DB X50 - Fiori Group
TRANSLATION FROM
ORIGINAL LANGUAGE
en_UK
DB X50
SELF LOADING CONCRETE MIXER
USE AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL
PERKINS ENGINE Stage III B Tier 4 Interim
RIF. 9301454206 ed. 00
FIORI GROUP S.p.A.
Via per Ferrara, 7
41034 FINALE EMILIA (Modena Italia)
Tel. +39.0535.92357 - Fax +39.0535.90960
http://www.fiorigroup.com
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DB X50
REV. 02
20/12/2016
CAUTION
STUDY THIS MANUAL BEFORE USING THE
MACHINE!
Operators and maintenance staff must read this
manual carefully before using the machine or
carrying out maintenance work. In case of doubts,
ask your Dealer or employer. Do not attempt
to guess at the operations to perform, as this
may cause serious personal injuries or property
damage. This manual must be kept onboard the
machine for prompt consultation at any time,
and must be handed over to the new owner if the
machine is resold.
CAUTION
For reasons of clarity, some illustrations in this
manual show the vehicle without guards.
Never use the vehicle without the guards and
do not start the engine when the engine guard
is open unless expressly indicated in the
maintenance operations.
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CONTENTS
0
INTRODUCTION
1
TECHNICAL FEATURES
2
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
3
OPERATION AND USE
4
MAINTENANCE
5
OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT
6
TECHNICAL ANNEXES
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CONTENTS
1
INTRODUCTION
1.1.
GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS.................................................................................................. 13
1.2.
SYMBOLS USED IN THE MANUAL ................................................................................................ 14
1.3.
INTENDED USE .............................................................................................................................. 14
1.6.
UNAUTHORISED OR IMPROPER USE ......................................................................................... 14
1.7.
DRIVER OF THE VEHICLE ............................................................................................................. 15
1.8.
MANUFACTURER ........................................................................................................................... 16
1.8.1.
TECHNICAL SERVICE REQUESTS ............................................................................................... 16
1.9.
MACHINE IDENTIFICATION ........................................................................................................... 17
1.10.
REGULATORY PROVISIONS ......................................................................................................... 19
1.11.
DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY ................................................................................................ 20
2
TECHNICAL FEATURES
2.1.
DIMENSIONS .................................................................................................................................. 21
2.2.
TECHNICAL DATA ......................................................................................................................... 22
3
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
3.0.
FOREWORD ...................................................................................................................................... 25
3.1.
PRECAUTIONS OF USE ....................................................................................................................25
3.1.1. PERSONAL PROTECTION DEVICES (PPD) ................................................................................. 25
3.1.2. VEHICLE LIMITS ............................................................................................................................. 25
3.1.3.
3.1.4.
3.1.4.a
3.1.4.b
3.1.5.
3.1.6.
3.1.7.
3.1.8.
3.1.9.
3.1.10.
3.1.11.
3.1.12.
3.1.13.
NOISE LEVEL .................................................................................................................................. 26
VIBRATION LEVEL ......................................................................................................................... 26
Vibration level on the “operator’s body” measured on the driver’s seat ........................................... 26
Vibration level on the “hands/arms” measured on the steering wheel. ............................................ 26
SAFETY DEVICE CHECKS ............................................................................................................ 26
PRECAUTIONS WHEN USING ACCESSORIES ........................................................................... 26
PROHIBITION TO TRANSPORT PERSONS OR OBJECTS .......................................................... 26
GETTING ON AND OFF THE VEHICLE ......................................................................................... 27
DRIVER’S SEAT .............................................................................................................................. 27
DRIVER’S CAB / OPERATOR’S PROTECTIVE STRUCTURE ....................................................... 27
ROPS (ROLL OVER PROTECTIVE STRUCTURE) ........................................................................ 27
FOPS (FALLING OBJECT PROTECTIVE STRUCTURE) ............................................................... 28
SEATBELTS .................................................................................................................................... 28
3.1.14.
3.1.15.
3.1.16.
3.1.17.
3.1.18.
3.1.19.
3.1.20.
3.1.21.
CHECKS BEFORE STARTING THE VEHICLE .............................................................................. 28
STARTING THE VEHICLE ............................................................................................................... 28
PRECAUTIONS WHILE DRIVING .................................................................................................. 29
PRECAUTIONS WHILE DRIVING IN REVERSE ............................................................................ 29
DANGEROUS WORKING CONDITIONS ....................................................................................... 30
WORKING AREA ............................................................................................................................ 30
VISIBILITY OF THE WORKING AREA ........................................................................................... 30
SITE CONDITIONS.......................................................................................................................... 31
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3.1.22.
3.1.23.
3.1.24.
3.1.25.
3.1.26.
3.1.27.
3.1.28.
3.1.29.
3.1.30.
PRECAUTIONS DURING OPERATIONS ....................................................................................... 31
WORKING ON SLOPES ................................................................................................................. 32
DRIVING ON ICY OR SNOW-COVERED SURFACES .................................................................. 32
ELECTRICAL LINES ....................................................................................................................... 32
CLOSED ENVIRONMENTS ............................................................................................................ 33
STOPPING THE VEHICLE .............................................................................................................. 33
PARKING THE VEHICLE ................................................................................................................. 33
TOWING AND RECOVERY............................................................................................................. 34
TRANSPORT ................................................................................................................................... 34
3.2.
3.2.1.
3.2.2.
3.2.3.
3.2.4.
3.2.5.
PRECAUTIONS AGAINST RESIDUAL RISKS ............................................................................... 35
SLIPPING......................................................................................................................................... 35
MOVING PARTS ............................................................................................................................. 35
SHEARING OR TRAPPING............................................................................................................. 35
CRUSHING ..................................................................................................................................... 35
OVERTURNING .............................................................................................................................. 36
3.2.6.
3.2.7.
3.2.8.
3.2.9.
3.2.10.
3.2.11.
3.2.12.
3.2.13.
3.2.14.
TYRE BURSTING ............................................................................................................................ 37
ELECTRICAL RISKS ...................................................................................................................... 37
RISK OF SHORT-CIRCUIT ............................................................................................................. 37
BATTERY ........................................................................................................................................ 37
HOT AND PRESSURISED FLUIDS ............................................................................................... 38
RISK OF BURNS ............................................................................................................................. 38
VENTILATION.................................................................................................................................. 38
INTOXICATION................................................................................................................................ 38
FIRE PREVENTION......................................................................................................................... 39
3.3.
3.3.1.
3.3.2.
3.3.3.
3.3.4.
3.3.5.
PRECAUTIONS DURING MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS ........................................................... 40
CORRECT MAINTENANCE ........................................................................................................... 40
PRECAUTIONS DURING WELDING OPERATIONS ...................................................................... 43
FAULTS AND UNAUTHORISED MODIFICATIONS ........................................................................ 43
CLEANING THE VEHICLE .............................................................................................................. 43
WASTE FLUID/MATERIAL DISPOSAL........................................................................................... 44
3.4.
3.4.1.
3.4.2.
WARNING AND SAFETY LABELS (RESIDUAL RISKS) ................................................................. 45
LOCATION OF THE WARNING AND SAFETY LABELS ............................................................... 45
MEANING OF THE WARNING AND SAFETY LABELS .................................................................... 47
3.5.
SAFETY DEVICES ON THE VEHICLE .......................................................................................... 50
3.6.
SAFETY DEVICES FOR ROAD USE ............................................................................................. 53
4
OPERATION AND USE
4.0.
INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................. 55
4.1.
4.1.1.
REFERENCES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THE MAIN DEVICES ................................................. 56
INSTRUCTION LABELS ON THE MACHINE ................................................................................ 57
4.2.
CONTROLS AND GAUGES ........................................................................................................... 60
4.2.1. DRIVER’S SEAT .............................................................................................................................. 60
4.2.1.a Steering wheel ................................................................................................................................ 60
4.2.1.b Height- and depth-djustable driver’s seat with seatbelt ................................................................. 61
4.2.1.c Service and emergency brake pedal .............................................................................................. 61
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4.2.1.d
4.2.1.e
4.2.1.f
4.2.1.g
4.2.1.h
4.2.1.i
4.2.1.j
4.2.1.k
4.2.1.l
4.2.1.m
4.2.1.n
4.2.1.o
4.2.1.p
4.2.1.q
4.2.1.r
4.2.1.s
4.2.2.
4.2.2.a
4.2.2.b
4.2.2.c
4.2.2.d
4.2.2.e
4.2.2.f
4.2.2.g
4.2.2.h
4.2.2.i
4.2.2.j
4.2.2.k
4.2.2.l
4.2.2.m
4.2.2.n
4.2.2.o
4.2.3.
4.2.3.a
4.2.3.b
4.2.4.
Accelerator pedal ........................................................................................................................... 61
Parking brake button ...................................................................................................................... 61
Hand accelerator lever .................................................................................................................... 61
Steering type selecting lever ........................................................................................................... 61
Power socket .................................................................................................................................. 62
Rotating light switch ........................................................................................................................ 62
Regeneration switch disabled ......................................................................................................... 62
Regeneration switch forced............................................................................................................. 62
Heating/defrosting fan adjuster ...................................................................................................... 62
Rotating light switch ....................................................................................................................... 62
Windscreen water switch ................................................................................................................ 62
Fuses and Relays ........................................................................................................................... 62
Windscreen washer fluid tank ....................................................................................................... 62
Short Manual ................................................................................................................................... 62
Cabin light ...................................................................................................................................... 63
Electronic engine parameter control monitor .................................................................................. 63
DRIVING POST INSTRUMENT PANEL .......................................................................................... 64
Electronic control panel ................................................................................................................... 64
Water Liter counter........................................................................................................................... 65
Hour counter/revolution counter ...................................................................................................... 65
Maintenance schedule .................................................................................................................... 66
Forward/reverse gear selector ........................................................................................................ 66
Mechanical gear selector ................................................................................................................ 67
Slow movement switch..................................................................................................................... 67
Drum rotation switch ....................................................................................................................... 67
Reset button ..................................................................................................................................... 68
Water pump control switch ............................................................................................................. 68
Hazard light toggle switch ............................................................................................................... 68
Working light switch ......................................................................................................................... 68
Red warning light engine fault indicator .......................................................................................... 68
Engine starter and stopping switch ................................................................................................. 69
Rotary switch with horn push button direction indicators toggle switch ........................................... 70
OPERATING CONTROL PANEL .................................................................................................... 71
Grab bucket control joystick ............................................................................................................. 71
Unloading chute control lever........................................................................................................... 71
WATER FEEDING AND DISTRIBUTION CONTROLS .................................................................. 72
4.3.
4.3.1.
4.3.2.
4.3.3.
4.3.4.
4.3.5.
4.3.6.
4.3.7.
4.3.8.
4.3.9.
4.3.10.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE ............................................................................................................. 73
REFUELLING................................................................................................................................... 73
LEVEL CHECK ................................................................................................................................ 74
FILLING THE WATER TRANSFER PUMP BODY ......................................................................... 74
ADJUSTING THE SEAT .................................................................................................................. 75
REARVIEW MIRRORS ADJUSTMENT ........................................................................................... 75
STARTING THE ENGINE ................................................................................................................ 76
ENGINE OPERATION AT LOW RPM ..............................................................................................77
ADJUSTING WHEEL ALIGNMENT .................................................................................................77
PARKING BRAKE .............................................................................................................................77
STARTING AND DRIVING THE VEHICLE .......................................................................................78
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4.3.11.
4.3.12.
4.3.13.
4.3.14.
FIELD OF INDIRECT VISIBILITY OF THE VEHICLE ......................................................................79
STOPPING THE VEHICLE ...............................................................................................................80
STOPPING THE ENGINE ................................................................................................................80
PARKING THE VEHICLE ..................................................................................................................80
4.4.
4.4.1.
TRANSPORTING THE VEHICLE ....................................................................................................81
LIFTING THE VEHICLE WITH A CRANE ........................................................................................82
4.5.
TOWING OR RECOVERY ...............................................................................................................83
4.5.1
4.5.2
RELEASING THE PARKING BRAKE IN THE EVENT OF A BRAKE SUPPLY SYSTEM FAULT ......84
GEARSHIFTING TO NEUTRAL .......................................................................................................84
4.6.
DRIVING ON PUBLIC ROADS ........................................................................................................85
4.7.
HOMOLOGATION FOR ROAD USE (ITALY) ...................................................................................86
4.8.
4.8.1
PRECAUTIONS FOR USE IN COLD CLIMATE CONDITIONS ......................................................86
SUMMER/WINTER HEATING SYSTEM .........................................................................................87
4.9.
PRECAUTIONS IN THE EVENT OF LONG PERIODS OF INACTIVITY ........................................88
4.10.
WORKING PHASES ........................................................................................................................88
4.10.1. CORRECT USE OF THE VEHICLE ................................................................................................89
4.10.2. BEFORE GETTING ON THE VEHICLE (CHECKS AND WARNINGS) ............................................89
4.10.3. CORRECT USE ON SLOPES ..........................................................................................................89
4.10.4. CONCRETE COMPOSITION AND BATCHING TABLE....................................................................91
4.10.5. FIRST FILLING WITH MIXING WATER............................................................................................92
4.10.5.a Filling the tanks with mixing water ....................................................................................................92
4.10.5.b First filling with mixing water ............................................................................................................93
4.10.5.c Activating the water transfer pump ...................................................................................................93
4.10.6. CEMENT LOADING ..........................................................................................................................94
4.10.6.a Cement in bags ................................................................................................................................94
4.10.6.b Cement in silos .................................................................................................................................95
4.10.7. AGGREGATE LOADING ..................................................................................................................95
4.10.7.a Heaped aggregate ............................................................................................................................95
4.10.8. MIXING AND SECOND FILLING WITH WATER .............................................................................96
4.10.9. CONCRETE UNLOADING................................................................................................................97
4.10.9.a Concrete unloading from chute ........................................................................................................97
4.10.9.b Concrete unloading from drum emergency door ...............................................................................98
4.10.10. BUCKET, DRUM AND CHUTE WASHING ......................................................................................98
4.10.11. INTERNAL CLEANING OF THE MIXING DRUM .............................................................................99
4.10.12. EXTRAORDINARY DRUM CLEANING OR BLADE REPLACEMENT .............................................99
5
MAINTENANCE
5.1.
FOREWORD .....................................................................................................................................101
5.1.1. VISUAL EXTERNAL INSPECTION ...................................................................................................102
5.1.2. CLEANING THE VEHICLE .............................................................................................................102
5.1.3. CHECKING FOR DAMAGES ............................................................................................................103
5.1.4. ACCESS TO THE MAIN DEVICES ...................................................................................................103
5.1.4.1. PARTS CONTAINED IN THE TOOL KIT ...........................................................................................103
5.1.4.2. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE AND CHECKS.......................................................................................104
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5.1.4.3. EXTRAORDINARY MAINTENANCE AND CHECKS ........................................................................105
5.2.
MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE ...........................................................................................................106
5.3.
RUNNING-IN AND SERVICE ...........................................................................................................106
5.4.
SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE TABLE .............................................................................................107
5.5.
ENGINE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE ............................................................................................108
5.6.
RECOMMENDED LUBRICANTS AND FLUIDS TABLE ...................................................................109
5.6.1. DIESEL FUEL REQUIREMENTS .....................................................................................................109
5.7.
GENERAL INSPECTIONS ................................................................................................................ 112
5.7.1. GREASE ........................................................................................................................................... 112
5.7.2. CLEANING AND DRAINING THE FUEL TANK ................................................................................ 113
5.8.
AXLE AND WHEELS ........................................................................................................................ 114
5.8.1.
5.8.2.
5.8.3.
5.8.4.
5.8.5.
CLEANING THE AXLE AND DIFFERENTIAL BLEEDERS ............................................................... 114
CHECKING AND TOPPING UP THE OIL LEVEL IN THE FRONT AND REAR AXLES ................... 114
REPLACING THE OIL IN THE FRONT AND REAR AXLES ............................................................. 115
CHECKING AND ADJUSTING THE TYRE PRESURE ..................................................................... 116
REPLACING THE WHEELS ............................................................................................................ 117
5.9.
5.9.1.
5.9.2.
5.9.3.
5.9.4.
5.9.5.
BRAKES ............................................................................................................................................120
CHECKING AND TOPPING UP THE BRAKE FLUID LEVEL ..........................................................120
CLEANING THE BRAKE FLUID TANK BLEEDERS ........................................................................120
REPLACING THE BRAKING SYSTEM FLUID .................................................................................121
EFFICIENCY OF THE HAND BRAKE ..............................................................................................122
CHECKING THE WEAR CONDITION OF THE BRAKING SYSTEM ...............................................122
5.10.
5.10.1.
5.10.2.
5.10.3.
5.10.4.
5.10.5.
5.10.6.
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM .....................................................................................................................123
CHECKING THE HYDRAULIC OIL ..................................................................................................123
REPLACING THE HYDRAULIC OIL TANK BLEEDER ....................................................................123
CHANGE THE HYDRAULIC OIL FILTER CARTRIDGE...................................................................124
REPLACING THE HYDRAULIC OIL ................................................................................................125
CHECKING AND TOPPING UP THE DRUM REDUCTION GEAR OIL LEVEL ...............................126
DRUM REDUCTION GEAR OIL CHANGE .......................................................................................126
5.11. ENGINE ............................................................................................................................................127
5.11.1. CLEANING THE ENGINE AIR FILTER SEPARATOR ....................................................................127
5.11.2. CLEANING OR REPLACING THE ENGINE AIR FILTER CARTRDIGE .........................................127
5.11.3. CHECKING AND TOPPING UP THE COOLANT LEVEL ...............................................................128
5.11.4. REPLACING THE ENGINE COOLANT ...........................................................................................129
5.11.5. CHECKING AND ADJUSTING THE ALTERNATOR BELT TENSIONING ........................................130
5.11.6. FUEL SEDIMENT BOWL ..................................................................................................................130
5.11.7. AIR BLEEDING IN THE ENGINE FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM ............................................................131
5.11.8. REPLACING THE ENGINE FUEL SUPPLY PRE-FILTER AND FILTER .........................................131
5.11.9. CHECKING AND TOPPING UP THE ENGINE OIL LEVEL .............................................................132
5.11.10.REPLACING THE ENGINE OIL FILTER ..........................................................................................132
5.11.11. REPLACING THE ENGINE OIL ......................................................................................................133
5.11.12. DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER REGENERATION .......................................................................134
5.11.12.1 Regeneration Indicators ...............................................................................................................134
5.11.12.2 Modes of Regeneration .................................................................................................................134
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5.11.12.3 Indicator Operation ........................................................................................................................135
5.11.12.4 Regeneration Operation ................................................................................................................135
5.11.13. ENGINE DIAGNOSTICS ................................................................................................................136
5.11.14. DISPLAYING ENGINE FAULT CODES ON THE PARAMETER CONTROL MONITOR................136
5.12. ELECTRIC COMPONENTS ..............................................................................................................137
5.12.1. FUSES AND RELAYS .......................................................................................................................137
5.12.2. ELECTRONIC DASHBOARD WARNING LIGHTS ...........................................................................141
5.12.3. REPLACING THE LIGHT BULBS ....................................................................................................142
5.12.4. CHECKING AND TOPPING UP THE BATTERY ELECTROLYTE LEVEL ......................................143
5.12.5. BATTERY PINS CONTACT ..............................................................................................................144
5.12.6. BATTERY REPLACE.........................................................................................................................144
5.12.7. RIAVVIAMENTO MACCHINA FERMA CON BATTERIA ESTERNA ................................................145
5.13. WATER SYSTEM .............................................................................................................................146
5.13.1. CHECKING AND MAINTAINING THE LITRE COUNTER ...............................................................146
5.13.2. CHECKING THE WATER TRANSFER PUMP EFFICIENCY ...........................................................146
5.13.3. WATER PUMP EMERGENCY ACTIVATION ...................................................................................147
5.13.4. CLEANING PRE-FILTER OF THE WATER PUMP ..........................................................................147
6
OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT .............................................................................................................149
149
TECHNICAL ANNEXES ...............................................................................................................................157
USE AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL ENGINE PARAMETER CONTROL MONITOR
ENGINE USE AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL
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INTRODUCTION
1
This manual has been designed to provide a practical guide for proper and safe use of the machine, as well as
for its correct routine maintenance.
Thorough and ongoing observance of the instructions contained herein will help ensure the machine optimal
performance, its operation economy as well as its longest life. In addition, this will allow you to use the
machine properly, thus helping to avoid the most common accidents which may occur during operation or
maintenance.
1.1 GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS
This use and maintenance manual is an integral and essential part of the machine and must be delivered to
the user.
Read this manual carefully and thoroughly before starting, using and performing maintenance, refuelling or
any other operation on the machine.
The machine shall be entrusted to and operated by skilled staff only, which must have been duly trained on the
use of self-propelled vehicles of this type and on the relative safety rules and regulations.
The operator must observe all safety and accident prevention regulations as well as the Road Traffic Regulations
if the vehicle is road driven.
Furthermore, it is essential to carefully read the safety CAUTIONs found on the machine plates and labels,
and to strictly observe the instructions contained therein before starting, operating or repairing the machine or
performing maintenance operations on the same.
Each machine comes equipped with a copy of this manual.
The manual must be properly and safely stored in its compartment in the driver’s cab. It must be kept within
reach and in good conditions at all times. Do not use the machine if this manual is not in the cab and if you
have not read all the instructions carefully.
If the manual is lost or becomes illegible (pages torn, dirty, etc.) ask either your Dealer or the Manufacturer
immediately for a new copy.
The machine must be used for its intended purpose only. Any other use is to be considered improper and
consequently dangerous.
Thorough and ongoing observance of the instructions contained herein will help ensure a longer service life
and reduction of maintenance and stop time. In addition, this will help you to avoid the most common accidents
which may occur during operation or maintenance.
It is of mutual interest to observe the aforementioned instructions, and that the buyer undertakes to ensure that
this manual is an integral part of the machine, that it is actually consulted by the operator and by maintenance
staff and that the instructions provided are strictly observed, assuming full responsibility in relation thereto.
The buyer and the operator of the vehicle must read the use and maintenance manual carefully the first time
they are using the machine. If this vehicle is subject to a use or lease agreement, it is the owner’s duty to
make sure that the new user reads and understands this use and maintenance manual. In addition, make sure
that the new operator has fully inspected the vehicle and is knowledgeable with all of its labels, decals and
equipment, and that he has tested all the controls to understand and verify their proper functioning.
The Manufacturer reserves the right to make any and all modifications for product improvement purposes,
without updating this documentation.
For additional information, please feel free to contact your Dealer or the Manufacturer at your convenience.
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INTRODUCTION
1.2 SYMBOLS USED IN THE MANUAL
To provide a clearer understanding of the information contained in this manual, major information or information
regarding danger is shown with the following symbols:
DANGER: Indicates a situation of imminent risk that, if not avoided, may result
in serious injury or even death.
CAUTION: Indicates a potential risk which, if not avoided, may result in injury of low or medium severity. It may also be used to prohibit operations involving risks and which may cause
damages.
1.3 INTENDED USE
This machine has been designed and manufactured to load aggregates, cement and water in the appropriate
quantities, and mix them homogeneously directly on the worksite, to produce quality concrete for on-site
casting.
Use of the machine on public roads is subject to road traffic regulations in force in the country of use.
This machine must be used by the driver only and cannot be used to transport other people.
This machine has been designed and manufactured for its intended use and purpose. Therefore, its technical
features shall be considered binding in order to use the machine for its intended purpose.
No modifications can be made to the machine without prior authorisation from FIORI, as they may lead to
dangerous situations. It is always necessary to strictly observe the safety rules and regulations illustrated in
this use and maintenance manual.
1.4 UNAUTHORISED OR IMPROPER USE
It is strictly forbidden to use the machine for any operation other than those described herein.
Under no circumstance may FIORI be held responsible for any other use of the machine or for non-observance
of the instructions provided by the Manufacturer.
The machine shall not be used for underground works or in potentially explosive workplaces. In the
event of underground works, contact FIORI to request information on the requirements to be observed
for adjusting the machine so that it is suitable for such purposes.
Any unauthorised modification to the machine relieves the Manufacturer from any responsibility for property
damage or personal injuries which may directly and/or indirectly arise in connection therewith.
The Manufacturer and its Distribution and After Sales Service Network accept no responsibility for any damage
which may arise in connection with not approved and malfunctioning components fitted on the machine during
maintenance or repair operations.
No objects of any kind may be transported on the machine or inside the driver’s cab.
Therefore no warranty, of any kind whatsover, is provided in relation to the product manufactured or traded by
the Manufacturer for damages due to non-approved malfunctioning parts and/or components.
DANGER: If the machine is used for any purpose other than its intended and allowed use,
the operator shall be responsible for his own safety as well as for the safety of any
other person involved.
CAUTION: FIORI accepts no responsibility for personal injury or property damage which may derive
from non observance of the provisions and instructions contained in this manual and from
non observance of safety and accident prevention regulations.
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INTRODUCTION
1
1.5 DRIVER OF THE VEHICLE
Road driving of the vehicle is naturally governed by Road Traffic Regulations, and therefore the driver shall be
equipped with a driving license as required.
In order to use the machine on the worksite, the operator must be of the minimum age established by applicable
legislation in the country of use. The operator may use the machine only after receiving adequate and specific
training.
This training must ensure that the machine is used correctly in relation to the risks which may arise for the
driver or other people.
Driving an earth moving machine always requires technical skills and training, in addition to a strong sense
of responsibility. The operator must therefore have specific psychophysical requisites to qualify for this job.
Therefore, only authorised personnel may use these vehicles.
The operators must be duly trained on the use of the machine and instructed about any possible risks at the
workplace.
We recommend that all staff follow a training course aimed at learning how to use the machine safely and
efficiently and getting specific knowledge on the engine and hydraulic system operation, in order to perform
cleaning and maintenance operations.
The machine must only be driven and serviced by persons who:
- have an excellent eyesight and colour perception, good hearing, co-ordination and sharp reflexes;
- are physically and mentally eligible for this type of job, and are able to meet the requirements connected with
the machine operation at peak performance levels;
- refrain from operating the machine when they are tired, unwell or under the influence of drugs, alcohol or
medicines which may affect their physical abilities or sharpness of their reflexes;
-are able to read and properly understand the instructions contained in this manual, according to the
Manufacturer’s purposes;
-have an excellent ability to assess weight, distance and size;
- are able to drive and control the machine at the worksite;
-have been trained on the operation of the machine and its maintenance, know its technical specifications, its
overall dimensions as well as its performance and limitations;
- are conscientious, careful and aware of the problems of their own safety and that of other people, animals,
property, the machine itself and the environment;
- are knowledgeable with the safety rules and regulations applicable to the workplace.
The Legal Representative of the company which owns the vehicle shall appoint the staff who possess the
above said requisites to perform the tasks required.
The operator is also responsible for and shall assure that:
- nobody approaches the machine when it is working;
- no unauthorised and untrained personnel may use the machine;
- the safety procedures learnt during the training course are observed every day;
- potential hazards in the workplace are recognised and avoided;
- the caution and warning labels and plates have been read and understood, and their instructions observed
(see Section 3 “Safety Labels and Decals”);
- the machine has been inspected and its proper working condition checked before starting the work shift;
- report any operational problems encountered before, or while operating the machine;
- reckless or careless actions, which may endanger his own safety as well as other people’s safety, are
avoided;
- common sense is used at all times and safety has absolute priority.
The machine is manufactured and supplied for its intended use, as specified in this manual. Operators are
reminded that, when using the machine, they must always and under all circumstances behave following
active safety principles, in order to enhance the overall safety level of the machine. Prior to commencing work,
the operator must check that all the safety devices are active and functioning properly: he/she is obliged to
refuse to start work in the event that the requirements for safe working are not met.
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CAUTION: FIORI accepts no responsibility for any damage to persons, animals, property or the environment resulting from the machine being operated and used by staff without the required
prerequisites.
1.6 MANUFACTURER
The machine and any offspin models are manufactured exclusively by:
FIORI GROUP S.p.A.
Via per Ferrara, 7
41034 FINALE EMILIA (Modena) Italia
Tel. +39.0535.92357 - Fax +39.0535.90960
http://www.fiorigroup.com
1.6.1 Technical Service Requests
In the event of any machine failure or malfunction, it is essential to follow the instructions below:
- If the trouble persists, do not try further actions or expedients. Contact the nearest authorised FIORI SERVICE
CENTRE or directly:
FIORI GROUP S.p.A.
Via per Ferrara, 7
41034 FINALE EMILIA (Modena) Italia
Tel. +39.0535.780250 - Fax +39.0535.90960
When you contact Fiori After Sales Service, make sure you have all necessary details available, which must
be provided to the Service staff so as to immediately identify the machine model and understand the problem.
- Provide all data shown on the identification plate secured on the machine.
- Make sure you have all diagrams and layouts contained in this manual available and within reach.
- Give a brief and very clear description of the current failure or malfunction.
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INTRODUCTION
1
2
F
E
C
1
A
E
*BX15HB0100*
B
1.7
D
MACHINE IDENTIFICATION
The identification data of the machine and its main components are punched on metal plates, which allow the
machine to be identified by the After Sales Service by means of specific ID numbers and letters.
The following information show where the identification plates and punched numbers are located, and give
examples of the symbols found on the machine.
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A - VEHICLE SERIAL NUMBER
The serial number is punched on the bumper side, on the right-hand side of the machine (with respect to
the driving direction).
CAUTION: This number must always be provided whenever requesting assistance from the FIORI
After Sales Service Network. The serial number is also required to facilitate identifying the
machine in the event of theft.
B - VEHICLE AND MANUFACTURER’S DATA PLATE
The vehicle and Manufacturer’s data plate is found on the front right-hand bumper, as shown in the figure.
Please fill in the following data concerning your vehicle:
MODEL/TYPE................................................................................................................... DB X50 / BX15H
SERIAL NUMBER ............................................................................................................... *BX15HB0111*
YEAR ............................................................................................................................................................
C - ENGINE DATA PLATE
The engine data plate is positioned on the power take-off side.
Write down your vehicle numbers in the space below for quick and easy reference:
MODEL No. ............................................................................................................................. 854E-E34TA
SERIAL NUMBER ........................................................................................................................................
D - AXLE DATA PLATE
The axle type and serial numbers are printed on the plate found on the axle central case.
Write down the information in the space below for quick reference:
FRONT AXLE TYPE ...................................................................................................... • 367 - 212 - 320 •
SERIAL NUMBER ....................................................................................................................... K ITA......
REAR AXLE TYPE .......................................................................................................... • 000 - 212 - 670 •
SERIAL NUMBER ....................................................................................................................... K ITA......
E - TRANSMISSION DATA PLATE
The serial number and type are punched on the pump (1) and engine (2) plates.
Write down the information in the space below for quick reference:
1 - PUMP MODEL .....................................................................................................................• A4VG56 •
SERIAL NUMBER ..................................................................................................................................
2 - ENGINE MODEL ................................................................................................................ • A6VM80 •
SERIAL NUMBER ..................................................................................................................................
F - OPERATOR PROTECTION PLATE
The ROPS - FOPS operator’s protection plate is found inside the upper section of the structure.
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1.10 REGULATORY PROVISIONS
The machine has been built in compliance with applicable European directives and laws, and conforms to the
standards of the indicated directives:
MACHINE
- Directive 2006/42/EC on “Machinery”
- Directive 2004/108/EC on “Electromagnetic Compatibility”
- Directive 2000/14/EC on “Noise emission”
ENGINE
- EU STAGE III B / EPA Tier 4 Interim
CABIN
- ROPS UNI 11023
- FOPS LEVEL I ISO 3449
QUALITY STANDARD
FIORI GROUP S.p.A. is a certified company:
- ISO 9001 - 2008 “Quality”
- ISO 14001 - 2004 “Environment”
- BS OHSAS 18001 – 2007 “Safety”
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1.11 DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
The EC Declaration of conformity is the document undersigned by the Manufacturer which warrants and
certifies that the machine complies with all European regulatory provisions concerning the product. This
document is provided with the entire documentation on machine delivery. It must be carefully kept on board
and shall always accompany the machine until its end-of-life scrapping.
The declaration shows the machine identification data, the manufacturer’s details and applicable law
provisions.
Below is an EC declaration facsimile:
Declaration of conformity CE
for a new industrial machine
As a representative I declare that the following machine
1, Category
2, Mark/Model
3, Model
4, Chassis number
5, Manufacturer
6, Year of manufacture
:
:
:
:
:
:
Self loading concrete mixer
FIORI - DBX50
BX15H
*BX15HB0000*
FIORI GROUP S.p.A.
2015
is designed and manufactured in compliance with the following European Directives:
"Safety of machinery"
- Directive 2006/42/CE
"Electromagnetic compatibility"
- Directive 2004/108/CE
"Noise emission"
- Directive 2000/14/CE
according to the contents of Annex V (internal production control)
with the technical documentation retained by the manufacturer.
106
108
Measured sound power level
Guaranteed sound power level
Nominal drum output
5
dB(A)
dB(A)
mc
For proper and safe machine use, we recommend that you follow the instructions given in the "Use and Maintenance Manual".
Att. n°:
0000
FIORI GROUP S.p.A.
Finale Emilia, lì
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2.1 DIMENSIONS
- Minimum transfer length ...................................................................................................................5,630 mm
- Maximum length with loader on the ground .....................................................................................7,020 mm
- Maximum width ................................................................................................................................2,430 mm
- Minimum height with loader on the ground ......................................................................................3,040 mm
- Maximum road transfer height ..........................................................................................................3,805 mm
- Maximum hopper unloading height ................................................................................................. 1, 935 mm
- Maximum chute unloading height.................................................................................................... 1, 685 mm
- Minimum chute unloading height .................................................................................................... 1, 570 mm
- Front angle of attack ................................................................................................................................... 35°
- Rear angle of attack ................................................................................................................................... 31°
- Ground clearance un der the differentials ...........................................................................................385 mm
- Minimum wheel radius...................................................................................................................... 2,335 mm
- Minimum outside wheel radius ......................................................................................................... 5,120 mm
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2.2
TECHNICAL FEATURES
TECHNICAL DATA
DIESEL ENGINE : E.U. Stage III B / EPA Tier 4 Interim
Model : .................................................................................................................. PERKINS series 854 E turbo
Total displacement, no Cylinders : .............................................................................3,400cc - 4 in line + DPF
Injection : ................................................................................................ Electronic control with direct injection
Cooling : .................................................................................................................. air water fi lter, dry air fi lter
Max. power : ............................................................................................................................. 83 kW (113 Hp)
Adj. power. :......................................................................................................................... 83 kW (2,200 rpm)
Max. torque :...................................................................................................................... 450 Nm a 1,400 rpm
ELECTRIC SYSTEM
Alternator: ........................................................................................................................................ 12 V - 80 A
Battery: ............................................................................................................................ 12 V - 132 Ah (600 A)
Road light system.
4X4 FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE
Hydrostatic “automotive” transmission with variable displacement pump and variable displacement hydraulic
motor with electro-hydraulic control, and reverse gear control on the steering wheel.
Electro-hydraulically controlled mechanical gearbox for “working speed” and “road transfer” speed.
SPEED
4 forward gears
2 reverse gears
Ist 0 - 3.0 Km/h
0 - 3.0 Km/h
IInd 0 - 7.2 Km/h
0 - 3.0 Km/h
IIIrd 0 - 10.0 Km/h
0 - 10.0 Km/h
IVth 0 - 25.0 Km/h
0 - 10.0 Km/h
Traction / weight ratio ................................................................................................................................. 43%
AXLES AND WHEELS
Front and steering with planetary reduction gears on the wheel hubs and flanged gearbox.
Rear, oscillating (± 6°) and steering with planetary reduction gears on the wheel hubs.
Tyres .......................................................................................................................................... 18-19,5 18 PR
BRAKES
Internal oil-bath disc service and emergency brakes acting on the 4 wheels, activation with miniservo pump
on independent dual circuit.
Negative type parking brake, with internal oil-bath discs on the front axle and electro-hydraulically controlled
release.
STEERING
Assisted by means of load-sensing power steering with double displacement on 4 steering wheels; steering
selection device for: 2 steering wheels, 4 steering wheels - crab steering.
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EQUIPMENT HYDRAULICSYSTEM
Gear pump
Max. flow rate: ............................................................................................................................... 45 litres/min.
Maximum pressure: ............................................................................................................................... 230 bar
3-element distributor servo-controlled with multi-function joystick.
Aluminium heat exchanger for hydraulic oil cooling.
Pressurised closed-circuit intake with oil filter replaceable from the outside.
MIXING AND UNLOADING
Double-cone drum with double-spiral mixing screws and convex bottom.
Geometrical drum volume: ............................................................................................................... 7,000 litres
Drum rotation speed: .............................................................................................................................. 19 rpm
Class S1 concrete produced as : ..........................................................................................................5.0 cu m
Drum rotation by means of a piston pump with variable flow rate and an orbital hydraulic motor in closed circuit
with infinitesimal electrical control positioned in the cabin.
Unloading chute with hydraulic tilting by means of a double-acting jack and control placed inside the cabin.
1 unloading chute extension provided as standard equipment.
WATER SYSTEM
“Self-priming” volumetric water pump with quick-suction.
Max. capacity: .............................................................................................................................. 250 litres/min.
Maximum head: ......................................................................................................................................... 4 bar
Two connected tanks positioned opposite each other made of polyethylene with a total capacity o .1,200 litres.
Water feeding to the drum controlled by means of electromagnetic flow meter and fed litre reading on the cabin
display.
Water pump activation from the driver’s seat. Suction selection from the ground with quick-coupling pipes.
LOADER
Loading device with grab bucket and lifting arms controlled by double-acting hydraulic cylinders. Automatic
unloading hatch driven by a mechanical lever.
Volumetric capacity: .............................................................................................................................680 litres
Number of loaderfuls per load: ..........................................................................................................around 10
CAB
Closed cab with heating system, designed in accordance with ROPS & FOPS Level I standards.
Tilting front window.
Anatomic seat with flexible suspension and height adjustment, seat belts.
LCD TV display with camera for rear visibility.
SERVICE REFILL CAPACITIES
Fuel tank: ...............................................................................................................................................85 litres
Total hydraulic system capacity: ..........................................................................................................125 litres
Engine oil: .............................................................................................................................................. 6.75 kg
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WEIGHTS
Operating weight: ................................................................................................................................ 6,800 kg
Max gross weight: .............................................................................................................................. 19,100 kg
load-carring capacity: ........................................................................................................................ 12,300 kg
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3.0 FOREWORD
This manual is intended as a practical and rational guide to proper use and prevention of the most common
causes of accidents during work and maintenance.
Below are the main rules that must strictly be followed:
- Carefully read this manual before any starting, use, maintenance, refuelling or other operations.
- Read and comply with all the SAFETY REGULATIONS given in this manual before carrying out any
operation.
- Prudence and judgement during appropriate use of the vehicle are essential and basic factors for the safety
of the operator and of other people working near the vehicle.
Therefore, before starting any work, you must know exactly what the functions of all the controls and the
stability characteristics of the vehicle are.
3.1 PRECAUTIONS OF USE
3.1.1 PERSONAL PROTECTION DEVICES (PPD)
Wear clothing suited to the work to be carried out on the site and do not wear loose or hanging clothes such
as ties, scarves, unbuttoned jackets, unzipped garments or sleeves with wide cuffs, which may get caught up
in the moving parts. Do not wear rings, wrist watches or any other jewellery.
The following protective clothing is to be worn as prescribed by the site regulations:
- Hardhat
- Non-slip shoes
- Protective goggles
- Protective gloves
- Anti-noise headsets (where applicable)
- Reflecting garments or vests
- Raincoats in bad weather
- Protective mask for cement loading
3.1.2 VEHICLE LIMITS
- The maximum overall performance level of the vehicle is optimised during functional testing before delivery.
- Do not use the vehicle outside the limits defined during design; exceeding these limits may be dangerous
and cause damage to the vehicle.
- Do not attempt to improve vehicle performance with unapproved modifications.
- Any alteration will lead to forfeiture of the warranty on the vehicle as well as on functional and accessory
equipment.
3.1.3 NOISE LEVEL
In compliance with directive 2000/14/EC the following sound power values were measured according to ISO
6394:
- Sound power level measured .........................................................................................................106 dB(A)
- Sound power level guaranteed .......................................................................................................108 dB(A)
- Equivalent sound pressure level measured at the operator’s ears according to ISO 6394 .............. 88 dB(A)
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3.1.4 VIBRATION LEVEL
3.1.4.a Vibration level on the “operator’s body” measured on the driver’s seat
Based on measurements made in operating conditions on vehicles similar to this one, it is declared that the
mean level of vibrations on the “operator’s body” is equal to ............................................................... 1 m/sec²
This value is to be understood as RMS, weighted using the “broadband” method in compliance with ISO 7096
and ISO 2631-1 and determined according to a cycle indicated in ISO 25398 with attribution of the times
established by the company according to what are considered customary and probable vehicle operating
conditions.
3.1.4.b Vibration level on the “hands/arms” measured on the steering wheel.
Based on measurements made in operating conditions on vehicles similar to this one, it is declared that the
mean level of vibrations on the “hand/arms” is less than or equal to ................................................2.3 m/sec²
This value is to be understood as RMS, weighted using the “broadband” method in compliance with ISO
2631-1 and determined according to a cycle indicated in ISO 25398 with attribution of the times established by
the company according to what are considered customary vehicle operating conditions.
3.1.5 SAFETY DEVICE CHECKS
- Check that all the safety devices are properly installed and that they function properly and are undamaged.
- If any irregularities are found make the appropriate repairs.
- Incorrect use of the safety devices may cause serious accidents with the consequent risk of injury or death.
- Make sure that you use the safety devices correctly.
3.1.6 PRECAUTIONS WHEN USING ACCESSORIES
- During installation of optional components or equipment, problems may occur that put your safety at risk.
Therefore, always ask FIORI for advice before installation.
- FIORI is not responsible for injury, accidents or faults deriving from use of unauthorised equipment or
accessories.
- Before installation and use of accessories, read the instruction manual of the specific accessory and the
general information on accessories given in this manual.
3.1.7 PROHIBITION TO TRANSPORT PERSONS OR OBJECTS
- The vehicle is not homologated for transport of persons other than the operator, who must be seated on the
driver’s seat.
- During all working phases, do not allow anyone to come close to the vehicle.
- Do not allow anyone to climb onto the working equipment.
- Do not carry people onboard the vehicle.
- Do not use the vehicle to transport objects, except those needed for the job and equipped with special
couplings.
- Do not use the vehicle as platform or scaffolding and under no circumstances use it for any function not
specified by the manufacturer.
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3.1.8 GETTING ON AND OFF THE VEHICLE
- To get on the vehicle, use the steps and the handholds in proximity of the driver’s seat; it is prohibited to use
the control levers and devices as handholds.
- If the vehicle starts moving when you are not on it, do not jump on to try and stop it.
- It is prohibited to get on and off the vehicle when it is moving.
- Get off the vehicle only when it has come to a complete halt and is stable.
- Do not get on and off the vehicle by jumping or holding tools in your hands.
- Always face the vehicle when getting on and off the driver’s seat or other raised parts and support yourself
by keeping both hands and one foot or both feet and one hand on the steps and the handrail.
- Do not climb onto the engine compartment lid or other parts of the vehicle.
3.1.9 DRIVER’S SEAT
- Before getting into the operator’s cabin, always remove mud and oil from the soles of your shoes. If you push
a pedal with mud or oil on the soles of your shoes, your foot might slip causing accidents.
- Keep the area around the driver’s seat clean.
- Do not place any object at the foot of the driver’s seat or around the pedals and do not hang anything on
the control levers. The levers might accidentally be activated causing uncontrolled vehicle movement or
activation of the working equipment and hence dangerous conditions.
- Place all objects not needed for driving in the storage compartments provided.
- Do not carry objects in your pockets that may fall into the open compartments of the vehicle.
- Always keep the driver’s seat clear of foreign objects, especially if not secured.
- Do not leave components or tools scattered around the cabin.
- Do not use mobile phones in the cabin while driving or operating the vehicle.
- Never take dangerous objects into the cabin, for example, flammable or explosive objects.
3.1.10 DRIVER’S CAB / OPERATOR’S PROTECTIVE STRUCTURE
- DO NOT modify, repair or remove the operator protective structure. Should it be structurally damaged or
modified (e.g. by welding or drilling) the protection provided by the cabin/roof would be compromised,
creating a risk which may cause death or serious injury.
- After an accident, carefully inspect the protective structure, the driver’s seat, the seatbelt and all the pillars.
- Replace all the parts that show any sign of damage. Original spare parts must be used as indicated in the
Spare Parts Catalogue and can be ordered from FIORI.
3.1.11 ROPS (ROLL OVER PROTECTIVE STRUCTURE)
- The ROPS structure serves to protect the operator and cushion the impact in the event that the vehicle
overturns.
- The ROPS structure is an integral part of the cabin. Do not operate the vehicle without this protection
system.
- The ROPS structure is in compliance with the safety regulations for the vehicle type. If it is damaged, repaired
or modified without authorisation, its deformability may change. In this case, it will no longer be able to
correctly perform its protective function and must be replaced.
- If the structure has been involved in an accident, do not use the vehicle until the structure has been replaced
or inspected by qualified personnel.
- The ROPS structure guarantees protection if the seatbelt is properly fastened. For this reason, always keep
the seatbelt fastened while the vehicle is moving.
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3.1.12 FOPS (FALLING OBJECT PROTECTIVE STRUCTURE)
- The FOPS structure is installed to protect the operator from objects falling from heights.
- If the structure is damaged or modified without the Manufacturer’s permission, its stability will be reduced. In
this case, it will no longer be able to correctly perform its protective function and must be replaced.
- If the structure has been involved in an accident, do not use the vehicle until the structure has been replaced
or inspected by qualified personnel.
The FOPS structure cannot be installed on the vehicle as a standard part, as it is only required for certain types
of work.
3.1.13 SEATBELTS
- Check that the seatbelts do not show any sign of fraying or cuts and that they have not been subjected to
heavy strain (overturning) in which case they need to be replaced.
- Keep the seatbelts correctly positioned on the seat, do not let them get twisted and do not alter or modify
them in any way. Always keep them clean.
- Choose the most comfortable driving position in relation to your build.
- Adjust the seat position. Check functioning of the adjuster, the buckle and the winders (where fitted) and the
method that allows checking that the seatbelts are locked. Adjust the seatbelt tension so that it holds you in
place at the level of the hips leaving your abdomen completely free.
- Do not start work before having checked these safety conditions.
3.1.14 CHECKS BEFORE STARTING THE VEHICLE
- It is prohibited to start or operate the vehicle IF IT IS NOT IN PERFECT WORKING CONDITIONS (e.g. faulty
or malfunctioning).
- Before using the vehicle, make sure that there is no dangerous condition.
- Also check that you have enough fuel so as not to run the risk of being forced to stop, perhaps during a critical manoeuvre.
- Check that the steering controls and the brakes function perfectly. In case of malfunctions, notify the maintenance manager and stop the vehicle.
- Check that all the guards and safety devices are in the right position and in such a condition that they can be
operated.
- Check proper functioning of all the safety devices on the vehicle and in the working area.
- Should there be any problems, immediately inform your manager and do not start work if the necessary
safety conditions are not present.
- Do not make any botched repairs just for the sake of starting work.
- Do not deactivate the safety equipment.
3.1.15 STARTING THE VEHICLE
- Before starting the vehicle, check and adjust the seat position for optimal driving comfort and so that you can
easily reach the controls, and always fasten the seatbelts.
- Adjust the mirrors so that you can clearly see the area behind the vehicle from the driver’s seat.
- Check that the warning lights work properly and check the angle of the headlights and the working lights.
- Do not drive the vehicle unless you are properly seated on the driver’s seat.
- Never attempt to start the engine by short-circuiting the starter motor. This may cause fire or serious injury.
- Keep your head, body and limbs inside the driver’s cabin, to prevent injury from hitting objects outside the
cabin.
- Do not allow anyone other than yourself to get on the vehicle.
- Do not try to start the engine by rolling the vehicle down a slope.
- Check that no one is standing within the range of action of the vehicle before starting it and using the equipment.
- Never leave the machine with the engine on.
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3.1.16 PRECAUTIONS WHILE DRIVING
- Before moving the vehicle, check that there is no one in the vicinity.
- Use the horn and observe the signs, banners and signals.
- Always make sure that you can clearly see the entire working or manoeuvring area. If the cabin has windows,
they must always be kept clean and intact.
- Always lock the cabin door in closed position. Lock the cabin windows in open or closed position.
- Always check that the brakes function properly and do not use the vehicle if there are any malfunctions or
irregularities.
- Never turn the ignition switch key to neutral while the vehicle is moving.
- Hold the vehicle at such a speed that you have full control of it in any circumstances.
- Do not use the vehicle with the front lid open or without its guards and covers.
- While driving, do not activate any of the working equipment control levers.
- When driving on uneven ground, drive slowly and do not steer sharply. The vehicle might overturn.
- Always keep at a safe distance from other vehicles or obstacles, so that you always have the necessary
visibility.
- Avoid driving over obstacles, where possible. If you need to drive over an obstacle, drive at low speed. Never
drive over obstacles that will cause the vehicle to lean too far to one side.
- Pay attention to ground unevenness, poor visibility, and other vehicles in the vicinity.
- If the engine slows down and stops under load or runs at idle speed, inform the maintenance manager and
do not use the vehicle until it has been checked.
- When driving on public roads, observe the road regulations and before setting off consult with the competent
authorities and follow their instructions. This vehicle travels at a speed lower than that of normal motor
vehicles, therefore, keep to the edge of the road leaving the centre free for other vehicles to pass.
- If working in the dark, carefully check the working area, turn on all the lights available and do not work in
areas where visibility is poor.
- Do not make quick movements (e.g. continuously steering right and left) which may cause the vehicle to
overturn.
- Overtake only when absolutely necessary.
- When crossing bridges or similar structures, first check that the structure is strong enough to support the
weight of the vehicle and its load.
3.1.17 PRECAUTIONS WHILE DRIVING IN REVERSE
- Reversing at high speed can cause accidents; do not reverse at top speed and always drive at a safe speed
suited to the working conditions.
- If required, check that the camera display is on, in order to ensure maximum visibility of the area behind the
machine.
- When reversing always look in the direction the vehicle is moving. Watch out for people in the area and
immediately stop if anyone comes into the range of action of the vehicle and into the working area.
- If you cannot clearly see the entire working area, ask someone to guide you with hand signals. This person
must stand outside the working area and you must be able to see him or her clearly.
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3.1.18 DANGEROUS WORKING CONDITIONS
Before starting any operation, check that there are no dangerous working conditions in the surrounding area.
- Areas where there are slopes, humps, trees, demolished constructions, escarpments, gorges, tilled soil,
ditches, excavations, heavy traffic, crowded parking and service areas and closed places are classified as
risk areas.
- Check that there are no obstacles such as piping, cables, bottlenecks or loading limitations on the grounds,
bridges, pavements or access ramps.
- Establish the due safety measures to prevent danger on public roads in collaboration with the owners, users
and competent authorities.
- In places where there are underground water or gas pipes or high-voltage cable ducts, contact the public
utilities to find out their exact position. Ensure that these structures are not damaged.
- Take particular precautions when working near ditches, escarpments or close to open excavations.
- To carry out operations in water or when crossing sand banks, check the conditions of the bed and the depth
and speed of water flow.
- Always move slowly on very uneven ground and ridges, in the vicinity of slopes or gorges, and on icy or
slippery ground. Remember that the ground is wet and soft after heavy rains.
If the ground starts to cave in, the vehicle could tip over, sink in or overturn, causing serious injuries.
- If you work with the vehicle in tight spaces or have to pass through narrow doors or structures, manoeuvre
very carefully.
- Avoid crossing or going over obstacles such as rocks, felled trunks, steps, ditches and tracks.
- Always ensure good visibility. Check that there are no people or obstacles in the area around the vehicle.
- Check the conditions of the working area to ensure that you can operate and move safely.
3.1.19 WORKING AREA
The WORKING AREA is defined as the area in proximity of the vehicle where only persons that know its
operating capabilities may work.
The driver may operate only and exclusively when there is no one within the range of action. The driver must
warn anyone in the vicinity of the vehicle of the danger they are in by voice or sounding the horn.
If there is scaffolding or unstable structures near where you are working, keep at a safe distance so that you
do not risk touching these structures should you accidentally make an incorrect manoeuvre.
3.1.20 VISIBILITY OF THE WORKING AREA
-
-
Always check that there is no one in the vicinity of the vehicle before starting work.
Before getting on the vehicle, walk around it once and check that everything is in order.
Dust, smoke, fog, etc. may reduce your vision and cause accidents.
Always stop or slow down until the impediment has been removed and you have perfect visibility of the
working area.
If you cannot clearly see the entire working area, ask someone to guide you with hand signals and delimit
an area of over 12 metres for forward movement. This person must stand outside the working area and you
must be able to see him or her clearly.
If working in the dark, carefully check the working area, turn on all the lights available and do not work in
areas where visibility is poor.
Always make sure that you can clearly see the entire working or manoeuvring area.
If the cabin has windows, they must always be kept clean and intact.
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3.1.21 SITE CONDITIONS
- Before starting work, analyse and ask for the topography and geological characteristics of the area, so
that the appropriate measures can be taken to prevent landslides and the vehicle from overturning. Holes,
obstructions, rubble and other risks connected with the working areas may cause physical injury or death.
- Always carefully inspect the site to identify any of these risk elements before using the vehicle.
