HP 8594L Spectrum Analyzer Calibration Guide

HP 8594L Spectrum Analyzer Calibration Guide
About this Manual
We’ve added this manual to the Agilent website in an effort to help you support
your product. This manual is the best copy we could find; it may be incomplete
or contain dated information. If we find a more recent copy in the future, we will
add it to the Agilent website.
Support for Your Product
Agilent no longer sells or supports this product. Our service centers may be able
to perform calibration if no repair parts are needed, but no other support from
Agilent is available. You will find any other available product information on the
Agilent Test & Measurement website, www.tm.agilent.com.
HP References in this Manual
This manual may contain references to HP or Hewlett-Packard. Please note that
Hewlett-Packard's former test and measurement, semiconductor products and
chemical analysis businesses are now part of Agilent Technologies. We have
made no changes to this manual copy. In other documentation, to reduce
potential confusion, the only change to product numbers and names has been in
the company name prefix: where a product number/name was HP XXXX the
current name/number is now Agilent XXXX. For example, model number
HP8648A is now model number Agilent 8648A.
Calibration Guide
HP 8594L Spectrum Analyzer
Manufacturing Part Number: 08594-90099
Printed in USA
July 1998
© Copyright 1998 Hewlett-Packard Company
The information contained in this document is subject to change
without notice.
Hewlett-Packard makes no warranty of any kind with regard to this
material, including but not limited to, the implied warranties of
merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Hewlett-Packard
shall not be liable for errors contained herein or for incidental or
consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance,
or use of this material.
2
Certification
Hewlett-Packard Company certifies that this product met its published
specifications at the time of shipment from the factory.
Hewlett-Packard further certifies that its calibration measurements
are traceable to the United States National Institute of Standards and
Technology, to the extent allowed by the Institute’s calibration facility,
and to the calibration facilities of other International Standards
Organization members.
Regulatory Information
The specifications and characteristics chapter in this manual contain
regulatory information.
Warranty
This Hewlett-Packard instrument product is warranted against defects
in material and workmanship for a period of three years from date of
shipment. During the warranty period, Hewlett-Packard Company will,
at its option, either repair or replace products which prove to be
defective.
For warranty service or repair, this product must be returned to a
service facility designated by Hewlett-Packard. Buyer shall prepay
shipping charges to Hewlett-Packard and Hewlett-Packard shall pay
shipping charges to return the product to Buyer. However, Buyer shall
pay all shipping charges, duties, and taxes for products returned to
Hewlett-Packard from another country.
Hewlett-Packard warrants that its software and firmware designated
by Hewlett-Packard for use with an instrument will execute its
programming instructions when properly installed on that instrument.
Hewlett-Packard does not warrant that the operation of the
instrument, or software, or firmware will be uninterrupted or
error-free.
3
LIMITATION OF WARRANTY
The foregoing warranty shall not apply to defects resulting from
improper or inadequate maintenance by Buyer, Buyer-supplied
software or interfacing, unauthorized modification or misuse, operation
outside of the environmental specifications for the product, or improper
site preparation or maintenance.
NO OTHER WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED.
HEWLETT-PACKARD SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
EXCLUSIVE REMEDIES
THE REMEDIES PROVIDED HEREIN ARE BUYER’S SOLE AND
EXCLUSIVE REMEDIES. HEWLETT-PACKARD SHALL NOT BE
LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, WHETHER BASED ON CONTRACT,
TORT, OR ANY OTHER LEGAL THEORY.
Assistance
Product maintenance agreements and other customer assistance
agreements are available for Hewlett-Packard products.
For any assistance, contact your nearest Hewlett-Packard Sales and
Service Office.
4
Safety Symbols
The following safety notes are used throughout this manual.
Familiarize yourself with each of the notes and it’s meaning before
operating this instrument.
CAUTION
Caution denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure that, if not
correctly performed or adhered to, could result in damage to or
destruction of the instrument. Do not proceed beyond a caution sign
until the indicated conditions are fully understood and met.
WARNING
Warning denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure
which, if not correctly performed or adhered to, could result in
injury or loss of life. Do not proceed beyond a warning note
until the indicated conditions are fully understood and met.
General Safety Considerations
WARNING
This is a Safety Class 1 Product (provided with a protective
earthing ground incorporated in the power cord). The mains
plug shall only be inserted in a socket outlet provided with a
protected earth contact. Any interruption of the protective
conductor inside or outside of the product is likely to make the
product dangerous. Intentional interruption is prohibited.
WARNING
No operator serviceable parts inside. Refer servicing to
qualified personnel. To prevent electrical shock, do not remove
covers.
CAUTION
Before switching on this instrument, make sure that the line voltage
selector switch is set to the voltage of the power supply and the correct
fuse is installed.
WARNING
These servicing instructions are for use by qualified personnel
only. To avoid electrical shock, do not perform any servicing
unless you are qualified to do so.
5
WARNING
The opening of covers or removal of parts is likely to expose
dangerous voltages. Disconnect the instrument from all voltage
sources while it is being opened.
WARNING
The power cord is connected to internal capacitors that may
remain live for 10 seconds after disconnecting the plug from it’s
power supply.
WARNING
For continued protection against fire hazard replace line fuse
only with same type and rating (F 5A/250V). The use of other
fuses or material is prohibited.
6
HP 8594L Spectrum Analyzer
Documentation Description
Manuals Shipped with your 8594L Spectrum Analyzer:
HP 8594L Spectrum Analyzer Calibration Guide
Tells you how to test your spectrum analyzer to determine if the
spectrum analyzer meets its specifications.
HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series Spectrum Analyzers User’s Guide
• Tells you how to make measurements with your spectrum
analyzer.
• Describes the spectrum analyzer features.
• Tells you what to do in case of a failure.
HP 8590 Series Spectrum Analyzer Quick Reference Guide
• Describes how to make a simple measurement with your
spectrum analyzer.
• Briefly describes the spectrum analyzer functions.
• Lists all the programming commands.
Documentation Options
Option 041 or 043: Programmer’s Guide
Describes analyzer operation via a remote controller (computer)
for the RS-232 or HP-IB interface.
Option 910: Additional User’s Documentation
Provides an additional copy of the user’s guide, the calibration
guide, and the quick reference guide.
Option 915: Assembly-Level and Component-Level
Information
Describes troubleshooting and repair of the spectrum analyzer.
Option 915 consists of two manuals:
HP 8590 Series Analyzers Assembly-Level Repair Service
Guide
• Describes adjustment and assembly level repair of the
analyzer.
HP 8590 Series Spectrum Analyzer Component-Level
Information
• Provides information for component-level repair of the
spectrum analyzer.
7
How to Order Guides
Each of the guides listed can be ordered individually. To order, contact
your local HP Sales and Service Office.
How to Use This Guide
Where to Start
If you have just received your analyzer and want to get ready for use
for the first time, do the following:
• Read Chapters 1 and 2 of your analyzer user’s guide.
• Perform the initial self-calibration routines described in Chapter
2 of the analyzer user’s guide (these are automatic self-checks and
require no test equipment).
• If you need to verify the unit is operating within its specifications,
perform the performance verification tests in this guide.
After completing the performance verification, use your user’s guide
to learn how to use the analyzer and to find more detailed
information about the analyzer, its applications, and key
descriptions.
This guide uses the following conventions:
Front-Panel Key A word written in this typeface represents a key
physically located on the instrument.
8
Softkey
A word written in this typeface indicates a “softkey,”
a key whose label is determined by the instrument’s
firmware.
Screen Text
Text printed in this typeface indicates text displayed
on the spectrum analyzer screen.
Contents
1. Calibrating
Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operation Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Before You Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test equipment you will need . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording the test results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
If the spectrum analyzer doesn't meet specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Periodically verifying operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. 10 MHz Reference Output Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Frequency Readout and Marker Count Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 1: Frequency Readout Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 2: Marker Count Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. Noise Sidebands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 1: Noise Sideband Suppression at 10 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 2: Noise Sideband Suppression at 20 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 3: Noise Sideband Suppression at 30 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. System Related Sidebands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. Frequency Span Readout Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 1: 1800 MHz Frequency Span Readout Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 2: 10.1 MHz to 10 kHz Frequency Span Readout Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. Residual FM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 1: Determining the IF Filter Slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 2: Measuring the Residual FM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7. Sweep Time Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8. Scale Fidelity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9. Reference Level Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipment Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10. Absolute Amplitude Calibration and Resolution Bandwidth Switching Uncertainties .
Equipment Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Absolute Amplitude Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resolution Bandwidth Switching Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
15
16
17
17
17
18
18
24
24
24
26
26
26
26
28
29
29
29
30
31
31
33
33
33
35
35
35
36
37
39
39
39
39
41
42
42
42
44
44
45
50
50
50
54
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54
55
9
Contents
11. Resolution Bandwidth Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
Equipment Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
3 dB Bandwidths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
6 dB EMI Bandwidths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
12. Calibrator Amplitude Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Equipment Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Part 1: LPF, Attenuator and Adapter Insertion Loss Characterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
Part 2: Calibrator Amplitude Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
13. Frequency Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65
Equipment Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
14. Other Input Related Spurious Responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Equipment Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
15. Spurious Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
Equipment Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
16. Gain Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
Equipment Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
17. Displayed Average Noise Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Equipment Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
400 kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
4 MHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
5 MHz to 2.9 GHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
18. Residual Responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
Equipment Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
Performance Verification Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
2. Specifications and Characteristics
General Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
Frequency Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
Amplitude Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101
Frequency Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
Amplitude Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
Physical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
Front-Panel Inputs and Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
Rear-Panel Inputs and Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
Regulatory Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
IEC Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
Instrument Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
Notice for Germany: Noise Declaration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
Declaration of Conformity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112
10
Contents
3. If You Have a Problem
Calling HP Sales and Service Offices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Before calling Hewlett-Packard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Check the Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Returning the Spectrum Analyzer for Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Package the spectrum analyzer for shipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
113
113
114
116
116
11
Figures
Figure 1-1 . 10 MHz Reference Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Figure 1-2 . Frequency Readout Accuracy Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Figure 1-3 . Noise Sidebands Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Figure 1-4 . System Related Sidebands Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
Figure 1-5 . Frequency Span Readout Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Figure 1-6 . 10.1 MHz to 10 kHz Frequency Span Readout Accuracy Test Setup . . . . . . .36
Figure 1-7 . Residual FM Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
Figure 1-8 . Sweep Time Accuracy Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
Figure 1-9 . Scale Fidelity Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Figure 1-10 . Reference Level Accuracy Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Figure 1-11 . Uncertainty Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
Figure 1-12 . Resolution Bandwidth Accuracy Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
Figure 1-13 . LPF Characterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
Figure 1-14 . Calibrator Amplitude Accuracy Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
Figure 1-15 . Frequency Response Test Setup, ≥50 MHz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
Figure 1-16 . Frequency Response Test Setup, <50 MHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
Figure 1-17 . Other Input Related Spurious Responses Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Figure 1-18 . Second Harmonic Distortion Test Setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
Figure 1-19 . Third-Order Intermodulation Distortion Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
Figure 1-20 . Third Order Intermodulation Distortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
Figure 1-21 . Gain Compression Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
Figure 1-22 . Displayed Average Noise Level Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Figure 1-23 . Residual Response Test Setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
12
Tables
Table 1-1 . Performance Verification Tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Table 1-2 . Recommended Test Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Table 1-3 . Recommended Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Table 1-4 . Recommended Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Table 1-5 . Frequency Readout Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Table 1-6 . Frequency Span Readout Accuracy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Table 1-7 . Sweep Time Accuracy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Table 1-8 . Cumulative and Incremental Error, Log Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Table 1-9 . Scale Fidelity, Linear Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Table 1-10 . Reference Level Accuracy, Log Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Table 1-11 . Reference Level Accuracy, Linear Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Table 1-12 . Resolution Bandwidth Switching Uncertainty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Table 1-13 . 3 dB Resolution Bandwidth Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Table 1-14 . EMI Resolution Bandwidth Accuracy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Table 1-15 . Frequency Response, ≥50 MHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Table 1-16 . Frequency Response, <50 MHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Table 1-17 . Other Input Related Spurious Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Table 1-18 . Displayed Average Noise Level Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Table 1-19 . Residual Responses above Display Line Worksheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Table 1-20 . HP 8594L Performance Verification Test Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Table 1-21 . HP 8594L Performance Verification Test Record (page 2 of 6). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Table 3-1 . Hewlett-Packard Sales and Service Offices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
13
Tables
14
Calibrating
Calibration
1
Calibrating
This chapter contains performance verification test procedures which
test the electrical performance of the spectrum analyzer.
Allow the spectrum analyzer to warm up in accordance with the
Temperature Stability specification in Chapter 2 before performing the
tests in this chapter.
None of the test procedures involve removing the cover of the spectrum
analyzer.
Calibration
Calibration verifies that the spectrum analyzer performance is within
all specifications listed in Chapter 2. It is time consuming and requires
extensive test equipment. Calibration consists of all the performance
verification tests. See Table 1-1 for a complete listing of the
performance verification tests.
Operation Verification
Operation verification consists of a subset of the performance
verification tests. See Table 1-1. Operation verification tests only the
most critical specifications of the spectrum analyzer. These tests are
recommended for incoming inspection, troubleshooting, or after repair.
Operation verification requires less time and equipment than the
calibration.
The following table lists the performance verification tests included in
this chapter. Perform the tests marked in the OpVer column.
Chapter 1
15
Calibrating
Safety
Table 1-1
Performance Verification Tests
Performance Verification Test Name
OpVer a
1.
10 MHz Reference Output Accuracy
x
2.
Frequency Readout and Marker Count Accuracy
x
3.
Noise Sidebands
x
4.
System Related Sidebands
5.
Frequency Span Readout Accuracy
6.
Residual FM
7.
Sweep Time Accuracy
8.
Scale Fidelity
x
9.
Reference Level Accuracy
x
10.
Absolute Amplitude Calibration and Resolution
Bandwidth Switching Uncertainties
x
11.
Resolution Bandwidth Accuracy
12.
Calibrator Amplitude Accuracy
x
13.
Frequency Response
x
14.
Other Input Related Spurious Responses
15.
Spurious Response b
16.
Gain Compression
17.
Displayed Average Noise Level
18.
Residual Responses
x
x
x
a. The tests used for both calibration and operation verification are marked with an x.
b. Parts 3 and 4, Third Order Intermodulation Distortion,
are not required for operation verification.
Safety
Familiarize yourself with the safety symbols marked on the spectrum
analyzer, and read the general safety instructions and the symbol
definitions given in the front of this guide before you begin verifying the
performance of the spectrum analyzer.
16
Chapter 1
Calibrating
Before You Start
Before You Start
There are four things you should do before starting a performance
verification test:
• Switch the spectrum analyzer on and let it warm up in accordance
with the Temperature Stability specification in Chapter 2 .
• Read "Making a Measurement" in Chapter 2 of the HP 8590 E-Series
and L-Series Spectrum Analyzers User’s Guide.
• After the spectrum analyzer has warmed up as specified, perform
the Self-Calibration Procedure documented in "Improving Accuracy
With Self-Calibration Routines" in Chapter 2 of the HP 8590
E-Series and L-Series Spectrum Analyzers User’s Guide. The
performance of the spectrum analyzer is only specified after the
spectrum analyzer calibration routines have been run and if the
spectrum analyzer is autocoupled.
• Read the rest of this section before you start any of the tests, and
make a copy of the Performance Verification Test Record described in
"Recording the Test Results."
Test equipment you will need
Table 1-2, Table 1-3, and Table 1-4 list the recommended test
equipment for the performance verification tests. The tables also lists
recommended equipment for the spectrum analyzer adjustment
procedures which are located in the HP 8590 Series Analyzers
Assembly-Level Repair Service Guide. Any equipment that meets the
critical specifications given in the table can be substituted for the
recommended model.
Recording the test results
A performance verification test record is provided at the end of this
chapter.
Each test result is identified as a TR Entry in the performance tests
and on the performance verification test record. We recommend that
you make a copy of the performance verification test record, record the
test results on the copy, and keep the copy for your calibration test
record. This record could prove valuable in tracking gradual changes in
test results over long periods of time.
Chapter 1
17
Calibrating
Before You Start
If the spectrum analyzer doesn't meet specifications
If the spectrum analyzer fails a test, rerun the frequency calibration
and amplitude calibration routines by pressing CAL FREQ & AMPTD,
and CAL YTF. Press CAL STORE, then repeat the verification test. If the
spectrum analyzer still fails one or more specifications, complete any
remaining tests and record all test results on a copy of the test record.
Then refer to Chapter 3 , “If You Have a Problem” for instructions on
how to solve the problem.
Periodically verifying operation
The spectrum analyzer requires periodic verification of operation.
Under most conditions of use, you should test the spectrum analyzer at
least once a year with either operation verification or the complete set
of performance verification tests.
NOTE
The following tests verify the electrical performance of the spectrum
analyzer. Allow the spectrum analyzer to warm up in accordance with
the temperature stability specifications before performing the tests.
