Smithsonion Institution in Washington, DC? You
can spend a couple hours, a couple days, or a couple weeks. And, you can approach
your mastery of the computer in the same way. You can learn to write a simple
letter in a couple hours. Or, you can spend all your spare time for the next ten years
and still be learning how to unleash all the power of the various software
applications you have acquired.
Church Workers Handbook --86-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
The best way to learn to use a computer is to study what you need to know right
now. Save other tasks until you need to know how to do a particular task.
Here's a list of instructional objectives you can use in various computer tasks for
yourself and your family.
Introductory skills
Uses computer keyboard for playing simple games
Uses computer keyboard for drill and practice activities
Uses computer keyboard for typing simple messages on e-mail and for writing
simple notes
Uses computer keyboard for entering data via dumb terminals
Uses computer keyboard for writing stories and articles
Uses computer keyboard for entering data in database and spreadsheet documents
Uses computer keyboard for learning QWERTY and Dvorak touch systems
Explains difference between temporary random access memory (RAM) and disk
storage
Uses on-line help screens to learn about an application
Integrates keyboard with mouse to edit documents
Uses mouse to point, select, drag, and draw simple shapes
Distinguishes between hardware and software functions
Distinguishes among mainframe, mini, and desktop computers
General skills
Uses manual to achieve a software product's potential
Installs software from floppy disks to a hard drive
Troubleshoots problems via manufacturer's manuals
Determines when help is needed with a technical problem
Saves document to a specific disk, folder, or directory
Backs up documents on a separate disk to prevent accidental loss of data
Deletes unneeded documents from disks
Interacts with other peripherals on a local area network (LAN)
Copies and moves data between documents
Deletes blocks of data
Uses mail merge capability of word processor and database applications
Formats report for printer
Uses translation software to convert documents between disk operating systems
Saves document as a text (ASCII) file for import or translation
Imports and exports data between documents
Understands tab/comma separated database and spreadsheet structure
Understands fixed-length field database and spreadsheet structure
Church Workers Handbook --87-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Uses scanner to convert line drawing or photo into computer graphic
Uses scanner to convert hard copy text or numerals into computer document
Word processor
Uses word processor keyboard commands, when available, instead of mouse
Copies and moves data within document
Indents, nests, and hangs paragraphs
Finds and replaces specific text segments and formatting codes throughout
document
Creates and modifies tab tables
Edits document from hard copy draft
Visualizes edits which need to be made and makes those edits on screen
Runs document through spelling and grammar checker
Uses on-line thesaurus
Formats document for the printer
Database
Sets up database structure
Understands relationship between record and field
Defines data fields for entering text, numerals, date, time, graphics
Establishes rules for selecting records for display and printout
Sorts records according to specific field(s)
Prints reports and mailing labels from database records
Spreadsheet
Sets up spreadsheet structure
Creates spreadsheet formulae to answer 'what if' questions
Formats worksheet report for printer
Prints worksheets or exports worksheets to another document
Telecommunications
Uses e-mail systems
Uses telecommunications software to interact with remote systems
Configures a modem for a specific remote system
Uses modem to access remote database and transfer files
Uses a commercial on-line service such as CompuServe, America on Line, or
Prodigy
Uses an Internet Service Provider such as Netcom.
Navigates the Internet with a web browser such as Netscape.
Desktop publishing (DTP)
Imports word processor document and graphics into DTP document
Church Workers Handbook --88-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Formats flyer, newsletter page, and brochure
Places text blocks and graphic elements on a page
Creates odd/even headers and footers, with embedded page numbers
Prints camera-ready originals ready for duplication
Arts
Paints, draws, and designs with mouse and other input peripherals
Uses music interface (MIDI) to play and compose music
Used digital photography to enhance computer projects
Maintenance
Understands rules for handling and using data disks
Plugs/unplugs common computer peripherals
Distinguishes between hardware and software problems
Provides incidental maintenance for local printer: clears jams; loads paper; replaces
ribbon, toner cartridge, or ink cartridge
Understands characteristics of dot matrix, printwheel, ink jet, and laser printers
Church Workers Handbook --89-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Chapter 7: Guidelines for the
Use of Audio Visual
Equipment
Church Workers Handbook -- What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
This is a set of guidelines to help those who encounter some of the older
AV devices: cassette, reel to reel and cassette tape recorders, movie
projector, slide projector, film strip projector, overhead projector, and
CD audio recorder. If you don't have any of these items in your AV
inventory, skip this chapter.
Most churches have an assortment of AV equipment. These guidelines are designed
as an aid to church workers who may not be trained or experienced in the proper
use of these items.
AV equipment was bought to be used. Some church workers decline to use it
because of one or more of the following reasons:
1. The equipment is too expensive and we don't want to waste it.
2. If we use it we might break it.
3. We're saving it for something important.
4. If something happens to it we may be held responsible.
Your church should consider the following policy regarding AV equipment:
•
It is the responsibility of each worker to become familiar with the operation
and proper utilization of all equipment items related to his/her particular
program.
•
We cannot realize a return on our investment in expensive equipment unless it
is used. Therefore, no equipment is too expensive or valuable to be used by
properly trained workers in pursuit of program goals and objectives.
•
Anything made by man is subject to mechanical failure. Workers who use
equipment properly and experience breakdown due to normal wear and tear
or manufacturer's defect should not feel personally responsible. It is far more
Church Workers Handbook --90-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
expensive to allow valuable equipment lie idle than it is to properly use it and
repair it.
•
A properly trained and reasonably careful worker will not be held responsible
for equipment that fails during normal use.
•
It is the responsibility of the worker to report any and all malfunctions or
equipment failures immediately.
Tape Recorder
The tape recorder is a very versatile audiovisual tool and can be used in support of a
wide variety of church activities.
Most recorders use cassette tapes. Their lengths are shown on the label as C-xx
[with a numeral replacing the xx.] The numeral indicates the length of the tape in
minutes. A C-90 means the tape will run a total of 90 minutes; 45 minutes on each
side.
The tape always moves from left to right as you look at the tape, with label side
facing you and the open tape facing down. Although some portable recorders
require you to insert the tape with tape side facing up, and tape moving from right
to left, you can still visualize the tape movement as left to right.
Some recorders use 1/4 inch tape and are known as reel to reel recorders.. The tape
is customarily wound on a seven inch reel in lengths of from 1,200 to 1,800 ft. The
length of the tape will depend upon the type of plastic backing used. Some tapes are
thinner and much more tape can be wound on one seven inch reel.
Digital Audio CD Recorder
Most of the newer computers have the capability to burn [record] compact disks
[CDs]. It is possible to buy a stand-alone digital audio CD recorder that works much
like the cassette and reel to reel recorders work. The primary difference is the CD
recorder uses blank CDs instead of cassette or reel tapes.
The blank CDs for such a recorder should be marked music or sound, instead of
data. A typical blank CD for a CD recorder will be marked MUSIC CD-R and will
hold up to 80 minutes of recorded material [700 mg].
Church Workers Handbook --91-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
The advantages of the digital audio CD recorder over the cassette tape recorder are
as follows:
1. CDs are more durable than tape.
2. CDs may be used in any regular CD player; since cassette tapes will go the
way of the eight-track tapes, it makes sense to position yourself to go with
CDs.
If you are comfortable using a cassette recorder to make broadcast-quality
recordings, you should be able to use a CD audio recorder with little trouble.
Caution: High-end cassette and CD recorders may not have
inputs for mikes. Apparently manufacturers assume that
purchasers of such equipment will already have a mike mixer for
providing mike input.
General Controls
The majority of the tape recorders manufactured today are operated by very
similar controls. These may be push buttons or levers and may be marked by a
variety of symbols. They tend to achieve the same function.
1. Play. This control operates the forward operation of the tape transport
mechanism and will play back recordings that have already been made.
2. Stop. This control stops the forward motion of the recorder during either the
play/record or fast forward/rewind functions.
3. Record. Pressing Play and Record simultaneously will start the recording.
Caution: It is possible to record on top of previous recordings you have made
and erase those recordings. However, this is unlikely to happen with a
commercial cassette recording because a safety tab has been removed along
the edge of the cassette opposite the tape. You can provide this same
precaution with recordings you make by removing this safety tab. Note: if you
change your mind and decided to record over a recording that has been
protected by the removal of this safety tab, you can reuse this tape by placing
a small piece of tape over the tab hole.
4. Fast Forward. This control permits rapid forward advance of the tape for the
purpose of picking up a recording in the middle or near the end of a cassette.
Church Workers Handbook --92-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
5. Rewind. This control permits rapid reverse of the tape for the purpose of
returning to the beginning of a recorded portion.
6. Caution: The fast forward-rewind controls should never be moved from one
direction to another without pausing in the neutral position and allowing the
tape to come to a complete stop. Some recorders have quick change controls
that permit this action to made safely, but check before you try it.
7. Speed. Most reel to reel tape recorders are manufactured with at least two
speeds: 7.5 ips (inches per second) and 3.75 ips. This designation refers to the
speed at which the tape is drawn across the recording head. It should be noted
that higher quality recordings result with the use of the fastest speed available
on the machine. Anything below 3.75 should be reserved for voice recording
only. Piano music should never be attempted at anything but 7.5.
8. There is an obvious relationship between the recording speed and the
recording time for a given reel of tape. For example, a 1200 ft. reel of tape will
run for 45 minutes at 7.5 ips and for 90 minutes at 3.75 ips.
9. Pause. The pause or instant stop control is used to freeze the tape
instantaneously for editing or special effects. Putting the recorder in record
mode plus Pause will enable you to monitor your recordings levels before
actually starting the recording.
Threading the Tape
On most reel to reel tape recorders, the transport mechanism carries the tape from
left to right. Therefore the full or feed reel should be placed on the left hand spindle
and the empty or takeup reel should be placed on the right spindle. The tape should
come off the reel with the coated (dull) side towards the top or back of the machine.
The sound is actually captured on this coated side.
Pull off enough free tape to reach through the head channel and around the takeup
reel two or three Times. During this process make sure the tape is not twisted with
the coated side toward the bottom or front of the recorder. If this happens, normal
recording or playback is impossible.
Tape Counter. The counter is used for indexing the tape. This permits the location
of a specific portion even though it may be in the middle or near the end of a 90minute tape. Many counters actually measure each revolution of the feed reel on its
axis. However, some counters measure real time in minutes and seconds.
The counter should always be set to zero at the point the first recording on the tape
is begun. Each time this tape is reused, it will be possible to pick up an indexed
Church Workers Handbook --93-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
recording by allowing the tape to run until sound begins, stopping it instantly, and
setting the counter to zero.
The counter should always be used when making a recording. At the time the
recording is begun, check the counter and make a note of its setting. It will then be
possible to turn to the exact point the recording began without playing hide and
seek games with the fast forward and rewind controls.
Suggested Procedure for Making Recordings
1. Advance or rewind tape to a section that you do not wish to keep. It is
important to remember that the record process automatically erases anything
previously recorded on that section of the tape.
2. Plug in microphone or know the exact location of a built-in condenser mike.
3. Place on pause and press Play and Record simultaneously. This will place the
recorder in the record mode but tape will not start to advance until you are
ready.
4. With the machine in this mode an adjustment can be made of the proper
recording level. As a general rule the volume control should be set in the
middle of its range for recording. However, if the sound source is particularly
loud or close, it may be necessary to back it off to about 1/3 of its range. If the
sound source is faint or far from the microphone the volume control should be
advanced to its maximum.
5. Most recorders have some sort of recording level indicator. It may be a needle
on a VU (volume units) meter or a LED [light-emitting diode] display. Less
expensive recorders may have ALC (automatic level controls) that cannot be
adjusted. If you can adjust the volume, it should be adjusted so that the
distort level of recording is indicated only on the higher peaks of sound. If a
distort level is indicated continuously this means you will get a poor recording
with an unpleasant, distorted sound.
6. After the proper recording level has been established, release the pause
control and the recording will begin.
7. It is not always necessary to use the pause in the record mode to establish
proper recording level. If you're recording similar sounds or under similar
circumstances you may be able to estimate the recording level.
8. It is possible to eliminate much of the noise of starting and stopping the tape
recorder during the record mode by keeping the volume turned down when
starting the machine and then quickly advancing it to the desired level. The
Church Workers Handbook --94-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
reverse is done when the machine is stopped. Turn the volume down and then
push the stop button.
9. Avoid handling the microphone or touching the microphone wire during
recording. This will result in an unpleasant rustling, thumping or crackling
sound that detracts from the recording. It is also important that papers not be
rustled or shuffled near the microphone. (A very realistic sound of a forest
fire can be achieved by crumbling large sheets of newspaper in front of a
sensitive microphone.)
Direct Recording
It is possible to record sound from another tape recorder, a radio, or a television set
without using a microphone. This is known as direct or line recording and is
achieved by connecting the output of any audiovisual device to the auxiliary input of
the tape recorder. In this manner a recording can be made without worrying about
ambient noise in the room. Furthermore, the quality of the recorded sound can be
up to 95% of the quality of the original sound.
A special cord is required for this type of recording. The cord must be fitted with
proper male plugs on either end for matching the female output jacks of the
machine originating the sound and the female input jacks of the tape recorder being
used to record the sound.
The average user of a tape recorder may feel uncomfortable in setting up for a
direct recording. It is not something so complicated, however, that cannot be
mastered by any program person who knows how to record with a recorder under
normal circumstances.
Tip: If the plugs fit the jacks, and you don't hear an unpleasant buzzing
sound, the chances are quite good that an acceptable recording will be
made.
Projectors
These suggestions may be applied to movie, film strip, slide and overhead
projectors.
A projector may be used in any room regardless of the amount of light in the room.
The machine is simply moved closer to the surface being used for projection until
the image is bright enough. The following rule should be remembered: as the
projector is moved closer to the screen, the image becomes smaller and brighter; as
Church Workers Handbook --95-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
the projector is moved away from the screen the image becomes larger and dimmer.
It is best to have a darkened room for a big picture but an undarkened room can be
used if a smaller picture is satisfactory.
The projector should be positioned, elevated, and pre-focused (area of light with
sharp edges) before the film is threaded. All these preparations should be completed
before the audience is assembled for the show.
A projector should not be moved after use until the lamp has had a chance to cool.
The lamp may be cooled by running the fan with the lamp off. The lamp is very
easily damaged when it is hot.
All projectors should be handled with care. This is particularly important when
going through doorways and on stairways.
Screens and Projector Surfaces
A silver lenticular screen provides the ideal projection surface. A beaded glass
screen can be used if the light environment is not as critical. In the absence of a
screen it is possible to use any light-colored surface. A large piece of white
construction paper makes an ideal screen for small group viewing at short
projection distances. The back of a wall map or chart can also be used as a screen
with good results.
Projection equipment with brighter projected images require less sophisticated
projection surfaces. As a general rule the overhead projector has the greatest
versatility in this regard followed by the 35 mm slide projector, 35 mm filmstrip
projector and 16 mm movie projector in descending order.
Audience seating patterns are very important in relationship to the screen and
projection surface. The projected image appears to be most sharp and bright when
viewed from immediately behind the projector. [Move around the room and view
the image from different angels when setting up a show.] As the viewer moves away
from the projector to either side, the image appears to be less bright in relation to
the distance from the projector. This decrease in brightness is more noticeable when
using auxiliary projection surfaces.
Viewers should not be permitted to sit close to the front of the room at the extreme
right or left of the screen.
Church Workers Handbook --96-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Film Strip Projector
The film strip projector is a useful educational tool for showing still pictures. The
projector uses 35mm film in a continuous roll of from 36 to 100 frames.
Threading the Projector
1. Always handle the film strip by the edge. Finger prints on the projected areas
will be detrimental to the projected image.
2. Make sure the film has been rewound. The first frame should read focus,
followed by a title frame. If the first frame says "the end" simply rewind the
strip manually and start at the beginning.
3. Insert film in channel at top of projector making sure film is pushed down to
the level of the advance knob. A sprocket wheel on the axle of the advance
knob will then pull the film through the machine.
Framing the Image:
The machine is constructed to advance the film one frame for each click of the
advance knob. In order to align the frame, turn the framing control on the axle of
the advance knob.
Rewind:
After the entire filmstrip has been projected advance it out of the machine and
rewind manually, holding the film by the edges.
Automatic Filmstrip Projector
The automatic filmstrip projector uses a mechanical film advance activated by an
audio signal from a sound track. The advance of the frames is thereby synchronized
to the sound track.
Church Workers Handbook --97-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Slide Projector
Loading Slides into Carousel Slide Reel
1. Remove locking ring in top center of reel.
2. Insert slide in numbered compartments upside down with coated (dull) side
toward the lower numeral.
3. Replace locking ring.
4. Check bottom of reel making sure slot on edge of metal plate is lined up with
the blank space between slide 1 and slide 80.
5. Place projection reel on top of machine with zero pointed toward mark on
right side of machine (facing screen).
Basic Controls
1. Fan. This control runs the fan motor without activating the projection lamp.
It is used after a show for cooling the lamp.
2. Low. This control activates the fan and projection lamp at a low light
intensity. This is used for short projection distances or for previewing slides.
3. High. This activates the projection lamp at its highest light intensity.
4. Reverse. This activates the slide changing mechanism from a higher to a lower
numbered slide.
5. Forward. This activates the slide changing mechanism from a lower to a
higher numbered slide.
6. Select. This control has a dual function.
a. When a slide is in the projection chamber, the select control will eject the
slide back into the reel without advancing the reel to the next position.
With the locking ring removed, the slide can then be taken from the reel
for editing purposes.
b. With the select control depressed, the slide reel can be rotated freely on its
spindle. In this way individual slides can be selected without unnecessary
changer action. The carousel must be returned to zero to remove it from
the spindle.
7. Timer. Slides can be projected automatically by moving the timer control
from manual to one of the numeral designations. The numerals represent the
Church Workers Handbook --98-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
number of seconds each slide will remain on the screen before advancing to
the next highest numeral. All automatic changes go from a lower to a higher
numbered slide. It is possible to override the timer by pushing the forward
button. Make sure the timer dial is returned to manual before attempting to
remove the reel from the machine.
Manual Projection. It is practical to project a limited number of loose
slides without using the Carousel reel. Simply place the slide in the projection chamber
making sure it is upside down with the dull or coated side toward the screen. The slide
is ejected from the chamber by pressing the select button.
The Overhead Projector
The overhead projector is designed to project an image from a transparent film. A
light source below a glass projection table shines through the transparency and on
to a mirror in the projection head and hence to the screen.
Basic Controls
1. Focus. The image is focused by turning a knob that raises or lowers the
projection head on the metal upright.
2. Elevate. The image is raised or lowered on the screen by adjusting the mirror
on the projection head.
3. Framing. The image can be further adjusted and framed on the screen by
moving the transparency on the light table.
Making Transparencies
1. Grease Pencil. The simplest method of making a transparency is to write on
an acetate sheet with a grease pencil. Unfortunately, this is not a permanent
image and can be smudged with a pointer or finger.
2. Photocopier. A permanent transparency can easily be made by making a copy
of any image with transparency film in the paper tray. Make sure the
transparency film is rated for a photocopier.
3. Laser Printer. High-quality transparencies can be made with a laser printer,
with laser transparency film in the paper tray.
Church Workers Handbook --99-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
4. CAUTION: Your transparency film must be rated for a laser printer. Do not
use film rated for a photo copier or you may damage the printer.
5. Adding Color to Transparencies
6. Transparencies made on clear sheets can be enhanced through the use of a
colored pen or pencil by cutting out bits of adhesive acetate for attaching them
to specific areas of transparency.
7. Additional details can be added to a transparency through the use of an
overlay. The basic transparency is made and projected with the additional
detail added by means of a second transparency that is laid down on the first.
8. Framing. All transparencies should be framed before projection. This
provides a clear, sharp border around the transparency and makes it much
easier to handle. There is also a provision for indexing information.
9. Commercially Prepared Transparencies. A wide variety of commercially
prepared transparencies are available on almost any subject. These include
simple transparencies in black and white, transparencies in color, and
relatively complicated overlays.
Chief Advantages of the Overhead Projector
•
•
A bright and sharp image can be projected in an ordinary room lit in normal
fashion by natural or artificial light.
A large image can be projected at a relatively close projection distance
permitting the instructor to stand in front of and face the group while
operating the equipment.
16 MM Movie Projectors
16 mm movie projectors are becoming less popular with the increased popularity of
the VCR and the DVD. However, these guidelines are provided in case you still have
a movie projector.
Terms to Understand:
1. Sprocket. A roller with little lugs on the outside edge that match the holes in
the edge of the film. The sprocket usually has a cover that snaps up to permit
threading.
Church Workers Handbook --100-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
2. Gate. A channel in front of the lamp through which the film must pass. The
lens may swing out to open the gate or the gate cover may simply snap
forward to permit access.
3. Loop. A 'U' of film usually formed above and below the gate.
4. Sound Drum. A large smooth roller with no little lugs.
5. Feed Reel. The reel with the film on it.
6. Take-Up-Reel. The empty reel on which the film will be wound as it is
projected.
Controls
1. Most projectors have a two-position control for the motor. The first position
runs the motor only and the second runs the motor and the lamp.
2. The amplifier is usually turned on with the volume knob. If the projector has
a separate switch for "exciter lamp", be certain this is turned on.
3. The film speed control should be set for "sound", unless a silent movie is
shown. This control changes the speed at which the film is projected. Sound
film: 24 frames per second. Silent film: 18 frames per second.
Reels. The feed reel should be placed on the spindle that does not turn when the
projector is running in a forward direction. The film should come off the front of
the reel with the sprocket holes toward the operator. The holes in the film must
match the lugs on the sprocket. The feed reel and the take-up reel will always turn
in the same direction.
Threading: (General instructions for all projectors)
1. Pull off a few feet of film.
2. Place film over top sprocket and close over.
3. Form loop, pass through gate, form lower loop.
4. Pass film over or around sound drum.
5. Pass film over lower sprocket, close cover, and run onto take-up reel.
Most projectors have basic threading information printed right on them.
Church Workers Handbook --101-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Rewinding:
1. The film must be free of the machine and must travel directly from the takeup reel back to the feed reel.
2. The lamp should not be on during rewind.
3. When showing a movie of more than one reel, all reels may be shown one after
the other. Use the feed reel of the first reel of the film as the take-up reel for
the second reel of the film. All reels should be rewound at the end of the show.
Caution: During the rewind, reels are moving very rapidly. Keep hands, hair,
etc. free of spinning reels. Serious injury and/or damage to the film or projector can
result.
Failure to Rewind: The film should be rewound by the person who
used it last. The film distributors' request "Do Not Rewind" is ignored by everyone
except the last person to use the film.
If a picture appears on the screen upside down the film probably was not rewound.
Reverse reels, rewind, and project.
Splicing
•
The user should splice all breaks using regular polyester splicing tape.
•
Do not use office tape. If splicing tape is not available, lap broken ends and
splice later.
Video Cassette Recorder [VCR]
There are several formats of VCRs. However, the most popular, and the
acknowledged standard, is VHS. Therefore, all comments here will relate to VHS
format. In addition, these comments are of a general nature and apply to regular
VCRs as well as VCR large-screen projectors.
Playback of a previously-made recording will be all we will discuss here. If you want
to made a recording, consult your VCR's owner manual.
General Controls
The majority of the VCRs manufactured today are operated by very similar
controls. They tend to achieve the same function.
Inserting Tape. Insert the tape with the tape window facing up and the
label facing you. Make sure the small arrow is pointing toward the back of the
machine.
1. Play. This control operates the forward operation of the tape transport
mechanism and will play back recordings that have already been made.
2. Stop. This control stops the forward motion of the recorder during either the
play or fast forward/rewind functions.
3. Fast Forward. This control permits rapid forward advance of the tape for the
purpose of picking up a recording in the middle or near the end of a cassette.
4. Rewind. This control permits rapid reverse of the tape for the purpose of
returning to the beginning of a recorded portion.
5. Speed. Most VCRs will switch to the playback speed which is equal to the
speed of the recording. If this does not happen, you may need to change the
speed.
6. Pause/Still. The pause or instant stop control is used to freeze the tape
instantaneously for special effects.
7. Eject. This control ejects the tape.
Tape Counter.
The counter is used for indexing the tape. This permits the location of a specific
portion even though it may be in the middle or near the end of a two-hour tape.
Early counters measured each revolution of the feed reel on its axis. However,
counters on newer VCRs measure real time in minutes and seconds.
The counter should always be set to zero at the point the first recording on the tape
is begun. Each time this tape is reused, it will be possible to pick up an indexed
recording by allowing the tape to run until the picture begins, stopping it instantly,
and setting the counter to zero.
The counter should always be used when making a recording. At the time the
recording is begun, check the counter and make a note of its setting. It will then be
Church Workers Handbook --103-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
possible to return to the exact point the recording began without playing hide and
seek games with the fast forward and rewind controls.
Set Up
Make sure the program portion of the tape is ready to play before your audience
assembles. Your audience shouldn't have to sit through the FBI warning about
unlawful duplication, or other similar material.
If your VCR's controls are hard to read in the dark, you may want to mark those
controls with colored vinyl tape.
G. Edwin Lint
Please note: The hypertext e-mail link above is hot [active] when you are connected
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Chapter 8: Basics of
Desktop Publishing
Information to help you use WYSIWYG [What You See Is What You
Get] page formatting software and a high-resolution laser printer to
make camera-ready originals ready to take to the printer.
Church Workers Handbook What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and
Seminary
Contents for This Chapter
Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 99
Process ............................................................................................................................ 100
A Flier or a Full-length Book ........................................................................................ 100
Definition......................................................................................................................... 101
A Printer's Short Lexicon ............................................................................................ 101
Ten Cardinal Rules:
1. Save every 15 minutes ............................................................................................... 102
2. Create and save on the hard drive; back up on 3.5-inch disks
or an external hard drive daily ..................................................................................... 102
3. Start with a dummy (nothing personal) .................................................................. 103
4. Write with the Carriage Returns Visible ................................................................ 103
5. Never Use the SPACE BAR, Return Or Tab Key To Format A Paragraph ...... 103
6. Print In Laser/Ink Jet Fonts Only ............................................................................ 103
7. Use Times New Roman for Body Text (Serif) ........................................................ 104
8. Use Arial or Helvetica for Headings (Sans Serif) .................................................. 104
9. Watch Odds and Evens ............................................................................................ 104
10. Use White Space to Separate A Paragraph From Its Head ................................. 105
Other Rules:
11. Compose In Geneva 12 ........................................................................................... 105
12. Get the Format Right For The First Paragraph .................................................. 105
13. White Space ............................................................................................................. 105
14. Limit Number of Fonts Per Page ........................................................................... 105
15. Forget Courier ......................................................................................................... 105
Church Workers Handbook --105-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
16. Forget Underlining .................................................................................................. 106
17. Type Body Text in Upper/Lower Case ................................................................. 106
18. Emphasize and Break Up Your Work With Headings ....................................... 107
19. Use A Variety of Heading Layouts ........................................................................ 107
20. Beware Of "Smart Quotes" ................................................................................... 107
21. You Can Say A Lot with Bullets ............................................................................ 108
22. Charts and Cover Spines ........................................................................................ 108
23. Reinforce Your Handouts with Visuals ................................................................ 109
24. Guidelines for Name Badges .................................................................................. 109
25. Know Your Printer's Limitations ......................................................................... 109
26. Know the Primary Graphic Types ........................................................................ 110
27. Follow These Major Steps To Prepare A Document
For Publication With A Page Formatting Program Such As PageMaker. .............. 110
28. Text Formatting Tips in PageMaker .................................................................... 112
29. Use Keyboard Shortcuts .......................................................................................... 112
Tips for Data Entry
30. Spell Out Acronyms ................................................................................................ 112
31. Get the Person's Name Right ................................................................................. 113
32. Abbreviations .......................................................................................................... 113
33. Collecting Information from Application Forms ................................................. 113
34. Omit Titles ............................................................................................................... 113
35. Mailing Addresses Can Be Complicated .............................................................. 114
36. Take Your Time ...................................................................................................... 114
37. Use and, not & .......................................................................................................... 115
38. Hyphens, Dashes, and Automatic Hyphenation ................................................... 115
39. The First Shall Be First .......................................................................................... 115
40. Teachers: We Teach Students ............................................................................... 115
41. Watch Mixed Upper and Lower Case ................................................................... 116
Appendix A: Desktop Publishing Glossary ................................................................ 116
Introduction
With the advent of desktop publishing, your church can give a typeset appearance
to all your handouts and training materials, including throwaways such as your
weekly bulletins.
