Audio Visual Media Operation - Jagannath Institute of Management

Audio Visual Media Operation - Jagannath Institute of Management
GDJMC -203
Audio Visual Media Operation
Q.1 Explain the history of television broadcasting in india.
Q.2 How many professional cameras do you know , Explain in short
the function of video camera,
Q.3 Explain three point lighting with diagram.
Q.4 Explain in brief the types of Microphone and their function.
Q.5 “TV affects the masses in both positive and negative way “Do you
agree with the statement.
Q.6 Explain stages of TV programme production
Q.7 Explain OB Production with diagram.
Q.8 what are the basic elements of TV broadcasting.
Q.9.”Writing for visual is different from writing for print “Describe the
Q. 10 what are the basic difference between liner and non liner
Q.1 Explain the history of television broadcasting in india.
John Baird is generally regarded as the father of television. British Broadcasting
Corporation (BBC) of Britain began the first television service in 1936. If you have
a satellite or cable connection, you will be able to watch BBC, the world‘s oldest
television broadcaster. By 1939, television broadcasts began in the United States
also. These two countries were clearly ahead in the race. Other countries began
television broadcasting on a wide scale only by the 1950s. Though the Second
World War slowed down the rapid development of the new medium, the post war
years made up for it.
We have seen how television came into existence. However, early television
viewing was not like what we see on a television set today. It was quite primitive.
The limitations of the early camera forced the actors and anchors to work with
impossibly hot lights. Imagine trying to read news with full make up under a
blazing light.
The early television broadcasts were all black and white. The first successful
programme in colour was transmitted by Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) in
USA in 1953. The television set became one of the important mediums of
entertainment with the advent of several popular shows. Television gradually
matured as a medium during the next two decades. From being ―radio with
pictures‖ it acquired a unique style of its own. As a result of this, this phase is often
called the ―golden age‖ of television.
1936 - British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) of Britain began the first television
service of the world
1939 - Television broadcasts began in US
1950s - Other countries began television broadcasting on a wide scale
1953 - The first successful programme in colour was transmitted by CBS in USA
In today‘s world, television has become one of the most powerful means of mass
communication .It can impart education, information and entertainment. Television
has become an integral part of our lives. In the next section you will learn about the
history of television in India.
Television began in India on 15th September 1959 as an experiment. There were
only two one-hour programmes a week, each of one hour duration. Imagine a
television set working for only two hours a week. All India Radio handled these
initial broadcasts.
The early programmes on these experimental broadcasts were generally
programmes for school children and farmers. Several community television sets
were set up in Delhi‘s rural areas and schools around Delhi for the dissemination
of these programmes. By the 1970s, television centers were opened in other parts
of the country also. In 1976, Doordarshan, which was All India Radio‘s television
arm until then became a separate department.
the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE). It was conducted between
August 1975 and July 1976. Under this programme, the Indian government used
the American satellite ATS-6 to broadcast educational programmes to Indian
villages. Six states were selected for this experiment and television sets were
distributed in these states.
SITE was an important step taken by India to use television for development.
The programmes were mainly produced by Doordarshan which was then a part of
AIR. The telecasts happened twice a day, in the morning and evening. Other than
agricultural information, health and family planning were the other important
topics dealt with in these programmes. Entertainment was also included in these
telecasts in the form of dance, music, drama, folk and rural art forms.
A major milestone in the history of Indian television was the coverage of the Ninth
Asian Games in 1982. Doordarshan provided national coverage for the first time
through the satellite INSAT 1A. Also, for the first time, the transmission was in
colour. In addition to the domestic transmission, Doordarshan was also providing
content for the broadcasters of many other countries. After 1982,there was a huge
increase in the live coverage of sports by Doordarshan .
By 1983, government sanctioned a huge expansion of Doordarshan. Several new
transmitters were set up throughout the country. Thus towards the end of 80s
around 75 per cent of the population could be covered by the transmitters. Many of
the programmes of Doordarshan like Hum Log, Buniyaad and Nukkad were
immensely popular.
In 1997, Prasar Bharati, a statutory autonomous body was established.
Doordarshan along with AIR was converted into government corporations under
Prasar Bharati. The Prasar Bharati Corporation was established to serve as the
public service broadcaster of the country which would achieve its objectives
through AIR and DD. This was a step towards greater autonomy for Doordarshan
and AIR. However, Prasar Bharati has not succeeded in shielding Doordarshan
from government control.
Today, about 90 per cent of the Indian population can receive Doordarshan
programmes through its network. From its humble beginning as a part of All India
Radio, Doordarshan has grown into a major television broadcaster with around 30
channels. This includes Regional Language Satellite Channels,
State Networks, International Channel and All India Channels like DD National,
DD News, DD Sports, DD Gyandarshan, DD Bharati, Loksabha Channel and
DD Urdu.
1959 - Television started in India as an experiment.
1975 - SITE programme starts
1976 - Doordarshan, which was AIR’s television arm, becomes a separate
1982 - Coverage of Ninth Asian Games. Doordarshan starts national coverage
and colour transmission for the first time.
1983 - Government sanctions a huge expansion of Doordarshan
1997 - Establishment of Prasar Bharati
Hong Kong based STAR (Satellite Television Asian Region) entered into an
agreement with an Indian company and Zee TV was born. It became the first
privately owned Hindi satellite channel of India. The agreement between STAR
and Zee did not last long. But the Indian television audience was waiting for a shift
from the monopoly of Doordarshan and soon a number of private channels
The Supreme Court ruling of 1995 which stated that the airwaves are not the
monopoly of the Indian government boosted their growth. Several regional
channels also came into being during this period. Sun TV (Tamil), Asianet
(Malayalam) and Eenadu TV were a few of them. Today almost all major Indian
languages have television channels in them. Which is your favourite regional
Apart from the regional channels, a host of international channels like CNN, BBC
and Discovery are also available to the Indian television audience. With different
categories of channels like 24 hour news channels, religious channels, cartoon
channels and movie channels, there is something for everyone to watch. Influence
our outlooks. This influence can have both positive and negative results..
On the positive front, television can be an excellent teacher. Wouldn‘t your
younger sister get thrilled if a cartoon show teaches her mathematics? Television
can also be used as an excellent medium for mass education as in the SITE
Identify one programme in your favorite channel which can have a positive impact
on society.
Television can also open up new horizons for us. Sitting in your living room, you
can access information about what is happening in a distant country like Iraq by
just a click of the remote. Television can also be used to create awareness about
various issues like environmental pollution and global warming. Can you recall
any programme or public service advertisement which has increased your
awareness about the need to conserve our environment? Television can also
provide entertainment and can be used as a tool for relaxation.
Stereotype: an oversimplified standardized image of a person or group. The same
child creating a fuss in a shopping mall for the chocolate bar advertised and seen
by him on TV.
Mindless television can have negative impacts. Have you heard of the term ‗couch
potato‘? This is used for people who spend most of their time in front of a
television set. Do you know any couch potatoes? Too much television can distract
you from other activities, like reading, sports or helping your parents with
household chores.
Since television viewing is a sedentary activity, it can also lead to obesity. Catchy
advertisements on television can tempt people to buy various products.
Couch Potato
Television viewing has also been linked with the creation of stereotypes. Watch
some of the women based serials and observe where maximum time is spent by the
heroine. You are most likely to find her spending most of the time inside a house.
Here the stereotype those women are supposed to spend most of the time at home
is subtly re-enforced. You would have come across the portrayal of a ―madrasi‖ in
Hindi comedy shows. This depiction may not have any real relation to a South
Indian. and violent behaviour in children. The general assumption derived from
these studies is that increased exposure to violence make children think that it is an
acceptable behaviour. Watching violent programmes have been linked with
aggression in both adults and children. These progammes have been found to cause
more adverse effects on children who have experienced violence, poverty or
neglect in their lives.
