Apparatus and method for generating effects based on audio signal

Apparatus and method for generating effects based on audio signal
USOO8748724B1
(12) United States Patent
Harmon
(54)
APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR
5,136,918
5,311,806
5,557,058
5,763,808
5,780,760
5,866,834
5,977,474
6,034,316
6,791,023
6,888,057
7,271,332
7,304,232
7,420,112
7,952,014
7,982,125
8,084,681
GENERATING EFFECTS BASED ON AUDIO
SIGNAL ANALYSIS
(76)
(*)
Inventor:
Notice:
Michael G. Harmon, Murray, KY (US)
Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this
patent is extended or adjusted under 35
U.S.C. 154(b) by 822 days.
(21) Appl. No.: 12/953,904
(22)
Filed:
Nov. 24, 2010
Provisional application No. 61/281,933, ?led on Nov.
25, 2009.
(51)
(52)
Int. Cl.
G10H 1/02
G10H 1/32
G10H 3/00
US. Cl.
USPC
(58)
.... ..
49
2003/0052728
2004/0069128
2004/0103776
2007/0131100
2008/0034950
2010/0195840
2013/0118340
Related US. Application Data
(60)
US 8,748,724 B1
(10) Patent N0.:
(45) Date of Patent:
(2006.01)
(2006.01)
(2006.01)
8/1992
5/1994
9/1996
6/1998
7/1998
2/1999
11/1999
3/2000
9/2004
5/2005
9/2007
12/2007
9/2008
5/2011
7/2011
12/2011
3/2003
4/2004
6/2004
6/2007
2/2008
8/2010
5/2013
Jun. 10, 2014
Riboloff ........................ ..
Riboloff ..
Lace
84/728
. . . . . . . . . . .
. . . ..
84/735
. . . ..
84/726
Thomson
Riboloff
84/723
84/728
. . . . . .
Burke et a1.
84/622
O’Brien ..
84/735
Hoover
84/738
Nakaya
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . ..
84/736
. . . ..
84/736
Juszkiewicz et al.
Clark
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nicholes
. . . . . . . . . . . .
84/645
. . . ..
Juszkiewicz et al. ..
84/741
84/600
Juszkiewicz et al. ......... .. 84/742
Takabayashiet al. .
Schon
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
84/731
. . . ..
Philpott ..
Ludwig
327/385
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . ..
Juszkiewicz et al.
Daniel
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ciccone
. . . . . .
84/645
84/742
. . . ..
Ambrosino .
D’Amours
84/746
84/737
84/742
. . . ..
381/61
.................... ..
84/746
* cited by examiner
Primary Examiner * Jeffrey Donels
(74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm * Middleton Reutlinger;
Scott W. Higdon; John F. Salazar
....................................... .. 84/737; 84/746
Field of Classi?cation Search
USPC
.... ..
(57)
.................................... .. 84/737i742, 746
See application ?le for complete search history.
(56)
effects to be generated based on analysis of an audio signal
are disclosed. The apparatuses may be electrically coupled to
an audio signal, may analyze the audio signal to determine if
a control cue is present in the audio signal, and direct the
effects generated by one or more effect generating devices if
References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS
3,530,224
3,911,776
4,480,520
4,545,278
A
A
A
A
*
9/ 1970
ABSTRACT
Inventive methods and apparatuses for causing one or more
Kushner et al. ............... .. 84/742
a control cue is present.
10/1975 Beigel
*
11/1984
Gold ............................. .. 84/735
*
10/1985
Gagon et al. .................. .. 84/726
19 Claims, 6 Drawing Sheets
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US 8,748,724 B1
US 8,748,724 B1
1
2
APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR
GENERATING EFFECTS BASED ON AUDIO
SIGNAL ANALYSIS
output, at least one control cue, and at least one control effect
signal correlated to the control cue. The sound effect circuit is
electrically coupled to the at least one audio signal input and
is electrically coupled to the control effect signal output. The
sound effect circuit includes an audio signal output. The
controller is operable to transform an audio signal received
over the audio signal input into a frequency array, wherein the
frequency array is indicative of frequency content of the audio
signal over a period of time. The controller is further operable
to identify a plurality of persistent frequencies present within
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED
DOCUMENTS
This Application claims the bene?t of Provisional Appli
cation Ser. No. 61/281,933 ?led Nov. 25, 2009, which is
hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.
the frequency array and analyze the persistent frequencies to
determine if the control cue is present in the audio signal. The
controller communicates the control effect signal over the
control effect signal output in response to identi?cation of the
control cue. Communication of the control effect signal over
the control effect signal output causes the sound effect circuit
to manipulate at least one aspect of the audio signal and to
TECHNICAL FIELD
The present invention is directed generally to aspects of an
apparatus for generating effects based on analysis of an audio
signal. More particularly, various inventive methods and
apparatus disclosed herein relate to one or more aspects of an
apparatus that may be electrically coupled to an incoming
audio signal and that directs the effects generated by one or
more electrically coupled effect generating devices based on
output the manipulated audio signal to the audio signal out
put.
20
analysis of the incoming audio signal.
potentiometer electrically interposed between the control
BACKGROUND
Certain effects often accompany a musical performance.
In some embodiments the control effect signal comprises a
variable resistance.
In some embodiments the effects pedal further includes a
25
effect signal output and the sound effect circuit, wherein a
resistance of the potentiometer is dependent on the control
For example, audio effects may be utilized to amplify, distort,
effect signal.
or otherwise alter the sound of one or more instruments used
In some embodiments the control effect signal comprises a
variable digital output. In some embodiments the control
effect signal comprises a variable voltage. In some versions of
in the musical performance. Also, for example, lighting
effects may be utilized to highlight a performer, an area of the
stage, and/or for dramatic effect during the musical perfor
30
during the course of a musical performance, the artist may
manually actuate a non-musical device to cause the effects to
occur, may have someone else manually actuate a non-musi
cal device to cause the effects to occur, or may time the effects
those embodiments the variable voltage may be generated by
an analog to digital converter.
In some embodiments the at least one aspect of the audio
mance. If an artist desires that one or more effects occur
signal includes the rate of the chorus of the audio signal.
35
In some embodiments the controller is operable to compare
at least one later in time of the persistent frequencies to at least
one earlier in time of the persistent frequencies to identify if
to occur at certain points of the performance.
For example, a guitarist utilizing an effects pedal must
manually step on a mechanical footswitch of the effects pedal
the control cue is present in the audio signal. In some versions
to activate or deactivate the chorus effect thereof and must
upon a magnitude difference between at least one later in time
turn the potentiometers knobs thereof by hand to control the
depth and/or rate parameters of the effects pedal. Accord
ingly, during a musical performance the musician has little
control over the operating parameters of the existing audio
effect systems other than controlling them with a nominally
distracting footswitch or foot pedal or highly distracting rota
tion control knobs. Artist manual actuation of non-musical
of those embodiments the control effect signal is dependent
40
ments the extent of manipulation of the at least one aspect of
the audio signal by the sound effect circuit is dependent on the
45
magnitude difference between the at least one later in time of
the persistent frequencies and the at least one earlier in time of
the persistent frequencies.
In some embodiments the control cue includes at least a
devices may present one or more drawbacks such as distrac
?rst frequency component. In some versions of those embodi
tions from the performance. Having an additional person to
ments the control cue further includes a second frequency
manually actuate such devices may present one or more draw
backs such as distractions from the performance and/or costs.
Timing the effects may present one or more drawbacks such
of the persistent frequencies and at least one earlier in time of
the persistent frequencies. In some versions of those embodi
50
component.