- Be aware of all the conditions on the site and always look in the direction you are driving before starting any
manoeuvre.
- Find out about the movements of persons and vehicles on the site. Follow the indications given by signals
and signs.
- Do not start work until you have ascertained all the safety conditions.
3.1.22 PRECAUTIONS DURING OPERATIONS
- Before and during operations do not drink alcohol, take medicines or other substances that may alter your
capability of working with machine tools.
If you are very tired or not feeling well, do not use the vehicle, and in any case pay the utmost attention at the
beginning and end of your shift.
- Contact the site manager for the safety regulations to be applied according to the laws in force.
- Watch out for people in the area and immediately stop if anyone comes into the range of action of the vehicle
and into the working area.
- During work keep an eye on the instruments and immediately stop the vehicle if any malfunctions are
indicated.
Pay attention to any unusual noise from the engine, the hydraulic device, the transmission components,
the working equipment, etc. If you hear any suspicious noise, immediately stop the vehicle and check what
causes it.
- If you need to continuously work in very noisy conditions, wear a protective headset in accordance with the
regulations in force.
- If working in the dark, carefully check the working area, turn on all the lights available and do not work in
areas where visibility is poor.
- If you cannot clearly see the entire working area, ask someone to guide you with hand signals and delimit
an area of over 12 metres for forward movement. This person must stand outside the working area and you
must be able to see him or her clearly.
While carrying out manoeuvres do not give signals or instructions at the same time as other persons. Signals
must be given by one person only. Always pay attention to the instructions given by the persons in charge.
- Always operate the hydraulic equipment seated in the driver’s seat, check that no one is within the range of
action of the vehicle and signal with the horn when you are about to make a manoeuvre.
- To prevent accidents due to collision with other objects, always operate at a safe speed when carrying out
manoeuvres, especially if you are in tight spaces and in places where there are other vehicles.
- Do not call out or give someone who is working a fright without good reason, and do not throw objects, not
even as a joke.
- Whenever you take a break, carefully check that all the controls are in NEUTRAL position and that the safety
devices are locked.
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3.1.23 WORKING ON SLOPES
- Moving or working on steep slopes, hills, river or lake embankments can be dangerous. Always drive up and
down slopes at low speed and pay attention. Obstacles or changes in the gradient may cause you to lose
control of the vehicle and consequently it might overturn.
- Before starting work, check the working area for any signs of holes, landslips, gravel or tilled soil that could
affect the working conditions and the stability of the vehicle.
- Always move in a straight line when going up or down a slope.
- Do not turn around on slopes or move across them.
- Never move sharply sideways, or even worse, with the vehicle axis turned 90º with respect to the direction
of the slope.
WARNING: Do not work on slopes with a gradient over the limit as this may cause the vehicle to
overturn.
- Do not drive downhill with the gear in neutral or excessively using the brakes. Select and engage the most
suitable gear that will allow maintaining the speed necessary to prevent losing control of the vehicle.
- If you need to drive down very steep slopes do not overrun the engine; select the most suitable gear before
setting off downhill.
- NEVER park or leave the vehicle unattended on a slope.
- Drive slowly over grass, fallen leaves or wet steel sheet.
- If the fuel reserve warning light comes on while you are working on a slope, immediately refuel; given that the
vehicle is inclined, the engine may take in air and stall unexpectedly, posing a grave danger to yourself and
to anyone standing downstream of the vehicle.
- The limit gradient must be assessed based on the type of ground, the load, the vehicle conditions and speed
and visibility.
- Driving on public roads: for gradients of more than 5% use the lowest gear.
3.1.24 DRIVING ON ICY OR SNOW-COVERED SURFACES
- If you need to work on icy or snow-covered surfaces, reduce the speed and avoid making sudden movements,
as the vehicle is much more sensitive and can easily slip sideways.
- When a lot of snow has fallen, pay the utmost attention as it is difficult to see the edges of the road.
3.1.25 ELECTRICAL LINES
- Working in proximity of electrical lines can be extremely dangerous and it is therefore essential that you take
the necessary precautions to eliminate the potential risks.
- Any job where parts of the vehicle are raised to a height that may reach the minimum safety distance laid
down in the national safety regulations is considered working in proximity of electrical lines.
- Do not work at a distance of less than 5 metres from overhead electrical lines, unless having notified the
electricity board and having provided for adequate protection to prevent accidental contact or coming
dangerously close to the line conductors.
- In order to work without any risk, keep as far away as possible from the electrical line and never violate the
minimum safety distance. Even only passing near high-voltage cables may cause electric shock and hence
burns or even death.
- Be prepared for any possible emergency situation and wear rubber shoes and gloves. Place a rubber mat on
the driver’s seat and be careful not to touch any part of the chassis with uncovered parts of your body. Ask
someone to warn you if the vehicle comes too close to electrical cables.
- During operations near high-voltage cables, do not allow anyone to approach the vehicle.
- Should you make contact with an electrical line, absolutely do not leave the vehicle touching the live metal
structures but wait until you have received confirmation that the power has been cut. In addition, do not allow
anyone to approach the vehicle.
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3.1.26 CLOSED ENVIRONMENTS
When you need to work in a tunnel or closed places (factory buildings, car parks etc.) it is advisable to check
before starting that there is sufficient air exchange and good ventilation to prevent build-up of toxic exhaust gas
or dust. In any event, it is always advisable to convey the engine exhaust gas to the outside using a flexible
hose. Open doors and windows to facilitate ventilation and wear an appropriate protective mask.
3.1.27 STOPPING THE VEHICLE
Do not leave the vehicle unattended with the engine running for any reason whatsoever.
If you want to stop the vehicle for any reason, follow the instructions given in the chapter STOPPING THE
VEHICLE and TURNING OFF THE ENGINE.
Always turn off the engine whenever you leave the vehicle.
Before leaving the vehicle, do the following:
- Make sure that there is no one near the vehicle.
- Slowly lower the equipment.
- Set all the controls to neutral position.
- Shift the gear lever to NEUTRAL and engage the control locking lever. Engage the parking brake.
- Remove the key from the ignition block.
3.1.28 PARKING THE VEHICLE
-
-
-
Choose an area where no other vehicles are operating.
Park the vehicle on solid and possibly level ground and apply the parking brake.
Do not park the vehicle on embankments or beds of watercourses at the end of your shift or working day.
Never park on a slope without first having blocked the vehicle with wedges or similar to prevent accidental
movement. To park on steep slopes, position the vehicle crosswise to the slope, check that there is no risk of
it slipping, engage the parking brake and wedge the wheels. Do not park with the wheels facing downhill.
Lock the equipment controls.
Always remove the key from the ignition block when you need to leave the vehicle parked to prevent accidental
or unauthorised starting.
Secure and lock the vehicle when you have finished work and whenever you temporarily leave the vehicle.
Hand the keys to the person in charge. Check that all the manoeuvres provided in this manual have been
observed.
If you expect to work in low temperatures, check that the cooling system is filled with the right percentage of
antifreeze.
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3.1.29 TOWING AND RECOVERY
CAUTION: The vehicle is not designed to tow other vehicles.
- If towing the vehicle (permitted for short distances only), use the warning signs according to the regulations
in force and follow the instructions given in this manual.
- Always wear protective gloves when handling the towing devices.
- DO NOT use cables or chains for towing.
- To tow the vehicle, exclusively use the couplings specified and adequate towing devices.
- Hook the vehicle with extreme care and make sure that the devices used are securely fastened before
towing.
- Never tow a vehicle on a slope.
- Do not allow anyone to stand in the vicinity of the vehicle being towed.
- Keep eye contact with the operators.
- Follow all the instructions given in the relative chapter.
3.1.30 TRANSPORT
- To load or unload the vehicle from the means of transport find a level area that offers a solid support for the
wheels of the transport vehicle.
- Ensure that the means of transport is of adequate capacity to carry the vehicle (see weights and dimensions
in the chapter “Technical Data”).
The weight, transport height and overall length of the vehicle vary depending on the working equipment,
therefore, check the dimensions.
Check that the overall dimensions are permitted by the Road Regulations.
- Use robust access ramps of adequate height and angle.
- Ensure that the ramp surface is clean and free of any traces of grease, oil, ice or other material residues.
Remove any dirt from the vehicle’s wheels. In the event of rain, the surface of the ramps may become
slippery: be extremely careful.
Check that the platform of the means of transport is well cleaned.
- Let the engine run at low speed and proceed slowly. The weight must be transferred gradually from the
loading ramp to the transport vehicle.
- Never steer on the ramps to correct the vehicle’s position. If necessary, drive off the ramps, correct the
direction and then drive back up.
The vehicle must be positioned in such a way that the loads on the axles are as specified for the transport
vehicle and that it is not unbalanced.
Securely tie the vehicle to the platform with chains or cables and block the wheels with wedges.
- Ensure that the engine is off and that the windows and door (if any) are closed.
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3.2 PRECAUTIONS AGAINST RESIDUAL RISKS
3.2.1 SLIPPING
- The driver’s seat, the steps and the handholds must always be kept clean and free of any foreign object or
traces of grease, oil, mud or water in order to reduce the risk of slipping.
- Pay attention to possible slippery steps and slippery ground around the vehicle.
- Always clean your shoes before getting on to prevent slipping or stumbling.
3.2.2 MOVING PARTS
- DO NOT come close to the moving parts of the vehicle with your limbs or other parts of your body. This may
cause serious injury or death by crushing or amputation.
- Keep objects away from the moving fan blades. The fan blades may project or cut objects.
- Turn off the engine and wait until all the moving parts have stopped before carrying out maintenance or any
other operation on the vehicle.
3.2.3 SHEARING OR TRAPPING
- It is advisable to keep at a safe distance from moving parts.
- Do not hang your legs or arms out of the vehicle as you might get seriously injured if you knock them against
obstacles.
- In some parts of the vehicle there are devices that may cause serious injury to your limbs. It is strictly
prohibited to insert any parts of your body in these devices when the engine is running.
- Wear suitable clothing that cannot get caught up in the moving parts of the vehicle.
- Never climb into or insert your hands, arms or other parts of your body in the moving parts between the working
equipment and the vehicle or between the cylinder and the working equipment. If someone inadvertently
activates the control levers, the play of the working equipment is altered with the risk of serious injury to the
body, hands or arms should they become entangled.
- Always keep your hands and fingers away from gaps and/or kinematic mechanisms.
- Do not use your fingers or hands to line up holes, but use appropriate tools.
- Remove any burrs or sharp edges from replaced and/or repaired parts.
- Should you need to access a moving part, always lock the working equipment and check that it is well
secured.
3.2.4 CRUSHING
The machine is a vehicle to all intents and purposes, therefore, be extremely careful when handling it and
watch out for persons, animals or objects around the working area.
- Check the efficiency of the controls and in particular the braking devices. Make sure that you can clearly
see the entire working area from the driver’s seat, also with the aid of the mirrors, video devices, lighting
equipment for night-time work, and keep them efficient and in working order.
- Before carrying out any operation with the vehicle, always check that you have sufficient room to work safely.
Ask someone on the ground to help you when carrying out operations in tight spaces or with poor visibility.
- Adjust the speed to the limits established for the various areas on the site, never exceed 15 km/h and drive
at walking speed in the vicinity of workstations.
- During manoeuvres, do not allow anyone to access the working area by posting appropriate signs and
cordoning off the area. The operator (or the person in charge) must ensure that this rule is observed, even
suspending work if necessary.
- If the driver needs to be contacted while he is working, approach the cabin from a point visible to the driver
and only after he has given his consent.
- The conditions of the ground must be such as to allow quickly stopping the vehicle.
- It is prohibited to stand underneath the working equipment.
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3.2.5 OVERTURNING
- The operator must be fully knowledgeable with the performance, weight and the maximum load the vehicle
can transport in relation to the ground conditions (flat, compact, uneven, sloping).
- Before starting to work, always check that the area on which the vehicle wheels stand is sufficiently solid
and capable of supporting its weight and, consequently, keep at a safe distance from the edge of the
excavation.
- Check that the site paths are adequate and that the working areas are clear and suitable for transit of the
vehicle and its stability.
- Analyse and record the topography and geological characteristics of the site in order to take the appropriate
preventive measures against the vehicle overturning, landslides or landslips.
- Consider the characteristics of the ground complementary to those of the vehicle; variables controlled by the
operator such as speed, angle of attack on slopes, gradient of the ground, load distribution etc., are essential
to minimise the risk of overturning.
- Follow the rules given in the chapter on driving on slopes.
CAUTION: Observing the recommended gradient limits does not mean that you can manoeuvre the
vehicle in total freedom in all load, ground or manoeuvring conditions on a slope. In any
event, it is advisable to halve the gradient values on wet or uneven ground.
- Avoid reaching the limit conditions and generally act with great caution and carefully: adapting to the ground
and visibility conditions by adjusting the speed and changing paths and avoid sudden braking, acceleration
and changes in direction.
- The vehicle may be used on sloping ground only within the limits indicated by the manufacturer. Where the
ground is particularly steep and inaccessible, it is advisable to have only experienced operators use the
vehicle.
- The vehicle may also overturn because of uneven ground, the ground caving in (especially when working near
the edge of the road or the manoeuvring surface), slipping on wet or muddy surfaces or making incorrect
or careless manoeuvres (sudden acceleration or steering, unbalanced load, excessive speed, etc.).
- Do not steer sharply at high speed.
- The vehicle centre of gravity may shift in relation to the size and position of the load, the gradient of the
ground and the movement of the vehicle.
- The vehicle is equipped with a ROPS safety cabin. Nevertheless, in the event of the vehicle overturning, if you
do not have the seatbelt fastened, you will be thrown out with the risk of getting crushed by the vehicle.
IN THE EVENT OF OVERTURNING
The protective structure makes the driver’s seat the only safe place to be should the vehicle overturn.
DURING OVERTURNING
Never leave the vehicle but remain seated firmly, gripping the seat or the steering wheel.
AFTER OVERTURNING
Make sure that the vehicle is stable and that it will not continue turning over, unfasten the seatbelt, quickly leave
the vehicle trying to get off at the top to avoid being crushed by the vehicle should it continue overturning.
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3.2.6 TYRE BURSTING
If the tyres or rims are incorrectly used, there is a risk of the tyres bursting or getting damaged.
Tyre maintenance, removal, repair and refitting require special tools and techniques, therefore, always have
these operations carried out by an AUTHORISED SERVICE CENTRE OR AUTHORISED PERSONS.
- Check that the wheel nuts are properly fastened before starting work. If necessary tighten the nuts.
- Always check that the tyre inflation pressure is as specified by the manufacturer and check that the tyres are
in good condition.
If the tyre pressure is too low, the tyre could overheat and burst. Also if the tyre pressure is too high, there is
a risk of the tyres bursting.
- Check the tyre pressure when the tyres are still cold. Do not release the pressure when it increases in a hot
tyre.
- Keep at a safe distance or stand next to the tyre when inflating it.
- Keep the working area clear of sharp objects that could damage the tyres.
Deflate the tyres before removing any foreign bodies that may have lodged in the tread.
- Never use overhauled rims, since improperly carried out welding or heat treatments might weaken them.
- Do not cut or weld the rims when the tyres are fitted and inflated.
- Never inflate the tyres with a gas different from compressed air.
- The tyre pressure values and permitted speed specified in this manual correspond to the values specified by
the manufacturer (see the pressures and loads table).
For more information, contact FIORI or the tyre manufacturer.
3.2.7 ELECTRICAL RISKS
Any operation on the electric system or the battery must be carried out by a qualified person.
Before any operation on the electric system, disconnect the battery by removing the key from the battery
master switch. Check that the cables and terminals of the electrical connections show no sign of corrosion,
cracks or burns; if so, immediately contact your local FIORI dealer.
In the event of an electrical fault, do not attempt to start the vehicle by running it downhill.
3.2.8 RISK OF SHORT-CIRCUIT
Do not under any circumstances start the engine by short-circuiting the starter motor terminal or the battery.
3.2.9 BATTERY
The battery electrolyte contains sulphuric acid and batteries generate flammable hydrogen gas which could
explode. Improper use may cause serious injury or fire.
- Do not use or charge the battery when the electrolyte level is below the minimum level mark. Check the
electrolyte level at regular intervals and add distilled water to bring it up to maximum level.
- ALWAYS wear protective goggles and rubber gloves when working with batteries.
- Do not smoke or use open flames near the battery.
- If the acid comes into contact with your clothes or skin, immediately rinse with abundant water. If the acid
comes into contact with your eyes, immediately rinse with abundant water and seek medical advice.
- The battery must never be tilted more than 45° in any direction, as this may cause the acid to leak out of the
battery.
- Do not connect a flat battery in series to a charged battery. Risk of explosion!
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3.2.10 HOT AND PRESSURISED FLUIDS
The hydraulic system is pressurised when the engine is running and may remain under pressure even after
the engine has been turned off.
Hot hydraulic oil causes serious burns.
- Wait for the oil to cool down before disconnecting the pipes. Pressurised fluid leaks may be invisible.
- DO NOT use your hands to check for leaks. Fluid leakage even from a very small hole may have sufficient
force to penetrate the skin.
If you need to check for leaks, use a piece of cardboard or wood.
Wear gloves to protect your hands from any oil splashes. DO NOT attempt to repair or tighten flexible hoses
or hydraulic unions when the hydraulic system of the vehicle is under pressure.
- TURN OFF the engine, discharge all the cylinders and release the pressure.
- Keep your face and hands away from loosened unions while you are checking the efficiency of the hydraulic
system. Wear protective goggles as the jet of pressurised hydraulic oil may penetrate your skin and cause
permanent injury to your eyes.
- If any fluid or oil leaks are found, immediately stop the vehicle and make the necessary repairs.
- Turn off the engine and check that all the hydraulic controls are in neutral position before removing covers,
unions, pipes, caps, etc.
3.2.11 RISK OF BURNS
- In order to prevent burns caused by boiling water or steam escaping while checking or draining the coolant,
wait for the water to cool down to a temperature such that you can touch the radiator cap without burning your
hand. Even when the coolant has cooled down, loosen the cap gradually to allow the pressure in the radiator
to drop before removing the cap completely.
- In order to prevent burns while checking or draining the oil, wait for the oil to cool down to a temperature such
that you can touch the drain cap without burning your hand. Even when the oil has cooled down, loosen the
drain cap gradually to allow the internal pressure to drop before removing the plug completely.
- Do not touch the silencer immediately after turning off the engine, as it is extremely hot and may cause
serious injury.
3.2.12 VENTILATION
Do not work with the vehicle in closed places unless equipped with a suitable combustion gas suction and
exhaust system.
Good ventilation is very important for vehicle operation. Carbon monoxide emission from the engine’s exhaust
may moreover cause suffocation in closed areas.
3.2.13 INTOXICATION
- Engine combustion smoke can be very dangerous and/or lethal for the human body if directly and continuously
inhaled.
- If you need to work in closed environments, take all possible precautions to ensure circulation of fresh air and
protect the airways by wearing a suitable mask.
- Avoid inhaling or contact with the battery acids which are highly toxic and cause serious burns.
- Be careful not to come into contact with cement as perspiration and other body fluids cause an irritating
alkaline reaction and in some people allergic reactions. Use protective gloves and goggles.
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3.2.14 FIRE PREVENTION
Fire caused by fuel or oil
Fuel and oil are highly flammable and dangerous. Always take the following precautions to prevent fires:
- Do not refuel with the engine on and in the presence of smoking materials and open flames. Do not use
matches, lighters or torches to illuminate the refuelling area.
- Do not smoke, use open flames or create sparks in the vicinity of the vehicle while refuelling or changing the
oil.
- The fuel nozzle must always remain in contact with the filler neck. Hold the fuel nozzle in contact throughout
refuelling to prevent sparks from being created due to build-up of static electricity.
- Do not leave the vehicle unattended while refuelling or topping up the oil.
Clean off any spillage after refuelling or topping up with oil.
Do not spill fuel on hot surfaces or on parts of the electric system.
- Store oil and fuel in a special room and do not allow access to unauthorised persons.
- Before carrying out any grinding or welding on the chassis, move any flammable material to a safe place.
- Do not weld or use a cutting torch to cut ducts or pipes that contain flammable liquids.
Use a non-flammable oil to clean the components. Do not use Diesel and petrol as they are highly
flammable.
- To ensure safety in the workplace, put all the cloths soaked with grease, oil or flammable liquids in a safe
metal container as they pose a risk of fire.
Store containers or cans only in their specifically allocated areas.
Do not pour flammable liquids into open, large and low containers.
FIRE CAUSED BY BUILD-UP OF FLAMMABLE MATERIAL
- Remove dry leaves, stone splinters, pieces of paper, dust or other flammable materials that have accumulated
or attached to the engine, the exhaust manifold, the silencer, the battery or in the internal guards.
FIRE IN THE ELECTRIC SYSTEM
- Short-circuits in the electric system may cause a fire.
- Check that there are no loose or damaged parts in the system. Tighten any loose connectors or wiring
terminals. If any cables or connections are corroded and/or damaged, immediately contact your local FIORI
dealer.
- Any operation on the electric system or the battery must be carried out by a qualified person. Before any
operation on the electric system, disconnect the battery by removing the key from the battery master
switch.
- Do not smoke and avoid sparks or flames in the recharging area to prevent the outbreak of fire.
- Recharge the battery only in adequately ventilated places to prevent accidental explosions due to gas buildup.
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3.3 PRECAUTIONS DURING MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS
CAUTION: Do not tamper with the setting of the devices for control of the hydraulic and electrical
circuits.
3.3.1 CORRECT MAINTENANCE
Before using or carrying out any operation on the vehicle always do the following:
- Carefully read all the instructions contained in this manual.
- Always read the labels and the instructions on the vehicle and in the manual before starting any operation on
the vehicle. The instructions contain important information (see the chapter “Safety Labels”).
- Repairs and maintenance on the vehicle may only be carried out by authorised persons. Do not allow
unauthorised persons to access the area. If necessary, have someone stand guard in the area.
- Before carrying out any operation, apply all the special safety devices.
- First of all, check that the maintenance operations have meticulously been carried out at the intervals
established.
- Always wear suitable protective clothing and any other protection required for the operation to be carried out.
- Do not leave hammers or other tools lying around in the working area. Remove any traces of grease, oil
or other substances that might cause someone to slip. Always keep the workplace clean and tidy so that
you can carry out all the operations in complete safety. If the workplace is dirty and untidy, there is a risk of
tripping, slipping, falling and being injured.
- Check that all the tools provided are in good condition. Do not under any circumstances use tools with upset
heads and always wear protective goggles.
- Always keep the vehicle clean to prevent the formation of dirt and oil encrustations. This also reduces the risk
of fire and makes it easier to identify damaged components and detached parts.
- Do not lubricate or repair the vehicle when the engine is running, except where expressly indicated in this
manual.
- Do not allow anyone to tamper with the danger signs or make them illegible.
- Do not use parts of the vehicle, such as handholds or supports, to carry out the operations.
- Absolutely do not use matches, lighters, torches or open flames to illuminate dark areas.
- Use lights or lamps (vehicle and auxiliary lights) positioning them in such a way that other persons working
in the area are not blinded.
ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
- Always lower the equipment to the ground and release the hydraulic pressure from all the circuits before
starting to carry out maintenance on the vehicle.
- Connect all the safety devices on the vehicle and remove the ignition key.
- Depending on the type of maintenance to be carried out, disconnect the battery master switch and hang a
sign on the driver’s seat saying that maintenance is in progress.
EXTRAORDINARY MAINTENANCE
- Do not keep the engine running in closed spaces without adequate ventilation.
- Keep your head, body, limbs and hands away from moving and/or raised equipment.
- Do not remove any safety devices, lids, covers or guards if not for maintenance reasons.
If they need to be removed, be extremely careful and refit them before using the vehicle.
- If during maintenance you need to move the equipment using the hydraulic control, operate as follows:
- Before starting the engine, warn everyone in the vicinity to move away from the vehicle.
- Operate seated on the driver’s seat and never use the controls if not seated on the driver’s seat.
- Engage the parking brake.
- Signal when you are about to make a manoeuvre by voice and sounding the horn
- Manoeuvre slowly
- Always lock the arms or the parts that need to remain raised during the operation using external devices.
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- To lift and transport heavy parts use cranes or hoists of adequate capacity. Sling the material as best you can.
Use eyebolts where required. Always check that no one is in the vicinity.
- If you need to remove or fit units on the vehicle that need to be supported by hydraulic or pneumatic lifting
devices, check that they are of adequate capacity to support and handle the load.
Do not allow anyone to pass in the vicinity of the vehicle and absolutely do not allow anyone to stand
underneath the raised equipment even when you are certain that it is locked.
- Do not work on or under the vehicle if it is only supported by hydraulic or pneumatic lifting devices without
locking valves.
Do not work under or near a tool, a vehicle or parts of it that have been removed if they are not adequately
supported.
- If you need to make repairs at the top of the vehicle, use ladders or platforms compliant to the safety
regulations in force and always pay the utmost attention.
- Loads lifted with jacks is always dangerous.
Before operating on parts lifted with jacks, it is obligatory to position adequate supports to ensure that they
are securely supported.
- If there is a risk of being hit by metal splinters (grinding) always wear safety goggles.
After maintenance or repairs never leave tools, cloths or any other material in compartments containing moving
parts.
BATTERY
- Before carrying out any operation on the electric system, always disconnect the battery by removing the key
from the battery master switch.
- If you need to replace the battery, first disconnect the negative and then the positive cable. To reconnect the
battery, first connect the positive and then the negative cable and then reinsert the key in the battery master
switch.
- To recharge the battery, correctly connect the auxiliary cables to the terminals. Never short-circuit them.
During battery recharging, flammable hydrogen gas is produced, therefore, leave the battery compartment
open to ensure more effective ventilation.
- Never check the battery charge by placing metal objects on the terminals.
ENGINE
- Do not operate on the vehicle with the engine on.
- Do not turn on the engine while the lid is raised.
- Do not check or even less adjust the alternator belt tension with the engine on.
- Do not adjust the fuel pump with the engine on.
- When handling flammable materials, keep at a certain distance from the exhaust manifold, the silencer or hot
points of the engine.
GREASING AND LUBRICATION
- Use only the products recommended by the manufacturer as indicated in the lubricants table.
- Lubricate and grease the vehicle at the intervals given in the scheduled maintenance table in this manual in
order to keep the vehicle in efficient and safe operating conditions.
- Wear clothing suited to the operations to be carried out.
- Position the vehicle on level ground, engage the parking brake and turn off the engine.
- If the lubrication and greasing points require the equipment to be raised, use the special safety devices
provided. IT IS DANGEROUS TO WORK UNDERNEATH THE EQUIPMENT WITHOUT THE SAFETY
DEVICES.
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TYRES
- The tyres are very heavy. Handle them carefully and when stored make sure that they cannot fall out of their
storage space and cause injury.
- Never attempt to repair a tyre on public roads.
- When a tyre needs to be changed, the first thing to do is engage the parking brake, shift the gear lever to
neutral, turn off the engine and remove the ignition key.
This operation must be carried out on level and solid ground.
Position a wedge under the wheel diametrically opposite the one to be replaced.
- Always stand the jack on a solid and flat surface.
- Check that the jack has sufficient lifting capacity for the vehicle.
- Use stands or other suitable supports to support the weight of the vehicle while you repair the tyres.
- Never lie under the vehicle, not even partially, or start the engine when the vehicle is lifted with a jack.
- Never hit the tyre or rim with a hammer.
- Check that the rim is clean and without rust or other damage. Do not weld, braze or repair a rim in any way
nor use a damaged rim.
- Do not inflate a tyre if the rim is not fitted on the vehicle and well fastened so that it cannot move in the event
that the tyre or the rim suddenly break.
- When fitting a new or repaired tyre, use a pressure gauge with a flexible hose connected to the valve so that
you can stand far away from the tyre during inflation. If possible, also use a safety cage.
- When checking the tyre pressure, also inspect the treads and the sides for any damage. Neglected damage
may lead to premature tyre breakage.
- The inflation pressure also determines the weight a tyre can support. Identify the tyre sizes in the pressure
and loads table. Do not exceed the load for any given pressure. Do not over- or under-inflate the tyres.
- Never inflate a steering tyre to over the maximum pressure recommended by the manufacturer as indicated
on the tyre, or over the maximum pressure indicated in the pressures and loads table and when the tyre is
not marked with the maximum pressure values.
- Inflating a tyre to over the permitted value with the bead not perfectly adjusted, there is a risk of the bead or
the rim breaking with an explosive force that could cause serious injury.
- Do not inflate a tyre that has been used deflated or at very low pressure, but first have it examined by a
qualified person.
- During inflation stand in a protected area with respect to the side of the tyre.
Never inflate using flammable gases or compressed air from systems with alcohol injectors.
- After refitting the wheel, tighten the wheel fastening nuts on the axle to the specified torque. Check the torque
of the nuts every day until it has stabilised.
REFUELLING
- Use only the products recommended by the manufacturer as indicated in the lubricants table.
- Refuel and top up at the intervals indicated in the scheduled maintenance table in this manual in order to
keep the vehicle in efficient and safe operating conditions.
- Wear clothing suited to the operations to be carried out.
- Any fluid top-ups must be carried out with the engine off and cold.
- Before checking or refuelling, make sure that there are no open flames or smoking materials in the area and
do not use matches, lighters or torches as light source.
- Unscrew the caps very slowly to release the pressure from the system before removing them completely.
- Be careful during refuelling and topping up as splashes of fuel and oil may cause slipping and injury.
Immediately and thoroughly clean off any soiled areas.
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3.3.2 PRECAUTIONS DURING WELDING OPERATIONS
- Welding operations must always be carried out by a qualified welder and in a place equipped with adequate
tools.
- If you are involved in welding operations, wear dark-glassed goggles or a mask, a hardhat, overalls, and
safety gloves and shoes.
Never look at the welding arc without wearing all the specific personal protection devices.
Eye protection must also be worn by anyone standing in the vicinity even if not directly involved in the
welding operations.
- Have a fire extinguisher at hand in the area where the welding operations are carried out.
- Remove the key from the battery master switch before carrying out any welding operations on the vehicle.
- When carrying out repairs by means of welding, the paint may get burned by the welding heat or dangerous
gases may be released.
Before starting to weld, remove the paint from the part to be welded.
- Do not use a torch to weld or cut a tube containing a combustible solution: this may cause fire or explosion.
3.3.3 FAULTS AND UNAUTHORISED MODIFICATIONS
- If faults are found during vehicle operation or maintenance (noise, vibration, unusual smells, fault signalling,
oil leaks, etc.) report to the person in charge so that the appropriate action can be taken. Do not start the
vehicle until the fault has been repaired.
- No modifications may be made to the vehicle without prior authorisation from FIORI, as modifications may
create risks.
- Before making any modification, consult with FIORI. FIORI is not responsible for any injury or damage
caused by unauthorised modifications.
3.3.4 CLEANING THE VEHICLE
- Parts soiled with oil or grease, broken tools or parts left lying around are dangerous as they may cause
slipping and falling. Always keep the vehicle and the workplace clean and tidy.
Thoroughly clean the floor, handrails, instruments, plates, lights and windows of the cabin.
- When using compressed air to clean parts, wear protective goggles, limit the pressure to maximum 2 bar
and adhere to the safety regulations in force.
- Accidental infiltration of water into the electric system may cause functional and operational problems. Do not
use pressurised water or steam to clean the electric system (sensors, connectors).
- Do not use petrol, solvents or other flammable liquids to clean parts; use approved non-flammable and nontoxic commercial solvents.
- If inspection and maintenance are carried out when the vehicle is still soiled with oil or mud, you run the risk
of slipping and falling, or that the mud and dirt comes into contact with your eyes. Always keep the vehicle
clean.
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3.3.5 WASTE FLUID/MATERIAL DISPOSAL
- Incorrect disposal of waste fluids can seriously harm the environment. Before disposing of waste fluids,
contact the competent local authorities for the correct disposal procedures.
- Always collect the oil drained from the vehicle into suitable containers. Never drain the oil directly onto the
ground or into drains, rivers, oceans or lakes.
- For disposal of hazardous waste, such as oil, fuel, coolant, filters, batteries, and other waste materials,
observe the relative laws and regulations in force.
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3.4 WARNING AND SAFETY LABELS (RESIDUAL RISKS)
The warning and safety labels are found on your vehicle as shown in the figures below and serve as a guide
for your own safety and those that work with you. A label is positioned at each part of the vehicle that may be
a source of residual risk. Therefore, walk around the vehicle with this manual in hand and familiarise yourself
with where the various labels are positioned and read them.
Point them out to all the vehicle operators and always keep them legible; if they become illegible, order a set
from the FIORI Spare Parts Service Department.
Always keep the labels clean. Use detergent and water to clean the labels. Do not use organic solvents or
petrol as they may damage the labels.
1 - Clean the labels with soap and water and dry them with a soft cloth.
2 - Replace the damaged or missing labels with original FIORI labels.
3 - If you need to replace a component bearing a safety or warning label, make sure that the new component
has the same labels.
4 - When replacing labels make sure that the surface on which they are applied is clean, dry and without oil
or grease.
WARNING: The manufacturer declines all responsibility for personal injury or property damage if the
rules of conduct indicated on the labels are not observed or the labels are not kept in
perfect conditions.
3.4.1 LOCATION OF THE WARNING AND SAFETY LABELS
CABIN INTERIOR
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3.4.2 MEANING OF THE WARNING AND SAFETY LABELS
DANGER: It is prohibited to approach and lean on the drum when it
is rotating as there is a risk of getting crushed or dragged.
DANGER: Do not climb onto the vehicle for inspections or to hitch a
ride as you may easily slip and fall.
DANGER: In the event of the vehicle overturning, do not leave the
vehicle but remain seated firmly gripping the steering wheel.
Vehicle equipped with ROPS protection.
DANGER: When the vehicle is moving, do not come close or let
anyone else come close to the moving parts as there is a risk of
crushing your hands.
DANGER: When the vehicle is moving do not stand or allow anyone
to stand in the range of action of the vehicle, especially in the arm
movement areas.
DANGER: This symbol indicates that the safety stop on the lifting
cylinder must be engaged before accessing the area underneath the
mixing drum.
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DANGER: The acoustic signal indicates that the vehicle or parts of
it are moving, therefore, stand well away from the vehicle and do not
allow anyone to come into its range of action.
WARNING: The engine compartment contains moving components
(fan, belts) that may cause serious injury.
Before opening the lid to carry out maintenance operations in the
engine compartment, it is absolutely essential that you turn off the
engine.
WARNING: This symbol indicates an area that emanates strong
heat; to prevent burning yourself, approach it carefully and wait for it to
cool down before carrying out any maintenance operation.
WARNING: The battery contains an acid solution and must be
handled with care wearing protective goggles to prevent possible
splashing into your eyes. The vehicle is equipped with a device that
allows disconnecting the negative ground cable.
WARNING: Many parts of the vehicle are a source of danger (heat,
rotating devices, etc.) and can hence cause serious injury.
Before leaving the vehicle for inspections, refuelling or maintenance,
it is absolutely essential that you turn off the engine, remove the key
from the dashboard and consult this manual.
CAUTION: Using low gear on a dangerous slope: before driving on
slopes with a gradient of more than about 18% engage the mechanical
low gear.
Shift gear when the vehicle is stationary and stable, as it is not equipped
with a synchronised gearbox.
WARNING: After completing the operations permitted by the control
engage the safety stop.
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WARNING: Do not stand or allow anyone to stand underneath
raised equipment if the special safety device has not been installed.
MANDATORY RULE: This symbol indicates the location of the
use and maintenance manual; read the manual before starting to work
with the vehicle.
MANDATORY RULE: This symbol indicates that the seatbelt must
be used; always fasten the seatbelt when the vehicle is moving.
MANDATORY RULE: This symbol indicates that a hardhat must
be used; wear a hardhat for your own protection.
MANDATORY RULE: This symbol indicates that anti-noise
protection must be used; the average exposure to noise is over 85
Lpa.
Use adequate anti-noise protection in relation to your daily exposure
to noise.
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3.5 SAFETY DEVICES ON THE VEHICLE
CAUTION: To check proper functioning of the safety devices and the cleaning and replacement
intervals, refer to chapter 5.4 SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE TABLE
The vehicle is equipped with safety devices whose specific functions are described in the legend below:
B
D
A
C
1
A - SEAT BELTS (fig.1)
Always fasten the seatbelt when operating the vehicle.
The seatbelt is essential as it holds you anchored on the seat in the event of the vehicle overturning.
Periodically check the integrity, cleanliness and fastening of the structure.
B - PARKING BRAKE BUTTON (fig.1)
It lets you engage the parking brake with the engine running.
The vehicle is automatically braked when the engine is off with the key in the “0” position.
C- HAND ACCELERATOR MICROSWITCH (fig.1)
If the hand accelerator lever is not in the initial position, it is impossible to move the vehicle.
D - ARM AND GRAB BUCKET LOCKING VALVE DEACTIVATION BUTTON (fig.1)
If the button is not pressed, the arm will not lower and the grab bucket will not open even if operating the
joystick.
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E
3
M
N
L
L
M
F
O
G
F
H
I
F
1
2
E - DRUM FALL STOP DEVICE (fig.2)
When the drum is raised and the valve handle is turned, the cylinders hydraulically lock even when the
engine is off, preventing accidental lowering during maintenance operations.
F- CAMERA (fig.2)
It enables a complete view of the rear and right-hand side of the machine, in the area not directly visible to
the operator, by means of a display (1) located at the front, inside the cabin.
G - REAR SIDE HORN (fig.2)
Acoustically warns that the engine is starting and that the reverse gear is engaged.
H - BATTERY MASTER SWITCH KEY (fig.2)
When the key is removed, the negative cable of the battery is disconnected and hence the power to
the electric system. It prevents unintentional starting of the engine during maintenance. It allows welding
operations to be performed without having to disconnect the battery terminals.
CAUTION: The battery master key does not have an emergency stop function. Removing the battery
master key when the engine is running, does not turn off the engine but only damages the
current alternator.
I - DIESEL TANK CAP WITH KEY (fig.2)
It is fitted with an anti-drip valve in the event of the vehicle overturning.
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L - REARVIEW MIRRORS (fig.2)
The rear view mirrors are essential for visibility of the rear left and right-hand side of the machine.
Correctly position the mirrors before starting the machine.
M - ROTATING BEACON (fig.2)
Fixed on the cabin roof, it signals the presence of the vehicle.
N - OPERATOR’S PROTECTION / CABIN WITH “FOPS - ROPS” STRUCTURE
(fig.2)
Designed and constructed to safeguard the operator in the event of the vehicle overturning and objects
falling from heights.
O - SAFETY SIDE WINDOW (fig.2)
The right-hand side window of the cabin protects the operator from the movement of the grab bucket arm
during material loading operations in the drum.
CAUTION: always keep the window clean to ensure proper visibility.
If the window breaks, replace it immediately.
DANGER: IT IS STRICTLY FORBIDDEN to use the machine without the window.
2
P
2
1
3
P- CABIN FRONT WINDOW EMERGENCY EXIT (fig.3)
Emergency exit through the cabin front window in the event of locked door.
Disconnect the connector (1) of the windscreen wiper electric cable, extract the two red plugs (2) to unlock
the handles that open the front window.
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3.6 SAFETY DEVICES FOR ROAD USE
CAUTION: For road circulation in Italy and other countries, it is mandatory to adopt various safety
devices and ensure their correct application.
Always ensure that the vehicle complies with the local regulations concerning the equipment of these vehicles
when travelling on public roads.
Check that the signalling and light devices function properly.
A
C
B
4
A - STEERING SELECTOR (fig.4)
CAUTION: THE STEERING SELECTOR MUST BE POSITIONED
ON 2 STEERING WHEELS
Perform this operation after aligning the front and rear wheels in relation to the longitudinal axis of the
machine.
B - HAND ACCELERATOR MICROSWITCH (fig.4)
If the hand accelerator lever is not in the initial position, it is impossible to move the vehicle.
C - SEAT BELTS (fig.4)
Always fasten the seatbelt when operating the vehicle.
The seatbelt is essential as it holds you anchored on the seat in the event of the vehicle overturning.
Periodically check the integrity, cleanliness and fastening of the structure.
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F
1
2
E
G
1
2
5
D - LOADING ARM (fig.5)
The arm (1) must be locked in a vertical position with the special steel wire (2).
E - FLASHING LIGHT (fig.5)
It is mandatory to have an approved flashing light device and it must always be in perfect working order.
L - DOOR (fig.5)
The door must be kept closed during transfer.
G - CONCRETE UNLOADING CHUTE (fig.5)
The unloading chute (1) must be turned crosswise and locked with the special screw pin (2).
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4.0. INTRODUCTION
This chapter is intended to help you learn how to manoeuvre with the vehicle. Read it carefully from start to
finish. When you have finished reading this chapter, you should have good knowledge of the vehicle and its
functioning.
Pay particular attention to the safety labels.
They are positioned to help you recognise the possible residual risks. Don’t just read them, but think about
what they really mean. Be aware of the risks and how to prevent them.
Once you have learned where the controls are and what they do, practice using them. Practice by using the
vehicle in the open on level ground and where there are no obstacles or persons around.
Learn to anticipate the reactions of the vehicle and its controls. Only start using the equipment when you are
sure that you have good command of the vehicle and can drive it safely.
Be careful when you use the equipment controls.
Practice in the open. Do not allow anyone to come near the vehicle. Do not act roughly on the controls, but use
them carefully until you fully understand the effect they have on the vehicle.
Finally, do not rush to learn to manoeuvre the vehicle. Take your time and do things calmly and safely.
CAUTION: Before starting to use or carry out maintenance on the vehicle, always read the safety
regulations for the operations to be carried out as set out in Chapter 3.
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N
I
E
L
D
F
M
H
A
C
O
H
G
B
1
4.1. REFERENCES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THE MAIN DEVICES (fig. 1)
The references and descriptions of the main devices of the vehicle are given here so that you can quickly get
to know and understand them when mentioned further on in this manual. Therefore, it is important that you
very carefully read the legend below.
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
L
M
N
O
-
Fuel tank
Front axle / two-speed gearbox
Rear axle
Mixing drum
Grab bucket
Unloading hopper
Unloading chute
Water tank
Engine assembly / hydraulic pumps
Hydraulic oil tank
Water system
ROPS/ FOPS protection
Working light
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4.1.1. INSTRUCTION LABELS ON THE MACHINE
Always keep the labels clean. Use detergent and water to clean the labels. Do not use organic solvents or
petrol as they may damage the labels.
1 - Clean the labels with soap and water and dry them with a soft cloth.
2 - Replace the damaged or missing labels with original FIORI labels.
3 - If you need to replace a component bearing a safety or warning label, make sure that the new component
has the same labels.
4 - When replacing labels make sure that the surface on which they are applied is clean, dry and without oil
or grease.
WARNING: The manufacturer declines all responsibility for personal injury or property damage if the
rules of conduct indicated on the labels are not observed or the labels are not kept in
perfect conditions.
Indicates the diesel fuel tank; for refuelling, see the instructions in this
manual.
Indicates the hydraulic oil tank; to top up the oil, see the instructions
in this manual.
Indicates the brake fluid tank; to top up the oil, see the instructions in
this manual.
exclusively use mineral oil.
For lifting, tying and towing the vehicle, use only the special couplings
marked with this symbol.
Indicates the engine coolant tank.
To fill the tank, see the instructions in this manual.
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Indicates the functions to run to directly fill the drum or the tanks with
water, with the warning to open the cap to avoid the tank from swelling.
Indicates the selection for the drum rotation direction. With the pivoting
post turned towards the drum: if the drum turns anticlockwise, the concrete
is unloaded; if it turns clockwise the concrete is mixed.
Indicates the joystick positions for arm raising and grab bucket rotation/
closing/opening.
Indicates the position of the hand accelerator that allows you to adjust the
engine rpm when the vehicle is stationary. The vehicle can only be moved
when the lever is in the initial position (0).
Indicates the three types of steering.
Indicates the lever positions for chute tilting.
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Indicates an area with live electrical contacts.
Act extremely carefully and do not to use too powerful jets of water, which
might compromise functioning of the electric system.
Indicates the switch to reset the litre counter and other reset functions.
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4.2. CONTROLS AND GAUGES
Your safety and that of others in the vicinity depends on your good judgement and care in using the vehicle.
Therefore, you should know exactly where all the controls are positioned and what their function is.
Every vehicle has its limits: before using it, familiarise yourself with its speed, braking, steering, stability and
load capabilities.
This chapter provides all the useful information you need to quickly get to know and safely use the vehicle
controls.
The legend below divides this information into well-defined groups:
- Driver’s seat
- Driving post instrument panel
- Operating control panel
4.2.1. DRIVER’S SEAT
A
L
I
H
F
K
N
M
J
E
C
D
O
B
Q
P
G
2
4.2.1.a - A - Steering wheel (fig. 2).
Turn the steering wheel in the desired driving direction. Using the knob you can steer with just one hand
during loading operations.
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4.2.1.b - B - Height- and depth-djustable driver’s seat with seatbelt
4
(fig. 2).
Always fasten the seatbelt when you are driving the vehicle.
4.2.1.c - C - Service and emergency brake pedal (fig. 2).
Push the service brake pedal to slow down or stop the vehicle; use the brakes to avoid picking up speed
when you are going downhill.
CAUTION: If driving down steep slopes never use only the brake pedal, but also engage the lowest
gear and depress the brake pedal intermittently so as not to overheat the brakes.
The stop lights must come on when the brakes are engaged. Only use the vehicle if both stop lights are
functioning properly.
4.2.1.d - D - Accelerator pedal (fig. 2).
The pedal controls the engine speed and the automotive system controls the vehicle speed when a gear
is engaged.
4.2.1.e - E - Parking brake button (fig. 2).
Allows the operator to lock the vehicle during breaks, keeping the engine on.
Press the button to lock.
Press the button to unlock.
When the engine is off, the vehicle is automatically braked.
The warning light indicates that the parking brake is engaged when the electric panel is active.
The warning light indicates a malfunction in the parking brake circuit.
4.2.1.f - F - Steering type selecting lever (fig. 2).
This lever allows you to select the type of steering according to the situation you are in.
2 RS Two front steering wheels.
CRAB Crab steering, i.e. with the same steering angle on the front
and the rear wheels.
4 RS Four steering wheels with the rear wheels in the opposite
direction to the front ones.
CAUTION: Before any road transfers, check that the four wheels are properly aligned (see the procedure
described in Chapter 4.3.8).
4.2.1.g - G - Hand accelerator lever (fig. 2).
Allows the operator to adjust the engine RPM when the vehicle is stationary; use only during concrete
mixing and unloading and to operate the water transfer pump.
Before activating it, check that the electrical gear selector lever is in neutral position.
CAUTION: Always shift the lever back to “0”, otherwise the vehicle will not move forward since the
forward/reverse selector is disabled.
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4.2.1.h - H - Power socket (fig. 2).
It draws current from the 12V battery by means of a bayonet coupling.
4.2.1.i - I - Windscreen washer switch (fig. 2).
Snap switch to turn on the front wiper.
4.2.1.j - J - Regeneration switch disabled (fig. 2).
Press to disable the regeneration of the engine’s diesel particulate filter.
4.2.1.k - K - Regeneration switch forced (fig. 2).
Press to activate the regeneration of the engine’s diesel particulate filter.
4.2.1.l - L - Heating/defrosting fan adjuster (fig. 2).
Turns on the fan for defrosting the windows or heating the closed cabin.
4.2.1.m - M - Rotating light switch (fig. 2).
Snap switch to turn on the rotating beacon on the cabin roof.
4.2.1 n - N - Windscreen water switch (fig. 2).
Allows you to pump the windscreen washer fluid.
4.2.1.o - O - Fuses and Relays (fig. 2).
Fuses and relays are placed inside the seat mount. Using the key provided, open the door to access the
fuses and the relays.
4.2.1.p - P - Windscreen washer fluid tank (fig. 2).
The water tank is placed at the rear of the driving seat mount.
4.2.1.q - Q - Short Manual (fig. 2).
Quick manual for the main starting and driving functions and maintenance of the vehicle.
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R
S
3
4.2.1.r - R - Cabin light (fig. 3).
Act on the lever to turn on the cabin light.
4.2.1.s - S - Electronic engine parameter control monitor (fig. 3).
2
3
1
4
5
6
7
Faceplate Features:
1 - Display.
2 - Amber LED on: caution, reports an engine fault.
3 - Red LED on: serious danger, the error code displays on the monitor.
4 - Menù: Enter or exit menu screens.
5 - Left Arrow: Scroll the screen or move the parameter selection to the left or upward.
6 - Right Arrow: Scroll the screen and move the parameter selection to the right or downward.
7 - Enter Key: Select a menu or parameter or hide/view an active fault code.
When the leds turn on, the yellow engine fault led also turns on (par. 4.2.2 pos.9) together with the amber LED,
the engine fault indicator (par. 4.2.2.m-I) together with the red LED.
CAUTION: Refer to the user manual for further information about the instrument’s functions; the user manual
is supplied separately from this document.
Where necessary, ask an Authorised FIORI Service Centre for assistance.
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4.2.2
DRIVING POST INSTRUMENT PANEL
6
5
7
8
4
9
3
2
10
1
11
17
16
15
12
14
13
4
4.2.2.a Electronic control panel (fig. 4)
1 - Yellow warning light: indicates when the next service is due.
2 - Yellow warning light: indicates that the fuel tank is in reserve.
3 - Red warning light: indicates a fault in the parking brake circuit.
4 - Red warning light: indicates that the parking brake is engaged.
5 - Red warning light: indicates that the engine oil pressure is low.
6 - Red warning light: indicates that the generator battery charge is low.
7 - Red warning light: indicates that the engine coolant is overheated.
8 - Red warning light: indicates that the engine air filter is clogged.
9 - Yellow warning light: indicates an engine fault, the amber led on the monitor also lights up.
10 - Yellow warning light: indicates that there is water in the fuel sediment bowl.
11 - Red warning light: indicates that the hydraulic oil filter is clogged.
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12 - Red warning light: function not available.
13 - Yellow warning light: function not available.
14 - Green warning light: indicates that the position lights or low beams are on.
15 - Green warning light: indicates that the direction indicators are on.
16 - Illuminated tortoise: indicates that low gear is engaged.
17 -Display: displays the hours of operation, fuel level, engine rpm and litre counter.
17
E
1
18
5
4.2.2.b Water liter counter (fig. 5)
The three digits at the top of the display (17) indicate the total litres of water in the tank.
The litre counter can be reset by pressing and holding down the reset button E for at least 3 seconds with the
ignition key turned to the first click (on position) or with the engine on.
4.2.2.c Hour counter (fig. 5)
When turning on with the ignition key in position 1 (vehicle power), the instrument panel runs a brief test turning
on all the segments of the display after which the instrument panel warning lights will show the vehicle status.
Subsequently, at the bottom of the numerical display (18), the hours remaining until the next service is due
are shown for 5 seconds. These are immediately followed by the actual total hours of vehicle operation, again
shown for 5 seconds.
The operating hour counter (18) cannot be reset. The hours of operation are totalled correctly only if the engine
is running at a speed of more than 200 rpm. Counting does not depend on the number of engine revolutions,
but only on the time that has actually elapsed.
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4.2.2.d Maintenance schedule (fig. 5)
In case the warning light (1) stays on, it means that it is almost time to do maintenance to the machine (the
warning light indicates this event about 20 hours before the deadline set by FIORI).
The preset service interval is every 500 hours. Therefore, the warning light will flash after 500, 1000, 1500,
2000, ... hours.
Once the vehicle has been serviced, the flashing warning light can be reset and the counter reset to start the
countdown to the next service.
To reset flashing, hold the reset button (E) on the driving post instrument panel pressed down for 20 seconds.
After 20 seconds the word “RESET” will appear on the display and the warning light (1) will come on. To reset
the counter, release the button and press it again for another 2 seconds.
After the 2 seconds the new service interval will appear on the display and after another 3 seconds the panel
returns to normal display.
If you cut the power by disconnecting the battery master switch or remove the key before the operation is
complete, or you do not carry out the sequence as described above, flashing will not be reset.
CAUTION: It may be reset only after the pre-set due date and not before.
E
A
I
H
B
G
F
D
C
6
4.2.2.e - A - Forward/reverse gear selector (fig. 6).
Push the selector forward to engage forward gear.
Always return the selector to neutral position when the vehicle is stationary and parked.
Push the selector backward to engage reverse gear.
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4.2.2.f - B- Mechanical gear selector (fig. 6).
CAUTION: Select the speed when the vehicle is stationary and stable.
Before driving uphill or downhill on steep slopes, always select the lowest gear with the
vehicle stationary and stable.
The gear selector allows you to select two basic speeds:
1st gear - low or loading/unloading speed
2nd gear - high or road transfer speed
To shift mechanical gear follow these instructions:
- Stop the vehicle on a stable surface.
- Set the selector (A) to neutral.
- Depress the service brake pedal (C, Fig. 2) and simultaneously set the selector (B) to the desired
gear.
- If you are unable to engage the desired gear, re-engage the previously selected gear.
4.2.2.g - C - Slow movement switch (fig. 6).
Flick the switch forward to use the normal driving functions. This function is enabled only with
the selector (A) forward to engage forward gear.
Flick the switch backward (tortoise) to maintain a constant low speed, useful to carry out
dangerous manoeuvres, precision manoeuvres in tight spaces and to drive downhill using the
engine brake.
4.2.2.h - D - Drum rotation switch (fig. 6).
