OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS FOR ELECTRIC

OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS FOR ELECTRIC
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS FOR
ELECTRIC DRIVEN PRESSURE SYSTEM
Thank you for purchasing an EASY-KLEEN high pressure cleaning
system for your application. We at EASY-KLEEN know the investment
that you have made and want to help you get the best results from your
cleaning system and to operate it safely and efficiently. To insure that you
are completely satisfied, please read over this manual carefully so that you
completely understand how your new EASY-KLEEN system operates.
MODEL :___________________
MAX. PSI. :_________________
MAX. GPM. :_______________
PRE-START INSTRUCTION :
1. Check pump oil level by viewing the round sight glass on the back side of the pump. The oil level
should be at the center marked by a red dot. If the oil level is low, fill to the correct level with
proper oil. (EASY-KLEEN pump oil is recommended and is available at you local distributor.)
2. Check gearbox oil if system is equipped with a gear reduction located between the engine and the
pump. The oil level can be checked by viewing the oil level sight glass located on the backside of the
gearbox. The proper oil level is marked by a red dot. If the oil is low, fill to correct level with gear oil.
(EASY-KLEEN gear oil is recommended and is available at your local distributor.)
NOTE : Pressure washer must be on a level surface to ensure proper oil level is
attained .
OIL LEVEL SIGHT GLASS:
!!IMPORTANT!!
Do not use detergent type or multi-grade oils for pump lubrication . Use only SAE or SAE 30 NONDETERGENT mineral motor oil. Do not overfill crankcase. If this happens, a portion of the oil must
be removed before system can run again. Remember to replace the oil plug after filling crankcase
with oil .
3. Check engine levels. (See engine manual included in this package.)
4. Attach the high pressure spray assembly to the outlet coupling on the pump .
Ensure that the quick disconnect is tightly locked together. Check nozzle for wear.
Worn nozzles will effect the cleaning performance of this system. For correct nozzle size, see nozzle
chart in this manual. ( Replacement nozzles are available at you local EASY-KLEEN distributor and
are highly recommended when worn nozzles need to be replaced.)
2
START-UP PROCEDURE :
1. Inlet water hook up, use no less than 1/2” inside diameter ( larger the better )
garden hose. Connect the male fitting into the female pump inlet swivel fitting, ensuring that the inlet
screen is in place . Turn water supply on and open trigger gun to make sure water is throughout the
system. Note : Water supply pressure must not exceed -2 to 60 psi.
2. Electrical connection is made by a power cord from the power source to the top of the motor
starter in the electrical connection box. Check the electrical rating plate on the unit for correct
VOLTAGE - PHASE AND TOTAL AMP DRAW.
WARNING:
This controller must be provided with suitable overload and
overcurrent protection in accordance with the Canadian Electrical
Code part 1.
Avertissement:
Ce contrôleur doit être muni d’une protection contre la
surcharge et la sur intensité, conformément au Code canadien de
l’électircité, Première partie.
UNIT TO BE CONNECTED TO A (GFCI) OR TWIST LOCK
PLUG OR PERMANENT CONNECTION
ATTENTION
All electrical work is to be performed by a qualified electrician and adhere to all local and provincial
electrical codes. (Make sure power cords are of proper size.)
CAUTION
This machine must be properly grounded to prevent electrical shock.
3. Adjust pressure regulator to desired pressure by turning control knob clock-wise. NOTE: NEVER
OPERATE SYSTEM AT HIGHER PSI THAN MAXIMUM RATING. (See front of this manual for
pump ratings.)
4. Pull trigger control gun to start cleaning. To stop cleaning, release the trigger gun. To resume
cleaning, pull trigger gun again .
NOTE : HIGH PRESSURE SPRAY CAN CAUSE SERIOUS BODILY HARM.
HANDLE SPRAY ASSEMBLY WITH CARE - NEVER POINT SPRAY
ASSEMBLY AT ANY PART OF THE BODY OR AT OTHER PERSONS !
3
CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS :
A. Standard Downstream Chemical Injection System :
If your pressure washer is equipped with a downstream chemical injection system, chemical is
applied at a reduced pressure to avoid wastage and overspray of chemical detergent .
1. To apply chemical , first release the trigger gun .
2. Open chemical valve , located half way down the lance , turn valve clockwise .
3. Pull trigger gun on to start applying chemical . It takes 5 - 15 seconds for chemical to reach the
spray jet nozzle due to volume of water in pressure hose .
