MICROPROCESSOR CONTROLLED DIGITAL LOCK

MICROPROCESSOR CONTROLLED DIGITAL LOCK
UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND INFORMATION ENGINEERING
PROJECT: MICROPROCESSOR CONTROLLED DIGITAL LOCK
PROJECT INDEX: 104
NAME: MBUGUA ERIC NGURE
REG. NO: F17/29174/2009
SUPERVISOR: PROF. E. MWANGI
EXAMINER: MR. S. A. AHMED
A project report submitted to the Department of Electrical and Information Engineering in
partial fulfilment of the requirements of BSc. Electrical and Electronic Eng. of the
University of Nairobi
Submitted on 28th April 2014
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DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY
FACULTY/ SCHOOL/ INSTITUTE: Engineering
DEPARTMENT: Electrical and Information Engineering
COURSE NAME: Bachelor of Science in Electrical & Electronic Engineering
TITLE OF NAME OF STUDENT: Mbugua Eric Ngure
REGISTRATION NUMBER: F17/29174/2009
COLLEGE: Architecture and Engineering
WORK: Digital lock
1. I understand what plagiarism is and I am aware of the university policy in this regard.
2. I declare that this final year project report is my original work and has not been submitted
elsewhere for examination, award of a degree or publication. Where other people’s work
or my own work has been used, this has properly been acknowledged and referenced in
accordance with the University of Nairobi’s requirements.
3. I have not sought or used the services of any professional agencies to produce this work.
4. I have not allowed, and shall not allow anyone to copy my work with the intention of
passing it off as his/her own work.
5. I understand that any false claim in respect of this work shall result in disciplinary action,
in accordance with University anti-plagiarism policy.
Signature: …………………………………………………………………………..…
Date: ……………………………………………………………………………………
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DEDICATION
This project is dedicated to my parents for the moral and financial support and also to those who
have guided me throughout my journey of education.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First and foremost, I thank the almighty God for guiding me throughout my studies till the
accomplishment of this project.
I am grateful to my supervisor, Prof. E Mwangi for the useful guidance and suggestions throughout
the project, it has been a great pleasure for me to get an opportunity to work under him.
A project of this nature could never have been attempted without reference to and inspiration from
the works of others whose details are mentioned in reference section. I also acknowledge all of
them.
Lastly, my thanks goes to all of my lecturers, classmates and friends in the department of Electrical
and Electronic Engineering at the University of Nairobi who extended all sorts of help to the
accomplishment of this undertaking.
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Table of Content
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................... 1
1.1
PROBLEM DEFINITION/STATEMENT ...................................................................... 1
1.2
PROJECT OBJECTIVE................................................................................................... 2
1.3
PROJECT SCOPE ........................................................................................................... 2
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................................ 3
2.1 MICROCONTROLLER ....................................................................................................... 3
2.1.1 Types of microcontrollers .............................................................................................. 3
2.1.2 The mid-range PIC microcontroller core features ......................................................... 6
2.1.2.8 Timers ........................................................................................................................... 13
2.2 KEYPAD INPUT................................................................................................................ 15
2.3 LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD) .............................................................................. 16
2.3.1 LCD Structure .............................................................................................................. 17
2.3.2 LCDs Classification ..................................................................................................... 18
2.4 ELECTROMAGNETIC LOCK.......................................................................................... 18
2.5 POWER SUPPLY UNIT .................................................................................................... 19
2.6 PROGRAMMING .............................................................................................................. 19
2.6.1 Low-level Language .................................................................................................... 19
2.6.2 High Level Language................................................................................................... 19
2.6.2 Machine Code .............................................................................................................. 19
CHAPTER 3: DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION .................................................................. 20
3.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 20
3.2 Hardware module ................................................................................................................ 21
3.2.1 LCD.............................................................................................................................. 21
3.2.2 KEYPAD ..................................................................................................................... 22
3.2.3 XT Oscillator mode...................................................................................................... 23
3.2.4 Buzzer .......................................................................................................................... 23
3.2.5 Lock actuator ............................................................................................................... 23
3.2.6 Relay ............................................................................................................................ 25
3.2 Software module ................................................................................................................. 28
3.3 Printed Circuit Board .......................................................................................................... 31
3.4 Power supply....................................................................................................................... 33
CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND ANALYSIS ............................................................................... 35
CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .............................................. 39
5.1 Discussion and Conclusion ................................................................................................. 39
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5.3 RECOMMENDATION ...................................................................................................... 39
APENDIX A: Assembly language code ....................................................................................... 41
APENDIX B Cost analysis ........................................................................................................... 53
Bibliography ................................................................................................................................. 54
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List of figures
Figure 2.1: Memory architecture-------------------------------------------------------------------------5
Figure 2.2: PIC16F690 [7] -------------------------------------------------------------------------------7
Figure 2.3 PIC16F690 Block diagram [7] -------------------------------------------------------------8
Figure 2.2: MCLR reset button [3] ---------------------------------------------------------------------12
Figure 2.4: Ideal de-bouncing wave --------------------------------------------------------------------16
Figure 2.5: LCD operation [3] --------------------------------------------------------------------------17
Figure 3.1: Work flow Chart-----------------------------------------------------------------------------20
Figure 3.2: Block Diagram-------------------------------------------------------------------------------21
Figure 3.3: LCD module----------------------------------------------------------------------------------22
Figure 3.4: 4x3 Matrix Keypad--------------------------------------------------------------------------23
Figure 3.5: Door and Actuator positions in Plan view -----------------------------------------------24
Figure 3.6: solenoid lock actuator-----------------------------------------------------------------------24
Figure 3.7: HK4100F-DC5V-SHG---------------------------------------------------------------------25
Figure 3.8: Circuit diagram------------------------------------------------------------------------------27
Figure 3.9: flow chart-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------29
Figure 3.10: PCB image ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------31
Figure 3.11: Software 3d view of the PCB board top and bottom surfaces-----------------------32
Figure 3.12: power supply circuit and backup battery circuit---------------------------------------33
Figure 4.1: PCB fabrication------------------------------------------------------------------------------36
Figure 4.2: project pictures-------------------------------------------------------------------------------37
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List of Acronyms
ALU –
Arithmetic logic unit
RISC -
Reduced Instruction Set Computer
CISC -
Complex instruction set computer
CPU-
Control processing unit
PIC -
Peripheral Interface Controller
SFR-
special function register
ROM -
Read Only Memory
RAM -
Random Access Memory
LCD -
Liquid Crystal Display
LED -
Light emitting diode
MOS -
Metal oxide semiconductor
EMF –
Electromotive force
SIM –
Subscriber identification module
PCB –
Printed circuit board
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ABSTRACT
The intent of this paper is to design an efficient, effective and low cost microcontroller security
system that could be used to realize a digital locking mechanism with safety overrides. The user
enters a code through a keypad within specified time duration and the system accepts or rejects
the request. For more than a specified number of attempts exceeded, the system should lock
permanently and send an alert for an attempted entry. A master unlock code is provided to the
system administrator to restore the control mechanism in case of an auto-lock due to failed
attempts.