All that is needed is:
Church Workers Handbook --106-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
1. A microcomputer.
2. A high-end word processor [such as Microsoft Word or
WordPerfect] or page formatting software [such as PageMaker]
for the Macintosh or Windows.
3. An ink-jet printer (starts at $100), or a laser printer. Color
printers are now within most budgets.
4. The knowledge to use them.
5. A print shop that is willing to print multiple copies from your
camera-ready originals, for a fee, or course. Check your local
office supply store [Staples, Office Max. Or, try Kinko’s or any
quick print shop.]
Process
The process is very simple:
A.
Create your document with your computer and print the
camera-ready originals(s) with your printer.
B.
Take your originals to the print shop. My print shop will let
me send PageMaker files over the phone line; maybe yours
will, too.
A Flier or a Full-length Book
You can use desktop publishing techniques for a one-page Sunday school picnic
flier, or a full-length book.
• My first novel, Gone, was written on an Apple IIe desktop computer.
• Those files were saved as ASCII text files and imported into a Macintosh
computer.
• The Apple files were imported into a Microsoft Word word processor on the
Mac.
• Camera-ready originals were printed on an Apple LaserWriter laser printer.
• These originals were mailed to BookCrafters (140 Buchanan Street, Chelsea,
MI 48118); [they could have been sent by modem or on a disk.]
• The completed printed and bound books were shipped back to me by truck.
Church Workers Handbook --107-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Definition
Desktop publishing is the use of a microcomputer and a laser/ink jet printer to
produce camera-ready originals that have a typeset appearance. Desktop publishing
includes, but is not limited to, the use of page formatting software such as
PageMaker. In fact, high-end word processors (such as Microsoft Word or
WorkPerfect include features that may be used in many desktop publishing
routines.
Gutenberg put the printed page in the hands of the people. Now, the desktop
publishing revolution, with products like "what-you-see-is-what-you-get"
(pronounced "WHIZZY-wig") word processors and the laser/ink jet printer, has
put the typesetting of the page in the hands of the people. The technology of
Gutenberg's day required that a printer "mind his Ps and Qs" because those letters
were so easy to confuse in a type case.
That's what these guidelines are about: helping you to mind your desktop
publishing Ps and Qs. The modern microcomputer and laser/ink jet printer can
make your successes look glorious. However, they can also make your failures look
dismal, too.
A Printer's Short Lexicon
Printers and publishers tend to feel that we desktop upstarts may misuse
time-honored printing terms. We probably do, and I will follow suit in these
guidelines. To set the record straight, however, here are the proper definitions
for the following terms:
Typeface, or just face: The physical appearance of a set of characters, such as
Times New Roman or Arial or Helvetica. Desktop publishers in general tend to use
"font" instead of "face."
Typestyle: A general enhancement for a typeface, such as: BOLD, ITALIC, or
OUTLINE.
Font: A typeface in a particular point size is a font. Times New Roman 12 and
Times New Roman 18 are fonts.
Leading (ledding): Controlling the amount of vertical space between lines of type.
Church Workers Handbook --108-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Kerning: Controlling the amount of horizontal space between letters of a word.
The following documents were used as resources in compiling these guidelines
LaserWriter Manual(s), Apple Computer, Inc., 1988, et al.
The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage, Times Books, 1976
The Gregg Reference Manual, McGraw Hill, 1977
The Ten Cardinal Rules of Desktop
publishing
1. Save every 15 minutes
Your computer remembers nothing that is not saved to disk. Saving at least every 15
minutes will keep you from losing more than you would want to replace if someone
kicks the plug out of the wall or maintenance turns off the power to work on the
outlet in the next room. Make sure you know the folder or disk you are saving to
when you make your first save. Afterwards, your computer will remember that
location and always save to it.
2. Create and save on the hard drive; back
up on CD data disks, zip disks,
flash/thumb drives, or an external hard
drive daily
As a general rule, you should create and save all files on your hard drive, not on
a zip disk or some other local drive. If you are using a borrowed drive or one
rented at a place like Kinko’s, make sure you know in advance the type of backup device this computer will use. If you begin a file and then save it to the
computer’s hard drive, you are headed for trouble in one of both of two ways:
• You may have lost the privacy of the contents of this file.
• If another user has access to your file, you may lose the file as well as the
privacy.
Church Workers Handbook --109-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
At the end of each work day, you should back up all important data files on a CD
data disk, a zip disk, a flash/thumb drive, or an external hard drive, or server
designated for backup purposes. If a file is lost or damaged, or if your computer dies
overnight, these disks will enable you to continue working without a major loss of
data.
I use www.carbonite.com for my backups. For $50 per year, this company will
backup all your files on your entire hard drive. This service is encrypted,
secure, and they do it automatically.
3. Start with a dummy (nothing personal)
Make a pencil-and-paper mockup of the general layout of your project. This is
especially important for folded brochures. For example, be very sure you know the
position of the first and last page of a 4-page brochure.
4. Write with the Carriage Returns Visible
Get into the habit of writing with your carriage returns visible. If you're using a
Macintosh or Windows word processor, you'll probably have a paragraph symbol
button on your tool bar for clicking carriage returns ¶ on and off. If you don't have
a carriage return symbol on your tool bar, check your menus for all characters or
invisible.
5. Never Use the SPACE BAR, Return or
Tab Key to Format a Paragraph
Never use the space bar, tab, or Return key to indent, center, or otherwise format a
paragraph. Use standard formatting commands, only. If you don't know how to format
a paragraph, just type straight text for now. Then, get help from someone who does
know. Tab stops, extra spaces and carriage returns which are used to format a
paragraph cause permanent damage, which may need to be corrected with individual
clicks of the mouse. This is a time-consuming, irritating, and potentially expensive
process.
6. Print in Laser/Ink Jet Fonts Only
Church Workers Handbook --110-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
These fonts are designed to give the best appearance to your text. Fonts used with
dot matrix printers look relatively crude and amateurish when printed with a
laser/ink jet printer. Use them for special effects, only.
Before printing your document, replace any dot matrix fonts with laser/ink jet
printer fonts, even though you composed in a dot matrix font like Geneva.
As a general rule, dot matrix fonts (the ones to avoid when printing to the laser/ink
jet printer) have geographic names, such as Geneva, New York, Monaco, and
Chicago. Laser/ink jet printer fonts have non-geographic names such as Times New
Roman, Arial or Helvetica, Palatino, and Courier.
7. Use Times New Roman for Body Text (Serif)
Use a serif font for the body of your text. Times New Roman is the common serif
font for the laser/ink jet printer. A serif font has little "handles" on the characters
that tend to make them flow together and make them easier to read. [The heading
for this paragraph is printed in Times New Roman for illustration purposes.]
8. Use Arial or Helvetica for Headings (Sans
Serif)
Use a sans serif font (without handles) for headings and numerals. Arial or
Helvetica (not Narrow Arial or Helvetica) is the best sans serif font for the laser/ink
jet printer. See a printer manual for more information on serif and sans serif fonts.
9. Watch Odds and Evens
When a document's pages are printed back to back, the odd pages are on the right
and the even pages are on the left. A chapter or major division usually begins on an
odd page, on the right.
If your pages are numbered in the corners, the even page numbers are in the left
corner and the odd page numbers are in the right.
A document which is to be printed back to back and bound should have a gutter
down the center. This means the right edge of the even pages and the left edge of the
odd pages will have wider margins. This extra space may be specified in the
document layout [setup] screen of your word processor.
Church Workers Handbook --111-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
10. Use White Space to Separate a
Paragraph from Its Head
Use the before/after command in the paragraph format dialog box to separate a
heading from its paragraph. This standoff may be measured in points or fractions of
an inch. Twelve points of space equals a line of 12 point text. Remember that you
can control the size of carriage returns in the same way you control the size of
characters. (This rule is not being observed here in the interest of showing more text
on a single screen.)
11. Compose In Geneva 12
Compose your document in a font which is comfortable to read on the screen, such
as Geneva 12. (The PageMaker story editor uses Geneva 12 only.) This font is
especially easy to read if you are using a small monitor screen such as was found on
the original once-piece Macintosh.
12. Get the Format Right for the First
Paragraph
When you press Return at the end of a formatted paragraph to begin a new
paragraph, the formatting will be carried over.
A paragraph's formatting and tab stops may be stored in its carriage return symbol.
To apply a paragraph's formatting to a new paragraph, copy the carriage return of
a formatted paragraph to the clipboard and then paste it onto a new paragraph's
selected carriage return.
Your word processor may give you even more power in formatting paragraphs by
using the Style feature.
13. White Space
Insert white space before and after a series of paragraphs with the before/after
commands in the paragraph dialog box. Use the first line indent command instead
of Tab. If you use this as a general rule, you can adjust space in a whole block of text
with a single command in the format paragraph dialog box.
Church Workers Handbook --112-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
14. Limit Number of Fonts per Page
Although the computer is able to print multiple fonts on a page, too many fonts
quickly reach the point of diminishing return. As a general use Times New Roman
for body and Arial or Helvetica bold for headings.
15. Forget Courier
Don't use Courier (or any other non-proportional font) unless you want to create an
old-fashioned (pre-IBM Selectric) typewritten effect for some special reason. The
whole idea of desktop publishing is to avoid the typewritten look and give your work
a typeset look. In typewriter (non-proportional) spacing, the letter "i" gets the same
amount of horizontal space as the letter "m". In proportional spacing, however, the
amount of horizontal space is proportionate to the width of the letter. Ms and Ws
get much more space than Is. [wwwwwiiiiimmmmm]
Attention Teachers: If you are typing material to be read by your
readers, you may want to use Courier because it looks more like
manuscript writing than proportional fonts.
16. Forget Underlining
Never use underlining to provide emphasis for a heading. Underlining has the
opposite effect. It weakens text and makes it cluttered and harder to read. On the
old-fashioned typewriter, you had three ways to emphasize a heading:
capitalization, underlining, and letter-spacing (or some combination of the three).
However, now that you have joined the computer-driven desktop publishing
revolution, leave underlining behind!
Did I hear someone ask why underlining is in a word processor's character dialog
box if it isn't being used? If you are printing to a daisy wheel printer, italic may not
be available. Therefore, underlining is needed to properly type footnote and
bibliographic entries. However, it has little place in the laser/ink jet printer world.
Special Note: When you are typing text that is to be part of a web
page on the Internet, there is another reason to avoid
underlining entirely. On a web page, underlining gives the
expectation that this text will be a Hypertext link that may be
clicked upon. When a reader passes the mouse pointer over the
underlined text and it does not become a pointing finger, the
Church Workers Handbook --113-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
result is disappointment. Writers never want to disappoint a
reader.
17. Type Body Text in Upper/Lower Case
Type your body text in normal upper/lower case, not in solid caps. Limit solid caps
to headings and brief sections where you want to provide emphasis. When you type
in solid caps, the copy is harder to read than when you use normal upper/lower case.
The human eye and brain use graphic cues to help decode printed characters into
words and ideas. Look at the word girl, for example. The G goes below the line, and
the L goes above it. On the other hand, GIRL is a solid block with fewer visual cues
than girl.
Anyone who can read, can read solid caps. Solid caps just cause subliminal
irritation, something you want to avoid.
18. Emphasize and Break Up Your Work
with Headings
Desktop publishing lets you vary your heading emphasis with such enhancements as
italics, bold, outline, shadow, small caps, or all five. (But NOT underlining.) You
must type in upper/lower case in order to use the small caps enhancement.
Some word processors allow you to use very large headings with font scaling. The
limit is usually 127 points. If your font dialog box allows you to enter your own size,
try a numeral above 72 and see what you get.
19. Use a Variety of Heading Layouts
Here are some examples but you can use your own sense of style and proportion:
THIS IS A CENTERED HEAD
THIS IS A FREE-STANDING SIDEHEAD
The freestanding sidehead is generally considered to be the second level in a heading
breakdown. The point size should be somewhere between the centered head and the
paragraph sidehead.
Church Workers Handbook --114-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
This Is a Paragraph Sidehead. If you need a third level of breakdown, the
paragraph side-head is useful. As a general rule, the point size is the same as the
paragraph text but in bold; use Arial or Helvetica (instead of Times New Roman) to
provide emphasis.
20. Beware of “Smart Quotes” [These are smart
quotes]
This is an option with some word processors that makes quotation marks look more
professional. If you are preparing text for E-Mail or publishing on the Web, it may
be necessary to turn off smart quotes before typing the E-Mail message or other
document. Quotation marks and apostrophes may be transmitted as strange
characters, if you do not turn off smart quotes.
21. You Can Say A Lot With Bullets
• You can say a lot with short statements set off in separate paragraphs.
• These are known as bullets.
• A bullet is often led with a symbol of some kind that draws your attention.
This is an example of a paragraph hung under a bullet.
Special characters may be available through the use of the various keys. To
see what's available, you may need to refer to the word processor's manual.
Some computers have special fonts (such as Dingbats or Whingdings) that
may be used for bullets. Each character of the keyboard will produce a special
symbol when that font is used. You'll need a guide to show you what produces
what.
Here is a sample of some Whingdings 3 characters:
These characters were
created with the following letters on the keyboard:
a b c d e f g
h i
To find Whingdings 3, click on the font menu of your word processor.
Wingdings 3 will be near the bottom of the list, if you have it.
Bullets usually look best when they are part of a hung paragraph. A hung
paragraph is where the second and all subsequent lines wrap under the indent of the
first line. Some word processors have a button on the tool bar that creates bullets
Church Workers Handbook --115-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
automatically. You may not be able to change an automatic default bullet leader,
however.
22. Charts and Cover Spines
As a general rule, charts and other graphics that are printed horizontally on the
page should be bound to be read from the right. In other words, odd pages are
bound along the top edge and even pages are bound along the bottom edge.
When you use ring binders with transparent vinyl pockets for inserting cover
designs, inserting can be a problem. If text flows along the length of the spine, the
insert must read right side up when the book is lying face up. If both vertical and
horizontal text are used on the same spine insert, the text must be read in both the
bookshelf and the face-up positions.
23. Reinforce Your Handouts with Visuals
The computer/laser/ink jet printer combination makes great overhead
transparencies. WARNING: Make sure your transparency film is suitable for use
with a laser printer. Never use regular copier transparency film in a laser printer.
The higher heat may cause the film to melt against moving parts of your printer and
cause serious damage.
When creating transparencies, observe these simple rules:
Use a sans serif font only, such as Arial or
Helvetica.
Keep your point size at 18 or above; this is 18
point.
Limit the content of a single transparency to three
main points and a couple of subpoints, under
each main point.
Never place a large block of small text on a screen
and expect people to read it. Observe the 18 point
Church Workers Handbook --116-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
rule at all Times, including the text of memos and
letters.
24. Hello, My Name Is ... Guidelines for
Name Badges
1. Set all text in Arial or Helvetica bold for maximum legibility at a distance.
2. Place the name at the top, in 18 point, if possible. The name is the most
important item on a name tag. Allow up to two lines so longer names
(especially hyphenated names) may wrap.
3. Place the company or agency name next, in 12 or 14 point, if possible.
4. The company or workshop logo is always at the bottom. This is the least
important item on a name tag since it is the same for every person.
25. Know Your Printer's Limitations
A.
Beware of solid fills. A laser/ink jet printer prints at a resolution of 300 to 600
dots per square inch (dpi). Therefore, it may not be able to do a good job on
solids, especially if they require more than one revolution of the roller when
printing. By comparison, a professional laser printer may print at 2400 dpi or
more. Instead of solids, use a grayscale of 80% or less, or use a shade pattern.
B.
Maintain a minimum margin of .25 to .5 inches. The laser/ink jet printer
cannot print to the edge of the paper. A job with a graphic which is bled to the
edge should be printed by a professional print shop and then trimmed to
specs.
26. Know the Primary Graphic Types
A. Bit Map (as done in a paint program such as MacPaint). Significant resizing
may cause an unpleasant moire pattern to develop.
B. PICT (picture, such as drawn in MacDraw).
C. TIFF (Tag Image File Format, such as created by scanning a photograph).
TIFF graphics are memory hogs and may quickly grow to a meg or more.
D. EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) as done in Adobe Illustrator. This graphic is
stored as a series of numeric specifications and then translated when printed.
The quality is excellent but it is also a memory hog. [A simple 4.5x6 inch
graphic I did for a wedding program quickly grew to 24 megs.
Church Workers Handbook --117-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
E. JPEG [.jpg] This is the format for
photographs. Your word processor may be able to
insert a digitized or digital photo stored on your
hard drive. The example at left is of our baby girl,
Jessica Lint Cherrico. It was scanned from an old
school photo, labeled and framed in PhotoShop
Elements, resized and cropped in Microsoft Word.
You can even set the photo to cause text to wrap
around it!
Click art collections are available in a
variety of formats.
27. Follow These Major Steps To Prepare A
Document For Publication In A Page
Formatting Program Such As PageMaker.
A. Make a dummy that shows how the pages flow and the rough location of
graphics and stories.
B. Set page features. Page orientation and other features may be changed after
the publication is started. However, it is best to make as many decisions as
possible at the beginning.
C. Set up master pages. A master page contains the elements which will appear
on all pages of the finished product. Headers, footers, columns, and page
numbers are examples of items normally placed on master pages.
D. Place the graphics or placeholders in their approximate locations. It is
important to do this step before flowing text, so it will wrap around graphics.
E. Type text in a word processor or the PageMaker Story Editor. Spell check.
F. Place text. Use Autoflow. If you want to control and thread text page by page,
hold down the shift key. If you don't hold down shift, Autoflow will add pages
as needed to accommodate incoming text.
G. Screen-proof your work. Then, spell check the document again. As an added
precaution, have a co-worker proof the work.. You are your own worst proof
reader and many spell checkers can't detect errors in grammar and syntax. If
you read this piece carefully, I'm sure you'll see ample proof of what I've just
said.
Church Workers Handbook --118-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
H. If this document will be printed in a word processor only:
1. Insert the header/footer and imbed the page numbering command. If you
are not using a header/footer, turn on the auto-numbering. If you are
printing on both sides, specify separate header/footer layouts for odd and
even pages.
2. Use the ruler to enter paragraph formatting commands. The ruler controls
the layout of the line in which the cursor is flashing. If you select a section
of text, the ruler controls the selected area. Remember that the ruler is
available in both the header/footer window and the footnote window. If
you set up a paragraph format and/or a series of tab stops, that format will
be carried over into successive paragraphs when you press RETURN.
3. Paginate. Check each page break for appropriateness. Force page breaks
as needed. For example, if a heading is separated from the paragraph it
heads, force a break right above the heading with the paragraph format
dialog box. Remember you can force a page break to come sooner but you
can't delay one. Try to avoid using hard page breaks because they may
ruin your pagination if you make additional edits. However, if you always
want a page break to come at a certain spot regardless of future editing,
use a hard break.
4. To prevent a page break in the middle of a paragraph: (a) select the
paragraph(s) involved, (b) enter the Paragraph dialog box and click on
Keep Lines Together, (c) press RETURN to close the dialog box,
repaginate the document, (d) confirm from the screen or PREVIEW that
the page will break as you want it to do. Certain combinations of the
following factors will give you too much white space at the bottom of the
pages:
Large font size
Small pages
Long paragraphs
If this happens, reverse the process described above and take off the Keep
Lines Together feature.
28. Text Formatting Tips in PageMaker
A.
Type text in feature boxes and headings without the justify command, even
though the majority of the page is justified.
Church Workers Handbook --119-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
B.
Keep a heading together with at least two lines of the following paragraph.
Use the paragraph format dialog box to control this. If necessary, invoke a
premature page break.
C.
Use the general rule of no more than two fonts per page. Macintosh and
Windows computers make it very easy to apply various fonts, but use
discretion. This may be a case when less is more.
29. Use Keyboard Shortcuts
If you are a touch typer who learned on a regular typewriter, you'll love the
keyboard shortcuts you can use with most computer applications. If you learned to
type on a Macintosh or Windows computer, you'll probably feel more comfortable
with the mouse. However, you'll never be a power user until you can break the
mouse habit and use the keyboard when a keyboard command is available. For a
touch typer, the hand is still faster than the mouse.
With many applications, you can pull down the menus to see which keyboard
commands are available for the various functions. To use a keyboard command: (a)
hold down the special key, such as the CONTROL key, and (b) while holding down
the CONTROL key, tap the action key. Since all keys on the computer are repeat
keys, it is critical to tap the action key, not press it.
Tips for Data Entry
30. Spell Out Acronyms
In a first reference, spell out the phrase represented by the acronym, with the
acronym in parentheses. In subsequent references, the acronym may be used alone.
Example: This booklet was produced by DiskBooks Electronic Publishing (DBEP).
The author of the DBEP Guides ...
31. Get the Person's Name Right
Use full names when possible: Thomas A. Jones, F. Scott Doe. If there is a doctorate,
spell it out in a first reference and then use the Dr. title thereafter: C. Everett Koop,
M.D.; Dr. Koop. Dr. is used before the full name when part of a mailing address, Dr.
C. Everett Koop, but not in a signature block:
C. Everett Koop, MD
Surgeon General
Church Workers Handbook --120-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
32. Abbreviations
When abbreviating company or agency names, omit both periods and spaces, unless
the entity prefers otherwise. Be careful of plural abbreviations. Do not use an
apostrophe unless the context requires that possession be shown. Examples: All the
CEOs attended the workshop. Each CEO's name tag was printed on a laser printer.
33. Collecting Information from Application Forms
There is no way to control what people may write on applications when applying to
attend a workshop or seminar. However, you can control how that data is entered in
a database and reproduced in subsequent agendas, name tags, and lists of
participants.
Example: Applicants from the same agency (Allegheny Intermediate Unit 3) may
show the following information when filling out forms:
Allegheny IU
AIU
IU 3
Allegheny IU #3
Intermediate Unit #3
In each case, this agency should be translated as Allegheny IU 3. After registration
information has been entered in a data base, sort each involved field in alphabetical
order. This will enable you to quickly identify and correct errors and
inconsistencies, especially if the data has been entered by more than one person.
34. Omit Titles
In a list of names or on an agenda, omit all titles such as Miss, Mrs., Ms., Mr., and
Dr. If you wish to show a doctorate, it should be abbreviated in its proper form after
the name. (A person with a DR before the name may be a doctor of medicine,
philosophy, education, dentistry, or veterinary medicine).
Examples:
Jane Doe, M.D.
Church Workers Handbook --121-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
John Doe, Ph.D.
James Doe, D.D.S.
Joanne Doe, Ed.D.
Justus Doe, D.D.
A title is used with a full name when it is part of a mailing address. A title may be
used with a surname only in a second reference but do not use Miss or Mrs. unless
you know for a fact that the woman does not prefer Ms. As a general rule, a woman
who prefers Miss or Mrs. will be less annoyed by Ms. than will be the case when the
converse is true.
35. Mailing Addresses Can Be Complicated
A rural address should be written Route x, Box xx or Rt. x, Box xx. R.D. (Rural
Delivery) and R.F.D. (Rural Free Delivery) are obsolete. Use the U.S. Postal Service
two-letter abbreviations for a state's name. However, use conventional abbreviations
when the name of the state is not part of a mailing address.
Example:
Harrisburg PA 17105
He lives in Harrisburg, Pa. (or Penna.)
The United States Postal Service (USPS) prefers that mail addresses be typed in solid
caps without punctuation.
36. Take Your Time
Write time as 8:30 A.M. or 4:30 p.m.
These forms should not be used: 8:30am or 4:30 pm
37. Use And and Not &
Avoid using & (ampersand) unless it is part of a tradename or a lack of space
demands it. Don't use the symbol @ unless it is part of a price, formula, or e-mail
address.
Church Workers Handbook --122-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
38. Hyphens, Dashes, and Automatic Hyphenation
A dash joins a range of times in an agenda, and is longer than a hyphen. (If your
software can't produce a dash, use two hyphen (--). Non-breaking hyphens join the
components of a phone number so they are not separated by word wrap. Breaking
hyphens are used by the hyphenation command to automatically break words at the
end of lines. Never hyphenate a word manually by typing a hyphen. Such a hyphen
will prevent proper word wrap after a future edit or font change. Invoke the
hyphenation command instead. However, during automatic hyphenation, you can
type a hyphen in a dialog box to force a word break at a specific spot.
Examples:
Typewriters are an out-of-date means of writing reports. (Breaking
hyphens)
9:30 -- 10:00 A.M. Registration (Dash)
717-697-8122 (Non-breaking hyphens)
39. The First Shall Be First
Try to list names with first name first. If the names are drawn from a database file,
both FIRST and LAST should have separate fields. Then they can be listed and
displayed properly but sorted by last name.
40. Teachers: We Teach Students
Use student and not child when referring to person(s) being taught or trained. A
child is a person of a specific age range. The word student does not imply a
particular age range. Anyone can be a student, including you and me. It is
inappropriate to refer to a 19-year-old as a child. Never use a disability as a noun or
adjective. Incorrect: the disabled students are..., the handicapped require.... The
preferred usage is students/persons with disabilities.
41. Watch Mixed Upper and Lower Case
The computer world is hung up on mixing upper and lower case in trade names.
LaserWriter
PageMaker
Church Workers Handbook --123-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
WordPerfect
When keying these terms and others like them, always preserve the upper/lower
case mix, even when the remainder of a heading is in solid caps. Where a registered
trademark is involved, the capitalization is part of that trademark.
Example of a headline:
PageMaker SUPPORT GROUP HOLDS WORKSHOP ON USING
LaserWriter.
Appendix A: Desktop
Publishing Glossary
Body and headings: as a general rule, a bold sans serif font (such as Arial or
Helvetica) is best for headings and titles, while a plain serif font (such as Times New
Roman) is better for body text. As of this writing, Time Magazine follows the general
model of bold sans serif font for headings and plain serif font for body.
Body: a paragraph or paragraphs under a heading.
Brochure: a handout that describes a process, product, or event.
Bullet: a short, descriptive statement; may be part of an outline; often started with
an eye-catching symbol.
Camera-ready original: a clean copy of a product which is ready for quantity
duplication; in desktop publishing, camera-ready originals are often created with a
laser/ink jet printer.
Carriage return: the symbol which marks the end of a paragraph.¶
Click art: graphic images which are available for instant use in a document.
Compose: the act of combining text and graphics to create a product ready for
publication.
Church Workers Handbook --124-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Desktop publishing: the use of a computer and a high-resolution printer to
produce camera-ready originals that will have a typeset appearance. The
production of an original may use one or more applications. Desktop publishing
may involve the use of page formatting software such as PageMaker. High-end word
processors (such as Microsoft Word and WordPerfect) include features that may be
used in many desktop publishing routines.
DPI: dots per square inch, the measure of the resolution of a printer.
Dummy: a rough layout of a document to give a general idea of the appearance of
the printed product.
Font: the ability of a computer and printer to create printed characters in a
specific style, such as Times New Roman, Arial or Helvetica A professional printer
may consider a font to be a typeface in a particular point size such as Times New
Roman 12 or Times New Roman 18.
Footer: information that appears at the bottom of every page in a section of a
manuscript. A footer may include an embedded page number. See "header".
Format: selecting the fonts, indenting, spacing, and other appearance features
that are appropriate for a specific document or segment of a document.
Graphics: the elements of a format that are not textual in nature; usually images,
borders, or frames.
Grayscale: in a black and white document, the percentage of a filled area that is
black as opposed to white; zero percent grayscale is white and 100 percent is black.
Percents between 0 and 100 are varying shades of gray.
Gutenberg: the inventor of movable type, in the 1500's. Before movable type, a
page of text was created by carving it out of a block of wood. Gutenberg is credited
with putting the printed page in the hands of the common people. The Holy Bible
was the first book printed with moveable type. Now, the desktop publishing
revolution, with microcomputers and high resolution printers, has put the
typesetting of the page in the hands of the people.
Gutter: space along the inside margins of a book's pages that allows for the
binding process. When the book is to be bound in an office with a process such as
spiral binding, the typical gutter is an extra half inch along both inside margins.
Church Workers Handbook --125-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Header: information that appears at the top of every page in a section of a
manuscript. A header may include an embedded page number. See "footer".
High-end, as in high-end word processor: applications that have advanced
features useful when creating camera-ready originals. Microsoft Word and
WordPerfect are considered high-end word processors.
•
Hung: a form of indenting a paragraph where the first line is not indented
and all remaining lines are indented an equal distance. Hung paragraphs are
often begun with a bullet and a tab stop. (See "bullet" .) If a typist attempts to
hang a paragraph manually by using the space bar, return, and tab keys, the
file will be damaged in a way which will make it impossible to make future
edits while maintaining the current font. [This paragraph is hung under a red
dot bullet.]