This selector is used to control drum rotation.
Follow the instructions below:
Clockwise drum rotation during concrete loading and mixing.
In neutral position, the set speed remains fixed.
Anticlockwise drum rotation during concrete unloading.
Repeatedly act on the selector to increase the drum rotation speed. Act on the selector in opposite
direction to reduce the speed or until stopping the drum.
CAUTION: Because of minimal hydraulic leakage, the drum tends not to remain stationary.
Periodically check drum rotation by acting on the selector.
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4.2.2.i - E - Reset button (fig. 6).
This button is used to reset the litre counter and the hours to the next service due.
4.2.1.j - F -Water pump control switch (fig. 6).
The snap switch turns the machine water pump on and off.
4.2.1.k - G - Hazard light toggle switch (fig. 6).
Snap switch to turn on the four hazard warning lights.
4.2.1.l - H - Working light switch (fig. 6).
Snap switch, it turns on the working light.
4.2.2.m - I - Red warning light engine fault indicator (fig. 6).
Lights up in the presence of an engine fault; the red led on the monitor also lights up.
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A
5
4
6
10
0
1
2
1
3
18
13
7
4.2.2.m Engine starter and stopping switch (fig.7)
It is activated with the ignition key and can be set to four different positions. The key can only be removed if
the switch is in the off position.
0 Off position/engine stop
Engine stopping position.
1 On position
In this position the switch connects the battery to all the electrical circuits, except the lights and hazard-light
circuits. (The hazard warning light circuit is permanently powered).
The instrument runs a short test by turning on all the segments of the display. During this phase the engine
will not start, the instrument panel warning lights will signal the vehicle status by means of the generator
warning light (6) and the engine oil warning light (5), while the warning light that indicates that there is water
in the fuel sediment bowl (10) will emit only a test flash.
Subsequently, at the bottom of the numerical display (18) will be displayed, simultaneously and for 5 seconds, the hours remaining until the next service is due and the maintenance warning light (1), immediately
followed by 5 seconds in which the actual total hours of vehicle operation will be displayed.
When the ignition key is released from the positions 2 and 3 it automatically returns to this position.
2 Position not activated
3 Starting position
Activates the starter motor that turns the engine.
As soon as the engine starts, the engine rpm is displayed on the parameter control monitor.
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3
1
2
8
4.2.2.o Rotary switch with horn push button direction indicators toggle switch (fig.8).
The rotary switch and direction indicators’ toggle switch allow activating the following functions:
- Direction indicators
Shift the direction indicators’ toggle switch (1) forward to indicate a left turn.
Shift the direction indicators’ toggle switch (1) backward to indicate a right turn
- Horn
Press on the rotary switch (2) to activate the horn
- Light switch
The lights come on only if the ignition key is inserted
- Position lights:
turn the rotary switch (3) forward by one click
- Low beams:
turn the rotary switch (3) forward by 2 clicks.
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4.2.3 OPERATING CONTROL PANEL
2
4
A
3
1
B
9
4.2.3 a - A - Grab bucket control joystick (fig. 9).
Position 1 - Bucket closing.
Position 2 - Bucket opening, with the joystick button pressed.
Position 3 - Arm lowering, with the joystick button pressed.
Position 4 - Arm raising
Position N - Neutral.
4.2.3 b - B - Unloading chute control lever (fig. 9).
This lever allows tilting the unloading chute using a jack.
Shifting the lever forward, the chute is tilted downward.
Neutral.
Shifting the lever backward to, the chute is tilted upward.
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4.2.4 WATER FEEDING AND DISTRIBUTION CONTROLS (fig. 10).
C
B
H
A
D
F
2
E
1
10
The following parts control feed and distribution of the mixing and washing water:
A - Suction coupling
- Water suction from external water sources (tanks, ditches, etc.) by means of a flexible suction hose E.
- Water suction from the machine tank.
B - Delivery switching valve
Position 1 - Water delivery to the drum from an external source or from the machine tank.
Position 2 - Water delivery to the tank from an external source.
C - Litre counter
Totals the amount of water pumped into the drum and shows it on the driving post display.
D - Water suction pump
Self-priming volumetric pump with bronze impeller.
E - Flexible suction hose with suction filter F
To be positioned in the water source involved:
reservoir, ditch, external tank, etc.
G - Washing nozzle
Power jet cleaner provided, used to wash the bucket, drum and chute, positioned behind the front shield of
the machine.
To be connected to the union H of the switching valve B turning the lever to position 2.
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4.3 INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE
It is essential that the first time you use this vehicle you familiarise yourself with the use of all the controls.
Therefore, practice all the vehicle handling procedures both during the working phase and during road
transfer so that you develop a good feeling for the controls and the equipment movement times.
This chapter is intended as a valid guide for those that already know the vehicle well and can hence easily and
quickly understand the instructions given.
Checks before starting work
- Check that the vehicle has been equipped with all the required equipment.
- Check that all the maintenance operations set out in Chapter 5 of this manual have been carried out.
- If repairs were made, check tightness of all the screws and nuts and the adjustments.
CAUTION: Before starting to use or carry out maintenance on the vehicle, always read the safety
regulations for the operations to be carried out as set out in Chapter 3.
1
11
4.3.1 REFUELLING (fig. 11)
- Refuel the vehicle with purified diesel fuel without water residues.
- Use a pump equipped with filter with a delivery nozzle that goes down into the filler neck after removing the
cap (1).
It is advisable to refuel at the end of the working day thus avoiding condensation during the night.
CAUTION: Do not run out of fuel so emptying the tank (keep an eye on the fuel reserve warning light).
Should this occur, you will need to bleed the air from the engine fuel supply system.
DANGER: Before checking or filling the fuel tank, make sure that there are no open flames
or smoking materials in the area. Do not refuel with the engine on. Do not use
matches, lighters or torches as light source.
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2
4
1
3
12
4.3.2 LEVEL CHECK (fig. 12)
Before starting the vehicle check the following:
- Engine oil level (1)
- Engine coolant level (2)
- Hydraulic oil level (3)
- Brake fluid level (4)
The procedures are described in chapter 5 on maintenance.
A
B
D
C
2
1
13
4.3.3 FILLING THE WATER TRANSFER PUMP BODY (fig.13).
For proper operation of the self-priming pump, this must contain water.
Remove the closing cap C and take out the pre-filter D.
Check that it contains water through the suction pipe union A.
If there is no water, refit the pre-filter D, fill the pump body with water through the suction union A holding the
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delivery switching valve B in position 1 or 2 but not in the central position.
Finally, refit the closing cap C.
3
2
1
14
4.3.4 ADJUSTING THE SEAT (fig. 14)
CAUTION: Before starting the vehicle, adjust and lock the seat in the most suitable and comfortable
position, so that you can easily reach all the controls, and fasten the seatbelt.
Use the lever (1) to adjust the seat distance from the pedals and the lever (2) to adjust the springing hardness
(according to your weight). Use the knob (3) to adjust the seat height. .
1
3
2
1
3
2
15
4.3.5 ADJUSTING THE REAR-VIEW MIRROR (fig. 15)
CAUTION: Operation to be carried out before starting the vehicle.
To adjust the field of view of the left (1) and right (2) - (3), sideview mirrors, turn them so that you can see the
rear sides of the machine as shown in the figure.
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2
4
1
3
16
4.3.6 STARTING THE ENGINE (fig. 16)
DANGER: Before starting the engine, check that there is no one in the vicinity of the machine.
Do not operate the machine in closed places without ventilation.
- Check that the parking brake (1) is engaged.
- Check that the electrical forward/reverse gear selector (2) is in neutral position (otherwise the machine will
not start).
- Ensure that the hand accelerator (3) is in rest position.
- Start the engine by turning the ignition key (4).
- When the engine has started, release the key and check that the engine oil pressure, battery low and coolant
temperature warning lights are off.
CAUTION: Do not try to activate the starter motor with the key inserted for more than 20-30 seconds.
If the engine does not start, wait 2 minutes before retrying, allowing the starter motor to
cool down.
When the engine has started, let it run at about 1000 rpm for a few minutes to allow the oil
to warm up and lubricate all the parts; this is essential in cold climates.
CAUTION: STARTING AT LOW TEMPERATURES
Turn the ignition key clockwise by one click, wait until the display is in operating mode and
turn the ignition key to pos. 2 waiting 10-15 seconds in the pre-heating position, then turn it
to position 3 to turn on the engine. Do not hold the accelerator pedal depressed during the
preheating phase.
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4.3.7 ENGINE OPERATION AT LOW RPM
It is unadvisable to leave the engine running at idle speed for too long.
Therefore, if you can foresee that the engine will be running at idle speed for a long period of time, always turn
it off.
Nonetheless, if you need to keep the engine running, make sure that the engine speed is sufficient to supply
the necessary engine oil pressure, indicated by the relative warning light on the instrument panel turning off.
4.3.8 ADJUSTING WHEEL ALIGNMENT
CAUTION: The steering must be selected with the machine stationary.
Whenever you drive on the road or for long stretches, it is essential to check proper alignment of the four
wheels to prevent running into translation problems.
To align the four wheels, operate as follows:
Turn the steering wheel to move the rear wheels into a straight line with the vehicle.
Shift the selection lever to the “2 RS” position and use the steering wheel to align the front wheels with the
rear ones (visually check).
Select the type of steering based on the type of translation to be performed with the vehicle.
After this procedure the steering will be synchronized.
During translation with “2 RS” the rear wheels remain in fixed position thanks to a check valve.
4.3.9 PARKING BRAKE (fig. 16)
CAUTION: When the engine is turned on, the parking brake automatically disengages if the button (1)
is released.
The next time the machine is turned off, the parking brake automatically engages because
the residual pressure is cancelled out.
DANGER: Do not use the parking brake to slow down the machine, except in emergencies, as
the machine would stop suddenly reducing the efficiency of the brake.
Press button (1) to disengage it.
For temporary stops on slopes or where necessary engage the parking brake by pressing the button (1).
To release the brake in the event of a braking system failure, see chapter 4.5.1.
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4.3.10 STARTING AND DRIVING THE VEHICLE (fig. 17)
E
C
A
B
D
17
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
- Start the engine following the procedure described above.
- Keep the engine running for the time required to warm up the hydraulic system oil.
- Disengage the parking brake.
- Check that the hand accelerator (D) is set to “0” and the selector (A) is in neutral position. If the hand
accelerator (D) is set to “1”, the machine does not move when the selector (A) is moved to the desired driving
direction.
- Depress the service brake pedal (B) and simultaneously set the selector (C) to the desired gear while at the
same time turning the steering wheel to the right and left so as to facilitate the meshing of the gear, with lever
(E) in position “4RS”.
- If you are unable to engage the desired gear, re-engage the previously selected gear.
- Set the gear selector to low gear for driving on steep slopes or to high gear for flat stretches.
CAUTION: Mechanical gears must only be selected with the vehicle stationary and stable.
- Set the gear selector (A) to the desired driving direction.
- Check that you can safely move forward, then start depressing the accelerator pedal to move the machine.
DANGER: Steer maintaining an adequate speed and act gradually on the steering wheel,
especially when you are on a slope.
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4.3.11 FIELD OF INDIRECT VISIBILITY OF THE VEHICLE (fig. 18)
1
CAMERA (1): FAR FILED REAR
B1
4
5
6
A2
4
6
5
CAMERA (2):
FAR FILED
LATERAL
A2
2
B1
3
18
Looking at the images sent from the cameras (1) and (2) to the display (3), and from the rear-view mirrors (4),
(5) and (6), you have a broad, indirect view of the area around the machine. This allows you to safely reverse.
The display screen (3) is divided in two: the left-hand side (A2) side-view with camera (2), and the right-hand
side (B1) rear-view with camera (1).
CAUTION: For the display (3) operation, refer to its user manual that comes with the machine.
DANGER: Check that the right-hand side (B1) of the display (3) is set to the correct indirect
visibility function (mirror).
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4.3.12 STOPPING THE VEHICLE
CAUTION: Whenever you interrupt work for any reason, always set the joystick safety switch to locked
position.
Before leaving the vehicle, set all the controls to neutral position.
-
Release the accelerator pedal.
Gradually depress the brake pedal till the machine stops.
Shift the gear selector to neutral position.
Engage the parking brake.
Lower the bucket.
CAUTION: Never perform reversing manoeuvres to stop the machine.
4.3.13 STOPPING THE ENGINE
CAUTION: Never leave the vehicle with the engine on.
- With the engine at idle speed, turn the key to “0” and remove it even if only temporarily leaving the vehicle.
4.3.14 PARKING THE VEHICLE
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
CAUTION: Never stop or park on a slope without first blocking the vehicle to prevent it from moving.
CAUTION: Always face the vehicle when getting on or off and check that your shoes and hands are
clean and dry to prevent slipping and falling.
Where possible, stop the vehicle on level and dry ground.
Remove the ignition key before leaving the vehicle.
- Deactivate all the unnecessary switches.
Check that all the switches are deactivated before leaving the vehicle. If necessary, leave the hazard lights
on.
- Leaving and locking the vehicle
Use the handles and steps to get off the vehicle. If you leave the vehicle, close and lock all the windows and
the door (if present). Check that the fuel tank cap and the engine compartment lid are locked.
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4.4 TRANSPORTING THE VEHICLE (fig. 19)
7020
3040
3805 + 900
900
10-15%
19
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
CAUTION: Use transport vehicles of adequate capacity driven by qualified personnel.
Before loading the vehicle onto the means of transport, check that it carries no other
load.
CAUTION: To secure the vehicle on the means of transport, use the special fastening points indicated
with labels.
CAUTION: Do not use the canopy ledges to anchor the vehicle during transport.
Note: Before transporting the vehicle, ensure compliance with the regulations and laws of the areas you will
be travelling through.
Before loading the vehicle onto the means of transport, check that it does not interfere with the ramp
angle of the trailer. See the section Specifications for the minimum height of the vehicle from the
ground.
Make sure that the transport vehicle is adequate. See the section “Specifications” for the vehicle weight
and dimensions.
- Have someone on the ground guide you in carrying out the manoeuvres.
- Raise the bucket.
- Drive very slowly going up and down the ramps and on the platform limiting use of the accelerator and the
steering wheel to the minimum indispensable.
- Once the vehicle is positioned, lower the bucket and apply the parking brake. When the bucket is raised or
the rotating beacon is mounted on the cabin, the height exceeds 4 metres and transport is not permitted.
- Secure the vehicle as described above.
- Firmly anchor the vehicle on the platform and lock the wheels with wedges.
- Check that the lid or other moving parts are properly closed.
- Measure the maximum height of the vehicle from the ground.
Inform the driver of the transport vehicle of the overall height before he sets off.
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4.4.1 LIFTING THE VEHICLE WITH A CRANE (fig. 20)
2745
1095
1
10°
10°
DRY WEIGHT
6.800 KG
1701
1499
20
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
CAUTION: Before lifting the vehicle, check that it does not carry any load and that the crane used is of
adequate capacity to support the weight of the vehicle; see the section “Specifications”
for the weights and dimensions.
CAUTION: For lifting with a crane it is advisable to use adequate rocker arms in order not to damage
parts of the vehicle when the chains tauten.
Use only the lifting points marked on the vehicle.
- Turn the drum as you would for road transfer.
- Raise the loader arm and lock it with a tie-rod (1).
- Hook the chains onto the special hooks.
DANGER: During lifting, stand well away from the vehicle and do not stand under the load.
Sudden movements or the chains snapping may cause injury and even death.
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4.5 TOWING OR RECOVERY (fig. 21)
1
21
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
CAUTION: Remember that towing can further damage the vehicle.
Tow the machine only as far as the breakdown truck. Drive very slowly and for short
stretches (5 km/h) to prevent the hydraulic oil in the closed circuit from overheating.
- Raise the arm and lock it with the tie-rod.
- Shift the gear selector to neutral and release the parking brake (see the procedure in 4.5.1).
- Connect a suitable tow bar to the front lifting coupling (1).
- Turn on the hazard lights and the rotating beacon.
- An operator must be on board the machine to drive and stop it, correctly seated in the driver’s seat with the
seatbelt fastened, with the steering lever on 2RS. If you need to steer, make sure that you understand the
actions of the driver of the towing vehicle. Follow his instructions and comply with all the relative regulations.
Bear in mind that steering is harder when the engine is off.
- Use a towing vehicle with a towing capacity of more than 19,100 kg with full load and 6,800 kg when unladen.
- When you have finished the towing operations, restore the parking brake and the gearbox.
CAUTION: Take the vehicle to an AUTHORISED FIORI SERVICE CENTRE to have all vehicle
functionalities checked and repaired.
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4.5.1 RELEASING THE PARKING BRAKE IN THE EVENT OF A BRAKE SUPPLY SYSTEM FAULT
(fig. 22)
1
1
1
1
22
Carry out this operation on a flat surface after blocking the wheels with wedges.
- Tighten the four screws (1) of the axles using a no. 14 wrench tightening them by one turn each one after
another in sequence until they are at the end of travel mechanically releasing the brake.
- To resume the brake original conditions, follow the above procedures in reverse order.
4.5.2 GEARSHIFTING TO NEUTRAL (fig. 23)
3
4
2
23
- Loosen the two hydraulic pipings (2).
- Loosen the plug (3) using a no. 22 socket wrench (not reinforced) and move the shaft (4) until it offers no
resistance, meaning that the gear is disengaged.
- To resume the gearbox original conditions, follow the procedures described above in reverse order.
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4.6 DRIVING ON PUBLIC ROADS (fig. 24)
4
1
2
3
24
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
CAUTION: THE STEERING SELECTOR MUST BE POSITIONED
ON 2 STEERING WHEELS
- Activate all the safety devices as indicated in chapter 3.6.
- Raise the bucket as far as it will go and tie it with the safety cable (1) so that the arm is locked.
- Direct the chute (2) into retracted position and lock it with the lever (3).
- Check that all the warning lights function properly.
- Turn on the rotating beacon (4) provided.
- With the vehicle stationary, shift the gear lever to 2nd gear for transfers on flat surfaces or moderate slopes,
or to 1st gear for medium to steep slopes.
- Keep an eye on the instruments and check that they function properly.
- Strictly observe the road regulations.
If traffic slows down, move onto the hard shoulder to allow faster vehicles to pass.
CAUTION: If you need to change a tyre, make sure that the type and tread are those specified by the
MANUFACTURER.
Not all tyres are homologated for road circulation with the required loads and speeds.
CAUTION: The vehicle may circulate on the road with a full load and empty according to the carrying
capacity indicated on the homologation plate.
CAUTION: At regular intervals, check proper functioning of the lights and immediately replace any
blown bulbs.
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4.7 HOMOLOGATION FOR ROAD USE (ITALY)
This vehicle is classified as an operating vehicle according to Italian law.
In order to circulate on the road, it must be homologated and registered.
Pursuant to the regulations in force, the vehicle is equipped with an additional danger signalling device.
The yellow rotating beacon must always be turned on when circulating on the road.
The danger signal, consisting in the simultaneous illumination of the direction indicators, must be activated
when the vehicle is stationary on the road and in any situation where it is a hindrance to traffic.
Anyone who circulates on the road with a vehicle that does not comply with or violates applicable legislation
will be punished with a fine.
The MANUFACTURER must provide the declaration of conformity for road circulation.
The related documentation must be submitted by the Purchaser to the local Directorate-General for Road Traffic and Privately Operated Transport Vehicles, for obtaining the registration certificate (logbook) and number
plate.
CAUTION: The declaration of conformity alone is absolutely not sufficient for road circulation. It is
mandatory to register the vehicle.
The declaration of conformity must be submitted the Driver within 12 months from the date
of issue; failure to do so may cause the Directorate-General for Road Traffic and Privately
Operated Transport Vehicles to reject issuance of the registration certificate (logbook) and
number plate.
The vehicle and Manufacturer’s data plate is found on the front
right-hand bumper.
CAUTION: Driving on public roads is permitted only if the
total maximum weight is less than or equal to
18,000 kg.
4.8 PRECAUTIONS FOR USE IN COLD CLIMATE CONDITIONS
2
1
25
At the end of each work shift, empty the plastic water tanks to prevent them from swelling and bursting.
Unscrew the caps (1) as shown in the figure, positioned underneath the two tanks to let the water drain out.
Empty the water transfer pump by undoing the screw (2) to let the water drain out.
If you are forced to work in temperatures close to 0°C, check that the radiator is filled with an antifreeze mixture
to prevent the water from freezing.
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- Check the quality of the antifreeze coolant at least once a year, for example, at the beginning of the cold
season. The coolant must be changed every two years.
- The antifreeze mixture must be made up of equal quantities of antifreeze and water. The corrosion inhibitor
contained in the antifreeze must be diluted if using a solution with less than 50% antifreeze. Concentrations
of more than 50% antifreeze may have a negative effect on coolant performance.
- Use an antifreeze of the type and brand as indicated in the RECOMMENDED LUBRICANTS AND FLUIDS
table and calculate the percentage water/antifreeze in relation to the ambient temperature using the table
provided by the manufacturer.
- After refilling/topping-up, run the engine for a few minutes to allow the water and antifreeze to mix well.
CAUTION: To use the vehicle at low temperatures, you also need to change the lubricants and use
types with an appropriate viscosity (see the RECOMMENDED LUBRICANTS AND FLUIDS
TABLE).
4.8.1 SUMMER/WINTER HEATING SYSTEM (fig. 26)
DANGER: Open the lid only with the engine off and cold.
During the summer, or when temperatures are higher than 20°C, it is best to shut off the heating circuit,
especially if you intend to use the A/C (optional).
Open the engine compartment lid, the valve is located on the left-hand side of the hydraulic oil tank, turn the
lever 90° CW to close the circuit.
During the winter, or when temperatures are low, open the heating circuit by turning the valve lever 90° CCW.
CLOSED
OPEN
26
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4.9 PRECAUTIONS IN THE EVENT OF LONG PERIODS OF INACTIVITY
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
In order to protect the chrome-plated parts of Fiori machines against atmospheric agents during long periods
of inactivity, take some basic precautions.
- Machines that remain outdoor, e.g. on a yard, for long periods of time must be parked with the loader lowered.
If the vehicle is not to be used for a long period of time, follow the instructions below.
- Clean the vehicle and lubricate it through the grease nipples.
- Remove the battery, store it in a warm place and recharge it at least once a month.
- Protect the jack rods with grease to prevent encrustations and corrosion.
- Empty the water tanks and the water transfer pump as described in the paragraph above.
- Position the machine in a sheltered place and/or cover it with a waterproof sheet.
- Do not leave biodesel (where used) inside the engine supply circuit.
- To keep the engine lubricated, let it run for at least 20 minutes no less than once a week.
CAUTION: For more information, contact an AUTHORISED FIORI WORKSHOP.
4.10 WORKING PHASES
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
It is essential that the operator becomes familiar with all the controls and, for a first period of time, practices
in a relatively isolated area where he will freely perform all the manoeuvres and operations, which will soon
become routine operations by regularly using the vehicle.
This chapter analyses all the working phases that should be carried out in sequence, in order to obtain optimal
vehicle performance and comply with all the safety regulations.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
-
Before getting on the vehicle (checks and warnings).
Correct use of the vehicle on slopes
First filling with mixing water
Cement loading
Aggregate loading
Mixing and second filling with mixing water
Concrete unloading
Bucket, drum and chute washing
CAUTION: Always fasten the seatbelts.
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4.10.1 CORRECT USE OF THE VEHICLE
During road transfer and when driving on public roads, follow the specific safety precautions described in
chapter 3.
During work on a site, the operator must ask someone on the ground to guide him with hand signals and delimit
an area of over 12 meters for forward movement.
4.10.2 BEFORE GETTING ON THE VEHICLE (CHECKS AND WARNINGS)
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
Before using the vehicle, you must perform some safety checks.
Some of these checks are aimed at verifying proper vehicle operation, others involve your own safety.
Have any and all defects or malfunctions repaired by a mechanical engineer.
Before performing all checks, make sure that the parking brake is applied.
Cleanliness
- Check that the light glass covers and the rearview mirrors are clean.
NOTE: Check that the rearview mirrors are positioned so that you have the best possible visibility of the area
behind the vehicle.
- Remove grime and dirt from the cylinders, pins and the radiator.
- Make sure that the steps and handhold are clean and dry.
- Clean all the adhesive safety labels. Replace any illegible or missing labels.
Damage
- Check that there are no damaged or missing parts.
- Check that all the articulation pins are properly in place and lubricated.
- Check the windows for any cracks or damage.
- Check that there are no oil, fuel or coolant leaks underneath the vehicle.
Check all the devices as indicated in the scheduled maintenance table in chapter 5 and make any necessary
repairs.
4.10.3 CORRECT USE ON SLOPES
When working on slopes, take some precautions to prevent risks to yourself and others in the vicinity. Carry
out the following checks and operations:
- Always check the working area for snow, small landslips, gravel and tilled soil which may suddenly change
the working conditions and vehicle stability.
Maximum surmountable gradient when loaded (ramps, obstacles, jerking).................................... 23° (41.6%)
Maximum permissible gradient on steep roads during transfer:
front .................................................................................................................................................... 14° (25%)
Side ..................................................................................................................................................... 4.6° (8%)
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CAUTION: Observing the recommended gradient limits does not mean that you can manoeuvre the
vehicle in total freedom in all load, ground or manoeuvring conditions on a slope. In any
event, it is advisable to halve the gradient values on wet or uneven ground.
27
DANGER: Driving on slopes with a gradient above the prescribed one may cause the vehicle
to lose stability and consequently overturn.
RIGHT
WRONG
28
- Do not change direction on slopes or move sideways, up or down the slope; if this is not possible, make
several diagonal manoeuvres holding the vehicle axis as parallel as possible to the direction of the slope.
- Never make sharp diagonal movements or, even worse, with the vehicle axis turned 90° with respect to the
direction of the slope.
- If the fuel reserve warning light comes on while you are working on a slope, immediately refuel; given that the
vehicle is inclined, the engine may take in air and stall unexpectedly, posing a grave danger to your safety.
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4.10.4 CONCRETE COMPOSITION AND BATCHING TABLE
The volumes and/or weights of the individual components vary in relation to the breaking load and the product
characteristics, also considering practical experience.
The table below gives approximate values.
- Recommended operating cycle:
1) Pump in about 80-90% of the total quantity of water.
2) Add all the cement
3) Add all the gravel
4) Add all the sand
5) Add the remaining percentage of water.
- Approximate mixing time: 4-5 minutes
- Approximate total cycle time (aggregate loading, adding water, mixing, unloading): 15 minutes
FOR A YIELD OF 1 SQUARE METRE OF CONCRETE (approximate values)
TYPE OF CONCRETE OR
AGGREGATE
AGGREGATE MIXTURE
CEMENT
kg
GRAVEL m3
SAND m3
WATER
lt
STANDARD FOR FOUNDATIONS
150
200
0,80
0,80
0,40
0,40
100
120
FOR OPERATIONS WITH
FORMWORKS
200
250
300
0,80
0,80
0,80
0,40
0,40
0,40
120
140
150
REINFORCED CONCRETE, IRON
EXCLUDED
300
350
0,80
0,80
0,40
0,40
150
160
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4.10.5 FIRST FILLING WITH MIXING WATER
4.10.5.a Filling the tanks with mixing water (fig. 29)
B
H
L
C
A
E
2
F
1
29
CAUTION: In the event of pump failure, check that there is water in the pump body (see chapter
4.3.3).
- Fill with water through the water inlet pipe
To fill the tank, use an external water source introducing water through the hole L.
You can fill from both water tanks positioned opposite each other as they are connected.
- Filling with water using the transfer pump
CAUTION: Check that the pre-filter is fitted inside the filler neck A of the pump, and always use the
filter F during suction from water sources, since the pump may take in small parts that
could damage the pump propeller.
- Remove the closing cap C checking that the pre-filter is fitted, insert the flexible suction hose E into the
suction pipe filler neck A of the pump.
- Insert the tube leading to the tank into the delivery filler neck H.
- Move the valve B to the correct position (with delivery to tank 2).
- Position the flexible suction hose E in the relative water source (reservoir, external tank, ditch etc.).
- Open both covers L to prevent the water tank from swelling.
- Check that the suction filter F is completely immersed (the maximum difference in height from the union A
must be 4-5 m).
- Start the engine.
- Activate the transfer pump (engine rpm ideally about 2000).
- Wait until the tank is full (when water starts flowing from the water inlet pipe and from the tank).
- Stop the transfer pump and close the cover L.
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4.10.5.b First filling with mixing water (fig. 29)
The mixing water is managed by two different systems:
- External water source (tanks, reservoirs, ditches, etc.).
- Vehicle tank
The first system allows you to both fill the vehicle tank and directly fill the drum with mixing water.
The second system only allows you to fill the drum with mixing water.
- Filling with water from an external water source
- Position the flexible suction hose E in the relative water source. Check that the hose coupling is connected
to the suction pump union A and that the suction filter F is intact.
- Set the switching valve B to position “1” and then continue directly filling the drum with mixing water.
- Filling with water from the vehicle tank
- When the tank is full, set the switching valve B to position “1” checking that the coupling of the hose
leading from the vehicle tank is connected to the suction pipe union A of the pump.
A
30
4.10.5.c Activating the water transfer pump (fig. 30)
- Check that all the control levers are in neutral position.
- Start the engine.
- Rotate the drum.
- Increase the rotation speed until reaching maximum speed.
- Accelerate the engine by acting on the hand accelerator for 2/3 of its total travel (1800-2000 rpm).
- Activate the transfer pump with the switch A in the cabin.
- Check the quantity of water pumped in on the litre counter, which in this first phase should be 80-90% of the
total quantity.
- Refer to the CONCRETE COMPOSITION AND BATCHING table, chapter 4.10.4, to calculate the optimal
quantity of water.
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4.10.6 CEMENT LOADING
DANGER: It is strictly prohibited to climb onto the vehicle, whether it is in the mixing phase
300
or stationary.
31
4.10.6.a Cement in bags (fig. 31)
CAUTION: Wear a protective mask and gloves.
- Keep the drum rotating.
Raise the grab bucket about 0.3 metres and hold it in fully tilted position with the hatch closed.
- Calculate the quantity of cement to be loaded referring to the CONCRETE COMPOSITION AND BATCHING
TABLE in chapter 4.10.4.
- Open the grab bucket door and manually fill it with cement, tearing open the bags on the serrated blade of
the bucket.
- Remove the paper bags and close the door.
CAUTION: Close the bucket door before raising the arm.
- Raise the arm to its maximum height.
- Open the unloading hatch and wait until the cement has poured into the drum through the hopper, helping it
along by vigorously shaking the bucket with the arm.
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32
4.10.6.b Cement in silos (fig. 32)
-
Keep the drum rotating at top speed.
Raise the bucket arm to the maximum height and fully open the grab bucket.
Move to underneath the unloading point of the silo.
Calculate the quantity of cement to be loaded referring to the CONCRETE COMPOSITION AND BATCHING
TABLE in chapter 4.10.4.
- Open the unloading hatch and fill the drum using the silo dosage system.
4.10.7 AGGREGATE LOADING
2
4
3
1
33
4.10.7.a Heaped aggregate (fig. 33 - 34)
- Keep the drum rotating at top speed.
- Lower the arm by holding the button (position “3”) down on the joystick.
- Open the grab bucket by holding the button (position “2”) down on the joystick.
- On the mechanical gearbox, select the 1st working speed (low).
- Dig into the heap with the bucket in open position.
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- Close the grab bucket (position “1”).
- Reverse the machine by raising the arm (position “4”) to the maximum height.
- Stop the vehicle.
- Wait until the cement has poured into the drum through the hopper, helping it along by shaking the bucket
with gentle movements of the arm.
- Approach the heap again while lowering the arm (position “3”).
- Repeat the operations described above at least 8-9 times. This is the bucket yield on average to obtain
optimal drum loading.
Note: you can shift to reverse gear even if the machine has not completely stopped.
CAUTION: Check that the drum rotation direction is set to MIXING to avoid breaking the hatch.
4.10.8 MIXING AND SECOND FILLING WITH WATER (fig. 35)
35
- Keep the drum rotating for about 2 minutes after the last aggregate loading phase.
- Add the remaining amount of water, about 30% of the total, following the procedures described in chapter
4.10.5 to obtain the desired fluidity.
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4.10.9 CONCRETE UNLOADING
CAUTION: Always set the gear selector to neutral position.
Move the arms up to the maximum height.
CAUTION: If someone on the ground assists you during unloading, be extremely careful in carrying
out the manoeuvres and keep eye contact at all times.
CAUTION: Avoid sudden inversions of drum rotation when the machine is on uneven or soft ground.
E
B
D
A
C
36
4.10.9.a Concrete unloading from chute (fig. 36)
-
Keep the drum rotating in the mixing direction (clockwise).
Approach the unloading area.
Stop the machine.
Loosen the lever A that locks the chute B.
Arrange any extensions D.
Move the chute B directing it to the correct unloading position.
Operate the lever E positioned in the driving post to adjust the chute height. This control acts on the chute
tilting cylinder C. Finally, lock the chute B using the dedicated lever A.
- Bring the engine rpm up to a medium speed.
- Invert the drum rotation direction for unloading by acting on the selector in the cabin.
- With less fluid concretes, slightly lower the arms to facilitate unloading.
- Adjust the drum rotation speed. The concrete unloading speed depends on the engine rpm, on the drum
rotation speed and on the concrete’s fluidity.
- Visually inspect that concrete unloading is correctly performed.
Once completed the unloading in the first area, to move to the next area:
Revert the drum rotation direction to mixing.
Approach the new area and position the machine, following all the instructions given above.
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4.10.9.b Concrete unloading from drum emergency door
DANGER: This operation must be performed by Authorised FIORI Workshops qualified
personnel.
4.10.10 BUCKET, DRUM AND CHUTE WASHING (fig. 37)
B
2
G
37
CAUTION: The washing operations can be carried out both with the nozzle provided (pressure of 4.5
bar) and with an optional nozzle operating at a pressure of around 150 bar.
- Set the drum to rotate clockwise like for mixing.
- Fill the drum with water and gravel following the procedures as described above (chapter 4.10.5) in a
quantity sufficient to dilute and detach the concrete residues.
- Connect the washing nozzle G to the pump delivery.
Set the switching valve B to position “2”
- Externally wash the bucket, drum and chute as well as all the parts normally soiled with concrete.
- Change drum rotation from clockwise to anticlockwise.
- Drain out all the water in the drum and wash the chute and the extensions.
- Remove the extensions.
- Lower the grab bucket and wash it inside and out.
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4.10.11 INTERNAL CLEANING OF THE MIXING DRUM (fig. 38)
38
DANGER: Do not climb onto wet and slippery parts of the vehicle and be extremely careful in
all the movements you make.
CAUTION: Do not insert the washing nozzle in the drum mouth when it is rotating.
The main device of the vehicle, for which it was designed, is the drum. It is essential to thoroughly clean
the inside of the drum to prevent concrete encrustations from reforming on the mixing blades for as long as
possible.
Therefore, in addition to washing the vehicle when you have finished work as described in chapter 4.10.10, it
is advisable to wash the inside of the drum. Proceed as follows:
- Lower the loader to the ground.
- Wash the inside of the drum as thoroughly as possible using the washing nozzle.
- When done, turn the drum anticlockwise and drain out the water.
4.10.12 EXTRAORDINARY DRUM CLEANING OR BLADE REPLACEMENT
DANGER: Do not climb into the drum while it is still mounted on the vehicle.
Extensive use of the vehicle and not thoroughly washing the drum after mixing will wear out the blades or
cause them to clog up with solidified concrete.
Having to work inside the drum to solve these problems, it is obligatory to go to an equipped workshop
and dismantle the drum from the vehicle so that these operations can be carried out on the ground in safe
conditions.
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5.1 FOREWORD
This manual provides all the information necessary for routine maintenance on the FIORI vehicles.
This chapter addresses the persons that will physically be carrying out routine maintenance and provides the
rules to follow to achieve the end result, namely,
repair when necessary and help ensure functionality of the FIORI vehicle over time.
The service intervals given in this chapter refer to normal operating conditions.
The service intervals may vary in the running-in period or in specific conditions.
The main purpose of this chapter is to indicate all the operations to be carried out at the same service interval
thus facilitating the procedures and reducing the vehicle stop time.
CAUTION: All the operations described in detail in this chapter are considered routine maintenance.
Given the care that needs to be taken to remove and refit parts of the vehicle, the persons
that physically carry out the operations are responsible for their success and assuring that
functionality is restored.
CAUTION: For extraordinary maintenance, contact your nearest AUTHORISED FIORI WORKSHOP.
CAUTION: Carefully read all the safety regulations set out in Chapter 3, in particular the general and
specific WARNINGS FOR MAINTENANCE.
Before and after the lubrication operations, clean the covers, grease nipples and caps to prevent dirt infiltrations.
Lubrication is of primary importance in preventive maintenance, and the useful life of the vehicle depends on
it. Therefore, it is absolutely essential that you follow the instructions given in this manual for the lubricants to
use and the service intervals.
CAUTION: Do not pollute the environment.
In accordance with national and international laws, lubricants, fluids, coolants and
impregnated filtering elements are classified as polluting and toxic waste. They must be
stored and disposed of at special facilities.
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5.1.1 VISUAL EXTERNAL INSPECTION (fig. 1)
G
B
A
C
D
E
F
1
Every day, before starting work or at the end of the day, it is advisable to quickly check the vehicle and take any
necessary action, thus considerably reducing maintenance costs and the vehicle stop times.
Check the following:
A- Arm - bucket articulations
B- Hydraulic system and pipes
C- Instruments and gauges
D- Engine and radiator
E- Tyres
F- Transmission
G- Jacks and pins
5.1.2 CLEANING THE VEHICLE
Clean the vehicle with water. Pay particular attention to the bottom of the vehicle. Do not let mud to deposit
under the engine and the transmission. Check that the radiator grille is not clogged.
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5.1.3 CHECKING FOR DAMAGES
- Check that all the pins are properly in place and well secured with the respective stops.
- Check the light and signalling devices.
- Check the tyres for sharp or cutting objects.
- Check that all the adhesive safety labels are in place and undamaged. Replace them if necessary.
Seatbelt
CAUTION: Replace the seatbelt if worn or damaged following an accident.
- Check that the seatbelt is not frayed or stretched.
- Check that the buckles are intact and working.
- Check that the fastening screws are properly fitted and tightened.
ROPS & FOPS structures
DANGER: Modified or improperly repaired ROPS/FOPS structures are dangerous. Do not
repair them following an accident and do not use the vehicle until the structure
has been checked and repaired by qualified personnel. The vehicle may not be
used without the ROPS structure.
- Check the structure for mechanical damage.
- Check that the retaining screws are all in place, well fitted and properly tightened.
5.1.4 ACCESS TO THE MAIN DEVICES
5.1.4.1 PARTS CONTAINED IN THE TOOL KIT
5
7
2
1
3
4
6
1 - no.1 double fork wrench 10 - 13
2 - no.1 double fork wrench 17 - 19
3 - no.1 double fork wrench 24 - 27
4 - no.1 oil filter wrench
5 - no.1 M30 T-wrench
6 - no.1 flat-blade/cross-slotted screwdriver
7 - no.1 manual grease pump
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5.1.4.2 ROUTINE MAINTENANCE AND CHECKS (fig. 2)
A
B
2
CAUTION: Never open the various access doors if the machine is not parked on a flat surface with the
engine off and the parking brake engaged.
- Driver’s seat
To access the fuses and relays, open the driving post door (A) with the key provided.
- Engine compartment lid
Unlock (B) the lid with the key provided and raise it to access the following parts:
- Engine oil cap, level gauge and filter
- Engine accelerator cables
- Hydraulic oil tank cap
- Radiator
- Engine air filter
- Hydraulic oil filter.
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5.1.4.3 EXTRAORDINARY MAINTENANCE AND CHECKS (fig. 3)
C
E
C
C
F
C
C
C
C
C
D
3
CAUTION: Never open the various access doors if the machine is not parked on a flat surface with the
engine off and the parking brake engaged.
Undo the screws (C) of the left (E) and right (D) side lids, remove the waterproof silencer cap (F) to take out
the lid (D), remove the lids to access the following parts:
- Battery
- Starter motor and alternator
- Hydrostatic transmission pump
- Drum reduction gear
- Radiator.
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5.2 MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
- Service
- Every 8 hours or daily
- Every 500 hours or 12 months
- Every 1000 hours or 24 months
- Every 2000 hours or 48 months
For engine maintenance, a copy of the maintenance schedule as indicated in the engine manufacturer’s
instruction manual is annexed (Chapter 5.5).
CAUTION: For all the operations on the engine, refer to the engine manufacturer’s instruction manual
provided separately from this manual.
5.3 RUNNING-IN AND SERVICE
The running-in period for this vehicle is at least 100 hours.
Therefore it is recommended to observe the instructions mentioned below to avoid any possible trouble:
- Let the engine run for a few minutes at medium RPM after each cold start.
- Do not run the engine at high RPM for long periods of time. Always use it at 50% to 80% of its maximum
power.
- Regularly check for water or oil leaks.
- Regularly check tightness of the screws and nuts.
After the first 500 hours of operation, in addition to the routine maintenance operations to be carried out (as
set out in chapter 5), it is advisable to carry out some additional operations (SERVICES) which subsequently
will be required at longer intervals.
Service includes a series of operations to be carried out on the vehicle after the first 100 hours of operation:
- Axle oil change
- Engine oil change
- Hydraulic oil filter replacement
- Air, oil and diesel filter replacement
CAUTION: The instructions for engine maintenance and running-in are given by way of example. Follow
the instructions given in the engine manufacturer’s instruction manual.
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5.4 SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE TABLE
Description of the symbols used in the table:
= Check and repair
= Replace
= Clean
= Grease or lubricate
REGULAR MAINTENANCE INTERVALS
EVERY 8
HOURS OR
DAILY
WORKING AREA
EVERY 500
HOURS OR
12 MONTHS
EVERY 1000
HOURS OR
24 MONTHS
EVERY 2000
HOURS OR
48 MONTHS
COMPLETE VEHICLE
SEAT BELT CONDITION AND FASTENING
STEERING OPERATION
GENERAL INSPECTIONS
GREASE NIPPLES (SEE THE SPECIFIC TABLE)
ACCELERATOR CABLES
HYDRAULIC CYLINDER ROD CONDITIONS
DRAINING THE FUEL TANK
WASHER STUB AXLE PINS
PROTECTIVE STRUCTURE
AIR FILTER GASKETS
AXLES AND
WHEELS
CLEANING THE AIR FILTER SEPARATOR
TYRE / WHEEL TIGHTENING TORQUES
AXLE AND DIFFERENTIAL BLEEDERS
AXLE - GEARBOX OR DIFFERENTIAL OIL
BRAKES
BRAKING SYSTEM TANK CAP BLEEDER
NEGATIVE PARKING BRAKE
PARKING BRAKE TEST
BRAKING SYSTEM FLUID
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
OPERATION OF THE HYRAULIC SERVICE DEVICES
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OIL
HOSE RUBBING AND DAMAGE
HYDRAULIC OIL TANK CAP BLEEDER
HYDRAULIC OIL FILTER
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REGULAR MAINTENANCE INTERVALS
EVERY 8
HOURS OR
DAILY
REDUCTION
GEARS
WORKING AREA
EVERY 500
HOURS OR
12 MONTHS
EVERY 1000
HOURS OR
24 MONTHS
EVERY 2000
HOURS OR
48 MONTHS
DRUM REDUCTION GEAR OIL
LIGHT INDICATORS AND ACOUSTIC ALARMS
WATER
SYSTEM
ELECTRIC COMPONENTS
ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT OPERATION
INSTRUMENT PANEL
BATTERY ELECTROLYTE LEVEL
PARKING BRAKE BUTTON
BATTERY PINS
HAND ACCELERATOR MICROSWITCH
LITER COUNTER
WATER TRANSFER PUMP
PRE-FILTER WATER TRANSFER PUMP
5.5 ENGINE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE
CAUTION: For maintenance, refer to the table on page 86 of the engine user manual, enclosed with
this document.
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5.6 RECOMMENDED LUBRICANTS AND FLUIDS TABLE
Q.TY
RECOMMENDED
LUBRICANT
VISCOSITY
20 l
ENI ANTIFREEZE
EXTRA
50% ETHYLENE GLYCOL
50% WATER
-35° ÷ +50°
ENGINE
6,75 kg
TITAN CARGO
5W 40
82,7 mm2/s (40°)
14,3 mm2/s (100°)
-25° ÷ +50°
ACEA E9 - E7
API GJ-4
CAT ECF-2/ECF-3
AXLES FRONT
6.75 kg
ENI
MULTI-THT/SL80W
72 CTS
80W
-25° ÷ +50°
API GL 4
ISO-L-CKD
DIN 51517 TEIL 3 CLP
ANSI / AGMA 9005 - 94
CAS 101316 - 72 - 7
CAS 64741 - 95 - 3
DEVICE TO BE REFILLED
COOLING SYSTEM
AXLES REAR
7 kg
4 HUBS
2.85 kg
GEARBOX
1.45 kg
DRUM REDUCTION GEAR
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
2.5 kg
INTERNATIONAL
CLASSIFICATION
ETHYLENE GLYCOL
B.S. 6580.92
ASTM D 3306
ASTM D 4985
ASTM D 1384
CUNA NC 956-16
ENI BLASIA 150
141 mm2/s (40°C)
-21° ÷ +200°
ENI
ARNICA 22
22
-27° ÷ +25°
ARNICA 46
46
-10° ÷ +35°
ARNICA 68
68
-3° ÷ +45°
20 CTS
-40° ÷ +50°
PSA-B-712710
ISO 7308
-40° ÷ +50°
GREASE
NLGI 1
120 l
BRAKING SYSTEM
0.75 l
ENI LHM
SUPER
VARIOUS GREASING PRODUCTS
0.5 kg
ENI GR
LP1
FUEL TANK
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE IN ° C
DIN51524
PARTE 3HVLP
CETOP RP 91H HV
ISO L-HV
DENISON HF0-HF2
DIESEL ASTM N2
85 l
D TYPE TT, HIGH QUALITY AND BRAND
The oil quantities indicated are those needed for periodic oil changes, following the draining and filling
procedures described in detail for each unit.
5.6.1 DIESEL FUEL REQUIREMENTS
The Engine manufacturer is not in a position to continuously evaluate and monitor all worldwide distillate diesel
fuel specifications that are published by governments and technological societies.
The Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel provides a known reliable baseline in order to judge the expected
performance of distillate diesel fuels that are derived from conventional sources.
Satisfactory engine performance is dependent on the use of a good quality fuel. The use of a good quality fuel
will give the following results: long engine life and acceptable exhaust emissions levels . The fuel must meet
the minimum requirements that are stated in the table.
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Note: The footnotes are of the key part Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel Table. Read ALL of the footnotes.
SPECIFICATION FOR DISTILLATE DIESEL FUEL (1)
Property
UNITS
Requirements
ASTMTest
ISOTest
Aromatics
%Volume
35% maximum
D1319 I
SO3837
Ash
%Weight
0,01% maximum
D482
ISO6245
Carbon Residue on
10% Bottoms
%Weight
0,35% maximum
D524
ISO4262
40 minimum
Cetane Number(2)
Cloud Point
°C
Copper Strip Corrosion
D613/D6890
The cloud point must D2500
not exceed the lowest
expected ambient temperature.
N. 3 maximum
D130
ISO5165
ISO3015
ISO2160
Density at 15 °C (59 °F)(3)
Kg/m3
801 minimum and
876 maximum
No equivalent test
ISO 3675ISO 12185
Distillation
°C
10% at 282 °C (539.6
°F) maximum
90% at 360 °C (680 °F)
maximum
D86
ISO3405
Flash Point
°C
legal limit
D93
ISO2719
Thermal Stability
Minimum of 80% re- D6468
flectance after aging
for 180 minutes at 150
°C (302 °F)
No equivalent test
Pour Point
°C
6 °C (42.8 °F) minimum below ambient
temperature
D97
ISO3016
Sulfur(1)
% mass
0,0015
D5453/D26222
ISO 20846ISO 20884
Kinematic Viscosity(4)
mm2/s (cSt)
The viscosity of the
fuel that is delivered
to the fuel injection
pump. “1.4 minimum/
4.5 maximum”
D445
ISO3405
Water and sediment
%Weight
0,1% maximum
D1796
ISO3734
Water
%Weight
0,1% maximum
D1744
Sediment
%Weight
0,05% maximum
D473
D473
Gums and Resins (5)
mg/100mL
10 mg per 100 mL
maximum
D381
ISO6246
Lubricity corrected wear
scar diameter at 60 °C
(140 °F).(6)
mm
0,52 maximum
D6079
ISO12156-1
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(1)
This specification includes the requirements for Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD). ULSD fuel will have ≤ 15 ppm (0.0015%)
sulfur. Refer to ASTM D5453, ASTM D2622, or ISO 20846, ISO 20884 test methods.
(2)
A fuel with a higher cetane number is recommended in order to operate at a higher altitude or in cold weather.
(3)
“Via standards tables, the equivalent API gravity for the minimum density of 801 kg / m3 (kilograms per cubic meter) is
45 and for the maximum density of 876 kg / m3 is 30”.
(4)
The values of the fuel viscosity are the values as the fuel is delivered to the fuel injection pumps. Fuel should also meet
the minimum viscosity requirement and the fuel should meet the maximum viscosity requirements at 40 °C (104 °F) of
either the ASTM D445 test method or the ISO 3104 test method. If a fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of the fuel
may be required to maintain “1.4 cSt”or greater viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels with a high viscosity might
require fuel heaters in order to lower the viscosity to “1.4 cSt” at the fuel injection pump.
(5)
Follow the test conditions and procedures for gasoline (motor).
(6)
The lubricity of a fuel is a concern with ultra low sulfur fuel. To determine the lubricity of the fuel, use the ISO 12156-1
or ASTM D6079 High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) test. If the lubricity of a fuel does not meet the minimum
requirements, consult your fuel supplier. Do not treat the fuel without consulting the fuel supplier. Some additives are not
compatible. These additives can cause problems in the fuel system.
Engines that are certified with the fuel that is prescribed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.
Engines that are manufactured are certified with the fuel that is prescribed by the European Certification.
The Engine manufacturer does not certify diesel engines on any other fuel.
Note: The owner and the operator of the engine has the responsibility of using the fuel that is prescribed by the
EPA and other appropriate regulatory agencies.
CAUTION: Operating with fuels that do not meet the Engine manufacturer recommendations can cause the following effects: Starting difficulty, reduced fuel filter service life, poor combustion,
deposits in the fuel injectors, significantly reduce service life of the fuel system, deposits
in the combustion chamber and reduced service life of the engine.
CAUTION: The diesel engine must be operated using Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel. The sulphur content of
this fuel must be lower than 15 PPM. This fuel complies with the emissions regulations that
are prescribed by the Environmental Protection Agency of the United States.
The fuel specifications that are listed in the table are released as acceptable to use on engine.
Acceptable Fuel Specification for the 854 Engines (1)
Fuel Specification
Comments
EN590
European Automotive Diesel Fuel (DERV)
ASTM D975 GRADE 1D S15
“North American Light Distillate Diesel fuel with less than 15
PPM sulfur level”
ASTM D975 GRADE 2D S15
“North American Middle Distillate general purpose Diesel fuel
with less than 15 PPM sulfur level”
JIS K2204
“Japanese Diesel Fuel” Must meet the requirements that are
stated in the section “Lubricity”.
BS 2869: 2010 CLASS A2 or EU equivalent
“EU Off Road Diesel fuel. Acceptable from 2011 MUST have
less than 10 PPM sulfur level”
(1)
All the fuels must comply with the specification in the table Specification Distillate Diesel Fuel.
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5.7 GENERAL INSPECTIONS
5.7.1 GREASE (fig. 3)
A
5
6
4
7
3
8
3
4
1
2
1
2
4
CAUTION: For the greasing operations, park the vehicle on flat ground and lower the arm. Remove the
ignition key and apply the parking brake.
CAUTION: Daily grease the drum rollers to keep them free of concrete residues. Do not use graphite
grease on the bearings.
The vehicle must be greased regularly in order to keep it in efficient operating conditions. Grease using the
pump A provided, and stop greasing as soon as fresh grease starts flowing out from the openings.
POS.
WORKING AREA
1
AXLE HUBS
2
Q.
EVERY 40 HOURS OF
EVERY 160 HOURS OF
EVERY 8 HOURS
OPERATION OR WEEKLY OPERATION OR MONTHLY
OR DAILY
4+4
X
TRANSMISSION SHAFT
6
X
3
OSCILLATING CHASSIS
2
4
ARM LIFTING CYLINDERS
2+2
X
5
MIXER ROLLERS
1+1
X
6
UNLOADING CHUTE
1
X
7
LIFTING ARM
2
X
8
DRUM REDUCTION GEAR FORK
1
X
X
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5.7.2 CLEANING AND DRAINING THE FUEL TANK (fig. 5)
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
A
5
DANGER: Extinguish all smoking materials and open flames as there may be flammable
vapours.
With the engine off, position an adequately-sized container under the fuel tank. Unscrew the cap A and let the
fuel flow out until it is clean and free of impurities that have remained at the bottom of the tank.
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5.8 AXLE AND WHEELS
5.8.1 CLEANING THE AXLE AND DIFFERENTIAL BLEEDERS (fig. 6)
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
DANGER: Never use petrol, solvents or flammable liquids in general for cleaning.
Use only approved non-flammable and non-toxic commercial solvents.
