E:\PE Teacher Resource Manual K-8.wpd - Circle

E:\PE Teacher Resource Manual K-8.wpd - Circle
Teacher Resource Manual
Elementary Section (K-8)
Ways to Teach Ball Skills
DEVELOPMENTAL EXERCISES
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
Ball handling
Playground ball
Open area with hard surface
Unlimited
Roll the ball in a figure-eight pattern in and out of legs. (Figure-eight Game)
Bounce and catch the ball - begin with two hands, then one hand. Bounce a given number of times.
Bounce at different levels. Close the eyes and bounce catch.
Bounce and perform various stunts (clap hands, turn around, etc.) before catching.
Toss the ball and perform some of the following challenges before catching the ball,
' touch the back with both hands
' touch both elbows
' touch both knees with crossed arms
' touch both heels
' touch toes
While seated on floor, toss the ball back and forth from left hand to right hand and vice versa. Lie down
and do the same.
Toss the ball upward and look away to catch
Throw the ball against the wall and catch after one bounce, then catch on the fly.
Drop the ball and trap it against the floor with one foot.
Practice different ways to control kick a stationary ball against a wall and to stop the ball with the foot
on the return. Practice repeated control kicks without bringing the ball to a complete stop each time.
Put some targets on the wall and kick the ball at the target.
Dribble the ball with the dominant hand while walking about. Now use the non-dominant hand.
Dribble the ball switching from dominant to non-dominant hand.
Perform the previous action while going in and out of obstacles.
x
x
x
Bounce the ball to a partner and have the partner catch it after one bounce.
With a partner, practice throwing and catching with one hand and two hands.
Kick a stationary ball to a partner, who stops it with the foot.
Dribble a ball with the feet in and out of obstacles.
x
x
x
TUNNEL BALL
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Ball rolling, catching
Two or more eight-inch playground balls
Circle (in any amount of space)
Ten - twenty
All players form a circle, facing in. Each player stands in a wide stance with the side of the foot against
the adjacent player’s feet. Players’ hands are on their knees.
Two or more balls are used. The object is to roll the balls between the legs of another player before the
hands can get down to stop the ball.
Each time a ball goes on between the legs of an individual, a point is given to the player whose legs the
ball went between.
The players having the fewest points are the winners.
123
BALL PASSING
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Tossing, catching
Five or six different-size balls for each circle
Circle
Fifteen or fewer in each circle
The teacher starts a ball around the circle with players tossing it to the adjacent player.
The teacher introduces more balls, until there are five or six moving around at the same time and in the
same direction.
If a ball is dropped, the child should retrieve it and allow the teacher to re-introduce it to the game.
If scoring is desired, players can be organized into two or more teams randomly spaced around the
circle. The team with the fewest number of dropped balls wins.
Beanbags can be substituted for balls.
JUGGLING
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
Hand-eye coordination
Small balls, beanbags, lummi sticks, scarves, plastic grocery bags
Any open area
Individual
Two balls can be juggled with one hand, and three balls can be juggled with two hands. Juggling can be done in
a crisscross fashion (cascading), or it can be done in a circular fashion (showering). Cascading is considered the
easier of the two styles and should be the first one attempted.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Consistent tossing should be emphasized - tosses should be thrown to the same height on both sides of
the body, about 2 - 2 ½ feet (61-76 cm) upward, and across the body. Practice tossing the ball parallel
to the body. The most common problem is that the balls are tossed forward and the juggler has to move
forward to catch them.
The fingers, not the palms, should be used in tossing and catching. Stress relaxed wrist action.
The student should look upward to watch the balls at the peak of their flight, rather than watching hands.
The student should catch the balls about waist height and release them a little above this level.
Have one student carry two balls in the starting hand, and master the art of releasing only one.
The student should progress working successively with first one ball, then two balls, and finally three.
124
Ways to Teach Beanbag Skills
DEVELOPMENTAL EXERCISES
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Hand-eye coordination, balancing
Beanbag
Any place
Individuals and partners
Toss beanbag in the air and catch with both hands, with right hand only, and with left hand only. Catch
the same way. Catch with the back of the hands.
Toss the beanbag progressively higher and catch. Reverse the procedure.
Toss beanbag upward and catch with hands behind the back. Toss upward from behind the body and catch
in front.
Toss beanbag upward and catch on the back, on the knees, on the foot, and on other body parts.
Hold beanbag at arm’s length in front of the body with palms up. Withdraw hands quickly from under
the beanbag and catch it from on top in a palms-down stroke before it falls to the floor.
Toss beanbag and catch in various fashions while seated and while lying down.
Toss two beanbags upward and catch one in each hand.
Toss beanbag, clap the hands, and catch.
Toss beanbag, kneel on one knee, and catch. Go to a sitting or lying position. Reverse the position
order, beginning in a sitting or lying position and moving to a standing position to catch.
Toss beanbag, moving to another spot to catch.
Balance the beanbag on the head. Move around, keeping the beanbag in place. Sit down, lie down, turn
around, etc.
Balance the beanbag on various other parts of the body and move around. Balance beanbag on top of
the instep, between the knees, on the shoulders, on the elbows, under the chin. Use more than one beanbag.
Have partners sit cross-legged about 10 feet (3 m) apart. Throw and catch the beanbag in various styles.
Have partners stand back to back and pass the beanbag around both partners from hand to hand as quickly
as possible.
Working with a partner, propel two beanbags back and forth going in opposite directions at the same
time. Try having one partner toss both bags at once while the other catches them.
BEANBAG FREEZE
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
Balance
Beanbag for each player
Indoor or Outdoor
Unlimited
Each player places a beanbag on their head and moves about.
If a player’s beanbag falls off they must freeze until another player picks up the beanbag and places it
back on the first player’s head.
If the helper’s beanbag falls off while helping, the helper too must freeze.
125
BEANBAG QUOITS
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Tossing with accuracy
Two beanbags per player, two hoops per group
Indoor or Outdoor
Unlimited, divide players into groups of two or four
Place the two hoops 20 feet (6 m) apart on the floor.
Have one player stand behind a hoop and toss both beanbags toward the distant hoop. The other player
then tosses both beanbags.
To earn points: three points for beanbag in the hoop, two points for beanbag landing on the hoop, one
point for the beanbag closest to the hoop.
Game is over at 21 points.
126
Ways to Teach Hoop Skills
DEVELOPMENTAL EXERCISES
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Running, jumping, throwing, catching
Hula hoop
Indoor or outdoor
Unlimited
Set a 30-second time limit, and see how many times you can jump in and out of a hoop on the floor.
Spin the hoop like a top and run around it until it stops.
Roll the hoop and run alongside it. Change direction when a command is given.
Place the hoop on the floor. Walk around the outside of the hoop, heel to toe. Walk on toes around the
hoop.
Hold the hoop in front of you and swing it toward your body, jumping into it. Reverse the swing and
jump out.
Use the hoop like a jump rope. Jump forward and backward.
Face a partner, each with a hoop. Roll hoops back and forth to one another.
Have a partner five yards (4.5 m) away. As each person spins their hoop, and immediately runs to a
partner’s hoop, trying arrive before the hoop stops.
Have a partner roll the hoop with a reverse spin then try to crawl through the hoop. (This is done most
easily just after the hoop reverses direction and begins to return to the spinner.)
Spin a hula hoop around your arm and then around your waist.
Hula hoop around the waist.
Hula hoop around the waist and kneel without stopping the hoop.
Roll the hoop giving it a reverse spin. As it rolls back to you, run alongside it and step through the hoop
without knocking it down. (This will take a lot of practice.)
Roll the hoop giving it a reverse spin. As it comes back to you, pick one leg up and let the hoop pass
under. Jump up and spread your legs, letting the hoop roll between the legs.
Stand and toss: Stand, arms at sides, hoop in right hand, palm inward. Toss the hoop upward in front of
the body with wrist action and catch it with the left hand. Alternate sides.
16.
Toss over head: Stand with weight on right foot, right arm in side horizontal position, palm forward.
Toss the hoop over the head and catch it with left hand, while transferring weight to the left foot.
17.
Outward circle and toss over head: Standing, right arm inside horizontal position, palm forward. Circle
the hoop outward and toss it above your head. Catch hoop with your left hand. Alternate sides.
127
MUSICAL HOOPS
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Basic motor skills
One hoop per player
Open space
Unlimited
Have each player place their hoop down and stand in it.
On a signal have players move about, stepping in and out of hoops that are empty.
Give a second signal. Tell players to quickly move into an empty hoop.
Suggest a different type of movement each time a new beginning signal is given. (i.e. running,
galloping, skipping, walking, etc.)
BUMPER CAR TAG
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Running
One hoop for every two or three players
Open space
Ten and up
Have players stand as partners inside a hoop held at waist height.
Select two or more partners to be “It.”
The object is to tag other partners who are also moving inside a “bumper car.”
The game can also be played with three players in a hoop.
128
Non-Team Activities
FOUR-SQUARE/TWO-SQUARE
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Bounce-serving a ball, hitting a ball underhand
Volleyball or eight-inch (20 cm) rubber ball
Ten feet (3 m) square area (Each zone five feet [1.5 m] square) - One area for every six players
Four players, one per zone; no more than two players waiting a turn
The object of the game is to advance to Zone 1 and to stay there as long as possible.
Players must stand outside assigned squares at all times except when serving.
Player in Zone 1 serves by standing in triangular area, dropping the ball and hitting it underhand from
the bounce to any of the other three courts. As soon as serve is made, player steps out of serving area to
outside of square.
Player receiving the ball must keep it in play by striking the ball with an underhand hit after it has
bounced once in their square.
Play continues until one player fails to return the ball or commits a fault. Faults include: hitting the ball
sidearm or overhand, stepping in a square, catching the ball, hitting the ball before it bounces, hitting the
ball onto a line or into one’s own court and letting the ball touch any part of the body other than hands.
When a player commits a fault, they go to the end of the waiting line, and player(s) move up.
VARIATIONS:
Use a larger court (16-20 feet [5-6 m] square) and have players stand inside the zones.
Substitute a tennis ball for the volleyball.
BOWLING
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
Throwing
One playground ball, 10 to 20 pins (e.g. ½ gallon [2 liter] jugs)
Indoor in gym or outdoor on a parking lot or flat, level surface
One per team
Pins are set up 50 to 75 feet (15 to 23 m) from a foul line. Distances should be adjusted for ability.