In some embodiments the control cue includes a lack of
frequency component.
as di?iculty, in?exibility, and expense.
Generally, in another aspect an effects pedal is provided
SUMMARY
55
The present disclosure is directed to inventive methods and
apparatus for generating effects based on analysis of an audio
signal output, at least one control cue, and at least one control
effect signal correlated to the control cue. The control cue
includes at least one frequency. The sound effect circuit is
signal, and, more speci?cally to one or more aspects of an
apparatus that may be electrically coupled to an incoming
audio signal and that directs the effects generated by one or
more electrically coupled effect generating devices based on
analysis of the incoming audio signal to determine if a control
cue is present in the incoming audio signal.
Generally, in one aspect an effects pedal is provided that
includes at least one audio signal input, a controller, and a
sound effect circuit. The controller is electrically coupled to
the audio signal input and includes a control effect signal
that includes at least one audio signal input, a controller, and
a sound effect circuit. The controller is electrically coupled to
the audio signal input and includes at least one control effect
electrically coupled to the at least one audio signal input and
is electrically coupled to the control effect signal output. The
65
sound effect circuit includes an audio signal output. The
controller is operable to analyze an audio signal received over
the audio signal input to identify if the control cue is present
in the audio signal. The controller communicates the control
effect signal over the control effect signal output in response
to identi?cation of the control cue. Communication of the
US 8,748,724 B1
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4
control effect signal over the control effect signal output
ing the persistent frequencies to identify at least one valid
causes the sound effect circuit to manipulate at least one
control cue present therein; wherein the valid control cue
aspect of the audio signal and to output the manipulated audio
signal to the audio signal output. The manipulated at least one
includes at least a ?rst subject frequency of the persistent
frequencies that is present for at least a ?rst duration; com
municating at least a ?rst control effect signal to a sound
effect circuitry in response to identi?cation of the valid con
trol cue; wherein the control effect signal causes the sound
effect circuitry to alter at least one aspect of the audio signal;
aspect of the audio signal includes at least one of rate and
depth of the chorus of the audio signal.
In some embodiments the controller and the sound effect
circuit are contained in a common electrical component.
In some embodiments the effects pedal further includes a
user interface having at least a ?rst position and a second
wherein the step of analyZing the persistent frequencies to
determine if at least one prede?ned control cue is present
therein includes comparing at least one later in time of the
persistent frequencies to at least one earlier in time of the
position, wherein in the ?rst position the ?rst control effect
signal is output over the control effect signal output in
response to the control cue, and wherein in the second posi
tion a second control effect signal is output by the controller
persistent frequencies.
In some embodiments the ?rst control effect signal is
in response to at least one of the control cue and a second
control cue of the at least one control cue. In some versions of
dependent upon the magnitude of the difference between the
those embodiments in the second position the second control
effect signal is output over a second control effect signal
output of the controller. The second control effect signal
output is in electrical communication with the sound effect
circuitry. In some versions of those embodiments communi
cation of the second control effect signal over the second
control effect signal output causes the sound effect circuit to
20
at least one later in time of the persistent frequencies and the
at least one earlier in time of the persistent frequencies.
As described herein, in other aspects other apparatuses and
methods are provided for generating effects based on analysis
of an audio signal.
The term “controller” is used herein generally to describe
various apparatus relating to the analysis of one or more audio
25
manipulate a second aspect of the at least one aspect of the
In some embodiments the effects pedal further includes a
signals and/or the generation of one or more control effect
signals for an effect generating device. A controller can be
implemented in numerous ways (e.g., such as with dedicated
?rst digital potentiometer electrically interposed between the
hardware) to perform various functions discussed herein. A
control effect signal output and the sound effect circuitry.
“processor” is one example of a controller which employs one
or more microprocessors that may be programmed using
audio signal.
In some embodiments the effects pedal further includes a
manually adjustable knob coupled to a manually adjustable
30
software (e.g., microcode) to perform various functions dis
potentiometer. The manually adjustable potentiometer is
cussed herein. A controller may be implemented with or
selectively electrically coupled to the sound effect circuitry to
thereby enable manual manipulation of the audio signal. In
without employing a processor, and also may be implemented
as a combination of dedicated hardware to perform some
functions and a processor (e.g., one or more programmed
some versions of those embodiments the effects pedal further
includes a manually adjustable effects knob electrically
coupled to the manually adjustable potentiometer and the
sound effect circuitry. The manually adjustable effects knob
35
functions. Examples of controller components that may be
employed in various embodiments of the present disclosure
include, but are not limited to, digital signal controllers
selectively electrically disconnects the manually adjustable
potentiometer from the sound effect circuitry.
Generally, in another aspect an effects pedal is provided
microprocessors and associated circuitry) to perform other
(DSCs), conventional microprocessors, application speci?c
40
that includes at least one audio signal input and a controller.
The controller is electrically coupled to the audio signal input
integrated circuits (ASICs), and ?eld-programmable gate
arrays (FPGAs).
In various implementations, a processor or controller may
be associated with one or more storage media (generically
referred to herein as “memory,” e. g., volatile and non-volatile
and includes at least one control effect signal output, at least
one control cue, and at least one control effect signal corre
lated to the control cue. The control cue includes at least one 45 computer memory such as RAM, PROM, EPROM, and
frequency. The controller includes means for analyZing an
EEPROM, ?oppy disks, compact disks, optical disks, mag
audio signal received over the audio signal input to identify if
netic tape, etc.). In some implementations, the storage media
the control cue is present in the audio signal. The controller
communicates the control effect signal over the control effect
signal output in response to identi?cation of the control cue.
Communication of the control effect signal over the control
effect signal output causes means for manipulating an audio
signal to manipulate at least one aspect of the audio signal and
may be encoded with one or more programs that, when
to output the manipulated audio signal to the audio signal
output. The manipulated at least one aspect of the audio signal
executed on one or more processors and/or controllers, per
50
form at least some of the functions discussed herein. Various
storage media may be ?xed within a processor or controller or
may be transportable, such that the one or more programs
stored thereon can be loaded into a processor or controller so
55
as to implement various aspects of the present invention dis
cussed herein. The terms “program” or “computer program”
includes at least one of rate and depth of the chorus of the
are used herein in a generic sense to refer to any type of
audio signal.
computer code (e.g., software or microcode) that can be
Generally, in another aspect a method for generating one or
more effects based on musical audio signal analysis is pro
employed to program one or more processors or controllers.
vided. The method may include the following steps: receiving
The term “addressable” is used herein to refer to a device
60
a musical audio signal generated by user actuation of an
more effect generating devices, a controller or processor asso
ciated with one or more effect generating devices or control
instrument; converting the musical audio signal into a pre
de?ned digital format audio signal; transforming the digital
format audio signal into a frequency array, wherein the fre
quency array is indicative of frequency content of the audio
signal over a period of time; identifying a plurality of persis
tent frequencies present within the frequency array; analyZ
(e.g., an effect generating device, a control panel for one or
65
panels, etc.) that is con?gured to receive information (e.g.,
data) intended for multiple devices, including itself, and to
selectively respond to particular information intended for it.
The term “addressable” often is used in connection with a
networked environment (or a “network,” discussed further
US 8,748,724 B1
6
5
below), in which multiple devices are coupled together via
FIG. 1 illustrates a block diagram of an embodiment of an
some communications medium or media.