Keywords (microcontroller security system, digital locking mechanism, control mechanism)
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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Security describes protection of life and property. In this modern age, security has becomes an
important issue in the society. This sector is experiencing a huge diversification. Where the
reliability of already existing systems has been looked into for the possibility of creating better
systems that are smarter and more secure. Here is where an embedded microcontroller system
comes into the picture, to realize a digital locking mechanism with an ability that allows users to
input numerical password to open locks. When the user enters the right numerical password, a
relay is turned on which in turn powers an actuator to open a door lock. The significance of this
idea over the old mechanical key locking system is that it eliminates the need for a physical key.
Other digital locks have been implemented using different modes of inputs where they build
more on the basis of this project such systems include the digital safe where one rotates a knob
clockwise and anticlockwise while entering the code this is mainly used in safes, there is also the
use of radio frequency tag which has been indulged in the modern day hotels also we have
digital locks which can be assessed remotely i.e. via mobile phones or from a control room by
use of computers [1]. Another interesting mode of input used in security systems is the use of
biometric devices which authenticate user’s access by a personal identifiers which may be
fingerprint scan, voice scan, iris scan, retina scan, or facial scan. On the fingerprint scan
biometric there has been an interesting development where the users’ finger to be scanned
should have blood flow in it, to avoid security hacks by use of chopped off users fingers or
dummy fingers [2].
1.1 PROBLEM DEFINITION/STATEMENT
Design a microcontroller system that could be used to realize a digital locking mechanism with
safety overrides. The user enters a code through a keypad within specified time duration and the
system accepts or rejects the request. For more than a specified number of attempts which when
exceeded system should lock permanently and send an alert for an attempted entry. The system
designer then provides a master unlock code to restore the mechanism.
1
1.2 PROJECT OBJECTIVE
The objectives of this project can be divided into three parts
 To design and construct a microcontroller system that could be used to realise a digital
locking mechanism.
 To enter a code through a keypad within specified time duration and the system accepts
or rejects the request.
 To have a specified number of attempts which when exceeded system should lock
permanently and send an alert for an attempted entry and The system designer then
provides a master unlock code to restore the mechanism
1.3 PROJECT SCOPE
This project entails the following:
 Understanding microcontroller’s structure and functionality.
 Understanding the PIC16F690 internal components specifically the EEPROM and timers
and counters.
 Interfacing microcontrollers with input/output devices specifically the keypad, Liquid
crystal display, buzzer and relay.
Developing a microcontroller program or code using assembly language.
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CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter describes and discusses the research from various sources such as textbooks, articles
and the internet. It consists of information which is vital in the development of this project.
2.1 MICROCONTROLLER
A microcontroller is a small computer furnished in a single integrated circuit that needs support
chips. Its principal nature is self-sufficiency and low cost. It is not intended to be used as a
computing device in the conventional sense; that is, a microcontroller is not designed to be a
data processing machine, but rather an intelligent core for a specialized dedicated system.
Microcontrollers are embedded in many control, monitoring, and processing systems. Some are
general-purpose devices but most microcontrollers are used in specialized systems such as
washing machines, telephones, microwave ovens, automobiles, and weapons. A microcontroller
usually includes a central processor, input and output ports, memory for program and data
storage, an internal clock, and one or more peripheral devices such as timers, counters, analogueto-digital converters, serial communication facilities, and watchdog circuits [3].
2.1.1 Types of microcontrollers
Microcontrollers can be classified according to the following:
 Internal bus width
 Instruction set
 Memory architecture
 Embedded and external memory microcontroller
 Integrated circuits (IC) chip or very large scale integration (VLSI) core, very high speed
integrated circuits (VHSIC), hardware description language (VHDL or Verilog) file
 Family.
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2.1.1.1 Internal Bus Width
They are classified to 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit microcontrollers.
In an 8-bit microcontroller it contains an 8-bit bus and the arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
performs the arithmetic and logic operations on a byte at an instruction. Examples include PICx,
Intel 8031/8051 and Motorola MC68HC11 families [4].
In 16-bit microcontroller, contains a 16-bit bus and the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) performs
arithmetic and logic operations on the operand words of 16 bits at the instructions. These
microcontrollers have a greater advantage than 8-bit microcontrollers in that they provide better
performance and precision than their 8-bit counter parts. Typical examples include Intel 8096,
PIC2x, Extended 8051XA, Atmega 16 and Motorola MC68HC12 families [4].
In 32-bit microcontrollers, the internal bus for the data transfer operations in this
microcontroller is 32-bit. The ALU performs arithmetic and logic operations on operand words
of 32 bits at the instructions. They give better performance and precision as compared to 16-bit
microcontrollers but are more expensive. Some of the most popular 32-bit microcontrollers are
PIC3x, Atmega 32, Intel/Atmel 251 family, Motorola M683xx and ARM 7, 9 or 11 processor
based families. They find applications in embedded computing systems for applications-MPEG
processing, mobile phones, MP3 audio systems, image processing based products and aerospace
systems [4].