4. Always apply chemical from bottom to top for best results .
5. To rinse with high pressure, follow directions in reverse.
B.
OPTIONAL UPSTREAM CHEMICAL INJECTION SYSTEM:
If your pressure washer is equipped with this option, chemical is applied at high pressure for
deep down cleaning performance .
1. To apply chemical , first let off on trigger gun.
2. Turn chemical valve to ON position , located next to chemical injector on inlet of pump system on
machine.
3. Pull trigger gun on and start to apply chemical . It takes about 5 - 10 seconds for chemical to reach
spray jet nozzle due to volume of water in pressure hose . If your water supply is too great coming
into the chemical injector, a small adjustment must be made on the injector.
4. To rinse at high pressure , turn chemical valve off and pull trigger gun on .
CHEMICAL ADJUSTMENTS :
The amount of chemical that you apply can be adjusted so that chemical is not wasted . For
upstream instructions see page on Optional Upstream Chemical Injection System .
1. Turn red knob on chemical injector clockwise for more chemical and counter- clockwise for less
chemical. By turning the adjustment knob completely counter- clockwise it will turn the soap injector
off . Always make sure that the chemical filter pick-up screen is clean and immersed in chemical
solution. Note: If chemical becomes dry, the soap injector will not operate .
4
UNLOADER / PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE :
This high pressure washer has been adjusted at the factory to operate at the rated psi of this
specific system and volume . Do not attempt to regain pressure by tuning the unloader valve
downward. This will only increase spring tension which will result in system failure. Improper use
of an unloader valve can void warranty. Pressure can be reduced for lighter duty cleaning power by
turning the unloader valve counter-clockwise. When adjusting the unloader valve, always keep an
eye on the pressure gauge .
SYSTEM SHUT DOWN :
1.
Release trigger gun .
2.
Turn off main power to engine.
with this package.)
(See engine shutdown in engine owner’s manual that comes
3. Release trigger gun one more time to relieve pump system of pressure. By doing this, you will
prolong the life of your pump.
4. Check system over for any damages or broken parts and replace as soon as possible .
PROTECT PUMP FROM FREEZING :
If you are located in an environment where your system will be used in cold winter weather, it is
very important to make sure all water is drained from the system and pump is filled with windshield
anti-freeze. Follow these simple instructions for best results .
1.
Connect a short length of no less than 1/2” garden hose with male garden hose fitting on one
end into the female inlet swivel on the pump. Place open end of hose into a container filled with
windshield anti-freeze and connect high pressure hose complete with gun and wand.
2.
Start the engine and allow to run until mixture is pumped out through the system into a
container. When the anti-freeze color is noticeable, your system has been winterized and is now ready
for storage.
5
MAINTENANCE :
(WEEKLY OR MONTHLY MAINTENANCE )
1.
Check lubricants in the pump, gearbox and engine on a regular basis. If oil is gritty or cream
colored, it should be changed as soon as possible. For instructions on changing fluids, see page two
of this manual . For engine, see engine owner’s manual that comes in this package .
2. Check hose, gun, wand and spray nozzle for wear and proper function.
be replaced or repaired if worn .
6
These items should
Easy-Kleen Pressure Washers
Service Manual
This manual is intended for technical personnel to assist in the diagnosis and
repair of issues with pressure washers.
This manual is not intended for use by non-technical personnel.
It is advised to always refer to competent technical personnel when repairs
are advised to avoid equipment damage or potential personnel injury.
If you have any technical questions please do not hesitate to call us at 1-800315-5533.
7
Bad ignition system
Spark Plug - no gas smell
Plug does not fire
Spark Plug - strong gas
smell
PROBLEM
Gas motor not starting
18 amp engine, open key switch, replace 30 amp fuse
Fuse blown in key switch
Poor connection
Bad magneto
Poor connection
No fuel to cylinder
Fuel line restricted
Stuck carburetor float
Clogged carburetor needle valve
Bad fuel pump
8
Check ignition by removing spark plug from cylinder. If electric start, try starting using the recoil
starter.
Check spark plug and replace if necessary. Carbon deposits can indicate a fouled plug or too
much fuel.
Inspect the ignition connection.