18
Chapter 1
Calibrating
Before You Start
Table 1-2
Recommended Test Equipment
Equipment
Critical Specifications for
Equipment Substitution
Recommended
Model
Use a
Digital Voltmeter
Input Resistance: ≥10 megohms
Accuracy: ±10 mV on 100 V range
HP 3456A
P,A,T
DVM Test Leads
For use with HP 3456A
HP 34118
A,T
Frequency Counter
Frequency: 10 MHz
Resolution: ±0.002 Hz
External Timebase
HP 5334A/B
P,A,T
HP 5061B
P,A
Frequency Standard
Frequency: 10 MHz
Timebase Accy (Aging): <1 ×10−9/day
Measuring Receiver
Compatible with Power Sensors
dB Relative Mode
Resolution: 0.01 dB
Reference Accuracy: ±1.2%
HP 8902A
P,A,T
Microwave Frequency
Counter
Frequency Range: 9 MHz to 7 GHz
HP 5343A
P,A,T
Oscilloscope
Bandwidth: dc to 100 MHz
Vertical Scale Factor of 5 V/Div
External Trigger Mode
HP 54501A
T
Power Meter
Power Range: Calibrated in dBm and
dB relative to reference power −70 dBm
to +44 dBm, sensor dependent
HP 436A
P,A,T
Power Sensor
Frequency Range: 1 MHz to 350 MHz
Maximum SWR: 1.60 (100 kHz to 300 kHz)
1.20 (300 kHz to 1 MHz)
1.1 (1 MHz to 2.0 GHz)
1.30 (2.0 to 2.9 GHz)
HP 8482A
P,A,T
Power Sensor
Frequency Range: 50 MHz to 26.5 GHz
Maximum SWR: 1.15 (50 MHz to 100 MHz)
1.10 (100 MHz to 2 GHz)
1.15 (2.0 GHz to 12.4 GHz)
1.20 (12.4 GHz to 18.0 GHz)
1.25 (18 GHz to 26.5 GHz)
HP 8485A
P,A,T
Power Sensor, Low-Power
Frequency Range: 300 MHz
Amplitude Range: −20 dBm to −70 dBm
Maximum SWR: 1.1 (300 MHz)
HP 8484A
P,A,T
Timebase Accy (Aging): <5 × 10−10/day
Chapter 1
19
Calibrating
Before You Start
Table 1-2
Recommended Test Equipment
Equipment
Critical Specifications for
Equipment Substitution
Recommended
Model
Use a
HP 8640B,
Option 002 or
HP 8642A
P,A,T
HP 8340A/B or HP
83630A
P,A,T
Signal Generator
Frequency Range: 1 MHz to 1000 MHz
Amplitude Range: −35 to +16 dBm
SSB Noise: <−120 dBc/Hz at 20 kHz offset
Synthesized Sweeper
Frequency Range: 10 MHz to 22 GHz
Frequency Accuracy (CW): ±0.02%
Leveling Modes: Internal and External
Modulation Modes: AM
Power Level Range: −35 to +16 dBm
Synthesizer/Function
Generator
Frequency Range: 0.1 Hz to 500 Hz
Frequency Accuracy: ±0.02%
Waveform: Triangle
HP 3325B
P,T
Synthesizer/Level
Generator
Frequency Range: 500 Hz to 80 MHz
Amplitude Range: +12 to −85 dBm
Flatness: ±0.15 dB
Attenuator Accuracy: ±0.09 dB
HP 3335A
P,A,T
Recommended
Model
Use a
a. P = Performance verification test, A = Adjustment, T = Troubleshooting
Table 1-3
Recommended Cables
Equipment
Critical Specifications for
Cable Substitution
Cable
Frequency Range: 10 MHz to 22 GHz
Maximum SWR: <1.4 at 22 GHz
Length: ≥91 cm (36 in)
Connectors: APC 3.5 (m) both ends
Maximum Insertion Loss: 2 dB
(2 required)
8120-4921
P,A
Cable
Frequency Range: 50 MHz to 7 GHz
Length: ≥91 cm (36 in)
Connectors: SMA (m) both ends
5061-5458
P,A,T
Cable
Frequency Range: dc to 1 GHz
Length: ≥91 cm (36 in)
Connectors: BNC (m) both ends (4 required)
HP 10503A
P,A,T
Cable
Frequency Range: dc to 310 MHz
Length: 20 cm (9 in)
Connectors: BNC (m) both ends
HP 10502A
P,A,T
Cable Assembly
Length: approximately 15 cm (6 in)
Connectors: BNC (f) to Alligator Clips
8120-1292
A
Cable Assembly
Length: ≥91 cm (36 in)
Connectors: Banana Plug to Alligator Clips
HP 11102A
A
Cable, Test
Length: ≥91 cm (36 in)
Connectors: SMB (f) to BNC (m) (2 required)
85680-60093
A,T
Cable
Type N Length: 183 cm (72 in)
HP 11500A
P,A,T
Cable
Type N Length: 62 cm (24 in)
HP 11500B/C
P,A,T
Cable
Type N Length: 152 cm (60 in)
HP 11500D
P,A,T
a. P = Performance verification test, A = Adjustment, T = Troubleshooting
20
Chapter 1
Calibrating
Before You Start
Table 1-4
Recommended Accessories
Equipment
Critical Specifications for
Accessory Substitution
Recommended
Model
Use a
Adapter
APC 3.5 (f) to APC 3.5 (f)
5061-5311
P,A,T
Adapter
Type N (f) to APC 3.5 (m)
1250-1750
P,A,T
Adapter
BNC (m) to BNC (m)
1250-0216
P,A,T
Adapter
Type N (f) to BNC (f)
1250-1474
P,A,T
Adapter
BNC (f) to SMB (m)
1250-1237
A,T
Adapter
Type N (m) to N (m)
1250-1475
P,A,T
Adapter
BNC tee (m) (f) (f)
1250-0781
T
Adapter
Type N (m) to APC 3.5 (m)
1250-1743
P,A,T
Adapter
Type N (m) to APC 3.5 (f)
1250-1744
P,A,T
Adapter
Type N (f) to APC 3.5 (f)
1250-1745
P,A,T
Adapter
Type N (f) to BNC (m)
1250-1477
P,A,T
Adapter
Type N (m) to BNC (f) (4 required)
1250-1476
P,A,T
Adapter
Type N (m) to BNC (m) (2 required)
1250-1473
P,A,T
Adapter
Type N (f) to N (f)
1250-1472
P,A,T
Adapter
Type N (f) to SMA (f)
1250-1772
P,A,T
Adapter
SMA (f) to SMA (f)
1250-1158
P,A,T
Chapter 1
21
Calibrating
Before You Start
Table 1-4
Recommended Accessories
Equipment
Critical Specifications for
Accessory Substitution
Recommended
Model
Use a
Adapter
SMA (m) to SMA (m)
1250-1159
P,A,T
Adapter
SMB (m) to SMB (m)
1250-0813
A,T
Adapter
SMC (m) to SMC (m)
1250-0827
A,T
Adapter
Type N tee (m) (f) (f)
1250-0559
P,T
Attenuator, 10 dB
Type N (m to f) Frequency: 300 MHz
HP 8491A
Option 010
P,A,T
Attenuator, 20 dB
Attenuation: 20 dB
Frequency dc to 12.4 GHz
HP 8491A
Option 020
A
Attenuator,
1 dB Step
Attenuation Range: 0 to 12 dB
Frequency Range: 50 MHz
Connectors: BNC female
HP 355C
P,A
Attenuator,
10 dB Step
Attenuation Range: 0 to 30 dB
Frequency Range: 50 MHz
Connectors: BNC female
HP 355D
P,A
Digital Current Tracer
Sensitivity: 1 mA to 500 mA
Frequency Response: Pulse trains to 10 MHz
Minimum Pulse Width: 50 ns
Pulse Rise Time: <200 ns
HP 547A
T
Directional Bridge
Frequency Range: 0.1 to 110 MHz Directivity: >40 dB
Maximum VSWR: 1.1:1
Transmission Arm Loss: 6 dB (nominal) Coupling Arm
Loss: 6 dB (nominal)
HP 8721A
P,T
Directional Coupler
Frequency Range: 1.7 GHz to 8 GHz Coupling: 16 dB
(nominal)
Max. Coupling Deviation: ±1 dB
Directivity: 14 dB minimum
Flatness: 0.75 dB maximum
VSWR: <1.45
Insertion Loss: <1.3 dB
0955-0125
P,T
22
Chapter 1
Calibrating
Before You Start
Table 1-4
Recommended Accessories
Equipment
Critical Specifications for
Accessory Substitution
Recommended
Model
Use a
Logic Pulser
TTL voltage and current drive levels
HP 546A
T
Logic Clip
TTL voltage and current drive levels
HP 548A
T
Low-Pass Filter,
50 MHz
Cutoff Frequency: 50 MHz
Rejection at 80 MHz: >50 dB
0955-0306
P,T
Low-Pass Filter,
300 MHz
Cutoff Frequency: 300 MHz
Bandpass Insertion Loss: <0.9 dB
at 300 MHz
Stopband Insertion Loss: >40 dB
at 435 MHz
0955-0455
P,A,T
Power Splitter
Frequency Range: 50 kHz to 22 GHz Insertion Loss: 6
dB (nominal)
Output Tracking: <0.25 dB
Equivalent Output SWR: <1.22:1
HP 11667B
P,A
Termination, 50 Ω
Impedance: 50 Ω (nominal)
HP 909A
P,T
a. P = Performance verification test, A = Adjustment, T = Troubleshooting
Chapter 1
23
Calibrating
1. 10 MHz Reference Output Accuracy
1. 10 MHz Reference Output Accuracy
The settability is measured by changing the setting of the
digital-to-analog converter (DAC) which controls the frequency of the
timebase. The frequency difference per DAC step is calculated and
compared to the specification.
The related adjustment for this performance verification test is the "10
MHz Frequency Reference Adjustment."
Equipment Required
Microwave frequency counter
Frequency standard
Cable, BNC, 122 cm (48 in) (2 required)
Figure 1-1
10 MHz Reference Test Setup
Procedure
The test results will be invalid if REF UNLK is displayed at any time
during this test. REF UNLK will be displayed if the internal reference
oscillator is unlocked from the 10 MHz reference. A REF UNLK might
occur if there is a hardware failure or if the jumper between 10 MHz
REF OUTPUT and EXT REF IN on the rear panel is removed.
1. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 1-1.
2. Set the frequency counter controls as follows:
SAMPLE RATE ............................................................Midrange
50 Ω/1 Ω SWITCH .............................................................. 50 Ω
10 Hz-500 MHz/500 MHz-26.5 GHz SWITCH ...... 10 Hz-500 MHz
FREQUENCY STANDARD (rear panel) .....................EXTERNAL
3. Wait for the frequency counter reading to stabilize. Record the
frequency counter reading in the 10 MHz Reference Accuracy
24
Chapter 1
Calibrating
1. 10 MHz Reference Output Accuracy
Worksheet as Counter Reading 1.
4. Set the spectrum analyzer by pressing the following keys:
FREQUENCY, −37, Hz
CAL, More 1 of 4, More 2 of 4, VERIFY TIMEBASE
5. Record the number in the active function block of the spectrum
analyzer in the 10 MHz Reference Accuracy Worksheet as the
Timebase DAC Setting.
6. Add one to the Timebase DAC Setting recorded in step 5, then enter
this number using the DATA keys on the spectrum analyzer. For
example, if the timebase DAC setting is 105, press the following
keys:
1,0,6, Hz
7. Wait for the frequency counter reading to stabilize. Record the
frequency counter reading in the 10 MHz Reference Accuracy
Worksheet as Counter Reading 2.
8. Subtract one from the Timebase DAC Setting recorded in step 5,
then enter this number using the DATA keys on the spectrum
analyzer. For example, if the timebase DAC setting is 105, press the
following keys:
1, 0, 4, Hz
9. Wait for the frequency counter reading to stabilize. Record the
frequency counter reading in the 10 MHz Reference Accuracy
Worksheet as Counter Reading 3.
10 MHz Reference Accuracy Worksheet
Description
Measurement
Counter Reading 1
_________________ Hz
Timebase DAC Setting
_________________
Counter Reading 2
_________________ Hz
Counter Reading 3
_________________ Hz
10.Calculate the frequency settability by performing the following
steps:
• Calculate the frequency difference between Counter Reading 2
and Counter Reading 1.
• Calculate the frequency difference between Counter Reading 3
and Counter Reading 1.
• Divide the difference with the greatest absolute value by two and
record the value as TR Entry 1 of the performance verification
test record. The settability should be less than ±150 Hz.
• Press PRESET on the spectrum analyzer. The timebase DAC will
be reset automatically to the value recorded in step 5.
Chapter 1
25
Calibrating
2. Frequency Readout and Marker Count Accuracy
2. Frequency Readout and Marker Count
Accuracy
The frequency readout accuracy of the spectrum analyzer is tested with
an input signal of known frequency. By using the same frequency
standard for the spectrum analyzer and the synthesized sweeper, the
frequency reference error is eliminated.
The related adjustment for this performance test is the "Sampler Match
Adjustment."
Equipment Required
Synthesized sweeper
Adapter, Type N (f) to APC 3.5 (m)
Adapter, APC 3.5 (f) to APC 3.5 (f)
Cable, Type N, 183 cm (72 in)
Cable, BNC, 122 cm (48 in)
Procedure
This performance test consists of two parts:
Part 1: Frequency Readout Accuracy
Part 2: Marker Count Accuracy
Perform "Part 1: Frequency Readout Accuracy" before "Part 2: Marker
Count Accuracy."
Part 1: Frequency Readout Accuracy
1. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 1-2. Remember to
connect the 10 MHz REF OUT of the synthesized sweeper to the
EXT REF IN of the spectrum analyzer.
2. Perform the following steps to set up the equipment:
• Press INSTRUMENT PRESET on the synthesized sweeper, then
set the controls as follows:
CW ............................................................................1.5 GHz
POWER LEVEL .......................................................−10 dBm
• Press PRESET on the spectrum analyzer, then wait for the preset
routine to finish. Set the spectrum analyzer by pressing the
following keys:
FREQUENCY, 1.5, GHz
SPAN, 20, MHz
26
Chapter 1
Calibrating
2. Frequency Readout and Marker Count Accuracy
Figure 1-2
Frequency Readout Accuracy Test Setup
3. Press PEAK SEARCH on the spectrum analyzer to measure the
frequency readout accuracy.
4. Record the MKR frequency reading in the performance verification
test record as TR Entry indicated in Table 1-5. The reading should
be within the limits shown in Table 1-5.
5. Change to the next spectrum analyzer span setting listed in
Table 1-5.
6. Repeat steps 3 through 5 for each spectrum analyzer span setting
listed in Table 1-5.
"Part 1: Frequency Readout Accuracy" is now complete. Continue with
"Part 2: Marker Count Accuracy."
Table 1-5
Frequency Readout Accuracy
Spectrum Analyzer
Chapter 1
MKR Reading
Span
(MHz)
Min.
(MHz)
TR Entry
(Actual)
Max.
(MHz)
20
1.49918
1
1.50082
10
1.49958
2
1.50042
1
1.49996
3
1.500032
27
Calibrating
2. Frequency Readout and Marker Count Accuracy
Part 2: Marker Count Accuracy
Perform "Part 1: Frequency Readout Accuracy" before performing this
procedure.
1. Press PRESET on the spectrum analyzer, then wait for the preset
routine to finish. Set the spectrum analyzer to measure the marker
count accuracy by pressing the following keys:
FREQUENCY, 1.5, GHz
SPAN, 20, MHz
BW, RES BW AUTO MAN, 300, kHz
MKR FCTN, MK COUNT ON OFF, (ON)
More 1 of 2
CNT RES AUTO MAN, 100, Hz
2. Press PEAK SEARCH, then wait for a count be taken (it may take
several seconds).
3. Record the CNTR frequency reading as TR Entry 5 of the
performance verification test record. The reading should be within
the limits of 1.4999989 GHz and 1.5000011 GHz.
4. Change the spectrum analyzer settings by pressing the following
keys:
SPAN, 1, MHz
MKR FCTN, MK COUNT ON OFF (ON)
More 1 of 2
CNT RES AUTO MAN, 10, Hz
5. Press PEAK SEARCH, then wait for a count be taken (it may take
several seconds).
6. Record the CNTR frequency reading as TR Entry 6 of the
performance verification test record. The reading should be within
the limits of 1.49999989 GHz and 1.50000011 GHz.
Performance test "2. Frequency Readout Accuracy and Marker Count
Accuracy" is now complete.
28
Chapter 1
Calibrating
3. Noise Sidebands
3. Noise Sidebands
A 500 MHz CW signal is applied to the input of the spectrum analyzer.
The marker functions are used to measure the amplitude of the carrier
and the noise level 10 kHz, 20 kHz, and 30 kHz above and below the
carrier. The difference between these two measurements is compared to
specification after the result is normalized to 1 Hz.
There are no related adjustment procedures for this performance test.
Equipment Required
Signal generator
Cable, Type N, 183 cm (72 in)
Figure 1-3
Noise Sidebands Test Setup
Procedure
This performance test consists of three parts:
Part 1: Noise Sideband Suppression at 10 kHz
Part 2: Noise Sideband Suppression at 20 kHz
Part 3: Noise Sideband Suppression at 30 kHz
Perform part 1 before performing part 2 or part 3 of this procedure.
A worksheet is provided at the end of this procedure for calculating the
noise sideband suppression.
Chapter 1
29
Calibrating
3. Noise Sidebands
Part 1: Noise Sideband Suppression at 10 kHz
1. Perform the following steps to set up the equipment:
• Set the signal generator controls as follows:
FREQUENCY .........................................................500 MHz
OUTPUT LEVEL ........................................................0 dBm
AM ................................................................................OFF
FM ................................................................................OFF
COUNTER .....................................................................INT
RF ..................................................................................ON
• Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 1-3.
• Press PRESET on the spectrum analyzer, then wait for the preset
routine to finish. Set the spectrum analyzer by pressing the
following keys:
FREQUENCY, 500, MHz
SPAN, 10, MHz
2. Press the following spectrum analyzer keys to measure the carrier
amplitude.
PEAK SEARCH
MKR FCTN, MK TRACK ON OFF (ON)
SPAN, 200, kHz
BW, 1, kHz
VID BW AUTO MAN, 30, Hz
MKR FCTN, MK TRACK ON OFF (OFF)
SGL SWP
Wait for the completion of a sweep, then press PEAK SEARCH.
Record the MKR amplitude reading in the Noise Sideband
Worksheet as the Carrier Amplitude.
3. Press the following spectrum analyzer keys to measure the noise
sideband level at +10 kHz:
MARKER ∆, 10, kHz
MKR, MARKER NORMAL
Record the MKR amplitude reading in the Noise Sideband
Worksheet as the Noise Sideband Level at +10 kHz.
4. Press the following spectrum analyzer keys to measure the noise
sideband level at −10 kHz:
PEAK SEARCH
MARKER ∆, −10, kHz
MKR, MARKER NORMAL
Record the MKR amplitude reading in the Noise Sideband
Worksheet as the Noise Sideband Level at −10 kHz.
30
Chapter 1
Calibrating
3. Noise Sidebands
5. Record the more positive value, either Noise Sideband Level at +10
kHz or Noise Sideband Level at −10 kHz from the Noise Sideband
Worksheet as the Maximum Noise Sideband Level.
6. Subtract the Carrier Amplitude from the Maximum Noise Sideband
Level at 10 kHz using the equation below.
Noise Sideband Suppression = Maximum Noise Sideband Level − Carrier Amplitude
7. Record the Noise Sideband Suppression at 10 kHz in the
performance verification test record as TR Entry 1. The suppression
should be ≤−60 dBc.
Part 2: Noise Sideband Suppression at 20 kHz
1. Press the following spectrum analyzer keys to measure the noise
sideband level at +20 kHz:
MKR, MARKER ∆, 20, kHz
MARKER NORMAL
Record the MKR amplitude reading in the Noise Sideband
Worksheet as the Noise Sideband Level at +20 kHz.
2. Press the following spectrum analyzer keys to measure the noise
sideband level at −20 kHz:
PEAK SEARCH
MARKER ∆, −20, kHz
MKR, MARKER NORMAL
Record the MKR amplitude reading in the Noise Sideband
Worksheet as the Noise Sideband Level at −20 kHz.
3. Record the more positive value, either Noise Sideband Level at +20
kHz or Noise Sideband Level at −20 kHz from the Noise Sideband
Worksheet as the Maximum Noise Sideband Level.
4. Subtract the Carrier Amplitude from the Maximum Noise Sideband
Level at 20 kHz using the equation below.
Noise Sideband Suppression = Maximum Noise Sideband Level − Carrier Amplitude
5. Record the Noise Sideband Suppression at 20 kHz in the
performance verification test record as TR Entry 2. The suppression
should be ≤−70 dBc.
Part 3: Noise Sideband Suppression at 30 kHz
1. Press the following spectrum analyzer keys to measure the noise
sideband level at +30 kHz:
MKR, MARKER ∆, 30, kHz
MARKER NORMAL
Chapter 1
31
Calibrating
3. Noise Sidebands
Record the MKR amplitude reading in the Noise Sideband
Worksheet as the Noise Sideband Level at +30 kHz.
2. Press the following spectrum analyzer keys to measure the noise
sideband level at −30 kHz:
PEAK SEARCH
MARKER ∆, −30, kHz
MKR, MARKER NORMAL
Record the MKR amplitude reading in the Noise Sideband
Worksheet as the Noise Sideband Level at −30 kHz.
3. Record the more positive value, either Noise Sideband Level at +30
kHz or Noise Sideband Level at −30 kHz from the Noise Sideband
Worksheet as the Maximum Noise Sideband Level.
4. Subtract the Carrier Amplitude from the Maximum Noise Sideband
Level at 30 kHz using the equation below.
Noise Sideband Suppression = Maximum Noise Sideband Level − Carrier Amplitude
5. Record the Noise Sideband Suppression at 30 kHz in the
performance verification test record as TR Entry 3. The suppression
should be ≤−75 dBc.