- Remove any dirt from the bleeders (1) located on both the axles and the differentials.
5.8.2 CHECKING AND TOPPING UP THE OIL LEVEL IN THE FRONT AND REAR AXLES (fig. 6)
1
2
1
A
2
3
B
3
2
4
3
6
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
CAUTION: The gearbox housing A is connected to the axle B, therefore the optimal oil level of the axle
corresponds to that of the gearbox housing.
- Park the vehicle on level ground, turn off the engine, apply the parking brake, lower the arm and remove the
ignition key.
- Unscrew the filler cap (2) and the level gauge caps (3) - (4) (in horizontal position).
- If oil trickles from the level gauge caps (3) - (4) , it is not necessary to top up; if not, top up using a funnel
adding oil through the filler cap (2) and the level gauge cap (4) until reaching the optimal level.
- Screw all the caps back on after topping up.
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5.8.3 REPLACING THE OIL IN THE FRONT AND REAR AXLES (fig. 7)
4
4
1
3
3
1
4
2
1
3
7
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
- Park the vehicle on level ground, turn off the engine, apply the parking brake, lower the arm and remove the
ignition key.
- Turn the engine off and apply the parking brake.
- Loosen drain plugs (1) and (2). Plug (2) is to be set in lower position through the planetary reduction gear
rotation.
- Loosen the oil level cap (3).
- Let oil flow out completely.
- Move the planetary reduction gear with cap (2) back into position as shown in the figure.
- Loosen the filling up plug (4).
- With a funnel put the recommended type of oil in through the filling up cap (4) until it starts dripping from the
level hole (3) and (2).
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5.8.5 CHECKING AND ADJUSTING THE TYRE PRESURE (fig. 8)
CAUTION: Tyre maintenance and inflation are potentially dangerous operations. If possible, it is
advisable to have tyre maintenance and fitting carried out by a SPECIALISED CENTRE or
SKILLED PERSONNEL.
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
TYRES
PRESSURE
18-19,5 18PR
WHEEL NUT TIGHTENING TORQUE
5,4 bar
630 Nm
8
Upon delivery of the vehicle, check the tyre inflation pressure and subsequently check it weekly.
Make sure that the tyres are inflated to the pressure specified by the manufacturer.
Check the tyre pressure when they are cold.
The inflation pressure also determines the weight a tyre can support. Identify the tyre sizes in the pressure and
loads table. Do not over- or under-inflate the tyres.
Incorrect tyre inflation causes tyre problems, therefore do not under-inflate A or over-inflate B.
If a tyre has completely deflated, call in a mechanic who will use an inflation cradle and suitable tools.
Before inflating a tyre, check that the wheel is properly fitted.
Only use air pumps fitted with a pressure regulator to be set to no more than 1 bar above the specified tyre
inflation pressure.
Make sure that the flexible air hose is properly connected to the tyre valve.
CAUTION: Check and tighten the rim bolts before each work shift, alternately going from one bolt to
the one diametrically opposite in the order shown in the figure.
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5.8.6 REPLACING THE WHEELS
CAUTION: Tyre maintenance and inflation are potentially dangerous operations. If possible, it is
advisable to have tyre maintenance and fitting carried out by a SPECIALISED CENTRE or
SKILLED PERSONNEL.
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
8
9
When you need to change a tyre, first of all engage the parking brake, shift the gear selector to neutral, turn off
the engine and remove the ignition key.
Position a wedge under the wheel diametrically opposite the one to be changed as shown in the figure.
10
DANGER: It is prohibited to change a tyre on a slope or near canals or ditches to prevent the
vehicle from overturning and causing serious injury.
This operation must be performed on a solid, flat surface.
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B
C
B
A
11
CAUTION: Jack up the vehicle ONLY when the drum is empty and in rest position. Ensure that there
are always 3 wheels resting on level and solid ground.
DANGER: The rear axle is oscillating and, during lifting, there is a risk of crushing your limbs
between the axle and the chassis. Incorrectly jacking up may moreover cause the
vehicle to overturn posing a grave risk to anyone working in the vicinity.
CAUTION: Pay attention to the support area underneath the jack; this area must be capable of
supporting the entire weight of the vehicle.
Fit the jack A under the central body B of the rear axle.
To replace the front tyres, fit the jack A under the screwed-on plate C of the axle shaft or, in the case of a
round-section axle shaft, fit an adapter (fork) in the jack.
Slowly jack up the vehicle until the arch rests on the chassis, then continue jacking up slowly until the deflated
tyre lifts off the ground and then proceed with repairing it.
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D
12
During tyre change or repair, always fit adequate stands or supports D capable of supporting the weight of the
vehicle under the axles.
After fitting the wheel, tighten the nuts in the order shown in the figure illustrating wheel nut tightening.
13
If you want to invert a wheel, operate as shown in the figure; you cannot interchange the tyres crosswise,
because of the type of tread.
Fit the wheels with the tyre tread facing in the direction shown in the figure.
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5.9 BRAKES
5.9.1 CHECKING AND TOPPING UP THE BRAKE FLUID LEVEL (fig. 14)
A
14
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
CAUTION: It is essential to use only the fluid indicated in the RECOMMENDED LUBRICANTS AND
FLUIDS TABLE; using unsuitable fluids will damage the braking system. Regularly check
good functioning of all the braking components.
CAUTION: In the event of malfunctioning, immediately contact the nearest AUTHORISED FIORI
WORKSHOP.
The brake fluid tank is installed to the side of the driving post.
Always check the brake fluid level before you start using the vehicle.
5.9.2 CLEANING THE BRAKE FLUID TANK BLEEDERS (fig. 14)
DANGER: Never use petrol, solvents or flammable liquids in general for cleaning.
Use only non-flammable and non-toxic commercial solvents.
Always wear protective goggles with side screens when working with compressed
air.
Limit the pressure to 2 bar according to the regulations in force.
- Unscrew the bleeder cap A.
- Clean the cap surface with a brush and solvent.
- Clean the bleeder hole with a pointed tool and then dry it with a blast of compressed air.
- Screw the bleeder cap A back on.
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5.9.3 REPLACING THE BRAKING SYSTEM FLUID (fig. 15)
A
B
15
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
CAUTION: Block all the wheels with wedges at the front and rear and always engage the parking brake
before operating on the system lines.
CAUTION: Air in the braking system will lead to poor braking performance. Always bleed the air after
working on the braking system. If you are not sure that all the air has been bled from the
system, have it checked by skilled technicians.
CAUTION: Do not pollute the environment. Keep used oils in special containers and send them to
companies specialised in storage and disposal of polluting and hazardous waste.
- Move the vehicle onto flat ground, engage the parking brake, turn off the engine and remove the ignition key.
- Clean the external wheel hub areas.
- Loosen the bleeder A and depress the brake pedal until all the fluid has drained into a pan positioned under
the axle.
- Tighten the bleeders A.
- Top up the brake fluid tank B with the recommended fluid.
- Bleed the air from the system as described below.
- Ask someone to assist you by getting onto the driving post, to depress the brake pedal.
- Unscrew the bleeder A by half a turn and have your colleague depress the brake pedal until bubble-free fluid
flows from the bleeder.
- Repeat the operation on all the axle bleeders A.
- Regularly top up the brake fluid tank.
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5.9.4 TESTING THE HAND BRAKE (fig. 16)
1
16
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
DANGER: Before testing the efficiency of the parking brake, check that there is no one near
the vehicle.
The efficiency of the hand brake helps ensure that the machine will remain still under full load on a gradient
of 25%.
- Ensure that the parking brake button (1) is fully pressed down.
- If you notice that the vehicle moves, contact an AUTHORISED FIORI SERVICE CENTRE.
CAUTION: Do not use the vehicle if the parking brake is not fully efficient.
5.9.5 CHECKING THE WEAR CONDITION OF THE BRAKING SYSTEM
This type of operation must be carried out by an AUTHORIZED FIORI SERVICE CENTRE.
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5.10 HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
5.10.1 CHECKING THE HYDRAULIC OIL (fig. 17)
MAX
MIN
A
17
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
CAUTION: Slowly loosen the bleeder cap to release the residual pressure. Carry out this operation
only with the engine off.
- Move the vehicle onto flat ground, engage the parking brake, turn off the engine and remove the ignition key.
-
Wait until the oil reaches the ambient temperature.
Open the engine compartment lid.
Check the hydraulic oil level with the dipstick A.
If it needs topping up, add oil through the filler neck.
5.10.2 REPLACING THE HYDRAULIC OIL TANK BLEEDER (fig. 17)
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
CAUTION: Slowly loosen the bleeder cap to release the residual pressure. Carry out this operation
only with the engine off.
- The bleeder cap A is disposable and hence does not need to be cleaned.
- Replace it only if broken or clogged with an identical one in order to keep the system adequately pressurised.
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5.10.3 CHANGE THE HYDRAULIC OIL FILTER CARTRIDGE (fig. 18)
C
A
D
18
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
CAUTION: Slowly loosen the bleeder cap to release the residual pressure. Carry out this operation
only with the engine off.
CAUTION: Do not pollute the environment. Keep the filters in special containers and send them to
companies specialised in storage and disposal of polluting and hazardous waste.
CAUTION: If the filter clogged warning light is permanently illuminated even when the oil is hot (35°C),
the suction filter needs to be replaced.
- Move the vehicle onto flat ground, engage the parking brake, turn off the engine and remove the ignition key.
-
Raise the engine compartment lid.
Remove the level gauge and filler cap. A and the filter cover C.
Remove the cartridge D.
Manually refit the new cartridge D taking care to correctly position the seals.
Clean and refit the filter cover C, taking care to correctly position the seal.
Check the level in the tank with the dipstick A and if topping up is required, fill with the specified oil until
reaching the indicated level, then screw the filler cap A back on.
- It is essential to keep a stock of spare cartridges D, which can be ordered from the AUTHORISED FIORI
SERVICE CENTRES or directly from FIORI SPARE PARTS DEPARTMENT.
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5.10.4 REPLACING THE HYDRAULIC OIL (fig. 19)
MAX
MIN
A
E
B
19
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
CAUTION: Slowly loosen the bleeder cap to release the residual pressure. Carry out this operation
only with the engine off.
CAUTION: Do not pollute the environment. Keep used oils in special containers and send them to
companies specialised in storage and disposal of polluting and hazardous waste.
- Move the vehicle onto flat ground, engage the parking brake, turn off the engine and remove the ignition key.
-
Raise the engine compartment lid.
Remove the bleeder and filler cap A.
Unscrew the drain cap B and drain all the oil from the tank into a container.
When the tank is empty, screw the drain cap B back in and fill the tank with the recommended oil until
reaching the required level, checking with the dipstick A.
- The engine must be started at first with successive activations of the starter motor without fully starting
the engine. Once started, keep it at idle speed for a few minutes before checking proper operation of the
hydraulic functions.
- Bleed any air that may have formed in the system by loosening the bleeder pipe E.
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5.10.5 CHECKING AND TOPPING UP THE DRUM REDUCTION GEAR OIL LEVEL (fig. 20)
B
C
A
20
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
- Remove the waterproof cap and the right side lid (see chapter 5.1.4.2) to access the drum reduction gear.
- Turn the drum so that the level gauge A of the reduction gear is positioned in the horizontal lateral part.
- Move the vehicle onto flat ground, engage the parking brake, turn off the engine and remove the ignition key.
- The optimal level is in the middle of the sight glass of the level gauge.
- If you need to top up, unscrew the cap B and add oil until reaching the optimal level.
CAUTION: Do not add oil through the air valve C.
5.10.6 DRUM REDUCTION GEAR OIL CHANGE (fig. 20)
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
CAUTION: Do not pollute the environment. Keep used oils in special containers and send them to
companies specialised in storage and disposal of polluting and hazardous waste.
- Move the vehicle onto flat ground and engage the parking brake.
- Remove the waterproof cap and the right side lid (see chapter 5.1.4.2) to access the drum reduction gear.
-
Turn the drum until the level gauge cap A is positioned at the bottom of the reduction gear.
Turn off the engine and remove the ignition key.
Unscrew the level gauge cap A and the filler cap B then drain out all the oil into a prearranged container.
Screw the level gauge cap back on and then turn the drum so that the level gauge hole A is in horizontal
position and the filler cap hole B positioned at the top.
- Fill with the recommended oil using a syringe.
- Screw the filler cap B back on.
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5.11 ENGINE
5.11.1 CLEANING THE ENGINE AIR FILTER SEPARATOR (fig. 21)
A
21
- Move the vehicle onto flat ground, engage the parking brake, turn off the engine and remove the ignition key.
- Open the engine compartment lid to access the filter, squeeze the lower part of the separator A with your
fingers to open it, letting the dust accumulated inside drop out.
5.11.2 CLEANING OR REPLACING THE ENGINE AIR FILTER CARTRDIGE (fig. 22)
B
A
C
E
D
22
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
CAUTION: Do not pollute the environment. Keep the filters in special containers and send them to
companies specialised in storage and disposal of polluting and hazardous waste.
DANGER: Always wear protective goggles with side screens when working with compressed
air.
Limit the pressure to 2 bar according to the regulations in force.
- Move the vehicle onto flat ground, engage the parking brake, turn off the engine and remove the ignition key.
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Open the engine compartment lid and check the air filter.
Release the two hooks D and remove the cover A.
Remove the cartridge B and replace it with a new one if necessary.
Remove cartridges B and C, clean cartridge B by tapping its front E gently several times onto a flat surface;
do not use compressed air.
After cleaning the cartridge, check that there is no internal damage using a torch to illuminate the inside.
If light filters through to the outside the cartridge must be replaced.
Also replace the cartridge when the rubber seal is damaged.
If cartridge C is soiled, do not attempt to clean the cartridges, replace them both.
Before refitting the cartridge, clean the inside of the filter body and the separator.
Refit the cartridge and make sure that it is properly in place.
Close the cover A.
It is essential to keep a stock of spare cartridges B and C, which can be ordered from the AUTHORISED
FIORI SERVICE CENTRES or directly from FIORI SPARE PARTS DEPARTMENT.
5.11.3 CHECKING AND TOPPING UP THE COOLANT LEVEL (fig. 23)
A
MIN
23
CAUTION: Use only coolant of the type and brand recommended by the manufacturer, as indicated in the
Recommended Lubricants and Fluids table in the right WATER/ANTIFREEZE percentages.
DANGER: Do not remove the cap when the engine is still hot.
The fluid is under pressure, therefore, before removing the filler cap, turn it slowly
to release the pressure.
- Move the vehicle onto flat ground, engage the parking brake, turn off the engine and remove the ignition key.
- Open the engine compartment lid.
- Check the fluid level in the tank.
- If the level is low, wait until the fluid has reached ambient temperature, slowly unscrew the cap A and top up
until reaching the optimal level.
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5.11.4 REPLACING THE ENGINE COOLANT (fig. 24)
B
A
MAX
C
24
D
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
CAUTION: Do not pollute the environment. Keep used fluids in special containers and send them to
companies specialised in storage and disposal of polluting and hazardous waste.
DANGER: Do not remove the cap when the engine is still hot.
The fluid is under pressure, therefore, before removing the filler cap, turn it slowly
to release the pressure.
CAUTION: Use only coolant of the type and brand recommended by the manufacturer, as indicated in the
Recommended Lubricants and Fluids table in the right WATER/ANTIFREEZE percentages.
CAUTION: In addition to the operations described below, also refer to the engine manufacturer’s
instruction manual.
- Move the vehicle onto flat ground, engage the parking brake, turn off the engine and remove the ignition key.
- Wait until the fluid reaches the ambient temperature.
- Slowly unscrew cap A of the introduction tray B.
- To drain all the fluid out, slacken off screw C to vent any air, place a container under the radiator and remove
cap D to drain it.
- Screw cap D andthe screw C back in, then slowly add the recommended fluid in the tank B up to the
maximum level.
- Screw the cap A back on.
- Close the engine compartment lid.
- Start the engine and let it run for a few minutes.
- Let the engine cool down.
- Check the fluid level in the tank B and top up if necessary.
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5.11.5 CHECKING AND ADJUSTING THE ALTERNATOR BELT TENSIONING
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
DANGER: Open the lid only with the engine off.
CAUTION: If you have any doubts about the operating procedures, also refer to the engine instruction
manual provided with this manual. Where necessary, ask an Authorised FIORI Service
Centre for assistance.
CAUTION: In addition to the operations described below, also refer to the engine manufacturer’s
instruction manual.
- Move the vehicle onto flat ground, engage the parking brake, turn off the engine and remove the ignition key.
- Open the engine compartment lid and check the tension and wear of the alternator belt.
- To work on the belt, refer to the engine manufacturer’s manual attached.
5.11.6 FUEL SEDIMENT BOWL (fig. 25)
25
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
DANGER: Open the lid only with the engine off.
CAUTION: If you have any doubts about the operating procedures, also refer to the engine instruction
manual provided with this manual. Where necessary, ask an Authorised FIORI Service
Centre for assistance.
CAUTION: In addition to the operations described below, also refer to the engine manufacturer’s
instruction manual.
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- Move the vehicle onto flat ground, engage the parking brake, turn off the engine and remove the ignition key.
-
Open the engine compartment lid; the bowl is positioned on the left-hand side of the engine.
It does not require particular care, only check that there is fuel in the injection circuit.
Periodically check if the sediment bowl is clogged or contains water.
Always bleed the air from the system after cleaning the bowl.
5.11.7 AIR BLEEDING IN THE ENGINE FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
DANGER: Open the lid only with the engine off.
CAUTION: If you have any doubts about the operating procedures, also refer to the engine instruction
manual provided with this manual. Where necessary, ask an Authorised FIORI Service
Centre for assistance.
CAUTION: In addition to the operations described below, also refer to the engine manufacturer’s
instruction manual.
The air must be bled from the fuel system in the following cases:
- Long periods of inactivity.
- Filter and/or pipe replacement.
- Fuel tank completely empty.
5.11.8 REPLACING THE ENGINE FUEL SUPPLY PRE-FILTER AND FILTER
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
CAUTION: Do not pollute the environment. Keep the filters in special containers and send them to
companies specialised in storage and disposal of polluting and hazardous waste.
DANGER: Open the lid only with the engine off.
CAUTION: If you have any doubts about the operating procedures, also refer to the engine instruction
manual provided with this manual. Where necessary, ask an Authorised FIORI Service
Centre for assistance.
- Move the vehicle onto flat ground, engage the parking brake, turn off the engine and remove the ignition key.
- For the operations to be carried out, refer to the engine manufacturer’s manual attached.
- It is essential to keep a stock of spare filters, which can be ordered from the AUTHORISED FIORI SERVICE
CENTRES or directly from FIORI SPARE PARTS DEPARTMENT.
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5.11.9 CHECKING AND TOPPING UP THE ENGINE OIL LEVEL (fig. 26)
B
A
26
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
DANGER: Open the lid only with the engine off.
CAUTION: If you have any doubts about the operating procedures, also refer to the engine instruction
manual provided with this manual. Where necessary, ask an Authorised FIORI Service
Centre for assistance.
CAUTION: In addition to the operations described below, also refer to the engine manufacturer’s
instruction manual.
- Move the vehicle onto flat ground, engage the parking brake, turn off the engine and remove the ignition key.
- Wait until the oil reaches the ambient temperature.
- Unscrew the cap B.
- Check that the oil level is between the two marks on the dipstick A
- Screw the cap B back on put the dipstick A back into place.
If the oil is at minimum level, add oil until the level is at the maximum mark on the dipstick.
5.11.10 REPLACING THE ENGINE OIL FILTER
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
CAUTION: Do not pollute the environment. Keep the filters in special containers and send them to
companies specialised in storage and disposal of polluting and hazardous waste.
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DANGER: Open the lid only with the engine off.
CAUTION: If you have any doubts about the operating procedures, also refer to the engine instruction
manual provided with this manual. Where necessary, ask an Authorised FIORI Service
Centre for assistance.
- Move the vehicle onto flat ground, engage the parking brake, turn off the engine and remove the ignition key.
- For the operations to be carried out, refer to the engine manufacturer’s manual attached.
- It is essential to keep a stock of spare filters, which can be ordered from the AUTHORISED FIORI SERVICE
CENTRES or directly from FIORI SPARE PARTS DEPARTMENT.
5.11.11 REPLACING THE ENGINE OIL (fig. 27)
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
CAUTION: Do not pollute the environment. Keep used fluids in special containers and send them to
companies specialised in storage and disposal of polluting and hazardous waste.
DANGER: Open the lid only with the engine off.
CAUTION: If you have any doubts about the operating procedures, also refer to the engine instruction
manual provided with this manual. Where necessary, ask an Authorised FIORI Service
Centre for assistance.
- Move the vehicle onto flat ground, engage the parking brake, turn off the engine and remove the ignition key.
- Remove the dipstick A and the introduction cap B (chapter 5.11.9) to help the oil drain out from the exhaust.
- Move to the underneath of the engine on the right-hand side of the frame metal-strut, place a pan under cap
C of the engine exhaust pipe, undo cap C and let all the oil drain out.
- Screw the filler cap back on and refer to the engine manual attached to perform the operations that follow.
C
27
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5.11.12 DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER REGENERATION
The DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) uses passive regeneration in order to remove the soot from the DPF. Passive
regeneration is a chemical reaction within the system. Normal operation of the engine creates enough heat
for a chemical reaction in order to regenerate the DPF. The regeneration occurs automatically during normal
engine operation.
This system uses an amount of active regeneration in order to ensure that soot cannot exit the DPF. The DPF
will not require manual cleaning.
5.11.12.1 Regeneration Indicators
Five indicators can be affected by the DPF regeneration. these indicators are, Regeneration Active (A), DPF
(B), Disable Regeneration (C) (Electronic engine parameter control monitor), Amber, or Yellow Warning Indicator
(D) (Electronic control panel) and Red Stop Indicator. (E) (Driving post instrument panel).
A - Regeneration Active: This indicator will illuminate during active regeneration. The indicator shows
that elevated exhaust temperatures are possible. The indicator will be turned off when regeneration
is complete.
B - DPF: This indicator provides a general indication of the soot load. The indicator is off when the
soot load is normal.
C - Disable Regeneration: This indicator is illuminated whenever the disable switch is activated.
D
D
E
E
28
5.11.12.2 Modes of Regeneration
Automatic regeneration - Automatic regeneration will occur when the level of soot reaches the trigger point
that is set in the ECM. The engine can operate normally during an automatic regeneration.
Manual - This operation must be carried out with the engine off and the parking brake engaged. A manual
regeneration is initiated by pressing the regeneration switch (F). A forced regeneration can only be performed
after the soot load has illuminated the DPF indicator . A forced regeneration will only be required if the automatic
regeneration has not been completed. This situation can be due to either the disable switch (G) being operated
or the duty cycle of the engine.
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F - Force Regeneration: Press the switch for 2 seconds in order to
begin regeneration.
G - Disable Regeneration: Press the switch for 2 seconds in order
to disable regeneration.
G
F
Note: You may return to normal operation at any point during a regeneration.
5.11.12.3 Indicator Operation
Aftertreatment Aftertreatment Warning
Indicator
Indicator State Indicator
Warning Indicator State
Regeneration
Active indicator (A)
Description
Action Required
Regeneration is activated.
The indicator will stay
illuminated during regeneration.
DPF Indicator
(B)
On Solid
DPF Indicator
(B)
On Solid
DPF Indicator
(B)
On Solid
The indicator provides
a general indication of
the soot load. The indicator is off when the
soot load isnormal.
Lock the joystick by inserting the locking rod.
Amber indicator Flashing
(D)
The indicator indicates
that the soot load has
increased.
The engine will derate.
A manual regeneration is
required. Perform a manual regeneration, or a
service regeneration will
be required.
Amber indicator Flashing
(D)
The flashing warning
indicator and red stop
indicator indicates that
the engine has continued to be operated
while a regeneration is
required.
The engine will be derated and the engine
should be shut down
immediately.
Once the engine enters
into shutdown mode,
you must contact your
Perkins distributor or
your Perkins dealer.
Your dealer or distributor
will need to perform a
service level regeneration. The DFP may need
to be replaced.
Red indicator
(STOP) (E)
On Solid
5.11.12.4 Regeneration Operation
Regeneration will require the following conditions:
- Automatic Regeneration
In order for an automatic regeneration to take place the engine must be at operating temperature.
Turning the keyswitch to the OFF position during a regeneration will stop the regeneration. An interrupted
regeneration will not remove the soot from the DPF and will waste fuel.
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- Manual Regeneration
The DPF indicator must be illuminated. Where applicable, safety interlock for your application must be engaged before a manual regeneration can occur, refer to your OEM for more information. No throttle inputs are
required, the ECM will control the engine RPM. Press the force regeneration switch for 2 seconds. Do not
operate the application during the manual regeneration.
The regeneration time varies according to the extent of clogging of the DPF. The operation is completed when
the DPF warning light (B) switches off.
- Service Regeneration
CAUTION: The electronic service tool will be required in order to perform a force regeneration. Contact
your Perkins distributor or your Perkins dealer.
5.11.13 ENGINE DIAGNOSTICS (fig. 29)
A
29
CAUTION: Engine diagnostics must be run by an authorised FIORI technician.
- Make sure that the vehicle is on flat ground and the parking brake engaged.
- Open the seat mount door to access the printed circuit board with fuses and relays, remove the cap A of the
diagnostics socket on the left of the board and then insert the diagnostics connector. Now run the engine
diagnostics procedure.
5.11.14 DISPLAYING ENGINE FAULT CODES ON THE PARAMETER CONTROL MONITOR (fig. 30)
START SCREEN
SCREEN WITH FAULT CODE
30
When the parameter control monitor receives a fault code from the engine, it displays a message with the fault
code for the cause of the engine fault itself.
For the meanings of the fault codes, refer to the STANDARD LIST OF ENGINE DIAGNOSTICS MESSAGES
in the paragraph TECHNICAL ENCLOSURES.
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5.12 ELECTRIC COMPONENTS
5.12.1 FUSES AND RELAYS
- Driver’s seat fuses (fig. 31)
22
25
5
16 15 14 13 12 11
4
3
2
1
24
23
10 9
21 20 19 18 17
8 7
6
31
POS.
AMPERAGE
COLOUR
POS.
AMPERAGE
COLOUR
1
15A
blue
14
7,5A
brown
2
7,5A
brown
15
15A
blue
3
10A
red
16
3A
violet
4
5A
beige
17
3A
violet
5
15A
blue
18
15A
blue
6
7,5A
brown
19
15A
blue
7
15A
blue
20
15A
blue
8
10A
red
21
15A
blue
9
10A
red
22
5A
beige
10
5A
beige
23
10A
red
11
5A
beige
24
5A
beige
12
3A
violet
25
5A
beige
13
7,5A
brown
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List of fuses
01 - (F101) - Courtesy light and socket power supply.
02 - (F102) - Power supply for arm lowering enable, grab bucket opening control, relay (K101).
03 - (F103) - Power supply for front windscreen wipers and windscreen washer pump control.
04 - (F104) - Power supply for water pump control, litre counter sensor, water pump bistable relay (optional).
05 - (F105) - Power supply for heating fan control, A/C compressor (optional).
06 - (F106) - Relay power supply (K107).
07 - (F107) - Power supply for parking brake control, neutral enable on forward drive control, 1st-2nd gearshift control, relay (K103), relay (K105).
08 - (F108) - Power supply for acoustic indicator and rear camera.
09 - (F109) - Power supply for direction indicators and stop light bulb.
10 - (F110) - Drum rotation control power supply.
11 - (F111) - Power supply for water in the fuel, LCD instrument, 1st and 2nd gear warning lights, relay coil
(K107), relay coil (K108), relay coil (K111).
12 - (F112) - Front LH and rear RH position light, front working light control.
13 - (F113) - RH low beam headlight.
14 - (F114) - LH low beam headlight.
15 - (F115) - Power supply for additive pumps (optional).
16 - (F116) - Front RH and rear LH position light, position light indicator.
17 - (F117) - Power supply for weighing central unit (optional).
18 - (F118) - Power supply for emergency lights, rotating beacon control.
19 - (F119) - Relay power supply (K109).
20 - (F120) - Relay power supply (K110).
21 - (SPARE 1) - Spare fuse.
22 - (SPARE 2) - Spare fuse.
23 - (SPARE 3) - Spare fuse.
24 - Engine sensor power supply.
25 - ECM control unit power supply.
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- Fuses above the engine power takeoff (fig. 32)
26
28
29
A
27
30
32
26 - 30A - green - power supply for leisure device relay.
27 - 40A - yellow – power supply for starter motor relay and fuse/relay printed circuit board.
28 - 50A - red - start switch power supply.
29 - 60A - blue - spark plug control unit power supply (A).
30 - 30A - Maxi fuse - ECM control unit power supply.
CAUTION: If a fuse blows or a relay burns, find the cause before replacing it with a new one.
DANGER: Do not operate bypassing the fuse as there is a risk of short- circuit.
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- Driver’s seat relays (fig. 33)
10
14
15
11
12
13
17
16
9
8
7
6
4
5
3
2
1
33
01 - K101 - Micro relay for arm lowering enable and grab bucket opening.
02 - K102 - Mini relay for water pump control.
03 - K103 - Micro relay for forward drive enable with accelerator lever on OFF.
04 - K104 - Micro relay for start enable with gear in neutral.
05 - K105 - Micro relay for forward drive enable with engaged gear microswitch.
06 - K106 - Gearshift micro relay.
07 - K107 - Engine off micro relay.
08 - K108 - Micro relay for start enable without water in the fuel.
09 - K109 - Micro relay for front working light.
10 - K110 - Micro relay for RH and LH reverse gear lights.
11 - K111 - Micro relay for machine operating acoustic indicator control.
12 - K112 - Neutral enable micro relay.
13 - K113 - Flashing hazard lights/direction indicators.
14 - K114 - Micro relay available.
15 - K115 - Micro relay available.
16 - Electronic relay weighing (optional).
17 - Electronic relay high-pressure (optional).
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- Relays above the engine power takeoff (fig. 34)
19
18
A
34
18 - Relay for engine electronic power supply enable (main relay)
19 - Starter motor relay
A - Engine spark plug control unit
CAUTION: If a fuse blows or a relay burns, find the cause before replacing it with a new one.
5.12.2 ELECTRONIC DASHBOARD WARNING LIGHTS (fig. 35)
35
In the event of malfunctioning of the electronic panel, contact the nearest AUTHORISED FIORI SERVICE
CENTRE or FIORI SPARE PARTS DEPARTMENT directly. In the event of replacement, the panel is delivered
already programmed.
CAUTION: Note down the hours of operation before replacing the electronic control panel.
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5.12.3 REPLACING THE LIGHT BULBS (fig. 36)
DANGER: Modifications or repairs to the electric system made incorrectly or without taking
the technical specifications of the system into account may cause malfunctions
with a risk of fire.
When a light is not working, check that the corresponding fuse is intact before replacing the bulb.
Before replacing a burnt bulb, check that the contacts are not oxidised.
Burnt bulbs must be replaced with new ones of the same type. Bulbs with insufficient power provide poor light,
whereas too powerful bulbs absorb too much energy.
After replacing a headlight bulb always check the orientation for safety reasons.
E
C
F
G
A
D
B
B
A
36
A - low beam bulb………………………………………………………………………… ............... 12V - 55W H7
B - direction indicator bulb ...................................................................................................... 12V - P21W
position light/side marker bulb .......................................................................................... 12V - R5W
C - Stop light bulb ................................................................................................................... 12V - P21W
Position light bulb ............................................................................................................. 12V - P5W
direction indicator light bulb ............................................................................................... 12V - PY21W
reverse gear light bulb……………………………………………………………………………12V - P21W
D - number plate light bulb ...................................................................................................... 12V - W5W
E - rotating beacon bulb ......................................................................................................... 12V - 55W H1
F - courtesy light bulb .............................................................................................................. 12V - C5W
G - working light bulb (optional) ............................................................................................... 12V - 886 50W
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5.12.4 CHECKING AND TOPPING UP THE BATTERY ELECTROLYTE LEVEL (fig. 37)
E
D
C
A
37
B
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
DANGER: Wear protective goggles when operating on the battery. The battery contains
SULPHURIC ACID. If it comes into contact with your skin or eyes, immediately
rinse with water for at least 15 minutes and immediately seek medical advice.
DANGER: Wear protective gloves and clothing when handling the battery; do not tilt or turn
the battery upside down as acid could leak from the bleeder holes. Extinguish open
flames or smoking materials before checking or charging the battery. Batteries
release FLAMMABLE VAPOURS.
CAUTION: If the battery is partly discharged, replace it with an identical one or ask an electrical repair
shop to recharge it, or emergency start the machine.
CAUTION: Do not pollute the environment. Batteries are classified as polluting and hazardous waste
under the law.
- the battery installed requires little maintenance, therefore, in normal conditions of use, the electrolyte does
not need to be topped up. - Nevertheless, every 6 months check that the electrolyte level is between the
MAX and MIN notches marked on the battery.
- Before operating on the battery, remove the battery disconnection key A to cut the power to the system.
- Remove the waterproof cap E and the right side lid B (see chapter 5.1.4.2), and remove cover C to access
the battery.
- To top up the electrolyte level, remove caps D and fill up with distilled water without exceeding the maximum
level.
For a longer battery life, it is advisable to follow these additional instructions:
- Turn off the lights when the engine is off or in idle.
- Do not turn off the engine for short stops because the battery uses a lot of power to start the engine.
- Regularly check that the cable terminals are properly secured and lubricated with Vaseline.
- Always keep the top of the battery clean.
- Before working on the terminals, disconnect the end on the earth cable.
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5.12.5 BATTERY PINS CONTACT
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
- Disconnect the battery by removing the key from the battery master switch and proceed as described above
to access the battery, remove the terminals and thoroughly clean their ends.
- Refit the terminals and grease them with a layer of Vaseline grease.
- Refit the battery into place and reconnect it by inserting the key in the battery master switch.
5.12.6 BATTERY REPLACE
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
CAUTION: For this operation contact an electrical repair shop and always replace the battery with one
of the same amperage.
CAUTION: Do not pollute the environment. Keep the old battery in a suitable container and send it to
companies specialised in storage and disposal of polluting and hazardous waste.
- Disconnect the battery by removing the key from the battery master switch.
- Proceed as described above to access the battery.
- Remove the terminals.
- Unscrew the retaining clip.
- Remove the battery from its seat and replace it.
- Refit the battery following the removal operations in reverse order, and remember to grease the terminals
with Vaseline grease.
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5.12.7 RESTARTING A STATIONARY MACHINE USING AN EXTERNAL BATTERY (fig. 38)
A
C
B
38
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
PERICOLO: Do not perform improper manoeuvres that may generate high electric shocks
and also cause the battery to burst.
Keep away from the battery with open flames or lit cigarettes, there is the risk of
burst or fire.
Do not use a battery charger nor try an inertia start by pushing, towing or moving
the machine downhill.
The use of battery chargers is strictly forbidden as the electric features of
supplied energy may damage the electronic systems, and specifically the control
unit managing the start functions.
When the battery is discharged and the machine does not start, connect the cables to an external battery
following the instructions below:
- open the engine compartment lid A;
- choose a battery with the same or a higher capacity than the discharged battery;
- connect the red cable to the positive terminal of the charged battery and to the positive pole B placed next
to the fuses and relays above the engine power takeoff, being careful not to touch the metal parts;
- connect the black cable to the negative terminal of the charged battery and to the fastening screw head of
the engine mount C;
- once the engine has started, remove the connections starting from the black cable clamp connected to the
fastening screw head of the engine mount.
CAUTION: after restarting the machine, take it to an electrical repair shop to recharge it completely.
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5.13 WATER SYSTEM
5.13.1 CHECKING AND MAINTAINING THE LITRE COUNTER (fig. 39)
MONTAGGIO ORIZZONTALE
39
CAUTION: Do not use metal or abrasive objects to clean the duct.
CAUTION: Do not use solvents, diesel or petrol to clean the external parts of the equipment or parts
in its immediate vicinity.
To keep the litre counter and the pump in good working condition, run clean water through the duct at the end
of each daily work shift.
Every six months or in the event of malfunctioning, clean the duct of the litre counter and the relative pipes with
a special non-aggressive detergent for the parts in rubber, nylon, brass, polypropylene and stainless steel.
5.13.2 CHECKING THE WATER TRANSFER PUMP EFFICIENCY (fig. 40)
C
B
H
A
F
40
-
Keep the engine running at 2000 rpm.
Activate the transfer pump M.
Check by means of the flow meter C that the water flow rate is higher than 250 litres/min.
Also check for leaks from the valve unions B and from the suction pipe unions A and H.
Check that the suction filter F is in proper working order.
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5.13.3 WATER PUMP EMERGENCY ACTIVATION (fig. 41)
A
41
To activate a pump that has stopped because of an electrical fault, remove the cap A on the control panel and,
using a screwdriver, act on the distributor button to activate the pump manually.
5.13.4 CLEANING PRE-FILTER OF THE WATER PUMP (fig. 42)
D
C
42
Before starting the daily work shift, you must clean the pre-filter of the water pump.
Remove the closing cap C from the pump, take out the pre-filter D and check whether it is dirty inside. To
remove it, use a jet of clean water or compressed air.
Finally, reposition it inside the filler neck and refit the closing cap C.
CAUTION: Check that there is water inside th pump (see chapter 4.3.3 for the related procedure).
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6
6
CONTENTS
6.1
6.1.1.
6.1.2.
6.1.3.
6.1.4.
6.1.5.
6.1.6.
6.1.7.
POWER JET CLEANER .................................................................................................................. 151
TECHNICAL DATA ....................................................................................................................... 151
INSTRUCTION LABELS ON THE MACHINE ................................................................................ 151
REFERENCES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THE MAIN DEVICES ................................................ 152
USING THE POWER JET CLEANER............................................................................................ 153
PRECAUTIONS FOR USE IN COLD CLIMATE CONDITIONS .................................................... 154
SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE TABLE .......................................................................................... 155
CLEANING OR REPLACING THE FILTER CARTRIDGE ............................................................. 155
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6.1 POWER JET CLEANER
The high-pressure power jet cleaner allows thorough cleaning of the machine parts or other objects.
6.1.1. TECHNICAL DATA
- Hydraulically-driven water cleaner pump.
- Maximum oil flow rate ......................................................................................................................... 25 l/min.
- Maximum water output flow rate ..................................................................................................... 16.8 l/min.
- Maximum oil input pressure ................................................................................................................ 190 bar
- Maximum water output pressure .......................................................................................................... 228 bar
6.1.2. INSTRUCTION LABELS ON THE MACHINE
Indicates that the water filter of the power jet cleaner system must
periodically be cleaned.
Indicates the positions of the lever for use of the power jet cleaner or the
water suction pump.
1
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6.1.3. REFERENCES AND DESCRIPTIONS OF THE MAIN DEVICES (fig. 2).
2
1
L
I
D
C
E
B
G
H
A
F
2
The following parts control water feed and distribution through the power jet cleaner:
A - Power jet cleaner.
Positioned behind the cabin under the water suction pump.
B - Low-pressure nozzle.
C - High-pressure nozzle.
D - Pressure regulating valve.
Turning the valve clockwise releases the pressure and anticlockwise increases the pressure.
E - Switch
Position “1” - Water suction pump activation.
Position “2”- Power jet cleaner pump activation.
F - High-pressure hose.
Connects the pump to the power jet cleaner.
G - Water pressure gauge.
Shows the pressure of the water flowing from the pump.
H - Water pump.
Located in the central part of the chassis under the mixer drum.
I - Switch
Turn switch lever E to position “2” to trigger the switch that enables water sensor L. If the sensor detects
that there is no water flow due to the empty tank, pump H automatically stops.
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6
6.1.4 USING THE POWER JET CLEANER (fig. 3)
2
1
S
C
D
E
B
G
H
A
F
3
DANGER: The high energy of the pressurised jet may be extremely dangerous. Keep away
from persons, animals and any delicate object when the pump is operating.
Never direct the pressurised jet at persons, animals, electrical equipment and
fragile parts in general. Never put your hands in the pressurised jet (RISK OF
INJURY).
Never leave the hose F under pressure. This may cause damage to persons or
things should you involuntarily pull the trigger of the power jet cleaner.
CAUTION: Wear protective goggles and clothing during use of the power jet cleaner.
Always hold the power jet cleaner with both hands when it is operating.
- Start the engine and engage the parking brake.
- Press the switch S on the dashboard in the cabin to activate the water pump circuit.
- Turn the lever of the switch Eto position (2) to activate the power jet cleaner pump H.
- Open the catches and extract the power jet cleaner A , unwind the high-pressure hose F from its reel and
screw it onto the power jet cleaner.
- Turn the valve D on the power jet cleaner until the low-pressure nozzle B is completely open.
- Hold the trigger of the power jet cleaner pulled and let the pump run until all the air has been expelled from
the tubes and the water flows uniformly and continuously from the nozzles B and C .
- Gradually close the valve D on the power jet cleaner until the pointer of the water pressure gauge G indicates
that the operating pressure has been reached (150 bar).
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- Close and open the power jet cleaner two or three times to check proper functioning. Releasing the trigger,
the pump must stop and restart as soon as the trigger is pulled again; the pressure gauge reading must drop
by 10-15 bar to return to the set value.
- When you have finished work, fully open the low-pressure nozzle B of the power jet cleaner.
- Turn the lever of the switch E to position (1) to close the oil inlet to the pump H.
- Pull the trigger of the power jet cleaner to discharge all the residual pressure in the tubes to ground.
CAUTION: If during use you notice that the pump becomes noisier and the jet discontinuous, it means
that it is taking in air. Immediately open the low-pressure nozzle B and correct the fault.
CAUTION: Use only nozzles with a fan-pattern jet to clean delicate surfaces, holding the nozzle 75cm
away from the surface to be cleaned.
CAUTION: In the event of malfunctioning, immediately contact the nearest AUTHORISED FIORI
WORKSHOP.
6.1.5. PRECAUTIONS FOR USE IN COLD CLIMATE CONDITIONS
If you have to work in ambient temperatures close to 0°C, the pump has to be operated without pressure for
one minute with the power jet cleaner open so that any ice that has formed can melt.
CAUTION: If the pump has frozen, do not operate it until the entire system has defrosted.
- Clean the pump with water mixed with a solution of antifreeze for radiators or an oily lubricating and antioxidant solution.
- Do not operate the pump with cold oil.
- If the hoses have frozen, let them defrost before starting work.
- When you have finished work, disconnect the water inlet tube and fully discharge the pressure by holding the
regulating valve on the power jet cleaner open. Use the breather valve to drain out the residual water in the
pump cover.
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6.1.6. SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE TABLE
Description of the symbols used in the table:
= Check and repair
= Replace
= Clean
= Grease or lubricate
REGULAR MAINTENANCE INTERVALS
EVERY 8
HOURS OR
DAILY
WORKING AREA
EVERY 500
HOURS OR
12 MONTHS
EVERY 1000
HOURS OR
24 MONTHS
EVERY 2000
HOURS OR
48 MONTHS
POWER JET CLEANER PUMP
POWER JET CLEANER FILTER
6.1.7. CLEANING OR REPLACING THE FILTER CARTRIDGE (fig. 4)
A
B
4
CAUTION: Before proceeding, always read the safety regulations for the operations to be carried out
as set out in Chapter 3.
CAUTION: Do not pollute the environment. Keep the filters in special containers and send them to
companies specialised in storage and disposal of polluting and hazardous waste.
- Move the vehicle onto flat ground, engage the parking brake, turn off the engine and remove the ignition
key.
-
The filter is positioned between the water tank and the rear wheel on the left-hand side of the machine.
Remove the cover A.
Remove the cartridge B and replace it with a new one if necessary.
Remove the cartridge B and clean it with a blast of dry compressed air from the inside to the outside.
After cleaning the cartridge, check that there is no internal damage using a torch to illuminate the inside.
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If light filters through to the outside the cartridge must be replaced.
Also replace the cartridge when the rubber seal is damaged.
Before refitting the cartridge clean the inside of the filter body and the separator.
Refit the cartridge and make sure that it is properly in place.
Close the cover A.
It is essential to keep a stock of spare cartridges B, which can be ordered from the AUTHORISED FIORI
SERVICE CENTRES or directly from FIORI SPARE PARTS DEPARTMENT.
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CAUTION
For a better consultation you can ask for the
vehicle’s wiring - hydraulic diagrams in PDF format
at the FIORI email address: [email protected]
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HYDRAULIC DIAGRAM
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LIST OF COMPONENTS IN THE HYDRAULIC DIAGRAM
1 FRONT AXLE
2 STEERING SELECTION DISTRIBUTOR
3 CHECK VALVE
4 REAR AXLE
5 HYDRAULIC STEERING
6 GRAB BUCKET JACKS
7 ARM RAISING JACKS
8 ARM SAFETY VALVE
9 WATER PUMP MOTOR
10 DRUM ROTATION MOTOR
11 CHUTE RAISING JACKS
12 CHUTE DISTRIBUTOR
13 SERVICE DISTRIBUTOR
14 NEGATIVE BRAKE CONTROL UNIT - GEARBOX
15 NEGATIVE BRAKE
16 MECHANICAL GEARBOX
17 PRIORITY VALVE
18 HYDROSTATIC TRACTION MOTOR
19 PRESSURISED FILTER
20 RETURN OIL COLLECTION BLOCK
21 HEAT EXCHANGER
22 HYDROSTATIC TRACTION PUMP
23 DOUBLE PUMP
24 DRUM ROTATION PUMP
25 HEAT ENGINE
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STANDARD LIST OF DIAGNOSTICS
DESCRIPTION
PARAMETER
SPN
Override Control Mode
Requested Speed Control conditions
Override Control Mode Priorit
Requested Speed / speed Limit
Requested Torque / Torque Limit
695
696
897
898
518
Barometric pressure
Ambient air temperature
108
171
Torque Speed control
Ambient Conditions
Aftertreatment 1 lntermediate Gas
Aftertreatment 1 Diesel Particulate Filter Differential Pressure
3251
Auxiliar l/0 Status 2
AUX l/0 #20
AUX l/0 #19
3843
3842
Make
Model
Serial Number
586
587
588
Requested Percent Fan
DPF Regen lnhibit Switch
DPF Regen Force Switch
986
3695
3696
Protect Lamp
Stop Lamp
Warning Lamp
Flash Warning Lamp
Flash Protect
SPN
FMl
0ccurrence
SPN conversion
987
623
624
3040
3041
1214
1215
1216
1706
SPN
FMl
0ccurrence
SPN conversion
1214
1215
1216
1706
Clear Codes
Req PGN
DPF Lamp Command
DPF Active Regen Status
DPF Status
DPF Active Regen lnhibit Switch
Exhaust High Temp Lamp Command
3697
3700
3701
3703
3698
Engine Aux Shutdown
970
Component ldentification
Cab Message 1
Diagnostic Message 1
Diagnostic Message 2
Diagnostic Message 3
Diesel Particulate Filter
Electronic Brake Controller
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Engine Configuration
Engine speed at idle point 1
Percent torque at idle point 1
Engine speed at point 2
Percent torque at point 2
Engine speed at point 3
Percent torque at point 3
Engine speed at point 4
Percent torque at point 4
Engine speed at point 5
Percent torque at point 5
Engine speed at high idle, point 6
Engine Reference Torque
Maximum Momentar Override Time
Requested Speed Control Range Lower Limit
Requested Speed Control Upper Limit
Requested Torque Control Lower Limit Range
Requested Torque Control Range Upper Limit
Engine Default Torque Limit
188
539
528
540
529
541
530
542
531
543
532
544
534
535
536
537
538
1846
Oil Qualit
Engine 0il State
Prop
Prop
Engine Torque Mode
Actual Engine - Percent Torque (HR)
Drivers Demand Engine Percent Torque
Actual Engine Percent Torque
Engine Speed
SA Controlling
Engine Starter Mode
Engine Demand - Percent Torque
899
4154
512
513
190
1483
1675
2432
Throttle 1 lVS
Throttle 2 lVS
Throttle 1 Position
Percent Load at current speed
Throttle 2 Position
Actual Maximum Available Engine Torque
558
2970
91
92
29
3357
Nominal Friction Torque
Engine Desired
Engines Operating Speed As mmetr Adjust
514
515
519
Engine Rated Power
Engine Rated Speed
166
189
Engine oil pressure
100
Engine coolant temperature
Fuel Temperature 1
110
174
Total Engine Hours
Total Engine Revolutions
247
249
Proprietar Message
Electronic Engine Controller
Electronic Engine Controller 2
Electronic Engine Controller 3
Electronic Engine Controller 4
Engine Fluid Level / Pressure
Engine Temperature
Engine Hours/Revolutions
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High Resolution Liquid Fuel Consumption
HR Engine Trip Fuel
HR Engine Total Fuel Used
5053
5054
lnlet / Exhaust Conditions
Boost pressure
lntake manifold temperature
Exhaust Gas Temperature
102
105
173
Trip Fuel
Total Fuel Used
182
250
Fuel rate
lnstantaneous Fuel Econom
183
184
Fuel Consumption
Fuel Econom
0ff Highwa Engine Control Selection State
Engine Alternate Rating Select State
2888
0ff Highwa Engine Control Selection
Engine Alternate Rating Select
2882
(Proprietar Message)
Engine Oil Life Reset Demand
Forced Regeneration lnterlock
Prop
Prop
ldle shutdown has shutdown engine
ldle shutdown driver alert
ldle shutdown timer state
wait to start lamp
Engine protection has shutdown engine
593
594
590
1081
1110
Electrical Potential
Batter Potential Switched
168
158
No. of lD fields
Software lD
965
234
Water ln Fuel lndicator
97
Shutdown
Vehicle Electrical Power
Software ldentification
Water in Fuel lnformation
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PowerView¥
¥
Model PV101-C
User’s Guide
Version 3.2
2013-04-08
00-02-0796
Catalog Section 78
Table of Contents
Introduction ............................................................................... 1
Engine and Transmission Parameters .................................................................... 2
Faceplate Features ................................................................................................. 3
Navigation and Keypad Functions .......................................................................... 4
First Time Start Up ................................................................... 8
Main Menu Options ................................................................11
Go to 1-Up Display/Go to 4-Up Display ................................................................ 11
DPF Regen* .......................................................................................................... 11
Selecting a Language ........................................................................................... 13
Stored Codes ........................................................................................................ 14
Engine Configuration ............................................................................................. 14
Setup 1-Up Display ............................................................................................... 14
Setup 4-Up Display ............................................................................................... 17
Service Reminders ................................................................................................ 20
Select Units ........................................................................................................... 22
Backlight Adjustment ............................................................................................. 22
Contrast Adjustment .............................................................................................. 22
Utilities Menu ..........................................................................23
Gage Data ............................................................................................................. 23
Remove All Gages ................................................................................................ 23
Software Version ................................................................................................... 23
Fault Conversion ................................................................................................... 24
Analog Input .......................................................................................................... 25
Engine Speed Control ........................................................................................... 25
OEM Menu ...............................................................................27
MODBUS£ Setup ................................................................................................. 27
CANBUS Data Rate .............................................................................................. 28
Select Engine ECU ............................................................................................... 29
Set Source Address .............................................................................................. 30
Restore All Defaults .............................................................................................. 30
Clear Machine Hours ............................................................................................ 30
Set Machine Hours ................................................................................................ 30
Fuel Setpoints ....................................................................................................... 31
DPF Regen Menu ON/OFF ................................................................................... 31
ENG SPD CTRL Menu ON/OFF ........................................................................... 32
Faults and Warnings..............................................................33
Auxiliary Gage Fault .............................................................................................. 34
Active Fault Codes ................................................................................................ 34
Derate / Shutdown Codes ..................................................................................... 35
Acknowledging Fault Codes ................................................................................. 36
Troubleshooting .....................................................................37
Additional Contact Information ...........................................42
In order to consistently bring you the highest quality, full
featured products, we reserve the right to change our
specifications and designs at any time. The latest version of
this manual can be found at www.fwmurphy.com.
Warranty - A limited warranty on materials and
workmanship is given with this Enovation Controls product.
A copy of the warranty may be viewed or printed by going to
www.fwmurphy.com/warranty
BEFORE BEGINNING INSTALLATION OF THIS
MURPHY PRODUCT:
x Disconnect all electrical power to the machine.
x Make sure the machine cannot operate during
installation.
x Follow all safety warnings of the machine
manufacturer.
x Read and follow all installation instructions.
Introduction
Congratulations on purchasing your PowerView display, a
multifunction tool that provides a window into the many
parameters and service codes of modern electronic engines
and transmissions.
This guide is intended to help you set up your PowerView
display and identify navigation basics and product features.
The display’s simple navigation and powerful features allow
you to quickly master the product.
Additional information can be found on our website at
www.fwmurphy.com/pv101/.
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Engine and Transmission Parameters
The following are some of the engine and transmission
parameters which can be displayed in standard or metric
units as well as in English, Spanish, French, Italian or
German languages (when applicable, consult engine or
transmission manufacturer for SAE J1939 supported
parameters):
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Engine RPM
Engine hours
System voltage
Percent engine load at
current RPM
Coolant temperature
Oil pressure
Fuel economy
Throttle position
Engine manifold air
temperature
Current fuel consumption
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x
x
x
x
x
x
Transmission oil
pressure
Transmission oil
temperature
Transmission gear
position
Engine
configuration
parameters
Active fault codes
Stored fault codes
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Faceplate Features
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Navigation and Keypad Functions
The keypad on the PowerView display is a capacitive touch
sensing system. There are no mechanical switches to wear
or stick. The keys on the keypad perform the following
functions:
Menu – Enter or exit menu screens.