Expressing fear
Thus, television in itself is neither good nor bad. It is just another medium of
communication. The positive and negative effects depend upon how we use the
So, we have seen the impact of television in our lives. Now let us have a look at
the new developments in the field of television.. Do you depend on an antenna to
watch television? In that case your television set relies on terrestrial transmission.
Television content can be delivered in a variety of ways. It can be distributed
through terrestrial transmission. In this system, an antenna connected to the
television viewer is used to receive the signals telecast by the broadcaster‘s
transmitter. This is the traditional method of television broadcast. Other methods of
delivery include distribution through cable networks and direct broadcast satellite.
Have you ever thought how the cable operator in your area supplies all those
bouquet of channels? The cable distribution in India can be seen as a chain which
begins with the signal sent by the broadcaster to the cable operator. The cable
operators then relay these signals to our homes. There are free to air channels and
pay channels. For the free to air channels, the broadcaster does not charge the cable
operator. Examples of free to air channels include Aaj Tak, Sahara and Times
Now. Pay channels like Sony and Star Plus charge a certain amount of money per
subscriber per month.
Where would you ideally place your television set? In the living room, is it?
However the arrival of new delivery platforms is going to change this forever.
How about watching your favourite channel on your mobile phone? This has
already become a reality in India. This way, you will not miss your favourite
television programme while you are traveling.
Q.2 How many professional cameras do you know , Explain in short the
function of video camera,
A professional video camera (often called a television camera even though the use
has spread beyond television) is a high-end device for creating electronic moving
images (as opposed to a movie camera, that records the images on film). Originally
developed for use in television studios, they are now commonly used for corporate
and educational videos, music videos, and direct-to-video movies.
There are two types of professional video cameras: High end portable, recording
cameras (essentially, high-end tapeless camcorders) used for electronic news
gathering (ENG) and electronic field production (EFP) image acquisition, and
television studio cameras which lack the recording capability of a camcorder, and
are often fixed on studio pedestals. Portable professional cameras are generally
much larger than consumer cameras and are designed to be carried on the shoulder.
Studio television camera -- Gray box on right is the lens.
Professional television camera history has two main lines: the gradual shrinking of
the camera as it became more versatile and self-contained; and a progression of
sensors from large insensitive video camera tubes to smaller, much more sensitive
tubes and finally to very small, very sensitive solid state charge-coupled device
(CCD) and active pixel sensor (CMOS) imagers. Betacam cameras that contained
their own recording mechanisms did not appear until the early 1980s.
At the beginning, these cameras were very large devices, almost always in two
sections. The camera section held the lens and tube pre-amps and other necessary
electronics, and was connected with a large diameter multicore cable to the rest of
the camera electronics, usually mounted in a rack. The rack would be in a separate
room in the studio, or in a remote truck. The camera head could not generate a
video picture signal on its own. The video signal was output from the rack unit to
the rest of the studio for switching and transmission. By the fifties, electronic
miniaturization had progressed to the point where some monochrome cameras
could operate stand alone and even be handheld. But the studio configuration
remained, with the large cable bundle transmitting the signals back to the CCU
(Camera control unit). The CCU in turn was used to align and operate the camera's
functions, such as exposure, system timing, and video and black levels.
This 1954 RCA TK-41C, shown here mounted on a dolly, weighed 310 lbs.
A 1973 Ikegami HL-33 ENG
The first color cameras (1950s in the US, early 1960s in Europe), notably the RCA
TK-40/41 series, were much more complex with their three (and in some models
even four) pickup tubes, and the size and weight drastically increased. Handheld
color cameras did not come into general use until the early 1970s, and the first
ones were two pieces, a camera head shoulder unit that held the lens and pickup
tube section, and a backpack unit. The Ikegami HL-33 was the first of this type,
but was followed up by one piece cameras. These one piece cameras, (The HL-77
from Ikegami and the TK76 from RCA) made possible, (in combination with
portable 3/4" U-matic VCRs) the introduction of the Electronic news-gathering
(ENG) camera, which very rapidly replaced the 16mm film cameras that had been
the dominant method for capturing news events. This established the standard
operation in the field of a two person news crew, one operating the camera, and
one carrying the shoulder strapped U-matic recorder and a boom microphone. The
control layout (often called "form factor") for the camera's most important
functions was also established with these cameras, and continues to define an ENG
camera to this day.
In the early 80s, the first cameras with an on board recorder were brought to the
market. The more successful of these used the Betacam recording system. At first
these cameras used pickup tubes, and the recorders were of the removable type.
Models with solid state CCD imagers came on the scene in the mid-80s. These
brought multiple benefits. They were much more stable and less prone to drift than
tube cameras, and didn't require a warm up or calibration time at the beginning of
the day. They also were not prone to image burn in or lag caused by very bright
light sources in the frame. The early models did not have the resolution or color
quality of their tube counterparts, but successive models quickly pulled ahead of
tube technology. Eventually, cameras with the recorder permanently mated to the
camera head became the norm for ENG.
Studio camera technology did not stand still during this period. The camera
electronics shrank, and CCD imagers replaced the pickup tubes. The thick multi-
core cables connecting the camera head to the CCU were replaced in the late
seventies with triax connections, a slender video cable that carried multiple video
signals, intercom audio, and control circuits, and could be run for a mile or more.
As the camera innards shrunk, the electronics no longer dictated the size of the
enclosure. But the box shape remained, as it was necessary to hold the large studio
lenses, teleprompters, electronic viewfinder (EVF), and other paraphernalia needed
for studio and sports production. Electronic Field Production cameras were often
mounted in studio configurations inside a mounting cage. This cage supported the
additional studio accessories.
In the late 90s, as HDTV broadcasting commenced, HDTV cameras suitable for
news and general purpose work were introduced. Though they delivered much
better image quality, their overall operation was identical to their standard
definition predecessors. New methods of recording for ENG cameras were
introduced to supplant video tape, tapeless cameras. Ikegami and Avid introduced
EditCam in 1996, based on interchangeable hard drives. Panasonic introduced P2
cameras. These recorded a DVCPro signal on interchangeable flash memory card
media. Several other data storage device recording systems were introduced,
notably XDCAM from Sony, and as of 2009, it remains to be seen what will
become the predominant method of camera media for professional use in the
2010s. Sony also introduced SxS (S-by-S), a flash memory standard compliant to
the Sony and Sandisk-created ExpressCard standard.
RCA television camera, 1954
1926 to 1933 "cameras" were a type of flying spot scanner using mechanical
1936 saw the arrival of RCA's iconoscope camera.
1946 RCA's TK-10 studio camera used a 3" IO - Image Orthicon Tube with a 4
lens turret. The RCA TK-30 (1946) was widely used as a Field Camera.
The 1948 Dumont Marconi MK IV was an Image Orthicon Camera. Marconi's
first camera was shown in 1938.[1] EMI cameras from the UK, were used in the
US in the early 1960s, like the EMI 203/4.[2] Later in the 60s the EMI 2000 and
EMI 2001.
In 1950 the arrival of the Vidicon camera tube made smaller cameras possible.
1952 saw the first Walkie-Lookie "portable cameras". Image Orthicon tubes were
still used till the arrival of the Plumbicon.
The RCA TK-40 is considered to be the first color television camera for
broadcasts in 1953. RCA continued its lead in the high-end camera market till the
(1978) TK-47, last of the high-end tube cameras from RCA.[3]
Ikegami introduced the first truly portable hand-held TV camera in 1962.
