High-Voltage, 2.2MHz, 2A Automotive Step
EVALUATION KIT AVAILABLE
MAX16974
High-Voltage, 2.2MHz, 2A Automotive StepDown Converter with Low Operating Current
General Description
Features
The MAX16974 is a 2A, current-mode, step-down
converter with an integrated high-side switch. It is
designed to operate with 3.5V to 28V input voltages,
while using only 35FA quiescent current at no load. The
switching frequency is adjustable from 220kHz to 2.2MHz
by an external resistor and can be synchronized to an
external clock. The output voltage is pin selectable to
be 5V fixed or 1V to 10V adjustable. The wide input voltage range makes the device ideal for automotive and
industrial applications.
SWide 3.5V to 28V Input Voltage Range
S42V Input Transient Tolerance
S5V Fixed or 1V to 10V Adjustable Output Voltage
SIntegrated 2A Internal High-Side Switch
SAdjustable Switching Frequency (220kHz to
2.2MHz)
SOperates Through Cold Crank with High Duty
Cycle
SFrequency Synchronization Input
SInternal Boost Diode
S35µA Skip-Mode Operating Current
S5µA Typical Shutdown Current
SAdjustable Power-Good Output Level and Timing
S3.3V Logic Level to 42V Compatible Enable Input
SCurrent-Limit, Thermal-Shutdown, and
Overvoltage Protections
SAutomotive Temperature Range: -40°C to +125°C
SAEC-Q100 Qualified
The device operates in skip mode for reduced current
consumption in light-load applications. An adjustable
reset threshold helps keep microcontrollers alive down to
their lowest specified input voltage. Protection features
include cycle-by-cycle current limit, overvoltage, and
thermal shutdown with automatic recovery. The device
also features a power-good monitor to ease powersupply sequencing.
The device operates over the -40°C to +125°C
automotive temperature range and is available in a
16-pin TSSOP-EP package.
Ordering Information
PART
Applications
MAX16974AUE/V+
Automotive
TEMP RANGE
PIN-PACKAGE
-40NC to +125NC
16 TSSOP-EP*
/V denotes an automotive qualified part.
+Denotes a lead(Pb)-free/RoHS-compliant package.
*EP = Exposed pad.
Industrial
Typical Application Circuit
VBAT
CIN1
47µF
CIN2
4.7µF
CIN3
0.1µF
EN
SUP
SUPSW
RCOMP
20kI
FB
BIAS
CCRES
100pF
RESETI
VBIAS
FOSC
CBIAS
1µF
L1
4.7µH
BST
D1
OUT
MAX16974
RFOSC
12.1kI
CIN5
4.7µF
VOUT
COMP
CCOMP2
OPEN
CIN4
0.1µF
VOUT =
5V AT 2A
LX
FSYNC
CCOMP1
5600pF
CBST
0.1µF
COUT
22µF
VBIAS
RRES
10kI
RES
CRES
GND
PLACE CIN2 (4.7µF) AND CIN3 (0.1µF) NEXT TO SUP.
PLACE CIN4 (0.1µF) AND CIN5 (4.7µF) NEXT TO SUPSW.
For pricing, delivery, and ordering information, please contact Maxim Direct
at 1-888-629-4642, or visit Maxim’s website at www.maximintegrated.com.
19-5630; Rev 3; 12/16
MAX16974
High-Voltage, 2.2MHz, 2A Automotive StepDown Converter with Low Operating Current
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
SUP, SUPSW, EN, LX to GND................................-0.3V to +45V
SUP to SUPSW......................................................-0.3V to +0.3V
BST to GND ...........................................................-0.3V to +47V
BST to LX ................................................................-0.3V to +6V
OUT to GND...........................................................-0.3V to +12V
RESETI, FOSC, COMP, BIAS, FSYNC, CRES,
RES, FB to GND...................................................-0.3V to +6V
Output Short-Circuit Duration.....................................Continuous
Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70NC)
TSSOP (derate 26.1mW/NC above +70NC)........... 2088.8mW*
Operating Temperature Range......................... -40NC to +125NC
Junction Temperature......................................................+150NC
Storage Temperature Range............................. -65NC to +150NC
Lead Temperature (soldering, 10s).................................+300NC
Soldering Temperature (reflow).......................................+260NC
*As per JEDEC 51 standard (multilayer board).
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional
operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to absolute
maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
PACKAGE THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS (Note 1)
TSSOP
Junction-to-Ambient Thermal Resistance (qJA)........38.3°C/W
Note 1: Package thermal resistances were obtained using the method described in JEDEC specification JESD51-7, using a four-layer
board. For detailed information on package thermal considerations, refer to www.maximintegrated.com/thermal-tutorial.
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(VSUP = VSUPSW = 14V, L1 = 4.7FH, VEN = 14V, CIN = 10FF, COUT = 22FF, CBIAS = 1FF, CBST = 0.1FF, CCRES = 1nF, RFOSC =
12.1kI, TA = TJ = -40NC to +125NC, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25NC.)