Left Arrow – Scroll the screen or move
the parameter selection to the left or
upward.
Right Arrow – Scroll the screen and
move the parameter selection to the right
or downward.
Enter Key – Select a menu or parameter
or hide/view an active fault code.
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Basic Navigation
1. When Menu is pressed, the Main menu items display.
2. Press the Arrow Keys to move the selection bar to
other menu items.
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3. Certain menus have multiple pages. Scrolling to the top
or bottom item on the current page reveals other menu
items on additional pages.
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4.
When the desired item is highlighted by the cursor,
pressing Enter selects that item and displays the
corresponding screen.
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1.
First Time Start Up
When power is first applied to the display, the Murphy
logo is displayed.
NOTE: Expect a 20-minute warm up for the
display at temperatures of
-29oC/-20oF.
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2.
If the Engine ECU is broadcasting a ‘Wait to Start'
message, this screen will be shown. Engine
manufacturers typically recommend against starting the
engine while this message is broadcasted from the
ECU. Once the ECU stops broadcasting this message,
this screen will no longer be displayed.
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3. Once the engine has started, the single engine
parameter is displayed with the engine RPM. Touching
the Right Arrow Key displays the coolant temperature.
The screen can be changed to other parameters by
touching Menu.
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Main Menu Options
This section describes the features listed on the Main menu
of the PowerView. These menu options display whenever
you touch Menu. The Arrow Keys allow you to scroll
through items. Enter selects the highlighted option.
Go to 1-Up Display/Go to 4-Up Display
If you want to go to a different display, touch Enter. The
alternate view is displayed.
DPF Regen*
*Murphy products are compliant with requirements for U.S. EPA Emission
Standard ௅ Tier 4 Interim and EU Emissions Standard ௅ Stage IIIB for
diesel engines. These engines when fitted with a DPF (Diesel Particulate
Filter) can self-clean the filter of particulates. This self-cleaning is known as
Regeneration. PowerView offers 3-CAN options when DPF REGEN is
enabled and available in the engine ECU. For more information, find
document # 1110836 on the Murphy Web site (www.fwmurphy.com).
Unless selected in the OEM Menu, DPF REGEN does not
display in the Main Menu. When available, the following
options are presented:
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1. AUTO DPF REGEN – This is the factory default. Select
and PowerView sends a CAN message to the ECU to
perform DPF Regeneration (regen) automatically
whenever needed.
2. REQUEST DPF REGEN – Select this and a second
screen, REQUEST DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER
REGEN, displays. Use this to force a regen when autoregen is not due or is inhibited by PowerView. Touch
YES (Enter) and PowerView sends a request for a
regen every second for 10 seconds. If the engine does
not respond, PowerView defaults back to Auto DPF
Regen. You may send the request again or exit without
sending a request by touching CANCEL (Menu). You
return to the Main menu.
3. INHIBIT DPF REGEN – In cases where regen cannot
be performed due to restrictions, select this to eliminate
the possibility of a regen occurring. The inhibit lamp
displays when the engine ECU responds to this inhibit
request from PowerView. Once this option is selected, it
remains in place through power cycles. When inhibit is
no longer needed, you can select a different option.
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The following ISO symbols indicate regen status. In each
case, the symbol displays when the parameter’s lamp
status is broadcast from the ECU back to the PowerView.
DPF Regen ISO Symbols
Icon
PGN
SPN
Description
64892
3697
High Exhaust Temperature
(HEST) lamp indicates
regeneration in process.
64892
3703
DPF Particulate Filter Restricted
lamp indicates a Regen is
needed.
64892
3698
DPF Inhibit lamp indicates an
inhibited Regen status.
Selecting a Language
From LANGUAGES, you may select ENGLISH, ESPANOL,
FRANCAIS, ITALIANO, or DEUTSCH. An asterisk to the
right of the language indicates it is selected.
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Stored Codes
Select this and PowerView requests and displays stored
fault codes from the engine ECU. If the engine does not
support this function, a “Timeout ECU Not Responding”
message displays.
Engine Configuration
This allows you to scroll through and view the engine’s
configuration data. If the engine does not support this
function, a “No Engine Configuration Data” message
displays.
Setup 1-Up Display
Press Menu and use the Arrow Keys to highlight SETUP
1-UP DISPLAY, then press Enter. Three options are
available for modification of the 1-Up display:
1. Use Defaults – This option contains a set of engine
parameters: Engine Hours, Engine RPM, System
Voltage, Battery Voltage, % Engine Load at Current
RPM, Coolant Temperature, and Oil Pressure.
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To select USE DEFAULTS, highlight the option and
press Enter. A message indicating “RESTORED TO
DEFAULTS” is displayed.
2. Custom Setup – In this option, select the parameters
and order in which they will be displayed. The list is
long; continue to scroll until you have seen all available
parameters. To select Custom Setup, highlight and
press Enter. A list of engine parameters displays.
NOTE: The PV101 must see the parameter being
broadcast over J1939 in order to select the parameter
from the list.
To select a parameter, use the Arrow Keys to scroll
and highlight the parameter, then press Enter.
Selected parameters are indicated by a number to the
right of it. The numbers represent the order in which the
parameters will be displayed.
To deselect a parameter and remove it from the list of
displayed parameters, highlight the parameter and
touch Enter.
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Continue to scroll and select additional parameters for
the CUSTOM 1-UP DISPLAY. Touch Menu at any time
to return to the CUSTOM SETUP menu.
3. Automatic Scan – (Default is OFF) Selecting the
AUTOMATIC SCAN ON function will cause the 1-up
display to scroll through the selected set of parameters
one at a time.
Once the Use Defaults, Custom Setup and Automatic
Scan functions have been set, touch Menu once to return
to the Main menu, or twice to display the 1-up display
screen.
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Setup 4-Up Display
There are two 4-up display screens available. Each option
can place parameter data into one of four areas on the
screen known as quadrants. ƒ Factory defaults for the first
4-up display include coolant temperature, engine speed, oil
pressure, and battery voltage. ƒ Factory defaults for the
second 4-up display include DEF (diesel exhaust fluid) Level,
DPF (diesel particulate filter) active regen status, exhaust filter
inlet temperature, and exhaust filter outlet temperature. You
can customize each 4-up display with the parameter you
define for each quadrant.
1. Touch Menu and use the Arrow Keys to highlight
SETUP 4-UP DISPLAY, and touch Enter.
2. To select USE DEFAULTS, highlight the option and
press Enter. A message indicating “RESTORED TO
DEFAULTS” is displayed.
3. To select CUSTOM SETUP, highlight the option and
press Enter. The 4-up display appears.
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4. Use the Arrow Keys to switch between the two 4-up
displays.
5. To edit a 4-up display, touch Enter while that 4-up
displays on screen.
6. Use the Arrow Keys to select which quadrant to edit.
7. Once you select a quadrant, press Enter and you move
to a list of parameters.
NOTE: The PowerView must see the parameter being
broadcast over J1939 in order to select the parameter from
the list.
8. The parameter highlighted is the selected parameter for
the screen. The number to the right of the parameter
indicates in which quadrant it displays.
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1 = upper left
quadrant
3 = upper right
quadrant
2 = lower left
quadrant
4 = lower right
quadrant
9. Use the Arrow Keys to highlight the new parameter to
be placed in the selected quadrant. Touch Enter.
10. Press Menu to return to the SETUP 4-UP CUSTOM
SETUP screen.
11. The parameter in the selected quadrant has changed to
the parameter selected in the previous screen.
12. Repeat the parameter selection process until you fill all
quadrants.
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Service Reminders
SERVICE REMINDERS permit you to RESET REMINDERS
or MODIFY REMINDERS for changing engine oil, air filters,
and hydraulic oil or for servicing the engine and/or machine.
NOTE: Service Reminders are internal reminders within
PowerView. Once a Service Reminder is active, warnings
will show SPN 916 and FMI 17. Check PowerView Service
Reminders prior to calling Technical Support.
1. Use the Arrow Keys to highlight Service Reminders
and touch Enter.
2. The Service Reminders options display. Use the
Arrow Keys to select either Reset Reminders or
Modify Reminders, and then touch Enter.
3. If you select Reset Reminders, use the Arrow Keys to
highlight the Reminder you wish to edit. Touch Enter.
4. The Reminder name appears at the top of the screen.
The action (ON or OFF) displays mid-screen, and two
choices display at screen bottom. Touch Menu to
Cancel the action. Touch Enter to choose Reset.
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5. If you select Modify Reminders, use the Arrow Keys
to highlight the Reminder to modify and touch Enter.
6. The Reminder name appears at top screen. The hour
value displays mid-screen and allows you to set the
number of hours to elapse before a Reminder prompts.
Bottom screen shows Cancel and Save. Touch Cancel
to discard changes and return to Reminders list.
7. Use the right Arrow Key to increment the highlighted
number. Use the left Arrow Key to move to the next
number space.
8. Touch Save. The Modify Service Reminder screen
displays. Touch YES to save or NO to return to the
Reminders list.
9. A modified Reminder displays a (+) at right of
Reminder name when successfully completed. Follow
the above steps to modify other Reminders.
When finished, touch Menu to return to the Main Menu.
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Select Units
From SELECT UNITS, you may select how information is
displayed:
ƒ ENGLISH for Imperial units (PSI, qF)
ƒMETRIC KPA
ƒ METRIC BAR for IS units (kPa, Bar, qC).
Backlight Adjustment
ADJUST BACKLIGHT – Use the Arrow Keys to brighten or
darken the backlight intensity.
Contrast Adjustment
ADJUST CONTRAST – Use the Arrow Keys to lighten or
darken the text and graphics.
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Utilities Menu
UTILITIES is the last item on the Main Menu. The Utilities
menu provides troubleshooting features and other
information about the PowerView configuration.
Gage Data
View data for optional connected PVA gages. When Slave
Active is enabled, gage data is not available.
Remove All Gages
Reset the gage memory on the PowerView. When Slave
Active is enabled, this function is not available.
Software Version
This screen lists Configuration, Firmware, Languages, and
Bootloader versions for this PowerView unit. You may need
this information if requesting assistance from Technical
Support.
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Fault Conversion
View/Edit the J1939 fault code version. Use the Arrow
Keys to move between Versions, and then touch Enter to
select a version.
NOTE: There are four methods for converting fault
codes. The PowerView always looks for J1939-Version
4.
However, PowerView can be set to read one of three
other J1939 versions, if Version 4 is not
used/unavailable. Most ECU’s use Version 4, so
adjustment of this menu option is rarely required.
Upon receiving an unrecognizable fault, change to a
different J1939 Version in the list. If the fault SPN does not
change when the version is changed, the ECU generating
the fault is using Fault Conversion Method 4. If the SPN
number does change, but is still unrecognizable, try
changing to another unused J1939 Version and continue to
check the SPN number.
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Analog Input
With Analog Input highlighted, press Enter. You can select
between two settings:
1) BACKLIGHT DIMMER, this is in factory default
upon first use. The unit accepts an optional
backlighting dimmer (0-1k Ÿ potentiometer).
2) FUEL LEVEL, touch Enter to reach SET LOW
FUEL LEVEL screen. Then, touch Enter to reach
LOW FUEL % screen. Use the right Arrow Key to
increase, and left Arrow Key to decrease the
percentage of remaining fuel at which to send a
warning. The default is 20%.
NOTE: The PowerView accepts optional Murphy
fuel sender (recommend Model ES2F) for fuel level
information. A custom setup for a non-Murphy fuel
sender is available. For more information, see
FUEL SETPOINTS, page 31 (OEM Menu).
Engine Speed Control
This option must be ON in the OEM Menu for functionality
to be available from the Utilities Menu.
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1) From the Engine Speed Control screen, touch Enter
to reach the Speed Control screen.
2) To change the setting of the engine speed via TSC1;
use the right Arrow Key to increase or left Arrow key
to decrease the throttle setting.
3) Once the target speed is reached, select ENABLE
(Enter) to turn ON the TSC1 throttling control. (Use
Disable to turn throttling control OFF and discard changes).
NOTE: Once enabled Engine Speed Control will stay
enabled even through power cycles. To turn OFF, you must
disable the feature from the SPEED CTRL screen.
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OEM Menu
The OEM menu is the last item on the Utilities menu. You
must have a password to access the OEM menu. Once in
the OEM Menu, select an item by highlighting it and touch
Enter to reach additional screens.
ENTER PASSWORD screen – Enter 3482 in the numeric
spaces provided. Start at the furthest left numeric value and
use the Left Arrow Key to increment the number and the
Right Arrow Key to move to the next numeric position. If
the Murphy standard key does not work, contact the OEM
from whom the engine or machine was purchased. If you
have access, the password is user changeable via the
PV101-C Config Tool application.
The following items are in the OEM Menu.
MODBUS£
£ Setup
To set the MODBUS, highlight MODBUS SETUP and touch
Enter.
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1) There are four selections: Use Factory Defaults,
Serial Port Setup, Slave Address Setup, and Master
Active/Slave Active. You can toggle between Slave
Active (which is SCADA/remote Modbus master)
and Master Active (which is Auxiliary gages).
Highlight your selection and touch Enter.
2) If in Slave Active, select SERIAL PORT SETUP
and touch Enter.
3) Scroll through the Serial Port Setup list and make
selections for BAUD RATE, PARITY, DATA BITS,
and STOP BITS to configure the serial port
parameters for your Modbus slave application.
CANBUS Data Rate
Touch Enter to reach the six CANBUS data rates. Use the
Arrow Keys to highlight your choice and touch Enter to
make the selection.
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Select Engine ECU
Highlight Select Engine ECU and touch Enter.
1) The message “LISTEN TO ECU: ALL” displays as
the default setting. This message indicates the
PV101 is listening to all devices on the network.
2) To change the setting to a specific address, press
the Arrow Keys to scroll through the selections (0253, and ALL).
3) Once the target address displays, press Enter.
4) A confirmation screen displays; selecting NO
(Menu) returns to the SELECT ENGINE ECU
screen. Selecting YES (Enter) stores the selected
address and returns to the OEM menu.
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Set Source Address
Allows setting the source claim address for the PowerView
on the CAN Network. Options are Auto Claim or 0 to 253.
Restore All Defaults
PowerView automatically resets after the restore defaults
is complete. RESTORING ALL FACTORY DEFAULTS
displays when this is selected.
Clear Machine Hours
Use this to clear machine hours internal to PowerView
outside of ECU hours.
Set Machine Hours
Machine hours calculate internally when the RPM is greater
than 50 and the engine is not broadcasting hours. Use this if
you want to track hours for just the machine.
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Fuel Setpoints
Highlight and press Enter to select Fuel Setpoints.
1) Press Enter to turn Fuel Setpoints ON or OFF.
2) Choose Set Empty Setpoint, Set Fuel Setpoint,
Show Fuel Setpoints, Clear Fuel Setpoints, or
choose to set ¼, ½ and ¾ fuel points.
Fuel Setpoints must be ON to work with a non-Murphy fuel
sender. Modifying fuel setpoints is a complex process. To
configure for a Murphy Fuel Sender or program for a nonMurphy Sender, find document #1110833, PowerView –
Model PV101-C V3.2 Fuel Sender Calibration on the FW
Murphy Web site at www.fwmurphy.com/pv101.
DPF Regen Menu ON/OFF
Highlight and touch Enter to turn this option ON or OFF.
Turn this option ON to have it available in the Main menu or
OFF for no availability in the Main menu.
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ENG SPD CTRL Menu ON/OFF
This option must be ON in the OEM Menu for functionality
to be available in the Utilities Menu. Highlight and touch
Enter. The Speed Control can be Enabled (ON) or Disabled
(OFF).
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Faults and Warnings
The PowerView provides two means for detecting faults and
warnings: visual LEDs on the casing (Amber in the upper
left corner, and Red in the upper right corner) and fault
indicators on the display.
Visual Indication
x
Amber LED (Warning)
x
Red LED (Derate / Shutdown)
Fault Indicators
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Auxiliary Gage Fault
Murphy PVA Gages can be attached to the PowerView. If
an auxiliary gage should fail, the 1-up or 4-up display will be
replaced with a fault message: GAGE NOT RESPONDING.
NOTE: A fault can only be cleared by correcting the cause
of the condition (See Troubleshooting in this document).
Active Fault Codes
When the PowerView receives a fault code from an engine,
the 1-up or 4-up display is replaced with the active fault
codes message. See following fault example:
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Example: Active Fault Code screen
Derate / Shutdown Codes
When the PowerView receives a severe fault code from an
engine control unit the 1-up or 4-up display is replaced with
the SHUTDOWN message.
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Acknowledging Fault Codes
1. To acknowledge and hide the fault and return to the
1-up or 4-up display, touch Enter. The display will
return to the 1-up or 4-up display, but the display will
contain the warning or shutdown icon.
2. Touch Enter to redisplay the hidden fault. Touch Enter
once again hides the fault and returns the screen to the
1-up or 4-up display.
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Troubleshooting
¾
WAIT TO START PREHEATING is displayed
The ECU is broadcasting a 'Wait to Start' message. Engine
manufacturers typically recommend against starting the
engine while the ECU is broadcasting this message. Once
the ECU stops broadcasting this message, this screen will
no longer be displayed on the PowerView.
¾
CANBUS FAILURE is displayed
The PowerView has not received any valid J1939 CAN
messages for at least 30 seconds. Check wiring, CANBUS,
termination resistors, and Engine ECU address in the OEM
Menu.
¾
TIMEOUT ECU NOT RESPONDING is displayed
The PowerView sent a request to the ECU for Stored Fault
Code (DM2) information, and the ECU did not respond to
the request. This message on the PowerView indicates the
ECU may not support Stored Fault Code (DM2) functionality
over J1939.
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¾
NO STORED CODES is displayed
The PowerView sent a request to the ECU for Stored Fault
Code (DM2) information. The ECU responded: There are
zero stored codes.
¾
NO GAGE DATA is displayed
The PowerView has no record of gages connected to the
RS485 bus.
¾ NO DATA is displayed in place of a parameter value
The PowerView has not received data for the selected
parameter for at least 5 seconds.
¾
NOT SUPPORTED is displayed in place of a parameter
value
This means the data received for this parameter is not valid
or not supported.
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¾
DATA ERROR is displayed in place of a parameter
value
The ECU is sending a message that there is a data error
with this parameter. Alternatively, (PV101 only) FUEL
LEVEL has been selected for display, ANALOG INPUT has
been set to FUEL LEVEL, but no Murphy Fuel Sender has
been connected to the analog input.
¾
One of the 4-UP quadrants is empty
No parameter has been selected for display in this
quadrant.
¾
Display is not readable, either very dim or very dark
The LCD contrast may have been over or under adjusted.
Press and hold the MENU key for approximately 5 seconds.
This will reset the LCD contrast setting to factory default.
¾
PVA Gages not working
When PVA Gages are connected and do not seem to work, go
to the Utilities menu and select Remove all Gages.
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IMPORTANT!
Before returning your PV101 for Warranty, please
call our Technical Support team to further troubleshoot any issues.
+1 (918) 317-4100
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NOTES
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NOTES
NOTES
Murphy, the Murphy logo, and PowerView are registered and/or
common law trademarks of Enovation Controls, LLC. This document,
including textual matter and illustrations, is copyright protected by
Enovation Controls, with all rights reserved.
© 2013 Enovation
Controls, LLC. Other third party product or trade names referenced
herein are the property of their respective owners and are used for
identification purposes only.
Additional Contact Information
ENOVATION
CONTROLS –
CORPORATE HQ
nd
5311 S. 122 East Ave.
Tulsa, OK 74146 USA
Phone: +1 918 317 4100
FAX: +1 918 317 4266
[email protected]
Web:
www.fwmurphy.com
FW MURPHY, LTD.
Church Rd Laverstock
Salisbury SP1 1QZ UK
Phone: +44 1722 410055
FAX: +44 1722 410088
[email protected]
Web:
www.fwmurphy.co.uk
ENOVATION CONTROLS –
SAN ANTONIO OFFICE
5757 Farinon Drive
San Antonio, TX 78249 USA
Phone: +1 210 495 9772
FAX: +1 210 495 9791
[email protected]
Web: www.econtrols.com
MURPHY ECONTROLS
TECHNOLOGIES (HANGZHOU)
CO, LTD.
77 23RD Street
Hangzhou Economic & Technological
Development Area
Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310018 China
Phone: +86 571 8788 6060
FAX: +86 571 8684 8878
[email protected]
Web: www.fwmurphy.com/company_ch
INDIA SALES AND
SUPPORT
Phone: +91 91581 37633
[email protected]
Web: www.fwmurphy.com
MURPHY INDUSTRIAL
PANEL DIVISION
5311 S. 122nd East Ave.
Tulsa, OK 74146 USA
Phone:+1 918 317 4100
FAX: +1 918 317 4124
[email protected]
Web: www.fwmurphy.com
LATIN AMERICA &
CARIBBEAN SALES
AND SUPPORT
Phone: +1 918 317 2500
[email protected]
Web: www.fwmurphy.com
www.fwmurphy.com/PV101
SEBU8726-02
July 2013
Operation and
Maintenance
Manual
854E-E34TA and 854F-E34T Industrial
Engines
JR (Engine)
JS (Engine)
JT (Engine)
Important Safety Information
Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to
observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially
hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This
person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard
warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as
“DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below.
The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:
Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or
pictorially presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by “NOTICE” labels on the product and in
this publication.
Perkins cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The
warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,
work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Perkins is used,
you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the
product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before
you start any job. Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors have the most current information available.
When replacement parts are required for this
product Perkins recommends using Perkins
replacement parts.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to premature failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
SEBU8726
3
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Maintenance Section
Foreword.............................. ............................. 4
Refill Capacities....................... ....................... 66
Safety Section
Safety Messages....................... ....................... 5
Maintenance Recommendations.......... .......... 80
Maintenance Interval Schedule ........... ........... 83
General Hazard Information ............... .............. 6
Warranty Section
Burn Prevention........................ ........................ 9
Warranty Information .................. ...................112
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ... .. 10
Reference Information Section
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention . 12
Reference Materials ................... ...................113
Mounting and Dismounting............... .............. 12
Index Section
High Pressure Fuel Lines ................ ............... 12
Index............................... ...............................114
Before Starting Engine ................. .................. 14
Engine Starting ........................ ....................... 14
Engine Stopping ....................... ...................... 14
Electrical System ...................... ...................... 14
Engine Electronics..................... ..................... 16
Product Information Section
General Information.................... .................... 17
Product Identification Information.......... ......... 25
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage..................... ..................... 30
Features and Controls .................. .................. 32
Engine Diagnostics..................... .................... 49
Engine Starting ........................ ....................... 53
Engine Operation...................... ...................... 56
Cold Weather Operation................. ................ 60
Engine Stopping ....................... ...................... 64
4
SEBU8726
Foreword
Foreword
Literature Information
This manual contains safety, operation instructions,
lubrication and maintenance information. This manual
should be stored in or near the engine area in a
literature holder or literature storage area. Read,
study and keep it with the literature and engine
information.
English is the primary language for all Perkins
publications. The English used facilitates translation
and consistency.
Some photographs or illustrations in this manual
show details or attachments that may be different
from your engine. Guards and covers may have been
removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing
improvement and advancement of product design
may have caused changes to your engine which are
not included in this manual. Whenever a question
arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please
consult with your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor for the latest available information.
Safety
This safety section lists basic safety precautions. In
addition, this section identifies hazardous, warning
situations. Read and understand the basic
precautions listed in the safety section before
operating or performing lubrication, maintenance and
repair on this product.
Operation
Operating techniques outlined in this manual are
basic. They assist with developing the skills and
techniques required to operate the engine more
efficiently and economically. Skill and techniques
develop as the operator gains knowledge of the
engine and its capabilities.
The operation section is a reference for operators.
Photographs and illustrations guide the operator
through procedures of inspecting, starting, operating
and stopping the engine. This section also includes a
discussion of electronic diagnostic information.
Maintenance
The maintenance section is a guide to engine care.
The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are grouped
by service hours and/or calendar time maintenance
intervals. Items in the maintenance schedule are
referenced to detailed instructions that follow.
Recommended service should be performed at the
appropriate intervals as indicated in the Maintenance
Interval Schedule. The actual operating environment
of the engine also governs the Maintenance Interval
Schedule. Therefore, under extremely severe, dusty,
wet or freezing cold operating conditions, more
frequent lubrication and maintenance than is
specified in the Maintenance Interval Schedule may
be necessary.
The maintenance schedule items are organized for a
preventive maintenance management program. If the
preventive maintenance program is followed, a
periodic tune-up is not required. The implementation
of a preventive maintenance management program
should minimize operating costs through cost
avoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduled
downtime and failures.
Maintenance Intervals
Perform maintenance on items at multiples of the
original requirement. We recommend that the
maintenance schedules be reproduced and displayed
near the engine as a convenient reminder. We also
recommend that a maintenance record be maintained
as part of the engine's permanent record.
Your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor can assist you in adjusting your
maintenance schedule to meet the needs of your
operating environment.
Overhaul
Major engine overhaul details are not covered in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual except for the
interval and the maintenance items in that interval.
Major repairs should only be carried out by Perkins
authorized personnel. Your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor offers a variety of options
regarding overhaul programs. If you experience a
major engine failure, there are also numerous after
failure overhaul options available. Consult with your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
information regarding these options.
California Proposition 65 Warning
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents
are known to the State of California to cause cancer,
birth defects, and other reproductive harm. Battery
posts, terminals and related accessories contain lead
and lead compounds. Wash hands after handling.
5
SEBU8726
Safety Section
Safety Messages
Safety Section
i04112132
Safety Messages
There may be several specific warning signs on your
engine. The exact location and a description of the
warning signs are reviewed in this section. Please
become familiar with all warning signs.
Ensure that all of the warning signs are legible. Clean
the warning signs or replace the warning signs if the
words cannot be read or if the illustrations are not
visible. Use a cloth, water, and soap to clean the
warning signs. Do not use solvents, gasoline, or other
harsh chemicals. Solvents, gasoline, or harsh
chemicals could loosen the adhesive that secures the
warning signs. The warning signs that are loosened
could drop off the engine.
Replace any warning sign that is damaged or
missing. If a warning sign is attached to a part of the
engine that is replaced, install a new warning sign on
the replacement part. Your Perkins distributor can
provide new warning signs.
Universal Warning
Do not operate or work on this equipment unless
you have read and understand the instructions
and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance
Manuals. Failure to follow the instructions or heed
the warnings could result in serious injury or
death.
Illustration 1
g01154807
Typical example
The Universal Warning label (1) is located on the top
of the engine, on the engine interface connector
cover.
6
SEBU8726
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
Illustration 2
g02582556
Typical example
i03566024
General Hazard Information
• Tampering with the engine installation or tampering
with the OEM supplied wiring can be dangerous.
Personal injury, death and/or engine damage
could result.
• Vent the engine exhaust to the outside when the
engine is operated in an enclosed area.
• If the engine is not running, do not release the
secondary brake or the parking brake systems
unless the vehicle is blocked or unless the vehicle
is restrained.
• Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other
protective equipment, as required.
• When work is performed around an engine that is
operating, wear protective devices for ears in order
to help prevent damage to hearing.
Illustration 3
g00104545
Attach a “Do Not Operate” warning tag or a similar
warning tag to the start switch or to the controls
before the engine is serviced or before the engine is
repaired. Attach the warning tags to the engine and to
each operator control station. When it is appropriate,
disconnect the starting controls.
Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the engine,
or around the engine when the engine is being
serviced.
• Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag
on controls or on other parts of the engine.
• Ensure that all protective guards and all covers are
secured in place on the engine.
• Never put maintenance fluids into glass
containers. Glass containers can break.
• Use all cleaning solutions with care.
• Report all necessary repairs.
Unless other instructions are provided, perform the
maintenance under the following conditions:
7
SEBU8726
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
• The engine is stopped. Ensure that the engine can
not be started.
• The protective locks or the controls are in the
applied position.
Use caution when cover plates are removed.
Gradually loosen, but do not remove the last two bolts
or nuts that are located at opposite ends of the cover
plate or the device. Before removing the last two bolts
or nuts, pry the cover loose in order to relieve any
spring pressure or other pressure.
• Engage the secondary brakes or parking brakes.
• Block the vehicle or restrain the vehicle before
maintenance or repairs are performed.
• Disconnect the batteries when maintenance is
performed or when the electrical system is
serviced. Disconnect the battery ground leads.
Tape the leads in order to help prevent sparks.
• Disconnect the connector for the unit injector that
is located on the valve cover base. This will help
prevent personal injury from the high voltage to the
unit injectors. Do not come in contact with the unit
injector terminals while the engine is operating.
• Do not attempt any repairs or any adjustments to
the engine while the engine is operating.
• Do not attempt any repairs that are not
understood. Use the proper tools. Replace any
equipment that is damaged or repair the
equipment.
• For initial start-up of a new engine or for starting an
engine that has been serviced, make provisions to
stop the engine if an overspeed occurs. This may
be accomplished by shutting off the fuel supply
and/or the air supply to the engine.
• Start the engine from the operator's station (cab).
Never short across the starting motor terminals or
the batteries. This could bypass the engine neutral
start system and/or the electrical system could be
damaged.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area. If the engine is in an enclosed area, vent the
engine exhaust to the outside.
Cautiously remove the following parts. To help
prevent spraying or splashing of pressurized fluids,
hold a rag over the part that is being removed.
• Filler caps
• Grease fittings
Illustration 4
g00702020
• Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other
protective equipment, as required.
• When work is performed around an engine that is
operating, wear protective devices for ears in order
to help prevent damage to hearing.
• Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag
on controls or on other parts of the engine.
• Ensure that all protective guards and all covers are
secured in place on the engine.
• Never put maintenance fluids into glass
containers. Glass containers can break.
• Use all cleaning solutions with care.
• Report all necessary repairs.
Unless other instructions are provided, perform
the maintenance under the following conditions:
• The engine is stopped. Ensure that the engine
cannot be started.
• Disconnect the batteries when maintenance is
performed or when the electrical system is
serviced. Disconnect the battery ground leads.
Tape the leads in order to help prevent sparks.
• Breathers
• Do not attempt any repairs that are not
understood. Use the proper tools. Replace any
equipment that is damaged or repair the
equipment.
• Drain plugs
Pressurized Air and Water
• Pressure taps
Pressurized air and/or water can cause debris and/or
hot water to be blown out. This could result in
personal injury.
8
SEBU8726
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
When pressurized air and/or pressurized water is
used for cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective
shoes, and eye protection. Eye protection includes
goggles or a protective face shield.
Asbestos Information
The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes
must be below 205 kPa (30 psi). The maximum water
pressure for cleaning purposes must be below
275 kPa (40 psi).
Fluid Penetration
Pressure can be trapped in the hydraulic circuit long
after the engine has been stopped. The pressure can
cause hydraulic fluid or items such as pipe plugs to
escape rapidly if the pressure is not relieved correctly.
Do not remove any hydraulic components or parts
until pressure has been relieved or personal injury
may occur. Do not disassemble any hydraulic
components or parts until pressure has been relieved
or personal injury may occur. Refer to the OEM
information for any procedures that are required to
relieve the hydraulic pressure.
Illustration 6
g00702022
Perkins replacement parts that are shipped from
Perkins are asbestos free. Perkins recommends
the use of only genuine Perkins replacement parts.
Use the following guidelines when you handle any
replacement parts that contain asbestos or when you
handle asbestos debris.
Use caution. Avoid inhaling dust that might be
generated when you handle components that contain
asbestos fibers. Inhaling this dust can be hazardous
to your health. The components that may contain
asbestos fibers are brake pads, brake bands, lining
material, clutch plates, and some gaskets. The
asbestos that is used in these components is usually
bound in a resin or sealed in some way. Normal
handling is not hazardous unless airborne dust that
contains asbestos is generated.
If dust that may contain asbestos is present, there are
several guidelines that should be followed:
Illustration 5
g00687600
Always use a board or cardboard when you check for
a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure can
penetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause
serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak can
cause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your skin,
you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatment
from a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury.
Containing Fluid Spillage
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be
prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling
any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
SEBU8726
9
Safety Section
Burn Prevention
• Never use compressed air for cleaning.
i04289958
• Avoid brushing materials that contain asbestos.
Burn Prevention
• Avoid grinding materials that contain asbestos.
• Use a wet method in order to clean up asbestos
materials.
• A vacuum cleaner that is equipped with a high
efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) can also be
used.
• Use exhaust ventilation on permanent machining
jobs.
• Wear an approved respirator if there is no other
way to control the dust.
• Comply with applicable rules and regulations for
the work place. In the United States , use
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) requirements. These OSHA
requirements can be found in 29 CFR 1910.1001.
• Obey environmental regulations for the disposal of
asbestos.
• Stay away from areas that might have asbestos
particles in the air.
Dispose of Waste Properly
Do not touch any part of an operating engine system.
The engine, the exhaust, and the engine
aftertreatment system can reach temperatures as
high as 650 °C (1202 °F) under normal operating
conditions.
At idle engine speed and/or zero vehicle speed, an
operator can request a manual regeneration. Under
this condition, the exhaust gas temperature can reach
650 °C (1202 °F). Otherwise automatic regeneration
can produce exhaust gas temperatures as high as
650 °C (1202 °F).
Allow the engine system to cool before any
maintenance is performed. Relieve all pressure in the
following systems, hydraulic system, lubrication
system, fuel system, and the cooling system before
related items are disconnected.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 10
minutes in order to allow the fuel pressure to be
purged from the high-pressure fuel lines before any
service or repair is performed on the engine fuel lines.
Induction System
Sulfuric Acid Burn Hazard may cause serious personal injury or death.
Illustration 7
g00706404
Improperly disposing of waste can threaten the
environment. Potentially harmful fluids should be
disposed of according to local regulations.
Always use leakproof containers when you drain
fluids. Do not pour waste onto the ground, down a
drain, or into any source of water.
The exhaust gas cooler may contain a small
amount of sulfuric acid. The use of fuel with sulfur
levels greater than 15 ppm may increase the
amount of sulfuric acid formed. The sulfuric acid
may spill from the cooler during service of the engine. The sulfuric acid will burn the eyes, skin and
clothing on contact. Always wear the appropriate
personal protective equipment (PPE) that is noted
on a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for sulfuric
acid. Always follow the directions for first aid that
are noted on a material safety data sheet (MSDS)
for sulfuric acid.
10
SEBU8726
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
Coolant
When the engine is at operating temperature, the
engine coolant is hot. The coolant is also under
pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters or
to the engine contain hot coolant.
i04303237
Fire Prevention and Explosion
Prevention
Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause
severe burns. Allow cooling system components to
cool before the cooling system is drained.
Check the coolant level after the engine has stopped
and the engine has been allowed to cool.
Ensure that the filler cap is cool before removing the
filler cap. The filler cap must be cool enough to touch
with a bare hand. Remove the filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali can
cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contact
the skin, the eyes, or the mouth.
Oils
Hot oil and hot lubricating components can cause
personal injury. Do not allow hot oil to contact the
skin. Also, do not allow hot components to contact the
skin.
Batteries
Electrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause personal
injury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact the skin or
the eyes. Always wear protective glasses for
servicing batteries. Wash hands after touching the
batteries and connectors. Use of gloves is
recommended.
Illustration 8
g00704000
All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures
are flammable.
Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hot
surfaces or onto electrical components can cause a
fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property
damage.
After the emergency stop button is operated, ensure
that you allow 15 minutes, before the engine covers
are removed.
Determine whether the engine will be operated in an
environment that allows combustible gases to be
drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could
cause the engine to overspeed. Personal injury,
property damage, or engine damage could result.
If the application involves the presence of
combustible gases, consult your Perkins dealer and/
or your Perkins distributor for additional information
about suitable protection devices.
Remove all flammable combustible materials or
conductive materials such as fuel, oil, and debris from
the engine. Do not allow any flammable combustible
materials or conductive materials to accumulate on
the engine.
Store fuels and lubricants in correctly marked
containers away from unauthorized persons. Store
oily rags and any flammable materials in protective
containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for
storing flammable materials.
Do not expose the engine to any flame.
Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust
components from oil or fuel spray in a line, a tube, or
a seal failure. Exhaust shields must be installed
correctly.
SEBU8726
11
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammable
fluids. Do not flame cut lines or tanks that contain
flammable fluid. Clean any such lines or tanks
thoroughly with a nonflammable solvent prior to
welding or flame cutting.
Wiring must be kept in good condition. All electrical
wires must be correctly routed and securely attached.
Check all electrical wires daily. Repair any wires that
are loose or frayed before you operate the engine.
Clean all electrical connections and tighten all
electrical connections.
Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or unnecessary.
Do not use any wires or cables that are smaller than
the recommended gauge. Do not bypass any fuses
and/or circuit breakers.
Arcing or sparking could cause a fire. Secure
connections, recommended wiring, and correctly
maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing
or sparking.
Illustration 9
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
g00704059
Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Do not
smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do not
refuel an engine near open flames or sparks. Always
stop the engine before refueling.
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 10
minutes in order to allow the fuel pressure to be
purged from the high-pressure fuel lines before any
service or repair is performed on the engine fuel lines.
Ensure that the engine is stopped. Inspect all lines
and hoses for wear or for deterioration. The hoses
must be correctly routed. The lines and hoses must
have adequate support and secure clamps.
Ensure that Oil filters and fuel filters are correctly
installed. The filter housings must be tightened to the
correct torque. Refer to the Disassembly and
Assembly manual for more information.
Illustration 10
g00704135
Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open
flames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do
not smoke in battery charging areas.
Never check the battery charge by placing a metal
object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or a
hydrometer.
Incorrect jumper cable connections can cause an
explosion that can result in injury. Refer to the
Operation Section of this manual for specific
instructions.
12
SEBU8726
Safety Section
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention
Do not charge a frozen battery. Charging a frozen
battery may cause an explosion.
The batteries must be kept clean. The covers (if
equipped) must be kept on the cells. Use the
recommended cables, connections, and battery box
covers when the engine is operated.
Fire Extinguisher
Make sure that a fire extinguisher is available. Be
familiar with the operation of the fire extinguisher.
Inspect the fire extinguisher and service the fire
extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations on
the instruction plate.
Lines, Tubes, and Hoses
Do not bend high-pressure lines. Do not strike highpressure lines. Do not install any lines that are
damaged.
Leaks can cause fires. Consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for replacement parts.
Replace the parts if any of the following conditions
are present:
• High-pressure fuel line or lines are removed.
Unless other maintenance instructions are provided,
never attempt adjustments while the engine is
running.
Stay clear of all rotating parts and of all moving parts.
Leave the guards in place until maintenance is
performed. After the maintenance is performed,
reinstall the guards.
Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fan
blades will throw objects or cut objects.
When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in
order to avoid injury to the eyes.
Chips or other debris may fly off objects when objects
are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that no
one will be injured by flying debris.
i04016709
Mounting and Dismounting
Do not climb on the engine or the engine
aftertreatment. The engine and aftertreatment have
not been designed with mounting or dismounting
locations.
Refer to the OEM for the location of foot and hand
holds for your specific application.
• End fittings are damaged or leaking.
• Outer coverings are chafed or cut.
i04112191
• Wires are exposed.
High Pressure Fuel Lines
• Outer coverings are ballooning.
• Flexible parts of the hoses are kinked.
• Outer covers have embedded armoring.
• End fittings are displaced.
Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields
are installed correctly. During engine operation, this
check will help to prevent vibration, rubbing against
other parts, and excessive heat.
Regeneration
The exhaust gas temperature during regeneration will
be elevated. Follow proper fire prevention instructions
and use the disable switch function when appropriate.
i02143194
Crushing Prevention and
Cutting Prevention
Support the component correctly when work beneath
the component is performed.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
SEBU8726
13
Safety Section
High Pressure Fuel Lines
Illustration 11
(1) High-pressure line
(2) High-pressure line
g02315653
(3) High-pressure line
(4) High-pressure line
The high-pressure fuel lines are the fuel lines that are
between the high-pressure fuel pump and the highpressure fuel manifold and the fuel lines that are
between the fuel manifold and cylinder head. These
fuel lines are different from fuel lines on other fuel
systems.
These differences are because of the following items:
• The high-pressure fuel lines are constantly
charged with high pressure.
• The internal pressures of the high-pressure fuel
lines are higher than other types of fuel system.
• The high-pressure fuel lines are formed to shape
and then strengthened by a special process.
Do not step on the high-pressure fuel lines. Do not
deflect the high-pressure fuel lines. Do not bend or
strike the high-pressure fuel lines. Deformation or
damage of the high-pressure fuel lines may cause a
point of weakness and potential failure.
Do not check the high-pressure fuel lines with the
engine or the starting motor in operation. After the
engine has stopped wait for 10 minutes in order to
allow the fuel pressure to be purged from the highpressure fuel lines before any service or repair is
performed.
Do not loosen the high-pressure fuel lines in order to
remove air from the fuel system. This procedure is not
required.
Visually inspect the high-pressure fuel lines before
the engine is started. This inspection should be each
day.
(5) High-pressure fuel manifold (rail)
(6) Fuel transfer line that is high pressure
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use the
proper inspection procedure in order to avoid a fluid
penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
• Inspect the high-pressure fuel lines for damage,
deformation, a nick, a cut, a crease, or a dent.
• Do not operate the engine with a fuel leak. If there
is a leak, do not tighten the connection in order to
stop the leak. The connection must only be
tightened to the recommended torque. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, “Fuel injection lines Remove and Fuel injection lines - Install”.
• If the high-pressure fuel lines are torqued correctly,
and the high-pressure fuel lines are leaking the
high-pressure fuel lines must be replaced.
• Ensure that all clips on the high-pressure fuel lines
are in place. Do not operate the engine with clips
that are damaged, missing, or loose.
• Do not attach any other item to the high-pressure
fuel lines.
• Loosened high-pressure fuel lines must be
replaced. Also removed high-pressure fuel lines
must be replaced. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, “Fuel Injection Lines - Install”.
14
SEBU8726
Safety Section
Before Starting Engine
i02813489
Before Starting Engine
Before the initial start-up of an engine that is new,
serviced or repaired, make provision to shut the
engine off, in order to stop an overspeed. This may
be accomplished by shutting off the air and/or fuel
supply to the engine.
Overspeed shutdown should occur automatically for
engines that are controlled electronically. If automatic
shutdown does not occur, press the emergency stop
button in order to cut the fuel and/or air to the engine.
Inspect the engine for potential hazards.
Start the engine from the operators compartment or
from the engine start switch.
Always start the engine according to the procedure
that is described in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Engine Starting” topic in the Operation
Section. Knowing that the correct procedure will help
to prevent major damage to the engine components.
Knowing that the procedure will also help to prevent
personal injury.
To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped)
and/or the lube oil heater (if equipped) is working
correctly, check the water temperature gauge. Also,
check the oil temperature gauge during the heater
operation.
Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on,
underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the
area is free of personnel.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which can be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area. If the engine is started in an enclosed area, vent
the engine exhaust to the outside.
If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the
engine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that all
lights work correctly, if equipped.
Note: These engines are equipped with a glow plug
starting aid in each cylinder that heats the intake air in
order to improve starting.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order to
perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not
disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits are
provided in order to help prevent personal injury. The
circuits are also provided in order to help prevent
engine damage.
See the Service Manual for repairs and for
adjustments.
i04478934
Engine Starting
i02234873
Engine Stopping
Stop the engine according to the procedure in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Stopping (Operation Section)” in order to avoid
overheating of the engine and accelerated wear of
the engine components.
Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped) ONLY
in an emergency situation. Do not use the Emergency
Stop Button for normal engine stopping. After an
emergency stop, DO NOT start the engine until the
problem that caused the emergency stop has been
corrected.
Stop the engine if an overspeed condition occurs
during the initial start-up of a new engine or an engine
that has been overhauled.
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
To stop an electronically controlled engine, cut the
power to the engine and/or shutting off the air supply
to the engine.
i04112409
If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switch,
or to the controls DO NOT start the engine or move
the controls. Consult with the person that attached
the warning tag before the engine is started.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order to
perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Electrical System
Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery
circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit is
operating. A spark can cause the combustible gases
that are produced by some batteries to ignite.
SEBU8726
15
Safety Section
Electrical System
To help prevent sparks from igniting combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries, the
negative “−” cable should be connected last from the
external power source to the negative “−” terminal of
the starting motor. If the starting motor is not
equipped with a negative “−” terminal, connect the
cable to the engine block.
Check the electrical wires daily for wires that are
loose or frayed. Tighten all loose electrical
connections before the engine is started. Repair all
frayed electrical wires before the engine is started.
See the Operation and Maintenance Manual for
specific starting instructions.
Grounding Practices
Illustration 13
g02315900
Typical example
(5) Ground to battery
(6) Ground to engine block
(7) Primary position for grounding
Correct grounding for the engine electrical system is
necessary for optimum engine performance and
reliability. Incorrect grounding will result in
uncontrolled electrical circuit paths and in unreliable
electrical circuit paths.
Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can result in
damage to engine components.
Illustration 12
Typical example
(1) Ground to battery
(2) Primary position for grounding
(3) Ground to engine block
(4) Ground to starting motor
g02315896
Engines that are installed without engine-to-frame
ground straps can be damaged by electrical
discharge.
To ensure the engine and the engine electrical
systems function correctly, an engine-to-frame
ground strap with a direct path to the battery must be
used. This path may be provided by way of a direct
engine ground to the frame.
The connections for the grounds should be tight and
free of corrosion. The engine alternator must be
grounded to the negative “-” battery terminal with a
wire adequate to handle the full charging current of
the alternator.
The power supply connections and the ground
connections for the engine electronics should always
be from the isolator to the battery.
16
SEBU8726
Safety Section
Engine Electronics
i04346349
Engine Electronics
Tampering with the electronic system installation
or the OEM wiring installation can be dangerous
and could result in personal injury or death and/or
engine damage.
Electrical Shock Hazard. The electronic unit injectors use DC voltage. The ECM sends this voltage
to the electronic unit injectors. Do not come in
contact with the harness connector for the electronic unit injectors while the engine is operating.
Failure to follow this instruction could result in
personal injury or death.
This engine has a comprehensive, programmable
Engine Monitoring System. The Electronic Control
Module (ECM) has the ability to monitor the engine
operating conditions. If any of the engine parameters
extend outside an allowable range, the ECM will
initiate an immediate action.
The following actions are available for engine
monitoring control:
• Warning
• Derate
• Shutdown
The following monitored engine operating conditions
and components have the ability to limit engine speed
and/or the engine power :
• Engine Coolant Temperature
• Engine Oil Pressure
• Engine Speed
• Intake Manifold Air Temperature
• Engine Intake Throttle Valve Fault
• Wastegate Regulator
• Supply Voltage to Sensors
• Fuel Pressure in Manifold (Rail)
• NOxReduction System
• Engine Aftertreatment System
The Engine Monitoring package can vary for different
engine models and different engine applications.
However, the monitoring system and the engine
monitoring control will be similar for all engines.
SEBU8726
17
Product Information Section
Model View Illustrations
Product Information
Section
General Information
i05297867
Model View Illustrations
The following model views show typical features of
the engine. Due to individual applications, your
engine may appear different from the illustrations.
Engine and Aftertreatment
Illustration 14
g03367500
Typical example
(1) Engine aftertreatment system
(2) NOx control valve
(3) Air outlet connection from turbocharger
(4) Alternator
(5) Air intake from air filter
(6) Coolant intake connection
(7) Turbocharger
(8) Solenoid for stating motor
(9) Starting motor
(10) Oil drain plug
(11) Flywheel housing
(12) Flywheel
18
SEBU8726
General Information
Model View Illustrations
Illustration 15
g03367502
Typical example
(13) Secondary fuel filter
(14) Oil filter
(15) Oil level gauge (Dipstick)
(16) High-pressure fuel pump
(17) Valve mechanism cover
SEBU8726
19
General Information
Model View Illustrations
Illustration 16
(18) Rear lifting eyes
(19) Front lifting eye
(20) Crankcase breather
g03367547
(21) Oil filler cap
(22) Belt
(23) Coolant pump
The oil filler cap (21) can be located on the valve
mechanism cover.
(24) Coolant outlet connection
(25) Air inlet connection
20
SEBU8726
General Information
Model View Illustrations
Off Engine Parts
Illustration 17
(26) Fuel priming pump
(27) Primary fuel filter
g03367521
(28) Differential pressure sensor
(29) Electronic control module
(30) Relay for glow plugs
SEBU8726
21
General Information
Model View Illustrations
Engine View with Wall Flow Diesel Particulate Filter
Illustration 18
Typical example
The wall flow Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) will
require a service, refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule” for the service period.
g03367096
22
SEBU8726
General Information
Product Description
Engine View with Through Flow Diesel Particulate Filter
Illustration 19
g03367094
Typical example
The through-flow type of DPF will not require a
service interval.
• In-line 4 cylinder
• Two valves in each cylinder
i05326347
Product Description
• Four stroke cycle
• Turbocharged
• Turbocharged charge cooled
The Perkins 854F-E34T and the 854E-E34TA
industrial engines has the following characteristics.
• Wall Flow Diesel Particulate Filter or Through-Flow
Diesel Particulate Filter
Engine Specifications
Note: The front end of the engine is opposite the
flywheel end of the engine. The left and the right
sides of the engine are determined from the flywheel
end. The number 1 cylinder is the front cylinder.
SEBU8726
23
General Information
Product Description
Electronic Engine Features
The engine operating conditions are monitored. The
Electronic Control Module (ECM) controls the
response of the engine to these conditions and to the
demands of the operator. These conditions and
operator demands determine the precise control of
fuel injection by the ECM. The electronic engine
control system provides the following features:
• Engine monitoring
• Engine speed governing
• Control of the injection pressure
Illustration 20
g02317934
Cylinder and valve location
• Cold start strategy
• Automatic air/fuel ratio control
(A) Exhaust valves
(B) Inlet valves
• Torque rise shaping
Table 1
• Injection timing control
854F-E34T and 854E-E34TA Engine Specifications
Operating Range (rpm)
Number of Cylinders
4 In-Line
Bore
99 mm (3.89763 inch)
Stroke
110 mm (4.33070 inch)
Power
854F 45 to 55.4 kW
(60.345 to 74.3 hp)
854E 62 to 86 kW
(83.142 to 115.326 hp)
Aspiration
Compression Ratio
Displacement
Firing Order
Rotation (flywheel end)
(1)
• System diagnostics
800 to 2500(1)
854F Turbocharged
854E Turbocharged charge
cooled
17: 1
3.4 L (207.48 cubic inch)
1-3-4-2
Counterclockwise
The operating rpm is dependent on the engine rating, the application, and the configuration of the throttle.
Engine Type and Aftertreatment Type
There are three different engine types and two
different types of aftertreatment. The 854E-E34TA is
turbocharged, charge cooled engine, with a wall flow
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). The letters JR will be
on the identification plate.
The 854F-E34T is divided into two different engine
types. The engine with JS on the identification plate
will have a wall flow DPF. The engine with the letters
JT on the identification plate will have a through-flow
DPF.
The through-flow DPF will not require a service
period.
• Aftertreatment Regeneration
For more information on electronic engine features,
refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Features and Controls” topic (Operation Section).
Engine Diagnostics
The engine has built-in diagnostics in order to ensure
that the engine systems are functioning correctly. The
operator will be alerted to the condition by a “Stop or
Warning” lamp. Under certain conditions, the engine
horsepower and the vehicle speed may be limited.
The electronic service tool may be used to display the
diagnostic codes.
There are three types of diagnostic codes: active,
logged and event.
Most of the diagnostic codes are logged and stored in
the ECM. For additional information, refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Diagnostics” topic (Operation Section).
The ECM provides an electronic governor that
controls the injector output in order to maintain the
desired engine rpm.
Engine Cooling and Lubrication
The cooling system and lubrication system consists
of the following components:
24
General Information
Product Description
• Belt driven centrifugal water pump
• Water temperature regulator which regulates the
engine coolant temperature
• Gear-driven rotor type oil pump
• Multi plate oil cooler
The engine lubricating oil is cooled and the engine
lubricating oil is filtered.
Engine Service Life
Engine efficiency and maximum utilization of engine
performance depend on the adherence to proper
operation and maintenance recommendations. In
addition, use recommended fuels, coolants, and
lubricants. Use the Operation and Maintenance
Manual as a guide for required engine maintenance.
Aftermarket Products and Perkins
Engines
Perkins does not warrant the quality or performance
of non-Perkins fluids and filters.
When auxiliary devices, accessories, or consumables
(filters, additives, catalysts,) which are made by other
manufacturers are used on Perkins products, the
Perkins warranty is not affected simply because of
such use.
However, failures that result from the installation
or use of other manufacturers devices,
accessories, or consumables are NOT Perkins
defects. Therefore, the defects are NOT covered
under the Perkins warranty.
Aftertreatment System
The aftertreatment system is approved for use by
Perkins . In order to be emission-compliant only the
approved Perkins aftertreatment system must be
used on a Perkins engine.
SEBU8726
SEBU8726
25
Product Identification Information
Plate Locations and Film Locations
Product Identification
Information
Serial Number location
i04725109
Plate Locations and Film
Locations
(Engine)
Perkins engines are identified by an engine serial
number.
An example of an engine number is
JR*****L000001V.
*****
JR
L
000001
V
The list number for the engine
The type of engine
Built in the Italy
Engine Serial Number
Year of Manufacture
Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors need all of
these numbers in order to determine the components
that were included with the engine. This information
permits accurate identification of replacement part
numbers.
