HM40 User`s Guide
User’s Guide
www.vaisala.com
Vaisala HUMICAP® Hand-Held
Humidity and Temperature Meter
HM40
M211088EN-A
User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Table of Contents
First Startup.................................................................................... 3
Initial Settings ............................................................................ 3
Product Overview ........................................................................ 4
The HM40 Meter - Front ............................................................ 5
The HM40 Meter – Back............................................................. 6
Batteries........................................................................................... 7
Charging........................................................................................... 8
Quantities Explained ................................................................... 9
Measurement Views................................................................... 10
Screen Layout and Controls ............................................... 10
Indicators .....................................................................................11
Numeric View............................................................................12
Statistics View ..........................................................................13
Graph View ............................................................................... 14
Hold and Tag.............................................................................16
Main Menu ......................................................................................18
Tagged Points...........................................................................19
Graph Duration ....................................................................... 20
Settings ..................................................................................... 20
Calibration ..................................................................................21
Help...............................................................................................21
Settings Submenu ......................................................................22
Language ...................................................................................22
Units.............................................................................................23
Time & Date ..............................................................................23
Pressure......................................................................................25
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Backlight ....................................................................................25
Battery ........................................................................................26
Navigation .................................................................................26
Factory Settings......................................................................26
How to Measure ..........................................................................27
Maintenance .................................................................................29
Cleaning .....................................................................................29
Changing the Filter ............................................................... 30
Changing the Probe................................................................31
Calibration .....................................................................................33
Calibrating the HM40 Using the HMK15 Humidity
Calibrator .................................................................................. 34
Accessories and Parts...............................................................38
HMP110 Probe...........................................................................38
Filters ..........................................................................................39
Chargers and Batteries.........................................................39
Belt Clips and Battery Covers............................................39
Technical Data ............................................................................ 40
Performance ............................................................................ 40
Mechanical................................................................................. 41
General ....................................................................................... 41
Dimensions (in mm).............................................................. 42
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
First Startup
1. Check that the HMP110 probe is securely attached
and remove the yellow transport protection cap from
the probe.
2. Open the battery cover and insert two AA-size
batteries.
3. Close the battery cover and turn on the meter by
pressing the Power button. If the meter does not turn
on, check the battery orientation. Replace the
batteries with fresh/recharged ones if needed.
Initial Settings
When you power on the HM40 for the first time (or
after a factory reset of the settings), you must first
select the operation language. You will then be asked if
you want to change the following settings:
- Units
- Date
- Time
If you answer Yes to the question (recommended), the
meter will show the settings screens before showing
the measurement view. Use the arrow and function
buttons to select. For more information, see section
Settings Submenu on page 22.
HM40 will retain the date and time even during
battery changes. The clock will have to be set
again only if the meter is without battery power
for several hours.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Product Overview
The Vaisala HUMICAP® Hand-Held Humidity and
Temperature Meter HM40 is a hand-held meter for
various portable measurement applications.
Main features:
- Compact and robust housing
- Measures a wide range of quantities: RH, Td, Tw, a, x,
h, T. See section Quantities Explained on page 9.
- Large graphical display
- Graphs for selected quantity and temperature
- Interchangeable HMP110 probe
- Can be user calibrated (using the HMK15 humidity
calibrator, for example)
- Powered by standard AA size batteries (2×)
- Operation temperature range -10°C ... +60°C
- Belt clip
Optional:
- USB-powered portable charger for AA-size NiMH
rechargeables
- Membrane filter for HMP110 probe for increased
protection against contaminants
For more information and order codes of the
accessories, see section Accessories and Parts
on page 38.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
The HM40 Meter - Front
Filter and sensor
HMP110 probe
Probe holder
Display
Left function
Up
Menu
Right function
Down
Power
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
The HM40 Meter – Back
Belt clip
Battery
cover
Batteries
2 x AA
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Batteries
The HM40 is powered by two AA-size batteries. You
can use the following battery types:
- Alkaline (IEC-LR6)
- Lithium (IEC-FR6)
- NiMH (IEC-HR6)
Do not mix batteries of different types. Both
batteries must be of the same type.
