Intel® Prescott Processor for Embedded Applications

Intel® Prescott Processor for Embedded Applications
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/
910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH
Thermal Design Guide
October 2007
Order Number: 305992-003
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2
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
Contents
Contents
1
Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 6
1.1
1.2
1.3
2
Product Specifications ..................................................................................................................... 8
2.1
2.2
2.3
3
3.2
Case Temperature Measurements ..................................................................................... 12
3.1.1 Thermocouple Attach Methodology ....................................................................... 12
Airflow Characterization ...................................................................................................... 14
Reference Thermal Solution .......................................................................................................... 15
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
5
Package Description .............................................................................................................8
2.1.1 Grid Array Package Ball Placement......................................................................... 8
Thermal Specifications ......................................................................................................... 9
Thermal Design Power (TDP)............................................................................................... 9
2.3.1 Application Power .................................................................................................... 9
2.3.2 Specifications......................................................................................................... 10
Thermal Metrology......................................................................................................................... 12
3.1
4
Scope.................................................................................................................................... 6
Terminology .......................................................................................................................... 6
Reference Documents .......................................................................................................... 7
Operating Environment and Thermal Performance ............................................................ 15
Mechanical Design Envelope ............................................................................................. 16
Thermal Solution Assembly ................................................................................................ 17
4.3.1 Heatsink Orientation ..............................................................................................18
4.3.2 Heatsink Clip.......................................................................................................... 18
4.3.3 Solder-Down Anchors ............................................................................................ 18
4.3.4 Thermal Interface Material (TIM) ........................................................................... 18
Board-Level Component Keep-outs ................................................................................... 19
Environmental Reliability Requirements ............................................................................. 20
Thermal Management ................................................................................................................... 22
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
Internal Thermal Sensor .....................................................................................................22
5.1.1 Trip Points.............................................................................................................. 22
5.1.2 Thermometer ......................................................................................................... 23
Sample Programming Model ..............................................................................................23
5.2.1 Setting the “Hot” Temperature Trip Point............................................................... 23
Trip Point Temperature Targets.......................................................................................... 24
Thermal Sensor Accuracy .................................................................................................. 24
Thermal Throttling Options ................................................................................................. 24
THRMTRIP Operation ........................................................................................................ 25
6
Conclusion..................................................................................................................................... 26
A
Enabled Suppliers ......................................................................................................................... 27
B
Mechanical Drawings .................................................................................................................... 28
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
3
Contents
Figures
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Solder Ball Grid Array ......... 8
0° Angle Attach Heatsink Modifications...................................................................................... 13
0° Angle Attach Methodology ..................................................................................................... 13
Airflow Temperature Measurement Locations ............................................................................ 14
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Aluminum Heatsink Thermal
Performance16
Reference Heatsink Volumetric Height....................................................................................... 17
Reference Thermal Solution Heatsink Assembly ....................................................................... 18
Torsional Clip Heatsink Motherboard Component Keep-out ...................................................... 19
Retention Mechanism Component Keep-out Zones................................................................... 20
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Package............................ 29
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Aluminum Heatsink Assembly
30
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Aluminum Heatsink........... 31
Torsional Clip.............................................................................................................................. 32
Tables
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
4
Terminology.................................................................................................................................. 6
Reference Documents.................................................................................................................. 7
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Case Temperature Specifications9
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Power Specifications11
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Requirements ..... 15
Reference Thermal Solution Environmental Reliability Requirements ....................................... 20
Recommended Programming for Available Trip Points.............................................................. 24
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Reference Design Heatsink
Enabled Suppliers27
Mechanical Drawings ................................................................................................................. 28
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
Contents
Revision History
Date
Revision
Description
October 2007
003
Added 910GMLE information to document
May 2007
002
Added 915GME information to document
Feb 2005
001
Initial release
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
5
Introduction
1
Introduction
The objective of thermal management is to ensure that the temperatures of all components in a
system are maintained within functional limits. The functional temperature limit is the range within
which the electrical circuits can be expected to meet specified performance requirements.
Operation outside the functional limit can degrade system performance, cause logic errors, or cause
component and/or system damage. Temperatures exceeding the maximum operating limits may
result in irreversible changes in the operating characteristics of the component. The goal of this
document is to provide an understanding of the operating limits of the Mobile Intel® 915GM/
915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH and discuss a reference thermal solution.
The simplest and most cost-effective method to improve the inherent system cooling characteristics
of the 915GM/915GME/910GMLE GMCH is through careful design and placement of fans, vents,
and ducts. When additional cooling is required, component thermal solutions may be implemented
in conjunction with system thermal solutions. The 915GM/915GME/910GMLE GMCH requires a
heatsink to maintain component temperature specifications.