Philips' line of Norelco cameras were also very popular with models such as PC60 (1965), PC-70 (1967) and PCP-90 (1968 Handheld). Philips/BTS-Broadcast
Television Systems Inc. later came out with an LDK line of camera, like its last
high end tube camera the LDK 6 (1982). Philips invented the Plumbicon pick up
Video camera tube in 1965, that gave tube cameras a cleaner picture. BTS
introduced its first HandHeld Frame transfer CCD- Charge-coupled device-CCD
camera the LDK90 in 1987.
Bosch Fernseh marketed a line of high end cameras (KCU, KCN, KCP, KCK) in
the US ending with the tube camera KCK-40 (1978). Image Transform (in
Universal City, California) used specially modified 24 frame KCK-40 for their
"Image Vision" system. This had a 10 MHz bandwidth twice NTSC resolution.
This was a custom pre HDTV video System. At its peak this system was used to
make "Monty Python Live at the Hollywood Bowl" in 1982. This was the first
major high-definition analog wideband videotape-to-film post production using a
film recorder for film out.
Most professional cameras utilize an optical prism block directly behind the lens.
This prism block (a trichroic assembly comprising two dichroic prisms) separates
the image into the three primary colors, red, green, and blue, directing each color
into a separate charge-coupled device (CCD) or Active pixel sensor (CMOS image
sensor) mounted to the face of each prism. Some high-end consumer cameras also
do this, producing a higher-resolution image, with better color fidelity than is
normally possible with just a single video pickup.
In both single sensor and triple sensor designs, the weak signal created by the
sensors is amplified before being encoded into analog signals for use by the
viewfinder and monitor outputs, and also encoded into digital signals for
transmission and recording. The analog outputs are normally in the form of either a
composite video signal, which combines the color and luminance information to a
single output; or an R-Y B-Y Y component video output through three separate
Studio cameras
Studio camera with Teleprompter
Most television studio cameras stand on the floor, usually with pneumatic or
hydraulic mechanisms called pedestals to adjust the height, and are usually on
wheels. Any video camera when used along with other video cameras in a
multiple-camera setup is controlled by a device known as CCU (camera control
unit), to which they are connected via a Triax, Fibre Optic or the almost obsolete
multicore cable. The CCU along with genlock and other equipment is installed in
the production control room (PCR) often known as the Gallery of the television
studio. When used outside a formal television studio in outside broadcasting (OB),
they are often on tripods that may or may not have wheels (depending on the
model of the tripod). Initial models used analog technology, but are now obsolete,
supplanted by digital models. Studio cameras are light and small enough to be
taken off the pedestal and the lens changed to a smaller size to be used on a
Multiple-camera setup's shoulder, but they still have no recorder of their own and
are cable-bound. Cameras can be mounted on a tripod, a dolly or a crane, thus
making the cameras much more versatile than previous generations of studio
cameras. These cameras have a tally light, a small signal-lamp used that indicates,
for the benefit of those being filmed as well as the camera operator, that the camera
is 'live' - i.e. its signal is being used for the 'main program' at that moment.
ENG cameras
Sony camera head with Betacam SP dock recorder.
Though by definition, ENG (electronic news gathering) video cameras were
originally designed for use by news camera operators, these have become the
dominant style of professional video camera for most video productions, from
dramas to documentaries, from music videos to corporate video training. While
they have some similarities to the smaller consumer camcorder, they differ in
several regards:ENG cameras are larger and heavier (helps dampen small
movements), and usually supported by a camera shoulder support or shoulder stock
on the camera operator's shoulder, taking the weight off the hand, which is freed to
operate the zoom lens control. The camera mounts on tripods with Fluid heads and
other supports with a quick release plate. 3 CCDs or CMOS active pixel sensors
are used, one for each of the primary colorsThey have interchangeable lenses.The
lens is focused manually and directly, without intermediate servo controls.
However the lens zoom and focus can be operated with remote controls with a
television studio configuration operated by a camera control unit (CCU).A rotating
behind-the-lens filter wheel, for selecting an 85A and neutral density
filters.Controls that need quick access are on hard physical switches, all in the
same general place on the camera, irrespective of the camera manufacturer, such as
Gain Select, White/Black balance, color bar select, and record start controls and
not in menu selection.
All settings, white balance, focus, and iris can be manually adjusted, and
automatics can be completely disabled.
Professional BNC connectors for video out and genlock in.
Can operate an electronic viewfinder (EVF) or external CRT viewfinder.
At least two XLR input connectors for audio are included.
Direct slot-in for portable wireless microphones.
Audio is adjusted manually, with easily accessed physical knobs.
A complete time code section is available, allowing time presets; multiplecamera setups can be time code-synchronized or jam synced to a master clock.
"Bars and tone" are available in-camera (the SMPTE color bars (Society of
Motion Picture and Television Engineers) Bars, a reference signal that simplifies
calibration of monitors and setting levels when duplicating and transmitting the
picture. )
Recording is to a professional medium like some variant of Betacam or
DVCPRO or Direct to disk recording or flash memory. If as in the latter two, it's a
data recording, much higher data rates (or less video compression) are used than in
consumer devices.
EFP Camera
Electronic Field Production cameras are similar to studio cameras in that they are
used primarily in multiple camera switched configurations, but outside the studio
environment, for concerts, sports and live news coverage of special events. These
versatile cameras can be carried on the shoulder, or mounted on camera pedestals
and cranes, with the large, very long focal length zoom lenses made for studio
camera mounting. These cameras have no recording ability on their own, and
transmit their signals back to the broadcast truck through a triax, fiber optic or the
virtually obsolete multicore cable.
Dock camerasSome manufacturers build camera heads, which only contain the
optical block, the CCD sensors and the video encoder, and can be used with a
studio adapter for connection to a CCU in EFP mode, or various dock recorders for
direct recording in the preferred format, making them very versatile. However, this
versatility leads to greater size and weight. They are favored for EFP and lowbudget studio use, because they tend to be smaller, lighter, and less expensive than
most studio cameras.
Remote cameras Remote cameras are typically very small camera heads designed
to be operated by remote control. Despite their small size, they are often capable of
performance close to that of the larger ENG and EFP types.
"Lipstick cameras" are so called because the lens and sensor block combined are
similar in size and appearance to a lipstick container. These are either hard
mounted in a small location, such as a race car, or on the end of a boom pole. The
sensor block and lens are separated from the rest of the camera electronics by a
long thin multi conductor cable. The camera settings are manipulated from this
box, while the lens settings are normally set when the camera is mounted in place.
Block cameras are so called because the camera head is a small block, often
smaller than the lens itself. Some block cameras are completely self-contained,
while others only contain the sensor block and its pre-amps, thus requiring
connection to a separate camera control unit in order to operate. All the functions
of the camera can be controlled from a distance, and often there is a facility for
controlling the lens focus and zoom as well. These cameras are mounted on pan
and tilt heads, and may be placed in a stationary position, such as atop a pole or
tower, in a corner of a broadcast booth, or behind a basketball hoop. They can also
be placed on robotic dollies, at the end of camera booms and cranes, or "flown" in
a cable supported harness, as shown in the illustration.
Q.3 Explain three point lighting with diagram.
The Standard 3-Point Lighting Technique
The Three Point Lighting Technique is a standard method used in visual media
such as video, film, still photography and computer-generated imagery. It is a
simple but versatile system which forms the basis of most lighting. Once you
understand three point lighting you are well on the way to understanding all
The technique uses three lights called the key light, fill light and back light.
Naturally you will need three lights to utilise the technique fully, but the principles
are still important even if you only use one or two lights. As a rule:
If you only have one light, it becomes the key.