In one network implementation, one or more devices
coupled to a network may serve as a controller for one or more
apparatus for generating effects based on audio signal analy
sis; the apparatus is shown electrically coupled to an audio
signal and electrically coupled to a plurality of effect gener
other devices coupled to the network (e.g., in a master/ slave
relationship). In another implementation, a networked envi
ating devices.
ronment may include one or more dedicated controllers that
for generating effects based on audio signal analysis; the
second embodiment of the apparatus is shown electrically
coupled to a guitar and electrically coupled to an ampli?er.
FIG. 2A illustrates a second embodiment of an apparatus
are con?gured to control one or more of the devices coupled
to the network. Generally, multiple devices coupled to the
network each may have access to data that is present on the
FIG. 2B illustrates a schematic diagram of the second
communications medium or media; however, a given device
may be “addressable” in that it is con?gured to selectively
embodiment of the apparatus of FIG. 2A; the apparatus is
shown electrically coupled to effect generating sound effect
exchange data with (i.e., receive data from and/or transmit
circuitry.
data to) the network, based, for example, on one or more
FIG. 2C illustrates a ?ow chart of the generalized logic of
a controller of the second embodiment of the apparatus of
FIG. 2A.
particular identi?ers (e.g., “addresses”) assigned to it.
The term “networ ” as used herein refers to any intercon
nection of two or more devices (including controllers or pro
FIG. 3A illustrates guitar strings in the neutral position.
FIG. 3B illustrates guitar strings in the bend position.
cessors) that facilitates the transport of information (e.g. for
device control, data storage, data exchange, etc.) between any
two or more devices and/or among multiple devices coupled
20
implementations of networks suitable for interconnecting
multiple devices may include any of a variety of network
topologies and employ any of a variety of communication
protocols. Additionally, in various networks according to the
present disclosure, any one connection between two devices
may represent a dedicated connection between the two sys
tems, or alternatively a non-dedicated connection. In addition
to carrying information intended for the two devices, such a
non-dedicated connection may carry information not neces
erating devices.
25
DETAILED DESCRIPTION
In the following detailed description, for purposes of
explanation and not limitation, representative embodiments
30
network connection). Furthermore, it should be readily
had the bene?t of the present disclosure that other embodi
appreciated that various networks of devices as discussed
herein may employ one or more wireless, wire/cable, and/or
35
the network.
the description of the representative embodiments. Such
devices that enables communication between the user and the
40
game controllers (e.g., joysticks), track balls, display screens,
various types of graphical user interfaces (GUIs), touch
45
detail below (provided such concepts are not mutually incon
sistent) are contemplated as being part of the inventive subject
matter disclosed herein. In particular, all combinations of
claimed subject matter appearing at the end of this disclosure
are contemplated as being part of the inventive subject matter
disclosed herein. It should also be appreciated that terminol
ogy explicitly employed herein that also may appear in any
disclosure incorporated by reference should be accorded a
meaning most consistent with the particular concepts dis
closed herein.
Referring to FIG. 1, in one embodiment, an apparatus for
50
generating effects based on audio signal analysis 110 is
shown electrically coupled to an audio signal 101 and elec
trically coupled to a plurality of effect generating devices
105A-D. Generally speaking, the apparatus 110 monitors and
analyzes the audio signal 101 to recognize any embedded
55
control cues that may be present in the audio signal. For
example, the apparatus 110 may monitor a waveform of the
audio signal 101 for the presence of a user generated playing
technique or imbedded control cue. A controller 115 of the
apparatus 110 may recognize such a control cue and generate
and send one or more effect control cues to one or more of the
effect generating devices 105A-D. For example, the control
60
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
In the drawings, like reference characters generally refer to
the same parts throughout the different views. Also, the draw
ings are not necessarily to scale, emphasis instead being
placed upon illustrating the principles of the invention.
methods and apparatuses are clearly within the scope of the
claimed invention. For example, for illustrative purposes, the
claimed invention may be discussed herein in conjunction
with a guitar and certain effect generating devices. However,
one of ordinary skill in the art having had the bene?t of the
present disclosure will recognize that the claimed invention
may be utilized in combination with other instruments and
other effect generating devices.
screens, microphones and other types of sensors that may
receive some form of human- generated stimulus and generate
a signal in response thereto.
It should be appreciated that all combinations of the fore
going concepts and additional concepts discussed in greater
ments according to the present teachings that depart from the
speci?c details disclosed herein remain within the scope of
the appended claims. Moreover, descriptions of well-known
apparatuses and methods may be omitted so as to not obscure
The term “user interface” as used herein refers to an inter
face between a human user or operator and one or more
device(s). Examples of user interfaces that may be employed
in various implementations of the present disclosure include,
but are not limited to, switches, potentiometers, buttons,
dials, sliders, a mouse, keyboard, keypad, various types of
disclosing speci?c details are set forth in order to provide a
thorough understanding of the claimed invention. However, it
will be apparent to one having ordinary skill in the art having
sarily intended for either of the two devices (e.g., an open
?ber optic links to facilitate information transport throughout
FIG. 4 illustrates a third embodiment of an apparatus for
generating effects based on audio signal analysis; the third
embodiment of the apparatus is shown electrically coupled to
a guitar and electrically coupled to a plurality of effect gen
to the network. As should be readily appreciated, various
ler 115 may recognize a series of chords in the audio signal
101, recognize the series of chords as a control cue, and
generate and send one or more effect control cues to two of the
65
effect generating devices 105A and 105B to thereby cause the
effect generating devices 105A and 105B to generate one or
more effects. For example, the effect generating device 105A
may be a multi-color LED light array and may change to a
prede?ned color based on a control effect signal sent thereto
US 8,748,724 B1
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8
and the effect generating device 105B may be a pyrotechnic
adjustment knob 204A, rate adjustment knob 204B, and
On/Off switch 204C. Generally, speaking the depth adjust
device that may be activated based on a control effect signal
sent thereto.
ment knob 204A controls the extent to which a modulated
The apparatus 110 is electrically coupled to the audio sig
nal 101 at audio signal input 112 and is electrically coupled to
signal is mixed with an incoming audio signal, or more pro
saically, how dramatic or subtle the chorus effect is on the
the effect generating devices 105A-D at effect control output
114. In some embodiments the audio signal input 112 and/or
the effect control output 114 may be conventional wired audio
signal inputs/outputs. In alternative embodiments the audio
overall signal. The rate adjustment knob 204B controls the
rate of the low frequency oscillator that controls the mix
modulation, or more prosaically put, controls the warble of
the chorus ranging from a very slow “wave” sensation to the
signal input and/ or the effect control output may be any other
ears (e.g., as low as 0.1 HZ) up to a very fast “wobble” audio
type of input/output for receiving audio signal and/or trans
mitting effects data, including wired and wireless inputs/
sensation (e.g., up to 20 HZ). The On/Off switch 204C turns
the functioning of the effects generating circuitry 202 on or
outputs. For example, in some embodiments the audio signal
input 112 and/or the effects control output 114 may be
adapted to receive/ send data over other physical medium,
off and resultantly determines whether the effects generating
circuitry 202 modi?es the audio signal. It is understood that,
as described in additional detail herein, one or more of the
including, for example, twisted pair coaxial cables, ?ber
manual controls 204A, 204B, and 204C may be omitted in
alternative embodiments of the effects pedal 204 and the
optics, or over a wireless link using, for example, infrared,
microwave, or encoded visible light transmissions and any
control of those one or more aspects may optionally be effec
suitable transmitters, receivers or transceivers may be used to
effectuate such communication. Any suitable protocol may
be used for data transmission, including, for example, TCP/
IP, variations of Ethernet, Universal Serial Bus, Bluetooth,
20
FireWire, Zigbee, DMX, 802.11b, 802.11a, 802.11g, token
ring, a token bus, serial bus, or any other suitable wireless or
wired protocol. The apparatus 10 may also use combinations
tuated by virtue of the apparatus 210 alone.