Noise Sideband Worksheet
Description
Measurement
Carrier Amplitude
________________________ dBm
Noise Sideband Level at +10 kHz
________________________ dBm
Noise Sideband Level at −10 kHz
________________________ dBm
Maximum Noise Sideband Level at ±10 kHz
________________________ dBm
Noise Sideband Level at +20 kHz
________________________ dBm
Noise Sideband Level at −20 kHz
________________________ dBm
Maximum Noise Sideband Level at ±20 kHz
________________________ dBm
Noise Sideband Level at +30 kHz
_________________________ dBm
Noise Sideband Level at −30 kHz
_________________________ dBm
Maximum Noise Sideband Level at ±30 kHz
_________________________ dBm
Note that the resolution bandwidth is normalized to 1 Hz as follows:
1 Hz noise-power = (noise-power in dBc) − (10 x log[RBW])
For example, −60 dBc in a 1 kHz resolution bandwidth is normalized to
−90 dBc/Hz.
32
Chapter 1
Calibrating
4. System Related Sidebands
4. System Related Sidebands
A 500 MHz CW signal is applied to the input of the spectrum analyzer.
The marker functions are used to measure the amplitude of the carrier
and the amplitude of any system related sidebands >30 kHz above and
below the carrier. System related sidebands are any internally
generated line related, power supply related or local oscillator related
sidebands.
There are no related adjustment procedures for this performance test.
Equipment Required
Signal generator
Cable, Type N, 183 cm (72 in)
Figure 1-4
System Related Sidebands Test Setup
Procedure
1. Perform the following steps to set up the equipment:
• Set the signal generator controls as follows:
FREQUENCY .........................................................500 MHz
OUTPUT LEVEL .......................................................0 dBm
AM ................................................................................OFF
FM ................................................................................OFF
COUNTER ....................................................................INT
RF ..................................................................................ON
• Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 1-4.
• Press PRESET on the spectrum analyzer, then wait for the preset
routine to finish. Set the spectrum analyzer by pressing the
following keys:
FREQUENCY, 500, MHz
SPAN, 10, MHz
Chapter 1
33
Calibrating
4. System Related Sidebands
2. Set the spectrum analyzer to measure the system related sideband
above the signal by performing the following steps:
• Press the following keys:
PEAK SEARCH
MKR FCTN, MK TRACK ON OFF (ON)
SPAN, 200, kHz
BW, 1, kHz
VID BW AUTO MAN, 30, Hz
Allow the spectrum analyzer to stabilize for approximately 1
minute. Then press the following keys:
MKR FCTN, MK TRACK ON OFF (OFF)
FREQUENCY, CF STEP AUTO MAN, 130, kHz
• Press SGL SWP and wait for the completion of the sweep. Press
PEAK SEARCH, then MARKER ∆.
• Press the following spectrum analyzer keys:
FREQUENCY
⇑ (step-up key)
3. Measure the system related sideband above the signal by pressing
SGL SWP on the spectrum analyzer. Wait for the completion of a new
sweep, then press PEAK SEARCH.
4. Record the Marker-∆ Amplitude as TR Entry 1 of the performance
verification test record.
The system related sideband above the signal should be <−65 dB.
5. Set the spectrum analyzer to measure the system related sideband
below the signal by pressing the following spectrum analyzer keys:
⇓ (step-down key)
⇓ (step-down key)
6. Measure the system related sideband below the signal by pressing
SGL SWP. Wait for the completion of a new sweep, then press PEAK
SEARCH.
Record the Marker-∆ Amplitude as TR Entry 2 of the performance
verification test record.
The system related sideband below the signal should be <−65 dB.
34
Chapter 1
Calibrating
5. Frequency Span Readout Accuracy
5. Frequency Span Readout Accuracy
For testing each frequency span, two synthesized sources are used to
provide two precisely-spaced signals. The spectrum analyzer marker
functions are used to measure this frequency difference and the marker
reading is compared to the specification.
There are no related adjustment procedures for this performance test.
Equipment Required
Synthesized sweeper
Synthesizer/level generator
Signal generator
Power splitter
Adapter, Type N (m) to Type N (m)
Adapter, Type N (f) to APC 3.5 (f)
Cable, Type N, 183 cm (72 in)
Cable, Type N, 152 cm (60 in) or Adapter, APC 3.5 (f) to Type N (f)
Procedure
This performance verification test consists of two parts:
Part 1: 1800 MHz Frequency Span Readout Accuracy
Part 2: 10.1 MHz to 10 kHz Frequency Span Readout Accuracy
Perform "Part 1: 1800 MHz Frequency Span Readout Accuracy" before
"Part 2: 10.1 MHz to 10 kHz Frequency Span Readout Accuracy."
Figure 1-5
Frequency Span Readout Test Setup
Chapter 1
35
Calibrating
5. Frequency Span Readout Accuracy
Part 1: 1800 MHz Frequency Span Readout Accuracy
1. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 1-5. Note that the power
splitter is used as a combiner.
2. Press PRESET on the spectrum analyzer, then wait for the preset
routine to finish. Set the spectrum analyzer by pressing the
following keys:
FREQUENCY, 900, MHz
SPAN, 1800, MHz
3. Press INSTRUMENT PRESET on the synthesized sweeper and set
the controls as follows:
CW .............................................................................1700 MHz
POWER LEVEL ............................................................. −5 dBm
4. On the signal generator, set the controls as follows:
FREQUENCY (LOCKED MODE) ....................................200 MHz
CW OUTPUT ...................................................................0 dBm
5. Adjust the spectrum analyzer center frequency, if necessary, to place
the lower frequency on the second vertical graticule line (one
division from the left-most graticule line).
6. On the spectrum analyzer, press SGL SWP. Wait for the completion of
a new sweep, then press PEAK SEARCH, MARKER ∆, NEXT PEAK.
The two markers should be on the signals near the second and tenth
vertical graticule lines (the first graticule line is the left-most).
7. Press MARKER ∆, then continue pressing NEXT PK
RIGHT. The marker ∆ should be on the right-most signal.
8. Record the MKR ∆ frequency reading as TR Entry 1 of the
performance verification test record.
The MKR reading should be within the 1446 MHz and 1554 MHz.
Figure 1-6
10.1 MHz to 10 kHz Frequency Span Readout Accuracy Test
Setup
36
Chapter 1
Calibrating
5. Frequency Span Readout Accuracy
Part 2: 10.1 MHz to 10 kHz Frequency Span Readout
Accuracy
Perform "Part 1: 1800 MHz Frequency Span Readout Accuracy" before
performing this procedure.
1. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 1-6. Note that the power
splitter is used as a combiner.
2. Press PRESET on the spectrum analyzer, then wait for the preset
routine to finish. Set the spectrum analyzer by pressing the
following keys:
FREQUENCY, 70, MHz
SPAN, 10.1, MHz
3. Press INSTRUMENT PRESET on the synthesized sweeper, then set
the controls as follows:
CW .................................................................................74 MHz
POWER LEVEL .............................................................−5 dBm
4. Set the synthesizer/level generator controls as follows:
FREQUENCY ................................................................66 MHz
AMPLITUDE ..................................................................0 dBm
5. Adjust the spectrum analyzer center frequency to center the two
signals on the display.
6. On the spectrum analyzer, press SGL SWP. Wait for the completion of
a new sweep, then press the following keys:
PEAK SEARCH, MARKER ∆, NEXT PEAK
The two markers should be on the signals near the second and tenth
vertical graticule lines (the first graticule line is the left-most).
7. Record the MKR-∆ frequency reading in the performance verification
test record as TR Entry 2. The MKR-∆ frequency reading should be
within the limits shown.
8. Press MKR, MARKER 1 ON OFF (OFF) on the spectrum analyzer.
9. Change to the next equipment settings listed in Table 1-6.
10.On the spectrum analyzer, press SGL SWP. Wait for the completion of
a new sweep, then press the following keys:
PEAK SEARCH, MARKER ∆, NEXT PEAK
11.Record the MKR-∆ frequency reading in the performance verification
test record.
12.Repeat steps 8 through 11 for the remaining spectrum analyzer span
settings listed in Table 1-6.
Chapter 1
37
Calibrating
5. Frequency Span Readout Accuracy
Performance verification test "Frequency Span Readout Accuracy" is
now complete.
Table 1-6
Spectrum Analyzer
Span Setting
Frequency Span Readout Accuracy
Synthesizer/
Level Generator
Frequency
Synthesized
Sweeper
Frequency
MHz
MHz
Min.
TR Entry
10.10 MHz
66.000
74.000
7.70 MHz
2
8.30 MHz
10.00 MHz
66.000
74.000
7.80 MHz
3
8.20 MHz
100.00 kHz
69.960
70.040
78.00 kHz
4
82.00 kHz
99.00 kHz
69.960
70.040
78.00 kHz
5
82.00 kHz
10.00 kHz
69.996
70.004
7.80 kHz
6
8.20 kHz
38
MKR-∆ Reading
Max.
Chapter 1
Calibrating
6. Residual FM
6. Residual FM
This test measures the inherent short-term instability of the spectrum
analyzer LO system. With the analyzer in zero span, a stable signal is
applied to the input and slope-detected on the linear portion of the IF
bandwidth filter skirt. Any instability in the LO transfers to the IF
signal in the mixing process. The test determines the slope of the IF
filter in Hz/dB and then measures the signal amplitude variation
caused by the residual FM. Multiplying these two values yields the
residual FM in Hz. The narrow bandwidth options use a 300 Hz span.
This span is not specified, however, it is tested in "Frequency Span
Accuracy."
There are no related adjustment procedures for this performance test.
Equipment Required
Signal generator
Cable, Type N, 183 cm (72 in)
Procedure
This performance verification test consists of two parts:
Part 1: Determining the IF Filter Slope
Part 2: Measuring the Residual FM
Part 1: Determining the IF Filter Slope
1. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 1-7.
2. Set the signal generator controls as follows:
FREQUENCY ..............................................................500 MHz
CW OUTPUT ...............................................................−10 dBm
3. Press PRESET on the spectrum analyzer, then wait for the preset
routine to finish. Set the spectrum analyzer by pressing the
following keys:
FREQUENCY, 500, MHz
SPAN, 1, MHz
AMPLITUDE, −9, dBm
SCALE LOG LIN (LOG) 1, dB
BW, 1, kHz
Chapter 1
39
Calibrating
6. Residual FM
Figure 1-7
Residual FM Test Setup
4. On the spectrum analyzer, press the following keys:
PEAK SEARCH
MKR FCTN, MK TRACK ON OFF (ON)
SPAN, 10, kHz
Wait for the AUTO ZOOM message to disappear. Press the following
spectrum analyzer keys:
MKR →, MARKER →REF LVL
MKR, MARKER 1 ON OFF (OFF)
5. On the spectrum analyzer, press the following keys:
SGL SWP
PEAK SEARCH, MARKER ∆
If you have difficulty achieving the ±0.1 dB setting, then make the
following spectrum analyzer settings:
SPAN, 5, kHz
BW, VID BW AUTO MAN, 30, Hz
6. Rotate the spectrum analyzer knob counterclockwise until the
MKR-∆ amplitude reads −1 dB ±0.1 dB. Press MARKER ∆. Rotate the
knob counterclockwise until the MKR-∆ amplitude reads
−4 dB ±0.1 dB.
7. Divide the MKR-∆ frequency in hertz by the MKR-∆ amplitude in dB
to obtain the slope of the resolution bandwidth filter. For example, if
the MKR-∆ frequency is 1.08 kHz and the MKR-∆ amplitude is
3.92 dB, the slope would be equal to 275.5 Hz/dB. Record the result
below:
Slope ___________ Hz/ dB
40
Chapter 1
Calibrating
6. Residual FM
Part 2: Measuring the Residual FM
8. On the spectrum analyzer, press MKR, More 1 of 2, MARKER ALL OFF,
PEAK SEARCH, then MARKER ∆. Rotate the knob counterclockwise
until the MKR-∆ amplitude reads −3 dB ±0.1 dB.
9. On the spectrum analyzer, press the following keys:
MKR, MARKER NORMAL
MKR →, MARKER → CF
SGL SWP
BW, VID BW AUTO MAN, 1, kHz
SPAN, 0, Hz
SWEEP, 100, ms
Press SGL SWP.
NOTE
The displayed trace should be about three divisions below the reference
level. If it is not, press TRIG, SWEEP CONT SGL (CONT), FREQUENCY,
and use the knob to place the displayed trace about three divisions
below the reference level. Press SGL SWP.
10.On the spectrum analyzer, press MKR →, More 1 of 2,
MARKER →PK-PK. Read the MKR-∆ amplitude, take its absolute
value, and record the result as the Deviation.
Deviation ___________ dB
11.Calculate the Residual FM by multiplying the Slope recorded in
step 7 by the Deviation recorded in step 10.
Record this value as TR Entry 1 of the performance verification test
record. The residual FM should be less than 250 Hz.
The performance verification test, "Residual FM," is now complete.
Chapter 1
41
Calibrating
7. Sweep Time Accuracy
7. Sweep Time Accuracy
This test uses a synthesizer function generator to amplitude modulate
a 500 MHz CW signal from another signal generator. The spectrum
analyzer demodulates this signal in zero span to display the response in
the time domain. The marker delta frequency function on the spectrum
analyzer is used to read out the sweep time accuracy.
There are no related adjustment procedures for this performance test.
Equipment Required
Synthesizer/function generator
Signal generator
Cable, Type N, 152 cm (60 in)
Cable, BNC, 120 cm (48 in)
Figure 1-8
Sweep Time Accuracy Test Setup
Procedure
1. Set the signal generator to output a 500 MHz, −10 dBm, CW signal.
Set the AM and FM controls to off.
2. Set the synthesizer/function generator to output a 500 Hz, +5 dBm
triangle waveform signal.
3. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 1-8.
42
Chapter 1
Calibrating
7. Sweep Time Accuracy
4. Press PRESET on the spectrum analyzer, then wait for the preset
routine to finish. Set the spectrum analyzer by pressing the
following keys:
FREQUENCY, 500, MHz
SPAN, 10, MHz
PEAK SEARCH
MKR FCTN, MK TRACK ON OFF (ON)
SPAN, 50, kHz
Wait for the AUTO ZOOM routine to finish. Press SPAN, then ZERO
SPAN.
Press the following spectrum analyzer keys:
BW, 3, MHz
SWEEP, 20, ms
AMPLITUDE, SCALE LOG LIN (LIN)
Adjust signal amplitude for a midscreen display.
5. Set the signal generator AM switch to the AC position.
6. On the spectrum analyzer, press TRIG then VIDEO. Adjust the video
trigger so that the spectrum analyzer is sweeping.
7. Press SGL SWP. After the completion of the sweep, press PEAK
SEARCH. If necessary, press NEXT PK LEFT until the marker is on the
left-most signal. This is the "marked signal."
8. Press MARKER DELTA and press NEXT PK RIGHT 8 times so the
marker delta is on the eighth signal peak from the "marked signal."
Record the marker ∆ reading in the performance verification test
record.
9. Repeat steps 7 and 8 for the remaining sweep time settings listed in
Table 1-7.
Table 1-7
Sweep Time Accuracy
Spectrum Analyzer
Sweep Time Setting
Synthesizer/Function
Generator Frequency
Minimum
Reading
TR Entry
(MKR ∆)
Maximum
Reading
20 ms
500.0 Hz
15.4 ms
1
16.6 ms
100 ms
100.0 Hz
77.0 ms
2
83.0 ms
1s
10.0 Hz
770.0 ms
3
830.0 ms
10 s
1.0 Hz
7.7 s
4
8.3 s
Chapter 1
43
Calibrating
8. Scale Fidelity
8. Scale Fidelity
A 50 MHz CW signal is applied to the INPUT 50 Ω of the analyzer
through two step attenuators. The attenuators increase the effective
amplitude range of the source. The amplitude of the source is decreased
in 10 dB steps and the analyzer marker functions are used to measure
the amplitude difference between steps. The source's internal
attenuator is used as the reference standard. The test is performed in
both log and linear amplitude scales.
The related adjustment for this performance test is "Log and Linear
Amplitude Adjustment."
Equipment Required
Synthesizer/level generator
Attenuator, 1 dB step
Attenuator, 10 dB step
Cable, BNC, 122 cm (48 in)
Cable, BNC, 20 cm (9 in)
Adapter, Type N (m) to BNC (f)
Adapter, BNC (m) to BNC (m)
Figure 1-9
Scale Fidelity Test Setup
44
Chapter 1
Calibrating
8. Scale Fidelity
Procedure
Log Scale
1. Set the synthesizer/level generator controls as follows:
FREQUENCY ................................................................50 MHz
AMPLITUDE ...............................................................+10 dBm
AMPTD INCR ................................................................0.05 dB
OUTPUT ............................................................................50 Ω
2. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 1-9. Set the 10 dB step
attenuator to 10 dB attenuation and the 1 dB step attenuator to 0 dB
attenuation.
3. Press PRESET on the spectrum analyzer, then wait for the preset
routine to finish. Set the spectrum analyzer by pressing the
following keys:
FREQUENCY, 50, MHz
SPAN, 10, MHz
PEAK SEARCH
MKR FCTN, MK TRACK ON OFF (ON)
SPAN, 50, kHz
Wait for the auto zoom routine to finish, then set the resolution
bandwidth and the video bandwidth by pressing the following keys:
BW
RES BW AUTO MAN, 3, kHz
VID BW AUTO MAN, 30, Hz
4. If necessary, adjust the 1 dB step attenuator attenuation until the
MKR amplitude reads between 0 dBm and −1 dBm.
5. On the synthesizer/level generator, press AMPLITUDE and use the
increment keys to adjust the amplitude until the spectrum analyzer
MKR amplitude reads 0 dBm ±0.05 dB.
It may be necessary to decrease the resolution of the amplitude
increment of the synthesizer/level generator to 0.01 dB to obtain a
MKR reading of 0 dBm ±0.05 dB.
6. On the spectrum analyzer, press PEAK SEARCH, then MARKER ∆.
7. Set the synthesizer/level generator AMPTD INCR to 4 dB.
8. On the synthesizer/level generator, press AMPLITUDE, then
increment down to step the synthesizer/level generator to the next
lowest nominal amplitude listed in Table 1-8.
Chapter 1
45
Calibrating
8. Scale Fidelity
9. Record the actual MKR ∆ amplitude reading in the performance
verification test record as indicated in Table 1-8. The MKR
amplitude should be within the limits shown.
10.Repeat steps 8 through 9 for the remaining synthesizer/level
generator Nominal Amplitudes listed in Table 1-8.
11.For each actual MKR ∆ reading recorded in Table 1-8, subtract the
previous actual MKR ∆ reading. Add 4 dB to the number and record
the result as the incremental error in the performance verification
test record as indicated in Table 1-8. The incremental error should
not exceed 0.4 dB/4 dB.
Table 1-8
Cumulative and Incremental Error, Log Mode
Synthesizer/Level
Generator
Nominal Amplitude
dB from Ref
Level
(nominal)
TR Entry Cumulative Error
(MKR ∆ Reading)
TR Entry
(Incremental
Error)
Min. (dB)
Actual (dB)
Max. (dB)
TR Entry
+10 dBm
0
0 (Ref)
0 (Ref)
0 (Ref)
0 (Ref)
+6 dBm
−4
−4.34
1
−3.66
18
+2 dBm
−8
−8.38
2
−7.62
19
−2 dBm
−12
−12.42
3
−11.58
20
−6 dBm
−16
−16.46
4
−15.54
21
−10 dBm
−20
−20.50
5
−19.50
22
−14 dBm
−24
−24.54
6
−23.46
23
−18 dBm
−28
−28.58
7
−27.42
24
−22 dBm
−32
−32.62
8
−31.38
25
−26 dBm
−36
−36.66
9
−35.34
26
−30 dBm
−40
−40.70
10
−39.30
27
−34 dBm
−44
−44.74
11
−43.26
28
−38 dBm
−48
−48.78
12
−47.22
29
−42 dBm
−52
−52.82
13
−51.18
30
−46 dBm
−56
−56.86
14
−55.14
31
−50 dBm
−60
−60.90
15
−59.10
32
−54 dBm
−64
−64.94
16
−63.06
N/A
−58 dBm
−68
−68.98
17
−67.02
N/A
46
Chapter 1
Calibrating
8. Scale Fidelity
Linear Scale
12.Set the synthesizer/level generator controls as follows:
AMPLITUDE ...............................................................+10 dBm
AMPTD INCR ................................................................0.05 dB
13.Set the 1 dB step attenuator to 0 dB attenuation.