If you have 2 lights, one is the key and the other is either the fill or the
Key Light
This is the main light. It is usually the strongest and has the most influence on the
look of the scene. It is placed to one side of the camera/subject so that this side is
well lit and the other side has some shadow.
Fill Light
This is the secondary light and is placed on the opposite side of the key light. It is
used to fill the shadows created by the key. The fill will usually be softer and less
bright than the key. To acheive this, you could move the light further away or use
some spun. You might also want to set the fill light to more of a flood than the key.
Back Light
The back light is placed behind the subject and lights it from the rear. Rather than
providing direct lighting (like the key and fill), its purpose is to provide definition
and subtle highlights around the subject's outlines. This helps separate the subject
from the background and provide a three-dimensional look.
Q.4 Explain in brief the types of Microphone and their function.
Microphones Work
The Basics
Microphones are a type of transducer - a device which converts energy from one form to
another. Microphones convert acoustical energy (sound waves) into electrical energy (the audio
Different types of microphone have different ways of converting energy but they all share one
thing in common: The diaphragm. This is a thin piece of material (such as paper, plastic or
aluminium) which vibrates when it is struck by sound waves. In a typical hand-held mic like the
one below, the diaphragm is located in the head of the microphone.
Location of Microphone Diaphragm
When the diaphragm vibrates, it causes other components in the microphone to vibrate. These
vibrations are converted into an electrical current which becomes the audio signal.
Note: At the other end of the audio chain, the loudspeaker is also a transducer - it converts the
electrical energy back into acoustical energy.
Types of Microphone
There are a number of different types of microphone in common use. The differences can be
divided into two areas:
(1) The type of conversion technology they use
This refers to the technical method the mic uses to convert sound into electricity. The most
common technologies are dynamic, condenser, ribbon and crystal. Each has advantages and
disadvantages, and each is generally more suited to certain types of application. The following
pages will provide details.
(2) The type of application they are designed for
Some mics are designed for general use and can be used effectively in many different situations.
Others are very specialised and are only really useful for their intended purpose. Characteristics
to look for include directional properties, frequency response and impedance (more on these
Mic Level & Line Level
The electrical current generated by a microphone is very small. Referred to as mic level, this
signal is typically measured in millivolts. Before it can be used for anything serious the signal
needs to be amplified, usually to line level (typically 0.5 -2V). Being a stronger and more robust
signal, line level is the standard signal strength used by audio processing equipment and common
domestic equipment such as CD players, tape machines, VCRs, etc.
This amplification is achieved in one or more of the following ways:
Some microphones have tiny built-in amplifiers which boost the signal to a high mic
level or line level.
The mic can be fed through a small boosting amplifier, often called a line amp.
Sound mixers have small amplifiers in each channel. Attenuators can accommodate mics
of varying levels and adjust them all to an even line level.
The audio signal is fed to a power amplifier - a specialised amp which boosts the signal
enough to be fed to loudspeakers.
Dynamic Microphones
Dynamic microphones are versatile and ideal for general-purpose use. They use a simple design
with few moving parts. They are relatively sturdy and resilient to rough handling. They are also
better suited to handling high volume levels, such as from certain musical instruments or
amplifiers. They have no internal amplifier and do not require batteries or external power.
How Dynamic Microphones Work
As you may recall from your school science, when a magnet is moved near a coil of wire an
electrical current is generated in the wire. Using this electromagnet principle, the dynamic
microphone uses a wire coil and magnet to create the audio signal.
The diaphragm is attached to the coil. When the diaphragm vibrates in response to incoming
sound waves, the coil moves backwards and forwards past the magnet. This creates a current in
the coil which is channeled from the microphone along wires. A common configuration is shown
Earlier we mentioned that loudspeakers perform the opposite function of microphones by
converting electrical energy into sound waves. This is demonstrated perfectly in the dynamic
microphone which is basically a loudspeaker in reverse. When you see a cross-section of a
speaker you'll see the similarity with the diagram above. If fact, some intercom systems use the
speaker as a microphone.
Condenser Microphones
Condenser means capacitor, an electronic component which stores energy in the form of an
electrostatic field. The term condenser is actually obsolete but has stuck as the name for this type
of microphone, which uses a capacitor to convert acoustical energy into electrical energy.
Condenser microphones require power from a battery or external source. The resulting audio
signal is stronger signal than that from a dynamic. Condensers also tend to be more sensitive and
responsive than dynamics, making them well-suited to capturing subtle nuances in a sound. They
are not ideal for high-volume work, as their sensitivity makes them prone to distort.
How Condenser Microphones Work
A capacitor has two plates with a voltage between them. In the condenser mic, one of these
plates is made of very light material and acts as the diaphragm. The diaphragm vibrates when
struck by sound waves, changing the distance between the two plates and therefore changing the
capacitance. Specifically, when the plates are closer together, capacitance increases and a charge
current occurs. When the plates are further apart, capacitance decreases and a discharge current
A voltage is required across the capacitor for this to work. This voltage is supplied either by a
battery in the mic or by external phantom power.
Cross-Section of a Typical Condenser Microphone
The Electret Condenser Microphone
The electret condenser mic uses a special type of capacitor which has a permanent voltage built
in during manufacture. This is somewhat like a permanent magnet, in that it doesn't require any
external power for operation. However good electret condenser mics usually include a preamplifier which does still require power.
Other than this difference, you can think of an electret condenser microphone as being the same
as a normal condenser.
Directional Properties
Every microphone has a property known as directionality. This describes the microphone's
sensitivity to sound from various directions. Some microphones pick up sound equally from all
directions, others pick up sound only from one direction or a particular combination of
directions. The types of directionality are divided into three main categories:
1. Omnidirectional
Picks up sound evenly from all directions (omni means "all" or "every").
2. Unidirectional
Picks up sound predominantly from one direction. This includes cardioid and
hypercardioid microphones (see below).
3. Bidirectional
Picks up sound from two opposite directions.
To help understand a the directional properties of a particular microphone, user manuals and
promotional material often include a graphical representation of the microphone's directionality.
This graph is called a polar pattern. Some typical examples are shown below.
Captures sound equally from all directions.
Uses: Capturing ambient noise; Situations where sound is coming from many directions;
Situations where the mic position must remain fixed while the sound source is moving.
Although omnidirectional mics are very useful in the right situation, picking up sound
from every direction is not usually what you need. Omni sound is very general and
unfocused - if you are trying to capture sound from a particular subject or area it is likely
to be overwhelmed by other noise.
Cardioid means "heart-shaped", which is the type of pick-up pattern these mics
use. Sound is picked up mostly from the front, but to a lesser extent the sides as well.
Uses: Emphasising sound from the direction the mic is pointed whilst leaving some latitude for
mic movement and ambient noise.
The cardioid is a very versatile microphone, ideal for general use. Handheld mics are
usually cardioid.
There are many variations of the cardioid pattern (such as the hypercardioid below).
This is exaggerated version of the cardioid pattern. It is very directional and
eliminates most sound from the sides and rear. Due to the long thin design of hypercardioids,
they are often referred to as shotgun microphones.
Uses: Isolating the sound from a subject or direction when there is a lot of ambient noise;
Picking up sound from a subject at a distance.
By removing all the ambient noise, unidirectional sound can sometimes be a little
unnatural. It may help to add a discreet audio bed from another mic (i.e. constant
background noise at a low level).
You need to be careful to keep the sound consistent. If the mic doesn't stay pointed at the
subject you will lose the audio.
Shotguns can have an area of increased sensitivity directly to the rear.
Uses a figure-of-eight pattern and picks up sound equally from two opposite
Uses: As you can imagine, there aren't a lot of situations which require this polar pattern. One
possibility would be an interview with two people facing each other (with the mic between them)
Q.5 “TV affects the masses in both positive and negative way “Do you agree
with the statement.