PARAMETER
Supply Voltage
Supply Current
SYMBOL
VSUP
ISUP
Shutdown Supply Current
BIAS Regulator Voltage
CONDITIONS
Normal operation
MIN
BIAS Undervoltage Lockout
VUVBIAS
BIAS Undervoltage Lockout
Hysteresis
VUVBIAS_
MAX
UNITS
28
V
Normal operation, ILOAD = 1.5A
2
3
mA
Skip mode, no load, VOUT = 5V
35
50
FA
VEN = 0V
VBIAS
TYP
3.5
5
10
FA
VSUP = VSUPSW = 6V to 42V, VOUT > 6V
4.9
5.1
5.5
V
VBIAS rising
2.85
3.05
3.25
V
HYS
Thermal-Shutdown Threshold
350
mV
175
NC
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (OUT)
Output Voltage
Skip-Mode Output Voltage
VOUT
Normal operation, VFB = VBIAS, ILOAD = 2A,
TA = +25°C
4.95
5
5.05
Normal operation, VFB = VBIAS, ILOAD = 2A,
-40°C < TA <+125°C
4.9
5
5.1
4.95
5.05
5.2
VOUT_SKIP No load, VFB = VBIAS (Note 2)
Load Regulation
VOUT = 5V, VFB = VBIAS; 400mA < ILOAD < 2A
Line Regulation
6V < VSUP < 28V
BST Input Current
IBST
LX Current Limit
ILX
Skip-Mode Current Threshold
2 ISKIP_TH
V
100% duty cycle, VBST - VLX = 5V
2.5
V
1
%
0.02
%/V
1.5
3
3
3.5
240
mA
A
mA
Maxim Integrated
MAX16974
High-Voltage, 2.2MHz, 2A Automotive StepDown Converter with Low Operating Current
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued)
(VSUP = VSUPSW = 14V, L1 = 4.7FH, VEN = 14V, CIN = 10FF, COUT = 22FF, CBIAS = 1FF, CBST = 0.1FF, CCRES = 1nF, RFOSC =
12.1kI, TA = TJ = -40NC to +125NC, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25NC.)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
Power-Switch On-Resistance
LX Leakage Current
RON
ILX,LEAK
CONDITIONS
MIN
RON measured between SUPSW and LX,
ILX = 500mA
TYP
MAX
UNITS
185
400
mI
VSUP = 28V, VLX = 0V, TA = +25°C
1
VSUP = 28V, VLX = 0V, TA = +125°C
0.04
FA
TRANSCONDUCTANCE AMPLIFIER (COMP)
FB Input Current
IFB
FB Regulation Voltage
VFB
20
nA
FB connected to an external resistive divider,
TA = +25°C
0.99
1.0
1.01
FB connected to an external resistive divider,
-40°C < TA < +125°C
0.985
1.0
1.015
V
FB Line Regulation
DVLINE
6V < VSUP < 28V
0.02
%/V
Transconductance (from FB to
COMP)
gm,EA
VFB = 1V, VBIAS = 5V
1000
FS
tMIN,ON
120
ns
DCCC
92
%
Minimum On-Time
Cold-Crank Event Duty Cycle
OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY
Oscillator Frequency
RFOSC = 120kI
190
260
310
kHz
RFOSC = 12.1kI
2.00
2.20
2.48
MHz
EXTERNAL CLOCK INPUT (FSYNC)
External Input Clock Acquisition
Time
External Input Clock High
Threshold
tFSYNC
4
VFSYNC_HI VFSYNC rising
1.5
V
External Input Clock Low Threshold VFSYNC_LO VFSYNC falling
FSYNC Pulldown Resistance
Soft-Start Time
0.5
IFSYNC
tSS
Cycles
510
fSW = 220kHz
9.3
fSW = 2.2MHz
0.93
V
kI
ms
ENABLE INPUT (EN)
Enable-On Threshold Voltage Low
VEN_LO
Enable-On Threshold Voltage High
VEN_HI
Enable Threshold Voltage
Hysteresis
Enable Input Current
0.7
2.2
V
V
VEN,HYS
0.35
V
IEN
0.5
FA
RESET
Reset Internal Switching Level
RESETI Threshold Voltage
CRES Threshold Voltage
CRES Threshold Hysteresis
RESETI Input Current
Maxim Integrated
VTH_RISING VFB rising, VRESETI = 0V
0.88
0.90
0.92
VTH_FALLING VFB falling, VRESETI = 0V
0.83
0.85
0.87
VRESETI_LO VRESETI falling
1.13
1.2
1.27
V
1.1
1.25
1.45
V
VCRES_HI
VCRES rising
VCRES_HYS
IRESET
VRESETI = 0V
V
0.04
V
0.02
FA
3
MAX16974
High-Voltage, 2.2MHz, 2A Automotive StepDown Converter with Low Operating Current
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued)
(VSUP = VSUPSW = 14V, L1 = 4.7FH, VEN = 14V, CIN = 10FF, COUT = 22FF, CBIAS = 1FF, CBST = 0.1FF, CCRES = 1nF, RFOSC =
12.1kI, TA = TJ = -40NC to +125NC, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25NC.)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
CRES Source Current
ICRES
CRES Pulldown Current
CONDITIONS
VOUT in regulation
ICRES_PD
MIN
TYP
MAX
9.5
10
10.5
UNITS
FA
VOUT out of regulation
1
mA
RES Sink Current
VRES pulls low, VRES > 0.4V
1
mA
RES Leakage Current (OpenDrain Output)
VOUT in regulation, TA = +25NC
Reset Debounce Time
tRES_DEB
1
VRESETI falling
25
FA
Fs
Note 2: Guaranteed by design; not production tested.
Typical Operating Characteristics
(VSUP = VSUPSW = 14V, VOUT = 5V, FSYNC = GND, fOSC = 400kHz, TA = +25NC, unless otherwise noted. See Figure 1.)
5V/400kHz
70
5V/2.2MHz
60
50
40
VSUP = 14V
80
EFFICIENCY (%)
EFFICIENCY (%)
80
90
5V/400kHz
70
60
90
80
SUPPLY CURRENT (µA)
VSUP = 14V
100
MAX16974 toc02
90
SUPPLY CURRENT vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE
EFFICIENCY vs. ILOAD
100
MAX16974 toc01
100
5V/2.2MHz
50
40
70
60
50
30
30
20
20
20
10
10
0
0.00001
0.0001
0.001
0.01
0.1
0.01
ILOAD (C)
1
8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
STARTUP INTO HEAVY LOAD
MAX16974 toc05
MAX16974 toc04
SHUTDOWN CURRENT (µA)
6
10
ILOAD (A)
SHUTDOWN CURRENT
vs. INPUT VOLTAGE
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
5V/400kHz
0
0
0.1
5V/2.2MHz
40
30
10
MAX16974 toc03
EFFICIENCY vs. ILOAD
(SKIP MODE)
5V/div
VSUP
0V
TA = +125°C
5V/div
TA = +25°C
0V
VOUT
2A/div
TA = -40°C
4
6
8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28
ILOAD
SF = 400kHz
0A
10ms/div
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
4 Maxim Integrated
MAX16974
High-Voltage, 2.2MHz, 2A Automotive StepDown Converter with Low Operating Current
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
(VSUP = VSUPSW = 14V, VOUT = 5V, FSYNC = GND, fOSC = 400kHz, TA = +25NC, unless otherwise noted. See Figure 1.)