From five to ten pins can be used.
The game can be scored the same as bowling, or special values can be given for colored pins.
Red = 5
Blue = 10, etc.
129
SIDEWALK HANDBALL
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
Hitting a ball
Tennis ball for each court
Approximate area = 6' x 12' (1.8 m x 3.7 m) divided into four equal sections
Singles:
Two per court
Doubles:
Four per court
Game is played on a sidewalk (or similar area) with a tennis ball, using table tennis rules. Net is
sidewalk crack or line drawn with chalk or painted on sidewalk.
Server drops the ball to the sidewalk and hits it with the palm of the hand to the diagonally opposite court.
Continue playing using table tennis rules.
SIDEWALK TENNIS
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Hitting a ball
One tennis ball or other small rubber ball for each court
Sidewalk or similar surface: 5' x 24' (1.5 m x 7.3 m)
Singles:
Two per court
Doubles:
Four per court
Players stand where O and X are indicated in the diagram.
Using a flat palm, server hits the ball across the net line into the area in front of the opponent’s base line.
Opponent returns the ball over the net line. After the serve is made, the ball may be hit before or after
the first bounce.
Points are scored only by the server. When an error is made or a foul committed, either the server
receives a point or the receiver wins the serve.
In doubles each side has two turns of service. A server continues to serve until they make an error or foul.
Game is 15 points. If game is tied at 14-14, one person or team must score two consecutive points to win.
Fouls:
a.
Hitting the ball with any part of hand or body other than the palm.
b.
Stepping over baseline to serve.
c.
Any ball that lands outside of the boundaries.
X = Doubles
O = Single
130
VOLLEY TENNIS
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Striking, volleying
A six-inch or eight-inch (15 or 20 cm) ball
Indoor or outdoor tennis court
One per team
The game is started with a serve from the right-hand base line to the serving court diagonally opposite.
The ball must be dropped and hit from the bounce. The fist or open palm may be used.
The ball is returned anywhere in the court by the receiver. The ball may be hit while in the air or on the first
bounce, only after the serve is returned off the first bounce.
The server continues to serve from alternate courts until they foul. Then the serve goes to the opponent.
When the opponent fouls, the server scores a point.
The first side to make 15 points wins the game. If the score is tied at 14-all, one side must make two
consecutive points.
Fouls:
a.
Failure to hit ball within the service court.
b.
Failure to hit ball within the boundary lines.
c.
Catching or carrying the ball in hand.
d.
Stepping over base line when serving.
e.
Allowing ball to hit any part of body but hands.
f.
Touching the net or reaching over it to hit a ball.
HACKY SACK
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
Foot-eye coordination
Hacky Sack footbag for each person
Approximately six square feet (2 sq. m) per person
Unlimited
Individual player attempts to keep bag in the air as long as possible, using either or both feet – score one
point per kick.
Two players – Kick bag back and forth between two persons with a miss scoring a point for the other kicker.
Group or team play involves kicking the bag back and forth from one person to the other, across a circle
(but not directly back to the person who just kicked) until someone misses. A point is given to each
person who misses, with a low score winning after a specified time period.
TETHERBALL
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
Hand-eye coordination, upper body strength
Tetherball and pole
Circular space approximately 20 feet (6 m) in diameter
Two
131
Description: The server is picked by coin toss or similar method. One player stands on each side of the pole. The
server puts the ball into play by tossing it into the air and hitting in the direction they choose. The opponent must not
strike the ball on the first swing around the pole. On its second swing around the pole, the opponent hits the ball in
the opposite direction. As the ball is hit back and forth, each player tries to hit it so that the rope winds completely
around the pole in the direction in which they are hitting the ball. The game is won by the player who succeeds in
doing this or whose opponent forfeits the game by making a foul. A foul is any of the following actions:
1.
Hitting the ball with any part of the body
4.
Hitting the rope with the forearms or
other than the hands or forearms.
hands.
2.
Catching or holding the ball during play.
5.
Throwing the ball.
3.
Touching the pole.
6.
Winding the ball around the pole below
the five-foot mark.
After opening the game, the winner of the preceding game serves. Winning four games wins the set.
132
Jump Rope Activities
The height of the jumper will determine the length of the jump rope. The rope should be long enough to be equal to
the child’s shoulders when the child stands on its center. The following can serve as a basic guide:
Pre-school = 6 feet
Grades 3-6 = 7-8 feet
Grades 1-2 =7 feet
Grades 7 & up = 8-9 feet
Posture is important in rope jumping. Always jump with the head up and the eyes looking straight ahead. Jump
while in an erect position. Flexing the knees will provide the energy for the necessary one inch (2.5 cm) jump. The
wrists turn the rope, with the elbows kept close to the body and extended at a 90-degree angle. The arms should
remain nearly motionless as the rope is turned. The jumper should land on the balls of the feet, with the knees bent
slightly to cushion the shock. Usually, the feet, ankles, and legs are kept together, except when a specific step calls
for a different position.
The rope should be held by the index finger and thumb on each side with the hands making a small circle. The
elbows should be held near the sides to avoid making large arm circles with the rope.
Jump rope resources can be accessed through facilities such as JumpRopeFor[email protected]®
ROPE AND BODY FORM VARIOUS FIGURES
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
Jumping
Adequate lengths of jumping rope
Open area
Unlimited
Using your body and the rope, form different figures, such as geometric shapes, letters, and numbers. In addition:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Form a triangle, a square, a diamond shape, and a figure eight.
Form a two-letter word. Form other words.
Secure a second rope and make your own patterns for hopping and jumping.
Allow the rope to fall to the floor. Try to shape your body into the same figure that the rope made on the
floor.
SIDE STEPS
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
Jumping
Adequate lengths of jumping rope
Open area
Unlimited
Jump over the rope landing with feet together. Following the next jump, land with feet apart. (Spread your feet
right after the rope passes.) Change from feet together to feet apart on over other jump.
133
TWO ROPE JUMP
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
Jumping
Adequate lengths of jumping rope
Open area
Unlimited
Using two long jump ropes, four rope turners stand at the four corners of a square. Turn the ropes at 90° to each
other. Swing the ropes so that both are in the up and down positions at the same time. The jumper enters from a point
midway between two of the turners. This activity can also involve a third and fourth rope. The turning and jumper
entry would follow the same instructions as with two. This activity is an excellent activity to build confidence.
134
Group Games
NUMBERS
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
Running
None
Open space
Class Size
Players scatter over the playing area.
When the teacher calls a number, the players are to arrange themselves into groups the size of the number
called and grasp hands.
BUSY BEE
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Gross motor moves
None
Open space
Class Size
Children choose partners and the couples scatter over the playing area.
An extra player calls directions, such as “Back to back,” “Toe to toe,” “Elbow to elbow,” etc.
The players follow these directions.
Then the leader calls “Busy Bee” and everyone runs to get a new partner.
The leader tries to get a partner.
The player left is the new leader.
FLAGS
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Running, dodging, hand-eye coordination
Pieces of material 12 inches long (30 cm) or football flags
Open space inside or outside
Four or more
Each player tucks a flag in a waist band or back pocket.
Each player attempts to grab as many flags as they can without losing their own flag.
When a player loses their flag, they are out of play until the next game.
The person with the most flags is the winner.
Alternate plan: The player could remain in the game after losing their flag until all flags have been pulled.
There is to be no physical contact other than pulling the flag.
HOT BALL
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Ball Handling, hand-eye coordination
One or more utility balls
Open area
Two or more
Have players sit in a circle on the floor or ground.
A player rolls the ball toward another player.
The ball must be kept moving at all times.
The players hit the ball with their hands when it comes near them.
Anyone who allows the ball to stop near them has to get up and run, hop, or skip around the circle once.
If the ball stops out of reach of a player, the player closest to the ball repeats step #2.
135
NAME YOUR NEIGHBOR
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Throwing, catching
One playground ball
Indoor or outdoor
Unlimited
Players form a large single circle.
A selected player stands in the center with a rubber ball.
The ball is tossed to someone in the circle, saying, “Name your neighbors.” The person to whom the
ball is thrown must catch it and name the child standing on each side of him or her before the center
player can count to 10.
If they succeed, they may change places with the thrower.
When the center player has had three turns, they must choose someone else for their place.
Use only first names at first. Later on try it with first and last names. Encourage the children to choose
quickly.
PHILADELPHIA KICKBALL
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Kicking, throwing, strategy
One playground ball, three bases
Open space
Unlimited
One team lines up to kick; the other takes the field.
The kicker sets the ball on home plate and then kicks the ball into the playing area.
The kicker runs the bases while the ball is fielded and thrown across the goal line drawn parallel to the bases.
If the runner is off base when the ball crosses the goal line, they are out.
A runner on first or second may continue to the next base when the next kicker has kicked the ball.
After all members of the kicking team have kicked, the teams exchange places. One point is awarded
for every run made.
2nd Base
1st Base
G
G
____________
Goal line
G
Home
VARIATION:
Have the fielders get the ball over to the goal line using only their feet.
FRISBEE GOLF
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
Throwing
One Frisbee per person
Large field or open area
Unlimited
Designate either nine or 18 spots to be “holes.” The number of throws needed to reach each “hole” are counted,
with lowest score winning. A trash can or box may be used for the “hole” in order to require more accuracy.
136
ULTIMATE FRISBEE
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
Throwing
One Frisbee
Large field
Any number (best with about 10 per side)
Teacher divides group into two teams and chooses the goal areas. No specific boundaries are needed except for
safety considerations. Before the game begins and after every score, teams must position themselves on their half
of the playing field. The receiving team may catch the Frisbee, or allow it to hit the ground. The following rules
apply:
1.
If the receiving team touches but does not catch the Frisbee, the throwing team gains
possession at that spot.
2.
If the Frisbee hits the ground untouched, the receiving team gets the Frisbee at that point.
3.
If the Frisbee goes into an out-of-bounds area, the receiving team decides whether to have the
Frisbee thrown again or to take possession at that spot.
The object of the game is to move the Frisbee into position, by throwing and catching, to score. Players catching
the Frisbee may turn or pivot, but cannot run. Only one opposing player may guard the player with the Frisbee.
The defensive team gains possession of the Frisbee when:
1.
The offensive team’s pass is incomplete.
2.