Positive effects
Before TV, it can be considered that printing was the medium considered the main
channel to access information and knowledge.
Positive effects of television on children
Children in certain age can learn and discover many new things by Television.
Many television programs are developed to open a new horizon and vision to
children by teaching and showing them the places that they have never been or
imagine. The important thing is to choose the right and useful channels and
programs. For example Quinn Medicine helps the children to learn about the
family values and also helps to develop their imagination. More, television can
bring the family together that parents and their children can talk about the TV
programs and discuss about new thing. They can have the opportunity to be
together by the help of TV. Also, watching documentaries can build up a
perspective about the worlds in kids minds and cultural programs can provide
children to learn about their own culture or the other nations'.
Social surrogacy hypothesis
Current research is discovering that individuals can employ television to create
what is termed a parasocial or faux relationship with characters from their favorite
television shows and movies as a way of deflecting feelings of loneliness and
social deprivation. Just as an individual would spend time with a real person
sharing opinions and thoughts, pseudo-relationships are formed with TV characters
by becoming personally invested in their lives as if they were a close friend so that
the individual can satiate the human desire to form meaningful relationships and
establish themselves in society. Jaye Derrick and Shira Gabriel of the University of
Buffalo, and Kurt Hugenberg of Miami University found that when an individual is
not able to participate in interactions with real people, they are less likely to
indicate feelings of loneliness when watching their favorite TV show.
They refer to this finding as the Social Surrogacy Hypothesis. Furthermore, when
an event such as a fight or argument disrupts a personal relationship, watching a
favorite TV show was able to create a cushion and prevent the individual from
experiencing reduced self-esteem and feelings of inadequacy that can often
accompany the perceived threat. By providing a temporary substitute for
acceptance and belonging that is experienced through social relationships TV is
helping to relieve feelings of depression and loneliness when those relationships
are not available. This benefit is considered a positive consequence of watching
television as it can counteract the psychological damage that is caused by isolation
from social relationships.
Educational advantages
Several studies have found that educational television has many advantages. The
Media Awareness Network, explains in its article, The Good Things about
Television, that television can be a very powerful and effective learning tool for
children if used wisely. The article states that television can help young people
discover where they fit into society, develop closer relationships with peers and
family, and teach them to understand complex social aspects of communication.
Dimitri Christakis cites studies in which those who watched "Sesame Street" and
other educational programs as preschoolers had higher grades, were reading more
books, placed more value on achievement and were more creative. Similarly, while
those exposed to negative role models suffered, those exposed to positive models
behaved better.
Negative effects
There are many pejorative terms for television, including "boob tube" and
"chewing gum for the mind", showing the disdain held by many people for this
medium. Newton N. Minow spoke of the "vast wasteland" that was the television
programming of the day in his 1961 speech.
Complaints about the social influence of television have been heard from the U.S.
justice system as investigators and prosecutors decry what they refer to as ―the CSI
Syndrome.‖ They complain that, because of the popularity and considerable
viewership of CSI and its spin-offs, juries today expect to be ―dazzled,‖ and will
acquit criminals of charges unless presented with impressive physical evidence,
even when motive, testimony, and lack of alibi are presented by the prosecution.
Television has also been credited with changing the norms of social propriety,
although the direction and value of this change are disputed. Milton Shulman,
writing about television in the 1960s, wrote that ―TV cartoons showed cows
without udders and not even a pause was pregnant,‖ and noted that on-air vulgarity
was highly frowned upon. Shulman suggested that, even by the 1970s, television
was shaping the ideas of propriety and appropriateness in the countries the medium
blanketed. He asserted that, as a particularly ―pervasive and ubiquitous‖ medium,
television could create a comfortable familiarity with and acceptance of language
and behavior once deemed socially unacceptable. Television, as well as
influencing its viewers, evoked an imitative response from other competing media
as they struggle to keep pace and retain viewer- or readership.
According to recent research, conducted by John Robinson and Steven Martin
from the University of Maryland, people who are not satisfied with their lives
spend 30% more time watching TV than satisfied people do. The research was
conducted with 30,000 people during the period between 1975 and 2006. This new
study slightly contradicted previous research, which concluded that watching TV
was the happiest time of the day for some people. However, prof. Robinson
commented that watching TV could bring a short-time happiness, which would be
just a result of an overall dissatisfaction.
Psychological effects
There is a theory that when a person plays video games or watches TV, the basal
ganglia portion of the brain becomes very active and dopamine is released. Some
scientists believe that release of high amounts of dopamine reduces the amount of
the neurotransmitter available for control of movement, perception of pain and
pleasure and formation of feelings, although this remains a controversial
conclusion. A study conducted by Herbert Krugman found that while viewers are
watching television the right side of the brain is twice as active as the left which
causes a state of hypnosis.
Physical effects
Studies in both children and adults have found an association between the number
of hours of television watched and obesity. A study found that watching television
decreases the metabolic rate in children to below that found in children at rest. [13]
Author John Steinbeck describes television watchers:
"I have observed the physical symptoms of television-looking on children as
well as on adults. The mouth grows slack and the lips hang open; the eyes
take on a hypnotized or doped look; the nose runs rather more than usual;
the backbone turns to water and the fingers slowly and methodically pick the
designs out of brocade furniture. Such is the appearance of
semiconsciousness that one wonders how much of the ‗message‘ of
television is getting through to the brain."
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that children under
two years of age should not watch any television and children two and older
should watch one to two hours at most. Children who watch more than four
hours of television a day are more likely to become overweight.
TV watching and other sedentary activities are associated with greater risk of
heart attack.
Alleged dangers
Legislators, scientists and parents are debating the effects of television violence
on viewers, particularly youth. Fifty years of research on the impact of
television on children's emotional and social development have not ended this
Bushman & Anderson among others have claimed that the evidence clearly
supports a causal relationship between media violence and societal violence.
However other authors note significant methodological problems with the
literature and mismatch between increasing media violence and decreasing
crime rates in the United States.
A 2002 article in Scientific American suggested that compulsive television
watching, television addiction, was no different from any other addiction, a
finding backed up by reports of withdrawal symptoms among families forced
by circumstance to cease watching. However this view has not yet received
widespread acceptance among all scholars, and "television addiction" is not a
diagnoseable condition according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual -IV TR.
A longitudinal study in New Zealand involving 1000 people (from childhood to
26 years of age) demonstrated that "television viewing in childhood and
adolescence is associated with poor educational achievement by 12 years of
age".The same paper noted that there was a significant negative association
between time spent watching television per day as a child and educational
attainment by age 26: the more time a child spent watching television at ages 5
to 15, the less likely they were to have a university degree by age 26. However
recent research (Schmidt et al., 2009) has indicated that, once other factors are
controlled for, television viewing appears to have little to no impact on
cognitive performance, contrary to previous thought. However this study was
limited to cognitive performance in childhood. Numerous studies have also
examined the relationship between TV viewing and school grades.
A study published in the Journal of Sexuality Research and Social Policy
concluded that parental television involvement was associated with greater
body satisfaction among adolescent girls, less sexual experience amongst both
male and female adolescents, and that parental television involvement may
influence self-esteem and body image, in part by increasing parent-child
closeness. However a more recent article by Christopher Ferguson, Benjamin
Winegard, and Bo Winegard cautioned that the literature on media and body
dissatisfaction is weaker and less consistent than often claimed and that media
effects have been overemphasized. Similarly recent work by Laurence
Steinbrerg and Kathryn Monahan has found that, using propensity score
matching to control for other variables, television viewing of sexual media had
no impact on teen sexual behavior in a longitudinal analysis.