Imbedded page number: including a word processor's pagination command
in the text of the header or footer. With Macintosh and Windows word processors,
this is as simple as clicking the page number icon while the header/footer window is
open and the cursor is flashing.
Justification, full right: a block of text where all lines end at the same point
along the right margin, creating a straight line.
JPEG: Format for electronic publishing of photos. With Windows, the extension is
.jpg [.jpg pictures files travel very well in e-mail messages.]
Kerning: controlling the amount of horizontal space between letters of a word.
Keyboard shortcuts: using key combinations to give a command instead of
pulling down a menu with the mouse and selecting a command. The hand (with
fingers on the keyboard) is usually quicker than the mouse, after the keyboard
shortcuts have been memorized.
Layout: the combination of text and graphics to create a printable product.
Leading (ledding): the amount of vertical space between lines of type.
Margins: the space between the edge of the paper and the beginning of text or
graphics (top, bottom, left, right). For manuscripts which are to be bound into
books, the left/right margins will be known as inside and outside. The inside margin
Church Workers Handbook --126-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
will include a specified amount of space to accommodate the binding, known as a
gutter.
Original: a sheet that comes out of a printer, before it has been copied. Originals
should be used for duplication, instead of duplicating a copy of an original. When
you start making copies of copies instead of an original, the copies become
progressively unsightly. In cases where copies are used for duplication instead of
originals that come out of the printer, the resultant copies become gray with tiny
dots of ink. I always mark my originals with a yellow highlighter O and then file
them in a safe and remembered place.
Page breaks: the point at which the software starts another page. You can use a
hard page break command to start another page before the copy gets down to the
bottom margin. However, you cannot delay a page break past the bottom of the
page without making changes to the format. These formatting changes can include a
smaller font size, less leading/kerning, a margin change, or a more compact font.
Page formatting software: all high-end word processors can create cameraready originals of desktop publishing quality. However, page formatting software,
such as PageMaker for Macintosh and Windows, can offer more powerful options.
Paginate: putting numbers on the pages. All application used in desktop
publishing can number pages automatically. Therefore, it is unwise to manually
type page numbers at the point you assume a page will break. Future editing, such
as adding or deleting text, may cause the pages to break out of synch with the typed
page numbers.
Proportional spacing: the letter "i" takes up less horizontal space than the
letters "w" or "m" . In a non-proportional font, all characters are given the same
amount of horizontal space, giving the text a typewritten (amateurish look).
"Courier" is an example of a non-proportional font, while
"Times New Roman" is proportional.
Printer: the device that creates a camera-ready original from a document created
on a microcomputer with desktop publishing software. To be used in desktop
publishing, a printer needs two criteria: a resolution of at least 300 dpi (dots per
square inch), and the ability to print proportionally-spaced fonts. Laser/ink jet
printers can meet both these criteria. Dot matrix and daisy wheel printers cannot.
[Such printers are fast becoming obsolete.]
Church Workers Handbook --127-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Printer, Laser: This is the first choice for desktop publishing. Resolutions begin
at 300 dpi and speeds begin at about ten pages per minute.
Printer, Ink jet: This is the second choice for desktop publishing. Resolutions
begin at 300 dpi but speeds are as slow as one page or less per minute.
Printer, Daisy wheel: A device that receives information from a computer and
prints it on paper by using a circular printwheel containing a molded character for
each key on the keyboard. Such printers are often called "letter quality" because
the product is judged good enough to mail to someone. Daisy wheel printers are
comparatively slow and noisy as the printwheel pecks away at the paper. A daisy
wheel printer is generally considered to be unsuitable for desktop publishing
because of the limited choices of fonts and styles.
Printer, Dot matrix: A device that receives information from a computer and
prints it on paper by using a printhead containing stiff wires. Characters are formed
when a specific configuration of the wires strike the ribbon. The principle is similar
to the way numbers are displayed on a sports score board. A dot matrix printer is
generally considered to be unsuitable for desktop publishing because of the low
resolution of the printouts.
Resolution: degree to which a printer can create a typeset appearance in a
camera-ready original, measured in dots per square inch (dpi). The minimum
resolution for desktop publishing is considered to be 300 dpi.
Sans serif font: the term "serif" refers to the little ornamental tails on such
letters as Fs, Ts, and Ls. The term "sans" is Latin for without. Therefore, a sans
serif font is one without tails. Arial or Helvetica is a commonly used sans serif font.
Scaling: a proportional increase or decrease of the size of a graphic.
Scanner: an office machine which can "take a picture" of a printed page and turn
it into a computer word processor or graphic file. A scanner uses a process called
optical character recognition to create a word processor file from a printed page,
complete with automatic word wrap and tab stops. Scanners can also convert a
standard photograph into a digital JPEG [.jpg] file suitable for use in email and web
publishing applications.
Church Workers Handbook --128-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Serif font: A serif font has little "handles" on the characters that tend to make
them flow together, making blocks of text easier to read. Times New Roman is the
classic serif font.
Shade pattern: Many applications offer the option to fill a graphic area with a
wide variety of fill patterns.
Smart quotes: quotation marks which look like regular printed characters
instead of double apostrophes. Warning: the command used by a word processor to
create smart quotes may be translated as an odd character when a document is
saved as a text (ASCII) file for use over E-Mail; in such a case, the smart quotes
option should be turned off before a file is sent over E-Mail.
Spine: the bound edge of a book If text flows along the length of a spine, it must be
read when the book is lying face up. If both vertical and horizontal text are used on
the same spine, the respective text must read in both the bookshelf and the face-up
positions.
Typeset: an appearance that seems to have been created by setting type and
printing with a movable type press.
Typeface, or just face: the physical appearance of a set of characters, such as
Times New Roman or Arial or Helvetica. Desktop publishers tend to use "font"
instead of face.
Typestyle: a general enhancement for a typeface, such as: BOLD, ITALIC, or
OUTLINE. OUTLINE may be available on Macintosh computers but not on
Windows computers.
Word processor: a computer program which allows the typist to create pages of
electronic text which can be saved to disk as a computer file, and printed with a
printer on paper. Standard features of a basic word processor include the following:
automatic word wrap; block copy, move, and delete; global search and replace; spell
checking.
Word wrap: the process used by a word processor to automatically end a line of
text at the margin and start a new line. The typist never presses RETURN until it is
time to start a new paragraph. Failure to observe this rule may make it impossible
to make future edits while maintaining proper margins.
Church Workers Handbook --129-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
WYSIWYG: Desktop publishing acronym for What You See Is What You Get.
This means the printer prints the page as it appears on the screen. Pronounced
"WHIZZY-wig."
Church Workers Handbook --130-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Chapter 9: Using Mikes and
Using a Sound System
Church Workers Handbook -- What You Didn't Learn in
Bible College and Seminary
Warning: This chapter is not intended to replace the operating
instructions provided by your equipment manufacturer. This is merely
a general, quick-reference aid for administrative personnel or the
occasional user. This chapter should be reviewed by the sound person
(or committee) to assure that it is consistent with your church's
equipment and policies. If this material is outdated or incorrect
regarding the equipment your church is using, this chapter should yield
in every instance.
Table of Contents for This Chapter
Using Mikes for Speaking and Singing ........................................................................ 122
Using a Sound System .................................................................................................... 125
Sound Glossary ............................................................................................................... 129
Using Mikes for Speaking and Singing
If you are unfamiliar with the terms used in this
section, please review the Sound Glossary on Page
131 before going any further.
The microphone is the most frequently used audio device in the church -- and the
most frequently misused, also. Here are a few tips to help you avoid some of the
more common problems.
Church Workers Handbook --131-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Popping
The most common problem is acoustic popping. This is caused when a puff of air
from your mouth hits the diaphragm inside the mike. In normal speech, the initial
consonants B and P cause what speech clinicians call plosives. They cause a puff of
air to leave the mouth. The corrective action is simple: mike distance and angle. If
you hear a pop while speaking or singing, hold the mike a little farther from your
mouth, and slightly below your airstream. If you're at the pulpit, step back a half
step.
The result of a pop will be heard in the speaker as a dull thud.
Warning: The engineer in the sound booth cannot take corrective action if
there is popping. You must make the correction by changing the distance
and/or angle at the mike!
Distance
In general, a handheld mike should be no closer to your mouth than the width of
your closed fist up to the distance from the tip of your thumb to the tip of your little
finger, when your hand is spread.
Singing usually requires less amplification than speaking, so hold the mike a little
closer for speaking.
Angle
The tip of the mike should be a little below the airstream of your voice to help
prevent popping.
Appearance
A mike can detract from your appearance when held too close. If your mike
has a yellow windscreen, the view from the floor level where the congregation
is sitting [or the video camera] may make it look like you're eating a lemon
sherbet cone. If your church “broadcasts” speakers and singers up onto a
large screen, this paragraph on appearance is all the more important.
Distortion
In addition to popping, poor mike technique can cause distortion. This makes the
sound heavy and blurred. This cannot be corrected in the sound booth. The
Church Workers Handbook --132-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
engineer can only turn down the level, so the distorted sound won't be as loud.
However, the distortion will remain.
You've probably heard plenty of distortion at a restaurant that calls diners to their
available table over a handheld mike; same with fast food drive-up servers.
Mixing
When two or more people are singing together, all persons should keep about the
same distance between mouth and mike. The engineer can only balance volume
levels, but the chance of getting a blended sound is greater if the mike distances are
comparable.
Singing with a Sound Track
Here again, the engineer will be able to get a good balance between the voice and
track if there is no distortion, in addition to no popping. This is especially important
if the sound track includes one or more voice tracks as well as the accompaniment
track.
Presence
When the mike is held too close, it can change the illusion the audience has of the
relative presence of the singer and the track; the singer will seem very close with the
accompaniment farther away.
Making a Sound Check
You'll seldom get the luxury of making a sound check in a full house. However, you
should use performance volume and presence during your pre-service sound check
even though the church is practically empty. Don't use a tiny, timid voice during
your sound check if you plan to use a big, dramatic voice during the performance.
Engineers don't like those kinds of surprises; your audience won't, either.
Handle Your Mike with Kid Gloves
Some mikes are well insulated against external sound. Keep an ear tuned to
extraneous sound that you may cause by the way you handle your mike and act
accordingly. If your mike has an on/off switch, slide it, don't snap it. Your engineer
should have your level down while you're doing noisy things like taking the mike out
of the clip at the top of a stand. However, if you know the mike is hot (on), slightly
twist it counterclockwise while you take it off the stand.
Church Workers Handbook --133-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Is This Mike On?
Never blow into a mike to see if it's on. In addition to making an unpleasant sound,
the moisture from your breath isn't good for the mike. Without an audience, speak
into the mike using the same distance and volume you'll be using for an audience.
Include a couple plosives for this check, like the Peter Piper nursery rhyme. If an
audience is present, tap the tip of the mike gently or rub it with your fingertips.
Feedback!
That unpleasant howling and whistling sound is called "feedback." It happens when
sound travels from the speakers back into the mike from too short a distance.
Feedback is most likely to occur in a relatively small room while using a portable
sound system at a high volume level. To control feedback in such a situation, move a
little farther from the mike and stop speaking until the feedback subsides If the
feedback is violent and you're sure it's your mike, turn off your mike switch until
your level is reduced at the amp. You may also try to shield your mike from the
speakers with your body. If the mike is handheld, point it at a point in the room
where there are no speakers. A room with a low ceiling and speakers in the ceiling is
very prone to feedback.
Using a Sound System
If you are unfamiliar with the terms used in this section, please review the
Sound Glossary on Page 131 before going any further.
Color-Code Your System
Your mikes and amp/mixer controls can be marked with colored vinyl tape. I have
used this tape in the following colors: red, yellow, blue, green, tan, white, black. It is
especially important to tape-mark handheld and wireless mikes, and less important
to color-code pulpit and other fixed-mount mikes.
Special Singers
Instruct your regular special singers to use the same color mikes for the sound check
and for the performance. Suggestion: Each time a group sings, save the settings you
made during the pre-service sound check. These settings will be a good starting
point the next time this same group sings.
Church Workers Handbook --134-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Miking the piano
There are two schools of thought for miking a grand piano: under the piano below
the sounding board and above the strings. Ben Speer of the famous Speer family is
known throughout gospel music as an excellent sound man. When the Speers sang
at our church in the mid-70s while Ben was still traveling with the group, here's how
he miked the piano: under the piano with the mike pointing straight up at the
sounding board.
Ben Speer now works for Bill Gaither as his sound director, for taping
and on-stage presentations of the Homecoming music events.
Mike Hardware.
Always manipulate mike hardware by grasping the metal shell of the plug, not the
rubber collar or the cord. If your hardware is the professional 3-pin connector
format, it will be very reliable. However, there are four separate solder connections
inside each plug unit so some care is indicated.
To plug a mike into a jack, grasp the metal shell of the plug, match the three pins
with the three little holes, and push firmly until a distinct click is heard. To unplug,
depress the thumb latch with one hand and pull plug straight out with the other
hand. Do not twist. There will be a thumb latch on the wall jack and on the female
plug at the end of the mike cable.
If the regular mike cord is not long enough, the cord from another mike can he used
as an extension. Remove the cord from the second mike and connect the two cables.
Troubleshooting a Mike That Is Not Working
--Is the amp on?
--Is the mike switch on? UP is usually ON.
--Is the amp's mike channel turned to the proper level?
--Is the mike plugged into the right wall jack?
If you've made these checks with no results, try another mike
Church Workers Handbook --135-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Cassette Tapes [They are on their way to obsolescence but there
may still be a few around]
Always protect a tape you want to save by removing the safety tab from the back
edge of the cassette with a knife point. With the cassette flat on the table and the
tape-edge facing you, the tab on the left rear corner will protect the upper side (Side
A) of the cassette. With that tab removed it will be impossible to put the deck into
record mode and thereby erase a valuable recording. If you ever change your mind
and want to record on that tape again, just cover the tab-hole with a small piece of
tape and it's reusable.
Be sure your tape is on cue before the service begins. Do this by playing the tape
until you hear the first note of music. Stop the deck immediately, remove the
cassette, and use a pen barrel to rewind the tape by one revolution of the feed reel.
WARNING: Most cassettes have a non-recording leader of clear tape at the
beginning. Use your pen barrel to wind past this leader before starting your
recording.
Auxiliary Inputs and Outputs
You can use the following audio devices with your sound system by patching
between your AUX in or out and the other device's AUX in or out. This may be done
with these kinds of devices:
Tape deck
Visitor's mixer
VCR
Camcorder
CD Recorder
Take these precautions when patching these kinds of devices into
your amp:
Turn the power off on the both devices.
Make sure the input or output on the other device has one of the following labels:
[or a comparable term]
** AUX
Church Workers Handbook --136-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
** Line
** AV
** Tape
**Audio
**Record
Never patch an output marked SPEAKER to any of the
input labels shown above.
Make sure your amp's level is down for the channel you are using; then experiment
with gradually increasing the level.
Of course all experimentation of this type should be done before the service begins.
Duplicating Music and Sound Track Tapes
The copyright law forbids photocopying or duplicating any music unless it is in the
public domain and marked P.D. -- or you have the expressed permission of the
copyright owner. Music producers frown on copying sound track tapes and this
should not be done in any way that will pervert the sale of an original tape. Never
loan a copy of a sound track tape to another church or organization. Either loan the
original or do nothing.
Church Workers Handbook --137-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Sound Glossary
Airstream. The flow of air from your mouth to the mike while speaking or
singing.
Ambient sound. Background noise that gets mixed in with the target sounds. In
a recording of a sermon, for example, some ambient sound is desirable from the
house mike(s) to give a sense of resonance and reverberation, as in a large
auditorium. Too much ambient sound will make the recording seem mushy, hollow,
or booming. Headphones are required to discern the proper balance of ambient
sound and target sound. See Presence.
Amp, for amplifier. An electronic device that receives electronic signals from
mikes, tape decks, or mixers. The signals are mixed together, increased, and sent
over wires to speakers as amplified sound.
AUX [or line] inputs. The jacks on an amp, mixer, deck, or other audio device that
is receiving a line input from a similar audio device.
Boom. A rod-type device that attaches to the top of a mike stand and permits
horizontal as well as vertical positioning of a mike. Especially useful for persons who
sing while playing the piano.
Broadcast-quality. A recording that is appropriate for use on the air in terms
of such factors as levels, ambient sound, balance, and mixing. Apply the same
broadcast-quality standards for your duplication service.
Bulk Eraser. A special electromagnet with a momentary-on switch for erasing an
entire tape in just a few seconds. Should not be used close to tapes that are to be
saved. Tape decks have erase heads that erase previous recordings. The bulk eraser,
however, erases the whole tape instead of just the portion that is being recorded.
Cable. The wire that carries signals from one device to another.
Connector, 3-Pin. (Also known as a Cannon plug.) The hardware that enables
cables to be connected to mikes and amps. A 3-pin connector is generally used with
low impedance systems.
Church Workers Handbook --138-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Deck. The equipment for recording or playing back a cassette, CD, or reel tape. It
requires an external amp or earphones for hearing the sound since it does not have
a built in amplifier such as a "tape recorder".
Distortion. An unpleasant characteristic of sound that has been recorded or
amplified at above zero level, or with the mike held too close to the mouth. [The
sound in a restaurant when reservation availabilities are announced is often badly
distorted.]
Equalization (EQ) Enhancing the highs (treble) and lows (bass) to give the
overall sound the most pleasing effect.
Warning: There is a fine line between crisp and shrill when
you advance the highs, so be careful. If you think you may
have crossed over into shrill, get a second opinion from a
person that is at last fifteen years older than you.
Feedback. Squealing, howling, or ringing sounds from the speakers caused by the
sound cycling through the mikes and speakers when the mike levels are too high
and/or the mikes are too close to the speakers. Feedback is less common with low
impedance mikes.
Female. Audio jacks that receive male plugs. This distinction is similar to that
used in the plumbing industry.
Flat. A mid-range equalization adjustment that emphasizes neither highs nor lows.
Hot. A mike that is on and working; a mike with the level too high.
High Impedance. (High-Z) A mike system that uses 2-wire cable, is limited to
relatively short cable runs from amp to mike, and that is subject to feedback
problems. High impedance equipment is usually cheaper than low impedance.
House Mikes. The mikes that are used to record/amplify the overall sound in the
room in addition to a particular speaker or singer. House mikes are usually
mounted high in the room and not directed at any particular sound source. With a
portable system in a room with a high ceiling, put the house mike(s) on a mike stand
that is extended to its maximum; point the mike straight up at the ceiling.
Church Workers Handbook --139-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
When recording and/or broadcasting a worship service, advance the level of the
house mikes a little so a small amount of reverb and audience can enhance the
overall quality of the audio. The engineer must wear headphones to discern the
proper amount of reverb. In the case of applause or other general audience reaction,
be more generous with the level of the house mikes.
House. This is a general term that refers to the room in which the sound system is
located.
Jack. The hole into which a plug is inserted. A chassis-mount jack is permanently
fastened to a piece of audio equipment. A wall-mount jack is fastened to the wall,
usually with a face plate. An in-line jack, also known as a female plug, is part of a
cable assembly.
Level. The sensitivity of a mike to sound, as controlled by a volume control;
another term for volume.
Line Input, Output. The circuits of a tape deck that receive audio signals from
another audio device and that send signals to another audio device. LINE IN is for
recording. LINE OUT is for playing back. Tapes may be duplicated by patching:
From LINE OUT of the playback deck or amplifier to LINE IN of the recording
deck. Such a recording may be made in a noisy room since no mikes are involved.
Also known as "direct recording."
Line Matching Transformer. Converts a low impedance mike signal to a
high impedance signal; will have a 3-pin connector at one end and a quarter-inch
phone plug at the other. Fits on the end of the mike cord and plugs into the high
impedance mike jack of your audio device. Should cost about $10 at your mall radio
supply store.
Low Impedance (Low-Z). Opposite of High Impedance. Less feedback,
longer cable runs, requires 3-conductor shielded cable and 3-pin connectors.
Male. Audio hardware items that are plugged into jacks or female plugs. See
''female''.
Mike (or Mic) for microphone. The device that captures sound and feeds it into an
amp, mixer, deck, or other audio device.
Church Workers Handbook --140-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Mike inputs. The jacks on an amp, mixer, deck, or other audio device that is
receiving sound. Many mike inputs are switchable between mike and line. In the line
position, such an input can receive a line (but not amplified) signal from an amp,
mixer, deck, or other audio device. If a line input is sent into a mike input in the
mike [rather than line or AUX] position, the probable result will be distortion.
Mixer. An electronic device that mixes the audio from several (at least 4) mikes
and 1 or 2 auxiliary sources before sending it to a main amp. A mixer has the same
level output as a tape deck and cannot drive speakers. A mixer may have a mike
level output to permit it to be daisy-chained with other mixers.
Mixing. Blending sounds from multiple sources and of multiple types to achieve a
pleasant overall sound. Effective mixing may require some music knowledge or
appreciation as well as electronic capability. Headphones are required.
On Cue. The process of setting up a tape or CD track so it will begin to play when
turned on with a minimum of dead air. The term is also used in radio to signify the
position of the pot that switches the input to an auxiliary cue amp. The "on cue,
position is one notch lower than the lowest point on the dial. In radio, two turntables
or CD players with cueing capability will permit a DJ to play music nonstop. While
one selection is playing, the other is being cued through the auxiliary cue
amp/speaker. They are then alternated in that manner. To cue a tape or record,
play it until you hear the first note of music, stop immediately, and back up past
that first note. The distance between the cue point and the first note must permit the
deck or turntable to achieve normal playing speed without wowing (off-speed
distortion) the first note.
CDs are easiest to cue by following this process:
1. Make sure you have the proper selection and note the track number.
2. Place the CD player on PAUSE
3. Press PLAY
Patch Cord. A relatively short cable with connectors at both ends. The patch
cord connects two audio devices, such as a deck and an amp, or two decks.
CAUTION: Audio plug hardware is not standardized. A church system may use
several different formats. Make sure the plug on the end of your patch cord matches
the jack on the audio device.
Plug. The hardware on the end of a mike cable or patch cord that is inserted into a
jack.
Church Workers Handbook --141-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Pop. A form of unpleasant audio distortion that is caused by excessive breath
sounds entering the mike during speaking or singing. The initial consonants B and P
are called plosives and are known for causing pops. Popping can be reduced by
keeping the mike below the breath stream (slightly below the chin) and/or moving
the mike farther from the mouth. Some people, because of the characteristics of
their speech, are very prone to popping and must take special precautions.
Pot, for potentiometer. Originally, a rotary-type volume control knob on a radio
control board or other audio device. In radio jargon, pot now means the slide-type
control units found on current equipment. Slide pots are more practical because
they permit instant visual scanning of the relative position of each pot.
Presence. The sense of how close the sound source is to the mike. If you're
recording speech, such as a sermon, the combination of mike distance and level
setting should give a close-up presence. If the mike is too far from the speaker, there
will be too much ambient sound mixed in with the speech to have a good sense of
presence. When making a recording for a tape ministry or radio broadcast, the ideal
setting is a mix of close presence and ambient sound to give a sense of realism.
Headphones are required to get a good mix. See Ambient sound.
Quarter-Inch Phone Plug/Jack. Also called a banana plug. The standard
hardware item on headphones.
RCA Phono Plug/Jack. The basic hardware item for connecting stereo
components and speakers. The jacks on the back plates of tape decks are usually
RCA phono jacks.
Sound Check. This is a simple process of making sure the mike levels are set
properly before the service/performance begins.
Speaker. The audio device that receives amplified signals from the amp and
produces sound. The mike is never referred to as a "speaker".
Track. A selection on a CD; a prerecorded sound track; an individual sound
source on such a sound track.
VU meter. A dial-face meter that measures the input to or output from an audio
device or channel in volume units, Distortion may be a problem if the needle rides in
the red area above zero level. Current devices tend to be equipped with LED (lightemitting diode) meters instead of the dial-face style. These meters display a sliding
Church Workers Handbook --142-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
bar of light instead of a moving needle. In stereo equipment, each channel has a
meter.
Windscreen. An external or internal guard over the end of a mike for reducing
popping or wind noise.
Zero Level. +/- 0 decibels on the VU meter or the LED level display.
Church Workers Handbook --143-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Chapter 10: Guidelines for
Making Broadcast-Quality
Tape Recordings of Your
Worship Services
Or Putting Your Service on the Air Live
Plus Introduction to: How to Broadcast Your Church Service on the Internet
Non-technical tips and guidelines on how to make a broadcast-quality
tape recording, ministry tapes, or broadcast your service live
Church Workers Handbook -- What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and
Seminary
Warning: This chapter is not intended to replace the operating
instructions provided by your equipment manufacturers. This chapter
should be reviewed by the sound person (or committee) to assure that it is
consistent with your church's equipment and policies. If this material is
out-dated or incorrect regarding the equipment your church is using, this
chapter should yield in every instance.
Table of Contents for This Chapter
Introduction .................................................................................................................... 135
Terms and Procedures .................................................................................................. 135
Minimum Hardware Requirements ............................................................................. 135
On the Air Rules ............................................................................................................ 136
Recording Engineer ...................................................................................................... 137
Making the Right Connections ..................................................................................... 137
Setting Up House Mikes for Ambient Sound ............................................................. 138
"On the Air" Procedures ............................................................................................. 138
Starting and Stopping the Tape ................................................................................... 139
Congregational Singing and the Worship Leader ..................................................... 140
Piano ................................................................................................................................ 141
House Mikes ................................................................................................................... 141
Smooth Cross-Fading And Level Adjustments ........................................................... 141
Church Workers Handbook --144-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Keep Your Heads Clean ............................................................................................... 142
Opening and Closing Announcement with Legal ID ................................................. 141
Selecting the Tape ......................................................................................................... 142
Making Your Tape Fit The Available Time Slot ....................................................... 142
Audition Your Own Broadcast .................................................................................... 143
Introduction
These guidelines will help you make a broadcast-quality tape recording
or live broadcast for use on your local radio station. They will also help
you make a quality master when duplicating CDs or cassettes for your
tape ministry. Of course, you can broadcast your service live by letting
the radio station run a phone line into your house sound system. That
connection may be adequate for preaching but will not be satisfactory
for congregational singing.
Commitment and effort are required to make broadcast-quality recordings for
either broadcasting or sending out your CDs or tapes in a tape ministry. If you are
going to charge people for the product you make, you are also responsible for
exercising good Christian stewardship. You should do all you can to make the
quality of your recordings as high as possible.
More about quality later.
Terms and Procedures
If you are not familiar with certain terms and procedures used in this chapter,
please consult Chapter 8: Using Mikes and Using a Sound System. Chapter 8 includes
an extensive Glossary of terms at the end of the chapter.
Minimum Hardware Requirements
You may be surprised at how economical it will be to start a radio ministry. You will
need at least the following items to put a recorded or live worship service on the air, or
to make quality master recordings for your tape ministry.
1. A free-standing CD Recorder. [Not a CD burner that requires a computer.]
Such a device should cost under $300 and will enable you to record up to 80
minutes onto a standard CD with excellent fidelity. Caution: Such a recorder
uses Music CD-R recording blanks, not to be confused with CD blanks to be
used in a computer CD burner. Two-tray models will enable you to duplicate
CDs, also. All radio stations will be able to play your CDs.
Church Workers Handbook --145-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
2. Or, a high-fidelity stereo cassette deck, a DAT (digital audio tape) deck. Of
course the DAT deck will give you the best results with CD-quality sound.
However, not all radio stations are equipped to play back DAT tapes. Look
before you leap, into DAT equipment. This item may not be essential for a live
broadcast.
3. A mixing board for mixing the output of your house sound system with at
least two house mikes and one piano mike. I have a small recording studio in
my home so I bought a 5-channel Realistic mixer (three mike channels, one
Tape channel, and one AUX channel) for about $100 at our local mall Radio
Shack. Avoid battery-powered mixers; get one that plugs into an AC outlet.
4. High-speed Tape or CD Duplicator. [Not needed unless you have a tape
ministry.] If you are able to make a stereo master recording, make sure you
duplicate your copies in stereo, also.
On the Air Rules
The fact you are "on the air" should never interfere with the way the Holy Spirit
works in your worship. However, you can use some common sense rules to make
your service sound better:
1. All speaking should be done at a microphone. Even though the live
congregation may be able hear off-mike speaking, the radio congregation may
not be able to hear at all or may hear hollow or barrel-like sound.