Observe instructions storage and operation
instructions of the battery manufacturer.
Alkaline batteries are the standard choice in nonrechargeable batteries. They are a good match for the
power requirements of the HM40.
Lithium batteries are a good choice if you need the
longest battery life or best capacity in low
temperatures. Lithium batteries are not rechargeable.
Do not confuse them with lithium-ion batteries, which
cannot be used in the HM40.
NiMH batteries are rechargeable, and available from
Vaisala as an option. For order codes, see section
Accessories and Parts on page 38. Instructions for using
the optional USB charger are provided in section
Charging on page 8.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Charging
The optional USB charger provides a convenient way to
charge two NiMH batteries from any powered USB port
(for example, from a laptop computer).
1. Place the rechargeable batteries in the charger and
plug it into a USB port. The blue LED on top of the
charger starts to blink.
2. When the LED stops blinking and stays on, the
batteries are charged. The charging time is several
hours for two fully discharged NiMH batteries.
If you are not using a Vaisala-supplied charger and
rechargeable batteries, read and follow the
manufacturer’s own charging instructions.
Figure 1
USB Charger with Two NiMH Batteries
Do not attempt to charge non-rechargeable
(alkaline or lithium) batteries! Doing so leads to a
risk of battery leakage, equipment damage, and
risk of explosion and/or fire.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Quantities Explained
The table below describes the quantities measured by
the HM40. All of the quantities are measured or
calculated when the meter is on, independent of what is
currently displayed.
Quantity
Symbol
Unit(s)
Relative
humidity
RH
%
Description
Ratio of the partial pressure of
water vapor in the air to the
saturation vapor pressure of air
at the current temperature.
Dewpoint
Td
°C
°F
Temperature at which the
water vapor in the air will
condense into water at the
current pressure. When the
dewpoint is below 0 °C, the
meter outputs frostpoint
instead of dewpoint.
Wet bulb
temperature
Tw
°C
°F
The minimum temperature
that can be reached by
evaporative cooling in the
current conditions.
Absolute
humidity
a
g/m3
gr/ft3
Quantity of water in a cubic
meter (or cubic foot) of air.
Mixing ratio
x
g/kg
gr/lb
Ratio of water vapor mass per
kilogram (or pound) of dry air.
Enthalpy
h
kJ/kg
btu/lb
Sum of the internal energy of a
thermodynamic system.
Temperature
T
°C
°F
Temperature in Celsius or
Fahrenheit scale.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Measurement Views
Screen Layout and Controls
Pressing the right function button holds the
screen and tags the current measurement point.
See Hold and Tag on page 16.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Indicators
Battery charge indicator
Fresh batteries will always show three
bars.
When the indicator shows two bars,
the voltage of the batteries has started
to drop. When there is a single
(blinking) bar left, you should replace
the batteries. The meter will turn off
automatically when the battery
voltage drops too low.
Alert indicator
This indicator is shown next to the
battery charge indicator if there is a
measurement problem. The most likely
causes are low battery and probe
problems, for example:
- Battery voltage too low to power
the probe. The measured values
may show asterisks "*" instead of
numbers.
- Probe has been disconnected
- Probe has been damaged
- Probe is incompatible
Quantity indicator
The selected quantity is highlighted by
a light frame. The symbol on the right
stands for all quantities.
For the list of quantities, see section
Quantities Explained on page 9.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Numeric View
The Numeric view shows the
currently values of the selected
humidity quantity and
temperature.
In the all quantities view the font
is smaller to fit all values on
screen.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Statistics View
The Statistics view shows the
current value of the selected
quantity, as well as the maximum,
average, and minimum value
since the measurement was
started. There is also a counter
that shows how long the
measurement has been running.
The icons are:
Maximum
Average
Minimum
Measurement time
The counter for measurement
time is not shown in the all
quantities view.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Graph View
The Graph view shows a
continuously updating graph of
the selected quantity and
temperature.