14.Press PRESET on the spectrum analyzer, then wait for the preset
routine to finish. Set the spectrum analyzer by pressing the
following keys:
AMPLITUDE, SCALE LOG LIN (LIN)
FREQUENCY, 50, MHz
SPAN, 10, MHz
PEAK SEARCH
MKR FCTN, MK TRACK ON OFF (ON)
SPAN, 50, kHz
Wait for the auto zoom routine to finish, then set the resolution
bandwidth and the video bandwidth by pressing the following keys:
BW
RES BW AUTO MAN, 3, kHz
VID BW AUTO MAN, 30, Hz
15.If necessary, adjust the 1 dB step attenuator attenuation until the
MKR reads approximately 223.6 mV. It may be necessary to
decrease the resolution of the amplitude increment of the
synthesizer/level generator to 0.01 dB to obtain a MKR reading of
223.6 mV ± 0.4 mV.
16.On the synthesizer/level generator, press AMPLITUDE, then use the
increment keys to adjust the amplitude until the spectrum analyzer
MKR amplitude reads 223.6 mV ±0.4 mV.
17.On the spectrum analyzer, press PEAK SEARCH, MKR FCTN, MK
TRACK ON OFF (OFF).
18.Set the synthesizer/level generator amplitude increment to 3 dB.
19.On the synthesizer/level generator, press AMPLITUDE, then
increment down to step the synthesizer/level generator to the next
lowest Nominal Amplitude listed in Table 1-9.
20.Record the MKR amplitude reading in the performance verification
test record as indicated in Table 1-9. The MKR amplitude should be
within the limits shown.
Chapter 1
47
Calibrating
8. Scale Fidelity
21.Repeat steps 21 and 22 for the remaining synthesizer/level
generator Nominal Amplitudes listed in Table 1-9.
22.Set the 10 dB step attenuator to 10 dB attenuation and the 1 dB step
attenuator to 0 dB attenuation.
Table 1-9
Scale Fidelity, Linear Mode
Synthesizer/Level
Generator
Nominal Amplitude
% of
Ref Level
(nominal)
MKR Reading
Min. (mV)
TR Entry
Max. (mV)
+10 dBm
100
0 (Ref)
0 (Ref)
0 (Ref)
+7 dBm
70.7
151.59
33
165.01
+4 dBm
50
105.36
34
118.78
+1 dBm
35.48
72.63
35
86.05
−2 dBm
25
49.46
36
62.88
Log to Linear Switching
23.Set the synthesizer controls as follows:
FREQUENCY ................................................................50 MHz
AMPLITUDE .................................................................+6 dBm
24.On the spectrum analyzer, press PRESET, then wait for the preset
routine to finish. Set the spectrum analyzer by pressing the
following keys:
FREQUENCY, 50, MHz
SPAN, 10, MHz
BW, 300, kHz
25.On the spectrum analyzer, press the following keys:
PEAK SEARCH
MKR →, MARKER →REF LVL
PEAK SEARCH
26.Record the peak marker reading in Log mode below.
Log Mode Amplitude Reading _________ dBm
27.Press AMPLITUDE, SCALE LOG LIN (LIN) to change the scale to
linear, then press More 1 of 2, Amptd Units, and dBm to set the
amplitude units to dBm.
28.Press PEAK SEARCH, then record the peak marker amplitude
reading in linear mode.
Linear Mode Amplitude Reading _________ dBm
48
Chapter 1
Calibrating
8. Scale Fidelity
29.Subtract the Linear Mode Amplitude Reading from the Log Mode
Amplitude Reading, then record this value as the Log/Linear Error.
Log/Linear Error _________ dB
30.If the Log/Linear Error is less than 0 dB, record this value as TR
Entry 37 in the performance verification test record. The absolute
value of the reading should be less than 0.25 dB. If the Log/Linear
Error is greater than 0 dB, continue with the next step.
31.On the spectrum analyzer, press the following keys:
MKR →, MARKER →REF LVL
PEAK SEARCH
32.Record the peak marker amplitude reading in linear mode.
Linear Mode Amplitude Reading _________ dBm
33.On the spectrum analyzer, press the following keys:
AMPLITUDE, SCALE LOG LIN (LOG)
PEAK SEARCH
34.Record the peak marker reading in Log mode below.
Log Mode Amplitude Reading _________ dBm
35.Subtract the Log Mode Amplitude Reading from the Linear Mode
Amplitude Reading, then record this value as the Linear/Log Error.
Linear/Log Error _________ dB
36.Record the Linear/Log Error as TR Entry 37 in the performance
verification test record. The absolute value of the reading should be
less than 0.25 dB.
Performance test, "Scale Fidelity" is complete.
Chapter 1
49
Calibrating
9. Reference Level Accuracy
9. Reference Level Accuracy
A 50 MHz CW signal is applied to the INPUT 50 Ω of the spectrum
analyzer through two step attenuators. The attenuators increase the
effective amplitude range of the source. The amplitude of the source is
decreased in 10 dB steps and the spectrum analyzer marker functions
are used to measure the amplitude difference between steps. The source
internal attenuator is used as the reference standard. The test is
performed in both log and linear amplitude scales.
It is only necessary to test reference levels as low as −90 dBm (with
10 dB attenuation) since lower reference levels are a function of the
spectrum analyzer microprocessor manipulating the trace data. There
is no error associated with the trace data manipulation.
The related adjustment for this procedure is "A12 Cal Attenuator Error
Correction."
Equipment Required
Synthesizer/level generator
Attenuator, 1 dB steps
Attenuator, 10 dB steps
Cable, BNC 122 cm (48 in) (two required)
Adapter, Type N (m) to BNC (f)
Adapter, BNC (m) to BNC (m)
Procedure
Log Scale
1. Set the synthesizer/level generator controls as follows:
FREQUENCY .................................................................50 MHz
AMPLITUDE ................................................................−10 dBm
AMPTD INCR ...................................................................10 dB
OUTPUT .............................................................................50 Ω
2. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 1-10. Set the 10 dB step
attenuator to 10 dB attenuation and the 1 dB step attenuator to 0 dB
attenuation.
50
Chapter 1
Calibrating
9. Reference Level Accuracy
Figure 1-10
Reference Level Accuracy Test Setup
3. Press PRESET on the spectrum analyzer, then wait for the preset
routine to finish. Set the spectrum analyzer by pressing the
following keys:
FREQUENCY, 50, MHz
SPAN, 10, MHz
PEAK SEARCH
MKR FCTN, MK TRACK ON OFF (ON)
SPAN, 50, kHz
AMPLITUDE, −20, dBm, SCALE LOG LIN (LOG), 1, dB
BW, 3, kHz, VID BW AUTO MAN, 30, Hz
4. Set the 1 dB step attenuator to place the signal peak one to two dB
(one to two divisions) below the reference level.
5. On the spectrum analyzer, press the following keys:
SGL SWP
PEAK SEARCH, MARKER ∆
6. Set the synthesizer/level generator amplitude and spectrum
analyzer reference level according to Table 1-10. At each setting,
press SGL SWP on the spectrum analyzer.
7. Record the MKR ∆ amplitude reading in the performance
verification test record as indicated in Table 1-10. The MKR ∆
reading should be within the limits shown.
Chapter 1
51
Calibrating
9. Reference Level Accuracy
Table 1-10
Reference Level Accuracy, Log Mode
MKR ∆ Reading (dB)
Synthesizer/Level
Generator Amplitude
Spectrum Analyzer
Reference Level
(dBm)
(dBm)
Min.
TR Entry
Max.
−10
−20
0 (Ref)
0 (Ref)
0 (Ref)
0
−10
−0.4
1
+0.4
+10
0
−0.5
2
+0.5
−20
−30
−0.4
3
+0.4
−30
−40
−0.5
4
+0.5
−40
−50
−0.8
5
+0.8
−50
−60
−1.0
6
+1.0
−60
−70
−1.1
7
+1.1
−70
−80
−1.2
8
+1.2
−80
−90
−1.3
9
+1.3
Linear Scale
8. Set the synthesizer/level generator amplitude to −10 dBm.
9. Set the 1 dB step attenuator to 0 dB attenuation.
10.Set the spectrum analyzer controls as follows:
AMPLITUDE, −20, dBm
SCALE LOG LIN (LIN)
AMPLITUDE, More 1 of 2, Amptd Units, dBm
SWEEP, SWEEP CONT SGL (CONT)
MKR, More 1 of 2, MARKER ALL OFF
11.Set the 1 dB step attenuator to place the signal peak one to two
divisions below the reference level.
12.On the spectrum analyzer, press the following keys:
SGL SWP
PEAK SEARCH, MARKER ∆
13.Set the synthesizer/level generator amplitude and spectrum
analyzer reference level according to Table 1-11. At each setting,
press SGL SWP on the spectrum analyzer.
14.Record the MKR ∆ amplitude reading in Table 1-11. The MKR ∆
reading should be within the limits shown.
52
Chapter 1
Calibrating
9. Reference Level Accuracy
Table 1-11
Reference Level Accuracy, Linear Mode
MKR ∆ Reading (dB)
Synthesizer/Level
Generator Amplitude
Spectrum Analyzer
Reference Level
(dBm)
(dBm)
Min.
TR Entry
Max.
−10
−20
0 (Ref)
0 (Ref)
0 (Ref)
0
−10
−0.4
10
+0.4
+10
0
−0.5
11
+0.5
−20
−30
−0.4
12
+0.4
−30
−40
−0.5
13
+0.5
−40
−50
−0.8
14
+0.8
−50
−60
−1.0
15
+1.0
−60
−70
−1.1
16
+1.1
−70
−80
−1.2
17
+1.2
−80
−90
−1.3
18
+1.3
Performance verification test "Reference Level Accuracy" is now
complete.
Chapter 1
53
Calibrating
10. Absolute Amplitude Calibration and Resolution Bandwidth Switching Uncertainties
10. Absolute Amplitude Calibration and
Resolution Bandwidth Switching
Uncertainties
To measure the absolute amplitude calibration uncertainty the input
signal is measured after the self-cal routine is finished.
To measure the resolution bandwidth switching uncertainty an
amplitude reference is taken with the resolution bandwidth set to 3
kHz using the marker-delta function. The resolution bandwidth is
changed to settings between 3 MHz and 1 kHz and the amplitude
variation is measured at each setting and compared to the specification.
The span is changed as necessary to maintain approximately the same
aspect ratio.
The related adjustment procedure for this performance test is "Crystal
and LC Bandwidth Adjustment."
Equipment Required
Cable, BNC, 23 cm (9 in)
Adapter, Type N (m) to BNC (f)
Figure 1-11
Uncertainty Test Setup
Absolute Amplitude Uncertainty
1. Connect the CAL OUT to the spectrum analyzer input using the
BNC cable and adapter, as shown in Figure 1-11.
2. Press PRESET on the spectrum analyzer, then wait for the preset
routine to finish. Set the spectrum analyzer controls by pressing the
following keys:
FREQUENCY, 300, MHz
SPAN, 10, MHz
PEAK SEARCH
54
Chapter 1
Calibrating
10. Absolute Amplitude Calibration and Resolution Bandwidth Switching Uncertainties
MKR FCTN, MK TRACK ON OFF (ON)
SPAN, 50, kHz
BW, 3, kHz
VID BW AUTO MAN, 300, Hz
AMPLITUDE, SCALE LOG LIN (LIN)
More 1 of 3, Amptd Units, then dBm
AMPLITUDE, −20, dBm
3. Press PEAK SEARCH, then record the marker reading in TR Entry 1
of the performance verification test record.
The marker reading should be within −20.15 and −19.85 dB.
Resolution Bandwidth Switching Uncertainty
4. Press PRESET on the spectrum analyzer, then wait for the preset
routine to finish. Set the spectrum analyzer controls by pressing the
following keys:
FREQUENCY, 300, MHz
SPAN, 10, MHz
PEAK SEARCH
MKR FCTN, MK TRACK ON OFF (ON)
SPAN, 50, kHz
AMPLITUDE, −20, dBm
SCALE LOG LIN (LOG), 1, dB
BW, 3, kHz
VID BW AUTO MAN, 1, kHz
5. Press AMPLITUDE and use the knob to adjust the reference level until
the signal appears one division below the reference level, then press
the following keys:
PEAK SEARCH, MARKER ∆
MKR FCTN, MK TRACK ON OFF (ON)
6. Set the spectrum analyzer resolution bandwidth and span according
to Table 1-12.
7. Press PEAK SEARCH, then record the MKR ∆ TRK amplitude
reading in the performance verification test record as indicated in
Table 1-12.
The amplitude reading should be within the limits shown.
8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 for each of the remaining resolution bandwidth
Chapter 1
55
Calibrating
10. Absolute Amplitude Calibration and Resolution Bandwidth Switching Uncertainties
and span settings listed in Table 1-12.
Table 1-12
Resolution Bandwidth Switching Uncertainty
Spectrum Analyzer
MKR ∆ TRK Amplitude Reading
RES BW Setting
SPAN Setting
Min. (dB)
TR Entry
Max. (dB)
3 kHz
50 kHz
0 (Ref)
0 (Ref)
0 (Ref)
1 kHz
50 kHz
−0.5
2
+0.5
9 kHz
50 kHz
−0.4
3
+0.4
10 kHz
50 kHz
−0.4
4
+0.4
30 kHz
500 kHz
−0.4
5
+0.4
100 kHz
500 kHz
−0.4
6
+0.4
120 kHz
500 kHz
−0.4
7
+0.4
300 kHz
5 MHz
−0.4
8
+0.4
1 MHz
10 MHz
−0.4
9
+0.4
3 MHz
10 MHz
−0.4
10
+0.4
Performance test "Resolution Bandwidth Switching Uncertainty" is
now complete.
56
Chapter 1
Calibrating
11. Resolution Bandwidth Accuracy
11. Resolution Bandwidth Accuracy
The output of a synthesizer/level generator is connected to the input of
the spectrum analyzer. Measurements are performed in zero span to
reduce the measurement uncertainty.
The frequency of the synthesizer/level generator is set to the center of
the bandwidth-filter response. The synthesizer output is then reduced
in amplitude by either 3 dB or 6 dB to determine the reference point. A
marker reference is set and the synthesizer output is increased to its
previous level.
The frequency of the synthesizer is reduced then recorded when the
resulting marker amplitude matches the previously set marker
reference. The synthesizer frequency is increased so that it is tuned on
the opposite point on the skirt of the filter response. The frequency is
once again recorded and the difference between the two frequencies is
compared to the specification.
The related adjustments for this performance test are:
CAL AMPTD and CAL FREQ Self-Cal Routines
Crystal and LC Filter Adjustments
Equipment Required
Synthesizer/level generator
Cable, BNC, 122 cm (48 in)
Adapter, Type N (m) to BNC (f)
Figure 1-12
Resolution Bandwidth Accuracy Test Setup
Procedure
1. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 1-12.
Chapter 1
57
Calibrating
11. Resolution Bandwidth Accuracy
3 dB Bandwidths
2. Set the synthesizer/level generator controls as follows:
AMPLITUDE ...................................................................0 dBm
AMPTD INCR .....................................................................3 dB
FREQUENCY ................................................................50 MHz
3. Press PRESET on the spectrum analyzer, then wait for the preset
routine to finish. Set the spectrum analyzer by pressing the
following keys:
FREQUENCY, 50, MHz
SPAN, ZERO SPAN
BW, 3, MHz
VID BW AUTO MAN, 30, Hz
AMPLITUDE, SCALE LOG LIN (LOG), 1, dB
4. On the synthesizer/level generator set MANUAL TUNE ON/OFF to
ON.
5. On the spectrum analyzer press MKR.
6. Adjust the frequency of the synthesizer/level generator for a
maximum marker reading.
It will be necessary to adjust the MANUAL TUNE DIGIT resolution
on the synthesizer/level generator for the best compromise between
tuning speed and resolution.
Adjust the synthesizer/level generator amplitude to place the peak of
the signal at or below the top graticule.
7. On the synthesizer/level generator, press AMPLITUDE and INCR ⇓
(step-down key).
8. Press MARKER ∆ on the spectrum analyzer.
9. On the synthesizer/level generator, press INCR ⇑ (step-up key).
10.On the synthesizer/level generator, press FREQUENCY. Lower the
frequency of the synthesizer/level generator by adjusting the knob
until the marker delta amplitude is 0.0 ± 0.05 dB.
11.Record the synthesizer/level generator frequency readout in
column 1 of Table 1-13.
12.Using the synthesizer/level generator knob, raise the frequency so
that the marker-delta amplitude is maximum. Continue increasing
the frequency until the marker reads 0.0 ± 0.05 dB.
13.Record the synthesizer/level generator frequency readout in
column 2 of Table 1-13.
14.Adjust the synthesizer/level generator frequency for maximum
amplitude.
58
Chapter 1
Calibrating
11. Resolution Bandwidth Accuracy
15.Repeat steps 5 through 14 for each of the RES BW settings listed in
Table 1-13.
16.Subtract the Synthesizer Lower Frequency from the Synthesizer
Upper Frequency. Record the difference as the Resolution
Bandwidth Accuracy, in the performance verification test record as
indicated in Table 1-13.
RES BW Accuracy = Upper Frequency − Lower Frequency
Table 1-13
3 dB Resolution Bandwidth Accuracy
Spectrum Analyzer
RES BW
Column 1 Synthesizer
Lower Frequency
Column 2 Synthesizer
Upper Frequency
TR Entry
(Resolution Bandwidth
Accuracy)
3 MHz
____________________
____________________
1
1 MHz
____________________
____________________
2
300 kHz
____________________
____________________
3
100 kHz
____________________
____________________
4
30 kHz
____________________
____________________
5
10 kHz
____________________
____________________
6
3 kHz
____________________
____________________
7
1 kHz
____________________
____________________
8
6 dB EMI Bandwidths
17.Set the synthesizer/level generator AMPTD INCR to 6 dB.
18.On the spectrum analyzer, press the following keys:
BW, EMI BW MENU, 9 kHz EMI BW
MKR, MARKER NORMAL
19.On the synthesizer/level generator, press FREQUENCY. Adjust the
frequency for a maximum marker reading.
20.On the synthesizer/level generator, press AMPLITUDE and INCR ⇓
(step-down key).
21.Press MARKER DELTA on the spectrum analyzer.
22.On the synthesizer/level generator, press INCR ⇑ (step-up key).
23.On the synthesizer/level generator, press FREQUENCY. Lower the
frequency of the synthesizer/level generator by adjusting the knob
until the marker-delta amplitude is 0.0 ± 0.05 dB.
Chapter 1
59
Calibrating
11. Resolution Bandwidth Accuracy
24.Record the synthesizer/level generator frequency readout in
column 1 of Table 1-14.
25.Using the synthesizer/level generator knob, increase the frequency
so that the marker-delta amplitude is maximum. Continue
increasing the frequency until the marker reads 0.0 ± 0.05 dB.
26.Record the synthesizer/level generator frequency readout in
column 2 of Table 1-14.
27.Adjust the synthesizer/level generator frequency for maximum
marker amplitude.
28.Repeat steps 18 through 26 for the 120 kHz EMI RES BW.
29.Subtract the Synthesizer Lower Frequency from the Synthesizer
Upper Frequency. Record the difference as the Resolution
Bandwidth Accuracy, in the performance verification test record as
indicated in Table 1-14.
