CWBS Rules
The Gamers, Inc.
Civil War, Brigade Series:
Series Rules v.3.2
©1998. The Gamers, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Series Design: Dean N. Essig
Playtesting, Proofreading and Overburdened: David Combs, Dan Delmerico,
Dave Demko, Jim Dunnam, Sara Essig,
Randy Flowers, Adam Frankl, Carl
Gibeault, Wig Graves, Bruce Hartrunft,
John Kisner, Richard Knaak, Art Majester,
Rod Miller, David Powell, Steve Satterlee,
Jerry Scarborough, Lee Simpson, Larry
Tagg, Roger Taylor, Don Walker, Tod
Willis-Redfern, Mike Wood
...and hundreds of other players who sent in
their questions about the first edition rules.
Table of Contents
A Word to First Edition Users
A Word to 2nd Edition Users
Second Edition Word of Thanks
1.0 The Game Components
1.1 The Game Map
1.2 The Rules
1.3 The Counters
1.4 Set Up Notes
2.0 Beginner’s Note
3.0 Note on Play
4.0 Scale
5.0 General Game Concepts
5.1 The Word “Unit”
5.2 Retreat Rule
6.0 Units
6.1 Troop Units
6.2 Leaders
6.3 Markers
6.4 Extended Line and
Det’d Artillery Markers
6.5 Fire Levels
6.6 Loss Charts, Fire Level Change
6.7 Fire Level Markers
6.8 Morale Markers
6.9 Gun and Supply Point Markers
6.10 Low Ammo and Straggler
Recovery Markers
7.0 General Course of Play
8.0 Turn Sequence
8.1 Outline Sequence of Play
8.2 Narrative Sequence of Play
8.3 Close Combat Subsequence
9.0 Fog of War
10.0 Command and Control
10.1 Orders
10.2 Initiative
10.3 Corps Attack Stoppage
10.4 Emergency Corps Retreat
10.5 Below Corps Command
10.6 Army Command
11.0 Formations
11.1 Available Formations
11.2 Effects on Movement
11.3 Effects on Fire Combat
11.4 Effects on Morale
12.0 Stacking
12.1 Restrictions on Stacking
12.2 Effects on Movement
12.3 Effects on Combat
12.4 Effects on Morale
12.5 Effects of Over-Stacking
13.0 Facing
13.1 Changing Facing
14.0 Zones of Control
14.1 Effects of EZOCs
14.2 Terrain Effects on ZOCs
15.0 Retreat and Formation Change
Fire Generation
16.0 Movement
16.1 How to Move Units
16.2 Terrain Effects on Movement
16.3 Restrictions on Movement
16.4 Effects of Friendly Units
16.5 Effects of Enemy Units
16.6 Reinforcements
17.0 Extended Line
17.1 Restrictions on Extended Line
17.2 Effects of Extended Line
18.0 Forced March
19.0 Line of Sight (LOS)
19.1 General Rule
19.2 Determining LOS
19.3 Effects and Restrictions
19.4 Visibility
20.0 Fire Combat
20.1 Fire Points
20.2 Plus Weapons Types
20.3 Restrictions on Fire Combat
20.4 Terrain Effects on
Fire Combat
20.5 Combat Results
20.6 Step Losses
20.7 Marking Losses and Stragglers
21.0 Stragglers
21.1 Straggler Checks
21.2 Straggler Recovery
22.0 Wrecked Brigades and Divisions
23.0 Close Combat
23.1 Restrictions
24.0 Morale
24.1 Morale States
24.2 Morale Checks
24.3 Retreats and Rout Through
24.4 Additive Effects
24.5 Rally
25.0 Leaders
25.1 Effect on Stacking
25.2 Effect on Movement
25.3 Effect on Fire Combat
and Morale
25.4 Leader Loss and Replacement
25.5 Division Commander required
Placement and
Command Radius
26.0 Artillery
26.1 Gun Points
26.2 Losses
26.3 Fire Combat and Artillery
26.4 Morale and Artillery
26.5 Stragglers and Artillery
26.6 Formation Change,
Enemy Units, and Fires
27.0 Artillery Supply
27.1 Ammo Points
28.0 Small Arms Supply
28.1 Low Ammo
28.2 Supply Wagons
28.3 Supply Train
28.4 Resupply
29.0 Night
Terms and Abbreviations
Designer’s Notes
Defensive Orders (optional)
The Use of Breastworks (optional)
Hidden Movement (optional)
The Civil War, Brigade Series games
are accurate, readily playable portrayals of
specific American Civil War battles at the
tactical brigade level.
The intent of this series is to focus on
the command aspects of Civil War combat
by having players use a game command
system that mimics actual events. The game
forces interact with each other in ways that
simulate the functions of those they represent.
These rules rely at times on the players’ common sense and honesty. Game
actions that players conduct outside the
observation of their opponents require a
certain degree of trust between players and
a knowledge that each will apply the spirit
as well as the letter of the rules.
We make no claims of infallibility.
These rules, even in the second edition,
contain areas requiring the use of common
sense and historical knowledge to interpret
rule statements to cover situations not explicitly mentioned. Players who find an
area that they cannot decide to their mutual
satisfaction should feel free to call or write
for a clarification. We support our products
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Civil War, Brigade Series Rules—v 3.2
fully and will be delighted to respond to
your questions as quickly and clearly as
possible. We do not require yes/no questions and will give any available background rationale for a rule’s conception.
Even in this second edition, your questions
will continue the process of locating weak
points and potentially help another gamer
in the future who is confused by the same
The Gamers, Inc.
500 W. Fourth Street
Homer, IL 61849
Fax (217) 896-2880
Or call, during business hours: (217) 8962145. Phone questions are welcome and I
am usually available to answer them personally.
v3.2 Notes
This edition exists for the simple reason that we (finally) needed to print more
CWB rulebooks. Given that opportunity,
I’ve taken the time to correct the known
errata and make a handful of changes players have requested. Players could easily
play with the older rules and never notice
the changes, so here is a listing of what has
been done:
1.0 Game Components
1.1 The Game Map
The maps of this game depict the
actual area in which the battle or campaign
was fought. They provide their own terrain
keys and informational tracks. To eliminate
fault lines and ridges, carefully back-fold
the maps and secure them by drafting tape
or other non-destructive means to the playing table.
1.1a The Hex Numbering System. This
system identifies individual hexes on the
game maps. The maps, if a game uses more
than one, are lettered A, B, C, etc.. A hex
number pertaining to a given map begins
with the map letter, as in A10.10. The digits
before the decimal point indicate the number of the hex row, running along the horizontal dimension of the map from left to
right. The digits after the decimal indicate
the exact hex along the row found with the
first digits, looking from bottom to top. On
each map, the grid system extends from the
lower left corner. Not every hex is numbered. Each fifth hex (xx.05, xx.10, xx.15)
is numbered to create gridlines to follow.
To find a specific hex, say A29.17, follow
the gridline for xx.15 on map A until you
find the 29th hexrow. Then count up two
1.1b Map Edge Hexes. Edge hexes
with at least half of the hex showing are
playable. Tiny hex slivers are not. Units
forced off the map are destroyed.
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1.1c Off Map Movement.Units may
not exit the game map and re-enter later, or
conduct any type of off-map movement
unless the game rules explicitly allow such
1.1d Turn Record Track. This track
indicates the passage of time during the
game. One marker shows the time of day
while another on a second track records the
particular day. The first and last turns of
daylight have a single number in the time
box to indicate the visibility (in hexes) for
that turn. The shading on the Turn Record
Track indicates night turns. Advance the
Turn Record Marker one box during the
Turn End Phase; advance the Day Marker
at the end of the 12:00 midnight game turn.
1.1e Entry Hexes. Hexes marked with
a red circle containing a white letter show
where reinforcements arrive. If enemy units
block a reinforcement’s entry hex, the reinforcement is free to enter at any hex free of
enemy units at or within 10 hexes of the
scheduled entry hex along any map edge.
1.1f Artillery Ammunition Tracks.
These use three markers each to record the
expenditure of artillery ammunition for
each army. The markers (x100, x10, x1)
record the amount of ammunition remaining in hundreds, tens and ones, respectively. Starting amounts are given in each
scenario. Some games give players unlimited ammunition and omit these tracks.
1.1g Loss Record Tracks. These also
use three markers to record losses (in casualties only, not stragglers or artillery gun
losses) for each army. The markers (again
x100, x10, x1) record the current number of
losses in each army. Each time a side receives one or more casualties, advance the
marker by one space for each strength point
1.2 The Rules
There are two rule books in every
Gamers’ Brand game: Series and Game.
The Series Book, which this is, contains the
rules generally applicable to all series
games. The Game book gives the details
needed for a specific game, including special rules, scenarios and set up information.
Game-specific rules supersede series rules
if they happen to conflict.
1.2a Organization. Rules are numbered by section and case. Each major
grouping of rules is a section; a paragraph
within a section is a case. For example,
section 4, case 2 would be 4.2. A specified
case may contain a number of related statements. Parts within a given case are lettered
as in 4.2a, 4.2b, etc.
1.2b Repetition. Only where specifically necessary is a rule repeated in every
section in which it might have bearing.
Therefore, if “A” has a specific combat
effect, it might have this effect listed in the
rules about A, but not in B, C, and D,
which deal with combat in more general
1.2c Charts and Tables. The center of
this rule book contains certain game tables
and sheets. Remove these carefully by
bending the staples back, removing the
charts, and returning the staples. Players
should either photocopy loss charts or prepare them for use according to the “Note on
Play” below. Use plain lined paper for
Order Logs
1.3 The Counters
The game’s playing pieces, called
“counters,” represent both the units that
actually fought in the battle and “markers”
which display bits of information about the
game’s functions or unit conditions. Carefully punch out all counters, hereafter units
or markers, and sort them by type or designation into plastic bags.
1.4 Set Up Notes
Aside from any special notes in the
game rules concerning set up, the following
are always true:
1. “w/i X” means to set up a given
unit within X hexes of the hex listed.
2. Unless explicitly stated otherwise,
leaders may set up with any subordinate
3. Units set up in any desired formation and facing.
4. Units may never start the game over
5. Units generally start at full strength.
6. Except when explicitly stated otherwise, the Confederate Player Turn is always
7. A unit ID notation followed by a
“b”—as in RWb—means an artillery battery of that ID. Furthermore, RWb means a
5 gun point artillery unit of RW. Should a
battery be something other than a 5 gun
point unit, its actual strength will be noted
as in RWb (3).
8. A hex notation to the effect of (hex
1) ex (hex 2) means the unit listed is in hex
1 and has an extended line in hex 2. Likewise, (hex 1) ex (hex 2), (hex 3) means that
the unit in hex 1 has extended lines in both
hexes 2 and 3.
2.0 Beginner’s Note
If you are new to wargames, WELCOME! This is an exciting and intellectually satisfying hobby. Each wargame, while
being an enjoyable competitive activity,
will also allow you a glimpse of history in
action in a way not possible through any
other format.
To learn to play, browse through the
rules and components. Try to develop a
good idea of what exists in the game and
where it is located. Then read the rules
lightly. Do not try to memorize them! Set
up a few units at random and run through
The Gamers, Inc.
the procedures and examples of different
play actions. As questions arise, look up the
answers in the rules. Try to imagine why a
rule is the way it is by applying common
sense and your knowledge of history. All
rules have at least something in back of
them—even if it is only to avoid conflict
with other rules. Allow the game to teach
itself to you as you look up puzzling items.
If something seems unreasonable, please
call or write for clarification.
After these tentative steps, play
shorter game scenarios with a friend, again
looking up uncertainties. Before long you
will have the game system mastered. Avoid
the Command Rules as you learn this system, only using “command radius” to keep
things in order. Once you understand the
basic structure, include the rest of the command system in your next session. All
games in this series can be played without
the command rules, so, if you do not find
them to your taste, feel free to play without
them. However, by imposing significant
constraints on a player’s freedom of action
with his forces, they do add a large degree
of realism to the game.
By the time you have mastered this
game, you will be able to play any game in
this series with little or no rules learning.
Good Luck and Good Fighting!
3.0 Note on Play
For ease of play, I recommend the
encasing of Loss Charts in clear plastic
report covers, which are widely available.
Write on them with overhead projection
markers or other markers designed for use
on plastic. These provide for easy erasure
and re-use. I prefer to stay away from old
fashioned grease pencils as they are entirely
too hard to erase neatly for my tastes.
4.0 Scale
Each hex on the game map equals 200
yards of real terrain. Each day-time turn
represents 30 minutes, each night turn one
hour. The vertical scale between contours is
30 feet.
Infantry and cavalry units are brigades, artillery units usually 16 gun battalions. A strength point of infantry or cavalry
is 100 men. A gun point of artillery is
roughly 3 cannons.
This game system makes a simplification in terms of artillery. Cannons are a
generic “standard” type. We felt a more
detailed artillery structure would only serve
to needlessly complicate the game. Also the
“battalion” represents the maximum number of cannon which can deploy and fire
from one hex—even if during the battle
portrayed such artillery organizations did
not exist.
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Civil War, Brigade Series Rules—v 3.2
5.0 General Game
5.1 The Word “Unit”
For simplicity, the word “unit” in
these rules refers to any infantry, cavalry,
or artillery combat unit, including extended
lines and detached batteries.
5.2 Retreat Rule
Any time a combat result calls for a
retreat, the owning player must execute the
retreat in a relatively straight line in a direction which is locally “to the rear.” Doubling
back and other “game tricks” are not allowed.
6.0 Units
6.1 Troop Units
These units are combat
formations of infantry, cavalry,
and artillery. They have a facing and one or more formations available. They are subject to the
stacking and morale rules.
6.2 Leaders
These units represent
individual leaders (named on
the counter) and a small escort
of staff. Leaders fulfill important command and morale functions. They
do not suffer from normal combat or morale results, but instead are subject to a
special Leader Loss Table when fired upon.
They have no facing or formation and do
not count for stacking in any way.
Artillery units use the different “gun
point” system described later.
6.5a Fire levels range in order (from
smallest to largest) C, B, A, AB, AA, AAB,
and AAA. The starting full strength of a
unit appears on the unit counter. In some
games, specific scenarios may call for units
to set up with reduced strengths, with some
losses already marked off. In these cases,
find the unit’s starting strength in fire levels
on the loss charts after marking off the
initial casualties.
6.5b When dividing into extended
lines, remember that one A=2Bs, one
B=2Cs and one A=4Cs. Therefore, an AB
that extends line into two different hexes
would have a B in each of the three occupied hexes.
6.6 Loss Charts and Fire
Level Change
Each player has one or more Loss
Charts to use in order to keep track of
losses. To the left of each set of ovals or
squares is the current fire level of a unit.
Whenever the marks reach a new fire level,
change the level marked under the unit.
Make any required adjustments to extended
lines at that instant.
6.3 Markers
Note that no marker has a facing,
formation, or stacking restriction.
Markers only indicate specific conditions imposed on units and do not suffer
fire combat or morale results themselves.
6.4 Extended Line
and Detached
Artillery Markers
These represent the
expansion of troop units to take up
more ground space. They suffer fire
combat and morale results in the same
way as their parent units.
6.5 Fire Levels
Infantry and cavalry units (only)
measure their strength in lettered fire levels.
Use fire level markers to mark fire levels
under the unit counter. Use fire level markers only in situations where B or C fire
level units exist—all other units are assumed to have an A or better fire level.
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6.7 Fire Level
These represent the current fire level of infantry and
cavalry units. Only mark units with a B or
C fire level, all other units are assumed to
be an A or better. Keep this current as the
Loss Charts require changes. To indicate
the Fire Levels applied to extended lines,
remove markers from underneath the parent
and place them directly under the extended
line marker.
6.8 Morale Markers
These represent the current morale state (not to be
confused with the unit’s permanent morale level which is
printed on the counter) of a
stack of units.
Place the Morale
Marker, if any,
atop all the units
in a hex. All units
in a hex subject to
morale have the morale state of
the marker in the hex. No hex
may have more than one morale marker in it.
6.9 Gun and Supply
Point Markers
These two functions use
the same numeric marker to
represent either the number of
gun points in an artillery unit or the number
of supply points in the wagon. Place these
markers under the appropriate unit and
adjust them to reflect guns lost or supply
points expended.
6.10 Low Ammo and
Straggler Recovery
Both of these marker
types indicate specific conditions and affect only the unit
directly under the marker.
7.0 General Course of Play
A “game turn” is a sequence of steps
the order of which is termed “the sequence
of play.” Each of these steps may involve
one or the other of the players according to
the terminology “phasing” and “nonphasing.” The “phasing” player is the one
whose player turn it is currently, the “nonphasing” player is the other. Each player
has his own distinct portion of a game turn,
and the roles of phasing and non-phasing
player switch according to the present
player turn. At the end of the sequence of
play, advance the turn marker and begin the
process again. All game actions must take
place strictly according to the sequence of
In the roughest sense, play proceeds
as follows: The first player, as given in the
game rules, conducts his Command Phase.
In this phase he issues the orders he desires,
checks for new order acceptance, if any are
being delivered, and checks for any initiative he might desire. This finished, he now
moves all, some, or none of his units based
on their formation, movement allowances,
orders, and his desire. He may now engage
in “close combat” (charges). After his
Movement Phase ends, the Fire Combat
Phase occurs. This is divided into a NonPhasing Player Fire Segment and a Phasing
Player Fire Segment. First the non-phasing
player conducts all the fire combats he
wishes, as restricted by these rules; then,
the phasing player does the same. Upon the
completion of all the fire combats for both
players, the phasing player checks his units
for rally. The second player then becomes
the phasing player and repeats the above
sequence. When this process is complete
the game turn ends and a new turn begins.
8.0 Turn Sequence
8.1 Outline Sequence of Play
First Player Turn
Command Phase.
Order Issue
Corps Attack Stoppage Checks
Initiative Order Determination
Delay Reduction
New Order Acceptance
Movement and Close Combat Phase
Straggler Recovery Marker Placement
The Gamers, Inc.
Movement and Close Combat
Ammo Resupply
Fire Combat Phase
Non-Phasing Player Fire Combat
Phasing Player Fire Combat
Rally Phase
Straggler Recovery
Second Player Turn
The Second Player Repeats the above.
Game Turn End Phase
Game Turn Marker Advance
•Movement and Close Combat
The phasing player checks his units for
correct command radius. Phasing units may
now move and conduct close combats
based on their movement abilities, formations, and order restrictions. See 16.0, 23.0.
•Ammo Resupply
Phasing units which are at low ammo and
close enough to a supply wagon to conduct
resupply may do so. Wagons close enough
to the Army Supply Train may refill. See
8.2 Narrative Sequence of
Fire Combat Phase See 20.0.
First Player Turn
Command Phase
•Order Issue
The phasing player may generate any orders he chooses, paying for each with command points, up to the limit of the command points available. He then logs these
orders on the Order Log Sheet and notes
their arrival times. See 10.1.
•Corps Attack Stoppage Checks
Any of the phasing player’s corps which
received small arms fire (not just artillery
bombardment) in the previous turn, and are
carrying out an attack order, must check to
see if the attack continues. If a stoppage
occurs, the corps may either halt in place or
conduct a turn of movement to the rear and
then halt. The phasing player conducts this
movement in the Movement and Close
Combat Phase of this player turn. Units of
corps which fail their corps attack stoppage
check must be outside small arms range at
the end of the following Movement and
Close Combat Phase. See 10.3.
•Initiative Order Determination
The phasing player may roll for any of his
leaders whom he wishes to obtain initiative.
Leaders who successfully obtain initiative
accept (corps leaders must “touch base” to
implement initiative orders in order to put
them into effect) orders as desired. See
•Delay Reduction
Any phasing leaders who have orders in
any type of delay status now check to end
that status. If a delay ends, the leader accepts the order and may act on it. See 10.1f.
•New Order Acceptance
Roll to see if phasing player orders delivered this turn are accepted, delayed or distorted.
•Non-Phasing Player Fire Combat
(Defensive Fire Phase)
The non-phasing player may fire all of his
units that can based upon their formation,
LOS, location and other restrictions.
•Phasing Player Fire Combat
(Offensive Fire Phase)
The phasing player repeats the above for
his units.
Rally Phase
•Straggler Recovery
Phasing units which are still marked with
Straggler Recovery Markers, may attempt
to recover stragglers. After each attempt,
remove the Straggler Recovery Marker.
Erase any recovered stragglers from the
player’s Loss Chart and make any required
changes in fire level markers. See 21.2.
The phasing player converts all shaken
units to normal, disorganized units to
shaken, and checks to see if routed units
recover to disorganized or if blood lusted
units revert to normal. See 24.5.
Second Player Turn
The Second Player repeats the above for his
Game Turn End Phase
•Game Turn Marker Advance
8.3 Close Combat
A) Attacker enters hex at +1 MP cost
B) Defender’s Fire Combat, apply losses
and stragglers
C)Attacker’s Fire Combat, apply losses and
Movement and Close
Combat Phase
D) Attacker Checks Morale at -6, if required to retreat combat ends
•Straggler Recovery Marker
On an hour turn the phasing player may
mark units meeting the conditions of straggler recovery to attempt to recover stragglers. See 21.2.
