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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
Name:_____________________________________________
Date:________________________
1. Persuasive Writing Topic 114
Writing Situation
Students and teachers use many types of transportation to get to school. Some ride buses, some ride in cars and others
ride bicycles or walk. Your school is exploring ways of improving transportation for everyone who attends classes or
works there. Each class has been asked to send in only one recommendation.
Directions for Writing
Think about how to improve transportation to your school. Write a speech to convince your classmates that your
recommendation is the best one. Be sure to include detailed reasons.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
2.
Persuasive Writing Topic 8119
Writing Situation
Your principal is considering hiring fast food restaurants to provide meals to serve at lunch. A group of parents is
concerned that fast food lunches are not well-balanced meals. Some students, however, would like to be able to eat
fast food for lunch.
Directions for Writing
Decide whether you think fast food restaurants should or should not provide lunch in your school. Write a letter to
your principal expressing your position on serving fast food for lunch at school. Support your position with
convincing arguments and specific details.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
3.
Expository Writing Topic 8219
Writing Situation
The students at your school are not purchasing lunch from the cafeteria. Your principal has decided to add fast food
restaurants to the menu. The principal knows that this one change may not solve the problem.
Directions for Writing
Decide what changes you think the principal needs to make in your school cafeteria. Write a letter to the principal
explaining how adding fast food and other changes you recommend will solve the school lunch problem. Include
specific examples and details.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
4. How should the capitalization be corrected in the sentence below?
John asked, "may I call my aunt?"
A. Use a small letter j in John.
B. Use a capital letter M in may.
C. Use a capital letter M in my.
D. Use a capital letter A in aunt.
5. Use the paragraph below to answer this question.
1
The library is always quiet, but we often find it hard to get our work done there. 2The old man in the comfortable
chair is pretending to read, but his snoring gives him away. 3The woman in the "special study area" is counting the
days in her calendar book, as if she doesn't know that the final tally will be 365. 4And me, I think I'd better clean my
glasses one more time.
Which of the following would make the BEST closing sentence for the paragraph above?
A. Almost everyone in the library goes there to work or study.
B. There are so many new ways to find information at the library.
C. The forced quiet of the library seems to challenge us to find ways to avoid work.
D. All of the people who go to the library get a lot of work done.
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
6. Which is the correct way to write the possessive of the underlined words below?
Teresa tried to assess the massive oak trees age by counting the rings on its stump.
A. oak tree's age
B. oak tree ages
C. oak trees' age
D. oaks' trees age
7. In the sentence below, the underlined phrase is misplaced. Where should it be put when revising the sentence?
Cheerleaders were selling boxes of doughnuts to students with prizes in them.
A. after the word cheerleaders
B. after the word doughnuts
C. before the word boxes
D. before the word cheerleaders
8. Which is the BEST choice to complete the sentence below?
Juanita wrote a letter to her cousin, ____________ is living in another state.
A. that
B. whose
C. which
D. who
9. Use the paragraph below to answer this question.
1
The first hill on the new roller coaster ride combined slowness and speed to give a totally fantastic experience.
2
The climb up the first hill started out very slowly and made me feel like this ride was a waste of my time. 3However,
once the coaster started down the first steep incline, my eyes were watering. 4I was sure I would never be able to
catch my breath. 5I didn't have a speedometer, but I felt like the coaster was going 200 miles an hour as it plunged
downward. 6I was gasping for breath at the end of that first hill.
Which sentence repeats an idea already stated in the paragraph above?
A. sentence 1
B. sentence 3
C. sentence 5
D. sentence 6
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
10. Use the paragraph below to answer this question.
1
Jose took first place in the rodeo on Saturday. 2He had been practicing with his horse for over a year, just so he
could compete with the other riders. 3Never once did Jose skip practice or not try his best. 4When Jose was handed
the blue ribbon, he felt as though all his hard months of practice had been truly worthwhile.
Which is the closing sentence in the paragraph above?
A. sentence 1
B. sentence 2
C. sentence 3
D. sentence 4
11. Which correction should be made to the sentence below?
Carl asked uncle Ed which high school and college he attended.
A. use a capital letter U in uncle
B. use a capital letter H in high
C. use a capital letter S in school
D. use a capital letter C in college
12. In the sentence below, what is the function of the underlined phrase?
My bike, the one with the flat tire, is over at Jack's house.
A. direct object
B. modifier
C. predicate
D. subject
13. Which words BEST fill in the blank in the sentence below?
Both comic books and encyclopedias are available at the library, but __________ found on different shelves.
A. them are
B. it is
C. their is
D. they are
14. In the sentence below, what correction should be made?
Keisha's team finished its advertising project more efficiently then Tim's team.
A. change Keisha's to Keishas'
B. change its to it's
C. change then to than
D. change more to most
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
15. The sentence below has a spelling error. Fill in the space provided in your answer sheet for the letter of the
underlined word that is NOT spelled correctly.
The charity/ did not overlook/ the generocity/ of its patrons.
A
B
C
D
A. A
B. B
C. C
D. D
16. Which sentence below is properly punctuated?
A. The clowns came in the elephants went out everybody cheered.
B. The clowns came in the elephants went out, everybody cheered.
C. The clowns came in; the elephants went out; everybody cheered.
D. The clowns came in, the elephants went out everybody cheered.
17. Use the paragraph below to answer this question.
1
Mother said I could paint my room any way I wanted. 2I went to my friends' houses and looked at their rooms—to
see what not to do.
Which of the following would make the BEST sentence 3 in the paragraph above?
A. I painted my room to make it look really good.
B. I wasn't sure I wanted to make my room better.
C. Then, I thought about it and thought about it for a while.
D. Then, I went to the library and read some decorating magazines.
18. How could the sentence below BEST be rewritten?
The dress was sold last week with the blue collar.
A. Last week, the dress was sold with the blue collar.
B. The dress with the blue collar was sold last week.
C. Sold was the dress last week with the blue collar.
D. With the blue collar, the dress was sold last week.
19. What punctuation mark is missing from the sentence below?
Jonathans bicycle is blue and red, the same color as my bicycle.
A. add an apostrophe to Jonathans
B. add a semicolon after red
C. add a comma after blue
D. add a comma after color
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
20. Which words BEST fill in the blanks in the sentence below?
__________ in the group __________ impressed by the famous actor.
A. Few/was or Many/was
B. Few/were or Many/were
C. Few/were or Many/was
D. Few/was or Many/were
21.
Carlos and Scott brought their class a pizza for the end-of-the-year party.
Which word is the indirect object in this sentence?
A. Carlos
B. class
C. pizza
D. party
22.
The boy _______ sits next to me in class is my best friend.
Which word completes the sentence correctly?
A. who
B. whom
C. whose
D. which
23. If you were looking for general information about insects in order to do a report, which of the following resources
should you use?
A. an almanac
B. a thesaurus
C. a dictionary
D. an encyclopedia
24. Which change should be made in the sentence?
Each of the cars kept their place in line during the traffic jam.
A. change their to its
B. change their to his
C. change their to her
D. change their to it's
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
25. Which is the correct way to write the sentence?
The surprised gentleman finally discovered yelling quite loudly the small treasure under the bed.
A. The surprised gentleman finally discovered the small treasure yelling quite loudly under the bed.
B. The surprised gentleman finally discovered the small treasure under the bed yelling quite loudly.
C. Under the bed, the surprised gentleman finally discovered the small treasure yelling quite loudly.
D. Yelling quite loudly, the surprised gentleman finally discovered the small treasure under the bed.
26. Which BEST completes this sentence?
Rasheed _________________ before the class ends.
A. will have finished
B. have finished
C. finishing
D. finished
27. Which sentence is written correctly?
A. Brian didn't not get his magazine subscription renewed on time.
B. I didn't set my alarm so that I could get more sleep in the morning.
C. We were excited because we would not have to do no homework.
D. Denise wanted to take an art class, but she knew there wasn't no time.
28. Which word BEST completes the sentence?
Because of the dry conditions this year, there is barely _______ water for the crops.
A. no
B. any
C. some
D. much
29. Which sentence is written correctly?
A. Sunkyo and her cousin played the game quick.
B. You can see the tree most clear in this picture.
C. Brad throws the ball more skillfully than Xavier.
D. After he dropped the ball, he looked around awkward.
30. What organizational method is used in the paragraph?
Butterflies are very sensitive. The smallest changes in weather conditions often make them do unusual things. A
Pennsylvania man who raises butterflies in his house experienced this for himself. When a thunderstorm blew
through his town, his butterflies came out of their cocoons early. Imagine his surprise when he came home to find
thousands of butterflies in every room of his house!
A. cause and effect
B. chronological order
C. question and answer
D. similarity and difference
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
31. Which transitions BEST connect the sentences?
What is the largest lake in the world? It depends on how you define a lake. If you think that a body of salt water
surrounded by land can be a lake, the largest would be the Caspian Sea. ___________, if you define a lake as
containing only fresh water, there would be a different answer. ___________, the award would then go to America's
own Lake Superior, which is part of the Great Lakes. It is enclosed by four states and one Canadian province.
A. Therefore, In addition
B. Supposedly, However
C. However, Consequently
D. Additionally, On the other hand
32. Which sentence is written correctly?
A. Delivering mail to the house, the dog barked at the postal worker.
B. Relaxing with a soft drink by the pool, the sun was shining brightly on me.
C. Having finished his assignments early, Gerard decided to take a break.
D. Looking out at the stormy clouds, the game was called because of rain.
33. Which sentence is punctuated correctly?
A. She was convinced: that he was right; after all, he had won the competition.
B. He thought; long and hard about the situation, he would solve the problem tomorrow.
C. Without a doubt; the day could not have been better, and Kiera was certainly enjoying it.
D. Sean was worried he would be late; he asked the driver how much longer they needed to travel.
34. Which idea is repeated in the paragraph?
1
Did you know that crickets, katydids, and locusts all belong to the grasshopper family? 2Some insects in the
grasshopper family can jump up to 200 times their length. 3Their long and powerful legs help them jump away from
their enemies. 4Grasshoppers are famous for their songs, which are actually sounds made by the males to attract the
attention of females. 5Female grasshoppers are attracted to the sounds the males make. 6Insects in the grasshopper
family are fun and interesting to study.
A. sentence 1
B. sentence 2
C. sentence 3
D. sentence 5
35. What is the function of the underlined sentence in the paragraph?
My family's first camping trip will probably be our last. First, we had to set up the campsite in the pouring rain.
Everything was so wet when we finally finished, we decided to sleep in the car. We were awakened at 3 A.M. by a
loud noise outside the car. When we looked out, we saw a family of raccoons helping themselves to our food. By
then we had no food, no dry clothes, and no forecast for good weather. We were all so tired that we decided to pack
everything up and head for the nearest hotel. I don't think we will ever try camping again.
A. topic sentence
B. detail sentence
C. closing sentence
D. supporting sentence
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
36. Which is the unifying topic of the paragraph?
We teenagers have heroes or people we look up to and admire. My friends and I all have different heroes. Tynesia
admires her English teacher because he takes the time to help her with her writing. Tom says his hero is his mother
because she makes sacrifices for him. Sara's hero is Martin Luther King, Jr., because he changed so many people's
lives. My hero is my father because he helps me with anything I need.
A. heroes
B. parents
C. friends
D. helping
37. Which sentence repeats an idea and should be omitted from the paragraph?
1
Most of my friends would rather watch television than read a book. 2I am just the opposite; I love to read and am
bored watching television. 3My friends prefer watching television. 4Reading allows me to use my imagination. 5I
never have to wait for my favorite show to come on–all I have to do is open my book. 6Reading is definitely my
favorite pastime!
A. sentence 2
B. sentence 3
C. sentence 4
D. sentence 5
38. Rob is doing a report on the childhood of Jane Addams, founder of Hull House in Chicago. Which source would
MOST LIKELY provide this information?
A. The Guide to Chicago's Historic Sites
B. Hull House, Chicago's First Settlement House
C. Social Reformer: A Biography of Jane Addams
D. Jane Addams: A Collection of Published Speeches
39. Which word in the sentence should be capitalized?
Mr. Shah, the science department chairperson, explained, "matter can change from one form to another."
A. science
B. department
C. chairperson
D. matter
40. Which sentence would provide the BEST closure to the paragraph?
Although Leonardo daVinci lived during the fifteenth century Renaissance, he was a modern thinker. This great
Italian artist used his talents in many fields, including science, architecture, and engineering. He loved learning and
was not afraid to experiment or to challenge accepted beliefs. Current science reflects many of his advanced ideas.
A. The Renaissance was a time of great learning and discovery.
B. Leonardo daVinci was the most famous artist of fifteenth century Italy.
C. Leonardo daVinci was a brilliant artist and scientist whose ideas live on today.
D. Scientists of the past helped to build a good foundation for today's scientific world.
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
41. Which part of the sentence is an appositive?
Georgia's state fruit, the peach, is shipped and enjoyed all over the world.
A. Georgia's state fruit
B. the peach
C. is shipped
D. over the world
42. After which word in the sentence should a comma be inserted?
"You must submit your science project ideas next week" Ms. French reminded us.
A. submit
B. project
C. ideas
D. week
43. Which BEST completes the sentence?
Juanita had the __________ English essay of all the students.
A. best
B. better
C. bestest
D. goodest
44. Which information completes the graphic organizer for a descriptive essay?
A Freshly Baked Apple Pie
Appeals to Sight __________
Appeals to Hearing Apples bubbling over
Appeals to Smell Fragrant
Appeals to Touch Warm and flaky
Appeals to Taste Sweet and buttery
A. Sugary and sticky
B. Golden brown
C. Hot and crispy
D. Deliciously tart
45. Which sentence is punctuated correctly?
A. "Do you know," asked Mr. Garcia, "how to spell the new words."
B. "Do you know," asked Mr. Garcia, "how to spell the new words?"
C. "Do you know" asked Mr. Garcia, "how to spell the new words?"
D. "Do you know," asked Mr. Garcia, "how to spell the new words"?
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
46. Which sentence is correctly punctuated?
A. Atlanta, a beautiful city, has become a popular place to live.
B. Can you remember, when we went to the park where we stopped for our picnic?
C. Your plan, I have decided is the most reasonable solution to my problem.
D. The paper Janet, pointed out contained many misspelled words.
47.
What does it mean to skim a book?
A. read the book completely from beginning to end
B. glance at the book focusing on key words
C. write down interesting points from the book
D. read the first and last chapters of the book
48. Use the dictionary entry below to answer this question.
familiar (f∂ mil' y∂r) adj. 1. known or reminding one of something 2. happening or found frequently and in various
places. 3. acting well-acquainted; informal. 4. being too presumptuous; bold.
Which dictionary definition BEST fits the meaning of the underlined word in the sentence below?
Mr. Winston disliked the dignified business world because he could not be on familiar terms with his associates.
A. definition 1
B. definition 3
C. definition 2
D. definition 4
49. Which word is the subject of the sentence below?
During the night the boys' blankets fell to the floor.
A. night
B. boys'
C. blankets
D. floor
50. Which sentence is unrelated to the topic sentence below?
Books are only a part of what can be found in a modern library.
A. Many libraries contain computers which can be used to locate books and connect to the Internet.
B. Libraries are usually funded by tax money from the community.
C. People often find video tapes of movies at their local libraries.
D. Libraries often loan out foreign language audio tapes to help those who wish to learn a second language.
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
51. Which of the following would be the BEST concluding sentence for the paragraph below?
Champ stretched out on the rug, sound asleep and totally unaware of what was going on around him. Suddenly,
he began twitching his paws and thumping his tail on the tile floor. Then he started moving his legs, almost as if
he were running while lying down. He emitted a short yelp, then sat up and gazed around the room, looking a
bit confused.
A. I love watching him while he's asleep and listening to the funny noises he makes.
B. I love having Champ as a pet because he is loyal and intelligent.
C. He certainly seemed like a dog who had just awakened from a dream.
D. He has a very distinctive "voice" that I would recognize anywhere.
52. Use the paragraph below to answer this question.
1
Valerie anxiously approached the podium. 2The entire eighth grade class, more than 400 students, would be present.
3
But, if she wanted to be elected to Student Council, this was something she had to do. 4Arriving at the podium and
taking a deep breath, Valerie began her speech. 5Before she even realized it, Valerie had finished her speech and had
carried it off flawlessly.
Where could the sentence below BEST be placed in the paragraph above?
This would be the first time she had ever spoken in front of a large group.
A. after sentence 1
B. after sentence 3
C. after sentence 4
D. after sentence 5
53. How should the sentence below be rewritten?
The woman is our new principal standing in the hallway.
A. Standing in the hallway, our new principal is the woman.
B. The woman standing in the hallway is our new principal.
C. In the hallway standing the woman is our new principal
D. Our new principal the woman is standing in the hallway.
54. If one wished to describe the sound of a thunderstorm to someone who has never heard one, which sentence
below would be the BEST way to do so?
A. The storm sounded loud.
B. The thunder produced a loud crash, followed by a deep rumble.
C. The thunderstorm made noise that everyone in the house could hear.
D. The storm's lightning was very bright and the thunder was loud.
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
55. In the sentence below, what change must be made to correct the problem with capitalization?
Many children often wonder if President George Washington really said, "i cannot tell a lie."
A. use a small letter p in president
B. use a capital letter C in children
C. use a small letter w in washington
D. use a capital letter I for i
56. Which word or words BEST fills in the blank in the sentence below?
When she arrived back home, Maya realized she __________ to buy milk.
A. had forgot
B. had forgotten
C. was forgot
D. forgets
57. Which phrase BEST fills in the blank in the sentence below?
Dad was cooking a _________________.
A. pear of stakes
B. pair of stakes
C. pear of steaks
D. pair of steaks
58. What correction should be made to the sentence below?
"She is so much taller than him!" Mother said with surprise.
A. change him to his
B. change him to he
C. change She to her
D. change him to them
59. Which of the following would make the BEST supporting sentence for the topic sentence below?
The New Way is by far the best magazine available for teenagers.
A. I like it because it has a lot of good stuff in it.
B. I always check out the pages and pages of advertisements.
C. The New Way has been around for one year now, and teenagers like it.
D. The articles are written by the athletes and performers teens admire.
60.
When you take notes for a research paper, you can summarize, write direct quotations, or you can
paraphrase. Why should you give credit to the author when you copy an author's exact words?
A. to avoid quoting
B. to avoid summarizing
C. to avoid writing
D. to avoid plagiarizing
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
61. Mark is doing a presentation on the layers of the earth. What resource would give him information on the
temperature of the earth's core?
A. dictionary
B. an encyclopedia
C. a world atlas
D. The Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature
62. Andy wants to write a paper about George Washington. Which of the following questions should probably NOT
appear in his research?
A. How did George Washington meet his wife?
B. How did George Washington become the first American President?
C. How did he gain the trust of the people?
D. Why did Washington want to be President?
63. Jane needs to find another word for excitement. What resource would help her the MOST?
A. a dictionary
B. a thesaurus
C. a glossary
D. an index
64. Where would you look if you wanted to see the sources from which the book you were reading was written?
A. glossary
B. bibliography
C. index
D. table of contents
65. Which sentence below is correct?
A. You can wash and dry the dishes, or you can finish your homework.
B. You can wash and dry the dishes, you can finish your homework.
C. You can wash and dry the dishes or, you can finish your homework.
D. You can wash, and dry the dishes, or you can finish, your homework.
66.
Which of the sentences below is an example of an imperative sentence?
A. That play was fantastic!
B. I have twenty-three kids in my class.
C. Do you want another piece of chicken?
D. Turn left at the corner.
67. What change should be made to the sentence below?
Corey gave a full complete account of the newspaper staff's activities at the Young Journalists Convention.
A. omit account
B. omit full
C. omit staff's
D. omit convention
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
68. Use the paragraph below to answer this question.
1
Trying new foods can bring a sense of adventure into your daily routine. 2On the other hand, this adventure can be
disappointing because you end up trying some foods that just taste weird. 3Nevertheless, what would it be like to
know only vanilla ice cream? 4Vanilla, however, was looking good to me last night, when my tongue was introduced
to a taste I hope never to meet again: clove-flavored ice cream.
What is the purpose of the underlined transitions in the paragraph above?
A. to show similarity
B. to show contrast
C. to show consequence
D. to show sequence
69. Which words can you take out of the paragraph below in order to eliminate repetition of an idea?
Everyone has different activities to start the day. My sister Karla reads the newspaper, while my mom and dad
discuss what they expect to do at work. My cat probably thinks about how she's going to sleep on the couch
when no one is around. But I like nothing better than to listen to the radio in the morning hours before noon.
A. different activities
B. what they expect to do
C. going to sleep
D. hours before noon
70. Use the paragraph below to answer this question.
1
The German Shepherd is a beautiful dog. 2It is considered one of the more intelligent dogs. 3The coat of a German
Shepherd is typically black, varying shades of brown, or a mixture of brown and black. 4The tall height and powerful
build give the dog a commanding appearance.
Which sentence should be removed from the paragraph above?
A. sentence 1
B. sentence 2
C. sentence 3
D. sentence 4
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
71. Use the paragraph below to answer this question.
1
Slowly, Ezra made his way up the steep steps. 2With each stair he climbed, Ezra could feel his confidence swelling.
3
He approached the classroom door feeling determined to do well. 4He had studied hard, motivated by the knowledge
that once he passed this test, summer would begin and his time would be free.
In the paragraph above, after which sentence should the following sentence best be added?
Arriving at the top of the stairwell, Ezra turned left.
A. after sentence 1
B. after sentence 2
C. after sentence 3
D. after sentence 4
72.
Which words BEST fill in the blanks in the sentence below?
The wind _____ and _____, sounding like a lonely ghost seeking a place to rest.
A. whistled, yelled
B. howled, moaned
C. growled, roared
D. blew, blew
73. Which answer is correctly punctuated and uses the proper connective to combine the sentences below?
Jessie is informed, efficient, and communicative. She will make an excellent student government representative.
A. Although Jessie is informed, efficient, and communicative, she will make an excellent student government
representative.
B. Because Jessie is informed, efficient, and communicative, she will make an excellent student government
representative.
C. Even though Jessie is informed, efficient, and communicative, she will make an excellent student government
representative.
D. Jessie is informed, efficient, and communicative; whereas, she will make an excellent student government
representative.
74. What is the proper correction for the sentence fragment below?
Large spruce trees with their fresh smelling needles.
A. Large spruce trees standing tall with their fresh smelling needles.
B. Large spruce trees stand tall with their fresh smelling needles.
C. Very large spruce trees standing tall with their fresh smelling needles.
D. Spruce trees standing tall with their fresh smelling needles.
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
75. Use the paragraph below to answer this question.
1
Our social studies assignment was to interview someone who lived during World War II. 2I picked my great uncle.
3
I picked my uncle because he was in the army in Europe. 4He had amazing stories to share about those years.
Which two of the sentences above should be combined?
A. sentences 1 and 2
B. sentences 2 and 3
C. sentences 3 and 4
D. sentences 4 and 1
76. Which word(s) BEST fill(s) in the blank in the sentence below?
My sister said my room was the __________ mess she had ever seen.
A. worse
B. worstest
C. worst
D. most worst
77. Which of the following is capitalized correctly?
A. Dr. John q. McMillan
B. Dr. John q. Mcmillan
C. Dr. John Q. McMillan
D. Dr. John Q. Mcmillan
78. Which word(s) BEST fill(s) in the blank in the sentence below?
Several members of our science club ________ at
the water plant on weekends.
A. volunteer
B. volunteers
C. volunteering
D. is volunteering
79. Which sentence below is punctuated correctly?
A. "Yes," said the pilot: "we hit a pocket of bad weather."
B. "Yes" __ said the pilot. "we hit a pocket of bad weather."
C. "Yes," said the pilot, "we hit a pocket of bad weather."
D. "Yes": said the pilot. "we hit a pocket of bad weather."
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
80. Which words BEST fill in the blank in the sentence below?
The mail carrier_________ he spoke daily, is retiring.
A. with what
B. with who
C. with which
D. with whom
81.
Which sentence does not support the main idea of the paragraph?
1
In many hurricanes, winds in the wall cloud area blow at speeds of 130 to 150 miles per hour. 2The
winds and rain, combined with the force of the sea, produce huge waves. 3These waves, called a
storm surge, rise several feet above normal and cause floods over land. 4It is very dangerous to go
swimming during a storm surge. 5A storm surge can be especially destructive if it occurs at high tide.
A. sentence 2
B. sentence 3
C. sentence 4
D. sentence 5
82.
How should these sentences be ordered to create a logical paragraph?
1. I told him I was, and we discussed what cards we wanted to trade.
2. He said he collected cards, too, and wanted to know if I was interested in trading any of mine.
3. One of my classmates noticed some baseball cards that I brought into school one day.
4. The next day, he brought in his cards, and we did some trading at lunch.
A. 1,4,3,2
B. 2,3,1,4
C. 3,2,1,4
D. 4,2,1,4
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83.
Which transitional word usage is correct?
A. Temperatures can go as high as 600 degrees Fahrenheit, and carbon dioxide makes up most of the atmosphere.
Next, Venus is not fit for human habitation.
B. Temperatures can go as high as 600 degrees Fahrenheit, and carbon dioxide makes up most of the atmosphere.
Also, Venus is not fit for human habitation.
C. Temperatures can go as high as 600 degrees Fahrenheit, and carbon dioxide makes up most of the atmosphere. For
example, Venus is not fit for human habitation.
D. Temperatures can go as high as 600 degrees Fahrenheit, and carbon dioxide makes up most of the atmosphere.
Clearly, Venus is not fit for human habitation.
84.
In the paragraph, sentence 3 is out of order. Where should it be placed?
1. So far, there have been three major stages in my life.
2. Each one of these stages has been important to me.
3. Then, in high school, we moved back overseas to Germany.
4. Before I started elementary school, my family lived in England.
5. All during elementary school, my family lived in Atlanta, Georgia.
A. before sentence 1
B. before sentence 2
C. after sentence 4
D. after sentence 5
85.
Treasure Island
by Robert Louis Stevenson
I remember him as if it were yesterday, as he came plodding to the inn door, his sea-chest following behind him
in a hand-barrow--a tall, strong, heavy, nut-brown man, his tarry pigtail falling over the shoulder of his soiled blue
coat, his hands ragged and scarred, with black, broken nails, and the sabre cut across one cheek, a dirty, livid
white. I remember him looking round the cover and whistling to himself as he did so, and then breaking out in
that old sea-song that he sang so often afterwards:
"Fifteen men on the dead man's chest-- Yo-ho-ho, and a bottle of rum!"
Why is first-person point of view a good way of telling this story?
A. The narrator has a good sense of humor.
B. The narrator knows a lot about sea life.
C. The narrator describes how the man feels.
D. The narrator sees most of the events as they happen.
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86.
What is the author's purpose in writing the paragraph?
In many hurricanes, winds in the wall cloud area blow at speeds of 130 to 150 miles per hour. The
winds and rain, combined with the force of the sea, produce huge waves. These waves, called a storm
surge, rise several feet above normal and cause floods over land. A storm surge can be especially
destructive if it occurs at high tide.
A. to tell a story
B. to report information
C. to entertain the reader
D. to persuade the reader's opinion
87.
Which passage has correct transition word usage?
A. The conductor walked to the piano and played one note on the keyboard. Next, all the instruments tuned to that
tone so that one great sound on the same pitch filled the room.
B. The conductor walked to the piano and played one note on the keyboard. Instead, all the instruments tuned to that
tone so that one great sound on the same pitch filled the room.
C. The conductor walked to the piano and played one note on the keyboard. For example, all the instruments tuned to
that tone so that one great sound on the same pitch filled the room.
D. The conductor walked to the piano and played one note on the keyboard. Although, all the instruments tuned to
that tone so that one great sound on the same pitch filled the room.
88.
What type of organizational structure did the author use in the paragraph?
This binder might look very worn out, but I treasure it because Andre gave it to me. He was my best
friend last year, and he moved to South Carolina. Since the binder is all I have to remember him by, I
will never throw it away.
A. cause and effect
B. chronological order
C. similarity and difference
D. question and answer
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89.
What type of organizational structure did the author use in the paragraph?
In the play The Diary of Anne Frank, Anne comments on the differences between herself and her
sister Margot. She remarks that everything Margot does is right in her parent's eyes, while everything
Anne herself does is wrong. However, both girls are intelligent and sensitive.
A. cause and effect
B. chronological order
C. compare and contrast
D. question and answer
90.
What type of organizational structure did the author use in the paragraph?
The water cycle is the journey water takes as it circulates from the land to the sky and back again.
First, the Sun's heat evaporates water from the Earth's surface. Next, the water vapor eventually
condenses, forming tiny droplets in clouds. Finally, when the clouds meet cool air over land,
precipitation is triggered, and water returns to the land.
A. cause and effect
B. chronological order
C. compare and contrast
D. question and answer
91.
Which sentence would BEST engage the reader's attention in an essay on mold and fungi?
A. Once upon a time there grew a mold.
B. Molds are a member of the fungus family.
C. There are organisms in the world that are new to many human beings.
D. In a nearby forest, a blob of glistening green slime creeps over the surface of a rotting log.
92.
Which sentence is a clear position statement for a persuasive essay about having school uniforms?
A. School uniforms can be cool.
B. A lot of schools have uniforms.
C. Uniforms will benefit students at our school.
D. While they may be uncomfortable, uniforms are never commonplace.
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93.
Which sentence is a clear position statement for a persuasive essay about students using cell phones during
school hours?
A. Cell phones are cool.
B. My favorite thing to do is text my friends.
C. I really hate it when my cell phone battery runs out.
D. Although distracting, cell phones have their benefits.
94.
Which sentence is correct?
A. Esteban has discovered he can learn valuable studying tips from others.
B. Esteban has discovered himself can learn valuable studying tips from others.
C. Esteban has discovered him can learn valuable studying tips from others.
D. Esteban has discovered you can learn valuable studying tips from others.
95.
Which sentence is correct?
A. The most experienced essay writer is she.
B. The most experienced essay writer is her.
C. The most experienced essay writer is their.
D. The most experienced essay writer is herself.
96.
Which sentence is correct?
A. A few students and I talked about the homework problems.
B. A few students and me talked about the homework problems.
C. A few students and we talked about the homework problems.
D. A few students and they talked about the homework problems.
97.
Which sentence is correct?
A. Rachael is known for she cooking expertise.
B. Rachael is known for her cooking expertise.
C. Rachael is known for their cooking expertise.
D. Rachael is known for herself cooking expertise.
98.
Which sentence is correct?
A. She and her brother Ethan lived there for a week.
B. Her and her brother Ethan lived there for a week.
C. Their and her brother Ethan lived there for a week.
D. Herself and her brother Ethan lived there for a week.
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99.
Which sentence is correct?
A. One of the girls got exactly what he asked for.
B. One of the girls got exactly what she asked for.
C. One of the girls got exactly what her asked for.
D. One of the girls got exactly what they asked for.
100.
Which sentence is correct?
A. Jessica showed Michael and I some math problems.
B. Jessica showed Michael and me some math problems.
C. Jessica showed Michael and we some math problems.
D. Jessica showed Michael and they some math problems.
101.
Which sentence is correct?
A. A teacher asked we students to stop talking in the hallway.
B. A teacher asked us students to stop talking in the hallway.
C. A teacher asked them students to stop talking in the hallway.
D. A teacher asked they students to stop talking in the hallway.
102.
Plants in the desert.
Which sentence correctly edits the fragment?
A. Plants in the hot desert.
B. Green plants in the desert.
C. Plants in the desert receive little water.
D. Plants in the desert receive little water not much rain falls in the desert.
103.
Which word is spelled incorrectly?
A. chokeing
B. fishing
C. joking
D. swimming
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104.
Which underlined word is spelled incorrectly?
I never imagined I would complete this intire project in an hour.
A. imagined
B. complete
C. intire
D. hour
105.
Which underlined word is spelled incorrectly?
We started packing up immediatly after the storm passed.
A. started
B. packing
C. immediatly
D. passed
106.
Which underlined word is spelled incorrectly?
The nurses were worryed that Jonathan had the measles and that the illness might be transmittable.
A. worryed
B. measles
C. illness
D. transmittable
107.
Which sentence is correct?
A. Hummingbirds flap their wings so quick that people can hardly see their wings move.
B. Hummingbirds flap their wings so quickest that people can hardly see their wings move.
C. Hummingbirds flap their wings so quickly that people can hardly see their wings move.
D. Hummingbirds flap their wings so quicker that people can hardly see their wings move.
108.
Which sentence contains an infinitive phrase?
A. To be an actor was Tom's goal.
B. Directing a movie was Tom's goal.
C. Going to Las Vegas was Tom's goal.
D. A successful movie career was Tom's goal.
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109.
Which sentence includes an infinitive phrase?
A. I left my lunch in my locker.
B. I prefer studying after a snack.
C. I transferred my notes to my computer.
D. It is possible to score a 110 on the test.
110.
Which sentence is correct?
A. I sang good in the chorus festival.
B. I felt good when I left the doctor.
C. Angela ran good in yesterday's race.
D. Jennifer felt good when she finished cleaning her room.
111.
Which sentence is correct?
A. I'll take you a glass of water.
B. Will you bring these boxes to Sherry?
C. Would you please take these books to the media center?
D. Could you bring the pencils to the pencil sharpener for Alice?
112.
Which sentence is correct?
A. The news from the war effected her deeply.
B. The actor in the movie effects a British accent.
C. What effect did the rocky soil produce in the plants?
D. The students tried to affect a change in school policy.
113.
Which sentence is correct?
A. The principle wore a suit and tie daily.
B. I dunked our principal at the school fair.
C. The principle of our school gave the award.
D. One of my principals is to always be honest.
114.
Which sentence is correct?