LOAD TRANSIENT
UNDERVOLTAGE PULSE
MAX16974 toc06
MAX16974 toc07
200mV/div
VOUT
5V/div
VSUP
0V
0V
SF = 400kHz
VOUT ACCOUPLED
ILOAD
5V/div
VOUT
0V
1A/div
0A
5V/div
0V
SF = 2.2MHz
VRES
20ms/div
SWITCHING FREQUENCY
vs. TEMPERATURE
RESET TIMEOUT PERIOD vs. CRES
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
500
MAX16974 toc09
RESET TIMEOUT PERIOD (ms)
90
VOUT = 5V
490
SWITCHING FREQUENCY (kHz)
MAX16974 toc08
100
480
470
460
450
440
430
420
410
10
400
0
0
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
-40 -25 -10 5 20 35 50 65 80 95 110 125
TEMPERATURE (°C)
CRES (µF)
LOAD DUMP TEST (5V/2.2MHz)
SHORT-CIRCUIT RESPONSE
MAX16974 toc10
MAX16974 toc11
2.2MHz
VSUP
20V/div
5A/div
ILX
0
VOUT
5V/div
0A
5V/div
VOUT
0
VRES
5V/div
0
100ms/div
Maxim Integrated
0V
5V/div
0V
VRES
2ms/div
5
MAX16974
High-Voltage, 2.2MHz, 2A Automotive StepDown Converter with Low Operating Current
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
(VSUP = VSUPSW = 14V, VOUT = 5V, FSYNC = GND, fOSC = 400kHz, TA = +25NC, unless otherwise noted. See Figure 1.)
2.4
2.0
1.6
1.2
0.8
420
ILOAD = 1A
418
SWITCHING FREQUENCY (kHz)
MAX16974 toc12
0.4
416
414
412
410
408
406
404
402
400
0
6
12 22 32 42 52 62 72 82 92 102 112 122
8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
RFOSC (kI)
FSYNC TRANSITION FROM INTERNAL TO EXTERNAL
FREQUENCY (5V/2.2MHz CONFIGURATION)
VOUT vs. ILOAD
MAX16974 toc14
VOUT
5.10
5.06
0
0
5.04
VOUT (V)
2V/div
EXTERNAL CLOCK
AT SYNC
VSUP = 14V
5.08
5V/div
MAX16974 toc15
SWITCHING FREQUENCY (MHz)
2.8
MAX16974 toc13
SWITCHING FREQUENCY
vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE
SWITCHING FREQUENCY vs. RFOSC
5.02
5V/2.2MHz
5.00
4.98
4.96
VLX
10V/div
4.94
0
4.92
5V/400kHz
4.90
1µs/div
0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
ILOAD (A)
STARTUP INTO HEAVY LOAD
(5V/2.2MHz)
SWITCHING FREQUENCY vs. ILOAD
VSUP = 14V
SWITCHING FREQUENCY (kHz)
418
MAX16974 toc17
MAX16974 toc16
420
416
VSUP
5V/div
414
412
0
VOUT
2V/div
0V
410
408
406
VRES
5V/div
0
ILOAD
2A/div
0V
404
402
400
0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
400µs/div
ILOAD (A)
6 Maxim Integrated
MAX16974
High-Voltage, 2.2MHz, 2A Automotive StepDown Converter with Low Operating Current
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
(VSUP = VSUPSW = 14V, VOUT = 5V, FSYNC = GND, fOSC = 400kHz, TA = +25NC, unless otherwise noted. See Figure 1.)
OUTPUT RESPONSE TO SLOW INPUT RAMP UP
(5V/400kHz)
OUTPUT RESPONSE TO SLOW INPUT RAMP DOWN
(5V/2.2MHz)
MAX16974 toc18
ILOAD = 2A
MAX16974 toc19
10V/div
VSUP
VSUP
0
VOUT
5V/div
0
VLX
10V/div
2V/div
0
VOUT
0
2V/div
0
VLX
2V/div
5V/div
0
VRES
0
10s/div
10s/div
DIPS AND DROP TEST
(5V/2.2MHz)
MAX16974 toc20
10V/div
VSUP
0
VOUT
5V/div
0
VLX
10V/div
0
2A/div
0
ILOAD
10ms/div
Maxim Integrated
7
MAX16974
High-Voltage, 2.2MHz, 2A Automotive StepDown Converter with Low Operating Current
VBAT
CIN1
47µF
CIN2
4.7µF
CIN3
0.1µF
SUP
EN
SUPSW
CBST
0.1µF
RCOMP
20kI
L1
VOUT =
15µH 3.3V AT 2A AT 300kHz
LX
VOUT
COMP
MAX16974
RESETI
CRES
COUT1
47µF
VBIAS
RFB2
56kI
BIAS
CCRES
1nF
COUT
47µF
RFB1
124kI
FB
FOSC
CBIAS
1µF
D1
OUT
RFOSC
82kI
CCOMP2
OPEN
CIN5
4.7µF
BST
FSYNC
CCOMP1
5600pF
CIN4
0.1µF
RRES
10kI
RES
GND
PLACE CIN2 (4.7µF) AND CIN3 (0.1µF) NEXT TO SUP.
PLACE CIN4 (0.1µF) AND CIN5 (4.7µF) NEXT TO SUPSW.
Figure 1. 3.3V Fixed Output Voltage Configuration
Pin Configuration
16 15 14 13 12 11 10
BIAS
BST
LX
SUP
SUPSW
EN
RES
RESETI
TOP VIEW
9
MAX16974
EP
6
7
8
GND
FSYNC
5
OUT
CRES
4
FB
3
COMP
2
I.C.
1
FOSC
+
TSSOP
8 Maxim Integrated
MAX16974
High-Voltage, 2.2MHz, 2A Automotive StepDown Converter with Low Operating Current
Pin Description
PIN
NAME
1
CRES
Analog Reset Timer. CRES sources 10FA (typ) of current into an external capacitor to set the reset
timeout period. Reset timeout period is defined as the time between the start of output regulation
and RES going high impedance. Leave unconnected for minimum delay time.