E) Defender checks morale at -4, if required to retreat combat ends and the defender makes the “additional” morale check
F) Odds Table used if neither of the above
ends the combat. Loser retreats 1 hex if
attacker, 2 if defender. The defender, if
loser, must make the “additional” morale
9.0 Fog of War
In order to increase the reality of the
game’s simulation in the minds of the players, keep the following secret from your
a. Casualty, straggler and wrecked
status of brigades and divisions.
b. Orders, status of order delivery,
or plans.
c. The morale of your units.
d. The current fire levels of your units.
Players may never examine the stacks
of the enemy. They are (of course) aware of
the top unit in the stack—usually a leader
or infantry unit. While unable to examine
for himself the enemy stacks, a player may
ask if a stack contains troops, artillery, or
both. When asked, the owning player must
give the correct answer (from this list of
Optional: Players may decide to allow
this question only when the asking player
has units with an LOS into the questioned
hex. Since this restriction can bring up a
number of sticky problems, we do not recommend its use.
10.0 Command and
These command rules strive to be
realistic but not overpowering. They embody quite simple concepts and make the
game system play in a way that simulates
reality well. Note that players may, as an
option, play any of these games without
these rules (other than Command Radius,
which in all cases should be used).
10.0a HQ Units and Leader Positioning. Corps HQ units are the administrative
hubs of their corps. The more specific HQ
rules follow below, but a few points must
be given first. Divisional leaders must stack
with a unit of their division at the end of
every Movement and Close Combat Phase
(unless no such unit exists, in which case
they are removed from play). Corps leaders
have no such requirement. In order to implement a newly accepted order from either the army commander or initiative, the
corps leader must enter the hex of his corps
HQ (at least momentarily). The instant the
leader “touches base,” the order is implemented—in other words a leader with a
new order could “touch base” as the first
thing in movement and that action would
allow the corps to function on its new orders in that turn. Note: Upon accepting an
order, the leader must make his way to his
HQ to implement it—a player who stalls
the implementation of an unwanted order
by dallying with the leader is cheating.
Otherwise, corps leaders are free to move
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Civil War, Brigade Series Rules—v 3.2
about as desired. Army commanders send
orders to the Corps HQ unit, not to the
corps leader.
Example: Council of War
To illustrate the above rule, let’s say that
the player moves all of his corps commanders to the hex containing the army commander. This action does not require any
type of orders. Once his subordinates are
there (i.e. in the player’s next Command
Phase), the army commander begins belting out orders (he’s like that) as fast as his
command points allow. These orders are all
“in-person, verbal” in nature and subject
to the best possible chance at acceptance
(given order type). The orders are delivered
at the instant they are written. In the subsequent New Order Acceptance Phase of the
same player turn, the corps commanders
lucky enough to be first in line attempt to
accept their orders. For the sake of argument, assume all of them but one do. The
commanders who have accepted their orders then ride back to their commands.
Even though the orders have been accepted, each corps will not begin to function until the corps commander enters the
hex of his HQ. Note that he need not stay
longer than move through the HQ’s hex—
he must make an appearance.
What of the guy who got a delay? As
he rides back to his corps HQ, assuming it
takes a turn or more to make the trip, he
may attempt to reduce the delay. Even if he
reduces it while en route, the orders still do
not take effect until he enters the hex of his
10.0b Command Methods. In general,
the command system works as follows: The
army commander, the player, uses his command points to generate the orders he
wants. He writes these on scratch paper and
records them on the Order Log. The orders
take a given amount of time to arrive at the
corps HQ (based on the distance when they
were written). Upon arrival, the player
checks them for acceptance. At this point,
the orders may be delayed, distorted, or
accepted. Once accepted they must be acted
on in good faith, even if game conditions
have changed. At the corps and divisional
levels, leaders may cancel or self-issue
orders by using initiative. Initiative works
best for its historically useful role of taking
advantage of fleeting opportunities or acting to forestall disaster. Overuse of initiative invites the application of the “loose
cannon” rule which may cause a disaster,
so use initiative sparingly and never as a
substitute for the order system of army
10.0c HQ Units. HQ units share characteristics of both markers and combat
units. They serve an important control function in the command rules. These units
move as leaders, do not count for stacking,
have no ZOCs or combat ability, and re-
Page 6
main unaffected by morale results of units
with which they stack (note: HQs in a stack
which is forced to retreat because of a morale or close combat result may retreat with
the stack at the owning player’s discretion).
They never check morale on their own.
Corps HQs which are overrun (have enemy
units enter their hex) are not destroyed, but
displace to the nearest friendly stack of the
same command. In the following turn, the
entire command of the displaced corps HQ
must execute an emergency corps retreat
and do a straggler check. When the Army
HQ is overrun, it is flipped to its 'Move'
side and placed with any friendly unit.
Displacing the Army HQ does NOT cause
the entire army to retreat. Generally, corps
HQ movement is strictly dependent on the
current orders of their corps. HQs may not
move without orders to move. If a corps has
orders, the HQ may move freely within
them—separate orders covering the HQ are
not necessary. HQs may never be fired
upon or destroyed.
10.1 Orders
Orders are the heart of the main command system of this game series. Players
prepare orders in writing as instructions to
the corps (generally) as to what they are to
do. An order is not a hex by hex record of
movement. It is the actual wording in the
same form as the historical orders.
The general sequence of events in the
life of an order is as follows: The player’s
commanding general has a number of command points available based upon that
leader’s rating. The player uses these points
as desired to pay for orders he wishes to
produce. Orders cost a number of points
depending on their exact structure and the
method of delivery. Write the order on
scratch paper (the order sheet) and record it
on the order log (a sheet of lined notebook
paper with the column headings listed on
page 1 of the Charts and Tables). The
player calculates the turn of arrival according to the distance from the army commander to the receiving corps HQ and records that turn on the order log. On that
turn, he checks the order for acceptance.
Once accepted, the order is implemented
the instant the corps commander re-enters
his HQ’s hex. Leaders which have no HQs
(such as divisional leaders) implement
orders instantly upon acceptance.
10.1a Order Structure—Type and
Method. Each order must be classified as
either Complex or Simple. A complex
order is one requiring movement to, into, or
around areas of enemy control or tacit control (e.g. a gap) whether or not this movement will require combat. A complex order
allows offensive combat. A simple order is
one that does not fit the conditions of a
complex order and it does not allow for
offensive combat. Note that simple orders
do not preclude defenses. Be sure to re-
member 10.1h Actions not requiring orders.
Method refers to the physical structure of
the order, i.e. either written out or oral in
presentation and to be delivered either by
an aide or in person. All game orders are
written on paper, but the player may choose
to issue “oral” orders to his units so as to
expend fewer points. Players can assemble
their orders as desired, as long as they assign each of the above elements. In person
orders are always oral in method. Aides
may deliver oral or written orders. Note
that in addition to affecting the cost of the
order, these factors influence the speed of
10.1b Order Costs. As mentioned
earlier, players write orders using command
points. Each army commander possess a
certain number of command points based
on his leader rating. Order costs appear on
the Order Costs Chart. Determine the cost
of a given order by the point total of its
selections from each of the three categories
(Method and Type). Each category must
have one and only one selection. Order
costs must be payable in full with the
player’s available command points. Command points may not be saved from turn to
turn and are wasted if unused. The full
allocation of command points is available
each turn, and all, some, or none may be
used. A player may write any number of
orders in a turn as long as he has sufficient
command points available.
10.1c Order Format and Writing.
Orders are written at the player’s convenience and in a manner in which the player is
comfortable and understands. The written
content of the order may be as detailed or
brief as desired as long as the player can
interpret his own orders so as not to make
them “pliable” and subject to changing
meaning based on circumstances. On the
order log, all orders must have an order
number (the line on the order log in which
they are recorded) and information giving
the sender, receiver, order type and time
sent. Complex orders also require a start
time or signal, a general direction or path of
movement, and a reasonable limit ending
the operation. The player may skip writing
the start time or signal for such orders—if
no such specific detail exists in the order,
the order must begin to be fulfilled immediately upon acceptance and implementation.
“Open-ended orders” (attack west!) are not
allowed: they are much too vague.
10.1d Order Records. Orders must be
recorded on the Order Log (lined notebook
paper). The Order Log’s primary functions
are to remind the player of when to check
an order for acceptance and to give a concise location of the variables pertaining to
that order for purposes of acceptance. The
idea is for the order log to be a well organized and efficient record of orders so that
the player may check to see at a glance
what orders are accepted, delayed, cancelled, or on the way. Also, the log allows
The Gamers, Inc.
players to sift out the info needed for an
acceptance check without hunting down the
order itself.
Example: Order Writing
The following are all acceptable orders.
Each was written with a minimum of detail
to show the rough structure of orders and
to convince players that no large amount of
writing required:
“Take your corps and move down the Battery Road to the Thomas House. When you
get there, set up a defensive line facing
north.” (Simple)
“Move via the Thomas House on the Green
Road to attack the enemy in the vicinity of
the Big Hill. Attack to capture the Big
Hill.” (Complex)
“Move across the ford to the area south of
the Big Hill, report to 2nd Corps HQ and
await further orders.” (Simple)
“Attack along the Red Road toward the Big
Hill. Assist 3rd Corps in capturing the Big
Hill.” (Complex)
“Move into position along side 3rd Corps,
advance with them to cover their
flank.” (Complex)
“When 2nd Corps attacks, attack to capture
the Blue House and cut the Big Road from
enemy use. When you get there, set up a
defense straddling the Big Road facing
north.” (Complex)
10.1e Order Delivery. Orders may be
delivered by aide or in person. In person
delivery may only occur if the sender and
receiver are in the same hex. In person
orders are received the turn they are sent.
For orders to be delivered by an aide, the
following occurs. Calculate the number of
movement points a leader would need to
expend to travel between the sender and the
receiver’s corps HQ. Divide this number by
10 and round up any fractions. The result is
the number of turns the order will take in
transit. Add this number of turns to the
current turn to determine the time the order
will arrive and record this information on
the order log.
10.1f Order Acceptance. Acceptance
is a measure of how quickly the receiving
leader reacts to the new orders. Upon receipt, orders may be accepted, delayed for a
number of turns, or distorted.
The Acceptance process is as follows:
Using the Acceptance Table, calculate the
acceptance number according to the line
above the table. Use the acceptance number
to determine the table column to use. Shift
the Acceptance Table column one to the
left if the command rolling for acceptance currently has any type of order.
Roll two dice. The result is the acceptance
of the given order and should be recorded
on the order log. Note that even if the order
is instantly accepted, it does not become
implemented and usable until the receiving
corps commander touches base in his HQ’s
Procrastination (optional) A player
may automatically check for acceptance
only those orders received which are to be
acted on in the next hour or less. Orders
which are to be acted on more than one
hour from the current time may not roll on
the Acceptance Table unless the receiving
leader rolls for, and gets, initiative. If the
leader cannot get initiative, the order cannot
be checked for on the Acceptance Table
until it becomes one hour or less away from
action. The player may have the leader
check for initiative each turn (until the one
hour mark makes acceptance rolls automatic) to see if he can try to accept the
Delay. A delayed order is one that is
the subject of some foot-dragging or preparation time before action. Once delayed, an
order becomes accepted by rolling one die
per turn. The phasing player makes this
“Delay Reduction Roll” during subsequent
Command Phases starting on the turn after
the Acceptance Table produces the delay
result. Alternatively, initiative or the receipt
of another, different order may cancel a
delayed order. The receipt of any new order
(accepted or delayed) automatically cancels any pending order (D1, D2), but leaves
a previously accepted order in place until
the new one is accepted. Two types of delay are possible, type 1 and type 2. Each
requires a successful roll on one die to
remove. Remove D1 on a roll of 1 to 2 and
D2 on a a roll of 1. Once the delay is lifted,
the order is accepted.
Distortion. Distorted orders are completely misunderstood and eliminated. Note
that distortion may occur even in in-person
verbal orders.
10.1g Following Orders. It cannot be
overstated that orders must be followed as
originally intended, even though game
circumstances may have changed. These
represent wartime combat orders in a society heavily influenced by notions of glory
and honor which may seem quaint today.
Players should never rethink their own
orders to find loopholes which allow them
to “get away with” something. Orders can
be followed with a modified degree of
enthusiasm (so as to avoid disaster), but
their intention, scope, or original purpose
should not be altered. Players unable to
cope with the responsibility and honesty
this rule requires will probably want to play
without the written order rules.
10.1h Actions which do not require
orders. Many game functions do not either
require orders or need be mentioned in
orders to be conducted. These are (but may
not be strictly limited to):
1. Officer movement and functions
2. Fire, Close Combat, Straggler
Recovery and Rally
3. Supply trains and wagon functions
4. Artillery functions such as fire,
movement within radius, etc.
5. Movement, facing and formation
functions of units not requiring the movement of the corps HQ
Note: Once a corps HQ is in position,
it is literally “bolted to the ground” and
cannot be moved short of new orders, initiative, or an emergency retreat. HQs may
move along freely during the execution of
an attack order or other orders which require movement—but are again bolted to
the ground when their orders are fulfilled.
10.1i Pre-Set Orders. These orders
represent the commander’s initial plan of
action for the battle. They are not required,
but an excellent player may be able to win
the battle with these orders alone. The
player writes and logs these orders before
the game begins and may make any number
of them at that time without regard to command points. These orders are accepted
before the game begins.
Example: Order Logging and Acceptance Procedure
The player made the following entry into his Order Log:
Arrival Time
This order, it tells us, will arrive at Forrest’s HQ at 10:00, was sent by Bragg, is a complex
order, was sent aide-written. Such an order would cost eight command points to write.
It is now the New Orders Acceptance Phase of the 10:00 turn. The player notes that order
number one has arrived. He now checks for acceptance. Forrest is rated a four and Bragg
a zero. The dice roll on the Acceptance Table will be made on the 3-4 column (it is a
three). Two dice are rolled, giving a seven. The result is D1. The player marks “D1”
under the status column for order number one.
In the next turn’s Delay Reduction Phase the player rolls one die for order one. He rolls a
two which means the delay has been reduced and the order is accepted. The “D1” under
status is erased and an “A” for accepted is written instead. As the first thing during movement Forrest makes a quick trip to move through his HQ’s hex and implements the newly
accepted order. Forrest may now execute order one with his command.
Page 7
Civil War, Brigade Series Rules—v 3.2
10.2 Initiative
Unless specifically prohibited by the
game rules, leaders may use initiative to
cancel existing orders or acquire orders
when they have none. It is the act of a
leader giving himself orders. The player
handles initiative orders like any other,
except that they do not cost Command
Points to create, do not need to be delivered, and are automatically accepted. Corps
leaders must make a trip to their HQ to
implement orders given to themselves via
initiative. Note that in the case of loose
cannon, the enemy player moves the corps
leader into the HQ’s hex, so that no foot
dragging occurs.
10.2a A leader’s successful initiative
roll simultaneously cancels old orders and
issues new ones. A separate roll for each
function is not required.
10.2b Initiative orders, once given,
must be followed like any other order,
unless cancelled by more recent orders or
further initiative use.
10.2c Only Wing, Corps, and Divisional leaders may use initiative. The Army
Commander may only issue formal orders.
Furthermore, in a single turn, only one
leader may attempt to get initiative for a
given formation. Therefore, if a divisional
leader rolls for initiative, whether he gets it
or not, the corps commander may roll for
initiative only for his other divisions. If the
Corps Commander rolls first, divisional
commanders under him may not roll at all.
It is usually best to work from the bottom
up when rolling for initiative, just so the
player does not inadvertently close any
10.2d Getting Initiative. First, determine the number of Initiative Points a
leader has available. IPs equal The Leader’s
Rating + any Anti-Initiative Ratings given
in the game rules which affect the given
leader that is, all those above him. Use this
total to determine which column to use on
the Initiative Table. Roll two dice. If the
dice roll equals the number on the table or
more, the leader has initiative. If, however,
a 2 is rolled, the leader becomes a “loose
cannon,” see 10.2g below.
10.2e Anti-initiative. Corps and army
leaders may be given anti-initiative ratings
in the game rules to limit initiative use. If
none are given, the assumed value for all
leaders is 0. A leader’s anti-initiatives remain in effect if he becomes a casualty or is
off map for whatever reason. See also
10.2f Initiative-Based Orders. Initiative only bypasses the normal acceptance
procedure. Players must still record and
faithfully follow initiative-based orders , as
they would any other order. Note that leaders may assign divisional goals may be
assigned in this way. Initiative may not be
used to issue a commander orders which
Page 8
are currently in delay status to that leader—
only for different orders. An “iron-clad”
rule to cover all potential variations on this
theme would be impossible to write, and
players are advised to look into the “spirit
of the rule” as opposed to its literal interpretation. A player must sometimes look
into himself to determine the purpose of the
order he desires and its reason for being.
Example: Getting Initiative
Let’s say Longstreet wants to get initiative
to do something. He has a rating of 2 which
gives him 2 initiative points. Lee has an
anti-initiative of -1 which reduces the initiative points to a 1. To get initiative,
Longstreet must roll an 11 or 12 on two
dice. If he manages to roll a 2, he becomes
a loose cannon.
Assume Longstreet blows his roll (he rolls a
4). Hood, one of his division commanders
now wants to take charge and get initiative
for his division. However, according to
10.2c, Hood is unable to try for initiative
this turn (since Longstreet tried for the
entire corps) and will have to await the
next turn. If we assume the player tries
Hood on the next turn, and that he blows it
too, the player would then be unable to use
Longstreet to get initiative for Hood’s division, since Hood already tried.
10.2g Loose Cannon. To recreate the
historical tendency to avoid excessive initiative (and, hence, lack of control), we
have introduced the concept of a “loose
cannon.” Whenever a leader rolls for initiative and rolls a two, he becomes a loose
cannon (he himself, and all assigned units,
that is). Upon the leader’s becoming a loose
cannon, the owning player must notify his
opponent of the fact and tell whether the
leader has accepted orders currently (but
not what those orders are). The opposing
player now issues an order to the affected
force to move for one turn in the direction
of his choosing. The owning player conducts the actual movement, but must follow
the order issued by the enemy. This order
cancels any orders the affected force may
have had, leaving it in a no-orders status
afterward. The movement may be an attack,
retreat, or any other type of activity. The
owning player must follow this order with a
reasonable amount of gusto—leaders usually do not drag their feet in executing their
own orders! This does not mean the command must wreck itself in futile close combats, etc., only that a reasonable amount of
force be applied in execution. The opposing
player cannot order the unit to attack units
on its own side.
10.3 Corps Attack Stoppage
Corps Attack Stoppage represents the
failure of an attack in the mind of the attacking commander. This type of failure
occurs frequently because the commander
is surrounded by the dead and wounded of
his attack, the chaos of the rear of the battle
line, and many exaggerated reports of the
grim events on the front. He is, much more
than the game player, reluctant to push the
attack down to the last man.
10.3a For any command executing an
attack order, beginning with the first Command Phase following the first turn in
which any units of the attacking force are
fired upon by infantry or cavalry units, the
command must make a Corps Attack Stoppage check. A player may never voluntarily
fail a Corps Attack Stoppage roll. In games
where a corps command structure does not
exist and no “wing” replacement is made,
use 10.3d at all times.
Make this check on the Corps Attack
Stoppage Table. Cross index the number of
wrecked divisions in the corps against the
total number of divisions currently (i.e.,
count attached ones) in the corps. The
original corps commander, if killed,
wounded, or reassigned to a higher command during the game, counts as an additional wrecked division. This number indicates the column of the next table. Cross
index this number with the current corps
leader’s rating. The number then found is
the minimum roll required on two dice to
pass the check.
10.3b Results of Corps Attack Stoppage Checks. If its commander passes the
check, the corps continues to attack as
before. If he fails, the corps must stop the
attack and await new orders. The owning
player may retreat the corps for one turn, if
desired. After this free retreat, the corps HQ
may not move again until it receives new
orders or executes an emergency retreat.
Note that regardless of whether the corps
HQ retreats, all units of the corps must be
outside small arms fire range of any enemy
units at the end of the Movement and Close
Combat Phase of the turn in which the
Attack Stoppage occurs. After it meets this
restriction, the corps would require new
orders to re-engage the attack. Units found
to be violating this restriction are retreated
by the enemy player the number of hexes
required to be out side of small arms range.
10.3c If wing formations exist in the
game, check the game rules for any special
conditions which apply Corps Attack Stoppage to these command structures.
10.3d Divisions of a corps which are
operating on the map before the arrival of
their corps HQ make Corps Attack Stoppage checks normally except that corps size
is determined using only those divisions
actually on the map. If any division commanders in such a situation are killed or
wounded, add one to the wrecked division
total. Divisional stoppage does not equal
corps attack stoppage. Therefore, should
The Gamers, Inc.
the corps HQ (and presumably other divisions of the corps) enter the map later with
attack orders, the stopped divisions on map
must join in the corps attack orders (after
the division commander reenters command
radius, that is).
10.3e Divisions acting on divisional
goal attack orders must roll as outlined in
10.3d, as a corps consisting of one division
which is either wrecked, or not. Any Corps
Attack Stoppage by the parent corps has no
effect on divisions acting on divisional
goals—they continue their attack and roll
10.3f Any attack stoppage roll made at
night receives an additional -3 modifier.