A. We went too the mall.
B. He ran two the emergency room.
C. It's to risky to ride down that hill.
D. Two stores were having wonderful sales.
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115.
Which sentence is correct?
A. Their cars need to be moved.
B. There are going to go camping.
C. They're is the great big teddy bear.
D. They're backpacks are hung on the wall.
116.
Which sentence is correct?
A. When I was ten years old, my dad became a police officer.
B. Walking to the store, the wind blew Bridget's hair around.
C. Looking toward the north, a storm cloud gathered in the distance.
D. Having been packed the night before, Tyler could use the suitcase.
117.
Fire and Ice
by Robert Frost
Some say the world will end in fire;
Some say in ice.
From what I've tasted of desire
I hold with those who favor fire.
But if it had to perish twice,
I think I know enough of hate
To know that for destruction ice
Is also great
And would suffice.
What is the BEST way to find the meaning of the word perish if you do not have a dictionary available?
A. Find a word that rhymes with "perish."
B. Remember the word and look it up later.
C. Ask another student or your teacher to tell you the meaning.
D. Look through the poem for other words or phrases that help you understand the meaning.
118.
If you are reading, and come to a word you are unfamiliar with, which technique would help you understand the
meaning of the word?
A. Think about the spelling of the word.
B. Skip the word and come back to it later.
C. Ignore the prefixes or suffixes in the word.
D. Look for clues to the meaning of the word in the surrounding passage.
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119.
Bill Clinton: First Inaugural Address
by Bill Clinton
Wednesday, January 21, 1993
Raised in unrivaled prosperity, we inherit an economy that is still the world’s strongest, but is weakened by
business failures, stagnant wages, increasing inequality, and deep divisions among our people.
In this excerpt from Bill Clinton's First Inaugural Address, the word prosperity MOST LIKELY means
A. extreme poverty.
B. financial success.
C. international conflict.
D. the future of the nation's youth.
120.
The words Chattahoochee, raccoon, Oklahoma and Etowah most likely originated from
A. French words.
B. Old English words.
C. Native American words.
D. Irish or Scottish words.
121.
A generalization about people or life that is communicated through a literary text is
A. the mood.
B. the tone.
C. the theme.
D. the author's purpose.
122.
The objective of the author of an expository text is called
A. the theme.
B. the exposition.
C. the conclusion.
D. the author's purpose.
123.
Marly is doing a research paper on how advertising affects American teenagers. Which sources would contain
information to help her complete this research?
A. spending habits of teenagers in Europe
B. statistics showing items adults buy most
C. government studies about teenagers' spending habits
D. TV, magazine, and newspaper ads targeting five to eight year olds
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
124.
HYPER/HYPO GLYCEMIA
by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Low blood sugar is called hypoglycemia (hi-poe-gly-SEE-me-uh). This can happen when someone
with diabetes doesn't eat enough, takes too much medicine, or gets too much exercise. Symptoms of
low blood sugar include sweating, shakiness, and confusion, and in extreme cases, a person can faint
or have a seizure. A person with diabetes who has low blood sugar needs to eat sugar - and fast - to
get it under control. In fact, many people with diabetes keep glucose pills with them in case they get
low blood sugar. But, if you are around someone who has diabetes and starts to feel this way, you
can also help him or her out by knowing what else he or she can eat. Good options include a couple
of hard candies or gumdrops, orange juice, soda or pop (not diet!), a spoonful of honey, or some cake
icing. Low blood sugar isn't an excuse to gorge on sweets, though - most people with diabetes only
need a little sugar to get themselves back on track.
Mark's grandfather has diabetes. Using the information in the article, what could Mark do to make sure he can help
his grandfather with a low blood sugar problem while they are at a baseball game?
A. Bring along plenty of ice.
B. Buy some candy at the game.
C. Keep plenty of water on hand.
D. Stay in the shade and wear loose-fitting clothing.
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125.
The use of a picture of an owl in this advertisement reinforces what words?
A. forceful advertising
B. light you to success
C. experience and knowledge
D. strong, forceful and convincing
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126.
The Ant and the Dove
by Aesop
An ant went to the bank of a river to quench its thirst, and being carried away by the rush of the stream, was on
the point of drowning. A dove sitting on a tree overhanging the water plucked a leaf and let it fall into the stream
close to her. The ant climbed onto it and floated in safety to the bank. Shortly afterwards a bird catcher came and
stood under the tree, and laid his lime-twigs for the dove, which sat in the branches. The ant, perceiving his
design, stung him in the foot. In pain, the bird catcher threw down the twigs, and the noise made the dove take
wing.
One good turn deserves another.
The Crow and the Pitcher
by Aesop
A crow perishing with thirst saw a pitcher, and hoping to find water, flew to it with delight. When he reached it,
he discovered to his grief that it contained so little water that he could not possibly get at it. He tried everything he
could think of to reach the water, but all his efforts were in vain. At last he collected as many stones as he could
carry and dropped them one by one with his beak into the pitcher, until he brought the water within his reach and
thus saved his life.
Necessity is the mother of invention
Which is true of the two passages?
A. They are both Shakespearean sonnets containing satirical literary devices.
B. They are both science fiction pieces set in another universe.
C. They are both fables used to teach lessons or morals about human weaknesses.
D. They are both tall tales combining realism with outrageous exaggeration often to reflect hardships endured by
early settlers.
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127.
For which type of book would the diagram shown be used?
A. a book for children
B. a novel about horses
C. a veterinarian's textbook
D. an instruction manual for people buying saddles
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128.
The diagram shown might be included in which type of research paper?
A. a paper about the anatomy of horses
B. an article about the best type of horse for children
C. an essay about the history of horse racing in America
D. a paper directed at people who are interested in becoming horse owners
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129.
Poor Richard's Almanac
by Benjamin Franklin
For want of a nail the
shoe was lost;
For want of a shoe the
horse was lost;
For want of a horse the
rider was lost;
For want of a rider the
battle was lost;
For want of a battle the
country was lost;
And all for the want of a
twopenny nail.
This poem contains
A. alliteration.
B. internal rhyme.
C. meter.
D. onomatopoeia.
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Please read the selection below and then answer the questions that follow.
Salsify Soup
Self-sufficiency is a fine concept in the abstract, but not when it is sitting on the plate in front of you. I
arrived at this insight one morning at my grandparents’ farm while I was digging up supper.
When I was younger, I would often spend a day or two at my grandparents’ farm, but this was the first time I
had come for an extended visit. I think my mother intended this visit to be a learning experience.
“Your grandparents believe in self-sufficiency,” she said, with a certain tone in her voice.
I began discovering exactly what my mother meant by self-sufficiency once I arrived. Grandma was sitting
on the porch, separating thin green onions, and getting them ready to plant. Grandpa was splitting and stacking
firewood, which struck me as odd. “Why are you splitting firewood in spring? It’s warm now.”
He laughed. “No, but it won’t be warm in fall and winter. When it’s cold outside, I won’t want to be out here
splitting wood, will I? I’ll want to be in the house, warming my feet by the fire!”
This was all admirable, and what’s more, I enjoyed helping Grandma and Grandpa with the chores. I actually
looked forward to feeding the chickens and gathering the eggs each day. Because it was spring, one of the hens was
broody and wanted to keep her eggs and hatch them. It required some skill to outwit Henny Penny, as I called her, but
I managed to do so on the first day by throwing some grain in the chicken pen and then snatching the smooth, brown
eggs while she gathered the grain. She tricked me on the third day, however, and ran out of the pen, disappearing into
the shrubs by the house. I didn’t see her again until near the end of my stay, about three weeks later, when she strode
proudly back, beak held high, with five fluffy chicks tumbling after her.
What I liked less, however, was the whole “vegetable thing.” As I said, self-sufficiency is all well and
good—within reason. My support for the concept stops, however, when I’m served a stringy mass of dandelion
greens.
“Have you ever seen dandelion greens before, Alexis?” Grandma inquired sweetly.
“Yes, I think, but I’ve never eaten them. I’ll try them, though,” I just smiled and said.
The dandelion greens were not horrible, but just bitter tasting. The next day we had another serving of them.
Hadn’t my grandma ever heard of carrots? I wondered, deciding to ask her if she had ever considered planting carrots
in her garden.
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“Oh, yes! Later in the season, we should have carrots. We grow enough to store in the root cellar. Those last
us through the winter, but we’re out of them now. By the time Spring rolls around, we’ve eaten most of the fresh
vegetables we grew the previous summer. Instead, we eat what we have left, or the dandelions that pop up here and
there.”
Suddenly, a gleam blossomed in her eye. “You know, Alexis, we do have some fresh vegetables ready in the
garden,” Grandma said. “Really?” I asked, looking excited.
I followed her out to the large plot beside the house, dreaming of fresh lettuce, crunchy radishes, or maybe
even a baby carrot, if one of the seedlings just happened to be a prodigy that sprouted early. Instead, Grandma led me
to the far end of the garden, where she tilted over a bale of straw. Underneath were the crushed tops of some
scraggly-looking plants.
“Salsify,” she said triumphantly.
“What is that?” I asked disappointedly.
That’s how I found myself digging up supper. These “salsify” were a kind of long, thin root, grey-white in
color.
“You grow them in fall and through the winter, and then harvest them in spring. Have you ever had salsify?”
she asked.
I shook my head.
“Perhaps you know it by its other name, Oyster Plant,” she said encouragingly.
“No,” I confessed, “I’ve never heard of it.”
That was enough for Grandma. I found myself digging a pail of salsify so we could make “Salsify Soup,”
which she assured me tastes even better than oyster stew. I could not get over the idea that a vegetable could taste like
shellfish. What’s next—corn that tastes like lobster?
Is this really what my mother meant by wanting me to learn self-sufficiency, eating weeds like dandelions
and botanical misfits like salsify?
I briefly considered not trying the soup, but the empty bowl on my plate stared at me with an accusing eye.
Grandma’s garden and her cooking were so much a part of her, that to reject them was to reject her. I ladled the
chunky soup into the bowl with grim determination.
I began eating, tasting nothing at first because I was seriously holding my breath. I gradually became aware
that the soup was not at all strong, as I feared, but full of mild flavors. Before I knew it, my bowl was empty. I had a
second, and even a bit of a third bowl, too. The soup tasted really good, but it also made me feel good to know that
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my grandparents had grown the salsify, and that I had harvested it, even if I hadn’t wanted to at the time.
Self-sufficiency can taste pretty good, after all.
“Do you know what would go well with this soup?” Grandpa asked.
I knew right away. “A serving of dandelion greens?” I asked, grinning.
130. Read this analysis by a student who read “Salsify Soup.”
The mother in the story is correct to doubt that Alexis is
self-sufficient, but she is also right in her decision to send her
daughter to the farm. Alexis learns to be self-sufficient while she is
there.
Explain whether you believe the reader’s analysis of the story is accurate. Use details from the story to support your
response.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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131. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
List three details for dandelion greens and three details for salsify that are included in the story that describe how and
where the plants grow.
Part B
Consider how the details in Part A relate to the theme and setting of the story. Explain how the setting and the
descriptions of dandelion greens and salsify contribute to the development of the theme in the story. Use details from
the story to support your response.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
132. Which line of dialogue shows that Alexis has changed as a result of her stay on the farm?
A. “Why are you splitting firewood in spring?”
B. “Really?” I asked, looking excited.
C. “What is that?” I asked disappointedly.
D. “A serving of dandelion greens?” I asked, grinning.
133. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
List three details that show what Alexis thinks but does not say when interacting with her grandma in the story.
Part B
Consider how Alexis’s thoughts create humor within the story. Explain how humor contributes to the overall meaning
of the story. Use details from the story to support your response.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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134. Read this sentence from the story.
It required some skill to outwit Henny Penny, as I called her, but I
managed to do so on the first day by throwing some grain in the
chicken pen and then snatching the smooth, brown eggs while she
gathered the grain.
What action is meant by the author’s use of gathered in this sentence?
A. The hen is eating the grain.
B. The hen is relocating the grain.
C. The hen is taking notice of the grain.
D. The hen is making a pile with the grain.
135. Read this paragraph from the story.
I briefly considered not trying the soup, but the empty bowl on my
plate stared at me with an accusing eye. Grandma’s garden and her
cooking were so much a part of her, that to reject them was to reject
her. I ladled the chunky soup into the bowl with grim determination.
The underlined portion of this paragraph contains personification. Explain how the author uses personification and
how it relates to the plot of the story. Use details from the story to support your response.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
Please read the selection below and then answer the questions that follow.
The Best of America is on the Blue Highways
Sure, the interstate will get you there faster. I would never argue that it won’t. But here’s the thing: when you
drive the two-lane highways it does not matter how much time it takes. In fact, you might even want to keep on
driving and driving and driving because you are having so much fun. I have known this for a long time, but it came
back to me fresh this summer.
I live in Kansas City, Missouri, and my family lives in St. Louis. I normally take the train when I visit. This
summer, though, I had to drive because I was helping with a move. One weekend in June, I picked up my rented van
and slid onto Interstate 70 (I-70), which plows through the state, four lanes or six lanes straight across. The speed
limit is 75, people routinely drive 85, and the huge 18-wheelers loom over you as if to say, “Is that a car or a tiny little
bug that I could squish if I wanted to?” Four-and-a-half miserable hours later, I dragged myself into my sister’s
house. I was worn out.
I am not one of those people who think that driving is a chore. I love to drive. I love road trips. In my 20s, I
drove clunky old cars that probably should not have been allowed to leave the neighborhood all over the U.S. But for
me, the interstate takes the fun out of driving. Instead of enjoying the journey, a person is trying to get from Point A
to Point B as fast as possible. The road is flat and straight and all of the interesting stuff is up the exit ramp, a long
way away. Where is the joy in that?
So this summer, I bailed on I-70 and drove Highway 50 back and forth across Missouri. It took an hour
longer but it felt like no time at all because around every corner there was something new and different and
interesting. The highway roughly follows the Missouri River, which winds across the length of the state. From
Kansas City it is divided highway east through medium-sized cities like Warrensburg and Sedalia and on into
Jefferson City, the state capital, which sits right on the river. After that, it’s twisty two-lane roads that wind through
the hills and in to West St. Louis County. It is one gorgeous vista after another.
Highway 50 is what is called a blue highway. A writer named William Least-Heat Moon coined the term to
refer to those smaller, out-of-the-way roads that were drawn in blue on the old road atlases. Blue highways connect
small cities and rural areas that may once have had dreams of becoming big cities before being bypassed by the
interstate. With many of these smaller places, though, you get the sense that they are exactly what they always wanted
to be: warm and human-sized, comfortable places to live.
Driving on blue highways pulls you back in time. You look around, and it is America in the 1940s or 1950s.
There is the town square, with small shops and a courthouse in the place of honor. Most of the businesses are owned
by the people who live there; the corporate headquarters is in the back room. On Highway 50, for example, you can
find the best ever creamy frozen custard at a little shack on a gravel lot outside Tipton, and the best ever fried catfish
in a wee town called Rosebud an hour west of St. Louis. I could drive for days and never find anything else just like
that because it’s only made in that small town by those particular people.
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Right before you get into West St. Louis County, you run into that most famous of historic highways – Route
66. Americans drove Route 66 from Chicago to the Santa Monica, California, way back in the 1920s up until it was
officially removed from the highway system in 1985. It was THE road for people headed for the West Coast of
America.
I was born in a hospital in Rolla, Missouri, right on Route 66, and Route 66 is where I most feel that I belong.
Route 66, to me, represents America before we had the same stores at every mall and the same restaurants along
every Main Street. It represents an America where people could open a diner or a tourist attraction or a store on the
town square and do something unique and interesting and make a living at it. Today, the stretch of Route 66 from
Highway 50 to old Highway 100 in west St. Louis County is a shadow of what it once was, but it is a shadow that still
speaks to me in a way that the interstate never, ever will.
136. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
The author appeals to the emotions of the reader by using precise and descriptive language. How does the author
make interstate travel sound like a negative experience? List at least three examples from the article.
Part B
Write a paragraph that explains how the author used language to compare the travel experiences by using positive
language about the blue highways. Use at least three examples from the article to support your response.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
137. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
In the article, the author discusses the joys of driving on the blue highways versus traveling on an interstate. Consider
the points the author makes for and against each type of travel.
• List two reasons for traveling on Interstate 70.
• List two reasons against traveling on the blue highways.
Part B
Use your reasons from Part A to write a paragraph about why the blue highways are not the best way to travel.
Support your response with personal experiences and details from the article.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
138. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
Based on the article, what are three reasons people would most likely want to travel the historical blue highways?
Part B
Explain why it is important to preserve the blue highways throughout the United States. Use your three reasons and
details from the article to support your response.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
139. Imagine that this article consists of paragraphs 1-3 only. Based on those three paragraphs, write a fourth
paragraph that functions as a logical and appropriate conclusion.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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140. Read this line from the article.
Route 66, to me, represents America...
Write a three paragraph essay to explain whether the author is effective in proving that Route 66 represents America.
Use details from the article to support your response.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
141. The author uses the interrogative mood verb form in the following sentence.
Where is the joy in that?
Which option correctly rewrites the statement in the subjunctive mood verb form?
A. Who can feel joy in that?
B. Is there ever any joy in that?
C. There is never any joy in that
D. I wish that there were joy in that.
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Please read the selection below and then answer the questions that follow.
An Important Discovery
I stretched my body over the bar, gazing casually into the mirror to catch a glimpse of the other dancers
around me. They were warming up too, a routine we had all followed throughout many years of dance classes in
which we each competed in numerous dance competitions for the position of queen bee. No one could challenge our
pirouettes, our pliés, our arabesques. Our limbs stretched to the ground like weeping willows. For years, we had been
our teacher’s favorites, the ones who had always been asked to teach other students new steps or had always been
seen on center stage.
Now, with our hair swept into buns as tight as helmets, we were preparing for the first real competition many
of us had ever faced. A statewide, week-long dance competition was being sponsored by the Julia Swanson Ballet
Company, the goal of which was to recruit prospective members. To receive an invitation was such an honor; when I
showed my invitation to my dance instructor and classmates, they were green with envy. Most of us were on
scholarship to attend dance class, so being presented with this kind of opportunity was a rare occurrence.
In preparation for the upcoming competition, I worked out as never before—stretching, dancing, rehearsing
until I got new blisters on my already callused feet. We had been instructed which ballet we were to perform, so my
instructor and I went over it time and time again, taking advantage of what little time I had to prepare.
On the day of the competition, there I was among the other premier dancers, steadily stretching my hamstring
against the bar, which had suddenly become my lifeline and my anchor; my heart was racing. When I glanced across
the room, I saw that the judges wore masks with only their eyes visible behind a veil of speculation as they watched
us and waited for the competition to begin.
“Okay, everyone, line up and let’s begin!” announced the instructor. We all moved forward, a short wave of
black leotards and high expectations.
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The dance routine and the music were comfortingly familiar. As the music began, my body took control. Yet,
I found myself watching my reflection in the mirror, which seemed to be looking back at me, mocking my
performance critically.
”Way to go, Alicia. Your arms are the only ones off-center in the whole row,” my reflection sneered
scornfully.
“Who would ever invite you to dance with one of the most famous ballet companies in the country?” my
reflection hissed at me. I stumbled.
In shock over what had just happened, I stood still for a brief moment unable to believe I had made such a
clumsy mistake. In all my years of dancing, I had never once flubbed a performance and could always be counted on
to know the right steps. However, this time, I had stepped out of turn and had bumped into the dancer next to me, who
flashed an irritated look at me, and kept right on dancing.
Taking control of the situation, my feet thankfully began to move again. I began to feel the music carrying
me along like a wave... foot extended... point... arms up... I breathed to myself.
Then, as I looked to my right, I caught sight of the most graceful dancer I had ever seen. She moved like a
swan on water, with a fluid elegance that every dancer hoped to attain. For the rest of the performance, I moved on
autopilot, my eyes continually drawn to the wonderful dancer next to me with jealous admiration.
After the performance, we left the stage and walked down the stairs, entering the dressing room where we
toweled off and prepared for our second performance.
As the graceful girl walked past me, I could not help from saying, “You were fantastic—I can’t believe how
beautifully you move! How do you stay focused when you are dancing?”
She smiled and said with simple sincerity, “I don’t think about or watch myself move. I just listen to the
music and do what it tells me.”
I stood there disappointed in myself, realizing that I had spent the entire afternoon tortured by feelings of
inadequacy, and had missed the chance to dance, to really dance, in the company of some of the best dancers in the
state. Dancers who, like me, had given up other hobbies and other activities to devote themselves to dancing.
Yet, somehow I knew that even if I did not make it into the Julia Swanson Ballet Company...I had made an
important discovery.
As the music began to play again, we rushed out onto the stage. This time, with the pressure to perform
squashed to manageable proportions, I simply closed my eyes and did what the music told me to do.
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
142. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
Figurative language contributes to mood, setting, and character. One example of figurative language from the story
“An Important Discovery” is the simile “she moved like a swan on the water.” The literal meaning of the simile
within the passage might be written as “she moved smoothly and gracefully.”
Rewrite this paragraph from the story, replacing all the figurative language with literal language.
On the day of the competition, there I was among the other premier
dancers, steadily stretching my hamstring against the bar, which had
suddenly become my lifeline and my anchor; my heart was racing.
When I glanced across the room, I saw that the judges wore masks
with only their eyes visible behind a veil of speculation as they
watched us and waited for the competition to begin.
Part B
Compare your rewritten paragraph with the original paragraph and discern how replacing the figurative language
affects different story elements. Provide one way that the absence of figurative language changes each the mood,
setting, and characters in the story.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
143. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
A plot synopsis of a film explains what happens in the movie. If “An Important Discovery” was made into a short
movie, consider what information would be necessary to include in the plot synopsis. Write a one-sentence plot
synopsis of “An Important Discovery.”
Part B
Another step of adapting a story into a movie is separating the action into different scenes. For each of the four
scenes, describe the most important action that takes place.
Scene 1 - Exposition :
Scene 2 - Rising Action :
Scene 3 - Climax :
Scene 4 - Falling Action :
Part C
If Alicia gave a short speech at the very end of the movie, she would most likely turn to the camera and tell viewers
about her important discovery. Consider what she might say. Use information from the end of the story to craft a
short dialogue that Alicia would say at the end of the movie.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
144. Alicia’s attitude about auditioning changes after her conversation with the graceful dancer. How does her
attitude change by the conclusion of the story?
A. from feeling anxious to feeling self-critical
B. from feeling inadequate to feeling self-confident
C. from experiencing self-doubt to experiencing disappointment
D. from experiencing disappointment to experiencing self-consciousness
145. Think about another literary character who was critical of his or her own performance and faced self-doubt.
Write an essay that compares and contrasts that character’s experience with Alicia’s. Support your answer with
examples from various points in the story.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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146. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
Put yourself in the place of one of the judges in the story that auditions new dancers for the Julia Swanson Ballet
Company. Write a brief recommendation about whether or not Alicia should be invited to join the ballet company.
Part B
Based on the recommendation, write a review of Alicia’s performances in the first and second dance routines. Include
both information that you can see objectively and information that you might infer as an observer of Alicia’s
performance.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
147. Read this quote from the story.
“For the rest of the performance, I moved on autopilot...”
What can the reader infer about Alicia’s behavior from this quote?
A. She flew around the room carelessly.
B. She continued to perform without fear.
C. She moved without conscious thought.
D. She paused to reflect on her gracefulness.
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
Please read the selection below and then answer the questions that follow.
Georgia’s Little Grand Canyon
Travelers who visit the forested areas near Lumpkin, Georgia, often think they’ve made a few wrong turns and have
ended up in America’s Southwest instead of Georgia’s Southwest. That’s because of the beautiful sandstone
formations found in an area nicknamed Georgia’s “Little Grand Canyon.”
Old Farming Methods
Providence Canyon, as this area is officially named, is located in southwest Georgia’s Coastal Plains region near the
Alabama border. Originally, this area was not a canyon at all, but rather a dense forest. However, that all changed
when farmers moved into the area in the early 1800s and started growing the time period’s most profitable crop,
cotton. They moved in, cut down the trees, and started plowing and planting their seeds in long straight lines. Of
course, the farmers didn’t realize at the time that these traditional farming methods were actually initiating a string of
events that would drastically change the landscape. Had the farmers known about land preservation techniques such
as rotating the crops in the field every year, growing cover crops to protect the soil, and plowing the soil with the
contour method, the landscape would have never been altered. However, these methods weren’t fully developed until
100 years later, and so the farmers just used the best knowledge they had at the time.
Etching Into the Soil
Since the soil in this region was very soft and sandy, every time it rained, the plowed soil would be washed away by
erosion. Soon, small ditches were etched into the farmland. And with every rainstorm these ditches just kept
expanding wider and deeper. The natural cause-and-effect pattern was simple: Rain would fall; then, another inch or
two of soil would flow downstream leaving a trench behind. It seemed there was no way to stop it. By the 1850s,
many of the cotton fields in Stewart County had three- to five-foot gullies carved across them.
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Come One, Come All
By the 1930s, the gullies had eroded into deep cliffs, chasms, plateaus, and pinnacles. Some of the canyons and cliffs
jutted more than 150 feet deep into the earth. Even though it was no longer suitable for farming, the area had become
quite popular for locals to visit. Families would pack lunches and picnic at spots that overlooked the canyon’s
colorful cliffs and landforms.
Local government officials saw the economic value in this. If the locals thought this area was beautiful enough to
visit, then maybe tourists from other areas might too. And if people came, they might spend money in the surrounding
businesses. The officials felt that the best way to get national tourist attention for Providence Canyon was to convince
the federal government to turn it into a national park—just like other areas of natural beauty had been preserved in the
American Southwest. In 1933, the Atlanta Constitution reported, “It [Providence Canyon] has attracted national
attention and is said to be second only to the Grand Canyon in size and scenic beauty.” That’s actually how
Providence Canyon obtained the nickname “Little Grand Canyon.”
Yet, despite many pleas from the locals, the federal government did not turn Providence Canyon into a national park.
So, nearly forty years later in 1971, the state of Georgia decided to officially name it a state park instead. Governor
Jimmy Carter signed this bill into law on June 1 of that year.
Seeing It In Person
Providence Canyon State Park is considered one of the Seven Wonders of Georgia. If you get the opportunity to visit,
you’ll get to see Georgia’s geologic history in the park’s 1,108 acres. As you study the canyon’s interesting rock
formations, take notice of the different colors of sand that are layered on top of each other like pages in a book.
Millions of years ago, this area was covered by ocean waters and over time different types of silt and sediment were
deposited into deep layers of soil. The sand in Providence Canyon comes in a palette of colors: deep pumpkin orange,
mustard ochre yellow, fiery red, sugar-white kaolin, pale pink, dusty lavender, and misty grey. Scientists have
counted a grand total of 43 different colors of sand in all.
Visitors can hike around the canyon’s rim and check out the scenery from above. Or, they can trek down a trail to the
canyon floor and take a look at the region from an entirely different perspective. In July and August, the canyon floor
is decorated with the world’s largest known colony of the rare plumleaf azalea. This beautiful paprika-red flower is
found only in southwestern Georgia and eastern Alabama. Along the trails, you’ll also likely see woodpeckers, wild
turkeys, warblers, white-tailed deer, armadillos, raccoons, red foxes, and gray squirrels. The trails are clearly marked;
or if you prefer, a park ranger can take you on a guided tour. True adventurers may want to bring an overnight pack
and pitch a tent in one of the designated backcountry camping spots.
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148. Explain whether the farmers in Stewart County were likely to be unhappy with the erosion that occurred on their
property. Use details from the article to support your response.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
149. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
State the central idea of the article “Georgia’s Little Grand Canyon.” Provide four supporting details from the article
that serve to develop the central idea.
Part B
Use information from Part A to craft a concise summary of the article. Use details from the text to support your
answer.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
150. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
Identify the organizational pattern used in the section titled “Come One, Come All” and list four ideas and events
presented in the section.
Part B
Analyze and explain how the author uses this organizational pattern to make connections among and distinctions
between these ideas and events to inform the reader. Use details from the text to support your answer.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
151. Read this sentence from the article.
As you study the canyon’s interesting rock formations, take notice
of the different colors of sand that are layered on top of each other
“like pages in a book.”
Why does the author use the phrase “like pages in a book” in this sentence?
A. To emphasize the different types of sand
B. To describe the appearance of the rock formations
C. To suggest that the rock formations are as thin as paper
D. To explain how the rock formations were formed over time
152. Which statement best reflects the author’s point of view?
A. Water erosion takes millions of years to change the landscape.
B. Farmers should be allowed to plant crops again in Stewart County.
C. Tragedy can only result when people fail to utilize land preservation techniques.
D. People who visit the southwestern region of Georgia will be pleased with its beauty.
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153. Write an argumentative response in support of or against the federal government’s decision not to make
Providence Canyon a national park. Use details from the article to support your argument.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
Please read the selection below and then answer the questions that follow.
Lava Beds National Monument
Tourists are often drawn to the state of California for the interesting sights, both in the big cities and in nature.
However, nestled near the California and Oregon state border, a lonely road leads to what some consider California’s
“best kept secret.”
Attracting only 130,000 visitors each year, Lava Beds National Monument pales in comparison to nearby Yosemite
National Park, which attracts nearly 4 million people annually. But this “secret” park of volcanic rock and
underground caves is full of history and geological wonder. Upon entering the 47,000-acre park, visitors can see why
President Calvin Coolidge declared Lava Beds a national monument back in 1925.
Many geological features create the mystique of Lava Beds National Monument. Tourists can explore underground
lava tubes that look almost like rocky waterslides. They can also take guided tours of the park, hike along scenic
trails, climb cinder cones, and learn about the natural volcanoes and high desert in northern California.
The majority of the landscape of Lava Beds National Monument was once covered with lava. The remarkable
underground caves, or lava tubes, formed from a variety of volcanic eruptions that occurred over the last half million
years.
Over 700 caves have now been discovered hidden in the natural wilderness of the area. Close attention to safety is
recommended to anyone exploring these underground wonders. Sturdy shoes, jackets, helmets or “bump hats,” knee
pads, and flashlights are encouraged. The average temperature inside the caves is only 55 degrees.
The prominent attraction is a two-mile cave loop that provides nearly 20 caves to explore. Visitors do not need a
reservation to visit most of the caves. Some caves have high ceilings and smooth floors, making cave exploration
seem easy. Others entail bending and crawling through tubes of jagged rock.
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
154. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
Consider the similarities and differences between Crystal Ice Cave and Fern Cave as discussed in the article.
• What is true about Crystal Ice Cave?
• What is true about Fern Cave?
• How are Crystal Ice Cave and Fern Cave similar?
Part B
Explain why these two caves require guided tours. Use details from the article to support your explanation.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
155. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
Provide one example for each type of medium below that would effectively advertise and promote Lava Bed National
Monument.
• Print/Digital Text:
• Video:
• Multimedia:
Part B
Choose the medium that you think would be the best way for the California Tourism Bureau to advertise and promote
the park. Explain why this medium is the best choice to attract more visitors to the park. Use details from the article
to support your explanation.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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156. Explain the importance of preserving national monuments like Lava Beds National Monument for future
generations. Use details from the article to support your explanation.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
157. Write an argument convincing your principal to approve a field trip to Lava Beds National Monument. Include
the benefits of such a trip as well as any counterarguments your principal might have regarding the risks. Use details
from the article and your own personal experience to support your argument.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
158. Explain the author’s purpose for writing “Lava Beds National Monument” and how the author responds to
conflicting evidence. Use details from the article to support your explanation.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
159. Read this sentence from the article.
Once at the bottom, a sparkly ceiling of gold can be seen.
Why does the author describe the Golden Dome Cave as having a magical ceiling in the next sentence?
A. The author describes the ceiling as magical because light reflects off the water droplets.
B. The author describes the ceiling as magical because the bacteria on the cave’s walls glow.
C. The author describes the ceiling as magical because sparkling rocks cause the ceiling to glow.
D. The author describes the ceiling as magical because a vein of gold weaves through the ceiling.
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
Please read the selection below and then answer the questions that follow.
Prized Statuettes
Movies, also called films and motion pictures, are popular forms of entertainment around the world. Millions of
people go to the movies each year in the United States. California is often considered to be the place where movies
and movie stars are made.
Back in the 1920s, an organization called the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences was formed. One of the
Academy’s goals was to establish a way to honor exceptional moviemaking accomplishments, and in the year 1927,
members met in Los Angeles, California, to discuss the implementation of an annual award.
The Academy members wanted the award to be regal, and they wanted the recipients to receive a majestic title and
trophy to signify the achievement. To accomplish this task, they called upon the chief art designer at a well-known
movie studio, Cedric Gibbons. He sketched a design for a grand statuette to present to the winners of the annual
awards.
Gibbons envisioned a grand knight standing on a film reel clutching a crusader’s sword. The film reel has five spokes
in it, each representing the five original branches of the Academy: actors, directors, producers, technicians, and
writers.
The trophies presented with an Academy Award are nicknamed Oscars. The official name of the Oscar statuette is the
Academy Award of Merit. It is 13½ inches tall, including the base. It weighs 8½ pounds. The statuette remains as
when it was originally designed.
A sculptor named George Stanley brought Gibbons’ design to life in a three-dimensional statue. Each year, the
Academy holds an extravagant awards ceremony where people receive awards for their talents in moviemaking. The
winners are presented the Oscar™statuettes to honor these talents. Almost 3,000 statuettes have been awarded since
the award was first thought of in 1927.
Production of the statuettes begins in early January each year for the late February awards presentation show. Since
1982, a corporation in Chicago called R.S. Owens & Company has manufactured the statuettes each year. The 50
statuettes take three to four weeks to produce. The specific number of statues to be awarded is never revealed until the
actual ceremony. Only the number of award categories is known. If any statuettes are left over after a ceremony, they
are stored in the Academy’s vault until the next year.