2
FOSC
Resistor-Programmable Switching-Frequency Setting Control Input. Connect a resistor from FOSC
to GND to set the switching frequency.
3
FSYNC
Synchronization Input. The device synchronizes to an external signal applied to FSYNC. The
external signal period must be 10% shorter than the internal clock period for proper operation.
4
I.C.
5
COMP
Error Amplifier Output. Connect an RC network from COMP to GND for stable operation. See the
Compensation Network section for more details.
6
FB
Feedback Input. Connect an external resistive divider from OUT to FB and GND to set the output
voltage. Connect to BIAS to set the output voltage to 5V.
7
OUT
Supply Input. OUT provides power to the internal circuitry when the output voltage of the converter
is set between 3V and 5V.
8
GND
Ground
9
BIAS
Linear Regulator Output. BIAS powers up the internal circuitry. Bypass with a 1FF capacitor to ground.
10
BST
High-Side Driver Supply. Connect a 0.1FF capacitor between LX and BST for proper operation.
11
SUP
Voltage Supply Input. SUP powers up the internal linear regulator. Connect a minimum of 1FF
capacitor from SUP to GND close to the IC. Connect SUP to SUPSW.
12
LX
13
SUPSW
Internal High-Side Switch Supply Input. SUPSW provides power to the internal switch. For most
applications, connect 4.7FF and 0.1FF capacitors between SUPSW and GND close to the IC. See
the Input Capacitor section for more details.
14
EN
Battery-Compatible Enable Input. Drive EN low to disable the device. Drive EN high to enable the
device.
15
RES
Open-Drain Active-Low Reset Output. RES asserts when VOUT is below the reset threshold set by
RESETI.
16
RESETI
—
EP
Maxim Integrated
FUNCTION
Internally Connected. Connect to GND.
Inductor Switching Node. Connect a Schottky diode between LX and GND.
Reset Threshold Level Input. Connect to a resistive divider to set the reset threshold for RES.
Connect to GND to enable the internal reset threshold.
Exposed Pad. Connect EP to a large-area contiguous copper ground plane for effective power
dissipation. Do not use as the only IC ground connection. EP must be connected to GND.
9
MAX16974
High-Voltage, 2.2MHz, 2A Automotive StepDown Converter with Low Operating Current
Detailed Description
The MAX16974 is a constant-frequency, current-mode,
automotive buck converter with an integrated high-side
switch. The device operates with 3.5V to 28V input voltages and tolerates input transients up to 42V. During
undervoltage events, such as cold-crank conditions, the
internal pass device maintains up to 92% duty cycle.
An open-drain, active-low reset output helps monitor the
output voltage. The device offers an adjustable reset
threshold that helps keep microcontrollers alive down to
their lowest specified input voltage. A capacitor programmable reset timeout ensures proper startup.
SUP
BIAS
The switching frequency is resistor programmable from
220kHz to 2.2MHz to allow optimization for efficiency,
noise, and board space. A clock input, FSYNC, allows
the device to synchronize to an external clock.
During light-load conditions, the device enters skip
mode that reduces the quiescent current down to 35FA.
The 5V fixed output voltage option eliminates the need
for external resistors and reduces the supply current by
up to 50FA. See Figure 2 for the internal block diagram.
Supply Voltage Range (SUP)
The device’s supply voltage range (VSUP) is compatible
with the typical 3.5V to 28V automotive battery voltage
range and can tolerate transients up to 42V.
FOSC
BST
SUPSW
DRV
ISENSE
LEVEL
SHIFT
FSYNC
LX
OUT
EN
STANDBY
SUPPLY
OSC
SUM
ILIM
REF
EA
PWM
COMP
LOGIC
LDO
MUX
FB
COMP
UVLO
LOGIC FOR
DROPOUT
VBIAS
SOFTSTART
RES
10µA
CRES
COMP
RESETI
B.G.
REF
COMP
MAX16974
GND
Figure 2. Internal Block Diagram
10 Maxim Integrated
MAX16974
High-Voltage, 2.2MHz, 2A Automotive StepDown Converter with Low Operating Current
Linear Regulator Output (BIAS)
The device includes a 5V linear regulator, VBIAS, that
provides power to the internal circuitry. Connect a
1FF ceramic capacitor from BIAS to GND. If the output voltage is set between 3.0V and 5.6V, the internal
linear regulator only provides power until the output is in
regulation. The internal linear regulator turns off once the
output is in regulation and load current is below 50mA,
allowing the output to provide power to the device.
External Clock Input (FSYNC)
The device synchronizes to an external clock signal
applied at FSYNC. The signal at FSYNC must have a
10% shorter period than the internal clock period for
proper synchronization. The internal clock signal takes
over if the externally applied signal has a frequency
lower than the internal clock frequency.
Adjustable Reset Level
The device features a programmable reset threshold
using a resistive divider between OUT, RESETI, and
GND. Connect RESETI to GND for the internal threshold.
RES asserts low when the output voltage falls to 85% of
its programmed level. RES deasserts when the output
voltage goes above 90% of its set voltage.
Some microprocessors have a wide input voltage range
(5V to 3.3V) and can operate during device dropout. Use
a resistive divider at RESETI to adjust the reset activation
level (RES goes low) to lower levels. The reference voltage at RESETI is 1.2V (typ).
The device also offers a capacitor-programmable reset
timeout period. Connect a capacitor from CRES to GND
to adjust the reset timeout period. When the output voltage goes out of regulation, RES asserts low, and the
reset timing capacitor discharges with a 1mA pulldown
current. Once the output is back in regulation, the reset
timing capacitor recharges with 10FA (typ) current. RES
stays low until the voltage at CRES reaches 1.25V (typ).
Dropout Operation
The device has an effective maximum duty cycle to help
refresh the BST capacitor when continuously operated
in dropout. When the high-side switch is on for three
consecutive clock cycles, the device forces the highside switch off during the final 35% of the fourth clock
cycle. When the high-side switch is off, the LX node
is pulled low by current flowing through the external
Maxim Integrated
Schottky diode. This increases the voltage across the
BST capacitor. To ensure that the inductor has enough
current to pull LX to ground, an internal load sinks
current from VOUT when the device is close to dropout
and when the external load is small. Once the input voltage is increased above the dropout region, the device
continues to regulate without restarting.
