Modelling of a Standalone Photovoltaic System with Charge

Modelling of a Standalone Photovoltaic System with Charge
International Journal of Electrical Engineering.
ISSN 0974-2158 Volume 6, Number 3 (2013), pp. 259-268
© International Research Publication House
Modelling of a Standalone Photovoltaic System with
Charge Controller for Battery Energy Storage
M.Gengaraj1 and J.Jasper Gnanachandran2
M.E (Power Electronics & Drives) Francis Xavier Engg. College,
Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India, E-mail:[email protected]
Head of the Department, Francis Xavier Engineering college,
Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India, E-mail:[email protected]
This Paper presents a modelling of Standalone photovoltaic system with
designing the voltage controller for its Battery energy storage element. The
Photovoltaic (PV) topology comprises the boost converter to harness the
maximum power, the bi directional DC-DC converter to maintain the DC link
voltage stable through charging and discharging the battery, and inverter to
provide high quality power for local loads. The voltage controller designed for
battery is to maintain the highest State of Charge (SoC) while preventing
battery overcharge when it is partially loaded ad avoid over discharging when
the source is not available. Using MATLAB/SIMULINK the proposed model
of isolated PV system is created. Non-linear load is considered here to verify
the robustness of the proposed control scheme.
Keywords: Photovoltaic system (PV); PI controller; Non linear Load; Total
Harmonic Distortion(THD).
Now a days the shortage of conventional energy sources has pushed us towards
finding alternative sources of energy. There are many alternative sources of energy
such as solar, wind, ocean thermal, tidal, biomass, geo-thermal, nuclear energy etc.[1]
Among these solar power is more and more attractive due to the severer
environmental protection regulation and the predictable depletion of other energy
sources. Solar energy is most readily available energy resources. It is non-polluting &
Maintenance free. As a result many research works has been carried out for the
M.Gengaraj and J.Jasper Gnanachandran
development of solar power system in recent years. Many types of PV power
conversion systems have been developed as grid connected system for reducing
power from the utility and standalone system for providing the power to the load
power without the utility [2].
This paper presents a control strategy for converter configurations which are used
in standalone PV system. The converter topology comprises of Boost converter,
Bidirectional DC-DC converter, and full bridge inverter. The goal or objective of
these three converters are to harness the maximum power from the solar panel and
supply an uninterrupted and high quality power to local loads[3-5].
Battery is the storage element which plays the vital role in standalone PV system.
The standalone system requires battery for energy storage to supply the load power
during the period without (or) shortage of solar power. Because the P-V
characteristics of the PV module is varied with insolaiton level as well as
temperature[6-7]. In addition the battery charging needs control for achieving high
SoC and consequently longer life time of the battery. The converter which is used in a
battery is bi directional DC-DC converter. Stability of DC link voltage can be very
important for the whole system and it is achieved by battery converter. If there is any
fluctuation in the dc link voltage, performance of other converters i.e both boost
converter and full bridge inverter will be deteriorated[8].
Finally inverter acts as voltage source node in the isolated PV system and needs to
provide a stable and high quality AC voltage. The inverter is used to supply nonlinear load which is represented by a single phase diode rectifier with a capacitor and
resistor connected in parallel at the DC terminal of the rectifier. So many residential
loads are electronic loads, which are fed by the ac source through a diode-bridge
uncontrollable rectifier. This kind of load is also called nonlinear load, it stands for
that the relationship between voltage and current is nonlinear[9-10].
System Configuration
Photovoltaic panel
The main component of a solar energy system is Photovoltaic module. The basic
device of Photovoltaic system is photovoltaic cells. Cells may be grouped together to
form a panel. More no of panels are grouped together to form an array. The PV array
is composed of several PV modules which are connected in series and parallel in
order to form an appropriate output voltage and power. A solar panel (also solar
module, photovoltaic module or photovoltaic panel) is a packaged, connected
assembly of photovoltaic cells. The solar panel can be used as a component of a larger
photovoltaic system to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential
applications. Solar panels use light energy (photons) from the sun to generate
electricity through the photovoltaic effect. PV model is not available in
MATLAB/SIMULINK. According to the physical property of the p-n semiconductor,
a model has been developed based on the following Equation.
I = IPV, cell – IO, cell [exp (qV/aKT)]
Modelling of a Standalone Photovoltaic System with Charge Controller
The above equation (1) describes the I-V characteristics of the Ideal photovoltaic
cell shown in fig 1.