2. All music and special activities should be announced. People who attend can
follow the order of service in the bulletin, but members of your radio audience
may have no idea what is happening without verbal announcements.
3. All participants should start to speak/sing within seconds after their activity is
announced. If the activity is music, the accompaniment should start
immediately after the announcement. To avoid dead aid between the
announcement and the start of the activity, have all participant sit within a
short walk of the mike they will be using, and/or start moving to the mike in
time to arrive there seconds after the announcement has been made. This rule
is more important for radio than for TV. With TV, the audience can see
pending action.
4. If you are taping the service, the pastor and other persons on the platform
should know when the tape is rolling and you are "on the air." At one church
I worked at, I placed a large clock on the side wall with a small red light
beneath it. Both clock and light were wired to a switch beneath my counter in
the sound room. Before the service started, I set the clock for 1:30 P.M., the
time the service was broadcast When I stopped the tape for the
Church Workers Handbook --146-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
announcements or any other reason, I flipped that switch; the clock stopped
and the red light went off. When I started the tape again, I flipped the switch
on.
Recording Engineer
You will need a full-time "recording engineer" any time you are making a quality
recording or broadcasting live. This is a full-time job while you are "on the air" and
can't be done while you are running the house sound system, also. Such a recording
engineer should have experience mixing sound or should be trained by someone who
has sound mixing or broadcast experience.
Your recording engineer needs to wear headphones and watch the levels of all
inputs at all times. Your church may have been sending out tapes for years without
a recording engineer watching the levels while a recording is being made. Now is the
time to change all that.
Making the Right Connections
Run patch cords among your house sound system, your mixer, and your recording
CD/tape deck. Most likely, these audio devices will have RCA phono jacks on their
input/output panels. If they do, you can use the garden variety audio cables which
come with audio devices. If there is a combination of types of audio hardware on the
jack panels, you may need to buy patch cords with the right male/female hardware
at each end.
Run patch cords as follows:
From House Sound System Line Out
To Mixer AUX In
From Mixer Line Out
To Record CD/Tape Deck Line In
or To the radio station for a live broadcast.
If you can get a second Line Out signal from the cassette deck which plays your
sound tracks, run a patch cord-From Sound Track CD/cassette deck Tape Out
Church Workers Handbook --147-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
To Mixer Tape In
By having independent control of the sound track, you can achieve a better balance
between the track and the voices during special singing.
Patching in a Guest Sound System
Your guest singers may have a mixer or sound system they prefer to use. Such a
patch may be made directly to your house sound system or to your radio mixer.
Even though your guests plan to use their own amplification, your recorded sound
will have broadcast quality if you patch as follows:
From: Guest Sound AUX, LINE, or TAPE OUT
To: Mixer Tape In
Caution: When you use the Tape channel to receive AUX, Line, or Tape
signals, make sure the mixer for this channel is switched to Tape and
not Phono.
Note: The input/output jacks on these audio devices may be labeled AUX, Line, or
Tape. As a general rule, these terms mean the same thing as far as audio device
compatibility is concerned.
Setting Up House Mikes for Ambient Sound
If you want a stereo effect for ambient audience sound, you'll need one mike for the
left channel and one for the right. Mount them as high as you can and as far apart
as is practical. Set the pan pots on a stereo mixer to send the sound on the left side of
the house to the left channel and vice verse.
Don't count on the pulpit or choir mikes to provide a good level of ambient sound
with nice overtones of reverberation and resonance. Without mixing in the ambient
sound of house mikes, the song service will likely sound like a concert by the
worship leader, instead of a round, full sound of hundreds of people singing. To
achieve this effect, you will need a mix ratio of about 10% worship leader and 90%
house mikes. More on this later on.
"On the Air" Procedures
Author's note: I originally wrote these procedures for recording the 8:30
Sunday morning worship for broadcast Sunday afternoons 3:30-5:00 P.M.
Church Workers Handbook --148-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Our sound booth at that time was equipped with a 16-channel mixer for
recording purposes only, in addition to the house sound board. The
recording mixer has separate channels for pulpit mike, piano, organ, choir
loft (4), orchestra, special singers, cassette sound tracks, CD sound tracks,
and so forth. You may not have this flexibility, or your facilities may be
much better. Therefore, I have adapted these procedures to the 5-channel
$100 mixer I described above. If you are able to run a separate mike to the
piano and jack that into mixer channel 3, you will have a little more
flexibility.
Starting and Stopping the Tape
If you are recording with a CD Recorder instead of tape deck, replace each
reference to tape with CD.
Setup. The first time you start the tape/CD for a particular service, have the deck in
record mode with the pause button engaged, and have the mixer's master volume all
the way down. Press the Counter Reset button.
Starting the Tape/CD:
1. Release PAUSE.
2. With tape/CD rolling, increase the master volume to normal
broadcast level. For the first start in the program, this master volume
increase may be gradual. After a short stop for a break in the service,
the increase should be rather swift.
3. Start the clock.
Making a brief stop in the tape/CD:
1. Swiftly move the mixer's master volume to OFF.
2. Press PAUSE.
3. Stop the clock.
Restarting tape/CD after a brief stop:
1. Release PAUSE.
2. Swiftly increase the mixer's master volume to broadcast level.
Church Workers Handbook --149-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
3. Start the clock.
Always follow this sequence each time you start/stop the tape/CD. This procedure
will make it less likely that anyone will notice a break in the action, especially if you
increase/decrease the mixer's master volume smoothly but swiftly.
Wearing Headphones
Headphones should be worn at all times it is necessary to mix and balance sound. It
is impossible to mix sound effectively by watching meters only, or listening to house
sound.
Watching Meters
Volume level meters should be kept near 0 level at all times. If two recording devices
are being used, such as a reel deck and a CD deck, it would be ideal to use a test
tone to set the record volume of both at 0 level. It is better to have meters peaking at
+0 occasionally, than to have them consistently at -0 level.
Congregational Singing and the Worship Leader
Special note: All references to ON and OFF relate to the recording level
volume control. On means level up to correct level for this part of the
service. OFF means level all the way down.
After the song has been announced and as the pianist/organist plays the
introduction to the song, cross fade the pulpit [AUX] all the way down and both left
and right house mikes up to 0 level. The only sound of the worship leader's voice
should be what is picked up by the radio house mikes from sanctuary house
speakers. The Pulpit mike [AUX] should be OFF (volume all the way down) before
the congregation begins to sing.
Exception: if the worship leader is teaching a new chorus, perhaps as a
solo at first, leave the pulpit mike [AUX] up as the chorus begins. As the
congregation picks up the song, gradually increase the house mikes
volume and decrease the pulpit mike [AUX], until the pulpit mike
[AUX] is off.
Important Note: You will not have a broadcast-quality recording
if you have the worship leader singing at full volume during the
congregational singing. As a general rule, the pulpit mike [AUX]
should be OFF when the congregation is singing. Mix in sound
from the house mikes in lieu of the worship leader singing from
Church Workers Handbook --150-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
the pulpit. Otherwise, your recording will feature a solo by the
worship leader during the congregational singing. That may be
good or bad, depending on who your worship leader is. [If I'm
your worship leader, it would be bad!]
Smooth Cross-Fading and Level Adjustments
All changes in levels should be made smoothly with no audible seam in the source of
sound. For example, after the worship leader has announced a song, the scenario
should be something like this: Keep pulpit [AUX] at same level while bringing up
house mikes from -30 to +/-0 to pick up congregational singing. Then, turn pulpit
mike [AUX] off smoothly but quickly. By the time the worship leader sings the first
note, the pulpit mike [AUX] should be completely off, with house mikes carrying the
bulk of recorded sound.
Piano
Keep level of piano up to about -15 during congregational singing. The headphones
play a critical role in setting the piano level. The level should be high enough to hear
the sound of the piano tinkling in the background but not loud enough to draw
attention to the piano sound.
House Mikes
The house mikes play a critical role in giving the recording a live, stereo effect. This
is true even during special music and the preaching. With the house mikes set at low
levels (but not OFF), your recording will tend to have a natural resonance and
reverberation.
The following house mike levels are baselines and should be modified by what you
hear in the headphones:
Congregational singing -- +0
Special music -- -25
Applause, laughter, greetings among worshippers -- +0
Sermon, prayer -- -30
Opening and Closing Announcement with Legal ID
Church Workers Handbook --151-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Work with your radio station to make an announcement to be recorded. This
announcement can be worded to be appropriate for play at the beginning, middle
and end of your broadcast.
The FCC prefers that stations give a legal identification within 2 minutes of the top
of the hour. A legal ID consists of the call letters plus the station location, with
nothing between. It would be a good idea to include a legal ID in your
announcement. Here are some examples of legal and non-legal IDs:
Legals: [Nothing separating the call letters and the location of the
station.]
This is WJJR Mifflinburg
This is the voice of Eastern Pilgrim College at 96.7 on your FM Stereo
dial: WABI-FM Allentown
Non-legals:
This is WVMM at 90.7 on the dial, Grantham-Harrisburg
You're listening to WVMM, coming to you from the campus of Messiah
College, Grantham-Harrisburg.
Selecting the Tape
Use quality tape. Cheap tape may sound cheap on the air. If you're taping a service
which has to fit into a 60-minute time slot, it would be ideal to have a cassette which
runs for 60 minutes non-stop. However, such cassette tape is too thin to be reliable.
For broadcast work, use a C-90 cassette which runs 45 minute on each side. If your
deck is auto-reverse in the record mode, it can be set to reverse and keep right on
recording till the end of the 90 minutes.
Keep Your Heads Clean
A tape deck's record and playback heads pick up a film of oxide from the passage of
the tape after extended use. This accumulation can make your recordings sound dull
and mushy. How often do you clean heads? I clean the heads of each tape deck I use
once a week, whether they need it or not. You can use a cotton swab and a headcleaning solution to clean the heads. Or, you can buy a head-cleaning cassette at
your mall Radio Shack for about $5. I use one with three pads that you moisten with
cleaning fluid: an oscillating pad in the center for the heads and one on either side
for the capstans. You'll be surprised at how quickly these pads turn brown from the
Church Workers Handbook --152-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
accumulation of tape oxide. This cleaner is ideal for auto-reverse tape decks and it's
essential for cleaning the heads in your car's cassette deck.
Making Your Tape/CD Fit the Available Time Slot
You can get your tape/CD to fit into a specific time slot by using a stop watch to
keep track of elapsed time. Let's say a service runs 80 minutes from the beginning of
the song service until the end of the pastor's altar invitation. Your pastor has told
you he wants the altar invitation to be included in the broadcast. Before the tape is
put on the air, cue it to a point 20 minutes into the service. This point may be after
the congregational singing but before the worship choruses-- and the altar invitation
will be included. If you are able to stop the tape for the announcements or any other
segments of the service deemed less essential, you will be able to use that much more
of the congregational singing.
Audition Your Own Broadcast.
Always make a cassette recording of your service on the air. This will give you a
chance to hear yourself as other hear you and make necessary corrective actions.
If you are archiving your services for later listening on the Internet, spot check these
archives to assure that your recordings are consistently achieving the standard of
broadcast quality.
G. Edwin Lint
Please note: The hypertext e-mail link above is hot [active] when you are connected
to the Internet through your ISP. The same will be true of all hypertext links
through the text of this ebook.
Church Workers Handbook --153-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Chapter 11: Church Publicity
and Public Awareness
Getting the most out of p`rint and broadcast
media with little or no expense.
Church Workers Handbook
What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
Overview
Contents of This Chapter
Get a Web Page on the World Wide Web Of the Internet ........................... 145
Public Service Announcements ................................................................... 146
Writing PSAs .................................................................................................. 147
Getting Your PSA on the Air. ........................................................................ 148
Typing your PSA and sending it to stations. ............................................... 149
Recruiting talent to record your PSA on a cart. .......................................... 149
Commercial Announcements (Spots) .......................................................... 149
News Releases ............................................................................................... 149
Talk Shows ...................................................................................................... 150
Newspapers .................................................................................................... 150
News Releases ............................................................................................... 150
Display Ads ..................................................................................................... 150
Brochures and Handouts ............................................................................... 150
Glossary Of Terms Related To Publicity and Public Awareness ............... 151
Church Workers Handbook --154-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Church Publicity and Public Awareness
Your church may have many activities that you do not consider special enough to
warrant a one-paragraph news release or public service announcement [PSA] .
Remember that each time your church's name appears in print or on the air, you
are building a sense of name recognition in the minds of prospective worshippers.
Therefore, it will be to your advantage to develop an action plan for developing and
maintaining a program for Church Publicity And Public Awareness.
Consider these steps:
•
•
•
Select a public relations coordinator. Give this person responsibility for
coordinating all publicity and public awareness activities for the entire church
family.
Select a public relations contact person in each program of the church.
Use these guides and other similar materials to assure that all public relations
workers have the necessary skills to make sure that your community is fully
aware of all worship and special activities conducted by your church.
Options To Consider
There are several options you can use to provide information to your community,
including:
Web Page on the Internet
Radio and Television Stations
Newspapers
Brochures and Posters
The pages that follow give descriptions of these options.
Church Workers Handbook --155-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Get a Web Page on the World Wide Web of the
Internet
As more and more people get home computers and have access to the Internet,
having a Web Page will be an option capable or reaching more and more people.
However, a local congregation should consider the type and number of people this
investment of time, money, and energy will reach.
The fact that you are reading this from a web site shows you're aware of how to
access information on the net. You may be less well informed on how to get
information onto the web. You will find a full chapter in the Church Workers
Handbook titled Chapter 12: How to Publish on the Web. Although this chapter
focuses on the Dreamweaver software program, the same basic principles apply for
the html generators produced by Microsoft, Claris, Adobe, and others.
Options to consider. There are several ways to get a page on the web. All of these
options require you to consider the following:
•
•
•
Communication: Remember that your primary purpose is to use the
Internet to communicate information about your church, not make a big
splash with lots of eye candy.
Brevity: This isn't the best place for a sermon, just as you wouldn't print a
sermon in the Saturday night newspaper display ad.
Accuracy: Make sure your e-mail link and any links to other sites are
working properly. Test them weekly, and every time a change is made to your
web page.
Option 1: Use a free church web page service like Churches dot Net A basis
template is used for all churches. You fill in the blanks from a standard form on
line. Before you fill in one of these forms, look at several of the entries and see how
the information on the form will translate onto your proposed new web page.
Option 2: Use someone from your church to create a page for you. A local
business may even let you ride on their server at no cost to you.
Option 3: Hire someone or a company to do a web page for you. This will cost
some money. However, more [in terms of animated graphics and frames] may not be
better. Remember the warnings about brevity and the primary role of
communication above.
Church Workers Handbook --156-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Promote your site: No matter how you create your web page, you need to promote
its URL. Click the link at the begging of this paragraph for an article I've written on
this topic.
Radio and Television Stations
Public Service Announcements [PSAs]
A major section of these guidelines is devoted to PSAs. They appear to offer the best
return on your investment of time and money.
Public Service Announcements, or PSAs as they're known by broadcasters, can be
an inexpensive but effective way of telling people about your worship services.
Although the FCC requires stations to run a minimum number of these free PSAs,
and show this on their program logs, the traffic managers and on-air personnel may
not give PSAs the same priority as commercial spots.
Stations in larger urban markets may be less inclined to run PSAs above the
minimum daily number than stations in smaller, more rural markets. On the other
hand, a nonprofit station may be more inclined to give nonprofit entities, such as
churches, more consideration for running PSAs than would a commercial station.
Nonprofit stations may have more time on their program logs for PSAs because they
are not running commercial announcements [spots]. In fact, they may be looking for
quality PSAs to use as fill.
Broadcast stations run by the clock. If a scheduled program runs shorter than
expected, a PSA may be used for fill. However, spots have a higher priority than
PSAs. If the program log calls for a 60-second spot at a specific time, that spot will
be run as scheduled because money is involved. On the other hand, a 10-second PSA
may serve as fill, and be sandwiched in between a time check and a station break.
The issue here is federal compliance vs. profit margin.
Writing PSAs
The first sentence in a PSA is the most important and must contain all the critical
information. If a DJ or VJ needs a quick 10-second fill, he/she may grab your copy
and just read the first sentence on the air. If that happens, you want that first
sentence to carry maximum punch.
Church Workers Handbook --157-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Warning: Be careful about mailing publicity copy provided by a
music group or an evangelist without a rewrite. Use your guest's copy as
a resource as you write the PSA according to these guidelines. I have
seen very few publicity announcements that follow the guides
established in this section. Too many times, the person who writes the
copy tries to make a statement of writing skills, or tries to glorify the
subject of the copy.
A good rule to follow when writing PSA copy is to make that first sentence provide
the basic information in the following order: who, what, when, where.
Who: Deciding on the who may be the most important part of the job. As a general
rule, name the singers or speaker and let that be the who: The Gospel SpotLights.
The Who is seldom your church or sponsoring agency.
What: The what tells about what is happening: will be in concert ... or, will be
singing in special services ...
When: This is a simple statement of day and time: this Friday, March 15, at 7:30
P.M. ...
Where: Here's where you mention your church or agency. A simple statement of
location: at the Bethany Community Church, just off routes 11 and 15 in Liverpool.
The complete first sentence of this example PSA now reads:
The Gospel SpotLights will be in concert this Friday, March 15, at 7:30
P.M. at the Bethany Community Church, just off routes 11 and 15 in
Liverpool.
If only one sentence gets on the air, this is the kind of critical
information you want people to hear.
In the second sentence, you can include such information as "a freewill offering will
be received and everyone is welcome" and "a supervised nursery is provided for
infants and toddlers up to 18 months." Save the hype about how wonderful your
guests are and all the wonderful things they have done for the second and following
paragraphs.
Church Workers Handbook --158-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Getting Your PSA on the Air.
Try to get personally acquainted with the personnel at your local station. Key people
will include:
•
•
•
The General Manager, who is in charge of the overall operation of the station.
The Program Director, who makes sure that every hour of the broadcast day
is filled with programming.
The Traffic Manager, who schedules the appearance of program segments,
spots, and PSAs on the program log.
If the station is large and you don't have easy access to the general manager or
program manager, make a special point to become acquainted with the traffic
manager. Ask the following questions about PSAs at this particular station:
1. What is the preferred length? Standard lengths are 60, 30, and 10
seconds.
2. Do you prefer written or recorded PSAs?
3. If the preference is written, what is the preferred format?
4. If a station's preference is for recorded PSAs, is your station's talent
willing to record PSAs from copy we provide? Will your station record
PSAs using copy we provide and talent we recruit or provide?
Typing your PSA and sending it to stations.
Make a mailing list of radio and TV stations in your service area and do not omit
cable companies. They often offer video bulletin boards that scroll continuously. If
you don't know the specific preferences regarding format, type your copy in double
space and give a contact person who will be available to provide more information.
WARNING: Avoid making copies of copies. After the second or
third generation, the copies begin to get muddy, spotted, speckled, and
unsuitable for public distribution.
Save your originals in a safe place and use nothing but the originals to create
additional copies.
Church Workers Handbook --159-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Recruiting talent to record your PSA
First, ask the station to record your PSA using a familiar DJ. Or, if you or someone
you know has radio announcing experience, or professional recording experience,
try to make arrangements with the station to have such a person go in and make a
recording.
Avoid asking someone without announcing or recording experience to make a PSA
unless they are a known person in some realm. Amateur recording artists are a
turnoff, even though they may be articulate and well-spoken in real life. The mike
seems to bring out the worst in amateurs.
Commercial Announcements (Spots)
While broadcast stations are required by the FCC to air a certain number of PSAs
in a broadcast day, they are not required to give your particular agency any specific
degree of exposure. If you want something specific said a specific number of times
and in a particular way, you may have to pay for it by buying some spots. Spots are
often sold in package deals. For example, you may be able to buy 20 thirty-second
spots in a five day period. Be sure your contract specifies the times your spots will
be scheduled. If you want them aired in drive time, your contract should say so.
News Releases for broadcast
Local stations are always looking for local news. Write up a news release and send it
to the stations in your area, using the same mailing list you use for sending out
PSAs. You may get an interview, or even an on-location TV news team if the station
sees your activity as having news value. If you don't get a response on your first
mailing, keep trying. Remember, you are competing with a variable over which you
have no control: the news the rest of your community is creating that day. Keep
trying, and you may be successful, on what stations call a slow news day.
Talk Shows
Never pass up a chance to appear on a talk show. If you don't feel comfortable in
front of a mike or camera, find someone in your church who does. Talk show
producers are always looking for new material. What you have to say may be of
more substance than what is often heard on talk shows.
Church Workers Handbook --160-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Newspapers
Newspapers offer two means of getting your word out: news releases and display
ads.
News Releases for publication News items are free, but subject to the
editor's perception of whether what you are doing is newsworthy. Develop a
mailing list of newspapers in your area and send each paper a news release
each time you have an event. As a general rule, write the first paragraph of
your news release like a broadcast PSA. In later paragraphs, amplify with
additional detail.
Display Ads This is a sure way of getting your information in front of the
public, but the cost can be high for high circulation papers. Ad rates are
calculated on the basis of the column inch, which is one column wide and one
inch deep (long).
Shopping Guides
Don't pass up the give-away shopping guides when considering newspapers for news
releases, display ads, and classified ads. These papers may be more inclined to run
your news release, and the ad rates may be lower than conventional newspapers.
Brochures and Handouts
Print materials that have been printed on 60-pound glossy enamel paper in four
colors can be very impressive. However, this kind of expenditure may not be the
best investment of your public awareness dollars. Your standard of quality should
be subdued elegance. This means neat and impressive, not sloppy.
Posters can be put up on public bulletin boards, at super markets and malls. Keep
the information minimal and keep the font size at 18 points or larger. Be just as
diligent at taking down posters after an activity as you are at tacking them up. Stale
posters in public places can be counter productive in terms of creating good will.
Some copy shops offer an enlargement service for camera-ready copy. Shops with
such a service will blow up a letter size original to poster size, which you may find
suitable for posting on super market bulletin boards.
Church Workers Handbook --161-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Glossary of Terms Related To Publicity and
Public Awareness
Camera-ready -- A term that describes a page of text that is ready to go to the
printer for duplicating.
Cart -- Public service announcements (PSAs) and commercial announcements
(spots) used to be recorded on tape cartridges for easy access. A radio cart (for
continuous-loop cartridge) is the size, shape and design of an old-fashioned 8-track
stereo tape cartridge. Video carts are similar to VHS tapes. Modern radio stations
probably record PSAs on audio CDs.
Click art -- Assortments of computer images that can be imported into a word
processor or desktop publishing document with the click of mouse.
Copy -- This is the script that is read when an announcer records a PSA or spot.
Desktop publishing -- Microcomputers equipped with certain software can
give the appearance of the printed page to a product done in an office or home. For
more information, see Basics of Desktop Publishing, in this booklet. Software that
can create columns of text in proportional spacing, and, a printer that can print at a
resolution of at least 300 dots per square inch, are needed to give your product the
appearance of being published by a commercial printer.
DPI -- Dots per (square) inch, the measurement of the resolution of a laser or inkjet printer.
Drive Time -- The periods of the day commuters are in their cars on the way to
and from work or school, presumably listening to the radio. Commercial radio
stations are not likely to log more then the minimum number of PSAs during drive
time.
Fill -- Stations run by the clock and fill (such as PSAs) may be needed to bridge the
gap between programs when a program runs short.
Graphical user interface (gui) GOOey -- A user-friendly means of
connecting the power of a microcomputer with the person doing the work. Such
systems utilize the mouse, pull-down menus, and point-and-click routines to do
Church Workers Handbook --162-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
complicated tasks. The Macintosh computer, as well as Windows and Windows
software, all use a graphical user interface.
Gutenberg -- This German printer of the 1500s put the printed page in the hands
of the common man, with his development of moveable type. Desktop publishing has
put the printing of the page in the hands of the common man, also.
Log -- Each radio and TV station keeps a program log that shows the nature, time,
and type of all broadcasts. PSAs, spots, and programs are shown on the log.
Mouse -- A pointing and selecting device that is used in Macintosh computers,
Windows software, and other computer applications that use a graphical user
interface.
News release -- Local stations and papers are always looking for local news.
Write up a news release and send it to the station or paper. You may get an
interview, or even an on location TV news team if the station sees your activity as
having news value.
PSA -- Public Service Announcement. This is a message from a nonprofit
organization that is broadcast in the public interest. The Federal Communications
Commission (FCC) requires all radio and television stations to broadcast a specified
number of PSAs per broadcast day. The minimum number may be two per hour,
but a station often runs more than the minimum as fill during non drive time or non
prime time periods.
Public access TV -- Check with your cable company about time on your local
public access cable channel. Wayne's World, of Saturday Night Live fame, is a crude
and frequently disgusting parody of a public access TV program.
Resolution -- The ability of a laser or inkjet printer to print fine detail, measured
in dots per (square) inch. The higher the number of dots per inch, the better the
resolution. Desktop publishing requires a printer that can produce at least a
resolution of 300 dpi.
Spot -- Commercial announcements are called spots. Commercial establishments
buy spots for the same purpose they buy newspaper advertising.
Talk show -- This is a growing opportunity to get the word out on your services.
Radio talk show guests may appear in person or by phone to be interviewed and to
Church Workers Handbook --163-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
answer questions from callers. Local TV talk shows may require you to be in the
studio.
Tri-fold -- A page folded in thirds. When an 8.5 x 11-inch page is printed in three
columns along the 11-inch side, tri-folding that page gives the appearance of a
brochure.
Twenty (20) pound -- The term pound expresses the thickness of a sheet of
paper: 20 is standard, 16 is light, 60 is heavy.
Typeset --A print style that gives a typeset appearance. The spacing is
proportional, according to the actual width of the letters.
G. Edwin Lint
Please note: The hypertext e-mail link above is hot [active] when you are connected
to the Internet through your ISP. The same will be true of all hypertext links
through the text of this ebook.
Church Workers Handbook --164-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Chapter 12: How to Publish
on the Web
Church Workers Handbook
What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
Non-technical (and non-html) guidelines on how to use off the shelf software to publish
on the Web
© 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Consultation Services Available
Glossary
This glossary includes some terms which you must understand in order to get the most out
of this chapter. Skim through these terms. If you do not understand the meaning of a term
within the web publishing context, take a moment to learn its meaning before reading on.
Add or Submit: The process of registering your URL with a search engine in order that
others may use it as a resource as a result of a search.
Adobe Acrobat: Software that can convert any high-end product such as a Microsoft
Word file into a pdf [portable document format] file. Such a pdf file will retain all
major formatting features of the original file and be suitable for distribution to
Macintosh and Windows users via the free Adobe Reader.
Adobe Reader: A free product for using pdf files. Click to download a copy.
Anchors: An anchor lets the reader go from one point to another by clicking a link.
This is especially useful for setting up a table of contents or for letting the reader go
back to the top of the page with one click.
Browser: A software program that enables you to surf the web and visit different
locations. Microsoft's Internet Explorer is probably the most popular browser. Netscape
runs a close second.
Church Workers Handbook --165-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Clipboard; cut, copy, paste: A portion of your computer's RAM (read only memory)
which is reserved for the process of moving text or graphics within a document or
between documents.
Create PDF Files on Line: For about $10 a month, you can upload your high-end files
and have them converted to pdf files. Click for more information.
Domain name: A designation which is reserved for exclusive use by a person or
organization throughout the Internet. In the URL: http://www.diskbooks.org/xxx.html,
diskbooks.org is my domain name.
Dot com:
The pronunciation of the following component of many commercial
URLs: .com com represents the fact that the owner of the domain is a commercial
organization. As a general rule, it is a good idea for churches to use a Dot Org [.org]
domain name. Example: www.christchurchnashville.org
Download Delivery: The best way to distribute your product is to download it after a
plastic credit transaction. Payloadz Express is the best method I have found for both
the downloading phase and the payment phase. Click for more information.
Drag: Holding down the mouse button while moving a text block or object to another
location.
Dreamweaver by Macromedia: An html translator which runs on Windows computers.
File transfer protocol (ftp): A software program which transfers files from your
computer up to your server, or vice versa. Voyager is a good ftp program for Windows.
Fetch is a popular ftp program for the Mac. (While Fetch is doing its thing, the mouse
pointer becomes a little running dog with its tail wagging.) An ftp program may be
stand-alone, like Voyager or Fetch. Or, it may be part of the HTML translator.
Hierarchical file structure (hfs): The file organization developed by Apple Computer
for the Macintosh, and later adopted by Microsoft for Windows. HFS allows you to
nest folders within folders and to view (sort) a window's contents by such variables as
name, date, size, and kind.