As described, the manual controls 204A, 204B, and 204C
and the sound effect circuitry 205 are typical in many effects
pedals. However, the illustrated effects pedal 204 also
includes a fourth control knob 207 that provides manual
control for the extra functionality provided by the apparatus
25
210 as described herein. In alternative embodiments the con
trol knob 207 could be omitted and the functionality thereof
implemented by imbedded user control cues in the audio
signal 201. In the embodiment of FIGS. 2A-C, three addi
tional modes of operation are offered by the apparatus 210,
of physical media and/or data protocols. In some embodi
ments multiple audio signal inputs 112 and/or multiple
effects control outputs 114 may be provided. The apparatus
10 may receive multiple audio signals via individual closed
connections and/or one or more open network connections 30 but in alternative embodiments more or fewer modes of
operation may be provided.
and/or may send effect control cues to a plurality of effect
generating devices via multiple closed connections and/or
Referring to FIG. 2B, a schematic diagram of the apparatus
210 is shown in combination with a schematic diagram of the
one or more open network connections.
Referring now to FIGS. 2A-2C, various aspects of a second
embodiment of an apparatus for generating effects based on
audio signal analysis 210 are described. In FIG. 2A-2C the
35
apparatus 210 is integrated within an “effects pedal” 204
having sound effect circuitry 205 therein. The sound effects
generating circuitry may, inter alia, mix the incoming audio
signal 201 (user supplied signal) with a delayed or pitch
modi?ed copy of itself, the mixing of which is modulated by
sound effect circuitry 205. The audio signal 201 is delivered
to the audio signal input 212 of controller 215 via wiring
202A from electric guitar 202. The setting of the fourth con
trol knob 207 is inputted to the controller 210 via a control
knob input 217. The controller 215 is electrically coupled to
and controls the resistance provided by digital potentiometers
40
226A and 226B and is also electrically coupled to and con
trols the on/off status of digital switch 228. In some embodi
ments the functionality of digital potentiometers 22 6A, 226B,
a low frequency oscillator giving the output signal a “wave”
or a “wobble” effect overlaid on the original signal. Accord
and/or switch 228 may be implemented into controller 215. In
ingly, in the second embodiment, the apparatus 210 and the
effect generating device (the sound effect circuitry 205) are
the illustrated embodiment the fourth control knob 207 is a
45
integrated within the same physical encasement. However, as
described herein, other embodiments of the apparatus 210
may additionally or alternatively generate effect control cues
for effect generating devices that are physically separate from
and potentially remote from the apparatus 210. Also, in FIG.
2A-2C the effect generating circuitry 205 produces an effect
directly on the audio signal that is supplied to the apparatus
210. However, as described herein, other embodiments of the
apparatus 210 may additionally or alternatively generate
effect control cues for effect generating devices that affect
some non-audio signal related parameter such as, for
example, lighting effects, other visual effects, and/ or record
ing device control. In alternative embodiments other mecha
nisms for manipulating an audio signal besides effect gener
226B, 228, 204A, 204B, 204C, connecting the appropriate
digital potentiometer 226A, 226B, or digital switch 228, in
place of the corresponding manual control component, 204A,
50 204B or 204C.
55
ating circuitry 205 may be provided. For example,
mechanisms that additionally or alternatively manipulate
other aspects of an audio signal may be provided.
In FIG. 2A the effects pedal 204 is electrically coupled to
an electric guitar 202 via wiring 202A and is also electrically
60
coupled to an ampli?er 203 via wiring 203A. The effects
pedal 204 may deliver a single audio effect called a “chorus”
65
through manual actuation of three typical controls: depth
mechanical rotary switch that electrically intervenes between
the sound effect circuitry 205 and the external controls 226A,
In some alternative embodiments the fourth control knob
207 may be a potentiometer that delivers a variable resistance
to control knob input 217 to determine mode, or a mechanical
rotary switch or a digitally encoded rotary switch which
delivers suf?cient electrical state information to control knob
input 217 for the controller 210 to determine the desired
mode, or a simple push button switch to sequence through the
available modes. In such embodiments, the fourth control
knob 207 may only inform the controller of the desired func
tion and not actually electrically intervene and select the
manual control connections. In such embodiments the
manual control components 204A, 204B and/or 204C may
also be connected directly to the controller 210. In such
embodiments, the controller 210 acts as both cue processor
and manual control input port, leaving all sound effect vari
ables to be asserted through the digital control components
226A, 226B, 228. Clearly, there are a number of ways to
US 8,748,724 B1
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implement the basic circuitry to achieve identical functional
ity and the illustrated mechanical switch connection scheme
tionality of the depth knob 204A by “bending” the guitar
is only one such way.
When the fourth control knob 207 is in the “bend depth”
string (for example, as shown in FIG. 3.) to adjust the bend
depth of the chorus effect via the digital potentiometer 226A.
position, the digital potentiometer 226B is electrically con
The controller 210 can monitor the incoming signal for a
legitimate bend occurrence, and can correlate the intensity of
the bend to the directed resistance level of the digital poten
The Bend Depth Mode allows the user to replace the func
nected to the sound effect circuitry 205 in place of the poten
tiometer associated with depth knob 204B. The other two
manual controls 204A, 204C remain connected to the sound
effect circuitry 205. Similarly, when the fourth control knob
207 is in the “bend rate” position, the digital potentiometer
226A is electrically connected to the sound effect circuitry
205 in place of the potentiometer associated with rate knob
204A. The other two manual controls 204B, 204C remain
connected to the sound effect circuitry 205. Similarly, when
the fourth control knob 207 is in the “bend toggle” position,
the digital switch 228 is electrically connected to the sound
effect circuitry 205 in place of the switch associated with
On/Off switch 204C. The other two manual controls 204A,
204B remain connected to the sound effect circuitry 205. As
described herein, one or more of the manual controls 205A-C
may be omitted in some embodiments.
When the fourth control knob 207 is in the “normal” mode,
the digital potentiometers 226A or 226B or the digital switch
228 do not affect the sound effect circuitry 205. Accordingly,
in the normal mode the manual controls 205A-C control the
tiometer 226A. For example, the practical maximum bend
range of 26% of the neutral position frequency may be cor
related to the full resistance range of digital potentiometer
226A to affect a resulting adjustment proportional to the
relative range of the bend. Continuing the example, if the
guitarist bends the string only a little, raising the pitch only
6% during the bend, then the controller 210 may only adjust
the digital potentiometer 226A for depth control through
approximately 25% of its full range, then drop the potenti
ometer 226A back to 0% as the guitarist relaxes the bendback
to the neutral position. Accordingly, the bend technique can
be recognized by the controller 210 and used as a dynamic
20
increase, thereby causing the sound effect circuitry 205 to
increase the amplitude of the modulated signal that is mixed
25
sound effect circuitry. The remaining three additional
dynamic modes (“bend rate,” “bend depth,” and “bend
toggle”) cause the apparatus 210 to selectively provide high
speed, real-time control cues to the sound effect circuitry 205
to thereby affect the sound of the output audio signal 209 that
is supplied to ampli?er 203 via wire 203A. As described
herein, each of the three additional dynamic modes is acti
vated in response to the controller 210 recognizing the “bend”
30
35
signal. Also, the relative correlation (sensitivity) between
bend range and potentiometer range may be adjusted to play
ers’ tastes and abilities.