2.1.1.2 Instruction Set
This includes the following:
 Complex instruction set computer (CISC)
 Reduced instruction set computer (RISC)
A RISC machine contains few instructions not more than 35 and each instruction performs more
elementary operations. Consequences of this are a smaller silicon area, faster execution, reduced
program size with fewer accesses to main memory and less power dissipation. The PIC
designers have followed the RISC route [3].
While on the other hand in a CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) microcontroller both
data and instructions are 8-bits wide, with a minimum of 200 instructions. Data and code are on
the same bus and cannot be fetched simultaneously [5].
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2.1.1.3 Memory Architecture
This is how exchange of data between the control processing unit (CPU) and memory is carried
out. .Memory architecture includes the following:
 Princeton (Von-Neumann) memory architecture microcontroller
 Harvard memory architecture microcontroller
Microcontrollers using the von architecture have only one memory block and one data bus. As
all data are exchanged by use of one data bus, thus the data bus can be overloaded in
applications requiring high computational power hence making it very slow and inefficient. The
CPU can either read an instruction or read/write data from/to the memory. Both cannot occur at
the same time since the instructions and data use the same bus system [6].
Harvard architecture is a computer design in which data and instruction use different buses and
storage areas. In other words, data and instructions are not located in the same memory area but
in separate ones. In this type of machine, the processor can read and write instructions and data
to and from memory at the same time and this result in a faster, more complex machine [3].
Figure 2.1: Memory architecture
2.1.1.4 Embedded and External Memory Microcontrollers
An embedded microcontroller has all the software and hardware units in a single integrated
circuit while an external memory microcontroller does not have all the software and hardware
units inside the integrated circuit. It may or may not have the entire memory unit externally
interfaced. The interfacing circuit is known as a glue circuit [4].
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2.1.2 The mid-range PIC microcontroller core features
PIC microcontrollers are designed by Microchip Technology, the real name for this
microcontroller is PICMICRO (Peripheral Interface Controller), but it is better known as PIC.
Its first ancestor was designed in 1975 by General Instruments. This chip PIC1650 was meant
for a totally different purposes, where ten years after, by adding an EEPROM memory, this
circuit was transformed into a real PIC microcontroller [6].
In a microcontroller system, the central processing unit (CPU) is the component that executes
the program instructions and processes data. It provides the fundamental functionality of a
digital system. In the PIC architecture, it fetches and executes the instructions contained in a
program. The arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) is the CPU element that performs arithmetic, bitwise,
and logical operations. It also controls the bits in the STATUS register as they are changed by
the execution of the various program instructions [3].
PIC microcontrollers are unique in many ways. They have several general Characteristics which
include: Harvard architecture, RISC processor design, single-word Instructions, machine and
data memory configuration, and characteristic instruction formats [3].
2.1.2.1 Single-word Instructions
Since the device has separate buses for instructions and data, that is the Harvard architecture it is
possible for instructions to be sized differently than data items. This ability to vary the number
of bits in each instruction op-code makes it possible for the optimization program memory and
use of single-word instructions that can be fetched in one bus cycle. The PIC architecture has a
two-stage instruction pipeline; however, since the fetch of the current instruction and the
execution of the previous one can overlap in time, one complete instruction is fetched and
executed at every machine cycle due to pipelining. The one exception is when an instruction
modifies the contents of the Program Counter. In this case, a new instruction must be fetched,
requiring an additional machine cycle [3].
The PIC clocking system is designed so that an instruction is fetched, decoded, and executed
every four clock cycles. In this manner, a PIC equipped with a 4MHz oscillator clock beats at a
rate of 0.25 µs. Since each instruction executes at every four clock cycles, hence each instruction
takes 1 µs [3].
2.1.2.2 Instruction format
The mid-range family of PICs including the PIC16F690 have 14-bit instructions and a set of 35
instructions. The format for the instructions follows three different pattern
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 Byte-oriented operations
 Bit-oriented operations
 Literal and control operations
2.1.2.3 Input/output (I/O) Ports
Microcontroller require to be connected to additional electronics, i.e. peripherals hence,
microcontrollers have one or more registers (called “port” in this case) connected to the
microcontroller pins, where the Port pins can be configured either as input or output, that is,
general ports are bidirectional using specific special function registers [6].
An important feature of I/O pins is the maximum current they can source/sink. For the most
microcontrollers, current obtained from one pin is sufficient to activate low current devices (1020 mA). If a microcontroller has many I/O pins, then the maximum current of one pin is lower
[4]. Usually, each I/O port is under control by a special function register (SFR), this means that
each bit of that register determines state of the corresponding pin. For example, by writing logic
one (1) to one bit of that control register SFR, the appropriate port pin is automatically
configured as input. It means that voltage brought to that pin can be read as logic 0 or 1.
Otherwise, by writing zero to the SFR, the appropriate port pin is configured as output. Its
voltage (0V or 5V) corresponds to the state of the appropriate bit of the port register.
Another important pin feature is to (not) have pull-up resistors. These resistors connect pin to
positive power supply voltage and their effect is visible when the pin is configured as input
connected to mechanical switches or push buttons. Some versions of microcontrollers have pullup resistors connected to and disconnected from the pins by software [6].
Figure 2.2: PIC16F690 [7]
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Figure 2.3 PIC16F690 Block diagram [7]
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2.1.2.4 Memory unit
Memory is part of the microcontroller used for data storage. A memory address corresponds to
one memory location. The content of any location becomes known by addressing. This means
that, on one hand it is necessary to select the desired memory location, on the other hand it is
necessary to wait for the contents of that location. In addition to read, memory also has to allow
writing to these locations [6].