Html (hypertext markup language): A simple programming language which is used to
write files which are published on the Internet; when written as .html this is an
extension to file names published on the Internet. .htm is sometimes used as an
extension when a file is to be served from server that does not tolerate 4-character
extensions.
Church Workers Handbook --166-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Html translator: A software program which allows the user to type in plain English
and have the file saved in html format. Dreamweaver was used to finalize this page for
the Internet.
http: (Hypertext transfer protocol) Many URLs on the web begin with this acronym.
Example: http://www.diskbooks.org
http://www.diskbooks.org/cw11.html
Internet Service Provider (ISP): A company that gives individuals and businesses
access to the Internet via phone lines. Many ISPs charge about $20.00 a month for
unlimited access via a local phone number or cable.
Key words: Words which represent the content of a web site so a user can find that web
site by using a search engine.
Link: The relationship between one file on the Internet and another. Clicking a link in
one file will cause the user to be transferred to the destination link, even though that
destination is on the other side of the world. You may return to your original location
by clicking the back button on your browser.
Mouse pointer: The arrow image which moves across the page when the mouse is
moved. When the pointer moves across an area where text may be typed, it becomes an
I-beam and will create an insertion point (with flashing cursor) when clicked. When the
pointer moves across a clickable link in an Internet document, it becomes a pointing
index finger and will send the user to the destination of that link when clicked.
PDF [portable document format]: A product created by Adobe Acrobat using the
output of any high-end software such as Microsoft Word. Such a pdf file will maintain
formatting of the original file.
Promote: Registering a URL with search engines so its location will be retrieved when a
user is looking for that kind of resource.
Publish: Uploading a document to a server where it will be accessible on the Internet.
This is easily done via ftp software.
Sales Link: If you wish to sell your publication to the general public you will need a
Sales Page and a Sales Link. The sales link should enable you to accept plastic
payment.
Search engine: A searchable database of information about many Web pages, and
software to conduct the search.
Church Workers Handbook --167-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Server: Computer hardware and software capable of storing many files and making
them accessible to users on the Internet. Web hosting companies rent space on their
large servers to individuals and businesses. A block of 30 megs should cost about $10.00
a month. You can have your web files on your own computer but upload [save them]
onto your server where they will be available to the world. It's usually a good practice
to have your files in two locations, as a backup. If a catastrophe strikes the server you
are renting and all your files are lost, the files on your own computer will be your
backup. The converse of this is true.
Softspider: A program which lets you enter key words and other important
information about your site one time, then crawls around the Internet and registers this
information with many search engines. Traffic Seeker is a good program for Windows.
Surf: Traveling to various locations on the Internet. Similar to channel surfing on your
cable TV set.
URL: Universal Resource Locator: The URL which represents this file is:
http://www.diskbooks.org/cw11.html
Web: The Internet; the worldwide network of phone lines and cables which connotes
computers and servers.
World Wide Web: In a URL, www. represents World Wide Web.
WYSIWYG: An acronym used in desktop publishing (DTP), for the phrase "What you
see is what you get." A true desktop publishing WYSIWYG program like PageMaker
really does let you see it on the screen before you put it on paper. However, WYSIWYG
should not be used in connection with html translators because what you see on the
HTML translator screen may be quite a bit different from what a web user will see on
a browser screen while on line.
The Purpose of These Guidelines
This chapter is designed to augment, not supplant, the documentation which
comes with your html translator and word processor. If something in this
chapter is in conflict with what your html translator provides, this chapter yields
in every instance.
Why Publish on the Web?
I publish on the Web for the following reasons:
1. Publication can be fairly instant. I can write something this minute and within
the hour, it can be available for the whole computer world to read and download.
Church Workers Handbook --168-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
2. I, and only I (and my wife), decide what I am going to publish and not publish. I
don't have to read rejection letters from publishers who for whatever reasons
don't want to publish my work. I am renting 35 megs of storage space on a server
on Long Island. If it will fit in that amount of space, I can publish it. By the way,
the amount of publishing I have done to date, as outlined above, fits in 35 megs
storage space on the server, with room to spare. If I want to publish more, I can
rent more.
3. I have the potential of worldwide distribution. According to the last monthly
report from my server, my files were accessed by readers in 50 countries.
Introduction
When I retired from 37 years in public education in December, 1994, I had a major
retirement goal: to publish on the World Wide Web of the Internet. I had already
written two full-length novels with one of them in hard copy. Both of them were on
disk. In addition, I had a number of other educational and inspirational writings on
disk. I wanted the world to be able to know and read what I had written and would
write.
The Life Story of a Novel
The first full-length book I wrote was a novel about the rapture of Jesus Christ, titled
Gone. Gone was written in the late 70s on an IBM Selectric typewriter. Imagine typing
a 200-page novel on a typewriter! I submitted my proposal to publishers great and
small and accumulated a fat file of rejection notices.
Gone was revised and retyped in 1984 on my then-new Apple IIe computer using the
AppleWorks word processing module. Now I had a novel on disk. The publishers
weren't impressed, though. More rejection notices.
In 1986, I imported the Gone files into a Macintosh using Microsoft Word word
processing software. The desktop publishing revolution had arrived. Now I had the
capability to produce camera-ready originals of publication quality using a laser
printer. I contracted with a publishing company in Michigan to print and bind 3,000
copies of Gone.
However, I lacked the distribution contacts and some of that original run is still in
storage.
In March of 1996, I published Gone on the Web. The files which had been typed on an
IBM Selectric typewriter, been retyped on an Apple IIe, imported into a Macintosh,
and copied to a html translator, were now available to the world! As of November 1,
1997, the Gone Home Page had been hit 5703 times.
Church Workers Handbook --169-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
The extent to which I have achieved my retirement goal of publishing on the Web can
be viewed at the following URL:
http://www.diskbooks.org
I am a teacher and an author but I am not a computer programmer. I know next to
nothing about writing in hypertext markup language (html) or any other Internet
language. However, I have been able to utilize user-friendly Macintosh and Windows
computer and user-friendly html translators such as Dreamweaver. I have now gone on
to Windows XP. [Not as user friendly as the Mac but much more so than Windows 3.1,
the first version of Windows I used.]
Church Workers Handbook --170-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Table of Contents for This Chapter
Publishing on the Web is a multi-step process. Each step in this process will be
explained in this chapter, as listed below:
A. Subscribe to an Internet Service Provider ......................161
B. Learn to use an html translator .......................................161
C. Organize your work on your hard drive. ........................162
D. Write in Microsoft Word word processor ......................162
E. Export Your Work in Word html format .......................163
F. Format your page in the html program ..........................163
G. Rent space on a server ......................................................163
H. Consider getting your own domain name .......................163
I. Test your page with a browser ..........................................163
J. Publish your page...............................................................165
K. Publicize your page ...........................................................165
L. Selling and Downloading ..................................................165
Here is a brief explanation of the steps in the publishing process:
A. Subscribe to an Internet Service Provider (ISP) which gives you
unlimited access for a flat rate via a local phone number, if you haven't already done
so. I use Comcast.Net , which charges about $20.00 a month for cable access. I also use
Netgear Wireless Access Point router which provides wireless Internet access
throughout the building.
B. Learn to use an html translator, such as Dreamweaver, if you haven't
already done so. A translator like this lets you type in plain English and automatically
Church Workers Handbook --171-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
converts what you type into hypertext markup language (html). Microsoft makes
FrontPage (Windows) and Claris makes an html program also.
Before you start to type in a word processor, learn the formatting features of your html
program. Some indenting, hanging, and nesting features which you take for granted in
your word processor may not be available in your html program. With Dreamweaver,
you can export a Microsoft Word file in html format and import this file into
Dreamweaver. Virtually all formatting will remain intact, including tables!
Sometimes, an html translator is referred to as a WYSIWYG html program. Such a
program does not exactly show you on the screen what a web client will see on the
browser screen while on line. Therefore, you must keep checking your work with a web
browser before it leaves your desktop and gets published to the whole world.
C. Organize your work on your hard drive. Dreamweaver can manage
your site files and synchronize them with your server. However, I have found it just as
easy to manage my own sites. I keep over 300 pages (files) I have on the Internet in a
single folder on my hard drive, and in a single folder up on my server.
D. Write in Microsoft Word word processor.
The combination of Dreamweaver and Microsoft Word will let us export Word as html.
Dreamweaver will import the Word html file intact.
However, other word processors and html combinations may not be so kind. You may
have to observe the following cautions: Don't use the option key to create special
characters, with the exception of OPTION-G to make the © symbol. When in doubt,
create a test page with your html translator and use a web browser to see what happens
when you use the option key with certain characters.
Don't use "smart quotes". This is a feature with some word processors which makes
quotation marks and apostrophes look more professional. When you are preparing text
for e-mail or your html translator, it may be necessary to turn off smart quotes.
Quotation marks and apostrophes may be transmitted as strange characters, if you do
not turn off smart quotes.
Special Note: If you do use smart quotes or the option key, the worst that will happen is
you will get strange characters. When you check your creation with a browser, watch
for any bugs that need further editing.
Special Note: Make sure you know how to use your computer's clipboard to copy and
paste.
This link will help.
Church Workers Handbook --172-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
E. With Dreamweaver and MS Word, you will export the Word
document as an html file.
Then, in Dreamweaver, you will import the Word html document with all formatting
intact, including tables.
With other word processor and html programs, you may need to copy your work to
your html program with the clipboard.
F. Format your page in the html program. You may continue to edit and
fine tune the file while in Dreamweaver.
Setting anchors. An anchor lets the reader go from one point to another by clicking a
link. This is especially useful for setting up a table of contents or for letting the reader
go back to the top of the page with one click.
Placing graphics in your document:
Use graphics sparingly. I suggest their use be limited to logos and photos of principals
in your document. Any use of graphics will slow the loading of your file to some extent.
G. Rent space on a server. You will need to rent space on a server. Here's the
best price I have found. Click to learn more. BizLand.Com gives an excellent balance of
economy and technical support.
Before you spend money on server rental, check and see if your ISP will give you a
complimentary storage space. It will probably be relatively small but if you are just
getting started, it will be enough to store a sales pag e with a sales link.
H. Consider getting your own domain name. This seems a little extreme
at first. However, when you consider you can keep it for life at $35 per year, the cost is
minimal. The biggest advantage of having your own domain is that you can keep it
forever and never have to change your file names if you change your server. I just went
through a server change a few years ago and I hope to never go through that again. If
you use BizLand, you can select your own domain name [assuming it's not already
taken].
My home page file name is
http://www.diskbooks.org
No one else in the world can call themselves diskbooks.org If I move all my files to a
server in California tomorrow, all my business will follow me from Long Island right
across the country to the Pacific coast.
Church Workers Handbook --173-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
The full name of a file on the Internet is called a URL, for Universal Resource Locator.
The periods are pronounced as dot and are as important as any other part of the URL.
By the way, absolutely no typos are allowed when typing a URL. A single character can
make the difference between the file you want and a File Not Found error message
from the server. Case (upper or lower) is also critical. On some servers, such as mine
which runs under UNIX, the wrong case can give you an error message. Develop the
habit of typing file names in all lower case characters; most people do.
http://www. This is the standard prefix for all http URLs on the Web.
diskbooks This is the name I have chosen for my domain.
.org This is the fact that this is an organization. edu would indicate an educational
entity. gov would be a government entity. Of course, .com is for commercial enterprises
and therefore should not be used by churches. [My personal opinion.]
cw11. This is the file name for this chapter.
html The fact that this file is written (by the html translator) in hypertext markup
language.
Reminder: when you are linking a file to another file in your account folder on
your server, you only need to use the file name plus the .html extension; when
you are linking to a file outside your server, you need the full URL.
File names should be short because they will be part of the URL. And, they must
always end with the extension .html [Some servers require you to use .htm as your file
extension. Be sure you know which to use before you continue.]
Warning: Don't forget the dot before the html and make sure the last character of the
extension is a lower case l and not a numeral 1.
For example, the URL for the Home Page of Church Workers Handbook is shown
below.
http://www.diskbooks.org/cw.html
If you're careful, you may be able to type this error free one time (I couldn't). However,
if you copy it to your clipboard and then paste it into the Link window of your html
translator, it will be error-free time after time.
You may be wondering how you can get a copy of a URL for your clipboard. There are
two common sources:
Church Workers Handbook --174-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
1. If you visit a page on the web which you want to link to, the URL will appear at
the top of the page, in what Microsoft Internet Explorer calls the Address:
Netscape calls the name of the URL the Netsite window. When it's selected
(highlighted), use the copy command. Clicking alternately in the page and the
Address window will select and deselect the URL.
2. When you see a link on the web you would like to copy to your clipboard, click
and hold the mouse button while the pointer is a pointing finger over this link.
(On a Mac, click and hold the single mouse button; on a Windows PC, click and
hold the right mouse button.) A little menu will appear and one of your choices is
to copy this link. Once it's on your clipboard, you can paste it into the Link To:
window. Or anywhere else, for that matter.
I. Test your page with a web browser while your file is on your desktop. If
you are linking between two pages on your hard drive, the links will work on your
desktop just like on the web, only faster.
To use a web browser to check the output of your html translator, follow these steps.
1. Save your most recent changes with the html translator.
2. Open the web browser, pull down File, and select Open. Then use your dialog
box to find the file you have been working on.
3. Compare what you see on the translator screen with what you see on the browser
screen. You will be most likely to see discrepancies in line and paragraph
spacing.
J. Publish your page by copying (uploading) your completed page onto your
server. The best way to copy a single file is with a file transfer protocol (ftp) program
such as Fetch for the Mac or Voyager for Windows. You should be able to drag the file
icon into the window of the ftp browser.
K. Publicize (Promote) your page by submitting it to as many search
engines as possible. [See below.]
L. Selling and Downloading: You may want to give away what you write or
you may want to sell it to cover expenses or make a profit.
Free Downloads. Anyone who knows how, can download what you have
published on the web for free. Or, you can convert a Microsoft Word version
of your publication to a pdf file with a free-standing copy of Adobe Acrobat or
the online-version of Adobe Acrobat. You can place download links in the text
of the website or you can create a download inventory of all your available
Church Workers Handbook --175-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
publications. The download link for Church Workers Handbook is
http://www.diskbooks.org/cw.pdf Notice that all pdf files have .pdf as their
extension.
Click to see the my Free Download Inventory. This inventory would not fit on
my free ISP complimentary space. I have it con a commercial server.
Selling Downloads. Since I am not selling any of these items [other than the
PennSTAR Master Curriculum], I do not need to worry about anyone stealing
these publications; I want them to download them.
However, PennSTAR is a product that is for sale. Recently, I had 1127 free
sample PennSTAR downloads in one month. That same month I had 149
regular PennSTAR downloads. You would think the free samples were doing
their job.
At $17 a pop, 149 downloads should have netted me $2533. However, I didn't
get anywhere near that amount. Some person or persons was ripping me off.
The next day, I took the following steps to put a stop to this:
1. I no longer had pstar.pdf on my server where people can find out the file name
2.
3.
4.
5.
and steal it.
I found a reasonable service called Payloadz Express to store, sell, and download
the PennSTAR Master Curriculum. Payloadz Express is free for the first month
and $15 USD per month thereafter.
http://express.payloadz.com/code.asp?id=329296
I uploaded the full file of pstar.pdf to their server and that is the only place I
have put it!
Payloadz gave me a sales link to put on all the PennSTAR pages. When someone
clicks one of these sales links, a PayPal window comes up and they can pay $20
from their PayPal account or credit card to download it from the Payloadz
server.
I then replaced the pstar.pdf file on my server with a copy of the Free Sample
file. Now, when people think they are downloading the whole program, all they
get is the free sample with sales links! Try it and see:
http://www.diskbooks.org/pstar.pdf
Church Workers Handbook --176-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
This may not increase my income to $2533 per month, but it should keep people from
downloading it for free, posting it on bulletin boards, or telling people by e-mail how to
download it.
Church Workers Handbook --177-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Organize Your Work on Your Hard Drive
This section requires some understanding of the Mac and Windows hierarchical file
structure (hfs) I recommend that you keep all your html files in a single folder, both on
your hard drive and on your server.
Each file you publish may exist in at least two versions on your hard drive, as listed
below:
A. The original version of a file as typed in your word processor.
B. The html version of this file which has been created by your html translator. This
version of your file should be in the same folder with all your other web files.
Promote Your New Website
After you've set up your Website, make sure you promote it by registering it with as
many search engines and link lists as possible. Many are free, so all it takes is a little
boring work. You can have the best Website in the world, but if no one knows about it,
what good can it do?
If you're running Windows 95/98 or higher, you have the option of buying a program
known as Traffic Seeker. This program will let you enter key words and other
important information about your site one time. Then, the software crawls all over the
web and registers your site in thousands of locations. If you have more time than
money, you will need to spend hours on the Internet, going from search engine to
search engine, and registering your page. At this writing, TrafficSeeker costs a mere
$50 for the regular version, and $100 for the professional version.
You can download an examination version of TrafficSeeker at the following URL:
http://www.trafficseeker.com/
Whether you work manually or automatically with TrafficSeeker, it won't hurt for you
to understand a little of what happens when you register your website.
Search Engines
A search engine is a searchable database of information about many Web pages, and
software to conduct the search. Your job is to get listed in those searchable databases.
A good starting place is Google.
Here's a few pointers:
Church Workers Handbook --178-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
1.
Make a simple text file which contains key information about your page. As a
minimum, this file should include:
•
•
•
•
Complete URL (spelled correctly)
Your e-mail address
A title for your site. It will be ideal if this title can include one or two key
words that a search engine will look for during a search.
A short paragraph that describes your site.
2.
Place this file on your desktop and shrink it down to the minimum size possible.
3.
As a registration form comes up, use the clipboard to copy key information from
your simple text file to the form. This is absolutely essential when entering your
URL. Don't trust your ability to type that URL correctly. I never do. Simple
things like your name or phone number may be typed faster from the keyboard.
But never your URL.
Sometimes you will have a hard time finding a form to use when you want to enter
information. All you can find is a way to do a search. The key words you are looking
for are Add or Submit, or any of their synonyms. For some reason, the Add and Submit
links are sometimes in very fine print. If you can't find a way to submit a URL, look for
a mailto link and e-mail the information from your text file:
(mailto:gel1934@comcast.net is my mailto: link) If you can find
neither a place to submit your URL or a mailto: link, skip that one and go to the next
one.
Some search engines give you a chance to verify your link before the submission is
finalized. If you get that chance, take it. This way you can be sure that your URL has
been entered correctly. Your page should come to the screen when you click the test
link.
You may have to wait two or three weeks or more before you are able to find your page
with a search engine. Be patient. Keep on registering your page in as many places as
you can. After a while, people will start hitting your page.
Link Lists
When you have gotten your page listed with as many search engines as possible, then
start with the link lists. For some reason, some people like to maintain lists of links,
often called free-for-all lists [FFA]. Use the same simple text file as you used for the
search engines and start listing. Makes a good rainy (or snowy) day activity. By the
way, this activity is time-consuming and boring. If you don't have an Internet Service
Provider which gives you unlimited access via a local phone number, you better start
looking for one before you launch a major publicizing project.
Church Workers Handbook --179-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Reciprocal Links
Sometimes when you're visiting a search engine or link list, you'll see an offer to place
you on a link list if you will link your page to their location. You need to set up a page
of links to other pages. I call mine Links to Other Resources. You can visit it and see
how I have set mine up.
Good luck in your web publishing venture. There may never be another activity in
your life whereby you will make a greater impact on a larger number of people with a
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Chapter 13: Planning and
Conducting a Public Meeting
Church Workers Handbook -- What You Didn't Learn in Bible
College and Seminary
Table of Contents for this Chapter
Introduction ............................................................................................ 170
Picking a Time ........................................................................................ 171
Making a Reservation ............................................................................ 171
Publicizing Your Meeting ...................................................................... 172
Giving Directions ................................................................................... 173
Making Name Badges ............................................................................ 175
Planning and Conducting Registration ............................................... 176
Collecting information from application forms ................................... 177
Creating an Agenda ............................................................................... 177
Using Tab Commands to Set Up the Agenda [A tutorial] .................. 180
Arranging Seating .................................................................................. 180
Following Your Agenda ......................................................................... 181
Introduction
You have been appointed by the church board to conduct a planning session for a
series of community Bible studies to be held during the coming year. This chapter
will walk you through the various steps you will need to take to make this a
successful meeting. Some of the specifics are real and others are fictional. For
example there really is a Hoss's Steak and Seafood House and the food really is
reasonable and delicious.
The sample meeting discussed in this chapter will be fairly small, low key, and low
budget. However, someday, you may be planning and conducting a regional
conference of several hundred participants. Learn on a small meeting and then
you'll be better prepared for a larger one.
Church Workers Handbook --181-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Picking a Time
Since it has already been decided that the Community Bible Study will be held the
fourth Thursday of every month, it makes sense to hold your planning meeting on a
Thursday. The church board has recommended that the Bible studies be held from
Noon till 1:00 P.M. in a brown-bag lunch environment.
A bag lunch will be okay for the eventual Bible studies but you want this first
planning meeting to be a little nicer. So you decide to have it a local restaurant.
Making a Reservation
Food makes your planning a little more complicated, with such things as menu,
price, and smoking to be considered. Hoss's Steak and Seafood House sounds good.
The menu ranges from an all-you-can eat food bar for under $6 to prime steaks and
lobster. Hoss's is smoke free and centrally located, close to the Gettysburg exit of the
Pennsylvania Turnpike. You've eaten there many times and you know the food is
good. [Try to avoid making a meeting reservation at a restaurant you've never
visited.]
First hurdle crossed: you've picked the location; it'll be at Hoss's.
Second hurdle: make the reservation. The person who takes your reservation
assures you your group will have a private room for about 50 people. She asks for
your name and you say Jane Doe. She asks for the type of affair and you say a
"planning meeting". She writes in the reservation book: Jane Doe, planning
meeting. You hang up, pretty pleased with yourself. Everything's all set for the
meeting. Right? Read on!
On the day of the meeting, your baby sitter is late in arriving and you are fifteen
minutes late in getting to Hoss's.
When the first person arrives for the meeting, this dialog takes place.
"I'm here for the Community Bible Study Luncheon."
The hostess looks in the reservation book and says, "Oh, are you with
Jane Doe's group?"
"I don't know any Jane Doe. I'm here for the Community Bible Study."
"It says here Jane Doe's having a planning meeting at Noon. Is that
your group?"
Church Workers Handbook --182-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
"I don't know anything about Jane Doe's meeting. I thought I was
coming to the Community Bible Study Luncheon. Maybe I have the
wrong place or the wrong day. Good-bye."
This scenario is fictional but a similar thing happened to me at Hoss's. [I stayed for
lunch until the mix-up was fixed up.
Follow these steps in making a reservation for your meeting:
1. Know the name of your meeting. If the meeting doesn't have a name,
give it one. You must give a meeting name when you make a
reservation.
2. Make sure the reservation clerk records this name in the reservation
book. It's okay to give your name but make sure the clerk writes it
down.
3. If the reservation doesn't ask for a meeting name, offer one. Sometimes,
reservations are taken by people who are not skilled in public relations.
This identical meeting name should be used from this point on regarding this
meeting: in the church bulletin, on posters or flyers, and on the restaurant/hotel
marquee or meeting board.
Publicizing Your Meeting
Go to Chapter 10: Church Publicity and Public Awareness for detailed information
on how to publicize your meeting with little or no cost.
Giving Directions
Preparing written directions may be a gift or it may be an acquired skill. If you're
not sure you have either, follow these steps for preparing directions:
1.
Drive the travel route from the main traffic artery to your meeting
place in your car. Use your trip odometer to make note of the mileage
between various landmarks.
2.
As you drive the route, make special note of the marked route numbers.
Strangers will appreciate route numbers rather than street signs and
landmarks. Of course, if there are no route numbers, give whatever
information will be helpful.
Church Workers Handbook --183-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
3.
Include the exact mailing address in your directions: street number,
street name, city, and state. This information will be critical for persons
using a GPS navigation device, such as the Garman Street Pilot to find
Hoss’s Steak House.
How many times have you diligently followed directions to a
meeting place with left and right turns at landmarks, only to
realize the whole thing was following a marked route
number?!
4.
If you are giving directions in an urban area, give tips on the street
layout. Example: The north-south streets are alphabetized and the eastwest streets are numbered.
5.
An ideal set of directions has both narrative descriptions and a map. My
personal preference is narrative descriptions; never omit that. Here's a
sample narrative on how to get to Hoss's from Harrisburg:
Hoss’s Steak and Seafood House, 61 Gettysburg Pike, Mechanicsburg, PA: 717-6972214
Follow I-83 South across the Susquehanna River to the junction with Pennsylvania
Route 581 West. Follow 581 West 3.5 miles to the U.S. 15 South exit. Follow U.S. 15
South 3.5 miles to the first exit after the entrance to the Pennsylvania Turnpike. One
half mile past the turnpike, take the Mechanicsburg/Bowmansdale Exit off Route
15. When you come off the exit ramp, turn right at the stop sign. Go .5 mile to the
first traffic light, Gettysburg Pike. Go one half mile to the entrance to Stauffer’s
Nursery, on the right. As you enter the nursery complex, Hoss's will be on your
right.
Author's note: I have never clocked that route on my trip odometer so I
estimated the distances.
For additional information on making name badges, printing an
agenda, and managing registration data, go to Chapter 7: Basics of
Desktop Publishing.
Making Name Badges or Tent-card Style Place Cards
Name badges are an absolute must if there is a good chance that attendees at your
meeting will not know each other. Such badges can run from the do-it-yourself
Hello, My Name Is type to computer-generated ones laser-printed on colored card
stock, printed in color ink, encased in plastic windows and spring-clipped to the
Church Workers Handbook --184-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
lapel. There is a right and a wrong way to do both kinds. We'll look at some
guidelines.
The ideal procedure for any name badges is to make them up before the registration
starts. If you are having self registration, array the badges in alphabetical order.
[Tent-style Place Cards may be made from folded card stock and hand-written with
standard broad-tip markers. However, Avery also makes tent cards for computer
generation.
•
If participants are writing their own names, provide identical sharpie-style
fiber-tip markers with indelible [non-smear] ink. Avoid standard broad-tip
markers.
•
Always provide the writing instruments. Never allow participant to use their
own pencil or ball pen.
Computer-generated; laser or ink-jet printer
1. The Avery label company provides a wide range of name badges
and tent cards. Many productivity computer programs provide a
drop-down menu of Avery numbers. Select the product number
on the Avery box and your software will automatically format
your badge or tent card in terms of size.
Hello, My Name Is [Peel and stick, with space to write a name]
2. Follow these rules for laying out the content of your badge:
•
Omit redundant information. For example, it is not necessary
to include the name of the meeting; most folks will know where
they are. If all attendees are from the same church, from the
same city, or even from the same state, it is not necessary to
include this information on each badge. The less information
[clutter] a badge contains, the more legibility there will be
from a distance.
•
Set all text in Helvetica bold for maximum legibility at a
distance.
•
Place the name at the top, in 18 point, if possible. This is the
most important item on a name tag. Allow two lines for the
longer names which will wrap.
Church Workers Handbook --185-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
•
Place the church name and city next, in 14 point, if possible.
•
Place the meeting logo last if there is one. This is the least
important item on a name badge since each is the same.
Church Workers Handbook --186-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Here is an example of the content of Jane Doe's badge:
Jane Doe
Christian Life Assembly
Millville
Planning and Conducting Registration
When planning for a large meeting, always use a pre-registration process, consisting
of the following elements:
a. Registration form that is to be filled out in advance and mailed in.
b. A database consisting of key information of all registrants. Usually such a
database includes the following fields:
Title: Mr., Mrs., Ms., Dr.
Name: If your software cannot merge first and last name in a mailing
address, you will need a Last Name field so you can alphabetize your
list.
Church, or other relevant organization or agency
Street address
City, State , Zip: you will need three separate fields if you will want to
sort by city, state, or zip.
Country, if international participation is likely
Phone
Fax
E-mail: Someone will need to scrutinize these very carefully because
handwritten e-mail addresses may not follow the requirements of e-mail
protocol: no spaces, an @ sign to separate the username on the left,
from the delivery system on the right. Here is a sample:
edlint@comcast.net
Church Workers Handbook --187-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Computer-generated name badges drawn from the information
in the registration database.
The registration arrangement should allow participants to flow smoothly through
the process with a minimum of writing and minimum of waiting to register. If you
have asked participants to pre-reregister, you should use your registration database
to create an alphabetized list of expected participants.
The ideal registration setup consists of three steps:
1. Place a check beside your name on an alphabetized list.
2. Pick up your name badge and/or tent card.
3. Pick up the agenda and other needed materials.
Elapsed time for moving through this process [chatting and visiting excluded]: 15
seconds.
Collecting information from application forms
These guidelines take precedence over what people may write on applications when
attending a workshop or seminar. Over the years, I have conducted dozens of
meetings and workshops requiring filling out and mailing in a pre-registration
form. The contents run from ludicrous to sad.
Example: Applicants from the same church may show the following information
when filling out forms which ask for home church:
Church of the Nazarene
Crossroads Church of the Nazarene
First Church of the Nazarene
Lewisburg Church of the Nazarene
In each case, church should be entered as Crossroads Church of the Nazarene, it's
official name.
After registration information has been entered in a data base, sort each involved
field in alphabetical order. This will enable you to quickly identify and correct
errors and inconsistencies. This is especially important when the data will be
displayed in a list of meeting participants and used to generate name tags and
printed lists of participants. If you don't know the official name of a church or
organization, find out.
Church Workers Handbook --188-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Omit Titles
In a list of names or on an agenda, omit all titles such as Miss, Mrs., Ms., Mr., and
Dr. If you wish to show a doctorate, it should appear in its proper form after the
name.
Examples:
Name badges or agenda listings
Jane Doe, D.D. [doctor of divinity]
John Doe, Ph.D. [doctor of philosophy]
James Doe, Th.D. [doctor of theology]
Mailing address:
Dr. Jane Doe
Dr. John Doe
Dr. James Doe
A title is used with a full name when it is part of a mailing address. A title may be
used with a surname only in a second reference but do not use Miss or Mrs. unless
you know for a fact that the woman does not prefer Ms. As a general rule, a woman
who prefers Miss or Mrs. will be less annoyed by Ms. than will be the case when the
converse is true.
More about Mailing Addresses.
A rural address should be written Route x, Box xx or Rt. x, Box xx. R.D.[rural
delivery] and R.F.D. [rural free delivery] are obsolete. Use the U.S. Postal Service
two-letter abbreviations for a state's name. However, use conventional
abbreviations when the name of the state is not part of a mailing address.
Example:
PO Box 2211
Harrisburg PA 17105
He has a post office box in Harrisburg, Pa.
Creating an Agenda
Church Workers Handbook --189-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Most formal meeting should have an agenda. Don't avoid it because you don't have
a lot to say. People like to know what to expect and who's involved. Here's an
example of an agenda for the Community Bible Study planning session, expanded
into a one-day meeting:
[Lines marked with an asterisk [*] may be omitted from the agenda but should be
included in a publicity flyer or poster]
Planning Session
for the Community Bible
Study
Thursday, March 10, 2009
9:00 a.m.
Hoss's Steak and Seafood House
*61 Gettysburg Pike, Mechanicsburg, 17055, *717-697-2214
Jane Doe, Chair,*717-796-0171
jdoe@comcast.net
Registration and Coffee:.......................................................................... 8:00 8:55
Invocation: .......................................................................................................... 9:00
Rev. Paul J. Wislocky, Senior Pastor, Christian Life Assembly, Millville
Morning Break: ..................................................................................... 10:30 10:45
Church Workers Handbook --190-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Lunch from the menu: ............................................................................ 12:30 1:30
Afternoon Break: ..................................................................................... 2:30 2:45
Benediction: Pastor Wislocky: .......................................................................... 5:00
Using Tab Commands to Set Up the Agenda [A tutorial]
The agenda above was made with the Microsoft Word word processor by using the
Tab dialog box. Follow these steps when setting up an agenda or any similar
document:
1.
DO NOT type periods to create the dots! Follow the steps outlined below.
2.
Type the text that appears along the left margin of your document first,
pressing Return at the end of each line.
3.
Select [highlight] these lines of text.
4.
Determine the point at which you want the text along the right margin to
end. In this agenda, we have chosen to use the point of 6.5 inches.
5.
Pull down the Format menu and select Tabs.
6.
Find the Tab Stop Position box in the upper left corner of the Tabs dialog
box; type 6.5
7.
Click to select Right Alignment
8.
Click to select Leader 2 … [Leader 2 is a series of dots from the point you
press the tab key to where you type in the time.] You have a choice of None
[no leader], dashes ----, or underscores _____.; I prefer dots …
9.
Click OK
10. Click to get a flashing cursor [insertion point] at the exact point where the
text along the left margin ends. In this case, it will be coffee
11. Voila! You automatically get a line of dots …. across the page to the 6-5 inch
point.
12. Now type the text that is to appear along the right margin. You’ll notice that
the text you type at the end of the dots … ends [remains justified] at the 6.5
inch point.
13. Repeat this process for all lines of the agenda.
Church Workers Handbook --191-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
14. Since one of the alignment options is decimal point, the Tabs dialog box is an
excellent [only logical] way to set up financial reports, even when the
decimal places vary. The decimal points will always line up under each
other!
Arranging Seating
For additional information on using projection devices during your meeting, go to
Chapter 6: Using Audio-Visual Equipment
When you have an opportunity to control the seating arrangements, follow these
guidelines:
1.
If interactive discussion of a fairly small group will be the primary activity of
the meeting, place the chairs in a circle.
Use a semicircle if a projection device, chalkboard, or flip chart will be used.
2.
If a larger group of participants will be seated in movable [stacking or
folding] chairs, have the front of the room be along a long wall, the left/right
of the room be along the short walls.
Example for 45 chairs.
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCC
2.
If the participants will be seated at tables, follow Rule 2 above but have the
tables in a horseshoe, with the open side toward the front of the room.
If interactive discussion will be the primary activity of the meeting, place the
tables in a hollow square or rectangle, with a small opening for the
chairperson to enter.
When tables are used and there is a good chance that participants will not
know each other's names, it's a good idea to provide tent cards with names.
Church Workers Handbook --192-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Following Your Agenda
Sometimes there will be extenuating circumstance that prevent you from sticking to
the printed agenda, but make a since effort to do so.
Start on time
Take breaks and lunch on time
Resume activity on time
Adjourn on time
Church Workers Handbook --193-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Chapter 14: Planning a
Children's Program
Church Workers Handbook --What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
This chapter is written about Christmas programs for children because I wrote it in
December 1999. However, it may apply equally for programs during other times of the
year, such as: Easter, VBS [vacation Bible school], Thanksgiving.
You can augment this chapter with other chapters in Church Workers Handbook, such
as:
2. You Can Be a Teacher, Too
3. Church Music
8: Using Mikes and Sound System
9. Making a Broadcast-Quality Recording of Your Church Service
Contents of This Chapter
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Plan ahead.................................................................................................................. 152
Pick the program director with great care. ............................................................ 153
Give all the children a role. ...................................................................................... 153
Try to make the program interesting and informative. ........................................ 153
Pick singable songs for soloists and groups to sing ............................................... 154
Make sure instruments have been tuned
right before the performance begins. ...................................................................... 154
7. Make it easy for children to practice new songs .................................................... 154
8. Make sure young children use the restroom right before the service. ................ 154
9. Put the children on first [not after the worship leader has led the congregation in
four verses of four carols.] ....................................................................................... 154
10. Position mikes out of reach of all but featured performers. ................................. 154
11. Dismissing children to parent's or approved guardian's custody. ....................... 154
Church Workers Handbook --194-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
1. Plan ahead
It's generally true that parents and extended family members love to see their own
children up front. However, they will love it even more if there's evidence of a little
planning and some attention to a program that is designed to give glory to God.
Make sure the designated program director and his/her helpers get a copy of this
chapter or something similar before any work is done on planning or preparing the
program. It will be better if the leader and helpers read this kind of information
before work is started on the program, After it is all over, they may be smart
enough to sense that it could have been better with some careful planning but by
then, it's too late.
2. Pick the program director with great care.
Never select the director by default, just because this person is the youth/children's
pastor, Sunday school superintendent, a school teacher, or the pastor's wife. The
following characteristics should govern the selection of the leader, regardless of the
job description for the rest of the year.
•
Pick a woman: Music will play a major role in the program and it's a
known fact that a woman can teach young children to sing a new song better
than a man. Boys whose voices have not started to change don't respond as
well to a man as a woman.
•
•
Pick a woman with successful experience working with
young children: This experience can come from a variety of sources;
mother, Sunday school teacher, school teacher, or all of the above.
Pick a woman who is musically inclined: She may not be a
fantastic musician but she should be able to carry a tune.
3. Give all the children a role.
Each child should be in the program in some capacity or another: One church
program I saw recently even had all the nursery children in the program; their
parents were invited onto the platform and the parents introduced themselves and
their babies.
4. Try to make the program interesting and informative.
Resist the temptation to pass out numerous little ditties with the children parading
up to recite them. One retired program director I know real well [my wife, Nancy]
wrote Christmas programs that I feel were interesting, informative, and
inspirational. Two that come to mind are The Great Census and From the
Manger to the Cross. Or, you can incorporate little-known Biblical Christmas
facts such as those found at the following link: Christmas Meditation Moments.
5. Pick singable songs for soloists and groups to sing.
Remember, your most valuable assistants in your program are the parents
[probably the mothers] of the children in it. If you're using a published program,
chances are there will be some songs that are new to everyone, including the
director. If you have the opportunity to pick the songs, pick some that are familiar.
By the way, not all Christmas carols are especially singable.
Not so long ago, I heard a preschool choir try to sing Some Children See Him. While
the words of this carol are absolutely appropriate for a preschool choir, the melody
will require both singers of unusual ability and a leader of unusual skill in teaching
young children to sing on pitch. It would help if she were a music major from
Houghton College, too! Sadly, this group of young singers lacked both.
6. Make sure instruments have been tuned before the
performance
Last Christmas, I attended a rather extravagant Christmas program in a large
evangelical church. Admission was by ticket only [the place was packed to the
rafters], there was a Christmas drama with live animals, and there was a fairly large
orchestra comprised of adults and some high school students, directed by a full-time
employee of the church. But, when the overture began, it was immediately evident
that the orchestra was out of tune.
Ouch! No competent public high school band director would ever give the downbeat
to a stage full of untuned instruments. Let's be sure we give Jesus our best,
especially on His birthday, of all days!
7. Make it easy for children to practice new songs.
If you are using a program with a recorded sound track, duplicate some tapes for
the families to use in learning new songs. Collect the tapes after the program for
making practice tapes another time. If you're worried about copyright violations,
most publishers won't consider it a copyright violation unless what you have done
keeps them from making a sale. When you buy a sound track, never make a copy for
another group to use in their program.
Church Workers Handbook --196-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
8. Make sure young children use the restroom right before the
service. [See section 9 below]
9. Put the children on first [not after the song leader has led the
congregation in four verses of four carols.]
The children are the main attraction, not carol singing by the congregation. Start
the program with one verse and chorus of Joy to the World or Oh Come, All Ye
Faithful. Then, get out of the way and let the children do their thing. If you feel a
need for a carol sing, do that after the children are finished with their program.
10. Position mikes out of reach of all but featured performers.
You can count on one thing: children who can't carry a tune in a bucket [often boys]
will grab a mike or stand right in front of it and drown out everyone else. No one
thinks this is really funny except the family of the chief offenders. If you want to
amplify a group of children, position the mikes on high stands above their heads and
pointed down at them. Or, suspend omnidirectional mikes from the ceiling but out
of reach of the children.
Instruct soloists to hold a hand held mike about 6 inches below the chin.
11. Dismissing children to parent's or approved guardian's
custody.
Your church should have a written policy for the security and custody of minor
children. Make sure that in the excitement and confusion of a Christmas program,
this policy is not violated.
These guidelines may be too late to use this Christmas.
File them away and use them next year or any time you have a special children's
program.
Church Workers Handbook --197-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Chapter 15: Broadcasting
Your Church Service on
Internet Radio
Church Workers Handbook--What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
You may be asking, "Why should our church fool around with
Internet radio? Here are a few reasons:
•
For as little as $9.95 per month, you can make your church service available
to everyone in the whole world who has Internet access. This number is
growing constantly.
•
You may not be ready to tackle the technology involved with such a project
but chances are your church already has people who are aware of Internet
radio and would be more than ready to serve the Lord in this capacity.
•
Therefore, an Internet radio broadcast ministry could serve two classes of
people: the worldwide listeners who will have access to your service, and the
people in your church who will be blessed by having this new and exciting
means of service.
This chapter is based on your prior knowledge of basic routines involving your
church's sound system and broadcasting over standard AM or FM radio stations. If
you lack knowledge in either of these areas, return to these chapters to refresh your
information:
5. Shopping For and Using a
Microcomputer
8: Using Mikes and Using a Sound System
9. Making a Broadcast-Quality Recording
of Your Church Service
Church Workers Handbook --198-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Outline of the Sequence of Events for
Creating an Internet Radio Broadcast of
Your Church Service
Warnings
Before you get started with this project, make sure you
have the full approval of your pastor and the church
board.
This chapter is not intended to replace the
operating instructions provided by your
equipment and software manufacturers. This
chapter should be reviewed by a person that
is well versed in Internet Radio procedures as
well as the sound person (or committee) to
assure that it is consistent with your church's
equipment and policies. If this material is
outdated or incorrect regarding the equipment
and software your church is using, this
chapter should yield in every instance.
This chapter was originally written for use with the
MusicMatch Juke Box software. However, MusicMatch has
been taken over by Yahoo Juke Box. We do not
recommend Yahoo products, you can try any mp3
recorder that has the features noted in this chapter.
As of this date, July 15, 2007, MusicMatch Juke Box is still
available for download at a few sites. Here is one of them:
http://www.soft32.com/download_277.html
1
Desktop or
Online
With hot links to free software
Online
Download a free copy of the MP3 player of your
Church Workers Handbook --199-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
3
Online
4
Online
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
choice for test purposes
Apply for and create a radio station for your
church at the on-line Live365.Com radio server.
Download a free copy of 365Easyloader, the
software needed to upload an MP3 file to your
radio server.
Church
Make a broadcast-quality recording of your
church service on cassette, reel-to-reel tape, or
audio CD recorder as detailed in Chapter 9 of the
Church Workers Handbook. Or use previouslyrecorded tapes if they are of broadcast quality..
Desktop
Use an mp3 recorder or equal to encode [record]
your prerecorded church service as an MP3 file
at the appropriate kbps bitrate. This will be
saved to the hard drive of your computer. We
suggest a hard drive of at least 140 gbs so you
won’t soon run out of space.
Online
Use 365Easloader to upload your church
service’s new MP3 file, using the appropriate
bitrate, and correct user name and password for
your new radio station.
Online
Add your new church service MP3 file to your
play list; create one if one does not already exist.
Online
Download and use the Studio365 software to do
such maintenance items as add and delete MP3
files from your playlist, save a changed playlist,
start and stop broadcast.
Online
Your church service may now be heard around
the world where there is Internet access by
everyone that has a computer, a modem that
accepts the bitrate of your broadcast, and an
MP3 player. Live365 provides a free player
during a first-time listener's setup. Or any player
such as RealAudio, Winamp, or SoundJam may
be used. Until you record and upload more
services, this one service will play all day, every
day.
Everywhere Publicize your new radio station, and the link to
your broadcast, everywhere. Use the techniques
outlined in Chapter 12 about publishing on the
Church Workers Handbook --200-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
12
13
14
Online
web.
Next week, repeat steps 5, 6, 7, and 8
If you already have a library of recorded church
services, use these tapes to repeat steps 5, 6, 7,
and 8 until your 100 mgs of storage is full.
After your 100 megs of storage is full, you may
delete the oldest church service in your MP3
library to make room for newer church services.
Sequence of Events for Creating an Internet
Radio Broadcast of Your Church Service
1. Download a free copy of the MP3 Player365
2. Apply for and create a radio station for your church at the on-line
Live365.Com radio server. You will be asked to fill out a simple form, where you
will select a name for your program and a name for the DJ. Here is an example:
NazareneWorship, Pastor_Judy_Carney
Of course, you will be asked to give a credit card for paying for your new Internet
radio station. The cost begins at $9.95 a month when you pay annually.
This link will take you to a page where you can see
Broadcast Packages,
Features, Costs
https://store.live365.com/orders/orderform.live
Use your clipboard to copy this URL into your browser's address
window.
You will be asked to create a password. Something like: pilotpttx
[You Nazarenes may recognize this as Pilot Point, Texas!] Make sure you write it
down and remember where you wrote it.
You will also need to select the target bit rate for your audience, based on the speed
of the modem and the size of the MP3 files you want to create and store. It is my
opinion that 16 kpbs/28K modem speed is about right for a recording of a church
service. This is considered AM radio quality. Also, you probably want to go with
Church Workers Handbook --201-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
mono instead of stereo, especially if your church sound board is not set up for
stereo. Stereo also makes MP3 files that are much larger than mono
Before you broadcast, you will need to create a play list. Your play list will appear
on the screen when Live365 is playing your program, so be a little more informative.
Example: Morning Worship from Church of the Nazarene
3. Download an mp3 recorder,
the software needed to copy a regular
cassette tape or CD recording of your church service to digital MP3 format.
•
Create a folder on your desktop for storing your MP3 files
Set up your copy of an mp3 recorder as follows:
1. Click the Options button and select View.
2. From the View menu, select Recorder
3. With the Recorder on the screen, click Options again and select Settings,
followed by Recorder tab.
4. Under Recorder tab, everything should be unchecked except Custom
Quality, Recording Source, and CD Recording Mode.
Set these as follows:
Custom Quality: Drag the slider to 16 kbps [if you are broadcasting for
56K modems]
Recording Source: Set drop down box to Line In [If you have a CD
recorder, your source will be digital.
CD Recording Mode: Analog, if you are using a conventional analog
cassette recorder
Click the Tracks Directory button. Find the scroll button [square
button with three dots ... to the right of the Directory for New Songs
field. Scroll to the new folder you have created to store your MP3 files.
My New Tracks directory is:
C:\WINDOWS\Desktop\Up radio
4. Prepare an mp3 recorder for recording a copy of your church
service cassette in MP3 format:
Church Workers Handbook --202-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
• Use a regular patch cord with an RCA plug on one end and a mini-plug
on the other end to connect the Line Out jack of your cassette recorder
to the Line-In jack of your computer. Consult your computer's manual
if you're not sure where the Line-in jack is located.
• Make a test copy from the cassette to your computer.
• Test the test copy with your computer’s MP3 player. As a rule, if you
double-click the test MP3 file, it should play via your computer’s MP3
RECORDER. If it does not, trouble shoot by reviewing the steps thus
far.
On my old Gateway computer, I had trouble finding the
proper Line-In jack in the back of the tower so I could
make a recording from my cassette recorder to the
computer. When I got the wrong jack by accident, my MP3
recording were blank until I found the right jack.
5. With the mp3 recorder on the screen, click the refresh button
to clear any previous titles
These instructions and examples will be for making an analog recording with a
cassette or reel to reel recorder. If your church service is recorded on a CD, treat
your recording as you would any other digital CD.
1. Click the Options button at the top of the AN MP3 RECORDER. Select
Settings, and then the Recorder tab.
2. Set the Custom Quality as MP3 CBR with your choice of kbps. Set Recording
Source as Line In. Set CD Mode as Analog.
3. In the main Recorder window, you will see the words Artist and Album. Click
Artist and it will be selected. While it is selected, type First Baptist Church.
Click Album and type Morning Worship: 10:30 A.M.
4. Click in the title field and the following text will be selected: Edit track name
here before beginning. Type
5. April 17, 2009
Check the Record level, especially if the playback level is not loud enough.
MusicMatch says that the record level should not need attention. Our
experience is that is not exactly true.
Here's how to check the Record level
Church Workers Handbook --203-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Double-click the speaker icon in the task bar. A single click
brings up a Volume slider and mute button. A second click
brings up the Master Volume control panel. Select
Options>Properties. In the Properties dialog box, click the
Recording button and in the window, check the functions
you plan to use. Of course, you will want to click LINE IN.
Click OK. Now you will see a Recording Control Panel for
your selected functions. Adjust the sliders to suit and make
sure the needed function is checked at the bottom of the
panel. The LINE IN volume level should not be above 25%
of maximum to start.
5. Cue the cassette recording to the beginning of sound.
6. Poise the mouse button right on the recorder’s REC button.
As
soon as you hear sound from the cassette, click REC and the recording will start on
the computer.
7. It will be best to make a continuous recording on the computer of
the entire service. If you need to change or reverse tapes, do so as quickly as
possible and do not stop the computer recorder. If you stop the recorder, you will
create another MP3 recording. Then you will need to assure that part 2 always
follows part 1 in the Live365.com play list. To put it mildly, this will be a nuisance!
8. Download a free copy of 365Easyloader Use the EasyLoader to
upload your new MP3 file to Live365.com
If you have a cable or DSL connection, your upload process will be fairly fast.
However, if you have a dial-up connection and 56K modem, you may need to be on
line quite a while to upload one 90-minute church service. Be sure you have a phone
that someone will not be using during this time and that your ISP has a local access
number.
You will need the following information to upload an MP3 file:
Church Workers Handbook --204-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
•
Location of the folder where you have stored the file you are uploading
•
Your member name, selected at the time you first signed up with
Live365.Com
•
Password
•
Target bit rate [Modem speed of your target audience]
9. Add your new church service MP3 file to your play list; create
one if one does not already exist.
•
When your new MP3 file arrives at your broadcast site, it will be placed in
your library. Find it in the library and select it.
•
Click the Add button and it will be placed in your playlist window.
•
Make sure the location is the order in which you want the new file to be
played.
•
If the file is out of order, you can move it up or down in the order by selecting
the file and clicking the UP or Down button.
Navigating Around Your Radio Station in order to do
maintenance
Download and use the Studio365 software to do maintenance work on your radio
station.
The screen shot below shows the Studio365 software at work for my radio station
station: Gospel Caravan.
Studio365 allows you to so such maintenance tasks as:
• Create a new playlist.
• Add files to an existing playlist.
• Delete files from an existing playlist.
Church Workers Handbook --205-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
• Control the order items will appear in a playlist.
10. Next week, repeat the process until your 100 megs of storage is full.
Then each week, delete the oldest service from your play list to make room for the
newest one.
11. Publicize your broadcast near and far.
Your Internet radio station is just like any other URL on the Internet: if you don't
publicize, no one will know about it. And if no one knows about it, no one will listen.
At first, your most likely listeners will be near: shut-ins, kids from your
church that are away at college, missionaries your church may support, and anyone
Church Workers Handbook --206-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
else that may already have an interest in your church. To publicize your broadcast
to such persons, click the Tell Your Friends about Your Station icon. This is a yellow
envelope down near the bottom of the broadcast page, after you log in. When you
click this button, you will get an e-mail message that includes your broadcast URL.
It will look something like this:
I think you'll like this Live365 station
http://www.live365.com/stations/teachradio?play&site=live365
...Click the link above (or copy it into your browser) to listen!
Make sure you publicize your radio broadcast on your church web page. Load a
clickable icon with your program's URL. Then all a prospective listener needs to do
is click on your "broadcast" icon.
Also, you will want to include your radio URL in all the church e-mail signatures. In
other words, include your station URL on everything you publish, digitally as well
as in hard copy, just as you do your telephone number.
Later, your listeners may be far: Visit this link to learn more on how to publicize
any Internet web site, including Internet Radio Stations.
This chapter of Church Workers Handbook was written when Internet
Radio was in its infancy. My first Internet broadcast went out April 15, 2000 and
this is being written August 12, 2000 and updated April 27, 2008. By the time you
read this, Internet Radio may be far more advanced than this chapter covers.
Glossary of Terms
If you click the link above, you will go to the Live365.Com glossary. Or, you can
scroll down and read the glossary I have prepared for this page.
The terms in this list pertain specifically to Internet
Radio broadcasting. If you don't understand terms
that relate to your church's sound system or
traditional AM or FM broadcasting, return to those
chapters for review. Computer terms will not be
included unless they have a specific application to
Internet Radio. If you need to review computer
Church Workers Handbook --207-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
terms, return to Chapter 5. Shopping For and Using
a Microcomputer
Convert. EasyLoader has a setting that makes it possible to change an MP3 file
from one kbps to another.
EasyLoader A Live365.Com utility that uploads MP3 files from a computer's
hard drive to Live365.Com Once such MP3 files have been uploaded, they are
stored in your MP3 Library on Live365.Com and need no longer be stored on your
computer's hard drive.
Internet Radio
Internet radio is based on the concept of streaming audio. An
Internet radio server (such as Live365.Com) sends out a stream of audio signals in
the form of MP3 files over the phone lines, with each stream, or station, having a
specific [and usually long] URL. Those who want to listen to a specific program, set
their web browsers to the URL of the radio station they want to hear. The browser
then directs the stream of audio to an MP3 player inside the computer, such as
Winamp [for Windows] or SoundJam [for Windows or Macintosh]. The computer
then plays the incoming stream of audio signals through its sound board and
speaker system.
KBPS.
[Kilobits per second] This is the speed at which MP3 files travel along the
phone lines. This speed is set when the file is created by the MusicMatch JukeBox.
It can also be converted when the MP3 file is uploaded by EasyLoader. The higher
modem speed required to play your music, the higher the kbps rating. For example,
a 56K file is broadcast at 32kpbs. A 28K file is broadcast at 16kbps. We have found
that analog recordings from a cassette sound good when processed at 32K [16kbps].
This makes your broadcast available for more listeners. In addition, an hour-long
28K file [16 kbps] takes up less storage space on the radio server than a 56K file [16
kbps]. Warning: the speed at which the file is recorded by a digital MP3 recorder
and uploaded must be the same in order for the broadcast to take place properly.
Live365.Com MP3 Library.
The place on the Live365.Com server where
your MP3 files are stored. You may store up to 100 mgs of MP3 files at the entry
price of $9.95 per month.
Live365.Com Play List.
This is the order in which you want your MP3 files to
be played. You may not want them to be played in the order they have been
uploaded into your MP3 Library. For church service broadcasting, your play list
Church Workers Handbook --208-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
will probably be in chronological order, with the last uploaded being the first played
etc.
MP3
The type of audio file that is required to send sound along a phone line to a
computer that is equipped with an MP3 tuner such as 365Player, Winamp, or
SoundJam. [This is the type of file we will use in this chapter for broadcasting a
church service.]
Mp3 recorder A Windows-only computer application that will enable you to
create MP3 files from the line output of a cassette recorder. This is the use we will
make of AN MP3 RECORDERwhen broadcasting your church services.
Radio Server
A website, such as Live365.com, that hosts radio programs and
broadcasts audio streams on a specific URL.
Streaming Audio A continuous flow of audio signals in the form of an MP3 file.
URL
Universal Resource Locator. This term applies to radio servers, such as
Live365.Com as well as to all other web hosts.
Church Workers Handbook --209-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Chapter 16: Supervision and
Administration of Sunday
School Programs
Church Workers Handbook--What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
Table of Contents for This Chapter
Introduction:................................................................................................................... 195
1. Teacher Training........................................................................................................ 200
2. Chain of Command and Table of Organization ..................................................... 200
3. Major program Goals ............................................................................................... 201
4. Job Descriptions ......................................................................................................... 203
5. Performance Standards ............................................................................................. 203
6. Regular Observation .................................................................................................. 203
7. Performance Evaluation ............................................................................................ 204
8. Regular Reappointment of All Workers .................................................................. 204
9. Corrective Actions and Praise ................................................................................. 205
Glossary .......................................................................................................................... 207
Warning: This chapter may include html links that will take you to other sites on the
Internet if you click them
Introduction
The term Sunday School is being used in it's broadest sense possible. We
are talking here about any structured program the church operates to
improve the knowledge and behavior of any group of students,
regardless of the chronological age of the students involved or the time
of day or day of the week of the time slot involved. This includes
everything from children's programs run in the traditional morning
time slot usually reserved for Sunday school, to adult Bible study
programs held Wednesday night from 7 to 9 PM. And everything in
between.
Church Workers Handbook --210-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
And, the term Sunday School Managers means all persons that are
responsible for making sure Sunday school programs are carried out
according to sound management and education practices.
The most common trap into which a Sunday school manager can fall sounds
something like this:
Question: Aren't these teachers/workers really
volunteers who are toiling as a good-will service
to this church?
Answer: There may be no money involved but
there is time. The teacher's time, the student's
time, the supervisor's time. Most importantly,
there is the eternal destiny of the souls of the
students involved.
Therefore, we can all do no less than adhere to the following principles of sound
management and instruction:
Basic principles for all quality instruction:
Detailed descriptions of these points will follow later in this chapter...
•
Each teacher and each manager will have a written job description and
relevant performance standards. Of course, a teacher's job description should
reference competence in four main areas:
o
o
o
o
compassion,
communication,
content, and
control.
•
All teachers will receive pre-service and in-service training in how to fulfill the
requirements of their job descriptions and meet minimum performance
standards.
•
Each teacher will be given a regular performance evaluation to assess on-thejob competence as measured against the relevant job description and
Church Workers Handbook --211-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
performance standards. Such an evaluation will include the following areas:
compassion, communication, content, and control.
•
Teachers who show evidence of failing to perform satisfactorily will
participate in a corrective action program designed to improve performance
in the deficient area(s).
•
Teachers who fail to respond to an appropriate corrective action program will
be considered for dismissal.
•
Dismissal will be the final disciplinary action, following these progressive
disciplinary actions:
a) Verbal reprimand.
b) Written warning.
c) Written reprimand.
d) Suspension.
1. Teacher Training
All teachers need to be trained in the basic concepts of sound teaching practice. This
includes everyone from the college graduates with teaching certificates to the
pastors. Those who come in regular direct contact with students need training for
the obvious reason. But, pastors and administrators need the same training, also, so
they can provide realistic leadership and role modeling for their subordinates.
I have written a chapter for this book called, You Can Be a Teacher, Too. You can
use this material as the foundation for your basic training. There is an expanded
version of this same material at this link.
This material has been written specifically for persons that have no formal or
certification in education and teaching.
2. Chain of Command and Table of Organization
Exodus 18:13-27:
Moses listened to his father-in-law and did everything he said.
25 He chose capable men from all Israel and made them
leaders of the people, officials over thousands, hundreds,
Church Workers Handbook --212-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
fifties and tens. 26 They served as judges for the people at all
times. The difficult cases they brought to Moses, but the
simple ones they decided themselves.
This famous passage from Exodus contains the story of how Jethro, the father-inlaw of Moses, was used of God to help Moses create the Bible's first chain of
command. Since that day, this simple concept has been used by legal systems,
armies, and governments across the world to organize large groups of people and
get things done efficiently and effectively.
The typical large church may have a table of organization that looks something like
the sample chart above. Of course, teachers/workers would be listed below the
Associate Pastors in a full-size Table of Organization.
•
It is God's plan that every large organization has some variation of the
Jethro/Moses style of a Table of Organization.
•
The relationships must be clearly drawn and understood by all concerned.
•
The Table of Organization must be reflected in such things as the writing of
major program goals, job descriptions, performance standards, and
performance evaluations.
3. Major Program Goals
Here is a sample three-part Major Program Goal for any Sunday school.
1. Bring students into a personal relationship with Jesus,
2. Help keep them true to Jesus, and
3. Help all believers replicate themselves as frequently as possible.
Church Workers Handbook --213-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Before you begin to think about job descriptions, you need to put in writing why you
do what you do. Some folks call this a mission statement. I prefer to call this effort
"Stating Major Program Goals". Probably the difference in the terms is largely
semantic. Either way, the key concept in both mission statements and program goals
is Why? Why do we do, what we do, when we do it, and how we do it?
Let's go back to the sample table or organization shown above and look at the
traditional Lead pastor with associate pastors for children, youth, and adults.
Starting at the top of the chart, here is an assortment of major program goals a lead
pastor might consider, depending on doctrinal emphasis of the congregation and/or
denomination.
•
Everyone touched by this church will come to the knowledge of Jesus Christ
as a Personal Savior.
•
All believers will become effective personal evangelists within the community.
•
All believers will be filled with the Holy Spirit in a second, definite,
instantaneous work of grace.
•
All believers will be baptized in the Spirit as evidenced by speaking in
unlearned languages as the Spirit given them utterance.
•
All believers will be immersed in water as a profession of faith.
•
Etc. etc. etc.
Here are a few sample goal statements for the pastors for children, youth, and
adults.
•
Children will learn to treat the church as God's house.
•
Children will treat each other with respect and will avoid all forms of
psychological and physical bullying.
•
Teens will learn the dangers of illicit sex, drugs, drinking, and smoking as the
normal, logical way to live and not just as a list of Divine prohibitions.
•
Teens will learn to share their faith with friends as the logical extension of
living normally and according to their Operator's Manual.
•
Adults will learn to open their arms and homes to visitors in the true spirit of
Christian hospitality and friendship and will avoid closed groups and cliques.
4. Job Descriptions
A job description should be written by the immediate supervisor of the worker
involved, and reviewed/approved by this supervisor's immediate supervisor. This
review is usually done in conjunction with a regularly-scheduled performance
evaluation but no less often than once per year.
All workers in any organization need a job description that spells out in sufficient
written detail the work that is to be done and how it is to be done. Such a job
description must be presented to each worker when they are considered for
appointment and should be available for periodic review by both the workers and
the supervisor.
Here are some sample elements for various job descriptions. You can use your
imagination from here:
•
Maintain an atmosphere of order and decorum that is conducive to reverence
for God's House and good learning.
•
Encourage all students to treat others as persons of worth, including students
and workers.
•
Uses students' current knowledge of known things to help them learn about
the abstract concepts of the Bible. [Jesus' type of teaching with parables.]
•
Treats all students of all ages with dignity and respect.
•
Follows the work rules spelled out in the workers handbook. [Another entire
chapter could be written about developing a worker handbook.]
•
Makes an effort to improve teaching skills by attending in-service training
classes.
The next step in the management process is to spell out performance standards that
are both realistic and measurable.
5. Performance Standards
Any supervisor worth his/her salt can tell the difference between a good worker and
a poor worker. Yes, there are some poor workers in any organization, even if that
organization is dedicated to the cause of Christ. Now, how is the supervisor going to
sort out the good workers from the poor workers. You guessed it! By applying the
written performance standards to the written job description.
Church Workers Handbook --215-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
There are differences of opinion as to how performance standard should be written.
Should they be based on the excellent worker that we want all other workers to
emulate? For this discussion, let's describe a good, average worker who is in the
middle of the traditional performance range. He/she can do better, and worse with
more or less effort:
[Apply this scale to the sample job description elements shown above]
5 Excellent -- All the Time
4 Very Good -- Much of the Time
3 Good -- Usually
2 Fair -- Frequently
1 Poor -- Seldom
0 Unsatisfactory -- Never
6. Regular Observation
During my first two years of classroom teaching, I can't remember my principal
making a formal observation visit in my classroom. Oh, he was in and out a lot; my
room was right next to his office. But he never came in and sat down to review my
lesson plans, never did a formal observation, never had a post-observation
conference with me. If I did indeed become an effective teacher by the end of my
probationary period, it was in spite as his supervision and not because of it.
We need to talk about the regular aspect of observation. Many supervisors base
their evaluations of their teachers on such things as casual contacts and
conversations and not sit-down observations.
7. Performance Evaluation
Each worker should be given a regular performance evaluation to assess on-the-job
competence as measured against the relevant job description and performance
standards. Such an evaluation will include the following areas: compassion,
communication, content, and control.
During the probationary period, a formal evaluation should be done every 30 days
with no less than 30 minutes of in-room observation to be done by the immediate
Church Workers Handbook --216-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
supervisor. Such an observation should be followed by a sit-down interview to
discuss how well the work met the performance standards during the observation.
When I was a school principal, I used a videotape recorder when I did an
observation of teachers in the classroom. Of course, this was done with the teacher's
prior permission and no one saw the tapes but the teacher and myself.
No one likes to be observed by a supervisor, especially when carrying a camera. But
after a while, the teachers got used to it and so did the students. I always chose an
area of the room to film from that would be least disruptive to the normal activities
of the classroom.
After the observation, the teacher and I would sit down and watch the tape. To tell
the truth, the tape often did much of the work. Teachers' comments would include
such things as:
•
•
•
I can't believe I said/did that!
Look at that. That is awful!
I'll never do that again!
Using a video camera is something that worked for me but not all supervisors may
feel comfortable with that much technology during a formal observation. [I did this
back in the 70s when video recorders were bulky and not nearly as unobtrusive as
today’s camcorders. You decide.
8. Regular Reappointments
When a Sunday school worker has been appointed to work in the church education
program, it should be clearly understood by all concerned that such an appointment
is not for life, as is the case with the US Supreme Court Justices. The initial
appointment should be for a probationary period, such as 90 days.
If this probationary period is completed successfully, a full appointment should be
made for one year. This one-year appointment may be reconsidered on a yearly
basis in a structured manner.
9. Praise and Corrective Actions
If you are in the business of manufacturing and selling widgets for
profit, your organization would have a formal program for handling
praise for good performance and corrective actions for poor
Church Workers Handbook --217-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
performance. In this work, you are dealing with never-dying souls and
their eternal destiny.
Therefore, you should be no less diligent in dealing with praise and
corrections.
When a worker is performing in the fair or lower range of the scale we talked about
above, it's time to begin the Discipline/Praise Ladder. Everyone knows about the
discipline ladder but there's a praise ladder, too, and it should be used when
Excellent and Very Good performance is observed in connection with a particular
practice or event.
Here is the traditional Correction Ladder:
[Always remember to praise in public and reprimand in private.]
1. The first time you, the supervisor, are displeased about something, have a
private informal meeting with the worker. Discuss your feelings about the
matter and give the worker a chance to talk freely, also.
2. If the same situation persists, have a more formal [closed-door, sit-down]
meeting and follow it up with a written letter of reprimand that summarizes
what was talked about at the meeting. This letter of reprimand should include
the chances of dismissal if the problem persists.
3. If the same situation still persists, have another meeting and tell the worker
that he/she will be suspended from service for one period/session and follow
this up with a letter documenting what was discussed at the meeting and the
details of the suspension.
4. If the problem continues, give the worker a Notice of Dismissal.
Of course good work requires that you use the Praise
Ladder:
•
•
•
Informal comments and notes of praise
Letters of commendations
Public recognition of good work in a staff meeting
Warning: Strive to maintain equality and sincerity with your
praise!
Church Workers Handbook --218-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Glossary
Chain of command: The plan of organization suggested to Moses by his fatherin-law, Jethro in Exodus 18:13-27.
Communication: The ability to share ideas and skills with others. Example: a
musician or athlete can be an average performer while teaching a gifted performer
how to do a better job.
Compassion: Liking people in general well enough to teach them.
Content: Knowing what to teach and how to teach it.
Control: Using organized classroom rules and behavioral programming to
improve behavior.
Corrective action: The sequential application of the Discipline Ladder [See
Discipline Ladder.]
Discipline Ladder: The sequence of events taken by management when a
worker's service is not satisfactory. The typical sequence is: Verbal Warning[s],
Written Warning[s], Letter[s] of Reprimand, Period[s] of Suspension, Notice of
Dismissal.
Immediate supervisor: The person on the table of organization who is
responsible for a given worker's day to day activities and for his/her regular
performance evaluation.
In-service training: Training in job skills for workers who are already assigned
and working.
Jethro; Exodus 18:13-27: The man who suggested to Moses the classic table of
organization.
Job description: A written description of the duties for which a worker is
responsible.
Letter of Reprimand: A step on the Discipline Ladder.
Church Workers Handbook --219-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Major program goals: A written description of what an organization is
supposed to be doing; the mission statement.
Notice of Dismissal: The final step on the Discipline Ladder.
Observation: The process used by a supervisor to evaluate a worker's ability to
work according to the job description.
Performance evaluation: A written report on a worker's performance, based
on formal observation as well as day to day contacts.
Performance standards: The degree to which a worker is working according
to the job description.
Pre-service training: Training in work skills before a worker begins to serve.
Reappointment: The renewal of an informal contract to perform according to
the job description.
Student: Anyone who is taught regardless of chronological age.
Sunday school managers: The persons assigned by the church to oversee the
Sunday school program.
Sunday school: Any form of a church training program regardless of the age of
the students or training schedule.
Table of organization: The classic means of getting a large job done by a small
group of people. See Exodus 18:13-27
G. Edwin Lint
Please note: The hypertext e-mail link above is hot [active] when you are connected to the Internet
through your ISP. The same will be true of all hypertext links through the text of this ebook.
Church Workers Handbook --220-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Chapter 17: E-mail Basics
E-mail: electronic mail
Church Workers Handbook--What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
© 2008 DiskBooks Electronic Publishing
Click for a Free-Standing Version of This Chapter on the Internet
This page is written with Microsoft Outlook Express [OE] 6.0 e-mail browser in
mind. You can visit the Microsoft Internet Explorer Home Page and download a
free bundle that contains Internet Explorer [IE] 6.0 browser plus Outlook Express.
However, many of these tips and pointers will work with an earlier version of OE
and other e-mail browsers, also.
The information in this page is designed to help you become an efficient and
effective user of e-mail by showing you some tips and pointers of mostly a cosmetic
rather than a technical nature. For matters pertaining to obtaining the e-mail
services of an Internet Service Provider [ISP] and getting connected, you need to
select an ISP and get your technical information from that ISP.
Contents of This Page
Introduction ..................................................................................................... 210
Check your e-mail regularly ........................................................................... 211
Activate the Spell Checker ............................................................................. 212
Activate Rich Text Format [HTML] ................................................................ 212
Use Your Address Book ................................................................................. 213
Automatic additions to your address book .................................................. 212
Adding addresses to your address book by typing .................................... 214
Creating Groups in your address book ........................................................ 215
Creating and Using a Signature..................................................................... 215
Using the BCC [Blind Carbon Copies] Address Field ................................ 215
to Keep E-mail Addresses Confidential
Sending and Saving Attachments ................................................................. 216
Sending Digital Pictures [Using a digital camera] ....................................... 217
Including pictures with an e-mail message ................................................. 218
Forward with care ........................................................................................... 219
Glossary ........................................................................................................... 222
Church Workers Handbook --221-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Introduction
E-mail is here to stay and is a key component of the digital revolution. You can
learn to use e-mail even though you've never touched a typewriter. And, age is not a
factor. My Mother-in-law had never touched a typewriter before 2001, when she
was 89. However, by the time of her death in 2006, she used e-mail regularly to
correspond to her extended family and you can, too. She may have typed slowly and
liked to use fonts of at least 24 points, but her messages were clearly
understandable. My wife gave her parents a computer she had outgrown, thinking
that her Dad would be the primary user, since he already knew how to type.
However, Nancy's mother took an interest in the computer and soaked up
everything we were able to teach her about the Internet and e-mail.
Being able to type is a definite plus when it comes to using e-mail with ease and
efficiency. I have my Dad, Rev. J. Franklin Lint, to thank for the degree of typing
ability I may have. I can still remember him going head to head with the high school
principal back in the early 50s about my taking typing. The principal thought I
didn't need typing because I was in the College Prep course and not the business
course. Of course, Dad said, "He of all people needs to take typing because he's
going to college." Dad seldom last an argument that involved logic and he didn't lose
that one, either!
I started using e-mail in October, 1981. Since then, I checked my e-mail every
working day until I retired in December, 1994. Since retirement, I have checked my
e-mail every day, including weekends and holidays. I check my e-mail the first thing
when my computer boots up in the morning. And, the last thing I do before putting
my computer to sleep in the evening is check my e-mail.
When I came home from the hospital in May 1996, following quintuple heart bypass
surgery, the first thing I did was read my accumulated e-mail, and [with my wife's
help] respond as needed.
Check your e-mail regularly.
Have you ever heard of anyone who didn't check their USPS mail box daily? I
haven't! As soon as the mail delivery person walks/drives away, we're right there,
checking to see what we got. Most often, it's catalogs and bills.
We need to give our e-mail this same level of diligent devotion. Check your
e-mail at least once a day. I check mine several times a day and so does
Nancy, my wife.
Church Workers Handbook --222-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Activate the Spell Checker.
For some strange reason, off is the default setting for the spell checker instead of on.
Therefore, you have to take the proactive step of turning the spell checker on. Never
assume you are a good enough typist or speller to ever send an e-mail without
activating your spell checker. The OE spell checker is not as powerful as the one in
your favorite word processor but it will catch all of your spelling errors if not your
grammar errors.
1. Get the Inbox window on the screen.
2. Pull down the Tools menu and select Options.
3. Click the Spelling tab at the top of the screen.
4. Make sure the following options are checked:
•
•
Always check spelling before sending
Suggest replacements for misspelled works
Activate Rich Text Format [HTML]
Outlook Express gives you a choice of two typing formats: Plain Text and Rich Text
with Plain Text being the default setting???
Plain Text Format: This is just plain vanilla with no chocolate and no sprinkles.
Rich text Format: This format enables you to format the text of your message with
such things as bold, italics, and color. In fact, most of the text formatting features
available in your word processor are available. Most important is the ability to add
pictures, both in line with your text or as attachments to your message.
To activate Rich Text format:
1. Open Outlook Express [OE] and get a new message on the screen.
2. Pull down the Format menu and make sure a black dot is showing beside Rich
Text [html] and that a check is showing beside Send pictures with message.
3. If the black dot and check are not showing, select them successively and these
features will be activated until you deactivate them at some future date.
Church Workers Handbook --223-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Use Your Address Book.
Before you can use your OE address book, you need to understand some rules about
e-mail addresses:
An e-mail address is composed of two basic parts separated by the @ symbol. The
@ symbol is made by holding down the shift key and typing the numeral 2. Usually
all characters of an e-mail address are in lower case and there may be no spaces.
Most people accept this rule and learn to read and write e-mail addresses according
to it. But if you don't like to see yourname, you can use an underscore instead of a
space: your_name
The information to the left of @ is how you wish to be identified [User Name] and
the information to the right of @ is the Internet service that is providing you with email. Here is my business e-mail address as an example: diskbooks@comcast.net
E-mail is absolutely unforgiving of any typos. If you make a mistake in the way you
type the address, your e-mail most likely will go nowhere except into the ozone
layer. The unforgiving nature of e-mail is the main reason for using your address
book to both send messages and store addresses.
Adding addresses to your address book by
typing.
1. Open OE without a message showing. You will see a button marked Addresses
at the top of the screen. Or, when a message is showing, pull down the Tools
menu and select Address Book
2. Click the New button and select New Contact. [OE will call the persons listed
in the address book Contacts]
3. Fill in the name fields with how you want your mail to appear when your
contact gets it. Let's say you are planning on writing to your parents. You
could put Mr. and Mrs. John Doe in the name fields. Or you could make it
sound more personal and put in Dad and Mother. I have chosen to put in Dad
and Mother.
4. You will need to know the exact spelling of your parents' e-mail address. I
know my parents' e-mail address is johnmarydoe@ptd.net Therefore, I
carefully type this in the E-mail addresses field and double check it to make
sure there are no typos.
Church Workers Handbook --224-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
5. Click Add and then click OK. You have just added Dad and Mother to your
address book. When you write to them from now on, just start typing Dad and
Mother in the To: field. If you only have one address beginning with D, all you
have to type is D. But if you have several starting with D [Dave, Donna, Dean,
etc] you will have to keep typing Dad and Mother until you get to the point
where OE recognizes Dad and Mother. In this example, you would have to
type Dad before OE would take over and complete the addressing for you.
6. Remember: when you type in the address in the To: field, start slowly typing
their real name, not johnmarydoe@ptd.net That is their e-mail address but
OE translates Dad and Mother into johnmarydoe@ptd.net
7. Have faith and do it this way. It really works!
8. Now you are ready to add another address to your address book.
Special Note: If you are having difficulty getting your copy of OE to work as
described on this page so far, try this:
•
Make sure you are at the OE Inbox page.
•
Pull down Tools and select Options
•
Click the Send tab
•
Read all the options at the Send tab and make sure everything is checked the
way you want it to be.
Automatic additions to your address book:
So far, you have learned how to type an address for Dad and Mother. But, today
you get an unexpected e-mail from Aunt Elizabeth. OE will automatically add her
name to your address book if you reply to a message from her. Today, you also get a
message from a business associate that needs no reply. You can also add this address
to your address book without typing it in:
1. Look at the message carefully. At the top of the left side of the message, you
should see the word From: with this contact's name beside it.
2. Double click on your associate's name and OE will give the first screen of the
Properties of this person's e-mail information.
3. Click on the Add to Address Book button and your business associate will be
added to your book!
Church Workers Handbook --225-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Creating Groups in your address book.
A Group in an OE address book is a list of contacts that is saved under a certain
name you create. If you find yourself sending the same e-mail message to people
with common properties or characteristics, you need to create a group. For
example, here are two groups I have in my address book. Ed Lint Family and Big
Family. The first is made up of my wife, my four children, and any of the spouses
who may have their own e-mail addresses. Big Family is everyone on Nancy's and
my sides of the family that have e-mail addresses. For example, if I want to write to
my immediate family, I click in the To: field and start typing Ed Lint Family. At the
present time, all I have to type is the E and OE finishes typing Ed Lint Family. I
write my message and click Send. Bang! Everyone in our immediate family gets the
message. To create a Group, follow these steps:
1. Open your Address Book and select New and New Group.
2. Give your new group a short name. In this example we'll call it Family
3. Click Select Members
4. All contacts currently in your address book will be in the left column.
Everyone in the Family group will appear in the right column.
5. Click a name in the left column to highlight it. [Or, double-click a name in the
left column.]
6. Click the Select button in the middle and it will appear in the right column as
a member of your Family group.
7. If a contact appears in the Family group in error, click on it to select it and
then press the Delete key on your keyboard.
8. When you are finished adding contacts to your Family group, click OK and
you will be able to see your Family group in a Properties window. Look at it
closely and make sure it's the way you want it to be.
9. If it is, click OK and close out of OE before you try to use your new Group.
10. The next time you have a message to send to your whole family, type Family
in the To: field and it will go to all you have placed in this group. Family is
used here as an example. You can have groups called such names as Teachers,
Students, Board Members, Customers, Friends, etc, etc.
Church Workers Handbook --226-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Creating and Using a Signature.
A signature is a saved block of text that you use any time you need to paste this
block. This feature is called Signature because it is frequently used to close an e-mail
message. You can create and use Signature by following these steps:
1. Make sure the OE screen is showing Create Mail in the upper left corner of
the screen.
2. Click on the Create Mail button to get a blank message form. Type the block
of text you wish to use as your Signature in the message block of this blank
form.
3. Select [highlight] the text in your signature and copy it to the clipboard. [Press
Control-C]
4. Pull down the Tools menu and select Options
5. Click on the Signatures tab along the top of the Options dialog box.
6. Click the New button. Signature #1 will appear in the Signatures box.
7. Click in the Edit Signature box to get an insertion point [flashing cursor.]
Also, make sure the Text button beside this box is clicked.
8. Paste the contents of the clipboard at the insertion point. [Press Control V}
9. Click Apply and then click OK. Your new signature is now stored and ready
for use.
10. When you want the signature to appear at the insertion point, pull down the
Insert menu and select Signature.
11. A menu of the names of your stored signatures will be displayed. Click on
your choice and press Return. Your signature will appear at the insertion
point.
12. You may rename or remove a signature by returning to the Signature dialog
box: Tools>Option.
Use the BCC [Blind Carbon Copies] Address
Field to Keep E-mail Addresses Confidential.
Church Workers Handbook --227-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
When you send a message to a group [list], all the e-mail addresses in the group will
be published for everyone to see. In this age of mass spamming, some folks don't
care to have their e-mail address put on public display. Here's how you can use the
BCC field to keep the e-mail address of your recipients completely confidential:
1. With an e-mail message on the screen, pull down the View menu and select All
Headers. This will cause a check mark to appear beside All Headers. And the
BCC field will be toggled on.
2. The BCC field will now appear between the CC and the Subject fields.
3. Type the Group name and any other addressing information in this new BCC
field.
4. Leave the To: field blank when addressing your message.
5. When such a message is sent, Undisclosed Recipient: will appear in the To:
field of everyone who gets your message.
6. The BCC field will not even be seen by the recipients, maintaining complete
confidentiality.
Sending and Saving Attachments.
Attaching a file to your e-mail message is a handy and powerful way of moving
information via the Internet. Evil people have learned it is just as easy to cause
damage and mayhem so beware. We are assuming that the readers of this page want
to learn about attachments for good reasons. To attach file[s] to an e-mail message:
1. Know where on your computer this file[s] is located. If you have this file
buried in a folder several levels deep in your C drive, it may be a good idea to
create a folder on the desktop for holding files to be attached.
2. Attach the file[s] before you write the message in the message area. I have
made the mistake of clicking Send without making the attachment.
3. With the new message on the desktop, click the Attach button marked with a
paper clip icon.
4. OE will open a window for you to browse to the location of the attachment.
5. If you are attaching more than one file from the same folder, hold down
Control and then click each file to be attached. [When you hold down Control,
your selections do not need to be consecutive.]
Church Workers Handbook --228-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
6. When your selection[s] has been made, click the Attach button.
7. Now your attachment[s] will show in the Attach window below Subject, along
with the file name and size of each.
8. Now complete the rest of your e-mail message: To: CC: etc.
Saving attachments: Many attachments you will just read and either file or delete.
When you get attachment[s] you want to save, here's how to do it:
•
Right click on a file icon in the attachment window
•
If there is more than one attachment to this e-mail message, you may elect to
Save All
•
Follow the prompts very carefully. I suggest you save first to the desktop and
then you can file the attachments where they belong.
Sending Digital Pictures [Using a digital
camera].
Sending and receiving pictures via e-mail is a lot of fun. Of course, the digital
camera has made this not only possible but relatively easy. [Picture phones are not
covered on this page.] A digital camera stores a computer file of a picture on a
storage device inside the camera [often called a smart card.]
These picture files are then downloaded to your computer where they may be
printed, sent via e-mail, or inserted into a web page. I use an Olympus 2.1 megapixel
camera. This suits my needs for sharing pictures with family and friends. I have two
8 mb smart cards that will hold 16 pictures each at the highest resolution. I also
have a 64 mb card that will hold 127 high resolution pictures. Once the pictures
have been downloaded to my computer and stored on my hard drive, a smart card
may be erased and used over and over again. Digital cameras are hard on batteries
so I always carry a spare set of batteries as well as a spare smart card in my camera
case.
Here's the process I use for sending pictures from my digital camera via e-mail:
1. Download the picture files from the camera's smart card to a folder on my
desktop I call pix. Each picture file gets a default extension of .jpg
Church Workers Handbook --229-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
2. Use the software that came with the camera [Camedia] to resize each picture.
At the highest resolution, the pictures come out of my camera as 1600 pixels
wide. It is possible to send a picture this wide via e-mail but it will be so large,
the recipient will have to scroll continually to see the whole thing.
3. When I first started sending pictures via e-mail, I made this mistake. My
brother said he loved the pictures but there was just too much of them. That's
what brothers are for.
4. By trial and error, I learned that 500 pixels as the greater dimension was just
about right for sending my pictures via e-mail so that's what I always use.
When I change the 1600 to 500, the other dimension changes proportionally.
5. I also use the Olympus Camedia software to brighten the picture, if it is rather
dark and muddy. Cropping is possible to cut away parts of the picture that do
not contain valuable content.
6. Warning: when you resize and crop digital pictures, they may be more
suitable for e-mailing. However, such resized and cropped pictures may be
permanently damaged as far as making hard copy prints is concerned. Make
sure you save your valuable pictures in their native state, before resizing and
cropping. These native files are the ones you want to use for printing hard
copies.
7. The last step is to rename the picture with a filename that will mean
something to me. Olympus gives each picture a numeral for a name but I want
file names that tell me something about the content of the picture. For
example, the next big event on our family's calendar is my granddaughter's
birthday. Her name is Tori. So the file names for the pictures of Tori's party
will look something like this:
toricake.jpg [Tori's birthday cake]
torigifts.jpg [Tori opening her gifts]
toricandles.jpg [Tori blowing out her candles]
etc, etc, etc.
Including pictures with an e-mail message.
Here's an example of how I send .jpg picture files with my e-mail messages:
Church Workers Handbook --230-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
1. Compose an e-mail message for Big Family that tells about Tori's party and
includes some pictures.
2. Make sure the insertion point is where I want a picture to appear. [Click in
the text field to get an insertion point.]
3. Pull down the Insert menu and select Picture.
4. OE will give me a window where I can navigate to the folder that holds the
pictures of Tori's party. Once OE sees where the pictures are stored, it will go
back to that folder each time you ask to insert a picture.
5. I'll select the picture I want, based on the descriptive file names I see, and
bang!
6. The picture will appear in the message, right at the insertion point.
7. This process of inserting pictures in the text of your message is called the
Inline method. You may also send pictures by using the Attach command.
Your pictures will not appear in the text with the Attach method, but they will
be displayed below the text.
There are a few warnings you need to heed when sending pictures in your e-mail
message:
•
Your ISP or the ISP of your recipients may have limits on the number of
pictures you can send in a single message.
•
People who use freebee e-mail [service that is free] may be able get fewer
pictures per message, or none at all.
•
People who have a dial-up connection to the Internet may need to take a walk
around the block while your pictures download to their screen. If your
recipients have a broadband connection to the Internet [Cable or DSL], the
pictures will appear much more quickly.
Saving pictures: Many pictures you will just look at and either file or delete.
When you get picture[s] you want to save, here's how to do it:
•
Right click on the picture you want to save.
•
Select Save picture as
•
OE will give you a Save window with the file name highlighted. While this file
name is still selected, rename it with a name you will recognize in the future.
•
Make sure you see where OE will be saving the picture; browse to a new
location if you want another one.
Forward with care.
Forwarding what you think are valuable messages is easy with e-mail. Just click the
Forward button and address your message as you would normally do. There is even
a space for typing in any comments you may want to use as an introduction.
However, when you forward the easy way, OE puts a hash mark [>] at the
beginning of every line. If a message has been forwarded to you and you forward it
to a bunch of new people, the hash marks are multiplied. The text becomes
increasingly difficult to read until it's easier to click Delete then try to read a
forwarded message.
Not so long ago, I received a forwarded message that had over 100 hash marks on it.
You need to be able to use your computer's clipboard to forward properly.
Here's the right way to forward a message that will be as clean as when you first
looked at it:
1. Click in the text box of the message you like.
2. Pull down Edit and choose Select All. [Or press Control-A]
3. This action will select [highlight] everything in the message box.
4. Pull down Edit and Select Copy. [Or press Control-C]
5. This action will copy the entire message that you like onto your computer's
clipboard. You always have to select something before you can copy it.]
6. Create a new message, add the recipient[s] and subject.
7. Click in the text box and make sure you see the cursor flashing there.
8. Pull down Edit and select Paste. [or press Control-V]
9. This action will paste the entire message that you like from your clipboard
into your new message. [>>>No hash marks will be included!>>>]
Church Workers Handbook --232-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
10. Now, use your address book to send this new, pristine message far and wide.
There won't be a single hash mark in the whole carload!
11. If you want to keep the addresses of your recipients confidential be sure to use
the BCC field for all addresses and leave the To: field blank
Church Workers Handbook --233-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Webmail VS. Outlook Express
Up to this point on this page, we have been talking about the features of the email
browser by Microsoft known as Outlook Express [OE]. Many email users, however,
have never used OE. They use a version of webmail provided by their Internet
Service Provider [ISP]. For example, my ISP is Comcast, and Comcast has it's
webmail at www.comcast.net However, I only use the Comcast version of webmail
when I am forced to do so for certain maintenance tasks relating to the 6 mailboxes
attached to my Comcast email account. Other than performing maintenance tasks, I
don't access my webmail email program from one month to the next.
However, webmail does have one major advantage over the classier OE email
browser. With your webmail account, you can access your email to send and receive
anywhere in the world that has access to the Internet. All you need are:
o
o
Your user name and password.
A computer what has access to the Internet.
On the other hand, you can use OE only from your own computer where you have
configured OE to access your email.
If you are going to use OE from another computer to access your email, you will need
to configure OE on that computer by using the following codes:
•
A local or toll-free phone number for your ISP. Otherwise, you will need to be
prepared to pay toll charges back to your ISP for as long as you are on line
•
The following codes:
o
Type server
o
Incoming mail
o
Outgoing mail
If you are traveling away from your home computer, make sure you have your ISP's
toll free technical support phone number; you may need help to get connected.
How to get OE service from your ISP:
1. It will be ideal if you can both be on the Internet and talk to tech support at the
same time. Two lines or one line plus a cell phone will do.
Church Workers Handbook --234-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
2. Make sure you know exactly what user name and password you are currently
using to access email via your ISP's webmail.
3. Call your ISP's toll free technical support number.
4. Tell a technician you want to use Outlook Express to access your email.
5. You will be told to get OE on your screen, pull down the tools menu, and select
accounts.
6. The tech support person will walk you through the process to use OE to access
your email. Have fun!
Glossary
@: This symbol is part of every e-mail address and divides the sender's user name
from the domain or ISP that is initiating the mail action. Here is an example:
diskbooks@comcast.net
Activate: The process of making a software feature functional, often by placing a
check-mark in a box.
Address book: The place in an e-mail browser where e-mail addresses are stored for
quick use.
Attachments: Files or pictures that travel along with an e-mail message and may be
viewed and saved by the recipient. Music in the form of mp3 files may be attached
to an email message, also.
BCC: Blind carbon copies; when e-mail addresses are added in this field, the
recipient will not be able to see where copies are being sent; when a group is placed
in this field and no names are in the To: field, recipients will not be able to tell who
else got a copy of the message.
Browse: Navigating through the folders and disks on your own computer to find a
specific file[s].
Browser, e-mail: A software program designed to send and read e-mail messages.
CC: Carbon copies; addresses placed in this field will get copies of this message;
recipients will be able to see the e-mail addresses placed in this field.
Clipboard: A storage segment in the memory of your computer for temporary
storage of data during the processes of copy, cut, and paste.
Compose: The act of writing an e-mail message with a browser.
Church Workers Handbook --235-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Contact: OE calls the names in your address book Contacts.
Default: The settings of software as the user first sees it before making any changes.
Delete: The act of erasing e-mail; when the delete key on the keyboard is pressed
while data or objects are selected, they will disappear.
Dial-up connection: Access to the Internet via a phone line and a modem.
Digital pictures: Pictures taken by a digital camera and stored as computer files
inside the memory of the camera; such pictures are usually downloaded to a
computer where they can be used in a variety of way, including inserting in e-mail
messages.
E-mail: Electronic mail that travels over the Internet and may be read and sent via
an e-mail browser.
Forward: Sending an e-mail message to one or more other e-mail addresses.
Group: A list of e-mail addresses that share a common interest, such as: family,
coworkers, customers, etc.
Hash mark: The mark [<] the e-mail browser puts in the left margin of a message
when it is forwarded. Messages that are forwarded repeatedly will become unsightly
with accumulated hash marks.
Hyperlink: Text with an embedded URL. If you click this link, you will go to the
Email Basics chapter of Church Workers Handbook.
Inbox: The location in an e-mail browser where incoming e-mail is first seen.
ISP: Internet Service Provider. Comcast and America on Line [AOL] are ISPs.
Jpg: The extension that must be at the end of a Windows jpeg photo filename.
Example: picture.jpg
Megapixel: A measurement to show the resolution capability of a digital camera, as
in: 2.1 Megapixels.
Members: The addresses in a specific group in your address book.
Message window: The large text block where you type an e-mail message.
Church Workers Handbook --236-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Name fields: The place in your address book where you type the first, middle, and
last names of your contacts.
Options: This is a selection of the Tools menu that lets you choose the various
features available for Outlook Express.
Outlook Express: [OE] is the e-mail browser discussed in this chapter.
Pixel: A pixel (short for "picture element") is one of thousands of tiny spots in a grid
on a display screen or printed sheet. These spots, or blocks, are individually colored
in order to show images on computer screens, and represent the smallest elements
that may be manipulated to create graphics. © Microsoft Corporation. All Rights
Reserved. "Pixel," Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2000. ©1993-1999 Microsoft
Corporation. All rights reserved.
Properties: The characteristics of a contact in your address book.
Rename: Changing the file name of a picture from a series of numerals to a
meaningful word.
Resize: Making a digital picture smaller for emailing and web posting purposes.
Resolution: The degree to which a digital picture looks crisp and sharp.
Rich Text Format [HTML]: In OE, this is the ability to format text in much the way
you would do with a word processor. The opposite of Plain Text. [HTML means
hypertext markup language.]
Scrolling: When an image is too large for the screen, scroll bars appear at the edges
of the screen that let you move the image so you can see all of it.
Select: Highlighting text or an object so the computer can work with this selection in
some way.
Send: The button on your e-mail browser that lets you send an e-mail message on
it's way.
Signature: A saved block of text containing your name, degree, title, etc. This
feature is called Signature because it is frequently used to close an e-mail message.
You create a new Signature by accessing the Tools>Options menu. You can access
your stored Signatures by pulling down the Insert menu.
Church Workers Handbook --237-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Smart card: A memory device inside a digital camera that stores the jpg files that
make up pictures. An 8 mb card will hold about 16 picture at high resolution.
Subject: The field where you give a short description of the contents of your e-mail
message. It's considered poor form to leave it blank or always use Hi as your
subject.
Tab: The selections across the top of a screen where there are several submenus to
choose from. In OE, the Options screen has numerous tabs such as: Spelling, Read,
Send, Signatures, etc.
To: The field where you type the e-mail address of the recipients of your message;
multiple addresses may be placed in this field, separated by a semicolon; OE will
complete an e-mail address as soon as you type enough characters to make it unique
for all the contacts in your address book.
Tools: One of the menus at the top of the Inbox screen of OE.
Church Workers Handbook --238-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Chapter 18: Understanding
Church Ceremonies
Church Workers Handbook--What You Didn't Learn in Bible College and Seminary
© 2008, 1996 G. Edwin Lint
Contents of This Chapter
in alphabetical order
Introduction ..................................................................................................... 226
Baptism ........................................................................................................... 227
Communion .................................................................................................... 228
Dedication, Building ...................................................................................... 230
Dedication, Infant ........................................................................................... 232
Funeral ............................................................................................................ 234
Marriage .......................................................................................................... 225
Membership .................................................................................................... 236
True Love Waits ............................................................................................. 237
Introduction
This chapter of the Church Workers Handbook is generic within the total context of
the evangelical church movement and does not relate to the customs or liturgy of
any particular denomination. If the contents of this chapter are in conflict with the
published policies and practices of your denomination, please proceed with
prayerful consideration, asking the Holy Spirit for guidance and direction.
Each major segment of this chapter may consist of the following components:
•
•
•
•
Scriptural basis
Symbolism
History, including other common practices
Suggested script for the ceremony
Church Workers Handbook --239-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Baptism
The baptism discussed here will be adult baptism by means of total immersion.
•
Scriptural basis
Matt. 3:11 "I baptize you with water for repentance. But after me will come
one who is more powerful than I, whose sandals I am not fit to carry. He will
baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire."
1 Cor 1:14 I am thankful that I did not baptize any of you except Crispus and
Gaius, 15 so no one can say that you were baptized into my name. ... 17 For
Christ did not send me to baptize, but to preach the gospel--not with words of
human wisdom, lest the cross of Christ be emptied of its power. [Apostle Paul]
•
Symbolism
The act of baptism has no power as a ceremony. It is a symbol that our sins
have been washed away by the blood of Jesus, just as water washes our body
clean from the activities of working and living. Paul surely recognized that
baptism was only a testimony of salvation through the shed blood of Jesus
Christ.
•
History, including other common practices
The obvious origin of baptism is John the Baptist baptizing believers in the
Jordan River, and later baptizing Jesus as the Lamb of God. John went on to
point out that his water baptism would be superseded by the baptism by the
Holy Spirit and fire that Jesus would provide.
There is no scriptural support for either infant baptism or adult sprinkling.
Since baptism is symbolic of repentance from sins that have been committed,
it is meaningless for infants who have not reached the age of spiritual
accountability. And, from a logical standpoint, sprinkling is equally
meaningless for washing the body clean.
•
Suggested script for the ceremony
The ideal location for adult baptism is a built-in baptistery in the
front of the sanctuary. However, a private swimming pool or natural
body of body can be used as long as everything is done soberly,
decently, and in an attitude of prayer.
Church Workers Handbook --240-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
[Ceremony Leader, speaking to the group of candidates for baptism]
Water baptism by immersion is a symbol of the cleansing power of the blood
of Jesus Christ. Have you accepted Jesus Christ as your Personal Savior and
have you accepted his shed blood as the only means for washing away your
sins?
[Leader, speaking to each individual candidate, in turn]
•
I now baptize you In the Name of Almighty God. in the name of Jesus Christ,
His Son, and in the name of His Holy Spirit. Amen.
Communion
Many congregations observe communion once every three months. The
actual frequency is not a scriptural issue. Jesus only said, "do this in
remembrance of me." Like baptism, communion is a means of testifying
to everyone that we have accepted the shed blood and broken body of
Jesus Christ as our personal sin sacrifice. Evangelical churches do not
require church membership for participation in communion. However,
all congregations should remind participants of the testimony that
communion represents.
•
Scriptural basis
Luke 22:14 When the hour came, Jesus and his apostles
reclined at the table. 15 And he said to them, "I have
eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer.
16 For I tell you, I will not eat it again until it finds
fulfillment in the kingdom of God." 17 After taking the cup,
he gave thanks and said, "Take this and divide it among
you. 18 For I tell you I will not drink again of the fruit of
the vine until the kingdom of God comes." 19 And he took
bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to them, saying,
"This is my body given for you; do this in remembrance of
me." 20 In the same way, after the supper he took the cup,
saying, "This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is
poured out for you.
•
Symbolism
Church Workers Handbook --241-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Both the bread and the wine [grape juice] are symbolic of
the fact that the body of Jesus was crushed and broken in
order that we might enjoy freedom from the penalty for our
sins.
•
History, including other common practices
The Passover was celebrated in the Old Testament history
as the night in Egypt that the death angel of the tenth
plague would pass over the households that had the blood of
a lamb sprinkled on the door.
The night before Jesus died on the cross, He wanted to
celebrate the Passover one last time with His disciples.
From this night on, the world would remember His blood,
the Lamb of God, as the means of salvation, instead of the
Passover lamb of the Egyptian exodus.
Therefore, Communion represents the fact that when Jesus
said, "do this in remembrance of me," He was saying this
meal is the last Passover, and it is the first Communion.
The Bread and the Juice/Wine: The consistency of the
bread and the wine will be discussed here briefly.
The Bread. Communion wafers that have the
consistency and taste of paper are probably
least appropriate and farthest from what was
eaten during the First Communion. However, it
is not necessary to have the women of the
church concoct and bake a substance that is
supposed to represent what was eaten that night
either. My personal recommendation is to use a
dark, whole-grain, off-the-shelf product served
in small hand-broken pieces.
The Juice/Wine. The liquid served at
communion is a little more problematic. Should
we serve Welch's grape juice or should it be
fermented wine? My personal opinion is that an
inexpensive fermented wine served in standard
communion glasses could hurt no one
physically. However, real wine may offend some
Church Workers Handbook --242-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
spiritually. Therefore, a store-brand grape juice
may be your best choice.
Transubstantiation
The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox
churches believe the bread and wine of the
communion table actually become the body and
blood of Jesus. There is no known scripture that
supports this doctrine. Evangelicals believe that
communion is a powerful symbol of the broken
body and shed blood of Jesus, but that this ends
with symbolism.
•
Suggested script for the ceremony
[After you have received the bread and the wine, please
hold them so we may eat and drink together.]
The night before Jesus died, He wanted to celebrate the Old
Testament Passover one last time with His disciples. He
knew that this would be the last time the blood of lambs
would be remembered as a means of salvation. From
tomorrow onward to the end of time, everyone would
remember His blood flowing down the cross as their means
of salvation.
We remember that last Passover and that first Communion
by sharing in bread and wine. Both wheat and grapes must
lose their original identity and surrender to the processes of
planting, grinding, and crushing. So, as we share the bread
and wine, we also surrender our personal identities to the
will of God as we remember that His shed blood washed
away our sins.
The night of the first communion, Jesus took bread, gave
thanks and broke it, and gave it to them, saying, "This is my
body given for you; do this in remembrance of me"
Shall we eat the bread together, remembering how His body
was broken for us by the nails, the thorns, and the spear.
Church Workers Handbook --243-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
In the same way, He took the cup, saying, "This cup is the
new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you.
Shall we drink together, remembering how His blood was
shed for us.
Dedication of a Building
The practice of setting aside a building for the express purpose of worshipping God
goes all the way back to the days when Solomon built the first temple.
•
Scriptural basis
2 Chronicles 2:3 Solomon sent this message to Hiram king of Tyre: "Send me
cedar logs as you did for my father David when you sent him cedar to build a
palace to live in. 4 Now I am about to build a temple for the Name of the
LORD my God and to dedicate it to him for burning fragrant incense before
him, for setting out the consecrated bread regularly, and for making burnt
offerings every morning and evening and on Sabbaths and New Moons and at
the appointed feasts of the LORD our God. This is a lasting ordinance for
Israel.
Ezra 6:16 Then the people of Israel--the priests, the Levites and the rest of the
exiles--celebrated the dedication of the house of God with joy. 17 For the
dedication of this house of God they offered a hundred bulls, two hundred
rams, four hundred male lambs and, as a sin offering for all Israel, twelve
male goats, one for each of the tribes of Israel.
•
History, including other common practices
There is also evidence that dedicating a personal dwelling for the glory of God
was also practiced, as shown below:
Deut. 20:5 The officers shall say to the army: "Has anyone built a
new house and not dedicated it? Let him go home, or he may die
in battle and someone else may dedicate it.
If a home is purchased that was previously owned by persons who do not
worship the One True God, there may be a need to dedicate such a home for
the purpose of purification from the residue of previous evil practices.
•
Suggested script for the dedication of a home for purification purposes.
Church Workers Handbook --244-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Heavenly Father, we pray that the shed blood of your Son completely cover
this home and every one that occupies it. May the Holy Entities of God the
Father, God the Son, God the Holy Spirit, and all the Holy Angels lay down a
ring of Holy fire around this home to keep it safe from Spiritual and material
harm. And may every vestige of the ungodly practices that may have taken
place in earlier times be completely purged. In the name of God the Father,
the Son, and the Holy Spirit, Amen
Infant Dedication
Of all the professional duties an evangelical pastor is called upon to perform,
dedicating babies is the favorite. It's great to hold each precious bundle of
potentiality and ask God to use this child in His service. Maybe this baby will be a
missionary or an evangelist. Or maybe this one will be a born-again teacher or
typist. No matter. Each bundle is precious to God and to the families entering into
the covenant of infant dedication.
•
Scriptural basis
1 Samuel 1:25b [Hannah] brought the boy to Eli, 26 and she said to him, "As
surely as you live, my lord, I am the woman who stood here beside you
praying to the LORD. 27 I prayed for this child, and the LORD has granted
me what I asked of him. 28 So now I give him to the LORD. For his whole life
he will be given over to the LORD."
Matt. 19:13 Then little children were brought to Jesus for him to place his
hands on them and pray for them. But the disciples rebuked those who
brought them. 14 Jesus said, "Let the little children come to me, and do not
hinder them, for the kingdom of heaven belongs to such as these."
•
Symbolism
God isn't asking parents to do as Hannah did in the Old Testament and take a
child to live in the church under the tutelage of a man of God for an entire
lifetime. However, infant dedication is the reasonable and logical act of
presenting a child for God's future service. With this act of dedication go the
vows that the parents will do everything in their power to make it easy for the
child to accept Jesus Christ as a Personal Savior.
Jesus took a keen interest in the spiritual and physical welfare of children, as
shown above in the quotation from Matthew 19.
Church Workers Handbook --245-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
•
History, including other common practices
The practices of Infant Baptism and Infant Confirmation are not equal with
Infant Dedication and should not be considered as interchangeable with
Dedication. Infant Dedication requires the parents/guardians to promise
before God to raise the child in the fear and admonition of the Lord, to bring
him regularly to the house of God, and to strive to bring him early to the point
of making a personal acceptance of Jesus Christ as a Personal Savior.
On the other hand, both Infant Baptism and Infant Confirmation are
traditional ceremonies that may require little of the parents/guardians
regarding the future soul welfare of the child involved. These ceremonies are
often accompanied by the scripturally unsupported notion that the future
salvation of the child will be assured by infant baptism and/or confirmation.
It will be wise to schedule an infant dedication orientation meeting for all
parents and other family members. Topics for such a meeting should include
the differences between Dedication, Baptism, Confirmation, and First
Communion. The covenant portion of the ceremony should be reviewed, as
well as the mechanics of moving the family members through the ceremony.
•
Suggested script for the ceremony
Suggested setup:
Since the pastor is the least important participant in the
Ceremony of Infant Dedication, the setup should place him/her at
the lowest level of the platform area and with back to the
congregation. The babies with their parents/guardians should be
arrayed in a semicircle across the highest level of the platform
area and facing the congregation.
[To be spoken while at a lectern placed at the lowest level] "Ladies and
gentlemen, the ceremony of infant dedication is a very important element of
worship here at xxx Church. If this is your first time to attend a dedication
service, I'd like to outline what is about to happen. There will be two separate
parts of the service. First, I will ask the parents to make their vows of
dedication as a group. Then, I will pray a prayer of dedication for each child
in turn.
[Turning and facing the parents/guardians:]
Church Workers Handbook --246-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Do you promise before God and in the presence of these witnesses to do
everything in your power to raise these babies and young children in the
nurture and admonition of the Lord? If so, answer 'I will.'
And do you promise to bring them regularly to God's house for
instruction and worship? If so, answer 'I will.'
And do you promise to strive to bring them to an early knowledge of
Jesus Christ as a personal Savior? If so, answer 'I will.'
And do you promise to give your child over to God's service, in
whatever area He sees a need? If so, answer 'I will.'
Now that you have promised in the presence of God and these witnesses
to discharge your scriptural responsibilities as parents, I will dedicate
each child in turn,
[To be spoken as each child is dedicated while the pastor moves across the
platform and takes each child in his/her arms. If the technology is
available, a picture of the child should be projected on a large screen
during the dedication.]
"This is xxx xxx xxx, the son/daughter of xxx and xxx xxx, born xxx
xxxth. Heavenly Father, we rejoice with xxx and xxx in the coming of
this blessed child into their home. We pray that you will give these
parents the wisdom of Solomon, the courage of David, and the strength
of Samson, as they contend against the forces of evil that will strive to
destroy his/her never-dying soul. Now, we dedicate xxx xxx xxx to You
and to Your service, in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy
Spirit. Amen."
[Repeat this dedicatory prayer until all candidates have been individually
dedicated. This is no time watch the clock. When Infant dedication is
planned, cut out a dozen or so praise and worship choruses if you think
you may run short of time.]
A personal note: As I write this segment on Infant
Dedication, our family is looking forward to the dedication
of our grandson born two months ago. He and his parents
live in Nashville, Tennessee. His grandparents, uncles,
aunts, and cousins live in central and eastern
Pennsylvania. For us, that will be a 700+-mile trip south on
Church Workers Handbook --247-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
I-81 and west on I-40. Why are eleven people going to all
this trouble for a baby who is less than a year old? I
thought you knew. Justus is going to be dedicated
June 19th, 2005! gel
Funeral
The most difficult type funeral is when the departed has never given evidence of
accepting Jesus Christ as a personal Savior.
However, when the departed has been a professing Christian, the entire tenor of the
service changes and it takes on a spirit of Celebration and scriptures such as those
shown below may be used.
•
Scriptural basis
1 Corinthians 15:51 Listen, I tell you a mystery: We will not all sleep, but we
will all be changed-- 52 in a flash, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last
trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, the dead will be raised imperishable,
and we will be changed. … then the saying that is written will come true:
"Death has been swallowed up in victory." Where, O death, is your victory?
Where, O death, is your sting?"
1 Thessalonians 4:13 Brothers, we do not want you to be ignorant about those
who fall asleep, or to grieve like the rest of men, who have no hope. 16. For the
Lord himself will come down from heaven, with a loud command, with the
voice of the archangel and with the trumpet call of God, and the dead in
Christ will rise first. 17 After that, we who are still alive and are left will be
caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And so
we will be with the Lord forever.
Rev. 21:4 He will wipe every tear from their eyes. There will be no more death
or mourning or crying or pain, for the old order of things has passed away."
Marriage
My son's wedding in 1985 was organized the best of any wedding I have ever
attended, including my own. The minister stood at a lectern, down at floor level, in
front of the altar, and the wedding party was arrayed in a semicircle up on the
platform. In this way, everyone had an excellent view of the bride and groom, the
bride's dress, and each female and male attendant.
Church Workers Handbook --248-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
When the minister had something to say to the congregation, he faced forward, and
when he spoke to the bride and groom, he faced the platform with his back to the
congregation.
I recommend that all weddings be organized in this fashion. Of course, the minister
only has the right of expressing an opinion. Decisions are made by the bride's
mother and maybe the bride.
•
Scriptural basis
Jesus gave marriage a prominent place in his ministry. Not only did he
perform his first miracle at a wedding, he used marriage in numerous
parables.
John 2:1 On the third day a wedding took place at Cana in Galilee. Jesus'
mother was there, 2 and Jesus and his disciples had also been invited to the
wedding. 3 When the wine was gone, Jesus' mother said to him, "They have
no more wine." 4 "Dear woman, why do you involve me?" Jesus replied. "My
time has not yet come." 5 His mother said to the servants, "Do whatever he
tells you." 6 Nearby stood six stone water jars, the kind used by the Jews for
ceremonial washing, each holding from twenty to thirty gallons. 7 Jesus said
to the servants, "Fill the jars with water"; so they filled them to the brim. 8
Then he told them, "Now draw some out and take it to the master of the
banquet." They did so, 9 and the master of the banquet tasted the water that
had been turned into wine. He did not realize where it had come from, though
the servants who had drawn the water knew. Then he called the bridegroom
aside 10 and said, "Everyone brings out the choice wine first and then the
cheaper wine after the guests have had too much to drink; but you have saved
the best till now." 11 This, the first of his miraculous signs, Jesus performed at
Cana in Galilee. He thus revealed his glory, and his disciples put their faith in
him.
1 Cor. 7:3 The husband should fulfill his marital duty to his wife, and likewise
the wife to her husband. 4 The wife's body does not belong to her alone but
also to her husband. In the same way, the husband's body does not belong to
him alone but also to his wife.
•
History;
There is no double that both Jesus and the Apostle Paul considered marriage
to be the union between a man and a woman.
Church Workers Handbook --249-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
Membership
The Bible reports church membership as illustrated below in Acts 2. However, there
is no command that we must join a church. You can attend any church without
joining and participate in most activities, other than voting in a church election.
However, when you find a church that meets your spiritual and social needs, it
makes sense to join if officially. Joining a church carries the following rights and
responsibilities:
1. The written statements of faith and standards of behavior provide a moral
compass for you and your children to follow.
2. Corporate worship is more satisfying when it is shared on a regular basis with
persons you know.
3. You are eligible to vote and even to hold official elected office within the
church body.
4. In Times of material need such as sickness or an operation, your fellow
worshippers are likely to bond together and provide assistance.
5. In such Times, you may be put on a "prayer chain" where the church's
prayer warriors will remember you and your need with prayer support.
Tithing
The Bible clearly teaches tithing: giving a tenth of the family income for
the support of the church. Lev 27:30 A tithe of everything from the
land, whether grain from the soil or fruit from the trees, belongs to the
LORD; it is holy to the LORD.
The practice of tithing permits a relatively small congregation to pay a
pastor's salary, build and maintain an attractive church plant, and
support missionary work around the world.
•
Scriptural basis
Acts 2:46 Every day they continued to meet together in the temple
courts. They broke bread in their homes and ate together with glad and
sincere hearts, 47 praising God and enjoying the favor of all the people.
And the Lord added to their number daily those who were being saved.
Church Workers Handbook --250-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
True Love Waits
While some persons seem to practice loose morals, others are turning to virginity
and sexual abstinence. This movement includes the practice of taking a formal vow
of virginity and celibacy. A ring is given to the celebrants, to be surrendered to the
spouse at the eventual wedding.
•
Scriptural basis
The Bible has always taught against sexual intercourse before marriage. In
the Elizabethan English of the King James Version. the term is Fornication.
In the NIV, the term is Sexual Immorality.
Mark 7:21 For from within, out of men's hearts, come evil thoughts, sexual
immorality, theft, murder, adultery, 22 greed, malice, deceit, lewdness, envy,
slander, arrogance and folly.
The certificate of the Confirmation of Covenant reads as follows:
•
This is to confirm that on this date, covenant-maker's name
entered into covenant in the presence of family, friends, and
spiritual mentors, to follow the commandments of God to remain
pure in body, mind, and spirit. A ring was presented as a token of
this promise to be worn until marriage.
For more information on any topic in this book, feel free to
contact me:
G. Edwin Lint, B.S., Th.B., M.A.
PO Box 473
Mechanicsburg, PA 17055 USA
diskbooks@comcast.net
717-697-8122
Church Workers Handbook --251-- © 2008, 2007, 1996 G. Edwin Lint, BS, ThB, MA
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