40
45
50
quency pro?le of the incoming guitar signal 201 supplied to
ler 210 can monitor the incoming audio signal for a legitimate
bend occurrence, and can correlate the intensity of the bend to
the directed resistance level of the digital potentiometer 226B
to affect the “warble” rate of the chorus effect. Accordingly,
the bend technique can be recognized by the controller 210
and used as a dynamic surrogate for adjusting the rate control
“up” and “down.” That is, as the string is bent upwards, the
controller 210 may cause the resistance level of the digital
potentiometer 226B to proportionally adjust in a ?rst direc
tion (increasing/ decreasing the warble rate) and as the string
55
is relaxed back to its normal position, the controller 210 may
cause the resistance level of the digital potentiometer 226B to
proportionally adjust in the opposite direction (decreasing/
increasing the warble rate).
Again, while this description of the apparatus 210 is tar
next as normal note playing would generate). Such a bend
occurrence would generate a frequency rise and fall of, for
example, anywhere from 6% (a “half step”, or the equivalent
A similar process may occur in the Bend Rate Mode, only
the rate of modulation of the delayed or pitch modi?ed signal
is varied with the bend of the string instead of varying the
amplitude of the modulated signal. For example, the control
order to increase the tension in the string and thus raise the
frequency of the note up to ?ve half-steps and then relax the
input 212. The controller 210 recognizes a “bending” event
when it detects an incoming frequency that gradually rises
and then falls back though a continuous frequency range
(rather than jumping discretely from one frequency to the
decrease in the resistance of the digital potentiometer 226A
may cause an increase in the amplitude of the modulated
for players of the electric guitar to bend a string sideways
across the fret board (as shown for example in FIG. 3B) in
bend back to neutral position (as shown for example in FIG.
3A) to drop the note back down to the original frequency of
the neutral position. The controller 210 monitors the fre
to decrease, thereby causing the sound effect circuitry 205 to
decrease the amplitude of the modulated signal that is mixed
with the original signal. It will be appreciated that the sound
effect circuitry 205 may be con?gured such that an increase in
the resistance of the digital potentiometer 226A may cause a
decrease in the amplitude in the modulated signal and a
functionality of the manual switch 204C by “bending” the
guitar string (for example, as shown in FIG. 3.) to toggle the
chorus effect on and/or off with the digital switch 228. A ?rst
“bending” would toggle the chorus effect on and a sub sequent
“bending” would toggle the chorus effect off. It is common
with the original signal (using the example of the chorus
effect) for a more pronounced sound effect. Similarly, as the
string is relaxed back to its normal position, the controller 21 0
causes the resistance level of the digital potentiometer 226A
guitar playing technique illustrated in FIG. 3B through analy
sis of the inputted audio signal 201. While many more poten
tial modes of control may be implemented into the apparatus
210, these three modes are presented herein for brevity and
clarity’s sake and do not indicate the full range of operational
capability of the apparatus 210.
The Bend Toggle Mode allows the user to replace the
surrogate for adjusting the depth control “up” and “down.”
That is, as the string is bent upwards, the controller 210 causes
the resistance level of the digital potentiometer 226A to
60
geted to the electric guitar accessory market as an “effects
pedal” effects unit, it can be applied to a broad range of input
of one fret position on the guitar) to a maximum of 26% (4
devices, signal recognition pro?les, effect control options and
half steps”, or the equivalent of 4 fret positions). If the inven
tion detects such a continuous, gradual frequency shift, it
toggles the chorus effect on (if it is off) and off (if it is on). In
audio applications. While it is illustrated that the control knob
207 may be actuated between the “bend rate,” “bend depth,”
and “bend toggle” modes it will be appreciated that in some
implementations the control knob 207 may be omitted. In
this way the user can toggle the chorus effect on and off from
the fret board of the guitar without any external referral to
either the effects pedal or an external foot pedal.
65
some of those implementations a normal manual control
mode may be selected via a ?rst control cue (e. g., a ?rst chord
US 8,748,724 B1
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12
progression), a dynamic rate mode may be selected via a
second control cue (e.g., a second chord progression) and
controlled via another control cue (e.g., a bend), a depth mode
may be selected via a third control cue (e.g., a third chord
progression) and controlled via another control cue (e.g., a
to digital converter at, for example, 8,000 samples per second
bend), etc.
forms exhibit an array of binary values. The magnitudes of the
individual elements of the array of binary values indicates the
(SPS) and stored as an array in controller RAM.
At step 256 one or more Fast Fourier transforms may be
performed on all or various sections of the stored array and the
transformed array stored in the controller RAM. Such trans
Once a de?ned user cue (e.g., a bend) is detected and
matched with its intended effect generating device (e.g.,
sound effect circuitry 205), the controller 210 causes the
relative amplitude of a given frequency component and the
element’s position in the array indicates the frequency.
Depending on the speed of the system, many overlapping
transforms of the incoming digitized signal may be per
appropriate effect control cue to be sent out to the intended
effect generating device through any one of an interface or
communications ports of controller 210. For example, in the
formed and stored to determine more conclusively the fre
embodiment of FIG. 2B the controller 210 may cause the
quency content of a given section of the incoming signal.
Subsequent analysis of a series of such transformed arrays
resistance of the digital potentiometer 226A to increase or
decrease via electrical coupling thereto, thereby causing an
may further be performed in the example implementation.
appropriate effect control cue to be sent to the sound effect
circuitry 205.
Since most musical or voice information is a function of the
Turning now to FIG. 2C, a ?owchart is provided showing
an embodiment of the generalized process of sampling an
relative frequency content of a signal over time, the overlap
ping Fourier transforms allow the controller to produce a
audio signal, analyzing the audio signal for the presence of a
20
At step 258 the controller, through analysis of the trans
formed array segments, (the frequency snap shots) may deter
At step 252, the incoming audio signal is ?ltered and con
ditioned. For example, the incoming audio signal may be
?ltered and conditioned to eliminate undesired noise or
mine certain frequencies to be stable notes. After transform
25
involved analysis). Mo st musical instruments or human vocal
chords are limited to a maximum frequency of around 4000
Hz. As such, a minimum practical Nyquist sample rate of the
user supplied signal may be 8000 Hz in some implementa
tions. In such implementations any noise that ranges higher in
frequency than 4000 Hz could show up as an unpredictable
error in a Fourier transform of the sampled signal. Thus, an
active, 2 to 3 stage, low-pass ?lter may be included in various
ing a suf?cient series of overlapping sections of the incoming
digitized signal a frequency pro?le of the audio signal begins
ranges of frequencies. In some implementations of the appa
ratus 210 a high impedance, active, low-pass ?lter may be
employed to eliminate high frequency noise and buffer the
incoming audio signal 201. In some implementations the
apparatus 210 may include a high gain pre-ampli?er to boost
low amplitude signals and an active multi-staged low-pass
?lter (in order to keep the Nyquist sample rate as low as
possible and potentially saving processor time for more
periodic frequency snapshot of the audio signal (e.g., every 10
milliseconds or so).
user cue, and the generating of one or more effect control
signals based on the presence of a user cue.
to develop (e. g., like a movie develops from single snap
shots), allowing for the identi?cation of persistent frequen
30
cies and/or frequency transitions (notes, chords). Once a fre
quency is identi?ed as stable (of suf?cient duration) its value
is stored in controller RAM as a valid note in an array of valid
notes recording the history of note detections. Over time, a
history pro?le of notes, chords, and/or transitions (e.g., the
absence of notes or chords) is assembled to analyze for user
35 cues.