To make an Oscar statuette, a metal called Britannia metal, similar to pewter, is heated to between 700–960 degrees.
When it heats, it becomes a liquid and it is poured into a cast, which molds it into the Oscar shape. When the metal
hardens, the Oscar is taken out of the cast for buffing and polishing. The jagged or uneven seams are sanded and the
coarse surface is buffed, or rubbed smooth. This leaves the Oscar looking dull like pewter. Then it is polished to make
it shine.
Next, a process called electroplating adds to the genuineness of each Oscar. The Oscar is immersed in different liquid
solutions. Copper prevents corrosion, nickel improves its adhesive quality, silver gives it a glossy base, and then 24K
plate gold gives it a stunning glow. Finally, each Oscar statuette is given a distinct identification number and secured
to a round pedestal with a felt pad secured to the bottom.
Due to the integrity associated with this process and the history and meaning behind the award, the statuette is
legendary. The Oscar is a coveted award that all people in filmmaking aspire to win. The statuette is amazingly
breathtaking, and once attained, it is proudly displayed in a prestigious location for all to appreciate.
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160. Read this sentence from the second paragraph of the article .
One of the Academy’s goals was to establish a way to honor
exceptional moviemaking accomplishments . . .
Read this sentence from the third paragraph of the article.
The Academy members wanted the award to be regal, and they
wanted the recipients to receive a majestic title and trophy to signify
the achievement.
Write an essay that explains the Academy’s goal and evaluates whether the design and final product of the Oscar
statuette helped the Academy to succeed in its goal. Cite evidence from the passage to support your ideas.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
161. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
A central purpose of the article “Prized Statuettes” is to show the contributions of various people and institutions in
the history of the award. Identify four individuals or institutions mentioned by the author who helped make the Oscar
possible.
Part B
Explain the role of these four individuals or institutions, and analyze briefly how the contribution of each individual
or institution contributes to the Oscar statuette’s legendary status today.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
162. What does the process of electroplating the Oscar statuette accomplish?
A. It polishes the surface of the award figure.
B. It coats or covers the award with several different metals.
C. It cleans or sanitizes the award through immersion in liquid.
D. It applies a distinct identification number to the surface of the award.
163. Which paragraph from the article is unnecessary to achieving the author’s central purpose?
A. the last paragraph in the article
B. the first paragraph in the article
C. the paragraph about electroplating
D. the paragraph included in the text box
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
164. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
Consider how the author of “Prized Statuettes” makes both objective and subjective claims about the statuette.
♦ List three or more objective claims the author makes in the article.
♦ List three or more subjective claims the author makes in the article.
Part B
Select two objective claims from Part A, and write a paragraph explaining sources that could be used to prove the
claims.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
165. Read this excerpt from the article.
The Academy members wanted the award to be regal, and they
wanted the recipients to receive a majestic title and trophy to signify
the achievement.
Imagine that you are asked to redesign the Oscar statuette. Write an essay in which you describe how your design
would meet the original goals of the Academy while appearing substantially different from its current form.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
Please read the selection below and then answer the questions that follow.
Poor Pluto
Look in many classrooms and you will see a picture of our solar system with nine planets, the smallest and last being
Pluto. Many textbooks still show Pluto in the last orbit around the sun.
But they’re wrong. On August 24, 2006, scientists voted to name Pluto merely a dwarf planet, removing its
&#8220I’m a Planet&#8221 name tag and kicking it off our well-known planetary models. Poor Pluto! It seems so
unfair, after years of planet status to be demoted. What happened to the tiniest &#8220planet-not-a-planet&#8221?
A man named Mike Brown is the primary person responsible for the downfall of planet Pluto. He wrote a book called
How I Killed Pluto and Why It Had It Coming that explains in detail what he discovered. All he wanted was to find a
tenth planet for our solar system. Many astronomers share this goal, but Mike Brown was determined. He was sure a
bigger planet existed further out from Pluto. Turns out there were other planets out there—but they were remarkably
similar to Pluto, as opposed to the rest of the planets in our solar system.
Pluto and these other celestial bodies all were small, much smaller than the other eight planets in our solar system. In
trying to find another planet, what Brown discovered is that Pluto is really no different than a bunch of other small icy
rocks flying around in irregular orbits way out in space. They are not the big boss in their neck of the woods, either,
like a proper planet should be. When Pluto was first discovered, scientists thought it was as big as Neptune or Uranus.
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Scientists later learned it is significantly smaller.
Also, most planets have moons that orbit around the planet. Pluto’s moon is half the size of Pluto. That is much
bigger than any moon of one of the eight planets. In fact, Pluto’s moon, Charon, is so big that Charon and Pluto
actually orbit each other. The center of their orbit is the space between them. Pluto’s orbit is also messy and wild.
Why should Pluto get to be called the ninth planet of our solar system when none of the other forty or fifty things like
it were called planets? In fact, at least one of the discovered celestial objects similar to those discovered by Mike
Brown was slightly larger than Pluto. That wasn’t fair at all.
A large group of astronomers called the International Astronomical Union (IAU) voted on what to categorize Pluto.
There were some astronomers who wanted to keep Pluto listed as one of the nine solar system planets, at least in
honor of its long-standing placement as such. There were others who wanted to remove it completely. Some wanted
to create a new category of &#8220classical&#8221 planets and &#8220regular planets.&#8221 There were many
heated debates on what the definition of a planet should be. In the end, though, the astronomers voted to officially
remove Pluto from the list of planets in our solar system. A dwarf planet is another category and is not considered the
same as a &#8220planet.&#8221 The astronomers felt that if they gave Pluto a &#8220planet of our solar
system&#8221 status, that they’d need to give the same title to the other forty-odd objects much like Pluto discovered
beyond Pluto’s orbit. No one wanted to do that.
A full planet is now defined as an object that orbits the sun and big enough to be round because of its own gravity.
Finally, a planet must &#8220dominate&#8221 its orbit, meaning it needs to be the center of attraction to its moons
and any asteroids nearby, keeping a clear path along its orbit.
In the end, Pluto being demoted made more sense. Any new planet would need to be at least the size of Mars. So,
officially, there are just eight planets in our solar system.
The next time you see a chart with nine planets on it, think about poor Pluto, but not for too long. Somewhere out
there might be a planet that deserves to join the ranks as Number Nine. One day, scientists could find it, just as they
found out that Pluto wasn’t the right fit for our family of planets after all.
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166. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
Consider the similarities and the differences of the planets and Pluto as presented in the article.
• List the similarities between Pluto and the planets.
• List the differences between Pluto and the planets.
Part B
Using information from your lists and the article, explain how Mike Brown and other astronomers were able to make
the decision to demote Pluto.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
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________________________________________________________________________
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167. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
List two examples of personification found in the article.
Part B
What mood or tone does the author create for the article with the title “Poor Pluto” and the figurative language you
just identified? Use details from the article to support your response.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
________________________________________________________________________
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168. For what purpose did the author write this article? How does the author establish different viewpoints about
Pluto’s status as a planet? Cite specific details from the article to support your response.
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169. The article shows how astronomers used a variety of methods to find a resolution to their disagreement on
Pluto’s status as a planet. Use information from the article to show how the steps the astronomers used to resolve their
differences can be applied to other situations where disagreement exists. Your writing should cite the article and
include clear steps to resolve a disagreement.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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170. Using information provided in “Poor Pluto,” write a brief article to include in the school newspaper. Choose an
appropriate title for your article and include specific facts from “Poor Pluto” in your writing.
________________________________________________________________________
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171. Read the following line from the article.
Poor Pluto! It seems so unfair, after years of planet status to be
demoted .
What does demoted mean in this sentence?
A. known by many people
B. raised to a higher status
C. made into something else
D. reduced to a lower position
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Please read both selections below and then answer the questions that follow.
Fuels for Schools Program Uses Leftover Wood to Warm Buildings
In parts of this country, wood seems like the outsider in the biomass 1 family. New ethanol plants that grind down
millions of bushels of corn in the Midwest and breakthroughs in algae along the coasts always grab the most
attention. But in states like Montana, a place with over 70 million acres of forest, wood is the biofuel of choice.
Every year, loggers thin forests out to reduce wildfire hazards, producing several thousand tons of wood, much of
which is not suitable for saw logs. This leftover material may be unsuitable to sell commercially, but to the United
States Forest Service (USFS), it makes for perfect fuel.
&#8220This otherwise low-valued material was seen as a great resource for local energy,” says Julie Kies, of the
Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation’s biomass utilization program.
It all started after a wildfire in Bitterroot Valley of Montana in 2000. Bitterroot Valley residents recognized the
benefits of thinning the forests to reduce wildfire hazards. They worked with the USFS to explore ways to reduce the
cost of forest thinning, and the even higher costs of fighting wildfires. Residents hoped that purchasing the leftover
wood from the USFS would help them with the high cost of fire hazard reduction.
So in 2003, the USFS created the Fuels for Schools program. The plan was straightforward: Take the unsellable wood
that loggers gather and process it into chips that can be used in biomass boilers to heat school buildings.
Beginning in 2003 at a school district in Darby, Montana, the Fuels for School program now involves fifteen schools,
one university, one landfill and two prisons in the region, which includes Montana, North Dakota, Idaho, Nevada,
Wyoming, and Utah.
The projects use material that is more than 50 percent cheaper than fuel oil, and help boost the region’s struggling
wood-products industry.
Darby, a town of 1,000 with 365 students, received a woodchip system that supplies all of the buildings’ heating
supply.
&#8220For a school system, it’s the dollar savings,” says Rick Scheele, facilities manager for the Darby schools and
also the town mayor. “Here in Darby, we did not have natural gas, so we were burning No. 2 diesel fuel oil. That type
of fuel last year would have cost $200,000. That’s four teachers’ salaries.”
But now the school district is only spending about $40,000 a year on wood chips, which are stockpiled underground.
Depending on the price of fuel, the school district has been saving up to $160,000 a year.
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The schools get their wood chips from a variety of sources. Leftovers from forest thinning still fuels their boilers, but
removed trees killed by the pine beetle and trees removed for roadway construction also supply fuel.
Darby burns about 1,000 tons of wood chips a year to heat the elementary, middle and high schools.
“Loggers are happy because they have a place to take this stuff,” Rick says. “And you are using the wood as a
renewable resource for your energy—which is always a good thing.”
1 biomass-organic matter, especially plant matter, that can be converted to fuel and is therefore regarded as a potential energy source.
The Wood-pile
by Robert Frost
OUT walking in the frozen swamp one grey day
I paused and said, &#8220I will turn back from here.
No, I will go on farther—and we shall see.&#8221
The hard snow held me, save where now and then
One foot went down. The view was all in lines
Straight up and down of tall slim trees
Too much alike to mark or name a place by
So as to say for certain I was here
Or somewhere else: I was just far from home.
A small bird flew before me. He was careful
To put a tree between us when he lighted,
And say no word to tell me who he was
Who was so foolish as to think what he thought.
He thought that I was after him for a feather—
The white one in his tail; like one who takes
Everything said as personal to himself.
One flight out sideways would have undeceived him.
And then there was a pile of wood for which
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I forgot him and let his little fear
Carry him off the way I might have gone,
Without so much as wishing him good-night.
He went behind it to make his last stand.
It was a cord of maple, cut and split
And piled—and measured, four by four by eight.
And not another like it could I see.
No runner tracks in this year’s snow looped near it.
And it was older sure than this year’s cutting,
Or even last year’s or the year’s before.
The wood was grey and the bark warping off it
And the pile somewhat sunken. Clematis
Had wound strings round and round it like a bundle.
What held it though on one side was a tree
Still growing, and on one a stake and prop,
These latter about to fall. I thought that only
Someone who lived in turning to fresh tasks
Could so forget his handiwork on which
He spent himself, the labour of his axe,
And leave it there far from a useful fireplace
To warm the frozen swamp as best it could
With the slow smokeless burning of decay.
172. Analyze how the differing structures of the article and the poem contribute to the overall meaning of each piece
of writing. Use details from both selections to support your analysis of the article and the poem.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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173. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
Identify three main groups that benefit from the Fuels for Schools Program. Explain the advantages of the program
for each group.
Part B
How is a wildfire in Bitterroot Valley linked to the Fuels for Schools Program in the article? Cite details from the
article to support your response.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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174. Compare and contrast how discarded wood is utilized both in the article and in the poem. Use details from both
selections to support your response.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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________________________________________________________________________
175. Imagine you are the woodpile described in the Robert Frost poem. Create a narrative response describing how
you got there and predict what might happen to you based on the article “Fuels for Schools Program Uses Leftover
Wood to Warm Buildings.” Use details from both the poem and the article in your narrative.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
176. Which sentence uses the term biomass in a way that is consistent with the article?
A. New sources of biomass are being explored.
B. Coastal biomass is hazardous to the environment.
C. The pile had too much biomass to move for just one man.
D. The student calculated the biomass of the beaker of water.
177. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
Describe the speaker’s personality in “The Wood-pile” as it is expressed through his thoughts, words, and actions in
the poem.
Part B
Explain what meaning the woodpile holds for the speaker in the poem, based on what you know about his personality.
Use details from the poem and inferences you have made about the speaker’s personality to support your response.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
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________________________________________________________________________
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Please read the selection below and then answer the questions that follow.
The Georgia Piedmont
The area in Georgia known as the Georgia Piedmont lies along the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains. It is an
area of rolling hills, valleys, and small forested sections. The word “piedmont” also refers to a similar region in
northern Italy. The name “piedmont” is Italian and means “foot of the mountain.”
The Georgia Piedmont runs west to east across the state, from the edge of the coastal plain in the south to the Blue
Ridge Mountains in the north. Major cities in the region include Atlanta, Augusta, Columbus, Macon, and
Milledgeville. The Georgia Piedmont is part of a larger area called the Southern Piedmont, which includes parts of
Alabama, South Carolina, and North Carolina.
Several interesting geological features are found in the Piedmont region. For example, large granite knobs or
“batholiths” are found in the eastern part. One of the most well-known batholiths in Georgia is called Stone
Mountain. The granite found in this area has been quarried for decades and used for tombstones and other stone
monuments. Crushed stone is also quarried from this area and used for road construction. A mineral called “kyanite”
has also been mined in the region and was used to produce insulating tiles for the NASA space shuttle vehicles.
Gold was mined in the Piedmont region in the early 1800s, creating one of the first “gold rushes” in the United States.
Another important and well-known product used from this area is the rich red clay for which central Georgia is well
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known. People have used red Georgia clay to make folk pottery for many generations due to its rich, red color, which
comes from iron oxide found in the soil.
Several rivers cross the Piedmont area. Some of them are the Tugaloo, the Chattahoochee, the Flint, and the Savannah
River. Along the line where the Piedmont meets the Coastal Plain region, outcrops of rock form what is called the
Fall Line. Along this line, rapids and waterfalls are found in the rivers.
These falls played an important part in the human history of the Piedmont region. When the area was first settled by
European immigrants, boat traffic had to stop at the line of falls and rapids. Goods were unloaded and then reloaded
onto other boats upstream. Forts and towns were built at these points along the river where the energy of the falls was
used to generate power for textile mills and other manufacturing factories.
The original forests in the region were largely oak and hickory trees. Much of this timber was harvested over the
years, but one remaining forested area—Fernbank Forest near Atlanta—preserves what remains of the original
woodlands of white oak, yellow poplars, and many species of hickory.
The Georgia Piedmont is an attractive landscape where rolling hills, rivers, and waterfalls decorate the terrain at the
foot of the Appalachian Mountains. Unique geological features provide striking scenery and also help to support the
economy of this beautiful region of Georgia.
178. Read this excerpt from the article.
The original forests in the region were largely oak and hickory trees.
Much of this timber was harvested over the years, but one remaining
forested area—Fernbank Forest near Atlanta—preserves what
remains of the original woodlands of white oak, yellow poplars, and
many species of hickory.
Explain what the author implies in the excerpt about the harvesting of the original forests and the importance of
Fernbank Forest to the area. Use details from the article to support your explanation.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
179. Explain how the author develops the central idea of the article. Use details from the article to support your
response.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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180. Read this excerpt from the article.
When the area was first settled by European immigrants, boat traffic
had to stop at the line of falls and rapids. Goods were unloaded and
then reloaded onto other boats upstream. Forts and towns were built
at these points along the river where the energy of the falls was used
to generate power for textile mills and other manufacturing
factories.
Consider how the author connects the ideas in the excerpt to other ideas and events in the article. Explain why forts
and towns were built along these points. What advantages were gained by building along the river? Use details from
the article to support your explanation.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
181. Read this sentence from the article.
The granite found in this area has been quarried for decades and
used for tombstones and other stone monuments.
Based on this sentence, which is the best definition of quarried ?
A. to move while supporting
B. to cut with care or precision
C. to dig or take from the ground
D. to cut or divide into equal parts
182. Put yourself in the place of first-time visitor to the Georgia Piedmont. Explain what elements of the landscape
impress you the most and tell why. Use multiple details from the article to support your description of the region’s
most impressive elements.
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________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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183. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
Transitional words and phrases alert the reader to shifts in ideas while maintaining smoothness and clarity throughout
the writing.
Read these topic sentences from paragraphs three, five, and seven from the article.
• Paragraph 3: Several interesting geological features are found in the Piedmont region.
• Paragraph 5: Several rivers cross the Piedmont area.
• Paragraph 7: The original forests in the region were largely oak and hickory trees.
Rewrite each topic sentence by adding an appropriate transitional word or phrase that effectively and smoothly flows
from the ideas in the previous paragraph.
Part B
Explain why adding these transitional words or phrases help to convey a clearer sequence of events or show
relationships among events in the article. Use details from the article to support your explanation.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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Please read the selection below and then answer the questions that follow.
The Interview
Ashley desperately tried not to fidget as the well-dressed woman sitting behind the mahogany desk stared at
her over black wire-rimmed glasses. The woman’s lips were set in a harsh line as she glanced down and, once again,
reviewed Ashley’s volunteer application for museum tour guide aide. Every now and again, the woman would hmmm
or say, “Impressive.” Ashley wasn’t quite sure what could be so impressive; she never had a job before—unless you
count babysitting on weekends. At those jobs, she had only made $8 an hour, so she wasn’t sure they really counted
as jobs. Although they hadn’t paid her like “real” jobs, they had certainly felt real enough.
Maybe I should have expanded upon the numerous difficulties I had to overcome during my babysitting jobs ,
she thought, wishing that idea had occurred to her when she had answered the questionnaire. Three little lines of
space was hardly enough room to adequately describe her experiences. Handling the havoc of babysitting had
required all of her youthful energy, ability, and skill. Her mom had called those jobs enriching and invaluable
achievements. Her dad had said they were questionable miscalculations, similar to deciding to hike the Rocky
Mountains: it wasn’t until you were halfway up that you realized that you should have said “no” instead.
“You seem like a calm person,” the woman said as Ashley fought the nearly irresistible compulsion to
smooth down her hair, a nervous gesture that would have proven the woman’s assumption incorrect.
Ashley looked at the woman’s nametag before responding so she could politely address the woman by name,
per her mom’s advice. Ms. Sinclair, the nametag said. Ashley tried not to frown in her sudden anxiety. The
receptionist had been Chandra, the security guard had been Isaac, and the other employees she had met between the
entrance to the gift shop and the door to the office had been Jolie, Mercedes, and Dillon.
“Thank you, Ms. Sinclair,” Ashley said as confidently as she could, though she was understandably very
intimidated.
“It is not enough to be calm or sedate,” Ms. Sinclair replied in a stern voice. “It is not enough to be civil or
courteous. In order to do this job, you have to have great restraint. You must be able to smile with grace even as a
horde of elephants charges toward you. Things can become quite hectic around here, and not everyone can handle
erupting chaos.”
Ashley looked over Ms. Sinclair’s shoulder, out the window of the office. Behind Ms. Sinclair, Ashley could
see the orderly, near-empty aisles of the gift shop. Beyond that was the extraordinarily grandiose foyer of the
museum. The entire building that she could see looked and sounded as serene and as quiet as a library.
“Horde of elephants?” Ashley asked, completely confounded by the odd imagery. She knew that there was an
educational movie that repeated hourly about the rainforests of Borneo and that it showcased orangutans and
elephants, but she didn’t remember ever seeing any real elephants, or even statues of elephants, in the museum.
Maybe it was a new exhibit, she thought, in an effort to understand.
With grave seriousness, Ms. Sinclair leaned forward and said, “We host field trips for the local elementary
schools. A single group can be upwards of two hundred boisterous students—each precious boy or girl in actuality a
tiny tornado that can devastate even the most proficient tour guide aide.” She leaned back, her large brown eyes
clearly assessing Ashley. “We also host weddings, galas, numerous celebrations, special traveling exhibits, seasonal
promotions, and spontaneous discount days. Do you really think you can handle all that?”
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Ms. Sinclair blinked like an owl enjoying the night as she waited patiently for Ashley’s response, but Ashley
could only sit there and flounder under the pressure of this so-called interview, which was more like an inquisition.
Ashley told herself that it was okay to walk away, that this was only a volunteer position, and that she wasn’t even
getting paid. If this job was going to be this hard, she decided, she could just go to the Food Bank or the community
garden instead. They were always looking for volunteers, and they probably wouldn’t act like severe, unyielding drill
sergeants.
But then she thought about the new space exploration exhibit and observatory. If she stayed, it would be like
working in the stars. By the time school started, she could potentially know more about traveling to Mars or Jupiter
than any of her friends. There was also a butterfly conservatory adjacent to the museum. The thought of being able to
meander among the hundreds of exotic-looking butterflies any time she wanted was incredibly alluring. Maybe she
would even be allowed in the back rooms where the butterfly cocoons are kept. Plus, the museum had entire floors
dedicated to fossils, birds, mammals, Egyptian relics...
Ashley inhaled deeply and then exhaled in a rush, caught up in her own musings. Despite her initial
overwhelming apprehension, she admitted to herself that she didn’t want to volunteer anywhere else. She wanted this
job, yearned for this opportunity. So she sat up straighter, smiled gracefully, and said, “Yes, Ms. Sinclair, I know in
my heart that I can handle all that.”
184. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
What is the theme of “The Interview”?
Part B
Provide a quotation from the story that clearly indicates this theme.
Part C
Analyze how the author uses the story’s plot to develop the theme over the course of the text. Include at least three
details from the text to support your response.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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185. Read this paragraph from “The Interview . ”
“It is not enough to be calm or sedate,” Ms. Sinclair replied in a
stern voice. “It is not enough to be civil or courteous. In order to do
this job, you have to have great restraint. You must be able to smile
with grace even as a horde of elephants charges toward you. Things
can become quite hectic around here, and not everyone can handle
erupting chaos.”
Consider the figurative language in this paragraph. Explain how the use of figurative language helps to develop the
overall tone of the story.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
186. Ashley’s mom and dad have different perspectives on Ashley’s past babysitting jobs. Using specific references
to the text, explain their perspectives and analyze how the difference in those perspectives creates humor in the story.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
187. Consider Ashley’s experiences over the course of “The Interview.” Write a narrative conclusion to the story that
logically follows from the existing text. As you write, keep in mind the author’s use of elements such as dialogue,
humor, tone, and imagery, and include two or more of these elements in your conclusion.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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188. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
Read this sentence from “The Interview.”
Ms. Sinclair blinked like an owl enjoying the night as she waited
patiently for Ashley’s response, but Ashley could only sit there and
flounder under the pressure of this so-called interview, which was
more like an inquisition .
What is the definition of inquisition as it is used in the sentence?
Part B
How do context clues in the sentence help the reader to arrive at the definition from Part A?
Part C
Identify another sentence or phrase in the story that provides additional context for defining inquisition .
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
189. Read this sentence from “The Interview.”
“A single group can be upwards of two hundred boisterous
students—each precious boy or girl in actuality a tiny tornado that
can devastate even the most proficient tour guide aide.”
How does the use of figurative language in this sentence help the reader to understand the meaning of the word
boisterous ? Explain how the definition might be supported by other details in the text.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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Please read the selection below and then answer the questions that follow.
A Work of Art
For Ava, it was torture watching Dad and Grandma evaluate her latest masterpiece. All her fears floated to
the surface at every gesture they made. A slight tilt of a head to the left or a shared whisper caused her to think they
hated her painting. She suddenly saw herself not as a lighthearted student someday studying art in a lively college, but
as a boring business major poring over monotonous figures at a dreary business school. Her artistic dreams seemed to
disappear in the second it took Dad to scratch at his chin because, as everyone knows, confusion is the dreaded foe of
an artist. Ava struggled to be still and refrain from moving. All she wanted to do was fidget and pace, but pacing
wouldn’t stop her heart from beating like she had just run a mile. It wouldn’t stop her breath from catching each time
they cleared their throats. Finally, by the way Grandma leaned back decisively, Ava knew that the wait was over and
that her angel of a grandparent was about to justify every hour she had spent sketching or painting over the years.
Instead, Grandma said the four cruelest and most callous words a person could say to an artist.
“I don’t get it,” Grandma said innocently, not knowing the damage she was causing. “Why is it called ‘Loss
of a Rain Forest’? It doesn’t look like a rain forest.”
Ava inhaled and, on that breath, attempted to explain the complex concepts behind her vision. “It’s abstract,
Grandma. It’s not supposed to look like a rain forest; it’s supposed to feel like a rain forest. Abstracts are about the
viewers extracting the meaning from deep inside them and defining the picture based on their own perspectives.
Surely, those five long, thin vertical lines of green paint on the canvas have some sort of meaning for you, Grandma.”
“They’re reminding me that we need to eat the asparagus in the refrigerator before it goes bad.”
Ava’s heart sank to her knees. “They are trees in a rain forest. See the way the paint is thicker at the top? That
is the trees growing upward in their quest for sunlight.” She paused, unsure about the intended symbolism behind her
painting. She gestured dramatically to the middle of the canvas for emphasis. “This oppressive ball of black paint is
the vastness of humans. We are a black hole, aggressively destroying everything in our path. This red line here, the
one that cuts violently across the lines of green paint...” She covered her mouth as if the word was too horrific to
speak aloud, but somehow, she forced it out on an exhale. “... deforestation.”
“Maybe if you drew some leaves,” Grandma offered.
Dad spoke up quickly, “I love it! How much to buy it?”
Ava’s first instinct was to object, on principle, to his offensive offer. Art is supposed to be about beauty and
changing the world and having an impact. She certainly didn’t paint this particular piece for the money. But then she
remembered that her friend’s dad had begrudgingly promised to take them to the organic Mexican restaurant after
study group tonight. Ava had already spent the last of her allowance on a blueberry-banana smoothie with flaxseed
and soy protein, so she swallowed her principles, pretending that they were a vegan burrito with a whole wheat
tortilla and corn salsa on the side, and conceded to his offer by saying, “Ten dollars.”
With her money clutched tightly in her hand, Ava went to her room to get ready for dinner. That was the
sixth painting Dad had bought, and part of her was celebrating her guaranteed prosperity and success as an artist.
Another part of her was being stubborn and kept reminding her that there was only one painting that he had ever
actually framed and hung up: a watercolor still-life from her last art class. The teacher, for the entire year, had made
them do figure studies—drawing a human model in various poses, each pose lasting thirty seconds. By the end of the
year, she had hundreds of these quick drawings dancing throughout her sketchpad. When her classmates had
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complained about the dry repetition of drawing the same thing over and over again, the teacher had explained that it
was called a “work” of art, not an ease of art, and that all artists had to toil to create something lasting. It seemed
ridiculous at the time, but the final piece of art, created in that last class when they were finally allowed to paint what
they had been practicing all year, was enthralling. Ava’s painting had engaged everyone with its realistic
three-dimensionality.
Alone in her room, Ava felt like an imposter as she thought about how she had done this recent “masterpiece”
while waiting for her hair to air dry. That red slash of paint had been an accidental drip that she had tried to wipe off.
There was no deep meaning behind the black blob that dominated the image; she simply had more black paint than
any other color.
“Maybe I should draw some leaves,” she said. In her mind, she saw herself with a colorful picture-filled book
about the rain forest, sketching every type of exotic leaf featured in the book a hundred times, until they looked real
enough to touch. “Maybe I could even add texture, layering the paint and varying the thickness so people could touch
the painting and feel the rain forest on their fingertips.” Ideas raced through her mind, each one better than the last,
each one requiring more time or trial and error to get it right. Tomorrow, she decided, she was going to readjust her
painting methods, and this time, she was going to work hard and create a real masterpiece of which she could be
proud.
190. What can the reader infer about Ava’s plans for her future education? Write a one-paragraph response that
identifies an inference and cites supporting evidence directly from the text.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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191. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
What is the theme of “A Work of Art”?
Part B
Provide a quotation from the story that clearly supports this theme.
Part C
Analyze how the author uses the characters in the story to develop the theme over the course of the text. Include
examples from the text to support your response.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
192. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
Consider how dialogue is used in “A Work of Art.” Select three lines of dialogue and explain how each line
contributes to the plot of the story.
Part B
Write an objective summary of the story, keeping in mind the plot points you identified in Part A.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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193. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
Identify an example of figurative language in “A Work of Art.”
Part B
Identify the type of figurative language used.
Part C
Analyze the impact of the figurative language on the story.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
194. Read these sentences from the story.
“Surely, those five long, thin vertical lines of green paint on the
canvas have some sort of meaning for you, Grandma.”
“They’re reminding me that we need to eat the asparagus in the
refrigerator before it goes bad.”
At the beginning of the story, Ava and Grandma have different perspectives on Ava’s painting. Explain Ava’s
perspective and Grandma’s perspective. Analyze the difference in their perspectives and how it creates humor in the
quoted sentences.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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195. “A Work of Art” is written from Ava’s perspective. Consider how the story might have been different if told
from the perspective of Ava’s family members. In three or more paragraphs, retell the story as it might have been
written from the perspective of Ava’s father or grandmother.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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Please read both selections below and then answer the questions that follow.
Beach Odyssey
Miles of powder stretch before my feet, inviting my company.
Warm breezes swirl about me.
I hear nothing and everything; here the crash of a wave and there the whirring of palm branches
An irritated squawk captures my attention—a seagull chases another away from some captured treasure.
The morning and all of its tropical gifts are without measure.
A long pier reaches out over the ocean, stopping short of the horizon.
Some teeth are missing; the gaps in its wooden mouth sharing a peek of the clear waters below.
Water recedes, rhythmically displaying the stubborn barnacles clinging to the wooden posts.
The structure, abandoned by man, gradually sheds its skin to the insistent fingers of the sea.
I admire it silently, before resuming my course and just let it be.
My presence causes a stir among the residents.
A lone crab raises its single claw in defense, cautiously backing away.
I call out a cheerful, “Hello, little fellow.”
My speech gives it pause, before it indignantly sidles out of sight.
There is a rustle to my left and in a flash; two other crabs follow the same path of flight.
The sun’s rays invade the dark of the morning sky, spearing the blue with blinding color.
Its beacon is a signal to life around me.
A young man on a bicycle waves as he speeds past.
My solitude is shattered, but I do not complain.
Though peace is desirable, it is company that keeps me sane.
The shine of my morning trek has started to dull.
Ahead, I see the bedraggled remains of an abandoned hotel—a victim of a long-forgotten storm.
Paint peels, shutters sag, and a rotten roof has caved into itself.
It stands alone and empty; in this moment I feel the same.
Abruptly, I turn my back on the structure so that it cannot lay further claim.
The return trip produces an unexpected traveling companion.
A dog appears by my side, its long tail wagging in greeting.
Just like that, my cheer returns and I give it and the dog a welcome pat.
Another wiggle of the tail and it matches my stride with a jaunty trot.
How long it will stay beside me I know not.
For now, though, my spirits are restored.
The air smells clean again, the blemishes of garbage go unseen.
A fish leaps into the air as if celebrating our arrival.
The sun has completed its welcome shout.
Now it is time to join my family and end my delightful route.
A Walk on the Beach
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Emily walked alone along the sandy beach, a few yards from the family cabin, trying to forget the argument
she had just had with her twin sister, Miranda, over whose turn it was to sweep the cabin floor. Like most teenagers,
Emily and Miranda hated doing chores, but Emily hated arguing with her sister even more.
Emily and her family were visiting Windy Beach. Emily loved the beach. She especially loved the quiet
sense of calm it brought to her during these unsettling moments. Feeling the need to get away from the situation,
Emily started down the beach, admiring the glistening beams of sunlight shining upon the water like tiny spotlights
shining upon a stage.
Looking ahead, Emily spied a woman running along the beach, a man walking his dog, and a group of
children playing in the water. Wanting to be alone with her thoughts, Emily avoided them and proceeded to take in
the sights, smells, and sounds of the beach. She spotted a crab skittering along the sand, then burrowing itself
underneath. She smelled the fresh air and heard the seagulls communicating with one another overhead. Why can’t
Miranda and I communicate like that? she wondered. I thought twins were supposed to have a special bond and way
of communicating? So why can’t we get along?
Although Emily and Miranda were twins, the two girls were very different. Emily was quiet and liked to read
and write poetry. Miranda, on the other hand, was loud and boisterous and preferred spending time with her friends.
The two girls disagreed over everything from decorating their room to doing chores. Their parents often had to step in
to settle their disputes.
However, this time Emily wanted to find a way to settle the dispute herself. She was hoping that a walk along
the beach would give her some perspective and offer a solution. Why do we argue all the time? What could I do to be
a better sister? After all, she was the oldest, even if it was only by a few minutes.