The numbers for fuel setting information for electronic
engines are stored within the flash file. These
numbers can be read by using the electronic service
tool.
Illustration 21
g02474416
Typical example of a non-stressed cylinder block
The engine serial number can be installed in three
different positions.
All engines will have the serial number install in
location (1) on the front face of the engine.
On a non-stressed cylinder block the serial number is
located in position (2). On the left-hand side on the
cylinder block.
26
SEBU8726
Product Identification Information
Plate Locations and Film Locations
Illustration 22
g02826736
Typical example
On a stressed cylinder block the serial number is
located in position (3).
The engine serial number is stamped on the
emissions plate.
SEBU8726
27
Product Identification Information
Plate Locations and Film Locations
i05328112
Plate Locations and Film Locations
(Aftertreatment)
Wall Flow Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
Illustration 23
Typical example
The serial number for identifying the aftertreatment
will be in two locations. On the DPF in position (1)
and in position (2). On the end cover of the inlet to the
DPF.
g02475495
28
SEBU8726
Product Identification Information
Plate Locations and Film Locations
Illustration 24
(1) Serial numbers on main body
g02723697
(2) Serial numbers on inlet end cover
Ensure that all numbers on the aftertreatment are
recorded.
Your Perkins distributor or your dealer will require all
the numbers in order to identify the components for
your aftertreatment.
i05328174
Plate Locations and Film
Locations
(Aftertreatment)
Through-Flow Diesel Particulate
Filter (DPF)
A serial number label for identifying the through-flow
DPF will be located on the main body of the DPF.
i04460799
Emissions Certification Film
The emission label will be installed on the left side of
the non-stressed cylinder block.
SEBU8726
29
Product Identification Information
Reference Information
Illustration 25
g02646428
Typical example
i05324886
Reference Information
Engine Aftertreatment System
Part Number
Serial Number
Information for the following items may be needed to
order parts. Locate the information for your engine.
Record the information in the appropriate space.
Make a copy of this list for a record. Keep the
information for future reference.
Record for Reference
Engine Model
Engine Serial Number
Engine Low Idle Revolutions Per Minute
(RPM)
Engine Full Load RPM
Primary Fuel Filter
Secondary Fuel Filter Element
Lubrication Oil Filter Element
Auxiliary Oil Filter Element
Total Lubrication System Capacity
Total Cooling System Capacity
Air Cleaner Element
Drive Belt
30
SEBU8726
Operation Section
Product Lifting
Operation Section
Some removals require lifting the fixtures in order to
obtain correct balance and safety.
Lifting and Storage
To remove the engine ONLY, use the lifting eyes that
are on the engine.
i04315227
Product Lifting
Lifting eyes are designed and installed for specific
engine arrangements. Alterations to the lifting eyes
and/or the engine make the lifting eyes and the lifting
fixtures obsolete. If alterations are made, ensure that
correct lifting devices are provided. Consult your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
information regarding fixtures for correct engine
lifting.
Note: The engine is equipped with three lifting eyes.
All the lifting eyes must be used in order to lift the
engine.
i04084189
Product Storage
(Engine and Aftertreatment)
Perkins are not responsible for damage which may
occur when an engine is in storage after a period in
service.
Your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor can
assist in preparing the engine for extended storage
periods.
Condition for Storage
The engine must be stored in a water proof building.
The building must be kept at a constant temperature.
Engines that are filled with Perkins ELC will have
coolant protection to an ambient temperature of
−36° C (−32.8° F). The engine must not be subjected
to extreme variations in temperature and humidity.
Illustration 26
g02475658
Typical example
NOTICE
Never bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only load
the eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remember that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the angle
between the supporting members and the object becomes less than 90 degrees.
When it is necessary to remove a component at an
angle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated for
the weight.
Storage Period
An engine can be stored for up to 6 months provided
all the recommendation are adhered to.
Storage Procedure
Keep a record of the procedure that has been
completed on the engine.
Note: Do not store an engine that has biodiesel in the
fuel system.
1. Ensure that the engine is clean and dry.
Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Use an
adjustable lifting beam to lift the engine. All
supporting members (chains and cables) should be
parallel to each other. The chains and cables should
be perpendicular to the top of the object that is being
lifted.
a. If the engine has been operated using
biodiesel, the system must be drained and
new filters installed. The fuel tank will require
flushing.
SEBU8726
31
Lifting and Storage
Product Storage
b. Fill the fuel system with an ultra low sulfur fuel.
For more information on acceptable fuels refer
to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Fluid recommendations”. Operate the engine
for 15 minutes in order to remove all biodiesel
from the system.
2. Drain any water from the primary filter water
separator. Ensure that the fuel tank is full.
3. The engine oil will not need to be drained in order
to store the engine. Provided the correct
specification of engine oil is used the engine can
be stored for up to 6 months. For the correct
specification of engine oil refer to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
recommendations”.
4. Remove the drive belt from the engine.
Sealed Coolant System
Ensure that the cooling system is filled with Perkins
ELC, or an antifreeze that meets ASTM D6210
specification.
Open Cooling System
Ensure that all cooling drain plugs have been
opened. Allow the coolant to drain. Install the drain
plugs. Place a vapor phase inhibitor into the system.
The coolant system must be sealed once the vapor
phase inhibitor has been introduced. The effect of the
vapor phase inhibitor will be lost if the cooling system
is open to the atmosphere.
For maintenance procedures ref to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual.
Aftertreatment
No special procedures are required. The exhaust
outlet of the aftertreatment should be capped. Before
storing, the engine and the aftertreatment must be
enclosed in a cover.
Monthly Checks
The crankshaft must be rotated in order to change the
spring loading on the valve train. Rotate the
crankshaft more than 180 degrees. Visibly check for
damage or corrosion to the engine and
aftertreatment.
Ensure that the engine and aftertreatment are
covered completely before storage. Log the
procedure in the record for the engine.
32
SEBU8726
Features and Controls
Alarms and Shutoffs
Features and Controls
i05324913
Alarms and Shutoffs
The alarm is a warning to the operator that an
abnormal operating condition has occurred. The
shutoffs are set in order to protect the engine from
damage. A shutoff can be triggered by pressure,
temperature, engine speed, and electronic fault.
The operator should become familiar with the warning
lamps and shutdown lamps on the installed control
panel before operating the application. For more
information refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Monitoring System (Table for the Indicator
lamps)”.
Jacket Water Coolant Temperature –
Typical temperature range is 79° to 94°C
(174° to 201 °F). This temperature range
will vary according to engine load and the
ambient temperature.
A 100 kPa (14.5 psi) radiator cap must be installed
on the cooling system. The maximum temperature for
the cooling system will depend on engine power. For
engines that are 75kW and lower the maximin cooling
temperature is 110° C (230° F). For engines that are
above 75kW the maximin temperature is 108° C
(226.4° F). The engine coolant temperature is
regulated by the engine sensors and the engine
ECM. This programming cannot be altered. An
engine derate can occur if the maximum engine
coolant temperature is exceeded.
If the engine is operating above the normal range,
reduce the engine load. If high coolant temperatures
are a frequent event, perform the following
procedures:
i04316262
Gauges and Indicators
Your engine may not have the same gauges or all of
the gauges that are described. For more information
about the gauge package, see the OEM information.
Gauges provide indications of engine performance.
Ensure that the gauges are in good working order.
Determine the normal operating range by observing
the gauges over a period.
Noticeable changes in gauge readings indicate
potential gauge or engine problems. Problems may
also be indicated by gauge readings that change
even if the readings are within specifications.
Determine and correct the cause of any significant
change in the readings. Consult your Perkins
distributor for assistance.
Some engine applications are equipped with Indicator
Lamps. Indicator lamps can be used as a diagnostic
aid. There are two lamps. One lamp has an orange
lens and the other lamp has a red lens.
These indicator lamps can be used in two ways:
• The indicator lamps can be used to identify the
current operational status of the engine. The
indicator lamps can also indicate that the engine
has a fault. This system is automatically operated
via the ignition switch.
• The indicator lamps can be used to identify active
diagnostic codes. This system is activated by
pressing the Flash Code button.
Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide, “Indicator
Lamps” for further information.
1. Reduce the load and the engine rpm.
2. Determine if the engine must be shut down
immediately or if the engine can be cooled by
reducing the load.
3. Inspect the cooling system for leaks. If necessary,
consult your Perkins distributor for assistance.
Tachometer – This gauge indicates
engine speed (rpm). When the throttle
control lever is moved to the full throttle
position without load, the engine is running at
high idle. The engine is running at the full load
rpm when the throttle control lever is at the full
throttle position with maximum rated load.
NOTICE
To help prevent engine damage, never exceed the
high idle rpm. Overspeeding can result in serious
damage to the engine. Operation at speeds exceeding high idle rpm should be kept to a minimum.
Ammeter – This gauge indicates the
amount of charge or discharge in the
battery charging circuit. Operation of the
indicator should be to the “ +”” side of “ 0”” (zero).
Fuel Level – This gauge indicates the
fuel level in the fuel tank. The fuel level
gauge operates when the “ START/
STOP”” switch is in the “ on”” position.
Service Hour Meter – The gauge
indicates total operating hours of the
engine.
SEBU8726
33
Features and Controls
Monitoring System
Indicator Lamps
• Shutdown lamp
• Warning lamp
• Wait to start lamp
• Low oil pressure lamp (On solid) and engine oil
reset lamp (Flashing)
For information, refer to this manual, “Monitoring
System (Table for the Indicator Lamps)” for the
sequence of operation of the shutdown lamp and the
warning lamp.
The function of the wait to start lamp is automatically
controlled at engine start-up.
The low oil pressure lamp has two functions.
• The low oil pressure lamp is controlled by the
engine ECM. If low oil pressure is detected, the
lamp will be illuminated on solid. The reason for
the illumination of the low-pressure lamp should be
investigated immediately.
• Low oil pressure lamp flashing, an engine oil
change is required. The lamp must be reset, refer
to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Engine Oil and Filter - Change” for more
information.
All lamps will illuminate for 2 seconds in order to
check that the lamps are functioning when the
keyswitch is turned to the ON position. If any of the
lamps stay illuminated, the reason for illumination
should be investigated immediately.
Aftertreatment Lamps
For information on the aftertreatment lamp, refer to
this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Diesel
Particulate Filter Regeneration”.
i04710837
Monitoring System
(Table for the Indicator lamps)
When in operation the amber warning indicator has
three states, on solid, flashing and fast flashing. The
sequence is to give a visual indication of the
importance of the warning. Some application can
have an audible warning installed.
34
SEBU8726
Features and Controls
Monitoring System
Table 2
Warning
Indicator
Shutdown
Indicator
On
On
Lamp State
Description of the Indication
Engine Status
Indicator Check When the keyswitch is moved to the The keyswitch is in the ON
ON position, the lamps will illumiposition but the engine has
nate for 2 seconds and the lamps
not yet been cranked.
will then go off.
During indicator check, the aftertreatment indicators will also be
checked.
Off
Off
No Faults
With the engine in operation, there
are no active warnings, diagnostic
codes, or event codes.
Operator Action
If any of the indicators
will not illuminate during
indicator check, the fault
must be investigated
immediately.
If any Indicators stay illuminated or flash, the
fault must be investigated immediately.
The engine is operating with
no detected faults.
None
Level 1
On Solid
Off
Warning
The engine is operating nor- As soon as possible the
mally but there is one or more fault should be
faults with the electronic man- investigated.
agement system for the
engine.
Level 1 warning
Level 2
Flashing
Off
Warning
Level 2 warning
The engine continues to be
Stop the engine.
operated, but there are active Investigate the code.
diagnostic, or event codes
active.
Derate to engine power may
be applied.
Level 3
Flashing
On solid
Warning
Level 3 warning
If both the warning lamp and the
shutdown lamp are in operation,
this issue indicates one of the following conditions.
The engine continues to be
Stop the engine
operated, but the level of im- immediately.
portance of the warning has Investigate the fault
increased.
The engine will automatically
shut down.
1. One or more of the shutdown val- If shut down is not enabled,
ues for the engine protection strat- the engine could be damaged
if continued to be operated.
egy has been exceeded.
2. A serious active diagnostic code
has been detected.
3. After a short time period, the engine may shut down.
SEBU8726
35
Features and Controls
Monitoring System
i04317185
Monitoring System
If the Shutdown mode has been selected and the
warning indicator activates, engine shutdown
may take as little as 20 seconds from the time the
warning indicator is activated. Depending on the
application, special precautions should be taken
to avoid personal injury. The engine can be restarted following shutdown for emergency maneuvers, if necessary.
NOTICE
The Engine Monitoring System is not a guarantee
against catastrophic failures. Programmed delays
and derate schedules are designed to minimize false
alarms and provide time for the operator to stop the
engine.
The following parameters are monitored:
• Coolant temperature
• Intake manifold air temperature
• Intake manifold air pressure
• Oil pressure
• Pressure in the fuel rail
Programmable Options and
Systems Operation
If the Warning/Derate/Shutdown mode has been
selected and the warning indicator activates,
bring the engine to a stop whenever possible. Depending on the application, special precautions
should be taken to avoid personal injury.
The engine can be programmed to the following
modes:
“ Warning””
The orange “Warning” lamp will turn “ON” and the
warning signal is activated continuously in order to
alert the operator that one or more of the engine
parameters is not within normal operating range.
“ Derate””
The orange “Warning” lamp will turn “ON” and the
red shutdown lamp will be flashing. After the warning,
the engine power will be derated. The warning lamp
will begin to flash when the derating occurs.
The engine will be derated if the engine exceeds
preset operational limits. The engine derate is
achieved by restricting the amount of fuel that is
available for each injection. The amount of this
reduction of fuel is dependent on the severity of the
fault that has caused the engine derate, typically up
to a limit of 50%. This reduction in fuel results in a
predetermined reduction in engine power.
• Engine speed/timing
• Fuel temperature
• Atmospheric pressure (Barometric pressure)
• Water in fuel switch
• Inlet temperature of the diesel oxidation catalyst
• Inlet temperature of the diesel particulate filter
• Differential pressure in the diesel particulate filter
• The amount of soot in the diesel particulate filter
“ Shutdown””
The orange warning will turn “ON” and the red
shutdown lamp will also turn “ON” . After the warning,
the engine power will be derated. The engine will
continue at the rpm of the set derate until a shutdown
of the engine occurs. The engine can be restarted
after a shutdown for use in an emergency.
A shutdown of the engine may occur in as little as 20
seconds. The engine can be restarted after a
shutdown for use in an emergency. However, the
cause of the initial shutdown may still exist. The
engine may shut down again in as little as 20
seconds.
If there is a signal for high coolant temperature, there
will be a 2 second delay in order to verify the
condition.
If there is a signal for low oil pressure, there will be a
2 second delay in order to verify the condition.
36
SEBU8726
Features and Controls
Overspeed
For information on the operation of the warning lamps
and the shutdown lamp, refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Monitoring System (Table for
Indicator Lamps)”. For each of the programmed
modes, refer to Troubleshooting Guide, “Indicator
Lamps” for more information on Indicator Lamps.
For more information or assistance for repairs,
consult your Perkins distributor or your Perkins
dealer.
i04348489
Overspeed
• ECM
Electronic Control Module
• RPM
Revolutions Per Minute
An overspeed is detected by the speed/timing
sensors.
The default overspeed is set at 2800. The ECM will
cut the power to the electronic unit injectors, until the
rpm drops below the overspeed setting. A diagnostic
fault code will be logged into the ECM memory and a
warning lamp will indicate a diagnostic fault code.
Some application may have a display panel in order
to alert the operator.
SEBU8726
37
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
i05325438
Sensors and Electrical Components
Full Engine Views
Illustration 27
g03373765
Typical example
(1) 10 Pin and 62 pin connector
(2) Fuel temperature sensor
(3) Oil pressure switch
(4) Primary speed/timing sensor (crankshaft
position sensor)
(5) Water in fuel switch
(6) Fuel metering valve
38
SEBU8726
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 28
g02477200
Typical example
(7) Fuel manifold (rail) pressure sensor
(8) Electronic control module
(9) Secondary speed/timing sensor
(camshaft position sensor)
(10) Alternator
(11) Coolant temperature sensor
(12) Intake throttle valve
SEBU8726
39
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 29
g02529496
Typical example
(13) Inlet manifold pressure and temperature
sensor.
(14) Exhaust temperature sensor connection
(15) Exhaust pressure sensor
(16) Waste gate regulator
(17) Starting motor
Note: Item (13), lower powered engines have
separate inlet manifold pressure sensors and inlet
manifold temperature sensors.
(18) Oxygen sensor
(19) Control valve for the NOx reduction
system
40
SEBU8726
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Engine View Low Power with Separate Inlet Pressure and Inlet Temperature
Illustration 30
g03373789
Typical example
(13 A) Inlet pressure sensor
(13 B) Inlet temperature sensor
SEBU8726
41
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Location Views
Illustration 31
g03373767
Typical example
(1) 10 Pin and 62 pin connector
(2) Fuel temperature sensor
(3) Oil pressure switch
(4) Primary speed/timing sensor (crankshaft
position sensor)
(5) Water in fuel switch
(6) Fuel metering valve
42
SEBU8726
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 32
g02529820
Typical example
(7) Fuel manifold (rail) pressure sensor
(8) Electronic control module
(9) Secondary speed/timing sensor
(camshaft position sensor)
(10) Alternator
Note: The location of item (8) the engine electronic
control module will depend on the application.
(11) Coolant temperature sensor
(12) Intake throttle valve
SEBU8726
43
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 33
g02529821
Typical example
(13) Inlet manifold pressure and temperature
sensor.
(14) Exhaust temperature sensor connection
(A) Exhaust temperature sensor
(15) Exhaust pressure sensor
(16) Waste gate regulator
44
SEBU8726
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 34
g02530397
Typical example
(17) Starting motor
(18) Position for oxygen sensor
Note: Some engines can have the air intake
temperature sensor and the glow plug control unit
supplied loose.
(19) NOx reduction control valve
45
SEBU8726
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Separate Inlet Pressure and Inlet Temperature Views
Illustration 35
g03373791
Typical example
(13 A) Intake manifold pressure sensor
(13 B) Intake manifold temperature sensor
46
SEBU8726
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Engine Option or Parts that are Supplied Loose
Illustration 36
g02821639
Typical example
(20) Glow plug control unit
(21) Inlet air temperature sensor
Some engines can have a breather heater (22) for the
crankcase breather installed.
i05325624
Sensors and Electrical
Components
(Aftertreatment)
There are two types of aftertreatment that can be
installed. The engine power will determine the type of
aftertreatment that is installed.
(22) Breather heater
47
SEBU8726
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Wall Flow Aftertreatment
Illustration 37
g03373851
Typical example
(1) Diesel oxidation catalyst temperature
sensor
(2) Diesel particulate filter (DPF) temperature
sensor
(3) Inlet connection for the differential
pressure sensor
(4) Outlet connection for the differential
pressure sensor
(5) Oxygen sensor
48
SEBU8726
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Through Flow Aftertreatment
Illustration 38
g03373872
Typical example
(1) Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC)
temperature sensor
(2) Temperature sensor after DOC
Differential Pressure sensor
Illustration 39
g02477086
Typical example
(1) Differential pressure sensor
The location of the differential pressure sensor will
depend on the application. The differential pressure is
installed on the wall flow DPF. The through-flow DPF
does not always require the sensor to be installed.
(3) Oxygen sensor
SEBU8726
49
Engine Diagnostics
Self-Diagnostics
Engine Diagnostics
i04348749
i02651093
Self-Diagnostics
Perkins electronic engines have the capability to
perform a self-diagnostics test. When the system
detects an active problem, a diagnostic lamp is
activated. Diagnostic codes will be stored in
permanent memory in the Electronic Control Module
(ECM). The diagnostic codes can be retrieved by
using the electronic service tool. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tools” for further
information.
Some installations have electronic displays that
provide direct readouts of the engine diagnostic
codes. Refer to the manual that is provided by the
OEM for more information on retrieving engine
diagnostic codes. Alternatively refer to
Troubleshooting, “Indicator Lamps” for further
information.
Active codes represent problems that currently exist.
These problems should be investigated first.
Logged codes represent the following items:
• Intermittent problems
• Recorded events
• Performance history
The problems may have been repaired since the
logging of the code. These codes do not indicate that
a repair is needed. The codes are guides or signals
when a situation exists. Codes may be helpful to
troubleshoot problems.
When the problems have been corrected, the
corresponding logged fault codes should be cleared.
i02651107
Diagnostic Lamp
Fault Logging
The system provides the capability of Fault Logging.
When the Electronic Control Module (ECM)
generates an active diagnostic code, the code will be
logged in the memory of the ECM. The codes that
have been logged by the ECM can be identified by
the electronic service tool. The active codes that have
been logged will be cleared when the fault has been
rectified or the fault is no longer active.
i03554534
Engine Operation with Active
Diagnostic Codes
If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine
operation, the system has identified a situation that is
not within the specification. Use electronic service
tools to check the active diagnostic codes.
Note: If the customer has selected “DERATE” and if
there is a low oil pressure condition, the Electronic
Control Module (ECM) will limit the engine power until
the problem is corrected. If the oil pressure is within
the normal range, the engine may be operated at the
rated speed and load. However, maintenance should
be performed as soon as possible.
The active diagnostic code should be investigated.
The cause of the problem should be corrected as
soon as possible. If the cause of the active diagnostic
code is repaired and there is only one active
diagnostic code, the diagnostic lamp will turn off.
Operation of the engine and performance of the
engine can be limited as a result of the active
diagnostic code that is generated. Acceleration rates
may be significantly slower. Refer to the
Troubleshooting Guide for more information on the
relationship between these active diagnostic codes
and engine performance.
i01902995
A diagnostic lamp is used to indicate the existence of
an active fault. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Indicator
Lamps” for more information. A fault diagnostic code
will remain active until the problem is repaired. The
diagnostic code may be retrieved by using the
electronic service tool. Refer to Troubleshooting,
“Electronic Service Tools” for more information.
Engine Operation with
Intermittent Diagnostic Codes
If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine
operation and the diagnostic lamp shuts off, an
intermittent fault may have occurred. If a fault has
occurred, the fault will be logged into the memory of
the Electronic Control Module (ECM).
50
Engine Diagnostics
Configuration Parameters
SEBU8726
In most cases, it is not necessary to stop the engine
because of an intermittent code. However, the
operator should retrieve the logged fault codes and
the operator should reference the appropriate
information in order to identify the nature of the event.
The operator should log any observation that could
have caused the lamp to light.
• Low power
• Limits of the engine speed
• Excessive smoke, etc
This information can be useful to help troubleshoot
the situation. The information can also be used for
future reference. For more information on diagnostic
codes, refer to the Troubleshooting Guide for this
engine.
i04349071
Configuration Parameters
The engine electronic control module (ECM) has two
types of configuration parameters. The system
configuration parameters and the customer specified
parameters.
The electronic service tool is required in order to alter
the configuration parameters.
System Configuration Parameters
System configuration parameters affect the emissions
of the engine or the power of the engine. System
configuration parameters are programmed at the
factory. Normally, system configuration parameters
would never require changing through the life of the
engine. System configuration parameters must be
reprogrammed if an ECM is replaced.
Customer Specified Parameters
Customer specified parameters allow the engine to
be configured to the exact needs of the application.
The electronic service tool is required in order to alter
the customer configuration parameters.
Customer parameters may be changed repeatedly as
operational requirements change.
Table 3
Customer Specified Parameters
Specified Parameters
Record
Low Idle Speed
Throttle Position 1 Engine Speed
(continued)
SEBU8726
51
Engine Diagnostics
Configuration Parameters
(Table 3, contd)
Throttle Position 2 Engine Speed
Throttle Position 3 Engine Speed
Throttle Position 4 Engine Speed
Engine Idle Shutdown Enable Status
Engine Idle Shutdown Delay Status
Throttle Lock Feature Installation Status
Multi State Input Switch Enable Status
Multi State Input Switch Control Purpose
Multi Position Throttle Switch Initialization Enable Status
Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed #1
Throttle Lock Increment Speed Ramp Rate
Throttle Lock Decrement Speed Ramp Rate
Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed Increment
Monitoring Mode Shutdowns
Limp Home Desired Engine Speed
Engine Acceleration Rate
Engine Location
High Exhaust System Temperature Indicator Installation Status
DPF Regeneration Inhibit Indicator Installation Status
DPF Soot Loading Indicator Installation Status
Oil Pressure Lamp Installation Status
Wait to Start Lamp Installation Status
Warning Lamp Installation Status
Shutdown Lamp Installation Status
Starter Relay Installation Status
Low Pressure Fuel Pump Installation Status
Remote Torque Speed Control Enable Status
Throttle Arbitration Method
Manual Throttle Arbitration Precondition Check
Throttle Enable Status
Throttle #1 Initial Lower Position
Throttle #1 Initial Upper Position
Throttle #1Idle Validation Switch Enable Status
Throttle #1Idle Validation Minimum Off Threshold
Throttle #1 Idle Validation Maximum On Threshold
Throttle #1 Lower Diagnostic Limit
Throttle #1 Upper Diagnostic Limit
(continued)
52
Engine Diagnostics
Configuration Parameters
(Table 3, contd)
Throttle #2 Initial Lower Position
Throttle #2 Initial Upper Position
Throttle #2 Idle Validation Switch Enable Status
Throttle #2 Idle Validation Minimum Off Threshold
Throttle #2 Idle Validation Maximum On Threshold
Throttle #2 Lower Diagnostic Limit
Throttle #2 Upper Diagnostic Limit
Engine Operation Mode #1 High Idle Speed
Engine Operation Mode #1 High Idle Droop Percentage
Engine Operation Mode #1 Throttle #1 Droop Percentage
Engine Operation Mode #2 Throttle #1 Droop Percentage
Engine Operation Mode #1 TSC1 Droop Percentage
Engine Operation Mode #2 High Idle Speed
Engine Operation Mode #2 High Idle Droop Percentage
Engine Operation Mode #2 Throttle #1 Droop Percentage
Engine Operation Mode #2 Throttle #2 Droop Percentage
Engine Operation Mode #2 TSC1 Droop Percentage
Engine Operation Mode #3 High Idle Droop Percentage
Engine Operation Mode #3 High Idle Droop Percentage
Engine Operation Mode #3 Throttle #1 Droop Percentage
Engine Operation Mode #3 Throttle #2 Droop Percentage
Engine Operation Mode #3 TSC1 Droop Percentage
Engine Operation Mode #4 High Idle Speed
Engine Operation Mode #4 High Idle Droop Percentage
Engine Operation Mode #4 Throttle #1 Droop Percentage
Engine Operation Mode #4 Throttle #2 Droop Percentage
Engine Operation Mode #4 TSC1 Droop Percentage
SEBU8726
SEBU8726
53
Engine Starting
Before Starting Engine
Engine Starting
i05365825
i03648917
Cold Weather Starting
Before Starting Engine
ce and other
periodic maintenance before the engine is started.
Inspect the engine compartment. This inspection can
help prevent major repairs at a later date. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance
Interval Schedule” for more information.
• Ensure that the engine has an adequate fuel
supply.
• Open the fuel supply valve (if equipped).
NOTICE
All valves in the fuel return line must be open and fuel
supply lines must be open. Damage to the fuel system can occure if fuel lines are closed with the engine
in operation.
If the engine has not been started for several weeks,
fuel may have drained from the fuel system. Air may
have entered the filter housing. Also, when fuel filters
have been changed, some air pockets will be trapped
in the engine. In these instances, prime the fuel
system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for more information
on priming the fuel system. Also, check that the fuel
specification is correct and that the fuel condition is
correct. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel Recommendations”.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start
and operate the engine in a well ventilated area
and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the
outside.
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
The ability to start the engine will be improved at
temperatures below −18 °C (0 °F) from the use of a
jacket water heater or extra battery capacity.
When Group 2 diesel fuel is used, the following items
provide a means of minimizing starting problems and
fuel problems in cold weather: Engine oil pan heaters,
jacket water heaters, fuel heaters and fuel line
insulation.
Use the procedure that follows for cold weather
starting.
Note: Do not adjust the engine speed control during
start-up. The electronic control module (ECM) will
control the engine speed during start-up.
1. Disengage any driven equipment.
Note: During key ON, the indicator lamps will be
illuminated for 2 seconds in order to check the lamp
operation. If any of the indicator lamps do not
illuminate check the bulb. If any indicator lamps stay
illuminated or flash, refer to Troubleshooting,
“Indicator Lamp Circuit - Test”.
2. Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position. Leave the
keyswitch in the RUN position until the warning
light for the glow plugs is extinguished.
3. When the warning light for the glow plugs is
extinguished, turn the keyswitch to the START
position in order to engage the electric starting
motor and crank the engine.
• Do not start the engine or move any of the controls
if there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or
similar warning tag attached to the start switch or
to the controls.
Note: The operating period of the warning light for the
glow plugs will change due to the ambient air
temperature.
• Reset all of the shutoffs or alarm components.
NOTICE
Do not engage the starting motor when flywheel is
turning. Do not start the engine under load.
• Ensure that any driven equipment has been
disengaged. Minimize electrical loads or remove
any electrical loads.
If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release
the starter switch or button and wait two minutes to allow the starting motor to cool before attempting to
start the engine again.
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SEBU8726
Engine Starting
Starting the Engine
4. Allow the keyswitch to return to the RUN position
after the engine starts.
5. Repeat step 2 through step 4 if the engine fails to
start.
Note: After starting, the engine will be held at low
speed. The time held at low speed will depend on
ambient temperature and time since last run. The
procedure is in order to allow the engine systems to
stabilize. The engine should not be “raced” in order to
speed up the warm-up process.
6. Allow the engine to idle for 3 to 5 minutes, or allow
the engine to idle until the water temperature
indicator begins to rise. When idling after the
engine has started in cold weather, increase the
engine rpm from 1000 to 1200 rpm. This operation
will warm up the engine more quickly. Maintaining
an elevated low idle speed for extended periods
will be easier with the installation of a hand throttle.
Allow the white smoke to disperse before
proceeding with normal operation.
7. Operate the engine at low load until all systems
reach operating temperature. Check the gauges
during the warm-up period.
i05365826
Starting the Engine
Note: Do not adjust the engine speed control during
start-up. The electronic control module (ECM) will
control the engine speed during start-up.
Starting the Engine
1. Disengage any equipment that is driven by the
engine.
2. Turn the keyswitch to the first position power on.
Check that the low oil pressure lamp is on solid. If
the lamp is on solid, the engine start sequence can
continue. If the lamp is flashing, and engine oil
change is required. Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Engine Oil and Filter Change” for more information.
3. Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position. Leave the
keyswitch in the RUN position until the warning
light for the glow plugs is extinguished.
Note: During the key on, the indicator lamps will be
illuminated for 2 seconds in order to check lamp
operation. If any of the lamps do not illuminate, check
the bulb. If the fault remains refer to Troubleshooting,
“Indicator Lamp Circuit - Test”.
4. When the warning light for the glow plugs is
extinguished, turn the keyswitch to the START
position in order to engage the electric starting
motor and crank the engine.
Note: The operating period of the warning light for the
glow plugs will change due to the temperature of the
engine.
NOTICE
Do not engage the starting motor when flywheel is
turning. Do not start the engine under load.
If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release
the starter switch or button and wait two minutes to allow the starting motor to cool before attempting to
start the engine again.
5. Allow the keyswitch to return to the RUN position
after the engine starts. Ensure that all warning
lamps are off.
6. Repeat step 2 through step 5 if the engine fails to
start.
7. After starting, the engine will be held at low speed.
The time held at low speed will depend on ambient
temperature and time since last run. The
procedure is in order to allow the engine systems
to stabilize.
8. If the engine will not start, refer to Troubleshooting,
“Engine Cranks but Does Not Start”
i03663103
Starting with Jump Start
Cables
Improper jump start cable connections can cause
an explosion resulting in personal injury.
Prevent sparks near the batteries. Sparks could
cause vapors to explode. Do not allow jump start
cable ends to contact each other or the engine.
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SEBU8726
Engine Starting
After Starting Engine
Note: If it is possible, first diagnose the reason for the
starting failure. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Engine Will
Not Crank and Engine Cranks But Will Not Start” for
further information. Make any necessary repairs. If
the engine will not start only due to the condition of
the battery, either charge the battery, or start the
engine by using another battery with jump start
cables.
The condition of the battery can be rechecked after
the engine has been switched OFF.
NOTICE
Using a battery source with the same voltage as the
electric starting motor. Use ONLY equal voltage for
jump starting. The use of higher voltage will damage
the electrical system.
Do not reverse the battery cables. The alternator can
be damaged. Attach ground cable last and remove
first.
Turn all electrical accessories OFF before attaching
the jump start cables.
Ensure that the main power switch is in the OFF position before attaching the jump start cables to the engine being started.
1. Turn the start switch on the stalled engine to the
OFF position. Turn off all the engine's accessories.
2. Connect one positive end of the jump start cable to
the positive cable terminal of the discharged
battery. Connect the other positive end of the jump
start cable to the positive cable terminal of the
electrical source.
3. Connect one negative end of the jump start cable
to the negative cable terminal of the electrical
source. Connect the other negative end of the
jump start cable to the engine block or to the
chassis ground. This procedure helps to prevent
potential sparks from igniting the combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries.
Note: The engine ECM must be powered before the
starting motor is operated or damage can occur.
4. Start the engine in the normal operating procedure.
Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Starting the Engine”.
5. Immediately after the engine is started, disconnect
the jump start cables in reverse order.
After jump starting, the alternator may not be able to
fully recharge batteries that are severely discharged.
The batteries must be replaced or charged to the
proper voltage with a battery charger after the engine
is stopped. Many batteries which are considered
unusable are still rechargeable. Refer to Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Battery - Replace” and
Testing and Adjusting Manual, “Battery - Test”.
i05397433
After Starting Engine
After starting, the engine will be held at low speed.
The time held at low speed will depend on ambient
temperature and time since last run. The procedure is
in order to allow the engine systems to stabilize.
Note: In ambient temperatures from 0 to 60°C
(32 to 140°F), the warm-up time is approximately 3
minutes. In temperatures below 0°C (32°F),
additional warm-up time may be required.
When the engine idles during warm-up, observe the
following conditions:
Do not check the high-pressure fuel lines with the
engine or the starting motor in operation. If you
inspect the engine in operation, always use the
proper inspection procedure in order to avoid a fluid
penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
• Check for any fluid or for any air leaks at idle rpm
and at one-half full rpm (no load on the engine)
before operating the engine under load.
• Allow the engine to idle for 3 to 5 minutes, or allow
the engine to idle until the water temperature
indicator begins to rise. Check all gauges during
the warm-up period.
Note: Gauge readings should be observed and the
data should be recorded frequently while the engine
is operating. Comparing the data over time will help to
determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
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SEBU8726
Engine Operation
Engine Operation
Engine Operation
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i04653132
Engine Operation
Proper operation and maintenance are key factors in
obtaining the maximum life and economy of the
engine. If the directions in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can be
minimized and engine service life can be maximized.
The time that is needed for the engine to reach
normal operating temperature can be less than the
time taken for a walk-around inspection.
The engine can be operated at the rated rpm after the
engine is started and after the engine reaches
operating temperature. The engine will reach normal
operating temperature sooner during a low engine
speed (rpm) and during a low-power demand. This
procedure is more effective than idling the engine at
no load. The engine should reach operating
temperature in a few minutes.
Avoid excess idling. Excessive idling causes carbon
buildup, engine slobber and soot loading of the
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). Excess idling can be
harmful to the engine.
Gauge readings should be observed and the data
should be recorded frequently while the engine is
operating. Comparing the data over time will help to
determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
System Check
During normal engine operation the Electronic
Control Module (ECM) will elevate the fuel pressure
to the injectors. This check will be at scheduled
intervals of approximately 100 hours depending on
the duty cycle of the engine. The check will be carried
out automatically without the need of any input from
the operator.
During the time of elevated fuel pressure, the
operator may notice a change in the tone of the
engine. The ECM will operate the check at low idle for
approximately 5 minutes.
Diesel Particulate Filter
Regeneration
Regeneration
Regeneration is the removal of soot from the Diesel
Particulate Filter (DPF). There are two different types
of DPF that can be installed The through flow DPF
and the wall flow DPF. Engines with a power output of
56kW and above will have the wall flow DPF installed.
Engines with a power output below 56kW have the
option to use both types of DPF.
In table 4 titled Indicator Operation the operator will
find information on the regeneration indicators. The
table informs the operator why an indicator is
illuminated and what action should be taken.
Through Flow DPF
The through flow DPF uses passive regeneration in
order to remove the soot from the DPF. Passive
regeneration is a chemical reaction within the system.
Normal operation of the engine creates enough heat
for a chemical reaction in order to regenerate the
DPF. The regeneration occurs automatically during
normal engine operation.
This system uses an amount of active regeneration in
order to ensure that soot cannot exit the DPF. The
through flow DPF will not require manual cleaning.
For a typical view of the through flow DPF, refer to
this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Sensors
and Electrical Components (Aftertreatment)”
Wall Flow DPF
The wall flow DPF uses passive regeneration and
active regeneration in order to remove the soot from
the DPF. The ash is trapped within the DPF and must
be removed by a manual cleaning process. Refer to
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Diesel
Particulate Filter- Clean”.
For a typical view of the wall flow DPF, refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Sensors and
Electrical Components (Aftertreatment)”
Regeneration Indicators
Five indicators can be affected by the DPF
regeneration. these indicators are, Regeneration
Active, DPF, Disable Regeneration, Amber, or Yellow
Warning Indicator and Red Stop Indicator.
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SEBU8726
Engine Operation
Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration
Regeneration Active – This indicator will
illuminate during active regeneration.
The indicator shows that elevated
exhaust temperatures are possible. The indicator
will be turned off when regeneration is complete.
DPF – This indicator provides a general
indication of the soot load. The indicator
is off when the soot load is normal.
Disable Regeneration – This indicator is
illuminated whenever the disable switch
is activated.
Modes of Regeneration
• Automatic regeneration
• Manual regeneration
Automatic regeneration – Automatic regeneration
will occur when the level of soot reaches the trigger
point that is set in the ECM. The engine can operate
normally during an automatic regeneration.
Manual – A manual regeneration is initiated by
pressing the regeneration switch. A forced
regeneration can only be performed after the soot
load has illuminated the DPF indicator . A forced
regeneration will only be required if the automatic
regeneration has not been completed. This situation
can be due to either the disable switch being
operated or the duty cycle of the engine.
Note: In some applications the engine safety
interlocks will need to be in place before a forced
regeneration can occur.
Regeneration Switch
Note: The regeneration switch is a three position
switch. Some OEMs may use other means of
activating a forced regeneration such as touch screen
interfaces.
Force Regeneration – Press in the top of
the switch for 2 seconds in order to
begin regeneration.
Disable Regeneration – Press in the
bottom of the switch for 2 seconds in
order to disable regeneration.
Note: The MIDDLE position of the regeneration
switch is the default position for automatic
regeneration.
Note: You may return to normal operation at any
point during a regeneration.
Regeneration System Warning
Indicators
Some applications may also have an audible warning
installed.
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SEBU8726
Engine Operation
Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration
Table 4
Indicator Operation
During passive regeneration no indicator will be illuminated
Aftertreatment
Indicator
Aftertreatment Indica- Warning
Indicator
tor State
Warning Indicator Description
State
Regeneration Active
indicator
On Solid
None
None
Action Required
Regeneration is activated. None
The indicator will stay illuminated during
regeneration.
DPF Indicator
On Solid
None
None
The indicator provides a
general indication of the
soot load. The indicator is
off when the soot load is
normal.
A regeneration is required.
In automatic mode the
ECM will decide when to
allow the active
regeneration.
If the DPF indicator stays
illuminated allow a manual
regeneration without interruption. An uninterrupted
active regeneration will reset the DPF indicator.
The indicator indicates that
the soot load has
increased.
The engine will derate.
A manual regeneration is
required. Perform a manual regeneration, or a service regeneration will be
required.
The flashing warning indicator and red stop indicator
indicates that the engine
has continued to be operated while a regeneration
is required.
The engine will be derated
and the engine should be
shut down immediately.
Once the engine enters
into shutdown mode,
you must contact your
Perkins distributor or
your Perkins dealer.
Your dealer or distributor
will need to perform a service level regeneration. The
DFP may need to be
replaced.
DPF Indicator
On Solid
Amber indicator
Flashing
DPF Indicator
On Solid
Amber indicator
Flashing
-
-
Red indicator
(STOP)
On Solid
Note: Amber or yellow warning indicator can be used
as a diagnostic lamp. For more information refer to
this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Diagnostic
Lamp”.
Regeneration Operation
Regeneration will require the following conditions:
Automatic Regeneration
In order for an automatic regeneration to take place
the engine must be at operating temperature.
Turning the keyswitch to the OFF position during a
regeneration will stop the regeneration. An interrupted
regeneration will not remove the soot from the DPF
and will waste fuel.
Wall Flow DPF Only
The engine Revs Per Minute (RPM) must be above
1200 RPM for the regeneration to start. Normal
operation can continue. During an automatic
regeneration the minimum idle speed will be
controlled to 950 RPM.
Manual Regeneration
The DPF indicator must be illuminated. Where
applicable, safety interlock for your application must
be engaged before a manual regeneration can occur,
refer to your OEM for more information. No throttle
inputs are required, the ECM will control the engine
RPM. Press the force regeneration switch for 2
seconds. Do not operate the application during the
manual regeneration.
SEBU8726
59
Engine Operation
Fuel Conservation Practices
Service Regeneration
The electronic service tool will be required in order to
perform a force regeneration. Contact your Perkins
distributor or your Perkins dealer.
i04018232
Fuel Conservation Practices
The efficiency of the engine can affect the fuel
economy. Perkins design and technology in
manufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency in all
applications. Follow the recommended procedures in
order to attain optimum performance for the life of the
engine.
• Avoid spilling fuel.
Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuel
may overflow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines for
leaks. Repair the fuel lines, as needed.
• Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.
Use only the recommended fuels. Refer to the
Operations and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel
Recommendations”for further information.
• Avoid unnecessary idling.
Shut off the engine rather than idle for long periods of
time.
• Observe the service indicator frequently. Keep the
air cleaner elements clean.
• Ensure that the turbocharger is operating correctly.
For more information refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Turbocharger - Inspect”
• Maintain a good electrical system.
One faulty battery cell will overwork the alternator.
This fault will consume excess power and excess
fuel.
• The belt should be in good condition. Refer to the
Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “V-Belt
Test” for further information.
• Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are
tight. The connections should not leak.
• Ensure that the driven equipment is in good
working order.
• Cold engines consume excess fuel. Utilize heat
from the jacket water system and the exhaust
system, when possible. Keep cooling system
components clean and keep cooling system
components in good repair. Never operate the
engine without water temperature regulators. All of
these items will help maintain operating
temperatures.
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SEBU8726
Cold Weather Operation
Cold Weather Operation
Cold Weather Operation
i05365832
Cold Weather Operation
Perkins Diesel Engines can operate effectively in
cold weather. During cold weather, the starting and
the operation of the diesel engine is dependent on the
following items:
• The type of fuel that is used
• The viscosity of the engine oil
• The operation of the glow plugs
Hints for Cold Weather Operation
• If the engine will start, operate the engine until a
minimum operating temperature of 80° C (176° F)
is achieved. Achieving operating temperature will
help prevent the intake valves and exhaust valves
from sticking.
• The cooling system and the lubrication system for
the engine do not lose heat immediately upon
shutdown. This means that an engine can be shut
down for a period and the engine can still have the
ability to start readily.
• Install the correct specification of engine lubricant
before the beginning of cold weather.
• Check all rubber parts (hoses, fan drive belts,)
weekly.
• Optional Cold starting aid
• Battery condition
• Check all electrical wiring and connections for any
fraying or damaged insulation.
This section will cover the following information:
• Keep all batteries fully charged and warm.
• Potential problems that are caused by coldweather operation
• Fill the fuel tank at the end of each shift.
• Suggest steps which can be taken in order to
minimize starting problems and operating
problems when the ambient air temperature is
between 0° to−40 °C (32° to 40 °F).
The operation and maintenance of an engine in
freezing temperatures is complex . This complexity is
because of the following conditions:
• Check the air cleaners and the air intake daily.
Check the air intake more often when you operate
in snow.
• Ensure that the glow plugs are in working order.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Glow Plug Starting AidTest”.
• Weather conditions
• Engine applications
Recommendations from your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor are based on past proven
practices. The information that is contained in this
section provides guidelines for cold-weather
operation.
Personal injury or property damage can result
from alcohol or starting fluids.
Alcohol or starting fluids are highly flammable
and toxic and if improperly stored could result in
injury or property damage.
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
• For jump starting with cables in cold weather, refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Starting with Jump Start Cables.” for instructions.
SEBU8726
61
Cold Weather Operation
Cold Weather Operation
Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication
Oil
Recommendations for Coolant
Warm Up
Correct engine oil viscosity is essential. Oil viscosity
affects the amount of torque that is needed to crank
the engine. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fluid Recommendations” for the
recommended viscosity of oil.
Warm up an engine that has cooled below normal
operating temperatures due to inactivity. This warm
-up should be performed before the engine is
returned to full operation. During operation in very
cold temperature conditions, damage to engine valve
mechanisms can result from engine operation for
short intervals. This damage can happen if the engine
is started and the engine is stopped many times
without being operated in order to warm up
completely.
Recommendations for the Coolant
Provide cooling system protection for the lowest
expected outside temperature. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” for the recommended coolant
mixture.
In cold weather, check the coolant often for the
correct glycol concentration in order to ensure
adequate freeze protection.
Engine Block Heaters
Engine block heaters (if equipped) heat the engine
jacket water that surrounds the combustion
chambers. This heat provides the following functions:
• Startability is improved.
• Warm up time is reduced.
An electric block heater can be activated once the
engine is stopped. A block heater can be 110 V dc or
240 V dc. The output can be 750/1000W. Consult
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
more information.
Idling the Engine
After starting the engine, the engine speed will be
held at low speed. The time held at low speed will
depend on ambient temperature and time since last
run. The procedure is in order to allow the engine
system to stabilize. When idling after the engine is
started in cold weather, increase the engine rpm from
1000 to 1200 rpm. This idling will warm up the engine
more quickly. Maintaining an elevated low idle speed
for extended periods will be easier with the
installation of a hand throttle. The engine should not
be “raced” in order to speed up the warm-up process.
While the engine is idling, the application of a light
load (parasitic load) will assist in achieving the
minimum operating temperature. The minimum
operating temperature is 80° C (176° F).
When the engine is operated below normal operating
temperatures, fuel and oil are not completely burned
in the combustion chamber. This fuel and oil causes
soft carbon deposits to form on the valve stems.
Generally, the deposits do not cause problems and
the deposits are burned off during operation at normal
engine operating temperatures.
When starting and stopping an engine many times
without being operated in order to warm up
completely, the carbon deposits become thicker. This
starting and stopping can cause the following
problems:
• Free operation of the valves is prevented.
• Valves become stuck.
• Pushrods may become bent.
• Other damage to valve train components can
result.
For this reason, when the engine is started, the
engine must be operated until the coolant
temperature is 80° C (176° F) minimum. Carbon
deposits on the valve stems will be kept at a minimum
and the free operation of the valves and the valve
components will be maintained.
The engine must be thoroughly warmed in order to
keep other engine parts in better condition. The
service life of the engine will be generally extended.
Lubrication will be improved. There will be less acid
and less sludge in the oil. This condition will provide
longer service life for the engine bearings, the piston
rings, and other parts. However, limit unnecessary
idle time to 10 minutes in order to reduce wear and
unnecessary fuel consumption.
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SEBU8726
Cold Weather Operation
Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather
The Water Temperature Regulator and
Insulated Heater Lines
The engine is equipped with a water temperature
regulator. When the engine coolant is below the
correct operating temperature, jacket water circulates
through the engine cylinder block and into the engine
cylinder head. The coolant then returns to the cylinder
block via an internal passage that bypasses the valve
of the coolant temperature regulator. This return
ensures that coolant flows around the engine under
cold operating conditions. The water temperature
regulator begins to open when the engine jacket
water has reached the correct minimum operating
temperature. As the jacket water coolant temperature
rises above the minimum operating temperature, the
water temperature regulator opens further allowing
more coolant through the radiator to dissipate excess
heat.
The progressive opening of the water temperature
regulator operates the progressive closing of the
bypass passage between the cylinder block and
head. This action ensures maximum coolant flow to
the radiator in order to achieve maximum heat
dissipation.
Note: Do not restrict the air flow. Restriction of the air
flow can damage the fuel system. Perkins
discourages the use of all air flow restriction devices
such as radiator shutters. Restriction of the air flow
can result in the following: high exhaust
temperatures, power loss, excessive fan usage and
reduction in fuel economy.
A cab heater is beneficial in very cold weather. The
feed from the engine and the return lines from the cab
should be insulated in order to reduce heat loss to the
outside air.
Recommendation for Crankcase Breather
Protection
Crankcase ventilation gases contain a large quantity
of water vapor. This water vapor can freeze in cold
ambient conditions and can plug or damage the
crankcase ventilation system. If the engine is
operated in temperatures below -15 °C (5 °F),
measures must be taken to prevent freezing and
plugging of the breather system. Insulated hoses and
a heated assembly should be installed.
Consult with your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributer for the recommended breather
components for operation from −15° to -40°C
(5 ° to -72.°F).
i02685960
Fuel and the Effect from Cold
Weather
Note: Only use grades of fuel that are recommended
by Perkins . Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.
The following components provide a means of
minimizing problems in cold weather:
• Glow plugs (if equipped)
• Engine coolant heaters, which may be an OEM
option
• Fuel heaters, which may be an OEM option
• Fuel line insulation, which may be an OEM option
The cloud point is a temperature that allows wax
crystals to form in the fuel. These crystals can cause
the fuel filters to plug.
The pour point is the temperature when diesel fuel will
thicken. The diesel fuel becomes more resistant to
flow through fuel lines, fuel filters,and fuel pumps.
Be aware of these facts when diesel fuel is
purchased. Consider the average ambient air
temperature for the engine's application. Engines that
are fueled in one climate may not operate well if the
engines are moved to another climate. Problems can
result due to changes in temperature.
Before troubleshooting for low power or for poor
performance in the winter, check the fuel for waxing.
Low temperature fuels may be available for engine
operation at temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F). These
fuels limit the formation of wax in the fuel at low
temperatures.
For more information on cold weather operation, refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Cold
Weather Operation and Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather”.
i02323237
Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather
Fuel Tanks
Condensation can form in partially filled fuel tanks.
Top off the fuel tanks after you operate the engine.
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and sediment from the bottom of the tanks.
SEBU8726
63
Cold Weather Operation
Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe.
Some fuel tanks use supply lines that take fuel
directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is
equipped with this system, regular maintenance of
the fuel system filter is important.
Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storage
tank at the following intervals: weekly, service
intervals and refueling of the fuel tank. This will help
prevent water and/or sediment from being pumped
from the fuel storage tank and into the engine fuel
tank.
Fuel Filters
A primary fuel filter is installed between the fuel tank
and the engine fuel inlet. After you change the fuel
filter, always prime the fuel system in order to remove
air bubbles from the fuel system. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual in the
Maintenance Section for more information on priming
the fuel system.
The location of a primary fuel filter is important in cold
weather operation. The primary fuel filter and the fuel
supply line are the most common components that
are affected by cold fuel.
Fuel Heaters
Note: The OEM may equip the application with fuel
heaters. If this is the case, the temperature of the fuel
must not exceed 73 °C (163 °F) at the fuel transfer
pump.
For more information about fuel heaters (if equipped),
refer to the OEM information.
64
SEBU8726
Engine Stopping
Stopping the Engine
Engine Stopping
i03648931
i04535875
Stopping the Engine
After Stopping Engine
Note: Before you check the engine oil, do not operate
the engine for at least 10 minutes in order to allow the
engine oil to return to the oil pan.
NOTICE
Stopping the engine immediately after it has been
working under load, can result in overheating and accelerated wear of the engine components.
Avoid accelerating the engine prior to shutting it
down.
Avoiding hot engine shutdowns will maximize turbocharger shaft and bearing life.
Note: Individual applications will have different
control systems. Ensure that the shutoff procedures
are understood. Use the following general guidelines
in order to stop the engine.
1. Remove the load from the engine. Reduce the
engine speed (rpm) to low idle. Allow the engine to
idle for 5 minutes in order to cool the engine.
2. Stop the engine after the cool down period
according to the shutoff system on the engine and
turn the ignition key switch to the OFF position. If
necessary, refer to the instructions that are
provided by the OEM.
3. Wait 60 seconds before the battery disconnect
switch is turned off. The engine ECM required
power after the keyswitch is turned off.
i01903586
Emergency Stopping
NOTICE
Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY
use ONLY. DO NOT use emergency shutoff devices
or controls for normal stopping procedure.
The OEM may have equipped the application with an
emergency stop button. For more information about
the emergency stop button, refer to the OEM
information.
Ensure that any components for the external system
that support the engine operation are secured after
the engine is stopped.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
• After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 10
minutes in order to allow the fuel pressure to be
purged from the high pressure fuel lines before any
service or repair is performed on the engine fuel
lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.
Repair any leaks from the low pressure fuel
system and from the cooling, lubrication or air
systems. Replace any high pressure fuel line that
has leaked. Refer to Disassembly and assembly
Manual, “Fuel Injection Lines - Install”.
• Check the crankcase oil level. Maintain the oil level
between the “MIN” mark and the “MAX” mark on
the engine oil level gauge.