At step 260, it becomes possible to compare the current
frequency (note) to the available frequency data history for
certain minimum cue requirements. If the current frequency
40
implementations.
pro?le combines with the frequency history to pass certain
analytical screening criteria, it is then ready to be compared to
a library of predetermined frequency pro?les of expected user
cues stored in ROM or implied in program code.
Monitoring the audio signal 201 for control cues may
Through comparison of the recently gathered frequency
optionally implement one or more of a frequency to voltage
converter, a comparator, an analog to digital converter. In
some embodiments the analog to digital converter alone may
be utilized to monitor the audio signal 201 for a control cue.
However, other hardware and/ or software may additionally or
pro?les to a library of possible user cues, user cues may be
alternatively be utilized. For example, in some embodiments
a microprocessor may be utilized to ?lter a properly sampled
45
identi?ed and processed for the proper control output criteria.
User cues can include a variety of cues as described herein
such as certain playing techniques, notes, chords, styles or
other identi?able audio waveforms.
50
At step 262, it is determined if the frequency pro?le history
matches any number of stored frequency pro?les of possible
audio signal. Also, for example, a digital signal processor or
user cues stored in RAM and/or ROM, it constitutes the
various hardware schemes may be utilized to track the fre
detection of a valid user cue. For purposes of ease of discus
quencies of the incoming signal via ?ltering algorithms like
sion of certain embodiments of determining if the frequency
multiple band pass or multiple notch ?ltering or sweeping
pro?le history constitutes a valid user cue, several terms are
?lter values across the audio signal’ s frequency range instead
55
generally de?ned herein. A “valid note” is a sustained fre
of using FFTs. In some embodiments the frequency pro?le
may be acquired directly from a user supplied signal such as
ber of consecutive histograms. A “valid chord” is a sustained
a MIDI signal.
detection of two or more frequencies or frequency ranges in
quency or frequency range detected in some minimum num
At step 254, the incoming audio signal is converted into a
digital representation. For example, the incoming analog
some minimum number of consecutive histograms. A “valid
60
audio signal may be converted into a digital representation
cue” is the detected occurrence of a pre-determined or user
de?ned set of notes or frequency pro?les imbedded in the user
using an analog to digital converter and/or a MIDI converter.
supplied signal. A “control effect signal” is any number of
Alternatively, the incoming audio signal may be supplied to
the apparatus 210 in a satisfactory digital form, including
digital and/ or analog control signals delivered to one or more
effect generating devices in response to a valid cue. The
MIDI. In an example implementation, after the analog audio
signal is passed through an active low pass ?lter and ampli?ed
by a high gain op amp circuit, it may be sampled by an analog
65
control effect signal may be delivered directly to the effect
generating device or may be delivered to an effect controller
that controls a plurality of effect generating devices.
US 8,748,724 B1
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13
At step 262 the controller also examines the frequency
audio signal stream. Provided hereinafter are a plurality of
In some embodiments the user might stop playing and the
lack of frequencies for a certain duration. If the histograms
exhibit a suf?cient period of the absence of frequencies a
examples of determining if one or more user cues are present
valid cue would be detected and the controller may cause an
history to determine if one or more user cues are present in the
in the audio signal stream.
appropriate control effect signal to be output to one or more
In some embodiments a user might play or sing a single
note of a certain predetermined or user de?ned frequency, or
effect generating devices at steps 264A, 264B, and/or 264C.
In some embodiments the user might stop producing notes
or sounds and the lack of frequencies for a certain duration
after or before or between two frequency pro?les (notes or
falling in a pre-de?ned range of frequencies, for a certain
duration that would be interpreted as a control cue. In such
embodiments, a valid note of a speci?c predetermined or user
chords). If the histograms exhibit a suf?cient period of the
absence of frequencies after or before or between two fre
quency pro?les a valid cue would be detected and the con
troller may cause an appropriate control effect signal to be
output to one or more effect generating devices at steps 264A,
de?ned frequency and duration recognized in the frequency
history may be determined to be a valid user cue. In response
to the valid cue the controller may cause an appropriate con
trol effect signal to be output to one or more effect generating
264B, and/or 264C.
devices at steps 264A, 264B, and/or 264C. Accordingly,
It is evident that the user may intend any combination or
sequence or repetition of the above list of control cues as a
under such embodiments the content of an audio signal is
scanned for a speci?c valid note and a control effect signal is
separate control cue. Also, in some embodiments, voice rec
generated upon recognition of the speci?c valid note.
more simultaneous notes of a certain predetermined or user
ognition algorithms can be combined with the FFT algo
rithms or other frequency pro?le or frequency histogram pro
ducing techniques to allow the detection of practically any
de?ned frequency for a certain minimum duration that would
waveform imaginable as a user cue. The variety and scope of
In some embodiments the user might play or sing two or
20
be intended as a valid cue. If a suf?cient series of histograms
all possible user cues is beyond the scope of the written
exhibit the intended valid chord, then the cue is determined to
be valid and the controller may cause an appropriate control
effect signal to be output to one or more effect generating
description. The number of playing techniques, noise pro
?les, vocal techniques, vocal commands, vocal frequency
25
pro?les, vocal noise pro?les, intentional noise, etc. are volu
devices at steps 264A, 264B, and/or 264C.
minous and are not all delineated herein for purposes of
conciseness. However, one of ordinary skill in the art, having
had the bene?t of the present disclosure, will recognize other
In some embodiments the user might play or sing two or
more simultaneous notes of a certain predetermined or user
de?ned relative frequency (for example, the notes of all major
30
7th chords have the same relative frequencies) and duration
that would be intended as a control cue. If the histograms
exhibit the intended valid chord with the appropriate relative
frequencies, then a valid cue is detected and the controller
may cause an appropriate control effect signal to be output to
one or more effect generating devices at steps 264A, 264B,
Referring now to FIG. 4, a computer 304 is illustrated
electrically coupled to an electric guitar 302 and electrically
coupled to a master controller 305 that controls a plurality of
lights 305A, 305B, and 305C. The computer 304 is a special
35
In some embodiments the user might play or sing two
consecutive notes or chords of a predetermined or user
40
histograms exhibit the speci?c interval a valid cue would be
detected and the controller may cause an appropriate control
effect signal to be output to one or more effect generating
computer 304 may be programmed by a user to recognize
one or more aspects described herein.
45
“cues” that are imbedded in the user supplied or generated
50
devices at steps 264A, 264B, and/or 264C.
his/her voice exceeds a certain minimum amplitude. Also, for
example, utilizing the apparatuses and method described
quency of a note or chord as a control cue. If the histograms
55
of a valid note or valid chord, a valid cue would be detected
steps 264A, 264B, and/or 264C.