Example: Corps Attack Stoppage
After its first turn in rifle combat an attacking corps must check for stoppage. The
corps has 3 divisions and none of them are
wrecked. The corps commander is fine and
enjoying the fruits of his labors. He is rated
as a 3.
Checking the Corps Attack Stoppage Table,
the player determines that he must roll on
the 1 column of the second table by crossindexing 3 divisions in corps with 0
wrecked divisions. Since the leader is a 3,
the second table tells him that he must roll
a 3 or more to pass. He does this handily.
Several turns of bloodbath later, we find
the same corps with all three of its divisions
wrecked and the corps commander on his
way to discover the miracles of Civil War
medicine with a sucking chest wound (he
won’t make it, but that’s beside the point).
This time the first table generates a column
4 for the corps (3 wrecked divisions plus 1
for the commander cross-indexed with 3
divisions in the corps).
ing as they are able. The exact number of
MPs retreated by the HQ is in the hands of
the owning player; units need only move
far enough as to remain within command
radius—which might mean little or no
actual retreat for some units. He may use
(or not use) roads, etc. as he wishes. Remember, this retreat is a controlled command event, not a rout. Upon completion of
this one turn’s movement, the formation is
considered without orders. Further emergency retreats may be conducted if the
formation’s safety remains in, or again
enters, doubt. Any orders the retreating
corps may have had are negated and the
corps must accept new orders to conduct
the same or other operations. The same
emergency corps retreat rules and conditions also apply to units which are independent or under divisional goals.
Game rules may assign a victory point
penalty for this maneuver. In addition to
any victory point damage done by emergency retreats, all sub-units within the retreating formation must conduct a straggler check upon the decision to conduct an
emergency retreat. Make this check on the
lesser of the two Straggler Table columns,
the 1/2 to 1 fire loss column, and apply any
appropriate modifiers.
Note that the direction of an emergency corps retreat is not affected by the
standard retreat rule (5.1) since it is a voluntary movement.
10.5 Below Corps Command
and Control
Two methods exist for controlling
units below the corps level. The first and
most common is for units to remain within
the proper command radius of their division
commander and/or corps HQ, in which case
they may move and fight as desired as long
as they do not violate the spirit of the current corps orders. The second is the use of
divisional goals which frees units from
command radius by assigning them orders
10.5a Command Radius. Check command radius at the very beginning of the
Movement and Close Combat Phase; units
in radius at that time are considered to be in
radius for the rest of the phase. (But note
that attackers in close combat must be
within command radius at the moment of a
close combat, as per 23.1b). Calculate command radius distances in the movement
points a leader would need to travel from
one point to another. The points involved
depend on the type of unit and level of
command radius involved. In counting
movement points, only those hexes a
friendly leader could move through can be
used. Therefore, impassible terrain, enemy
units and EZOCs affect command radius.
Friendly units negate EZOCs for this purpose. Units expected to be within command
radius (not under divisional goals or army
orders), but which aren’t, must expend all
their available movement to reenter radius
each turn until they do so.
A. Brigade to Division Radius. Brigades must always be at or within 4 MPs of
their division commander. For a brigade
with extended lines, only one hex of the
brigade line need be within range.
B. Division Leaders, Artillery Units to
Corps HQ Radius. At a range of 8 MPs or
less from their corps HQ, these units and
their subordinates function normally. No
unit may move intentionally (with the exceptions below) outside this range. Note
that command radius may extend a maximum distance of 8 MPs between a corps
HQ to a divisional leader and then a further
The second table generates a required dice
roll of 11 or more (Column 4, the new
corps commander is a 1), which the player
fails miserably. Had this roll been required
at night, he would have had to roll no less
than a 14 on two dice—in other words, he
doesn’t stand a chance.
10.4 Emergency Retreat
Without orders or initiative, any corps
or wing formation may execute an
“emergency retreat.” This formation must
be under a threat of being surrounded or
destroyed, or a command might have an
emergency retreat forced on it by some
enemy action—such as having its HQ overrun. The judgement of when this is appropriate is in the hands of the owning player
(except in the latter, forced case). Units
doing so immediately accept de facto orders to retreat one turn’s movement to the
rear—that is, the corps HQ may retreat
from 6 to 13 MPs, with other units follow-
Page 9
Civil War, Brigade Series Rules—v 3.2
4 MPs to the brigade from the division
leader. Units need not be within any required range from the army HQ.
C. Command Radius and Order Acceptance. When a corps accepts orders,
divisions and other corps units within radius of the HQ must immediately implement the orders which the corps received.
Divisions must maintain their previous
order until they are within command radius
of their Corps HQ, if out on a divisional
goal or coming on as reinforcements. Orders do not need to be issued from the corps
HQ to units as long as they are within radius.
10.5b Divisional Goals. A divisional
goal is an order to conduct a specific task or
mission given a division (or cavalry brigade) which allows it to function beyond
normal command radius.
A unit following divisional goals is
exempt from normal command radius
(distance to corps HQ for divisions, distance to division commander for cavalry
Division, corps, wing, and army commanders may assign divisional goals. Commanders may assign goals to their cavalry
brigades or artillery units. You may assign
goals when the appropriate leader (i.e. one
that is in the unit’s chain of command)
stacks with the division commander (or
actual unit, in the case of a cavalry brigade
or artillery unit). Usually, divisional goals
are assigned using initiative. The army
commander, however, sends them directly
to the division commander like any other
order using Command Points and acceptance. A division’s own commander may
“self assign” a divisional goal by a using
initiative. Lastly, divisional goals may be
assigned as a part of orders accepted by the
corps from the army commander—in effect, he tells them to do X and Y, and while
they’re at it have division A screen Z.
When a corps accepts such an order, the
division automatically accepts the divisional goal (provided it is within command
radius and not out under some other divisional goal).
Divisional goals created by initiative
are automatically accepted when given and
may be acted on immediately. Those sent
as orders from the army commander must
undergo normal order acceptance. Goals
sent as orders to individual cavalry brigades
or artillery units use a receiver rating of 2.
Jot down divisional goals so they may
be properly followed.
A divisional goal must be followed
until A. the division reenters command
radius and the player wishes to remove the
divisional goal and revert back to normal
corps orders, B. the divisional goal is
changed by initiative, or C. the division is
issued another divisional goal by an appropriate source.
Units attacking under divisional
goals must always check for Attack Stop-
Page 10
page as “corps of one division” with the
divisional commander counting as a
corps commander would if he is a casualty.
Artillery units may be given divisional
goals by their commanders and higher
leaders. Handle artillery goals in the same
way as any other. Division commanders
may not assign divisional goals to artillery
units—unless the artillery unit happens to
be part of the divisional leader’s division.
10.5c Independent and Detached
Units. Certain units in the game are listed
as “independent.” Independent units are
never bound by radius restrictions, never
need orders, and are always considered to
be in proper command. Detached units, on
the other hand, have their status determined
by the player. A player may detach divisions to the control of other corps. The
army commander must issue an order to
the owning corps commander to detach a
division (with instructions about which
corps the division will become assigned to).
Once detached, these units function normally as part of the corps to which they are
assigned. Generally, only divisions may be
detached and they must be detached as a
whole. Game specific rules may put limits
upon the ability of the player to detach
units or allow detachment of individual
brigades. Artillery units may be attached to
a specific division and function as one of
the division’s brigades. Cavalry brigades
may be detached from their parent divisions
and reassigned. The owning player juggles
detachments and reassignments during any
segment of his Command Phase. Change
the ownership of troops at that time, if
desired, by simply making a note of the
change. Each game may provide special
rules regarding detachments.
10.5d No Corps Organization? In
games where there is no functioning corps
HQs or when divisions are off on divisional
goals, the divisional commander functions
like a corps HQ. He is bolted to the ground
when there are no orders requiring movement (just like a corps HQ). When this rule
is applied, the divisional commander is
freed from the “must stack with one of his
brigades” restriction.
10.6 Army Command
These rules restrict what the army
commander can do and reduce the flexibility (also give meaning to) the army HQ.
All these rules exist to counter player
techniques seen in many games over the
10.6a Army HQ Movement. The army
HQ can only move if it has orders to do so.
The orders must require the HQ to move to
a specific hex. These orders (AO type for
practical purposes) must come from the
army commander while he is stacked with
the HQ. The HQ accepts these orders as if
it was a leader with a 2 rating. The Army
HQ cannot use “initiative” to move itself.
The army HQ is considered to be
‘moving’ from the moment its accepts an
order to move until it has accomplished the
specified movement and has been in the
destination hex for one entire game turn.
While moving, the HQ cannot issue
any orders, nor can it ‘recharge’ the army
commander’s IPV allowance (see 10.6b).
10.6b Army Commander Orders.
There are only two ways the army commander can issue orders: IPVs while away
from his HQ or AO/AW ones sent from the
army HQ (with the one exception in 10.6c
The army commander has an IPV
allowance. He can leave the Army HQ
freely to make an IPV order. However, only
one such order to one recipient will expend
this IPV allowance. He can recharge this
allowance by spending one complete game
turn in the (non-moving) Army HQ’s hex.
This use and recharge process can happen
as many times as the player desires during
the course of a game. With the exception of
10.6c, the army commander can never issue
an IPV while in the HQ’s hex.
While stacked with his (non-moving)
HQ, the army commander can issue AO/
AW orders as desired (note that he cannot
do this while away from the HQ).
10.6c Conferences. The Army commander can conduct one “conference” in
any given historical day. To hold a conference, move all the desired corps commanders to the army HQ’s hex. The army commander can then issue an IPV order to the
entire group (the same order is received by
each attendee).The order cost is that of a
single order of the type issued.
11.0 Formations
Combat units generally have two
formations which they can adopt, one beneficial to movement and the other to combat.
Leaders, HQs and Wagons have only one
formation. A unit may never be in more
than one formation at a time. Units generally change formation only during the
friendly Movement and Close Combat
Phase; at other times formation may change
after combat results. Some morale results
may cause a formation change as part of the
execution of the result. When voluntarily
changed during movement, formation
change costs one or more movement points
as given on the Movement Chart. Some
formation changes may occur in hexes
adjacent to enemy units. However, such
changes may initiate a free fire combat by
all enemy units within range and LOS
(provided they are otherwise able to fire) on
the changing unit in the old or new formation, as chosen by the enemy player. Artillery must limber to execute any retreat
result from the Morale Table. Such limbering in a ZOC or close combat requires a roll
on the Gun Loss Table.
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11.1 Available Formations
Infantry units may be in line or column. Cavalry units have a line and a
mounted formation. Artillery units may be
either unlimbered or limbered.
11.2 Effects on Movement
Each formation/unit type is assigned
its own movement allowance on the Movement Chart. Line formations may not use
bridges to cross rivers and creeks, but may
cross at fords. Units in column, mounted or
limbered formation may cross rivers and
creeks using bridges at no additional cost.
Unlimbered batteries cannot move. Note
that both the movement point allowance
and point costs for terrain vary according to
11.3 Effects on Fire Combat
Certain formations may not conduct
fire combat and others are limited in their
abilities to do so. These restrictions are
given on the Formation Effects Chart. Units
in column or mounted have the option of
automatically switching formation when
fired upon (after the fires are resolved).
Such a formation change does not initiate
further fires upon the changing unit.
11.4 Effects on Morale
As recorded on the Morale Table,
certain formations receive modifiers when
making morale checks.
12.0 Stacking
Stacking is the placement of more
than one unit to be in a single hex. Stacking
and unstacking have no effect on movement. Stacking is enforced at the end of any
phase containing movement of any sort.
Units may temporarily over-stack during
movement without additional movement
point costs. Stacking is enforced for each
side independently of each other during the
conduct of close combat.
12.1 Restrictions on Stacking
No more than three A fire levels and
10 gun points may ever stack in one hex at
one time. Stacks may be adjusted by the
phasing player at any time during his normal movement, or by either player after the
conclusion of a close combat.
12.2 Effects on Movement
Units may move as a stack as long as
each unit’s movement allowance and points
spent remain independent of others in the
stack. When moving on a road, each unit
must move individually and may not end its
movement stacked with another unit which
also moved on the road in that phase and is
still in column, mounted, or limbered formation.
Optional: Players may get a more
accurate road column if they allow no more
than a B fire level to be in column along
any given hex of road. In other words, an
AB unit would require three hexes of road
space. Use extended line markers to show
this column—place the actual unit at the
head and mark each following hex with an
extended line with the arrow pointing forward. Furthermore, each wagon or artillery
unit must take up one full hex of road
space. Thanks to D. Burrell for this easy to
use adjustment. Its effects are interesting
and should be tried by all serious players.
12.3 Effects on Combat
Only one A fire level and 5 gun points
may fire out of a single hex. This total
includes all hexsides through which fire
takes place. The same limit applies to close
combats. Only the top unit in a hex is the
target of fire combat (Exception: artillery
units may engage enemy artillery selectively regardless of its position in a stack.)
Note that the total available to fire from a
hex is counted from the top unit down—
therefore, in a hex with an AB, an A, and 5
gun points, the first unit can fire an A and
the gun points may fire; no greater combination is allowed. If the top unit is less than
an A fire level, the next unit in the stack
may add its strength to the fire, and so
forth, so the stack can fire up to the A fire
level limit. The top target unit provides any
applicable modifiers to the fire combat for
the target stack.
12.4 Effects on Morale
The top unit in a stack provides the
morale level for the stack, and this morale
level applies whenever a morale check for
any of the stack’s units is required. The top
unit is also the basis for the assorted morale
modifiers affecting the stack during morale
and straggler checks. Stacks can have but
one morale state, marked by the morale
marker atop the stack. When units in different morale states stack at the end of movement, or anytime during a retreat (with the
exception of displacement), they adopt the
worst morale state of any of the parts of the
new stack—this rule does not apply when
units momentarily stack during movement.
12.5 Effects of Over-Stacking
When discovered, an over-stacked hex
is treated as follows: The stack automatically becomes disorganized. If already
disorganized, it is routed. Overstacked
hexes must be broken up in the next available friendly Movement and Close Combat
Phase. Routed units may move one hex to
accomplish this. Repeat as needed.
13.0 Facing
All troop units must be aligned so as
to “face” a hex-side. All units in a given
hex must face in the same direction. Facing
defines the front and Flank/Rear of each
stack of units and can have critical effects
on the outcome of fire combat and morale
13.0a A target receives the flank fire
modifiers to the Fire Combat and Morale
Tables if at least one of the attacking units’
fires enters via a flank or rear hex or along
the hexside dividing front from the flank/
rear hexes. Note that in this latter case, the
defending unit could not fire upon the unit
hitting it along the hexside. A unit blocks
enemy fire directed along the hexsides
defining the hex it is within—in other
words, fire cannot be directed along a hexside of an enemy held hex into the flank of
another enemy unit.
13.1 Changing Facing
Facing change never costs movement
points. Any amount of rotation is allowed
in a single facing change. EZOCs have no
effect on the ability to change facing. Facing may be altered at will by the phasing
player during his normal movement, or by
either player after close combat or at the
end of a retreat caused by a Morale Table
result. Note that facing changes allowed the
non-phasing player by participation in close
combat occur after the full resolution of the
close combat.
13.2 Effects of Facing on
Movement and Combat
A unit or stack of units may only fire
and conduct close combats through its
frontal hexsides, exclusive of the boundary
hexsides—a unit may not fire directly to the
right or left. A unit or stack may receive
fire or defend against close combats from
any direction.
14.0 Zones of Control
Troop units in line formation or
unlimbered artillery units have Zones of
Control (ZOCs) in the hexes adjacent to
their frontal hexsides. Routed units never
have ZOCs. ZOCs of enemy units are referred to as Enemy Zones of Control or
14.1 Effects of EZOCs
A unit that enters an EZOC during
movement, and does not wish to enter an
enemy unit’s hex to conduct a close combat, must cease all movement for that
phase. Entering an EZOC does not cost
extra movement points, but any remaining
points are lost (unless the unit moves forward into close combat, in which case, the
remaining MPs are retained). Units may
freely exit any EZOC they occupy at the
beginning of their movement, as long as the
first hex entered is either a close combat or
does not contain another EZOC. Exiting an
EZOC, subject to the above restrictions,
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Civil War, Brigade Series Rules—v 3.2
does not cost movement points or incur fire
of any sort. Units may freely ignore one
hex of EZOCs (regardless of how many
units contribute to the ZOCs in the hex) in
order to enter a close combat. In this one
case, the hex entered immediately after the
negated EZOC hex must be the close combat attack hex.
14.1a Units forced to retreat into an
EZOC by morale results automatically
draw fire from all units who have a EZOC
in the hex entered (except for the first hex
of retreat out of a close combat). This does
not affect the firing unit’s ability to fire at
other times in the turn. The target unit may
not return fire in any way.
14.1b Friendly units negate EZOCs
they occupy only for purposes of tracing
command radius and supply. Units attacking in close combat may trace through one
adjacent hex containing EZOCs for purposes of command radius.
14.2 Terrain Effects on
ZOCs enter all frontal hexes regardless of the terrain of the hex or hexside
15.0 Retreat and
Formation Change
Fire Generation
If, during combat resolution, a potential target unit is forced to retreat before
receiving fire, it may not be fired upon. In
effect, it gets off easy.
15.0a A unit that retreats into an
EZOC hex draws fire from all units which
the owning player desires who have a ZOC
in the hex. Units which are retreating from
a close combat are exempt from this retreat
fire for the first hex of their retreat.
15.0b Whenever a unit changes formation adjacent to an enemy unit during
its regular movement, it is fired upon by all
available enemy units (which exert an
EZOC into the hex in which the unit is
changing formation). Artillery limbering
has its own rule below 15.0d. Note that this
rule is intended to affect only those units
which change formation under their own
power—not as the result of fire combat or
morale. The unit receiving fire is considered to be in the least beneficial of the two
formations involved for the fire combat.
After the resolution of this fire, finish the
formation change. The unit may continue to
move (if it wasn’t routed in the fire combat).
15.0c Infantry/Cavalry brigades in
column/mounted formation may change to
line formation freely after the resolution
of a fire combat against them, and such a
formation change does not cause another
attack under the provisions of 15.0b. The
Page 12
owning player may execute this “free”
formation change at his option.
15.0d Artillery Units are subject to
several special conditions when changing
formation. Artillery units can never unlimber in an EZOC. Any artillery unit which
unlimbers (which cannot be in an EZOC) is
fired upon by all otherwise qualified enemy
units at or within 2 hexes (including all
artillery, infantry and cavalry units (given
LOS and facing); the target unit’s position
in a stack does not matter). The target in
this case is still considered to be in limbered formation until the fire combat is
resolved. Artillery which limbers never
draws fire, but rolls on the Gun Loss Table
if doing so in an EZOC.
16.0 Movement
During each player’s Movement and
Close Combat Phase, the phasing player
may move as many or few of his units as he
desires. During the Movement Phase, each
appropriate unit may move as many or as
few hexes as desired within the unit’s
movement allowance and any restrictions
placed on the unit. Non-phasing player
units cannot move during the phasing
player’s movement phase (except due to
morale results). Fire Combat, other than
that in Close Combat or triggered by formation change in an EZOC, does not occur
during the Movement and Close Combat
Move each unit individually or as a
stack maintaining its running movement
allowance as movement points are expended. This movement must follow a
contiguous path through the hex grid. Units
may move in any direction or set of direc-
tions, but must always be in only one hex at
a time.
16.1 How to Move Units
16.1a During a Movement Phase, a
player may move all, some or none of his
units as he desires.
16.1b Movement is calculated using
Movement Points. Each unit expends a
number of movement points for each hex
entered or hexside crossed according to the
Movement Chart. Keep a running total of
the number of movement points a unit expends as it moves. If a unit’s movement
allowance changes according to formation
(e.g. mounted and unmounted cavalry),
calculate movement point expenditures
proportionally and round fractions of .5 or
more up, round fractions of .49 or less
Example: A unit has 12 MPs in one formation and 6 in another. While on its 12 side,
it expends 9 MPs (the 9 MPs includes the
actual cost of formation change) and then
flips to its 6 side. It has expended 9/12 of its
available movement allowance which is
then applied to its 6 MP allowance giving
4.5 which is rounded to 5. The unit has 1
MP remaining. Conversely, the same unit is
moving on its 6 side and uses 4 MPs
(again, this includes the cost to change
formation). This would be a proportion of
4/6 applied to the 12 MP allowance would
leave 4 MPs.
16.1c Each unit has a movement allowance, based on unit type and formation,
given on the Movement Chart. This is the
number of movement points available to
the unit in a given phase.
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16.1d Movement allowances are completely independent of each other and expenditures of one unit do not affect others.
Movement points and allowances, even if
unused, may not be transferred from unit to
unit or saved for future use.
16.1e A unit starting the movement
phase with movement points but having
insufficient MPs to enter any adjacent hex
may always move one hex. This one hex
must not be into a hex that is prohibited,
across a prohibited hexside, or into a close
16.2 Terrain Effects on
As per the Movement Chart, each hex
and hexside feature in the game costs a
varying number of movement points to
enter or cross. A moving unit must pay the
total required cost before entry, with the
“one hex movement” exception above in
16.2a The moving unit may use roads
only when crossing a road hexside to enter
a given hex. A unit may pay the road movement cost and ignore other features in the
hex or hexside crossed.