The graph limits and spacing
adjust dynamically to show the
full range of measurements.
HM40 has no permanent memory for
measurement data. When the meter is turned off,
the graphs are cleared.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
The timescale of the graph can
be changed in the Main menu.
By default, the graph will
automatically change the
timescale to fit the measured
data. If you select a short
timescale, only the most recent
data will be visible.
The graph view is not available in
the all quantities view. Select a
single quantity to show the
graph.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Hold and Tag
If you press the right function button (Hold button) in a
measurement view, two things happen:
- The measurement view freezes until you press the
Release button.
- The latest measurement point is tagged (marked and
stored in temporary memory). See section Tagged Points
on page 19.
Tagged points are shown in the graph view as small dots
below the graphs.
Measurement values at the
tagged points can be browsed
in the menu. See Tagged Points
on page 19.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
When the screen is held, the top
of the display displays the current
date and time. This is useful when
you want to record the current
data (take a photograph or write
it down).
If time has not been set, the top
of the screen will simply read
“HOLD”.
When the view is held, you can reset all
measurement data by pressing the Reset
button. This will clear all graphs and tagged
points.
If you keep pressing the right function button
(long press), the meter will tag the point without
freezing the screen.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Main Menu
You can open the menu from the measurement view at
any time by pressing the menu button.
If you are already in the menu, pressing the menu
button returns you to the measurement view. If you are
in a submenu, the menu button returns you to the
previous menu level.
Use the arrow buttons to move up
and down in the menu, and
function buttons to operate the
menu options. Typical functions in
the menus are:
- View and Enter open the
selected menu option or
submenu.
- Change and Set change the
value of the selected option.
- Back returns to the previous
menu view.
- Exit closes the menu and
returns to the measurement
view.
Some menu screens have more content than can
be visible at one time. This is indicated by a scroll
bar that appears on the right side of the screen.
Use the arrow buttons to scroll up and down.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Tagged Points
Select Tagged points in the main
menu to see the list of stored
points and values.
Time and temperature value are
always shown for each tagged
point. The shown humidity
quantity is the same as has been
selected in the measurement
view. If all quantities view has
been selected, RH is shown
instead.
HM40 has no permanent memory for
measurement data. When the meter is turned off,
the tagged points are deleted.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Graph Duration
In the Graph duration screen,
you can select the timescale of
the Graph view. The shortest
selectable timescale is 1.5
minutes, the longest 32 hours.
You can also select Autoscale,
which means that the timescale
will automatically adjust to show
all of the measurement data in
memory, up to the maximum of
32 h.
Settings
Opens the Settings menu. The
menu options are described in
section Settings Submenu on
page 22.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Calibration
In the Calibration submenu, you
can perform an adjustment
procedure that corrects the
humidity and temperature
measurement of the meter.
For more information and the
adjustment procedure, see
section Calibration on page 33.
Help
Opens a menu with help topics
on measurement, calibration, and
the measured quantities.
The help menu also includes a
device information screen where
you can view technical
information about your HM40
indicator and the HMP110 probe.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Settings Submenu
Language
In the Language screen, you can
change the display language of
the meter. The choices are:
- English (en)
- German (de)
- French (fr)
- Finnish (fi)
- Spanish (es)
- Swedish (sv)
- Chinese (zh)
- Russian (ru)
- Japanese (jp)
- Portuguese (pt)
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Units
The Units setting determines the
measurement system that is used
for the quantities:
- Metric
- Non-metric
The Pressure unit is set
separately:
- hPa
- bar
- atm
- PSI
Time & Date
In the Time & Date menu, you can
set the current date and time, and
their presentation formats. Both
date and time have their own
pre-set formatting options.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
In the Date setup screen, you can
set the current date:
- Arrow buttons change the
selected value
- Left function button selects
the next value (year, month, or
day).
- OK button stores the date and
returns to the Settings menu.