2.1.2.4.1 Read Only Memory (ROM)
This type of memory is not affected by power loss. It is used to permanently save program being
executed [4]. The PIC16f690 microcontrollers uses 8-bit addressing, which means that one can
be able to address up to 256 bytes memory, i.e. 256 locations [7].
Types of rom; Masked rom. Microcontrollers containing this ROM are reserved for the great
manufacturers. Program is loaded into the chip by the manufacturer. In case of large
scale manufacture, the price is very low [6].
 One Time Programmable ROM (OTP rom). If the microcontroller contains this
memory, one can download a program into the chip only once [6].
 Ultra-Violet Erasable Programmable ROM (UV EPROM) Both manufacturing
process and characteristics of this memory are completely identical to OTP ROM.
However, the package of this microcontroller has recognizable “window” on the upper
side, which enables the surface of the silicon chip to be lit by an UV lamp, which
completely clears the program in the memory and a new program download is enabled
[6].
 Flash memory. This type of memory was invented in the 80s by the INTEL Company
and was represented as a successor of the UV EPROM. Since the contents of this
memory can be written and cleared practically for an unlimited number of time.
Microcontrollers with Flash ROMs are ideal for learning, experimentation and smallscale manufacture. Because of its popularity, most microcontrollers are manufactured in
flash version today [6].
 Electrically Erasable Programmable ROM (EEPROM). The contents of this memory
may be changed during operation (similar to RAM), but remains permanently saved even
upon power loss. Accordingly, EEPROM is often used to store values, created during
operation, which must be permanently saved. For example, in designing an electronic
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lock or an alarm, it would be great to enable the user to create and enter a password on
his/her own, hence, the idea of having the user password even after power loss applies to
this type of memory [6].
The PIC16F690 uses this technology, where it has 4K words of program EEPROM with
an address range from 0h to 0FFFh [7].
2.1.2.4.2 Random Access Memory (RAM)
Once the power supply is off the contents of this memory are lost. In microcontrollers it is used
for temporary storing data and intermediate results created and used during operation [6].
2.1.2.5 Oscillator
This is a devices that produces a periodic waveform that is used as a synchronizing signal.
Ideally the waveform are depicted as a square wave but they need not to be perfectly
symmetrical. The requirement of this waveforms is that they should be perfectly periodic. The
basic timing interval for a digital circuit, which is equal to one full waveform period, is called
the clock cycle [3].
A stable and uniform waveform reaches exactly the same voltage every time the clock is high,
and by the same token, every time the clock signal goes low the voltage level must be the same.
The clock signal must remain at the high and low levels for the same time and the time between
each high and low cycle must be exactly the same, this is the frequency stability of the clock. In
practice, the stability and uniformity of the clock signal are more important than the absolute
value. Another characteristic of the clock signal is the time required for clock levels to change
from high to low and vice versa. Ideally this transition could be represented by a vertical line.
This would mean that the transition is instantaneous, which is not achievable in actual circuits.
Practically, some time is required for the waveform to transition from low to high and vice versa.
Mid-range PICs use internal or external device to produce clock cycles which are required for
their operation. The PIC executes an instruction every four clock cycles, so the oscillator speed
determines the device performance. Mid-range PICs support up to eight different oscillator
modes .The oscillator mode is selected at device programming time and cannot be changed at
runtime. The configuration bits, which are non-volatile flags set during device programming,
and this determine which oscillator mode is used by the program, among the following modes
[3]:
 Low Frequency Crystal (LP)
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 Crystal Resonator (XT)
 High Speed Crystal Resonator (HS)
 External Resistor/Capacitor (RC)
 External Resistor/Capacitor (EXTRC)
 External Resistor/Capacitor (EXTRC) with clock out (CLKOUT)
 Internal 4 MHz Resistor/Capacitor (INTRC)
 Internal 4 MHz Resistor/Capacitor with CLKOUT (INTRC)
2.1.2.6 Reset
The reset mechanism places the PIC in a known condition. The reset mechanism is used to gain
control of a runaway or hung-up program, as a forced interrupt in program execution, or to make
the device ready at program load time [3].
Practically this means that a microcontroller can behave rather inaccurately under certain
undesirable conditions. In order to continue its proper functioning it has to be reset, meaning all
registers would be placed in a starting position. Reset is not only used when microcontroller
doesn't behave the way we want it to, but can also be used when trying out a device as an
interrupt in program execution [8].
The mid-range PICs are capable of several reset actions:
 Reset during power on (POR).
 Master clear (MCLR) reset during normal operation.
 Reset during SLEEP mode.
 Watchdog timer reset (WDT).
 Brown-out reset (BOR).
 Parity error reset.
The first two reset sources in the above list are the most common. POR reset serves to bring all
PIC registers to an initial state, including the program counter register. The second source of
reset action takes place when the !MCLR line is intentionally brought down, usually by the
action of a push-button reset switch (figure 2.2). This switch is useful during program
development since it provides a way of forcefully restarting execution [3].
The PIC16F690 has a noise filter in the MCLR Reset path. The filter will detect and ignore small
pulses. Voltages applied to the pin that exceed its specification can result in both MCLR Resets
and excessive current beyond the device specification. For this reason, Microchip recommends
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that the MCLR pin should not be tied directly to VDD. The use of an RC network is suggested
where the capacitor is optional [7].
Figure 2.2: MCLR reset button [3]
During a reset, RAM memory locations are not being reset. They are unknown during a power
up and are not changed at any reset. While, SFR registers are reset to a starting position initial
state. One of the most important effects of a reset is setting a program counter (PC) to zero
(0000h), which enables the program to start executing from the first written instruction [8].
Brown-out reset (BOR). Brown out is a potentially dangerous state which occurs at the moment
the microcontroller is being turned off or in situations when power supply voltage drops to the
limit due to powerful electric noises. As the microcontroller consists of several circuits which
have different operating voltage levels, this state can cause the PIC out-of-control performance.