Q.6 Explain stages of TV programme production
Television Program and stages of Production contrast to film making Cinema
Man needs variety in his life, whether in taking food, getting dressed, making
friends or even selecting entertainment. Here in television also we go by the saying
‗variety is the spice of life‘.
Many times while watching television you must have thought that some
are a work of the director‘s imagination while others appear to be real life
experiences. This is very true because on one hand we have programmes which
are based on imagination and on the other hand, we have programmes that are
based on real incidents and events. Thus, we have two broad formats of television
programmes which we shall discuss here.
�Fiction Programmes
�Non Fiction Programmes
Fiction programmes
Almost all the fiction programmes that depend on imagination and dramatization
are meant for entertaining the audiences. Drama/ soap operas like Humlog,
Ghar ek Mandir, Kyunki saas bhi kbahi bahu thi are ongoing, episodic works of
Non-fiction programmes
Apart from different serials and other entertaining works of fiction, you must have
watched programmes on television that provide a lot of information regarding
various events that take place in our surroundings and also impart education on
contemporary issues. Let us now discuss the various non-fiction programmes
available on television.
News Bulletins: News bulletins essentially present a summary of news stories
in their order of importance and interest. National and international happenings
get the pride of place, while regional and local news are read out if time permits.
Human interest stories and sports news generally round off the major bulletins.
News bulletins in English, Hindi and various regional languages are presented on
But with the advent of 24-hour news channels, half an hour bulletins are no longer
popular. Rather the news has taken the 24X7 format where it is presented almost
instantly as and when events occur.
Game/Quiz Show: You may have seen Derek O Brien presenting the most
popular quiz programme, called Bournvita Quiz Contest (BQC) telecast every
Sunday afternoon. Beginning with the Bournvita jingles, the programme gets off
the ground quickly and moves at a hectic pace, taking the audience along with it..
It‘s the sense of participation and involvement in the quiz questions that makes the
quiz programme an enjoyable family fare.
Talks and Discussion Programmes: There are many issues which are of
importance and concern to us happening in our society. Reporting them through
news alone is not enough. Several factors and viewpoints of experts help us to
gain an insight into these issues. Talks and discussion programmes about topical
issues are thus a a very important format of television programming. Most of these
shows feature a regular host, who interviews guest spakers. Typically, it includes
an element of audience participation, usually by broadcasting conversations with
listeners who have placed telephone calls to speak with the programme‘s host or
guest. Generally, the shows are organized into segments which are separated by
a break for advertisements. Examples of such programmes include‗ We the people‘
and ‗Muqabla‘.
There are three stages of programme production
1. Pre production
2. Production
3. Post production
This stage includes everything you do before entering the studio or reaching the
shooting location. It involves idea generation, research, scripting, discussions with
all the crew members and talents (actors), arranging equipment, video / audio
tapes, properties, costumes, sets designing or location hunting and booking of
editing shifts.
The first thing to know about any and every production is what you want the
programme to look like, just like you need to know what you want to cook. This
is the pre production stage. You need a clear idea of what you want to make. Only
then will you be able to make a good programme, understandable by the
audience. Once the idea is clear, the next stage is how to get from the idea to the
television image. To translate an idea on screen effectively you need a good and
detailed script.
In all it involves planning everything in advance. This is very essential to get
results. If you have all the raw ingredients ready in your kitchen, you can easily
cook the food. Similarly, if you have worked well in this stage of programme
production, the other two stages become easy and workable
This is the stage when you are on the studio floor or on location and are ready
to shoot or are actually shooting. (You can compare this to the situation when you
were in the kitchen carrying out the process of cooking food). It includes
managing all the facilities, handling of talent and crew members, controlling the
crowd, shooting without hurdles and solving any problem related on the spot at
that time.
This is the third stage of programme production. It is the stage when you get the
final shape of the programme, just like the way you garnished every food item to
be presented on the dining table. It includes cutting the recorded visuals into
appropriate length, arranging the visuals in a proper sequence, use of desired
effects for the visuals or text / captions, commentary recording, music/song
recording, and final assembly of the entire programme.
Post production editing Machine
As we have discussed earlier, before we present any food item on the dining table,
we need to garnish it. Likewise in television programmes also, before we actually
telecast a programme on television, we need to do the post production.
In the post production stage, you select from the recorded material, those visuals
which seem to be most relevant and copy them onto another videotape in a
specific order. This is called editing.
The post production editing equipment/machine helps to edit the programme after
it is recorded. While many of the elaborate editing systems may help you to obtain
the desired results, most of them cannot make the creative decisions for you. It
is therefore important for you to know the desired result and shoot accordingly.
Again, the better the pre production and production stages of the programme
are, the more easier becomes the post production stage.
Q.7 Explain OB Production with diagram.
Outside broadcasting
Outside broadcasting (OB) is the electronic field production (EFP)
of television or radio programmes (typically to cover television news and sports
television events) from a mobile remote broadcast television studio. Professional
video camera and microphone signals come into the production truck for
processing, recording and possibly transmission. The mobile production control
room (PCR) is known as a "production truck", "Scanner" (a BBC term), "mobile
unit", "remote truck", "live truck", "OB Van" or "live eye". In the United States an
"OB Van" is smaller in size than a production truck and generally require two or
three people in the field to manage. For instance broadcast journalism news
reporters providing live television, local news in the field outside a formal
television studio.
A typical OB Van is usually divided into 5 parts.
Parts of the television crew are located in the first and largest part is
the video production area. The Television director, Technical director, assistant
director, character generator (CG) operator andtelevision producers usually sit
in front of a wall of video monitors. The Technical director sits in front of
the video switcher. The video monitors show all the video feeds from various
sources, includingcomputer graphics, professional video cameras, video tape
recorder (VTR), video servers and slow-motion replay machines. The wall of
monitors also contains a preview monitor showing what could be the next
source on air (does not have to be depending on how the video switcher is set
up) and a program monitor that shows the feed currently going to air or being
recorded. The (keyed dirty feed with digital on-screen graphic) is what is
actually transmitted back to the central studio that is controlling the outside
broadcast. A clean feed (without the graphics) could be being sent to other
trucks for use in their production. The video switcher is usually operated by 1
person called the Technical Director (TD). and is responsible for switching the
video sources to air as directed. Behind the directors there is usually a desk
with monitors for the editors to operate. It is essential that the directors and
editor are in communication with each other during events, so that replays and
slow-motion shots can be selected and aired.
The second part of a van is where the audio engineer has an audio
mixer (being fed with all the various audio feeds: reporters. commentary, onfield microphones, etc. The audio engineer can control which channels are
added to the output and follows instructions from the director. The audio
engineer normally also has a dirty feed monitor to help with
the synchronization of sound and video.
The 3rd part of the truck is the VTR area. The tape area has a collection of
machines including video servers and may also house additional power supplies
or computer equipment.
The 4th part is the video control area where the professional video
cameras are controlled using camera control units (CCU) by one or
two operators, to make sure that the iris is at the correct exposure and that all
the cameras look the same.
The 5th part is transmission where the signal is monitored by and engineered
for quality control purposes and is transmitted or sent to other trucks.
Live Broadcasts
One of the many jobs in a live broadcast environment is the VT (Video Tape)
operator. There may be more than one VT operator, in fact larger productions have
entire rooms dedicated to VT stations, often with their own VT director.
Note that the term "VT" is becoming something of a legacy title, since much of this
work now uses computer systems rather than tapes. However the basic functions
are still the same.
Examples of VT operations include:
Recording shots from various cameras and other sources, either for
immediate replay or later editing.
Assembling and editing shots, interviews, etc.
Playing pre-recorded or edited material at the appropriate time.