The offensive team has a pass intercepted.
3.
The offensive team throws out-of-bounds.
A goal is scored when the receiver of the Frisbee gains possession of the disk with both feet in bounds in the goal
area. A player may not run into the goal area. One point is scored per goal.
FRISBEE SOCCER
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
Throwing, catching
One Frisbee, two goals
Large field
Twelve, divided into two teams of six each
This activity combines six vs. six soccer rules with a Frisbee. There should be three forwards, two
backs, and one goalie. The center forward of one team starts the game by tossing the Frisbee to a forward to their
side. The object of the game is for the team in possession of the Frisbee to move it down the field by throwing
and catching, until a goal may be scored. The player with the Frisbee may not run with it, but must toss it to a
team member. Players without the Frisbee can move around the field in their designated areas.
When a goal is scored, players go back to their original positions, and the center forward of the team that
did not score starts with the Frisbee. Have players rotate positions frequently so that each player has the
opportunity to play each area.
The goal should be large enough to allow the Frisbee to enter and small enough to give some difficulty.
The size can be adjusted to meet the needs of the different age and or skill groups.
137
138
Paddle Activities
DEVELOPMENTAL EXERCISES
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
Basic paddle skills
Wooden paddles, tennis balls or sponge rubber ball, flags
Any play area
Any class size
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
A.
Paddles should have wrist bands.
B.
Check all paddles for safety.
C.
Give adequate space for activity.
D.
Do not allow students to throw paddles.
E.
Emphasize controlled swings.
1.
2.
Drills
Balance ball on paddle.
Bounce the ball in the air using the paddle. Vary the height of bounce.
Dribble with the paddle.
Alternate paddle bounce and floor bounce.
Bounce ball off paddle and catch it.
Place ball on floor and scoop it up with paddle.
Bounce ball off paddle and hit with alternate sides of paddle.
Bat ball into air and perform a trick before it is bounced off paddle again.
Partner Activities
Volley back and forth.
Forehand back and forth with partner.
Backhand back and forth with partner.
Partners play over a net or against wall. Alternate returns or hitting ball.
Dribble ball with paddle and try to pull flags while dribbling.
Keep ball aloft by alternating hit with partner.
139
ROTATION PADDLE BALL
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Serving, returning volley
Sponge rubber ball or tennis ball, one paddle per player
Handball court or similar area
Nine or fewer
Players are numbered and form a line in numerical order as shown in the illustration.
To start the game, Player 1 stands behind the six-foot (1.8 m) serving line and serves the ball against the
wall so that it rebounds within the court boundaries past the service line.
Player 2 returns the serve. This return may rebound anywhere on the court.
The rebound is received by the server (Player 1), who returns the ball to the wall for Player 3.
Play continues as the ball is alternately hit by the server and each of the remaining players in line in this
order: 1-2-1-3-1-4-1-5 and repeat.
Play stops when one of the following violations is committed by a player:
a.
The ball is hit after it bounces twice.
b.
The ball is hit on the fly.
c.
A good serve is not made in two trials.
d.
The ball does not rebound past the six-foot (1.8 m) line on the serve.
e.
A player interferes with the play of another player.
f.
The ball rebounds outside the court boundaries. Line balls are “good.”
The player who commits a violation must go to the last position in line. Other players rotate forward
one position to fill the vacancy.
140
DIAMOND PADDLE BALL
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
Serving, catching, throwing, fielding
Sponge rubber ball or tennis ball, paddle
Handball court or similar area
Two squads with nine or fewer players each
The rules of softball apply, with the following changes:
1.
Fielding Squad
a.
The pitcher acts only as a fielder.
b.
When the ball is in the hands of the catcher, play stops and the base runner may not advance to
the next base.
c.
The catcher may not interfere with the service.
2.
Serving Squad
a.
The player who is “up” stands on home base and serves the ball against the wall as in Paddle
Handball.
b.
If the serve rebounds into fair territory, the player runs for first base after first dropping (not
throwing) the paddle near home plate.
c.
The base runner may not try to advance to the next base while the catcher has possession of the
ball.
d.
The base runner may advance to another base only when the server hits a fair ball. The base
runner must not leave the base until the ball hits the handball wall.
PICKLEBALL
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Serving, catching, throwing, fielding
Special perforated slow-moving ball, tennis type net
Badminton court or similar area
Two four players
The ball is served underhand, without bouncing it from the court, and is served diagonally to the
opponent’s service zone. Server can have one foot inside the baseline, as long as the other foot is
outside at moment of service.
Following serve, each side must make at least one ground-stroke, prior to volleying the ball (hitting it
before it has bounced). A player cannot volley a ball while standing within the non-volley zone.
Points are scored by the serving side only and occur when the opponent faults (fails to return the ball, hits
the ball out of bounds, etc.). The server continues to serve, altering service courts, until the server faults.
A game is won by the first side to reach eleven points but will continue until won by a two point margin.
For information on rulebooks or equipment, visit usapa.org or call 1-888-775-9615.
141
142
Cooperative Games
Cooperative games are excellent resources for developing fine motor skills. In addition, they energize and
encourage cooperation in your classroom. This is only an introductory sample. See The Cooperative Sports and
Games Book: Challenge Without Competition or The Second Cooperative Sports & Games Book by Terry Orlick
for more resources. Use discretion about how you group your students, and forcing participation.
FLOWERS TO SLEEP
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
None
Any play area
Groups of three or four
The game begins with the groups sitting in a circle. When the teacher gives a signal, the groups stand up, join
hands, and form circles.
All then begin to whirl faster and faster until they break apart. Then they quickly sit down, letting their arms and
heads hand loosely down in a drooping fashion.
FLOWERS TO SLEEP
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
None
Any play area
Eight, 10, or 12
Eight, 10, or 12 players form a circle. They take hands with two other people that are not next to them. (There
are enough hands to work it out.) When all participants are holding two hands, not next to them, they hang on
and begin turning their bodies and unraveling until they are all untangled and are back in a circle holding hands.
Some people will be facing in; some will be facing out. The activity always works best with an even number of
participants.
THE LAP GAME
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
None
Any play area
Any number
Players form a tight circle facing in, shoulder to shoulder. The teacher says, “Everyone face to your right.”
Everyone makes a one-quarter turn. They then adjust and move in one step. On command, everyone sits on the
person behind them. If this spectacular group effort works, everyone will be sitting on another’s knees. If it
flops, everyone will fall. Try again. When successful, move arms, etc.
143
PRUI
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
Blindfolds
Any play area
Any number
Blindfolds are optional. Players close their eyes or are blindfolded to begin the game. They begin milling
around. When they bump into someone, they shake hands and ask, “Prui?” If the other person asks back, “Prui?”
they have not yet found the Prui. They then seek another person to ask. One person has been secretly designated
as the Prui. The Prui has their eyes open. When someone asks them “Prui?” and there is no response they should
ask again. If there is no response, the Prui. Now, both players are a part of the Prui. They clasp hands. When
someone bumps them, they don’t respond. The new members must join open hand with the Prui. The game
continues until the whole group is connected.
STAND UP
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
None
Open area
Two or more
Sit on the ground, back-to-back with your partner, knees bent and elbows linked. Now simply stand up together.
With a bit of cooperation and a little practice, this shouldn’t be too hard.
Add any number of players to the stand up. To achieve a large group stand up, start by sitting close and firmly
packed. Then all stand up quickly and at precisely the same moment.
COLLECTIVE BLANKETBALL
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
One blanket per group, playground ball or beach ball
Indoor or outdoor play area
Ten - 20
Two teams of five to ten each spread out around two sturdy blankets or similar-sized durable material.
Players grasp the edges of the blanket and a beach ball or playground ball is placed in the middle.
Groups toss the ball into the air and catch it again in the blanket or roll the ball around the outside edges
of the blanket.
Teams then pass one ball back and forth by tossing it in unison toward the receiving team.
One team can toss their ball straight up and dash out of the way to let the other team dash under it to
catch it with their blanket.
If each team has a ball, they can exchange them by simultaneously tossing their ball toward the other
team on an already agreed upon signal.
144
Basketball Lead-ups
BOUNCE TAG BALL
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Passing, hand-eye coordination
One ball
Gym, blacktop, or large open space
Eight - 10 students per group
Each student takes a position on the floor.
The ball is bounced from person to person around the room.
The person who is “It” tries to touch the bouncing ball.
If successful, they change with the last person who had the ball.
TEN PASS
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Passing, shooting
One basketball
Inside or outside basketball court
Any number
Two equal teams - any number of players.
Start with a jump ball.
Team gaining possession must pass 10 times before a shot may be taken - no dribbles.
If the ball is intercepted, the other team must also pass 10 times before a shot may be taken.
After a basket is made, the ball must be taken out-of-bounds before a new sequence begins.
Passes must be quick – every three seconds.
Alternative - deflate ball so that only enough air remains to keep ball’s shape.
RUN, DRIBBLE, SHOOT
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
Dribbling, shooting, rebounding
Two to four basketballs
Basketball court
Four - 10
1.
Players line up as teams about 15 feet (4.6 m) from either side of the center line. Players count off by
ones through one half of group; repeat numbering through second half and place ones, twos, etc.
diagonally across from the opponent.
123456
654321
2.
3.
Two balls are placed in the center jump circle, one on each side of the center line.
The leader calls out a number. The two opponents having that number run out. Each grabs a ball,
dribbles down and makes a basket at one end, then dribbles back and places the ball back in its original
place. First one back wins a point for their team.
145
PASS AND SHOOT
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Passing, shooting
One basketball
Basketball court
Six or more
Divide class or group into two teams – then further divide the teams into three lines each.
Have the three lines of each team spaced at equal distances along the endline of the court.
When leader says, “Go,” the first player in each of the three lines runs downcourt, passing the ball back
and forth between all players until one player takes a shot at other end of the court, scoring a point for
their team. Players then run to sideline and return to back of their group lines, moving to a different line
each time. Other team then does the same thing.
First team to score 10 points wins.
Game can be varied by using lay-ups, jump shots, or using bounce passes, chest passes, etc.
FLAG DRIBBLE
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Control dribbling
A basketball for each student, a flag for each student
Gym or any smooth surface
Any number of groups with eight to 10 students
The object of the game is for the players to eliminate the other players by pulling their flags.
Each student should have a ball and a flag.
At the signal, the players begin to dribble.
A player is eliminated if they lose control of the ball or if their flag is pulled.
When only one player is left, the next group comes in.
146
Flagball Lead-ups
PUNT AND CATCH
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Kicking and catching
One football
Open field with two goal lines
Ten or more
Divide players into two equal teams.
Number players on each team.
Have each team on opposite ends of the field.
Player 1 punts the ball. Anyone on the other team can catch the ball.
If it is caught, the players take 5 giant steps forward, and give the ball to their Player 1 to kick to the
opposite side. Repeat through all players until one team kicks the ball across the goal line.
Strategy: the idea is to hurry into position to kick the ball over the opponents’ heads or into a space
where it won’t be caught.
FORWARD PASS DRIVE
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Passing, catching
One football (flags optional)
Open field - football markings
Eight or more
Use two teams, divided by the instructor so abilities are approximately equal.
Each team is given five downs or attempts to score.
The ball may be advanced only by passing and catching. Players do not run with the ball after catching.
The team that has the ball first line up on their own end line.
A designated passer calls “Go,” and attempts to complete a pass to any of their team members.
If the pass is caught, the catcher becomes the new passer, and all the team members line up on the line
where the catch was made. The next down will begin from this line.
If a pass is incomplete, the next down is from the previous line.
If the pass is intercepted (caught by the other team), the defense becomes the offense and the new line
forms at the spot of the interception.
Two points are scored if the offense completes a pass behind the opponents end line.
If the defense intercepts a pass behind their own end line, they begin their five downs on their end line.
FORWARD PASS DRIVE
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
Passing, catching
One football (flags optional)
Open field - football markings
Ten or more
Arrange players as in volleyball, with a 15 foot (4.6 m) neutral area at the center of field or court.
Rotate players on each “serve.”
The object is to throw the ball into the opposite court or field so that it will touch the ground before it is
caught by one of the players on the other team.
A point is given for every ball that lands on the ground of the opponent’s side.
147
148
Floor Hockey Lead-Ups
CIRCLE KEEP-AWAY
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
Passing, fielding
One stick per person, a puck or ball
A 20- to 25-foot (6m to 7.5 m) circle
Eight - 10
Players are spaced evenly around the circle, with one player in the center. The object of the game is to keep the
player in the center from touching the puck. The puck is passed back and forth, with emphasis on accurate
passing and fielding. If the player in the center touches the puck, the player who last passed the puck takes the
place of the center player. A change of players also can be made after a passing or field error.
ZIG ZAG CARRY
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
Stick play, dribbling
One stick per person, one puck
Gym or paved open area
Four - eight
Line up three to six players in a single line spaced six feet (1.8 m) apart. These will play defense. One person
will begin at the first defensive person and attempt to dribble in and out between the defensive line to the end, and
circle back to the beginning.
Then the first offensive player goes to the end of the line and the person at the other end becomes the offensive
player. Play continues until each of the players has played offense.
The object of the defense is to take the puck from the offensive player.
149
150
Soccer Lead-Ups
CIRCLE SOCCER
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Kicking, blocking, passing a ball
Soccer ball
Indoor or outdoor
Nine or fewer players on each squad
Players are divided into two squads around a circle, with each squad guarding one-half the circle. The
players are stationary.
The ball is put into play by any player, who will try to kick the ball through the other squad’s half of the
circle, or use a foot-pass to a teammate. If the ball gets past a player at shoulder level or below, a point
is scored for the kicking squad.
Players may not use their hands, except when the ball is kicked above the waist level and hands are held
in against the chest for protection in blocking the ball.
Violations include using the hands, kicking the ball out of the circle above shoulder height, and running
into the circle to kick the ball. Players may, however, go into the middle to retrieve a slowly moving
ball if they foot-pass it back to a teammate.
When a penalty occurs, the opponents receive one point and control of the ball.
Special Emphasis:
1.
2.
Emphasize ball control with the feet, especially the instep and sides of the feet.
Emphasize trapping the ball between the heel of the foot and the ground. Gain control of the ball and
then kick for greater accuracy.
SOCCER DRIBBLE RELAY
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Dribbling
Two soccer balls, six traffic cones
Soccer or football field, multiple game court, or other available area
Five or fewer in each group
Players take positions as illustrated. The illustration shows only one group.
On a given signal, Player 1 for each group dribbles forward, using short kicks, and passes to the right of
the first cone, to the left of the second, and to the right of the third. On the return, Player 1 passes the
cones on alternate sides.
Player 1 delivers the ball to Player 2, who is now on the start line, and Player 1 takes a position behind
the retire line.
The relay continues until the last player has crossed the finish line. The first group having all players
complete the relay is the winner.
151
SOCCER KICK RELAY
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Kicking, trapping
Soccer ball
Soccer or football field, or other available area
Eight or fewer on each squad
Players are numbered and take positions as illustrated. At least 10 feet (3 m) should be allowed between
the opposing squads.
Play starts as Player 1 kicks the stationary ball to Player 2, 15 to 20 feet (4.6 to 6 m) away, and retires.
Players take only one step before kicking the ball.
Player 2 receives the ball on the fly, bounce, or roll, traps it, kicks it back to Player 3 and retires. If the
ball goes out of the area, the receiver retrieves the ball, using only their feet, and returns to the kicking
line before putting the ball back in play.
The relay continues as each player in turn kicks the ball across the court.
The first squad to return the ball to Player 1 wins.
LONG BASE SOCCER
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
Kicking, trapping, passing, dribbling
One soccer ball, two bases
Open space
Unlimited
One team scatters in the field.
One base is set for home plate with the other base 40 to 60 feet (12 - 18 m) away.
The batter kicks the ball into the field of play and must run to the long base and return before the
fielding team can bring the ball home using soccer skills.
152
DIAMOND SOCCER
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Kicking, blocking, dribbling, passing
One soccer ball, two traffic cones
Diamond area (35 feet [10.5 m] between bases)
Nine to 12 on each squad
The players on each squad are numbered consecutively. The fielding squad members assume the
positions shown behind the line. Players may not cross the line until the ball is kicked.
Kicker stands in circle and kicks stationary ball resting in circle. All kicks must be below head height of
the fielders and between the two foul lines.
Kicker runs to base and back to home plate.
Fielders block the ball and try to kick it through the traffic cones before the kicker returns to home plate.
In the event of a tie, the runner is safe.
Fielders may cross line and use blocking, trapping, passing, and dribbling skills to beat the kicker back to
home plate.
CAUTION: All fielders must stay off the base line from home to first.
One point is scored for each successful trip to first base and back to home.
The game may proceed by innings, with three outs signifying the end of each inning.
If fielders touch ball with hands, or if fielders interfere with runner, runner is automatically safe.
153
SOCCER 500
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Punting for accuracy, catching
Soccer ball
Playground area
Nine or fewer at each area
Players are numbered and take positions as indicated in the diagram.
Player 1 punts the soccer ball from the ground in the direction of the players in the field.
The fielder who catches the punt scores as follows:
a.
Caught on the fly:
100
b.
Caught on the first bounce:
75
c.
Caught after second bounce:
50
d.
Missed or fumbled:
0
The fielder who receives a punt adds the number of points for the play to previous points and calls out
The total, and returns the ball to the punter.
When a fielder earns 500 points, the players rotate, with Player 1 replacing Player 8, and Player 2 becoming
the next punter.
154
FAIRSPACE SOCCER
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Kicking, trapping, dribbling, heading
Soccer ball
Large field, lines for soccer
Equal numbers per team
The object of the game is to kick the ball across the opponents’ end line.
The playing field is divided into six areas. The middle section is as wide as the goal area at the end line.
Teams are divided so there are equal numbers of players in each area of the field. Players should be
divided equally between offense and defense.
The game begins by dropping the ball between two of the center area players.
Players cannot cross over into another area of play to get the ball. Should a player go out of their own
area to play, the opponent gets a free kick. The kick is taken near the point where the first player when
out-of-bounds.
A ball going out-of-bounds, outside the playing area, is put in play by a throw-in to a teammate in either
adjacent area.
After a point is scored, all players rotate clockwise to the next area.
Play continues with a dropped ball between two of the new center players.
If there is no score within a designated period of time, the teacher blows a whistle and players rotate as
after a score.
Fouls:
1.
Touching the ball with hands or forearms with these exceptions:
a.
Players may protect their face from a kicked ball.
b.
End line goalies may catch the ball or pick it up with one or both hands.
2.
Pushing, holding, or tripping an opponent.
3.
Overstepping the area lines.
4.
Kicking the ball over the head of the goalies.
Penalties:
1.
Fouls 1, 2, and 3 – free kicks are awarded to the opposing team nearest to the point of the foul.
2.
Foul 4 – a throw-in is awarded to the opponent.
Scoring:
1.
One point for ball kicked over opponents’ end line.
2.
No team may score from a free kick out of any area.
46
8
65
9
3
6
8
27
9
71
155
156
Softball Lead-Ups
KICKBALL
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
Throwing, catching, kicking, “pitching” a ball, running bases
Kickball, soccer ball, three bases, and home plate
Softball diamond or open playground area
Two squads with 6 to 10 players per squad
Softball rules apply except as follows:
1.
Kicker stands behind home plate, and steps up to or on the plate (not over).
2.
If four pitched balls do not cross the plate, the ball is given to the kicker for a free kick from home plate.
3.
Kicker is out when he/she:
a. Has three strikes (Variation: Kicker tries until a fair kick is made).
b. Is thrown out at first base.
c. Is tagged with the ball before reaching first base. (A fielder is not to throw the ball at a runner in an
attempt to put them out.)
d. Kicks a fair or foul ball that is caught on the fly.
e. Does not have the supporting foot behind or on home plate while kicking.
f. Kicks a foul ball on a free kick.
4.
Base runner:
a. May not steal.
b. Is out if he/she leaves the base before the ball is kicked.
SOFTBALL SHUTTLE RELAY
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Throwing, catching
One softball for each group and gloves
Open area or softball diamond
Five or fewer in each group
Players in each group are numbered consecutively and form a line as shown in the illustration.
Player 1 throws overhand to Player 2 and immediately moves behind the retire line. The other players
move forward one position.
Player 2 throws the ball to Player 3 and moves behind the retire line.
The ball is thus thrown alternately back and forth.
When the ball is dropped or missed, the intended receiver must retrieve it and return to the throwing line
before throwing to the next player.
When the ball reaches Player 5, Player 1 steps up to the start line and receives the throw. When the ball
is back in the hands of Player 1, who is standing on their own start line with hands over head, the relay
is over.
Scoring: The first group that completes the sequence as described is the winner.
157
BEAT BALL
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Throwing, catching, running
Two soft softballs and the bases
Softball field or large play area
Ten - 30 players
There are two teams, one in the field, the other running bases.
When the game begins, the first runner stands at home plate holding the ball.
They throw the ball anywhere desired inside the first and third base lines, and then run around the bases.
The fielders try to catch the ball before it hits the ground. If they catch it, the runner is out. If they do
not catch it, they throw it to first base, then to second base, third base, and home.
If the ball beats the runner to home plate, the runner is out. If the runner beats the ball to home plate, the
runner scores a point for the team.
After al the players on the running team have had their turns, they change places with the fielding team.
After an even number of innings, the team with the highest score wins.
BABE RUTH BALL
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Batting, pitching, fielding
A bat, a softball, four traffic cones, softball gloves
Open area or softball diamond
Groups of five
The three outfield zones – left, center, and right field – are separated by four cones.
The batter calls the field to which they intend to hit.
The pitcher throws controlled pitches so that the batter can hit easily.
The batter remains in position as long as they hit to the designated field.
Field choices must be rotated.
The batter gets only one swing to make a successful hit.
The batter may allow a ball to go by, but if they swing, it counts as a try.
There is no base running.
Players rotate positions.
158
TENNIS BASEBALL
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
Throwing, catching, running
Three tennis balls, tennis racquet, bases
Softball field or large play area
Ten - 20 players
The game is played with the same rules that are used for softball with a few exceptions:
1.
The batter uses a tennis racquet for a bat.
2.
The pitcher uses a tennis ball to pitch.
3.
The batting team should be up for a specific period of time or until everyone has batted.
GROUNDERS
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Running, catching, throwing, hitting
Bases, bat, ball
Large play area
Two teams with an equal number of players
Each team at bat tries to get a quota, which is equal to the number of players on the team. A team stays
up until it gets its quota. If five players are on the team, it must get five runs in. But, to get their quota
they need the other team’s help!
If the batter hits a grounder they advance one base. If a fly is hit and the batter gets within the infield,
the batter advances two bases. If it goes into the outfield, a triple, and advances three bases.
The team in the field must catch the ball before a hit counts. If a grounder, the ball must be fielded
before it stops. If a fly, then the ball must be caught to count. If these plays aren’t made on a hit, then
the batter doesn’t get a hit and returns to bat again. Missed plays are like foul balls.
When runners are on base, they are bumped ahead by a hit. They always remain one base ahead of the
bumper. If they are bumped home, then a run is scored. The sooner the quota of runs is scored, the
sooner the fielding team gets to bat.
There are no strikeouts or walks. Each batter gets pitched to until a hit is made. A good pitcher,
therefore, is someone who facilitates good hitting.
An inning ends after both teams have had their turn at bat. A full game is nine innings, but depending on
time available and skill levels you can set a different limit of innings.
159
160
Volleyball Lead-ups
SHOWER SERVE BALL
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Serving, catching
Four to six beach balls or volleyballs
Volleyball court
Six to 12 players per team
A line parallel to the net is drawn through the middle of each court to define the serving area.
Players are scattered in no particular formation.
Two scorers are needed, one for each side.
To start the game, two or three volleyballs are given to each team and handled by the players in the
serving area.
Balls may be served at any time and in any order by a server who must be in the back half of the court.
Any ball served across the net is to be caught by any player near the ball.
The person catching or retrieving a ball moves quickly to the serving area and serves.
A point is scored for a team whenever a served ball hits the floor in the other court or is dropped by a
receiver.
As children improve, all serves should be made from behind the baseline.
BALLOON BALL
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Throwing, catching, hitting
Four balloons or small beach balls, volleyball net
Volleyball court (30 feet x 60 feet [9 m x 18 m])
Two squads with four to 10 per squad
Players take positions on both sides of the net.
Each squad has two balloons.
On the starting signal, both squads throw or hit both balloons over the net attempting to place them so
that the opposite side will not be able to catch them.
Scoring: One point for throwing team each time balloon hits the opponent’s floor.
161
NEWCOMB
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Throwing, catching
Net or rope, volleyball (or eight-inch [20 cm] playground ball)
Volleyball court (30 feet x 60 feet [9 m x 18 m])
Two squads with four to 10 per squad
Players take positions on both sides of the net.
A chosen player starts the game by throwing the ball over the net into the opponents’ court.
If the ball is not caught and lands inside the boundaries of the court, the throwing squad receives a point.
Line balls are good.
If one of the receiving squad catches the ball before it hits the surface of the court, that player may try to
score by throwing the ball back over the net or may pass the ball to a teammate who is in a better
position to make the return throw.
If a thrown ball lands outside the boundaries of the court, hits the net, rolls under the net, or lands
anywhere in the thrower’s court, no score is made. The ball is retrieved and put in play by a player on
the opposing team.
If a player takes more than one step or touches the net with any part of the body, the other squad receives
one point.
Rotation: Each squad rotates clockwise one position each time a point is made.
Scoring: The first squad to score 15 points wins.
KEEP IT UP
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Overhand, forearm, and dig passes
A soft volleyball or beach balls for each team
Playground or gymnasium
Five or eight on each team
Each team forms a small circle of not more than eight players.
On the signal, “Go,” the game is started with a volley by one of the players.
The object of the game is to see which team can make the greater number of volleys in a specified period
of time or which team can keep the ball in the air for the greater number of consecutive volleys without error.
The ball may not be returned to the player from whom it came.
A player may not volley a ball twice in succession.
Any ball touching the ground does not count and ends the count.
ONE BOUNCE VOLLEYBALL
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
Serving, volleying, rotation
Volleyball, volleyball net
Any area where a net may be set up
Class size
Teams are divided as in regular volleyball.
All volleyball rules apply except that the ball may bounce once before the volley return is made.
On a serve the ball must go over the net by the server or on an assist before it touches the floor.
162
FOUR SQUARE VOLLEYBALL
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
All volleyball skills
Volleyball, volleyball net, extra net
Volleyball court
Four teams of six or more
Allows for limited skill players to participate.
Play volleyball as usual, but player can hit or serve into any quadrant.
2nd net
------------------------------ net
163
164
Group Activities
RED ROVER
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Running, dodging, tagging
None
Indoor or outdoor area
Two squads of nine or fewer on each
One member of a squad is chosen to be “It.” The two squads take positions on the court, as shown in the
illustration, in the two safety areas, A and B. “It” stands in the tagging area between A and B.
When everyone is ready, “It” shouts, “Red Rover, come over.”
On this command, all players must run to the opposite safety area.
“It” tags as many players as possible while they are running.
The runners who reach the opposite area safely prepare to run back when “It” again calls, “Red Rover,
come over.”
Runners who were tagged now assist “It’ in tagging others.
The game continues until all players have been tagged. The last player tagged is “It” for the next game.
RED ROVER
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Running, dodging, tagging
None
Indoor or outdoor court
Nine or fewer
Players take any position inside the playing area. One is selected to be “It.”
The game starts when “It” runs after the other players and tries to tag them.
To escape being tagged, a player may either run away from “It” or assume a squatting position. While
squatting, a player may not be tagged.
A player who is legally tagged becomes “It” and tries to tag some other player.
The game continues for a limited time with no scoring.
165
FLAG CHASE
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Running, dodging
Flags, stopwatch
Gym or playground
Unlimited
One team wears flags positioned on the back of each player’s belt.
The flag team scatters throughout the area.
The object is for the chasing team to capture as many flags as possible in a designated amount of time.
Players cannot use their hands to ward off a chaser.
Roles are reversed.
SNATCH THE BEANBAG
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
Running, dodging
Beanbag (or a similar object or variations such as a hockey puck with a broom or hockey sticks)
Indoor or outdoor court
Two squads of eight or fewer on each
1.
Players on two squads are numbered consecutively and form lines on opposite sides of the court, as
shown below.
2.
The beanbag is placed in a circle on the center line.
3.
When a number is called, the players with that number from each squad run to the center line and
attempt
to snatch the beanbag and return with it to their line without being tagged by the opponent.
a.
The player with the beanbag may run in any part of the court to avoid being tagged.
b.
When the runner successfully carries the beanbag across their own goal line or is tagged in the
attempt, play is ended. Players return to their original positions in line, and the beanbag is put
back on the center line.
4.
As succeeding numbers are called, each set of players has a chance to snatch the beanbag.
5.
Scoring:
a.
A player who succeeds in carrying the beanbag across the goal line scores two points for their
squad.
b.
A player who tags a runner before they reach the goal line, scores one point for their squad.
166
PASS AND HIT
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Running, throwing, catching, kicking
None
Indoor or outdoor play area
Unlimited
Divide players into two teams.
The kicker kicks the ball and then begins to run bases.
The fielding team must throw the ball to three different players on their team.
The third player receiving the ball goes to an established baseline where they attempt to knock over the pin.
The kicker may run bases until the pin is knocked over; the kicker then retires.
Each player gets one turn to kick before teams exchange positions.
One point is given each time the kicker reaches home plate.
The pin should be placed at the designation of the teacher, somewhere near or within the softball-like
diamond.
167
168
Relays
BACK TO BACK RELAY
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
None
Indoor or outdoor
Even number of players
Divide the class into groups of four or six.
Have students find a partner within their group and sit down back to back with elbows hooked.
At the signal, the first pair in each line attempts to stand up and move to a designated line and back
without unhooking arms.
When the first pair returns, the next pair begins. Continue until all pairs have participated.
GROCERY SHOPPING RELAY
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
For each group - one grocery bag, five empty food containers, one hat, one coat or shirt, one
traffic cone
Indoor or outdoor
Six and up
Divide the group into squads of three to five players.
Have each group line up behind the other.
Place the hat, coat, and grocery bag at the front of each line.
Place a box with the empty food containers in it a distance away from the lines and a cone a distance
away from the box.
At the signal, the first person in each squad puts on the hat and coat, takes the grocery bag, runs to the
box and puts five food containers in the bag one at a time.
The player then runs to and around the cone back to the box.
The player empties the bag into the box, runs back to the start, takes off the hat and coat, and gives the
grocery bag to the next player in line.
Continue until all players have had a turn.
169
SIDE TO SIDE RELAY
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
Ball handling, running, trunk rotation
Utility ball for each group, traffic cone for each running area.
Multiple game court
Two or more relay groups of five runners each
1.
2.
3.
Players are numbered and assigned positions as indicated in the illustration.
The ball is placed on the starting line in front of Player 1.
On a given signal, Player 1 in each relay group picks up the ball and hands it sideways to Player 2 who
hands it sideways to Player 3. Alternate players are facing opposite directions.
4.
The last player who receives the ball runs to the right of the group and forward through the running area,
around the cone, and back to the finish line. They then take the No. 1 position in line, and hand the ball
backward as before. If the ball is dropped while being passed, the player responsible for the error must
retrieve the ball and return to position in the line before putting the ball back into play.
5.
The relay continues until Player 1 has finally become the last player in the line. He/she carries the ball
around the cone and runs across the finish line.
6.
Scoring: The winning team is the first group to have all its players run across the finish line.
Teaching Suggestion:
The children should be taught to move back one step in line each time a player runs. In this way, there
will be space for the runner to assume the No. 1 position on return and still be behind the finish line. There
should be enough space between children in line to permit bending over to pass the ball.
OVER-THE-HEAD RELAY
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
Ball handling, running
Utility ball for each group, traffic cone for each lane
Multiple game court
Two or more relay groups of five runners each
Runners in each group are numbered consecutively and take positions in single file as indicated below.
2.
3.
The ball is placed on the start/finish line directly in front of Player 1 of each group.
Game is played according to Side to Side rules, except the ball is passed backward over the head by each
player.
Variation:
When Player 1 returns to the front of the line, the ball may be rolled between the legs of the
participants to the next runner at the end of the line.
170
GYM SCOOTER RELAYS
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
SAFETY:
1.
2.
Gym scooters
Gym or smooth surface
One scooter for every two students
Scooters are not to be used as skateboards. Students should sit or lie on the scooters for all
activities.
Partner activities can feature any of several approaches. Partners can operate as a single unit, doing the
task and passing the scooter to the next participant, or one partner can push or pull the other to the t
turning point, where they exchange roles and return to the starting line. A third approach is for the
pusher to become the rider on the next turn.
Here are some partner relays using scooters:
a. Rider kneels, and partner pushes or pulls.
b. Rider sits and partner pushes or pulls on the rider’s feet.
c. Rider does a tummy balance, and partner pushes on their feet.
d. A wheelbarrow race can be done with the wheelbarrow person supporting their hands on the scooter.
SACK RACE
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
Jumping
Sturdy grain sacks or large, heavy, plastic sacks
Large open area
Any number of players
There are several ways of running a sack race:
1.
In lane formation, the runner in the sack goes around a marker, returns to the team, and gives the sack to
the next participant.
2.
Another way to run the race is to have the runner move to a marker while in the sack, get out of the sack,
and run back to the head of the line.
3.
In the shuttle formation, the first runner moves in the sack across the area and gives the sack to the next
runner.
KANGAROO
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Jumping
One eight-inch (20 cm) ball for each team
Gym, black top, open area
Any number of players
Designate a starting point and turning point some distance from it.
Have teams line up single file at the starting point.
The first player in each team holds the ball between the knees.
The player jumps forward, keeping the ball between their knees, rounds the turning point, jumps back to
the head of the line, and hands the ball to the next player.
Each player on a team proceeds as in No. 3 and No. 4, until the last player returns to the line.
If a player loses the ball from between their knees, they must stop and replace it.
Slightly deflated balls are easier to retain.
171
CIRCLE PASS RELAY
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
To pass, catch, and dribble a ball
Basketball
Multiple game court, basketball court, or other available area
Eight or fewer on each squad
Player 1 stands on the starting line 30 feet (9 m) from the finish line.
Players, numbered consecutively, form a 25-foot (7.5 m) circle facing center and stand in place
throughout the relay.
The ball is placed on the ground in front of Player 1.
On signal, Player 1 picks up the ball and throws it to Player 2, who throws it to Player 3. The ball
continues around the circle from one player to another until it returns to Player 1. Any player missing
the ball must recover it and return to their position in the circle before passing to the next player.
Upon receiving the ball, Player 1 calls, “One round,” and again throws the ball to Player 2.
When Player 1 receives the ball for the second time, they call, “Two rounds,” and again starts the ball
around the circle.
When Player 1 receives the ball for the third time, they turn and dribble the ball across the finish line.
The winner is the first squad whose Player 1 crosses the finish line.
172
PUT AND TAKE RELAY
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Running, placing an object with accuracy
Three beanbags for each group, timer or stopwatch (optional)
Multiple game court
Any equal number in each group
The class is divided into groups of equal number. Players in each group are numbered consecutively and
take the positions indicated in the illustration.
On a given signal, Player 1 in each group picks up a beanbag from the circle on the starting line, runs
with it to Line 1, leaves it in the circle there, and runs back to the starting line for another beanbag.
From this point, the player makes two more trips similar to the first, with the following changes:
a. The second beanbag is placed in the circle on Line 2.
b. The third beanbag is placed in the circle on Line 3.
Upon depositing the third beanbag, Player 1 returns to the starting line, tags Player 2, and moves behind
the retire line. Player 2 then “gathers” the beanbags one at a time and places them in the circle on the
starting line, using three separate trips to do so.
The relay continues until each player in the group has had an opportunity either to place or to gather the
beanbags.
Scoring: The first group to finish is the winner.
This activity can be performed individually against the clock within the groups, with the player
completing the activity in the least time being the winner.
173
DIAMOND RELAY
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
Running bases
Four softballs, four traffic cones
Softball diamond
Five or fewer in each group
1.
2.
3.
Players in each group are numbered consecutively and form a line behind their base as shown.
The first player in each group is given a softball.
On the starting signal, all players designated as Player 1 run counterclockwise around the bases on the
outside of the cones and back to their individual squads
4.
Upon returning to position each runner passes the softball to the next player in line and moves to the
end.
5.
The relay continues in this manner until all players have run around the bases.
6.
The first group to have all its members run the bases wins.
Teaching Suggestions:
Before the groups compete, the players designated as Player 1 on each team should walk through one
sequence to demonstrate how the runners leave and return to the squad lineup, pass other runners, and
retire.
174
FOUR-CORNER BATON PASS RELAY
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Running, passing a baton
Two batons, four traffic cones
Diamond area
Two squads of four runners each
Runners take positions shown by the X’s in the illustration.
The upper grade bases (45 feet [13.5 m] between bases) are used.
The first of the four runners on Squad A (A1) takes a position adjacent to first base. The first of the four
runners on Squad B (B1) takes a position adjacent to third base.
On the signal, “On your marks. Get set. Go!” the first runner from each squad begins running counterclocking paralleling the baseline.
After the first runner from Squad A begins to run, the second runner from Squad A (A2) waits until the
first runner from Squad B (B1) passes Squad A’s starting line before getting into position to receive the
baton. In this way, runners do not interfere with members of the opposing squad. A1 passes the baton to
A2, who is positioned to receive it.
The baton must never be passed before the runner has reached the starting base.
Runners continue to pass the baton to their squad members until the last runner has received the baton.
A runner who is attempting to pass another runner must do so on the right.
The squad whose final runner returns to the starting base first is considered the winner.
175
176
Singing Games
Singing games are encouraged and assist in the development of patterns that aid in all games,
body management, and creative movement.
CDs and tapes are available at reasonable prices from sporting goods catalogs, such as Sport
Time, that play songs children can sing along with. These tapes have voice over instructions for
specific movement patterns.
We recommend that you review tapes for appropriateness.
Sport Time
www.sportime.com
1-800-283-5700
177
178
Tag Games
ELBOW TAG
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
Running, dodging
None
Large open area
Eight or more
All players except two are divided into pairs who link elbows. Those linking elbows bend their outside elbow
and place that hand on their hip. One person will be “It,” and another will be the runner.
The person who is “It” tries to tag the runner. However, the runner can avoid being tagged by linking an elbow
with the free elbow of any member of any pair on the playing field. When they do, they shout, “Go!” The other
member of the pair must take off as the new runner, hotly pursued by the person who is “It.” If the runner is
tagged, they’re “It,” and the opponent becomes the new runner.
There is a lot of room for variations in this game. Experiment.
GO TAG
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Running, dodging, reflex reaction
None
Large open area
Eight or more
All of the players squat in a straight line with alternate players facing the opposite direction.
The person at the end of the line is the runner, the player at the other end the chaser.
The runner may run in either direction but cannot change directions until a new chaser begins chasing.
The chaser may tap anyone squatting in the line and shout, “Go!”
The tapped player steps forward to begin the chase.
The old chaser replaces them in the squatting line.
The new chaser may cause the chase to change directions.
The key to this game’s strategy is to change chasers frequently.
When the runner is tagged, they squat at one end of the line, the person who tagged them becomes the
new runner, and the player at the other end of the line becomes the new chaser.
CIRCLE BASE
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
Running, tagging, dodging
None or hula hoops
Large open area
Five or more
1.
2.
Each student draws a circle the diameter they can reach with outstretched arms.
The circles should not be made close to each other but scattered over the playing area. (If playing on a
parking lot or gym floor, chalk can be used to draw circle.)
3.
The player who leaves their circle can be tagged by any player who leaves after them.
4.
The tagged player joins the circle of the player who tagged them.
5.
When all the players are caught and gathered into one circle, the game is over.
Variations:
Players can also be “tagged” by any player circling their circle three times, if they complete the
three circles without being tagged.
179
COUPLE TAG
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Running, dodging
None
50' x 50' (15 m x 15 m) minimum
Any even number of players
Two goal lines are made about 50 feet (15 m) apart.
Children run in pairs, with inside hands joined. All pairs, except one, line up on one of the goal lines.
The couple in the center is “It.” They call “Come,” and the children, keeping hands joined, run to the
other goal line.
The pair in the center, also keeping hands joined, tries to tag other pairs.
As soon as a couple is caught, they help the center couple.
The last couple caught is “It” for the next game.
SQUAD TAG
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Running, dodging
Ribbons or markers for one team, stopwatch
A large open space with definite boundaries
Any even number of players
Divide the group into two teams. One entire team acts as taggers.
The object of the game is to see which squad can tag the remaining class members in the shortest time.
The tagging team stands in a football huddle formation in the center of the area.
The remainder of the class is scattered as they wish throughout the area.
On signal, the tagging team scatters and tags the other team members.
When a class member is tagged, they stop in place and remain there.
Time is recorded when the last person is tagged.
Each squad gets a turn at tagging.
180
Track Activities
SPRINTS AND RUNS
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Running
None
Large open field
Unlimited
For 50 and 100 yard (45 m and 90 m) dash – Measure distance and mark a starting and finish line.
Starter should stand at the finish line and drop hand to begin race. If the race is timed, the watch is
started at the same time as the hand is dropped, and is stopped when racers cross the line.
440 yard (400 m) dash/run – Distance may be run in a straight line or on an oval course.
880 yard (800 m) run – Distance is doubled over the 440 yard (400 m) course.
Mile (1600 m) run – Distance may be over a measured course or four laps on the 440 yard (400 m)
course.
TRACK RELAYS
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
Running, manipulation
Batons – Sticks or plastic pipe approximately 12 inches (30 cm) long
Large open field
Four per team
440 yard (400 m) relay – Divide the distance into four equal sections – Allow about 16 yards (14 m) for
overlap so that the batons may be passed there.
880 yard (800 m) relay – Each person on a team of four will run a 220 yard (200 m) distance – baton
exchanges must take place within the 16 yard (14 m) space.
Mile (1600 m) relay – Each person will run 440 yards (400 m). Baton exchanges after each lap.
181
182
Lead-up Skills to Tumbling
TEACHING HINTS FOR MOVEMENT
1.
2.
3.
Animal walks can be done in relays or as an activity with tumbling (for example, tumble on the mat,
animal walk back to the line on the floor).
Stunts vary with regard to suggested grade level. Many can be done at the intermediate level.
Use mats for stunts.
BEAR WALK
1.
2.
Get in position with hands and feet touching the floor.
Move the foot and hand on the same side together, then the foot and hand on the other side (right hand
and right foot, then left hand and left foot).
RABBIT HOP
1.
2.
Squat, placing hands on the floor in front of feet.
Move the hands first, then move the feet to the hands, using a hopping motion.
ELEPHANT WALK
1.
2.
3.
4.
Bend forward at the waist.
Clasp hands together, keeping arms straight, to form a trunk.
Walk with slow, big steps, keeping the legs straight.
Swing trunk from side to side.
GORILLA WALK
1.
2.
3.
Bend knees and move body forward.
Hang arms at side.
As each step is taken, touch ground with fingers.
CRICKET WALK
1.
2.
3.
Squat with knees apart.
Place arms between the knees and grasp the outside of the ankles with the hands.
Walk in this position.
SEAL WALK
1.
2.
Get in push-up position (straight arms and legs).
Walk forward with the hands and drag the feet.
CRAB WALK
1.
2.
3.
Squat down and reach back with arms (point fingers away from the body).
Touch the floor only with feet and hands.
Walk backward.
FROG JUMP
1.
2.
3.
Squat down.
Place hands on the floor, slightly in front of feet.
Jump forward simultaneously with the hands and feet.
183
WALRUS WALK
1.
2.
Get in push-up position, with fingers pointing outward to the side.
Move forward dragging feet by moving both hands at the same time.
CAMEL WALK
1.
2.
3.
4.
Place one foot in front of the other.
Bend at the waist.
Clasp hands behind the back.
Walk, raising head and chest with each step.
KANGAROO HOP
1.
2.
3.
4.
Begin in squat position.
Fold arms across chest.
Keep body weight over toes.
Jump up and forward, landing on toes.
INCHWORM WALK
1.
2.
3.
4.
Begin in squat position with hands on the floor.
Take short steps with the hands, moving forward until the back and legs are straight.
Without moving hands, take short steps forward with the feet toward the hands.
Repeat.
OSTRICH WALK
1.
2.
3.
Bend at the waist.
Grab ankles with hands.
Walk.
STORK WALK
1.
2.
Hold up one foot.
Hop on the other foot.
ALLIGATOR WALK
1.
2.
Lie on stomach.
Move forward by using only arms and hands.
PENGUIN WALK
1.
2.
3.
Stand with feet together with legs stiff.
Have arms at side with hands out.
Walk.
TURTLE WALK
1.
2.
3.
4.
Get on hands and feet facing floor.
Place feet widely apart.
Place hands widely apart.
Move with small steps.
184
TURK STAND
1.
2.
3.
4.
Stand with arms folded across chest.
Cross ankles.
Bend knees, going to a sitting position and keeping the back straight.
Stand back up.
THE BLOB
1.
2.
3.
Sit down and grasp knees with arms.
Roll to the right, resting on right knee and arm, then right shoulder, then back, then left shoulder, then
left arm and knee, then back to sitting position.
Repeat, going to the left.
COFFEE GRINDER
1.
2.
3.
Lie down on your side, legs extended, weight on one extended arm.
Keep the hand of the extended arm on the floor; hold the other arm up in the air.
Pivoting on the hand on the floor, “walk” around in a circle on the sides of the feet.
STORK STAND
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Fold arms across chest and stand on one foot.
Place the other foot against the calf of the supporting leg.
Hold.
Change supporting legs.
Try it with eyes closed.
LEG DIP
1.
2.
3.
4.
Stand on one leg.
Extend other leg forward, and extend both arms forward.
Lower the bod to a heel sit and return to a stand without losing balance or touching the floor with any
part of the body.
Repeat with other leg forward.
PRETZEL
1.
2.
3.
4.
Lie on stomach.
Raise head and body, arching backward.
Bend knees.
Bring feet as close to the head as possible.
JACKKNIFE
1.
2.
3.
4.
Stand with hands extended at shoulder level, slightly spread apart.
Jump up, bringing feet up to touch hands.
Feet should come up to hands, not hands down to feet.
Bring feet as close to the head as possible.
HEEL CLICK
1.
2.
3.
Stand with feet slightly apart.
Jump up and click heels together.
Land with feet apart.
185
TURNOVER
1.
2.
3.
Get in a push-up position.
Turn over so back is to the floor (body not touching).
Keep turning (body straight).
THREAD THE NEEDLE
1.
2.
3.
4.
Touch fingertips together in front of the body.
Step through arms, one foot at a time.
Step back through arms.
Try the stunt with fingers clasped.
SKIER’S SIT
1.
2.
Assume a sitting position with back against the wall and legs bent with thighs parallel to the floor.
Fold arms across the chest.
WALK THROUGH
1.
2.
3.
4.
Assume a push-up position
Walk the feet through the hands until the body is extended with the back to the floor.
Reverse to original position.
Keep hands in contact with the floor.
FRONT SEAT SUPPORT
1.
2.
3.
4.
Sit on floor with legs together and extended forward.
Place hands on the floor between the hips and knees with fingers pointing forward.
Push down so the hips, legs, and heels come off the floor.
Support weight on hands.
SINGLE LEG CIRCLE
1.
2.
3.
4.
Squat, with both hands on the floor.
Place bent left knee between arms and extend right leg sideways.
Swing right leg forward and under lifted right arm, then under left leg and arm, then back to starting
position.
Do several circles in succession.
KNEELING BREAKFALL
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Kneel on mat.
Raise arms at chest level, elbows bent.
Stop fall with hands and gently lower body to mat.
Return to starting position.
Best to use a mat.
186
STANDING FRONT BREAKFALL
1.
2.
3.
Start in standing position.
Keep body straight.
Same procedure as kneeling breakfall.
SPLITS
Practice: hold a position as low as you can for at least 30 seconds.
V-SIT
1.
2.
3.
Raise legs and sit up at the same time.
Hold arms shoulder high and to the side.
Keep legs straight and balance on rear end.
FRONT SCALE
1.
2.
3.
Start in a standing position.
Raise arms straight out to the side.
Stand on one leg and raise the other leg straight up behind you, toes pointed.
FROG STAND
1.
2.
3.
Squat down on mat with arms between knees; place hands on mat with fingers spread apart and pointed
down the mat.
Raise up on toes; push elbows against knees and knees against elbows.
Tip forward and balance on two hands; keep head up and look forward.
For more advanced tumbling skills, a trained instructor with safety certification is required.
187
188
Balance Activities
The following activities can be performed on a straight line:
1.
Walk forward slowly with eyes focused on a fixed point.
2.
Walk forward slowly with the hands place on hips.
3.
Walk forward with the hands held out sideways.
4.
Walk forward with the right foot always in front of the left.
5.
Walk forward with left foot always in front of the right.
6.
Walk forward with the hands clasped behind the body.
7.
Walk forward, stepping in and out of two bicycle tires on the line. (Use small bicycle tires spaced
approximately four feet [1.2 m] apart.)
8.
Walk forward and step over a crossbar placed 12 inches (30 cm) above the center of the line.
9.
Walk forward, step in and out of the first tire, over the crossbar, and then in and out of the second tire.
10.
Walk forward and pass under a bar held three feet (90 cm) above the line.
11.
Walk sideways, leading with the right foot, to the end of the line.
12.
Walk sideways, leading with the left foot to the end of the line.
13.
Walk forward to the middle of the line, turn 90 degrees, and walk the remaining distance sideways to the
left with the weight on the balls of the feet.
14.
Walk sideways to the center of the line with the left foot leading, make a half turn, and walk sideways to
the end of the line with the right foot leading.
15.
Walk forward to the end of the line with arms out to the sides of the body balancing a beanbag on the back
of each hand.
16.
Walk forward to the center of the line, lower the body down and pick up a beanbag, place it on the head,
and walk to the end of the line.
17.
Walk backward, the arms held sideways.
18.
Walk backward with the right foot always in front of the left.
19.
Walk backward with the left foot always in front of the right.
20.
Walk backward with the hands clasped behind the body.
21.
Walk backward with the arms held straight out in front.
22.
Walk backward to the end of the line while balancing a beanbag on top of the head.
23.
Walk backward and step over a bar 12 inches (30 cm) above the line.
24.
Walk forward, step over the first crossbar, continue walking forward, duck under the second crossbar
(placed at shoulder height), and walk to the end of the line.
25.
Walk forward, step over a crossbar, make a full turn at mid-line, continue forward, go through a hoop, and
walk to the end of the line.