16.2b A hexside feature that must be
crossed and is not negated by a road adds
its cost to that of the hex being entered.
16.2c Units may not enter or cross
prohibited hexes and hexsides. Units forced
to do so are destroyed.
16.2d Forest hexes affect movement if
they contain at least two complete tree
symbols. The entire hex (including hexsides) blocks LOS if the above is true.
16.2e A unit crossing a hexside which
is both an elevation change and a slope or
extreme slope pays the movement point
cost of the most expensive of these features. These are not cumulative.
16.3 Restrictions on
16.3a Hexes containing enemy ground
combat units may only be entered by a
friendly unit executing a close combat.
16.3b Only friendly units move during
the friendly movement phase. Enemy units
may be forced to retreat as the result of
combats; this is not considered movement
per se and is resolved immediately after the
combat is resolved. Retreat movement is
not calculated using movement points.
16.4 Effects of Friendly Units
Generally, friendly units have no
effect on the movement of other friendly
units until the stacking rule is enforced at
the end of movement. Units do, however,
assume the worst of any mixed morale
states in the hex where they are stacked at
the end of their movement.
16.5 Effects of Enemy Units
Except in close combat, no friendly
unit may ever stack with an enemy unit.
Moving units that enter EZOCs must cease
movement for the turn, unless the next hex
they enter is occupied by an enemy unit and
the moving unit desires to conduct a close
16.6 Reinforcements
Reinforcements arrive at the time and
entry area listed in the scenario or arrival
schedule for the given game. Reinforcements may not be delayed, ignored, or
redirected in anyway. They may arrive in
any formation.
Move reinforcements onto the map as
if they were in a long column extending off
the map from the entry hex out. The first
unit in the column counts the entry hex as
its first hex of movement, the next in line
treats it as the second and so on. If the entry
hex is a road, the same sort of road is assumed to extend off the map and the reinforcements are in column along it.
Should an entry hex be blocked by
enemy units or their ZOCs, reinforcements
may arrive anywhere along the map edge at
or within 10 hexes from the blocked hex. If
one or more hexes of this zone is also
blocked by enemy units, add that number of
hexes to the outside edges of the zone (if
the basic 21 hex zone—10 on either side
plus the original blocked hex—has another
four hexes blocked, the zone would be 29
hexes wide). When reinforcements are
forced to use this entry zone method, all
reinforcements enter as if they were just off
the map edge and are no longer in a queue
awaiting entry (they have deployed). Supply trains (which require a road to move
on) may entry on any available road hex in
the zone or delay arrival until the original
road entry hex is cleared for entry on the
owning player’s choice. A player cannot
use this “blocked entry rule” voluntarily—
the enemy must block the original entry hex
with a unit or a ZOC to allow this rule to be
17.0 Extended Line
Extended Line is a unit which allows
large units the ability to bring more of their
firepower to bear. Extended line markers
literally move out from the parent unit (or
back again to return). These extended lines
then behave exactly as any other combat
unit except that at the end of every phase
they must be adjacent to their parent with
the arrow on their counter unambiguously
identifying the parent. The arrow restriction
is not meant also to restrict facing; it is
only a method of identification.
Note the ramifications of the above:
Extended lines have the same facing, movement, morale, combat ability and target
characteristics of any other unit of the same
type. Extended lines may never be in
“Column” or “Mounted” formations. As
long as both players understand which
extended line belongs to which parent, the
“arrow restriction” does not affect the facing of an extended line in any way.
17.1 Restrictions on
Extended Line
Infantry and Cavalry units in Line
formation with at least a B fire level may
extend line. Larger units may extend line
into two hexes. No unit may ever have
more than two extended lines attached to it,
and extended line markers may never extend line or stack with other extended lines.
Fire levels must be evenly divided between
the parent and any extended lines—with
any excess in the parent’s hex. No extended
line marker may ever exist without at least
a C fire level.
17.2 Effects of Extended
17.2a Extended lines behave as any
other line unit, with the additional requirement to be adjacent to the parent unit at the
end of each phase. Extended lines fire,
move, close combat, and have morale as
would any unit. Morale results affect only
the portion of the unit actually checking for
morale, unless the extended line is reabsorbed and then the regular morale effects
on stacking are followed. If any part of an
extended unit is routed, the entire unit must
collapse into the parent’s hex and be
17.2b Some morale results (notably
retreats of 2 hexes) separate extended lines
from their parent units. In such cases, the
non-retreating portion of the unit must also
retreat far enough (usually one hex) to
maintain contact with the retreating part,
and the unit displaced in this manner has its
morale state worsened by one level. The
extended line may never “circle” the parent
to avoid causing this displacement. Artillery under the non-retreating portion of the
line has no effect on the above. Artillery in
such a circumstance need not retreat with
the line if the player wishes it to remain in
17.2c Extended lines rally as separate
17.2d After subtracting losses, apply
any required reduction in fire levels to the
unit as a whole, and divide remaining fire
levels evenly among the parent and all
extended lines. If the unit no longer has
enough strength to support the extended
lines it may have, eliminate one or more
extended lines until the unit can support
them and place the parent in any of the
originally occupied hexes as desired.
17.2e Each part of a brigade in extended line becomes Low Ammo separately. Should the brigade reform in one
Page 13
Civil War, Brigade Series Rules—v 3.2
at the beginning of their movement and
may not change to line at any time during
the current phase. Disorganized or Routed
brigades may never force march.
18.0b For one set of two (2) extra
movement points, first roll on the 1/2-1
Straggler Table with appropriate modifiers.
After taking any straggler losses, the brigade may use the extra MPs.
18.0c To gain a second set of two
MPs, roll on the Straggler Table. This time
make the roll on the 1 1/2+ column. No
more than this total of four MPs may be
gained by forced marching.
19.0 Line of Sight (LOS)
Line of Sight (LOS) is the determination of whether two units can see and fire
on each other. LOS rules cause most players enough problems that they go either
with house rules or by the “seat of their
pants.” The following is an attempt to give
a determination method to be used for borderline cases—when players disagree. In
general, LOS tends to be straightforward—
it is either blocked or it isn’t—but some
cases defy easy decision. Use the following
in those cases.
Note that In CWB v3.0, the effect of Forest
for movement and LOS is hex-based, not
symbol based (see 16.2d). For games with
the New-style Graphics (In Their Quiet
Fields II, April's Harvest, Champion Hill,
Gaines Mill, Seven Pines, Malvern Hill,
Three Battles of Manassas, and Strike
Them A Blow) any hex that contains at
least two complete tree symbols is considered to be a forest hex. For older games, a
hex is considered to be Forest if 50% or
more of the hex has the forest symbol;
otherwise it is Clear.
19.1 General Rule
The map’s hexes are color coded as to
their elevation level. The relationship of
these levels is given on the Elevation key
on the map. The level of the hex represents
the elevation of the center of the hex. Consider elevation changes as gradual changes,
not as abrupt right-angles as if formed by
“layer cake” blocks of terrain. LOS is determined from the center of one hex to the
center of the other. Features intersected by
this line may block LOS; those features not
on this line will not. The elevation of a
hexside is considered to be half the change,
if any, between the adjacent hexes, added to
the elevation of the lower hex.
hex, then the brigade is Low Ammo. Only
one supply point is required to resupply a
brigade, regardless of extended lines.
Page 14
19.2 Determining LOS
18.0 Forced March
Forced march is a method of increasing the speed of marching troops; the cost
is additional stragglers.
18.0a Only infantry in column may
use forced march. Units must be in column
19.2a Rules of Thumb. Higher terrain
than both firer and target always blocks.
Same elevations as the higher of the two
hexes blocks if it is separated from the
higher hex by elevations lower than itself or
the unit can be considered to be behind the
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crest of a ridge or hill. Terrain of elevation
between the two hexes’ elevations (if different) blocks if the mid-way elevation is
closer to the lower one and is separated
from the higher by elevations lower than
itself. If the rules of thumb do not decide
the issue, follow the below.
19.2b Terms and Conditions. elevation—Elevation of terrain including any
modifiers, such as trees, buildings, or units.
(See 19.3b) Elevation—The unit’s elevation, e.g., the elevation of terrain ignoring
any modifiers.
19.2c Algorithm. Decide if each line is
true or false and proceed as indicated.
Given unit A and unit B (A and B) regardless of which is the firer or target, and a
straight line connecting the centers of the
hexes of each unit (the LOS) which continues past both points. Terrain is only a concern here if it lies on the LOS line itself,
either between the units or past them.
1. No terrain of higher elevation than
A’s and B’s Elevations exists between
T: Next line. F: LOS is blocked.
hexes are urban. These features add one to
the level of the hex for LOS purposes. They
do not add to the elevation of units in a hex.
Buildings and other minor features are
included purely for historical interest,
and—unless marked as urban terrain—
never affect LOS.
19.3c Units may always fire into or
out of, but not through, forest, orchard, and
urban hexes. If the elevations work out
correctly, it is possible to fire over these
19.3d Units add one to the elevation
of the hex they are in when determining the
LOS of units firing through their hex.
Friendly units may never fire “over the
heads” of friendly units if those units are
adjacent to the target.
19.3e Units or features within a hex
which is an end-point of an LOS never
block an LOS. Units always have an unblocked LOS into all their adjacent hexes.
2. A and B have the same Elevation.
T: LOS is not blocked. F: Next line.
3. Allow A to have the higher Elevation of the two. Terrain exists between A
and B of elevation the same as A’s Elevation.
T: Next line. F: Go to line 6.
4. This terrain of the same elevation as
A’s Elevation is separated from A by lower
T: LOS is blocked. F: Next line.
5. Either a lower Elevation is closer or
the same distance from A to B, than past A
or higher Elevations exist past A before
reaching lower Elevations.
T: Next line. F: LOS is blocked.
6. Terrain exists between A and B that
has an Elevation higher than B’s but less
than A’s, is closer to B than A, and is separated from A by Elevations lower than
T: LOS is blocked. F: LOS is not blocked.
19.3 Effects and Restrictions
19.3a LOS is determined in all cases
to be either blocked or not blocked.
Blocked LOSs do not allow fire combat to
occur between the hexes in question. LOSs
which are not blocked allow fire combat in
both directions. LOS has no other effects.
19.3b Certain terrain features add one
to the elevation of a hex in determining
blockage. These are forest, orchard, and
urban hexes. These hexes add if any part of
the hex (including all that hex’s hexsides) is
crossed. Note that urban hexes do not affect
LOSs that skirt their hexsides, unless both
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Civil War, Brigade Series Rules—v 3.2
19.3f Hexsides allow LOS if the unit
could see through at least one of the hexes
adjacent to the hexside, except in the case
where one of the hexes contains an enemy
unit. Hexsides around enemy units are
always blocked if the LOS must traverse
them (as opposed to crossing them into the
enemy unit, when it is the target).
19.4 Visibility
Visibility is given as a number on the
Turn Record Track. It is in effect for that
turn only and is the maximum range in
hexes any LOS may extend. If no number is
given, visibility is unlimited. The visibility
number for a turn is inclusive, that is, a five
hex visibility means ranges up to and including five hexes are allowed.
20.0 Fire Combat
Fire combat is the game’s method of
recreating battle between opposing units.
Fire occurs during the listed combat phases
and may be initiated during movement by
close combats or formation changes. In the
fire combat phases, one player may fire any
of his units he desires, individually or in
conjunction, then the opposing player may
do likewise. Close combats are resolved as
they occur, following the Close Combat
Play Tip: A way of making the combat resolution system much faster and easier is to roll all the needed dice at once and
to read the results as needed. To do this,
place the following combination of dice
into a dice roller: two large red dice, one
smaller red die, one yellow die, one black
die (white dots) and one white die (black
dots). (The actual dice and colors used is up
to you, but the above is a working example.
Using the above dice, they will be read as
follows. The two large red dice are for the
main combat table. The smaller red one
rounds any 1/2 results. The yellow die is for
the Straggler Table. The remaining two
dice are for the Morale Table with the black
die the tens digit and the white die the ones.
Use only the results from the dice which
are needed according to the Fire Table
result—in other words, if the Fire Table
result is no effect, ignore all the other dice.
This system speeds up play drastically—
although it might sound cumbersome at
For each target hex, the firing player
identifies all firing units. On the Fire Point
Tables (above the Fire Combat Table),
cross reference each firing unit’s current
fire level or gun points with the range to the
target to find the fire points that unit creates. Total these fire points for all units
firing onto the same target. Locate this fire
point total along the top row of the Fire
Combat Table and adjust the column for
any of the circumstances listed on the Com-
Page 16
bat Table Modifiers list above the Fire
Combat Table (total all modifiers before
applying any). Note that the table is restricted to the columns shown—fires
shifted beyond the table are resolved on the
last available table column. Resolve the fire
combat on the resulting column. Roll two
dice. The cross-index between this column
and the dice roll is the combat result. Execute this result and make any Straggler or
Morale checks.
Detailed Procedure Steps:
1. Total the Fire Points applied to the
target using the Small Arms or Artillery
range tables to determine the total points
firing. Plus (“+”) weapons units use the fire
points listed in parenthesis.
2. Expend one artillery ammo point
for each five gun points, or portion thereof,
3. Find the column of the Fire Combat
Table containing the resulting fire point
total. Modify this column according to any
special circumstances that may exist.
4. Roll two dice.
5. Determine the result by crossindexing the dice roll with the final column.
6. Round all 1/2 results by an extra
one die roll according to the 1/2 Loss Table
below the Fire Combat Table. Mark the
unit’s Loss Chart for losses inflicted.
7. If the roll on the Fire Combat Table
was an 11 or 12, mark all small arms firing
units with a Low Ammo Marker.
8. Roll on the Leader Loss Table for
every leader in the target hex.
9. Make any required straggler check
on the Straggler Table. Mark any straggler
losses on the unit’s Loss Chart.
10. Make any required morale check
on the Morale Table. Execute the result.
11. Change the target’s fire level
based on casualties and stragglers incurred.
20.1 Fire Points
Fire points represent the volume of
fire generated by different sizes and types
of units. Determine a given unit’s fire
points with the Small Arms and Artillery
Tables above the Fire Combat Table. For
each firing fire level or gun point unit, find
the fire points listed on the appropriate
table. Total the points for all units firing at
a given target and use it to determine the
initial column on the Fire Combat Table.
Disorganized units fire at half
strength. Halve the total fire points of all
disorganized firers, add them to the total of
non-disorganized fires, and then round
down (regardless of fractional value).
Do not round “less than 1” fires...they
are always “less than 1”.
These units use the “+” weapon fire point
values listed in parenthesis on the Small
Arms Table.
20.3 Restrictions on Fire
20.3a Splitting fire is not allowed. A
single unit (or extended line) can only fire
at a single target hex. A brigade with two
extended lines could fire at a maximum of
three targets (one for the parent and one
each for the extended lines).
20.3b Count the maximum fires from
a hex starting with the top unit and working
down the stack, as mentioned in Stacking
Effects on Combat (see 12.3).
20.3c Artillery units in a stack may be
selectively targeted by artillery units regardless of their position in the target stack.
20.3d Units may fire only once per
combat phase. Any number of a player’s
eligible units may fire in a given phase.
There is no limit on the number of units or
fire levels that can engage a single target.
20.3e A given hex may be targeted a
maximum of twice in a given fire phase—
once against its artillery (if any) and once
against the top non-artillery unit (if any).
Note that a given attacking unit may not
fire in both attacks. This rule is exclusive of
26.6; in effect, artillery can be targeted
separately in a stack (by artillery) and the
stack may be fired upon normally in the
same fire phase.
Note: Units can be targeted more than
once if they happen to retreat to another
hex which is later fired upon in the same
phase. The retreating units are liable as any
other unit in that new hex.
20.3f Units may conduct fire combat
freely out to the range of the weapon involved, given LOS and visibility. The max
range is 2 hexes for small arms and 10 for
20.4 Terrain Effects
20.4a Those terrain types that affect
combat are listed as column shifts in the
Combat Table Modifiers Chart above the
Fire Combat Table. Other terrain types only
affect combat by restricting LOS.
20.4b A given Modifier line on the
Combat Table Modifiers list may apply
only once per fire combat.
20.4c A slope affects a fire combat if
all fires in the combat cross slope hexsides.
If any fire comes into the target hex via a
non-slope hexside, the target does not get
the benefit of the slope at all. This same
rule applies identically to extreme slopes,
sunken road hexsides, and trenches.
20.5 Combat Results
20.2 Plus “+” Weapons
Certain units are listed as having Plus
(“+”) weapons, with a + on the counter.
After determining the fire points and
applying column shifts and modifiers, roll
two dice to determine the combat result.
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20.5a Morale Checks. Certain results
are listed as M, M-1, or M-2. These results
call for a morale check only (no casualties
or stragglers). Roll on the Morale Table for
the top unit. The number following the M (1, -2) is an additional number of upward
shifts on the Morale Table.
20.5b Straggler Checks. Any result
giving 1/2 or more casualties also calls for
a straggler check. See Stragglers for details
on making the check. Make the straggler
check even if the 1/2 loss rounds to zero.
The top non-artillery unit makes the straggler check for the stack if an artillery unit in
the stack was the target of fire combat.
20.5c Step Losses. Any numeric result
on the table indicates a casualty loss, straggler check, and morale check. Round any
1/2 losses up or down; see 20.5d. Record
the casualties on the Loss Chart for the unit.
Make the appropriate straggler and morale
checks; execute and record those results as
needed. Make any adjustments to the fire
level markers under the unit and move on.
20.5d 1/2 Loss Rounding. Many results include a 1/2 result. Round this result
using an additional one die roll (1-3 down,
4-6 up). Even when a result rounds to zero,
a straggler and morale check are still required.
20.5e Low Ammo. Whenever a Fire
Combat Table roll is an 11 or 12, mark all
the small arms firing units as being Low
Ammo. These units remain at Low Ammo
until resupplied by a supply wagon or train.
See Supply for more details.
20.7b When all the spots to the left of
the wrecked line for the division are
marked, the division is wrecked. Circle the
division’s identification on the chart and
apply the additional modifiers from that
20.6 Step Losses
Example: Use of Fire Points and the FireCombat Table
Record step losses of infantry and
cavalry units on the player’s Loss Charts as
mentioned above. Mark off these losses as
they occur and adjust fire levels accordingly. Artillery units have no loss charts,
but instead have their current strength recorded using numeric gun point markers
under the unit counter. For artillery, a given
numeric loss from the Fire Table is the
number of gun points in that unit destroyed.
20.7 Marking Losses and
Each brigade has a row of ovals or
squares in a line on the Loss Chart. Mark
each casualty with an “X,” each straggler
with a “/”. Keep the casualties to the left of
the stragglers by pushing the stragglers to
the right and completing the “X” for each
new casualty. By doing so, you make straggler recovery much easier to control.
20.7a When all the brigade’s spots to
the left of the “wrecked mark” are marked
with casualties and stragglers, the brigade is
wrecked. Mark a line through the brigade’s
identification on the Loss Chart (for easy
reference) and an “X” in one of the Division’s spots. Apply any appropriate modifiers from that point on as long as the
wrecked status lasts.
21.0 Stragglers
Stragglers are troops separated from
the ranks through the effect of combat and
exertion. While not casualties or permanent
losses, they are not available for combat
use. Unlike battle casualties, stragglers may
be recovered during play to rebuild a unit’s
21.1 Straggler Checks
Stragglers can be lost during combat,
forced march, and morale results. Make
straggler checks whenever a 1/2 casualty or
greater Fire Combat Table result occurs,
units make an Emergency Retreat, or when
a player chooses to force march.
Choose the correct half of the Straggler Table to use based on the “1/2 to 1” or
“1 1/2 or more” loss column headings.
Consult the column which corresponds to
the morale rating of the unit in question.
Roll one die and modify according to the
modifiers listed under the table. These
modifiers are cumulative. Cross index the
modified roll result with the correct morale
column, the result is the steps lost to stragglers. Mark these accordingly.
21.1a If the checking unit is destroyed
by its straggler loss, the next lower unit
takes any remaining straggler loss and
makes the morale check, if any. Note that
this next unit does not roll separately for
21.1b If a unit is destroyed in fire
combat before making its straggler check,
the next lower unit makes the check.
21.1c Artillery units never suffer loss
due to stragglers or from the Morale Table.
If an artillery unit takes a loss on the Fire
Combat Table, the top infantry or cavalry
unit in the stack makes the straggler and
morale check for the stack. Artillery alone
in a hex would check morale for itself (as if
it had a C morale rating), but ignore any
straggler losses and never make straggler
21.2 Straggler Recovery
Stragglers may be recovered under the
conditions below. Units may be marked and
attempt to recover stragglers on any day or
night hour turn (8:00, 9:00, etc.). Straggler
Recovery Markers may be placed on units
that fulfill the following conditions:
a. The unit is at least 4 hexes away
from an enemy unit.
b. The unit may not be in any morale
state other than normal, including BL.
c. The unit must be within normal
command radius (or that part of it available
at the time the unit is marked—in the case
when the corps HQ is not yet on the map).