After setting the date, set the
desired date format using the
Formatting option in the Time &
Date menu.
In the Time setup screen, you can
set the current time:
- Arrow buttons change the
selected value.
- Left function button selects
the next value (hours, minutes,
or seconds).
- OK button stores the time and
returns to the Settings menu.
After setting the time, select 24h
or 12h clock using the Formatting
option in the Time & Date menu.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Pressure
In the Pressure setup screen, you
can set the current ambient
pressure. The pressure
information is used when
calculating certain humidity
quantities, such as mixing ratio
(symbol x).
If the ambient pressure differs
significantly from the default
setting of 1.0132 bar (due to high
altitude, for example), set the
correct pressure value so that the
HM40 meter can calculate the
measurement correctly.
Backlight
Always on: Screen is always lit.
This option will shorten the
battery life significantly.
Always off: Screen is always unlit.
This option provides the best
battery life.
Delay (30s): Backlight will
automatically turn on when the
user presses any button. The
backlight will turn off after
30 seconds of inactivity.
Dimmed: Screen is always lit with
a dim backlight.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Battery
Use the Battery setting to tell the meter what kind of
batteries are installed. This will help to scale the battery
indicator correctly. The options are:
- Alkaline
- Rechargeable
Navigation
The Navigation setting affects the behavior of arrow
buttons in the measurement view:
- Normal: Up arrow moves quantity selector left, down
arrow moves it right
- Inverted: Reverses the direction
Factory Settings
The Factory settings option
restores all settings to their
default values. Probe calibration
is not affected.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
How to Measure
Remove the Transport Protection Cap
Remove the yellow transport protection cap from the
probe when taking the meter into use.
Measure in a Stable Environment
If the measurement conditions are changing, you
cannot get a reliable measurement result. Do not
measure near heat sources, air conditioning, open
doors, or windows.
For best results, leave the meter on in the
measurement area and come back to check it
later.
Avoid Temperature Differences
Temperature differences are a typical cause of error in
humidity measurement and calibration. You must let
the meter stabilize long enough: temperature
differences level out very slowly.
Switch to the Graph view and
wait until the graphs level out,
indicating that the measurement
is now stable.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Avoid Condensation and Rain
If the humidity sensor element becomes wet, the meter
cannot measure until the sensor is dry again. Avoid rain
and conditions where condensation can form on the
sensor.
Do not replace the transport protection cap if the
probe or the cap is wet, since it will prevent the probe
from drying.
Do not touch the sensor or blow on it to dry it
out.
Calibrate the Meter Regularly
It is recommended that you calibrate the HMP110 probe
of the HM40 meter once a year, or if you have any
reason to believe it is no longer within its accuracy
specification. See section Calibration on page 33.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Maintenance
Cleaning
The HM40 can be cleaned by wiping it with a moist
cloth.
If the filter becomes contaminated, it is very likely to
affect the humidity measurement since residue on the
filter will retain some moisture. Dirty filters should be
replaced.
Do not use solvents to clean the HM40. Do not spray
anything directly on the HM40, since that may deposit
impurities on the sensor.
Do not immerse the HM40 in liquid to clean it.
Do not attempt to clean the sensor element
that is located inside the filter. Any touching (or
blowing with pressurized air) may damage it. If
the measurement accuracy cannot be restored
by calibration and adjustment, it is time to
replace the HMP110 probe.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Changing the Filter
1. Twist the filter counterclockwise to open it.
2. Turn the filter until it can be
removed. Do not touch the
sensors when pulling it away.
3. Install the new filter and
tighten it.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Changing the Probe
1. Press the power button
to turn off the meter.
2. Twist the probe holder
counter-clockwise to
disconnect the probe.
3. Pull the probe holder and
probe together away
from the connector.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
4. Take the HM40 meter
and push the pins of the
new probe in the holes of
the connector. Tighten
the probe holder.