In order to prevent it, the PIC microcontroller usually has built-in circuit for brown out reset.
This circuit immediately resets the whole electronics when the voltage level drops below the set
limit for the PIC16F690 it is 2VDC when operating on a 4 MHz clock frequency [6].
2.1.2.7 Interrupts
An interrupt is an asynchronous signal calling for processor attention, originating from hardware
or software. The interrupt mechanism is a way to avoid wasting processor time, since without
interrupts code has to poll hardware devices using closed loops. With interrupts, the processor
can continue to do its work since the interrupt mechanism ensures that the CPU receives a signal
whenever an event occurs that requires its attention. After responding to or ignoring the
interrupt, the CPU resumes processing where it left off. Processors and microprocessors usually
support hardware and software interrupts and mask-able and non-mask-able interrupts; interrupts
originate in practically any device connected to the system [3].
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The interrupt source usually originates in one of the hardware modules, although some sources
generate more than one interrupt. The following are interrupt sources in the mid-range
PIC16F690
 External Interrupt pin RA2/INT
 Timer0 (TMR0) Overflow Interrupt
 PORTA/PORTB Change Interrupts
 2 Comparator Interrupts
 Analogue/digital (A/D) Interrupt
 Timer0 0verflow
 Timer1 Overflow Interrupt
 Timer2 Match Interrupt
 EEPROM Data Write Interrupt
 Fail-Safe Clock Monitor Interrupt
 Enhanced CCP Interrupt
 EUSART Receive and Transmit interrupts
Several SFRs are related to the interrupt systems. The INTCON register provides interrupt
enabling and control and the PIE1, PIE2, PIR1, and PIR2 registers have specific device-related
functions [7].
2.1.2.8 Timers
These are used to carry out timing operations or counting operations simultaneously with the
program, to make the program faster and more efficient [9].
Timer0 uses an 8-bit register, TMR0, file register. Its output is an overflow flag, timer0 interrupt
flag (T0IF), bit 2 in the Interrupt Control Register (INTCON). The timer register is incremented
via a clock input which is derived either from the microcontroller oscillator (FOSC) or an
external pulse train at RA4. The register counts from 0 to 255 in binary, and then rolls over to 00
again. When the register goes from 0xFF to 0x00, T0IF is set.
The timers are driven from the instruction clock, which can be monitored externally at the
CLKOUT pin shown in figure 2.3, if the chip is operating with an RC clock.
Alternatively, a count of external pulses can be made, and read from the register when finished,
or the read triggered by external signal. Thus, the timers can also be used as counters.
The pre-scaler is a divide by N register, where N= 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64,128 or 256, meaning that
the output count rate is reduced by this factor. This extends the count period or total count by the
same ratio, giving a greater range to the measurement [9]. Equation (2.1) can be used
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=
……… Equation (2.1)
Where T is the number of clock beats per second, C is the system clock speed in Hz, P is the
value stored in the prescaler, and R is the number of iterations counted in theTMR0 register [3].
Timer1 is a 16-bit counter, consisting of two 8bit registers TMR1H and TMR1L. When the low
byte rolls over from FF to 00, the high byte is incremented. The maximum count is therefore
65535, which allows a higher count without sacrificing accuracy [9].
Timer2 is an 8-bit counter (TMR2) with a 4-bit pre-scaler, 4-bit post-scaler and a comparator. It
can be used to generate Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) output which is useful for driving DC
motors and servos. These timers can also be used in capture and compare modes, which allow
external signals to be more easily measured [9].
2.1.2.9 Watchdog Timer
The watchdog timer is designed to automatically reset the microcontroller if the program
malfunctions, by stopping or getting stuck in loop. This could be caused by an undetected bug in
the program, an unplanned sequence of inputs or supply fault. A separate internal oscillator and
counter automatically generates a reset about every 18ms, unless this is disabled in the
configuration word [9].
If the watchdog timer is enabled, instructions which reset the watchdog timer are set on the
appropriate program locations, besides commands which are regularly executed, then the
operation of watchdog timer will not affect program execution. If for any reason (usually
electrical noises in industry), the program counter “gets stuck” on some memory location from
which there is no return, the watchdog will not be cleared and the register’s value being
constantly incremented will reach the maximum hence Reset occurs [6].
2.1.2.10 Sleep Mode
The PIC microcontroller offer a built-in sleep modes where executing this instruction puts the
microcontroller into a mode where the internal oscillator is stopped and the power consumption
is reduced to an extremely low level. The main reason of using the sleep mode is to conserve the
battery power when the microcontroller is not doing anything useful. The microcontroller
usually wakes up from the sleep mode by external reset and interrupts or by a watchdog time-out
[5].
14
2.2 KEYPAD INPUT
This mode of input relies on switches or push buttons which give only two states that is a high or
a low. The switch contacts are metal surfaces that are forced into contact by an actuator. Due to
momentum and elasticity, the striking action of the contacts causes a rapidly pulsating electrical
current instead of a clean transition from zero to full current. Switch bounce is taken care-off
using two main methods
 timing-based schemes
 hysteresis-based schemes
Timing-based schemes. This is where a sufficient delay is set so as to prevent the bounce from
being detected. The main advantage of using timing to control bouncing is that it does not
require any special switch design because it is software approach.
Hysteresis-based schemes. This technique uses hysteresis to separate the positions where the
make and break actions are detected. There three types of hardware employed for de-bouncing
which include: RS flip-flops, CMOS gate de-bouncers, and integrated RC circuit de-bouncers.
Switch de-bouncing can be implemented by means of a simple resistor-capacitor circuit. The
circuit action is based on the rate at which the capacitor recharges once the ground connection is
broken by the switch. As long as the capacitor voltage is below the threshold level of the logic
zero value, the output signal continues to appear as logic zero [3].
=
Seconds
…………..Equation 2.2
With a 10KΩ pull-up resistor, a 10nF capacitor would give a time constant of 100mS, which
should be more than adequate [9].