Check the source of spark plug for engine ignition.
Check the source of spark for the engine ignition.
Check fuel delivery from carburetor to cylinder. Check carburetor float bowl for fuel.
Inspect fuel line to carburetor for restrictions or clogging. Flexible line may be kinked.
Unstick float
Unclog needle valve.
Replace fuel pump.
No ignition
Bad plug
W ait 5 minutes before attempting to restart.
Flooded
Electric Starter/Battery
SOLUTION
Check to see if proper fuel levels are maintained
Check ignition by removing spark plug from cylinder. If electric start, try starting using the recoil
starter.
Recharge or replace battery.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Fuel
No ignition
POWER SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS - Gas Motor Not Starting
Low pressure, low flow Bogs
Low pressure, low flow
Low pressure, adequate
flow
No Flow
PROBLEM
Clogged nozzle
Nozzle too small
Hose restriction
Debris in the system
Pump packings bad
Volume Improperly adjusted
Discharge leaks
Downstream chemical injector
(Dema)
Loose drive belts
Pump not running at rated speed
Stripped pump drive coupling
Defective easy start valve
(optional)
Malfunctioning motor or gear
Unloader stuck in bypass
Outlet restriction
W orn spray nozzle
Debris in valves
Lance on low pressure
Unloader is not adjusted correctly
Pressure gauge inaccurate
9
Ensure that the motor or engine is working properly
Piston assembly may be stuck or fouled
Build up can restrict flow. If water is not flowing freely, flush with garden hose to isolate the clog
or restriction.
Distorted spray pattern can indicate a clogged nozzle.
Ensure nozzle is proper size for the system.
Correct any kinks or restrictions. Replace crushed hoses.
Debris can lodge in the discharge side of the system (valves, fittings, injectors, filters) Flushing
with water may correct it.
If belts do not have proper deflection, replace them.
Check engine throttle and see that the motor is rated for the same speed as the pump.
Inspect coupling and repair or replace.
Check the start or throttle-back valve for proper operation.
SOLUTION
Make sure pump is operating. Check drive belts and couplings, make necessary adjustments.
Check trigger gun, repair or replace.
Ensure water supply is not restricted and hoses are in good repair and not kinked.
Check spray nozzle, repair or replace.
Check inlet filter, repair or replace.
Float valves can become stuck in the "UP" position. Manually dislodge and inspect for problems.
Remove and check for proper action, repair or replace.
Nozzle should be properly sized for the system. Low pressure indicates that the nozzle in use is
too large.
Replace nozzle when it shows signs of internal erosion.
Clean valves and check o-rings for pits and cracks.
Adjust pressure so the water flows through properly.
Adjust unloader to proper level.
Use a new pressure gauge on a quick connect at outlet to check system pressure and replace if
gauge is faulty.
If low pressure persists, pump packings may need replaced.
If unit has volume adjustment, it may need readjustment
Look for leaks on the discharge side of system.
Remove the injector and retest system. If the flow is restored, replace the injector.
FLUID SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS - Flow and Pressure
POSSIBLE CAUSE
No power
Trigger gun valve
No water source
Clogged spray nozzle
Clogged inlet filter
Float Valve stuck (optional)
Faulty unloader valve
Incorrect or no spray nozzle
Air in system
Debris in inlet check valves
Turbulence in float tank (optional)
Inlet or inlet strainer clogged
W ater supply to hot
Air in system
Debris in inlet check valves
Float valve stuck (optional)
Chemical line not submerged
Inlet line restricted
Inadequate water supply
Improperly adjusted unloader
Faulty unloader
Air in system
Faulty pressure gauge
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Small spray nozzle
Pump packing bad
Inlet and outlet lines vibrate Inlet and outlet check valves
fouled
Outlet line vibrates
Inlet line vibrates
Pump chatters, caviataion,
vibration
PROBLEM
Excessive pressure
10
If the chemical valve is on, ensure that the chemical line is fully submerged in the chemical
All inlet connections should be snug and not kinked to reduce the chances of pump starvation.
W ater supply to the system must meet or exceed the rated flow (GPM) on the serial number
plate. Faucet must be completely opened or water above the tank outlet in a gravity fed system.
If float valve is stuck in the up position, water can not enter the float tank. Unstick valve if
possible of replace if necessary.
