null User manual

null  User manual
COMPUTER CAPSULE FOR IBPS PO MAINS -2016
COMPUTER CAPSULE FOR IBPS PO MAINS -2016
vacuum tubes as a storing device. They were also founders of
History
the first computer company, it was initially named Electronic
The word Computer in earlier times meant a person who
Controls Company which was later changed to Eckert–
performed calculations or computations. With years its
Mauchly Computer Corporation, and released a series of
definition changed to a machine that performs calculations.
mainframe electronic digital stored-program computer
It can perform all type of mathematical and logical
under the name of UNIVAC.
operations; it can accept data, store data, retrieve data,
MIT introduces the whirlwind machine (first computer with
process data and produce output.
RAM) on March 8 1955.
Charles Babbage was known as father of computer. He
The first commercially available microprocessor by Intel was
invented two machines in 1822 introduced Difference
the Intel 4004, a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) and was
Engine and in 1834, introduced Analytical engine.
released by Intel Corporation in 1971.
ENIAC was the first digital computer and it was invented
by J.Presper Eckert and John Mauchly at the University of
Pennsylvania and began construction in 1943. It uses 18000
Generation of computer
Subject
Period
Circuitry
1st generation
1940-1956
Vacuum tube
2nd generation
1956-1963
Transistor
3rd generation
1964-1971
Integrated
chips (IC)
4th generation
1971-present
Microprocessor
(VLSI)
Memory Capacity
20 KB
128KB
1MB
Processing Speed
300 IPS inst. Per
sec.
300 IPS
Programming
Language
Assembly
Language
Example of
computers
UNIVAC,
EDVAC
High level
language
(FORTRAN,
COBOL, ALGOL)
IBM 1401, IBM
7094,
CDC 3600,D
UNIVAC 1108
1MIPS(1
million inst. Per
sec.)
C,C++
Semiconductor type
and very high
Faster than 3rd
generation
IBM 360 series,
1900 series
5th generation
present & beyond
ULSI (Ultra Large
Scale Integration)
technology
VLSI and ULSI
Very fast
C,C++,Java
All the Higher level
languages,
Neural networks,
Pentium series
Multimedia,
Stimulation
Artificial
Intelligence,
Robotics
Types of computer
Analog computer introduced by Lord Kelvin. Numerical
data are represented by measurable physical variables such
as electrical voltage. A thermometer is a simple analog
computer.
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Digital computer that accepts and process data in the form
of numbers and all the character are converted into binary
code.
Hybrid computer used the combined feature of analog and
digital machine. you can see hybrid computer in geological
departments.
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Microcomputer these are small relatively inexpensive
computer designed for personal and office use. It has lowest
storing and processing speed. These can be laptop or
desktop.
Minicomputer powerful as compare to microcomputer it
has higher memory provide faster operating speeds and
large storage capacities than microcomputers. It can be used
as a server and capable of supporting from 2 to 200 users.
Mainframe computer it has very high memory and
processing speed and used as a server (can support
thousands of users)
Super computer can be used for complex type of application
i.e. specific research, weather forecasting, Weapon designing
etc.
CDC 6600 was the first successful supercomputer.
Sunway TaihuLight of China is the fastest supercomputer in
the world.
PARAM-8000 India’s first Super Computer developed by CDAC Pune in 1998.
Shasra T is considered as India’s fastest super computer,
manufactured by Indian Institute of Science.
Servers are dedicated computers that serve the needs or
request of other programs or computer.
Workstations serve usually one user only.
Information appliances are computers specially designed
to perform a specific "user-friendly" function—such as
playing music, photography.
An embedded system is a computer system with a
dedicated function within a larger system.
Hardware and I/O Devices
A computer is an electronic device that accepts data from the
user (input), processes the data by performing calculations
and operations on it and generates the desired Output.
An unprocessed collection or representation of raw facts
represented in a manner suitable for communication,
interpretation or processing by humans or by automatic
means, is known as Data.
Personal computers use a number of chips mounted on a
main circuit board called Motherboard. A motherboard is
the physical arrangement in a computer that contains the
computer's basic circuitry and components.
The central processing unit (CPU) is the brain of your
computer. It handles all the instructions you give your
computer. The control unit (CU) is a component of a
computer's central processing unit (CPU) that directs
operation of the processor. It tells the computer's memory,
arithmetic/logic unit and input and output devices how to
respond to a program's instructions.
An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a digital circuit used to
perform arithmetic and logic operations. It represents the
fundamental building block of the central processing unit
(CPU) of a computer.
Instruction Execution: the program which is to be executed
is a set of instruction which are stored in memory. The CPU
executes the instructions of program to complete a task and
this execution takes place inside the CPU with the help of
registers ALU (arithmetic logic unit) and CU(control unit).
When the processor executes instructions, data is
temporarily stored in small local memory location and these
are called registers.
Accumulator Register:- which stores the immediate result
of arithmetic and logical operations.
Memory address register (MAR) :- which contain the
address of memory location to which data is to be stored.
Program counter :- which contain the address of the next
instruction to process.
An output device is any piece of computer hardware
equipment used to communicate the results of data
processing carried out by an information processing system
(such as a computer) which converts the electronically
generated information into human-readable form.
The CPU is fabricated as a single Integrated Circuit (IC) chip.
It is also known as the Microprocessor. Multiprocessor
Computers uses two or more central processing units (CPUs)
within a single computer system. The term also refers to the
ability of a system to support more than one processor
and/or the ability to allocate tasks between them.
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Instruction register:- which contain the current instruction
being processed
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Joystick is the device that moves in all directions and
controls the movement of a pointer.
A Touch Screen is a type of display screen device that is
placed on the computer monitor to allow direct selection or
activation of the computer when the user touches the screen.
It acts as both input and output device.
Light Pen is the pen shaped device, which can sense light
and is used to point at spots on a video screen.
A technology enables a high-speed reading of large
quantities of data and transferring these data to the
computer without using a keyboard. It is referred as Optical
Mark Reader (OMR). It uses a beam of light that is reflected
on the paper with marks, to capture presence and absence of
marks.
MICR reads the characters by examining their shapes in a
matrix form and the information is then passed `on to the
computer. MICR stands for Magnetic Ink Character Reader.
It provides a high level of security and is therefore used by
the banking industry for faster processing of the cheque.
Bar Code is a machine readable code, which is represented
by parallel vertical lines with varying widths. For reading
these bar-coded data, a device is used, which is known as a
Bar Code Reader (BCR)
The data that is fed into a computer processor, received into
the computer by a keyboard or other sources is called Input.
Examples of input devices include keyboards, mouse,
scanners, digital cameras and joysticks.
A keyboard is a typewriter-style device, which uses an
arrangement of buttons or keys, to act as mechanical levers
or electronic switches. Most of the commonly available
personal computers have a keyboard, popularly known as
Qwerty.
The keys labeled Fl to F12 on the keyboard are called
Function Keys.
'Caps lock' and 'Num lock' keys are called as Toggle Keys
because when pressed, they change their status from one
state to another.
Numeric Keypad is a keypad located on the right hand side
of the keyboard. It consists of digits and mathematical
operators.
A Modifier key is a special key (or combination) on a
computer keyboard that temporarily modifies the normal
action of another key when pressed together. By themselves,
modifier keys usually do nothing; that is, pressing any of the
Shift, Alt, or Ctrl keys alone does not (generally) trigger any
action from the computer.
A Mouse is the most popular input device which is used
today for interactive processing and for the one line entry of
data for batch processing. The first computer mouse was
invented by Douglas Engelbart.
Drag and Drop refers to the action of clicking and holding
down the mouse button, while moving the mouse and then
releasing the mouse button.
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Optical Character Recognition (OCR) is used to scan the
document containing text. It is the mechanical or electronic
conversion of scanned or photographed images of
typewritten
or
printed
text
into
machineencoded/computer-readable text.
A point of sale terminal (POS terminal) is an electronic
device used to process card payments at retail locations.
The device that prints information from the computer onto
the paper is Printer.
The printed form of output is referred as Hard Copy. The
form of output displayed on the screen is referred as Soft
Copy.
Pages per Minute (PPM) is the unit used to count the speed
of the printer.
On the basis of technology, printers are categorized into
Impact and Non- Impact Printers.
Impact printers create an image by using some mechanism
to physically press an inked ribbon against the page, causing
the ink to be deposited on the page in the shape desired.
I) Dot matrix :- The dot-matrix printer uses print heads
containing from 9 to 24 pins. These pins produce patterns of
dots on the paper to form the individual characters
II) Daisy wheel:- A hammer strikes a “petal” containing a
character against the ribbon, and the character prints on the
paper. Its speed is slow typically 25-55 characters per
second.
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III)Line printer:- Line printers, or line-at-a-time printers,
use special mechanism that can print a whole line at once;
they can typically print the range of 1,200 to 6,000 lines per
minute
IV)Drum printer:- A drum printer consists of a solid,
cylindrical drum that has raised characters in bands on its
surface. The number of print positions across the drum
equals the number available on the page.
V)Chain printer:- A chain printer uses a chain of print
characters wrapped around two pulleys
VI)Band printer:- Band printer has a steel band divided into
five sections of 48 characters each.
Software and Operating System
A set of instructions that tells the computer about the tasks
to be performed and how these tasks are to performed, is
known as Software.
The set of instructions, which control the sequence of
operations, are known as Program. It is a sequence of
instructions, written to perform a specified task with a
computer.
Non – Impact Printers do not touch the paper when
creating an image.
I)Ink-jet printers:- One or more nozzles in the print head
emit a steady stream of ink drops. Droplets of ink are
electrically charged after leaving the nozzle. The droplets are
then guided to the paper by electrically charged deflecting
plates
II)Laser printers:- Laser printers use buffers that store an
entire page at a time. When a whole page is loaded, it will be
printed.
III)Thermal printer:- is a digital printing process which
produces a printed image by selectively heating coated
thermo chromic paper, or thermal paper as it is commonly
known, when the paper passes over the thermal print head.
A plotter is an output device that interprets commands from
a computer to make line drawings on paper with one or
more automated pens. Unlike a regular printer, the plotter
can draw continuous point-to-point lines directly from
vector graphics files or commands.
An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is a device that
allows a computer to keep running for at least a short time
when the primary power source is lost.
A Monitor is a TV-like display attached to the computer on
which the output can be displayed and viewed. It can either
be a monochrome display or a color display. The number of
pixels displayed on a screen is known as Resolution.
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Application software is a group of program designed for
fulfill the demand of end user e.g. MS office, PowerPoint,
Windows Media Player.
System software is a program which is created for the
system and to make the system user friendly such as
operating system or is a type of computer program that is
designed to run a computer's hardware and application
programs.
Utility software designed to help analyze, configure,
optimize or maintain a computer such antivirus software.
Operating system is a set of programs that help in controlling
and managing the hardware and the software resources of a
computer system. Main functions of operating system
are:-Process management
-Memory management
-File management
-Security
-Command and interpretation
-Resource allocation
Types of OS.
1)Batch operating system : Here data and program that
need to be processed are bundled and collected as a batch
and executed together.
2)Multiprogramming operating system : It allows the
instruction and data from two or more separate process to
reside in primary simultaneously. Multiprogramming system
are multitasking multiuser and multiprocessing operating
system.
3)Single user : It is designed for single user and a single
person use it at a time i.e. DOS window’s 95 etc.
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4)Distributed operating system : It is the one which