In some embodiments the user might play or sing a note or
and/ or 264C.
herein may enable a rock guitarist to set off some upstage
pyrotechnic effect every time he plays a certain chord on his
guitar. The apparatuses and methods described herein may
and the controller may cause an appropriate control effect
signal to be output to one or more effect generating devices at
chord for a certain duration during which the volume is
increased or decreased continuously. If the histograms exhibit
the continual increase or decrease in global magnitude of all
frequencies, a valid cue would be detected and the controller
may cause an appropriate control effect signal to be output to
one or more effect generating devices at steps 264A, 264B,
audio signal. In this way, a singer is, for example, able to
invoke a robotic spotlight to be directed on her face every time
he/ she sings a certain high note or every time the vibrato in
In some embodiment the user might employ a technique
that would either continuously increase or decrease the fre
exhibit the continual increase or decrease in the frequencies
The apparatuses and methods described herein enable a
musician, singer, and/ or recording enthusiast to control in real
time any number of peripheral systems, devices and effects
via a wide array of playing styles, note choices or pre-selected
consecutive notes or chords of a predetermined or user
de?ned relative interval to be intended as a control cue. If the
histograms exhibit the relative interval a valid cue would be
detected and the controller may cause an appropriate control
effect signal to be output to one or more effect generating
the presence of a control cue. Moreover, the computer has
software and/or hardware that enables the computer to com
municate effect control cues to the master controller 305. The
certain desired control cues and generate desired effect con
trol cues to the peripheral master controller 305 according to
devices at steps 264A, 264B, and/or 264C.
In some embodiments the user might play or sing two
purpose computer having software and/ or hardware that
enables the computer 304 to receive and ?lter the audio signal
from the electric guitar 302 and analyze the audio signal for
and/ or 264C.
de?ned speci?c interval to be intended as a control cue. If the
such user control cues that may be utilized.
60
remove the necessity of timing of one or more external effects
and/or manual actuation of one or more external effects by an
artist or other individual.
The apparatuses and methods described herein may pro
vide an increase in peripheral control with very minimal
distraction from performance or recording sessions and/or
65
may expand a performer’s artistic repertoire to include
peripheral devices as part of the performance art. The appa
ratuses and methods enable a user to select some innocuous or
ubiquitous musical or audio cue that can be employed as a
US 8,748,724 B1
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16
signal-based method by which to control an operational
and that the actual parameters, dimensions, materials, and/or
con?gurations will depend upon the speci?c application or
applications for which the inventive teachings is/are used.
aspect of a related system. The automatic cue detection and
control response capabilities provide the user real-time con
trol over a wide range of devices and systems. Moreover, the
Those skilled in the art will recognize, or be able to ascertain
using no more than routine experimentation, many equiva
lents to the speci?c inventive embodiments described herein.
It is, therefore, to be understood that the foregoing embodi
apparatuses may be con?gured (either at the factory or by user
interface) to identify any differentiable waveform that the
user can produce to control any peripheral device the user
might like to control with as little distraction or delay as
desired. Moreover, the apparatuses may enable a user to actu
ments are presented by way of example only and that, within
the scope of the appended claims and equivalents thereto,
ally “play” the peripheral system as a part of their artistic
inventive embodiments may be practiced otherwise than as
repertoire. The user not only has a voice or instrument to
speci?cally described and claimed. Inventive embodiments
express their art and talent, they additionally have visual,
of the present disclosure are directed to each individual fea
video, and/ or audio effects that they can control and invoke
with the same facility as the parameters of their voice or
instrument. The effect generating devices may thus become
ture, system, article, material, kit, and/or method described
herein. In addition, any combination of two or more such
features, systems, articles, materials, kits, and/or methods, if
part of the performance art.
As described herein, embodiments of the apparatus may
provide functionality with a number of audio generating
such features, systems, articles, materials, kits, and/ or meth
objects such as, for example, electric guitar, electric bass,
electric plano, voice or ambient sound that has been electri
cally detected or converted, any microphone or piezo -electric
pickup, any audio signal from any electrical device or system,
any demodulated or digitized signal from broadcast, cable or
satellite, LAN, WAN, or Internet, or computer generated sig
nal. Generally speaking, any signal that is in the audio range
20
ods are not mutually inconsistent, is included within the
inventive scope of the present disclosure.
All de?nitions, as de?ned and used herein, should be
understood to control over dictionary de?nitions, de?nitions
in documents incorporated by reference, and/or ordinary
meanings of the de?ned terms.
The inde?nite articles “a” and “an,” as used herein in the
speci?cation and in the claims, unless clearly indicated to the
25
contrary, should be understood to mean “at least one.”
or can be converted into the audio range or into an audio
The phrase “and/ or,” as used herein in the speci?cation and
signal can be monitored and parsed for control parameters
according to aspects of the method and apparatus described
herein.
Also, the list of possible control cues may be based on, for
in the claims, should be understood to mean “either or both”
of the elements so conjoined, i.e., elements that are conjunc
tively present in some cases and disjunctively present in other
30
example, instrument speci?c playing techniques, user spe
ci?c playing techniques, instrument-speci?c frequency pro
so conjoined. Other elements may optionally be present other
than the elements speci?cally identi?ed by the “and/or”
?les, instrument speci?c noise pro?les, user speci?c noise
pro?les, absolute frequencies, speci?c frequencies, speci?c
frequency combinations, speci?c frequency intervals, rela
35
tive frequencies, relative frequency combinations, relative
frequency intervals, frequency ramping, speci?c amplitude
levels, amplitude ramping, vocal techniques, vocal com
mands, vocal frequency pro?les, vocal noise pro?les, inten
tional noise, user de?ned frequency pro?les, the absence of
any of the above cues for a given interval, silence, relative
40
amplitudes for a given interval, high amplitude, the combi
nation of any of the aforementioned cues, and sequences of
any of the aforementioned cues.
Also, the list of possible effect generating devices may
45
include, for example, devices that alter audio effects such as
ampli?cation, overdrive, distortion, tremolo, phase shifting,
chorus, ?anger, compression, volume, equalizer, tone loading
(wah-wah), compression, noise ?ltering, tone generators,
music synthesizers, midi devices; recording or storage
devices, such as computers, tape decks, jump drives, mp3
players, etc; stage or performance enhancing devices such as
clause, whether related or unrelated to those elements spe
ci?cally identi?ed. Thus, as a non-limiting example, a refer
ence to “A and/or B”, when used in conjunction with open
ended language such as “comprising” can refer, in one
embodiment, to A only (optionally including elements other
than B); in another embodiment, to B only (optionally includ
ing elements other than A); in yet another embodiment, to
both A and B (optionally including other elements); etc.
As used herein in the speci?cation and in the claims, “or”
should be understood to have the same meaning as “and/or”
as de?ned above. For example, when separating items in a
list, “or” or “and/or” shall be interpreted as being inclusive,
i.e., the inclusion of at least one, but also including more than
one, of a number or list of elements, and, optionally, addi
tional unlisted items. Only terms clearly indicated to the
contrary, such as “only one of” or “exactly one of,” or, when
50
used in the claims, “consisting of,” will refer to the inclusion
55
general, the term “or” as used herein shall only be interpreted
as indicating exclusive alternatives (i.e. “one or the other but
not both”) when preceded by terms of exclusivity, such as
“either,” “one of,” “only one of,” or “exactly one of.” “Con
of exactly one element of a number or list of elements. In
lighting, pyrotechnics, special visual effects, mechanical
effects, video systems, etc.; and/or any electrically effectible
device, system, feature, aspect, object, or property that might
cases. Multiple elements listed with “and/ or” should be con
strued in the same fashion, i.e., “one or more” of the elements
prove desirable to control in response to a user embedded cue
sisting essentially of,” when used in the claims, shall have its
in an audio signal.
Thus, while several inventive embodiments have been
ordinary meaning as used in the ?eld of patent law.