5. Press the power button
to turn on the meter. It
should start up and begin
measuring normally.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Calibration
The humidity measurement accuracy of the HMP110 probe
should be checked once a year. You can do this yourself
using a humidity reference (for example, the Vaisala
Humidity Calibrator HMK15), or send the probe to a Vaisala
Service Center for calibration. See the back cover of this
manual for contact information.
If the calibration shows that the measurement accuracy is
no longer within specification, the probe must be adjusted.
If accuracy cannot be restored with adjustment, the probe
must be replaced. All probes that are ordered from Vaisala
are delivered calibrated. See section Accessories and Parts
on page 38.
If you think the meter is not measuring humidity
or temperature correctly, calibration and
adjustment is not the first thing to do. Try the
following first:
- Make sure nothing is interfering with the
measurement: heat sources, temperature
differences, or condensation.
- Check that there is no moisture on the probe.
If the sensor has become wet, you must allow
it to dry before you can measure.
- Always wait for the measurement to stabilize.
For an introduction to calibration, order or
download the free calibration book from Vaisala
at the following address:
www.vaisala.com/calibrationbook
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Calibrating the HM40 Using the
HMK15 Humidity Calibrator
The HMK15 Humidity calibrator allows you to produce
known humidity environments using saturated salt
solutions.
Performing a good calibration takes some time
and preparation. Read the HMK15 User’s Guide
before performing your first calibration with the
HMK15.
1. Press the Menu button and
select the Calibration submenu.
2. Select the quantity to be
calibrated at menu item [1]
Quantity. You can calibrate
Temperature (T) or Relative
Humidity (RH) measurement.
All other humidity quantities are
calculated from RH and T, so
they will also be adjusted.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
3. Select the number of calibration
points at menu item [2] Points.
You can perform a 1-point or 2point calibration.
For 2-point calibration, you
need two reference
environments. For example, LiCl
and NaCl salt chambers provide
11% and 75% relative humidity
references.
4. Remove the filter from the
probe and place the probe in
the first reference environment
(first calibration point).
Take care not to damage the
sensors. Wait 20 – 40 minutes
for the reading to stabilize.
5. Select menu item [3] Point 1
and press the Set button. The
meter now shows the currently
measured value of the selected
quantity. Set the reference value
using the arrow buttons and
press the OK button.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
The correction to the
measurement at point 1 is now
shown in the text for menu item
[3]. If you are only doing a 1point calibration, skip to
step 8.
6. Place the probe in the second
reference environment (second
calibration point). Wait 20 – 40
minutes for the reading to
stabilize.
7. Select menu item [4] Point 2
and press the Set button. The
meter now shows the currently
measured value of the selected
quantity. Set the reference value
using the arrow buttons and
press the OK button.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
The correction to the
measurement at point 2 is now
shown in the text for the menu
item [4].
8. Select menu item [5] Note to
edit the calibration info text that
is stored in the probe. Edit the
text using the select button and
arrow keys. When done, select
the OK character in the bottom
right corner to save the
changed text.
To exit without saving, press the
Cancel button.
9. Select menu item [6] Apply to
save the calibration in the
probe. Check the applied
corrections in the confirmation
screen and press the Apply
button.
To exit without applying the
correction, press the Cancel
button.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Accessories and Parts
Description
HMP110 probe for HM40
HMP110R replacement probe for
HM40
Plastic grid filter for HMP110 probe
Plastic grid with membrane filter
for HMP110 probe
External battery recharger with USB
connection and 2 batteries
NiMH rechargeable batteries (4 pcs)
Belt clip (3 pcs)
Battery cover (3 pcs)
Order code
HMP110 – separate order
form
HMP110R – separate order
form
DRW010522SP
DRW010525
229249SP
229247SP
227710SP
225688SP
HMP110 Probe
If the HMP110 probe on your meter needs to be
replaced, you can order a new probe from Vaisala.
You can:
- order a new HMP110 probe and keep your current one
- order a new HMP110R probe and return the old one to
Vaisala (replacement probe).
The instructions for changing the probe are provided
on page 31.