15
(a) No capacitor. (b) capacitor present
Figure 2.4: Ideal de-bouncing wave
2.3 LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD)
This a pixilated flat output device capable of displaying ASCII characters and dot-based
graphics which can be monochrome or colour by use of the light modulating properties of liquid
crystals which do not emit light directly.
The LCD is very popular in the market due to its low cost and good contrast. It also has the
distinct advantage over the light emitting diode (LED) in that it has a lower power consumption
(typically of the order of microwatts as opposed to LEDs which is of order of mili-watts). It is
due to low power consumption that there is compatibility with the metal oxide semiconductor
(MOS) integrated circuit also LCDs have an incorporated controller for refreshing LCD, there
by relieving the CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD and also the ease of
programming for characters and graphics [6].
Nevertheless, the LCD suffers from a number of limitations including short operating life, poor
visibility in low ambient lighting, requirement of an alternating current (AC) drive, limited
temperature range (between 0 and 100 degree Celsius), slow speed and need of light source [3].
16
2.3.1 LCD Structure
Figure 2.5: LCD operation [3]
In operation the liquid crystal display consists of two pieces of polarized glass with
perpendicular axes of polarity. Sandwiched between the polarizers is a layer of Nematic crystals,
as shown schematically in Figure 2.5
In the top image of Figure2.5 light cannot pass through the system since the liquid crystal layer
preserves the original angle of vibration of the light which cannot pass through the polarizer. In
the lower image the various molecular layers of the liquid crystal are twisted approximately 90
degrees. This twisting of the liquid crystal also changes the light’s pane of vibration. So when
light reaches the second polarized filter it vibrates at the same angle as the final molecule layer
of the liquid crystal and can pass through the polarizer.
When the current supply is removed, the various molecular layers resume to their twisted form.
By varying the amount of twist in the liquid crystals the amount of light that passes through can
be controlled [3].
17
2.3.2 LCDs Classification
LCDs can be reflective type (when one glass sheet is transparent and the other has a reflective
coating) or transmissive type (when both glass sheets are transparent). With regards to
illumination, the LCD depends entirely on illumination falling on it from an external source for
its visual effects. The transmissive LCD is illuminated from the back and viewed from the front.
This type is common in applications that require high levels of illumination, as is the case with
computer displays and television sets. Reflective LCDs, on the other hand, are illuminated by an
external source. This type finds use in digital watches and calculators.
LCDs can be colour or monochrome. In colour systems each individual pixel consists of three
cells, which are coloured red, green, and blue. These cells, sometimes called sub-pixels, are
controlled independently to yield many possible colours for each pixel. Most LCDs used in
microcontroller systems are monochrome [3].
In high-resolution and colour LCDs an active matrix display is used in the design and a grid of
thin –film transistors is added to the polarizing and colour filter. Each row line and column line
is addressed individually. This active matrix display are brighter and shaper and also have a
quick response time hence the name thin filmed transistors (TFT) [3].
2.4 ELECTROMAGNETIC LOCK
A solenoids is wound wire magnetic coils with an open core to receive a sliding cylindrical
plunger. When the coil is energized with an electrical current, a magnetic field is created in the
hollow opening which pulls the plunger into it or pushes it out, based on the orientation of the
solenoid and the poles of the plunger.
Most solenoid switches have only one switched pole due to the amount of current being passed
through them. Some are only momentarily operated, such as is in the case of a starter solenoids
on automobiles. Solenoid switches perform both electrical switching and coordinated
mechanical motion. Solenoid switches are used to mechanically engaging or disengaging their
shafts. This allows latching and opening mechanisms for windows, doors and hatches .Coils
inside the solenoid are energized to create a magnetic field which attracts and pulls a plunger.
An electric strike can also be used for door access control. The electric strike can have to basic
control configurations
•
Fail-secure – this is where applying current to the strike will cause it to open. In
this configuration the door would remain closed in case of power failure
18
•
Fail-safe - this is where applying current to the strike will cause it to lock hence
on power failure it does not provide security [10]
2.5 POWER SUPPLY UNIT
Standard logic circuits usually require a power source of +5 VDC. One possible source of +5
VDC is in one or more batteries. An alternative power source can be from the standard wall
outlet which is 230VAC at a frequency of 50Hz.The circuitry that convert the 230VAC to the
required DC voltage is known as the power supply. Components utilized for this are a step down
transformer which scales the AC voltage down, bridge rectifier which converts the AC voltage
to a DC voltage, capacitors for filtering the ripples from the bridge rectifier. In addition, most
power supplies include a voltage regulator component that ensures that the circuit voltage is
exactly the required amount [3].
2.6 PROGRAMMING
This is the art of communication with devices using an artificial language that can be used to
define a sequence of instructions that can be processed and executed by such devices. There are
two broad classifications of programming languages – the low-level and the high-level
languages [3].
2.6.1 Low-level Language
This type of language is written specifically for a particular type of micro-controller or
microprocessor. This means that it cannot be used by another microcontroller. The instructions
in this language are in mnemonics. This is called Assembly language [11].
2.6.2 High Level Language
This type of language is formed from parts of natural language such as English. It is a high level
of abstraction between what is asked by the computer and what the computer actually
understands. It is easily understood by humans more easily than assembly languages. But, like
the assembly language the computer cannot understand it. They therefore have to be translated
into machine code the language the computer understands [11].
2.6.2 Machine Code
This is a sequence of carefully timed series of ON and OFF signals that can also be called high
and low pulses or digital zeros and ones. The code usually represents numbers, data and
instructions for manipulating those numbers and data [11].
19
CHAPTER 3: DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
3.1 Introduction
This chapter seeks to explain in depth the process used in the implementation and operation of
the digital lock. This lock design entailed the following:




Hardware module
Software module
Printed Circuit Board
Power supply unit
The flow chart shown in fig 3.2 depicts the sequence of events used in the implementation of the
project.