Suddenly, Emily looked up to see two little girls playing together in the sand. The two girls appeared to be
about the same age, but one girl had dark curly hair and the other had red frizzy hair. As Emily approached them, she
heard one of the girls tell the other girl that it was her turn to take the pail and get water. However, the other girl
refused to oblige and continued with her task. Instead of arguing, the first little girl quietly stood up, shook the sand
off her, picked up the pail, and calmly announced that she would get the water one more time. However, as she
walked away, she firmly but sweetly declared that the other girl was to take the next turn.
Eureka! thought Emily as she watched the scene unfold. Maybe that’s what I need to do! Turning to make her
way back to the cabin to settle her dispute with Miranda, Emily looked back and was thankful for her time on the
beach and the clarity it provided. She, too, would extend an olive branch, she decided. Maybe there was hope for
Emily and Miranda yet.
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196. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
What is the theme of “A Walk on the Beach”?
Part B
How does the story’s setting play an important role in the narrative and contribute to the development of the theme
you described for Part A?
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
197. Read stanza 2 from “Beach Odyssey.”
A long pier reaches out over the ocean, stopping short of the
horizon.
Some teeth are missing; the gaps in its wooden mouth sharing a
peek of the clear waters below.
Water recedes, rhythmically displaying the stubborn barnacles
clinging to the wooden posts.
The structure, abandoned by man, gradually sheds its skin to the
insistent fingers of the sea.
I admire it silently, before resuming my course and just let it be.
Consider the poet’s use of figurative language. Select three key examples of figurative language in this stanza and
analyze the effect or impact that each one has on the poem.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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198. Consider the arrival of the dog in the second to last stanza of “Beach Odyssey.” What effect does the dog have
on the speaker? How does the poem change as a result of the dog’s arrival? Provide at least three supporting details
from the poem to support your response.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
199. Using details from the poem and the story for guidance, write a narrative of three or more paragraphs describing
an experience on a beach, or in another setting that is close to nature, in which the main character learns a lesson.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
200. Read these lines from stanza 4 of “Beach Odyssey.”
The sun’s rays invade the dark of the morning sky, spearing the blue
with blinding color.
Its beacon is a signal to life around me.
Explain how the context of the line, the stanza, or the entire poem can be used to determine the meaning of the word
beacon in the line. Use two or more specific details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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201. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
Think about the structure of “Beach Odyssey.” How does the poet order the stanzas and link them all together? How
does the poet’s writing style and use of order and structure contribute to the poem’s meaning?
Part B
Think about the structure of “A Walk on the Beach.” How does the author order the paragraphs and link them all
together? How does the author’s writing style and use of order and structure contribute to the story’s meaning?
Part C
Write a paragraph in which you compare the writing style, structure, and order in these two works. How are the works
alike, and how are they different in their uses of style and structure to contribute to their meanings? Use specific
references to the text and your responses to Part A and Part B in your writing.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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Please read the selection below and then answer the questions that follow.
The Reign of the Giants
“Even as it lies,” wrote the famous Greek author Pliny, “it excites our wonder and admiration. Few men can clasp the
thumb in their arms, and its fingers are larger than most statues...” When Pliny first saw the massive statue; it had
been lying on the ground in pieces for many years. But in the third century B.C., the Colossus of Rhodes must have
been a magnificent symbol of unity and freedom.
A Colossal Undertaking
The island of Rhodes played an important role in military operations. As a landform connected to both the Aegean
and Mediterranean seas, ancient military leaders took turns conquering this island to solidify control over their
empires. In 332 B.C., Alexander the Great captured the island, but his early death brought conflict among his three
generals. They decided to split his massive empire among them, but each wanted control of Rhodes. The citizens of
Rhodes supported the general Ptolemy as their leader. This angered the other two generals, Antigonus in particular.
He sent his armies to invade Rhodes and punish the people for their choice.
The war was bitter, but the Rhodians eventually won their independence around 300 B.C. To celebrate, they
commissioned a statue to represent their god Helios and selected the site. For its construction, it is believed that the
Rhodians used the bronze, stone, and wood materials from the war machines and damaged structures.
Aside from comments made by Pliny, nothing is known for certain as to the construction or the destruction of the
Colossus. However, modern historians have speculated that the base was built first; probably carved from marble.
Massive stone pillars were likely erected on top of it to serve as the main support. Scaffolding was likely built around
the pillars so that workers could drill in iron stakes. Upon each of these stakes, a bronze plate of the statue was
probably affixed. The bronze plates were likely then riveted together to form the outer hull of the statue. Twelve years
later, the statue stood completed, more than 110 feet from foot to crown. They called it “Colossus.”
Since there are no accurate accounts of what the Colossus actually looked like, modern historians have speculated
that Colossus stood posed with his right hand shading his eyes from the sun while his left hand held a cloak. His head
was adorned with a spiked crown, and his polished bronze skin gleamed brightly under the Mediterranean sun. He
gazed out to sea, his imposing form most likely serving both as a greeting to all friendly tradesmen and visitors and a
warning to those who would dare threaten the country.
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Unfortunately, the shining icon of Rhodes’ freedom stood for only 56 years before disaster struck. An earthquake
rocked the island, snapping the statue at its knees and toppling it to the ground. Although the Egyptian king Ptolemy
III offered to pay for its reconstruction, the Rhodians believed it was a sign of displeasure from Helios and declined
the offer.
Colossus remained in large pieces for hundreds of years. War returned to the small country, and this time, Rhodes
was defeated by the Arabs. The conquerors broke up the remains of the beloved statue and sold the bronze to Syria as
scrap metal. It is written that it took 900 camels to transport all of the pieces across the desert. Colossus became no
more than a memory at first, and eventually a fantastic story preserved by a few ancient historians.
However, Colossus may someday make a comeback. Over the last 50 years, various sculptors have discussed
rebuilding Colossus. Most plans include making the structure hollow so that visitors can climb to the top and look out
over the Aegean Sea. Not surprisingly, each proposal is to make the structure much larger than the original. While the
creation of the statue would provide a significant boost to Greece’s economy, the estimated costs of over $50 million
continue to be a problem.
A Lady Above All
Cultures from all across the globe have been intrigued by megalithic (of great size) statues. The Great Sphinx has
served as a protector to the pyramids for nearly 5,000 years. Hundreds of volcanic rock statues watch over Easter
Island. A 270-foot-tall woman brandishing a sword on a hilltop in Russia reminds her countrymen of the victory over
Germany in World War II. In 1885, America received its own guardian, the Statue of Liberty.
The Statue of Liberty was donated to the United States as a gift of friendship from France. Erected on a small island
in New York City’s harbor, Lady Liberty has welcomed visitors and immigrants for more than a hundred years. From
the top of the base to the torch, she stands more than 111 feet tall and is composed of 350 pieces of iron for the
supporting skeleton and copper skin. The spikes in her crown represent the seven seas and the seven continents of the
world. During her restoration, which was completed in 1986, Liberty received some updates to her weakened
structure and a thin coat of 24-karat-gold sheeting to her torch.
Like her ancient ancestor, the Statue of Liberty stands as a symbol of unity and freedom to her countrymen. She has
survived environmental and structural challenges, but unlike Colossus, her preservation remains a vital priority. In the
words of President Grover Cleveland, “We will not forget that Liberty has here made her home; nor shall her chosen
altar be neglected.”
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202. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
What is the main idea of “The Reign of the Giants”?
Part B
Identify three quotations from the article that support the main idea.
Part C
Write an objective summary of the article.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
203. Consider the different statues mentioned in the course of the article. Explain what connections the author makes
between these statues. Provide at least three details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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204. Read this sentence from “The Reign of the Giants.”
A 270-foot-tall woman brandishing a sword on a hilltop in Russia
reminds her countrymen of the victory over Germany in World War
II.
Explain how the context of the sentence and the paragraph as a whole can be used to determine the meaning of the
word brandishing in the line.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
205. Consider the section titled “A Common Mistake.”
Explain the author’s purpose for including this section, and describe how it supports the article as a whole.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
206. Which statement describes the author’s main purpose in writing “The Reign of the Giants”?
A. The author wants to explain the differences between the Colossus and the Statue of Liberty.
B. The author wants to show how statues have been used as symbols in various civilizations.
C. The author wants to explain why statues can be difficult to preserve over the course of time.
D. The author wants to show why the Colossus is the most important symbol of freedom in history.
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207. Read this statement from “The Reign of the Giants.”
. . . the Colossus of Rhodes must have been a magnificent symbol of
unity and freedom.
Part A
Identify two quotations from the article that support this claim.
Part B
Consider the evidence given in the article to support the idea that the Colossus was a “magnificent symbol of unity
and freedom.” Do you agree with the author? Does the article give enough evidence to support the statement? Explain
your reasoning thoroughly, and use at least three details from the article to support your answer.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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Please read the selection below and then answer the questions that follow.
Spring Ahead, Fall Back: The History of Daylight Saving Time
In an attempt “To Save Daylight,” the U.S. Congress passed a bill on March 19, 1918. The idea behind the legislation
seemed simple enough: from late spring until early fall, the sun rose before people got out of bed and went down after
they went to sleep. To correct this problem, Congress passed a law in 1918 to establish daylight saving time.
Public Opinion
Benjamin Franklin first suggested daylight saving time. In 1784, he joked about daylight saving in an anonymous
editorial he wrote for the Journal of Paris . In the editorial, Franklin questioned why the English slept through the
morning, yet spent so much money on candles to provide light in the evening. Franklin suggested that people should
get up earlier in the summer to take advantage of daylight hours.
The idea of daylight saving was a more serious concern for English builder William Willett. He published a pamphlet
in 1907 called “The Waste of Daylight” that outlined his argument for “The Daylight Saving Act.” Willett argued that
advancing the clocks by 80 minutes every spring would allow people more time for outdoor recreation. Although his
idea was widely ridiculed, Willett relentlessly lobbied for daylight saving until he died in 1915. In 1916, when
Willett’s idea was brought before Parliament, Britain’s Royal Astronomer scoffed, suggesting “that between the
months of October and March the thermometer should be put up 10 degrees” to make the winter months warmer.
Politics
People’s attitudes toward daylight saving changed quickly, however, as countries became involved in World War I.
The war began in 1914, and by April 30, 1916, Germany and Austria were the first countries to enact daylight saving
to preserve fuel supplies. Britain soon followed suit by also adopting daylight saving in 1916. By 1917, well more
than 10 European countries had a daylight saving plan in place.
In 1917, the United States, too, became involved in the war and began considering daylight saving since it was
estimated that the country could save as much as $25 million in energy costs per year. This number was double the
$12.5 million Great Britain was estimated to have saved in energy costs during its first year. How accurate this
estimate was, though, is questionable. Energy consumption is never consistent from year to year, and due to the
severe rationing that was taking place during the war, it was impossible to know exactly how much energy was
consumed. Despite all this, the estimate of cost savings made for a good argument to support daylight saving. The
plan went into effect in the United States in 1918.
Effects on Public Activities and Businesses
When daylight saving was enacted, Woodrow Wilson, an avid golfer, was president. During his two terms in the
White House, he played golf almost every day. In the first nine months of daylight saving, golf ball sales reached
$10.5 million. This amount surpassed the previous year’s sales by almost twenty percent.
On March 19, 1918, The New York Times published a story with the headline “New Daylight Bill May Help
Baseball.” Daylight saving had yet to be voted into law, but professional baseball saw the advantage daylight saving
could have on attendance. With extended evenings, weekday games could begin later, allowing workers enough time
to get to the ballpark to enjoy a game. Along with outdoor sporting events, retail businesses also recognized the
benefits of daylight saving. Chambers of commerce were the strongest supporters of moving America’s clocks
forward. With an extra hour of sunlight, people had more time to get out of the house, so retailers came up with ideas
of how to entice consumers into their stores to spend not only the additional hour but—more importantly—money.
However, not all leisure activities experienced larger turnouts due to daylight saving. Moving the clock forward
negatively impacted some segments of indoor entertainment. For example, the start time of evening plays at
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Broadway theaters came long after nightfall, which discouraged attendance. During the summer months of extended
daylight, the movie industry also experienced a loss in sales.
Initially, however, farmers were the biggest opponents of the plan. Sunlight is a necessary component for crop
farmers. It is needed to evaporate the dew from fields before the plants can be harvested. Moving the clock forward,
farmers argued, decreased the number of work hours in a day. Not only did daylight saving steal valuable time, it
robbed farmers of their profits. Some farmers estimated that one lost hour amounted to a $20 million loss in
agricultural products. One farmer in Missouri even called the idea “The Daylight Robbing Law.”
Daylight Saving remained in effect until 1919, when its unpopularity finally led to its repeal. But when America
entered World War II in 1942, Franklin D. Roosevelt reinstated Daylight Saving. Going by the name of “War Time,”
clocks were moved forward by one hour year-round until 1945.
Regulation and Changes
From 1945 until 1966, there was no U.S. law that regulated daylight saving. States and communities were left to
decide whether to observe daylight saving. This created inconsistent times among neighboring towns and within
states. Everyone was confused; no one knew what time it was across regions.
Finally, Congress stepped in. Through the Uniform Time Act of 1966, a six-month period for daylight saving time
was devised to create a consistent pattern of time across the nation. Daylight saving was to begin on the last Sunday
of April and end on the last Sunday in October. Any area that wanted to be exempt from the plan could opt out by
passing a law. On April 12, 1966, President Lyndon Johnson signed daylight saving time into law.
This law has since been amended to observe daylight saving from the second Sunday in March to the first Sunday in
November. Out of the 50 states, only Hawaii and Arizona do not participate. All other states set their clocks ahead
one hour in spring and back one hour in fall.
208. In a detailed response of at least one paragraph, analyze how the article makes two or more connections between
the ways England and the United States dealt with daylight saving time issues. Use specific details from the text to
support the connections that you cite.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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209. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
What is the author’s point of view about the topic of daylight saving time?
Part B
Explain how the author responds to conflicting evidence and points of view about daylight saving time. Use as many
specific references as you can find in the article as support.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer in complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
210. Consider the second paragraph of the article and determine Benjamin Franklin’s point of view toward England.
How does this paragraph affect the tone of the article? Explain Franklin’s point of view and how the paragraph
contributes to the article’s tone. Use specific references from the second paragraph of the article to support your
response.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
211. Identify three arguments in favor of daylight saving time from the article and evaluate whether or not the
evidence supporting the arguments is sufficient. Write the arguments and explain your evaluation of the evidence.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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212. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
Make a list of the positive and negative effects of daylight saving time. Your list should include a total of five or more
of these effects.
Part B
Choose a position on the topic of daylight saving time. Organize your ideas in a multi-paragraph essay where you
introduce your claim and argue it using details from the article as support. In the essay, distinguish your claim as
better than opposing claims.
Be sure to answer ALL parts of the task.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
213. Read this sentence from the article.
Not only did daylight saving steal valuable time, it robbed farmers
of their profits.
How is the denotative meaning of the word steal different than its connotative meaning? Write both the denotative
and connotative meanings and explain how they are different. Explain how these meanings emphasize one group’s
point of view in the debate about daylight saving.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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Please read the selection below and then answer the questions that follow.
Georgia’s Official State Vegetable
Louisiana has the sweet potato, South Carolina has collard greens, and, in 1990, Georgia claimed the Vidalia onion as
its official state vegetable. However, unlike the sweet potato and collard greens, both of which can be grown
anywhere and still carry the name, the Vidalia onion can only be grown in 20 counties in Georgia, making this
particular onion unique to the state.
During the Depression era in the early 1930s, farmers in southern Georgia struggled to grow certain crops and were
looking for a new cash crop. They had grown everything from cotton to corn in their fields, but they were not getting
a fair price for their crops. It seemed that maybe onions held some hope. However, the farmers were shocked to find
that the onions they grew were not hot, but instead were sweet! Mose Coleman, from Toombs County, Georgia, is
credited with planting the first Vidalia onion crop. At first, no one wanted to eat a sweet onion, but Coleman
persisted. He was able to sell his first crop of onions for $3.50 per 50-pound bag, which was a good price in 1931.
In the 1940s, the state built a farmer’s market in Vidalia, centrally located among Macon, Augusta and Savannah.
Before the interstate highway system was developed, Vidalia was located at the junction of some of the most vital
north-south roadways. A popular grocery store distribution center was located in Vidalia. The store began to purchase
the onions when they were in season. Soon everyone was talking about “those sweet onions from Vidalia.” Over the
next several decades, the acreage devoted to the growing of Vidalia onions slowly increased. By the mid 1970s, more
than 600 acres of farmland was dedicated to producing Vidalia onions. Today, about 275 farmers grow Vidalias on
more than 10,000 acres.
In the 1970s, there was a push to market the Vidalia nationally. Growers came up with some creative ways to
promote their produce. The Vidalia Onion Festival was first organized in 1978. The festival now attracts as many as
75,000 visitors each May. Visitors are able to enjoy freshly cooked Vidalia onion rings, an onion-eating contest, and
onion cooking demonstrations.
In the late 1970s, growers created cooperatives to enhance marketing techniques for selling Vidalia onions and to
brainstorm ways to prevent the selling of onions from other states that were being marketed and sold as Vidalias. To
protect the Vidalia onion market, Georgia’s state legislature passed the Vidalia Onion Act of 1986, which established
the 20 counties in which the Vidalia onion could be grown. Thirteen of these counties are:
♦ Emanuel, Candler, Treutlen, Bulloch, Wheeler, Montgomery, Evans, Tattnall, Toombs, Telfair, Jeff Davis,
Appling, and Bacon.
Vidalia onions also could be grown in portions of the following seven counties:
♦ Jenkins, Screven, Laurens, Dodge, Pierce, Wayne, and Long.
In 1992, the state of Georgia became the owner of the trademark for the Vidalia onion. The soil in Georgia is
responsible for giving the Vidalia its unique flavor. In the southern part of the state, the soil is sandy with a low sulfur
level. Sulfur is what gives onions their hot and strong flavor, so soil with low sulfur levels produces onions that are
mild and sweet. Ample rainfall, usually around 50 inches annually, provides a high water content to the bulbs, which
also lends to the unique flavor of the Vidalia onion.
Vidalia onions are planted in September in seedbeds. The seeds need about eight weeks to mature. Afterwards, the
seedlings are transplanted by hand into field rows. About 80,000 seedlings are planted per acre. The climate in
Georgia is mild, with average winter temperatures in the mid-50s and spring temperatures in the mid-70s. The
maturation of the seedlings is reliant on the mild, short winter days. Harvesting typically takes place from late April
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through mid-June. Because Vidalia onions are so delicate, they are almost exclusively harvested by hand. Less than
two percent of Vidalia onions are mechanically harvested.
Once the onions reach maturity in the fields, they are undercut from the soil. They are then allowed to air dry for two
to three days. The tops and roots are then clipped before they are put into burlap bags or bins. They are then
transported to a warehouse where they are housed in industrial drying rooms. Controlled atmospheric storage
facilities allow onions to be stored past the fresh market season. The onions are then graded for quality, bagged or
boxed, and, finally, shipped off to consumer markets. Vidalia onions represent approximately 40 percent of the total
national spring onion production. They have an estimated value of about $90 million in annual gross sales.
214. What evidence in the article supports the idea that Vidalia onions can only be grown in Georgia? Write a
paragraph that answers this question completely.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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215. Determine the central idea of the article, “Georgia’s Official State Vegetable.” Analyze the way in which the
central idea is developed over the course of the article. Compose your response in a well-developed paragraph.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
216. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
List the key scientific ideas that are presented in the article.
Part B
How does the article make connections between the scientific ideas and the economic factors related to producing and
selling Vidalia onions? Explain the connections in a detailed paragraph.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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217. Read this sentence from the article.
The maturation of the seedlings is reliant on the mild, short winter
days.
What does the word reliant mean?
A. fully grown
B. dependent
C. distinctive
D. heated up
218. Explain the central idea of the article’s second to last paragraph, and analyze the key statements in which the
writer develops this idea. Compose your response in a detailed paragraph.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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219. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
Why does the author claim that Vidalia onions are different than any other onion?
Part B
What evidence does the author provide to support the claims made about Vidalia onions? Is the evidence relevant and
sufficient? Compose a detailed response that answers both of these questions.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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Please read the selection below and then answer the questions that follow.
Garrett A. Morgan: A Lasting Legacy
Garrett Augustus Morgan was an African-American businessman and inventor whose curiosity and creativity led to
the development of many useful and helpful products. A practical man of humble beginnings, Morgan devoted his life
to creating things that made the lives of other people safer and more convenient.
Among his inventions was an early traffic signal that greatly improved safety on America’s streets and roadways.
Indeed, Morgan’s technology was the basis for modern traffic signal systems and was an early example of what we
know today as Intelligent Transportation Systems.
The Inventor’s Early Life
Garrett A. Morgan was born in Paris, Kentucky, on March 4, 1877. His early childhood was spent attending school
and working on the family farm with his brothers and sisters. While still a teenager, he left Kentucky and moved
north to Cincinnati, Ohio, in search of opportunity.
Although Morgan’s formal education never took him beyond elementary school, he hired a tutor while living in
Cincinnati and continued his studies in English grammar.
In 1895, Morgan moved to Cleveland, Ohio, where he went to work as a sewing machine repairman for a clothing
manufacturer. News of his proficiency for fixing things and experimenting traveled fast and led to numerous job
offers from various manufacturing firms in the Cleveland area.
In 1907, Morgan opened his own sewing equipment and repair shop. It was the first of several businesses he would
establish. In 1909, he expanded the enterprise to include a tailoring shop that employed 32 employees. The new
company turned out coats, suits, and dresses, all sewn with equipment that Morgan himself had made.
In 1920, Morgan moved into the newspaper business when he established the Cleveland Call . As the years went on,
he became a prosperous and widely respected man, and he was able to purchase a home and an automobile. Indeed, it
was Morgan’s experience while driving along the streets of Cleveland that led to the invention of the nation’s first
patented traffic signal.
The Garrett Morgan Traffic Signal
The first American-made automobiles were introduced to U.S. consumers shortly before the turn of the century. The
Ford Motor Company was founded in 1903, and soon the American consumers began to discover the adventures of
the open road.
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In the early years of the 20 th century, it was not uncommon for bicycles, animal-powered wagons and new
gasoline-powered motor vehicles to share the same streets and roadways with pedestrians. Accidents were frequent.
After witnessing a collision between an automobile and a horse-drawn carriage, Morgan was convinced that
something should be done to improve traffic safety.
While other inventors are reported to have experimented with and even marketed traffic signals, Garrett A. Morgan
was the first to apply for and acquire a U.S. patent for such a device. The patent was granted on November 20, 1923.
Morgan later had the technology patented in Great Britain and Canada as well.
The Morgan traffic signal was a T-shaped pole unit that featured three positions: Stop, Go, and an all-direction stop
position. This “third” position halted traffic in all directions to allow pedestrians to cross streets more safely.
Morgan’s traffic management device was used throughout North America until it was replaced by the red-, yellow-,
and green-light traffic signals currently used around the world. The inventor sold the rights to his traffic signal to the
General Electric Corporation for $40,000. Shortly before his death, in 1963, Morgan was awarded a commendation
for his traffic signal by the United States Government.
Other Morgan Inventions
Garrett Morgan was constantly experimenting to develop new concepts. Though the traffic signal came at the height
of his career and became one of his most renowned inventions, it was just one of several creative products he
developed, manufactured, and sold over the years.
Morgan invented a zig zag stitching attachment for manually operated sewing machines. He also founded a company
that made personal grooming products such as hair dying ointments and the curved-tooth straightening comb.
Another Significant Contribution to Public Safety
On July 25, 1916, Morgan made national news for using a gas mask he had invented to rescue several men trapped
during an explosion in an underground tunnel beneath Lake Erie. After the rescue, Morgan’s company received
requests from fire departments around the country that wished to purchase the new masks. The Morgan gas mask was
later refined for use by the U.S. Army during World War I. In 1921, Morgan was awarded a patent for a safety hood
and smoke protector. Two years later, a refined model of his early gas mask won a gold medal at the International
Exposition of Sanitation and Safety, and another gold medal from the International Association of Fire Chiefs.
As word of Morgan’s life-saving inventions spread across North America and England, demand for these products
grew. He was frequently invited to conventions and public exhibitions to demonstrate how his inventions worked.
Garrett A. Morgan died on August 27, 1963, at the age of 86. His life was long and full, and his creative energies
have given us a marvelous and lasting legacy.
220. The Morgan traffic signal is Garrett Morgan’s most famous invention. Describe the Morgan traffic signal and
explain how the text makes distinctions between Morgan and other designers of traffic signals. Write your description
and explanation as a paragraph.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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221. Read this sentence from the biography.
As the years went on, he became a prosperous and widely respected
man, and he was able to purchase a home and an automobile.
Determine the meaning of the word prosperous . Write a definition for the word prosperous and support your
definition with clear reasons and evidence from the text.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
222. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
Write a brief paragraph that explains the author’s purpose for writing this biography.
Part B
Analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence about the fame Garrett Morgan received
from his traffic signal. In a paragraph, explain how the author acknowledges the conflicting evidence and tell why the
author most likely responds that way.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
Use details from the text for support.
Answer in complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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223. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
Other than the traffic signal, list inventions the biography credits to Garrett Morgan.
Part B
The author claims that Garrett Morgan made significant contributions to the public other than his traffic signal.
Evaluate if the evidence given to support this claim is sufficient. Write your evaluation using details from the
biography for support.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
224. Based on the information in the article about Garrett Morgan’s work and inventions, write an essay that analyzes
this inventor’s possible motivations for developing his inventions and for his choices about how he marketed and
shared them. Explain the way that he may have balanced different goals or motivations in his life’s work.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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225. Read this sentence from the biography.
Though the traffic signal came at the height of his career and
became one of his most renowned inventions, it was just one of
several creative products he developed, manufactured, and sold over
the years.
Think about the word renowned as it is used in this sentence. Write the meaning of the word and explain whether or
not you think the word describes Garrett Morgan as a citizen and inventor.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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Please read both selections below and then answer the questions that follow.
Bacterial Warfare
We are at war with bacteria! We are using antibacterial sprays to disinfect surfaces, antibacterial soaps to wash our
dishes, clothes, and bodies, and now we even carry little bottles of antibacterial gel called hand sanitizer so that we
can clean our hands when soap and water are not available! We are so determined to kill the bacteria in our
environment because they are germs and germs are bad, right? Well, that is not entirely true. While some bacteria can
be harmful, others are actually helpful.
Bacteria are unicellular organisms that can enter and reproduce inside of other organisms, called host organisms.
Some bacteria infect their host organism by attacking cells or producing toxins that make the host sick. Bacteria are
responsible for causing illnesses and diseases such as strep throat, ear infections, and food poisoning in humans and
other animals. Disease-causing bacteria are the true germs, and they are the bacteria we are attempting to kill with all
of our antibacterial cleaning products and antibiotic medications.
However, some of these cleaning products are killing bacteria that are beneficial to the environment in which they
live. The anti-bacterial cleaning products we use can enter our water systems and can seep into the ground. Even the
medications we take can kill helpful bacteria that we need in order to keep our bodies functioning properly. There are
bacteria that live in our bodies and help us to digest our food. Scientists have found many ways to use bacteria for
helping people and the environment. Medical experts make medicines and vaccines from bacteria. They even use
some types of bacteria to make antibiotics that help kill harmful bacteria. We also use bacteria to help clean up oil
spills and to purify dirty water.
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria live in the soil and in the roots of some plants where they create a kind of nitrogen that the
plants can use for nourishment. These plants then make proteins that we can eat. Other beneficial types of bacteria
that live in the soil are decomposers, meaning that they get their food by decomposing or breaking down dead
organisms. Without decomposers like bacteria, the Earth would be covered with piles of dead plant and animal
matter. Knowing that there are so many good, helpful bacteria living among us, maybe we should reconsider the war
we are waging against these so-called germs.
Irradiated Food
“I am afraid that the experiments you quote, M. Pasteur, will turn against you. The world into which
you wish to take us is really too fantastic.”
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—La Presse, 1860
Keeping food fresh for long periods of time has been a goal of mankind for thousands of years. In early history, salt
was the most effective method of keeping food from spoiling. Food spoilage is caused by bacteria that eat the food
and leave waste products. Those waste products are the cause of spoiled food’s funny smells and tastes.
After Louis Pasteur’s work with bacteria in the 1800s, scientists quickly determined that killing the microorganisms
that cause spoilage would be the most effective way of preserving food. Techniques such as canning and
pasteurization all killed the bacteria, allowing the food to stay fresh longer. Pickling involves using a liquid that is
edible, but is also anti-microbial. Canning and pasteurization use high heat to kill bacteria in foods.
A recent addition to these techniques is that of irradiation. By passing high-energy, ionizing radiation through the
food, many types of bacteria, parasites, and even insects are killed. The radiation can come from high-energy
electrons or X-rays from a particle accelerator. Also, gamma rays from radioactive materials can be used. These types
of radiation can easily pass through packaging. The food can be sealed and then irradiated. This prevents
recontamination after the sterilization process.
An important advantage to irradiation is that the process does not generate any heat. So food is not “cooked” as
during canning or pasteurization processes. Fresh fruits and vegetables can be processed without damaging them.
Another advantage to this process is that it reduces the speed of ripening in fruits. This helps them stay fresh and
sellable for a longer period of time.
Research has shown that the bacteria commonly associated with food-borne illness (such as Salmonella and E. coli )
are very sensitive to radiation. Relatively little radiation can destroy them. However, these are not the same bacteria
that cause food to spoil. The bacteria that cause food spoilage must be destroyed with higher doses of radiation. At
the highest amount of radiation, packaged meat and poultry can be shelf-stable even without refrigeration.
The safety of irradiated food for human (and pet) consumption is very important. Many concerns have led to the
banning of this useful process in several countries. However, current research has shown that those concerns are
unfounded.
Scientific investigations of irradiated food have been ongoing since 1905. So far, there is no evidence that irradiation
produces any form of toxicity in foods. The radiation level is low enough that it is physically impossible to make food
radioactive. There is some minor loss of certain vitamins in the process. But the loss only affects approximately 10
percent of the total amount of vitamins in the food and is similar to the effect of cooking the food.
The irradiation of foods to extend shelf-life, kill micro- and macro-organisms, and slow the ripening process has a
long and safe history. Hospitals, overseas transportation companies, and even the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration routinely use irradiation to preserve foods and prevent disease from spreading by food.
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226. Consider the author’s purpose in “Irradiated Food.” Explain how the author responds to conflicting viewpoints
related to irradiation of foods, and analyze how irradiation is still clearly presented as a positive technique. Write your
explanation and analysis in two well-developed paragraphs using relevant details from the text.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
227. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
Determine the central ideas of both “Bacterial Warfare” and “Irradiated Food.” Explain the central ideas of both
articles. Use details from the articles to support your explanations.
Part B
Consider how the ideas in the articles conflict with each other regarding bacteria. How could information from
“Bacterial Warfare” be used to disagree with the process of irradiation of food?
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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228. Consider the topic of protecting people from harmful bacteria. Select ideas from both “Bacterial Warfare” and
“Irradiated Food” to organize and develop a multiple-paragraph essay that identifies and argues for the best ways to
protect people from harmful bacteria.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
229. Read the quotation from La Presse that appears at the beginning of “Irradiated Food.”
“I am afraid that the experiments you quote, M. Pasteur, will turn
against you. The world into which you wish to take us is really too
fantastic .”
Determine the meaning of the word fantastic as it is used in the quotation. Write the meaning of the word and explain
how you determined its meaning.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
230. Analyze how the article “Irradiated Food” presents the work of Louis Pasteur and makes a connection between
this work and the process of irradiation. Write your analysis in a detailed paragraph that explains this connection
using examples and inferences drawn from the text.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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231. Read the quotation from La Presse that appears at the beginning of “Irradiated Food.”
“I am afraid that the experiments you quote, M. Pasteur, will turn
against you. The world into which you wish to take us is really too
fantastic.”
Analyze what can be inferred from the quotation from La Presse. Explain an inference from the quotation, and
provide evidence from the article that supports that inference.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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Read the passage below. Then answer the questions that follow.
A Wheel of Wonder
The headlines in the newspaper beckoned: “The 1893 Columbian Exposition: The Biggest World's Fair
Ever.” I desperately wanted to go, but Chicago was far from my home in Ohio. So when my father pulled four tickets
to the fair from his jacket pocket at dinner one night, I was flabbergasted.
“We're going?” I squealed in delight.
“I had a hunch you'd be pleased,” Papa replied with a twinkle in his eye. “I've watched you pore over the
articles advertising the fair. It will be quite an event.”
“Your father and I have the whole trip planned out,” Mama chimed in. “We're going to take the locomotive.”
“It's a train, Mama, not a locomotive,” Mary said, rolling her eyes. I suspected that Mary was as excited as I
was, but ever since she had turned sixteen, she had become reticent. Acting excited about a trip—even such an
amazing trip like this one—would shatter the image she worked so hard to project.
As the trip got closer, I read everything about the fair that I could get my hands on. I was especially intrigued
by the giant wheel that an engineer named George Ferris had built.
When I told Mary about the wheel, she was incredulous. “You mean you can ride on this wheel?” Mary
asked, questioning the veracity of my claim. “You wouldn't catch me on a contraption like that.”
“I'm sure it's safe,” Mama purred reassuringly. “You know, it wasn't that long ago that people said the same
of trains.”
The Fair
As we took the train westward, I watched the landscape speed by and conjured up images of the fair. We
arrived late at night, and I fell into bed at the hotel, asleep before my head hit the pillow. We contrived to get up early
and head straight to the fair so that we could get a jump on the crowds, but it was soon evident that we were not the
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only ones with this plan. I had never seen so many people in one place! Mama took my hand as we joined the throng
of people at the main entrance. I felt a bit ridiculous holding my mother's hand, but I figured it was preferable to
being swept away by the press of people. After the initial crush at the entrance, the crowd thinned as people went
different ways, and we could relax.