1.1
Scope
This document presents conditions and requirements to properly design a cooling solution for
systems that implement the 915GM/915GME/910GMLE GMCH. Specifically it applies to
implementation in embedded applications and form factors. Properly designed thermal solutions
provide adequate cooling to maintain the 915GM/915GME/910GMLE GMCH case temperature at
or below thermal specifications. This is accomplished by providing a low local-ambient
temperature, ensuring adequate airflow, and minimizing case-to-local-ambient thermal resistance.
By maintaining the 915GM/915GME/910GMLE GMCH case temperature at or below the
specifications, a system designer can ensure the proper functionality, performance, and reliability
of the chipset.
1.2
Terminology
Table 1 defines the terms used in this document.
Table 1.
Terminology (Sheet 1 of 2)
Term
BGA
Ball Grid Array. A package type defined by a resin-fiber substrate where a die is mounted
and bonded. The primary electrical interface is an array of solder balls attached to the
substrate opposite the die and molding compound.
DMI
Direct Media Interface. The chip-to-chip inter-connect between the Mobile Intel 915GM/
915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH and the ICH6-M, is an Intel proprietary
interface.
FC-BGA
6
Description
Flip Chip Ball Grid Array. A package type defined by a plastic substrate where a die is
mounted using an underfill C4 (Controlled Collapse Chip Connection) attach style. The
primary electrical interface is an array of solder balls attached to the substrate opposite the
die. Note that the device arrives at the customer with solder balls attached.
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
Introduction
Table 1.
Terminology (Sheet 2 of 2)
Term
Intel
1.3
®
Description
ICH6-M
®
Intel Mobile I/O Controller Hub 6-M. The chipset component that contains the primary PCI
interface, LPC interface, USB, ATA, and/or other legacy functions.
mBGA
Mini Ball Grid Array. A smaller version of the BGA.
GMCH
Graphic Memory Controller Hub. The chipset component that contains the processor and
memory interface and integrated graphics core.
TA
The measured ambient temperature locally to the component of interest. The ambient
temperature should be measured just upstream of airflow for a passive heatsink or at the
fan inlet for an active heatsink. Also referred to as TLA.
TC
The measured case temperature of a component. It is generally measured at the geometric
center of the top of the die.
TC-MAX
The maximum case/die temperature with an attached heatsink. This temperature is
measured at the geometric center of the top of the package case/die.
TC-MIN
The minimum case/die temperature with an attached heatsink. This temperature is
measured at the geometric center of the top of the package case/die.
TDP
Thermal Design Power. Specified as the highest sustainable power level of most or all of
the real applications expected to be run on the given product, based on extrapolations in
both hardware and software technology over the life of the component. Thermal solutions
should be designed to dissipate this target power level.
TIM
Thermal Interface Material. Thermally conductive material installed between two surfaces to
improve heat transfer and reduce interface contact resistance.
lfm
Linear Feet per Minute. Unit of airflow speed.
VCC
The core voltage of the 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH.
VTT
Processor side bus power supply (VCCP).
ΨCA
Case-to-ambient thermal characterization parameter (Psi). A measure of thermal solution
performance using total package power. Defined as (TC -TA)/Total Package Power. Heat
source size should always be specified for Ψ measurements.
Reference Documents
The following table lists reference documents to be used in conjunction with the 915GM/915GME/
910GMLE GMCH. Contact your Intel field sales representative for the latest revision and order
number of these documents.
Table 2.
Reference Documents
Title
Document Number
Intel Pentium M Processor on 90nm Process with 2-MB L2 Cache for Embedded
Applications Thermal Design Guide
302231
Intel® Pentium® M Processor with 2-MB L2 Cache and 533-MHz System Bus for
Embedded Applications Thermal Design Guide
305993
Mobile Intel® 915PM/GM/GMS and 910GML Express Chipset Datasheet
305264
®
®
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
7
Product Specifications
Product Specifications
2.1
2
Package Description
The 915GM/915GME/910GMLE GMCH is available in a 40.0 mm [1.57 in] x 37.5 mm [1.48 in]
Flip Chip Ball Grid Array (FC-BGA) package with 1257 solder balls. The die size is 10.033 mm
[0.395 in] x 10.033 mm [0.395 in] and is subject to change. A mechanical drawing of the package
is shown in Figure 10 on page 29.
2.1.1
Grid Array Package Ball Placement
The 915GM/915GME/910GMLE GMCH package has solder balls arranged in a grid array pattern.