manages a collection of independent computers and makes
them appear to the user of the system as a single computer.
5)Real Time Operating System (RTOS) : It is a computing
environment that reacts to input within a specific time
period. It is used at those Places in which we Requires higher
and Timely Response.
6) Time Sharing System: A time sharing system allows the
many users to simultaneously share the computer resources.
Since each action or command in a time-shared system take
a very small fraction of time, only a little CPU time is needed
for each user.
7)Mobile OS: Windows 10 Mobile is the latest name for
Microsoft's phone and tablet operating system. Google's
latest’s version of its android OS is Nougat and iOS i.e.
iPhone Operating System's latest version is iOS 10.
Computer Languages
Low level language: these are coded in a form which is easy
to understand by the processor.
Machine language: it is also a type of low level language
these can be develop in binary language (0 and 1) .
Assembly language: it is also a type of low level language
and using the human readable instruction of the CPU. It is
written as ‘MOV A.’
High level language programmer can write code in simple
easy language, it is user friendly . E.g. C, JAVA
C language: it is a middle level programming language and
also known as procedural language
C++ is high level language that uses the OOPS concept.
Fortran: it is known as formula translation .it is used for
scientific application
COBOL(Common Business Oriented Language ): used for
record keeping and data management in business
organizations.
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BASIC (Beginner’s All Purpose Symbolic Instruction
Code): first language designed for non-professional
programmers.
PASCAL: it is developed as a teaching tool for programming
concepts
Language processor (Translator): Programmers write
their program in one of the high level language because it is
much easy to code in these language but computer does not
understand any of these language so it is necessary to
convert program into a machine language so translator do
this work.
Loader: It loads the code which is translated by translator
into the main memory and makes it ready to execute.
Linker is used to combine all the object files and convert
them into a final executable program.
Interpreter converts high level language program into
machine language. It is very slow because it convert program
line by line.
Compiler: It also translates the program from high level
language to machine language. It is very fast because it
converts the whole program into machine language.
Assembler: It is used for converting the code of low level
language (assembly language) into machine level language.
MEMORY MANAGEMENT
8 bit
1024 Byte
1024 KB
1024 MB
1024 GB
1024 TB
1024 PB
1024 XB
1024 ZB
|
1 byte
1 KB (Kilo Byte)
1 MB (Mega Byte)
1 GB (Giga Byte)
1 TB (Tera Byte)
1 PB (Peta Byte)
1 EB (Exa Byte)
1 ZB (Zeta Byte)
1 YB (Yota Byte)
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A group of 4 bits is called a nibble. A byte is also known as
an Octet.
Primary Storage (memory), also known as main storage
and it is the area in a computer in which data is stored for
quick access by the computer's processor. The terms random
access memory (RAM) and memory are often as synonyms
for primary or main storage. Primary storage is volatile and
can be contrasted with non-volatile secondary storage, also
known as auxiliary storage.
Cache memory is a smaller, faster memory which stores
copies of the data from frequently used main memory
locations. A CPU cache is a hardware cache used by the
central processing unit (CPU) of a computer to reduce the
average time to access data from the main memory.
Secondary memory is where programs and data are kept
on a long-term basis. Common secondary storage devices are
the hard disk and optical disks. The hard disk has enormous
storage capacity compared to main memory. The hard disk is
usually contained inside the case of a computer.
Read-only memory (ROM) is a storage medium used in
computers and other electronic devices. Data stored in ROM
can only be modified slowly or with difficulty, or not at all.
ROM is non-volatile and the contents are retained even
after the power is switched off.
It only allows reading.
The types of ROM include PROM, EPROM and EEPROM.
Random Access Memory (RAM), allows the computer to
store data for immediate manipulation and to keep track of
what is currently being processed.
RAM is referred to as volatile memory and is lost when the
power is turned off.
It also known as read/write memory as information can be
read from and written onto it.
The two main types of RAM are Static RAM and Dynamic
RAM.
SRAM retains data as long as power is provided to the
memory chip and need not be refreshed periodically. It is
often used as CPU Cache memory. SRAM stands for Static
Random Access Memory.
The data on DRAM continues to move in and out of the
memory as long as power is available and must be
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continually refreshed to maintain the data. DRAM stands for
Dynamic Random Access Memory.
Virtual memory is memory on the hard disk that the CPU
uses as an extended RAM.
Primary
memory
Secondary
memory
Access
Time
Faster
Storage
Capacity
Smaller
Cost per bit
of storage
High
Slower
Higher
Low
Memory can also be categorized on the basis of their
material:
Semiconductor memory:-such as RAM, ROM, EPROM, and
flash memory.
Magnetic memory:-such as hard disk, floppy disk and
magnetic tapes.
Optical memory:-such as computer disk, DVD and blue-ray
disk.
A bus, in computing, is a set of physical connections (cables,
printed circuits, etc.) which can be shared by multiple
hardware components in order to communicate with one
another.
The address bus (sometimes called the memory bus)
transports memory addresses which the processor wants to
access in order to read or write data. It is a unidirectional
bus.
The data bus transfers instructions coming from or going to
the processor. It is a bidirectional bus.
The control bus (or command bus) transports orders and
synchonisation signals coming from the control unit and
travelling to all other hardware components. It is a
bidirectional bus, as it also transmits response signals from
the hardware.
Number System
The radix or base is the number of unique digits, including
zero, used to represent numbers in a positional numeral
system. For example, for the decimal system the radix is ten,
because it uses the ten digits from 0 through 9. And that of
Binary is base 2.
Number System
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Decimal, Binary,
Equivalents
Decimal
Binary
0
0000
1
0001
2
0010
3
0011
4
0100
5
0101
6
0110
7
0111
8
1000
9
1001
10
1010
11
1011
12
1100
13
1101
14
1110
15
1111
Octal
and
Octal
000
001
002
003
004
005
006
007
010
011
012
013
014
015
016
017
Hexadecimal
Hexadecimal
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
B
C
D
E
F
Hexadecimal to Binary: Refer the above table for the
conversion process
(1A2)16 = (?)2
1=0001, A= 1010, 2=0010; Hence
(1A2)16
=
(000110100010)2
Decimal to Binary: (75)10 =(?)2
Divide 75 by 2 (and write down its remainder).
Basic Gates
AND
F=xy
OR
F=x+y
NOT
F=x’
Universal Gates
NAND
F=(xy)’
NOR
F=(x+y)’
Exclusive Gates
ExclusiveOR (XOR)
F=xy’+x’y
ExclusiveNOR
Hence (75)10 =(101011)2
Any number system to decimal:
Sum of all (Digit × (Base)Base’s Place)
Example: (1A2)16 = (?)10 (From the table you can refer A is
equivalent to 10)
((1× 162)+(10 × 161)+ (2×160))= 256+160+2=418
Example: (110110)2=(?)10
((1×25)+
(1×24)+
(0×23)+
(1×22)+
(1×21)+
0
(0×2 ))=32+16+4+2= 54; (110110)2=(54)10
Octal to Binary: (345)8 =(?)2 (Write down 3 bit binary
equivalents of all digits)
3=011, 4=100, 5=101; Hence (345)8 =(011100101)2
Octal to Hexadecimal: Convert to Binary first and then
group 4 bits to get hexadecimal number. Example: (345) 8
=(?)16 =>(345)8 =(011100101)2 = 0000 1110 0101 =(0E5)16
Logic Gates
A logic gate is an elementary building block of a digital
circuit. Most logic gates have two inputs and one output. At
any given moment, every terminal is in one of the two binary
conditions low (0) or high (1)
Name
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Graphic Symbol
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Algebraic
Truth
Function
Table
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F=xy+x’y’
Computer Network
Different types of network are: LAN, MAN and WAN.
A LAN (local area network) is a group of computers and
network devices connected together, usually within the same
building. By definition, the connections must be high speed
and relatively inexpensive (e.g., token ring or Ethernet).
A MAN (metropolitan area network) is a larger network
that usually spans several buildings in the same city or town.
A WAN (wide area network), in comparison to a MAN, is
not restricted to a geographical location, although it might be
confined within the bounds of a state or country. A WAN
connects several LANs, and may be limited to an enterprise
(a corporation or an organization) or accessible to the public.
The technology is high speed and relatively expensive. The
Internet is an example of a worldwide public WAN.
Networking Devices
Modem: Modem stands for Modulator-Demodulator. It is
used to connect computers for communication via telephone
lines.
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Hub: It works at the Physical layer. It just acts like a
connector of several computers i.e. simply connects all the
devices on its ports together. It broadcasts all the data
packets arriving at it with no filtering capacity.
Switch: It works at the Data Link Layer. It is used for
dividing a network into segments called subnets. It provides
filtering of data packets and prevents network traffic also.
Repeater: It operates at the Physical Layer. It is used to
amplify a signal that has lost its original strength so as to
enable them to travel long distances. It can only join the
networks that transmit similar data packets. It does not have
filtering capacity i.e. all data including noise is amplified and
passed on in the network so don’t help in reducing network
traffic.
Router: It works at the Network Layer and is used to
connect different networks that have different architectures
and protocols. It sends the data packets to desired
destination by choosing the best path available thus reducing
network traffic. It routes the data packets using the routing
table that contains all the Information regarding all known
network addresses, possible paths and cost of transmission
over them. Availability of path and cost of transmission
decide sending of data over that path. It is of 2 types: static
(manual configuration of routing table is needed) and
dynamic (automatically discovers paths).
Gateway: It operates in all the layers of the network
architecture. It can be used to connect two different
networks having different architectures, environment and
even models. It converts the data packets in form that is
suitable to the destination application. The two different
networks may differ in types of communication protocols
they use, language, data formats etc.
Bridge: They are used two connect two LANs with the same
standard but using different types of cables. It provides an
intelligent connection by allowing only desired messages to
cross the bridge thus improving performance. It uses
physical addresses of the packets for this decision. It works
on
IPv4 - 32 bits numeric address
IPv6 - 128 bits hexadecimal address
IPv6 does not use broadcast messages and has three types
of addresses, which are categorized as :
Unicast addresses. A packet is delivered to one interface.
Multicast addresses. A packet is delivered to multiple
interfaces.
Anycast addresses. A packet is delivered to the nearest of
multiple interfaces (in terms of routing distance).
IP addresses are divided into 5 classes. The various classes of
networks specify. Ipv4 have 4 octets. These designate the
network id and host id.
Class
1st octet
2nd octet
3rd octet
4th octet
Class A
Net id
Host id
Host id
Host id
Class B
Net id
Net id
Host id
Host id
Class C
Net id
Net id
Net id
Host id
Class A range starts from 0.0.0.0 to 127.2555.255.255
(starting binary digit 0)
Class
B
range
starts
from
128.0.0.0
to
191.255.255.255(starting binary digit 10)
Class
C
range
starts
from
192.0.0.0
to
223.255.255.255(starting binary digit 110)
Class
D
range
starts
from
224.0.0.0
to
239.255.255.255(starting binary digit 1110)
Class
E
range
starts
from
240.0.0.0
to
255.255.255.255(starting binary digit 1111)
Data Communication deals with the transmission of digital
data from one device to another. Data is transferred through
a pathway called as communication channel which can be
physical wire connecting the devices or may be unguided
media like laser, microwave etc.
A communication channel has a source or transmitter at one
side and a designation or receiver at another side of the
network. The source of data origination is single but there
may be multiple receivers. A communication channel is of 3
types:
Simplex: This, communication is unidirectional i.e. one of
the two devices can transmit the data and the other can only
receive the data. For e.g. Radio broadcasting, television
broadcasting etc.
Half duplex: This communication is bidirectional. Either of
the devices can act as transmitter or receiver but only one
device can transmit the data at one time. For e.g. WalkieTalkie.
Full Duplex: Here the communication is in both directions
and both the devices can simultaneously transmit the data.
For e.g. Telephone conversation.
The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI) is a
conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the
internal functions of a communication system by partitioning
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it into abstraction layers. The model is a product of the Open
Systems Interconnection project at the International
Organization for Standardization (ISO).
Seven layers of OSI Model are:
 Application Layer
 Presentation Layer
 Session Layer
 Transport Layer
 Network Layer
 Data link Layer
 Physical Layer
Network topology is the arrangement of the various
elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a computer network. There
are two basic categories of network topologies:

Physical topologies and Logical topologies.
Physical topology is the placement of the various
components of a network, including device location and
cable installation, while Logical topology illustrates how
data flows within a network, regardless of its physical
design. Various types of topologies are:
 Bus Topology
 Star Topology
 Ring Topology
 Mesh Topology
 Tree Topology
Hybrid topology uses a combination of any two or more
topologies in such a way that the resulting network does not
exhibit one of the standard topologies.
Internet
The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer
networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite
(TCP/IP) to link several billion devices worldwide.
It is a network of networks that consists of millions of
private, public, academic, business, and government
networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad
array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking
technologies.
ARPANET adopted TCP/IP in 1983, and from there
researchers began to assemble the “network of networks”
that became the modern Internet.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated as WWW or W3,
commonly known as the Web) is a system of interlinked
hypertext documents that are accessed via the Internet.
A Website is a set of related web pages served from a single
web domain.
A Home page, index page, or main page is a page on a
website. A home page usually refers to:
 The initial or main web page of a website, sometimes
called the "front page" (by analogy with newspapers).
 The first page that appears upon opening a web browser
program, which is also sometimes called the start page.
This 'start page' can be a website or it can be a page with
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various browser functions such as the visual display of
websites that are often visited in the web browser.
 The web page or local file that automatically loads when a
web browser starts or when the browser's "home" button
is pressed; this is also called a "home page". The user can
specify the URL of the page to be loaded, or alternatively
choose e.g. to re-load the most recent web page browsed.
 A personal web page, for example at a web hosting
service or a university web site that typically is stored in
the home directory of the user.
A Hyperlink is a reference to data that the reader can
directly follow either by clicking or by hovering or that is
followed automatically
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a
software application for retrieving, presenting and
traversing information resources on the World Wide Web.
Some of the famous browsers are Safari, Chrome, Firefox,
Bolt, UC Browser and Internet Explorer
The Uniform Resource Locator, abbreviated as URL is a
specific character string that constitutes a reference to a
resource. In most web browsers, the URL of a web page is
displayed on top inside an address bar.
(i) An example of a typical URL would be
"http://www.bankersadda.com".
Here the domain name is ‘bankersadda.com’
Downloading means to receive data to a local system from a
remote system or to initiate such a data transfer
Uploading refers to the sending of data from a local system
to a remote system such as a server or another client with
the intent that the remote system should store a copy of the
data being transferred
An Internet Protocol address (also known as an IP
address) is a numerical label assigned to each device (e.g.,
computer, printer) participating in a computer network. It
acts as an identifier for a computer. It is a unique address for
every computer.
Domain names are used to identify one or more IP
addresses.
The universal resource locator, or URL, is an entire set of
directions, and it contains extremely detailed information.
The domain name is one of the pieces inside of a URL.
Domain Types
Type
Description
com
Commercial and for profit organization
edu
Educational provider, college, Universities
gov
Government agencies
Mil
US military sites
net
Internet infrastructure and service providers
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Hotmail was co-founded by an Indian American
entrepreneur Sabeer Bhatia along with Jack Smith in July of
1996
Authentication is the act of confirming the truth of an
attribute of a single piece of data or entity. It might involve
confirming the identity of a person by validating their
identity documents, verifying the validity of a website with a
digital certificate, tracing the age of an artifact by carbon
dating, or ensuring that a product is what its packaging and
labeling claim to be. In other words, Authentication often
involves verifying the validity of at least one form of
identification.
CC (Carbon Copy) in e – mail indicates those who are to
receive a copy of a message addressed primarily to another.
The list of CC recipients is visible to all other recipients of the
message.
Phishing is the attempt to acquire sensitive information
such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and
sometimes, indirectly, money) by masquerading as a
trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.
An additional BCC (blind carbon copy) field is available for
hidden notification; recipients listed in the BCC field receive
a copy of the message, but are not shown on any other
recipient's copy (including other BCC recipients)
A Spoofing attack is a situation in which one person or
program successfully represents oneself as another by
falsifying data and thereby gaining an illegitimate advantage.
org
Miscellaneous and Non-profit organisations
An email attachment is a computer file sent along with an
email message. One or more files can be attached to any
email message, and be sent along with it to the recipient.
The Drafts folder retains copies of messages that you have
started but are not yet ready to send.
The first email was sent by Ray Tomlinson to himself in
1971.
Computer Security
A Computer Virus is a computer program or code that can
replicate itself and spread from one computer system to
another system. A computer virus has the capacity to corrupt
or to delete data on your computer and it can utilize an email program to spread the virus to other computer systems
.In the worst case scenario, it can even delete everything on
your hard disk .The purpose of it is to disrupt the operation
of the computer or the program.
Some examples of Computer Virus are Trojan viruses.
Stealth viruses, worms, malware (malicious software),
Disk Killer, Stone virus, Sunday, Cascade, Nuclear, Word
Concept, etc.
Malware, short for malicious software, is any software
used to disrupt computer operation, gather sensitive
information, or gain access to private computer systems. It
can appear in the form of executable code, scripts, active
content, and other software.
Antivirus Software is used to scan the hard disk to remove
the virus from them. Some of the famous anti – viruses
available are Avast, Norton, Avira, Kaspersky, AVG, etc.
A person who uses his or her expertise to gain access to
other people’s computers to get information illegally or do
damage is a Hacker.
Authorization is the function of specifying access rights to
resources related to information security and computer
security in general and to access control in particular. More
formally, "to authorize" is to define an access policy.
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Microsoft Office
Microsoft Office is an office suite of desktop applications,
servers and services for the Microsoft Windows and Mac
operating systems. It includes Microsoft Word, Excel,
PowerPoint, Outlook, OneNote, Access and Publisher.
MS WORD
Microsoft Word is a word processor developed by Microsoft.
It is used for creating, editing, formatting, storing, retrieving
and printing of a text document.
Microsoft Word's native file formats are denoted either by a
.doc or .docx file extension.
A Cursor is an indicator used to show the position on a
computer monitor or other display device that will respond
to input from a text input or pointing device.
Basic Keys (Common Tasks)
Ctrl + N
Create a new document
Ctrl + B
Make letters bold
Ctrl + I
Make letters italic
Ctrl + U
Make letters underline
Ctrl + Shift+ <
Decrease font size one value
Ctrl + Shift + > Increase the font size one value
Ctrl + [
Decrease the font size by 1 point
Ctrl + ]
Increase the font size by 1 point
Ctrl+ Spacebar Remove paragraph or character
formatting.
Ctrl + C
Copy the selected text or object
Ctrl + X
Cut the selected text or object
Ctrl + V
Paste text or an object
Ctrl + Alt + V
Paste special
Alt+ Ctrl + S
Split the document Window
Ctrl + Z
Undo the last action
Ctrl + Y
Redo the last action
To create a document, we use New command at the menu.
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Save as is used to save a document for the first time. It is also
used to change the destination of the saved file in the
computer.
F11
F12
Go to the nest field
Choose the Save As command (Microsoft
Office Button).
Print Preview is used to see the document before the
printout is taken.
Header and Footer option is used to display information
such as title and page number of the document.
Cut and Paste options are used to move the data from one
part of the document to another.
The bar at the top of the window that bears the name of the
window, is known as Title Bar.
A screen element of MS Word that is usually located below
the title bar that provides categorized options is called Menu
Bar.
Auto Correct in word automatically corrects certain
spelling, typing, capitalisation or grammar errors.
Thesaurus is used for finding a synonym for a word in the
document.
Word has extensive lists of bullets and numbering features
used for tables, lists, pages, chapters, headers, footnotes, and
tables of content.
MS EXCEL
Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet application developed by
Microsoft for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS.
Control Keys + Function keys
Ctrl+F2
Ctrl+F3
Choose the print preview command
(Microsoft office Button)
Cut on the spike
Ctrl+F4
Close the window
Ctrl+F6
Go to the next window
Ctrl+F9
Insert an empty field
Ctrl+F10
Maximise the document window
Ctrl+F11
Lock a field
Ctrl+F12
Choose
the
Open
(Microsoft Office Button)
11
The intersection of a row and column is called a Cell.
The cell in which we are currently working is known as
Active Cell.
command
Portrait and Landscape options are available in
Orientation category of Page Setup.
Alignment refers to the position of text between the
margins.
Auto complete is a feature in word that automatically
completes the spelling of days of the week and months of the
year that have more than five letters in their names.
F1
F2
F4
F5
F6
F7
F8
F9
F10
It features calculation, graphing tools, pivot tables, and a
macro programming language called Visual Basic for
Applications.
Microsoft Excel's native file formats are denoted either by a
.xls or .xlsx file extension.
A Worksheet is made of columns and rows, wherein columns
run Vertically and rows run Horizontally.
Up to Excel 2003, the standard amount of columns has been
256 and 65,536 rows.
Excel 2007 onwards, the maximum number of rows per
worksheet increased to 1,048,576 and the number of
columns increased to 16,384.
Microsoft Excel has the basic features of all spreadsheets,
using a grid of cells arranged in numbered rows and letternamed columns to organize data manipulations like
arithmetic operations
Function Keys
Get help or visit Microsoft office Online.
The letter and number of the intersecting column and row is
Move text or graphic.
the Cell Address.
Repeat the last action
Choose the Go To command (Home tab).
Short cut key to insert a new worksheet in MS-Excel is ALT +
Go to the nest pane or frame.
Shift + F1 + or F11.
Choose the spelling command (Review tab)
Extend a selection
Sheet tab is the tab at the bottom of the worksheet window
Update the selected fields
that displays the name of the worksheet.
Show key tips
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A Microsoft office document that contains one or more
worksheets is known as a Workbook.
Shortcut Keys of MS-Excel
Key
Description
F2
Edit the selected cell
F5
Go to a specific cell
F7
Spell check selected text and/or
document
F11
Create chart
Ctrl + Shift + ;
Enter the current time
Ctrl + ;
Enter the current date
Shift + F3
Open the Excel insert function window
Shift + F5
Bring up Find and Replace box.
Ctrl + A
Select all contents of the worksheet
Ctrl + B
Bold highlighted selection
Ctrl + I
Italic highlighted selection
Ctrl + U
Underline highlighted selection
Ctrl + P
Bring up the print dialog box to begin
printing
Ctrl + Z
Undo last action
Ctrl + F9
Minimise current workbook
Ctrl + F10
Maximise currently selected workbook
Ctrl + F6
Switch
between
open
workbooks/window
Ctrl + page up
Move between Excel worksheet in the
same Excel document.
Ctrl + Page Move between Excel worksheets in the
Down
same Excel document
Ctrl + Tab
Move between two or more open Excel
files
Alt + =
Create a formula to sum all of the above
cells
Ctrl + ’
Insert the value of the above cell
into cell currently selected.
Ctrl + Arrow Move to next section to text
key
Ctrl + Space
Select entire column
Shift + Space
Select entire row
PowerPoint
 Microsoft PowerPoint is a slide show presentation
program developed by Microsoft. It was officially
launched on May 22, 1990, as a part of the Microsoft
Office suite.
 Filename extension: .ppt, .pptx, .pps or .ppsx
Ribbon
The Ribbon is the strip of buttons across the top of the main
window. The Ribbon has tabs which in turn contain groups
of buttons for various options - some groups also contain
galleries (for example galleries for Themes and Theme
Colors.)
Normally placed on the left side of the interface, this pane
contains two tables - the Slides tab and Outline tab.
Status Bar
A horizontal strip at bottom; that provides information about
the open presentation like slide number, applied Theme, etc.
It also includes the view and zoom options.
View Buttons
Essentially there are three view buttons displayed right
beneath on the status bar with zoom-in and zoom-out.
 Normal view - Clicking this enables Normal view, Shiftclicking this gets you to Slide Master view.
 Slide Sorter view - Clicking this displays zoom-able
thumbnails of every slide in the open presentation Shiftclicking this button gets you to Handout Master view.
 Slide Show from current slide - Show the presentation
as a full screen slideshow from the current selected slide.
Slide Area: Displays the active slide
Task Pane: It contains more options and appears when you
choose an option in one of the Ribbon tabs.
SHORTCUTS OF POWERPOINT
To do this
Start the presentation form the
beginning
Perform the next animation for
advance to the next slide
Perform
the
previous
animation or return to the
previous slide
Go to slider number
End a presentation
Return to the first slide
Redisplay hidden pointer or
change the pointer to a pen
Redisplay hidden pointer or
change the pointer to an arrow
Go to the first or next
hyperlink on a slide
Go to the last or previous
hyperlink on a slide
Press
F5
N, ENTER, PAGE DOWN,
RIGHT,
ARROW, DOWN ARROW,
or
SPACEBAR
P, PAGE UP, LEFT
ARROW, UP ARROW, or
BACKSPACE
number + ENTER
ESC or HYPHEN
1 + ENTER
CTRL + P
CTRL + A
TAB
SHIFT + TAB
DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
DBMS is the acronym of Data Base Management System.
DBMS is a collection of interrelated data and a set of
programs to access this data in a convenient and efficient
way. It controls the organization, storage, retrieval, security
and integrity of data in a database.
Slides/Outline Pane
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Types of Database Model: Network Database Model,
Hierarchical Database model, Relational Database Model and
Object-Oriented Database Model.
Architecture of DBMS-The generalized architecture of
DBMS is called ANSI/ SPARC model. The architecture is
divided into three levels:
 External view or user view/View Level- It is the
highest level of data abstraction. This includes only
those portions of database of concern to a user or
Application program. Each user has a different external
view and it is described by means of a scheme called
external schema.
 Conceptual view/Logical Level- All the database
entities and the relationship among them are included.
One conceptual view represents the entire database
called conceptual schema.
 Internal view/Physical Level- It is the lowest level of
abstraction, closest to the physical storage method. It
describes how the data is stored, what is the structure of
data storage and the method of accessing these data. It is
represented by internal schema.
Data model: A data model is a plan for building a database.
The model represents data conceptually, the way the user
sees it, rather than how computers store it. Data models
focus on required data elements and associations.
 Entity – Relationship Model
 Relational Model
Entity: A thing (animate or inanimate) of independent
physical or conceptual existence and distinguishable. In the
University database context, an individual student, faculty
member, a class room, are entities.
Attributes: Each entity
attributes/properties.
is
described
by
a
set
of
SQL (Structured Query Language) is a database computer
language designed for the retrieval and management of data
in relational database.
Constrains: In SQL, we have the following constraintsNOT NULL - Indicates that a column cannot store NULL value
UNIQUE - Ensures that each row for a column must have a
unique value
CHECK - Ensures that the value in a column meets a specific
condition
DEFAULT - Specifies a default value for a column
Primary Key uniquely identifies a record in a table.
A candidate key is a single field or the least combination of
fields that uniquely identifies each record in the table.
A foreign key is generally a primary key from one table that
appears as a field in another.
DDL: Data Definition Language is used for specifying the
database schema. It contains commands to create tables,
alter the structure, delete tables or rename tables. E.g. Create
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DML: Data Manipulation Language is used for accessing and
manipulating data in a database. E.g. Select, Update
DCL: Data Control Language is used for granting and
revoking user access on a database.
TCP
FTP
TFTP
SFTP
SMTP
HTTP
HTTPS
UDP
ARP
Tel Net
POP3
BGP
P2P
PPP
IP
SNMP
NTP
SIP
DHCP
IMAP4
RARP
SSH
MIME
SMIME
ALGOL
ANSI
ATM
AS
BASIC
BIOS
BPS
DNS
EDI
URL
GIF
ASCII
ASP
BCC
CC
CAD
CDMA
GSM
CMOS
CMYK
GPS
GUI
HDMI
GIGO
LIFO
FIFO
|
FULL FORMS & ABBREVIATIONS
Transmission Control Protocol
File Transfer Protocol
Trivial File Transfer Protocol
Secure File Transfer Protocol
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure
User Datagram Protocol
Address Resolution Protocol
Telecommunication Networking
Post Office Protocol Version3
Border Gateway Protocol
Point to Point Protocol
Peer to Peer Protocol
Internet Protocol
Simple Network Management Protocol
Network Time Protocol
Session Initiation Protocol
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Internet Message Access Protocol Version 4
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
Secure Shell
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension
Secure MIME
Algorithmic Language
American National Standard Institute
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Autonomous System
Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction
Code
Basic input Output System
bit Per Second
Domain Name Server
Electronic Data Interchange
Uniform Resource Locator
Graphics Interchange Format
American Standard Code for Information
Interchange
Active Server Pages
Blind Carbon Copy
Carbon copy
Computer Aided Design
Code Division Multiple Access
Global System for Mobile Communication
Complementary
Metal
Oxide
SemiConductor
Cyan Magenta Yellow Block
Global Positioning System
Graphical User Interface
High Definition Multimedia Interface
Garbage in Garbage Out
Last In First Out
First In First Out
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PING
HDD
NIC
HDTV
ISP
JPEG
LCD
LED
TFT
CRT
MIDI
MPEG
PDA
PDF
ARPANET
SQL
USB
VIRUS
VOIP
IVR
WIFI
WIMAX
ADSL
API
ARP
RARP
ICANN
DPI
DSL
FAT
MANET
MIPS
BIPS
TIPS
NAT
IEEE
IMAP
ISDN
ISO
DHTML
MAC
CAN
PAN
SAN
CNM
IPV4
IPV6
DBMS
MODEM
RAM
ROM
SMPS
OMR
OCR
14
Packet Internet Gopher
Hard Disc Drive
Network Interface Controller/Cord
High Definition Television
Internet Service Provider
Joint Picture Expert Group
Liquid Crystal Display
Light Emitting Diode
Thin Film Transistor
Cathode Ray Tube
Musical Instrument Digital Interface
Moving Picture Expert Group
Personal Digital Assistants
Portable Document Format
Advanced Research Projects Agency
Network
Structured Query Language
Universal Serial Bus
Vital Information Resource Under Siege
Voice Over Internet Protocol
Interactive Voice Response
Wireless fidelity
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave
Access
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
Application Program Interface
Address Resolution Protocol
Reverse ARP
Internet Corporation of Assign Names &
Numbers
Dots Per Inch
Digital Subscriber Line
File Allocation Table
Mobile Ad-Hoc Network
Million Instruction Per Second
Billion Instruction Per Second
Trillion Instruction Per Second
Network Address Translation
Institute of Electrical and Electronic
Engineer
Internet Message Access Protocol
Integrated Servers Digital Network
International
Standard
Organization/
International Org for Standardization
Dynamic Hyper Text Markup Language
Media Access Control
Campus Area Network
Personal Area Network
Storage Area Network
Circulatory Network Mode
Internet Protocol Version 4
Internet Protocol Version 6
Data Base Management System
Modulator Demodulator
Random Access Memory
Read Only Memory
Switch Mode Power Supply
Optical Mark Reader / Recognition
Optical Character Reader / Recognition
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BCR
MICR
PCB
SRAM
DRAM
PROM
EPROM
EEPROM
HDD
FDD
CD
DVD
BRD
HVD
ACID
WYSIWYG
Bar Code Reader
Magnetic Ink Character Reader
Recognition
Printer Circuit Board
Static RAM
Dynamic RAM
Programmable ROM
Electrically PROM
Electrically Erasable PROM
Hard Disc Drive
Floppy Disc Drive
Compact Disc
Digital Video/Versatile Disc
Blu Ray Disc
Holographic Versatile Disc
Atomicity Consistency Isolation Durability
What you see is what you get
/
GLOSSARY
A