This example is designed to introduce playersto the use of the Fire Table, calculation of fire
points and fire combat resolution. Where straggler and morale checks would be required,
they are listed but the actual check required isnot made.
In this first example, 2 Infantry brigades arefiring at a single target at range 2. Both infantry brigades have a strength of greater than theA fire level, so the fire can be calculated as
twoAs firing at range 2. Neither brigade has “plus”weapons.
A reading from the Small Arms Charttells us that an A at range 2 provides 2 firepoints, or a
total of 4 for the two firers. Identifythe 3-4 fire point column on the Fire Table.Read down
the list of Fire Table Modifiers anddetermine if any apply. Let’s say our target isat a higher
elevation than the firer’s, but thereis no slope symbol between the firers and thetarget. In
this case, the target would not receive the benefit of the column shift awardedfor being
behind a slope (-1). In fact, none ofthe modifiers apply. On the 3-4 column, thefiring player
rolls two dice and gets a 6 whichgives a “1/2” result. He would then roll another die to
round this result off (as per thebottom of the Fire Table), check for stragglers,and do a morale
check. That would end this firecombat.
In the second example, a player is firing a Band an A at range 1, a B at range 2, a battery
of 5 gun points at range 6, and a battery of 5gun points at range 8. The player gets the
following fire points for each of these: 2, 4, 1,1, and 1/2 respectively for a total of 8 1/2 or 8
(after rounding). This places the initial FireTable column at the 7-8 column.
In this case, however, one of thefirers is at Low Ammo, but one ofthe firers hasa flank shot.
The following column shifts areawarded: -1, and +2 respectively for a totalshift of +1. This
means the fire is resolved onthe 9-11 column.
The player rolls 2 dice getting an11. Since the dice roll is an 11 or 12, all thesmall arms
units which fired are now markedLow Ammo (the one that already was so markedis unaffected). The result is a 2 1/2, which isthen rounded to either a 2 or a 3 by the additional
rounding die roll. Straggler andmorale checks are required and made.
Page 17
Civil War, Brigade Series Rules—v 3.2
MP plus the cost of the target’s hex, enter
the hex, and then resolve the combat as
listed below.
Divisional goals do not negate this condition.
Once placed, Straggler Recovery
Markers are removed if any of the placement conditions is violated or if any of the
following occur:
a. The unit moves.
b. Another unit that was not there
when the marker was placed enters the
marked unit’s hex and stack with it.
c. The unit is fired upon, regardless of
combat result.
Eliminated units may re-enter play
through straggler recovery. They may do so
only if they have at least 2 strength points
which can be recovered. Place Straggler
Recovery Markers according to the same
conditions above in any empty hex within
appropriate command radius.
For each marked unit, roll on the
Straggler Recovery Table for the correct
morale value. Erase recovered stragglers
from the brigade’s loss chart. Make any
corrections to fire level markers based on
this change. A destroyed unit which reappears through straggler recovery is placed
on the map in an appropriately marked hex.
Straggler recovery markers can be placed in
empty hexes in anticipation of the appearance of rebuilt units. Destroyed brigades
roll for recovery using their printed
morales. After rolling for each unit attempting recovery, remove the straggler recovery
Page 18
Brigades may only recover stragglers
they themselves have lost. Stragglers may
not be combined between brigades, and
combat casualties may never be recovered.
22.0 Wrecked Brigades
and Divisions
As a unit’s losses (both combat and
straggler) increase, the unit will reach or
surpass its wrecked limit on the Loss Chart.
Once all spaces to the left of the limit are
filled, the unit is considered wrecked and
all resultant penalties apply. A unit may
become un-wrecked by the recovery of
enough stragglers such that the unit’s losses
no longer reach its wrecked limit. Divisions, once enough of their brigades are
wrecked, also become wrecked. Recovery
of component brigades can lead to the unwrecking of divisions.
A wrecked brigade, or wrecked brigade of a wrecked division, differs from
regular units in that it has additional morale
and straggler modifiers. Wrecked brigades
may never attack in close combat.
Wrecked divisions also affect Corps Attack
23.0 Close Combat
Close combat is a combination of fire
and movement which occurs in the Movement and Close Combat Phase. Moving
units which desire to conduct close combat
move adjacent to their target, expend one
a. The attacker enters the defender’s
hex at the hex’s cost +1 in MPs.
b. First the defender then the attacker
calculate and conduct fire combat. Do this
sequentially. Execute the results and make
straggler checks as each is done. They
make no Morale Checks now and ignore
modifiers to be applied to the Morale Table
from the Fire Table.
c. Attacker checks morale at -6 (plus
any other applicable modifiers). If the morale result forces the attacker to retreat, the
attacking player executes the result and the
close combat ends. Note that the attacker is
exempt from this check if the defender was
unable to fire in the close combat.
d. If close combat does not end in c.,
the defender checks morale at -4 (plus any
other modifiers). If the morale result forces
a retreat, the close combat ends. The defender then executes the morale result and
conducts an additional morale check (that
is, after having retreated) without the close
combat modifiers.
e. If combat has not ended yet, use the
Odds Table to determine the winner. The
loser from the Odds Table retreats—
attacker one hex, defender two hexes. If the
defender is the loser, he must conduct an
additional morale check at the end of his
two hex retreat.
In all cases, one side or the other will
end up alone in the hex. The attacker may
continue movement with any remaining
movement points afterwards. Note that the
retreats caused by close combat do not
expend movement points or cause a unit to
stop moving.
After the combat has been resolved,
participating units (only) on either side may
freely change facing and stacking position.
Note that when determining unit
strength for the Close Combat Odds Table,
Low Ammo, DG Morale, and Formation
have no effect on unit strength. Do not roll
on the Odds Table when the defending
units are Routed; instead, the defending
Routed units automatically Rout (Back 2
and Straggle 3) and then make an additional
morale check.
23.1 Restrictions
A unit may conduct as many close
combats in a phase as desired within the
constraints of its movement allowance and
the conditions of close combat below.
23.1a Attacking units may not be in
any morale state other than BL or normal.
23.1b Attackers may not violate command radius. Command radius must reach
into the target hex at the moment of the
attack. EZOCs in the hex from which the
attacker entered CC do not block this trace.
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23.1c Close combat attackers may not
be wrecked brigades.
23.1d A unit may be the target of an
unlimited number of close combats in a
given phase. The order of attacks is completely in the hands of the attacking player.
The defender must accept close combat
23.1e Always resolve close combat
before conducting other movement. Note
that units wishing to conduct a close combat together must start movement together
(except for leaders, who may come from
anywhere—but still must join from the
same hexside the other units crossed to get
into the close combat). Units with extended
lines may retract those lines on the way to
the close combat and attack as a single unit.
23.1f No unit may add its fire to a
close combat unless actually engaged in
that hex.
23.1g Calculate stacking and fire
limits for each side separately; all normal
rules regarding stacking and fire are in
23.1h Fire combat in close combat
uses the close combat range columns of the
Fire Point Determination Chart. Terrain
affects close combat fires as any other combat. Hexside features that the attacker
crosses to enter the target hex also affect
the combat, as if the attacker were in the
adjacent hex from which he entered. In
close combat, morale checks are made only
as called for by the close combat sequence
and may not occur directly after a fire combat. Ignore morale checks called for by the
Fire Combat Table.
23.1i Artillery units may never conduct close combat as attackers. Infantry in
column may not fire in its portion of the
fire combat, but may change formation
after the fire combat is finished. Such an
infantry formation change is exempt from
the usual “formation change fire trigger” (15.0b) above.
23.1j Units may cross one EZOC hex
to enter close combat. This hex may contain overlapping ZOCs from a number of
enemy units. Units wishing to enter a close
combat may not move from one EZOC hex
to another before entering the target hex.
23.1k When the attacker enters close
combat through a unit’s rear or flank hexsides, the defender fires with an additional 3 column shift modifier on the Fire Combat
23.1l Unit size greater than “AA” has
no additional effect on the Close Combat
Odds Table.
23.1m If the attacker must retreat out
of a close combat (he lost), the first hex
entered must be the one from which he
entered the combat. The defender’s retreat
hex must be opposite the attacker’s entry
hex, or as close as possible given the presence of enemy units. At the end of his retreat, the attacker still has all the MPs it had
remaining before the retreat and may con-
tinue to move and conduct more close combats, if it has sufficient movement points
23.1n Both sides in a close combat are
exempt from retreat fires in the first hex
they enter. After that one hex, these units
automatically draw fire from any enemy
units whose EZOC they enter in retreat.
23.1o If fire combat in the close combat procedure eliminates the defending
units, the attacker must still conduct his
morale check at -6. His attack might falter
before he knows he has won.
Example: Close Combat Sequence
This example narrates a close combat in
order to show the procedure. The details of
the fire combats and the straggler and
morale checks have been omitted except
where useful to show the effects of a close
The attacking player announces the close
combat, pays the defender’s hex movement
point cost plus one, and enters the defender’s hex. The sides exchange fire
(defender then attacker) at CC (Close Combat) range for fire points. While the attacker is unable to bring any artillery
along, the defender can use his to great
effect (assuming it is unlimbered, that is).
The losses and stragglers are marked on
both side’s Loss Charts after each side’s
fire and including straggler and leader
casualty checks. The attacker then checks
his morale with an additional drop of 6
rows on top of anything else he is eligible
for. If he is forced to retreat because of this
roll, the combat ends and there are no
other effects—the defender manages to
avoid the Morale Table.
Assuming the attacker survives his morale
check, the defender must check morale
dropping 4 rows in addition to anything
else for which he is eligible. If he is forced
to retreat, the combat ends and the attacking units may continue to move, provided
they still have movement points remaining.
They may even close combat the same target again if they wish and their ability to do
so is not otherwise restricted (by morale or
movement points, etc.). The defender (if he
retreats) must make the additional morale
check. He makes this morale check without
the close combat modifier of -4.
Now let’s assume the defender also survives. This is where the Odds Table is used.
Convert the unit strength for each side
using the Point Value Chart on the Odds
Table, keeping in mind that strength over
the AA fire level is irrelevant, and determine the odds. Roll one die on the table
making any die roll modifiers noted on the
Odds Table. The Odds Table result will
generate a winner and a loser for the combat. Execute the results. Note that if the
attacker loses, he must retreat one hex. If
the defender loses, he must retreat two
hexes and make an additional morale
check. This morale check, as stated earlier,
does not use the close combat modifiers.
23.1p Additional morale checks made
by the defender (as per the close combat
procedure) do not include the -4 modifier.
23.1q BL units are not required to
make close combats.
23.1r Units in Column or Mounted
formation may conduct close combat as
attackers (especially if they have a death
wish). Because of morale and formation
effects, it is possible that units from one or
both sides may be unable to fire.
24.0 Morale
Morale is the quality of a unit which determines
how well the unit withstands
the shock of combat. It is an
evaluation of a unit’s leadership, training, and (for the lack
of a better term) character.
Each unit is assigned a morale
level or rating (which is
printed on the counter). This
level/rating is a permanent
feature of the unit and does
not change during the relatively short period represented
by the game. Units are rated
on a scale of A through E,
from best to worst.
24.1 Morale States
Unlike morale levels, morale states
represent temporary conditions of confusion, fear, or anger. A hex and all units in it
can have only one morale state at any given
moment. A morale state inflicted on one
unit affects all others in that hex. Mark
morale states by using the appropriate
marker atop the stack (normal has no
marker). They are, in order of increasingly
poor performance:
Blood Lust—A temporary state of high
excitement, resulting in a short-term suspension of normal fear reactions.
Normal—The usual state of the unit.
Shaken—A mild increase in confusion
and increased caution.
Disorganized—A partial command
breakdown and increased resistance to
commands which would place the unit into
Rout—A collapse of organization and
flight to the rear.
24.1a Each morale state has its own
effects, as given on the Morale Effects
Table, on fire, movement, and close combat. In addition, the following is true:
24.1b Routed units may not move
voluntarily during the friendly Movement
and Close Combat Phase. They must retreat, however, if they fail to rally during
the friendly Rally Phase are less than 6
Page 19
Civil War, Brigade Series Rules—v 3.2
hexes of an enemy unit. This retreat occurs
instantly in that Rally Phase and continues
until the routed unit is 6 hexes away from
all enemy units. If a routed unit is unable to
execute this retreat due to impassible terrain or enemy units, all remaining strength
is marked off as casualties (not stragglers)
and the unit is eliminated. Such units may
re-enter play by the recovery of stragglers,
like any other destroyed unit. Note that this
“movement” is not inhibited in any way by
normal command radius restrictions.
24.2 Morale Checks
Make morale checks when called for
by the Fire Combat Table and during the
Close Combat sequence. Follow this procedure for making the check:
A. Find the unit’s morale level to the
left of the Morale Table.
B. Total all applicable modifiers.
C. Modify the row, as found on the
left of the table, by this total modifier, with
“+” being up and “-” being down.
D. Roll two dice. The red die is the
first digit, the white one the second (a red
six and a white four would be 64). Find the
column along the modified row which
contains the dice roll and read up to the
E. Apply the column heading result.
24.2a In all cases, the top unit in the
stack at the time of the morale check gives
the morale rating for the stack.
24.2b Artillery units, if top unit, always have a morale level of C. Artillery
alone in a hex never receives the artillery
morale benefit on the Morale Table, even if
more than one artillery unit is in the hex.
Only infantry and cavalry in line formation
receive this benefit. Also note that if artillery units are selectively fired upon, the top
unit still makes the morale and straggler
checks for the stack.
24.2c Units that are in Blood Lust do
not make morale checks as do other units.
Instead, roll two dice on the Blood Lust
Morale Check Table. The only results possible are no effect and removal of blood
lust. No modifiers ever apply to this roll.
24.2d Units which are destroyed due
to the Morale Table result are removed
from play before executing any retreat and,
therefore, do not generate rout throughs.
24.2e All losses from the Morale
Table come in the form of stragglers.
24.3 Retreats and Rout
Retreats off the Morale Table are
given in hexes, not movement points. When
required to retreat, the affected units must
retreat the number of hexes given. If a unit
cannot retreat the number of hexes required, due to enemy units or impassible
terrain, that unit is automatically routed.
Units forced off the map are eliminated.
The standard retreat rule (5.2) controls the
Page 20
direction of a retreat. When units form a
stack, by retreat or regular movement, the
entire stack adopts the worst morale state of
any unit in it. Units may move (but not
retreat) through hexes containing forces in
other morale states and still be considered
not to have stacked with the non-moving
force. Ending one’s movement in an occupied hex is considered stacking. If such a
stack then splits up, each portion of the
stack carries the new morale state with it.
Any unit that even momentarily stacks with
a routed unit (for any reason) is automatically routed, regardless of how short-lived
the stack. This exception to the normal rule
is intentional. It simulates the
“contagiousness” of fear and the effect of a
disordered unit running to the rear on
nearby units—unlike a controlled move-
ment in which other friendly units can “side
step” to allow them to pass.
24.3a A rout through occurs whenever a retreating unit enters a hex containing other friendly units during a retreat
caused by the Morale Table or a close combat result. Note the retreating unit need not
be literally “routed” to create a rout
24.3b Units that have a unit rout
through their hex may either displace one
hex, or stack with the retreating units—at
the owning player’s option.
24.3c If the units displace, they
worsen their morale state by one level
(shaken to disorganized, for instance). This
displacement may cause additional rout
through and, hence, additional displacement situations. Handle each one as an
The Gamers, Inc.
individual event, with the same rules and
options applying. Treat displacements like
retreats in that they must be “locally to the
rear.” Note that unlimbered artillery may
not displace or follow in a retreat. These
artillery units merely absorb the passing
unit’s morale state and remain in place.
24.3d If units choose to stack together, the worst morale state of the stack is
adopted by all units in the stack, and the
retreat continues, if required, by the entire
24.3e Blood Lust units which stack
with non-blood lusted units, or displace in
any way, lose their blood lust status.
24.4 Additive Effects
Whenever a stack with a morale state
receives another morale result, the effects
are cumulative as follows:
A. If Dg and gets another Dg, the
stack is R.
B. If Dg and gets BL, the stack is
C. If R and gets BL, the stack is
D. If Sh and gets BL, the stack is BL.
E. All other results, the unit is the
worse of the two.
Additive effects never cause additional retreat or straggler loss.
24.5 Rally
During the Rally Phase of a player’s
turn, his units in any morale state must
check for rally. To avoid confusion, follow
this sequence:
A. Remove BL from all units not
adjacent to an enemy unit.
B. Roll for remaining BLs on the
Blood Lust Morale Check Table and remove as required any BLs which fail the
C. Remove all Shs.
D. Convert all Dgs to Shs.
E. Roll for Rs. Roll one die for each
stack; subtract the rating of any one leader
in the hex from this roll. On a two or less,
the stack becomes Dg, on a three or higher
it remains R. If any remaining R stacks are
within 6 hexes of an enemy unit, retreat as
noted above.
Rally is a simple mechanical process
in which units gradually (and in most cases,
automatically) evolve towards normal. See
the Rally Diagram for a graphic representation as to how it works.
25.0 Leaders
Leaders are included in
the game representing the
divisional commanders and
above. Leaders provide the focal points for
the command system and provide a morale
benefit for units stacked in their hex. Leaders may move as any other unit, using their
row of the Movement Chart. Leaders have
no fire combat ability of their own. Leaders, while usually not the exact target of
enemy fire combat themselves, may become casualties when their hex receives
fire. Note that a player could fire upon a
hex containing only leaders in an attempt to
generate a Leader Loss roll and leader
Leader units have one rating, their
leader rating. Use this rating for command,
initiative, and morale. In addition, subtract
this leader rating from the die when attempting to rally routed units. For all morale functions (morale check and rally
rolls), the leader desiring to affect the units
must be stacked with them.
25.1 Effect on Stacking
Leaders do not count for stacking
restrictions and any number of them may
occupy a single hex.
25.2 Effect on Movement
Leaders move as any other unit. They
affect the movement of other units in that
the division commander’s hex is the center
of the division’s command radius.
25.3 Effect on Fire Combat
and Morale
Leaders have no effect on friendly fire
combat and do not have a fire combat ability of their own. When a hex containing one
or more leaders receives enemy fire and
casualties are sustained, roll two dice for
each leader and consult the Leader Loss
Table. Leaders do not suffer from morale
effects or make morale checks of their own.
Leaders assist friendly units making morale
checks as their rating is a row modifier on
the Morale Table.
25.3a Morale Table Use. Use the
leader rating in the checking hex as follows. Note that only the senior leader in the
hex affects morale checks (owning player’s
choice when tied). No more than one leader
ever affects a single hex. Modify the morale check by adding (going up) rows on
the Morale Table equal to the leader’s rating minus one. A zero leader, therefore,
would give a one row down modifier.
25.4 Leader Losses
and Replacement
Whenever a leader is in a
hex that receives enemy fire
and casualties are sustained
(ignore 1/2 results that “round down”),
check each leader in the hex for loss. Roll
two dice on the Leader Loss Table and read
the result. Roll once separately for each
leader in the hex. If the leader is killed or
wounded, remove the leader from play.
25.4a Leaders who become
casualties must be replaced.
Corps commanders are replaced by the senior division
commander (based on the
rank on the counter, owning
player’s choice in ties). Army commanders
are replaced by the available corps commanders as noted in the game rules. Division commanders are replaced by generic
brigade leaders. Replace all leader losses
25.4b Note that in later versions of
this series, the backs of division commanders are printed with the replacement leader
marked for that command. Corps and army
leaders have generic backs. If a division
commander is promoted to fill a vacancy,
use the generic repl back of the corps leader
to fill the divisional position until the division leader is eliminated and the “correct”
back is now available. Some repl leaders
have unit designations printed on them to
clarify command lines at times when officer losses have been heavy.
25.4c When a division commander
becomes a casualty, the divisional repl must
appear stacked with another unit of the
same division (i.e. not in the same hex). If
no such unit is available, the repl appears
where the leader was lost. Corps and army
leaders are not normally replaced by generic repls, and their replacements (other on
-map leader units) must move from where
they are to their new duty position during
regular movement.
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Civil War, Brigade Series Rules—v 3.2
25.4d If a leader is in a stack which is
destroyed, but escapes harm himself, place
the leader in the nearest stack of his command. If no such stack exists, remove the
leader from play. Leaders removed solely
due to this reason are never worth victory
points to the enemy player.
25.4e If enemy units enter a hex containing a leader alone, that leader automatically displaces to the nearest stack of his
command. Enemy units can never eliminate
leaders simply by entering their hexes.
25.5 Division Commander
Placement and Radius
Division commanders must stack with
at least one unit of the commander’s division. Corps and higher leaders have no such
requirement and may travel freely.
The division commander may move as
desired and the stacking restriction above is
enforced only at the end of the Movement
and Close Combat Phase.
The location of the division commander marks the center of his division’s
command radius. The location of a corps
commander is unimportant since the corps
HQ marker defines the center of the command radius of a corps.
26.0 Artillery
This system handles artillery somewhat abstractly
through generic gun points.
Exact weapon and ammo concerns have been factored into the conversion from gun to fire points. More artillery
detail is not needed in this game system and
would only serve to clutter it up.
Note: Unlimbered artillery units retain
their limbered movement allowances.