In theory, playing a replay is a simple thing to do. We'll use the example of a
simple football game broadcast In which there is one VT operator and two VT
machines (called VT-A and VT-B).
Monitors and Input Selectors
The VT operator uses two monitors to view the output of her machines. Below the
monitors, selectors allow the operator to choose which camera (or other source) to
Each VT machine is capable of recording any of the cameras covering the game.
The VT operator selects a particular camera to record on each machine - this is
independent of what is happening on the main programme. Each machine may
record one camera exclusively, or may chop and change cameras depending on
where the action is happening. In our example, VT-A records a single camera on a
wide shot for the entire game, VT-B alternates between two cameras at each end of
the field.
Let's say one team scores a touchdown. This is the sequence of events:
The operator sees that the team is heading toward the opposition score line,
so she selects the camera at that end of the field on VT-B (remember that VT-A
is always recording the wide shot).
After the touchdown is scored, the operator keeps recording long enough to
capture some reaction from the scoring player.
The operator re-cues both VT machines to the start of the last phase of play
leading up to the touchdown, and then waits for instructions from the director.
The director instructs the operator to play the replay on VT-A (he will say
something like "Roll A").
The VT operator plays the replay on VT-A in slow motion (eg. half speed).
As the replay progresses the operator might slow the speed further and finally
freeze the tape at an appropriate point.
The director instructs the operator to play the replay on VT-B.
The VT operator repeats the process with VT-B.
In this way, the touchdown is immediately followed by two action replays; the first
from the wide shot and the second from the end-on camera.
Outside Broadcasts
Outside Broadcast ("OB") refers to any television or radio programme which is
broadcast from a location away from the normal studio setting. The location
doesn't actually have to be out-of-doors — the "outside" simply means "outside the
Television outside broadcasts can be any size and complexity, from a single
camera to dozens of cameras and staff. Generally, the term OB implies multicamera coverage co-ordinated and directed from a mobile control room.
An "OB Unit" is a mobile production unit
(with equipment and crew) which is able to travel to a location and provide
broadcast coverage. A simple OB unit could include any of the following:
A number of cameras (usually at least four)
A mobile control room, staffed by a director, vision controller, sound
operator and VT (videotape) operator
Equipment and housing for a presentation area
Transmission equipment
Events commonly covered by OB units include sports, concerts, ceremonies, etc.
OB units may specialise in a particular area; for example, a motorsports OB unit
would carry specialised camera equipment for in-car coverage and have staff
which know this particular sport well.
Q.8 what are the basic elements of TV broadcasting.
While millions of people watch television each day, many of them are not quite
sure how the technology works. Television has been around for many decades and
although some of its components have changed over the years, the way in which
television broadcasts work is pretty much the same.
Elements of Broadcast Television
There are a several major parts that are required in order to receive television
broadcasts. They include an image source, a sound source, a transmitter, a receiver,
a display device, and a sound device.
Image Source
The image source can be defined as the program. It can be a movie, TV show,
news program, etc. The image source is just the source‘s video and does not
include the sound. The image source is usually recorded on camera or flying spot
Sound Source
Once the image source is obtained, for e.g. a video of a movie, sound is needed to
complete the medium. The sound source is the TV program‘s audio signal, whether
coming from a movie, TV show, news program, etc. It can come in the form of
mono, stereo, or even digitally processed surround sound.
A transmitter is what sends both audio and video signals over the air waves.
Transmitters usually transmit more than one signal (TV channel) at a time. A
transmitter modulates both picture and sound into one signal then sends this
transmission over a wide range for a receiver (TV set) to receive.
A receiver (TV set) receives the transmitted signals (TV programs) and turns radio
waves, which include audio and video signals, into useful signals that can be
processed into an image and sound.
Display Device
This is either a TV set or monitor. A display device has the technology to turn the
electrical signals received into visible light. On a standard TV set, this includes the
CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) technology.
Sound Device
The sound devices are usually speakers that are either built into the TV set or that
accompany the TV set and turn electrical signals into sound waves to play audio
along with the video images.
Broadcast Television Signals
Broadcast Television Signals are video and sound signals that are transmitted over
the air. Anyone using a television set that has a receiver and an antenna can pick
them up for free. Antennas are used to grab as much signal as possible and to
sometimes amplify the signal.
All TV sets have the ability to switch the receiver‘s tuner to pick up specific
channels. Each channel is transmitted on its own frequency, which the TV set can
tune into and receive.
Broadcast TV vs. Satellite TV and Cable TV
There are three main ways to receive TV programming, one is through broadcast
television and the other two are through satellite and cable TV.
Broadcast TV
Broadcast TV is when audio and video signals are transmitted over the air waves
from a ground based transmitter. These signals are usually picked up for free and
are on specific frequency spectra.
Satellite TV
Satellite TV is usually a digital TV signal that is broadcast from a satellite orbiting
the earth. They are usually pay services that require special equipment to receive
programming and operate on special frequencies.
Cable TV
Cable TV is a pay TV service that sends out signals not over the air, but through
cable that runs from the cable company to the viewer‘s home. Many cable types,
from copper to fiber optic cables, are used. The signal can be analog or digital.
Television Transmission Bands
Television is transmitted on various bands or frequencies. Transmission bands vary
by country. In America, bands III to V are used, which include VHF and UHF
Band I
It is important to note that lower band signals such as bands I do not have enough
bandwidth, which means they cannot carry much information.
Band II
Band II in America is what carries FM radio. While this band is able to carry an
audio signal, adding video to the signal would overcrowd it and it would be
inferior to the signal that viewers receive today.
Bands III , IV, and V
A Normal TV signal is located on Band III, IV, or V. Usually, these bands require
bandwidth to carry both audio and video signals. Most TV signals have about
4MHz of bandwidth for the video portion, when the signal‘s sound portion is
added the signal will have a total of about 6 MHz. The FCC has allocated each TV
channel to a bandwidth of 6 MHz. The channels are as followed:
Band III – Channels 2 to 6 (54 to 88 MHz)
Band IV – Channels 7 to 13 (174-216 MHz)
Band V – Channels 14 to 83 (470 to 890 MHz)
VHFs (very high frequencies) are channels that usually include channels 2 to 13.
UHFs (ultra high frequencies) are channels that usually include channels 14 to 83.
Both VHF and UHF are great frequencies for carrying TV signals (both audio and
video). They have a long range and can penetrate structures such as walls.
Higher Bands
These bands are much higher in frequency and behave like light waves instead of
radio waves. Structures usually obstruct these bands and they need a clear line of
sight. Many satellite signals can use these frequencies, but require special
Q.9.”Writing for visual is different from writing for print “Describe the
statement .
Writing the TV Spec Script
Television is no longer the ugly stepsister of the entertainment industry. Of writers
making money in show biz, the Writers Guild of America reports that 30% more
earn their income from television than from features. With expanding markets in
network, cable, and syndication, the trend is likely to continue. But while
television may look like film shoe-horned into a small, black box, in reality it's a
unique medium with rules of its own.
Unlike features, television spec scripts are not written to be sold, they're written to
sell you. Every spring, network TV shows find out whether they've been renewed,
and new pilots are ordered. The Powers That Be on each series then have a feeding
frenzy, reading spec scripts from writers as they decide whom to hire for staff and
freelance jobs. The process is the same for cable and syndicated shows, at slightly
different times of the year. If you want to break in, the first thing you have to
master is the art of the TV spec.
Rule #1 - Design your calling card.
Choosing a series to spec is critical. You should pick a show you love to watch,
one that's critically acclaimed and popular as well. Liking the show makes it easier
to write, critical accolades encourage others to read it, and the longer it stays on the
air, the longer you can use it as a sample of your writing. Television doesn't have
the same shelf life as film; your spec becomes stale within a year after the show
goes off the air.