Access time - The amount of time it takes for requested
information to be delivered from disks and memory.
Antivirus software - A program designed to look for
and destroy viruses that may infect the memory of a
computer or files stored on a computer.
Artificial intelligence (AI) - Computer systems that
attempt to imitate human processes for analyzing and
solving problems.
Accumulator - A local storage area called a Register, in
which the result of an arithmetic or logic operation is
formed.



B

BIT - It is basic unit of computers. It has two values 1 & 0
only.
BYTE - Combination of 8 Bits.
Basic Input Output System (BIOS) - Also known as
ROM BIOS. It provides an abstraction layer for the
hardware, i.e., a consistent way for application programs
and operating system to interact with input/output
devices.


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

C






D





E


F




Bug - A software bug is an error, flaw, failure, or fault in
a computer program or system produces an incorrect or
unexpected result.
Bus - A pathway along which electronic signals travel
between the components of a computer system.
Cookie - A packet of information that travels between a
browser and the web server.
Crash - Your computer or application no longer works
correctly and so you “loose” all the work you’ve done
since the last time you saved.
Command - An instruction that causes a program or
computer to perform a function.
Cache - It is a memory storage area that keeps frequent
use data readily available to the computer so that the
computer does not retrieve them from slow storage
devices.
Clock Speed - The speed of computer is measured in
clock speed. High clock speed is synonymous with high
processing capability. It is measured in Megahertz
(MHz).
Column - A vertical block of cells in a table or
spreadsheet.
Delete - To remove an item of data from a file or to
remove a file from the disk.
Debugging - Locating and eliminating defects in a
program.
Desktop - The electronic work area on a display screen.
Dots Per Inch (DPI) - It is defined as the measure of the
resolution of a printer and scanner, or monitor.
Domain Name - A unique name that identifies a
particular website and represents the name of the server
where the web pages reside.

Gateway - A machine that links two networks using
different protocols.
Gigabyte - A measurement of the storage capacity of a
device. One gigabyte represents 1024 megabytes.
Google – search engine on the web.
Gopher - A protocol used for locating and transferring
information on the internet. It is an internet search tool
that allows users to access textual information.
GUI - Graphical User Interface uses icons and menus to
carry out commands such as opening files, delete files,
move files etc..
Graphic Interchange Format (GIF) - A simple file
format for pictures and photographs that are
compressed so that they can be sent quickly.





H

Hard copy - Text or graphics printed on paper; also
called a printout.
Hard disk - A rigid type of magnetic medium that can
store large amounts of information.
Hyperlink - An image or portion of text on a webpage
which is linked to another webpage.
Hub - A network device that connects multiple
computers on a LAN so that they can communicate with
another network and the internet.
Header - Repetitive information that appears at the top
(the head) of every page of a document.
Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) - The protocol
used on the World Wide Web that permits Web clients
(Web browsers) to communicate with Web servers





I

Icons - In a graphical user interface (GUI), a small,
pictorial, on screen representation of an object, such as a
document, program, folder or disk drive.
Instant messaging (IM) - A chat program that lets
people communicate over the Internet in real time.
Internet protocol (IP) address - A unique set of
numbers that identifies a computer over a network.
Internet service provider (ISP) - An organization that
provides access to the Internet for a fee.

Edit - To make certain changes in existing data.
Ethernet Card - A network adapter that enables a
computer to connect to an Ethernet.

Fax - A shortened form of the word facsimile. A copy of a
document transmitted electronically from one machine
to another.
File transfer protocol (FTP) - A set of guidelines or
standards that establish the format in which files can be
transmitted from one computer to another.
Firewall - A security system usually consisting of
hardware and software that prevents unauthorized
persons from accessing certain parts of a program,
database, or network.
Flash Memory - It is a type of non-volatile computer
storage chip that can be electrically erased and
reprogrammed. It was developed by EEPROM.

G
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
Intranet - A private network established by an
organization for the exclusive use of its employees.
Firewalls prevent outsiders from gaining access to an
organization’s intranet
J

JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group. A format for
storing complex graphics in compressed form.
Justification - Aligning lines of text at the left margin,
the right margin, both margins, and the centre. Text
aligned at both margins is considered fully justified.