For exact ball locations relative to the package, refer to the Mobile Intel® 915PM/GM/GMS and
910GML Express Chipset Datasheet. Figure 1 shows a representation of the solder ball pattern for
the 915GM/915GME/910GMLE GMCH.
Figure 1.
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Solder Ball Grid
Array
8
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
Product Specifications
2.2
Thermal Specifications
To ensure proper operation and reliability of the 915GM/915GME/910GMLE GMCH, the
temperature must be at or below the maximum value specified in Table 3. System and component
level thermal enhancements are required to dissipate the heat generated and maintain the 915GM/
915GME/910GMLE GMCH within specifications. Section 3 provides the thermal metrology
guidelines for case temperature measurements.
The 915GM/915GME/910GMLE GMCH should also operate above the minimum case
temperature specification listed in Table 3.
Table 3.
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Case Temperature
Specifications
Note:
2.3
Parameter
Value
TC-MAX
105 °C
TC-MIN
0 °C
Thermal specifications assume an attached heatsink is present.
Thermal Design Power (TDP)
Thermal design power (TDP) is the estimated power dissipation of the 915GM/915GME/
910GMLE GMCH based on normal operating conditions including VCC and TC-MAX while
executing real worst-case power intensive applications. This value is based on expected worst-case
data traffic patterns and usage of the chipset and does not represent a specific software application.
TDP attempts to account for expected increases in power due to variation in chipset current
consumption due to silicon process variation, processor speed, DRAM capacitive bus loading and
temperature. However, since these variations are subject to change, the TDP cannot guarantee that
all applications will not exceed the TDP value.
The system designer must design a thermal solution for the 915GM/915GME/910GMLE GMCH
such that it maintains TC below TC-MAX for a sustained power level equal to TDP. The TDP value
can be used for thermal design if the chipset thermal protection mechanisms are enabled. Intel
chipsets incorporate a hardware-based fail-safe mechanism to keep the product temperature in spec
in the event of unusually strenuous usage above the TDP power.
2.3.1
Application Power
Designing to the TDP can ensure a particular thermal solution can meet the cooling needs of future
applications. Testing with available commercial applications has shown they may dissipate power
levels below the published TDP specification in Section 2.3.2. Intel strongly recommends that
thermal engineers design to the published TDP specification to develop a robust thermal solution
that will meet the needs of current and future applications.
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
9
Product Specifications
2.3.2
Specifications
The 915GM/915GME/910GMLE GMCH is estimated to dissipate the TDP values provided in
Table 4. FC-BGA packages have poor heat transfer capability into the board and have minimal
thermal capability without thermal solutions. Intel requires that system designers plan for an
attached heatsink when using the 915GM/915GME/910GMLE GMCH.
10
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
Product Specifications
Table 4.
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design
Power Specifications
Configuration
Front Side Bus
Frequency (MHz)
Memory
Type
Internal Graphics
Frequency (MHz)
DMI
VCC
TDP (W)
Single Channel
400
DDR2 400
130
x2
1.05
4.6
Single Channel
533
DDR2 400
Discrete
x2
1.05
4.6
Single Channel
400
DDR2 400
160
x2
1.05
4.8
Dual Channel
533
DDR2 400
Discrete
x2
1.05
5.1
Single Channel
533
DDR2 400
200
x2
1.05
5.2
Dual Channel
533
DDR2 533
Discrete
x2
1.05
5.3
Dual Channel
533
DDR2 533
Discrete
x4
1.05
5.5
Dual Channel
533
DDR2 400
200
x2
1.05
5.6
Dual Channel
533
DDR2 533
200
x2
1.05
5.8
Dual Channel
533
DDR2 533
200
x4
1.05
6.0
Single Channel
533
DDR2 533
Discrete
x2
1.5
10.0
Single Channel
533
DDR2 533
Discrete
x4
1.5
10.2
Dual Channel
533
DDR2 533
Discrete
x2
1.5
10.3
Dual Channel
533
DDR2 533
Discrete
x4
1.5
10.5
Single Channel
533
DDR2 533
320
x2
1.5
13.4
Single Channel
533
DDR2 533
320
x4
1.5
13.6
Dual Channel
533
DDR2 533
320
x2
1.5
13.7
Dual Channel
533
DDR2 533
320
x4
1.5
13.9
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
11
Thermal Metrology
Thermal Metrology
3
The system designer must measure temperatures in order to accurately determine the thermal
performance of the system. Intel has established guidelines for proper techniques of measuring
chipset component case temperatures.
3.1
Case Temperature Measurements
To ensure functionality and reliability, the 915GM/915GME/910GMLE GMCH is specified for
proper operation when TC is maintained at or below the maximum temperature listed in Table 3.
The surface temperature at the geometric center of the die corresponds to TC. Measuring TC
requires special care to ensure an accurate temperature reading.
Temperature differences between the temperature of a surface and the surrounding local ambient
air can introduce error in the measurements. The measurement errors could be due to a poor
thermal contact between the thermocouple junction and the surface of the package, heat loss by
radiation and/or convection, conduction through thermocouple leads, or contact between the
thermocouple cement and the heatsink base (if a heatsink is used). To minimize these measurement
errors a thermocouple attach with a zero-degree methodology is recommended.
Section 3.1.1 details the modifications required to measure package case temperature using a clipattached heatsink. The reference thermal solutions presented in this document use a clip-attach
mechanism.
3.1.1
Thermocouple Attach Methodology
1. Mill a 3.3 mm [0.13 in] diameter hole centered on bottom of the heatsink base. The milled hole
should be approximately 1.5 mm [0.06 in] deep.
2. Mill a 1.3 mm [0.05 in] wide slot, 0.5 mm [0.02 in] deep, from the centered hole to one edge of
the heatsink. The slot should be in the direction parallel to the heatsink fins (see Figure 2).
3. Attach thermal interface material (TIM) to the bottom of the heatsink base.
4. Cut out portions of the TIM to make room for the thermocouple wire and bead. The cutouts
should match the slot and hole milled into the heatsink base.
5. Attach a 36 gauge or smaller calibrated K-type thermocouple bead or junction to the center of
the top surface of the die using a high thermal conductivity cement. During this step, make
sure no contact is present between the thermocouple cement and the heatsink base because any
contact will affect the thermocouple reading. It is critical that the thermocouple bead makes
contact with the die (see Figure 3).
6. Attach heatsink assembly to the 915GM/915GME/910GMLE GMCH, and route thermocouple
wires out through the milled slot. Following the guidelines is critical to ensure an accurate and
repeatable metrology.
12
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
Thermal Metrology
Figure 2.
0° Angle Attach Heatsink Modifications
Note:
Generic heatsink shown, not to scale.
Figure 3.
0° Angle Attach Methodology
Note:
Top view, not to scale.
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
13
Thermal Metrology
3.2
Airflow Characterization
Figure 4 describes the recommended location for air temperature measurements measured relative
to the component. For a more accurate measurement of the average approach air temperature, Intel
recommends averaging temperatures recorded from two thermocouples spaced about 25 mm [1.0
in] apart. Locations for both a single thermocouple and a pair of thermocouples are presented.
Figure 4.
Airflow Temperature Measurement Locations
Airflow velocity should be measured using industry standard air velocity sensors. Typical airflow
sensor technology may include hot wire anemometers. Figure 4 provides guidance for airflow
velocity measurement locations. These locations are for a typical JEDEC test setup and may not be
compatible with chassis layouts due to the proximity of the processor to the 915GM/915GME/
910GMLE GMCH. The user may have to adjust the locations for a specific chassis. Be aware that
sensors may need to be aligned perpendicular to the airflow velocity vector or an inaccurate
measurement may result. Measurements should be taken with the chassis fully sealed in its
operational configuration to achieve a representative airflow profile within the chassis.
14
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
Reference Thermal Solution
Reference Thermal Solution
4
Intel has developed an embedded reference thermal solution designed to meet the cooling needs of
the Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH. This chapter describes
the overall requirements for the reference thermal solution including critical-to-function
dimensions, operating environment, and validation criteria. The other components of the chipset
may or may not need attached thermal solutions, depending on your specific system local-ambient
operating conditions.
4.1
Operating Environment and Thermal Performance
Reference thermal solutions have been designed for the 915GM/915GME/910GMLE GMCH. This
document will describe the reference heatsink for the 915GM/915GME/910GMLE GMCH for the
1U/2U server and AdvancedTCA* form factors. This solution may be valid for other form factors,
but the entire thermal solution, including heatsink, TIM, and attachment mechanism must be
validated in the final intended system.
The reference thermal solution was designed assuming a maximum local ambient air temperature,
TLA, of 55° C. The required minimum airflow velocity directly upstream of the heatsink varies
depending on the 915GM/915GME/910GMLE GMCH configuration and the resulting TDP.
Assuming these boundary conditions are met, the reference thermal solutions will meet the thermal
specifications for the 915GM/915GME/910GMLE GMCH. Table 5 shows the required thermal
performance for the 915GM/915GME/910GMLE GMCH in the lowest and highest TDP
configurations.