If the device has neither external clock nor external load,
the effective maximum duty cycle is 92% when operating
deep into dropout. This effective maximum duty cycle
is influenced by the external load and by the external
synchronized clock, if any.
System Enable (EN)
An enable-control input (EN) activates the device from its
low-power shutdown mode. EN is compatible with inputs
from automotive battery level down to 3.3V. The highvoltage compatibility allows EN to be connected to SUP,
KEY/KL30, or the INH pin of a CAN transceiver.
EN turns on the internal regulator. Once VBIAS is above
the internal lockout level, VUVL = 3.05V (typ), the controller activates and the output voltage ramps up within
2048 cycles of the switching frequency.
A logic-low at EN shuts down the device. During shutdown, the internal linear regulator and gate drivers turn
off. Shutdown is the lowest power state and reduces the
quiescent current to 5FA (typ). Drive EN high to bring the
device out of shutdown.
Overvoltage Protection
The device includes an overvoltage protection
circuit that protects the device when there is an overvoltage condition at the output. If the output voltage
increases by more than 10% of its set voltage, the device
stops switching. The device resumes regulation once the
overvoltage condition is removed.
Overload Protection
The overload protection circuitry is activated when the
device is in current limit and VOUT is below the reset
threshold. Under these conditions the device enters a
soft-start mode. If the overcurrent condition is removed
before the soft-start mode is over, the device regulates
the output voltage to its set value. Otherwise, the softstart cycle repeats until the overcurrent condition is
removed.
11
MAX16974
High-Voltage, 2.2MHz, 2A Automotive StepDown Converter with Low Operating Current
Skip Mode
During light-load operation, IINDUCTOR P 240mA, the
device enters skip-mode operation. Skip mode turns off
the internal switch and allows the output to drop below
regulation voltage before the switch is turned on again.
The lower the load current, the longer it takes for the regulator to initiate a new cycle. Because the converter skips
unnecessary cycles, the converter efficiency increases.
During skip mode the quiescent current drops to 35FA.
VOUT
RFB1
RESETI
MAX16974
RFB2
FB
Overtemperature Protection
Thermal-overload protection limits the total power
dissipation in the device. When the junction temperature exceeds +175°C (typ), an internal thermal sensor
shuts down the internal bias regulator and the step-down
controller, allowing the IC to cool. The thermal sensor
turns on the device again after the junction temperature
cools by +15°C.
Applications Information
Output Voltage/Reset Threshold
Resistive Divider Network
Although the device’s output voltage and reset threshold can be set individually, Figure 3 shows a combined
resistive divider network to set the desired output voltage
and the reset threshold using three resistors. Use the
following formula to determine the RFB3 of the resistive
divider network:
R FB3
R TOTAL × VREF
OUT
where VREF = 1V, RTOTAL = selected total resistance of
RFB1, RFB2, and RFB3 in ohms, and VOUT is the desired
output voltage in volts.
R FB2 =
R TOTAL × VREF_RES
- R FB3
V RES
where VREF_RES is 1.2V (see the Electrical Characteristics
table), and VRES is the desired reset threshold in volts.
The precision of the reset threshold function is dependent
on the tolerance of the resistors used for the divider. Care
must be taken to choose the values of the resistors. Too
small a resistor value adds to the device’s quiescent
current, whereas if the resistors are too large, there is
some noise susceptibility to the FB pin.
12 RFB3
Figure 3. Output Voltage/Reset Threshold Resistive Divider
Network
Boost Capacitor for
Dropout Operation
The device has an internal boost capacitor refresh algorithm for dropout operation. This is required to ensure
proper boost capacitor voltage, which delivers power to
the gate drive circuitry. If the high-side MOSFET is on
consecutively for 3.65 clock cycles, the internal counter
detects this and turns off the high-side MOSFET for 0.35
clock cycles. This is of particular concern when VIN is
falling and approaching VOUT and a minimum switching
frequency of 220kHz is used.
The worst-case condition for boost capacitor refresh time
is with no load on the output. For the boost capacitor
to recharge completely, the LX node must be pulled to
ground. If there is no current in the inductor, the LX node
does not go to ground. To solve this issue, an internal
load of approximately 100mA is turned on at the 6th
clock cycle, which is determined by a separate counter.
In the worst-case condition with no load, the LX node
does not go below ground during the first detect of the
3.65 clock cycles. It must wait for the next 3.65 clock
cycles to finish. This means the soonest the LX node can
go below ground is 4 + 3.65 = 7.65 clock cycles. This
time does not factor in the size of the inductor and the
time it takes for the inductor current to build up to 100mA
(internal load).
So no-load minimum time before refresh is:
dt (no load) = 7.65 clock cycles = 7.65 x 5µs
(at 220kHz) = 34.77µs
Maxim Integrated
MAX16974
High-Voltage, 2.2MHz, 2A Automotive StepDown Converter with Low Operating Current
where:
SWITCHING FREQUENCY vs. RFOSC
MAX16974 toc12
2.8
SWITCHING FREQUENCY (MHz)
IBST(DROPOUT) = 3mA (worst case)
2.4
dt (no load) = 16 clock cycles
dV (BST capacitor) = VOUT - 2.7V.
Reset Timeout Period
2.0
The device offers a capacitor-adjustable reset timeout
period. Connect up to 0.1FF capacitor from CRES to
GND to set the timeout period. CRES can source 10FA
of current. Use the following formula to set the timeout
period:
1.6
1.2
0.8
0.4
RESET_TIMEOUT =
0
12 22 32 42 52 62 72 82 92 102 112 122
RFOSC (kI)
Figure 4. Switching Frequency vs. RFOSC
Assume a full 100mA is needed to refresh the BST
capacitor. Depending on the size of the inductor, the time
it takes to build up a full 100mA in the inductor is given by:
dt (inductor) = L x di/dV (current buildup starts from the
6th clock cycle)
L = inductor value chosen in the design guide
di is the required current = 100mA
dV = voltage across the inductor (assume this to be
0.5V), which means VIN is greater than VOUT by 0.5V
If dt (inductor) < 7.65 - 6 (clock cycles), the BST
capacitor should be sized as follows:
BST_CAP ≥ IBST(DROPOUT) x dt (no load)/dV
(BST capacitor)
dt (no load) = 7.65 clock cycles = 34.77µs
dV (BST capacitor) for (3.3V to 5V) output = VOUT - 2.7V
(2.7V is the minimum voltage allowed on the bst capacitor)
If dt (inductor) > 7.65 - 6 clock cycles, then wait for the
next count of 3.65 clock cycles making dt (no load) =
11.65 clock cycles.