The fair was awe-inspiring: grander and more magnificent than even my lofty expectations. We agreed to
take turns deciding what we would see. Papa kicked off our day at an exhibit explaining the miracle of electricity;
Mama suggested the Palace of Fine Arts, where we snaked our way through beautiful works of art from all corners of
Earth. Mary didn't choose a place at all, but instead suggested that we take a break to try a delicious new confection
of popcorn and peanuts. When it was my turn to propose the next step of the tour, I didn't hesitate. “Can we see the
wheel?”
“I had a hunch you'd propose the wheel,” Papa said with a wink. He pulled out a map and scratched his head.
“It's over here, in a part of the fair called Midway Plaisance. If we go now, we can get there at the height of the day,
when the view should be at its most spectacular.”
The Midway
The Midway Plaisance was several blocks long, but the wheel conspicuously towered above the other
carnival rides. “Who wants to go for a ride?” Papa asked as we approached the enormous wheel. “It's a
once-in-a-lifetime opportunity.”
“And it's safe?” inquired Mary.
“Of course it's safe,” I replied. I expounded some of the facts that I had learned about the wheel and
attempted to explain how it worked. This was unlike any other wheel because it was made of steel. Unsure myself of
how exactly that made it safe, I stopped midway through my convoluted explanation. No one seemed to be listening
anyway: Mama, Papa, and Mary all had their eyes tipped to the sky as they watched the wheel slowly rotate.
The wheel came to a stop, and the people from the car at the bottom exited. “Let's do it,” Mary announced
decisively. Mama gave her a funny look as the four of us stepped to the rear of the long line of soon-to-be riders.
That was when the enormity of what I was about to do hit me. I looked at the top carriage, poised at a
gravity-defying height in the sky. How did I know that this was safe? The wheel had only been in operation for a few
short weeks—hardly enough time to testify to its safety. By the time we had reached the front of the line, my mind
had worked itself into a frenzy. It was too late to turn back, however; the conductor waved us into the car, and I
swarmed with the crush of people into the carriage.
Mary gave me a reassuring smile as the carriage began to move. Having made the decision to ride, she
seemed determined to enjoy it, but new butterflies joined the old ones in my stomach with each foot the car rose off
the ground.
I had just gotten used to the steady movement of the car when suddenly it stopped. I gasped and grabbed
Mama's hand. “They have to stop to let people off,” she explained calmly.
“The people in the cars at the bottom, she means,” Mary said. “Don't worry. The wheel is one of the greatest
feats of engineering in history. You said so yourself.”
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232. How does the narrator's opinion differ from that of her sister Mary? Discuss how both of their opinions change
over the course of the story, and explain the impact these changes have on events in the story.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
233. Read the sentences from the passage.
I suspected that Mary was as excited as I was, but ever since she had
turned sixteen, she had become reticent . Acting excited about a
trip—even such an amazing trip like this one—would shatter the
image she worked so hard to project.
What is the meaning of reticent in this sentence?
Type a short answer in the box below.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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234. Read the sentences from the passage.
The wheel came to a stop, and the people from the car at the bottom
exited. “Let’s do it,” Mary announced decisively. Mama gave her a
funny look as the four of us stepped to the rear of the long line of
soon-to-be riders.
Why does Mama give Mary a “funny look”?
Type a short answer in the box below.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
235. Read these sentences from the passage.
I expounded some of the facts that I had learned about the wheel and
attempted to explain how it worked. This was unlike any other
wheel because it was made of steel. Unsure myself of how exactly
that made it safe, I stopped midway through my convoluted
explanation.
What does this part of the passage reveal about the narrator?
A. The narrator has not decided whether or not to ride the wheel.
B. The narrator does not fully appreciate the wheel’s unique features.
C. The narrator has not read as much as needed about the large wheel.
D. The narrator does not fully understand the wheel’s engineering principles.
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Read both passages below. Then answer the questions that follow.
Why Video Games Are Bad for You
Teens today spend a lot of time playing video games. Even when teens are restricted to two hours a day—the
maximum time recommended by pediatricians—this adds up to hundreds of hours a year. In fact, the average teen
will have played thousands of hours of video games by the time he or she graduates from high school. Every hour
wasted playing a video game is one less hour that could be devoted to reading, sports and exercise, homework, and
social activities.
Video games have been shown to increase dopamine, a chemical in the brain that carries messages between nerve
cells. This physical change may be why some people begin to crave video games. The games also require intense
concentration. Players often tune out the world around them, allowing hours to pass without coming up for air.
Violence and Video Games: A Dangerous Combination
Among the most popular video games are several titles that are extremely violent. Games that have shooting or
violence as objectives simply teach young people the wrong message. Worse, in most of these games, the more
violent the player is, the more he or she is rewarded, reinforcing the idea that violence is somehow a path to success.
Studies undertaken decades ago showed a clear connection between watching violent acts on television and violent
behavior. Experts worry that video games that require players to role-play violence have an even greater impact. The
link between watching violence and having violent thoughts or behaviors is particularly strong among children. A
recent study of eighth and ninth graders undertaken at the University of Minnesota School of Professional Psychology
found that video game addiction is a problem among adolescents and that this addiction has a negative impact on
school performance and aggressive attitudes and behaviors.
Video game manufacturers counter concerns about violence by pointing out that there is a rating system in place to
keep the most violent games out of the hands of kids. For some teens, however, a “mature” rating simply increases a
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game’s appeal. Moreover, many parents do not check the ratings of the games their children play. In one study, 90
percent of the teens surveyed said their parents never check the ratings before allowing them to rent or buy a video
game.
The Social Impact
Even games that are not violent have negative effects, however. By their nature, video games are a solitary
experience. Even the best games do little to help build social skills such as negotiation and teamwork. For teens, this
can have devastating consequences and contribute to social isolation. A study published in a recent issue of a popular
psychology journal shows that kids who play video games are more apt to exhibit impulsive behavior and attention
problems. Studies also have linked playing video games with anxiety and depression.
There are also physical effects to consider. An increasing number of young people are choosing to play video games
rather than engaging in sports, bike rides, or simply spending time outside. Over the long term, the sedentary nature
of the games can have a profoundly negative impact on one’s health. Experts suggest that video games may be
contributing to the growing obesity problem in the United States.
Some psychologists worry that games confuse reality and fantasy. True, some games teach valuable skills, but these
skills may not translate to real life. As a result, young people may learn and practice skills and behaviors that are
simply not useful, to the detriment of those that are. In the end, players may find that they have few skills that are
useful beyond the virtual world.
Video games are a relatively new phenomenon, and no one can be sure of the long-term impact that gaming will have
on a person’s intellect or behavior. Although it is unrealistic to expect teens to forego video games entirely, it is
important to consider the potential negative effects of video games before deciding what games to play and how often
to play them.
Good News for Gamers
Many people view gamers, those spending time playing video games, as wasting their time. Parents complain that
games take time away from more important things like homework and exercise. Doctors and educators worry about
the impact of video games on brain development. But an increasing body of research shows that video games, played
in moderation, can have many benefits. Given the fact that most teens will spend thousands of hours playing video
games by the time they graduate from high school, this is good news!
Brain Fuel
Scientists have long understood that learning to read, speak a foreign language, or play a musical instrument changes
the physical structure of the brain. Video games appear to have a similar impact on brain development. Studies show
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that video games help to strengthen neural circuits in the brain and speed up neurological processes. One recent study
showed that people who played action-based video games made decisions 25 percent faster than non-game-players.
Video games also appear to build skills for multitasking. A study undertaken at the University of Rochester showed
that experienced gamers can pay attention to six things simultaneously, two more than people who rarely play video
games.
Role-playing games teach players how to manage limited resources and make strategic decisions to reach both shortand long-term goals. James Paul Gee, professor of education at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, likens video
games to science experiments. Gamers must come up with a hypothesis for how to succeed at the game and then test
the hypothesis. If one hypothesis does not work, gamers must come up with an alternative. Steven Johnson, the author
of Everything Bad Is Good For You: How Today's Popular Culture Is Actually Making Us Smarter, says that video
game players have to engage in a series of complicated decision-making tasks that he calls “telescoping.” He believes
that telescoping provides a unique and vigorous mental workout.
Action and role-playing games also may foster proficiencies needed for academic success. Reading, following
instructions, abstract thinking, problem solving, and logic are all part of many, if not most, video games. Games that
require participants to navigate through a virtual world reinforce map-reading skills. Many video games teach
math-related skills, such as estimation and pattern recognition.
There may also be a link between video games and creativity. In a three-year study, researchers at Michigan State
University’s Children and Technology Project found that middle school students who played computer games had
higher scores on the Torrance Test of Creativity, a standardized test that involves tasks such as drawing and creative
writing. The boost in creativity appears to occur regardless of the type of game played.
Beyond the Brain
Video games teach some positive life lessons. Persistence almost always pays off. Mastering a challenging game or
improving a score can build self-confidence. Video games allow children to take on the ego-boosting role of hero.
Multiplayer games may foster cooperation and teamwork. In addition to giving a good workout, video games that
focus on dance or sports can help build coordination and gross motor skills.
Much of the criticism of video games relates to their violent content. Studies show that playing violent games can
desensitize users—particularly children—to violence. Ironically, studies suggest that violent games may have the
greatest benefit in terms of brain development. Researchers say that this is due to the fact that violent games stimulate
dopamine, the brain chemical that carries messages from one nerve cell to another.
It is true that violent video games are among the most popular titles. Studies suggest that it may not be the violent
content that attracts users, but rather the adrenaline rush and reward system inherent in these games. Researchers
believe that better understanding the unique qualities of these games may help video game companies integrate the
desired elements into games that are not violent.
In the meantime, the abundance of nonviolent games makes it easy to avoid games with violent content. As with
movies and television programs, ratings can help steer consumers to appropriate games for children of any age.
Research into the effects of video games is still in its infancy. Given the thousands of games on the market, it will
take decades for researchers to truly understand the relative benefits and risks of video games. In the meantime, the
best approach is to balance the time spent gaming with other activities. In addition, mixing strategy games with active
games that offer an aerobic workout will help ensure that the time spent gaming benefits both brain and body.
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236. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
Identify the article in which you most agree with the author, and explain the arguments this author uses that you find
most compelling, and why.
Part B
Using the author you selected in Part A, identify which argument or arguments you think are less effective. Explain
how the author could have strengthened these points for a stronger argument.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
237. This task has more than one (1) part. Read each part carefully and respond.
Part A
Create a list that tells the negatives of gaming and a second list that tells the positives of gaming. Include negative and
positive effects given by both authors on the appropriate list.
Part B
Choose one negative effect of gaming from “Why Video Games are Bad for You” and explain how the author of
"Good News for Gamers" sees that same effect in a positive way.
Part C
Explain and evaluate how each author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints about video
games and gaming.
Be sure to complete ALL parts of the task.
Use details from the texts to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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Read the passage below. Then answer the questions that follow.
The Ferris Wheel
If you have been to a state fair or an amusement park, you have likely seen, or perhaps ridden, a Ferris wheel. These
huge wheels are often the tallest structure at a fair and one of the main attractions, providing riders with a thrilling
view of the grounds and the landscape beyond. Although the Ferris wheel itself is a familiar icon, few people know
the fascinating story of its origin.
The Challenge
In 1892, Daniel Burnham, the lead architect of the World's Fair to be held in Chicago the next year, threw down the
gauntlet. The Eiffel Tower had been the showpiece of the previous World's Fair held in Paris in 1889, and Burnham
wanted to showcase something even more spectacular at the 1893 fair. Proposals to build a larger tower were
dismissed; he challenged America's engineers to show off their engineering skills by designing something novel,
daring, and unique.
Thirty-two-year-old George Washington Gale Ferris Jr. was inspired by Burnham's challenge. An engineering
graduate of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Ferris was working as a civil engineer and specialized in building steel
frameworks for bridges and tunnels. Ferris was at the meeting where Burnham issued his challenge; by the end of the
evening he had sketched out his idea on a napkin for a mammoth wheel with carriages for people to ride.
Ferris was not the first person who thought of building a wheel for people to ride. Historians believe that "pleasure
wheels" originated in Bulgaria in the seventeenth century. The first such wheel in the United States was erected in
1848 for a fair held in Walton Spring, Georgia. In 1892, William Somers installed three 50-foot wooden wheels he
called "roundabouts" at three beachside resorts in New Jersey and New York. Ferris used the same engineering
principles as Somers did, but he proposed using steel rather than wood. His wheel would be five times the size of
Somers' wheels.
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At first, the organizers of the fair dismissed Ferris's idea as too dangerous, but Ferris was persistent. He found
engineers who testified to the safety of his invention and investors to provide the $400,000 that would be needed to
build it. In the end, Ferris won over the committee.
Next came the monumental task of building his design. Ferris recognized that one foundry would not be able to
handle the enormity of the job, so he worked with several different firms, each of which had a specialized job to do.
Precision was key; because the wheel would not be assembled until it was onsite in Chicago, modifications would be
extremely difficult, if not impossible.
The Wheel's Debut
Prior to the fair's opening, the wheel was tested without cars. Ferris, Burnham, and other organizers held their breath
as the wheel made its first rotation. Having succeeded in this effort, the passenger carriages were added. There would
be 36 such carriages in all, each of which held up to 60 passengers.
Ferris's wheel was enormous. The wheel itself was more than 250 feet in diameter. Based on the engineering
principles of the bicycle wheel, Ferris's wheel had heavy steel beams that served as spokes and was supported by
140-foot-high steel pyramids. The 45-foot axle weighed 46.5 tons and was the largest piece of steel ever forged in the
United States. The wheel was propelled by two 1,000-horsepower steam engines and stopped with an oversized air
brake. On June 21, 1893, the Ferris Wheel was opened to the public. It was an instant sensation. Some enthusiastic
visitors stood in line for an hour or more to pay 50 cents for a 20-minute ride on the rotating marvel of engineering.
By the end of the Exposition, the Ferris Wheel had safely carried 1.5 million passengers.
Following the Chicago fair, amusement park owners sought to attract visitors with wheels of their own. Today, Ferris
wheels of all sizes grace amusement parks throughout the world. Singapore boasts the world's largest Ferris wheel
(the 541-foot-tall Singapore Flyer), but plans are underway in New York City for a 625-foot giant that could take
1,440 people for a ride at one time.
238. Read this sentence from the passage.
Proposals to build a larger tower were dismissed: he challenged
America’s engineers to show off their engineering skills by
designing something novel, daring, and unique.
Explain how George Ferris’s design was “novel, daring, and unique” and whether it successfully met Daniel
Burnham’s challenge.
Use details from the text to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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239. How does the illustration help the reader better understand the article?
Type a short answer in the box below.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
240. What does the last paragraph indicate about the Ferris wheel?
Type a short answer in the box below.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
241. What would be the best way to show how the Ferris wheel has changed when comparing the first Ferris wheel to
those that came later?
A. a slide show with photos of different Ferris wheels
B. an excerpt from George Ferris’s patent application
C. a timeline of the dates the Ferris wheels were used
D. a videotape of people riding the wheel in Singapore
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Use both passages to answer the questions that follow.
A Wheel of Wonder
The headlines in the newspaper beckoned: "The 1893 Columbian Ex's Fair Ever." I desperately wanted to go,
but Chicago was far from my home in Ohio. So when my father pulled four tickets to the fair from his jacket pocket
at dinner one night, I was flabbergasted.
"We're going?" I squealed in delight.
"I had a hunch you'd be pleased," Papa replied with a twinkle in his eye. "I've watched you pore over the
articles advertising the fair. It will be quite an event."
"Your father and I have the whole trip planned out," Mama chimed in. "We're going to take the locomotive."
"It's a train, Mama, not a locomotive," Mary said, rolling her eyes. I suspected that Mary was as excited as I
was, but ever since she had turned sixteen, she had become reticent. Acting excited about a trip—even such an
amazing trip like this one—would shatter the image she worked so hard to project.
As the trip got closer, I read everything about the fair that I could get my hands on. I was especially intrigued
by the giant wheel that an engineer named George Ferris had built.
When I told Mary about the wheel, she was incredulous. "You mean you can ride on this wheel?" Mary
asked, questioning the veracity of my claim. "You wouldn't catch me on a contraption like that."
"I'm sure it's safe," Mama purred reassuringly. "You know, it wasn't that long ago that people said the same
of trains."
The Fair
As we took the train westward, I watched the landscape speed by and conjured up images of the fair. We
arrived late at night, and I fell into bed at the hotel, asleep before my head hit the pillow. We contrived to get up early
and head straight to the fair so that we could get a jump on the crowds, but it was soon evident that we were not the
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only ones with this plan. I had never seen so many people in one place! Mama took my hand as we joined the throng
of people at the main entrance. I felt a bit ridiculous holding my mother's hand, but I figured it was preferable to
being swept away by the press of people. After the initial crush at the entrance, the crowd thinned as people went
different ways, and we could relax.
The fair was awe-inspiring: grander and more magnificent than even my lofty expectations. We agreed to
take turns deciding what we would see. Papa kicked off our day at an exhibit explaining the miracle of electricity;
Mama suggested the Palace of Fine Arts, where we snaked our way through beautiful works of art from all corners of
Earth. Mary didn't choose a place at all, but instead suggested that we take a break to try a delicious new confection
of popcorn and peanuts. When it was my turn to propose the next step of the tour, I didn't hesitate. "Can we see the
wheel?"
"I had a hunch you'd propose the wheel," Papa said with a wink. He pulled out a map and scratched his head.
"It's over here, in a part of the fair called Midway Plaisance. If we go now, we can get there at the height of the day,
when the view should be at its most spectacular."
The Midway
The Midway Plaisance was several blocks long, but the wheel conspicuously towered above the other
carnival rides. "Who wants to go for a ride?" Papa asked as we approached the enormous wheel. "It's a
once-in-a-lifetime opportunity."
"And it's safe?" inquired Mary.
"Of course it's safe," I replied. I expounded some of the facts that I had learned about the wheel and
attempted to explain how it worked. This was unlike any other wheel because it was made of steel. Unsure myself of
how exactly that made it safe, I stopped midway through my convoluted explanation. No one seemed to be listening
anyway: Mama, Papa, and Mary all had their eyes tipped to the sky as they watched the wheel slowly rotate.
The wheel came to a stop, and the people from the car at the bottom exited. "Let's do it," Mary announced
decisively. Mama gave her a funny look as the four of us stepped to the rear of the long line of soon-to-be riders.
That was when the enormity of what I was about to do hit me. I looked at the top carriage, poised at a
gravity-defying height in the sky. How did I know that this was safe? The wheel had only been in operation for a few
short weeks—hardly enough time to testify to its safety. By the time we had reached the front of the line, my mind
had worked itself into a frenzy. It was too late to turn back, however; the conductor waved us into the car, and I
swarmed with the crush of people into the carriage.
Mary gave me a reassuring smile as the carriage began to move. Having made the decision to ride, she
seemed determined to enjoy it, but new butterflies joined the old ones in my stomach with each foot the car rose off
the ground.
I had just gotten used to the steady movement of the car when suddenly it stopped. I gasped and grabbed
Mama's hand. "They have to stop to let people off," she explained calmly.
"The people in the cars at the bottom, she means," Mary said. "Don't worry. The wheel is one of the greatest
feats of engineering in history. You said so yourself."
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The Ferris Wheel
If you have been to a state fair or an amusement park, you have likely seen, or perhaps ridden, a Ferris wheel. These
huge wheels are often the tallest structure at a fair and one of the main attractions, providing riders with a thrilling
view of the grounds and the landscape beyond. Although the Ferris wheel itself is a familiar icon, few people know
the fascinating story of its origin.
The Challenge
In 1892, Daniel Burnham, the lead architect of the World's Fair to be held in Chicago the next year, threw down the
gauntlet. The Eiffel Tower had been the showpiece of the previous World's Fair held in Paris in 1889, and Burnham
wanted to showcase something even more spectacular at the 1893 fair. Proposals to build a larger tower were
dismissed; he challenged America's engineers to show off their engineering skills by designing something novel,
daring, and unique.
Thirty-two-year-old George Washington Gale Ferris Jr. was inspired by Burnham's challenge. An engineering
graduate of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Ferris was working as a civil engineer and specialized in building steel
frameworks for bridges and tunnels. Ferris was at the meeting where Burnham issued his challenge; by the end of the
evening he had sketched out his idea on a napkin for a mammoth wheel with carriages for people to ride.
Ferris was not the first person who thought of building a wheel for people to ride. Historians believe that "pleasure
wheels" originated in Bulgaria in the seventeenth century. The first such wheel in the United States was erected in
1848 for a fair held in Walton Spring, Georgia. In 1892, William Somers installed three 50-foot wooden wheels he
called "roundabouts" at three beachside resorts in New Jersey and New York. Ferris used the same engineering
principles as Somers did, but he proposed using steel rather than wood. His wheel would be five times the size of
Somers' wheels.
At first, the organizers of the fair dismissed Ferris's idea as too dangerous, but Ferris was persistent. He found
engineers who testified to the safety of his invention and investors to provide the $400,000 that would be needed to
build it. In the end, Ferris won over the committee.
Next came the monumental task of building his design. Ferris recognized that one foundry would not be able to
handle the enormity of the job, so he worked with several different firms, each of which had a specialized job to do.
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Precision was key; because the wheel would not be assembled until it was onsite in Chicago, modifications would be
extremely difficult, if not impossible.
The Wheel's Debut
Prior to the fair's opening, the wheel was tested without cars. Ferris, Burnham, and other organizers held their breath
as the wheel made its first rotation. Having succeeded in this effort, the passenger carriages were added. There would
be 36 such carriages in all, each of which held up to 60 passengers.
Ferris's wheel was enormous. The wheel itself was more than 250 feet in diameter. Based on the engineering
principles of the bicycle wheel, Ferris's wheel had heavy steel beams that served as spokes and was supported by
140-foot-high steel pyramids. The 45-foot axle weighed 46.5 tons and was the largest piece of steel ever forged in the
United States. The wheel was propelled by two 1,000-horsepower steam engines and stopped with an oversized air
brake. On June 21, 1893, the Ferris Wheel was opened to the public. It was an instant sensation. Some enthusiastic
visitors stood in line for an hour or more to pay 50 cents for a 20-minute ride on the rotating marvel of engineering.
By the end of the Exposition, the Ferris Wheel had safely carried 1.5 million passengers.
Following the Chicago fair, amusement park owners sought to attract visitors with wheels of their own. Today, Ferris
wheels of all sizes grace amusement parks throughout the world. Singapore boasts the world's largest Ferris wheel
(the 541-foot-tall Singapore Flyer), but plans are underway in New York City for a 625-foot giant that could take
1,440 people for a ride at one time.
242. Compare the descriptions of the Ferris wheel provided by the two passages and analyze the effect of each
description on the entire text.
Use details from the texts to support your answer.
Answer with complete sentences, and use correct punctuation and grammar.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
243. Which aspect of the first Ferris wheel does the story “A Wheel of Wonder” capture more vividly than the article
“The Ferris Wheel”?
Type a short answer in the box below.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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244. Read this sentence from “A Wheel of Wonder.”
If we go now, we can get there at the height of the day, when the
view should be at its most spectacular.
What fact from “The Ferris Wheel” supports this claim from the story about a spectacular view?
Type a short answer in the box below.
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
245. Which of the following sentences from “A Wheel of Wonder” reinforces a central idea of “The Ferris Wheel”?
A. “We contrived to get up early and head straight to the fair so that we could get a jump on the crowds, but it was
soon evident that we were not the only ones with this plan.”
B. “The fair was awe-inspiring: grander and more magnificent than even my lofty expectations.”
C. “The Midway Plaisance was several blocks long, but the wheel conspicuously towered above the other carnival
rides.”
D. “The wheel had only been in operation for a few short weeks—hardly enough time to testify to its safety.”
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246. Read these sentences from “A Wheel of Wonder”.
I expounded some of the facts that I had learned about the wheel and
attempted to explain how it worked. This was unlike any other
wheel because it was made of steel.
Which sentence from “The Ferris Wheel” supports what the narrator had learned about the wheel?
A. Ferris was not the first person who thought of building a wheel for people to ride.
B. Ferris used the same engineering principles as Somers did, but he proposed using steel rather than wood.
C. Ferris was working as a civil engineer and specialized in building steel frameworks for bridges and tunnels.
D. By the end of the evening he had sketched out his idea on a napkin for a mammoth wheel with carriages for people
to ride.
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Dear Ms. Eby:
324 Center Drive
Dunwoody, GA 30304
Ms. Nina Eby
Recruitment and Training Manager
The Bread Box
987 Maple Street
Dunwoody, GA 30306
Dear Ms. Eby:
I am responding to the ad for a summer sales position at The Bread Box. I believe I meet the requirements
described in the ad. In addition, I have a skill which would make me especially qualified for the position.
The job requires weekday hours and weekend availability. I can work every weekday and any Saturday. I turned
sixteen last February.
More importantly, I have made bread many times. It is a tradition in my family to make homemade bread every
weekend. At an early age, I learned how to mix the ingredients, knead the dough, and shape the loaves. Later, I was
taught how to substitute different ingredients to achieve different results. I know about the many kinds of flours and
grains that go into making a loaf of bread. My neighbor once said, "Young man, you make the best bread in the
neighborhood!"
I know I would not actually be making bread, but I think my bread-making skill will help me sell bread. I'll be
able to tell the customers about three things: ingredients, texture, and taste. Also, I can even suggest which type of
bread goes with a particular meal.
I believe I am a strong candidate for this position. I have references and a résumé of my work experience
available. I look forward to hearing from you.
Sincerely yours,
Conner Carlson
247. What is the main point that Conner is trying to make?
A. His parents were breadmakers.
B. He would be a good salesperson.
C. His neighbors liked his bread.
D. He can work on weekends.
248. If Conner is hired at The Bread Box, what will be his job?
A. mixing ingredients
B. shaping loaves
C. selling bread
D. kneading dough
249. What word is closest in meaning to the word résumé?
A. repetition
B. continuity
C. summary
D. reoccupation
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250. When Conner quotes his neighbor's reaction to his bread, what propaganda technique is he using?
A. testimonial
B. card stacking
C. bandwagon
D. prestige identification
From Down the Street
A shadow of a person walking down the street,
Who is this person I will soon meet?
Each step coming closer I recognize more,
The sway of a walk that I’ve known before.
An old teacher? A neighbor? A long lost friend?
Or a famous actor from the movie last weekend?
I feel I remember the shape of the face,
It seems to remind me of a time and a place.
A few more steps and I think I just might—
If only he’d step out into the light—
Now he passes before me, my nerves start to rise,
And I glance up quickly and look him straight in the eye:
Oh—never mind—
Just a stranger passing by.
251. Every two lines in this passage are alike in some way. This is called
A. allusion
B. rhyme
C. stanza
D. free verse
252. The author wrote this passage
A. to explain what it is like to walk alone at night
B. to entertain us with an experience of walking alone at night
C. to make us think of the dangers of walking alone at night
D. to analyze what happens when you walk alone at night
253. The tone of this passage is one of
A. suspense.
B. fear.
C. humor.
D. dread.
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Mind Over Body
He sits in a wheelchair. He cannot dress or feed himself. He cannot speak, except with the aid of a computer and
voice synthesizer. Inside this weakened body, however, a brilliant and creative mind is at work, trying to solve the
puzzles of the universe. The man is Stephen Hawking, considered one of the greatest physicists of the twentieth
century.
In his 1988 best-selling book, A Brief History of Time, Hawking theorizes about the beginnings and future of the
universe. One part of his theory combines Einstein’s theory of relativity with quantum mechanics to explain black
holes, areas in space where gravity is so strong that even light can’t escape.
Hawking’s research alone would have guaranteed him fame, but his triumph over numerous physical handicaps
has won him admiration on a different level. Hawking suffers from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known
as Lou Gehrig’s disease. This disease slowly destroys the brain’s ability to control muscles and causes severe loss of
movement.
Born in Oxford, England, Hawking first learned he had the disease in 1963. He was only twenty-one years old and
had just begun a promising career in theoretical physics at Cambridge University. Hawking wondered whether
continuing his research was pointless. After two years, however, his condition stopped its rapid deterioration.
Hawking realized that his ability to reason was unaffected, and he returned to his research with new energy and
enthusiasm. He married and had two sons and a daughter. He became a professor at Cambridge. Soon, his research in
cosmology earned him a reputation as the world’s most talked-about physicist.
One of Hawking’s gifts is his ability to explain scientific principles in terms the average person can understand.
He strongly believes that these ideas should not remain in the hands of a few select scientists, but that they should be
accessible to everyone. Apparently, he is succeeding in reaching a broad audience. In July 1995, over 9,000 people
packed the University of Utah stadium to hear Hawking talk about quantum physics and black holes. Afterwards, the
scientist said, “It’s a bit like a rock concert and shows physics can be as popular as heavy metal.”
Stephen Hawking’s determination to answer some of the most enduring questions about the universe has
commanded worldwide attention and respect. Whether he accomplishes his own intellectual goal, “the complete
understanding of the universe,” may not be as important as his physical achievements. Hawking never lets his
physical handicap get in the way of his mental abilities. In fact, these handicaps may have forced him to use his mind
to its utmost potential.
254. What is the MOST important idea in this passage?
A. Stephen Hawking is the most famous physicist in the world.
B. Some of Stephen Hawking's ideas are controversial.
C. Hawking never permits his physical problems to interfere with his mental achievements.
D. Hawking's fame rests primarily on his best-selling book, A Brief History of Time.
255. How does the author support the idea that Hawking is able to communicate his ideas to the general public?
A. The author uses statistics about Hawking's book sales.
B. The author gives an example of a lecture in Utah.
C. The author states an opinion by a scientist at Oxford.
D. The author offers comments by Hawking's wife.
256. The author wrote this passage
A. to explain the existence of black holes.
B. to debate Hawking's ideas on the universe.
C. to persuade others to consider a physics career.
D. to tell about Hawking's life and achievements.
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Good Poetry
As he slowly walked to school, the young man could barely make out the city before him. The morning was
thick with fog and rain. If he were back home—if he were in India—the sun would be shining, and the sea
glimmering. The young man, whose name was Abid, had recently moved to Atlanta from India. On this day, he
longed for India with its bright reds and oranges. He missed the hot marketplace—all the food, music, and people.
But most of all, he missed his language—Hindi. Abid found it very difficult to express himself in English. Its hard
consonants and short, sharp sounds were too different from the smooth, flowing phrases of Hindi. Abid dreaded the
day ahead as he approached his new middle school and slowly made his way up its steps.
At nine o'clock in the morning, Abid entered his English literature class. So far, the class had been reading
American novels. Abid found most of the novels to be incredibly boring—as gray and cold as the day outside. He
missed the warm, descriptive stories told by his favorite Indian writers.
"Today, class, we are going to begin our unit on poetry. We'll start with Langston Hughes," Mr. Bailey
announced.
"Who is Langston Hughes?" Abid thought to himself.
"I think you'll enjoy the poetry unit. Many of the works we will be studying are similar in style to the kind of
music you hear on the radio today. Some of these poets have taken the English language and turned it into a kind of
spoken music," Mr. Bailey said.
"Are you talking about hip-hop, Mr. B?" Carmen asked. "Some of my favorite artists have done cool things with
English. They use English in all kinds of ways to express themselves."
"Well, Carmen, many consider Hughes a forerunner to hip-hop. As early as the 1920s, he was using poetry as a
medium to express the hardships that many African-Americans faced," Mr. Bailey replied. "You see, Langston
Hughes lived during a time known as the Harlem Renaissance. Along with many other African-American novelists
and poets of the 1920s and 30s, authors such as Hughes made their voices heard using rhythm and dialect in a way
that had not been done before. These strong black artists changed the way that many people viewed American
literature and poetry. Langston Hughes was a central part of this creative outpouring," Mr. Bailey informed the class.
"Hip-hop produces strong black voices today," John offered.
"That is exactly right. So let's read some of Hughes's poetry and then compare it to some contemporary hip-hop
music," Mr. Bailey said.
As the class read through Hughes's poetry, Abid found himself more and more intrigued. He began to smile as he
appreciated its rhythms, rhymes, breaks, and beats. He was drawn to the way that Hughes used "slang" as poetry.
Abid had never before realized that English could sound so good, so melodic—like music to his ears.
"Abid, it looks like Mr. Hughes has caught your attention. You seem to be enjoying this poetry. Would you like
to read the next stanza from 'Mother to Son'?" Mr. Bailey asked. Abid, who was usually nervous about speaking in
class, felt a confidence come over him. He realized there was no one "right" way to speak English, as Hughes
demonstrated. In a clear voice, he read the stanza. Langston Hughes spoke through him about climbing upward and
turning corners, about feeling in the dark and once again finding himself in the light, about lessons that his mother
taught him about life. As Abid finished the poem he felt as if he, like Hughes, was also coming out of the darkness.
"Excellent job, Abid," Mr. Bailey said. "For homework, I would like you each to write a poem."
As Abid walked out of his English class, he took a good look around him and listened closely to his classmates
as they conversed with one another in loud, excited voices. For the first time since he had moved to Atlanta, he didn't
feel like a complete stranger; he didn't miss his people, his language, and his music quite as badly. He didn't feel so
discouraged about speaking English. Langston Hughes had shown him something; he could make English his own.
He could be confident in his own rhythm and dialect.
Abid went back into the classroom and approached Mr. Bailey.
"Mr. Bailey," Abid began, "until today, I was incredibly frustrated with English. I never thought I would be able
to express myself using a foreign language. But Langston Hughes has taught me something—I can make English
work for me. I can express myself through a blending of English and Hindi, and I would like to try to do this in my
poem."