While they have movement points available, they may not use them except to
change formation. In other words, the MPs
available to an unlimbered artillery unit
may never be used to move from hex to
hex—it must change formation first.
26.1 Gun Points
Each artillery unit is assigned a number of “gun points” as printed on the
counter. (A gun point represents roughly
three cannons). Gun points are interchangeable, and may be attached and detached
without cost in movement points (the detached points merely move away using their
movement allowance).
26.1a The owning player may form
detached batteries of up to 3 gun points by
using detached markers and numeric gun
point markers. These detachments function
as any artillery and can link up with any
artillery unit, provided the resulting battery
has no more than 5 gun points.
26.1b Artillery detachments cannot
be created with less than 2 gun points. That
restriction only applies at the instant of
Page 22
creation, if the detachment falls below 2
due to losses later, that is ok.
26.2 Losses
When the Fire Combat Table calls for
losses, artillery units lose gun points directly as recorded on the Fire Combat Table. Therefore, if the final combat result is a
3, the target battery loses 3 gun points.
Place under the artillery unit a gun point
marker equal to the number remaining in
the unit. When an artillery unit has no remaining gun points, remove it from play.
Ignore incurred losses greater than the total
artillery strength in the target hex.
26.2a Note that an artillery unit may
be targeted by any artillery units within
range, regardless of its location in the stack.
26.2b Note the special rules (below in
26.6) regarding artillery formation change
both in EZOCs and within 2 hexes of enemy units.
26.3 Fire Combat and
Artillery may engage targets at up to
10 hexes, with restrictions due to LOS and
visibility. Use the Artillery Table adjacent
to the Fire Combat Table to convert gun
points into fire points. Calculate gun points
firing at a hex by the total number of gun
points involved at each given range bracket
(2-3, 4-6, etc.), not battery by battery, when
figuring fire points.
Example: If 3 batteries of 3 gun points each
fire at a target 3 hexes away, the resulting
fire points is 5, not 6. Similarly, but with an
opposite effect, 2 batteries of 4 firing at
range 3 would be 5, not 4. 3 gun points
firing at range 4 and 3 at range 3 would
total 3 (1/2 for the first set, 2 for the second, total 2 1/2, rounded to 2).
Add artillery fire points to any other
fire points attacking the hex, whether artillery or small arms, for one combined total.
26.3a Artillery fire points are further
modified by target type at ranges of 4 hexes
or more. Artillery fire points directed at
artillery or wagon units at such ranges is
normal (x1). Against any other target type
at ranges of 4 or more, artillery fire points
are halved.
26.4 Morale and Artillery
When an artillery unit receives fire, no
matter what its position in the stack is, the
top unit in the stack always checks for
morale and stragglers. Artillery, if the top
unit, always has a morale of C and, in this
case, the top infantry or cavalry unit makes
the straggler check. Artillery
alone in a hex, or stacked only
with other artillery units, never
receives the Morale Table
benefit for units stacked with artillery.
Artillery units never become wrecked.
Artillery must limber to execute any
retreat result from the Morale Table, unless
stacked with a non-artillery unit and the
result allows the “no retreat if stacked with
artillery” exception. Limbering in a ZOC or
close combat requires a roll on the Gun
Loss Table.
26.5 Stragglers and Artillery
Artillery units never check for stragglers and never lose gun points to either the
Straggler Table or the Morale Table.
26.6 Formation Change, Enemy Units, and Fires
26.6a Artillery units may never unlimber in an EZOC hex. Any artillery unit
which unlimbers is fired upon by all otherwise qualified enemy units at or within 2
hexes (including all artillery, infantry and
cavalry units; the target unit’s position in a
stack does not matter). The target in this
case is still considered to be in limbered
formation until the fire combat is resolved.
26.6b Artillery which limbers never
draws fire, but if doing so in an EZOC or
close combat it rolls on the Gun Loss Table. It then loses the number of gun points
called for by the table result.
26.6c The Gun Loss Table is never
used against and never affects any unit type
other than artillery.
27.0 Artillery Supply
Artillery supply is handled in a rather
abstract manner in these games—at the
army level. Each side has a number of artillery ammo points with which to fight its
battle (an infinite number in some cases).
The side may then use these points to fire
its batteries during the game. Any of a
player’s batteries may use the army ammo
to fire—which means one unit may, in
extreme cases, fire all the army’s ammo.
Once the ammunition supply is expended,
artillery units may continue to fire, but at
1/2 effectiveness (divide the value from the
Fire Point Determination Chart by 2 and
round down any fractions if necessary).
The batteries themselves never record
the ammo they expend. The only record of
artillery ammo in play is the Artillery Ammunition Track for each player (if any).
27.1 Tracing and Expenditure of Ammo Points
To fire at full effectiveness, artillery
units must be able to trace a path free of
EZOCs or enemy units to the army supply
train (or the hex from which it will enter).
This path may be of any length, but only
the first (starting with the artillery unit)
5 hexes may be non-road hexes—the rest
of the trace must be made on primary or
The Gamers, Inc.
secondary road hexes. Units unable to
make this trace have their fire points divided by 2.
Artillery supply is handled as a point
total at the army level. Expend one artillery
ammo point per fire of 5 gun points or
portion thereof, on a per combat basis (or
for each fire combat).
Example: If 12 gun points fire in a combat,
3 ammo points are used. Also, if 2 points
are fired in a combat and 3 in another, a
total of 2 ammo points are expended, one in
each combat.
28.0 Small Arms Supply
Small arms supply is handled mechanically on the game map. The player
uses his corps supply wagons to move supply points from the army supply train to the
units which need it. Small arms units need
supply only when they are to remove a Low
Ammo Marker—the supply expenditure
removes the marker.
28.1 Low Ammo
Whenever the Fire Table
dice roll is 11 or 12, mark all
firing brigades with Low
Ammo Markers. Mark each
unit separately. Low ammo never affects
artillery units, the supply of which is handled using the Artillery Supply rules above.
Units marked as low ammo:
...may not fire at range 2.
...have a down one modifier for the
Morale Table.
...have a back one column shift for
any fire combats to which they contribute.
Note that if several such brigades are firing
in a combat, only a total column shift of
one applies.
Units never actually run out of ammo
and additional low ammo results are of no
28.2 Supply Wagons
Most corps are assigned one supply wagon. This
wagon carries supply points
from the army supply train to the units
which need it.
28.2a Each wagon may carry 5 supply
points, which are marked under the wagon
using supply point markers. In all scenarios
(unless specifically stated otherwise) wagons always set up or enter with a full 5
supply points. Supply wagons and supply
points do not count in stacking. Wagons are
unaffected by morale results, but may tag
along in a retreat with units retreating out
of or through their hex.
28.2b Wagons may be reloaded by
moving at or within two hexes of the army
supply train. Such loading only occurs at
the very end of the Movement and Close
Combat Phase in the Ammo Resupply
Segment. Up to 5 supply points may be
loaded at one time.
28.2c Loading and unloading wagons
does not cost movement points in and of
28.2d Supply points may never be
unloaded onto the ground and left in a
dump—they must always be on a supply
wagon or train to be used.
28.2e Supply wagons and their contents are automatically destroyed if enemy
units enter their hex. Wagons may also be
targets during a Fire Combat Phase—they
have one step and are destroyed if it is lost.
They may not, however, be targeted separately in the stack as artillery can.
28.3 Supply Train
The army supply train is the source of
all small arms supply points. It has an inexhaustible supply. Wagons and units may
reload supply points if at or within two
hexes of the train.
28.3a The Supply train may never
leave primary or secondary road hexes.
Except for this restriction, they move as do
wagons. Corps supply wagons are not restricted by 28.3a.
28.3b Handle the supply train with
respect to fire combat and overrun in the
same manner as supply wagons.
28.4 Resupply of Small Arms
During the Ammo Resupply Segment
of the Movement and Close Combat Phase,
any Low Ammo marked brigade at or
within two hexes of a supply wagon or the
supply train may remove the Low Ammo
Marker at the cost of one supply point
(reduce the wagon’s load by one, ignore if
drawing from the supply train).
28.4a One ammo point resupplies a
single brigade of any size, including all
extended lines.
28.4b Wagons can normally issue
ammo only to units in their own organization. They may issue supply to low-ammo
units from other organizations if there is
currently no one in their own command
which is low ammo. Note that attached
units may draw on the wagons of either
their permanent or temporary organization
29.0 Night
Night actions, while rare in the Civil
War, did occur. This series allows night
actions but restricts them in both active and
passive ways. Passively, turns at night are
one hour, instead of thirty minutes, making
all actions take longer than during the day.
Active measures are listed below.
29.0a Visibility at night is always one
hex. Always modify night fire combat by
an additional -2 column shift. Night morale
checks have an automatic -3 row modifier
and night straggler checks always use the
+2 DRM. Make these modifications in
addition to any others which are applicable.
29.0b Any Corps attack stoppage roll
made at night receives an additional -3
dice roll modifier.
Terms and
Acceptance: The action of an arriving
order changing to an active status where it
can be used. Acceptance is accomplished
using the Acceptance Table.
Additive Effects: The combined
effects which occur when a unit in a given
morale state receives another morale result.
Aide-Oral (AO): A method of transmitting an order which requires the aide to
memorize the order and verbally transmit
that order to the receiver. While quicker
than other methods, the chance of error is
Aide-Written (AW): A method of
transmitting an order which involves a
written version of the order being hand
carried to the receiver by an aide. While
more exact than aide-oral, this method is
handicapped by the inability of the receiver
to ask questions of the sender so as to clarify the order.
Ammo Points: The points available
for use in firing a side’s artillery units.
Anti-Initiatives: The environment
generated by the overall command in an
army which sends a signal to lower ranking
officers regarding the acceptability of independent action. The Anti-Initiatives (if any)
apply to the initiative points available to a
leader which may inhibit the ability to obtain initiative.
Blood Lust (BL): A positive morale
state of temporary excitement (indicated by
an amount of frothing about the mouth)
which reduces normal fear reactions making the unit less susceptible to morale
checks than normal. They are having fun
and they want more of it...
Close Combat (CC): Combat occurring at much closer ranges than the “normal
fire for effect” standards (clear terrain, 200
yards). Such combat is occurring closer
than 100 yards (with some variability due
to terrain). Some hand to hand or melee
combat may ensue, but for the most part,
close combat is a fire fight at very tight
Column (COL): The formation of
infantry for the march. Usually a column of
four files generally used for movement
along roads.
Command Radius: The range from
an HQ and/or leader a unit must be within
to be able to automatically accept orders
given to the higher command.
Complex Orders (COM): An order
requiring a force to conduct an offensive
movement and combat operation.
Page 23
Civil War, Brigade Series Rules—v 3.2
Corps Attack Stoppage: The decision by a command that it has “done
enough” and that its attack is a failure. This
is the result of a failure on the Corps Attack
Stoppage Table.
Counters: The 1/2” cardboard playing pieces of the game.
Delay (D1, D2): The status of an
order for which the receiver is either arranging to implement it or is dragging his
feet. Either way, this result from the Acceptance Table may stall an order’s acceptance.
Detached Units (DET): A detached
artillery unit is a portion of a battalion sent
on a special mission or used by a player to
station his artillery more effectively. Detached divisions are divisions which have
had their corps assignment changed by the
Army commander’s orders.
Die (Dice) Roll Modifier (DRM): A
modification, either positive or negative,
made to a given die roll.
Disorganized (DG): A morale state in
which much command and control has been
lost due to confusion.
Distortion: A result from the Acceptance Table which indicates that the order
being rolled for was misinterpreted by the
receiver. For simplicity’s sake, the order is
thrown away (as opposed to trying to divine
what it was distorted into...)
Divisional Goals: An assignment of
orders to a division using initiative of either
the divisional or corps commander so as to
free it from normal command radius restrictions and allow it to perform an independent mission.
Enemy Zone of Control (EZOC): A
zone of control explicitly stated as coming
from an enemy unit. This distinction is
made to avoid confusion with ZOCs from
friendly units.
Extended Line: A formation which
allows large units to cover more ground or
bring more of their firepower to bear—on
the flip side, it also exposes the unit to
more fire combats.
Facing: The orientation of a unit or
stack in a hex. All units must face toward a
hexside of the hex they are in and all units
in a hex must face the same hexside.
Fire Level: A measure of the size of a
unit and the amount of fire volume it is
capable of generating.
Fire Points: The measure of firepower as applied by a number of firers
toward a single target hex. It is used for
calculation of the appropriate column to be
used on the Fire Combat Table.
First Edition CWB: The edition of
these rules (with later addenda and errata)
which was released in 1988.
Forced March: The extra exertion of
a unit to move a bit faster than normal with
a resultant chance at increased stragglers.
Formations: The potential methods
of assembly of the unit on the ground. Dictated by the drill of the time, these forma-
Page 24
tions each have their own individual benefits and drawbacks. The formations in the
game are representative of the basic combat
formations employed in real life.
Game Rules: The exclusive rules to a
given game which give any special rules
and all scenario information for that game.
Gun Points: A measure of the number of actual cannons in an artillery unit.
Each gun point represents about 3 cannons.
Headquarters Units (HQs): These
“units” represent the administrative and
control centers of corps and army command. Corps HQs mark the center of the
command radius net of the corps. Army
HQs are only used for flavor and to mark
their own location. All HQs move like
Hex: A hexagon. These are used to
regulate movement on the game map and to
simplify the determination of unit locations.
Hex Numbers: The numeric designation of every hex so as to quickly and accurately identify a particular hex using a simple ID number. We use a grid numbering
system which, while not printing a number
in every hex, forms gridlines which actually
make the system easier to use than one
which numbers every hex (see 1.1a).
Implement: An accepted order may
only be implemented (and made usable)
when the receiving commander makes a
trip through his HQ’s hex.
Independent Units (Ind): These units
are exempt from command radius and may
generally do as they please without orders.
Initiative: The ability to give oneself
orders without their issue from higher authority.
Initiative Points: The leader rating of
a leader trying to get initiative plus any anti
-initiative. This number is used to determine which column is used on the Initiative
In-Person Verbal (IPV): An order
which is given when both sender and receiver are in the same hex and physically
able to talk to each other. This is the most
effective way to issue orders to leaders in
the game.
Limbered (Limb): The formation of
artillery which allows movement. The guns
are hitched to their caissons and teams and
are ready to roll, but such units cannot fire.
Line of Sight (LOS): The determination of whether units can see each other
given the lay of the land and other map
Loose Cannon: The wild card which
appears when players use initiative excessively. Effectively, the leader has gone and
done something stupid.
Loss Charts: A record of the losses
(casualties and stragglers) to the units of a
given army. These are designed to alert
players as to when units change fire levels
or become wrecked.
Low Ammo: A status of being low on
ammunition in small arms units which
causes them to begin saving ammo by firing less and saving rounds for closer targets.
Markers: These are counters used to
show the status of game units.
Morale: The ability of units to “take
it.” Given as a letter designation from A to
E, with A being best.
Morale Check: The requirement to
roll on the Morale Table to determine what
effect certain game events have on a unit’s
Morale Level: The actual morale of a
unit (A through E).
Morale State: A temporary effect on
a unit because of a morale check. These
range from Blood Lust through Rout.
Mounted (Mtd): The formation of a
cavalry unit in which the troopers are
mounted on their horses for movement.
Movement Allowance (MA): The
total number of movement points a unit is
allowed to expend in a given movement
Movement Point (MP): A measure of
the cost of an activity or movement which
is charged against the unit’s movement
allowance when the activity is conducted.
No Effect (NE): A result from numerous game tables which requires no action or
other results.
Non-Phasing Player: The player
whose player turn it isn’t.
Order Log: A listing of orders as they
are issued which provides a quick reference
to the status of all orders and a convenient
record of the variables needed when using
the Acceptance Table.
Orders: The formal written instructions from the army commander to his
corps HQs which instruct them as to what
missions they are undertaking. No orders
are issued from the corps HQ to the divisions—such units automatically start to
function using orders their corps has accepted as long as they are in command
Phasing Player: The player whose
player turn it is.
Player Turn: An iteration of the turn
sequence for one player, which is followed
by an identical iteration for the other
player, the completion of which ends the
game turn.
Plus Weapons: Weapons fielded by
infantry and cavalry units during the war
which permitted a superior amount of firepower. Things like repeaters, magazine fed
weapons, and breech loaders.
Pre-Set Orders: Orders issued before
the beginning of the game. Usually, players
will want to follow the pre-set orders given
as part of a scenario and only “take command” when units actually appear on the
Rally: The act of reducing morale
states in the direction of normal. Given
time, all units will evolve toward normal.
The Gamers, Inc.
Retreat: The act of movement to the
rear as generated by Morale Table results or
via the Close Combat Odds Table. This
form of “movement” is calculated using
hexes and not movement points. It is also
subject to the Standard Retreat rule which
helps govern direction.
Routed (R): A unit which is completely out of the control of its officers and
is in a headlong flight to safety.
Rout-Through: The effects caused
when a unit in a morale state must retreat
through hexes containing other friendly
units. Such events may cause unit displacement or a “sharing” of morale states.
Second Edition CWB: The rules
contained here which were released in
Series Rules: The rules which are
applicable to all games in the series. The
booklet containing this section is the series
rule book.
Shaken (Sh): A morale state of added
caution. While the unit is still under control, it is more tentative about its actions.
Simple Orders (Sim): These are
orders which are made so as to conduct
limited movements and operations which
do not anticipate enemy action or resistance.
Small Arms: Units which are using
rifles and other light weapons and not cannons.
Stacking: The placement of more
than one unit in a single map hex. The limit
is three A fire levels and ten gun points.
Step Loss: The loss of one or more of
the steps on the Loss Chart to a unit due to
fire combat, straggler or morale results.
Steps: The 100 man increments on the
Loss Charts of which unit fire level strength
is based.
Straggler Check: A roll made on the
Straggler Table to determine whether a
game event has generated a loss in the form
of stragglers to the checking unit.
Straggler Recovery: The act of attempting to reform the stragglers of a unit
in order to give the unit more strength for
future operations.
Stragglers: Individuals who decide to
flee their formed unit (or are lost) and no
longer add to the combat power of their
own unit.
Summary Sheet: A page in these
rules (on the back of the Charts and Tables
pullout) which summarizes the changes in
the 2nd Edition rules for players used to the
1st Edition.
Supply Train: The army level supply
unit. It is the source of supply for the army.
Supply Wagons: These supply units
are at the corps level (usually) and provide
a means of transferring small arms ammunition from the army trains to the actual
Turn or Game Turn: A complete
iteration of the turn sequence for both play-
ers. It represents 30 minutes of real-world
time in the daytime, 60 minutes at night.
Turn Sequence or Sequence of Play:
The ordering of steps which make up a
game turn.
Unit: Specifically, this term when
used by itself refers to infantry, cavalry and
artillery combat units. When used with the
appropriate adjective (i.e. Supply unit), it
may represent other game counters.
Wing Structure: A command echelon used at some battles which lies between
the army command and corps commands. If
a wing structure exists in a given game, it is
discussed in the game rules for that game.
Otherwise, it is not used.
Wrecked Brigade: A brigade which
has lost enough of its strength to casualties
and stragglers so as to become combat
Wrecked Brigade of a Wrecked
Division: A wrecked brigade whose division is also considered wrecked. An even
greater level of combat ineffectiveness, if
you will.
Zone of Control (ZOC): The area of
influence or interest of a unit. ZOCs exist in
the frontal hexes adjacent to each unit. The
ZOC represents the area in which the unit
can bring effective fire to bear.
Designer’s Notes
Most of you have been playing using
the first edition rules for a number of years
now. I hope you will find the 2nd Edition a
degree of improvement. I do want to thank
all of you for your patience and help as we
have learned. We couldn’t have done it
without your help.
A number of concepts in these games
continue to be misinterpreted by players or
game reviewers (usually the latter). Foremost among them is the lack of a woods
combat modifier. No, we don’t believe that
trees fail to stop some bullets, as those with
simplistic analyses would have you believe.
The simple fact is that the historical evidence points out that commanders in the
Civil War felt the problems associated with
forest fighting to out-weighed any minor
amount of increased protection. Also, when
troops did fight in the forest, because of the
limited LOSs available, they did so at much
shorter ranges than normal. The effect of
the shortened range effectively counteracts
the protective effects of the woods. The
other case people point to when talking
about woods modifiers is when a force
attacks across an open field to attack a
defender in the woods. The problem with
this example is that, invariably, the defender would array himself in front of the
woods (so as to preserve command and
control and avoid the problems incurred on
maneuvering elements in the forest). With
the defender just in front of the edge of the
forest, neither side gets any “benefit” from
the woods and the fighting is the same as
that in an open field. Given that no one has
come forth in five years of debate with an
example of a force intentionally forming up
inside a forest (so as to get some mythical
“defensive benefit”) there is no historical
basis for such a modifier and its existence
would only make players perform actions
which are at best ahistorical.
A concept of which my reasons have
been misunderstood by a game reviewer
involves fire levels vs. strength points. The
original conception still holds true: having
fire decrease incrementally by each strength
point lost is not only a pain to record
(making change of strength markers, etc.)
but is also much too accurate a measurement. A unit which drops from 10 to 9
strength points cannot be assumed to have
9/10s the firepower. Consider the fire levels
to be an indication of the “significant digits” of the amount of fire being supplied by
the unit. I don’t think I need to explain
what a significant digit is to the audience
which plays these games.