Excessive turbulence allows the pump to draw air into the system. Correct excessive turbulence.
Regularly clean the inlet and inlet strainer to keep debris from entering the float tank
Inlet temperature should not exceed 140F - 160F range.
Inspect places where air can enter the system, i.e.; fittings, hose, connections etc.
If there is no float tank and the outlet line does no vibrate, the inlet check valve may be clogged.
Remove debris. Check o-rings under valves.
Inspect places where air can enter the system, i.e.; fittings, hose, connections etc.
If there is no float tank and the outlet line does no vibrate, the inlet check valve may be clogged.
Remove debris.
If they show signs of ware or damage, replace them.
Look for the source of debris in the inlet and discharge check valves and remove.
SOLUTION
Nozzle must be properly sized for the rated flow and pressure. Reset unloader or pressure relief
if nozzle size is changed.
Check the pressure gauge using a properly calibrated pressure gauge on quick connects at the
equipment outlet.
Adjust to the proper pressure using pressure gauge.
Check the unloader action. If it is not working properly, it may need repaired or replaced.
Inspect places where air can enter the system. i.e. fittings, hose, connections etc.
Unloader (flow) produces
smooth flow & low volume
Unloader (pressure)
produces smooth flow & low
volume
Unloader (flow) cycles with
system in bypass
Unloader (flow) cycles with
system under pressure
Check inlet water supply for excessive pressure.
Check unloader bypass port to see if a flow restrictor is properly installed. Install one if none is
present.
If unloader is sticking, repair or replace as necessary.
Downstream restrictions can cause a reduction in flow. Check; controls, valves, switches, trigger
gun, and lance. Descale as necessary and begin preventive maintenance program for scale
prevention.
Unloader valve stuck in bypass
Restriction in system
11
A distorted spray pattern indicates a clogged nozzle.
A small nozzle causes a reduced flow and cycling may result.
If the system has a Venturi injector downstream of the unloader, check the orifice for clogs.
See flow diagnostics.
Adjust unloader and regulator until proper pressure is achieved.
Spray nozzle clogged
Spray nozzle too small
Injector orifice blocked
System not delivering rated flow
Unloader adjusted too low
Downstream leakage (excessive) Causes the unloader to since a continuing flow and divert it to the closed gun. Repair or replace.
Accumulator downstream (option) Remove the accumulator from the system.
Unloader adjusted too low
Adjust the unloader using the pressure gauge for the correct pressure.
Pump not delivering the rated
pressure
High water supply pressure
No restrictions on the unloader
Nozzle to small
Nozzle clogged
Improper unloader orifice
Unloader orifice clogged
Injector orifice clogged
Other downstream restriction
Debris in unloader
Sever leak on the outlet of unit
Improper flow
Unloader will not unload
SOLUTION
Isolate the flow problem. If it occurs before the unloader discharge point, check the piston
assembly to see if it is fouled or stuck in bypass mode.
Take bottom nut off unloader, identify ball, spring and seat. Clean out any debris and
Check for leaks and repair.
Any variation in flow form what the orifice is sized can cause cycling. System must produce the
rated flow constantly.
A nozzle that is too small can cause the flow to be reduced.
A distorted spray pattern indicates a clogged nozzle.
The systems rated output should indicate the proper sized orifice for your system.
Check the orifice for clogs and clear out any debris.
If the system has a Venturi injector downstream of the unloader, check the orifice for clogs.
Scale buildup can restrict flow. Check; controls, valves, switches, trigger gun, and lance.
Descale as necessary and begin preventive maintenance program for scale prevention.
See low pressure or low flow diagnostics.
FLUID SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS - Unloader
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Unloader stuck in bypass
PROBLEM
Very low or no flow
Ensure the proper nozzle is installed on system.
The number of hours of usage can give you a clue to the extent of the ware. If in doubt, change
Check pump seals and packings and tighten drive belts.
If unloader is diverting flow to bypass, readjust using the pressure gauge.
Ensure the proper sized nozzle is being used.
Check O-rings for ware or damage and replace as necessary.
Check unloader shaft for proper action. Unstick piston and shaft or replace unloader.
Spray nozzle to large
Internal nozzle erosion
Insufficient pump pressure
Unloader adjusted too low
Nozzle too large
Shaft O-ring in valve body warn
Unloader piston stuck or frozen
12
Ensure that unloader bypass port is not clogged
If tension is incorrect, adjust or replace as necessary.