RES BW Accuracy = Upper Frequency − Lower Frequency
Table 1-14
EMI Resolution Bandwidth Accuracy
Spectrum Analyzer
RES BW
Column 1 Synthesizer
Lower Frequency
Column 2 Synthesizer
Upper Frequency
TR Entry
(Resolution Bandwidth
Accuracy)
9 kHz
__________________
__________________
9
120 kHz
__________________
__________________
10
Performance test "Resolution Bandwidth Accuracy" is now complete.
60
Chapter 1
Calibrating
12. Calibrator Amplitude Accuracy
12. Calibrator Amplitude Accuracy
This test measures the accuracy of the spectrum analyzer CAL OUT
signal. The first part of the test characterizes the insertion loss of a
Low-Pass Filter (LPF) and 10 dB Attenuator. The harmonics of the CAL
OUT signal are suppressed with the LPF before the amplitude accuracy
is measured using a power meter.
Calibrator Frequency is not included in this procedure because it is a
function of the Frequency Reference (CAL OUT Frequency = 300 MHz ±
[300 MHz × Frequency Reference]). Perform the 10 MHz Frequency
Reference Output Accuracy test (Test 1 for standard or Test 2 for an
Option 004) to verify the CAL OUT frequency.
The related adjustment for this performance test is the "Calibrator
Amplitude Adjustment."
Equipment Required
Synthesized sweeper
Measuring receiver (used as a power meter)
Power meter
Power sensor, low power with a 50 MHz reference attenuator
Power sensor, 100 kHz to 1800 MHz
Power splitter
10 dB attenuator, Type N (m to f), dc-12.4 GHz
Filter, low pass (300 MHz)
Cable, Type N, 152 cm (60 in)
Adapter, APC 3.5 (f) to Type N (f)
Adapter, Type N (f) to BNC (m) (two required)
Adapter, Type N (m) to BNC (f)
Procedure
This performance test consists of two parts:
Part 1: LPF, Attenuator and Adapter Insertion Loss
Characterization
Part 2: Calibrator Amplitude Accuracy
Perform "Part 1: LPF, Attenuator and Adapter Insertion Loss
Characterization" before "Part 2: Calibrator Amplitude Accuracy."
A worksheet is provided at the end of this procedure for calculating the
corrected insertion loss and the calibrator amplitude accuracy.
Chapter 1
61
Calibrating
12. Calibrator Amplitude Accuracy
Part 1: LPF, Attenuator and Adapter Insertion Loss
Characterization
1. Zero and calibrate the measuring receiver and 100 kHz to 1800 MHz
power sensor in LOG mode as described in the measuring receiver
operation manual.
CAUTION
Do not attempt to calibrate the low-power power sensor without the
reference attenuator or damage to the low-power power sensor will
occur.
2. Zero and calibrate the power meter and low-power power sensor, as
described in the power meter operation manual.
3. Press INSTRUMENT PRESET on the synthesized sweeper, then set
the controls as follows:
CW ...............................................................................300 MHz
POWER LEVEL ...........................................................−15 dBm
Figure 1-13
LPF Characterization
4. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 1-13. Connect the
low-power power sensor directly to the power splitter (bypass the
LPF, attenuator, and adapters). Wait for the power sensor to settle
before proceeding with the next step.
62
Chapter 1
Calibrating
12. Calibrator Amplitude Accuracy
5. On the measuring receiver, press RATIO mode. The power indication
should be 0 dB.
6. On the power meter, press the dB REF mode key. The power
indication should be 0 dB.
7. Connect the LPF, attenuator and adapters as shown in Figure 1-13.
8. Record the measuring receiver reading in dB in the worksheet as the
Mismatch Error. This is the relative error due to mismatch.
9. Record the power meter reading in dB in the worksheet as the
Uncorrected Insertion Loss. This is the relative uncorrected
insertion loss of the LPF, attenuator and adapters.
10.Subtract the Mismatch Error (step 8) from the Uncorrected
Insertion Loss (step 9). This is the corrected insertion loss. Record
this value in the worksheet as the Corrected Insertion Loss.
Example: If the Mismatch Error is +0.3 dB and the Uncorrected
Insertion Loss is −10.2 dB, subtract the mismatch error from the
insertion loss to yield a corrected reading of −10.5 dB.
Part 2: Calibrator Amplitude Accuracy
Perform "Part 1: LPF, Attenuator and Adapter Insertion Loss
Characterization" before performing this procedure.
Figure 1-14
Calibrator Amplitude Accuracy Test Setup
Chapter 1
63
Calibrating
12. Calibrator Amplitude Accuracy
1. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 1-14. The spectrum
analyzer should be positioned so that the setup of the adapters, LPF
and attenuator do not bind. It may be necessary to support the
center of gravity of the devices.
2. On the power meter, press the dBm mode key. Record the power
meter reading in dBm in the worksheet as the Power Meter Reading.
3. Subtract the Corrected Insertion Loss (step 10) from the Power
Meter Reading (step 9).
CAL OUT Power = Power Meter Reading − Corrected Insertion Loss
Example: If the Corrected Insertion Loss is −10.0 dB, and the
measuring receiver reading is −30 dB, then (−30 dB) − (−10.0 dB) =
−20 dB
4. Record this value as TR Entry 1 of the performance verification test
record as the CAL OUT power. The CAL OUT should be −20 dBm
±0.4 dB.
Calibrator Amplitude Accuracy Worksheet
Description
64
Measurement
Mismatch Error
_________________ dB
Uncorrected Insertion Loss
_________________ dB
Corrected Insertion Loss
_________________ dB
Power Meter Reading
_______________ dBm
Chapter 1
Calibrating
13. Frequency Response
13. Frequency Response
The RF INPUT coupling is first set to the dc coupled mode. The output
of the synthesized sweeper is fed through a power splitter to a power
sensor and the spectrum analyzer. The synthesized sweeper's power
level is adjusted at 300 MHz to place the displayed signal at the
analyzer center horizontal graticule line. The measuring receiver, used
as a power meter, is placed in RATIO mode. At each new sweeper
frequency and analyzer center frequency setting, the sweeper's power
level is adjusted to place the signal at the center horizontal graticule
line. The measuring receiver displays the inverse of the frequency
response relative to 300 MHz (CAL OUT frequency).
The related adjustment for this performance verification test is:
Frequency Response Adjustment
Equipment Required
Synthesized sweeper
Measuring receiver (used as a power meter)
Synthesizer/level generator
Power sensor, 50 MHz to 2.9 GHz
Power splitter
Termination, 50 Ω
Adapter, Type N (m) to APC 3.5 (m)
Adapter, Type N (f) to APC 3.5 (m)
Adapter, 3.5 mm (f) to 3.5mm (f)
Cable, BNC, 122 cm (48 in)
Cable, APC 3.5, 91 cm (36 in)
Chapter 1
65
Calibrating
13. Frequency Response
Figure 1-15
Frequency Response Test Setup, ≥50 MHz
Procedure
1. Zero and calibrate the measuring receiver and 50 MHz to 2.9 GHz
power sensor in log mode as described in the measuring receiver
operation manual.
2. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 1-15.
3. Press INSTRUMENT PRESET on the synthesized sweeper, then set
the controls as follows:
CW ...............................................................................300 MHz
FREQ STEP .................................................................100 MHz
POWER LEVEL ............................................................. −8 dBm
4. On the spectrum analyzer, press PRESET. Wait for the preset to
finish, then set the spectrum analyzer controls by pressing the
following keys:
FREQUENCY, 300, MHz
CF STEP AUTO MAN, 100, MHz
SPAN, 5, MHz
AMPLITUDE, −10, dBm
SCALE LOG LIN (LOG), 1, dB
AMPLITUDE, More 1 of 3, More 2 of 3, COUPLE AC DC (DC)
BW, 1, MHz
VID BW AUTO MAN, 10, kHz
66
Chapter 1
Calibrating
13. Frequency Response
5. On the spectrum analyzer, press PEAK SEARCH, SIGNAL
TRACK (ON).
6. Adjust the synthesized sweeper power level for a MKR-TRK
amplitude reading of −14 dBm ±0.1 dB.
7. Set the power sensor cal factor for the measuring receiver, then
press RATIO.
8. Set the synthesized sweeper CW to 50 MHz.
9. Press FREQUENCY, 50, MHz on the spectrum analyzer.
10.Adjust the synthesized sweeper power level for a spectrum analyzer
MKR-TRK amplitude reading of −14 dBm ±0.1 dB.
11.Set the power sensor cal factor for the measuring receiver, then
record the power ratio displayed on the measuring receiver below.
Record the negative of the power ratio in Table 1-15.
Measuring Receiver Reading at 50 MHz_________ dB
12.Set the synthesized sweeper CW to 100 MHz.
13.Press FREQUENCY, 100 MHz on the spectrum analyzer.
14.Adjust the synthesized sweeper power level for a spectrum analyzer
MKR-TRK amplitude reading of −14 dBm ±0.1 dB.
15.Set the power sensor cal factor for the measuring receiver, then
record the negative of the power ratio displayed on the measuring
receiver in Table 1-15 as the Measuring Receiver Reading at
100 MHz.
16.On the synthesized sweeper, press CW, ⇑ (step up).
17.On the spectrum analyzer, press FREQUENCY, ⇑ (step up) to step
through the remaining frequencies listed in Table 1-15.
At each new frequency repeat steps 14 through 16, entering the
power sensor's Cal Factor into the measuring receiver as indicated in
Table 1-15.
Chapter 1
67
Calibrating
13. Frequency Response
Figure 1-16
Frequency Response Test Setup, <50 MHz
18.Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 1-16, with the power
sensor connected to power splitter.
19.Set the synthesizer/level generator controls as follows:
FREQUENCY ................................................................50 MHz
AMPLITUDE ................................................................. −8 dBm
AMPTD INCR ................................................................0.05 dB
20.On the spectrum analyzer, press MKR, MARKERS OFF, then set the
controls by pressing the following keys:
FREQUENCY, 50, MHz
SPAN, 100, kHz
BW, 10, kHz
21.Enter the power sensor's 50 MHz Cal Factor into the measuring
receiver.
22.Adjust the synthesizer/level generator amplitude until the
measuring receiver display reads the same value as recorded in step
11. Record the synthesizer/level generator amplitude here and in
Table 1-16.
Synthesizer/Level Generator Amplitude Setting (50 MHz) _________ dBm
23.Replace the power sensor with the 50 Ω termination.
68
Chapter 1
Calibrating
13. Frequency Response
24.Press the following spectrum analyzer keys:
PEAK SEARCH
MKR FCTN, MK TRACK ON OFF (ON)
MKR, MARKER ∆
25.Set the spectrum analyzer center frequency and the
synthesizer/level generator frequency to the frequencies listed in
Table 1-16. At each frequency, adjust the synthesizer/level generator
amplitude for a MKR ∆-TRK amplitude reading of 0.00 ±0.05 dB.
Record the synthesizer/level generator amplitude setting in
Table 1-16 as the Synthesizer/Level Generator Amplitude.
26.For each of the frequencies in Table 1-16, subtract the
Synthesizer/Level Generator Amplitude Reading (column 2) from
the Synthesizer/Level Generator Amplitude Setting (50 MHz)
recorded in step 20. Record the result as the Response Relative to
50 MHz (column 3) of Table 1-16.
27.Add to each of the Response Relative to 50 MHz entries in Table 1-16
the Measuring Receiver Reading for 50 MHz listed in Table 1-15.
Record the results as the Response Relative to 300 MHz (column 4)
in Table 1-16.
28.Record the test results in the performance verification test record by
performing the following steps:
a. Enter the most positive number from Table 1-16, column 4:
_________ dB
b. Enter the most positive number from Table 1-15, column 2:
_________ dB
c. Enter the more positive of numbers from (a) and (b) as TR Entry 1
of the performance verification test record. (Absolute referenced
to 300 MHz.)
d. Enter the most negative number from Table 1-16, column 4:
_________ dB
e. Enter the most negative number from Table 1-15, column 2:
_________ dB
f. Enter the more negative of numbers from (d) and (e) as
TR Entry 2 of the performance verification test record.
g. Subtract (f) from (c), then enter this value as TR Entry 3 of the
performance verification test record. (Relative flatness.)
Chapter 1
69
Calibrating
13. Frequency Response
Frequency Response, ≥50 MHz
Table 1-15
Column 1
Frequency
(MHz)
Column 2
Measuring
Receiver
Reading (dB)
Column 3
CAL FACTOR
Frequency (GHz)
Column 1
Frequency
(MHz)
Column 2
Measuring
Receiver
Reading (dB)
Column 3
CAL FACTOR
Frequency (GHz)
50
_____________
0.05
1500
_____________
2.0
100
_____________
0.05
1600
_____________
2.0
200
_____________
0.05
1700
_____________
2.0
300
_____________
0.05
1800
_____________
2.0
400
_____________
0.05
1900
_____________
2.0
500
_____________
0.05
2000
_____________
2.0
600
_____________
0.05
2100
_____________
2.0
700
_____________
0.05
2200
_____________
2.0
800
_____________
0.05
2300
_____________
2.0
900
_____________
0.05
2400
_____________
2.0
1000
_____________
0.05
2500
_____________
3.0
1100
_____________
2.0
2600
_____________
3.0
1200
_____________
2.0
2700
_____________
3.0
1300
_____________
2.0
2800
_____________
3.0
1400
_____________
2.0
2900
_____________
3.0
Table 1-16
Frequency Response, <50 MHz
Column 1
Spectrum Analyzer
Synthesizer/Level
Generator Frequency
Column 2
Synthesizer
Level
Generator Amplitude
(dBm)
Column 3
Response Relative
to 50 MHz
Column 4
Response Relative
to 300 MHz
50 MHz
_____________
0 (Reference)
_____________
20 MHz
_____________
_____________
_____________
10 MHz
_____________
_____________
_____________
5 MHz
_____________
_____________
_____________
1 MHz
_____________
_____________
_____________
200 kHz
_____________
_____________
_____________
50 kHz
_____________
_____________
_____________
70
Chapter 1
Calibrating
14. Other Input Related Spurious Responses
14. Other Input Related Spurious Responses
A synthesized source and the spectrum analyzer are set to the same
frequency and the amplitude of the source is set to −20 dBm. A marker
amplitude reference is set on the analyzer. The source is then tuned to
several different frequencies which should generate image, multiple,
and out-of-band responses. At each source frequency, the source
amplitude is set to −20 dBm and the amplitude of the response, if any, is
measured using the analyzer marker function. The marker amplitude
difference is then compared to the specification.
There are no related adjustment procedures for this performance
verification test.
Equipment Required
Synthesized sweeper
Measuring receiver (used as a power meter)
Power sensor, 50 MHz to 2.9 GHz
Power splitter
Adapter, Type N (m) to APC 3.5 (m)
Adapter, APC 3.5 (f) to APC 3.5 (f)
Cable, APC 3.5 male connectors, 91 cm (36 in)
Figure 1-17
Other Input Related Spurious Responses Test Setup
Chapter 1
71
Calibrating
14. Other Input Related Spurious Responses
Procedure
1. Zero and calibrate the measuring receiver and 50 MHz to 2.9 GHz
power sensor in log mode (power reads out in dBm). Enter the power
sensor 2 GHz Cal Factor into the measuring receiver.
2. Press INSTRUMENT PRESET on the synthesized sweeper, then set
the controls as follows:
CW ............................................................................2000 MHz
POWER LEVEL ............................................................−4 dBm
3. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 1-17.
4. On the spectrum analyzer, press PRESET and wait for the preset to
finish. Set the spectrum analyzer by pressing the following keys:
FREQUENCY, 2.0, GHz
SPAN, 1, MHz
AMPLITUDE, −10, dBm
ATTEN AUTO MAN, 0, dB
5. Adjust the synthesized sweeper power level for a −20 dBm ±0.1 dB
reading on the measuring receiver.
6. On the spectrum analyzer, press the following keys:
PEAK SEARCH
MKR FCTN, MK TRACK ON OFF (ON)
SPAN ,200, kHz
Wait for the AUTO ZOOM message to disappear. Press the following
analyzer keys:
PEAK SEARCH, MKR →, MARKER →REF LVL
PEAK SEARCH, MARKER ∆
AMPLITUDE, ⇓ (step-down key)
SGL SWP
7. For each of the frequencies listed in Table 1-17 for a center frequency
of 2.0 GHz, do the following:
a. Set the synthesized sweeper to the listed CW frequency.
b. Enter the appropriate power sensor Cal Factor into the
measuring receiver.
c. Set the synthesized sweeper power level for a −20 dBm reading on
the measuring receiver.
d. Press SGL SWP and wait for completion of a new sweep.
e. On the spectrum analyzer, press PEAK SEARCH and record the
MKR ∆ amplitude reading in Table 1-17 as the actual MKR ∆
Amplitude.
The actual MKR ∆ Amplitude should be less than the maximum
MKR ∆ Amplitude listed in the table.
72
Chapter 1
Calibrating
14. Other Input Related Spurious Responses
Note that the maximum MKR ∆ Amplitude is 10 dB more positive
than the specification. This is due to the 10 dB change in reference
level made in step 6.
8. Record the maximum actual MKR ∆ Amplitude from Table 1-17 as
TR Entry 1 of the performance verification test record.
Table 1-17
Other Input Related Spurious Worksheet
MKR ∆ Amplitude
Spectrum Analyzer Center
Frequency
Synthesized Sweeper CW
Frequency
GHz
MHz
Actual (dBc)
Max (dBc)
2.0
2042.8a
___________
−55
2.0
2642.8a
___________
−55
2.0
9842.8b
___________
−55
2.0
7921.4b
___________
−55
2.0
1820.8c
___________
−55
2.0
278.5c
___________
−55
a. Image Response
b. Out-of-Band Response
c. Multiple Response
Chapter 1
73
Calibrating
15. Spurious Response
15. Spurious Response
This test is performed in two parts. The first part measures second
harmonic distortion; the second part measures third order
intermodulation distortion.
To test second harmonic distortion, a 50 MHz low-pass filter is used to
filter the source output, ensuring that harmonics read by the analyzer
are internally generated and not coming from the source. The distortion
products are measured using the analyzer marker functions.
For third order intermodulation distortion, two signals are combined in
a directional coupler (for isolation) and are applied to the analyzer
input. The power level of the two signals is 8 dB higher than specified,
so the distortion products should be suppressed by 16 dB less than
specified. In this manner, the equivalent Third Order Intercept (TOI) is
measured.
With two −30 dBm signals at the input mixer and the distortion
products suppressed by 70 dBc, the equivalent TOI is +5 dBm (−30 dBm
+ 70 dBc/2). However, if two −22 dBm signals are present at the input
mixer and the distortion products are suppressed by 54 dBc, the
equivalent TOI is also +5 dBm (−22 dBm + 54 dBc/2).
Performing the test with a higher power level maintains the
measurement integrity while reducing both test time and the
dependency upon the source's noise sideband performance.
There are no related adjustment procedures for this performance
verification test.
Equipment Required
Synthesized sweeper (two required)
Measuring receiver (used as a power meter)
Power sensor, 50 MHz to 2.9 GHz
Power splitter
Low-pass filter, 50 MHz
Directional coupler
Cable, APC 3.5 Cable 91 cm (36 in)
Cable, BNC 120 cm (48 in)
Adapter, Type N (m) to APC 3.5 (m)
Adapter, APC 3.5 (f) to APC 3.5 (f) (two required)
Adapter, Type N (f) to APC 3.5 (f)
Adapter, Type N (m) to BNC (f) (two required)
Adapter, Type N (m) to APC 3.5 (f)
Adapter, Type N (f) to BNC (m)
74
Chapter 1
Calibrating
15. Spurious Response
Figure 1-18
Second Harmonic Distortion Test Setup
Procedure
Second Harmonic Distortion
1. Press INSTRUMENT PRESET on the synthesized sweeper, then set
the controls as follows:
CW ................................................................................30 MHz
POWER LEVEL ...........................................................−30 dBm
2. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 1-18.