"Abid, that sounds like an excellent idea. Let both English and Hindi come together in your poem. You don't
have to abandon one for the other—you can use both," Mr. Bailey replied.
"Now that would make excellent poetry," Abid thought to himself as a smile slowly crossed his face.
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257. Which statement below BEST reflects the author's opinion of Langston Hughes's poetry?
A. The author believes that hip-hop music is better than Hughes's poetry.
B. The author believes it is not important to learn about Hughes's poetry.
C. The author believes that Hughes's poetry is very difficult for people to understand.
D. The author believes that Hughes made important contributions to American poetry.
258. What is the meaning of the word intrigued in the sentence?
As the class read through Hughes's poetry, Abid found himself more and more intrigued. He began to smile as he
appreciated its rhythms, rhymes, breaks, and beats . . .
A. curious
B. aware
C. certain
D. removed
259. Which event below happened FIRST in the story?
A. Abid found American literature boring.
B. Abid read "Mother to Son" in English class.
C. Abid began to feel good about the English language.
D. Abid learned about Langston Hughes from Mr. Bailey.
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Alligator Poem
by Mary Oliver
I knelt down
at the edge of the water,
and if the white birds standing
in the tops of the trees whistled any warning
I didn't understand,
I drank up to the very moment it came
crashing toward me,
its tail flailing
like a bundle of swords,
slashing the grass,
and the inside of its cradle-shaped mouth
gaping,
and rimmed with teeth—
and that's how I almost died
of foolishness
in beautiful Florida.
But I didn't.
I leaped aside, and fell,
and it streamed past me, crushing everything in its path
as it swept down to the water
and threw itself in,
and, in the end,
this isn't a poem about foolishness
but about how I rose from the ground
and saw the world as if for the second time,
the way it really is.
The water, that circle of shattered glass,
healed itself with a slow whisper
and lay back
with the back-lit light of polished steel,
and the birds, in the endless waterfalls of the trees,
shook open the snowy pleats of their wings, and drifted away
while, for a keepsake, and to steady myself,
I reached out,
I picked the wild flowers from the grass around me—
blue stars
and blood-red trumpets
on long green stems—
for hours in my trembling hands they glittered
like fire.
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260. The speaker says,"and, in the end, this isn't a poem about foolishness. but about how I rose from the ground "
Why did the author use this line in the poem?
A. To show the speaker felt about the alligator attack
B. To emphasize the speaker's confusion
C. To focus the reader on the first part of the poem
D. To show the speaker was embarrassed
261. The following lines are from the poem:
What kind of image of the alligator does the author create here?
A. a gentle giant
B. a warrior
C. a misunderstood natural animal
D. a clumsy animal
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262. What type of figurative language is used in the underlined words?
A. Simile
B. Onomatopoeia
C. Personification
D. Alliteration
263. In the end, how did the speaker in the poem feel about the alligator attack?
A. anxiety
B. curiosity
C. confusion
D. redemption
264. What is the topic and theme in the Alligator Poem
A. Topic: alligator attack.
Theme: a new appreciation for life
B. Topic a new appreciation for life.
Theme: alligator attack
C. Topic: life of an alligator.
Theme: appreciating nature
D. Topic: appreciating nature.
Theme: life of an alligator
135
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265. What word or phrase can replace gaping in the passage?
A. bleeding
B. wide open
C. chewing
D. closed shut
136
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by Bill Walter
or such an important place, Ellis Island did not start out as much. Named after Samuel Ellis, the 27-acre knot of
an island barely stuck out of the water at high tide.
Ellis Island became important to millions of immigrants in 1892, however, when the U.S. government converted it to an
immigration station. Between 1892 and 1954, the island became—for more than 17 million souls—the doorway to America.
As you will see in their own words below, America offered immigrants more than just opportunity. You also will see that the
"the land of the free" was not so free to everyone, after all.
Escaping to America
The closing years of the 19th century were an oppressive time in many eastern and southern European nations. In such
countries as Russia, Poland, and Armenia, millions of families were suffering. Wars, famines, and pogroms (organized
massacres of Jews and other minorities) caused millions of people to flee.
Ida Mouradjian fled to America from Armenia to escape annihilation by the Turkish government:
They [the Turks] would displace every Armenian out of their own homes, out of their own towns and drive them into the Syrian
Desert. The idea was to get every Armenian there and by the time they got there they would either die of hunger or exposure or
pestilence.
But not all were running from the horrors of violence or poverty. Some, like Theodore Lubik from the Ukraine, wanted to avoid
the military draft and simply saw the U.S. as a great opportunity:
A friend of mine, he had gone to America. He came to Europe once on a visit...He looked just like a governor—horses,
wagon, dressed fine, giving his pocket change to us. He gave me ten cents or a quarter—that was big money.
Hard Time Traveling
In these times of turmoil, one could not easily move to the U.S. The trials of getting to Ellis Island were often life-threatening in
themselves.
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Along the way, many immigrants had to contend with border guards, thieves, and crooked immigration agents. But it was the
trip across the Atlantic that immigrants tended to remember most.
Crammed into poorly ventilated sleeping areas or cabins below deck, immigrants—many of whom had never seen the sea
before—often suffered rough crossings. Vera Gauditsa, pregnant during her crossing from Czechoslovakia, remembered the
torture of seasickness:
I was pretty tough, but on the boat I was very sick. I thought the child wanted to be born right then.
I had a cabin, but in the cabin was nothing. You had to go through the whole boat to get to the showers and a toilet. So
imagine when you are sick and you have to go to the bathroom and walk!
But upon seeing their destination, most immigrants—like Sarah Asher from Russia—forgot about sickness and thought only of
a bright future:
About four or five o'clock in the morning we all got up. The sunshine started and what do we see? The Statue of Liberty!
Well, she was beautiful with the early-morning light. Everybody was crying. Beautiful colors, the greenish-like water—and so
big. We could see New York already, with the big buildings and everything... There was a house where the boat stopped but only the
Americans were able to go out, but we foreigners remained. Our boat moved further, and that was when we realized we were
going to Ellis Island.
Stuck at the Door
Having to wait while first- and second-class passengers got off the boat, many immigrants began to realize that their troubles
were not over.
After docking at Manhattan Island, immigrants in steerage were shipped by barge to Ellis Island, to go through examinations.
On the island, the immigrants were guided into holding pens in the Great Hall. Irene Zambelli, from Greece, recalled the routine:
There were little gates, the same as you go [through] to the subways... The first gate we [Irene and her cousin] passed they
asked what we were to one another. Then we came to the next gate and they asked us how much was two and two, and four
and four. We answered and went to the next gate.
Cutting Back the Flow
The number of immigrants increased over the years, peaking at 1,285,349 in 1907. U.S. officials grew concerned. They saw
the growing numbers as a threat to American workers. The officials were afraid the foreigners would take away wages and jobs.
As a result, the entrance examinations were made tougher. They included a medical exam and a literacy test. An immigrant who
failed one of these tests faced deportation (being sent back) to his or her native country.
Of all the examinations, the medical exam seemed to cause immigrants the most concern, recalled Catherine Bolinski, who
came from Poland:
They turned your eye[lid] over—I had to blink a couple of times that way. I'll never forget it. They looked at your throat and to see if
you had any rashes on your body. They found things wrong with some people. They sent them back, after they [had] sold everything to come
here, so they were crying, they felt very bad.
The thought of being deported was terrifying. Fannie Kligerman, who escaped from Russia with her family, remembered the
fear:
One of my brothers had something wrong with him. It was a sty. It left a funny thing and they put him aside. And they told us
that if there was anything wrong with him, he'd have to go back to Europe. Oh, it was frightening. My father said, "I'm not going
on without the children. We will all go back."
Charting America's Course
Only three percent of those who arrived at Ellis Island between 1892 and 1954 were turned away. By 1924, however, the
government changed its policy. It slammed shut the "open door" that had allowed so many millions to flock to the U.S. The
Immigration Act of 1924 set a quota of 164,000 immigrants per year. By 1954, Ellis Island had been shut down.
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But for those who had passed through, America was truly a land of opportunity—despite often-severe hardships. Settling
throughout the U.S., immigrants such as composer Irving Berlin, football coach Knute Rockne, and Supreme Court Justice Felix
Frankfurter added to America's strength.
Having escaped from Russia, Arnold Weiss voiced the determination and hope of the immigrants who passed through Ellis
Island:
From the whole story of what I went through in all my years—and some of it wasn't very pleasant—I still love this country. I love this
country in spite of everything.
From "Ellis Island: Doorway to America" by Bill Walter. Published in JUNIOR SCHOLASTIC, April 6, 1990. Copyright (c) 1990
Scholastic Inc. All rights reserved. Used by permission.
266. The statement that immigrants had to "contend with border guards, thieves, and crooked immigration
agents" means that the immigrants
A. were being introduced to America's legal system.
B. learned that America had many people.
C. learned to adapt to America's freedoms.
D. faced obstacles that might discourage some people.
National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education
267. The United States eventually reduced the number of immigrants allowed to enter the country because
A. the United States already had too many people.
B. the immigrants were taking jobs away from American workers.
C. the immigrants had too many hardships to face in America.
D. the country that the immigrants came from was angry about them leaving.
National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education
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BARGAIN BASEMENT
$25 and under
AIR CONDITIONER — Fedders, large works $25. 555-1076
ALL KINDS OF GOLF CLUBS — $20. after 3PM. 555-5507
ANTIQUE WARDROBE — Needs lt. work. 1st $25. 555-1326
ASSORTED SZS, WINDOWS & DOORS — $25. 555-8261
BEACH UMBRELLAS — $5/each. 555-7092
BED FRAME — Twin or Full size $15. 555-0572
BIKE RACK — $20, cot $10. call 555-7640
BIKE — Boys $25 electricians supplies $5-25. 555-7797
BIKE — Girls 16" Schwinn VG Cond. $25. 555-9724
BLACK & WHITE TV — 20" good cond. $25. 555-2924
BLACK LEATHER ROLL CAGE COVERS — $25. 555-8109
BMX — Free Style Bike nice $25. Call 555-2124
BOOKS — PAPER BACKS — & hard covers. $.15 - $1. 555-0750
BOWLING BALL — w/leather bag $25. 555-1138
$25 and under
BOYS SUIT JACKETS — One brown l blue sz. 12 $10. 555-0608
BRASS TONE HEADBOARD — & bedframe $20. 555-4783
BRICK FLOWER BED EDGING — $1/ea rug braided. 555-6988
BUSHINGS — Polyurethane shock boot $1.50. 555-8109
CAKE PLATE — 50th anniv. gold trim Nu $12. 555-8011
CAN OPENER — Rival under the counter $5. 555-4707
CEILING FAN — New 52" white $20. 555-6376
CHANGING TABLE — $10. potty $3., vaporizer $3. 555-2005
COFFEE DECANTERS — Glass $2 new, have 5. 555-0688
COUCH — Early American nice $20. 555-2145
CURTAINS — Sheers 108x84 white $20. 555-6376
DESERT STORM — Series 2 and 3 $12 per box. 555-7093
DESERT STORM — Series 1 cards $12 per box. 555-7093
$25 and under
DICK CEPEK BLACK LIGHT BAR — $15 new. 555-8109
ELEC. MOWER — $15 good outdoor chairs $2. 555-6104
ELECTRIC FENCE ITEMS — Poles battery case etc. $25. 555-0490
FARBER ELECTRIC BROILER — $15. 555-4783
FLOOR TILE — Armstrong white 1 box $4. 555-6962
FLOOR JACK — 6 ft. hght $10. call 555-5034
FORMICA — 2' x 2' $.25/each 2' x 4' $.50 colors. 555-8597
FREE FIREWOOD — Call 555-1823
FREE ORANGE KITTEN — (1). call 555-8392
FREE RABBIT HUTCH — Free standing 2' x 7'. 555-6711
FUEL OIL TANK — Inside, 275 gallon, $25. 555-9604
GARAGE DOOR OPENER — For parts $7. 555-6911
GAS CAN — 5 gallon $10. call 555-3724
$25 and under
GOLF CART — Like new. $20. Call after 3PM. 555-5507
GOLF BAG — & Irons 3, 2, 9, $25. 555-7092
GOLF BALLS — 2 dz. putters, sand wedge $10. 555-3575
HAIR SALON FURNITURE — Free. 555-8109
HEPA FILTER — 12 x 12 $25. Call 555-6127
HIGH CHAIR — $25. Century windup swing $5. 555-0559
HOSE — For sump pump new 13 ft. $6. 555-5434
HOSTA — $.25 up, CORAL BELLES. Flowering Cabbage Plants, $1. 555-2445
INSULATION — 6" x 15" fiberglass $8. roll. 555-1017 after 6 p.m.
JACK NICKLAUS GOLF CLUBS — $25. after 3 PM 555-5507
JEAN JACKETS — Med. was $75 only $25. 555-0608
LADIES BETTER DRESSES — size 9-12, $2. 555-0750
LADIES BETTER DRESSES — size 9-12, $2. 555-0750
$25 and under
LADIES BETTER DRESSES — size 9-12, $2. 555-0750
LAMPS — Pictures Mr. Coffee Broiler $1. up. 555-3575
LAMPS — 2 $15/each 1 crib & mattress $20. 555-0567
LAWN MOWER — 22" push rotary $20. 555-1457
140
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LEATHER ROLL CAGE COVERS — Brand new $25. 555-8109
LESTOIL SPRAY FLOOR CLEANER — $12 a case 555-4707
LIGHT FIXTURES — Bath, dining, foyer, kitchen. Total of 8. $5-$20 ea. 555-7503
LOCK — Shalage entry brush aluminum $12. 555-5434
LONDON FOG COAT — W/lining egg shell $25. 555-5434
MAPLE BOARDS — $2. a Sq.Ft. 1"2"3". Call 555-1822
MECHANIC'S CREEPER — & Jack stands $25. 555-6127
MEDICINE CABINET — $5. Call 555-0572
$25 and under
MINI BLINDS — Shade white 60W $15. Call 555-8640
MOTOR FURNACE — 1/4 H.P. A-1 Delco $20. 555-1138
MOWER — Push type 18 Craftsman $20. Good cond. 555-0958
NEW DOORS — Prhng. &blrd $25. Also new locks $3.50 555-0572
PAINTERS TOOLS — Work bag & clothes. $1-$5/ea. Call 555-7503
PATIO TILE — In/out 6x6 new terra-cotta 21&cent. 555-1544
PING PONG TABLE — Official size V. good, $25. 555-4987
PLAYPEN — $10. Please call 555-1915
PORT. TV — BW 6" $15, record player $10/bo. 555-3575
ROLLER — 30" x 12" concrete filled, $25. 555-6040
RUG RUNNER BRAIDED — Mauve 29"W x 11'L $20. 555-4101
SALTON ELECTRIC WARMER SERVING CART — $25. 555-4283
SCHWINN STINGRAY — $20. ladies 26" $25. 555-7456
$25 and under
SCREWS — Black type 2"& 2 1/2" 13 lbs. $25. 555-5434
SEARS MOWERS — Mechanics special pair $25. 555-3432
SHEETMOSS — 1/2 box to line wire basket, $13. 555-0234
SHORTS — 25 pair girls, some new sz. 12, $15. 555-0627
SILVERPLATE PLATTER — $20. 8mm movie camera. 555-7456
SKATES — In line roller like new $20/bo. 555-6009
SOFA BED — Sleeps (2) good $25. After 6, 555-1159
STORM DOOR — Screen 80 x 35 3/4, $25. 555-1138
STREET HOCKEY NET — $10 new in box. 555-1660
TABLE — Wrought Iron round 38", $25. 555-8380
TALL END TABLE — lamp & shade $15. 555-0750
TENT — 9x9 umbrella exc. cond., $25. 555-2674
TIRES — P235/75R15 on GM rims $20/ea. 555-6296
$25 and under
TIRES — On rims Ford Ranger pair $25. 555-3432
TRAILER HITCH — $20/bo. Call 555-5038
TRX CYCLE — For child old $20. 555-5038 good.
TYPEWRITERS — Elec, manual, $10. & $5. Port. Singer sew. mach. $15. 555-0219
VACUUM — Canister style, good $25. 555-7456
VACUUM — Hoover Canister $25. all attach. 555-8428
WARN WINCH FRONT BUMPER — Black $25. 555-8109
WATER LILLIES — Variety comanche $15. 555-2569
WINDOW FAN — 18- w/slides $25. 555-2660
WINDSHIELD — 71'-75' caddy CPE, $25. 555-6296
$26 to $100
6 NEW CABLE REMOTES — For TKR box $35/ea. 555-3950
AIR CONDITIONER CASEMENT WINDOW — $100 firm. 555-5422
BED — 4 poster maple $50, cushion patio set, $70. 555-8876
$26 to $100
BEDROOM FURN. — 1940's waterfall col, wardrobe clos, dresser/ngtstnd, nds. refin, $65. 555-7503
BIKE — Ladies Schwinn 10spd., 24", $75. exc. cond. 555-9571
BIKE — 26 3 speed runs OK 1st $50. after 3PM 555-7154
CAMARO THM350 MALIBU — THM 350 $75. 555-2135 lv. msg.
CHAIR — Stratlounger excel. cond., $75. 555-5434
COLOR TV'S — 2. 15" and 17". $80 and $90. Call anytime. 555-6373
DRAFTING TABLE — Lamp & chair $60. 555-9389
EXERCISE BIKE — White, lk. new, $65. Call Michael 555-2503
FORD C-4 AUTO TRANS — $75. Call 555-0140
GAS STOVE — 30" glass door, good cond. $100. 555-0958
GOLF CLUB SET — Irons, woods, bag, $85. 555-7258
GRATEFUL DEAD TICKETS — (6) great seats $65/ea. 555-1377
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$26 to $100
HAYWARD EARTH FILTER — 3/4 hp. asking $100. Call 555-5547
HEALTH MEMBERSHIP — Hamilton Fitness Club, $100. Call 10-8 555-7223
LAWN MOWERS — $25/up. A-1 cond. Call 555-9232
LAWNMOWER — Lawnboy, 21" self prop. $75. 555-5147
LAWNMOWER — 21" self-prop. rear bag $90. 555-8428
MEN 12 SPD BIKE — $55, brand new. Baby monitor, $20. Wood high chair, $25. 555-1561
MOVING — Computer hutch, $35. Call John in Lawrenceville. 555-8083
MOWER — Gas 21 Briggs runs good $55. 3-6PM 555-7154
$26 to $100
POSTAGE STAMP COLLECTION — Mostly U.S. $50. 555-9505
REDWOOD — 48" round table 3 benches, $50. 555-0233
REFRIG. — Washer, dryer-stove $90/bo good. 555-0076
REFRIGERATOR — Good. cond. $100. LIPTON MICROWAVE, $50. 555-2640
REFRIGERATOR — Large sideXside $95. 555-3592
REMOTE PLANE — & all to fly $100/bo Dennis. 555-1321
SEGA GENESIS GAMES — $30 ea. Like new. Call Steve at 555-6153 afternoons & eves.
SKIER ROWER — Good cond. $80. Call 555-9581
SMITH CORONA — electronic typewriter, new $75. 555-7384
SOFA — $100, Chair $50, kitchen table $10. 555-2152
SOFA — Chair ottoman, blue flowered, $100. 555-3220
SOFABED — Like new, beige, blues, browns $89. 555-6806
STEREO — HI-FI Cabinet type, 8-track AM/FM, $40. 555-4987
TABLE & 4 CHAIRS — Glass & oak top, $65. 555-9389
TATUNG MONITOR — $40. Call 555-5383
TENT — 2 person yellow/teal canvas, no flr, but incl. 2 infl. mattr, $30. 555-7503
TYPEWRITER — Electric, $40. Smith-Corona 555-8428
YAMAHA 500 DIRTBIKE — Not Running, $100. Call 555-9332
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268. Which three types of information are usually found in these classified ads?
A. Original cost, age of item, size of item
B. Item description, home address, phone number
C. Phone number, item description, cost of the item
D. Item condition, seller's name, time of day to call
National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education
269. It is possible to place a free ad in the Bargain Basement section. If you want to place a free ad, your
items must be
A. sold within five days
B. priced at $25 or less
C. in good condition
D. inspected by the editor
National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education
270. Abbreviations in the ads are useful because they
A. communicate information while saving space.
B. allow for different interpretations.
C. make each section more interesting.
D. make the items within a section appear to be similar.
National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education
143
8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
THANK YOU, M'AM
by Langston Hughes
She was a large woman with a large purse that had everything in it but a hammer and nails. It had a long strap, and she carried
it slung across her shoulder. It was about eleven o'clock at night, dark, and she was walking alone, when a boy ran up behind
her and tried to snatch her purse. The strap broke with a sudden single tug the boy gave it from behind. But the boy's weight
and the weight of the purse combined caused him to lose his balance. Instead of taking off full blast as he had hoped, the boy
fell on his back on the sidewalk and his legs flew up. The large woman simply turned around and kicked him right square in his
blue-jeaned sitter. Then she reached down, picked the boy up by his shirtfront, and shook him until his teeth rattled.
After that the woman said, "Pick up my pocketbook, boy, and give it here."
She still held him tightly. But she bent down enough to permit him to stoop and pick up her purse. Then she said, "Now ain't you
ashamed of yourself?"
Firmly gripped by his shirtfront, the boy said, "Yes'm."
The woman said, "What did you want to do it for?"
The boy said, "I didn't aim to."
She said, "You a lie!"
By that time two or three people passed, stopped, turned to look, and some stood watching.
"If I turn you loose, will you run?" asked the woman.
"Yes'm," said the boy.
"Then I won't turn you loose," said the woman. She did not release him.
"Lady, I'm sorry," whispered the boy.
"Um-hum! Your face is dirty. I got a great mind to wash your face for you. Ain't you got nobody home to tell you to wash your
face?"
"No'm," said the boy.
"Then it will get washed this evening," said the large woman, starting up the street, dragging the frightened boy behind her.
He looked as if he were fourteen or fifteen, frail and willow-wild, in tennis shoes and blue jeans.
The woman said, "You ought to be my son. I would teach you right from wrong. Least I can do right now is to wash your face.
Are you hungry?"
"No'm," said the being-dragged boy. "I just want you to turn me loose."
"Was I bothering you when I turned that corner?" asked the woman.
"No'm."
"But you put yourself in contact with me," said the woman. "If you think that contact is not going to last awhile, you got another
thought coming. When I get through with you, sir, you are going to remember Mrs. Luella Bates Washington Jones."
Sweat popped out on the boy's face and he began to struggle. Mrs. Jones stopped, jerked him around in front of her, put a half
nelson about his neck, and continued to drag him up the street. When she got to her door, she dragged the boy inside, down a
hall, and into a large kitchenette-furnished room at the rear of the house. She switched on the light and left the door open. The
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boy could hear other roomers laughing and talking in the large house. Some of their doors were open, too, so he knew he and
the woman were not alone. The woman still had him by the neck in the middle of her room.
She said, "What is your name?"
"Roger," answered the boy.
"Then, Roger, you go to that sink and wash your face," said the woman, whereupon she turned him loose—at last. Roger looked
at the door—looked at the woman—looked at the door—and went to the sink.
"Let the water run until it gets warm," she said. "Here's a clean towel."
"You gonna take me to jail?" asked the boy, bending over the sink.
"Not with that face, I would not take you nowhere," said the woman. "Here I am trying to get home to cook me a bite to eat, and
you snatch my pocketbook! Maybe you ain't been to your supper either, late as it be. Have you?"
"There's nobody home at my house," said the boy.
"Then we'll eat," said the woman. "I believe you're hungry—or been hungry—to try to snatch my pocketbook!"
"I want a pair of blue suede shoes," said the boy.
"Well, you didn't have to snatch my pocketbook to get some suede shoes," said Mrs. Luella Bates Washington Jones. "You
could've asked me."
"M'am?"
The water dripping from his face, the boy looked at her. There was a long pause. A very long pause. After he had dried his face
and not knowing what else to do, dried it again, the boy turned around, wondering what next. The door was open. He could
make a dash for it down the hall. He could run, run, run, run!
The woman was sitting on the daybed. After a while she said, "I were young once and I wanted things I could not get."
There was another long pause. The boy's mouth opened. Then he frowned, not knowing he frowned.
The woman said, "Um-hum! You thought I was going to say but didn't you? You thought I was going to say, but I didn't snatch
people's pocketbooks. Well, I wasn't going to say that." Pause. Silence. "I have done things, too, which I would not tell you, son.
Everybody's got something in common. So you set down while I fix us something to eat. You might run that comb through your
hair so you will look presentable."
In another corner of the room behind a screen was a gas plate and an icebox. Mrs. Jones got up and went behind the screen.
The woman did not watch the boy to see if he was going to run now, nor did she watch her purse, which she left behind her on
the daybed. But the boy took care to sit on the far side of the room, away from the purse, where he thought she could easily see
him out of the corner of her eye if she wanted to. He did not trust the woman not to trust him. And he did not want to be
mistrusted now.
"Do you need somebody to go to the store," asked the boy, "maybe to get some milk or something?"
"Don't believe I do," said the woman, "unless you just want sweet milk yourself. I was going to make cocoa out of this canned
milk I got here."
"That will be fine," said the boy.
She heated some lima beans and ham she had in the icebox, made the cocoa, and set the table. The woman did not ask the
boy anything about where he lived, or his folks, or anything else that would embarrass him. Instead, as they ate, she told him
about her job in a hotel beauty shop that stayed open late, what the work was like, and how all kinds of women came in and out,
blondes, redheads, and Spanish. Then she cut him a half of her ten-cent cake.
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"Eat some more, son," she said.
When they were finished eating, she got up and said, "Now here, take this ten dollars and buy yourself some blue suede shoes.
And next time, do not make the mistake of latching onto my pocketbook nor nobody else's. I got to get my rest now. But from here
on in, son, I hope you will behave yourself."
She led him down the hall to the front door and opened it. "Good night! Behave yourself, boy!" she said, looking out into the
street as he went down the steps.
The boy wanted to say something other than, "Thank you, m'am," to Mrs. Luella Bates Washington Jones, but although his lips
moved, he couldn't even say that as he turned at the foot of the barren stoop and looked up at the large woman in the door.
Then she shut the door.
"Thank You M'am" from SHORT STORIES by Langston Hughes. Copyright © 1996 by Ramona Bass and Arnold Rampersad.
Reprinted by permission of Hill and Wang, a division of Farrar, Straus and Giroux, LLC.
CAUTION: Users are warned that this work is protected under copyright laws and downloading is strictly prohibited. The right to
reproduce or transfer the work via any medium must be secured with Farrar, Straus and Giroux, LLC.
271. What is an acceptable way to place a $1 Bargain Basement ad in this newspaper?
A. Phone in the ad, pay by credit card
B. Phone in the ad, pay by money order
C. Mail the ad, pay by cash
D. Mail the ad, pay by check
National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education
272. Which of the following best describes the boy's feelings in the story?
A. Frightened then trusting
B. Angry then hungry
C. Greedy then generous
D. Curious then nervous
National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
Instructions for Form 1040EZ
Use this
form if:
Your filing status is single.
You were under 65 and not
blind.
You do not claim any
Your taxable income (line 5) is
·
dependents.
·
less than $50,000.
You had only wages, salaries, tips, and taxable scholarships or
·
fellowships, and your taxable interest income was $400 or less.
Caution: If you earned tips (including allocated tips) that are not included in
Box 14 of your W-2, you may not be able to use Form 1040EZ. See page 23 in
the booklet.
If you are not sure about your filing status or dependents, see pages
15 through 20 in the booklet.
If you can't use this form, see pages 11 through 13 in the booklet for
which form to use.
·
·
Completing
your return
Please print your numbers inside the boxes. Do not type your numbers.
Do not use dollar signs. You may round off cents to whole dollars. To do
so, drop amounts under 50 cents and increase amounts that are 50 cents
or more. For example, $129.49 becomes $129 and $129.50 becomes
$130. If you round off, do so for all amounts. But if you have to add two or
more amounts to figure the amount to enter on a line, include cents when
adding and round off only the total.
Name &
address
Please use the mailing label we sent you. It can help speed your refund.
After you complete your return, put the label in the name and address
area. Cross out any errors. Print the right information on the label
(including apartment number). If you don't have a label, print your name,
address, and social security number. If your post office does not deliver
mail to your home and you have a P.O. box, show your P.O. box number
instead of your home address.
Presidential
campaign
fund
Congress set up this fund to help pay for Presidential election costs. If
you want $1 of your tax to go to this fund, check the "Yes" box. If you
check "Yes" your tax or refund will not change.
Report
your
income
148
8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
Line 1. If you don't get your W-2 by February 15, contact your
local IRS office. You must still report your wages, salaries, and tips
even if you don't get a W-2 from your employer. Students, if you
received a scholarship or fellowship, see page 23 in the booklet.
Line 2. Banks, savings and loans, credit unions, etc., should send
you a Form 1099-INT showing the amount of taxable interest paid to
you. You must report all your taxable interest even if you don't get a
Form 1099-INT. If you had tax-exempt interest, such as on municipal
bonds, write "TEI" in the space to the left of line 2. After "TEI," show
the amount of your tax-exempt interest. Do not add tax-exempt
interest in the total on line 2.
Line 4. If you checked "Yes" because someone can claim you
as a dependent, fill in this worksheet to figure the amount to enter on
line 4.
Standard deduction
A.
Enter the amountA.
worksheet
from line 1 on front.
for dependents
B.
Minimum amount.B.
500.00
who
C.
Compare the C.
checked "Yes" on
amounts on lines A and
line 4
B above. Enter the
LARGER of the two
amounts here.
D.
Maximum amount.D.
3,100.00
E.
Compare the E.
amounts on lines C and
D. Enter the SMALLER
of the two amounts here
and on line 4 on front.
If you checked "No" because no one can claim you as a
dependent, enter 5,100.00 on line 4. This is the total of your
standard deduction (3,100.00) and personal exemption (2,000.00).
Figure
your tax
Line 6. If you received a Form 1099-INT showing income tax withheld
(backup withholding), include the amount in the total on line 6. To the left
of line 6, write "Form 1099." If you had two or more employers and had
total wages of over $48,000, see page 35 in the booklet.
If you want IRS to figure your tax, skip lines 7 through 9. Then sign and
date your return. If you paid too much tax, we will send you a refund. If
you didn't pay enough tax, we will send you a bill. We won't charge you
interest or a late payment penalty if you pay within 30 days of the notice
date or by April 16, whichever is later. If you want to figure your own tax,
complete the rest of your return.
Amount
you owe
Line 9. If you owe tax, attach your check or money order for the full
amount. Write your social security number, daytime phone number, and
"Form 1040EZ" on your payment.
Sign your
return
You must sign and date your return. If you pay someone to prepare your
return, that person must sign it and show other information. See page 40
in the booklet.
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
Mailing
your return
Mail your return by April 16. Use the envelope that came with your
booklet. If you don't have that envelope, see page 49 in the booklet for
the address.
1040EZ Form (1)
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
Department of the Treasury?Internal Revenue Service
From
1040EZ
Name &
address
Income Tax Return for
Single Filers With No Dependents 1040EZ(5)
OMB No.
1545-0675
L
Print your name (first, initial, last)
A
B
Home address (number and street). (If you have a
Apt.
E
UseL the IRS mailing label. If you don?t have one, please print.
P.O. box, see back.)
no.
H
E
R
E
Please print
your numbers
like this:
Your social
security
number
City, town or post office, state, and ZIP code.
Instructions are on the back. Also, see the Form
1040A/1040EZ booklet, especially the checklist on page
14.
Presidential Election
Campaign Fund
Do you want $1 to go to this
fund?
Report
your
income
Note: You
must check
Yes or No.
Note: Checking
?Yes? will not change
your tax or reduce your
refund.
1 Total wages, salaries, and tips. This should be shown in
Box 10 of your W-2 form(s). (Attach your W-2 form(s).) 1
2 Taxable interest income of $400 or less. If the total is
more than $400, you cannot use Form 1040EZ.
2
3 Add lines 1 and 2. This is your adjusted gross income.
3
4 Can your parents (or someone else) claim you on their
return?
Yes.
Do worksheet on back; enter
amount from line E here.
No.
Enter 5,100. This is the total of
your standard deduction and
personal exemption.
4
Figure
your
tax
5 Subtract line 4 from line 3. If line 4 is larger than line 3,
enter 0. This is your taxable income.
5
6 Enter your Federal income tax withheld from Box 9 of
your W-2 form(s).
6
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
7 Tax. Use the amount on line 5 to look up your tax in the
tax table. Use the single column in the table. Enter the tax
from the table on this line.
7
Refund
or
amount
you owe
8 If line 6 is larger than line 7, subtract line 7 from line 6.
This is your refund.
8
Attach tax
payment here.
9 If line 7 is larger than line 6, subtract line 6 from line 7.
This is the amount you owe. Attach check or money order
for the full amount, payable to the "Internal Revenue
Service."
9
Sign
your
return
I have read this return. Under penalties of perjury, I
declare that to the best of my knowledge and belief, the
return is true, correct, and complete.
(Keep a copy
of this form
for your
records.)
Your signature
Date
X
For Privacy Act and Paperwork Reduction Act Notice, see page 3 in the
booklet.
Form
1040EZ
273. The purpose of the tax table is to help you determine
A. your gross income.
B. the amount of tax you owe.
C. your net earnings.
D. your allowable deductions.
National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education
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274. If you cannot be claimed as someone's dependent, what is the maximum amount you can claim for a
personal exemption?