• If the engine is equipped with a service hour meter,
note the reading. Perform the maintenance that is
in the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Maintenance Interval Schedule”.
• Fill the fuel tank in order to help prevent
accumulation of moisture in the fuel. Do not overfill
the fuel tank.
NOTICE
Only use antifreeze/coolant mixtures recommended
in the Refill Capacities and Recommendations topic
that is in this Operation and Maintenance Manual.
Failure to do so can cause engine damage.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
SEBU8726
65
Engine Stopping
After Stopping Engine
• Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.
• Check the coolant for correct antifreeze protection
and the correct corrosion protection. Add the
correct coolant/water mixture, if necessary.
• Perform all required periodic maintenance on all
driven equipment. This maintenance is outlined in
the instructions from the OEM.
66
SEBU8726
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Maintenance Section
• Glossary
Refill Capacities
• ISO International Standards Organization
i04794766
• ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
• HFRR High Frequency Reciprocating Rig for
Lubricity testing of diesel fuels
Refill Capacities
• FAME Fatty Acid Methyl Esters
Lubrication System
• CFR Co-ordinating Fuel Research
The refill capacities for the engine crankcase reflect
the approximate capacity of the crankcase or sump
plus standard oil filters. Auxiliary oil filter systems will
require additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications
for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance
Section” for more information on Lubricant
Specifications.
• ULSD Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel
Table 5
• PPM Parts Per Million
Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Crankcase Oil Sump(1)
(1)
Minimum
Maximum
6L
(1.6 US gal)
8.5 L
(2.2 US gal)
Cooling System
Refer to the OEM specifications for the External
System capacity. This capacity information will be
needed in order to determine the amount of coolant/
antifreeze that is required for the Total Cooling
System.
Table 6
• EPA Environmental Protection Agency of the
United States
General Information
NOTICE
Every attempt is made to provide accurate, up-to-date
information. By use of this document you agree that
Perkins Engines Company Limited is not responsible
for errors or omissions.
NOTICE
These recommendations are subject to change without notice. Contact your local Perkins distributor for
the most up-to-date recommendations.
Diesel Fuel Requirements
Perkins is not in a position to continuously evaluate
and monitor all worldwide distillate diesel fuel
specifications that are published by governments and
technological societies.
Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Liters
6 L (1.6 US gal)
External System Per OEM(1)
(1)
• SME Soy Methyl Ester
• DPF Diesel Particulate Filter
These values are the approximate capacities for the crankcase
oil sump (aluminum) which includes the standard factory installed oil filters. Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications for the capacity of the
auxiliary oil filter. The design of the oil pan can change the oil capacity of the oil pan.
Engine Only
• RME Rape Methyl Ester
The External System includes a radiator or an expansion tank
with the following components: heat exchanger and piping. Refer to the OEM specifications. Enter the value for the capacity of
the External System in this row.
i05349395
Fluid Recommendations
(Fuel Specification)
The Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel
provides a known reliable baseline in order to judge
the expected performance of distillate diesel fuels
that are derived from conventional sources.
Satisfactory engine performance is dependent on the
use of a good quality fuel. The use of a good quality
fuel will give the following results: long engine life and
acceptable exhaust emissions levels . The fuel must
meet the minimum requirements that are stated in the
table 7 .
SEBU8726
67
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
NOTICE
The footnotes are of the key part Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel Table. Read ALL of the
footnotes.
Table 7
Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel(1)
Property
UNITS
Requirements
ASTMTest
ISOTest
Aromatics
%Volume
35% maximum
D1319
ISO3837
Ash
%Weight
0.01% maximum
D482
ISO6245
Carbon Residue on 10%
Bottoms
%Weight
0.35% maximum
D524
ISO4262
Cetane Number (2)
-
40 minimum
D613/D6890
ISO5165
Cloud Point
°C
The cloud point must not ex- D2500
ceed the lowest expected
ambient temperature.
ISO3015
Copper Strip Corrosion
-
No. 3 maximum
D130
ISO2160
801 minimum and 876
maximum
No equivalent test
ISO 3675ISO 12185
Density at 15 °C (59
°F)(3)
Kg / M
3
Distillation
°C
10% at 282 °C (539.6 °F)
maximum
90% at 360 °C (680 °F)
maximum
D86
ISO3405
Flash Point
°C
legal limit
D93
ISO2719
Thermal Stability
-
Minimum of 80% reflectance D6468
after aging for 180 minutes
at 150 °C (302 °F)
No equivalent test
Pour Point
°C
6 °C (42.8 °F) minimum be- D97
low ambient temperature
ISO3016
Sulfur (1)
%mass
0.0015
ISO 20846ISO 20884
Kinematic Viscosity (4)
mm2/s (cSt)
The viscosity of the fuel that D445
is delivered to the fuel injection pump. “1.4 minimum/
4.5 maximum”
ISO3405
Water and sediment
% weight
0.1% maximum
D1796
ISO3734
Water
% weight
0.1% maximum
D1744
No equivalent test
Sediment
% weight
0.05% maximum
D473
ISO3735
Gums and Resins (5)
mg/100mL
10 mg per 100 mL
maximum
D381
ISO6246
Lubricity corrected wear
scar diameter at 60 °C
(140 °F). (6)
mm
0.52 maximum
D6079
ISO12156-1
(1)
(2)
(3)
D5453/D26222
This specification includes the requirements for Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD). ULSD fuel will have ≤ 15 ppm (0.0015%) sulfur. Refer to
ASTM D5453, ASTM D2622, or ISO 20846, ISO 20884 test methods.
A fuel with a higher cetane number is recommended in order to operate at a higher altitude or in cold weather.
“Via standards tables, the equivalent API gravity for the minimum density of 801 kg / m3 (kilograms per cubic meter) is 45 and for the maximum
density of 876 kg / m3 is 30”.
(continued)
68
SEBU8726
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
(Table 7, contd)
(4) The values of the fuel viscosity are the values as the fuel is delivered to the fuel injection pumps. Fuel should also meet the minimum viscosity
requirement and the fuel should meet the maximum viscosity requirements at 40 °C (104 °F) of either the ASTM D445 test method or the ISO
3104 test method. If a fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of the fuel may be required to maintain “1.4 cSt”or greater viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels with a high viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to lower the viscosity to “1.4 cSt” at the fuel injection pump.
(5) Follow the test conditions and procedures for gasoline (motor).
(6) The lubricity of a fuel is a concern with ultra low sulfur fuel. To determine the lubricity of the fuel, use the ISO 12156-1 or ASTM D6079 High
Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) test. If the lubricity of a fuel does not meet the minimum requirements, consult your fuel supplier. Do not
treat the fuel without consulting the fuel supplier. Some additives are not compatible. These additives can cause problems in the fuel system.
Engines that are manufactured by Perkins are
certified with the fuel that is prescribed by the United
States Environmental Protection Agency . Engines
that are manufactured by Perkins are certified with
the fuel that is prescribed by the European
Certification. Perkins does not certify diesel engines
on any other fuel.
Note: The owner and the operator of the engine has
the responsibility of using the fuel that is prescribed
by the EPA and other appropriate regulatory
agencies.
NOTICE
Operating with fuels that do not meet the Perkins recommendations can cause the following effects: Starting difficulty, reduced fuel filter service life, poor
combustion, deposits in the fuel injectors, significantly
reduce service life of the fuel system, deposits in the
combustion chamber and reduced service life of the
engine.
NOTICE
The Perkins 854 diesel engine must be operated using Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel. The sulphur content of
this fuel must be lower than 15 PPM. This fuel complies with the emissions regulations that are prescribed by the Environmental Protection Agency of
the United States.
Illustration 40
g02157153
Illustration 40 is a representation of the label that will
be installed next to the fuel filler cap on the fuel tank
of the application.
The fuel specifications that are listed in the table 8
are released as acceptable to use on 854 engine.
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Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Table 8
Acceptable Fuel Specification for the 854 Engines(1)
Fuel Specification
Comments
EN590
European Automotive Diesel Fuel (DERV)
ASTM D975 GRADE 1D S15
“North American Light Distillate Diesel fuel with less than 15 PPM sulfur
level”
ASTM D975 GRADE 2D S15
“North American Middle Distillate general purpose Diesel fuel with less
than 15 PPM sulfur level”
JIS K2204
“Japanese Diesel Fuel” Must meet the requirements that are stated in
the section “Lubricity”.
BS 2869: 2010 CLASS A2 or EU equivalent
“EU Off Road Diesel fuel. Acceptable from 2011 MUST have less than
10 PPM sulfur level”
(1)
All the fuels must comply with the specification in the table for the Perkins Specification Distillate Diesel Fuel .
Diesel Fuel Characteristics
Cetane Number
Fuel that has a high cetane number will give a shorter
ignition delay. A high cetane number will produce a
better ignition quality. Cetane numbers are derived for
fuels against proportions of cetane and
heptamethylnonane in the standard CFR engine.
Refer to ISO 5165 for the test method.
Cetane numbers in excess of 45 are normally
expected from current diesel fuel. However, a cetane
number of 40 may be experienced in some territories.
The United States of America is one of the territories
that can have a low cetane value. A minimum cetane
value of 40 is required during average starting
conditions. A fuel with higher cetane number is
recommended for operations at high altitudes or in
cold-weather operations.
Fuel with a low cetane number can be the root cause
of problems during a cold start.
The viscosity of the fuel is significant because fuel
serves as a lubricant for the fuel system components.
Fuel must have sufficient viscosity in order to
lubricate the fuel system in both extremely cold
temperatures and extremely hot temperatures . If the
kinematic viscosity of the fuel is lower than “1.4 cSt”
at the fuel injection pump, damage to the fuel injection
pump can occur. This damage can be excessive
scuffing and seizure. Low viscosity may lead to
difficult hot restarting, stalling, and loss of
performance. High viscosity may result in seizure of
the pump.
Perkins recommends kinematic viscosities of 1.4 and
4.5 mm2/sec that is delivered to the fuel injection
pump. If a fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of
the fuel may be required to maintain 1.4 cSt or
greater viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels with
a high viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to
lower the viscosity to 4.5 cSt at the fuel injection
pump.
Density
Viscosity
Viscosity is the property of a liquid of offering
resistance to shear or flow. Viscosity decreases with
increasing temperature. This decrease in viscosity
follows a logarithmic relationship for normal fossil
fuel. The common reference is to kinematic viscosity.
Kinematic viscosity is the quotient of the dynamic
viscosity that is divided by the density. The
determination of kinematic viscosity is normally by
readings from gravity flow viscometers at standard
temperatures. Refer to ISO 3104 for the test method.
Density is the mass of the fuel per unit volume at a
specific temperature. This parameter has a direct
influence on engine performance and a direct
influence on emissions. This influence determines
from a heat output given injected volume of fuel. This
parameter is quoted in the following kg/m3 at 15 °C
(59 °F).
Perkins recommends a density of 841 kg/m 3 in order
to obtain the correct power output. Lighter fuels are
acceptable but these fuels will not produce the rated
power.
Sulfur
The level of sulfur is governed by emissions
legislations . Regional regulation, national
regulations, or international regulations can require a
fuel with a specific sulfur limit. The sulfur content of
the fuel and the fuel quality must comply with all
existing local regulations for emissions.
70
SEBU8726
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Perkins 854 diesel engines have been designed to
operate only with ULSD. By using the test methods
ASTM D5453, ASTM D2622, or ISO 20846 ISO
20884, the content of sulfur in ULSD fuel must be
below 15 PPM (mg/kg) or 0.0015% mass.
NOTICE
Use of diesel fuel with higher than 15 PPM sulphur
limit in these engines will harm or permanently damage emissions control systems and/or shorten their
service interval.
Lubricity
Lubricity is the capability of the fuel to prevent pump
wear. The fluids lubricity describes the ability of the
fluid to reduce the friction between surfaces that are
under load. This ability reduces the damage that is
caused by friction. Fuel injection systems rely on the
lubricating properties of the fuel. Until fuel sulfur limits
were mandated, the fuels lubricity was generally
believed to be a function of fuel viscosity.
The lubricity has particular significance to the current
ultra low sulfur fuel, and low aromatic fossil fuels.
These fuels are made in order to meet stringent
exhaust emissions.
The lubricity of these fuels must not exceed wear scar
diameter of 0.52 mm (0.0205 inch). The fuel lubricity
test must be performed on an HFRR, operated at
60 °C (140 °F). Refer to ISO 12156-1.
NOTICE
The fuels system has been qualified with fuel having
lubricity up to 0.52 mm (0.0205 inch) wear scar diameter as tested by ISO 12156-1. Fuel with higher wear
scar diameter than 0.52 mm (0.0205 inch) will lead to
reduced service life and premature failure of the fuel
system.
Fuel additives can enhance the lubricity of a fuel.
Contact your fuel supplier for those circumstances
when fuel additives are required. Your fuel supplier
can make recommendations for additives to use, and
for the proper level of treatment.
Distillation
Distillation is an indication of the mixture of different
hydrocarbons in the fuel. A high ratio of light weight
hydrocarbons can affect the characteristics of
combustion.
Recommendation for Biodiesel
Biodiesel is a fuel that can be defined as mono-alkyl
esters of fatty acids . Biodiesel is a fuel that can be
made from various feedstock. The most commonly
available biodiesel in Europe is Rape Methyl Ester
(REM) . This biodiesel is derived from rapeseed oil .
Soy Methyl Ester (SME) is the most common
biodiesel in the United States. This biodiesel is
derived from soybean oil . Soybean oil or rapeseed
oil are the primary feedstocks. These fuels are
together known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) .
Raw pressed vegetable oils are NOT acceptable for
use as a fuel in any concentration in compression
engines . Without esterification, these oils solidify in
the crankcase and the fuel tank. These fuels may not
be compatible with many of the elastomers that are
used in engines that are manufactured today. In
original forms, these oils are not suitable for use as a
fuel in compression engines . Alternate base stocks
for biodiesel may include animal tallow , waste
cooking oils , or various other feedstocks. In order to
use any of the products that are listed as fuel, the oil
must be esterified .
Fuel made of 100 percent FAME is generally referred
to as B100 biodiesel or neat biodiesel.
Biodiesel can be blended with distillate diesel fuel.
The blends can be used as fuel. The most commonly
available biodiesel blends are B5, which is 5 percent
biodiesel and 95 percent distillate diesel fuel. B20,
which is 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent distillate
diesel fuel.
Note: The percentages given are volume-based.
The U.S. distillate diesel fuel specification ASTM
D975-09a includes up to B5 (5 percent) biodiesel.
European distillate diesel fuel specification EN590:
2010 includes up B7 (7 percent) biodiesel.
Note: Engines that are manufactured by Perkins are
certified by use of the prescribed Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) and European Certification
fuels. Perkins does not certify engines on any other
fuel. The user of the engine has the responsibility of
using the correct fuel that is recommended by the
manufacturer and allowed by the EPA and other
appropriate regulatory agencies.
Specification Requirements
The neat biodiesel must conform to the latest
EN14214 or ASTM D6751 (in the USA). The
biodiesel can only be blended in mixture of up to 20%
by volume in acceptable mineral diesel fuel meeting
latest edition of EN590 or ASTM D975 S15
designation.
In United States Biodiesel blends of B6 to B20 must
meet the requirements listed in the latest edition of
ASTM D7467 (B6 to B20) and must be of an API
gravity of 30-45.
SEBU8726
71
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
In North America biodiesel and biodiesel blends must
be purchased from the BQ-9000 accredited
producers and BQ-9000 certified distributors.
In other areas of the world, the use of biodiesel that is
BQ-9000 accredited and certified, or that is
accredited and certified by a comparable biodiesel
quality body to meet similar biodiesel quality
standards is required.
Engine Service Requirements
Aggressive properties of biodiesel fuel may cause
debris in the fuel tank and fuel lines. The aggressive
properties of biodiesel will clean the fuel tank and fuel
lines. This cleaning of the fuel system can
prematurely block of the fuel filters. Perkins
recommend that after the initial usage of B20
biodiesel blended fuel the fuel filters must be replaced
at 50 hours.
Glycerides present in biodiesel fuel will also cause
fuel filters to become blocked more quickly. Therefore
the regular service interval should be reduced to 250
hours.
When biodiesel fuel is used, crank case oil and
aftertreatment systems may be influenced. This
influence is due to the chemical composition and
characteristics of biodiesel fuel, such as density and
volatility, and to chemical contaminants that can be
present in this fuel, such as alkali and alkaline metals
(sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium).
• Crankcase oil fuel dilution can be higher when
biodiesel or biodiesel blends are used. This
increased level of fuel dilution when using
biodiesel or biodiesel blends is related to the
typically lower volatility of biodiesel. In-cylinder
emissions control strategies utilized in many of the
industrial latest engine designs may lead to a
higher level of biodiesel concentration in the sump.
The long-term effect of biodiesel concentration in
crankcase oil is currently unknown.
• Perkins recommend the use of oil analysis in
order to check the quality of the engine oil if
biodiesel fuel is used. Ensure that the level of
biodiesel in the fuel is noted when the oil sample is
taken.
Performance Related Issues
Due to the lower energy content than the standard
distillate fuel B20 will cause a power loss in order of 2
to 4 percent. In addition, over time the power may
deteriorate further due to deposits in the fuel injectors.
Biodiesel and biodiesel blends are known to cause an
increase in fuel system deposits, most significant of
which are deposits within the fuel injector. These
deposits can cause a loss in power due to restricted
or modified fuel injection or cause other functional
issues associated with these deposits.
Note: Perkins T400012 Fuel Cleaner is most
effective in cleaning and preventing the formation of
deposits. Perkins Diesel Fuel Conditioner helps to
limit deposit issues by improving the stability of
biodiesel and biodiesel blends. For more information
refer to “Perkins Diesel Fuel System Cleaner”.
Biodiesel fuel contains metal contaminants (sodium,
potassium, calcium, and/or magnesium) that form ash
products upon combustion in the diesel engine. The
ash can have an impact on the life and performance
of aftertreatment emissions control devices and can
accumulate in DPF. The ash accumulation may cause
the need for more frequent ash service intervals and
cause loss of performance
General Requirements
Biodiesel has poor oxidation stability, which can result
in long-term problems in the storage of biodiesel.
Biodiesel fuel should be used within 6 months of
manufacture. Equipment should not be stored with
the B20 biodiesel blends in the fuel system for longer
than 3 months.
Due to poor oxidation stability and other potential
issues, it is strongly recommended that engines with
limited operational time either not use B20 biodiesel
blends or, while accepting some risk, limit biodiesel
blend to a maximum of B5. Examples of applications
that should limit the use of biodiesel are the following:
Standby Generator sets and certain emergency
vehicles.
Perkins strongly recommended that seasonally
operated engines have the fuel systems, including
fuel tanks, flashed with conventional diesel fuel
before prolonged shutdown periods. An example of
an application that should seasonally flush the fuel
system is a combine harvester.
Microbial contamination and growth can cause
corrosion in the fuel system and premature plugging
of the fuel filter. Consult your supplier of fuel for
assistance in selecting appropriate anti-microbial
additive.
Water accelerates microbial contamination and
growth. When biodiesel is compared to distillate fuels,
water is naturally more likely to exist in the biodiesel.
It is therefore essential to check frequently and if
necessary, drain the water separator.
Materials such as brass, bronze, copper, lead, tin,
and zinc accelerate the oxidation process of the
biodiesel fuel. The oxidation process can cause
deposits formation therefore these materials must not
be used for fuel tanks and fuel lines.
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SEBU8726
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Fuel for Cold Weather Operation
The European standard EN590 contains climate
dependant requirements and a range of options. The
options can be applied differently in each country.
There are five classes that are given to arctic climates
and severe winter climates . 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4.
Fuel that complies with EN590 CLASS 4 can be used
at temperatures as low as −44 °C (−47.2 °F). Refer
to EN590 for a detailed discretion of the physical
properties of the fuel.
The diesel fuel ASTM D975 1-D used in the United
States of America may be used in very cold
temperatures that are below −18 °C (−0.4 °F).
Aftermarket Fuel Additives
Supplemental diesel fuel additives are not generally
recommended . This recommendation is due to
potential damage to the fuel system or the engine.
Your fuel supplier or the fuel manufacturer will add the
appropriate supplemental diesel fuel additives.
Perkins recognizes the fact that additives may be
required in some special circumstances. Contact your
fuel supplier for those circumstances when fuel
additives are required. Your fuel supplier can
recommend the appropriate fuel additive and the
correct level of treatment.
Note: For the best results, your fuel supplier should
treat the fuel when additives are required. The treated
fuel must meet the requirements that are stated in
table 7 .
Perkins Diesel Fuel System Cleaner
Note: Perkins fuel cleaner is compatible with
existing and U.S. EPA Tier 4 nonroad certified diesel
engine emission control catalysts and particulate
filters. Perkins fuel system cleaner contains less
than 15 ppm of sulfur and is acceptable for use with
ULSD fuel.
i05344256
Fluid Recommendations
General Lubricant Information
Because of government regulations regarding the
certification of exhaust emissions from the engine, the
lubricant recommendations must be followed.
• API
• SAE
American Petroleum Institute
Society Of Automotive Engineers Inc.
• ACEA
Association des Constructers
European Automobiles .
• ECF-3
Engine Crankcase Fluid
Licensing
The Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System
by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the
Association des Constructers European
Automobilesand (ACRA) is recognized by Perkins .
For detailed information about this system, see the
latest edition of the API publication No. 1509. Engine
oils that bear the API symbol are authorized by API.
Perkins T400012 Fuel Cleaner is the only fuel
cleaner that is recommended by Perkins .
If biodiesel or biodiesel blends of fuel are to be used,
Perkins require the use of Perkins fuel cleaner. The
use of the fuel is in order to remove deposits within
the fuel system that is created with the use of
biodiesel. For more information on the use of
biodiesel and biodiesel blends refer to
“Recommendation for Biodiesel”.
Perkins fuel cleaner will remove deposits that can
form in the fuel system with the use of biodiesel and
biodiesel blends. These deposits can create a loss of
power and engine performance.
Once the fuel cleaner has been added to the fuel, the
deposits within the fuel system are removed after 30
hours of engine operation. For maximum results,
continue to use the fuel cleaner for up to 80 hours.
Perkins fuel cleaner can be used on an on-going
basis with no adverse impact on engine or fuel
system durability.
Details instruction on the rate of which the fuel
cleaner must be use are on the container.
Illustration 41
Typical API symbol
g01987816
SEBU8726
73
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Terminology
Certain abbreviations follow the nomenclature of SAE
J754. Some classifications follow SAE J183
abbreviations, and some classifications follow the
EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine Oil.
In addition to Perkins definitions, there are other
definitions that will be of assistance in purchasing
lubricants. Recommended oil viscosities can be
found in this publication, “Fluid Recommendations/
Engine Oil” topic (Maintenance Section).
Engine Oil
Commercial Oils
NOTICE
Perkins require the use of the following specification of engine oil. Failure to use the appropriate
specification of engine oil will reduce the life of
your engine. Failure to use the appropriate specification of engine oil will also reduce the life of
your aftertreatment system.
Table 9
Classifications for the 854 Industrial Engine
Oil Specification
API CJ-4
ACEA E9
ECF-3
API CJ-4 and ACEA E9 oil categories have the
following chemical limits:
• 0.1 percent maximum sulfated ash
• 0.12 percent maximum phosphorous
• 0. 4 percent maximum sulfur
The chemical limits were developed in order to
maintain the expected life of the engine
aftertreatment system. The performance of the
engine aftertreatment system can be adversely
affected if oil that is not specified in table 9 is used.
The life of your Aftertreatment system is defined by
the accumulation of ash on the surface of the filter.
Ash is the inert part of the particulate matter. The
system is designed in order to collect this particulate
matter. There is a small percentage of particulate
matter that is left behind as the soot is burnt. This
matter will eventually block the filter, causing loss of
performance and increased fuel consumption. Most
of the ash comes from the engine oil which is
gradually consumed during normal operation. This
ash is passes through the exhaust. To meet the
designed life of the product, the use of the
appropriate engine oil is essential. The oil
specification that is listed in table 9 has low ash
content.
Maintenance intervals for engines that use
biodiesel – The oil change interval can be adversely
affected by the use of biodiesel. Use oil analysis in
order to monitor the condition of the engine oil. Use
oil analysis also in order to determine the oil change
interval that is optimum.
Note: These engine oils are not approved by
Perkins and these engine oils must not be used:
CC, CD, CD-2, CF-4, CG-4, CH-4 and CI-4.
Lubricant Viscosity Recommendations
for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engines
The correct SAE viscosity grade of oil is determined
by the minimum ambient temperature during cold
engine start-up, and the maximum ambient
temperature during engine operation.
Refer to illustration 42 (minimum temperature) in
order to determine the required oil viscosity for
starting a cold engine.
Refer to illustration 42 (maximum temperature) in
order to select the oil viscosity for engine operation at
the highest ambient temperature that is anticipated.
Generally, use the highest oil viscosity that is
available to meet the requirement for the temperature
at start-up.
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Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
• See the appropriate “Lubricant Viscosities”. Refer
to the illustration 42 in order to find the correct oil
viscosity grade for your engine.
• At the specified interval, service the engine. Use
new oil and install a new oil filter.
• Perform maintenance at the intervals that are
specified in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule”.
Oil analysis
Some engines may be equipped with an oil sampling
valve. If oil analysis is required, the oil sampling valve
is used to obtain samples of the engine oil. The oil
analysis will complement the preventive maintenance
program.
Illustration 42
g03363756
Lubricant Viscosities
Supplemental heat is recommended for cold soaked
starts below the minimum ambient temperature.
Supplemental heat may be required for cold soaked
starts that are above the minimum temperature that is
stated, depending on the parasitic load and other
factors. Cold soaked starts occur when the engine
has not been operated for a period of time. This
interval will allow the oil to become more viscous due
to cooler ambient temperatures.
Aftermarket Oil Additives
Perkins does not recommend the use of aftermarket
additives in oil. It is not necessary to use aftermarket
additives in order to achieve the engines maximum
service life or rated performance. Fully formulated,
finished oils consist of base oils and of commercial
additive packages. These additive packages are
blended into the base oils at precise percentages in
order to help provide finished oils with performance
characteristics that meet industry standards.
There are no industry standard tests that evaluate the
performance or the compatibility of aftermarket
additives in finished oil. Aftermarket additives may not
be compatible with the finished oils additive package,
which could lower the performance of the finished oil.
The aftermarket additive could fail to mix with the
finished oil. This failure could produce sludge in the
crankcase. Perkins discourages the use of
aftermarket additives in finished oils.
To achieve the best performance from a Perkins
engine, conform to the following guidelines:
The oil analysis is a diagnostic tool that is used to
determine oil performance and component wear
rates. Contamination can be identified and measured
by using oil analysis. The oil analysis includes the
following tests:
• The Wear Rate Analysis monitors the wear of the
engines metals. The amount of wear metal and
type of wear metal that is in the oil is analyzed. The
increase in the rate of engine wear metal in the oil
is as important as the quantity of engine wear
metal in the oil.
• Tests are conducted in order to detect
contamination of the oil by water, glycol, or fuel.
• The Oil Condition Analysis determines the loss of
the oils lubricating properties. An infrared analysis
is used to compare the properties of new oil to the
properties of the used oil sample. This analysis
allows technicians to determine the amount of
deterioration of the oil during use. This analysis
also allows technicians to verify the performance
of the oil according to the specification during the
entire oil change interval.
i04358959
Fluid Recommendations
General Coolant Information
NOTICE
Never add coolant to an overheated engine. Engine
damage could result. Allow the engine to cool first.
75
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Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
NOTICE
If the engine is to be stored in, or shipped to an area
with below freezing temperatures, the cooling system
must be either protected to the lowest outside temperature or drained completely to prevent damage.
NOTICE
Frequently check the specific gravity of the coolant for
proper freeze protection or for anti-boil protection.
Table 10
Acceptable Water
Property
Maximum Limit
Chloride (Cl)
40 mg/L
Sulfate (SO4)
100 mg/L
Total Hardness
170 mg/L
Total Solids
340 mg/L
Acidity
pH of 5.5 to 9.0
Clean the cooling system for the following reasons:
• Contamination of the cooling system
For a water analysis, consult one of the following
sources:
• Overheating of the engine
• Local water utility company
• Foaming of the coolant
• Agricultural agent
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
proper operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature
regulators.
• Independent laboratory
Many engine failures are related to the cooling
system. The following problems are related to cooling
system failures: Overheating, leakage of the water
pump and plugged radiators or heat exchangers.
• Corrosion
These failures can be avoided with correct cooling
system maintenance. Cooling system maintenance is
as important as maintenance of the fuel system and
the lubrication system. Quality of the coolant is as
important as the quality of the fuel and the lubricating
oil.
Coolant is normally composed of three elements:
Water, additives and glycol.
Water
Water is used in the cooling system in order to
transfer heat.
Distilled water or deionized water is
recommended for use in engine cooling systems.
DO NOT use the following types of water in cooling
systems: Hard water, softened water that has been
conditioned with salt and sea water.
If distilled water or deionized water is not available,
use water with the properties that are listed in Table
10 .
Additives
Additives help to protect the metal surfaces of the
cooling system. A lack of coolant additives or
insufficient amounts of additives enable the following
conditions to occur:
• Formation of mineral deposits
• Rust
• Scale
• Foaming of the coolant
Many additives are depleted during engine operation.
These additives must be replaced periodically.
Additives must be added at the correct concentration.
Over concentration of additives can cause the
inhibitors to drop out-of-solution. The deposits can
enable the following problems to occur:
• Formation of gel compounds
• Reduction of heat transfer
• Leakage of the water pump seal
• Plugging of radiators, coolers, and small passages
Glycol
Glycol in the coolant helps to provide protection
against the following conditions:
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Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
• Boiling
• Freezing
• Cavitation of the water pump
For optimum performance, Perkins recommends a
1:1 mixture of a water/glycol solution.
Note: Use a mixture that will provide protection
against the lowest ambient temperature.
Note: 100 percent pure glycol will freeze at a
temperature of −13 °C (8.6 °F).
Most conventional antifreezes use ethylene glycol.
Propylene glycol may also be used. In a 1:1 mixture
with water, ethylene and propylene glycol provide
similar protection against freezing and boiling. Refer
to Table 11 and refer to table 12 .
Table 11
Ethylene Glycol
Concentration
Freeze Protection
50 Percent
−36 °C (−33 °F)
60 Percent
−51 °C (−60 °F)
NOTICE
The 854 industrial engines must be operated with
a 1:1 mixture of water and glycol. This concentration allows the NOx reduction system to operate
correctly at high ambient temperatures.
NOTICE
Do not use a commercial coolant/antifreeze that only
meets the ASTM D3306 specification. This type of
coolant/antifreeze is made for light automotive
applications.
Perkins recommends a 1:1 mixture of water and
glycol. This mixture of water and glycol will provide
optimum heavy-duty performance as an antifreeze.
This ratio may be increased to 1:2 water to glycol if
extra freezing protection is required.
A mixture of SCA inhibitor and water is acceptable
but will not give the same level of corrosion, boiling
and, freezing protection as ELC. Perkins
recommends a 6 percent to 8 percent concentration
of SCA in those cooling systems. Distilled water or
deionized water is preferred. Water which has the
recommended properties may be used.
Table 13
NOTICE
Do not use propylene glycol in concentrations that exceed 50 percent glycol because of the reduced heat
transfer capability of propylene glycol. Use ethylene
glycol in conditions that require additional protection
against boiling or freezing.
Table 12
Propylene Glycol
Concentration
Freeze Protection
50 Percent
−29 °C (−20 °F)
Coolant Service Life
Coolant Type
Service Life (1)
Perkins ELC
6,000 Service Hours or Three
Years
Commercial Heavy-Duty Antifreeze that meets ASTM
D6210
3000 Service Hours or Two Year
Commercial SCA inhibitor and
Water
3000 Service Hours or One Year
(1)
To check the concentration of glycol in the coolant,
measure the specific gravity of the coolant.
Coolant Recommendations
• ELC
Extended Life Coolant
• SCA
Supplement Coolant Additive
• ASTM
Materials
American Society for Testing and
The following two coolants are used in Perkins
diesel engines:
Preferred – Perkins ELC
Acceptable – A commercial heavy-duty antifreeze
that meets ASTM D6210 specifications
Use the interval that occurs first. The cooling system must also
be flushed out at this time.
ELC
Perkins provides ELC for use in the following
applications:
• Heavy-duty spark ignited gas engines
• Heavy-duty diesel engines
• Automotive applications
The anti-corrosion package for ELC is different from
the anti-corrosion package for other coolants. ELC is
an ethylene glycol base coolant. However, ELC
contains organic corrosion inhibitors and antifoam
agents with low amounts of nitrite. Perkins ELC has
been formulated with the correct amount of these
additives in order to provide superior corrosion
protection for all metals in engine cooling systems.
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Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Containers of several sizes are available. Consult
your Perkins distributor for the part numbers.
Before the cooling system is filled, the heater control
(if equipped) must be set to the HOT position. Refer
to the OEM in order to set the heater control. After the
cooling system is drained and the cooling system is
refilled, operate the engine until the coolant level
reaches the normal operating temperature and until
the coolant level stabilizes. As needed, add the
coolant mixture in order to fill the system to the
specified level.
ELC Cooling System Maintenance
Changing to Perkins ELC
Correct additions to the Extended Life
Coolant
To change from heavy-duty antifreeze to the Perkins
ELC, perform the following steps:
ELC is available in a premixed cooling solution with
distilled water. ELC is a 1:1 mixture. The Premixed
ELC provides freeze protection to −36 °C (−33 °F).
The Premixed ELC is recommended for the initial fill
of the cooling system. The Premixed ELC is also
recommended for topping off the cooling system.
NOTICE
Use only Perkins products for pre-mixed or concentrated coolants.
Mixing Extended Life Coolant with other products reduces the Extended Life Coolant service life. Failure
to follow the recommendations can reduce cooling
system components life unless appropriate corrective
action is performed.
In order to maintain the correct balance between the
antifreeze and the additives, you must maintain the
recommended concentration of ELC. Lowering the
proportion of antifreeze lowers the proportion of
additive. This will lower the ability of the coolant to
protect the system from pitting, from cavitation, from
erosion, and from deposits.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that all fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and the repair of the
product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable
containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
1. Drain the coolant into a suitable container.
2. Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations.
3. Flush the system with clean water in order to
remove any debris.
NOTICE
Do not use a conventional coolant to top-off a cooling
system that is filled with Extended Life Coolant (ELC).
4. Use an appropriate cleaner to clean the system.
Follow the instruction on the label.
Do not use standard supplemental coolant additive
(SCA).
5. Drain the cleaner into a suitable container. Flush
the cooling system with clean water.
When using Perkins ELC, do not use standard SCA's
or SCA filters.
6. Fill the cooling system with clean water and
operate the engine until the engine is warmed to
49° to 66°C (120° to 150°F).
ELC Cooling System Cleaning
Note: If the cooling system is already using ELC,
cleaning agents are not required to be used at the
specified coolant change interval. Cleaning agents
are only required if the system has been
contaminated by the addition of some other type of
coolant or by cooling system damage.
Clean water is the only cleaning agent that is required
when ELC is drained from the cooling system.
NOTICE
Incorrect or incomplete flushing of the cooling system
can result in damage to copper and other metal
components.
To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure to
completely flush the cooling system with clear water.
Continue to flush the system until all the signs of the
cleaning agent are gone.
7. Drain the cooling system into a suitable container
and flush the cooling system with clean water.
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Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Note: The cooling system cleaner must be thoroughly
flushed from the cooling system. Cooling system
cleaner that is left in the system will contaminate the
coolant. The cleaner may also corrode the cooling
system.
8. Repeat Steps 6 and repeat steps 7 until the system
is completely clean.
9. Fill the cooling system with the Perkins Premixed
ELC.
ELC Cooling System Contamination
NOTICE
Mixing ELC with other products reduces the effectiveness of the ELC and shortens the ELC service life.
Use only Perkins Products for premixed or concentrate coolants. Failure to follow these recommendations can result in shortened cooling system
component life.
ELC cooling systems can withstand contamination to
a maximum of 10 percent of conventional heavy-duty
antifreeze or SCA. If the contamination exceeds 10
percent of the total system capacity, perform ONE of
the following procedures:
• Drain the cooling system into a suitable container.
Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations. Flush the system with clean water. Fill
the system with the Perkins ELC.
• Drain a portion of the cooling system into a
suitable container according to local regulations.
Then, fill the cooling system with premixed ELC.
This procedure should lower the contamination to
less than 10 percent.
• Maintain the system as a conventional Heavy-Duty
Coolant. Treat the system with an SCA. Change
the coolant at the interval that is recommended for
the conventional Heavy-Duty Coolant.
Commercial Heavy-Duty Antifreeze and
SCA
NOTICE
Commercial Heavy-Duty Coolant which contains
Amine as part of the corrosion protection system
must not be used.
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
correct operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature
regulators.
Check the antifreeze (glycol concentration) in order to
ensure adequate protection against boiling or
freezing. Perkins recommends the use of a
refractometer for checking the glycol concentration. A
hydrometer should not be used.
Perkins engine cooling systems should be tested at
500 hour intervals for the concentration of SCA.
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test.
An SCA that is liquid may be needed at 500 hour
intervals.
Adding the SCA to Heavy-Duty Coolant at
the Initial Fill
Use the equation that is in Table 14 to determine the
amount of SCA that is required when the cooling
system is initially filled.
Table 14
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty Coolant At
The Initial Fill
V × 0.045 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
Table 15 is an example for using the equation that is
in Table 14 .
Table 15
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To The HeavyDuty Coolant At The Initial Fill
Total Volume of the
Cooling System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of SCA
that is Required (X)
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.045
0.7 L (24 oz)
Adding The SCA to The Heavy-Duty
Coolant For Maintenance
Heavy-duty antifreeze of all types REQUIRE periodic
additions of an SCA.
Test the antifreeze periodically for the concentration
of SCA. For the interval, refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule” (Maintenance Section). Cooling System
Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) Test/Add.
SEBU8726
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Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test.
The size of the cooling system determines the
amount of SCA that is needed.
Use the equation that is in Table 16 to determine the
amount of SCA that is required, if necessary:
Table 16
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty Coolant For
Maintenance
V × 0.014 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
Table 17 is an example for using the equation that is
in Table 16 .
Table 17
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To The HeavyDuty Coolant For Maintenance
Total Volume of the
Cooling System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of SCA
that is Required (X)
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.014
0.2 L (7 oz)
Cleaning the System of Heavy-Duty
Antifreeze
• Clean the cooling system after used coolant is
drained or before the cooling system is filled with
new coolant.
• Clean the cooling system whenever the coolant is
contaminated or whenever the coolant is foaming.
80
Maintenance Recommendations
System Pressure Release
SEBU8726
Maintenance
Recommendations
1. Stop the engine.
2. Wait for 10 minutes.
i03648938
System Pressure Release
Coolant System
Do not loosen the high pressure fuel lines in order to
remove air from the fuel system.
Engine Oil
To relieve pressure from the lubricating system, turn
off the engine.
i05400894
Pressurized system: Hot coolant can cause serious burn. To open cap, stop engine, wait until radiator is cool. Then loosen cap slowly to relieve
the pressure.
The engine can have the ability to auto start. Ensure
that the power supply is isolated before any service or
repair is performed.
To relieve the pressure from the coolant system, turn
off the engine. Allow the cooling system pressure cap
to cool. Remove the cooling system pressure cap
slowly in order to relieve pressure.
Fuel System
To relieve the pressure from the fuel system, turn off
the engine.
High Pressure Fuel Lines
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
The high pressure fuel lines are the fuel lines that are
between the high pressure fuel pump and the high
pressure fuel manifold and the fuel lines that are
between the fuel manifold and cylinder head. These
fuel lines are different from fuel lines on other fuel
systems.
This is because of the following differences:
• The high pressure fuel lines are constantly
charged with high pressure.
• The internal pressures of the high pressure fuel
lines are higher than other types of fuel system.
Before any service or repair is performed on the
engine fuel lines, perform the following tasks:
Welding on Engines with
Electronic Controls
NOTICE
Because the strength of the frame may decrease,
some manufacturers do not recommend welding onto
a chassis frame or rail. Consult the OEM of the equipment or your Perkins dealer regarding welding on a
chassis frame or rail.
Proper welding procedures are necessary in order to
avoid damage to the engines ECM, sensors, and
associated components. When possible, remove the
component from the unit and then weld the
component. If removal of the component is not
possible, the following procedure must be followed
when you weld on a unit equipped with an Electronic
Engine. The following procedure is considered to be
the safest procedure to weld on a component. This
procedure should provide a minimum risk of damage
to electronic components.
NOTICE
Do not ground the welder to electrical components
such as the ECM or sensors. Improper grounding can
cause damage to the drive train bearings, hydraulic
components, electrical components, and other
components.
Clamp the ground cable from the welder to the component that will be welded. Place the clamp as close
as possible to the weld. This will help reduce the possibility of damage.
Note: Perform the welding in areas that are free from
explosive hazards.
1. Stop the engine. Turn the switched power to the
OFF position.
2. Ensure that the fuel supply to the engine is turned
off.
SEBU8726
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Maintenance Recommendations
Welding on Engines with Electronic Controls
3. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the
battery. If a battery disconnect switch is provided,
open the switch.
4. Disconnect all electronic components from the
wiring harnesses. Include the following
components:
• Electronic components for the driven equipment
• ECM
• Sensors
• Electronically controlled valves
• Relays
• Aftertreatment ID module
NOTICE
Do not use electrical components (ECM or ECM sensors) or electronic component grounding points for
grounding the welder.
Illustration 43
g01075639
Use the example above. The current flow from the
welder to the ground clamp of the welder will not
damage any associated components.
(1) Engine
(2) Welding electrode
(3) Keyswitch in the OFF position
(4) Battery disconnect switch in the open position
(5) Disconnected battery cables
(6) Battery
(7) Electrical/Electronic component
(8) Minimum distance between the component that is being welded
and any electrical/electronic component
(9) The component that is being welded
(10) Current path of the welder
(11) Ground clamp for the welder
5. Connect the welding ground cable directly to the
part that will be welded. Place the ground cable as
close as possible to the weld in order to reduce the
possibility of welding current damage to the
following components. Bearings, hydraulic
components, electrical components, and ground
straps.
Note: If electrical/electronic components are used as
a ground for the welder, or electrical/electronic
components are located between the welder ground
and the weld, current flow from the welder could
severely damage the component.
6. Protect the wiring harness from welding debris and
spatter.
82
Maintenance Recommendations
Severe Service Application
SEBU8726
7. Use standard welding practices to weld the
materials.
i04150276
Severe Service Application
Severe service is the application of an engine that
exceeds the current published standards for that
engine. Perkins maintains standards for the
following engine parameters:
• Performance such as power range, speed range,
and fuel consumption
dusty, unless the equipment is cleaned regularly.
Mud, dirt, and dust can encase components.
Maintenance can be difficult. The buildup can contain
corrosive chemicals.
Buildup – Compounds, elements, corrosive
chemicals, and salt can damage some components.
Altitude – Problems can arise when the engine is
operated at altitudes that are higher than the intended
settings for that application. Necessary adjustments
should be made.
Incorrect Operating Procedures
• Extended operation at low idle
• Fuel quality
• Frequent hot shutdowns
• Operational Altitude
• Operating at excessive loads
• Maintenance intervals
• Operating at excessive speeds
• Oil selection and maintenance
• Operating outside the intended application
• Coolant type and maintenance
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures
• Environmental qualities
• Extending the maintenance intervals
• Installation
• Failure to use recommended fuel, lubricants, and
coolant/antifreeze
• The temperature of the fluid in the engine
Refer to the standards for the engine or consult your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor in order to
determine if the engine is operating within the defined
parameters.
Severe service operation can accelerate component
wear. Engines that operate under severe conditions
may need more frequent maintenance intervals in
order to ensure maximum reliability and retention of
full service life.
Due to individual applications, it is not possible to
identify all of the factors which can contribute to
severe service operation. Consult your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor for the unique
maintenance that is necessary for the engine.
The operating environment, incorrect operating
procedures, and incorrect maintenance procedures
can be factors which contribute to a severe service
application.
Environmental Factors
Ambient temperatures – The engine may be
exposed to extended operation in cold environments
or hot environments. Valve components can be
damaged by carbon buildup if the engine is frequently
started and stopped in cold temperatures. Hot intake
air reduces engine performance.
Quality of the air – The engine may be exposed to
extended operation in an environment that is dirty or
SEBU8726
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Maintenance Recommendations
Maintenance Interval Schedule
i05325425
Maintenance Interval Schedule
“Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
Element - Replace”............................................... 102
“Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace” ........... 104
“Radiator - Clean” ................................................. 108
When Required
Every 1000 Service Hours
“Battery - Replace”...................................................85
“Water Pump - Inspect”..........................................111
“Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect”...................86
Every 1500 Service Hours
“Engine - Clean”.......................................................93
“Engine Crankcase Breather Element - Replace” ...95
“Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Clean/Replace” ...........................................94
Every 2000 Service Hours
“Engine Oil Sample - Obtain”...................................97
“Aftercooler Core - Inspect” .....................................84
“Fuel System - Prime”........................................... 101
“Engine Mounts - Inspect” .......................................96
Daily
“Starting Motor - Inspect” ...................................... 109
“Coolant Level - Check”...........................................91
“Turbocharger - Inspect” ....................................... 109
“Driven Equipment - Check” ....................................93
Every 3000 Service Hours
“Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect” .....94
“Alternator - Inspect” ................................................84
“Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean” ...................95
“Alternator and Fan Belts - Replace” .......................84
“Engine Oil Level - Check”.......................................96
“Diesel Particulate Filter - Clean”.............................93
“Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain” .................................................................... 104
“Oxygen Sensor - Replace” .................................. 108
“Walk-Around Inspection” ......................................110
Every Week
“Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace”................ 106
Every 50 Service Hours or Weekly
“Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain” .............. 106
Every 50 Service Hours or Monthly
“Radiator Pressure Cap - Clean/Replace”............ 109
Every 3000 Service Hours or 2
Years
“Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) - Change” .......87
Every 4000 Service Hours
“Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test”................................84
“Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain” .............. 106
Every 6000 Service Hours or 3
Years
Every 500 Service Hours
“Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add” ..............................90
“Fan Clearance - Check” ...................................... 100
Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6
Years
Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year
“Battery Electrolyte Level - Check” ..........................86
“Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add”.....................................................92
“Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Clean/Replace” ...........................................94
“Engine Oil and Filter - Change”..............................97
“Coolant (ELC) - Change”........................................88
Commissioning
“Fan Clearance - Check” ...................................... 100
84
Maintenance Recommendations
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test
SEBU8726
i01807350
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test
(Air-To-Air Aftercooler)
The air-to-air aftercooler is OEM installed in many
applications. Please refer to the OEM specifications
for information that is related to the aftercooler.
i02322295
Aftercooler Core - Inspect
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the aftercooler for these items: damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil and other
debris. Clean the aftercooler, if necessary.
i02322311
Alternator - Inspect
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of the
alternator. Inspect the alternator for loose
connections and correct battery charging. Check the
ammeter (if equipped) during engine operation in
order to ensure correct battery performance and/or
correct performance of the electrical system. Make
repairs, as required.
Check the alternator and the battery charger for
correct operation. If the batteries are correctly
charged, the ammeter reading should be very near
zero. All batteries should be kept charged. The
batteries should be kept warm because temperature
affects the cranking power. If the battery is too cold,
the battery will not crank the engine. When the engine
is not run for long periods of time or if the engine is
run for short periods, the batteries may not fully
charge. A battery with a low charge will freeze more
easily than a battery with a full charge.
For air-to-air aftercoolers, use the same methods that
are used for cleaning radiators.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a
protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
After cleaning, start the engine and accelerate the
engine to high idle rpm. This will help in the removal
of debris and drying of the core. Stop the engine. Use
a light bulb behind the core in order to inspect the
core for cleanliness. Repeat the cleaning, if
necessary.
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a “comb”.
Note: If parts of the aftercooler system are repaired
or replaced, a leak test is highly recommended.
Inspect these items for good condition: Welds,
mounting brackets, air lines, connections, clamps and
seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
i04407613
Alternator and Fan Belts Replace
1. Remove the guard that covers the alternator. Refer
to the Original Equipment Manufacture (OEM) for
the correct procedure.
SEBU8726
85
Maintenance Recommendations
Battery - Replace
5. Install the new belt, use belt configuration (A).
Visually check that the belt is correctly aligned.
6. Turn the screw (2) clockwise in order to tension the
belt. Ensure that the link adjuster (7) is at the
maximum extension, refer to illustration 45 .
7. Tighten bolt (5), nut, and bolt (6) and tighten nut
and bolt (1). Tighten these nuts and bolts to
50 N·m (37 lb ft).
8. Rotate bolt (2) counter clockwise two complete
revolutions and tighten nut (3) to 30 N·m (22 lb ft).
9. Install the guard, refer to OEM for more
information.
i03559623
Battery - Replace
Illustration 44
g02729648
2. Loosen bolt (5) and loosen nut and bolt 6. Also,
loosen nut and bolt (1).
3. Loosen nut (3) and turn screw (2) counter
clockwise. Turn the screw (2) in order to give
clearance to remove the belt (4).
4. Remove belt (4) and visually check all pulleys that
the belt operates. Ensure that all pulleys are clean
and free from damage. Ensure that the pulleys
rotate freely. Replace any component that is
damaged.
Batteries give off combustible gases which can
explode. A spark can cause the combustible
gases to ignite. This can result in severe personal
injury or death.
Ensure proper ventilation for batteries that are in
an enclosure. Follow the proper procedures in order to help prevent electrical arcs and/or sparks
near batteries. Do not smoke when batteries are
serviced.
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Switch the engine to the OFF position. Remove all
electrical loads.
2. Turn off any battery chargers. Disconnect any
battery chargers.
3. Ensure that the battery disconnect switch is in the
OFF position.
4. Disconnect the NEGATIVE “-” cable from the
NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
Illustration 45
(A) Belt configuration
g02603591
86
Maintenance Recommendations
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check
SEBU8726
5. Disconnect the POSITIVE “+” cable from the
POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
Note: Always recycle a battery. Never discard a
battery. Dispose of used batteries to an appropriate
recycling facility.
6. Remove the used battery.
7. Install the new battery.
Note: Before the cables are connected, ensure that
the battery disconnect switch is in the OFF position.
8. Connect the POSITIVE “+” cable to the POSITIVE
“+” battery terminal.
9. Connect the NEGATIVE “-” cable to the
NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
10. Turn the battery disconnect switch to the ON
position.
i02747977
Battery Electrolyte Level Check
When the engine is not run for long periods of time or
when the engine is run for short periods, the batteries
may not fully recharge. Ensure a full charge in order
to help prevent the battery from freezing. If batteries
are correctly charged, the ammeter reading should be
very near zero, when the engine is in operation.
All lead-acid batteries contain sulfuric acid which
can burn the skin and clothing. Always wear a
face shield and protective clothing when working
on or near batteries.
1. Remove the filler caps. Maintain the electrolyte
level to the “FULL” mark on the battery.
If the addition of water is necessary, use distilled
water. If distilled water is not available use clean
water that is low in minerals. Do not use artificially
softened water.
2. Check the condition of the electrolyte with a
suitable battery tester.
3. Install the caps.
4. Keep the batteries clean.
Clean the battery case with one of the following
cleaning solutions:
• Use a solution of 0.1 kg (0.2 lb) baking soda
and 1 L (1 qt) of clean water.
• Use a solution of ammonium hydroxide .
Thoroughly rinse the battery case with clean water.
i02323088
Battery or Battery Cable Disconnect
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn the
ignition switch (if equipped) to the OFF position
and remove the key and all electrical loads.
2. Disconnect the negative battery terminal. Ensure
that the cable cannot contact the terminal. When
four 12 volt batteries are involved, two negative
connection must be disconnected.
3. Remove the positive connection.
4. Clean all disconnected connection and battery
terminals.
5. Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean the
terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items
until the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOT
remove material excessively. Excessive removal of
material can cause the clamps to not fit correctly.
Coat the clamps and the terminals with a suitable
silicone lubricant or petroleum jelly.
6. Tape the cable connections in order to help prevent
accidental starting.
7. Proceed with necessary system repairs.
8. In order to connect the battery, connect the positive
connection before the negative connector.
SEBU8726
87
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) - Change
i05326349
Coolant (Commercial HeavyDuty) - Change
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be
prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling
any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations
and mandates.
Drain
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming of the coolant is observed.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed.
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed, the procedure must be performed with the engine on level ground. This action
will allow you to check accurately the coolant level.
This action will also help in avoiding the risk of introducing an air lock into the coolant system.
Illustration 46
g02513896
Typical example
2. Remove the drain plug (1) on the engine. Also,
open drain cock or remove the drain plug on the
radiator.
Allow the coolant to drain.
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant or recycle. Various
methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant
for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full distillation procedure is the only method acceptable by Perkins to reclaim the coolant.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor.
Flush
88
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant (ELC) - Change
SEBU8726
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
2. Install the drain plug on the engine. Close the drain
cock or install the drain plug on the radiator.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute, in order to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the
temperature reaches 49 to 66 °C (120 to 150 °F).
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Remove the drain plug on the
engine. Open the drain cock or remove the drain
plug on the radiator. Allow the water to drain. Flush
the cooling system with clean water.