Considering the typical inductor values used for 220kHz
operation, the safe way to design the BST capacitor is
to assume:
dt (no load) as 16 clock cycles
So the final BST_CAPACITOR equation is:
BST_CAP = IBST(DROPOUT) x dt (no load)/dV (BST
capacitor)
Maxim Integrated
1.25V × C
10 × 10 -6 A
(s),
where C is the capacitor from CRES to GND in Farads.
Internal Oscillator
The switching frequency (fSW) is set by a resistor
(RFOSC) connected from FOSC to GND. See Figure 4 to
select the correct RFOSC value for the desired switching
frequency.
For example, a 2.2MHz switching frequency is set with
RFOSC = 12.1kI. Higher frequencies allow designs
with lower inductor values and less output capacitance.
Consequently, peak currents and I2R losses are lower
at higher switching frequencies, but core losses, gatecharge currents, and switching losses increase.
Inductor Selection
Three key inductor parameters must be specified for
operation with the device: inductance value (L), inductor
saturation current (ISAT), and DC resistance (RDCR). To
select inductance value, the ratio of inductor peak-topeak AC current to DC average current (LIR) must be
selected first. A good compromise between size and
loss is a 30% peak-to-peak ripple current to average
current ratio (LIR = 0.3). The switching frequency, input
voltage, output voltage, and selected LIR determine the
inductor value as follows:
V
(V
− VOUT )
L = OUT SUP
VSUP fSWI OUTLIR
where VSUP, VOUT, and IOUT are typical values so that
efficiency is optimum for typical conditions. The switching frequency is set by RFOSC (see the Internal Oscillator
section). The exact inductor value is not critical and
can be adjusted to make trade-offs among size, cost,
efficiency, and transient response requirements.
13
MAX16974
High-Voltage, 2.2MHz, 2A Automotive StepDown Converter with Low Operating Current
Table 1. Inductor Size Comparison
INDUCTOR SIZE
SMALLER
LARGER
Lower price
Smaller ripple
Smaller form factor
Higher efficiency
Faster load response
Larger fixed-frequency
range in skip mode
Table 1 shows a comparison between small and large
inductor sizes.
The inductor value must be chosen so the maximum
inductor current does not reach the minimum current limit
of the device. The optimum operating point is usually found
between 10% and 30% ripple current. When pulse skipping
(light loads), the inductor value also determines the loadcurrent value at which PFM/PWM switchover occurs.
IRMS has a maximum value when the input voltage
equals twice the output voltage (VSUP = 2VOUT), so
IRMS(MAX) = ILOAD(MAX)/2.
Choose an input capacitor that exhibits less than +10NC
self-heating temperature rise at the RMS input current for
optimal long-term reliability.
The input-voltage ripple is comprised of DVQ (caused
by the capacitor discharge) and DVESR (caused by the
equivalent series resistance (ESR) of the capacitor). Use
low-ESR ceramic capacitors with high ripple-current
capability at the input. Assume the contribution from the
ESR and capacitor discharge equal to 50%. Calculate
the input capacitance and ESR required for a specified
input-voltage ripple using the following equations:
∆VESR
ESRIN =
∆I
I OUT + L
2
Find a low-loss inductor having the lowest possible
where:
DC resistance that fits in the allotted dimensions. Most
inductor manufacturers provide inductors in standard
(V
− VOUT ) × VOUT
∆IL = SUP
values, such as 1.0FH, 1.5FH, 2.2FH, 3.3FH, etc. Also
VSUP × fSW × L
look for nonstandard values, which can provide a
better compromise in LIR across the input voltage
and:
range. If using a swinging inductor (where the no-load
I
× D(1 − D)
VOUT
inductance decreases linearly with increasing current),
=
CIN OUT
=
and D
evaluate the LIR with properly scaled inductance values.
∆VQ × fSW
VSUPSW
For the selected inductance value, the actual peak-topeak inductor ripple current (DIINDUCTOR) is defined by:
where IOUT is the maximum output current, and D is the
duty cycle.
VOUT (VSUP − VOUT )
∆IINDUCTOR =
VSUP × fSW × L
Output Capacitor
The output filter capacitor must have low enough ESR to
where DIINDUCTOR is in A, L is in H, and fSW is in Hz.
meet output ripple and load-transient requirements, yet
have high enough ESR to satisfy stability requirements.
Ferrite cores are often the best choices, although
The output capacitance must be high enough to absorb
powdered iron is inexpensive and can work well at
the inductor energy while transitioning from full-load
220kHz. The core must be large enough not to saturate
to no-load conditions without tripping the overvoltage
at the peak inductor current (IPEAK):
fault protection. When using high-capacitance, low-ESR
∆IINDUCTOR
=
IPEAK ILOAD(MAX) +
capacitors, the filter capacitor’s ESR dominates the
2
output voltage ripple. So the size of the output capacitor
depends on the maximum ESR required to meet the outInput Capacitor
put voltage ripple (VRIPPLE(P-P)) specifications:
The input filter capacitor reduces peak currents drawn
from the power source and reduces noise and voltage
VRIPPLE(P −P) =
ESR × ILOAD(MAX) × LIR
ripple on the input caused by the circuit’s switching.
The input capacitor RMS current requirement (IRMS) is
defined by the following equation:
IRMS = ILOAD(MAX)
14 VOUT (VSUP − VOUT )
VSUP
The actual capacitance value required relates to the
physical size needed to achieve low ESR, as well as
to the chemistry of the capacitor technology. Thus, the
capacitor is usually selected by ESR and voltage rating
rather than by capacitance value.