The biggest decision you'll make is genre. First, of course, is whether to write for a
sitcom or a drama. But even within sitcoms, there are the "brainy" shows, like
Frasier, and the zany ones, like 3rd Rock From The Sun. A good spec for one won't
get you in the door at the other. As for dramas, it's a smorgasbord: sword and
sorcery, medical dramas, soft series like Providence, rough-edged stories like
NYPD Blue. The narrower your focus, the better; most producers want to read a
spec that's in the same ballpark as their show. So if you want to be hired on, say,
Charmed, don't write a Law & Order script. But don't write a Charmed script,
either: legally, producers can't read a spec for their own series.
Rule #2 - Learn the structure.
Besides being shorter than feature films, television shows structured around
commercial breaks. For hour-long dramas or action-adventures, the stories are built
in four acts, often with a teaser and tag. Each act needs to go out on a strong hook,
especially at the half-hour mark, when viewers are most likely to change the
channel. Most hour-long shows weave together three plotlines: the A story, which
drives the bulk of the episode; a B story, featuring supporting characters; and a C
story or "runner," usually lighter in tone, that serves as comic relief.
Sitcoms have two acts, usually with a laugh-out-loud teaser to draw the audience
in. Tragedy is easy; comedy's always been tough. Structurally, there's more variety:
Friends, for instance, uses the A-B-C formula, while Everybody Loves Raymond
generally involves all the characters in one central story per episode. The only way
to know is to watch and analyze the show you're writing for. Standard television
format can be learned from books -- The Screenwriter's Bible by David Trottier is
the most complete -- but the best way is to get a copy of a produced episode and
follow it exactly. You can purchase actual scripts online at Hollywood Bookcity.
You may also find scripts downloadable from the Internet, but these are usually
transcripts, not shooting scripts, so don't trust the format.
Rule #3 - Capture the vision.
Writing for television is always about fulfilling someone else's vision. The trick is
deciphering what that vision really is. Joss Whedon developed Buffy, The Vampire
Slayer not to showcase a "monster-of-the-week," but to explore the high school
(and now young adult) experience; emotional traumas are as important as
vampires. Do the research; watch the show; read everything you can find on it.
Avoid common "first script" mistakes, like focusing on supporting or guest
characters. If your "Ed" isn't about Ed, you're in trouble.
Rule #4 - Learn to take notes.
In addition to death and taxes, TV writers face one more certainty: notes.
Television is a collaborative medium, so start now by joining a writers group and
sharing your work. If you make an honest effort to correct the flaws in your own
scripts and to be constructive when critiquing others, you'll find the training
invaluable. Plus, like every business, the entertainment industry is about who you
know. Developing a circle of friends now means you'll have a network of contacts
Rule #5 -- Do it again.
The moment someone -- agent, development executive, or head writer -- reads
your spec script and likes it, their first question will be "What else have you got?"
If you don't have a second script, or even a third, you've missed your shot. Besides,
with every script you get better. Soon you'll be taking the television world by
Q. 10 what are the basic difference between liner and non liner
Linear Video Editing (Tape to Tape)
This tutorial will show you how to edit from one video tape to another. You will
Two VCRs (video tape machines), preferably with AV (audio and video)
outputs. If you don't have AV outputs, you can use the RF (aerial) outputs
Note: If you only have one VCR, you can use a camcorder as the second VCR.
At least one video monitor, but preferably two. Professional monitors are
best but you can use televisions if necessary.
Connecting cables.
The tapes(s) you wish to edit and a blank tape to edit onto (this will become
the master tape).
How to Edit with a Camera and VCR
This page shows you how to set up a very simple editing system without any extra
Note: Editing with a camera and VCR is essentially the same as editing with two
VCRs, except that the camera will act as the source VCR.
How to Prepare a Tape for Editing
Exactly how you prepare your tapes will depend on your circumstances. The
following procedure outlines a typical method for professional editing. It's not
always necessary to complete all of these steps—use your discretion to decide
which steps are appropriate for your situation.
Check that the tape is clean and free of dust.
Fast-forward the tape to the end, then rewind. This ensures that the tape has
the correct tension.
Record "black" from a stable source throughout the entire tape, then rewind.
This is critical if you're planning on using insert editing but isn't necessary
for assemble editing. If you don't know what these terms mean, then you
probably don't need to do this step.
Record 30-60 seconds of correctly configured colour bars and audio tone at
the beginning of the tape. This provides a technical reference for use later.
Insert Editing
5. Important: In modern non-linear editing the term "insert editing" has a
different meaning. This page refers to the meaning it used to have in linear
tape-to-tape editing.
6. Sometimes you want to insert a new video clip over top of existing video
footage. For example, you might have a lengthy shot of a person speaking
and you'd like to insert a few cutaway shots to break it up and make it more
7. As previously discussed, if you try to do this using assemble editing, you
will get a horrible picture disturbance at the end of the edit. Also, the audio
from the new footage will replace the existing audio — in the example
above this would not be desirable.
8. The answer is insert editing — a method of inserting new video over old
video with clean beginning and end points. You can also add new pictures
while keeping the original audio.
9. Unfortunately not all video machines are able to do video inserts. It is a
relatively advanced function for consumer-level equipment, and is normally
only available in semi-professional or professional machines.
10.One thing to note with insert editing is that it must be done over the top of
pre-recorded footage (or stable black). This is because insert editing uses the
synch pulse of the underlying video. If you try to insert edit over unrecorded
video tape the picture will be unstable.
11.The way insert editing works varies between machines. Consult your manual
for exact details and instructions.
Assemble editing
Using the VCR's jog/shuttle or other controls, locate the point at which you
want the edit to begin. Put the VCR in pause/record mode.
If necessary, put the camera in playback mode so that you can play the tape.
Using the camera's playback controls, locate the point at which you want the edit
to begin. Put the camera in pause mode.
Release both machines from pause mode (usually by pressing the pause
buttons). This will cause the camera to play and the VCR to commence
Note: There will be a delay on each machine from when you release the pause
mode, to when they begin playback/record. You may also find that the VCR
doesn't begin recording exactly where you thought it would. You'll need to
experiment to find out the exact delay characteristics of your machines.
Typically, you might need to pause the VCR a little before or after the desired
edit point, and pause the camera a few seconds before the edit point.
Stop both machines when you get to the end of the edit.
Repeat steps 1 to 4 for each edit.
Audio dubbing (audio insert)
Audio dubbing means inserting new audio over existing video. This can be used,
for example, to add music or commentary. Again, you will need to consult your
operating manual for instructions.
Non Linear (Digital) Editing
Editing with a computer can be a complex process. This tutorial provides an
overview and general instructions — you may need to consult your manuals or
support forums for some specific tasks related to your software and hardware.
Setting Up a Non Linear Edit Suite
To edit video on a computer you will need:
A source device to play the original tape or disk. Typically a VCR or
A computer with at least these specs: 200 MHz processor / 64 MB RAM /
Fast hard drive with 1 GB or more free space.
Note: If you want decent results, you'll need much higher specs. Some editing
software requires a high-performance computer to even work properly.
A video capture device. To capture video from an analogue source (such as
VHS or Video8) you need a device to convert the video into a digital format.
This can be a standalone device which plugs into the computer or a video
capture card which becomes part of the computer.
If you are using a source device which outputs a digital signal (such as Firewire
or USB) you don't need a capture device, but you do need to make sure your
computer has the appropriate input available.
Connecting leads to plug the source device into the capture device or
Software to control the capturing, editing and outputting.
A video monitor (or television).
We'll come back to the software on the next page. First, let's have a look at the
hardware and physical connections. There are various options depending on your
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