Fig 1: Single diode model of theoretical Photovoltaic cell
where Ipv, cell is the current generated by the incident light (it is directly proportional to
the Sun irradiation), Id is the Shockley diode equation, I0, cell [A] is the reverse
saturation or leakage current of the diode [A], q is the electron charge
[1.60217646*10−19C], k is the Boltzmann constant [1.380650*10−23 J/K], T [K] is the
temperature of the p-n junction, and a is the diode ideality constant.
The light generated current of the photovoltaic cell depends linearly on the solar
irradiation and is also influenced by the temperature according to the following
equation (2)
Ipv = [Ipv, n + KI T] G / Gn
Where Ipv, n [A] is the light-generated current at the nominal condition (usually 25◦C and
1000W/m2), ΔT = T – Tn. (being T and Tn the actual and nominal temperatures [K]),
G [W/m2] is the irradiation on the device surface, and Gn is the nominal irradiation.
The saturation current I0 of the photovoltaic cells that compose the device depend
on the saturation current density of the semiconductor (J0, generally given in [A/cm2])
and on the effective area of the cells. The saturation current I0 is strongly dependent
on the temperature and proposes a different approach to express the dependence of I0
on the temperature so that the net effect of the temperature is the linear variation of
the open circuit voltage according the practical voltage/temperature coefficient.
Io = [I sc, n + KI T] / exp {[Voc, n + KI T] /aVt}-1
Boost converter
A DC-to-DC converter is an electronic circuit which converts a source of direct
current (DC) from one voltage level to another. With so many types of DC-DC
converter available such as buck, boost, cuk, fly back, SEPIC etc., here the boost
converter is adopted in order to increase the voltage from the Solar panel. Because the
output voltage which is obtained from the solar panel is minimum. The boost
converter is used to couple different voltage levels between the dc link and the
terminal output of solar panel; moreover, it can make the solar panel operating at any
environmental condition.
M.Gengaraj and J.Jasper Gnanachandran
Fig 2: Boost Converter
In fig (2) unlike the conventional boost converter, in addition to the boost inductor
Lb and the high-frequency (HF) rectifier output diode D; the resonant inductor Lr in
series and resonant capacitor Cr in parallel are connected to the main switch Sm . The
auxiliary switch Sa with series connected clamping capacitor Cc is connected between
the drain of the Sm and the cathode of the D. The small capacitor Cn is used as a highfrequency bypass filter at the output of each module. Both the switches are driven in a
complementary manner.
Table I Components values
Boost Inductor
1.75 mH
Resonant Inductor
8.264 µH
Resonant Capacitor 0.47 nF
Clamping Capacitor 1.1µF
Output Filter Capacitor400 µF
Here the Boosting technique may achieved by obtaining the resonance condition
by suitable switching techniques. The condition which can be for achieving resonance
condition is the boost inductor value should be higher than that of the resonance
inductor and the clamping capacitor value should be higher than the resonance
Battery Charger
In a standalone photovoltaic system the essential component is battery. The most
widely used and least expensive battery is the lead acid battery. Other types of
batteries are also available such as Nickel-Cadmium and Nickel-Metal-Hydride. Both
these batteries are considerably more expensive and not as readily available. The
battery model is available in MATLAB/ SIMULINK/Sim Power Systems, it is
modelled as a nonlinear voltage source whose output voltage depends not only on the
Modelling of a Standalone Photovoltaic System with Charge Controller
current but also on the battery state of charge, SOC, which is a nonlinear function of
the current and time.
Bi-Directional DC-DC converter
Fig 3: Bidirectrional DC-DC Converter & its modes of operation
Since utility grid is not available in the standalone system, a good control
performance of the bidirectional converter is very important. It is necessary to keep
the dc link voltage constant through charging or discharging the Lead-acid battery
when the power output of the source or power demand of load alters. During the boost
phase, the battery pack voltage level of 48 V is boosted to 200 V and applied at the
inverter side. On the other hand, during buck phase the solar array output voltage is
regulated to the desirable level to recharge the batteries. In this topology, boost
converter operation is achieved by modulating M2 with the anti-parallel diode D1
serving as the boost-mode diode. With the direction of power flow reversed, the
topology functions as a buck converter through the modulation of M1, with the antiparallel diode D2 serving as the buck-mode diode. It should be noted that the two
modes have opposite inductor current directions.