K

Keyboard - The device used to enter information into a
computer.
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COMPUTER CAPSULE FOR IBPS PO MAINS -2016
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Kilobyte - A measurement of the storage capacity of a
device. One kilobyte represents 1024 bytes.
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O
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Online - Refers to the state in which a computer is ready
to communicate with other computers.
Open source software - Software that makes the
underlying source code available to all users at no
charge.
Operating system (OS) - Software that manages the
internal functions and controls the operations of a
computer.
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LAN - A local area network (LAN) is a computer network
that interconnects computers within a limited area such
as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office
building, using network media.
Laptop computer - A portable computer. Also known as
a notebook computer.
Landscape Orientation – The positioning of the page so
that the information is printed across the long
dimension of the page.
Liveware - It is a term to describe the human system,
opposed to hardware or software in a computer.
M
 Macro virus - A type of virus that attaches itself to
documents or word processing templates.
 Malware - Software that disrupts normal computer
functions or sends a user’s personal data without the
user’s authorization.
 Memory - The part of a computer that stores
information.
 Memory Cell - A circuit in memory that represents a
single bit of information.
 Mass Storage - Storage systems that provide access to
hundreds of billions of bytes of stored data. They are
often referred to as Archival Storage because of the very
large volumes of historical or backup data they can store.
 MIPS - An acronym derived from millions of instructions
per second. Used to measure the speed of a processor.
 Morphing - The transformation of one image into
another image.
 Mobile Commerce (m-Commerce) - A form of ecommerce that has the ability to conduct monetary
transactions via a mobile device such as a cell phone.
 Mozilla - a web browser and successor to Netscape
Communicator.
 Multitasking - The ability of a computer to execute
more than one program at a time.
N
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NIBBLE - Combination of four bits.
Network - A system of interconnected computers.
They are of three types i. e. LAN, MAN, WAN.
Network Interface Card (NIC) - This is a part of the
computer that allows it to talk to other computers via a
network protocol like TCP/IP.
Node - A computer which is attached to the network.
Each node has its own address on the network so that it
can be uniquely identified and can communicate with
other nodes on the same or different network.
Offline - Refers to the state in which a computer is
temporarily or permanently unable to communicate
with another computer.
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Palmtop computer - A portable computer smaller than
a notebook (or laptop) computer that fits on the palm of
your hand. Also called a handheld computer.
Password - A user’s secret identification code, required
to access stored material. A procedure intended to
prevent information from being accessed by
unauthorized persons.
Piracy - The illegal copying of software or other creative
works.
Peripherals - A connectable device that has an auxiliary
function outside the permanent system configuration
such as plotters, printers and graphic displays.
Phishing - A type of computer fraud that tries to trick
users into revealing their passwords and other
confidential information.
Pixel - A smallest picture element of a digital image. The
smaller the pixels, the higher the resolution.
Port - An electrical connection on the computer into
which a cable can be plugged so that the computer can
communicate with other devices such as printer or
modem.
Protocol - A set of rules and regulations that
coordinates the exchange of information over the
network.
Portrait orientation - Positioning paper so that
information is printed across the short dimension of the
paper.
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Q
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Query - An alternate pipe form of operating system,
which handles data in the form of messages rather than
bytes.
Qwerty - It is one of the standard computer keyboard,
with the character Q, W, E, R, T, Y on the top row of
letters on the keyboard.
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R
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Response time - The time a computer takes to execute a
command.
Retrieve - To call up information from memory or
storage so that it can be processed in some way.
Record - A collection of all the information pertaining to
a particular subject.
Row - A horizontal block of cells in a table or
spreadsheet.
Resolution - Measurement of the degree of sharpness of
a displayed image. It is defined as number of pixels per
square inch on a computer generated display.
Register - A temporary storage unit for quick, direct
accessibility of a small amount of data for processing.
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COMPUTER CAPSULE FOR IBPS PO MAINS -2016
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T
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U
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V
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W
Save As – Give the file a name and/or store the file in a
certain place.
Save - Tell the computer to create a file on disk that has
the information you’ve put into the document.
Scroll bar - Allows you to move around through your
document.
Shut down - To quit all applications and turn off the
computer.
Spam - unwanted repetitious messages, such as
unsolicited bulk e-mail.
Scanner - An input device that can copy a printed page
into a computer’s memory, thus doing away with the
need to type the copy.
Screen saver - A program that changes the screen
display while the user is away from the computer.
Server - A computer that manages a shared resource
and provides a set of shared user services to the clients.
Search Engine - Software that searches, gathers and
identifies information from a database based on an
index, keywords or titles.
Spam - Unwanted repetitious messages, such as
unsolicited bulk e-mail.
Soft copy - Information shown on the display screen.
Sort - To arrange fields, records, or files in a
predetermined sequence.
Surfing the Net - Browsing through various Web sites
on the Internet in search of interesting things.
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WAP - Wireless Application Protocol is a specification
for a set of communication protocol used to allow
wireless devices to access the internet and other
utilities.
Web browser - Software that permits a user with a click
of a mouse to locate, display, and download text, video,
audio, and graphics stored in a host computer on the
Web.
The most common Web browsers now in use are
Internet Explorer, Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox.
Web site - One or more related pages created by an
individual or an organization and posted on the World
Wide Web.
Wi-Fi (Wireless fidelity) - A process that permits highspeed wireless transmission of data.
Word processing - The electronic process of creating,
formatting, editing, proofreading, and printing
documents.
Workstation - A desktop computer that runs
applications and serves as an access point in a local area
network.
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Z
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Zombie - A computer that has been hijacked by a
cracker without the owner’s knowledge and used to
perform malicious tasks on the Internet.
Trash - Place where you put files and folders that you
want to delete or get rid of.
Topology - The structure of the network, including
physical connections such as wiring schemes and logical
interactions between network devices.
Track - A ring on a disk where data can be written.
Telnet - A protocol for remote computing on the
internet that allows a computer to act as a remote
terminal on another machine, anywhere on the internet.
Touchpad - The device on a laptop computer that takes
the place of a mouse.
Touch screen technology - The technology that permits
a user to perform a function simply by touching the
screen on an appropriate spot.
Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) - A Battery
powered backup system that provides enough electricity
to a computer during a power outage so that a user can
save files before shutting down the computer.
Universal Serial Bus (USB) - A common standard for
connecting multiple peripherals to a computer as
needed.
Upload - To transfer information from a client computer
to a host computer.
Virus - A piece of computer code designed as a prank or
malicious act to spread from one computer to another by
attaching itself to other programs.
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Important Questions Based on Microsoft Office:
1. Microsoft Office is a __________.
A) Shareware
B) Public-domain software
C) Open source software
D) An application suit
E) Firmware
2. Which term is not related with font?
A) Font face
B) Font size
C) Font color
D) Font grammar E) None of these
3. The valid format of MS Word is __________.
A) .jpeg
B) .png
C) .doc
D) .exe
E) None of these
4. Which of the following option may be used to change
page-size and margins?
A) Page Layout
B) View
C) Tools
D) Data
E) None of these
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COMPUTER CAPSULE FOR IBPS PO MAINS -2016
5. To justify the selected text, the shortcut key is
__________.
A) Ctrl + 1
B) Ctrl + J
C) Ctrl + U
D) Ctrl + Alt + K
E) None of these
6. Workbook is a collection of __________ in MS Excel?
A) page set-up
B) buttons
C) diagrams
D) charts
E) worksheets
7. In order to move from one worksheet to another in
MS-Excel workbook. One should click ___________.
A) active cell
B) scroll bar
C) sheet tab
D) tab button
E) None of these
8. In a spreadsheet, a __________ is a number you will use
in a calculation.
A) label
B) cell
C) field
D) value
E) None of these
9. In Power Point, which of the following will not
advance the slides in a slide show view?
A) Esc key
B) The spacebar C) The Enter key
D) The mouse button
E) None of these
10. In Microsoft PowerPoint, two kinds of sound effects
files that can be added to the presentation are
A) .wav files and .mid files B) wav files and .gif files
C) wav files and .jpg files
D) jpg files and .gif files
E) None of these
11. Which PowerPoint view displays each slide of the
presentation as a thumbnail and is useful for
rearranging slides?
A) Slide Sorter
B) Slide Show C) Slide Master
D) Notes Page
E) Slide Design
12. If you want to insert a chart to your slide then go to
__________.
A) Insert – Chart B) Home – Chart C) Format – Chart
D) Table – Chart
E) None of these
13. Which of the following is not a type of Microsoft
access database object?
A) Table
B) Worksheets C) Modules
D) Macros
E) None of these
14. Row in an Access table is also known as __________.
A) field
B) record
C) data
D) type
E) None of these
15. Queries in Access can be used as __________.
A) View, change and analyse data in different ways
B) A source of records for forms and reports
C) to access internet
D) Both a and b
E) None of these
16. Pressing F8 key for three times selects
A) A word
B) A sentence
C) A paragraph
D) Entire document
E) None of these
17. What happens if you press Ctrl + Shift + F8?
A) It activates extended selection
B) It activates the rectangular selection
C) It selects the paragraph on which the insertion line is.
D) Both (A) and (C)
E) None of these
18. How can you disable extended selection mode?
A) Press F8 again to disable
B) Press Del to disable
C) Press Esc to disable
D) Press Enter to disable
E) It cannot be disables
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19. What does EXT indicator on status bar of MS Word
indicate?
A) It indicates whether the external text is pasted on
document or not
B) It indicates whether extended add-ons are installed
on MS Word or not
C) It indicates whether Extended Selection mode is
turned on or off
D) Both (A) and (B)
E) None of these
20. What is the maximum number of lines you can set
for a drop cap?
A) 3
B) 10
C) 15
D) 20
E) 50