As used herein in the speci?cation and in the claims, the
described and illustrated herein, those of ordinary skill in the
art will readily envision a variety of other means and/or struc
tures for performing the function and/ or obtaining the results
and/or one or more of the advantages described herein, and
each of such variations and/or modi?cations is deemed to be
within the scope of the inventive embodiments described
60
herein. More generally, those skilled in the art will readily
65
phrase “at least one,” in reference to a list of one or more
elements, should be understood to mean at least one element
selected from any one or more of the elements in the list of
elements, but not necessarily including at least one of each
and every element speci?cally listed within the list of ele
ments and not excluding any combinations of elements in the
list of elements. This de?nition also allows that elements may
appreciate that all parameters, dimensions, materials, and
optionally be present other than the elements speci?cally
con?gurations described herein are meant to be exemplary
identi?ed within the list of elements to which the phrase “at
US 8,748,724 B1
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least one” refers, whether related or unrelated to those ele
ments speci?cally identi?ed. Thus, as a non-limiting
5. The effects pedal of claim 3, wherein said at least one
aspect of said audio signal includes the rate of the chorus of
example, “at least one of A and B” (or, equivalently, “at least
said audio signal.
one of A or B,” or, equivalently “at least one of A and/or B”)
can refer, in one embodiment, to at least one, optionally
signal is dependent upon the magnitude of the difference
6. The effects pedal of claim 1, wherein said control effect
more than one, A, and at least one, optionally including more
between at least one later in time of said persistent frequen
cies and at least one earlier in time of said persistent frequen
cies.
7. The effects pedal of claim 6, wherein the extent of
manipulation of said at least one aspect of said audio signal by
said sound effect circuit is dependent on said magnitude
than one, B (and optionally including other elements); etc.
It should also be understood that, unless clearly indicated
persistent frequencies and said at least one earlier in time of
to the contrary, in any methods claimed herein that include
said persistent frequencies.
more than one step or act, the order of the steps or acts of the
8. The effects pedal of claim 1, wherein said control cue
includes at least a ?rst frequency component.
9. The effects pedal of claim 8, wherein said control cue
further includes a second frequency component.
10. The effects pedal of claim 1, wherein said control cue
includes a lack of frequency component.
including more than one, A, with no B present (and optionally
including elements other than B); in another embodiment, to
at least one, optionally including more than one, B, with no A
present (and optionally including elements other than A); in
yet another embodiment, to at least one, optionally including
difference between said at least one later in time of said
method is not necessarily limited to the order in which the
steps or acts of the method are recited.
In the claims, as well as in the speci?cation above, all
transitional phrases such as “comprising,” “including,” “car
rying,” “having,” “containing,” “involving,” “holding,”
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11. An effects pedal, comprising:
“composed of,” and the like are to be understood to be open
ended, i.e., to mean including but not limited to. Only the
at least one audio signal input;
transitional phrases “consisting of” and “consisting essen
a controller electrically coupled to said audio signal input,
tially of” shall be closed or semi-closed transitional phrases,
respectively, as set forth in the United States Patent Of?ce
said controller including at least one control effect signal
25
Manual of Patent Examining Procedures, Section 2111.03.
output, at least one control cue, and at least one control
effect signal correlated to said control cue;
wherein said control cue includes at least one frequency;
What is claimed is:
a sound effect circuit electrically coupled to said at least
1. An effects pedal, comprising:
at least one audio signal input;
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a controller electrically coupled to said audio signal input,
said controller including a control effect signal output, at
least one control cue, and at least one control effect
signal correlated to said control cue;
a sound effect circuit electrically coupled to said at least
35
one audio signal input and electrically coupled to said
control effect signal output, said sound effect circuit
including an audio signal output;
wherein said controller is operable to transform an audio
signal received over said audio signal input into a
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over a period of time;
wherein said controller is further operable to identify a
45
12. The effects pedal of claim 11, wherein said controller
and said sound effect circuit are contained in a common
electrical component.
50
response to identi?cation of said control cue;
wherein communication of said control effect signal
over said control effect signal output causes said
sound effect circuit to manipulate at least one aspect
55
of said audio signal, thereby generating a manipulated
audio signal, and to output said manipulated audio
signal to said audio signal output.
2. The effects pedal of claim 1, wherein said control effect
signal comprises a variable resistance.
3. The effects pedal of claim 1, further comprising a poten
tiometer electrically interposed between said control effect
signal output and said sound effect circuit, wherein a resis
tance of saidpotentiometer is dependent on said control effect
signal.
4. The effects pedal of claim 3, wherein said control effect
signal comprises a variable digital output.
wherein said at least one aspect of said audio signal
includes at least one of rate and depth of the chorus of
said audio signal.
frequency array and compare at least one later in time
of said persistent frequencies to at least one earlier in
time of said persistent frequencies to determine if said
control cue is present in said audio signal;
wherein said controller communicates said control
effect signal over said control effect signal output in
wherein said controller communicates said control
effect signal over said control effect signal output in
response to identi?cation of said control cue;
wherein communication of said control effect signal
over said control effect signal output causes said
sound effect circuit to manipulate at least one aspect
of said audio signal, thereby generating a manipulated
audio signal, and to output said manipulated audio
signal to said audio signal output;
frequency array, wherein said frequency array is
indicative of frequency content of said audio signal
plurality of persistent frequencies present within said
one audio signal input and electrically coupled to said
control effect signal output, said sound effect circuit
including an audio signal output;
wherein said controller is operable to analyze an audio
signal received over said audio signal input to identify
if said control cue is present in said audio signal;
13. The effects pedal of claim 11, further comprising a user
interface having at least a ?rst position and a second position,
wherein in said ?rst position said ?rst control effect signal is
output over said control effect signal output in response to
said control cue, and wherein in said second position a second
control effect signal is output by said controller in response to
at least one of said control cue and a second control cue of said
at least one control cue.
14. The effects pedal of claim 13, wherein in said second
position said second control effect signal is output over a
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second control effect signal output of said controller, said
second control effect signal output in electrical communica
tion with said sound effect circuitry.
15. The effects pedal of claim 14, wherein communication
of said second control effect signal over said second control
effect signal output causes said sound effect circuit to
manipulate a second aspect of said at least one aspect of said
audio signal.
US 8,748,724 B1
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16. The effects pedal of claim 11, further comprising a ?rst
a sound effect circuit electrically coupled to said at least
digital potentiometer electrically interposed between said
one audio signal input and electrically coupled to said
control effect signal output, said sound effect circuit
including an audio signal output;
control effect signal output and said sound effect circuitry.
17. The effects pedal of claim 11, further comprising a
manually adjustable knob coupled to a manually adjustable
Wherein said controller includes means for analyZing an
audio signal received over said audio signal input to
identify if said control cue is present in said audio
potentiometer, said manually adjustable potentiometer selec
tively electrically coupled to said sound effect circuitry to
thereby enable manual manipulation of said audio signal.
signal;
18. The effects pedal of claim 17, further comprising a
manually adjustable effects knob electrically coupled to said
manually adjustable potentiometer and said sound effect cir
cuitry, said manually adjustable effects knob selectively elec
10
over said control effect signal output causes means for
trically disconnecting said manually adjustable potentiom
manipulating an audio signal to manipulate at least
one aspect of said audio signal, thereby generating a
eter from said sound effect circuitry.
19. An effects pedal, comprising:
manipulated audio signal, and to output said manipu
lated audio signal to said audio signal output;
at least one audio signal input;
a controller electrically coupled to said audio signal input,
Wherein said at least one aspect of said audio signal
includes at least one of rate and depth of the chorus of
said controller including at least one control effect signal
output, at least one control cue, and at least one control
effect signal correlated to said control cue;
Wherein said control cue includes at least one frequency;
Wherein said controller communicates said control
effect signal over said control effect signal output in
response to identi?cation of said control cue;
Wherein communication of said control effect signal
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said audio signal.
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