Check O-rings for ware or damage and replace as necessary.
If the unloader is diverting flow to bypass it may be adjusted too low, readjust as necessary.
Unloader adjusted too low
Bypass port clogged or restricted
Excessive tension on main spring
Unloader (flow) leaks water Sleeve O-ring worn
around adjusting bolt
Unloader (pressure) leaks
from main spring or
adjusting bolt
Unloader (flow) pressure
increases when trigger
released
Unloader (flow) produces
low flow & normal pressure
Unloader (pressure)
produces low flow and
normal pressure
W eep gun (optional)
Damage gun valve ball or seat
Bad o-rings or seals
Bad o-rings at adjusting knob
From nozzle
From unloader
From variable pressure
Lance(option)
Unloader will not unload
From pressure relief valve
W ear or damage to ball or seal
Improper relief valve adjustment
Sever leak on the outlet of unit
System over pressure
Clogged nozzle
Trigger gun valve not working
Excessive pressure spike
Debris in unloader
Bad rod o-ring
Stripped connectors
From quick connects
From pump
From trigger gun
13
Take bottom nut off unloader, identify ball, spring and seat. Clean out any debris and
reassemble.
Check for leaks and repair.
See pressure and flow diagnostics to find the cause of the excessive pressure and correct it.
Spray pattern will be distorted if nozzle is clogged, clean out.
If trigger gun valve action is not correct, repair or replace.
If water spurts from valve when trigger is released, check unloader adjustment. Pressure spike
should be below the level where pressure relief valve is activated.
Inspect ball and seal for damage and adjust as necessary.
Adjust valve properly.
If float is not floating above water, check the float to see if it has filled up with water. If
necessary, drain and seal.
Usually metal to metal fittings should be taped with Teflon tape or lock tight to provide a tight seal.
(unless
fittings
provided
with
an O-ring
If quickare
connect
o-ring
shows
wear or
or seal)
damage, replace it.
If the seal leak is detected under the pump manifold, packing may be worn and in need of
replacement.
If o-rings show wear or damage, they may need replaced.
Physical damage may not be apparent, but unseen warping from freezing or extreme pressure
can still cause leakage.
If a weep gun has been installed, check the gun valve seat to ensure it is functioning properly.
Inspect trigger gun valve assembly for damage or ware to ball or seat. Lodged debris can stop
valve from closing. Repair with kit or replace.
If quick connect o-ring shows wear, damage or improper seating.
Inspect o-rings for ware or damage and replace as necessary.
Float tank full of water or stuck
Fittings not tightened or taped, or
cracked
Bad o-rings
Bad packing
SOLUTION
Ensure the washer is present and in good condition.
Low pressure line should be properly sealed on barb and tightly clamped.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Garden hose washer
Loose clamps or connections
From pressure fittings
PROBLEM
From inlet
From low pressure (inlet)
line fittings
From float tank(option)
FLUID SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS - Leaking
ANY LEAKS SHOULD BE REPAIRED ASAP TO PREVENT DAMAGE TO THE SYSTEM.
Pressure proper, volume
low
Spray pattern irregular
Volume proper, pressure
low
Excessive chemical
No chemical
Trigger action sticks
Trigger gun leaks
Excess pressure when
trigger gun is released
Flow not stopping when
trigger gun released
PROBLEM
No nozzle flow from nozzle
when trigger depressed.
SOLUTION
If water flows through discharge hose without gun, check trigger gun valve piston rod and
replace if necessary.
Internal nozzle wear
Clogged nozzle
Valve improperly adjusted, check
knob on injector
Chemical dilution to strong
Clogged nozzle
Nozzle to large
Incorrect injector orifice
Chemical too dilute
No adjustment for low pressure
Chemical dried up in the injector
Chemical foot strainer clogged
Chemical line kinked
Chemical line too long
Chemical valve closed
Black nozzle
Debris in gun valve
Keeper plug too tight
W orn or bad o-ring
Stripped or loose connections
14
A loss of pressure may result form gradual nozzle wear. Replace a nozzle of correct size.
Spray pattern will be distorted if nozzle is clogged. Check nozzle for clogging if the unit has a
pressure unloader.
Verify chemical strength.
Spray pattern will be distorted if nozzle is clogged.