Table 5.
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal
Requirements
TDP (W)
Required ΨCA at TLA1 = 55 °C
4.6 (Min Configuration)
10.87 °C/W
13.9 (Max Configuration)
3.60 °C/W
Notes:
1.
TLA is defined as the local (internal) ambient temperature measured directly upstream of the chipset.
The thermal performance of the reference thermal solution for the 915GM/915GME/910GMLE
GMCH is shown in Figure 5. This figure shows the performance of the reference thermal solution
at sea level based on lab verification test data.
The performance of the heatsink is greatly influenced by the performance of the Thermal Interface
Material. The TIM will have a lower impedance when first installed in the system (End of Line).
Over time the material with degrade and the impedance will increase up to a point at the End of
Life of the material. Figure 5 shows the performance of the thermal solution with both an End of
Line and End of Life performance. It is recommended for system integrators to work with Thermal
Interface Material vendors to determine the performance of the desired TIM as well as the time
period for End of Life.
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
15
Reference Thermal Solution
This thermal solution performance was tested to ensure that the heatsink is performing within
expectations. It is recommended that system integrators validate the entire thermal solution,
including heatsink, thermal interface material and attach mechanism, in the final intended system.
Figure 5.
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Aluminum Heatsink
Thermal Performance
Ψ CA vs. Airflow
12.00
11.00
10.00
9.00
8.00
7.00
Al Heatsink End of Line
Al Heatsink End of Life
Requirement at Min TDP @ 55°C
6.00
Ψ CA
(°C/W)
Requirement at Max TDP @ 55°C
5.00
4.00
3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
Airflow (LFM)
4.2
Mechanical Design Envelope
The board component keep-out restrictions for the reference thermal solution are included in
Section 4.4. Figure 6 shows the reference heatsink volumetric constraints. This heatsink extends
19.42 mm [0.675 in] nominally above the board when mounted. System integrators should ensure
no board or chassis components would intrude into the volume occupied by the heatsink.
16
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
Reference Thermal Solution
Figure 6.
Reference Heatsink Volumetric Height
2.42 mm
Heatsink Fin
19.42 mm
1.58 mm
FCBGA +
Solder Balls
Die + TIM
Heatsink Base
Motherboard
42.5 mm
Heatsink
42.5 mm
Fin
4.3
Thermal Solution Assembly
The reference thermal solution will consist of a passively cooled aluminum heatsink. The heatsink
is comprised of an extruded or skived aluminum heatsink attached to the motherboard by a
torsional clip and anchors soldered to the board. The thermal interface material for this heatsink
(Honeywell* PCM45F) is preapplied to the heatsink bottom over an area in contact with the
package die. The heatsink assembly is shown in Figure 7.
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
17
Reference Thermal Solution
Figure 7.
Reference Thermal Solution Heatsink Assembly
4.3.1
Heatsink Orientation
The 915GM/915GME/910GMLE GMCH heatsink is a unidirectional fin heatsink. This type of
heatsink design requires that the fins must be aligned with the direction of the airflow.
4.3.2
Heatsink Clip
The reference thermal solution uses a wire clip with hooked ends. The hooks attach to wire anchors
to fasten the heatsink to the board. The mechanical drawing of the clip is located in Appendix B.
4.3.3
Solder-Down Anchors
For platforms that have very limited board space, a clip retention solder-down anchor has been
developed to minimize the impact of clip retention on the board. It is based on a standard three-pin
jumper and is soldered to the board like any common through-hole header. A new anchor design is
available with 45° bent leads to increase the anchor attach reliability over time. The part number
and vendor information is contained in Appendix A.
4.3.4
Thermal Interface Material (TIM)
A thermal interface material provides improved conductivity between the die and heatsink. It is
important to understand and consider the impact of the interface between the die and heatsink base
on the overall thermal solution. Specifically, the bond line thickness, interface material area, and
interface material thermal conductivity must be selected to optimize the thermal solution.
It is important to minimize the thickness of the TIM, commonly referred to as the bond line
thickness. A large gap between the heatsink base and the die yields a greater thermal resistance.
The thickness of the gap is determined by the flatness of both the heatsink base and the die, plus the
18
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
Reference Thermal Solution
thickness of the TIM, and the clamping force applied by the heatsink attachment method. To ensure
proper and consistent thermal performance, the TIM and application process must be properly
designed.
The 915GM/915GME/910GMLE GMCH reference thermal solution uses Honeywell* PCM45F.