A. $5,100
B. $3,100
C. $2,000
D. $500
National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education
275. What should you do if you have tax-exempt interest?
A. Ignore the fact that you have the interest and do not report it.
B. Obtain a separate interest-exemption tax form.
C. Write the amount of interest and the letters TEI to the left of line 2.
D. Add the amount of interest to your taxable income total on line 2.
National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education
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Franklin's First Day in Philadelphia
By: Benjamin Franklin
I arrived in Philly about eight or nine o'clock on Sunday morning. I was in my working dress. I was dirty from my
journey; my pockets were stuffed with shirts and stockings, and I knew no soul, nor where to look for lodging. I was
fatigued with traveling, rowing, and want of rest; I was very hungry, and my whole stock of cash consisted of a Dutch
dollar and about a shilling in copper. The latter I gave the people of the boat for my passage, who at first refused it, on
account of my rowing; but I insisted on their taking it, a man being sometimes more generous when he has but a little
money than when he has plenty, perhaps through fear of being thought to have but little.
Then I walked up the street gazing about, till near the markethouse, I met a boy with bread. I had made many a meal
on bread, and, inquiring where he got it, I went immediately to the baker's he directed me to, in Second Street, and
asked for biscuit, intending such as we had in Boston; but they, it seems, were not made in Philadelphia. Then I asked
for a threepenny loaf, and was told they had none such. So, not considering or knowing the difference of money, and
the greater cheapness nor the names of his bread, I bade him give me threepenny-worth of any sort. He gave me,
accordingly, three great puffy rolls. I was surprised at the quantity, but took it, and, having no room in my pockets,
walked off with a roll under each arm, and eating the other. Thus I went up Market Street as far as Fourth Street,
passing by the door of Mr. Reed, my future wife's father; when she, standing at the door, saw me, and thought I made,
as I certainly did, a most awkward, ridiculous appearance. Then I turned and went down Chestnut Street and part of
Walnut Street, eating my roll all the way, and, coming round, found myself again at Market Street wharf, near the
boat I came in, to which I went for a draught of the river water; and, being filled with one of my rolls, gave the other
two to a woman and her child that came down the river in the boat with us and were waiting to go farther.
Thus refreshed, I walked again up the street, which by this time had many clean-dressed people in it, who were all
walking the same way. I joined them, and thereby was led into the great meetinghouse of the Quakers near the
market. I sat down among them, and, after looking round a while and hearing nothing said, being very drowsy
through labor and want of rest the preceding night, I fell fast asleep, and continued so till the meeting broke up, when
one was kind enough to rouse me. This was, therefore, the first house I was in, or slept in, in Philadelphia.
276.
Which BEST explains why the author wrote this passage?
A. to show how he met his future wife
B. to explain why he was in Philadelphia
C. to describe his boat trip to Philadelphia
D. to tell about something that actually happened to him
277.
Franklin's words "...being filled with one of my rolls, gave the other two to a woman and her child that came down the
river in the boat with us and were waiting to go farther" show that he was
A. generous.
B. impatient.
C. selfish.
D. tired.
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278.
What effect does the description of Franklin carrying the rolls provide?
A. It adds a bit of humor.
B. It shows how tired he was.
C. It reveals how hungry he was.
D. It tells how he first met his wife.
279.
Why did Franklin insist on paying for his boat trip?
A. He didn't feel that helping by rowing was enough.
B. He didn't want to be perceived as having no money.
C. He wanted to preserve his wealthy family's reputation.
D. He knew that the boat's owners would expect him to pay.
280.
What trait does Franklin display in this passage?
A. shyness
B. independence
C. determination
D. unselfishness
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How to Write a Novel in Thirty Days
By: Amanda Thornton
Day 1:
- Buy some manila folders and label each of them with a chapter number. 90,000 words (the average length of most
novels) seems like an unimaginable amount, but completing small slices of 3,000 words each is a more realistic goal.
- Write a short outline for each chapter and paste it inside each folder.
- Arrange a plot-line map and stick this on the wall in front of your work space.
Day 2:
Create your character profiles in as much depth as you can. Have fun. Be creative with their personalities and
appearance. Invent pasts for them, including family and friends. Imagine you are the casting director who has to find
actors to play the characters in the movie version of your novel. Find images or cut out pictures of people who remind
of you that character. Hang these up in your work space to give yourself the sense that these people are "with" you as
you write.
Day 3:
Add your characters' intended activities and actions to the short outlines pasted in your manilla folders. Double-check
that the plot is still on track. Start thinking about the background details that will enhance your fictional world. Make
sure your characters' pasts are consistent with the things they are doing NOW. A person who was abandoned as a
child will not just suddenly open up and trust easily, for example.
Days 4 - 29
- Create or set aside some spare time to write. Don't make excuses, don't let yourself get sidetracked with more
planning, and don't re-do what you have already done.
- Sit down and fill in the details of those short outlines you made.
- Forget all about grammar and mechanics. Don't worry about background detail or making it perfect yet. Just write
the bare bones of a scene that will get you from one chapter to the next. If you set yourself a target goal of writing
3,000 words per day, then in 26 days you will have an 80,000 word first draft of a completed novel.
Day 30:
Celebrate by taking an entire day to goof off. You've finished a (very) rough draft, and it needs lots of work. Some
famous author once said, "I can fix a bad page, but I can't fix a blank one." He's right. You can worry about that
tomorrow.
281.
In order to write a novel in 30 days, the author breaks up the time into how many chunks or assignments?
A. 2
B. 4
C. 5
D. 30
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282.
On Day 1, the author says that the average length of most novels is 90,000 words. In which section does a different
word count for a completed novel appear?
A. Day 2
B. Day 3
C. Day 30
D. Days 4-29
283.
If an author followed these directions, what would be the next logical step AFTER day 30?
A. Start a second novel.
B. Revise and edit the novel.
C. Send the novel to an agent.
D. Send the novel to a publisher.
284.
When does the author recommend extending the short outline of each chapter pasted in the manila folders on Day 1?
A. Day 2
B. Day 3
C. Days 4-29
D. Day 30
285.
Why does the author say to forget about grammar and mechanics in the Days 4-29 section?
A. This is the final draft.
B. This is covered in Days 1-3.
C. The author never needs to address those things.
D. The author can proofread for those things later.
286.
This passage would probably be MOST helpful to whom?
A. authors who have finished a rough draft
B. authors who can't think of what to write
C. authors who have trouble staying organized
D. authors whose fans are waiting for the next book
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Kitchen Cleaning Instructions
By: Amanda Thornton
To properly clean this kitchen:
1. Gather all dishes, cookware and utensils. Stack to the left of the sink.
2. Rinse/sponge off stuck on food before loading dishes in dishwasher. Run garbage disposal as needed.
3. Load glasses and cups to the left two rows of top rack. Put 24 oz. or larger cups on the bottom rack.
4. Load bowls from smallest to largest in a straight line on the far right of the top rack.
5. Load plates (all sizes except small coffee saucers) on the front of bottom either side of the utensil rack.
6. Load utensils in utensil rack, reserving the biggest opening for sippy cup tops and large items. Make sure sharp
knives are pointed DOWN!
7. Load larger cookware and serving bowls on bottom, but if the racks don't slide closed EASILY, either reload or
hand wash that item. The big black spaghetti pot will NOT fit in the dishwasher.
8. Items that cannot go in dishwasher include but are not limited to:
VERY LARGE BOWLS AND POTS
ANYTHING WITH A GOLD RIM - never wash crystal glasses in dishwasher!!
ANYTHING THAT LOOKS FRAGILE - like crystal serveware - should be washed by hand, dried and put away
9. DO NOT wash the large flat broiler pans in the dishwasher. They do not fit.
10. DO NOT wash cast iron skillets with soap. Use the brush and get all food off, rinse with water and DRY
IMMEDIATELY!! Iron + water = RUST!
11. All counters/bar should be wiped off with a clean white rag and bleach cleaner - move stuff and clean behind it!!!
12. Scrub the glass stovetop using a sponge with a non-scratch scrubbing side. Use glass stove cleaner, and BE SURE
to dry it so you don't leave streaks. Wipe off the range hood and back of stove, removing all seasoning containers
before you do.
13. Wipe off the outside of the microwave and all other appliances that sit out on counters, moving them if necessary
to get the counters clean.
14. DON'T forget the steamer - empty out the water, wash the containers and tops. This is very important as the water
in the steamer will grow mold if not cleaned out every time it is used.
15. Clean out the sink, using a sponge to scrub it. Put all sponges in dishwasher when done. Put detergent in the
dishwasher.
16. Start the dishwasher - always make sure the buttons are on "scrub" and "drying heat."
17. Move all the bar stools and sweep or vacuum the floor, then either spot mop or wipe up any wet food and spills. If
the floor around the dishwasher and sink are wet, dry them with an old towel BEFORE you sweep or vacuum, since
water will clog the vacuum or make the broom drag dirt around.
18. Put items that don't belong in the kitchen away WHERE THEY GO, or have the item's owner come and get it.
19. Throw cleaning cloths down laundry chute to be washed. DO NOT leave dirty cloths and sponges in the sink.
287.
Why should sharp knives be loaded into the dishwasher pointing downward?
A. to keep the blades shiny
B. to keep them consistent with other utensils
C. to keep their handles from coming in contact with other utensils
D. to keep them from cutting a person's hand when loading the rest of the dishes or unloading later
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288.
The instructions specifically say that cups 24 oz. or larger should be placed on the bottom rack of the dishwasher.
What is the most logical reason for this?
A. These cups are more fragile.
B. These cups contain more liquid.
C. These cups do not match the smaller cups in style.
D. These cups are either too tall or too wide for the top rack.
289.
Why must a special sponge with a non-scratch scrubbing side be used on the stove?
A. The stovetop is shiny.
B. The stovetop is glass.
C. The stovetop is scratchy.
D. The stovetop is very dirty.
290.
According to the instructions, what is the proper sequence for loading the dishwasher?
A. glasses and cups, bowls, pots and pans, serving bowls, utensils
B. bowls, glasses and cups, pots and pans, serving bowls, utensils
C. utensils, pots and pans, serving bowls, glasses and cups, bowls, plates
D. glasses and cups, bowls, plates, utensils, pots and pans, large serving bowls
291.
Why must cast iron skillets be dried completely?
A. They are heavy.
B. They will rust.
C. They have to be put away.
D. All the food must be removed.
292.
Although loading the dishwasher is among the first tasks to be completed, the author does not say to start the
dishwasher until after counters, stove, and sink are cleaned. What is a possible reason for this?
A. The dishwasher won't start until those tasks are completed.
B. The dishwasher must be started before the floor is swept or vacuumed.
C. The person in the kitchen may need to complete other tasks in a particular order before it starts.
D. Additional items from counters, stove, or sink may need to go in the dishwasher.
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The Nail
By: Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm
A merchant had done good business at the fair; he had sold his wares, and had lined his purses with gold and silver.
Then he wanted to travel homeward, and to be in his own house before nightfall. So he packed his trunk with money,
placed it on his horse, and then he rode away.
At noon he rested in a town; and when he wanted to go on, the stableboy brought out the horse, and said, "A nail is
wanting, sir, in the shoe of the left hind foot."
"Let it be wanting," answered the merchant; "the shoe will certainly stay on for the six miles I have still to go. I am in
a hurry."
In the afternoon, when he stopped once more to have his horse fed, the stableboy came to him and said, "Sir, the shoe
is missing from your horse's left hind foot. Shall I take him to the blacksmith?"
"Let it still be wanting," answered the man; "the horse can very well go on for the two miles that I have yet to go. I
am in haste."
He rode forth; but before long the horse began to limp. He had not limped long before he began to stumble; he had
not stumbled long before he fell down and broke a leg.
The merchant was forced to leave the horse where he was, unbuckle the trunk, take it on his back, and go home on
foot.
He did not get there till late that night. "And that unlucky nail," said he to himself, "has caused all this trouble."
293.
Which is a theme for this story?
A. Small things never lead to bigger things.
B. Be sure to check your horse before you travel.
C. A small problem is the only problem you will have.
D. Don't put off until tomorrow what you can do today.
294.
The merchant in this passage is
A. happy to lose his horse.
B. interested in small details.
C. successful at the fair.
D. planning to stay at the fair.
295.
The conflict in this story occurs between
A. the merchant and the horse.
B. the merchant and his money.
C. the merchant and the weather.
D. the merchant and his impatience.
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296.
In this story, you can tell that the merchant
A. loves his horse dearly.
B. doesn't care whether it rains or not.
C. wishes that he had made more money at the fair.
D. is too stubborn to take the time to repair the nail in the horse's shoe.
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Poor Richard's Almanac/The Nail
By: Benjamin Franklin/Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm
SELECTION A
Poor Richard's Almanac
by Benjamin Franklin
For want of a nail the shoe was lost;
For want of a shoe the horse was lost;
For want of a horse the rider was lost;
For want of a rider the battle was lost;
5
For want of a battle the country was lost;
And all for the want of a twopenny nail.
SELECTION B
The Nail
by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm
A merchant had done good business at the fair; he had sold his wares, and had lined his purses with gold and silver.
Then he wanted to travel homeward, and to be in his own house before nightfall. So he packed his trunk with money,
placed it on his horse, and then he rode away.
At noon he rested in a town; and when he wanted to go on, the stableboy brought out the horse, and said, "A nail is
wanting, sir, in the shoe of the left hind foot."
"Let it be wanting," answered the merchant; "the shoe will certainly stay on for the six miles I have still to go. I am in
a hurry."
In the afternoon, when he stopped once more to have his horse fed, the stableboy came to him and said, "Sir, the shoe
is missing from your horse's left hind foot. Shall I take him to the blacksmith?"
"Let it still be wanting," answered the man; "the horse can very well go on for the two miles that I have yet to go. I
am in haste."
He rode forth; but before long the horse began to limp. He had not limped long before he began to stumble; he had
not stumbled long before he fell down and broke a leg.
The merchant was forced to leave the horse where he was, unbuckle the trunk, take it on his back, and go home on
foot.
He did not get there till late that night. "And that unlucky nail," said he to himself, "has caused all this trouble."
297.
What is one way that these two passages are alike?
A. They were both written at the same time.
B. They were both written in the same style.
C. They were both written by the same author.
D. They were both written with the same theme.
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298.
Which is a main topic in both passages?
A. significance of lost battles
B. significance of injured horses
C. significance of small problems
D. significance of selfish merchants
299.
What is a theme of both passages?
A. Small problems aren't important.
B. A nail is lost from a the horse's hoof.
C. Don't worry about what will happen tomorrow.
D. Take care of small things before they become big things.
300.
Which is true of the two passages?
A. One is prose, and the other is poetry.
B. One has a theme, and the other doesn't.
C. One teaches a lesson, and the other doesn't.
D. One tells about a horse, and the other doesn't.
301.
The MAIN difference in the two passages is the
A. form.
B. meaning.
C. subject.
D. theme.
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Formal dinner table service
By: Amanda Thornton
1. Napkin will be shaken out and placed in male guest?s lap by server. Server will pull chairs back for female guest,
shake out napkin and OFFER it to guest. Under NO circumstances is the server to place a napkin in the lap of a
female guest!
2. If guests do not drink wine, they will often turn the wine glass upside down on the table as a signal to the server
that wine is not desired. Servers should remove these glasses quickly and discreetly.
3. If wine glass is not turned over, do not automatically pour wine until first checking with the guest. Many guests
will choose not to drink wine, but do not know that turning over the glass is the signal to the waiter that wine is not
desired.
4. White wine will be served first, as the soup choice is either clear broth or cold summer fruit soup. However, if a
guest wishes for red wine, pour this instead.
5. The soup bowl should be removed AFTER the soup course. If a guest does not want soup, the soup bowl can be
removed at the time soups are served.
6. Bread baskets will be on the table during the soup course. Servers should keep these baskets filled during the meal.
Servers should also check the small butter dishes and keep these refilled also.
7. During the course of the meal, servers may remove utensils as they are used IF they are placed crosswise on the
empty plate or stacked on the right-hand edge of the plate. If they are not, do not remove them, even if they are not
needed for that course. Guests may prefer to use the salad fork for the fish course, and although this is a formal
dinner, the goal of the server is to make sure each guest is as comfortable as possible.
8. Dessert spoon and cake fork should not be touched until guests have left the table, even if they do not eat dessert.
The wedding cake will be cut during this time, and guests who turn down the dessert choices will likely eat wedding
cake and will want to bring this back to the table during dancing. Coffee will be offered and served during the dessert
course and for the remainder of the evening afterward at guest?s request.
9. When toasts are given, especially after the meal, severs may need to bring a wine glass to those guests who did not
drink wine with dinner. Make sure clean wine glasses are on hand. Champagne flutes will be served on trays after the
wedding cake is cut.
10. Any server who encounters a problem he is not prepared for should check with the catering coordinator for further
instructions on how to handle that problem.
302.
For which event were the instructions written?
A. an awards banquet
B. a political dinner
C. a wedding reception
D. a birthday celebration
303.
For which course might guests want to use a salad fork besides the salad course?
A. the soup course
B. the main course
C. the fish course
D. the dessert course
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304.
What is the signal to the server that a guest does not want wine?
A. The guest gives the wine glass to the server.
B. The guest asks that the wine glass be removed.
C. The server takes the glass after the first course.
D. The guest turns the wine glass upside down on the table.
305.
How does a guest demonstrate that she does not want wine?
A. She turns the glass over.
B. She puts a napkin in the glass.
C. She puts the glass on the floor.
D. She puts the glass on another table.
306.
When should the soup bowl be removed?
A. after the soup course
B. at the time the soup course is served
C. when wine is offered with the soup course
D. either at the time soup course is served or after the soup course
307.
What instruction is given about bread and butter?
A. Bread will be served with soup course only.
B. Servers should offer bread throughout the meal.
C. Bread and butter should be removed after the dessert course.
D. Servers should refill bread baskets and butter dishes throughout the meal.
308.
What is the main goal of the server?
A. to make sure guests get enough food
B. to make sure guests have a good time
C. to make sure guests use good table manners
D. to make sure guests feel as comfortable as possible
309.
According to the passage, why should the dessert spoon and cake fork be left on the table?
A. Guests may want to eat dessert after they have coffee.
B. Guests may need the spoon or fork for the toast course.
C. Guests may turn down dessert choices but change their mind later.
D. Guests may need their dessert spoon or cake fork for wedding cake.
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310.
What signals the server that a guest does not want wine?
A. The guest requests coffee.
B. The guest places his fork across his plate.
C. The guest turns his wine glass upside down on the table.
D. The guest finishes eating his first course and begins the second course.
Spring
By: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
In all climates spring is beautiful. The birds begin to sing; they utter a few joyful notes, and then wait for an answer in
the silent woods. Those green-coated musicians, the frogs, make holiday in the neighboring marshes. They, too,
belong to the orchestra of nature, whose vast theater is opened, though the doors have been so long bolted with
icicles, and the scenery hung with snow and frost like cobwebs. This is the prelude which announces the opening of
the scene. Already the grass shoots forth, the waters leap with thrilling force through the veins of the earth, the sap
through the veins of the plants and trees, the blood through the veins of man. What a thrill of delight in springtime!
What a joy in being and moving. Men are at work in gardens, and in the air there is an odor of the fresh earth. The
leaf buds begin to swell and blush. The white blossoms of the cherry hang upon the boughs like snowflakes; and ere
long our next door neighbor will be completely hidden from us by the dense green foliage. The May flowers open
their soft blue eyes. And at night so cloudless and so still! Overhead bends the blue sky, dewy and soft, and radiant
with innumerable stars, like the inverted bell of some blue flower sprinkled with golden dust and breathing fragrance.
Or, if the heavens are overcast, it is no wild storm of wind and rain, but clouds that melt and fall in showers. One does
not wish to sleep, but lies awake to hear the pleasant sound of the dropping rain.
311.
Which does the author use to create the mood of the passage?
A. ballad
B. characters
C. internal rhyme
D. descriptive details
312.
The passage appeals to all of the senses EXCEPT
A. hearing.
B. sight.
C. smell.
D. taste.
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313.
Which word BEST describes the author's attitude toward spring?
A. calm
B. hopeful
C. joyful
D. surprised
314.
What is the author's purpose in writing this passage?
A. to tell a story about spring
B. to explain the arrival of spring
C. to describe how terrible winter has been
D. to express his feelings and emotions about spring
I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud
By: William Wordsworth
I wandered lonely as a cloud
That floats on high o'er vales and hills,
When all at once I saw a crowd,
A host, of golden daffodils;
5
Beside the lake, beneath the trees,
Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.
Continuous as the stars that shine
And twinkle on the milky way,
They stretched in never-ending line
10
Along the margin of a bay:
Ten thousand saw I at a glance,
Tossing their heads in sprightly dance.
The waves beside them danced; but they
Out-did the sparkling waves in glee:
15
A poet could not but be gay,
In such a jocund company
I gazed--and gazed--but little thought
What wealth the show to me had brought:
For oft, when on my couch I lie
20
In vacant or in pensive mood,
They flash upon that inward eye
Which is the bliss of solitude;
And then my heart with pleasure fills,
And dances with the daffodils.
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315.
Which of the following phrases adds to the poem's positive mood?
A. "lonely as a cloud"
B. "upon that inward eye"
C. "in vacant or in pensive mood"
D. "fluttering and dancing in the breeze"
316.
The wealth in line 18 refers to
A. the perfumed scent of the daffodils.
B. the number of flowers by the lakeside.
C. the mental benefits the speaker experiences.
D. the money the speaker could make selling the flowers.
317. The poet creates the mood of the poem by using
A. imagery.
B. hyperbole.
C. characters.
D. internal rhyme.
318.
Which lines from the poem indicate a change in the speaker's mood?
A. I wandered lonely as a cloud That floats on high o'er vales and hills
B. They stretched in never-ending line Along the margin of a bay
C. I gazed--and gazed--but little thought What wealth the show to me had brought
D. And then my heart with pleasure fills, And dances with the daffodils
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The Adventures of Baron Munchausen
By: Raspe
1
Near the banks of a large piece of water, which had engaged my attention, I thought I heard a rustling noise behind;
on turning about I was almost petrified (as who would not be?) at the sight of a lion, which was evidently
approaching with the intention of satisfying his appetite with my poor carcase, and that without asking my consent.
What was to be done in this horrible dilemma? I had not even a moment for reflection; my piece was only charged
with swan-shot, and I had no other about me: however, though I could have no idea of killing such an animal with
that weak kind of ammunition, yet I had some hopes of frightening him by the report, and perhaps of wounding him
also. I immediately let fly, without waiting till he was within reach, and the report did but enrage him, for he now
quickened his pace, and seemed to approach me full speed: I attempted to escape, but that only added (if an addition
could be made) to my distress; for the moment I turned about I found a large crocodile, with his mouth extended
almost ready to receive me. On my right hand was the piece of water before mentioned, and on my left a deep
precipice, said to have, as I have since learned, a receptacle at the bottom for venomous creatures; in short I gave
myself up as lost, for the lion was now upon his hind-legs, just in the act of seizing me; I fell involuntarily to the
ground with fear, and, as it afterwards appeared, he sprang over me.
2
I lay some time in a situation which no language can describe, expecting to feel his teeth or talons in some part of me
every moment: after waiting in this prostrate situation a few seconds I heard a violent but unusual noise, different
from any sound that had ever before assailed my ears; nor is it at all to be wondered at, when I inform you from
whence it proceeded: after listening for some time, I ventured to raise my head and look round, when, to my
unspeakable joy, I perceived the lion had, by the eagerness with which he sprung at me, jumped forward, as I fell,
into the crocodile's mouth! Which, as before observed, was wide open; the head of the one stuck in the throat of the
other! and they were struggling to extricate themselves! I fortunately recollected my couteau de chasse, which was by
my side; with this instrument I severed the lion's head at one blow, and the body fell at my feet! I then, with the
butt-end of my fowling-piece, rammed the head farther into the throat of the crocodile, and destroyed him by
suffocation, for he could neither gorge nor eject it.
3
Soon after I had thus gained a complete victory over my two powerful adversaries, my companion arrived in search
of me; for finding I did not follow him into the wood, he returned, apprehending I had lost my way, or met with some
accident.
4
After mutual congratulations, we measured the crocodile, which was just forty feet in length.
319.
The word petrified as it is used at the beginning of the first paragraph MOST likely means
A. occurred.
B. created.
C. turned to stone.
D. stunned with fear.
320.
The word petrified as used in the first sentence of this passage MOST LIKELY means
A. deadened.
B. turned to stone.
C. made hard or rigid.
D. paralyzed with fear.
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321.
The best meaning for the word report as used in the first paragraph is
A. a loud noise, as of an explosion.
B. an account of a student's grade or progress.
C. to relate or tell about something that happened.
D. a written statement describing something in detail.
322.
The word precipice as used in the first paragraph MOST LIKELY means
A. a very high cliff.
B. a treacherous overhang.
C. the appearance of danger.
D. a crack or opening in the rocks.
323.
The word extricate as used in the second paragraph most likely means
A. to put out a fire.
B. to disengage one's attention.
C. to free or release from entanglement.
D. to distinguish from something closely related.
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ATTENTION 7th AND 8th GRADERS!
SPECIAL WORKSHOP
Writing
Short Stories
for Publication
Sign up before Wednesday, September 26,
to attend the classes
Classes to be held every
Thursday in October
from 7:00 P.M.–8:30 P.M.
in the media center
at Graham Middle School
**Local author Mary Jean Botten will
be the instructor
324.
What is this passage mostly about?
A. a reading workshop
B. a workshop on the writing process
C. a course on the short story
D. classes for short story writers
325.
Where will classes be held?
A. Graham Middle School
B. information not given
C. the county media center
D. Ms. Botten's classroom
326.
In the last line of this passage, Mary Jean Botten is identified as a local author. The purpose of this is
A. to sell her books in local bookstores.
B. to tell her neighbors she's in town.
C. to use her celebrity status to encourage participation.
D. to show off the town's author.
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Waiting
The train stop snack shop
tucked away under tracks.
A dirty stench
Bricks of red, cracked and worn
A sign adapted to escape
repairs
too costly for this neighborhood
The bus stop clip-clop
of heavy heels
passing by in steady rhythm
A filthy awning lets
rain drops drip down
one—by—one
Marring my tidy jacket
and wetting my cleaner hair
327.
This passage is an example of
A. drama.
B. folk tales.
C. myths.
D. poetry.
The American Dream
Is the American dream that hard work leads to success still true? The life of Toni Morrison—the first
African-American woman to win the Nobel Prize in Literature—answers a strong "yes!"
The second of four children, Morrison was born in Lorain, Ohio, in 1931. Her father, who began working at
16, held three jobs to support his family. From an early age, Morrison helped her mother at home.
Although her family and neighbors were poor, people looked out for one another. Morrison grew up
believing that everything you did affected the life of somebody else.
In school, she was an eager student. She especially liked to read. After high school, she attended Howard
University in Washington, D.C., and Cornell University in Ithaca, New York.
When she finished her studies in 1955, she began teaching. While teaching, she married, had two sons, and
began to write.
Since 1967, she has lived in New York City, teaching at various colleges, editing others' books, and writing
her own. She has written six books, a play, and some essays advancing her views on several subjects. She has
received many awards. The most important are the Nobel Prize in 1993 and the Pulitzer Prize in 1988 for the
book Beloved.
With all of these accomplishments, Toni Morrison truly lives the American dream!
328.
The author's purpose is to demonstrate through the life of Toni Morrison proves that
A. people create close communities.
B. people who like to read often like to write.
C. in America you can earn success with hard work.
D. there are many prizes for good writers.
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329.
Morrison's idea that everything she did touched someone else probably made her
A. read as many books as possible.
B. try to do her best at everything.
C. try to hide her mistakes.
D. afraid of getting in trouble.
330.
The author of the passage views Toni Morrison with
A. admiration.
B. jealousy.
C. indifference.
D. uncertainty.
331.
What type of literary form does the passage reflect?
A. folk tale
B. myth
C. nonfiction
D. drama
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Escobar Communications
Visionary Industry Leaders
The Pioneer Court Building
287 W. Denton Place
Suite 300–318
Macon, GA 31204
November 12
Merriam-Webster Junior High School
Mrs. Welsh, Mr. Shaklee, and
The Student Council Planning Committee
7098 W. Language Arts Blvd.
Macon, GA 31204
Dear Faculty and Students:
Thank you for distinguishing our firm with such an exciting offer. We are honored by your request and graciously
accept the invitation to participate in Merriam-Webster's 27th Annual Career Day event. We are available to be there
on any date. Our preference would be to have our company's speakers present toward the end of the week, on
perhaps February 15 or 16.
Our research department has a wealth of material that should lend itself to offering career guidance. We will
gladly organize it into individual student information packets that can be distributed at our booth. Your contact
persons here are: Molly Stride, Dennis Jarvis, and Angela Duncan. They will assist you in any way necessary, even
at these early preplanning stages, to ensure the success of this event.
Our firm has a long and proud history of civic and community involvement. Last year, we received the John
Adams Philpot Award for our program "Step-Up." That award, named for the generous philanthropist, is given every
two years to the company who demonstrates the most original program for community service. Mr. Philpot himself,
in presenting the award, called Escobar Communications a "leader in the state of Georgia."
Again, we thank you for your invitation and look forward to working with you as both a planning agent (if
needed) and a participant.
Sincerely,
Carla Sanchez, Escobar Communications
Director of Communications
CS:glp
P.S. We are preparing a short list of referrals who might also be interested in participating in the event and/or as a
Corporate Partner. Jessie Martin is reviewing your Adopt-A-School Corporate material and will contact you soon.
332.
What is the main purpose of this passage?
A. to honor Merriam-Webster Senior High School
B. to recruit summer employees for Escobar Communications
C. to accept an invitation
D. to assist student leaders
333.
According to Ms. Sanchez, why is Escobar Communications so willing to help?
A. Her company hopes to interest students in volunteer work.
B. Her company takes community responsibility seriously.
C. She is looking for high school graduates to train.
D. She wants to market her products to young people.
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The Novel—
Wright's 1940 novel Native
During the 1920s, African-American literature, Son became a classic portrayal
music, and art flourished in New York City's Harlem of racial oppression. Native
Son was a best seller and was
district. This movement is known as the Harlem
Renaissance. Harlem in the 1920s brought together made into a hit play.
many writers, artists, musicians, and intellectuals who
began to explore the African-American culture in
depth for the first time. Harlem became a thriving
intellectual and cultural community.
African-American theaters, clubs, magazines, and
newspapers flourished.
The Harlem Renaissance
Uncle Tom's Children, Native
Son, 12 Million Black Voices,
and Black Boy
Wright wrote, "Negro life is a
sprawling land of unconscious
suffering."
Three Leading Individuals of the Harlem
Renaissance
Individual
Medium
Famous Works
Langston Hughes
Poetry—
Theme for
(1902–1967) Hughes was one of English B,
•€€€€€€€€ Was the first the first poets to Fortune Teller,
African-American
recreate
Brown Sugar,
writer to make a African-American and Dreams
living solely by his speech and music
craft.
in literature. He
•€€€€€€€€ Wrote not used the beat of
only poetry, but jazz and the wail "Hold fast to
dreams, for if
also short stories, of the blues to
dreams
die, life
plays, and
express his main
is
a
children's books. theme—freedom.
broken-winged
bird that cannot
fly."
Richard Wright
(1908–1960)
•€€€€€€€€ Was born to
a poor family in
the rural South and
had very little
formal education.
•€€€€€€€€ Became one
of the most
important
African-American
writers.
Duke Ellington (1899–1974)
•€€€€€€€€ Led small group of musicians in the early 1920s.
•€€€€€€€€ Eventually played at Harlem's famous Cotton
Club.
•€€€€€€€€ Became internationally known through records
and radio broadcasts.
Jazz—
As a composer, arranger, and
pianist, Ellington had
imaginative musical ideas far
ahead of his time.
Black and Tan Fantasy,
Creole Rhapsody, and In a
Sentimental Mood
Ellington's works helped
make jazz a serious cultural
form of music.
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334.
What pair of art forms is presented on the chart?
A. painting and literature
B. sculpture and painting
C. music and sculpture
D. literature and music
335.
What is the purpose of this passage?
A. to persuade readers to study African-American art forms
B. to describe how American art forms are based on African sources
C. to tell a story about growing up in the 1920s in Harlem
D. to explain the development of African-American culture in Harlem during the 1920s
Martin Luther King, Jr. Middle School Proudly Presents its
10th Annual
Festival Celebrating Cultural Diversity
Come join us for a day full of music, art, dancing, and food from many cultures
When: Saturday, October 22
10 a.m. to 8 p.m.
Where: Martin Luther King, Jr. Middle School
1228 W. Chattahoochee Drive
Atlanta
Admission: $2 per person (no charge for students)
Special Events and Attractions Include:
African dances performed by Femmi Abedego's dance troupe from the African Cultural Center
Korean food from Sue's Noodle Shop
Spanish folk tales told by author Selena Quintalla
Italian breads and pastries from Enza's Little Italy
Indian artwork display presented by artist Samir Desai
Irish music performed by the Dublin Orchestra
We hope to see you there!
Martin Luther King, Jr. Middle School Proudly Presents its
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336.
What is the purpose of this passage?
A. to compare Korean and Italian foods
B. to inform people of an upcoming event
C. to give directions to Martin Luther King, Jr. Middle School
D. to offer lessons in cooking and dancing
337.
What information would BEST help to improve this advertisement?
A. a list of the foods being served
B. a list of the musical selections being played
C. the names of the sponsors of the event
D. the time of each event
338.
In the sentence "We hope to see you there!" the word We refers to
A. the performers.
B. the sponsors.
C. the Martin Luther King, Jr. Middle School.
D. the city of Atlanta.
Come join us for a day full of music, art, dancing, and food from many cultures
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Anansi and Common Sense
Anansi the Spider was a tricky guy. Stories about his trickiness have spread all the way from West Africa to the
Caribbean Islands. This particular story comes from the Caribbean Island of Jamaica. In fact, Anansi was such a
trickster that he often found himself doing things that even tricked himself.