Fill
1. Install the drain plug on the engine. Close the drain
cock or install the drain plug on the radiator.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute, in order to avoid air locks.
Illustration 47
5. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket is
not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump in
order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
6. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for correct operating temperature.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
2. Fill the cooling system with Commercial HeavyDuty Coolant. Add Supplemental Coolant Additive
to the coolant. For the correct amount, refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” topic (Maintenance Section)
for more information on cooling system
specifications. Do not install the cooling system
filler cap.
3. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the
engine rpm to high idle. Operate the engine in
order to open the engine thermostat. This
operation will allow any air in the system to be
purged. Decrease the engine speed to low idle.
Stop the engine.
4. Maintain the coolant level at the maximum mark
that is correct for your application.
g02590196
Filler cap
i05326371
Coolant (ELC) - Change
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be
prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling
any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations
and mandates.
SEBU8726
89
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant (ELC) - Change
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming of the coolant is observed.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed when the ELC is drained and
replaced.
Note: Inspect the water pump and the water
temperature regulator after the cooling system has
been drained. This inspection can be a good
opportunity to replace the water pump, the water
temperature regulator, and the hoses, if necessary.
Illustration 48
g02513896
Typical example
2. Remove the drain plug (1) on the engine. Also,
open the drain cock or remove the drain plug on
the radiator.
Allow the coolant to drain.
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed, the procedure must be performed with the engine on level ground. Level ground
will allow you to check accurately the coolant level.
This check will also help in avoiding the risk of introducing an air lock into the coolant system.
Drain
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant or recycle. Various
methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant
for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full distillation procedure is the only method acceptable by Perkins to reclaim the coolant.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor.
Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
2. Install the drain plug in the engine. Close the drain
cock or install the drain plug on the radiator.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute, in order to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
90
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add
SEBU8726
4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the
temperature reaches 49 to 66 °C (120 to 150 °F).
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Remove the drain plug on the
engine. Open the drain cock or remove the drain
plug on the radiator. Allow the water to drain. Flush
the cooling system with clean water.
Fill
1. Install the drain plug on the engine. Close the drain
cock or install the drain plug on the radiator.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute, in order to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
Illustration 49
g02590196
Filler cap
2. Fill the cooling system with Extended Life Coolant
(ELC). Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fluid Recommendations” topic
(Maintenance Section) for more information on
cooling system specifications. Do not install the
cooling system filler cap.
3. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the
engine rpm to high idle. Operate the engine in
order to open the engine thermostat. This
procedure will allow any air in the system to be
purged. Decrease the engine speed to low idle.
Stop the engine.
4. Maintain the coolant level at the maximum mark
that is correct for your application.
5. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket is
not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump in
order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
6. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for correct operating temperature.
i05197396
Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add
In order for Perkins ELC to achieve 12000 hours an
extender must be added at 6000 hours. For a suitable
extender, contact your Perkins dealer or Perkins
distributor.
SEBU8726
91
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant Level - Check
i05149389
Coolant Level - Check
Engines With a Coolant Recovery
Tank
Note: The cooling system may not have been
provided by Perkins . The procedure that follows is
for typical cooling systems. Refer to the OEM
information for the correct procedures.
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed, the procedure must be performed with the engine on level ground. Level ground
will allow you to check accurately the coolant level.
This checking will also help in avoiding the risk of introducing an air lock into the coolant system.
1. Observe the coolant level in the coolant recovery
tank. Maintain the coolant level to “COLD FULL”
mark on the coolant recovery tank.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
Illustration 50
g02590196
Filler cap
4. Clean the filler cap and the receptacle. Reinstall
the filler cap and inspect the cooling system for
leaks.
Note: The coolant will expand as the coolant heats
up during normal engine operation. The additional
volume will be forced into the coolant recovery tank
during engine operation. When the engine is stopped
and cool, the coolant will return to the engine.
Engines Without a Coolant
Recovery Tank
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.
2. Loosen filler cap slowly in order to relieve any
pressure. Remove the filler cap.
3. Pour the correct coolant mixture into the tank.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Refill Capacities and Recommendations” for
information on the correct mixture and type of
coolant. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations”
for the engine cooling system capacity. Do not fill
the coolant recovery tank above “COLD FULL”
mark.
Illustration 51
Cooling system filler cap
g00285520
92
Maintenance Recommendations
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) - Test/Add
SEBU8726
Add the SCA, If Necessary
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
2. Maintain the coolant level at the maximum mark
that is correct for your application. If the engine is
equipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolant
level to the correct level in the sight glass.
3. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket is
not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump in
order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
4. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
i03644948
Cooling System Supplemental
Coolant Additive (SCA) - Test/
Add
Cooling system coolant additive contains alkali.
To help prevent personal injury, avoid contact
with the skin and the eyes. Do not drink cooling
system coolant additive.
Test for SCA Concentration
Heavy-Duty Coolant/Antifreeze and SCA
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended six percent supplemental coolant additive concentration.
Use a Coolant Conditioner Test Kit in order to check
the concentration of the SCA.
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended amount of supplemental coolant additive concentration. Excessive supplemental coolant additive concentration can form
deposits on the higher temperature surfaces of the
cooling system, reducing the engine's heat transfer
characteristics. Reduced heat transfer could cause
cracking of the cylinder head and other high temperature components. Excessive supplemental coolant
additive concentration could also result in radiator
tube blockage, overheating, and/or accelerated water
pump seal wear. Never use both liquid supplemental
coolant additive and the spin-on element (if equipped)
at the same time. The use of those additives together
could result in supplemental coolant additive concentration exceeding the recommended maximum.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed the procedure must be performed with the engine on level ground. This will allow
you to accurately check the coolant level. This will also help in avoiding the risk of introducing an air lock
into the coolant system.
1. Slowly loosen the cooling system filler cap in order
to relieve the pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Note: Always discard drained fluids according to local
regulations.
2. If necessary, drain some coolant from the cooling
system into a suitable container in order to allow
space for the extra SCA.
3. Add the correct amount of SCA. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill
Capacities and Recommendations” for more
information on SCA requirements.
SEBU8726
93
Maintenance Recommendations
Diesel Particulate Filter - Clean
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket is
not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump in
order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
Note: Only the wall flow type of aftertreatment
requires a service period, in order to remove the ash.
The wall flow aftertreatment uses active regeneration
in order to remove soot.
For information on removal of the (1) diesel
particulate filter, refer to Disassembly and Assembly,
“DPF - Remove”. Also, refer to System Operation
Testing and Adjusting, “Diesel Particulate Filter Clean”.
i04650530
i02151646
Diesel Particulate Filter - Clean
Wear goggles, gloves, protective clothing, and a
National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH) approved P95 or N95 half-face respirator when handling a used Diesel Particulate
Filter or Catalytic Converter Muffler. Failure to do
so could result in personal injury.
Driven Equipment - Check
Refer to the OEM specifications for more information
on the following maintenance recommendations for
the driven equipment:
• Inspection
• Adjustment
• Lubrication
• Other maintenance recommendations
The muffler, catalytic converter/muffler, and diesel
particulate filter will become extremely hot during
engine operation. A hot muffler, catalytic converter/muffler and diesel particulate filter can cause
serious burns. Allow adequate cooling time before working on or near the muffler, catalytic converter/muffler and diesel particulate filter.
Perform any maintenance for the driven equipment
which is recommended by the OEM.
i03991933
Engine - Clean
Personal injury or death can result from high
voltage.
Moisture can
conductivity.
create
paths
of
electrical
Make sure that the electrical system is OFF. Lock
out the starting controls and tag the controls “ DO
NOT OPERATE”” .
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and oil on an engine is a fire
hazard. Keep the engine clean. Remove debris and
fluid spills whenever a significant quantity accumulates on the engine.
Illustration 52
Typical example
g02524596
Periodic cleaning of the engine is recommended.
Steam cleaning the engine will remove accumulated
oil and grease. A clean engine provides the following
benefits:
94
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) - Inspect/Clean/Replace
SEBU8726
• Easy detection of fluid leaks
i02335405
Engine Air Cleaner Service
Indicator - Inspect
• Maximum heat transfer characteristics
• Ease of maintenance
Note: Caution must be used in order to prevent
electrical components from being damaged by
excessive water when the engine is cleaned.
Pressure washers and steam cleaners should not be
directed at any electrical connectors or the junction of
cables into the rear of the connectors. Avoid electrical
components such as the alternator, the starter, and
the ECM. Protect the fuel injection pump from fluids in
order to wash the engine.
Aftertreatment
During the engine cleaning process, ensure that
water or cleaning fluids cannot enter the
aftertreatment system. If cleaning fluids enters the
aftertreatment system, damage could occur.
Some engines may be equipped with a different
service indicator.
Some engines are equipped with a differential gauge
for inlet air pressure. The differential gauge for inlet
air pressure displays the difference in the pressure
that is measured before the air cleaner element and
the pressure that is measured after the air cleaner
element. As the air cleaner element becomes dirty,
the pressure differential rises. If your engine is
equipped with a different type of service indicator,
follow the OEM recommendations in order to service
the air cleaner service indicator.
The service indicator may be mounted on the air
cleaner element or in a remote location.
i04150591
Engine Air Cleaner Element
(Single Element) - Inspect/
Clean/Replace
Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Air Cleaner Service Indicator-Inspect”.
NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent airborne debris from entering the air inlet.
NOTICE
Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.
Illustration 53
g00103777
Typical service indicator
Observe the service indicator. The air cleaner
element should be cleaned or the air cleaner element
should be replaced when one of the following
conditions occur:
• The yellow diaphragm enters the red zone.
• The red piston locks in the visible position.
Test the Service Indicator
A wide variety of air cleaners may be installed for use
with this engine. Consult the OEM information for the
correct procedure to replace the air cleaner.
Service indicators are important instruments.
• Check for ease of resetting. The service indicator
should reset in less than three pushes.
• Check the movement of the yellow core when the
engine is accelerated to the engine rated speed.
The yellow core should latch at the greatest
vacuum that is attained.
SEBU8726
95
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean
If the service indicator does not reset easily, or if the
yellow core does not latch at the greatest vacuum,
the service indicator should be replaced. If the new
service indicator will not reset, the hole for the service
indicator may be restricted.
The service indicator may need to be replaced
frequently in environments that are severely dusty.
i02343354
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/
Clean
Engine Breather
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing or repair is performed.
The crankcase breather is a very important
component in order to keep your engine emissions
compliant .
• The filter element within the crankcase breather
must be serviced at the prescribed service interval.
• The correct filter element must be installed before
the engine is operated.
• The installation of the filter element is very
important .
• The quality of the filter element that is installed is
very important.
• The filter element protects the engine from
excessive quantities of oil from entering the
induction system. The filter element also protects
the engine aftertreatment system.
Note: Excessive quantities of oil that enter the
induction system of the engine can rapidly increase
the engine speed without control.
Illustration 54
g00287039
Remove the Breather Element
Typical example
1. Remove the guard that covers the engine breather,
refer to the Original Equipment Manufacture
(OEM) for more information.
(1) Wing nut
(2) Cover
(3) Body
Remove wing nut (1) and cover (2). Check for an
accumulation of dirt and debris in body (3). Clean the
body, if necessary.
After cleaning the precleaner, install cover (2) and
wing nut (1).
Note: When the engine is operated in dusty
applications, more frequent cleaning is required.
i04725716
Engine Crankcase Breather
Element - Replace
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
Illustration 55
Typical example
g02827199
96
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Mounts - Inspect
SEBU8726
2. If necessary, remove breather pipes on cover (6).
Remove nuts (7) and remove cover (6) from
housing (1).
3. Remove circlip (4) and remove the breather
element (3) and discard.
4. Remove the O ring seal (5) from the cover.
Install the Breather Element
Ensure that all the components are clean and free
from damage.
i02323089
Engine Mounts - Inspect
Note: The engine mounts may not have been
supplied by Perkins . Refer to the OEM information
for further information on the engine mounts and the
correct bolt torque.
Inspect the engine mounts for deterioration and for
correct bolt torque. Engine vibration can be caused
by the following conditions:
• Incorrect mounting of the engine
• Deterioration of the engine mounts
• Loose engine mounts
Any engine mount that shows deterioration should be
replaced. Refer to the OEM information for the
recommended torques.
i04728471
Engine Oil Level - Check
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
Illustration 56
g02827300
Typical example
(A) Diameter
(B) Diameter
1. Install a new O ring seal (5) onto the cover (6).
Note: The breather element must have the correct
orientation before installation. Diameter (A) is visibly
larger than diameter (B).
2. Install diameter (A) of the breather element (3) onto
the shaft (2). When correctly installed the part
number of the breather element will be visible.
3. Install circlip (4) and cover (6). Install nuts (7) and
tighten to 25 N·m (18 lb ft). If necessary, install
breather pipes to cover.
4. Install the guard, refer to OEM.
Illustration 57
g02829378
Typical example
NOTICE
Perform this maintenance with the engine stopped.
Note: Ensure that the engine is either level or that the
engine is in the normal operating position in order to
obtain a true level indication.
SEBU8726
97
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain
Note: After the engine has been switched OFF, wait
for 10 minutes in order to allow the engine oil to drain
to the oil pan before checking the oil level.
• The date of the sample
1. Maintain the oil level between the MIN mark and
the mark MAX on the engine oil dipstick. Do not fill
the crankcase above the MAX mark.
• Engine number
NOTICE
Operating your engine when the oil level is above the
MAX mark could cause your crankshaft to dip into the
oil. The air bubbles created from the crankshaft dipping into the oil reduces the oils lubricating characteristics and could result in the loss of power.
2. Remove the oil filler cap and add oil, if necessary.
Clean the oil filler cap. Install the oil filler cap.
If an increase in the oil level is noticed, refer to
Troubleshooting, “Oil Contains Fuel”.
• Engine model
• Service hours on the engine
• The number of hours that have accumulated since
the last oil change
• The amount of oil that has been added since the
last oil change
Ensure that the container for the sample is clean and
dry. Also ensure that the container for the sample is
clearly labelled.
To ensure that the sample is representative of the oil
in the crankcase, obtain a warm, well mixed oil
sample.
To avoid contamination of the oil samples, the tools
and the supplies that are used for obtaining oil
samples must be clean.
i01907674
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain
The condition of the engine lubricating oil may be
checked at regular intervals as part of a preventive
maintenance program. Perkins include an oil
sampling valve as an option. The oil sampling valve
(if equipped) is included in order to regularly sample
the engine lubricating oil. The oil sampling valve is
positioned on the oil filter head or the oil sampling
valve is positioned on the cylinder block.
Perkins recommends using a sampling valve in order
to obtain oil samples. The quality and the consistency
of the samples are better when a sampling valve is
used. The location of the sampling valve allows oil
that is flowing under pressure to be obtained during
normal engine operation.
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
In order to help obtain the most accurate analysis,
record the following information before an oil sample
is taken:
The sample can be checked for the following: the
quality of the oil, the existence of any coolant in the
oil, the existence of any ferrous metal particles in the
oil and the existence of any nonferrous metal
particles in the oil.
i05327085
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be
prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling
any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
98
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
SEBU8726
The engine oil service reset procedure must be
completed after the engine oil, and filter have been
changed. Refer to “Engine Oil Service Reset” for
more information.
Do not drain the engine lubricating oil when the
engine is cold. As the engine lubricating oil cools,
suspended waste particles settle on the bottom of the
oil pan. The waste particles are not removed with
draining cold oil. Drain the oil pan with the engine
stopped. Drain the oil pan with the oil warm. This
draining method allows the waste particles that are
suspended in the oil to be drained properly.
Failure to follow this recommended procedure will
cause the waste particles to be recirculated through
the engine lubrication system with the new oil.
Drain the Engine Lubricating Oil
After the oil has drained, replace the drain plug. If
necessary replace the seal on the drain plug. Install
drain plug and tighten to 34 N·m (25 lb ft).
Replace the Oil Filter
NOTICE
Perkins oil filters are manufactured to Perkins specifications. Use of an oil filter that is not recommended
by Perkins could result in severe damage to the engine bearings, crankshaft, as a result of the larger
waste particles from unfiltered oil entering the engine
lubricating system. Only use oil filters recommended
by Perkins .
1. Using a suitable tool remove the engine oil filter.
Ensure that the vessel that will be used is large
enough to collect the waste oil. After the engine has
been run at the normal operating temperature, stop
the engine. Ensure that the application that the
engine is installed is on level ground. Use one of the
following methods to drain the engine oil pan:
Illustration 59
g02516777
Typical example
2. Clean sealing surface (2).
Illustration 58
g02519103
3. Apply clean engine oil to O ring seal (3) on the new
oil filter.
Typical example
• If the engine is equipped with a drain valve, turn
the drain valve knob counterclockwise in order to
drain the oil. After the oil has drained, turn the
drain valve knob clockwise in order to close the
drain valve.
NOTICE
Do not fill the oil filters with oil before installing them.
This oil would not be filtered and could be contaminated. Contaminated oil can cause accelerated wear
to engine components.
• If the engine is not equipped with a drain valve,
remove the oil drain plug (1) in order to allow the
oil to drain. If the engine is equipped with a shallow
oil pan, remove the bottom oil drain plugs from
both ends of the oil pan.
4. Install the engine oil filter, spin on the oil filter until
the O ring seal contacts the oil filter base. Then,
rotate the oil filter ¾ of a full turn, by hand only.
SEBU8726
99
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
Vertically Up Oil Filter
Illustration 61
g02829378
4. Remove the engine oil level gauge in order to
check the oil level. Maintain the oil level between
the MIN mark and MAX mark on the engine oil
level gauge. Do not fill the crankcase above the
MAX mark.
Illustration 60
g02596778
Engine Oil Service Reset
(4) Vertically up oil filter
Some oil filters may be installed vertically up. Use the
same procedure in order to replace the oil filter.
Ensure that all the oil has drained from the filter
before removal.
Fill the Oil Pan
1. Remove the oil filler cap. Refer to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” for more information on
suitable oils. Fill the oil pan with the correct amount
of new engine lubricating oil. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill
Capacities” for more information on refill
capacities.
NOTICE
If equipped with an auxiliary oil filter system or a remote filter system, follow the OEM or the filter manufactures recommendations. Under filling or over filling
the crankcase with oil can cause engine damage.
2. Start the engine and run the engine at “LOW IDLE”
for 2 minutes. Perform this procedure in order to
ensure that the lubrication system has oil and that
the oil filters are filled. Inspect the oil filter for oil
leaks.
3. Stop the engine and allow the oil to drain back to
the oil pan for a minimum of 10 minutes.
NOTICE
Failure to perform a schedule oil and filter service with
an engine oil service reset will trigger an engine
derate.
The low oil warning lamp has two functions. The lamp
on solid will indicate that the engine has low oil
pressure. The lamp flashing will indicate the engine
oil and filter MUST be changed and the engine oil
service reset MUST be completed. The lamp will only
flash with the key in the ON position, with the engine
in operation the lamp will be extinguished.
Note: If the engine oil and filter have been changed
before the warning lamp has started to flash, the
engine oil service reset procedure MUST still be
completed. Upon completion of the reset procedure,
the lamp will flash three times.
Some applications may have other methods in order
to perform an engine oil service reset. For assistance
with the engine oil service reset contact your Perkins
distributor, or your OEM.
Use one of the following procedures after the engine
oil and filter has been changed in order to complete
an engine oil service reset:
100
Maintenance Recommendations
Fan Clearance - Check
Throttle Control Option
Note: Some application the maximum throttle
position can before the throttle peddle has reached
the stop. The actual maximum position of the throttle
must be known before starting the procedure. With
the known maximum position the middle position of
the throttle can be calculated. The throttle must be
positioned in the required positions for the prescribed
period in order to perform an engine oil service reset.
1. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position, and wait 15
seconds, but not more than 30 seconds. Go to
step 2.
2. Move the throttle to the maximum position for more
than 15 seconds, but less than 30 seconds.
3. Return throttle to zero position for more than 15
seconds, but less than 30 seconds.
SEBU8726
5. Return the multi-state switch to position 0 for more
than 15 seconds, but less than 30 seconds
6. Turn the multi-state switch to position 1 for more
than 15 seconds, but less than 30 seconds. Return
the multi-state switch to position 0. The engine oil
service reset procedure is complete. Turn the
keyswitch to the OFF position.
7. On completion of the sequence, the low oil warning
lamp will flash three times. Each flash will be for 1
second with a 1 second interval. This sequence of
flashes indicates that the warning lamp has been
reset and the engine can be started and operated
normally.
8. If the procedure has been interrupted before
completion, turn the power off for 20 seconds
before starting again.
4. Move the throttle to the maximum position for more
than 15 seconds, but less than 30 seconds.
5. Return throttle to zero position for more than 15
seconds, but less than 30 seconds.
6. Move the throttle to the middle position for more
than 15 seconds, but less than 30 seconds. Return
the throttle to zero position. The engine oil service
reset procedure is complete. Turn the keyswitch to
the OFF position.
7. On completion of the sequence, the low oil warning
lamp will flash three times. Each flash will be for 1
second with a 1 second interval. This sequence of
flashes indicates that the warning lamp has been
reset and the engine can be started and operated
normally.
8. If the procedure has been interrupted before
completion, turn the power off for 20 seconds
before starting again.
Multi-State Switch Option
1. Turn the keyswitch to the ON position, and wait 15
seconds, but not more than 30 seconds. Go to
step 2.
2. Turn the multi-state switch to position 1 for more
than 15 seconds, but less than 30 seconds.
3. Return the multi-state switch to position 0 for more
than 15 seconds, but less than 30 seconds.
4. Turn the multi-state switch to position 1 for more
than 15 seconds, but less than 30 seconds.
i04401341
Fan Clearance - Check
There are different types of cooling systems. Refer to
the OEM for information on clearance for the fan.
Ensure that the engine is stopped. Ensure that the
battery disconnect switch is in the OFF position.
Ensure that the cooling system is full. The clearance
between the cover (1) and the fan (2) will require
checking. The gap (A) between the edge of the cover
and the tip of the fan blade must be checked in four
equally spaced positions.
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101
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System - Prime
Illustration 62
g02585058
Typical example
Adjustment of the cover will change the clearance
(gap) between the edge of the cover and the tip of the
fan blade. Ensure that the cover is centralized to the
fan.
The clearance (A) must be set to 10 ± 1 mm
(0.39370 ± 0.03937 inch).
i04366913
Fuel System - Prime
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
minutes before cranking the engine again.
If air enters the fuel system, the air must be purged
from the fuel system before the engine can be
started. Air can enter the fuel system when the
following events occur:
• The fuel tank is empty or the fuel tank has been
partially drained.
Note: Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and
Adjusting, “Cleanliness of Fuel System
Components” for detailed information on the
standards of cleanliness that must be observed
during ALL work on the fuel system.
• The low-pressure fuel lines are disconnected.
Ensure that all adjustments and repairs are
performed by authorized personnel that have had the
correct training.
Use the following procedures in order to remove air
from the fuel system:
• A leak exists in the low-pressure fuel system.
• The fuel filter has been replaced.
102
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace
1. Ensure that the fuel system is in working order.
Check that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is in
the “ON” position.
2. Operate the hand priming pump. Count the number
of operations of the pump. After approximately 80
depression of the pump stop.
Note: As the fuel system is primed, the pressure will
increase within the fuel system and this increase in
pressure can be felt during priming.
3. The fuel system should now be primed and the
engine should be able to start.
4. Operate the engine starter and crank the engine.
After the engine has started, operate the engine at
low idle for a minimum of 5 minutes. Ensure that
the fuel system is free from leaks.
Note: Operating the engine for this period will help
ensure that the fuel system is free of air. DO NOT
loosen the high-pressure fuel lines in order to
purge air from the fuel system. This procedure is
not required.
SEBU8726
Note: Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and
Adjusting, “Cleanliness of Fuel System
Components” for detailed information on the
standards of cleanliness that must be observed
during ALL work on the fuel system.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing or repair is performed.
Remove the Element
1. Turn the fuel supply valve (if equipped) to the OFF
position before performing this maintenance.
2. Place a suitable container under the water
separator in order to catch any fuel that might spill.
Clean up any spilled fuel. Clean the outside body
of the filter assembly.
3. Make a temporary Mark (A) across the filter before
the assembly is removed.
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 10
minutes in order to allow the fuel pressure to be
purged from the high-pressure fuel lines before any
service or repair is performed on the engine fuel lines.
If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair any
leaks from the low-pressure fuel system and from the
cooling, lubrication, or air systems. Replace any highpressure fuel line that has leaked. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Fuel Injection
Lines - Install”.
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use the
proper inspection procedure in order to avoid a fluid
penetration hazard . Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
If the engine will not start, refer to Troubleshooting,
“Engine Cranks but will not Start”.
i05326388
Fuel System Primary Filter
(Water Separator) Element Replace
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent
possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
Illustration 63
g03374220
Typical example
4. Install a suitable tube onto drain (3). Open the drain
valve (2). Rotate the drain valve counterclockwise.
Two full turns are required. Loosen vent screw (1).
Note: Two complete rotations of the valve will release
the valve from the filter element.
5. Allow the fuel to drain into the container. Remove
the tube and install the valve into the filter element.
Engage the threads of the valve into the filter
element. Do not secure the valve.
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103
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace
6. Tighten the vent screw (1) securely . Remove the
wiring harness from connection (4).
Illustration 65
g03374224
Typical example
Illustration 64
g03374223
Typical example
7. Using a suitable tool, remove the filter bowl (6).
Rotate the filter assembly counterclockwise in
order to remove the filter assembly. Use a suitable
tool in order to remove the filter assembly.
8. Rotate the filter element counterclockwise and
remove the filter element (5). Clean the filter bowl.
Install the Element
1. Locate the thread in the filter element (8) onto the
threads (9). Spin on the element. Do not tighten.
2. Lubricate the O ring seal (7) with clean engine oil.
Do NOT fill the bowl with fuel before the assembly
is installed.
3. Do NOT use a tool in order to install the filter
assembly. Tighten the filter bowl (6) by hand.
Install the filter bowl (6) and align with your
temporary marks (A).
4. Tighten the valve (2) securely. Remove the
container and dispose of the fuel in a safe place.
5. The secondary filter element must be replaced at
the same time as the primary filter element. Refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel
System Filter - Replace”.
104
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator - Drain
i05326334
Fuel System Primary Filter/
Water Separator - Drain
SEBU8726
3. Install a suitable tube onto drain (3). Open the drain
valve (2). Rotate the drain valve counterclockwise.
Two full turns are required. Loosen vent screw (1).
Note: Two complete rotations of the valve will release
the valve from the filter element.
4. Allow the fluid to drain into the container.
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent
possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
5. Engage the threads of the valve into the filter
element and tighten the drain valve by hand
pressure only. Tighten vent screw securely.
6. Remove the tube and remove the container.
i04367528
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing or repair is performed.
NOTICE
The water separator can be under suction during normal engine operation. Ensure that the drain valve is
tightened securely to help prevent air from entering
the fuel system.
1. Place a suitable container under the water
separator in order to catch any fluid that might spill.
Clean up any spilled fluid.
2. Ensure that the outer body of the filter assembly is
clean and free from dirt.
Fuel System Secondary Filter Replace
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent
possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing or repair is performed.
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and
Adjusting, “Cleanliness of Fuel System
Components” for detailed information on the
standards of cleanliness that must be observed
during ALL work on the fuel system.
Remove the Element
1. Turn the fuel supply valve (if equipped) to the OFF
position before performing this maintenance.
2. Place a suitable container under the fuel filter in
order to catch any fuel that might spill. Clean up
any spilled fuel. Clean the outside body of the filter
assembly.
Illustration 66
Typical example
g03374226
SEBU8726
Illustration 67
105
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace
g02522536
Illustration 68
g02522538
Typical example
Typical example
3. Make a temporary Mark (A) across the filter before
the assembly is removed. Install a suitable tube
onto drain (4). Open the drain valve (3). Rotate the
drain valve counterclockwise. Two full turns are
required. Loosen vent screw (1).
7. Rotate the filter element counterclockwise and
remove the filter element (5). Clean the filter bowl.
Install the Element
Note: Two complete rotations of the valve will release
the valve from the filter element.
4. Allow the fuel to drain into the container. Remove
the tube and install the valve into the filter element.
Engage the threads of the valve into the filter
element. Do not secure the valve.
5. Tighten the vent screw (1) securely.
6. Remove the filter bowl (2). Rotate the filter
assembly counterclockwise in order to remove the
assembly. Use a suitable tool in order to remove
the filter bowl.
Illustration 69
g02522540
Typical example
1. Locate the thread in the filter element (7) onto the
threads (8). Spin on the element. Do not tighten.
2. Lubricate the O ring seal (6) with clean engine oil.
Do NOT fill the filter bowl (2) with fuel before the
filter assembly is installed.
106
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain
SEBU8726
3. Do not use a tool in order to install the filter
assembly. Tighten the assembly by hand. Install
the filter bowl (2) and align with your temporary
Marks.
4. Tighten the drain valve (3). Turn the fuel supply
valve to the ON position.
5. The Primary filter element must be replaced at the
same time as the secondary filter element. Refer to
the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel
System Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element Replace”.
6. Prime the fuel system. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for
more information.
Open the drain valve on the bottom of the fuel tank in
order to drain the water and the sediment. Close the
drain valve.
Check the fuel daily. Allow five minutes after the fuel
tank has been filled before draining water and
sediment from the fuel tank.
Fill the fuel tank after operating the engine in order to
drive out moist air. This will help prevent
condensation. Do not fill the tank to the top. The fuel
expands as the fuel gets warm. The tank may
overflow.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe. Some fuel tanks use supply lines that
take fuel directly from the bottom of the tank. If the
engine is equipped with this system, regular
maintenance of the fuel system filter is important.
Fuel Storage Tanks
i02348492
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment
- Drain
Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
storage tank at the following intervals:
• Weekly
• Service intervals
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be
prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling
any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
• Refill of the tank
This will help prevent water or sediment from being
pumped from the storage tank into the engine fuel
tank.
If a bulk storage tank has been refilled or moved
recently, allow adequate time for the sediment to
settle before filling the engine fuel tank. Internal
baffles in the bulk storage tank will also help trap
sediment. Filtering fuel that is pumped from the
storage tank helps to ensure the quality of the fuel.
When possible, water separators should be used.
Fuel Tank
i02518232
Fuel quality is critical to the performance and to the
service life of the engine. Water in the fuel can cause
excessive wear to the fuel system.
Water can be introduced into the fuel tank when the
fuel tank is being filled.
Condensation occurs during the heating and cooling
of fuel. The condensation occurs as the fuel passes
through the fuel system and the fuel returns to the
fuel tank. This causes water to accumulate in fuel
tanks. Draining the fuel tank regularly and obtaining
fuel from reliable sources can help to eliminate water
in the fuel.
Drain the Water and the Sediment
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and draining sediment from the bottom of the
fuel tanks.
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/
Replace
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use the
proper inspection procedure in order to avoid a fluid
penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
SEBU8726
107
Maintenance Recommendations
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace
Inspect all hoses for leaks that are caused by the
following conditions:
• Cracking
• Softness
• Loose clamps
Replace hoses that are cracked or soft. Tighten any
loose clamps.
Check for the following conditions:
• End fittings that are damaged or leaking
• Outer covering that is chafed or cut
• Exposed wire that is used for reinforcement
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
1. Stop the engine. Allow the engine to cool.
2. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
• Flexible part of the hose that is kinked or crushed
Note: Drain the coolant into a suitable, clean
container. The coolant can be reused.
3. Drain the coolant from the cooling system to a level
that is below the hose that is being replaced.
• Armoring that is embedded in the outer covering
4. Remove the hose clamps.
A constant torque hose clamp can be used in place of
any standard hose clamp. Ensure that the constant
torque hose clamp is the same size as the standard
clamp.
5. Disconnect the old hose.
Due to extreme temperature changes, the hose will
harden. Hardening of the hoses will cause hose
clamps to loosen. This can result in leaks. A constant
torque hose clamp will help to prevent loose hose
clamps.
7. Install the hose clamps with a torque wrench.
• Outer covering that is ballooning locally
Each installation application can be different. The
differences depend on the following factors:
• Type of hose
6. Replace the old hose with a new hose.
Note: For the correct coolant, see this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.
8. Refill the cooling system. Refer to the OEM
information for further information on refilling the
cooling system.
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the hose
9. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
cooling system filler cap's seals. Replace the
cooling system filler cap if the seals are damaged.
Install the cooling system filler cap.
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the
fittings
10. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks.
• Type of fitting material
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps
Refer to the OEM information for further information
on removing and replacing fuel hoses (if equipped).
The following text describes a typical method of
replacing coolant hoses. Refer to the OEM
information for further information on the coolant
system and the hoses for the coolant system.
108
Maintenance Recommendations
Oxygen Sensor - Replace
SEBU8726
i05324852
Oxygen Sensor - Replace
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a
protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
Pressurized air is the preferred method for removing
loose debris. Direct the air in the opposite direction to
the fans air flow. Hold the nozzle approximately 6 mm
(0.25 inch) away from the radiator fins. Slowly move
the air nozzle in a direction that is parallel with the
radiator tube assembly. The pressurized air will
remove debris that is between the tubes.
Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning. The
maximum water pressure for cleaning purposes must
be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use pressurized water
in order to soften mud. Clean the core from both
sides.
Illustration 70
g03373217
Typical example
The oxygen sensor (1) must be replaced at 3000
hours. Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly,
“Oxygen Sensor - Remove and Install” for the
procedure.
The electronic service tool will be required in order to
perform a reset after a new oxygen sensor is
installed.
i04245214
Radiator - Clean
The radiator is not usually supplied by Perkins . The
following text describes a typical cleaning procedure
for the radiator. Refer to the OEM information for
further information on cleaning the radiator.
Note: Some application will require a fuel cooler to be
installed. The fuel cooler is a type of radiator that
uses air to cool the fuel and the fuel cooler will require
cleaning.
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the radiator for these items: Damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil and other
debris. Clean the radiator, if necessary.
Use a degreaser and steam for removal of oil and
grease. Clean both sides of the core. Wash the core
with detergent and hot water. Thoroughly rinse the
core with clean water.
If the radiator is blocked internally, refer to the OEM
Manual for information regarding flushing the cooling
system.
After cleaning the radiator, start the engine. Allow the
engine to operate at low idle speed for 3 to 5 minutes.
Accelerate the engine to high idle. The high idle
speed will help in the removal of debris and the drying
of the core. Slowly reduce the engine speed to low
idle and then stop the engine. Use a light bulb behind
the core in order to inspect the core for cleanliness.
Repeat the cleaning, if necessary.
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a “comb”. Inspect these items for good condition:
Welds, mounting brackets, air lines, connections,
clamps and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
SEBU8726
109
Maintenance Recommendations
Radiator Pressure Cap - Clean/Replace
i03639888
Radiator Pressure Cap - Clean/
Replace
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed the procedure must be performed with the engine on level ground. This will allow
you to accurately check the coolant level. This will also help in avoiding the risk of introducing an air lock
into the coolant system.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the radiator
pressure cap.
2. Check coolant level. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Cooling System Coolant
Level - Check”.
i04407666
Turbocharger - Inspect
Hot engine components can cause injury from
burns. Before performing maintenance on the engine, allow the engine and the components to
cool.
NOTICE
Turbocharger bearing failures can cause large quantities of oil to enter the air intake and exhaust systems.
Loss of engine lubricant can result in serious engine
damage.
Minor leakage of oil into a turbocharger under extended low idle operation should not cause problems
as long as a turbocharger bearing failure has not
occurred.
When a turbocharger bearing failure is accompanied
by a significant engine performance loss (exhaust
smoke or engine rpm up at no load), do not continue
engine operation until the turbocharger is renewed.
A visual inspection of the turbocharger can minimize
unscheduled downtime. A visual inspection of the
turbocharger can also reduce the chance for potential
damage to other engine parts. Do not inspect the
engine with the engine in operation.
3. Install new radiator pressure cap.
i02177969
Starting Motor - Inspect
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of the
starting motor. If the starting motor fails, the engine
may not start in an emergency situation.
Check the starting motor for correct operation. Check
the electrical connections and clean the electrical
connections. Refer to the Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting Manual, “Electric Starting System Test” for more information on the checking procedure
and for specifications or consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for assistance.
Illustration 71
Typical example
g02603804
110
Maintenance Recommendations
Walk-Around Inspection
SEBU8726
1. Ensure that the turbocharger is clean and free from
dirt before removing components for inspection.
2. Remove the air intake pipe (1). Visually inspect the
piping for the presence of oil. A small amount oil
will be expected, this oil is due to the breather
system design. Clean the interior of the pipe in
order to prevent dirt from entering during
reassembly.
3. Check for obvious heat discoloration of the
turbocharger. Check for any loose bolts or any
missing bolts. Check for damage to the oil supply
line (3) and the oil drain line (2). Check for cracks
in the housing of the turbocharger. Ensure that the
compressor wheel can rotate freely. Check that
there are no visual signs of damage to the
compressor wheel.
4. Check for the presence of oil. If oil is leaking from
the back side of the compressor wheel, there is a
possibility of a failed turbocharger oil seal.
The presence of oil may be the result of extended
engine operation at low idle. The presence of oil
may also be the result of a restriction of the line for
the intake air (clogged air filters). A restriction can
cause the turbocharger to slobber.
5. Install the air intake pipe to the turbocharger
housing. Ensure that all clamps are installed
correctly and that all clamps are tightened
securely. For more information, refer to Systems
Operation, Testing, and Adjusting, “Turbocharger Inspect”.
i04367583
Walk-Around Inspection
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and
for Loose Connections
A walk-around inspection should only take a few
minutes. When the time is taken to perform these
checks, costly repairs and accidents can be avoided.
For maximum engine service life, make a thorough
inspection of the engine compartment before starting
the engine. Look for items such as oil leaks or coolant
leaks, loose bolts, worn belts, loose connections, and
trash buildup. Make repairs, as needed:
• The guards must be in the correct place. Repair
damaged guards or replace missing guards.
• Wipe all caps and plugs before the engine is
serviced in order to reduce the chance of system
contamination.
NOTICE
For any type of leak (coolant, lube, or fuel) clean up
the fluid. If leaking is observed, find the source and
correct the leak. If leaking is suspected, check the fluid levels more often than recommended until the leak
is found or fixed, or until the suspicion of a leak is
proved to be unwarranted.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and/or oil on an engine is a fire
hazard. Remove the accumulated grease and oil. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine - Clean” for more information.
• Ensure that the cooling system hoses are correctly
clamped and that the cooling system hoses are
tight. Check for leaks. Check the condition of all
pipes.
• Inspect the water pump for coolant leaks.
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the
coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small
amount of leakage to occur as the engine cools down
and the parts contract.
Excessive coolant leakage may indicate the need to
replace the water pump. Remove the water pump.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Water Pump Remove and Install”. For more information, consult
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor.
• Inspect the lubrication system for leaks at the front
crankshaft seal, the rear crankshaft seal, the oil
pan, the oil filters, and the rocker cover.
• Inspect the piping for the air intake system and the
elbows for cracks and for loose clamps. Ensure
that hoses and tubes are not contacting other
hoses, tubes, wiring harnesses, etc.
• Ensure that the areas around the rotating parts are
clear.
• Inspect the alternator belts and any accessory
drive belts for cracks, breaks, or other damage.
• Inspect the wiring harness for damage.
Belts for multiple groove pulleys must be replaced as
matched sets. If only one belt is replaced, the belt will
carry more load than the belts that are not replaced.
The older belts are stretched. The additional load on
the new belt could cause the belt to break.
SEBU8726
111
Maintenance Recommendations
Water Pump - Inspect
High Pressure Fuel Lines
i04406817
Water Pump - Inspect
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 10
minutes in order to allow the fuel pressure to be
purged from the high-pressure fuel lines before any
service or repair is performed on the engine fuel lines.
If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair any
leaks from the low-pressure fuel system and from the
cooling, lubrication, or air systems. Replace any highpressure fuel line that has leaked. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Fuel Injection
Lines - Install”.
A failed water pump may cause severe engine
overheating problems that could result in the following
conditions:
• Cracks in the cylinder head
• A piston seizure
• Other potential damage to the engine
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use the
proper inspection procedure in order to avoid a fluid
penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
Visually inspect the high-pressure fuel lines for
damage or signs of fuel leakage. Replace any
damaged high-pressure fuel lines or high-pressure
fuel lines that have leaked.
Ensure that all clips on the high-pressure fuel lines
are in place and that the clips are not loose.
• Inspect the rest of the fuel system for leaks. Look
for loose fuel line clamps.
• Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
tank on a daily basis in order to ensure that only
clean fuel enters the fuel system.
Illustration 72
• Inspect the wiring and the wiring harnesses for
loose connections and for worn wires or frayed
wires. Check for any loose tie-wraps or missing tiewraps.
Note: The water pump seals are lubricated by the
coolant in the cooling system.
• Inspect the ground strap for a good connection
and for good condition.
Note: If engine coolant enters the engine lubricating
system, the lubricating oil and the engine oil filter
must be replaced. Draining will remove any
contaminate and will prevent any irregular oil
samples.
• Disconnect any battery chargers that are not
protected against the current drain of the starting
motor. Check the condition and the electrolyte
level of the batteries, unless the engine is
equipped with a maintenance free battery.
• Check the condition of the gauges. Replace any
gauges that are cracked. Replace any gauge that
cannot be calibrated.
g02601196
Typical example
(1) Weep hole
Visually inspect the water pump for leaks.
In order to install a new water pump, refer to the
Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Water Pump Remove and Install”.
112
SEBU8726
Warranty Section
Emissions Warranty Information
Warranty Section
Warranty Information
i05328140
Emissions Warranty
Information
• EPA
Protection Agency
• CARB
United States Environmental
California Air Resources Board
Note: The warranty of the engine applies to engines
that are operated within the areas of the world where
the following regulations apply: US EPA Tier 4
Interim, EU Stage IIIB or Japanese MLIT Step 4. If an
engine is operated in regions of the world where
these regulations do not apply the warranty will be
void. Contact your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor for more information.
For a full warranty statement contact your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor. For customers that
have a valid user name and password,
for perkins.com. Login then go to TIPSS, and the
warranty information can be accessed.
Maintenance Recommendations
Efficiency of the emission control and the engine
performance depends on adherence to proper
operation and maintenance recommendations and
use of recommended fuels and lubricating oils.
According to recommendations, major adjustments
and repairs should be made by your authorized
Perkins distributor or your authorized Perkins dealer.
Various chemical fuel additives which claim to reduce
visible smoke are available commercially. Although
additives have been used to solve some isolated
smoke problems in the field, additives are not
recommended for general use. The engines should
be certified without smoke depressants according to
federal smoke regulations.
The aftertreatment system can be expected to
function properly for the life-time of the engine
(emissions durability period) subject to prescribed
maintenance requirements being followed.
SEBU8726
113
Reference Information Section
Engine Protection Plans
Reference Information
Section
www.perkins.com
NOTICE
Dependant upon engine type and application.
Reference Materials
i04224089
Engine Protection Plans
(Extended Service Contract)
Extended Service Contracts-purchased in minutes,
protected for years.
Extended Service Contracts (ESC) protect you from
the stress that unexpected repair work brings to your
life by covering the cost of getting your engine up and
running again. Unlike other extended warranties,
Perkins Platinum ESC protects you against all
component part failures.
Purchase peace of mind from only £0.03 / $0.05 /
euro 0.04 a day and let an ESC make your dreams a
reality.
Why buy an Extended Service Contract?
1. No surprises - total protection from unexpected
repair cost (parts, labor, and travel).
2. Enjoy longer lasting product support from Perkins
global network.
3. Genuine Perkins parts ensure continued engine
performance.
4. Highly trained technicians carry out all repairs.
5. Transferable coverage should you sell your
machine.
Flexible coverage provides the right level of
protection for your Perkins Engine. Coverage can be
extended to 2 years/ 1,000 hours right up to 10 year/
40,000
You can buy an ESC at any time during standard
warranty - even the last day!
Each Perkins Distributor has highly trained and
experienced Perkins Product Support Service
Technicians. The Support Service are equipped, and
available around the clock to get your engine running
again with the minimum of downtime. Buying an ESC
means that you get all this for free.
To purchase an Extended Service Contract, is quick
and simple! Contact your local Perkins Distributor
now and the distributor can provide you with a quote
in minutes. You can locate your nearest Perkins
Distributor by visiting:
114
SEBU8726
Index Section
Index
A
After Starting Engine........................................ 55
After Stopping Engine...................................... 64
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test (Air-To-Air
Aftercooler) .................................................... 84
Aftercooler Core - Inspect................................ 84
Alarms and Shutoffs ........................................ 32
Alternator - Inspect .......................................... 84
Alternator and Fan Belts - Replace.................. 84
B
Battery - Replace............................................. 85
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .................... 86
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ............. 86
Before Starting Engine ...............................14, 53
Burn Prevention................................................. 9
Batteries....................................................... 10
Coolant......................................................... 10
Induction System ........................................... 9
Oils............................................................... 10
C
Cold Weather Operation.................................. 60
Hints for Cold Weather Operation................ 60
Idling the Engine .......................................... 61
Recommendations for Coolant Warm Up .... 61
Recommendations for the Coolant .............. 61
Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication Oil......... 61
Cold Weather Starting ..................................... 53
Configuration Parameters................................ 50
Customer Specified Parameters.................. 50
System Configuration Parameters............... 50
Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) - Change .. 87
Drain ............................................................ 87
Fill................................................................. 88
Flush ............................................................ 87
Coolant (ELC) - Change .................................. 88
Drain ............................................................ 89
Fill................................................................. 90
Flush ............................................................ 89
Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add ......................... 90
Coolant Level - Check ..................................... 91
Engines With a Coolant Recovery Tank....... 91
Engines Without a Coolant Recovery Tank . 91
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant
Additive (SCA) - Test/Add .............................. 92
Add the SCA, If Necessary .......................... 92
Test for SCA Concentration ......................... 92
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention .. 12
D
Diagnostic Lamp.............................................. 49
Diesel Particulate Filter - Clean ....................... 93
Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration............. 56
Modes of Regeneration................................ 57
Regeneration ............................................... 56
Regeneration Indicators............................... 56
Regeneration Switch.................................... 57
Regeneration System Warning Indicators ... 57
Driven Equipment - Check............................... 93
E
Electrical System ............................................. 14
Grounding Practices .................................... 15
Emergency Stopping ....................................... 64
Emissions Certification Film ............................ 28
Emissions Warranty Information.....................112
Maintenance Recommendations ................112
Engine - Clean ................................................. 93
Aftertreatment .............................................. 94
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single
Element) - Inspect/Clean/Replace................. 94
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator Inspect ........................................................... 94
Test the Service Indicator............................. 94
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean.............. 95
Engine Crankcase Breather Element Replace.......................................................... 95
Engine Breather........................................... 95
Engine Diagnostics.......................................... 49
Engine Electronics........................................... 16
Engine Mounts - Inspect.................................. 96
Engine Oil and Filter - Change ........................ 97
Drain the Engine Lubricating Oil .................. 98
Engine Oil Service Reset ............................. 99
Fill the Oil Pan.............................................. 99
Replace the Oil Filter.................................... 98
Engine Oil Level - Check ................................. 96
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ............................. 97
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis............ 97
SEBU8726
115
Index Section
Engine Operation............................................. 56
System Check.............................................. 56
Engine Operation with Active Diagnostic
Codes ............................................................ 49
Engine Operation with Intermittent
Diagnostic Codes........................................... 49
Engine Protection Plans (Extended Service
Contract) .......................................................113
Engine Starting ...........................................14, 53
Engine Stopping .........................................14, 64
F
Fan Clearance - Check.................................. 100
Fault Logging................................................... 49
Features and Controls ..................................... 32
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ...... 10
Fire Extinguisher.......................................... 12
Lines, Tubes, and Hoses ............................. 12
Regeneration ............................................... 12
Fluid Recommendations.............................72, 74
ELC Cooling System Maintenance.............. 77
Engine Oil .................................................... 73
General Coolant Information........................ 74
General Lubricant Information ..................... 72
Fluid Recommendations (Fuel Specification).. 66
Diesel Fuel Characteristics ......................... 69
Diesel Fuel Requirements ........................... 66
General Information ..................................... 66
Foreword............................................................ 4
California Proposition 65 Warning ................. 4
Literature Information..................................... 4
Maintenance .................................................. 4
Maintenance Intervals.................................... 4
Operation ....................................................... 4
Overhaul ........................................................ 4
Safety............................................................. 4
Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather............ 62
Fuel Conservation Practices............................ 59
Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather .... 62
Fuel Filters ................................................... 63
Fuel Heaters ................................................ 63
Fuel Tanks.................................................... 62
Fuel System - Prime ...................................... 101
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water
Separator) Element - Replace ..................... 102
Install the Element ..................................... 103
Remove the Element ................................. 102
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator
- Drain .......................................................... 104
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace ....... 104
Install the Element ..................................... 105
Remove the Element ................................. 104
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain.......... 106
Drain the Water and the Sediment............. 106
Fuel Storage Tanks .................................... 106
Fuel Tank ................................................... 106
G
Gauges and Indicators .................................... 32
Aftertreatment Lamps .................................. 33
Indicator Lamps ........................................... 33
General Hazard Information .............................. 6
Asbestos Information ..................................... 8
Containing Fluid Spillage ............................... 8
Dispose of Waste Properly............................. 9
Fluid Penetration............................................ 8
Pressurized Air and Water ............................. 7
General Information......................................... 17
H
High Pressure Fuel Lines ................................ 12
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ........... 106
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps .......... 107
I
Important Safety Information ............................. 2
L
Lifting and Storage........................................... 30
M
Maintenance Interval Schedule ....................... 83
Commissioning ............................................ 83
Daily ............................................................. 83
Every 1000 Service Hours ........................... 83
Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6 Years ....... 83
Every 1500 Service Hours ........................... 83
Every 2000 Service Hours ........................... 83
Every 3000 Service Hours ........................... 83
Every 3000 Service Hours or 2 Years .......... 83
Every 4000 Service Hours ........................... 83
Every 50 Service Hours or Monthly ............. 83
Every 50 Service Hours or Weekly .............. 83
Every 500 Service Hours ............................. 83
Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year.............. 83
116
SEBU8726
Index Section
Every 6000 Service Hours or 3 Years .......... 83
Every Week.................................................. 83
When Required............................................ 83
Maintenance Recommendations..................... 80
Maintenance Section ....................................... 66
Model View Illustrations................................... 17
Engine and Aftertreatment........................... 17
Engine View with Through Flow Diesel
Particulate Filter ......................................... 22
Engine View with Wall Flow Diesel Particulate
Filter ........................................................... 21
Monitoring System........................................... 35
Programmable Options and Systems
Operation ................................................... 35
Monitoring System (Table for the Indicator
lamps) ............................................................ 33
Mounting and Dismounting.............................. 12
O
Operation Section............................................ 30
Overspeed....................................................... 36
Oxygen Sensor - Replace ............................. 108
P
Plate Locations and Film Locations
(Aftertreatment).............................................. 27
Plate Locations and Film Locations
(Aftertreatment).............................................. 28
Through-Flow Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
................................................................... 28
Plate Locations and Film Locations
(Aftertreatment)
Wall Flow Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) ..... 27
Plate Locations and Film Locations (Engine) .. 25
Serial Number location................................. 25
Product Description ......................................... 22
Aftermarket Products and Perkins Engines
................................................................... 24
Electronic Engine Features.......................... 23
Engine Cooling and Lubrication................... 23
Engine Diagnostics ...................................... 23
Engine Service Life ...................................... 24
Engine Specifications .................................. 22
Product Identification Information.................... 25
Product Information Section ............................ 17
Product Lifting.................................................. 30
Product Storage (Engine and
Aftertreatment)............................................... 30
Condition for Storage ................................... 30
R
Radiator - Clean............................................. 108
Radiator Pressure Cap - Clean/Replace ....... 109
Reference Information..................................... 29
Record for Reference................................... 29
Reference Information Section .......................113
Reference Materials .......................................113
Refill Capacities............................................... 66
Cooling System............................................ 66
Lubrication System ...................................... 66
S
Safety Messages ............................................... 5
Universal Warning.......................................... 5
Safety Section ................................................... 5
Self-Diagnostics............................................... 49
Sensors and Electrical Components ............... 37
Full Engine Views ........................................ 37
Sensors and Electrical Components
(Aftertreatment).............................................. 46
Differential Pressure sensor......................... 48
Through Flow Aftertreatment ....................... 48
Wall Flow Aftertreatment.............................. 47
Severe Service Application.............................. 82
Environmental Factors................................. 82
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures.............. 82
Incorrect Operating Procedures................... 82
Starting Motor - Inspect ................................. 109
Starting the Engine .......................................... 54
Starting the Engine ...................................... 54
Starting with Jump Start Cables ...................... 54
Stopping the Engine ........................................ 64
System Pressure Release............................... 80
Coolant System............................................ 80
Engine Oil .................................................... 80
Fuel System ................................................. 80
T
Table of Contents............................................... 3
Turbocharger - Inspect .................................. 109
W
Walk-Around Inspection .................................110
High Pressure Fuel Lines............................ 111
SEBU8726
117
Index Section
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and for Loose
Connections ..............................................110
Warranty Information ......................................112
Warranty Section ............................................112
Water Pump - Inspect .....................................111
Welding on Engines with Electronic Controls .. 80
118
Index Section
SEBU8726
©2013 Perkins Engines Company Limited
All Rights Reserved
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