3. Press PRESET on the spectrum analyzer, then wait for the preset to
finish. Set the spectrum analyzer by pressing the following keys:
FREQUENCY, 30, MHz
SPAN, 1, MHz
AMPLITUDE, −30, dBm
BW, 30, kHz
4. Adjust the synthesized sweeper power level to place the peak of the
signal at the reference level (−30 dBm).
5. Set the spectrum analyzer by pressing the following keys:
BW, 1, kHz
VID BW AUTO MAN, 100, Hz
Chapter 1
75
Calibrating
15. Spurious Response
6. Wait for two sweeps to finish, then press the following spectrum
analyzer keys:
PEAK SEARCH
MKR →, MKR →CF STEP
MKR, MARKER ∆
FREQUENCY
7. Press the ⇑ (step up) key on the spectrum analyzer to step to the
second harmonic (at 60 MHz). Set the reference level to −50 dBm.
Wait for a full sweep to finish, then press PEAK SEARCH.
8. Record the MKR ∆ Amplitude reading as TR Entry 1 of the
performance verification test record.
Note that the maximum MKR ∆ Amplitude Reading is 20 dB higher
than the specification. This is a result of changing the reference level
from −30 dBm to −50 dBm.
Figure 1-19
Third-Order Intermodulation Distortion Test Setup
Third Order Intermodulation Distortion
9. Zero and calibrate the measuring receiver and 50 MHz to 2.9 GHz
power sensor combination in log mode (RF power readout in dBm).
Enter the power sensor 3 GHz Cal Factor into the measuring
receiver.
10.Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 1-19 with the input of
76
Chapter 1
Calibrating
15. Spurious Response
the directional coupler connected to the power sensor.
11.Press INSTRUMENT PRESET on each synthesized sweeper. Set
each of the synthesized sweeper controls as follows:
POWER LEVEL ............................................................−15 dBm
CW (synthesized sweeper #1) ......................................2.800 GHz
CW (synthesized sweeper #2) ...................................2.80005 GHz
RF .......................................................................................OFF
12.On the spectrum analyzer, press PRESET and wait until the preset
routine is finished. Press the following spectrum analyzer keys:
FREQUENCY, 2.8, GHz
SPAN, 1, MHz
AMPLITUDE, −10, dBm
PEAK SEARCH, More 1 of 2, PEAK EXCURSN, 3, dB
DISPLAY, More 1 of 2, THRESHLD ON OFF (ON), −90, dBm
13.On synthesized sweeper #1, set RF on. Adjust the power level until
the measuring receiver reads −12 dBm ±0.05 dB.
14.Disconnect the power sensor from the directional coupler. Connect
the directional coupler directly to the spectrum analyzer INPUT
50 Ω using an adapter (do not use a cable).
15.On the spectrum analyzer, press the following keys:
PEAK SEARCH
MKR FCTN, MK TRACK ON OFF (ON)
SPAN, 200, kHz
Wait for the AUTO ZOOM message to disappear, then press the
following spectrum analyzer keys:
MKR FCTN, MK TRACK ON OFF (OFF)
FREQUENCY, ⇑ (step-up key)
PEAK SEARCH
MKR →, MARKER →REF LVL
16.On synthesized sweeper #2, set RF on. Adjust the power level until
the two signals are displayed at the same amplitude.
17.If necessary, adjust the spectrum analyzer Center Frequency until
the two signals are centered on the display. Press the following
spectrum analyzer keys:
BW 1 kHz
VID BW AUTO MAN, 100, Hz
PEAK SEARCH, MARKER ∆
DISPLAY, DSP LINE ON OFF (ON)
Set the display line to a value 54 dB below the current reference
level setting.
Chapter 1
77
Calibrating
15. Spurious Response
18.The third-order intermodulation distortion products should appear
50 kHz below the lower frequency signal and 50 kHz above the
higher frequency signal. Their amplitude should be less than the
display line. See Figure 1-20.
Figure 1-20
Third Order Intermodulation Distortion
19.If the distortion products can be seen, proceed as follows:
a. On the spectrum analyzer, press MKR →, More 1of 2, PEAK MENU.
b. Repeatedly press PEAK SEARCH until the active marker is on the
desired distortion product.
c. Record the MKR ∆ amplitude reading as TR Entry 2 of the
performance verification test record. The MKR ∆ reading should
be less than the specified limit.
20.If the distortion products cannot be seen, proceed as follows:
a. On each synthesized sweeper, increase the power level by 5 dB.
Distortion products should now be visible at this higher power
level.
b. On the spectrum analyzer, press MKR → and PEAK
MENU.
c. Repeatedly press PEAK SEARCH until the active marker is on one
of the distortion products.
d. On each synthesized sweeper, reduce the power level by 5 dB and
wait for completion of a new sweep.
e. Record the MKR ∆ amplitude reading as TR Entry 2 of the
performance verification test record. The MKR ∆ reading should
be less than the specified limit.
78
Chapter 1
Calibrating
16. Gain Compression
16. Gain Compression
This performance verification test measures gain compression. Two
signals, separated by 3 MHz, are used. First, the test places a −30 dBm
signal at the input of the spectrum analyzer (the spectrum analyzer
reference level is also set to −30 dBm). Then, a 0 dBm signal is applied
to the spectrum analyzer, overdriving its input. The decrease in the first
signal's amplitude (gain compression) caused by the second signal is the
measured gain compression.
For spectrum analyzers equipped with Option 130 the signals are
separated by 10 kHz, then the first signal is kept 10 dB below the
reference level.
There are no related adjustment procedures for this performance test.
Equipment Required
Synthesized sweeper (two required)
Measuring receiver (used as a power meter)
Power sensor, 50 MHz to 2.9 GHz
Directional coupler
Cable, APC 3.5, 91 cm (36 in) (two required)
Adapter, Type N (m) to APC 3.5 (m)
Adapter, APC 3.5 (f) to APC 3.5 (f) (two required)
Figure 1-21
Gain Compression Test Setup
Chapter 1
79
Calibrating
16. Gain Compression
Procedure
Gain Compression, <2.9 GHz
1. Zero and calibrate the measuring receiver and 50 MHz to 2.9 GHz
power sensor combination in log mode (power reads out in dBm) as
described in the measuring receiver operation manual. Enter the
power sensor 2 GHz Cal Factor into the measuring receiver.
2. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 1-21, with the output of
the directional coupler connected to the power sensor.
3. Press INSTRUMENT PRESET on both synthesized sweepers.
4. Set synthesized sweeper #1 controls as follows:
CW ............................................................................2.003 GHz
POWER LEVEL ...............................................................0 dBm
5. Set synthesized sweeper #2 controls as follows:
CW ...............................................................................2.0 GHz
AMPLITUDE ..............................................................−14 dBm
6. On the spectrum analyzer, press PRESET, then wait for the preset
routine to finish. Press the spectrum analyzer keys as follows:
FREQUENCY, 2.0, GHz
SPAN, 20, MHz
AMPLITUDE, REF LVL, 30, −dBm
SCALE LOG LIN (LOG), 1, dB
BW, RES BW AUTO MAN, 300, kHz
7. On synthesized sweeper #1, adjust the power level for a 0 dBm
reading on the measuring receiver. Set RF to off.
The power level applied to the spectrum analyzer input is 10 dB
greater than the specification to account for the 10 dB attenuation
setting. A power level of 0 dBm at the spectrum analyzer input
yields −10 dBm at the input mixer.
8. Disconnect the power sensor from the directional coupler and
connect the directional coupler to the INPUT 50 Ω connector of the
spectrum analyzer using an adapter. Do not use a cable.
9. On the spectrum analyzer, press the following keys:
PEAK SEARCH
MKR FCTN, MK TRACK ON OFF (ON)
SPAN, 10, MHz
Wait for the AUTO ZOOM routine to finish.
10.On synthesized sweeper #2, adjust the power level to place the
signal 1 dB below the spectrum analyzer reference level.
80
Chapter 1
Calibrating
16. Gain Compression
11.On the spectrum analyzer, press PEAK SEARCH, then MARKER ∆.
12.On synthesized sweeper #1, set RF to ON.
13.On the spectrum analyzer, press PEAK SEARCH, then NEXT PEAK.
The active marker should be on the lower amplitude signal and not
on the signal that is off the top of the screen. If it is not on the lower
amplitude signal, reposition the marker to this peak using the
spectrum analyzer knob.
14.Read the MKR ∆ amplitude and record in the performance
verification test record as TR Entry 1. The absolute value of this
amplitude should be less than 0.5 dB.
Chapter 1
81
Calibrating
17. Displayed Average Noise Level
17. Displayed Average Noise Level
This performance test measures the displayed average noise level
within the frequency range specified. The spectrum analyzer input is
terminated in 50 Ω.
The test tunes the spectrum analyzer frequency across the band, uses
the marker to locate the frequency with the highest response, and then
reads the average noise in zero span.
To reduce measurement uncertainty due to input attenuator switching
and resolution bandwidth switching, a reference level offset is added.
The CAL OUT signal is used as the amplitude reference for
determining the amount of offset required. The offset is removed at the
end of the test by pressing PRESET.
The related adjustment for this procedure is "Frequency Response
Adjustment."
Equipment Required
Termination, 50 Ω
Cable, BNC, 23 cm (9 in)
Adapter, Type N (m) to BNC (f)
Figure 1-22
Displayed Average Noise Level Test Setup
82
Chapter 1
Calibrating
17. Displayed Average Noise Level
Procedure
1. Connect a cable from the CAL OUT to the INPUT 50 Ω of the
spectrum analyzer as shown in Figure 1-22.
2. Press PRESET on the spectrum analyzer, then wait for the preset
routine to finish. Set the spectrum analyzer by pressing the
following keys:
FREQUENCY, 300, MHz
SPAN, 10, MHz
AMPLITUDE, −20, dBm
ATTEN AUTO MAN, 0, dB
3. Press the following spectrum analyzer keys:
PEAK SEARCH
MKR FCTN, MK TRACK ON OFF (ON)
SPAN, 100, kHz
Wait for the AUTO ZOOM message to disappear, then press the
following keys:
BW, 1, kHz, VID BW AUTO MAN, 30, Hz
MKR FCTN, MK TRACK ON OFF (OFF)
4. Press SGL SWP, then wait for the completion of a new sweep. Press
the following spectrum analyzer keys:
PEAK SEARCH
AMPLITUDE, More 1 of 3, REF LVL OFFSET
Subtract the MKR amplitude reading from −20 dBm and enter the
result as the REF LVL OFFSET. For example, if the marker reads
−20.21 dBm, enter +0.21 dB (−20 dBm − (−20.21 dBm) = +0.21 dB).
REF LVL OFFSET _________ dB
5. Disconnect the cable from the INPUT 50 Ω connector of the
spectrum analyzer. Connect the 50 Ω termination to the spectrum
analyzer INPUT 50 Ω connector.
Chapter 1
83
Calibrating
17. Displayed Average Noise Level
400 kHz
6. Press the following spectrum analyzer keys:
FREQUENCY, 400, kHz
SPAN, 50, kHz
AMPLITUDE, −90, dBm
TRIG, SWEEP CONT SGL (CONT)
7. Press the following spectrum analyzer keys:
BW, 1, kHz
TRACE, More 1 of 3, DETECTOR PK SP NG (SP)
SGL SWP
Wait for the completion of a new sweep.
8. Press the following spectrum analyzer keys:
DISPLAY, DSP LINE ON OFF (ON)
Adjust the display line so that it is centered on the average trace
noise, ignoring any residual responses (refer to the Residual
Responses verification test for any suspect residuals).
9. Record the display line amplitude setting as TR Entry 1 of the
performance test record as the noise level at 400 kHz. The average
noise level should be less than the specified limit.
4 MHz
10.Press the following spectrum analyzer keys:
FREQUENCY, 4, MHz
SGL SWP
Wait for the completion of a new sweep.
11.Press the following spectrum analyzer keys:
DISPLAY, DSP LINE ON OFF (ON)
Adjust the display line so that it is centered on the average trace
noise, ignoring any residual responses (refer to the Residual
Responses verification test for any suspect residuals).
12.Record the display line amplitude setting as TR Entry 2 of the
performance test record as the noise level at 4 MHz. The average
noise level should be less than the specified limit.
84
Chapter 1
Calibrating
17. Displayed Average Noise Level
5 MHz to 2.9 GHz
13.Press the following spectrum analyzer keys:
FREQUENCY, START FREQ, 5, MHz
STOP FREQ, 2.9, GHz
BW, 1, MHz
VID BW AUTO MAN, 10, kHz
TRIG, SWEEP CONT SGL (CONT)
14.Press FREQUENCY and adjust the start frequency setting, if
necessary, to place the LO feedthrough just off-screen to the left.
15.Press the following spectrum analyzer keys:
SGL SWP
TRACE, CLEAR WRITE A
More 1 of 3, VID AVG ON OFF (ON), 10, Hz
Wait until AVG 10 is displayed to the left of the graticule (the
spectrum analyzer will take ten sweeps, then stop).
16.Press PEAK SEARCH and record the MKR frequency as the
Measurement Frequency in Table 1-18 for 5 MHz to 2.9 GHz.
17.Press the following spectrum analyzer keys:
TRACE, More 1 of 3
VID AVG ON OFF (OFF)
DETECTOR PK SP NG (SP)
AUTO COUPLE, RES BW AUTO MAN (AUTO)
VID BW AUTO MAN (AUTO)
SPAN, 50, kHz
FREQUENCY
18.Set the center frequency to the Measurement Frequency recorded in
Table 1-18 for 5 MHz to 2.9 GHz.
19.Press the following spectrum analyzer keys:
BW, 1, kHz
VID BW AUTO MAN, 30, Hz
SGL SWP.
Wait for the sweep to finish.
20.Press the following spectrum analyzer keys:
DISPLAY, DSP LINE ON OFF (ON)
Adjust the display line so that it is centered on the average trace
noise, ignoring any residual responses (refer to the Residual
Responses verification test for any suspect residuals).
Chapter 1
85
Calibrating
17. Displayed Average Noise Level
21.Record the display line amplitude setting as TR Entry 3 of the
performance test record. The average noise level should be less than
the specified limit.
Table 1-18
86
Displayed Average Noise Level Worksheet
Frequency Range
Measurement
Frequency
TR Entry
(Displayed
Average Noise Level)
400 kHz
400 kHz
1
4 MHz
4 MHz
2
5 MHz to 2.9 GHz
_______________
3
Chapter 1
Calibrating
18. Residual Responses
18. Residual Responses
The spectrum analyzer input is terminated and the spectrum analyzer
is swept from 150 kHz to 5 MHz. Then the spectrum analyzer is swept
in 10 MHz spans throughout the 5 MHz to 2.9 GHz range. Any
responses above the specification are noted.
There are no related adjustment procedures for this performance test.
Equipment Required
Termination, 50 Ω
Adapter, Type N (m) to APC 3.5 (f)
Figure 1-23
Residual Response Test Setup
Procedure
150 kHz to 5 MHz
1. Connect the termination to the spectrum analyzer input as shown in
Figure 1-23.
2. Press PRESET on the spectrum analyzer, then wait for the preset
routine to finish. Press the following spectrum analyzer keys:
PEAK SEARCH
MKR FCTN, MK TRACK ON OFF (ON)
SPAN, 6, MHz
Wait for the AUTO ZOOM message to disappear, then press MKR FCTN,
MK TRACK ON OFF (OFF).
Chapter 1
87
Calibrating
18. Residual Responses
3. Press FREQUENCY, then adjust the center frequency until the LO
feedthrough peak is on the left-most vertical graticule line. Set the
spectrum analyzer by pressing the following keys:
PEAK SEARCH, MARKER ∆, 150, kHz
MKR, MARKER NORMAL
AMPLITUDE, REF LVL, −60, dBm
ATTEN AUTO MAN, 0, dB
BW, RES BW AUTO MAN, 3, kHz
VID BW AUTO MAN, 1, kHz
DISPLAY, DSP LINE ON OFF (ON), −90, dBm
4. Press SGL SWP and wait for a new sweep to finish. Look for any
residual responses at or above the display line, to the right of the
marker.
If a residual is suspected, press SGL SWP again. A residual response
will persist on successive sweeps, but a noise peak will not. Note the
frequency and amplitude of any residual responses above the display
line and to the right of the marker in Table 1-19.
5 MHz to 2.9 GHz
5. Press PRESET on the spectrum analyzer, then wait for the preset
routine to finish. Press the following keys:
FREQUENCY, 10, MHz
FREQUENCY, CF STEP SIZE AUTO MAN, 9.8, MHz
SPAN, 10, MHz
AMPLITUDE, REF LVL, −60, dBm
ATTEN AUTO MAN, 0, dBm
BW, RES BW AUTO MAN, 10, kHz
VID BW AUTO MAN, 3, kHz
DISPLAY, DSP LINE ON OFF, −90, dBm
6. Press SGL SWP and wait for a new sweep to finish. Look for any
residual responses at or above the display line.
If a residual is suspected, press SGL SWP again. A residual response
will persist on successive sweeps, but a noise peak will not. Note the
frequency and amplitude of any residual responses above the display
line in Table 1-19.
7. Press FREQUENCY, ⇑ (step-up key), to step to the next frequency and
repeat step 6.
8. Repeat step 7 until the range from 5 MHz to 2.9 GHz has been
checked. (This requires 295 additional frequency steps.)
9. Record the highest residual from Table 1-19 as TR Entry 1 in the
performance verification test record. If no residuals are found, then
record "N/A" in the performance verification test record.
88
Chapter 1
Calibrating
18. Residual Responses
Table 1-19
Residual Responses above Display Line Worksheet
Frequency
(MHz)
Amplitude
(dBm)
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
________________
Chapter 1
89
Calibrating
Performance Verification Test Record
Performance Verification Test Record
Table 1-20
HP 8594L Performance Verification Test Record
Hewlett-Packard Company
Address:
Report No. ____________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
Date ________________________
_________________________________________________
(e.g. 10 SEP 1989)
Model HP 8594L
Serial No. ____________________________
Options ______________________________
Firmware Revision ____________________
Customer ____________________________
Tested by __________________________
Ambient temperature ___________________°C
Relative humidity ___________________ %
Power mains line frequency ____________________Hz (nominal)
Test Equipment Used:
Description
Model No.
Trace No.
Cal Due Date
Frequency Counter
_____________
________________
_____________
Frequency Standard
_____________
________________
_____________
Low Pass Filter, 50 MHz
_____________
________________
_____________
Low Pass Filter, 300 MHz
_____________
________________
_____________
Measuring Receiver
_____________
________________
_____________
Microwave Frequency Counter
_____________
________________
_____________
Power Meter
_____________
________________
_____________
Power Sensor
_____________
________________
_____________
Power Sensor
_____________
________________
_____________
Power Splitter
_____________
________________
_____________
Signal Generator
_____________
________________
_____________
Synthesized Sweeper
_____________
________________
_____________
Synthesizer/Function Generator
_____________
________________
_____________
Synthesizer/Level Generator
_____________
________________
_____________
Termination, 50 Ω
_____________
________________
_____________
Notes/Comments:
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
90
Chapter 1
Calibrating
Performance Verification Test Record
Table 1-21
HP 8594L Performance Verification Test Record (page 2 of 6)
Hewlett-Packard Company Model
HP 8594L
Serial No. ____________________________
Report No. _____________________________________
Date _________________________________________________
Test Description
Results Measured
Min.