Alternative materials can be used at the user’s discretion. Regardless, the entire heatsink assembly,
including the heatsink, TIM, attach method must be validated for specific applications.
4.4
Board-Level Component Keep-outs
The locations of the hole patterns and motherboard component keep-outs for the 915GM/915GME/
910GMLE GMCH can be seen in Figure 8 and Figure 9. Dimensions are in inches.
Figure 8.
Torsional Clip Heatsink Motherboard Component Keep-out
2.218
MCH
2.398
2x 1.199
Parallel Mean
Airflow Direction
2x 1.109
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
19
Reference Thermal Solution
Figure 9.
Retention Mechanism Component Keep-out Zones
0.070" Component
Keepout
0.896
2x 0.060
0.120
0.345
0.225
0.100" Component
Keepout
(0.345)
0.170
1.156
See Detail A
(0.165)
Detail A
0.100
0.165
0.083
2x 0.038
Plated Through Hole
0.173
0.345
0.200
0.100
2x 0.056
Component Keepout
4.5
Trace Keepout
Environmental Reliability Requirements
The environmental reliability requirements for the reference thermal solution are shown in Table 6.
These should be considered as general guidelines. Validation test plans should be defined by the
user based on anticipated use conditions and resulting reliability requirements.
Table 6.
Reference Thermal Solution Environmental Reliability Requirements (Sheet 1 of 2)
Test1
Requirement
Pass/Fail Criteria2
• 3 drops for + and - directions in each of 3 perpendicular
axes (i.e., total 18 drops).
Mechanical Shock
• Profile: 50 G trapezoidal waveform, 11 ms duration,
4.3 m/s [170 in/s] minimum velocity change.
Visual/Electrical Check
• Setup: Mount sample board on test fixture. Include 450 g
processor heatsink.
• Duration: 10 min/axis, 3 axes
Random Vibration
• Frequency Range: 5 Hz to 500 Hz
Visual/Electrical Check
• Power Spectral Density (PSD) Profile: 3.13 g RMS
1.
2.
20
The above tests should be performed on a sample size of at least 12 assemblies from three different
lots of material.
Additional Pass/Fail Criteria may be added at the discretion of the user.
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
Reference Thermal Solution
Table 6.
Reference Thermal Solution Environmental Reliability Requirements (Sheet 2 of 2)
Test1
Requirement
Pass/Fail Criteria2
Thermal Cycling
-40 °C to +85 °C, 1000 cycles
Visual Check
Temperature Life
85 °C, 1000 hours total
Visual/Electrical Check
Unbiased Humidity
85 % relative humidity / 55 °C, 1000 hours
Visual Check
1.
2.
The above tests should be performed on a sample size of at least 12 assemblies from three different
lots of material.
Additional Pass/Fail Criteria may be added at the discretion of the user.
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
21
Thermal Management
Thermal Management
5
System level thermal management requires comprehending thermal solutions for two domains of
operation:
1. Robust Thermal Solution Design: Proper system design should include implementation of a
robust thermal solution. The system’s thermal solution should be capable of dissipating the
platform’s TDP power while keeping all components (particularly GMCH, for the purposes of
this discussion) below the relevant TC-MAX under the intended usage conditions. Such
conditions include ambient air temperature and available airflow inside the notebook.
2. Thermal Failsafe Protection Assistance: As a backup to the implemented thermal solution, the
system design should provide a method to provide additional thermal protection for the
components of concern (particularly GMCH, for purposes of this discussion). The failsafe
assistance mechanism is to help manage components from being damaged by excessive
thermal stress under situations in which the implemented thermal solution is inadequate or has
failed.
This section covers the thermal failsafe assistance mechanisms that are available for the GMCH
and recommends a usage model designed to accomplish the failsafe Protection Assistance.
The GMCH provides two internal thermal sensors, plus hooks for an external thermal sensor
mechanism. These can be used for detecting the component temperature and for triggering thermal
control within the GMCH. The GMCH has implemented several silicon level thermal management
features that can lower both GMCH and DDR power during periods of high activity. These features
can help control temperature of the GMCH and DDR and thus help prevent thermally induced
component failures. These features include:
• Memory throttling triggering by memory heating
• Memory throttling triggering by GMCH heating
• THRMTRIP# support
5.1
Internal Thermal Sensor
The GMCH incorporates two on-die thermal sensors which may be enabled separately. When
“tripped” at various values, the thermal sensors may be programmed to cause hardware throttling
and/or software interrupts. Hardware throttling includes main memory programmable throttling
thresholds. Sensor trip points may also be programmed to be generated various interrupts,
including SCI, SMI, SERR, or an internal graphics INTR.