Use the dedicated order forms when ordering a
probe for HM40. You cannot use any HMP110
probe since the probe must have the correct
software configuration and mechanical
attachment.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Filters
Vaisala offers two types of filters for HMP110 for use
with the HM40:
- Plastic grid filter is the standard choice. It provides
the fastest response time, as air can flow freely
around the sensors.
- Plastic grid with membrane filter has a membrane
under the plastic grid (0.2 µm pore size) for
additional protection against contaminants. It slows
down the response time of the probe.
For instructions on how to replace the filter on
the HMP110 probe, see page 26.
Chargers and Batteries
You can order an external battery recharger with USB
connection and compatible NiMH rechargeable
batteries from Vaisala. For more information, see the
following sections of this manual:
- Batteries on page 7
- Charging on page 8
Belt Clips and Battery Covers
If you need a new belt clip or battery compartment
cover, you can order replacements from Vaisala.
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Technical Data
Performance
Relative Humidity
Measurement range
Accuracy (including non-linearity,
hysteresis, and repeatability)
at 0 ... +40 °C (+32 ... +104 °F)
at -10 ... 0 °C and +40 ... +60 °C
(+14 ... +32 °F and +104 ... +140 °F)
Factory calibration uncertainty
at +20 °C (+68 °F)
Humidity measurement response time
(90%) with plastic grid filter
Stability
Humidity sensor
Temperature
Measurement range
Accuracy over temperature range:
at 0 ... +40 °C (+32 ... +104°F)
at -10 ... 0 °C and +40 ... +60 °C
(+14 ... 32 °F and +104 ... +140 °F)
Temperature Sensor
40
0 ... 100 %RH
±1.7 %RH (0 ... 90 %RH)
±2.5 %RH (90 ... 100 %RH)
±3.0 %RH (0 ... 90 %RH)
±4.0 %RH (90 ... 100 %RH)
±1.5 %RH
17 s
±2 %RH over 2 years
HUMICAP® 180R
-10 ... +60 °C (+14 ...+140 °F)
±0.2 °C (0.36 °F)
±0.4 °C (0.72 °F)
Pt1000 RTD 1/3
Class B IEC 751
User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Mechanical
Dimensions (H × W × D)
Weight
With batteries
Without batteries
Materials
Meter body
Probe holder
Probe
Filter
Housing classification
Mechanical drop endurance
230 × 72 × 44 mm
240 g
190 g
PC/ABS blend,
acrylic display lens
Aluminum
Chrome coated aluminum
Chrome coated ABS plastic
IP54
0.5 m with probe attached
1.0 m without the probe
General
Power-up time
Batteries
Calculated variables
Menu languages
Display
Operation time
Operation temperature range
Storage temperature range
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
<3 s
2 × AA sized, 1.5 V
Td, Tw, a, x, h
English, German, French,
Finnish, Spanish, Swedish,
Chinese (simplified), Russian,
Japanese, Portuguese
LCD (140 x 160 pixels)
typical 100 hours
(without backlight)
-10 ... +60 °C (+14 ... +140 °F)
-30 ... +70 °C (-22 ... +158 °F)
European Union directive
EN61326-1 for portable
equipment
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User’s Guide ________________________________________________ HM40
Dimensions (in mm)
12
155
230
72
44
42
Legal notice
No part of this manual may be reproduced in any form or by any
means, electronic or mechanical (including photocopying), nor
may its contents be communicated to a third party without prior
written permission of the copyright holder.
The contents are subject to change without prior notice.
Please observe that this manual does not create any legally
binding obligations for Vaisala towards the customer or end user.
All legally binding commitments and agreements are included
exclusively in the applicable supply contract or Conditions of Sale.
Warranty
For warranty information, visit our Internet pages at
www.vaisala.com/services/warranty.html
Technical Support
For technical questions, contact the Vaisala technical support by
e-mail:
[email protected]
For contact information of Vaisala Service Centers, see
www.vaisala.com/services/servicecenters.html
*M211088EN* 
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