Once Anansi got to thinking about all the tricks he had tried to play on people in the past, and it occurred to him
that a lot of his tricks had not worked at all because people had used a little bit of common sense to keep from being
tricked. Common sense! What an annoyance! The more he thought about it, the more annoyed he became. All of
those perfectly good tricks, ruined! And a lot of them had taken much time and effort to set up! What an
inconvenience it was to have people going around using common sense all of the time to solve their problems and
avoid his tricks.
Anansi thought about the problem of common sense for a long time. He began to scheme and plan a really tricky
trick. He reasoned that since he was a special being, he should be able to gather up all the pieces of common sense
that he found and hide them away inside a big calabash gourd.
So that is what he did. He very carefully picked up every piece of common sense that he found and hid it inside
the calabash.
Anansi was sure that when people realized that they had no more common sense, they would come to him for
advice and guidance. He, of course, would oblige them for a fee and soon he would be very rich.
On and on he went, reaching through open windows, into drainpipes, looking everywhere for scraps of common
sense. It was an immense task, and it took him a very long time, but finally he felt that he had all the common sense
in the world safely tucked away inside the calabash where no one could get at it.
But to make doubly sure that common sense was hidden away for good, Anansi decided to hide the calabash at
the top of a tall palm tree where it would never be found again. He tied a string to the calabash and hung it around his
neck in front of him to make sure none of the common sense spilled out on the way up the tree.
Anansi began to climb the palm tree. Normally, he was a fairly good climber, what with the extra legs and all, but
this time he really had to struggle to get up the trunk of the palm. Each time he tried to pull himself up a little farther,
the calabash would bump against his chest and he would slide down a little. At this rate, he would have to climb all
day!
Anansi was getting more and more frustrated when all at once, he heard a loud laugh from behind him. He turned
to see a boy laughing at him.
"Foolish Anansi! What's the matter with you? You will have to hang that big calabash around your neck behind
you if you expect to be able to carry it as you climb that palm."
Anansi was furious to hear this completely unexpected bit of excellent common sense from the boy, especially
after thinking that he had gathered up and hidden all the common sense in the world. He took the calabash and
smashed it to pieces, sending little bits of common sense flying back all through the world. He walked away
muttering to himself.
So, thanks to Anansi cleverly tricking himself, everyone in the world has a little bit of common sense and nobody
has it all!
339.
Anansi is a(n) _______ guy.
A. tricky
B. smart
C. amusing
D. lazy
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340.
"Anansi and Common Sense" is
A. an essay
B. a biography
C. a poem
D. a folk tale
341.
What was the FIRST thing Anansi did about the problem of common sense?
A. He planned a trick.
B. He gathered up the pieces.
C. He thought about the problem.
D. He hid all of the pieces.
342.
The purpose of this story is
A. to entertain.
B. to debate.
C. to inform.
D. to analyze.
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Animal Characteristics
Long ago, when the Earth was one body of land, all animals lived together in harmony. Animals were much more
alike in those days than they are now. All had fur or hair, and all had four legs and a tail. They all ate pretty much the
same food, and since food, water, and land were plentiful, they had little reason to disagree.
They were divided into three basic groups on the basis of size: one group contained animals with long legs and
heads that were relatively far from the ground, such as giraffes, horses, and deer; another group had animals with
medium-length legs and heads that were closer to the ground, such as dogs, cats of all kinds, and even bears; and still
another group had animals with short legs and heads close to the ground, such as squirrels and chipmunks. But all of
them spoke the same language and talked freely from one to the other.
One day, the Great Ruler of the Animals called everyone together. She said, "The time has come for us to spread
out. Our land is becoming too crowded, and food and water are becoming scarce. We must move to places in which
we can survive. But before we undertake such a move, I will give each of you special traits enabling you to adapt to
and thrive in your new environment. Beware, though, that once I give you a new characteristic, you will no longer be
who or what you are now, and your friends will no longer be who or what they are. In fact, you may find that your
friends are your enemies or even your prey. Some of you will compete with each other, whether it be for food, for
water, or for territory."
Raccoon and Wolf glanced at each other. "No way will that happen to us," Raccoon assured his best friend.
The Great Ruler continued, "Unfortunately, some of you will sometimes disagree for the pettiest of reasons. I
regret having to take this action, but I see no other remedy for our dilemma."
The animals clamored for the Great Ruler's attention. Insistent questions filled the air.
"How are you going to decide what qualities to give us?"
"What if we agree to remain friends regardless of any changes?"
"How soon will this take effect?"
The Great Ruler waved her scepter for silence. "I will try to bestow qualities based on what I think will best help
you survive. Some of you still might remain friends; that will depend on individual effort rather than on any external
changes I make. The qualities I give you today and the use to which you put them will be passed on to your
descendants.
"After much deliberation, I have decided to give great strength and stamina to you elephants, horses, and other
large animals. Those qualities will not only help you survive but will enable you to help others, as well. To the deer,
elk, gazelles and all their families, I give gentleness and gracefulness. To the great cats I give cunning and speed, and
to the canines, I bequeath loyalty and courage."
And on she went, handing out different assets to different animals. The squirrel got the ability to seemingly fly
through the air from one tree to another, while the otter now could use its paws to manipulate shells as tools.
Raccoon glanced at his reflection in the river. "I think I look quite dashing. I'm sure this new mask will make
everyone love me so much that I will never be threatened."
"I think you look like a criminal. I wouldn't trust you around my garbage," said Wolf.
Raccoon scratched and snarled in response.
The Great Ruler continued her portioning. Soon enough, former friends were eyeing each other suspiciously,
wondering who they could and could not depend upon. By the end of the day, everyone had been changed in some
way.
As they went to their new homes, some animals recalled their former friendships and wished they could
communicate with those they had once loved and trusted. Wolf howled at Raccoon, who shrieked in response. Lion
roared to Elephant, who trumpeted back his dislike.
And so the next time you see two animals snarling or growling at each other, remember that they, like us, are
speaking different languages.
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343.
How is this passage organized?
A. spatial order
B. chronological order
C. from most important to least important details
D. from least important to most important details
Oral History—A Lifetime of Memories
As children, we paid rapt attention to our parents' stories of growing up, and our grandparents often had even
better tales of their long-ago childhoods. Elderly friends and neighbors, too, can reveal glimpses into the past.
Most of these walking history books would love to spin tales for the future. They need only be given a means, and
it is not hard to provide that means. To make an oral history, one need only have a person with a story to tell, a list of
questions, and a recording device, which can be a pen and paper, a tape recorder, or a videotape recorder.
First, approach the person you would like to record. Ask if they would mind talking with you about their view of
history, their childhood, and/or what they have learned in life. Most older folks would gladly agree—they are
generally eager to talk. Be certain to mention reasons why you want to record their story—these can range from
needing the information for a class to curiosity about life earlier in this century. After your subject has agreed to a
time and place, let the subject know what you would like to hear about.
Prepare your questions in advance, and keep to your specific topic. Most oral histories will require several
sessions. It is wise to begin each session with easy questions. These include asking about the subject's age, birthplace,
family members, and other factual topics. These are known as closed questions; they ask for simple, factual answers.
After the closed questions are finished and the subject is comfortable with the interview, you can begin asking
open questions. These questions will not have a simple answer; they usually begin with "how" or "why." An open
question would be: "Why did your family move from the farm to the city?" Be alert to the subject's answers—you
may set aside your planned questions if a surprise arises. For example, if the subject tells you that her family moved
to the city to live with a rich uncle who was a sea captain, you could question her about the change in lifestyle and her
uncle's occupation. At the close of each session, you should thank the subject for participating and set up a later
interview session. Mention the topic for the next session.
Your first session will probably be about the subject's family tree and childhood. Later sessions could include
questions on teenage years and young adulthood. You can also ask about being a parent, middle age, old age,
historical events, and personal views. Remember to begin each session with closed questions, then move on to open
questions.
As the sessions come to an end, you and your subject will know each other much better than before. In recording a
history, you may make a lasting friend.
344.
Paragraph 3 of the passage is mainly about
A. possible topics for sessions.
B. constructing questions.
C. convincing someone to be interviewed.
D. who to talk to.
345.
When explaining this passage to someone else, which of these steps would be the LEAST important?
A. finding a subject for the interview
B. constructing the questions
C. setting up the interview
D. getting a pen and some paper
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346. Why is it wise to begin the interview with easy questions?
A. The subject will probably know the answers.
B. Easy questions put the subject at ease.
C. They are unlikely to offend anyone.
D. The interviewer can remember them best.
347.
Which of these is an example of a closed question?
A. Why did you become a teacher?
B. Where were you born?
C. How did you feel about the war?
D. Why didn't you like the new town?
348.
The last paragraph of the passage would be stronger if
A. it included a summary.
B. it gave tips on how to be a friend.
C. it ended with an open question.
D. the author gave an example.
349.
In this passage, which of these words could be substituted for specific?
A. elderly
B. comfortable
C. particular
D. historical
February 20
Dear Stefania,
I was so glad to receive your last letter. Winter has been dragging on, and hearing from you brightened my day.
When I get the mail, I always recognize your letters because of all the postage marks. It makes me feel special,
getting mail from a foreign land.
Anyway, your description of the coastline where you live was so intense. I can picture the beach, water, and
mountains so clearly in my mind. It is amazing that you can just walk there from where you live any time you want. I
cannot believe you would ever long to live in a congested city with all the noise and people rushing everywhere. I
suppose there is a certain excitement to it. Where you long for the chaotic city, though, I long for the peaceful
country. People always say the grass looks greener on the other side. Maybe if we did change places, we would again
want the opposite of what we had.
I get a chance to commune with nature on my spring vacation in March. My youth group is going camping. We
are actually journeying on a three-day canoeing trip on a river that flows through a wooded piece of land. I have
never been canoeing, but I love to camp. Have you ever been canoeing or camping? I will take my diary and a
disposable camera. Look for pictures in the mail!
Your science project sounds excellent. Tell me how it works out. Was it difficult to make? I'm sure you spent
many hours in the library doing research! Good luck presenting it at your school's science fair.
I need to go and finish my homework. Ugh! Please write back and tell me what is going on with you.
Love,
Keandra Reese
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350.
Stefania's letter brightened Kendra's day because
A. she couldn't stand all the noise.
B. Kendra was away at camp.
C. it arrived in the middle of winter.
D. Kendra worked hard all week.
Strikeout Pitcher a Hit!
The latest novel in the Varsity Sports series by Dana Fletcher is titled Strikeout Pitcher. After winning the league
title, the Painterville Lions team qualifies for the first round of the state high school softball playoffs. Strange events
begin to occur, and the softball team faces a series of mysteries on their base path to victory.
During practice for the first playoff game, items begin to disappear: team bats, catcher's equipment, an
outfielder's glove, and lots of other stuff. Even the team mascot, a giant stuffed lion named Goldie, vanishes. At
practice, starting catcher Audrey Wilks steps into a hole in front of home plate and sprains an ankle. To make matters
worse, on the way to the first playoff game, Coach Paxton's car breaks down.
Who is responsible for the missing softball equipment? How did a hole get on the home field? Could a player be
preventing them from winning? Maybe a teammate who's involved? The mystery builds as the team makes it to the
first playoff game with a volunteer parent as coach and a rookie catcher, who acts like my friend Tom Sills, behind
the plate. Minutes before the first pitch, Coach Paxton makes it to the sidelines for an inspirational speech, and the
game begins. The writer maintains suspense throughout the story, and all the riddles are solved by the last pitch. The
events at practice are even a bit humorous.
Strikeout Pitcher provides a nice read for the true sports fan, especially one interested in softball. The plot is
realistic, the characters ring true, and the last chapter has a thrilling end.
351.
The last paragraph is written as
A. a solution.
B. a chronology.
C. a summary.
D. a comparison.
352.
Why does the author ask questions in the third paragraph?
A. to make you think about the plot
B. to tell you the solution
C. to analyze softball
D. to describe the softball fan
353.
The purpose of this passage is to
A. debate.
B. argue.
C. compare.
D. analyze.
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235 Second St.
Huntsville, AL 35801
August 29
Dear Joe,
Hi! How are you? Did you do anything special for summer vacation? In August, my family toured the
Capitol and other awesome sites in Washington, D.C. It was great. We stayed about five miles outside of town
and took the train to the city almost daily for a week. On the first day we visited Congress. We toured the
Senate and got to sit down in chairs that overlooked the Senate floor. Our guide explained how senators vote
and how the Vice President presides as President of the Senate. After that, Mom treated me to lunch at the
Congressional Dining Room. It's this very old and elegant restaurant with white linen tablecloths, crystal
chandeliers, and walls painted dark blue. We saw two senators eating lunch that afternoon.
Later, we visited the Library of Congress. Did you know you can get a library card there? It's not as easy as
at our library though. You have to go through a back entrance and register by computer. Then you get the card,
but you can't check out books unless you're a member of Congress. So Mom and I browsed the shelves. By the
time we finished, we were ready for dinner, so we took the Metro subway to a restaurant for
some chicken.
The family rested up that night because we planned to see the Smithsonian Institution, and we knew that
would take all of the next day. Dad and I went to the Museum of American History where we saw the original
flag, Old Glory. That's the flag Francis Scott Key saw flying over Fort McHenry when the British attacked the
United States during the War of 1812. He was so proud to see that the Americans had survived the battle that he
wrote the Star-Spangled Banner. That's why we sing, "Oh, say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave/O'er the
land of the free and the home of the brave."
We toured the White House last. We saw the State Dining Room, where the President holds formal dinner
gatherings, and the Blue Room, which serves as a reception room for visitors and guests. I thought we'd get to
see the whole house, but tourists aren't allowed to visit above the first floor.
I can't wait to visit Washington again. Next time I want to tour the F.B.I. building and visit Ford's Theater,
where President Lincoln was assassinated while watching a play. I hope you can visit the capitol someday. I
know you'd love it. Please write back.
Sincerely,
Chen Lee
354.
The last sight Chen Lee's family saw was
A. Old Glory.
B. Ford's theater.
C. the Smithsonian.
D. the White House.
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The Plant That Loves Trees
Maybe somewhere in your home or the home of a friend or relative is a plant with dark green, heart-shaped
leaves growing on long, slender vines. It's a fairly popular house plant because it grows well in dimly lit places. This
plant's name is philodendron, which comes from two Greek words meaning "love of trees." The philodendron is a
reminder of something that occurred thousands of years ago in an ancient city in the north of Greece.
Long ago, in the town of Parga, were two families whose estates bordered each other. The families were
constantly feuding over where the property of each began and ended. Their arguments grew so heated that the local
governor realized he must take matters into his own hands. He sent city engineers to survey the land. They measured
and marked and calculated and finally drew a boundary line separating the two properties. But the families continued
to argue, often carrying their disagreements into the marketplace and upsetting the peace of the town. So the
governor ordered the engineers to construct a brick wall along the boundary line. He further ordered the families not
to communicate with each other in any way, on penalty of permanent imprisonment or banishment from the city.
Years passed, and generations of both families held onto the idea of the feud, long after anyone remembered the
original cause of it. The custom became for each generation to add another layer of bricks to the wall until, at the
time of our story, a barrier eight feet tall separated the two estates. Over all these years, the families had not
communicated with each other, for no one wanted to be banished or imprisoned.
However, children, being what they are, had difficulty remembering exactly what the law said. So, one day, when
Demos was playing in his yard on his family's side of the barricade, his ball bounced over the wall. Demos climbed
up the wall and grabbed a heavy tree branch that hung into his yard. Then he climbed down the tree on the other side,
finding himself face to face with Admetia, a little girl of about his age. She was one of the daughters of his parents'
enemies.
He asked her to play. Admetia, after glancing over her shoulder to make sure no one was watching, joined in the
game. They rolled the ball back and forth for a while, then climbed the tree together. Admetia told Demos that she
often climbed the tree to look out at the sea that lay at the bottom of the hill, beyond their two gardens. They watched
the sun set, then Demos returned to his yard the same way he had come.
Demos and Admetia continued to meet, one or the other of them scampering up or down the tree to the other's
yard. However, as they grew older, they became more aware of the consequences of their friendship. So they set
dusk as their favorite meeting time, when the light was fading and they had less chance of being discovered. When
they couldn't meet, they would put notes and little gifts to each other in the high hollows of the tree.
By the time they had become young adults, the friendship had turned to love. They hoped their love would make
peace between the families, so Admetia spoke to her parents and Demos spoke to his about the strong feelings
between the two young people. The families flew into a rage. Admetia was confined to her home and garden, and
Demos was sent off to sea. Tearfully, he promised to return to her and tear down the brick wall which had now been
built even higher.
Months passed, and every day Admetia would sit at the base of the tree and wait for Demos' return. At the spot
where she waited for Demos sprang up a small plant. It flourished under the watering from her tears, forming
heart-shaped leaves and wrapping its vines around the broad tree where Demos and Admetia used to meet.
So whenever you see the heart-shaped vine known as the philodendron, recall the ill-fated love between Demos
and Admetia.
355.
What is the author's tone in this passage?
A. humorous
B. sympathetic
C. angry
D. nervous
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356.
The purpose of the first paragraph in this passage is
A. to describe the scene.
B. to explain a friendship.
C. to analyze how a feud began.
D. to connect the present to the past.
The Public Square
In town there is a public square where many young people gather. Some people object to their behavior. The local
newspaper carried the following opinion columns about the situation at the square.
Stay Out!
The Square Is Everyone's
by William Stanton
by Casey Cunningham
I live close to Morrissey Square, and I am tired of all the I am one of the teenagers that Mr. Stanton refers to in his
belligerent teenagers who spend so much time there. The article. I meet my friends at the square after school and on
square was meant to be a public gathering place. It is
weekends. We skate, listen to music, and talk with each
becoming a place used only by these young people. I have other. We do not try to keep anyone else out of the area.
not used it in years.
Mr. Stanton raises some interesting questions, not just
The problem is that no one else feels free to use the
about the square, but about how life has changed since he
square. When I was a youngster, the square was used for a was young. The farmers don't bring their crops to the
farmer's market twice a week. Young mothers strolled
square now; it is not practical. Almost all the young
their babies there. Older folks walked around the square mothers are at work, and their children are in daycare.
and visited. After school, children flew kites and played There are very few old folks in the neighborhood,
marbles. Those days are gone.
too—they are visiting a senior center two miles from the
Now, during the afternoon and evening hours, groups of square.
young people roam the square, skating, laughing, and
Yes, we like our music and enjoy our skating, but we
playing loud music. They are not doing anything illegal, want other people to feel welcome too. We turn down our
but they are keeping other people from enjoying the
tape players when we are asked to or when we see
square.
napping babies.
In addition, these young people are ruining some of the
We don't deliberately run into lampposts—that can be
square's beauty. Their skateboards are running into
dangerous. And the tiles became broken during a cold
lampposts and scraping off paint. Their skates are
snap last winter. Even the city engineer thinks that they
breaking paving tiles. They are scaring away birds that
broke because of the deep cold, not any particular activity.
have nested in the square for decades.
We are good kids. I am happy Mr. Stanton knows that
In summary, these young people must be stopped. The
there is not any illegal activity happening on the square. I
square is not their exclusive property; they must share it hope that he uses the square again; I would like to meet
and learn to respect the rights of others.
him. The square does not belong to us, but we do have the
right to use it.
357.
How does Casey Cunningham support the idea that life has changed since William Stanton was young?
A. She uses numbers.
B. She cites opinion polls.
C. She gives examples.
D. She tells stories.
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358.
What is the basic conflict between the two writers?
A. noise vs. quiet
B. educated vs. uneducated
C. youth vs. elderly
D. person vs. environment
359.
Which point weakens Stanton's argument?
A. He lives close to Morrissey Square.
B. The teenagers are not doing anything illegal.
C. The square's beauty is being ruined.
D. Teenagers must respect others' rights.
360.
In the next-to-last paragraph of the second passage, deliberately could mean all of these EXCEPT
A. purposely.
B. intentionally.
C. accidentally.
D. willfully.
361.
The main idea in Stanton's passage is that
A. the square was not meant to be a public gathering place.
B. the square has moved since he was a youngster.
C. young people should share the square with others.
D. loud music is bad for nesting birds.
362. Cunningham answers all of Stanton's points EXCEPT
A. teenagers are acting legally
B. lampposts have been damaged
C. paving tiles have been broken
D. birds are being scared away
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Elizabeth I
No one could foresee that the second child of King Henry VIII of England, Elizabeth Tudor, would grow up to be
one of the great English monarchs. In fact, many people, her own family included, never wanted her to rule at all.
In 1533, when Elizabeth was born, her father already had a daughter, Mary, who would inherit the right to govern
England after Henry. However, Henry desperately wanted a son to carry on after him. When his wife, Anne Boleyn,
gave birth to Elizabeth, Henry was furious. He turned his wrath on Boleyn and had her executed, leaving the
three-year-old Elizabeth motherless.
She soon became practically fatherless, as well. When a new wife finally gave him a male heir, Henry ignored both
Elizabeth and Mary, leaving them to their own resources. For Elizabeth, being left on her own enabled her to develop
independence and an ability for learning that characterized her entire life. The only person, in fact, who took much
interest in young Elizabeth was Catherine Parr, Henry's sixth wife. Catherine guided Elizabeth's education for a
number of years, helping the eleven-year-old princess learn to read and speak classical Latin and Greek and to learn
about important issues of the time.
When Henry died in 1547, his son became King Edward VI at the age of nine. Six years later, the throne again
became vacant, and this time the crown passed to Mary. The new queen lived in fear, somewhat justified by the
political events of the day, that people were plotting to overthrow her. She even accused Elizabeth of participating in
these plots and imprisoned her younger sister in the Tower of London; however, the public outcry against such
treatment of a beloved princess brought about Elizabeth's release in a short time. All of this had happened by the time
Elizabeth turned twenty-one.
By the time she was twenty-five, Elizabeth also experienced her own coronation as Queen of England, a position
she was to hold until 1603. Under her rule, England enjoyed a long period of domestic stability. She also managed to
maintain friendly ties with most of the major powers in Europe, many of whom were attempting to dominate
England. Elizabeth's political skills set England on a course of long-term peace and prosperity.
As was true throughout the life of Elizabeth, the major threats to her safety and security came from within her own
family. Her cousin Mary, Queen of Scotland, the country bordering England to the north, plotted against Elizabeth in
an attempt to take over the throne. Mary and her fellow conspirators were captured, but Elizabeth hoped to be able to
show mercy to her cousin. The harshness with which the English Parliament, or legislature, treated Mary, however,
provoked Spain, Scotland's ally, to declare war against England. The Spanish sent an awesome fleet of 130 warships,
known as the Armada, against the island-country of England in 1588. With the help of a fierce storm, the English
warded off the threat and the Armada was left in ruins. England's success against the Armada helped to bring about
Spain's decline as a major force in Europe and marked the ascent of England as a supreme naval power. Elizabeth had
proven herself as effective in making military decisions as she was in making political ones.
Elizabeth's other great achievement was in the promotion of English culture. As a dedicated supporter of the arts,
Elizabeth encouraged the great writers of her time, such as Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare. Many of
the works written during her reign are dedicated to her. Today, the word Elizabethan is used to describe the
tremendous cultural and literary accomplishments that occurred during Elizabeth's rule.
By the end of her forty-five-year reign, the woman whose father did not want her to be queen had earned a
reputation as one of Europe's greatest monarchs. As she herself said to Parliament, even though England might have
had rulers who were more powerful and more wise, "it never had, nor shall have, any that will love you better."
363. What point was the author trying to make in the conclusion?
A. Elizabeth Tudor governed her nation for forty-five years.
B. Elizabeth was one of England's greatest rulers.
C. Elizabeth wasn't a great ruler, but she loved England.
D. Elizabeth loved the English Parliament.
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364.
According to the passage, what helped to get Elizabeth released from the Tower of London?
A. the public's reaction
B. a conspiracy in Scotland
C. the Parliament's reaction
D. a fleet of Spanish ships
365.
What kind of writing is this?
A. drama
B. biography
C. folk tale
D. myth
366.
Which event allowed England to emerge as a naval power?
A. Anne Boleyn was executed.
B. England defeated the Spanish Armada.
C. King Edward VI took the throne.
D. Elizabeth became a great supporter of the arts.
367.
What does the term Elizabethan mean?
A. It refers to accomplishments in culture that occurred during Elizabeth's reign.
B. It describes the brand of clothing that Elizabeth wore during her reign.
C. It is the name of a publisher that distributed Shakespearean works.
D. It is the name of the daughter who succeeded Elizabeth to the throne.
368.
What is the author's tone toward Queen Elizabeth?
A. The author has disdain for the queen's treatment of her family.
B. The author admires the queen for her intelligence and skill.
C. The author pities the queen for her lack of natural talents.
D. The author criticizes the queen for her attitude towards Spain.
369.
How did Elizabeth express her feelings about England?
A. She regretted that she had not become queen earlier.
B. She was angry about her subjects' disloyalty.
C. She had great affection and devotion for England.
D. She was disappointed in the country's state of affairs.
370.
Why did the author write this passage?
A. to analyze the behavior of Henry VIII
B. to entertain the reader with an English legend
C. to inform people about a great queen
D. to persuade people to study English history
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371.
Which order did the writer use to organize the information in this passage?
A. spatial order
B. order of importance
C. chronological order
D. descriptive order
372.
How did Elizabeth handle her betrayal by Mary, Queen of Scotland?
A. She tried to show mercy, but she was overruled by Parliament.
B. She exiled Mary to the British Isles for the rest of her life.
C. She gave Mary a life sentence in the Tower of London.
D. She forgave Mary and formed an alliance with her country.
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483 Maple Avenue
Dunford, GA 30647
Dear Jamie,
How have you been? It has been a while since I spoke with you or saw you. It is hard to believe that I've been
away at camp for three weeks already. I've got so much to tell you that I don't know where to begin. Maybe I will
just start by telling you what Sleepy Knoll Camp looks like and then I'll tell you about a typical day for me at Sleepy
Knoll.
Sleepy Knoll is located in the southwest corner of Georgia. If it weren't for a small, brown wooden sign to the
right of the road, you would miss the road leading to it as you turn off of Highway 68. Dad and I traveled for four to
five miles on a bumpy, gravel road through a heavily wooded area. The trees were growing so close to the road that
we were worried the branches would scrape the paint on our van as we drove down the lane. It reminded me of the
scary tales we used to read when we were kids—you know—in fairy tales, forests being filled with strange creatures.
When we reached our camp, however, we found ourselves in a beautiful, emerald green, sunlit valley. The forest
encircled the camp. As we descended into the valley, I saw cabins all over the place, probably at least twenty, and
two big buildings. My dad and I walked around a bit and saw a shimmering blue lake at the farthest point away from
the parking lot. I wanted to sit on the docks forever; it was so quiet and serene! I guess forever is not very long for
me, though, because I became impatient to find out where I was to live for the next four weeks. We went back to the
Registration Building and received my bunk and cabin assignment, a small map of the place, and a list of my fellow
roommates and cabin leader.
We looked over the map of cabins to find mine and then retrieved my luggage from the van. Jamie, I have the
best cabin. It's located closer to the lake than any of the other cabins. While we unpacked, I eventually met my five
other cabin mates and the cabin leader, Jo Andrews. She's pretty cool! After a parent/camper orientation meeting that
afternoon, Dad left. I was pretty sad and lonesome for home that night and for the next few days. I guess with all the
excitement of going on vacation, I hadn't truly realized that I was leaving my family and friends for so long. As I
started choosing how I was going to fill my hours over the next four weeks, my loneliness was replaced with an
enthusiasm for all of the activities I was able to choose. So many things to do, so little time!
The camp's schedule keeps us so busy we do not really have any time to sit around and be homesick. We wake up
at 7:00 A.M. to a song played over the PA (public announcement) system. We have breakfast in the Main Hall from
7:30 A.M. to 8:15 A.M. and then we go to our first round of activities. You know how much I love the water. Well, I
signed up for as many water activities as I was able to: canoeing, water skiing, advanced swimming, and water
aerobics. Nevertheless, I signed up for some educational things, also, such as needlepoint, writing, watercolor
painting, bird watching, and electric guitar lessons. As you can see, my days are very busy! Of course, I do not take
all of these classes every day, more like every other day.
In addition to all of the things I am learning, I have learned so much about other people, especially my
roommates. You never realize how hard it might be to live with strangers until you are in a situation like summer
camp. Overall, I really like everyone in my cabin. There is nothing personally wrong with any of them. After all,
who am I to say what faults people have? But a couple of girls are rather sloppy with their things, leaving towels and
clothes around. This is the major source of irritation for the "neat freaks," as we are called. We are just being
respectful of everyone's living conditions. Maybe they will learn a thing or two about neatness by the end of their
stay here, maybe not. Oh well!
Overall, I have learned to get along with many different people. Activities aside, I think this is the most important
skill I will come away with this summer. I hope you are having just as wonderful a time at home in Dunford. Well,
Jamie, I will see you in a week.
Sincerely,
Lena
373. What is the purpose of this passage?
A. to show how camp can be fun
B. to describe activities at a camp
C. to explain what camp is like for Lena
D. to persuade Jamie to attend camp next year
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191
8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
374. How did Lena feel upon arriving at camp?
A. frustrated about getting lost
B. scared because of the dark woods
C. delighted by the scenery
D. hungry after a long drive
Amy's Activewear
Has Arrived!
Designed to look and feel terrific, Amy's
Activewear is the number one choice
among top athletes.
------------------------------------------Now all your friends are wearing
Amy's Activewear,
and you should, too.
Don't get left behind the pack!
Jog over to our nearest clothing store
and check out the newest line of
Amy's Activewear.
375.
From the following, who is most likely Amy?
A. the customer
B. the storeowner
C. the designer
D. the author
376. "Now all of your friends are wearing Amy's Activewear, and you should, too." This is an example of
A. bandwagon.
B. cardstacking.
C. prestige identification.
D. testimonial.
377.
According to the passage, which of the following are choosing Amy's Activewear?
A. movie stars
B. parents
C. politicians
D. top athletes
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192
8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
378. The phrase "Don't get left behind the pack" MOST nearly means
A. don't be like everyone else
B. keep up with others by doing as they do
C. buy early while there are quantities left
D. stand in front of the crowd at the store
379. According to the passage, how should you obtain the newest line of Amy's Activewear?
A. by mailing in your order
B. at your own pace
C. as quickly as possible
D. by phoning for an appointment
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193
8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
Life Down Below
The sun is our most important source of energy for many things. The sun heats most regions by day and provides
the energy needed for plants to grow, for the winds to blow, and for water on Earth to evaporate back into the air.
Just about all living things on Earth depend directly or indirectly on warmth, on plants, on wind, and on water. You
have probably learned about food chains or food webs in which energy from the sun passes from plants to
plant-eating animals to meat-eating animals. However, in spite of this, a case can be made that not ALL life on Earth
is dependent on the sun. There are some very unusual living things deep below the surface of the ocean that do not
seem to need sunlight.
Prior to 1977, scientists were unaware of these organisms. They were discovered off the Galapagos Islands, living
near underwater vents called "chimneys." About two years later, similar discoveries were made near Mexico. Some
of the animals look much like worms. Others are more like sea spiders. Still others are tiny microbes, so small that
they cannot be seen by the human eye, but large enough to show up clearly on a microscope.
The chimneys in which they were found are located in areas where volcanoes occur. The chimneys are hot.
Smoke pours out of them. Molten rocks and minerals beneath the ocean floor are constantly causing the chimneys to
give off chemicals that would be poisonous to most living things on the surface. Some of these chimneys are as high
as 140 feet tall, but others are much shorter. In 1998 scientists succeeded in raising several of these chimneys to the
surface. One observer described them as looking "dark and rough, like meteorites." However, they also had lines
formed by light-colored and glittering mineral deposits. They are composed mainly of sulfur compounds that include
minerals such as pyrite (fool's gold) and wurtzite.
Inside the chimneys, some of the worms and other creatures were still alive! In burning hot water, with virtually
no sunlight, large groups of very unique creatures managed to survive. This discovery is fascinating to scientists for
many reasons. They are always looking for new life forms and habitats. However, these underwater creatures, living
at depths around 8,000 feet below the surface, offer a special opportunity to observe how living things can adapt to
the most terrible conditions.
These discoveries have far-reaching implications. If life could develop thousands of feet under the sea without
sunlight, could the same thing happen elsewhere? Might this have happened long ago? Could it be happening at this
very moment? For example, other planets and moons in our solar system might have underground water that could
support living things. Photographs taken by unmanned space probes have shown possible evidence of water on our
moon, on Mars, and on other bodies. Much of this water may be frozen solid, but there may even be liquid water in
some places. Since water is one of the key ingredients for life as we know it, these kinds of discoveries open the door
for research and speculation into the possibility that life might exist in places where it was once thought to be
completely impossible.
These discoveries raise the possibility that the sun is not necessarily the only source of all life-sustaining energy
on Earth.
380.
This passage is an example of
A. a letter
B. a biography
C. an essay
D. a myth
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8th grade ela (8gradeunittest1)
381.
What is the MOST important idea in this passage?
A. Vents called chimneys give off chemicals underwater.
B. Some scientists believe water exists on other planets.
C. The sun may not be essential to all life on Earth.
D. Some living things survive horrible circumstances.
382.
The author wrote this passage to
A. analyze sea creatures
B. tell a story set underwater
C. persuade students to become scientists
D. stimulate thought on how life exists
383.
What is the author's tone in this passage?
A. serious
B. humorous
C. sarcastic
D. playful
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195
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