PI Controller
Battery life time is reduced if there is low PV energy availability for longer period or
improper charging discharging. So the battery charging needs control for achieving
high State of Charge (SOC) and longer battery life. Hence proper controller for
battery charging is an inevitable need for this hour. The main function of the battery
charging controller in standalone PV system is to fully charge the battery without
permitting overcharging while preventing reverse current flow at night and deep
discharge under load conditions
A PI Controller (proportional-integral controller) is a special case of the PID
controller in which the derivative (D) of the error is not used. Setting a value for G is
often a trade-off between decreasing overshoot and increasing settling time.
The inverter acts as a voltage source node in the isolated system and needs to provide
a stable and high quality output ac voltage. The single-phase bridge circuit of Fig. 4
may be thought of as two half-bridge circuits sharing the same dc bus. Thus the single
phase ‘full-bridge’ (often, simply called as ‘bridge’) circuit has two legs of switches,
each leg consisting of an upper switch and a lower switch
M.Gengaraj and J.Jasper Gnanachandran
Fig 4 : Full Bridge Inverter
The two pole voltages of the single-phase bridge inverter generally have same 0
magnitude and frequency but their phases are 180 apart. Thus the load connected
between these two pole outputs (between points ‘A’ and ‘B’) will have a voltage
equal to twice the magnitude of the individual pole voltage.
Nonlinear load is considered to verify the universality and robustness of the control
scheme. When the connection of renewable energy to the utility network is not
available or unduly expensive, for example, in some remote areas, the stand-alone PV
system becomes more and more attractive by using energy storage element. This
stand-alone system is very suitable for household application. Residential loads are
mainly composed of household electric appliances, such as TV sets, laundry
machines, computers, fluorescent lamps, battery chargers, air conditioners, and
refrigerators etc. So many residential loads are electronic loads, which are fed by the
ac source through a diode-bridge uncontrollable rectifier. This kind of load is also
called nonlinear load, it stands for that the relationship between voltage and current is
The inverter is used to supply nonlinear load which is represented by a single
phase diode rectifier with a capacitor and resistor connected in parallel at the dc
terminal of the rectifier.
Simulation Results
Fig 5: Photovoltaic circuit model built with MATLAB/SIMULINK
Modelling of a Standalone Photovoltaic System with Charge Controller
Fig 6: P-V Curve of Solar array
Fig 7: I-V Characteristics of PV array
The Fig (5) Represents the PV model designed by using simulink model which is
described by the mathematical equation in chapter III. From that the otput of the PV
array has been showned in the fig (6&7). It ha represented in the form of P-V
characteristic and I-V characteristic Respectively.
The fig (10) represants the Combined model of a system which consists of boost
converter , battery and inverter. The battery consist of Bi directional converter, battery
module and PI controller to control the charging state.
Fig 8: SOC, Voltage and Current of Battery during charging Condition
M.Gengaraj and J.Jasper Gnanachandran
Fig 9: SOC, Voltage and Current of Battery during discharging condition
Fig : 10 Combined Model with Non-linear load
The Fig (8&9) represents the SoC, Voltage and current of the Battery during
charging and discharging condition. During the charging condition the converter can
act as Buck Mode and convert the voltage as 200V from the boost converter to the
battery nominal voltage 48V. It will not over charge the battery i.e. above the 48 V.
During the discharging condition the converter can act as Boost mode and convert the
voltage into nearly 230V when the source is absent, i.e. at cloudy season or during
night time. The PI controller is used here to control the overcharge and deep discharge
Modelling of a Standalone Photovoltaic System with Charge Controller
Fig 11 : AC output power from the inverter with non linear load connected
Fig 12: THD analysis with Non-linear load
Here the fig (11) shown that the AC output power from the inverter when the nonlinear load is connected. Non-linear load is used here to verify the universality and
robustness of the control scheme. From the THD analysis fig(12) it is clearly
understand the control scheme is effective one.
In this paper, a comprehensive study of a stand-alone PV system for household
application is analyzed. Mathematical models and control are provided for the three
converters, which are boost converter, battery converter and inverter. The proposed
coordinated control strategies are verified by Mat lab/Simulink with detail models.
The battery converter can guarantee a constant dc bus voltage, and the inverter can
generate a high quality ac voltage with nonlinear load. The charge controller designed
is very effective in way to controlled charge and discharge i.e. which may avoid over
M.Gengaraj and J.Jasper Gnanachandran
charging during high insolation and deep discharge during high insolation. At which
the non-linear load is considered here and the robustness of the control scheme can
verified by determining the total harmonic distortion. With these results, the control
methods can be utilized for reliable and high quality stand-alone PV system.
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