Stragglers have also been attacked in
game reviews. They have been characterized as too much work to be worth it and
that one need not bother to recover them
(because, it is said, recovery is too hard).
OK, let’s say you agree and that the simulation benefits of the ebb and flow of battle
mean nothing to you, etc. A player who
thinks about his units and rebuilds them as
they are lost in stragglers will clean your
clock. Players who think ahead to the later
stages of the battle, who conserve their
troops, and who rebuild them after loss,
will generally kick the living “daylights”
out of players who don’t want to be bothered with it. It’s your choice.
Some will probably say that these
rules are “long overdue” or late in some
way. All I can say to that is that they came
out as soon as we could put the thing together. Given my injuries in 1990 and the
time it took to consolidate the assorted
comments and playtest the thing, these
rules made as early an appearance as possible.
Some word should be said to the
changes in this set of rules. On the whole,
we attempted to maintain the actual series
rules as they were presented in the first
edition with the majority of the work being
spent on things like rewriting and filling in
the blanks so as to make the rules much
tighter. The changes that were made were
based on the comments we had gotten
which pointed out undesirable effects and
unintended results. Also, some things were
changed to streamline certain concepts
which should have been very simple, but
ended up with some little (and silly) strings
attached. For instance, the command radius
“double zone” rule that confused many
players was ditched and replaced with a
single corps HQ to division commander
range (thanks, Wig). The facing to hex
corner thing was dumped because there
Page 25
Civil War, Brigade Series Rules—v 3.2
were no benefits and a number of sacrifices
involved in facing to a hex corner, so why
have it? The rest of the 2nd Edition is
mainly more clarification of what we meant
the first time around but were too new at
this to correctly verbalize.
These rules can be applied to earlier
games in the series without modification.
However, one should watch for the initiative restrictions placed on leaders in the
earlier games. Since we made initiative
much harder to get (so as to preclude misuse), some of the restrictions on initiative
applied in earlier games may be too much
when used with these rules. Those should
be approached on a case by case basis with
the goal being a roughly similar reduction
in the probability to get initiative.
A number of rules were floating about
in the 1st Edition or in the addenda after it
which do not appear here. Most of these
were based on very early comments or
reviews and we put them in to see what
others thought. Most of these “changes”
were either dumb or stupid and the complaints that generated them were limited to
one or two individuals. Having several
more years of experience, hundreds of
letters, and thousands of accumulated play
hours by gamers world-wide to draw on, I
can lay these ideas out to rest as they
should have been long ago. Those who feel
these dinosaur rules “add” something
should feel free to go on using them. I
don’t, and I don’t recommend them.
Some have commented that the Fire
Tables are too bloody, etc. After seeing all
manner of styles of play, I stand by the
tables as they are written. When troops are
used in a historical fashion, historical levels
of loss are generated. The players who
manage to drive the butcher’s bills through
the roof are, without a doubt, causing their
own grief by mishandling or overusing
their troops. I said it in the first edition and
I’ll say it again here. This game system
does not cushion the blow. If you do something dumb, the game system will happily
hand you a bloody nose. Likewise, good
play will be rewarded. Handling troops in a
tactically inept or thoughtless manner will
destroy your units—correct play requires
every engagement to be handled as a miniature tactical problem: how do I use the
terrain? My infantry? My guns? Pushing
two lines together and watching them grind
each other down is the wrong way to fight.
Don’t blame the game if you make a mistake which hands you your own head. And
it will if you don’t think about what you are
doing. Thankfully, most players have
learned a thing or two about troop conservation and tactics and don’t have this problem.
Page 26
2nd Edition, Revised
Designer’s Notes
Aside from a significant amount of
editorial work by Dave Demko, little has
changed in this version of the rules. The
mistakes (such as extra words) have been
corrected, but little actual redesign was
Changes include the dropping of the
standard rounding rule (which, in this series, caused more problems than it was
worth), the new artillery long range effects
rule (26.3a), the addition of the Procrastination rule and Hidden Movement (as optionals), and the Rod Miller multiple dice roll
system (which speeds fire combat resolution enormously).
In the place of our usual rounding
rule, round all fire point fractions down
(upon final application) and other roundings are handled on a case by case basis.
The regular rounding caused artillery “pot
shots” to be resolved as 1 fire point combats (1/2 rounded to 1) and that was excessive—so much so, we added the new artillery at range rule to further deaden the
effect of artillery on troop units a long
Defensive Orders
Reprinted from Operations Magazine #3
by David Powell
When playing a CWB game, have you
ever wondered why the defensive player
gets off so easily concerning the command
system? After all, the guy on the attack has
to do all the work. He writes the orders,
rolls for corps attack stoppage, and when it
all falls apart, starts over. In the meantime,
the defensive player just sits there, smug in
the knowledge that his orders won’t fail.
After all, usually, he doesn’t have any.
But what if he did? Why not issue
defensive orders as well? I think that forcing both sides to participate fully in the
command system might result in some very
interesting games. Therefore, I propose that
the following rules be used, and be considered a variant of the CWB command system. All of the below rules should be considered additions to the existing rules, except the No-Orders status, which must be
changed to reflect these additions.
No-Orders status is no longer defined
as being an assumed defensive status. Instead, a unit that is attacked while having
no orders is allowed to engage in combat
for no more than two turns. By the end of
this two turn limit, the force must have
accepted some form of orders (via initiative
or from a superior) or must immediately
implement an Emergency Corps Retreat,
paying the straggler die-roll penalty for
same. Additionally, a force with no orders,
and with no units currently engaged in any
combat (except artillery fire from 4 or more
hexes distance), has 2 added to the acceptance number for order acceptance, or 1
added to any initiative dice rolls made by
leaders in that force. Any unit that has not
accepted an order is considered to have no
orders, including units that have orders
currently delayed.
Defensive orders must be written for
all forces that the player wishes to defend
positions. Defensive orders are accepted
like any other order. A defensive order
needs to specify the geographic limits of
the ground to be defended. Sometimes the
orders may be fairly simple, as in “defend
Cemetery and Culp’s Hills from attack
from the North.” Usually, defensive orders
should specify right and left flanks and
some degree of the depth of defense
needed. When doubt arises, create a defensive “box” by specifying limits in all four
directions. All of the same conditions that
apply when writing normal orders apply to
writing defensive ones, except that antiinitiatives and any other restrictions on
initiative are ignored. Once a force has
accepted a defensive order, that force may
defend the position to the best of its ability
subject only to new orders or an unsuccessful Corps Defense Failure die roll.
Corps Defense Failure:
Once a corps with a defensive order
has been attacked by enemy infantry or
dismounted cavalry units, it must start rolling for Corps Defense Failure. On every
Command Phase after the triggering attack,
the defensive player must roll two dice on
the Corps Attack Stoppage Table, which
now does double-duty as the Corps Defense
Failure Table as well. Whenever rolling for
a defensive order, automatically add one to
the roll since defensive orders were usually
easier to carry out than attacks. All normal
modifiers to the table also apply to units in
defensive situations, except: ignore the
night modifier from the Corps Attack Stoppage Table for defensive checks. The dice
are rolled and the table is consulted just as
if attack stoppage were being checked. If
the force passes the dice roll, nothing happens and the defensive units may continue
to fight normally. If the force fails its roll,
however, the force must implement an
Emergency Corps Retreat in the next
friendly Movement and Close Combat
Phase. In addition to the normal ECR rules,
the HQ must retreat at least 12 MPs (units
without HQs must individually retreat until
each unit has retreated 12 MPs). Furthermore, the retreat rule is fully enforced and
no “doubling back” is allowed. Subsequently, the force is then considered to
have no orders.
If the attacking player ceases his attack for any reason, the defensive player no
longer needs to make defense failure
The Gamers, Inc.
checks. In other words, the defensive player
only rolls for checks during command
phases which immediately follow turns
where enemy infantry or dismounted cavalry made attacks on units of the defending
force. In all cases, enemy artillery bombardment alone does not trigger a defense
check dice roll.
Divisions operating under defensive
divisional goals are also subject to defensive checks, just as if they were corps. A
division rolls on the table as if it were an
independent corps of one division strength,
and all normal modifiers apply. If the divisional leader is killed or wounded, apply
the modifier for a killed or wounded corps
commander to the dice roll.
The Use of Breastworks
Reprinted from Operations Magazine #2
by Dave Powell
What follows is a compromise. We
don’t intend to start adding countersheets to
our games just to include the necessary 6070 breastwork markers required of a mandatory rule. Hence, this optional set of
breastwork rules is offered with the caveat
that gamers will need to create their own
markers or borrow them from other games.
The counters will need to be marked on one
side with an “under construction” symbol,
and the completed works on the other. A
completed breastworks should afford three
contiguous protected hexsides which correspond to the frontal hexsides of an infantry
unit in line. For want of a more complex
“learning process” rule, the following
should not be used in games that are occurring before January 1, 1863.
1. Who Can Build Breastworks
Only infantry units in line formation
who are at least four hexes away from any
enemy unit may build breastworks. Artillery and cavalry may occupy a finished
breastwork hex, but may not build them
alone. Cavalry lacked both the tools and
inclination to do such work, while artillery
had the tools but not the manpower to do
2. Construction of Breastworks
On any turn, at the start of the Movement and Close Combat Phase, the player
places any “under construction” markers he
desires, and flips over any previously
placed markers (from earlier) to their
breastwork side as long as the infantry unit
remains qualified as described above in 1.
Under construction markers on units which
are not at least four hexes from the enemy
may not be flipped over, but may remain in
place indefinitely until the proper conditions are fulfilled. Any unit marked with an
under construction marker may move, but if
this leaves the hex without a qualified unit
(as per 1, above) the under construction
marker is removed.
3. Facing and Removal of
Completed Breastworks
At the time the marker is flipped to its
completed side, it may be faced as desired—once this is done the marker may
never change its facing. Only one breastwork marker is allowed per hex—you may
not create miniature forts using multiple
markers. At the end of any Movement and
Close Combat Phase in which a breastwork
marker is alone in a hex, it is removed. If
one side captures an enemy breastwork hex
via close combat, the marker is removed. A
defender who successfully repulses an
attacker keeps the marker, but if both sides
vacate the hex, the marker is removed.
4. Effects of Breastworks
A unit fired upon via breastwork protective hexsides alone (determined by the
orientation of the marker) receives two
benefits: a -1 to the die (not a column shift)
on the Fire Table, and a +1 shift on the
Morale Table. Furthermore, it is not required to retreat given a morale result
marked with a single asterisk (*).
5. Leaders and Breastworks
Considering that these rules are optional, consider the following very optional!
In any game before 1 January 1864, a
leader must successfully obtain initiative
before any unit in his command may construct breastworks. No anti-initiatives are
ever applied to this roll. Contrary to the
Second Edition rules—for this purpose
only—more than one leader may roll for a
given formation, i.e. if a corps commander
fails, his division commanders may check
also. Independent units always have permission to build and do not need initiative.
Conversion of Breastworks
to Trenches
Units may convert breastworks to
trenches in a game occurring after 1 May
1. The Process of Conversion
Breastworks may be converted into
trenches by regularly qualified units which
remain qualified for 12 hours of game time.
While converting, these units may not
move. If an enemy unit approaches within 4
hexes, the conversion is interrupted (see 2,
below). Obviously some sort of written
record will need to be kept of units attempting to convert and the elapsed time spent on
2. Interruption of
A unit that is interrupted does not lose
accumulated time (unless, of course, said
unit was forced from the hex in which case
the breastworks themselves are forfeit) but
instead may wait and resume accumulating
time when it again fulfills the requirements.
3. Completion and Effects of
At the end of 12 hours—specifically
at the end of the friendly Movement and
Close Combat Phase—replace the breastworks marker with a trench marker. I suggest using markers similar to the breastwork ones with double lines or a different
color. Trenches provide protection only
from fires through the same set of hexsides
the breastwork marker did. The benefits are
those given in the series rules and on the
standard charts and tables. Once completed,
trenches are never removed from play
(unless new trenches are built in the hex
with a different facing, etc.) and either side
may use them (given the facing of the
trench marker).
Writing Your Orders:
What do they mean?
by David Powell
The CWB series is not, by and large, a
complex beast to learn or play. It does contain an element that may give many potential players pause—written orders. While
not a hex-by-hex plotting system (with all
of the slow play that entails), it is necessary
to issue to your corps concise instructions
for movement and attacks. In effect, this is
a free-form orders system governed by that
ominous phrase: “use common sense...”
The above rules are a complete rewrite of the original (1986) version rules.
Certain abuses have been corrected (e.g. the
excessive use of initiative—using initiative
to get orders which failed acceptance in the
same turn, etc.).
Still, common sense is required. We
do not subscribe to the old saw that common sense is anything but common. We,
instead, maintain that gamers are intelligent
and once they understand the thrust of a
concept they can apply it to individual
cases with ease. A greater understanding of
the command processes in the Civil War
will lead to more successful interpretation
in specific instances.
Command in the Civil War had yet to
become the science that’s taught today in
war colleges world-wide. Compared to the
operations orders of the modern military,
Civil War instructions between a commander and his subordinate were much
more informal. Approaching Gettysburg on
July 1st, 1863, Ewell and A.P. Hill (CSA
Page 27
Civil War, Brigade Series Rules—v 3.2
Corps Commanders) were simply ordered
to concentrate their troops in the vicinity of
Gettysburg and “not to bring on a general
engagement before the rest of the army
[was] up.”
Consider a much more complex order,
Lee’s instructions to Longstreet for July
2nd attack around the Round Tops. Lee
ordered Longstreet’s corps to attack en
echelon with the axis of advance of the
Emmitsburg Road, in order to catch the
Union army in the flank. “En echelon”
requires a wave-type action—units attack
from the left or the right (which is designated before the attack) with a brief pause
between units. This delay causes a rippling
effect and is intended to confuse the enemy
as to where the main thrust will occur.
When Longstreet was in position, he discovered that Lee’s orders no longer fit the
actual situation. In game terms, Longstreet
then received initiative orders to change the
existing attack plan.
Finally, a third example, Lee’s infamous Special Orders 191. This is the order
which was lost and fell into the hands of
McClellan during the Antietam Campaign
alerting him to Lee’s dispositions. This
order, which covered the various movements of all the major elements of Lee’s
army down to the division level, was only a
couple of pages long—9 short paragraphs
in all. Yet this order controlled the movements of more than 40,000 men, accomplishing no less than three different operations, and included logistical instructions.
In short, Civil War orders were usually informal, quickly jotted notes, which
ideally covered the commander’s full intent. (An ideal that was frequently not attained with the resulting confusion that
implies.) Players should try to match this
same goal. At the end of the game, when
rereading your order log, your opponent or
a third party should be able to grasp your
intent without a lot of explanation. With
practice, I feel that this goal is easily
achievable. A well written order might
specify that a given corps move along a
road, attack the enemy at a given location,
and specify that the objective of the attack
is to capture that same given point. This
order would require only a sentence to
convey the whole meaning of the instruction. Only in very complex situations would
anything like hex boundaries be required—
a situation I have yet to see in my own
The most frequent abuse of the command system is not poor order writing, but
rather stems from the fact that units are
allowed to move and fight freely within
command radius. Units within command
radius can find themselves doing all sorts of
things simply because there is no reason to
move the HQ. After all, everyone is in
command range—so why not attack? Command radius abuse is easily solved. In short,
two criteria should be applied—command
Page 28
radius and requirement for orders. Not only
must the player check for command range,
but must also ask if the involved units need
orders to be able to undertake the desired
actions. If the answer to the second question is yes, then the next step is to ask if,
indeed, these units have orders (either from
higher command or via initiative) allowing
units to undertake the action in question. If
both of these needs are not met, the activity
should not occur.
For instance, if two lines are facing
each other across 3 or 4 hexes of no-man’s
land. One player leaves a gap in his line—
opening up several flank shots. The other
player figures out that even though he doesn’t have orders to attack, his HQ is close
enough to be able to send two divisions
forward to exploit the breach. No need for
orders, he’ll just launch a quick raid, wreck
some troops and return. Alas, unless this
player can roll and get initiative (or the
army commander is there to give a quick
order), this attack shouldn’t happen. They
are in command radius, but the units do not
have the right instructions. Both conditions
are not met.
For clarification, I will attempt also to
provide more in-depth definitions of various order types:
Complex Orders should be very
broadly interpreted. Not only do complex
orders cover easily defined attacks such as
frontal assaults—Pickett’s charge is a very
clear-cut case of an attack order—but also
movement that could bring about an encounter with the enemy. Any movement
towards an objective not currently or last
held by friendly units should be construed
as a complex order and handled appropriately.
For example, assume that neither
player has occupied Little Round Top. If
either player wishes to send troops to that
location and defend it, such orders would
still be complex orders since the hill was
not previously held by friendly forces and
such movement might initiate combat with
enemy units which may also attempt to
occupy the place. If there is any real doubt
about the combativeness of a particular
movement, make it complex. Imagine that
the same doubt is mirrored in the real-life
commanders those orders are issued to and
that they are preparing to meet the enemy.
Simple Orders will be less frequently
used. Simple orders are designed to allow
troops to be shifted from one position to
another within friendly lines, etc. Arriving
reinforcements, for example, often are
ordered simply to report to the army HQ.
Assigning these units a position in a defensive line, so as to shift other troops elsewhere, is a simple order. The key questions
to ask here are: 1. Is the end-point of the
route still in friendly hands, and 2. Does the
route specified involve conflict? An order
directing a command to move between
friendly controlled points, but specifying a
route that is blocked by enemy forces, requires a complex order, not a simple order.
As a rule of thumb, a simple order that has
its instructions negated by enemy activity is
considered unfulfillable and new orders
must be issued. For example, suppose the
Federal player controls Little Round Top—
hereafter LRT—Cemetery Hill, and the
Taneytown Road between those two points.
The Union player orders some troops off
LRT and moves another force south along
the road to occupy LRT instead. Suddenly,
the CSA player captures LRT—which was
just left vacant—and the Union force moving south along the Taneytown Road cannot finish its original simple order without
attacking to recapture LRT. The current
order cannot be completed. New orders or
initiative must be used in order to allow an
attack on LRT. Note that simple orders do
not completely prohibit combat—if the
above force had been able to occupy LRT
without contest, but then was attacked,
there would be no problem in fulfilling the
order as written. As a quick rule of thumb,
simple orders prohibit offensive not defensive combat.
No Orders is a condition rather than a
positive order. Troops without any orders
should be considered to be defending in
place. Forces without orders are still allowed considerable latitude in order to fight
off attacks. Implied in this condition is the
ability to counterattack on a limited scale,
which is why the rules state that units do
not need orders to move and fight. It is
fully within the scope of the rules to allow
units, once attacked, to counterattack to
recapture lost ground. Of course, units
under orders (complex or simple) in this
situation are still obligated to try to fulfill
(or alter) previous instructions. The mere
act of being assaulted while under orders
does not automatically void existing commands. Once attacked, however, units without orders should be free to move and fight
without restriction up to the limits of command radius. Of course, any action which
calls for the movement of the Corps HQ
must be triggered through orders or emergency corps retreat. In trying to decide if a
given combat is legal in the current framework of a unit’s orders, remember that a no
-orders force cannot initiate attacks in the
larger sense of that word. They can fire
during “offensive” fire and conduct close
combats. They can conduct counterattacks
and other such limited offensive actions
needed to defend their position.
Divisional Goals represent a different
kind of order and are most useful for detached missions. Often, players won’t want
to send an entire corps off on some flank
protection or other such mission, but will
still want a force to guard against emergencies. Divisional goals should contain more
detail than a corps order. A corps is always
limited because its HQ is unable to move
without positive orders and, therefore, op-
The Gamers, Inc.
erations are ultimately limited by command
A divisional goal has no such selfgoverning mechanism. Therefore, a division with a goal to attack or defend a certain locale should have specific geographic
limits placed upon its operations. For instance, a division assigned to defend a road
between points X and Y would be unable to
advance or retreat past X or Y without new
orders, initiative or an emergency corps
Issuing orders is only part of the job.
Once orders are implemented, the player is
expected to carry them out—even if events
have changed enough to make a player
regret his earlier choices. Usually, the most
frustrating of orders are attacks which
looked brilliant when issued, but now seem
more dubious of success. The varying
amounts of pressure a player brings to bear
while carrying out such orders can cause
controversy at the game table. However, we
do not want to impose any mandatory restrictions on exact percentages engaged or
loss levels—rejecting these solutions as
“gamey.” No Civil War general sat down
with some master chart that told him how
much pressure to bring to bear on an objective. He would tend to press the issue as
much as he could without endangering his
command. [Thereby leaving himself open
to bitter debate and finger pointing after
the war...] In game terms, the player is
obligated to make some effort to put troops
into combat as long as the order holds.
Piecemeal brigade attacks or several brigades engaging only at two hex range seem
to me to be a fine re-creation of footdragging. In my own reading, I can find
several instances where such “attacks” were
“pressed,” usually to the dismay of the
higher command. However, this caution
may not suit some players. Certainly it is
annoying to the defender, who is watching
a disaster in the making for the enemy, to
realize the guy has found a way to wriggle
free. For those players, I suggest the following.