Maxim Integrated
MAX16974
High-Voltage, 2.2MHz, 2A Automotive StepDown Converter with Low Operating Current
Transient Response
When using low-capacity filter capacitors, such as
The inductor ripple current also impacts transient
ceramic capacitors, size is usually determined by the
response performance, especially at low VSUP - VOUT
capacity needed to prevent VSAG and VSOAR from
differentials. Low inductor values allow the inductor
causing problems during load transients. Generally,
current to slew faster, replenishing charge removed from
once enough capacitance is added to meet the overthe output filter capacitors by a sudden load step. The
shoot requirement, undershoot at the rising-load edge
total output-voltage sag is the sum of the voltage sag
is no longer a problem (see the VSAG and VSOAR
while the inductor is ramping up and the voltage sag
equations in the Transient Response section). However,
before the next pulse can occur:
low-capacity filter capacitors typically have high-ESR
zeros that can affect the overall stability. Other important
2
L(∆ILOAD(MAX) )
∆ILOAD(MAX) (t − ∆t)
criteria in the choice of the total output capacitance
=
VSAG
+
are the device’s soft-start time and maximum current
C OUT
2C OUT ((VSUP × D MAX ) − VOUT )
capability (see the Soft-Start Time and Maximum Allowed
Output Capacitance section).
where DMAX is the maximum duty factor (see the
Electrical Characteristics table), L is the inductor value
Soft-Start Time and Maximum
in FH, COUT is the output capacitor value in FF, t is the
Allowed Output Capacitance
switching period (1/fSW) in Fs, and δt equals (VOUT/
The device’s soft-start time depends on the selected
VSUP x t when in fixed-frequency PWM mode, or L x 0.2
switching frequency. The soft-start time is fixed to 2048
x IMAX/(VSUP - VOUT) when in skip mode. The amount
cycles, regardless of the switching frequency. This
of overshoot (VSOAR) during a full-load to a no-load
means at 2.2MHz the soft-start time is ~0.93ms, and at
transient due to stored inductor energy can be
220kHz the soft-start time is ~9.3ms.
calculated as:
The device is a 2A-capable switching regulator and the
2
amount of load present at startup determines the total
VSOAR ≈ ∆ILOAD(MAX) × L/ (2 x C OUT × VOUT )
output capacitance allowed for a particular application.
(
C OUT(MAX) ≈ 2048/fSW ×
1/∆VOUT × ILX(MIN) - ILOAD(MAX) 
Keeping the above equation in mind, see the following
table to ensure that COUT is less than maximum allowed
values.
FREQUENCY = 400kHz
VOUT (V)
ILOAD
(STARTUP) (A)
COUT
(MAX ALLOWED)
3.3
2
775FF
5
2
512FF
3.3
0
3.9mF
5
0
2.6mF
FREQUENCY = 2.2MHz
VOUT (V)
ILOAD
(STARTUP) (A)
COUT
(MAX ALLOWED)
3.3
2
140FF
5
2
93FF
3.3
0
705FF
5
0
465FF
Maxim Integrated
)
Rectifier Selection
The device requires an external Schottky diode rectifier
as a freewheeling diode. Connect this rectifier close
to the device using short leads and short PCB traces.
Choose a rectifier with a continuous current rating greater
than the highest output current-limit threshold (3.5A), and
with a voltage rating greater than the maximum expected
input voltage, VSUPSW. Use a low forward-voltage-drop
Schottky rectifier to limit the negative voltage at LX. Avoid
higher than necessary reverse-voltage Schottky rectifiers
that have higher forward-voltage drops.
Compensation Network
The device uses an internal transconductance error
amplifier with its inverting input and output available
to the user for external frequency compensation. The
output capacitor and compensation network determine the loop stability. The inductor and the output
capacitor are chosen based on performance, size, and
cost. Additionally, the compensation network optimizes
the control-loop stability.
The controller uses a current-mode control scheme that
regulates the output voltage by forcing the required
current through the external inductor, so the device uses
15
MAX16974
High-Voltage, 2.2MHz, 2A Automotive StepDown Converter with Low Operating Current
the voltage drop across the high-side MOSFET. Currentmode control eliminates the double pole in the feedback
loop caused by the inductor and output capacitor resulting in a smaller phase shift and requiring less elaborate
error-amplifier compensation than voltage-mode control.
A simple single-series resistor (RC) and capacitor (CC)
are all that is required to have a stable, high-bandwidth
loop in applications where ceramic capacitors are
used for output filtering (Figure 5). For other types of
capacitors, due to the higher capacitance and ESR, the
frequency of the zero created by the capacitance and
ESR is lower than the desired closed-loop crossover
frequency. To stabilize a nonceramic output capacitor
loop, add another compensation capacitor (CF) from
COMP to GND to cancel this ESR zero.
The basic regulator loop is modeled as a power modulator,
output feedback divider, and an error amplifier. The power
modulator has a DC gain set by gmc O RLOAD, with a pole
and zero pair set by RLOAD, the output capacitor (COUT),
and its ESR. The following equations approximate the
value for the gain of the power modulator (GAINMOD(DC)),
neglecting the effect of the ramp stabilization. Ramp stabilization is necessary when the duty cycle is above 50% and
is internally done for the device.
GAINMOD(DC)
= g mc × R LOAD
where RLOAD = VOUT/ILOUT(MAX) in I and gmc = 3S.
In a current-mode step-down converter, the output
capacitor, its ESR, and the load resistance introduce a
pole at the following frequency:
fpMOD =
1
2π × C OUT × R LOAD
VOUT
R1
RC
VREF
When COUT is composed of “n” identical capacitors
in parallel, the resulting COUT = n O COUT(EACH) and
ESR = ESR(EACH)/n. Note that the capacitor zero for a
parallel combination of alike capacitors is the same as
for an individual capacitor.
The feedback voltage-divider has a gain of GAINFB =
VFB/VOUT, where VFB is 1V (typ).
16 CF
CC
Figure 5. Compensation Network
The transconductance error amplifier has a DC gain of
GAINEA(DC) = gm,EA O ROUT,EA, where gm,EA is the error
amplifier transconductance, which is 1000FS (typ), and
ROUT,EA is the output resistance of the error amplifier 50MI.
A dominant pole (fdpEA) is set by the compensation
capacitor (CC) and the amplifier output resistance
(ROUT,EA). A zero (fZEA) is set by the compensation
resistor (RC) and the compensation capacitor (CC).