21. What is the default number of lines to drop for drop
cap?
A) 3
B) 10
C) 15
D) 20
E)7
22. What is the shortcut key you can press to create a
copyright symbol?
A) Alt+Ctrl+C
B) Alt + C
C) Ctrl + C
D) Ctrl + Shift + C
E)None of these
23. How many columns can you insert in a word
document in maximum?
A) 35
B)63
C) 55
D) 65
E) 60
24. What is the smallest and largest font size available in
Font Size tool on formatting toolbar?
A) 8 and 72
B) 8 and 64
C) 12 and 72
D) 10 and 40
E) None of these
25. Select all the text in MS Word document by:
A) Ctrl + S
B) Ctrl + 1
C) Shift + A
D) Ctrl + A
E) None of these
26. MS Word is __________ software.
A) System
B) Application C) Programming
D) Compiler
E) None of these
27. The shortcut key for paste selected text/picture in
MS Word is __________.
A) Ctrl + X
B) Ctrl + C
C) Ctrl + V
D) Ctrl + Z
E) None of these
28. Using Print Preview is useful. When you want to
A) colour the document
B) save the document
C) delete the document
D) copy the document
E) view how the document will appear when printed
29. To indent the first paragraph of your report, you
should use this key.
A) Space bar
B) Return key C) Tab key
D) Shift key
E) None of these
30. In Excel, the contents of the active cell are displayed
in the ________.
A) footer bar
B) tool bar
C) task bar
D) menu bar
E) formula bar
31. __________ appear at the bottom of the Excel Window.
A) Work sheet tabs B) Name box
C) Formula bar
D) Title bar
E) None of these
32. In MS excel __________ are numbered from 1 to
onwards and __________ are numbered from A to
onwards.
A) Columns, rows B) Rows, slides C) Slides, rows
D) Rows, columns E) None of these
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COMPUTER CAPSULE FOR IBPS PO MAINS -2016
33. What is the default column width of MS Excel?
A) 5.5
B) 2.98
C) 8.43
D) 6.49
E) None of these
34. To insert a new slide go to __________ tab, in the Slides
group, click New Slide.
A) Home
B) View
C) Animations
D) Slide show
E) None of these
35. Times new Roman, Cambria, Arial are the example of
__________.
A) Font face
B) Themes
C) SmartArt
D) Clipart
E) None of these
36. In Access a __________ is the collection of data items of
all the fields pertaining to one entity.
A) field
B) record
C) form
D) report
E) None of these
37. A table of how many columns can you insert in a
word document in maximum.
A) 55
B) 42
C) 32
D) 63
E) As you wish
38. In MS Access a __________ name must be unique within
a database.
A) Field
B) Record
C) Table
D) Character
E) None of these
39. The minimum number of rows and columns in MS
Word document is
A) 1 and 1
B) 2 and 1
C) 2 and 2
D) 3 and 3
E) None of these
40. Thesaurus tool in MS Word is used for
A) Spelling suggestions
B) Grammar options
C) Synonyms and Antonyms words
D) All of the above
E) None of these
41. Why Drop Caps are used in document?
A) To drop all the capital letters
B) To automatically begin each paragraph with capital
letter
C) To begin a paragraph with a large dropped initial
capital letter
D)To drop the numbers
E) None of these
42. A bookmark is an item or location in document that
you identify as a name for future reference. Which of
the following task is accomplished by using
bookmarks?
A) To add anchors in web page
B) To mark the ending of a paragraph of document
C) To quickly jump to specific location in document
D) To add hyperlinks in webpage
E) None of these
43. A word processor would most likely be used to do
A) Keep an account of money spent
B) Do a computer search in media center
C) Maintain an inventory
D) Type a biography
E) Maintain records of database
44. Which of the following is not valid version of MS
Office?
A) Office XP
B) Office Vista C) Office 2007
D) Office 365
E) None of these
45. You cannot close MS Word application by
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A) Choosing File menu then Exit submenu
B) Press Alt+F4
C) Click X button on title bar
D) From File menu choose Close submenu
E) None of these
The key F12 in MS Word opens a
A) Save As dialog box
B) Open dialog box
C) Save dialog box
D) Close dialog box
E) Opens help menu
What is the short cut key to open the Open dialog
box?
A) F12
B) Shift F12
C) Alt + F1
D) Ctrl + F12
E) None of these
Which of the following symbol sets would be most
likely to contain a mathematical symbol such as a
degree sign, greater than or equal to, or a Greek
letter?
A) Wingdings
B) Wingdings 3 C) Webdings
D) Symbol
E) Arial
When assigning a shortcut key to a symbol, you
should always try to select a key or key combination
that is:
A) Unassigned
B) Located on the ten-key pad section of your keyboard.
C) Assigned to another task.
D) From the same font family as the symbol.
E) None of these
Suppose you wanted to create an AutoCorrect entry
that would type the words ‘We regret to inform you
that your submission has been declined’ of the
following choices, which would be the best name you
could assign to this entry?
A) Regret
B) Subdual
C) We regret to inform you that your submission has
been declined
D) 11
E) None of these
If you want to convert a symbol or several lines of
text into an AutoCorrect entry, you should:
A) Insert the symbol or type the text in a Word
document first. Then, select the text or symbol and
go to the AutoCorrect dialog box.
B) Click the Tools menu and choose AutoCorrect
Options. Then, click the Insert menu and choose Symbol
(or click the Format menu and choose Paragraph) to add
the symbol or paragraph to AutoCorrect.
C) AutoCorrect can only accommodate one line of text. It
is not possible to convert a symbol or multiple lines of
text into an AutoCorrect entry.
D) Insert the symbol or type the text in a Word
document first. Then, select the text or symbol and click
the Edit menu followed by Paste Special. Select New
AutoCorrect Entry and then click OK.
E) None of the above
AutoCorrect was originally designed to replace
_________ words as you type.
A) Short, repetitive
B) Grammatically incorrect
C) Misspelled words
D) Incorrect Image
E) None of the above
46.
47.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
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COMPUTER CAPSULE FOR IBPS PO MAINS -2016
51. Which of the following is the second step in creating
a macro?
A) Start recording
B) Using your mouse or keyboard, perform the task you
want to automate
C) Assign a keyboard shortcut to the macro
D) Give the macro a name
E) None of these
59. In the Form Wizard dialog box, the fields from the
selected table are displayed in which list box?
A) All fields
B) All Records
C) Available Records
D) Available Fields
E) None of these
60. Which control does access use to link data access
page components to access data?
A) Microsoft Office Data Source Control
B) Microsoft Dynamic Data Control
C) Microsoft Data Connection Control
D) Microsoft Default Connection Control
E) None of the above
Miscellaneous Questions on Computer Knowledge
52. If you will be displaying or printing your document
on another computer, you’ll want to make sure and
select the _____________ option under the ‘Save’ tab.
A) Embed Fonts
B) Embed True Type Fonts
C) Save True Type Fonts
D) Save Fonts
E) Font Face
53. In Word, the mailing list is known as the ____________.
A) Data sheet
B) Source
C) Data source
D) Sheet
E) Hyperlink
54. To delete 3-D rotation from the shape, point to 3-D
Rotation, and then click _____.
A) Non Rotation
B) Not Rotation C) None Rotation
D) No Rotation
E) None of these
55. In Microsoft Office Power-Point 2007, a _____ is a
connection from one slide to another slide in the
same presentation or to a slide in another
presentation, an e-mail address, a Web page, or a
file.
A) Hyphenation
B) Header
C) Footer
D) Hyperlink
E) None of these
56. In PowerPoint, which of the following is the default
page setup orientation for notes pages, outlines and
handouts?
A) Vertical
B) Landscape C) Portrait
D) All of these
E) None of these
57. In slide layout panel, how many layouts are available
for next layout by default?
A) 4
B) 7
C) 12
D) 15
E) None of these
58. In Access, this operation copies a backup file from
the storage medium back onto the computer :
A) Restore
B) Recreate
C) Copy
D) Structure
E) None of these
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1. CD-ROM is a _______?
(a) Semiconductor memory (b) Memory registers
(c) Magnetic memory
(d) Cache Memory
(e) None of the above
2. Actual execution of instructions in a computer takes
place in?
(a) ALU
(b) Control Unit (c) Storage unit
(d) Control bus
(e) None of the above
3. Modem stands for _______.
(a) A type of secondary memory
(b) Modulator demodulator
(c) Mainframe operating device memory
(d) Multiprocessing device
(e) None of the above
4. ________ Controls access to the resources on a
network.
(a) Server
(b) Client
(c) Both ((a) and ((b)
(d) Memory
(e) None of the above
5. The wider the bus, the _______ the transfer of data
(a) Greater the number of transfer steps required and
the slower
(b) Greater the number of transfer steps required and
the faster
(c) Fewer the number of transfer steps required and the
slower
(d) Fewer the number of transfer steps required and
the faster
(e) None of the above
6. What does 'GIF' Stands for?
(a) Graphics Interchange Format
(b) Geo Interchange Format
(c) Graphical Interconnection Format
(d) Graphics Interlace Format
(e) Graphics Interchange File
7. Cache and main memory will lose their contents
when the power is off. They are _______.
(a) dynamic
(b) static
(c) volatile
(d) non-volatile
(e) faulty
8. How can the user determine what programs are
available on a computer ?
(a) Checking the hard disk properties
(b) Viewing the installed programs during the booting
process
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COMPUTER CAPSULE FOR IBPS PO MAINS -2016
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
(c) Checking the operating system for a list of
installed programs
(d) Checking the existing files saved on the disk
(e) None of these
Processing involves ________.
(a) inputting data into a computer system
(b) transforming input into output
(c) displaying output in a useful manner
(d) providing relevant answers
(e) None of these
Which process checks to ensure the components of
the computer are operating and connected properly?
(a) Booting
(b) Processing (c) Saving
(d) Editing
(e) None of these
What kind of programming language is Java?
(a) Object-oriented programming language
(b) Relational programming language
(c) Sixth-generation programming language
(d) Database management programming language
(e) None of these
Formatting a disk results in all the data being?
(a) Saved to the disk
(b) Copied from the disk
(c) Deleted from the disk
(d) All of the above
(e) None of the above
What type of web technology creates an online
community where people can make statements and
others can read and respond to those statements?
(a) I-Journal
(b) Podcast
(c) ASP
(d) Blog
(e) None of these
What is a common medium used for thieves to steal
others' identities?
(a) Telephone
(b) Pick pocketing(c) Burglary
(d) Email
(e) None of the above
Application software?
(a) Is used to control the operating system
(b) Is designed to help programmers
(c) Performs specific task for computer users
(d) Is used for making design only
(e) All of the above
16. A set of instruction telling the computer what to do
is called?
(a) Mentor
(b) instructor (c) compiler
(d) program
(e) debugger
17. A __________ is anything that can cause harm.
(a) vulnerability
(b) redundancy (c) Spam
(d) threat
(e) None of the above
18. A __________ is a small program embedded inside of a
GIF image.
(a) web bug
(b) cookie
(c) spyware application
(d) spam
(e) None of the above
19. When you save an Microsoft Access project, what file
format do you use?
(a) .adp
(b) .Xml
(c) .mbd
(d) All of these
(e) None of the above
20. To select a column the easiest method is to?
(a) double click any cell in the column
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(b) drag from the top cell in the column to the last cell in
the column
(c) click the column heading
(d) click the row heading
(e) None of the above
30,000 bytes is equal to
(a) 30 KB
(b) 3 MB
(c) 3 GB
(d) 3 TB
(e) None of these
Terminal is a:
((a) device to give power supply to computer
(b) Point at which data enters or leaves the
computer
(c) The last instruction in a program
(d) any input /output device
(e) None of these
Which part of a computer cannot be touched?
(a) Mouse
(b) Monitor
(c) Hardware
(d) Software
(e) None of these
Manipulation of data in computer is called
(a) Boot
(b) Processing (c) Simplification