1.
(TR Entry
Max.
Measurement
Uncertainty
10 MHz Reference
Output Accuracy
Frequency Error
Settability
2.
−150 Hz
(1)_______________
+150 Hz
±4.2 × 10−9
Frequency Readout and
Marker Count Accuracy
Frequency Readout Accuracy
Frequency (MHz)
Frequency = 1.5 GHz
SPAN
20 MHz
1.49918
(1)_______________
1.50082
±1.0 Hz
10 MHz
1.49958
(2) _______________
1.50042
±1.0 Hz
1 MHz
1.4999680
(3)_______________
1.500032
±1.0 Hz
(CNT RES = 100 Hz) 20MHz
1.4999989
(4)_______________
1.5000011
±1.0 Hz
(CNT RES = 10 Hz) 1 MHz
1.49999989
(5)_______________
1.50000011
±1.0 Hz
Suppression at 10 kHz
(1)_______________
−60 dBc
±1.0 dB
Suppression at 20 kHz
(2)_______________
−70 dBc
±1.0 dB
Suppression at 30 kHz
(3)_______________
−75 dBc
±1.0 dB
Sideband Above Signal
(1)_______________
−65 dBc
±1.0 dB
Sideband Below Signal
(2)_______________
−65 dBc
±1.0 dB
Frequency = 1.5 GHz
SPAN
3.
4.
5.
Noise Sidebands
System Related Sidebands
Frequency Span Readout
Accuracy
MKR ∆ Reading
SPAN
1800 MHz 1446.00 MHz
(1) _______________
1554.00 MHz
±6.37 MHz
10.10 MHz
7.70 MHz
(2)_______________
8.30 MHz
±35.4 kHz
10.00 MHz
7.80 MHz
(3)_______________
8.20 MHz
±35.4 kHz
100.00 kHz
78.00 kHz
(4)_______________
82.00 kHz
±354 Hz
99.00 kHz
78.00 kHz
(5)_______________
82.00 kHz
±354 Hz
10.00 kHz
7.80 kHz
(6)_______________
8.20 kHz
±3.54 Hz
Chapter 1
91
Calibrating
Performance Verification Test Record
Table 1-21
HP 8594L Performance Verification Test Record (page 2 of 6)
Hewlett-Packard Company Model
HP 8594L
Serial No. ____________________________
Report No. _____________________________________
Date _________________________________________________
Test Description
Results Measured
Min.
6.
(TR Entry
250 Hz
±45.8 Hz
Sweep Time Accuracy
MKR ∆ Reading
SWEEP TIME
8.
Measurement
Uncertainty
Residual FM
(1)_______________
7.
Max.
20 ms
15.4 ms
(1) _______________
16.6 ms
±0.057 ms
100 ms
77.0 ms
(2)_______________
83.0 ms
±0.283 ms
1s
770.0 ms
(3)_______________
830.0 ms
±2.83 ms
10 s
7.7 s
(4)_______________
8.3 s
±23.8 ms
Scale Fidelity
Log Mode
Cumulative Error
dB from Ref Level
92
0
0 (Ref)
0 (Ref)
0 (Ref)
−4
−4.34 dB
(1) ______________________
+3.66 dB
±0.06 dB
−8
−8.38 dB
(2) ______________________
−7.62 dB
±0.06 dB
−12
−12.42 dB
(3)______________________
−11.58 dB
±0.06 dB
−16
−16.46 dB
(4) ______________________
−15.54 dB
±0.06 dB
−20
−20.50 dB
(5) ______________________
−19.50 dB
±0.06 dB
−24
−24.54 dB
(6) ______________________
−23.46 dB
±0.06 dB
−28
−28.58 dB
(7) ______________________
−27.42 dB
±0.06 dB
−32
−32.62 dB
(8)______________________
−31.38 dB
±0.06 dB
−36
−36.66 dB
(9) ______________________
−35.34 dB
±0.06 dB
−40
−40.70 dB
(10) ______________________
−39.30 dB
±0.06 dB
−44
−44.74 dB
(11)______________________
−43.26 dB
±0.06 dB
−48
−48.78 dB
(12) ______________________
−47.22 dB
±0.06 dB
−52
−52.82 dB
(13) ______________________
−51.18 dB
±0.06 dB
−56
−56.86 dB
(14) ______________________
−55.14 dB
±0.06 dB
−60
−60.90 dB
(15) ______________________
−59.10 dB
±0.11 dB
−64
−64.94 dB
(16) ______________________
−63.06 dB
±0.11 dB
−68
−68.98 dB
(17)______________________
−67.02 dB
±0.11 dB
Chapter 1
Calibrating
Performance Verification Test Record
Table 1-21
HP 8594L Performance Verification Test Record (page 2 of 6)
Hewlett-Packard Company Model
HP 8594L
Serial No. ____________________________
Report No. _____________________________________
Date _________________________________________________
Test Description
Results Measured
Min.
8.
(TR Entry
Max.
Measurement
Uncertainty
Scale Fidelity (continued)
Log Mode
Incremental Error
dB from Ref Level
0
0 (Ref)
0 (Ref)
0 (Ref)
−4
−0.4 dB
(18)______________________
+0.4 dB
±0.06 dB
−8
−0.4 dB
(19)______________________
+0.4 dB
±0.06 dB
−12
−0.4 dB
(20) ______________________
+0.4 dB
±0.06 dB
−16
−0.4 dB
(21)______________________
+0.4 dB
±0.06 dB
−20
−0.4 dB
(22)______________________
+0.4 dB
±0.06 dB
−24
−0.4 dB
(23) ______________________
+0.4 dB
±0.06 dB
−28
−0.4 dB
(24) ______________________
+0.4 dB
±0.06 dB
−32
−0.4 dB
(25)______________________
+0.4 dB
±0.06 dB
−36
−0.4 dB
(26)______________________
+0.4 dB
±0.06 dB
−40
−0.4 dB
(27)______________________
+0.4 dB
±0.06 dB
−44
−0.4 dB
(28)______________________
+0.4 dB
±0.06 dB
−48
−0.4 dB
(29)______________________
+0.4 dB
±0.06 dB
−52
−0.4 dB
(30)______________________
+0.4 dB
±0.06 dB
−56
−0.4 dB
(31) ______________________
+0.4 dB
±0.06 dB
−60
−0.4 dB
(32)______________________
+0.4 dB
±0.11 dB
100.00
0 (Ref)
0 (Ref)
0 (Ref)
70.70
151.59 mV
(33)______________________
165.01 mV
±1.84 mV
50.00
105.36 mV
(34)______________________
118.78 mV
±1.84 mV
35.48
72.63 mV
(35) ______________________
86.05 mV
±1.84 mV
25.00
49.46 mV
(36)______________________
82.88 mV
±1.84 mV
−0.25 dB
(37)______________________
+0.25 dB
±0.05 dB
Linear Mode
% of Ref Level
Log-to-Linear Switching
Chapter 1
93
Calibrating
Performance Verification Test Record
Table 1-21
HP 8594L Performance Verification Test Record (page 2 of 6)
Hewlett-Packard Company Model
HP 8594L
Serial No. ____________________________
Report No. _____________________________________
Date _________________________________________________
Test Description
Results Measured
Min.
9.
(TR Entry
Max.
Measurement
Uncertainty
Reference Level Accuracy
Log Mode
Reference Level (dBm)
−20
0 (Ref)
−10
−0.40 dB
(1) ______________________
+0.40 dB
±0.06 dB
0
−0.50 dB
(2) ______________________
+0.50 dB
±0.06 dB
−30
−0.40 dB
(3)______________________
+0.40 dB
±0.06 dB
−40
−0.50 dB
(4)______________________
+0.50 dB
±0.08 dB
−50
−0.80 dB
(5)______________________
+0.80 dB
±0.08 dB
−60
−1.00 dB
(6)______________________
+1.00 dB
±0.12 dB
−70
−1.10 dB
(7) ______________________
+1.10 dB
±0.12 dB
−80
−1.20 dB
(8)______________________
+1.20 dB
±0.12 dB
−90
−1.30 dB
(9)______________________
+1.30 dB
±0.12 dB
0 (Ref)
0 (Ref)
Linear Mode
Reference Level (dBm)
94
−20
0 (Ref)
−10
−0.40 dB
(10)______________________
+0.40 dB
±0.06 dB
0
−0.50 dB
(11)______________________
+0.50 dB
±0.06 dB
−30
−0.40 dB
(12)______________________
+0.40 dB
±0.06 dB
−40
−0.50 dB
(13)______________________
+0.50 dB
±0.08 dB
−50
−0.80 dB
(14)______________________
+0.80 dB
±0.08 dB
−60
−1.00 dB
(15)______________________
+1.00 dB
±0.12 dB
−70
−1.10 dB
(16)______________________
+1.10 dB
±0.12 dB
−80
−1.20 dB
(17) ______________________
+1.20 dB
±0.12 dB
−90
−1.30 dB
(18)______________________
+1.30 dB
±0.12 dB
0 (Ref)
0 (Ref)
Chapter 1
Calibrating
Performance Verification Test Record
Table 1-21
HP 8594L Performance Verification Test Record (page 2 of 6)
Hewlett-Packard Company Model
HP 8594L
Serial No. ____________________________
Report No. _____________________________________
Date _________________________________________________
Test Description
Results Measured
Min.
10.
(TR Entry
Max.
Measurement
Uncertainty
Absolute Amplitude
Calibration and Resolution
Bandwidth Switching
Uncertainties
Absolute Amplitude Uncertainty
−20.15 dB
(1) ______________________
−19.85 dB
N/A
Resolution Bandwidth Switching
Uncertainty
Resolution Bandwidth
11.
3 kHz
0 (Ref)
0 (Ref)
0 (Ref)
1 kHz
−0.5 dB
(2)______________________
+0.5 dB
+0.07/−0.08 dB
9 kHz
−0.4 dB
(3)______________________
+0.4 dB
+0.07/−0.08 dB
10 kHz
−0.4 dB
(4)______________________
+0.4 dB
+0.07/−0.08 dB
30 kHz
−0.4 dB
(5)______________________
+0.4 dB
+0.07/−0.08 dB
100 kHz
−0.4 dB
(6)______________________
+0.4 dB
+0.07/−0.08 dB
120 kHz
−0.4 dB
(7)______________________
+0.4 dB
+0.07/−0.08 dB
300 kHz
−0.4 dB
(8)______________________
+0.4 dB
+0.07/−0.08 dB
1 MHz
−0.4 dB
(9)______________________
+0.4 dB
+0.07/−0.08 dB
3 MHz
−0.4 dB
(10)______________________
+0.4 dB
+0.07/−0.08 dB
3 MHz
2.4 MHz
(1) ______________________
3.6 MHz
±138 kHz
1 MHz
0.8 MHz
(2)______________________
1.2 MHz
±46 kHz
300 kHz
240 kHz
(3)______________________
360 kHz
±13.8 kHz
100 kHz
80 kHz
(4)______________________
120 kHz
±4.6 kHz
30 kHz
24 kHz
(5)______________________
36 kHz
±1.38 kHz
10 kHz
8 kHz
(6)______________________
12 kHz
±460 Hz
3 kHz
2.4 kHz
(7)______________________
3.6 kHz
±138 Hz
1 kHz
0.8 kHz
(8)______________________
1.2 kHz
±46 Hz
9 kHz
7.2 kHz
(9)______________________
10.8 kHz
±333 Hz
120 kHz
96 kHz
(10) ______________________
144 kHz
±4.44 kHz
Resolution Bandwidth
Accuracy
3 dB Resolution Bandwidth
6 dB EMI Bandwidth
Chapter 1
95
Calibrating
Performance Verification Test Record
Table 1-21
HP 8594L Performance Verification Test Record (page 2 of 6)
Hewlett-Packard Company Model
HP 8594L
Serial No. ____________________________
Report No. _____________________________________
Date _________________________________________________
Test Description
Results Measured
Min.
12.
Max Negative Response
Peak-to-Peak Response
(1)______________________
−19.6 dBm
±0.2 dB
(1) ______________________
+1.5 dB
+0.32/−0.33 dB
−1.5 dB
(2)______________________
+0.32/−0.33 dB
(3)______________________
2.0 dB
+0.32/−0.33 dB
(1)______________________
−55 dBc
+1.12/−1.21 dB
(1)______________________
−50 dBc
=1.12/−1.21 dB
2.8 GHz
(2) ______________________
−54 dBc
+2.07/−2.42 dB
<2.9 GHz
(1)______________________
0.5 dB
+0.21/−0.22 dB
400 kHz
(1) ______________________
−107 dBm
+1.15/−1.25 dB
4 MHz
(2) ______________________
−107 dBm
+1.15/−1.25 dB
5 MHz to 2.9 GHz
(3)______________________
−112 dBm
+1.15/−1.25 dB
(1)______________________
−90 dBm
+1.09/−1.15 dB
Other Input Related Spurious
Responses
50 kHz to 2.9 GHz
15.
Measurement
Uncertainty
Frequency Response
Max Positive Response
14.
Max.
Calibrator Amplitude
Accuracy
−20.4 dBm
13.
(TR Entry
Spurious Responses
Second Harmonic Distortion
Third Order Intermodulation
Distortion
Frequency
16.
17.
Gain Compression
Displayed Average Noise
Frequency
18.
Residual Responses
150 kHz to 2.9 GHz
96
Chapter 1
Specifications and Characteristics
2
Specifications and
Characteristics
This chapter contains specifications and characteristics for the HP
8594L Spectrum Analyzer.
The specifications and characteristics in this chapter are listed
separately. The specifications are described first and are followed by the
characteristics.
General
General specifications.
Frequency
Frequency-related specifications and characteristics.
Amplitude
Amplitude-related specifications and characteristics.
Physical
Input, output and physical characteristics.
The distinction between specifications and characteristics is described
as follows.
• Specifications describe warranted performance over the temperature
range 0 °C to +55 °C* (unless otherwise noted). The spectrum
analyzer will meet its specifications under the following conditions:
❏ The instrument is within the one year calibration cycle.
❏ 2 hours of storage at a constant temperature within the operating
temperature range.
❏ 30 minutes after the spectrum analyzer is turned on.
❏ After the CAL frequency, and CAL amplitude routines have been
run.
• Characteristics provide useful, but nonwarranted information about
the functions and performance of the spectrum analyzer.
Characteristics are specifically identified.
• Typical Performance, where listed, is not warranted, but indicates
performance that most units will exhibit.
• Nominal Value indicates the expected, but not warranted, value of
the parameter.
*
0 °C to +50 °C with Option 015 or Option 016 operating/carrying
case.
Chapter 2
97
Specifications and Characteristics
General Specifications
General Specifications
All specifications apply over 0 °C to +55 °C unless equipped with Option
015 or 016. The analyzer will meet its specifications after 2 hours of
storage at a constant temperature, within the operating temperature
range, 30 minutes after the analyzer is turned on and after CAL FREQ
and CAL AMPTD have been run.
Temperature Range
Operating
0 °C to +55 °C*
Storage
−40 °C to +75 °C
* 0 °C to +50 °C with Option 015 or Option 016 operating and carrying case.
EMI Compatibility
Conducted and radiated emission is in
compliance with CISPR Pub. 11/1990 Group 1
Class A.
Audible Noise
<37.5 dBA pressure and <5.0 Bels power
(ISODP7779)
Power Requirements
ON (LINE 1)
90 to 132 V rms, 47 to 440 Hz
195 to 250 V rms, 47 to 66 Hz
Power consumption <500 VA; <180 W
Standby (LINE 0)
Environmental Specifications
98
Power consumption <7 W
Type tested to the environmental
specifications of Mil-T-28800 class 5
Chapter 2
Specifications and Characteristics
Frequency Specifications
Frequency Specifications
Frequency Range
dc Coupled
9 kHz to 2.9 GHz
ac Coupled
100 kHz to 2.9 GHz
Frequency Reference
Aging
±2 × 10−6/year
Settability
±0.5 × 10−6
Temperature Stability
±5 × 10−6
Frequency Readout Accuracy
(Start, Stop, Center, Marker)
±(frequency readout × frequency reference
error* + span accuracy + 1% of span + 20% of
RBW + 100 Hz)‡
* frequency reference error = (aging rate × period of time since adjustment + initial achievable
accuracy + temperature stability). See "Frequency Characteristics."
‡
See "Drift" under "Stability" in Frequency Characteristics.
Marker Count Accuracy †
Frequency Span ≤ 10 MHz
±(marker frequency ×frequency reference
error* + counter resolution + 100 Hz)
Frequency Span >10 MHz
±(marker frequency × frequency reference
error* + counter resolution + 1 kHz)
Counter Resolution
Frequency Span ≤ 10 MHz
Selectable from 10 Hz to 100 kHz
Frequency Span > 10 MHz
Selectable from 100 Hz to 100 kHz
* frequency reference error = (aging rate × period of time since adjustment + initial achievable
accuracy and temperature stability). See "Frequency Characteristics."
Marker level to displayed noise level > 25 dB, RBW/Span ≥ 0.01. Span ≤ 300 MHz. Reduce
SPAN annotation is displayed when RBW/Span < 0.01.
†
Frequency Span
Range
0 Hz (zero span), 10 kHz to 2.9 GHz
Resolution
Four digits or 20 Hz, whichever is greater.
Accuracy
Span ≤10 MHz
±2% of span
Span >10 MHz
±3% of span
Frequency Sweep Time
Range
20 ms to 100 s
Accuracy
20 ms to 100 s
±3%
Sweep Trigger
Free Run, Single, Line, Video, External
Chapter 2
99
Specifications and Characteristics
Frequency Specifications
Resolution Bandwidth
Range
1 kHz to 3 MHz, 8 selectable resolution (3 dB)
bandwidths in 1-3-10 sequence. 9 kHz and 120 kHz (6
dB) EMI bandwidths.
Accuracy
3 dB bandwidths
±20%
Stability
Noise Sidebands
(1 kHz RBW, 30 Hz VBW and sample
detector)
>10 kHz offset from CW signal
≤−90 dBc/Hz
>20 kHz offset from CW signal
≤−100 dBc/Hz
>30 kHz offset from CW signal
≤−105 dBc/Hz
Residual FM
1 kHz RBW, 1 kHz VBW
≤250 Hz pk-pk in 100 ms
System-Related Sidebands
>30 kHz offset from CW signal
Calibrator Output Frequency
≤−65 dBc
300 MHz ±(freq. ref. error* × 300 MHz)
* frequency reference error = (aging rate × period of time since adjustment + initial achievable
accuracy + temperature stability). See "Frequency Characteristics."
100
Chapter 2
Specifications and Characteristics
Amplitude Specifications
Amplitude Specifications
−112 dBm to +30 dBm
Amplitude Range
Maximum Safe Input
Level
Average Continuous Power
+30 dBm (1 W, 7.1 V rms), input attenuation ≥10 dB.
Peak Pulse Power
+50 dBm (100 W) for <10 µs pulse width and <1% duty cycle,
input attenuation ≥30 dB.
dc
0 V (dc coupled)
50 V (ac coupled)
Gain Compression
≤0.5 dB (total power at input mixer* −10 dBm)
>10 MHz
* Mixer Power Level (dBm) = Input Power (dBm) − Input Attenuation (dB).
Displayed Average Noise Level
(Input terminated, 0 dB attenuation,
30 Hz VBW, sample detector)
1 kHz RBW
400 kHz to <5 MHz
≤−107 dBm
5 MHz to 2.9 GHz
≤−112 dBm
Spurious Responses
Second Harmonic Distortion
>10 MHz
<−70 dBc for −40 dBm tone at input mixer.*
Third Order Intermodulation
Distortion
>10 MHz
<−70 dBc for two −30 dBm tones at input mixer* and >50
kHz separation.