Figure 3.1: Work flow Chart
20
3.2 Hardware module
The project hardware can be summarized /simplified in form of a block diagram as shown in fig
3.1 below.
LCD
Lock
actuator
User interface
PIC16F690
4x3
keypad
Buzzer
Oscillator
Figure 3.2: Block Diagram
3.2.1 LCD
LCDs are classified according to their interface into serial and parallel. Serial LCDs require less
I/O resources but execute slower than their parallel counter parts. In addition, they are
considerably more expensive [3], hence the reason for using the parallel interface LCD. The
LCD displays alphabetical, numerical and symbolic characters from the standard ASCII
character set, it can also display low-resolution graphics [6].
The display used is a standard LM016L which displays 2 lines of 16 characters (16x2). Each
character is 5x8 pixels, making it 80x16 pixels overall. The display receives ASCII codes for
each character at the data inputs (D0–D7) when operating in 8bit mode but for the project it’s
operated in 4 bit mode hence the data inputs are D4 to D7. The data is presented to the display
inputs by the PIC16F690, and latched in by pulsing the E (Enable) input. The RW (Read/Write)
is tied low (write mode), as the LCD is receiving data only. The RS (Register Select) input
allows commands to be sent to the display. RS=0 selects command mode, RS=1 data mode. The
display itself contains a microcontroller; the standard chip in this type of display is the Hitachi
HD44780. It must be initialised according to the data and display options required.
21
The LCD in the project is used in 4bit mode and hence requires only 6 port bits in the
PIC16F690 instead of 10 port bits when used in 8bit mode, the LCD is used to display
instructions, actions, options and data entered during operation of the digital lock. In the circuit
diagram a variable resistor is present which is used to vary the brightness of the LCD. The LCD
connection to the PIC16F690 is as shown in figure 3.8
Figure 3.3: LCD module
3.2.2 KEYPAD
In this project 4x3 matrix keypad is used. A keypad is simply an array of push buttons connected
in rows and columns, so that each can be tested for closure with the minimum number of
connections. A total number of 12 keys which makes the probability of guessing the correct
passcode very low that is
=
…………… Equation 3.1
Where P is the probability of a correct passcode while n is the length of the passcode.
An additional function of the keypad is the ‘H’ button which is used to wake the microcontroller
from a sleep mode using an external interrupt pin RA2 (pin 17) connected to the ‘H’ button. The
interrupt on pin 17 responds to any change in state of the pin once activated.
In connection 3 bits of a port are used for column indexing, which are set as input port, to check
whether they have dropped to 0 voltages when they are attached with the selected row after
pressing the key. On the other hand, 4 bits of a port are set to output (scan lines), and are used
for row indexing. Since they are the output ports, they can be set to high (1) or low (0) .By
setting each row to zero for every key scan, the system can check each column, to see if any one
of them is set to 0. If so, this means that one key of that row has been pressed. This process is
repeated for all rows to check all the keys [12]. The 3 pins for the keypad columns are kept high
22
by software using the PIC16F690 internal pull ups. The keypad connection to the PIC16F690 is
as shown in figure 3.8
Figure 3.4: 4x3 Matrix Keypad
3.2.3 XT Oscillator mode
For accurate timing applications, the clock circuitry consists of a crystal, and two small ceramic
capacitors. The commonly used crystal frequency is 4-MHz. The capacitors C3 and C4 for this
crystal should be around 22pF to 33pF for stabilizing the frequency. Current consumption in this
mode is medium.
3.2.4 Buzzer
A buzzer rated 3.5VDC – 24VDC which operates at a rated 20mA at 24VDC is used to produce
a beep in case of a wrong code entry and a continuous loud beep for the case of an attempted
entry.
3.2.5 Lock actuator
The solenoid lock actuator is designed in a normally closed mode this means when there is no
supply it is mechanically closed hence a door cannot be opened when in the closed position.
When a voltage is supplied the plunger is pulled inside for 6 second duration hence allowing
pushing or pulling of the door to an open position. On return of the door to the closed position a
sliding ramp on the plunger allows the plunger to slide back in to closed position figure 3.5
shows the positions. Operates at 9-12VDC draws a maximum of 500mA due to this the solenoid
lock actuator is connected to the PIC16F690 via a relay and a transistor.
23
Figure 3.5: Door and Actuator positions in Plan view
Figure 3.6: solenoid lock actuator
24
3.2.6 Relay
This is an electromechanical device which transforms an electrical signal into mechanical
movement. It consists of a coil which when supply voltage is applied on it current flows and a
magnetic field is produced that moves an armature to close the normally open contact and open
the normally closed contact, when power is removed from the relay the coil produces a voltage
in the opposite direction called the back EMF
The relay is used to operate the external solenoid forming part of a locking device, normally the
relay remains off. As soon as the output pin of the microcontroller goes high, the transistor
switches on hence the relay operates. A Free-wheeling diode 1N4001 protects the relay driver
circuit from the reverse voltage developed in the relay coil by dissipating the back EMF without
damaging the transistor. [5]
Relay calculations
Figure 3.7: HK4100F-DC5V-SHG
HK4100F- type, DC5V- coil type and voltage, S- Seal type H-coil power, where H is 0.2W and
D is 0.15W from the relay data sheet
=
Hence for the 5V coil requires a current of
.
=
…………… Equation 3.2
= 40mA
3.2.7 Transistor drive
Since the microcontroller cannot provide sufficient supply for the relay coil where the
PIC16F690 maximum sinking/sourcing current is 25mA while the coil require 40 mA. Hence the
relay is connected to the Microchip PIC16F690 output pin via a driver NPN transistor (BC547)
25
which is a medium power NPN transistor that is mostly used as a switch as shown in figure 3.8.