5.1.1
Trip Points
There are three programmable temperature trip points for each of the two internal thermal sensors:
Catastrophic, Hot, and Auxiliary.
22
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
Thermal Management
The GMCH can be programmed to generate interrupts when any of these three trip points has been
crossed in the upwards direction. In addition, the GMCH can be programmed to enable throttling
of the DDR interface when the Catastrophic and/or Hot trip points are crossed in the upwards
direction.
• Crossing the Catastrophic trip point may be programmed to generate an interrupt, enable
hardware throttling, and immediately shut down the system (via Halt, or via THRMTRIP#
assertion).
• Crossing the Hot trip point may be programmed to generate an interrupt and/or enable
hardware throttling.
• Crossing the Auxiliary trip point can be programmed to generate an interrupt.The current state
of all trip points (HOT/CAT/AUX) may be read by software via the Thermal Sensor Status
Registers (TSSRs). It is recommended to use Halt or THRMTRIP# assertion on Catastrophic
trip. Using an interrupt to initiate shutdown at Catastrophic temperature may be delayed since
there is no guaranteed minimum interrupt service latency.
5.1.2
Thermometer
The Thermometer Reading Register (TRR) is primarily useful as an indicator of die temperature
trending. The TRR value tends to decrease as the die temperature increases. Intel currently has no
recommended end user usage model for this register. It is provided solely as an indication of
temperature trending, for customer system characterization. Absolute temperature accuracy will
vary from part to part. Refer to Section 5.4 for more details on the sensor accuracy (Taccuracy).
5.2
Sample Programming Model
Intel BIOS reference code implements a thermal failsafe mechanism based upon the assumptions
stated in the beginning of this chapter. The subsections below describe the algorithms implemented
in the reference code.
5.2.1
Setting the “Hot” Temperature Trip Point
• Program the Thermal Hot Temperature Setting Register (THTS) as recommended in the latest
Mobile Intel® 915 Express Chipset Family BIOS spec and memory reference code. Contact
your Intel Field Representative to obtain this document.
• Program the Thermal Sensor Control Register (TSC) as recommended in the latest Mobile
Intel® 915 Express Chipset Family BIOS spec and memory reference code. Contact your Intel
Field Representative to obtain this document.
• To enable Error/SMI/SCI/INTR commands for CAT/HOT/AUX trip, set the appropriate bit in
TERRCMD/TSMICMD TSCICMD/TINTRCMD registers. Refer to latest Mobile Intel® 915
Express Chipset Family Datasheet and BIOS spec update for programming details. Contact
your Intel Field Representative to obtain this document.
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
23
Thermal Management
5.3
Trip Point Temperature Targets
Table 7 provides recommended trip points based upon the usage model of the thermal sensors as a
thermal protection failsafe mechanism. These settings assume that the system’s thermal solution
has been designed to provide adequate cooling for a TDP power condition and that the settings for
the silicon level thermal management are only intended to provide failsafe protection of the part
beyond the capabilities of the thermal solution.
Intel’s recommended trip point settings take into account the inaccuracy of the internal thermal
sensors as described in Section 5.4 and are intended to cause the GMCH to initiate thermal failsafe
control mechanisms at the noted temperatures under the worst case accuracy, Taccuracy. Therefore,
in parts which actually exhibit the worst case inaccuracy, failsafe control mechanisms may actually
be initiated at a temperature which is Taccuracy below the nominal trip point.
Table 7.
Recommended Programming for Available Trip Points
Zone
Nominal Trip Points
Recommended action
Catastrophic
TCatastrophic = TC-MAX + 41°C - Taccuracy = 133°C
Halt operation
Hot
THot = TC-MAX + 3°C + Taccuracy = 121°C
Initiate throttling
Aux
Aux OEM decision, based on OEM criteria (for example:
Taux = Temp at which an auxiliary fan should be turned on)
OEM decision, based on
OEM criteria (for
example: turn on an
auxiliary fan)
Crossing a trip point in either direction may generate several types of interrupts. Each trip point has
a register which can be programmed to select the type of interrupt to be generated.
Crossing a trip point may also initiate hardware-based throttling without software intervention.
5.4
Thermal Sensor Accuracy
Thermal sensor accuracy, Taccuracy, for GMCH is ± 13 °C for temperature range 80 °C to 133 °C.
This value is based on product characterization and is not guaranteed by manufacturing test.
Software has the ability to program the Tcat, Thot, and Taux trip points, but these trip points should
be selected with consideration for the thermal sensor accuracy and the quality of the platform
thermal solution. Overly conservative (unnecessarily low) temperature settings may unnecessarily
degrade performance due to frequent throttling, while very aggressive (dangerously high)
temperature settings may fail to protect the part against permanent thermal damage.
5.5
Thermal Throttling Options
The GMCH has two independent mechanisms that cause system memory bandwidth throttling. The
first is GMCH thermal management to ensure that the chipset is operating within thermal limits.
The mechanism can be initiated by a thermal sensor (internal or external) trip or by GMCH usage
exceeding a programmed threshold via a weighted input averaging filter. The second is DRAM
Thermal management to ensure that the DRAM chips are operating within thermal limits.
Throttling can be initiated by DRAM activity measurement exceeding a programmed threshold.
24
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
Thermal Management
Another possible usage model targets skin temperature control near memory. Throttling can be
initiated by an external thermal sensor trip or by dram activity measurement exceeding a
programmed threshold.
5.6
THRMTRIP Operation
Assertion of the GMCH’s THRMTRIP# (Thermal Trip) indicates the GMCH junction temperature
has reached a level beyond which damage may occur. Upon assertion of THRMTRIP#, the GMCH
will shut off its internal clocks (thus halting program execution) in an attempt to reduce the GMCH
core junction temperature. Once activated, THRMTRIP# remains latched until RSTIN# is asserted.
The GMCH THRMTRIP# and CPU THRMMTRIP# signals connects to ICH6-M.
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
25
Conclusion
Conclusion
6
As the complexity of computer systems increases, so do power dissipation requirements. The
additional power of next generation systems must be properly dissipated. Heat can be dissipated
using improved system cooling, selective use of ducting, and/or passive heatsinks.
The simplest and most cost-effective method to improve the inherent system cooling characteristics
of the Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH is through careful
design and placement of fans, vents, and ducts. When additional cooling is required, component
thermal solutions may be implemented in conjunction with system thermal solutions. The size of
the fan or heatsink can be varied to balance size and space constraints with acoustic noise.
This document has presented the conditions and requirements to properly design a cooling solution
for systems that implement the 915GM/915GME/910GMLE GMCH. Properly designed solutions
provide adequate cooling to maintain the 915GM/915GME/910GMLE GMCH case temperature at
or below thermal specifications. This is accomplished by providing a low local-ambient
temperature, ensuring adequate local airflow, and minimizing the case to local-ambient thermal
resistance. By maintaining the 915GM/915GME/910GMLE GMCH case temperature at or below
those recommended in this document, a system designer can ensure the proper functionality,
performance, and reliability of this chipset.
26
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
Enabled Suppliers
Enabled Suppliers
A
Table 8 lists the enabled suppliers for the Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express
Chipset GMCH reference thermal solution.
Table 8.
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Reference Design
Heatsink Enabled Suppliers
Part
Intel Part
Number
Supplier
Contact Information
Wendy Lin (USA)
Aluminum Heatsink1
NA
CoolerMaster*
510-770-8566
[email protected]
Paula Knoll
Thermal Interface
(PCM45F)
NA
Honeywell*
858-279-2956
[email protected]
Harry Lin (USA)
714-739-5797
CCI/ACK*
Heatsink Attach Clip
[email protected]
Monica Chih (Taiwan)
866-2-29952666, x131
A69230-001
[email protected]
Bob Hall (USA)
Foxconn*
503-693-3509, x235
[email protected]
Julia Jiang (USA)
Solder-Down Anchor
A13494-005
Foxconn
408-919-6178
[email protected]
Note:
1.
Drawings may be delivered to any heatsink manufacturer for piece parts.
These vendors and devices are listed by Intel as a convenience to Intel's general customer base, but
Intel does not make any representations or warranties whatsoever regarding quality, reliability,
functionality, or compatibility of these devices. This list and/or these devices may be subject to
change without notice.
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
27
Mechanical Drawings
Mechanical Drawings
B
Table 9 lists the mechanical drawings available in this appendix:
Table 9.
Mechanical Drawings
Drawing Name
28
Page Number
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH
Package
29
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH
Aluminum Heatsink Assembly
30
Torsional Clip
32
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
Mechanical Drawings
Figure 10.
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Package
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
29
Mechanical Drawings
Figure 11.
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Aluminum Heatsink
Assembly
30
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
Mechanical Drawings
Figure 12.
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Aluminum Heatsink
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
31
Mechanical Drawings
Figure 13.
Torsional Clip
32
Mobile Intel® 915GM/915GME/910GMLE Express Chipset GMCH Thermal Design Guide
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