Ensure that the nozzle is sized properly sized for the system
Debris in gun valve can stop piston return. Clear debris.
It may be possible to loosen plug slightly without leakage but it will likely need replaced.
Check trigger gun o-rings for ware or damage and replace.
Physical damage may not be apparent but unseen warping from freezing or sever overpressure
may still cause leaking.
Open chemical valve. If It chatters with no chemical delivery, air is being drawn from the
upstream side of the pump. Check fittings, connections and ensure the inlet line is fully
submerged into the chemical jug.
inspect and clean as necessary.
May be a strainer or check valve. Ensure that the ball is not stuck or clogged.
Chemical line kinking or binding prevents chemical delivery.
An overly long chemical line can prevent the pump from drawing chemical into the system. Try
installing a shorter line.
Verify chemical strength.
Downstream injectors only - Low pressure is required for most injectors to draw chemical. If no
adjuster exists it may need low pressure spray nozzle installed on the lance.
If not properly sized for the systems rated output, chemical delivery problems will result. Check
serial plate for specs.
To properly adjust, a chemical flow meter may be used to precisely measure chemical flow.
Missing metal insert in trigger gun Inspect to assure insert is in place.
(European style gun)
Blockage in system past gun
Check nozzle or spray accessory for blockage and clear it.
Excessive pressure spikes
After unloader increases pressure to a maximum, further adjustment will only increase the
pressure spikes. Re-adjust.
Broken return spring on trigger gun If trigger action is too loose, return spring may need replaced.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Broken piston rod in trigger gun
FLUID SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS - Trigger Gun/Spray Nozzle
Debris in the fuel filter bowl
No fuel to bleed valve
W ater comes out drain at
bottom of tank
Cannot smell or see fuel at
stack
Clogged strainer
W ater in the fuel filter bowl
Air leak to pump
Broken fuel line
Clogged fuel filter
Clogged fuel inlet line
Frozen fuel pump
Broken fuel pump coupling
No fuel being supplied
Clogged fuel nozzle
Clogged fuel line
W ater in fuel supply
Contaminated fuel in the tank
Improper fuel in the tank
Low fuel shut-off sensor stuck or
faulty
W ater in fuel supply
Fuel in the fuel tank
Burner motor or capacitor is bad
PROBLEM
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Not reaching rated pressure Not activating boiler controls
flow
Thermostat on low setting
Thermostat set too low
No or low fuel in tank
Burner no getting adequate fuel
Low fuel shut-off control activated.
No air movement through
No air being supplied
stack
Thermal reset tripped
15
Ensure that air is not entering through the lines or connections.
Ensure that the fuel line is connected and is not broken/punctured.
Check any clogging that exists in the fuel filter
Check any clogging that exists in the fuel inlet line.
If the fuel pump is frozen it will need replaced.
Check pump coupling if direct or belt driven. Replace or tighten or replace the drive belts if
needed.
Replace if there is any evidence of clogging or debris.
Check lines for clogging and clear if necessary.
Check only if no fuel in the filter bowl - Drain the tank and check for rust. If problem persists, fuel
pump should be checked for rust.
Check fuel delivery and correct any problems.
Set thermostat to an output temperature requiring heating.
Check fuel and bring to proper levels. Inspect fuel tank for water or debris.
Full featured equipment may have a shut off if fuel is low.
Ensure that the blower is working and that the air band or damper is properly adjusted and in
good repair.
Press the thermal reset button on burner motor. If the reset trips again an additional problem
must be sought.
If motor does not turn, first check thermostat/press switch, the motor starting capacitor and
finally the burner motor itself.
Ensure that the proper clean fuel is being used. If not, siphon any debris or water from the tank.
If the improper fuel is found in the tank, drain and rinse the tank, then fill with proper fuel.
Check the sensor. The assembly may need to be removed to un-stick the float or to replace it
completely.
Drain water from the tank promptly to prevent rusting. If fuel delivery problems persist, check the
fuel pump for rust.
If the fuel strainer or in-line filter is clogged, clean or replace.
SOLUTION
Correct the fluid problem first - See fluid systems diagnostics
BOILER SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS - Oil Burner Will Not Fire
SOLUTION
16
Open air bands to proper setting.
Ensure electrode gap is properly set.