The transistor needs to operate in saturation mode for switching operation and also to minimize
the power dissipated across the collector and emitter. The purpose of the resistor at the base of
the transistor is to ensure that the transistor operates at saturation and it also protects the
microcontroller pin from damage
Calculating transistor drive base resistor
The NPN BC547 has DC current gain (hfe) of 150, while the relay coil requires a current of
40mA
=
……………………..Equation 3.3
=
40
= 0.267
150
Ideally 0.267mA should be the base current but practically the value is doubled hence the base
current is 0.534mA
=
5
0.534
= 9.363 Ω
Hence the approximate value for the base resistor should be 10KΩ
3.2.8 Safety override switch
A switch is present on the 12VDC side of the relay that connects the negative side of the relock
actuator to ground when activated, this switch immediately completes the circuit of the lock
actuator which in turn opens. This switch is for safety override in case of emergencies its
connection is as shown on the figure 3.8
26
Figure 3.8: Circuit diagram
27
3.2 Software module
This is the programming part of the project design. The flow chart in figure 3.9 demonstrates the
working of the code used in the digital lock.
The probability of guessing a five digit passcode and getting it correct in one attempt was
calculated to be
=
= 4.019 × 10
That meant that the probability of guessing the wrong code was 0.999996 approximately one.
Hence the passcode was set to be a 5 digit passcode.
45second code entry duration was chosen for code entry duration as it is a replica of the
Safaricom Mpesa code entry time limit.
The number of attempts on code entry was chosen to be three as this is also a replica of mobile
phone SIM cards code entry attempts
28
29
Figure 3.9: flow chart
From the flow chart an assembly language code was written and programed into the PIC16F690
using the PICKIT 2
30
3.3 Printed Circuit Board
This board was used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components
using conducting tracks etched from a copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate
in a process known as fabrication. Figure. 3.10 shows the PCB circuit that was used in the
fabrication process.
Figure 3.10: PCB image
31
Figure 3.11 shows the designed PCB board with components mounted on it.
Figure 3.11: Software 3d view of the PCB board top and bottom surfaces
32
3.4 Power supply
Figure 3.12: power supply circuit and backup battery circuit
The PIC16F690 operates in the range of 2.0VDC to 5.5VDC [7]. A voltage regulator circuit is
usually used to obtain the required power supply voltage when the device is to be operated from
a mains adaptor or batteries [5].
A Power supply circuit is required to convert the socket 240VAC to a stable 5VDC. The
240VAC mains supply is stepped down to 12VAC using a step-down transformer. The output
from the secondary of the transformer is rectified by a bridge rectifier comprising of four diodes
(1N4007) which have a root mean square (RMS) Reverse Voltage of 700V and an average
rectified output Current 1 Amp and filtered by an electrolytic capacitor 1000uF which has an
across voltage of 35V which smooth’s out the dc from the rectifier hence producing a large dc
with little ripples. The filtered output is regulated by 7812 IC to obtain the required 12VDC
through a 0.1uF ceramic capacitor which filters the output of the 7812 IC [1]. The 12VDC
obtained from the regulator is used to trickle charge a backup lead acid battery as shown in the
circuit [13]. Lead acid batteries are inexpensive and simple to manufacture in terms of cost per
watt hours, reliable, have Low self-discharge and also Low maintenance requirements. However
they have their limitations which are not of great a magnitude to this application like they
Cannot be stored in a discharged condition, poor weight-to-energy density limits use to
stationary and wheeled applications and environmentally unfriendly.
D6 is forward biased when using the ac power and reverse biased when using the battery. R1
limits the charging current to the batteries where the current for charging is specified on the
33
batteries data sheet. When ac power goes of the battery power kicks in where it supplies the
circuit [13].
12VDC is used for the door actuator (linear solenoid actuator) while 5VDC obtained from a
7805 regulator is used to power the PIC16F690. The 7805 IC can receive an input of 8VDC to
35VDC to output a constant 5VDC.Often, the last two digits of the device number are the output
voltage i.e. a 78L05 is a +5 VDC regulator [3].
34
CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
This chapter seeks to show the results obtained and the analysis done.
There were two types of results which included the following:
 Simulation results
 Practical results
Table 4.1: Results
35
36
From table 4.1.1 the practical and simulation results were as expected
Figure 4.1: PCB fabrication
37
Figure 4.2: project pictures
38
CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Discussion and Conclusion
Although the main challenge was time which was brought about by unavailability of
components, the project objectives were accomplished.
A system that could be used to realise a digital locking mechanism was designed and constructed
using the PIC16F690 microcontroller. Where code input was via a keypad within 45second, And
lastly only 3 attempts for code entry were allowed and the last one would trigger an alert for an
attempted entry, a master unlock code was then provided by the system administrator to restore
the control mechanism.
In addition to the project objectives an option of changing the user passcode was also
implemented where the administrator had the rights to change the existing code by entering the
correct admin code the system would then prompt him to enter the new passcode which would
be then saved in the PIC16f690 EEPROM.
In conclusion the use of the PIC16F690 microcontroller reduced the size and cost of
implementing the circuit, making the digital lock system a low cost control system which could
be used in homes, offices and industrial premises.
5.3 RECOMMENDATION
The project at hand envisaged a user with the ability to press keys and also to see by use of the
keypad input and LCD output. Other modes of identification and communication which
incorporate the disabled could also be implemented where modification on the mode of input
and output can be implemented as an enhancement i.e. combining the keypad with biometric
identification or combining the LCD with an audio output.
Modification can also be made to the whole system where information showing time, date and
the user who opened the lock could be sent and stored into a database. This would be used for
monitoring personnel access to rooms within a building, where each personnel would have to
input his/her user ID and a specific passcode for the ID. The system would then send the ID
access information to a database system which would then store the information for analysis by
management. Hence security and monitoring achieved
For the case of an attempted entry more information about the user attempting to enter could be
corrected at the instance of the attempt. Modification to achieve this would involve taking of a
39
pictures and time recording. Then information would then be sent to the administrator mobile
phone via the PIC16F690 in build communication modules for faster security response.
40
APENDIX A: Assembly language code
41
APENDIX B Cost analysis
53
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54
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