There is an optional pole (fpEA) set by CF and RC to
cancel the output capacitor ESR zero if it occurs near the
crossover frequency (fC), where the loop gain equals 1
(0dB)). Thus:
fpdEA =
1
2π × C C × (R OUT,EA + R C )
fzEA =
1
2π × C C × R C
fpEA =
1
2π × C F × R C
The output capacitor and its ESR also introduce a zero at:
1
fzMOD =
2π × ESR × C OUT
COMP
gm
R2
The loop-gain crossover frequency (fC) should be set
below 1/5th of the switching frequency and much higher
than the power-modulator pole (fpMOD):
f
fpMOD << fC ≤ SW
5
Maxim Integrated
MAX16974
High-Voltage, 2.2MHz, 2A Automotive StepDown Converter with Low Operating Current
The total loop gain as the product of the modulator gain,
the feedback voltage-divider gain, and the error amplifier
gain at fC should be equal to 1. So:
GAINMOD(fC) ×
VFB
× GAINEA(fC) =
1
VOUT
For the case where fzMOD is greater than fC:
GAINEA(fC)
= g m,EA × R C
GAIN
=
MOD(fC) GAINMOD(DC) ×
fpMOD
fC
V
GAINMOD(fC) × FB × g m,EA × R C =
1
VOUT
Solving for RC:
VOUT
g m,EA × VFB × GAINMOD(fC)
Set the error-amplifier compensation zero formed by RC
and CC (fzEA) at the fpMOD. Calculate the value of CC
as follows:
CC =
2π × fpMOD × R C
1
2π × fzMOD × R C
As the load current decreases, the modulator pole also
decreases; however, the modulator gain increases
accordingly and the crossover frequency remains the
same.
For the case where fzMOD is less than fC:
The power-modulator gain at fC is:
GAIN
=
MOD(fC) GAINMOD(DC) ×
Maxim Integrated
GAINMOD(fC) ×
f
VFB
1
× g m,EA × R C × zMOD =
VOUT
fC
RC =
VOUT × fC
g m,EA × VFB × GAINMOD(fC) × fzMOD
Set the error-amplifier compensation zero formed by RC
and CC at the fpMOD (fzEA = fpMOD):
CC =
1
2π × fpMOD × R C
If fzMOD is less than 5 O fC, add a second capacitor, CF,
from COMP to GND. Set fpEA = fzMOD and calculate CF
as follows:
CF =
1
2π × fzMOD × R C
PCB Layout Guidelines
1
If fzMOD is less than 5 x fC, add a second capacitor,
CF, from COMP to GND and set the compensation pole
formed by RC and CF (fpEA) at the fzMOD. Calculate the
value of CF as follows:
CF =
Therefore:
f
GAINEA(fC)= g m,EA × R C × zMOD
fC
Solving for RC:
Therefore:
RC =
The error-amplifier gain at fC is:
fpMOD
fzMOD
Careful PCB layout is critical to achieve low switching
losses and clean, stable operation. Use a multilayer
board whenever possible for better noise immunity and
power dissipation. Follow these guidelines for good PCB
layout:
1)Use a large contiguous copper plane under the IC
package. Ensure that all heat-dissipating components
have adequate cooling. The bottom pad of the device
must be soldered down to this copper plane for
effective heat dissipation and getting the full power
out of the IC. Use multiple vias or a single large via in
this plane for heat dissipation.
2) Isolate the power components and high-current path
from the sensitive analog circuitry. This is essential to
prevent any noise coupling into the analog signals.
3) Keep the high-current paths short, especially at the
ground terminals. This practice is essential for stable,
jitter-free operation. The high-current path composed
of input capacitor, high-side FET, inductor, and the
output capacitor should be as short as possible.
17
MAX16974
High-Voltage, 2.2MHz, 2A Automotive StepDown Converter with Low Operating Current
4)Keep the power traces and load connections short.
This practice is essential for high efficiency. Use thick
copper PCBs (2oz vs. 1oz) to enhance full-load
efficiency.
5) The analog signal lines should be routed away from
the high-frequency planes. This ensures integrity of
sensitive signals feeding back into the IC.
6)The ground connection for the analog and power
section should be close to the IC. This keeps the ground
current loops to a minimum. In cases where only one
ground is used, enough isolation between analog return
signals and high power signals must be maintained.
Chip Information
PROCESS: BiCMOS
Package Information
For the latest package outline information and land patterns
(footprints), go to www.maximintegrated.com/packages. Note
that a “+”, “#”, or “-” in the package code indicates RoHS status
only. Package drawings may show a different suffix character, but
the drawing pertains to the package regardless of RoHS status.
PACKAGE
TYPE
PACKAGE
CODE
OUTLINE
NO.
LAND
PATTERN NO.
16 TSSOP-EP
U16E+3
21-0108
90-0120
7) Ensure a high-frequency decoupling capacitor of 0.1µF
is placed next to the SUP pin of the IC. This capacitor
prevents high-frequency noise from entering the SUP
pin. Adding a resistor between the SUPSW and SUP
pins along with the decoupling capacitor at the SUP
pin is recommended to reduce noise sensitivity.
18 Maxim Integrated
MAX16974
High-Voltage, 2.2MHz, 2A Automotive StepDown Converter with Low Operating Current
Revision History
REVISION
NUMBER
REVISION
DATE
0
11/10
Initial release
—
1
7/11
Corrected the GAINMOD(DC) and fpMOD equations in the Compensation Network
section
16
2
3/15
Updated first two lines in Absolute Maximum Ratings section
2
3
12/16
Changed BIAS Regulator Voltage max in Electrical Characteristics from 5.4 to 5.5
2
DESCRIPTION
PAGES
CHANGED
Maxim Integrated cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim Integrated product. No circuit patent
licenses are implied. Maxim Integrated reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time. The parametric values (min and
max limits) shown in the Electrical Characteristics table are guaranteed. Other parametric values quoted in this data sheet are provided for guidance.
Maxim Integrated 160 Rio Robles, San Jose, CA 95134 USA 1-408-601-1000
© 2016
Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.
19
Maxim Integrated and the Maxim Integrated logo are trademarks of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement