null  null
Walter Fischer
Digital Video
and Audio Broadcasting
Technology
A Practical Engineering Guide
Second Edition
With 483 Figures and 71 Tables
fyj Springer
Table of Contents
1 Introduction
1
2 Analog Television
2.1 Scanning an Original Black/White Picture
2.2 Horizontal and Vertical Synchronization Pulses
2.3 Adding the Color Information
2.4 Transmission Methods
2.5 Distortion and Interference
2.6 Signals in the Vertical Blanking Interval
2.7 Measurements on Analog Video Signals
7
10
12
14
17
18
20
24
3 The MPEG Data Stream
3.1 The Packetized Elementary Stream (PES)
3.2 The MPEG-2 Transport Stream Packet
3.3 Information for the Receiver
3.3.1 Synchronizing to the Transport Stream
3.3.2 Reading out the Current Program Structure
3.3.3 Accessing a Program
3.3.4 Accessing Scrambled Programs
3.3.5 Program Synchronisation (PCR, DTS, PTS)
3.3.6 Additional Information in the Transport Stream
(SI/PSI/PSIP)
3.3.7 Non-Private and Private Sections and Tables
3.3.8 The Service Information according to DVB (SI)
3.4 The PSIP according to the ATSC
3.5 ARIB Tables according to ISDB-T .<?.
3.6 DMB-T (China) Tables
3.7 Other Important Details of the MPEG-2 Transport Stream
3.7.1 The Transport Priority
3.7.2 The Transport Scrambling Control Bits
3.7.3 The Adaptation Field Control Bits
3.7.4/The Continuity Counter
31
35
38
42
43
44
46
46
48
51
52
60
73
76
78
78
78
79
79
80
4 Digital Video Signal According to ITU-BT.R.601 (CCIR 601)
81
5 High Definition Television - HDTV
87
6 Transforms to and from the Frequency Domain
6.1 The Fourier Transform
6.2 The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)..,
6.3 The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)
6.4 Implementation and Practical Applications of DFT and FFT
6.5 The Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)
6.6 Time Domain Signals and their Transforms in the Frequenc
Domain
6.7 Systematic Errors in DFT or FFT, and How to Prevent them
6.8 Window Functions
91
93
95
97
99
100
102
104
107
7 MPEG-2 Video Coding
7.1 Video Compression
7.1.1 Reducing the Quantization from 10 Bits to 8
7.1.2 Omitting the Horizontal and Vertical Blanking Intervals
7.1.3 Reduction in Vertical Color Resolution (4:2:0)
7.1.4 Further Data Reduction Steps
7.1.5 Differential Pulse Code Modulation of Moving Pictures
7.1.6 Discrete Cosine Transform Followed by Quantization
7.1.7 Zig-Zag Scanning with Run-Length Coding of Zero
Sequences
7.1.8 Huffman Coding
7.2 Summary
.;i
7.3 Structure of the Video Elementary Stream
7.4 More Recent Video Compression Methods
7.5 MPEG-4 Advanced Video Coding
109
109
Ill
Ill
112
113
114
119
8 Compression of Audio Signals to MPEG and Dolby Digital
8.1 Digital Audio Source Signal
8.2 History of Audio Coding
8.3 Psychoacoustic Model of the Human Ear
?..
8.4 Basic Principles of Audio Coding
8.5 Subband Coding in Accordance with MPEG Layer I, II
8.6 Transform Coding for MPEG Layer III and Dolby Digital
8.7 Multichannel Sound
143
143
144
147
151
153
155
157
9 Teletext, Subtitles and VPS for DVB
9.1 Teletext and Subtitles
159
159
127
127
128
132
133
134
9.2 Video Program System
10 A Comparison of Digital Video Standards
10.1 MPEG-1 and MPEG-2, VCD and DVD, M-JPEG and
MiniDV/DV
10.2 MPEG-3, MPEG-4, MPEG-7 and MPEG-21
10.3 Physical Interfaces for Digital Video-Signals
10.3.1 Parallel and Serial CCIR 601
10.3.2 Synchronous Parallel Transport Stream Interface
(TS Parallel)
10.3.3 Asynchronous Serial Transport Stream Interface
(TSASI)
163
167
167
170
174
174
176
177
11 Measurements on the MPEG-2 Transport Stream
179
11.1 Loss of Synchronisation (TS_sync_loss)
181
11.2Errored Sync Bytes (sync_byte_error)
182
11.3 Missing or Errored Program Association Table (PAT)
(PAT_error)
182
11.4 Missing or Errored Program Map Table (PMT) (PMT_error)... 183
11.5 The PID_Error
184
11.6 The Continuity_Count_Error
185
11.7 The Transport_Error (Priority 2)
186
11.8 The Cyclic Redundancy Check Error
187
11.9 The Program Clock Reference Error
(PCR_Error, PCR_Accuracy)
187
11.10 The Presentation Time Stamp Error (PTS_Error)
189
11.11 The Conditional Access Table Error (CAT_Error)
190
11.12 Service Information Repetition Rate Error
(SI_Repetition_Error)
191
11.13 Monitoring the NIT, SDT, EIT, RST and TDT/TOT Tables.... 192
11.14 Undefined PIDs (Unreferenced_PHO)
192
11.15 Errors in the Transmission of Additional Service
Information
193
11.16 Faulty tables NIT_other_error, SDT_qJher_error,
EIT_other_error
194
11.17 Monitoring an ATSC-Compliant MPEG-2 Transport Stream.. 194
12 Picture Quality Analysis of Digital TV Signals
12.1 Methods for Measuring Video Quality
12.1.1 Subjective Picture Quality Analysis
12.1.2 Double Stimulus Continual Quality Scale
Method DSCQS
197
199
200
201
12.1.3 Single Stimulus Continual Quality Evaluation Method
SSCQE
12.2 Objective Picture Quality Analysis
201
201
13 Basic Principles of Digital Modulation
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Mixer
:
13.3 Amplitude Modulator
13.4 IQ Modulator
13.5 The IQ Demodulator
13.6 Use of the Hilbert transform in IQ modulation
13.7 Practical Applications of the Hilbert Transform
13.8 Channel Coding/Forward Error Correction
209
209
211
213
215
223
228
230
232
14 Transmitting Digital Television Signals by Satellite - DVB-S/S2
14.1 The DVB-S System Parameters
14.2 The DVB-S Modulator
14.3 Convolutional Coding
14.4 Signal Processing in the Satellite
14.5 The DVB-S Receiver
14.6 Influences Affecting the Satellite Transmission Link
14.7DVB-S2
237
240
242
248
253
254
257
261
15 DVB-S Measuring Technology..:
269
15.1 Introduction
269
15.2 Measuring Bit Error Ratios
269
15.3 Measurements on DVB-S Signals using a Spectrum Analyzer ..272
15.3.1 Approximate Determination of the Noise Power N
273
15.3.2 C/N, S/N and Eb/N0
274
15.3.3 Finding the EB/N0 Ratio
275
15.4 Measuring the Shoulder Attenuation
276
15.5 DVB-S Receiver Test
276
16 Broadband Cable Transmission According to DVB-C
16.1 The DVB-C Standard
.?.
16.2 The DVB-C Modulator
16.3 The DVB-C Receiver
16.4 Interference Effects on the DVB-C Transmission Link
279
280
282
283
284
17 Broadband Cable Transmission According to ITU-T J83B
289
18 Measuring Digital TV Signals in the Broadband Cable
291
18.1 DVB-C/J83A, B, C Test Receivers with Constellation
Analysis
18.2 Detecting Interference Effects Using Constellation Analysis
18.2.1 Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN)
18.2.2 Phase Jitter
18.2.3 Sinusoidal Interferer
18.2.4 Effects of the I/Q Modulator
18.2.5 Modulation Error Ratio (MER)
18.2.6 Error Vector Magnitude (EVM)
18.3 Measuring the Bit Error Ratio (BER)
18.4 Using a Spectrum Analyzer for Measuring DVB-C Signals
18.5 Measuring the Shoulder Attenuation
18.6 Measuring the Ripple or Tilt in the Channel
18.7 DVB-C/J83A,B,C Receiver Test
19 Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (COFDM)
19.1 Why Multi-Carrier?
19.2 What is COFDM?
19.3 Generating the COFDM Symbols
19.4 Supplementary Signals in the COFDM Spectrum
19.5 Hierarchical Modulation
19.6 Summary
292
296
296
299
300
300
303
305
305
306
308
309
309
311
313
316
320
329
332
332
20 Terrestrial Transmission of Digital Television Signals (DVB-T) 333
20.1 The DVB-T Standard
335
20.2 The DVB-T Carriers
337
20.3 Hierarchical Modulation
,,?
343
20.4 DVB-T System Parameters of the 8/7/6 MHz Channel
345
20.5 The DVB-T Modulator and Transmitter
354
20.6 The DVB-T Receiver
357
20.7 Interference on the DVB-T Transmission Link and its Effects ..362
20.8 DVB-T Single-Frequency Networks (SFN)
370
20.9 Minimum Receiver Input Level Required with DVB-T
378
21 Measuring DVB-T Signals
.?.
21.1 Measuring the Bit Error Ratio
21.2 Measuring DVB-T Signals Using a Spectrum Analyzer
21.3 Constellation Analysis of DVB-T Signals
21.3.1 Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN)
21.3.2 Phase Jitter
21.3.3 Interference Sources
21.3.4 Echoes, Multipath Reception
385
387
389
393
394
394
394
395
21.3.5 Doppler Effect
395
21.3.6 I/Q Errors of the Modulator
395
21.3.7 Cause and Effect of I/Q Errors in DVB-T
399
21.4 Measuring the Crest Factor
408
21.5 Measuring the Amplitude, Phase and Group Delay Response ...408
21.6 Measuring the Impulse Response
409
21.7 Measuring the Shoulder Attenuation...'.
410
22 DVB-H - Digital Video Broadcasting for Handhelds
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Convergence between Mobile Radio and Broadcasting
22.3 Essential Parameters of DVB-H
22.4 DSM-CC Sections
22.5 Multiprotocol Encapsulation
22.6 DVB-H Standard
22.7 Summary
415
415
417
418
419
421
422
426
23 Digital Terrestrial TV to North American ATSC Standard
23.1 The 8VSB Modulator
23.2 8VSB Gross Data Rate and Net Data Rate
23.3 The ATSC Receiver
23.4 Causes of Interference on the ATSC Transmission Path
429
434
442
444
444
24 ATSC/8VSB Measurements
447
24.1 Bit Error Ratio (BER) Measurement
447
24.2 8VSB Measurements Using a Spectrum Analyzer
448
24.3 Constellation Analysis 6n 8VSB Signals
449
24.4 Measuring Amplitude Response and Group Delay Response ....452
25 Digital Terrestrial Television according to ISDB-T
25.1 Introduction
25.2 ISDB-T Concept
455
455
456
26 Digital Audio Broadcasting - DAB
26.1 Comparing DAB and DVB
26.2 An Overview of DAB
26.3 The Physical Layer of DAB
26.4 DAB - Forward Error Correction
26.5 DAB Modulator and Transmitter
26.6 DAB Data Structure
26.7 DAB Single-Frequency Networks
26.8 DAB Data Broadcasting
459
461
464
469
478
483
487
492
494
<4,
27 DVB Data Services: MHP and SSU
27.1 Data Broadcasting in DVB
27.2 Object Carousels
27.3 The Multimedia Home Platform MHP
27.4 System Software Update SSU
497
498
499
501
503
28 DMB-T and T-DMB
28.1DMB-T
28.2 T-DMB
505
505
508
29IPTV - Television over the Internet
511
30 DRM - Digital Radio Mondiale
30.1 Audio source encoding
30.2 Forward Error Correction
30.3 Modulation Method
30.4 Frame structure
30.5 Interference on the transmission link
30.6 DRM data rates
30.7 DRM transmitting stations and DRM receivers
513
517
517
518
519
520
521
522
31 Structure of DTV Networks and Transmitting Stations
31.1 The DVB-T SFNs Southern and Eastern Bavaria
31.2 Playout Center and Feed Networks
31.3 Technical Configuration of the Transmitter Sites
31.3.1 Mount Wendelstein Transmitter
31.3.2 Olympic Tower Transmitter, Munich
31.3.3 Brotjacklriegel Transmitter
523
523
527
527
528
537
539
32 Digital Television throughout the World - an Overview
543
Bibliography
547
Definition of Terms
553
TV Channel Tables
567
Index
573
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