Remove the solenoid cover and place blade of an insulated screwdriver in the coil with the
system operating in hot water mode. A good working solenoid will hold the screwdriver in the
solenoid. If not it may need replaced.
Oil pump may have debris, replace as necessary.
Solenoid valve coil not energizing If boiler controls work properly, the pressure or vacuum on the fuel pump may be misadjusted.
Check solenoid coil again.
Debris in internal fuel pump valve Check for clogging in the solenoid valve inside fuel pump.
Fuel nozzle clogged
Check fuel nozzle for clogging and clear if necessary.
Restriction in fuel outlet line
Check fuel line from pump to burner for any restriction.
Fuel pump piston frozen closed
Check piston in fuel pump to see if it will travel. Free piston or replace fuel pump.
No power reaching transformer
Ensure the proper voltage is reaching the ignition transformer with a volt meter.
Ignition transformer bad
Using a volt meter, ensure that the transformer is supplying the proper voltage.
Electrode gap improperly set
Check the gap and readjust if necessary, taking care that the proper distance is maintained from
the fuel nozzle.
Electrode caps cracked
Down fired, multi-pass boiler systems have a cap on the top of each electrode. Examine caps
for cracks or carbon build-up and replace if there problems are evident.
Electrode wires loose or damaged Applies to down fired, multi-pass boiler systems - Check the wire to each electrode to ensure
there is a good connection.
Electrodes arcing to fuel lines
Electrodes should not be arcing to fuel lines or nozzle. Check electrode for cracking or carbon
build-up.
Transformer bus bars not lining up Applies to gun type burners - Bus bars on the transformer should line up and connect properly
with the electrode terminals
Improper air delivery
Check air delivery to combustion chamber. Down fired; check air damper and air bag. Gun type;
Check air bands.
Solenoid valve not energizing
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Burner or electrode
assembly fires when
removed from housing
Ignites with air bands closed Excessive electrode gap
down
Ignites with air bands
Choked down
opened up
Air and fuel flow proper
Solenoid valve energizing
Boiler controls activating
Steady fuel flow at bleed
valve but none in
combustion chamber
PROBLEM
PROBLEM
Burner firing normally but
with outlet temp lower than
rated
Burner firing constantly
PROBLEM
Flame intermittently lifts and
returns to gas port "candles"
Flame height changes
suddenly
Flame floats around the
combustion chamber
Flame has yellow tip
Flame comes out from
under burner housing
Gas burns inside the burner
tube - roars
Burner pops when gas is
shut off
Ignition operating properly
Boiler controls operating
properly
PROBLEM
No arc at the ignition pilot
assembly
Check the ignition module and replace if necessary.
Check boiler controls for good operation and correct problems.
If pilot and boiler controls operate properly, the problem may exist with the gas valve. Replace if
necessary
Ignition module bad
Boiler controls malfunctioning
Gas valve malfunctioning
Flame travel when the gas is shut off does not damage the unit.
Flame travels back into burner
Scaling
17
If inlet water is freezing to the touch, the boiler may not be able to reach the desired temperature
increase. Use a water supply with a higher temperature.
Soot build up on the coil can keep the water from reaching the desired temperature. Remove all
soot from the coil and check for smoking.
The outlet fitting to the hose can get scale build-up and reduce heat exchange. Descale and
prevent further build-up.
Inlet water too cold
Sooting
SOLUTION
Set the thermostat to proper output temperature.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Thermostat set too low
BOILER SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS
Water Output Temperature Too Low- Oil/ Gas Fired
Inquire about a burner with the proper rated capacity.
Burner underrated
POSSIBLE CAUSE
SOLUTION
Gas velocity exceeds flame speed If gas flow is not properly regulated, the regulator may need to be replaced. Gas line may be too
small.
Uneven gas supply pressure
Check orifice for partial blockage. If no blockage found, ensure that the gas supply and regulator
are working properly.
Insufficient air
Check stack for fuel restriction and correct. It may require new ventilation if the original system is
inadequate.
Flame speed improper
Check for proper gas pressure while burner is operating.
Insufficient air and ventilation
Usually occurs at ignition. Check stack for fuel restriction.