Other Input Related Spurious
<−65 dBc at ≥30 kHz offset, for −20 dBm tone at input
mixer ≤2.9 GHz.
* Mixer Power Level (dBm) = Input Power (dBm) − Input Attenuation (dB).
Residual Responses
(Input terminated and 0 dB attenuation)
150 kHz to 2.9 GHz
<−90 dBm
Display Range
Log Scale
0 to −70 dB from reference level is calibrated; 0.1, 0.2, 0.5
dB/division and 1 to 20 dB/division in 1 dB steps; eight
divisions displayed.
Linear Scale
eight divisions
Scale Units
dBm, dBmV, dBµV, mV, mW, nV, nW, pW, µV, µW, V, and W
Chapter 2
101
Specifications and Characteristics
Amplitude Specifications
Marker Readout Resolution
0.05 dB for log scale
0.05% of reference level for linear scale
Reference Level
Range
Log Scale
Minimum amplitude to maximum amplitude**
Linear Scale
−99 dBm to maximum amplitude**
Resolution
Log Scale
±0.01 dB
Linear Scale
±0.12% of reference level
Accuracy
(referenced to −20 dBm reference level, 10 dB
input attenuation, at a single frequency, in a
fixed RBW)
0 dBm to −59.9 dBm
±(0.3 dB + 0.01 × dB from −20 dBm)
−60 dBm and below
1 kHz to 3 MHz RBW
±(0.6 dB + 0.01 × dB from −20 dBm)
** See "Amplitude Range."
Frequency Response (dc coupled)
(10 dB input attenuation)
Absolute §
Relative
Flatness †
±1.5 dB
9 kHz to 2.9 GHz
±1.0 dB
†
Referenced to midpoint between highest and lowest frequency response deviations.
§
Referenced to 300 MHz CAL OUT.
Calibrator Output
Amplitude
−20 dBm ±0.4 dB
Absolute Amplitude Calibration Uncertainty ‡‡
±0.15 dB
‡‡
Uncertainty in the measured absolute amplitude of the CAL OUT signal at the reference
settings after CAL FREQ and CAL AMPTD self-calibration. Absolute amplitude reference
settings are: Reference Level −20 dBm; Input Attenuation 10 dB; Center Frequency 300 MHz;
Res BW 3 kHz; Video BW 300 Hz; Scale Linear; Span 50 kHz; Sweep Time Coupled, Top
Graticule (reference level), Corrections ON, DC Coupled.
Input Attenuator
Range
Resolution Bandwidth Switching
Uncertainty
0 to 70 dB, in 10 dB steps
(At reference level, referenced to 3 kHz RBW)
3 kHz to 3 MHz RBW
±0.4 dB
1 kHz RBW
±0.5 dB
Linear to Log Switching
102
±0.25 dB at reference level
Chapter 2
Specifications and Characteristics
Amplitude Specifications
Display Scale Fidelity
Log Maximum Cumulative
0 to −70 dB from Reference Level
3 kHz to 3 MHz RBW
± (0.3 dB + 0.01 × dB from reference level)
RBW ≤ 1 kHz
± (0.4 dB + 0.01 × dB from reference level)
Log Incremental Accuracy
0 to −60 dB from Reference Level
±0.4 dB/4 dB
Linear Accuracy
±3% of reference level
Chapter 2
103
Specifications and Characteristics
Frequency Characteristics
Frequency Characteristics
These are not specifications. Characteristics provide useful but
nonwarranted information about instrument performance.
Frequency Reference
Initial Achievable Accuracy
±0.5 × 10−6
Aging
±1.0 × 10−7/day
Stability
Drift* (after warmup at stabilized temperature)
Frequency Span ≤10 MHz, Free Run
<2 kHz/minute of sweep time
* Because the analyzer is locked at the center frequency before each sweep, drift occurs only
during the time of one sweep. For Line, Video or External trigger, additional drift occurs while
waiting for the appropriate trigger signal.
Resolution Bandwidth (−3 dB)
Range
1 kHz to 3 MHz, selectable in 1, 3 and 10
increments, and 5 MHz. Resolution bandwidths
may be selected manually, or coupled to frequency
span.
Shape
Synchronously tuned four poles. Approximately
Gaussian shape.
60 dB/3 dB Bandwidth Ratio
Resolution Bandwidth
100 kHz to 3 MHz
15:1
30 kHz
16:1
3 kHz to 10 kHz
15:1
1 kHz
16:1
Video Bandwidth (−3 dB)
Range
30 Hz to 1 MHz, selectable in 1, 3, 10 increments, accuracy ±30%
and 3 MHz. Video bandwidths may be selected manually, or
coupled to resolution bandwidth and frequency span.
Shape
Post detection, single pole low-pass filter used to average
displayed noise.
FFT Bandwidth Factors
FLATTOP
HANNING
UNIFORM
3.63×
1.5×
1×
3 dB Bandwidth†
3.60×
1.48×
1×
Sidelobe Height
<−90 dB
−32 dB
−13 dB
Amplitude Uncertainty
0.10 dB
1.42 dB
3.92 dB
2.6
9.1
>300
Noise Equivalent
Bandwidth†
Shape Factor (60 dB BW/3 dB BW)
†
Multiply entry by one-divided-by-sweep time.
104
Chapter 2
Specifications and Characteristics
Amplitude Characteristics
Amplitude Characteristics
These are not specifications. Characteristics provide useful but
nonwarranted information about instrument performance.
Log Scale Switching Uncertainty
Negligible error
Input Attenuation Uncertainty*
Attenuator Setting
0 dB
±0.2 dB
10 dB
Reference
20 dB
±0.4 dB
30 dB
±0.5 dB
40 dB
±0.7 dB
50 dB
±0.8 dB
60 dB
±1.0 dB
70 dB
±1.0 dB
* Referenced to 10 dB input attenuator setting. See the "Amplitude Specifications" table under
“Frequency Response (dc coupled)” on page 102
ac Coupled Insertion Loss‡
100 kHz to 300 kHz
0.7 dB
300 kHz to 1 MHz
0.7 dB
1 MHz to 100 MHz
0.05 dB
100 MHz to 2.9 GHz
0.05 dB + (0.06 × F)† dB
†
F = frequency in GHz.
‡
Referenced to dc coupled mode.
Input Attenuator 10 dB Step Uncertainty
(Attenuator setting 10 to 70 dB)
±0.8 dB/10 dB
Input Attenuator Repeatability
±0.05 dB
RF Input SWR
10 dB attenuation
dc Coupled
ac Coupled
1.15:1
1.4:1
100 kHz to 300 kHz
1.3:1
2.3:1
300 kHz to 1 MHz
1.3:1
1.4:1
1 MHz to 2.9 GHz
1.3:1
1.3:1
300 MHz
10 dB to 70 dB attenuation
Chapter 2
105
Specifications and Characteristics
Amplitude Characteristics
DYNAMIC RANGE
Immunity Testing
Radiated Immunity
Electrostatic
Discharge
106
When tested at 3 V/m according to IEC 801-3/1984 the displayed
average noise level will be within specifications over the full
immunity test frequency range of 27 to 500 MHz except that at
immunity test frequencies of 278.6 MHz ± selected resolution
bandwidth and 321.4 MHz ± selected resolution bandwidth the
displayed average noise level may be up to −45 dBm. When the
analyzer tuned frequency is identical to the immunity test signal
frequency there may be signals of up to −70 dBm displayed on the
screen.
When an air discharge of up to 8 kV according to IEC 801-2/1991
occurs to the shells of the BNC connectors on the rear panel of the
instrument spikes may be seen on the CRT display. Discharges to
center pins of any of the connectors may cause damage to the
associated circuitry.
Chapter 2
Specifications and Characteristics
Physical Characteristics
Physical Characteristics
Front-Panel Inputs and Outputs
INPUT 50Ω
Connector
Type N female
Impedance
50 Ω nominal
PROBE POWER‡
+15 Vdc, ±7% at 150 mA max.
Voltage/Current
−12.6 Vdc ±10% at 150 mA max.
‡
Total current drawn from the +15 Vdc on the PROBE POWER and the AUX INTERFACE
cannot exceed 150 mA. Total current drawn from the −12.5 Vdc on the PROBE POWER and the
−15 Vdc on the AUX INTERFACE cannot exceed 150 mA.
Rear-Panel Inputs and Outputs
10 MHz REF OUTPUT
Connector
BNC female
Impedance
50 Ω nominal
Output Amplitude
>0 dBm
EXT REF IN
Connector
BNC female
Note: Analyzer noise sideband and spurious response
performance may be affected by the quality of the
external reference used.
Input Amplitude Range
−2 to +10 dBm
Frequency
10 MHz
AUX IF OUTPUT
Frequency
21.4 MHz
Amplitude Range
−10 to −60 dBm
Impedance
50 Ω nominal
AUX VIDEO OUTPUT
Connector
BNC female
Amplitude Range
0 to 1 V (uncorrected)
EXT KEYBOARD (Option 041 or 043)
Chapter 2
Interface compatible with HP part number
C1405B using adapter C1405-60015 and most
IBM/AT non-auto switching keyboards.
107
Specifications and Characteristics
Physical Characteristics
EXT TRIG INPUT
Connector
BNC female
Trigger Level
Positive edge initiates sweep in EXT TRIG
mode (TTL).
HI-SWEEP IN/OUT
Connector
BNC female
Output
High = sweep, Low = retrace (TTL)
Input
Open collector, low stops sweep.
MONITOR OUTPUT (Spectrum Analyzer Display)
Connector
BNC female
Format
SYNC NRM
Internal Monitor
SYNC NTSC
NTSC Compatible
15.75 kHz horizontal rate
60 Hz vertical rate
SYNC PAL
PAL Compatible
15.625 kHz horizontal rate
50 Hz vertical rate
REMOTE INTERFACE
HP-IB and Parallel (Option 041)
HP 10833A, B, C or D and 25 pin
subminiature D-shell, female for parallel
HP-IB Codes
SH1, AH1, T6, SR1, RL1, PP0, DC1, C1, C2,
C3 and C28
RS-232 and Parallel (Option 043)
9 pin subminiature D-shell, male for RS-232
and 25 pin subminiature D-shell, female for
parallel
SWEEP OUTPUT
Connector
BNC female
Amplitude
0 to +10 V ramp
108
Chapter 2
Specifications and Characteristics
Physical Characteristics
AUX INTERFACE
Connector Type: 9 Pin Subminiature "D"
Connector Pinout
Pin #
Function
Current
"Logic" Mode
"Serial Bit" Mode
1
Control A
—
TTL Output Hi/Lo
TTL Output Hi/Lo
2
Control B
—
TTL Output Hi/Lo
TTL Output Hi/Lo
3
Control C
—
TTL Output Hi/Lo
Strobe
4
Control D
—
TTL Output Hi/Lo
Serial Data
5
Control I
—
TTL Input Hi/Lo
TTL Input Hi/Lo
6
Gnd
—
Gnd
Gnd
7†
−15 Vdc ±7%
150 mA
—
—
8*
+5 Vdc ±5%
150 mA
—
—
9†
+15 Vdc ±5%
150 mA
—
—
* Exceeding the +5 V current limits may result in loss of factory correction constants.
†
Total current drawn from the +15 Vdc on the PROBE POWER and the AUX INTERFACE
cannot exceed 150 mA. Total current drawn from the −12.6 Vdc on the PROBE POWER and the
−15 Vdc on the AUX INTERFACE cannot exceed 150 mA.
WEIGHT
Net
HP 8594L
16.4 kg (36 lb)
Shipping
HP 8594L
Chapter 2
19.1 kg (42 lb)
109
Specifications and Characteristics
Physical Characteristics
DIMENSIONS
A = 8 in (200 mm)
B = 7.25 in (184 mm)
C = 14.69 in (373 mm)
D = 13.25 in (337 mm)
E = 18.12 in (460.5 mm)
110
Chapter 2
Specifications and Characteristics
Regulatory Information
Regulatory Information
The information on the following pages apply to the HP 8594L
spectrum analyzer products.
IEC Compliance
This instrument has been designed and tested in accordance with IEC
Publication 348, Safety Requirements for Electronic Measuring
Apparatus, and has been supplied in a safe condition. The instruction
documentation contains information and warnings which must be
followed by the user to ensure safe operation and to maintain the
instrument in a safe condition.
Instrument Markings
The CE mark is a registered trademark of the European
Community. (If accompanied by a year, it is when the design
was proven.)
The CSA mark is a registered trademark of the Canadian
Standards Association.
This is a symbol of an Industrial Scientific and Medical Group 1
Class A product.
Notice for Germany: Noise Declaration
LpA < 70 dB
am Arbeitsplatz (operator position)
normaler Betrieb (normal position)
nach DIN 45635 T. 19 (per ISO 7779)
Chapter 2
111
Specifications and Characteristics
Regulatory Information
Declaration of Conformity
112
Chapter 2
If You Have a Problem
Calling HP Sales and Service Offices
3
If You Have a Problem
Your spectrum analyzer is built to provide dependable service. It is
unlikely that you will experience a problem. However,
Hewlett-Packard's worldwide sales and service organization is ready to
provide the support you need.
Calling HP Sales and Service Offices
Sales and service offices are located around the world to provide
complete support for your spectrum analyzer. To obtain servicing
information or to order replacement parts, contact the nearest
Hewlett-Packard Sales and Service office listed in Table 3-1. In any
correspondence or telephone conversations, refer to the spectrum
analyzer by its model number and full serial number. With this
information, the HP representative can quickly determine whether
your unit is still within its warranty period.
Before calling Hewlett-Packard
Before calling Hewlett-Packard or returning the spectrum analyzer for
service, please make the checks listed in “Check the Basics”.
If you still have a problem, please read the warranty printed at the
front of this guide. If your spectrum analyzer is covered by a separate
maintenance agreement, please be familiar with its terms.
Hewlett-Packard offers several maintenance plans to service your
spectrum analyzer after warranty expiration. Call your HP Sales and
Service Office for full details.
If you want to service the spectrum analyzer yourself after warranty
expiration, contact your HP Sales and Service Office to obtain the most
current test and maintenance information.
Chapter 3
113
If You Have a Problem
Check the Basics
Check the Basics
In general, a problem can be caused by a hardware failure, a software
error, or a user error. Often problems may be solved by repeating what
was being done when the problem occurred. A few minutes spent in
performing these simple checks may eliminate time spent waiting for
instrument repair.
❏ Check that the spectrum analyzer is plugged into the proper ac
power source.
❏ Check that the line socket has power.
❏ Check that the rear-panel voltage selector switch is set correctly.
❏ Check that the line fuse is good.
❏ Check that the spectrum analyzer is turned on.
❏ Check that the light above LINE is on, indicating that the power
supply is on.
❏ Check that the other equipment, cables, and connectors are
connected properly and operating correctly.
❏ Check the equipment settings in the procedure that was being used
when the problem occurred.
❏ Check that the test being performed and the expected results are
within the specifications and capabilities of the spectrum analyzer.
Refer to Chapter 2 of this guide.
❏ Check the spectrum analyzer display for error messages. Refer to the
HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series Spectrum Analyzers User’s Guide.
❏ Check operation by performing the verification procedures in
Chapter 1 of this guide. Record all results in the performance test
record.
❏ Check for problems similar to those described in the HP 8590
E-Series and L-Series Spectrum Analyzers User’s Guide.
114
Chapter 3
If You Have a Problem
Check the Basics
Table 3-1
Hewlett-Packard Sales and Service Offices
UNITED STATES
Instrument Support Center
Hewlett-Packard Company
(800) 403-0801
EUROPEAN FIELD OPERATIONS
Headquarters
Hewlett-Packard S.A.
150, Route du Nant-d’Avril
1217 Meyrin 2/ Geneva
Switzerland
(41 22) 780.8111
France
Hewlett-Packard France
1 Avenue Du Canada
Zone D’Activite De Courtaboeuf
F-91947 Les Ulis Cedex
France
(33 1) 69 82 60 60
Germany
Hewlett-Packard GmbH
Hewlett-Packard Strasse
61352 Bad Homburg v.d.H
Germany
(49 6172) 16-0
Great Britain
Hewlett-Packard Ltd.
Eskdale Road, Winnersh Triangle
Wokingham, Berkshire RG41 5DZ
England
(44 118) 9696622
INTERCON FIELD OPERATIONS
Headquarters
Hewlett-Packard Company
3495 Deer Creek Rd.
Palo Alto, CA 94304-1316
USA
(415) 857-5027
Australia
Hewlett-Packard Australia Ltd.
31-41 Joseph Street
Blackburn, Victoria 3130
(61 3) 895-2895
Canada
Hewlett-Packard (Canada) Ltd.
17500 South Service Road
Trans-Canada Highway
Kirkland, Quebec H9J 2X8
Canada
(514) 697-4232
Japan
Hewlett-Packard Japan, Ltd.
9-1 Takakura-Cho, Hachioji
Tokyo 192, Japan
(81 426) 60-2111
Singapore
Hewlett-Packard Singapore (Pte.)
Ltd.
150 Beach Road
#29-00 Gateway West
Singapore 0718
(65) 291-9088
Taiwan
Hewlett-Packard Taiwan
8th Floor, H-P Building
337 Fu Hsing North Road
Taipei, Taiwan
(886 2) 712-0404
China
China Hewlett-Packard Co.
38 Bei San Huan X1 Road
Shuang Yu Shu
Hai Dian District
Beijing, China
(86 1) 256-6888
Chapter 3
115
If You Have a Problem
Returning the Spectrum Analyzer for Service
Returning the Spectrum Analyzer for Service
Use the information in this section if it is necessary to return the
spectrum analyzer to Hewlett-Packard.
Package the spectrum analyzer for shipment
Use the following steps to package the spectrum analyzer for shipment
to Hewlett-Packard for service:
1. Fill in a service tag (available in the HP 8590 E-Series and L-Series
Spectrum Analyzers User’s Guide.) and attach it to the instrument.
Please be as specific as possible about the nature of the problem.
Send a copy of any or all of the following information:
• Any error messages that appeared on the spectrum analyzer
display.
• A completed Performance Test record located in Chapter 1 of this
guide.
• Any other specific data on the performance of the spectrum
analyzer.
CAUTION
Spectrum analyzer damage can result from using packaging materials
other than those specified. Never use styrene pellets in any shape as
packaging materials. They do not adequately cushion the instrument or
prevent it from shifting in the carton.
Styrene pellets cause equipment damage by generating static
electricity and by lodging in the spectrum analyzer fan.
2. Use the original packaging materials or a strong shipping container
that is made of double-walled, corrugated cardboard with 159 kg
(350 lb) bursting strength. The carton must be both large enough
and strong enough to accommodate the spectrum analyzer and allow
at least 3 to 4 inches on all sides of the spectrum analyzer for
packing material.
3. If you have a front-panel cover, install it on the instrument; if not,
protect the front panel with cardboard.
4. Surround the instrument with at least 3 to 4 inches of packing
material, or enough to prevent the instrument from moving in the
carton. If packing foam is not available, the best alternative is
SD-240 Air Cap™ from Sealed Air Corporation (Commerce, CA
90001). Air Cap looks like a plastic sheet covered with 1-1/4 inch
air-filled bubbles. Use the pink Air Cap to reduce static electricity.
Wrap the instrument several times in the material to both protect
the instrument and prevent it from moving in the carton.
116
Chapter 3
If You Have a Problem
Returning the Spectrum Analyzer for Service
5. Seal the shipping container securely with strong nylon adhesive
tape.
6. Mark the shipping container “FRAGILE, HANDLE WITH CARE” to
ensure careful handling.
7. Retain copies of all shipping papers.
Chapter 3
117
If You Have a Problem
Returning the Spectrum Analyzer for Service
118
Chapter 3
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