(d) Format
(e) Clean disk
Which computer bus connects the main memory to the
memory controller in computer systems?
(a) Data Bus
(b) Memory Bus
(c) I/O Bus
(d) Both ((b) and ((c)
(e) None of these
_____ and _____ are the two types of computer memory.
(a) RAM and CPU
(b) ROM and CPU
(c) RAM and ROM (d) RAM and BIOS
(e) BIOS and ROM
What is the full from of CRT?
(a) Cathode Ray Tube
(b) Computer Resolution and Transparency
(c) Cathode Resolution and Transparency
(d) Computer RAM Trash
(e) None of these
Which among the following is not hardware?
(a) Motherboard
(b) Operating system
(c) CPU
(d) Keyboard
(e) Hard disk drive
Which of the following is software?
(a) Motherboard
(b) CPU
(c) Microsoft Windows
(d) RAM
(e) All of these
In computing, a _____ is a directive to a computer
program order to perform a specific task.
(a) Hard boot
(b) Hibernation (c) Command
(d) Warm boot
(e) Format
Which of the following is/are modifier keys in a
computer?
(a) Ctrl
(b) Alt
(c) Shift
(d) Both 2 and 3
(e) All of the above
Which among the following is associated with Internet
Mail?
(a) Inbox
(b) Server
(c) Trash
(d) Drop Box
(e) One Drive
What is a cursor?
(a) It is an indicator
(b) It shows the position on a computer monitor
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
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COMPUTER CAPSULE FOR IBPS PO MAINS -2016
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
(c) Cursor is Latin for ‘runner.
(d) Both 1 and 2
(e) All of the above
Which among the following is not legitimate type of
computer virus??
(a) Boot Virus
(b) File infector Virus
(c) Resident Virus (d) Hangout Virus
(e) Macro Virus
30,000 bytes is equal to
(a) 30 KB
(b) 3 MB
(c) 3 GB
(d) 3 TB
(e) None of these
Terminal is a:
(a) device to give power supply to computer
(b) Point at which data enters or leaves the
computer
(c) The last instruction in a program
(d)any input /output device
(e) None of these
Which part of a computer cannot be touched?
(a) Mouse
(b) Monitor
(c) Hardware
(d) Software
(e) None of these
Manipulation of data in computer is called
(a) Boot
(b) Processing (c) Simplification
(d) Format
(e) Clean disk
Which computer bus connects the main memory to the
memory controller in computer systems?
(a) Data Bus
(b) Memory Bus
(c) I/O Bus
(d) Both ((b) and ((c)
(e) None of these
_____ and _____ are the two types of computer memory.
(a) RAM and CPU
(b) ROM and CPU
(c) RAM and ROM (d) RAM and BIOS
(e) BIOS and ROM
What is the full from of CRT?
(a) Cathode Ray Tube
(b) Computer Resolution and Transparency
(c) Cathode Resolution and Transparency
(d) Computer RAM Trash
(e) None of these
Which among the following is not hardware?
(a) Motherboard
(b) Operating system
(c) CPU
(d) Keyboard
(e) Hard disk drive
Which of the following is software?
(a) Motherboard
(b) CPU
(c) Microsoft Windows
(d) RAM
(e) All of these
In computing, a _____ is a directive to a computer
program order to perform a specific task.
(a) Hard boot
(b) Hibernation (c) Command
(d) Warm boot
(e) Format
Which of the following is/are modifier keys in a
computer?
(a) Ctrl
(b) Alt
(c) Shift
(d) Both 2 and 3
(e) All of the above
Which among the following is associated with Internet
Mail?
(a) Inbox
(b) Server
(c) Trash
(d) Drop Box
(e) One Drive
What is a cursor?
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(a) It is an indicator
(b) It shows the position on a computer monitor
(c) Cursor is Latin for ‘runner.
(d) Both 1 and 2
(e) All of the above
Which among the following is not legitimate type of
computer virus??
(a) Boot Virus
(b) File infector Virus
(c) Resident Virus (d) Hangout Virus
(e) Macro Virus
The main folder on a storage device is called
(a) Platform
(b) Interface (c) Root Directory
(d) Device Driver
(e) None of these
ISDN stands for
(a) Integral Service Dynamic Network
(b) International Subscriber Dialup Network
(c) International Service Digital Network
(d) Integrated Service Digital Network
(e) None of these
Which technology is used by cell phones to access
the internet?
(a) Cloud computing (b) Neural Networks
(c) XML language
(d) micro browser software
(e) None of the above
Which of the following scrambles a message by
applying a secret code?
(a) Audits
(b) Encryption (c) UPS
(d) Firewalls
(e) Encapsulation
What type of monitoring file is commonly used on
and accepted from Internet sites?
(a) Smartware
(b) Phishes
(c) Cookies
(d) Trojans
(e) None of the above
The software that secretly collects information
about the web client's internet habits?
(a) Detectware
(b) Spam
(c) Spyware
(d) Pharming
(e) All of the above
Which register is used as a working area in CPU ?
(a) Program counter
(b) Instruction registers
(c) Instruction decoder
(d) Parity generator
(e) Accumulator
Which of the following is the valid subnet mask for
class B IP Address?
(a) 251.254.25.5
(b) 255.255.0.0 (C) 155.151.12.9
(d) 255.0.0.0
(e) 255.255.255.0
Repeaters function in which layer?
(a) Physical layer (b) Data link layer
(c) Network layer (d) Both (a) and (b)
(e) Session layer
Name the input device from the given options, that
cannot be used to work in MS Office ?
(a) Scanner
(b) Mouse
(c) Keyboard
(d) Joy stick
(e) All of the above
Select the odd one out :
(a) Interpreter
(b) operating system
(c) Compiler
(d) Assembler
(e) both (a) and (d)
Name the first widespread computer virus for MSDOS?
(a) Brain
(b) Handshake (c) Code Red
(d) Melissa
(e) Sasser
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
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COMPUTER CAPSULE FOR IBPS PO MAINS -2016
61. What is ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)?
(a) a protocol that manages memory
(b) a protocol used to monitor computers
(c) a protocol that handles error and control
messages
(d) both (a) and (b)
(e) None of these
62. What is Loading Operating System into main
memory called?
(a) Printing
(b) Saving
(c) Storing
(d) Staring
(e) Booting
63. What is a group of computers and associated devices
that share a common communications line or
wireless link to a server within a small geographic
area are called?
(a) LAN
(b) WAN
(c) MAN
(d) both (a) and (b) (e) None of these
64. _____________ is created when two tables are joined on
attributes that are neither primary keys nor foreign
keys.
(a) Relation
(b) Cardinality (c) Spurious tuple
(d) Candidate Key (e) None of the above
65. What does SQL stand for?
(a) Structured Query Language
(b) Structered Questioning Logicstics
(c) Simplfied Query Logic
(d) Simple Questioning Language
(e) Structured Query Logic
66. From where to where is a multicast message sent?
(a) From one source to one destination
(b) From multiple source to multiple destination
(c) From multiple sources to one destination
(d) From one source to multiple destinations
(e) None of the above
67. Using the direct broadcast address,
(a) a host sends a packet to all other host on the
network.
(b) a router sends a packet to all other hosts on the
network.
(c) a host sends a packet to a specific host on the
network.
(d) a host sends a packet to all routers on the network.
(e) none of the above
68. In computing, a WYSIWYG editor is a system. What
does WYSIWYG stands for?
(a) what you see is what you get
(b) when you see is where you get
(c) when you see is what you get
(d) where you see is when you get
(e) None of the above
69. What is the Global Access shortcut key for Opening a
new database in MS Access?
(a) Cntrl+A
(b) Cntrl+F
(c) Cntrl+S
(d) Cntrl+O
(e) Cntrl+N
70. What is the latest version of MS Office available?
(a) Office 365
(b) Office 10
(c) Office 300
(d) Office 250
(e) None of the above
71. Which of the following is an operating system?
(a) Compiler
(b) Plotter
(c) Mac
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(d) Both 1 and 2
(e) All of the above
72. Which of the following is the name of an application
similar to MS Office?
(a) Libre Office
(c) Open Office
(c) Neo Office
(d) Free Office
(e) All of the above
73. What is the full form of UNIVAC?
(a) Universal Automatic Computer
(b) Universal Array Computer
(c) Unique Automatic Computer
(d) Unvalued Automatic Computer
(e) None of these
74. The process of converting analog signals into digital
signals so they can be processed by a receiving
computer is referred to as
(a)Modulation
(b) Demodulation
(c) Synchronizing (d) Digitizing
(e) Transmission
75. Which of the following memory has stored data in
large number?
(a) RAM
(b) ROM
(c) Cache memory
(d) Hard Disk
(e) None of these
76. Generally, web address is located by
(a) Hyperlink
(b) HTTP
(c) URL
(d) Locator
(e) Browser
77. Which of the following is more than TB ?
(a) MB
(b) KB
(c) PB
(d) Bit
(e) Bytes
78. A web address is a unique name at identifies a
specific _______ on the internet.
(a) URL
(b) HTML
(c) CSS
(d) Website
(e) None of these
79. If you wish to extend the length of the network
without having the signal degrade, you would use a
(a) Gateway
(b) Router
(c) Modem
(d) Repeater
(e) Resonator
80. The ______ button on the Quick Access Toolbar allows
you to cancel your recent commands or activities.
(a) Search
(b) Cut
(c) Undo
(d) Redo
81. Which of the following is not a binary number?
(a) 110010
(b) 201020
(c) 101010
(d) 100001
(e) 1011101
82. Which of the following is a base of hexadecimal
number?
(a) 8
(b) 2
(c) 10
(d) 16
(e) 24
83. The process of converting analog signals into digital
signals so they can be processed by a receiving
computer is referred to as
(a)Modulation
(b) Demodulation
(c) Synchronizing (d) Digitizing
(e) Transmission
84. Which of the following memory has stored data in
large number?
(a) RAM
(b) ROM
(c) Cache memory
(d) Hard Disk
(e) None of these
85. Generally, web address is located by
(a) Hyperlink
(b) HTTP
(c) URL
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COMPUTER CAPSULE FOR IBPS PO MAINS -2016
(d) Locator
(e) Browser
86. Which of the following is more than TB ?
(a) MB
(b) KB
(c) PB
(d) Bit
(e) Bytes
87. A web address is a unique name at identifies a
specific _______ on the internet.
(a) URL
(b) HTML
(c) CSS
(d) Website
(e) None of these
88. If you wish to extend the length of the network
without having the signal degrade, you would use a
(a) Gateway
(b) Router
(c) Modem
(d) Repeater
(e) Resonator
89. The ______ button on the Quick Access Toolbar allows
you to cancel your recent commands or activities.
(a) Search
(b) Cut
(c) Undo
(d) Redo
(e)New
90. The main folder on a storage device is called
(a) Platform
(b) Interface (c) Root Directory
(d) Device Driver
(e) None of these
91. What do you call the programs that are used to find
out possible faults and their causes?
(a) Operating system extensions
(b) Cookies
(c) Diagnostic software
(d) Boot diskettes (e) None of the above
92. What is Adwords ?
(a) Advertising Service by Microsoft
(b) Advanced Search Engine
(c) Advertising Service by Google
(d) Automatic words Search Engine by Yahoo
(e) Advertising Service by Yahoo
93.
Given
the
following
URL
http://www.example.com:80/path/to/myfile.html,
here, 'www.example.com', ':80' stand for _____ and
______ respectively.
(a) IP and source
(b) Domain Name and Port
(c) File name and Path
(d) Path and Port
(e) IP and Locator
94. Which of the following is a recent version of
operating systems?
(a) Windows XP
(b) Windows 7 Basic
(c) Windows 8
(d) Windows 10
(e) Windows 2013
95. What is the full form of SMTP?
(a) Swift Mail Transmission Program
(b) Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
(c) Swift Mail Transfer Program
(d) Spam Mail Trash Program
(e) None of these
96. A high speed device used in CPU for temporary
storage during processing is called
(a) Register
(b) Bus
(c) Compiler
(d) Translator
(e) Bus
97. Which of the following is used for establishing
connection to other document or locations within a
website?
(a) Hyperlink
(b) Web link
(c) CSS
(d) Java query
(e) HTML Link
98. When a computer is turned on, where does it get the
first instructions that it loads into RAM?
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(a) From RAM
(b) From ROM
(c) From the Hard Disk
(d) From a CD
(e) None of these
99. ___________is designed to communicate instructions to
a machine, particularly a computer. It can be used to
create programs to control the behavior of a
machine or to express algorithms.
(a) PROM
(b) Programming language
(c) Microcontrollers
(d) EPROM
(e) None of the above
100. Which of the following groups contains all graphical
file extensions?
(a) JPG, GIF, BMP (b) GIF, TCF, WMF
(c) TCP, JPG, BMP
(d) ADP, GIF, PPT (e) JPG, CPX, GCM
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