BOILER SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS
Abnormal Flame Characteristic Gas Fired
SOLUTION
Check the spark gap and reset if necessary. Check for air in the propane line.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Spark gap incorrect
BOILER SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS -Gas Burner Will Not Fire
Switch activated manually
Switch does not activate
PROBLEM
Switch activates when
pressure is reached but
boiler not firing
Solenoid coil energizes
PROBLEM
No voltage solenoid
Solenoid coil does not
energize
If solenoid valve coil energizes when the cleaner is operating in hot water the problem is
elsewhere. Check the air/fuel delivery.
Check to see if fuel solenoid will energize when the proper voltage is applied. Solenoid may
need replacing.
If coil energizes when proper voltage is applied, check boiler controls.
18
Switch may be improperly wired for it's function.
If wiring is proper and still no current flow when activated, switch may need replacement.
Check pressure plunger to see if it will travel freely. If not, the passage may need cleared.
Check to see if the plunger is traveling far enough to depress the microswitch. Adjust if
necessary.
Current not flowing through switch If switch activates manually but boiler does not fire, current may not be flowing through. The
switch may need replacing.
Microswitch not properly adjusted Microswitch may need readjustment so plunger can trip in.
Switch bad
Replace switch with another one.
Problem elsewhere in the system. If switch works manually and current is flowing properly, the problem is elsewhere. Try other
boiler diagnostics.
Switch improperly wired
Switch bad
Plunger fouled or stuck
Plunger not moving far enough
POSSIBLE CAUSE
SOLUTION
Control not flowing through switch A multimeter can indicate if the proper voltage flows through the boiler side of the switch. If not
the switch may not need replaced.
BOILER SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS - Pressure
Switch
Boiler control not activating
properly
Problem occurring elsewhere
Coil bad
POSSIBLE CAUSE
SOLUTION
Boiler control or electrical problem A multimeter can be used to check continuity through controls and pinpoint the problem areas.
Bad connection to solenoid coil
Electrical connections to solenoid valve coil should be tight and not corroded.
BOILER SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS - Boiler
Controls
Replace switch with another one.
Switch contact bad
19
Continue with boiler control diagnostics. If boiler still does not fire, the thermostat may need
replaced.
Boiler will not fire when
thermostat jumped
Problem else where in system
SOLUTION
Set thermostat properly and ensure connections are not loose or corroded.
Replace Thermostat.
BOILER SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS Thermostat
See diagnostics listed above.
Problem else where in system
PROBLEM
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Thermostat set improperly Thermostat set too low
Boiler fires when thermostat Thermostat bad
jumped, but will not fire with
thermostat in circuit
Reed switch does not
activate when tested with
external magnet
To adjust it for the flow the system is producing, loosen the reed switch and move it in its
If reed switch activated the boiler when tested with a hand held magnet, the internal magnet may
If reed switch does not activated the boiler when tested with a hand held magnet, the reed
switch may need replacement.
Reed switch misadjusted
Magnet is bad
Reed switch is bad
SOLUTION
If magnet does not move freely within its housing, remove debris to unstick it.
BOILER SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS - Flow Switch Optional
SOLUTION
Replace switch if improper diaphragm movement is detected.
Correct problems related to inadequate water flow.
Replace vacuum switch if diaphragm shows an air leak or hole.
If vacuum switch works properly, continue with other boiler control diagnostics.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Improper diaphragm movement
Low water flow
Air leak in or punctured diaphragm
Problem elsewhere in system
PROBLEM
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Reed switch activates when Magnet fouled and will not move
tested with external magnet
Switch shows continuity
when activated
Switch does not shows
continuity when activated
PROBLEM
Switch activated manually
BOILER SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS - Vacuum Switch Optional
PROBLEM
Fuel level low
Fuel level proper
SOLUTION
Check connections to high temperature limit switch to ensure that they are not loose or
corroded.
If there is continuity through the switch but the boiler still does not fire, there is a problem
elsewhere in the system. Continue with boiler control diagnostics.
Replace switch.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Switch may be operating properly
Level sensor stuck
Reed switch bad
20
Last updated September 28, 2011
SOLUTION
Add fuel and retest.
Check level sensor for proper movement. Clear, repair, or replace sensor assembly.
Check level sensor for proper action. Replace switch if needed.
BOILER SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS - Low Fuel Shut-Off
No continuity through switch Switch bad
PROBLEM
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Electrical continuity through Connections loose or corroded
switch
Problem else where in system
BOILER SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS - High Temperature Limit
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