When any order is written, indicate
with a number from 1 to 3 how aggressively it is to be followed. For instance, a
player who assigned a 1 to an attack is
allowed to press very lightly—perhaps one
brigade at a time or the two-hex range option. A player who commits himself to a 3
is doomed to a full scale assault, no matter
what the odds. A 2 would commit a player
to the middle ground, perhaps using 50% of
his force at a time. This number doesn’t
affect acceptance in any way. Changing
intensity value would require a new order
or initiative. [Note: For the rules lawyers
out there who are now planning to issue 1s
to everyone in order to have maximum
flexibility, not that the above is also the
hardest a force can attack at a given level.
Giving a force a 1 does not allow it to attack from the one brigade level all the way
up—it confines the attack to the light pressure and the light pressure alone.]
Alternatively, a player could jot down
a descriptive word or two indicating the
intended ferocity of his assault. These
would range from “probing attack” to “all
out attack.” Using a word as opposed to a
number would still limit the player to some
prearranged guideline, but allows somewhat greater latitude in interpretation.
Hopefully, this would result in a middle
ground where the player has some guidepost, but is also allowed some degree of
discretion concerning his effort. Of course,
the players involved will need to discuss
this situation, decide if they have a problem, and then choose a method for dealing
with it. Note that both of these solutions are
offered as suggestions only, and should not
be construed as “official.” Personally, I
suspect that few players actually have a
problem with this question.
In closing, a few words need to be
said about trust as it applies to the game. A
certain minimal amount of trust is expected
from all players—to obey orders, etc. Many
die rolls are to be made in secret and players should feel comfortable concerning the
honesty implied in these rolls. Personally, I
care very little for playing a game where
tension or suspicion exists, and make it a
point not to repeat games against such opponents. There is no mechanism in our
games to prohibit cheating and it is easy to
circumvent the system if one tries. However, I feel that creating such an airtight
structure would also produce games I
would have very little interest in playing—
and I see little point in trying. All of the
games we put out will continue to demand
a certain amount of honesty and trust between players. It has been our experience
that this presents little problem for the vast
majority of our customers.
I hope these extended notes on the
command system as a whole provide gamers with better insight into why the system
evolved as it did, as well as a better idea of
how to apply the thing if they run into problems. Much of the fascination inherent in
the Civil War is due to the degree in which
it was a clash of personalities in addition to
being a vast armed struggle. Our hobby
purports to “put you in the driver’s
seat” (so to speak) and give you some sense
of the commander’s job. While board
games can succeed at this goal only in a
limited fashion, much can be done, and I
think the CWB accomplishes much in this
Extended Movement
Reprinted from Operations Magazine #2
by David Powell
One of the most common complaints
about board games is that achieving true
surprise over your opponent is impossible.
After all, he’s watching every move you
make. Jackson’s dramatic flank march at
Chancellorsville is a waste of time, and
what fool would go to the lengths
Longstreet did at Gettysburg, just to avoid
being seen?
The problem stems from the fact that
even though you may have completely
duped your opponent; once you start movement—with only six movement points—
you’re hardly going to turn up in his rear
before he issues corrective orders. He may
have some trouble getting new instructions
adopted, but in the end, its a good bet that
at least somebody will show up to hold off
your flanking column until the rest of his
reserves arrive.
Of course, if you had 20 or 30 MPs to
spend in one turn, you could put troops into
column, slip around on an unguarded road,
go back into line, and hit him a devastating
rear attack—all in one turn. Imagine the
bellows of anguish that this would elicit
from the other side of the map!
The basic thrust of this variant calls
for a player to be able to issue orders to a
force which allow the command in question
to remain quietly in one place on the map—
seemingly inoffensive and meek. All the
while, the force would actually be accumulating movement points, a full allowance
for each turn that goes by. Then, at the time
of his choosing, the acting player could
suddenly set this command in motion, expending all of its ‘saved’ MPs in one devastating turn. Of course, a number of rules
will be set forth concerning visibility, etc.,
and to provide for discovery.
In order to reap the benefits of this
rule, the player would need to observe the
following restrictions:
1. The player must issue an order to a
command that specifies the directed force
as making a ‘surprise move.’ All elements
affected by this order must be listed (say,
all of 1 Corps plus J/2 attached) and a detailed route. Roads work best here, since
they are easier to specify.
2. Once the order is accepted, the
force cannot physically move or conduct
activities like straggler recovery or ammo
resupply. They must remain in place in line
formation. They may not conduct fire combat of any type.
3. Each Movement and Close Combat
Phase commencing with the phase immediately following order acceptance, the phasing player must roll a die each surprise
moving force, and consult the MP Accumu-
Page 29
Civil War, Brigade Series Rules—v 3.2
lation Table. The result will either be a
pass—indicating that all of the turn’s MPs
may be saved and used later—or a fail—
which means the that the march has been
discovered. At the beginning of any Movement and Close Combat Phase, the player
may forego this die roll and elect to execute
the march voluntarily, at which time the
force resumes normal functioning—the
surprise order is then carried out in a normal turn by turn manner. This initial movement may continue until all accumulated
MPs have been expended or until the lead
element reaches a “blocked hex.” (See
Upon discovery, the force immediately moves along the indicated route until
all accumulated MPs are expended or its
lead element reaches a blocked hex—
exactly as if the player had voluntarily
elected to execute the movement.
Conditions and Definitions
Concealed Movement
When the phasing player actually
begins the movement of the surprise
force—either by choice or discovery—he
must follow his assigned route until either
all the accumulated MPs have been expended or he reaches a blocked hex. A
“blocked hex” is defined as any hex at or
within two hexes of an enemy infantry,
cavalry, or artillery unit. Furthermore, a
“blocked hex” is considered reached if the
phasing player, while following his route,
enters a hex that can be seen by an enemy
unit or leader in keeping with standard LOS
and current visibility. Once the blocked hex
is reached, the moving player may move
the surprise units 6 more MPs or the remainder of their accumulated MPs—
whichever is less. He may conduct close
combat and normal fire combat.
Enemy Interference
If the enemy attacks any unit of a
surprise force with artillery fire at five
hexes or greater, the combat is resolved
normally, except that the defending player
secretly ignores the result and does not
record any straggler or casualty losses.
Morale results are also ignored, but the
defending player can mark his units with
appropriate results (Sh, Dg, etc.) and execute any retreats to preserve the illusion.
Units may recover morale and return to
their previous locations—the only kind of
movement allowed in exception to #1
above. When the owning player initiates his
surprise move, simply remove any of these
‘sham’ markers and return units to their
proper locations.
If the enemy attacks any surprise unit
with units at four hexes or less, the surprise
move is triggered. Additionally, any enemy
combat unit (infantry, cavalry, or artillery)
that ends its movement at or within two
Page 30
hexes of a surprise unit also triggers the
order. This trigger is handled in the following manner:
1. The surprise player informs his
opponent that a surprise move has been
triggered. Any attacks against surprise units
are ignored, but enemy units may not pass
through or move into hexes occupied by
surprise units. They may fire through such
2. At the beginning of his Movement
and Close Combat Phase, the surprise
player immediately executes the surprise
order subject to the following conditions:
A. He must follow the designated
B. He may only expend 1/2 of his
accumulated MPs. He may not expend the
additional 6 MPs he would normally get for
that turn. He may not stop short of expending 1/2 of his MPs unless he reaches a
blocked hex—in which case all movement
ceases. All additional MPs over the 1/2
allowed are lost.
Voluntary Cancellation
A player may change a surprise
force’s order during a normal Command
Phase by sending it new orders or by initiative. When sending new orders, arrival time
is calculated by adding the expected
amount of accumulated MPs to the actual
distance to the force’s HQ. For example, if
the 1st Corps HQ is 20 MPs away from the
Army commander—normal time delay
would be two turns. However, 1st Corps
has accumulated 12 MPs so another two
turns must be expended to deliver the order—for a total of 4 turns. Initiative requires no such time delay calculation.
Once the time delay has passed, the
surprise force begins to check for acceptance normally. Until the new order is accepted, the surprise order must be followed.
At any time during this stage, the player
could still choose to implement the surprise
order, but would continue to roll for the
newly received one.
Once he has succeeded in changing
his orders, the player has two options: He
may execute the old surprise order as it has
progressed so far, and then begin to execute
the new order’s instructions. Alternatively,
he may reverse the order—rolling on the
MP Accumulation Table to subtract MPs
from the accumulated total—in order to
preserve secrecy. Once the total is zero, he
could then start executing the new orders. If
discovered, however, he would still have to
immediately expend the accumulated MPs
as described in Enemy Interference above.
Surprise Move Collision
It is possible, though unlikely, that
both sides will attempt to use portions of
the same route for a surprise move at the
same time. In these cases, the players can
either allow the player who started his
move first to complete all of it and consider
the other player’s move cancelled with
accumulated MPs lost. Or, both players can
conduct a semi-simultaneous move in the
following manner:
1. Player A begins his move and indicates his route.
2. Player B checks for any overlap
with his own move, and if finding any,
informs A.
3. A now moves his force 6 MPs.
4. B does the same.
5. Both players continue alternating
this pattern until either all MPs are expended (if one side has more accumulated,
he may simply finish his move at the end of
the alternation) or they come within 6 MPs
of each other. At that point, both forces are
done moving and the normal sequence of
events resumes. Note that in this instance,
the non-phasing player actually moves his
force during his opponent’s phase. These
units may not move again in their own
following Movement and Close Combat
Phase—consider them already moved. The
phasing player, however, may move freely
in his next phase—giving him a slight advantage, getting the jump on things so to
Either method may be used as long as
both players agree beforehand.
Initiative Use
In addition to the use of initiative to
cancel or supersede an order, players may
use their leaders to alter a specified route in
order to avoid a blocked hex. If, as he expends his accumulated MPs a player discovers he is about to enter a blocked hex,
he can have the ranking leader of the force
(not a subordinate) roll for initiative to alter
his route. If successful, the player may
deviate from the specified route in order to
avoid the blocked hex. He must announce
his intended detour route, and his detour
must seek to regain the specified route as
rapidly as possible. Note that each avoidance of a blocked hex requires a separate
initiative roll. Failure to receive initiative
means that the force enters the blocked hex
and follows the procedure above. Note that
changing the objective or the orders as a
whole via initiative would still need to be
done in the normal Command Phase—not
during this detour procedure. Only the route
may be modified in this manner. As an
added bonus, allow any force that is accompanied by at least one cavalry brigade to
modify this detour initiative roll by +1 to
the dice.
Forced Marches
Players may also add forced march
MPs onto the accumulated MP total, up to
the four max each turn, as per the normal
rules. Of course stragglers should be
checked for normally, but rolls should be
made secretly to preserve the surprise. Note
The Gamers, Inc.
that even if a surprise move is cancelled
and a unit is subtracting MPs, it still must
make straggler checks if using forced
Visibility Limits
A maximum visibility limit of 20
hexes is imposed. In the series, no visibility
limits are set during clear weather as no
unit can ever fire more than 10 hexes. Here,
a special limit needs to be imposed as a
limit to long range observation which
would be hindered by woods, buildings,
and brush too small to be printed on the
map as well as the ever present haze. In
situations where weather intrudes, games
will specify other (shorter) maximum visibility limits.
General Comments
The above rule simulates wide flanking marches such as Longstreet’s and Jackson’s in an admittedly abstract manner.
Yet, it adds a real measure of suspense.
Suddenly, control of high ground like Little
Round Top or Cemetery Hill becomes
critical—providing vantage points to keep
an eye on the bad guys. Cavalry, with fast
movement and more latitude in using divisional goals, will be used in their historical
roles by alert commanders—to screen
flanks and to cover hidden roads.
In order to prevent too much tedious
plotting, I suggest specifying road routes
where ever possible. In some instances, it
may be necessary to list specific hexes to
avoid disputes. Another clue would be to
conduct approach movements at night,
when visibility is nil and only the actual
presence of enemy troops need be worried
The two hex radius of enemy forces
represents the posted pickets of those units.
These pickets would rarely be placed further than four hundred yards from their
parent units. Again, this makes cavalry
especially useful in screening flanks—these
brigades serve as tripwires against enemy
The table is provided to make surprise
marches more difficult to achieve the
greater the distance that is attempted.
Hence, the longer the march, the more the
risk of premature discovery, and subsequently the more separated and exposed to
piecemeal destruction one’s forces will be.
While somewhat abstract, this increasing
risk simulates some of the actual burden
borne by commanders who attempted such
actions, most notably Robert E. Lee.
I think that this rule will generate
some real surprises in play, while still
avoiding much of the onerous burden of SiMove systems. Nothing is more dramatic
than watching your force—in a burst of
energy—zip past an enemy line and plunge
into its exposed flank and rear.
Some players may feel that as long as
they can see the enemy, how can he get up
and leave? To a certain extent this is an
abstraction, but also remember that a number of ruses were used to good effect during
the war. Events such as the old ‘build a
bunch of campfires and then slip away in
the dark’ and ‘drag some branches around
to kick up some dust’ tricks were effectively employed. Who can forget John
Magruder’s fine acting at Yorktown and
again in front of Richmond, facing
McClellan? Nathan Bedford Forrest once
convinced a Union commander he was
badly outgunned by having one artillery
battery circle the same stand of trees repeatedly. That same Federal commander—who
was very inexperienced—then asked
Forrest’s advice on whether he should surrender or not! All in all, if your enemy slips
one over on you, simply chalk it up to the
fortunes of war and drive on. Stranger
things have happened.
MP Accumulation Table
# of Turn Being Attempted
-1 from die roll if during a full or partial night
P = Pass
Page 31
Civil War, Brigade Series Rules—v 3.2
Command Points
Leader Rating:
Points Available
Initiative Table
Command Radius
Corps HQ to Division Leader—8 MP
Division Leader to Brigade —4 MP
Order Delivery
Every 10 MP or portion of 10 MP
between sender and receiver = 1 turn.
Leader Rating:
Loose cannon:
Order Costs
Acceptance Table
Acceptance Value:
Leader Rating (Sender) + Leader Rating (Receiver*) + Method + Type
*Army HQ Rating = 2
Oral -1
Complex -2
Written +0
Simple +0
In Person +2
Shift LEFT one column if Receiver has an Accepted order or an order in Delay.
Acceptance Value
-2 to -1 0 to 1 2 to 3 4 to 5 6 to 7
Result: A—Immediate Acceptance
D1—Die roll each subsequent turn for Acceptance—1 or 2 on one die to Accept
D2—Die roll each subsequent turn for Acceptance—1 on one die to Accept
Dt—Order distorted, thrown away.
Optional: No orders can be sent to this command until a 6 is rolled (on one die).
Roll once each turn in the Delay Reduction Segment.
Page 32
The Gamers, Inc.
Number of Divisions in Corps
Number of Wrecked Divisions*
Stoppage Value
10 12
Roll number or greater on two dice to pass
Die Roll Modifiers:
-3 at Night
Optional Defensive Orders
+1 Defense Order (ignore -3 for Night)
*+1 if original Corps Leader has been lost
Close Combat Resolution & Odds Table
Sequence of Events
A) Attacker moves into defender’s hex at +1 MP cost.
B) Defender’s Fire Combat. Apply any losses and stragglers to Attacker.
C) Attacker’s Fire Combat. Apply any losses and stragglers to Defender.
D) Attacker checks morale with -6 modifier. If required to retreat, combat ends.
E) Defender checks morale with -4 modifier. If required to retreat, the combat ends and the defender
makes an additional morale check (w/o the close combat modifier.)
F) If none of the above ends the combat, resolve the Close Combat using the Odds Table below.
Loser must retreat (2 hexes if defender, 1 hex if attacker.) Again, if the defender must retreat, he
must make an additional morale check.
Additional morale checks are only required of losing defenders and do not use the close
combat morale modifiers. The close combat modifiers are used in addition to any others
that might be applicable.
Die Roll Modifiers:
+1 Defender is wrecked Brigade
+2 Defender is wrecked Brigade of wrecked
or less
or more
-2 Attacker is wrecked Brigade
Unit Strength:
Point Value
for Odd's
1/2 A
1/2 A
1/2 A
1/2 A
AA or
C or
D = Defender wins. Attacker retreats 1 hex.
1/2 A = Roll again, 1-3 = D, 4-6 = A
A = Attacker wins. Defender retreats 2 hexes
and makes additional Morale Check.
Defender is x2 in Sunken Road or Trench
(if applicable)
Low Ammo, DG Morale, and Formation have
no effect on strength.
Strength over AA has no additional effect
** Routed defending units automatically Rout
(Back 2, Straggle 3).
Page 33
Civil War, Brigade Series Rules—v 3.2
Order Log
Order Delivery
# of Leader Movement Points
# of Turns
(Round up, always)
Check for acceptance on the turn the above number of
Formation Effects
Type Unit
Fire Combat
Yes, may use roads
Yes, as infantry
Yes, may use roads
On any blank sheet of paper,
preferably lined, make the following column headings:
Order Number,
Arrival Time,
Type and Method,
Acceptance Status
Allow one line per order and
enough room per column to record the required information
(about one inch will do.)
In one hex:
Max Fire: 1x A Fire Level and/or
5 Gun Points
Max Stacking: 3x A Fire Level
and/or 10 Gun Points
Morale State Effects
Close Combat
Blood Lust
* See 24.1b
Page 34
The Gamers, Inc.
Fire Determination Chart
Small Arms
8 (12)
4 (6)
2 (2)
4 (6)
2 (3)
1 (1)
2 (3)
1 (2)
1/2 (1/2)
# — Normal Fire Points
(#) — Plus Weapon Fire Points
Gun Points
Fire Level
Artillery fire points used on wagon and artillery targets is x1 at all ranges.
Artillery fire points used on all other target types are x1 up to (and incl) 3 hexes,
fires at 4 hexes or more at these targets are x1/2.
Fire Combat Table
Combat Table Modifiers:
Column Shifts.
Each line is used only once, even if
multiple conditions on the line are true.
-1 Up Slope or Extreme Slope, in either case Firer must be at
lower elevation than target
-1 Target in Sunken Road or Trench
-2 Night
-1 One or more Firers is Low Ammo
+2 Target is Column, Limbered, Flank, Disorganized, or Routed
+3 Mounted Target
-3 Defender’s fire in Close Combat, if attacked from a Flank
1 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
Fire Combat Table Notes:
- —No Effect
m-2—Morale Check, up 2
m-1—Morale Check, up 1
m—Morale Check
#— # Casualties, Straggler Check, and Morale Check
On 1/2 Loss...
Round Down (1 1/2 becomes 1)
Up (1 1/2 becomes 2)
Total Fire Points
1 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
2 1/2
2 1/2
2 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
2 1/2
2 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
2 1/2
2 1/2
3 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
2 1/2
2 1/2
3 1/2
3 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
2 1/2
2 1/2
3 1/2
3 1/2
Leader Loss Check If stack takes a casualty, roll two dice for each leader in the stack...
Leader is Killed
No Effect
Leader is Wounded
Page 35
Civil War, Brigade Series Rules—v 3.2
Straggler Table
Fire Loss (1 1/2 or more)
Fire Loss (1/2 - 1)
Die Roll Modifiers:
+1 to die if unit is DG, Mounted, or hit in the flank
+2 to die if unit is Routed, from a wrecked brigade or fire is at Night
Fire Result (which determines table used) is BEFORE rounding.
Fire results less than 1/2 do not require straggler checks.
# — Strength Points Lost to
Gun Loss Table
Straggler Recovery Table
Note that whenever unlimbered guns must retreat,
they must limber to do so.
Page 36
Gun Points Lost
Roll for any artillery unit that must limber in a ZOC
or in close combat.
Strength Points Recovered
See Restrictions (20.2)
Roll one die for each marked brigade.
+2 to die at night
#—Die Roll
The Gamers, Inc.
Morale Table
Back Two
Straggle Three**
Blood Lust
No Effect
* Units stacked with unlimbered artillery (not guns alone in a
hex) or those in a sunken road or trench may ignore the re
treat result.
** Even units qualifying above must retreat. Unlimbered artillery
MUST limber to retreat (even one hex), and must roll on the
Gun Loss Table if in an EZOC or in a Close Combat when
forced to do so.
Back #—Retreat given number of hexes.
Straggle #—Lose given number of Steps to stragglers.
Blood Lust Morale Check
No Effect
Remove Blood Lust
Back One*
Back Two
Straggle One**
Back One*
Morale Table Modifiers:
Row Shifts. “+” is UP on table, “-” is DOWN. Each line is
used only once, even if multiple conditions on the line
are true.
Unit is in Sunken Road or Trench
Unit is Stacked with unlimbered Artillery (does
not apply to artillery units themselves)
Top Unit in Stack is...
-1 Low Ammo
-1 Shaken
-3 Disorganized
-3 at Night
-4 Wrecked Brigade
-4 Close Combat, Defender
-6 Close Combat, Attacker
-6 Column, Limbered, or Flank Target
Wrecked Brigade of a Wrecked Division
(used in the place of the -4 above)
-6 Routed
Page 37
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