26.
Walk forward while tossing a beanbag from hand to hand like a juggler. (Challenge the student to follow
the beanbag with the eyes without moving the head.)
189
27.
Walk the length of the line, keeping the eyes closed or covered. (Instructor or aide should walk alongside
the student to offer assistance if needed.)
28.
Fold a piece of paper at a right angle so it will stand on the line at the center. Walk to the paper, kneel, pick
it up with teeth, rise, and walk to the end of the line.
29.
Place a paper as in No. 28. Walk out to it, do a right-side support, pick up paper with teeth and walk to the
end of the line.
30.
Hop to center of line on right foot. Turn around on same foot and hop backward to the end of line.
31.
Hop to middle of line on left foot. Turn around on same foot and hop forward to the end of the line.
32.
Walk the line forward, eyes closed.
33.
Walk the line backward, eyes closed.
34.
Walk the line sideways right, eyes closed.
35.
Stand on line, feet side by side, eyes closed, and record number of seconds balance is maintained.
36.
Stand on line, one foot ahead of the other, eyes closed, and record number of seconds balance is
maintained.
37.
Stand on right foot, eyes closed, and record number of seconds balance is maintained.
38.
Stand on left foot, eyes closed, and record number of seconds balance is maintained.
39.
Walk the line sideways left, eyes closed.
40.
Partners start at opposite ends, walk to middle, pass each other, and continue to end of line.
41.
Place hands on line. Have partner hold legs (as in wheelbarrow race) and walk to end of line.
42.
Same as No. 41, but partner walks with their feet on the line, instead of the ground, straddling the line.
43.
“Cat Walk” on line. Walk on all fours, hands and feet on line.
190
Movement Exploration
Movement exploration refers to a problem-solving approach in which the students are challenged to think and then
move in many different creative ways. Students may be guided into countless movement patterns while sitting,
standing in place, or moving from place to place. The creative teacher capitalizes on all kinds of opportunities to
develop movement ability while recognizing that students:
C
Progress at different rates
C
Have varied potentials
C
Have individual attitudes toward movement, such as fear, confidence, inadequacy, and
overconfidence.
Body Awareness
Body Surfaces
Can you:
1.
Stand with your front (back, left side, right side) toward me?
2.
Lie on your back (front, left side, right side)?
Body Parts
Can you:
1.
Point to your head (shoulders, neck, chest, waist, stomach, hips, back, and legs)?
2.
Point to your knees (thighs, ankles, calves, feet, and toes)?
3.
Raise one of your arms (hands)?
4.
Show your fingers (palms, knuckles)?
5.
Bend and touch your toes and then your knees?
Head Parts
Can you:
1.
Show me the top (back, front, sides) of your head (forehead, temples)?
2.
Point to your ears (eyes, nose, chin, cheeks, mouth, tongue, and lips)?
Trunk Parts
Can you:
1.
Lean your body forward (backward)?
2.
Do some other things with your body without moving your feet?
Head Movements
Can you:
1.
Move your head forward (backward)?
2.
Twist (tilt, point with) your head?
191
Spatial Relationships
Tapes to assist in the teaching of spatial relationships are available from Sportime www.sportime.com. 1-800-283-5700
Laterality
Can you:
1.
Show me your left arm (leg, side, knee, eye, foot, hand)?
2.
Show me your right arm (leg, side, knee, eye, ear, foot, hand)?
3.
Turn to your right (left)?
4.
Lean your body to your right (left)?
5.
Lie down on your right (left) side?
Directionality
Can you:
1.
Point to the space to your left (right)?
2.
Walk to the left (right)?
3.
Point forward (backward)?
4.
Move forward (backward)?
5.
Go to something large (small)?
6.
Go to something far away (near)?
7.
Walk inside (outside) a circle?
8.
Put the rope over you (under you)?
9.
Go over the first sawhorse and under the second?
With a Partner
Can you:
1.
Face your partner?
2.
Touch left (right) hands with your partner?
3.
Point to your partner’s left (right) side?
4.
Stand in front of (behind) your partner?
5.
Stand on your partner’s right (left) side?
6.
Hold your partner’s right hand with your left hand?
7.
Hold your partner’s right hand with your right hand?
8.
Put right hand to right hand and left hand to left hand with your partner?
9.
Stand back to back with your partner?
10.
Move away from (toward) your partner?
11.
Find a taller (shorter) partner than you?
12.
Line up one behind the other?
13.
Line up side by side?
14.
Make yourself shorter than your partner?
192
BALANCE
Can you:
1.
Stand on one foot without losing your balance?
2.
Stand on your right foot and hold your left ankle (left foot and right ankle)?
3.
Show how long you can stay on your toes while your hands are on your hips?
4.
Stand on your toes with your feet close together (far apart)?
5.
Stand on your toes with your feet far apart and extend your arms to the side
(both arms to the same side)?
6.
Move your arms in circles while standing on your toes?
7.
Make your arms move in different directions?
8.
Balance on the toes of one foot (the other foot)?
9.
Do something else while balancing?
10.
Move on your toes and find out how far you can bend to one side (the other side, forward, backward)?
11.
Move on your toes in a small circle?
12.
Find a straight line to stand on?
13.
Walk along the line?
14.
Walk heel-to-toe on the line?
15.
Walk heel-to-toe backward on the line?
16.
Show how you would move your feet on the line to travel sideways?
17.
Walk heel-to-toe, turn around, and walk backward heel-to-toe?
18.
Lower yourself until you are sitting on your heels, then stand up again?
19.
Hop three times on one foot on a line, and then three times on the other foot?
20.
Balance on one hand and one foot?
PUSHING AND PULLING
Can you:
1.
Show how many parts of your body you can use to push (pull)?
2.
Show how you can push while you are standing (kneeling, sitting, lying)?
3.
Pull while you are standing (kneeling, sitting, lying)?
4.
Push and pull with your feet spread apart sideways (spread apart front and back)?
5.
Push and pull with your feet very close together?
6.
Show how many directions you can push something with your hands (legs, elbows, arms, trunk)?
7.
Push with the right side of your body and pull with the left?
8.
Push while you are moving in a circle (square, triangle)?
9.
Push (pull) in an upward and then a downward direction?
10.
Push (pull) while you are at a high level (middle level, low level)?
11.
Make a very big (small) pushing (pulling) movement?
12.
Use a large part of your body to make a very small pushing (pulling) movement?
13.
Show how fast you can pull (push)?
14.
Show how you would push and pull something that was very heavy (light)?
15.
Do push-ups?
16.
Show how you would push something away?
17.
Hold a partner’s hands and push and pull together?
193
GALLOPING
Definition:
Action:
1.
2.
3.
4.
A locomotor movement that is a succession of steps and leaps, on alternate feet, with the
leaping foot always in the lead.
Place the weight on the leading foot.
With a step, bring the trailing foot up to the leading foot and transfer the weight onto the trailing foot.
Leap forward onto the leading foot, landing on the ball of the foot, with the knee slightly bent.
Repeat this stepping and leaping with a springy action and with the same foot always leading.
Can you:
1.
Gallop in different ways?
2.
Gallop without bumping anyone while moving with the class in one direction in a large circle (in the
opposite direction in the same circle)?
3.
Show the smallest circle in which you can gallop without bumping anyone?
4.
Show how fast (slow) you can gallop?
5.
Start galloping fast and finish slow?
6.
Gallop slow, then fast, then slow again?
7.
Gallop at different speeds?
8.
Gallop with very long (short) steps?
9.
Raise your knees very high while you are galloping?
10.
Gallop as if you were a horse?
11.
Gallop as if you were a cowboy on a horse?
12.
Show how you would gallop if you were hurt (lonely, looking for someone)?
13.
Show how high in the air you can gallop?
14.
Gallop forward (backward, to the side)?
15.
Stay in the same place and turn around while you are galloping?
16.
Gallop and turn at the same time while you are moving toward me?
17.
Gallop for five steps and then jump?
18.
Do something with your arms while you are galloping?
19.
Gallop with a partner (around a partner)?
20.
Gallop at the same speed as your partner?
194
SLIDING
Definition:
Action:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Sliding is a locomotor movement in which one foot slides in one direction, usually but not
necessarily sideways, and the other foot quickly closes to the leading foot, the weight being
transferred to the closing foot, resulting in a rhythm that is long for the leading foot and short
for the closing foot.
Advance one foot without lifting it.
Bring the other foot up to, but not past the advanced foot, and place the weight on it.
Continue the action, with the same foot leading each time.
Keep the arms slightly raised at the sides.
Can you:
1.
Slide in different ways?
2.
Slide forward in a large circle with the class without bumping anyone?
3.
Slide sideways in a large circle without bumping anyone?
4.
Slide forward in a smaller (an even smaller) circle?
5.
Show how fast you can slide toward (away from) me?
6.
Begin sliding slowly and finish fast without allowing your feet to leave the ground?
7.
Slide at other speeds?
8.
Take very long (short) sliding steps?
9.
See how far you can move with four slides?
10.
Slide as though you are the best slider in the world?
11.
Slide very high (low)?
12.
Begin sliding high and finish low?
13.
Slide from low to high?
14.
Slide to your right (your left)?
15.
Slide to my right (my left)?
16.
Slide forward (backward) without galloping?
17.
Show some other directions and shapes in which you can slide?
18.
Slide to your right while your body is leaning to your left?
19.
Slide with (around) a partner?
20.
Pretend that you are skating with your partner?
195
196
Parachute Activities
Terms:
Overhand grip
Underhand grip
Crossover grip
Ready position
–
–
–
–
Mushroom
–
Waves
–
palms down
palms up
right over left, palms down
squat facing the center of the parachute with hands in the specified grip
and parachute on the floor
from the ready position with the overhand grip, stand up and raise the
arms to be straight over the head
stand holding the parachute with an overhand grip, shake the parachute
up and down
If you cannot afford a parachute, check your government surplus for parachutes. If parachutes cannot be obtained,
then a tarp, sheet, etc. can be utilized.
POPCORN
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
Upper body endurance
Parachute and small balls
Indoor or outdoor
Twelve and up
Place balls on top of the parachute with students holding parachute an equal distance from each other.
Move a wave around the circle and the balls will pop up.
CIRCLE PARACHUTE BALL
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
Upper body endurance
Parachute and one or two light balls
Indoor or outdoor
Twelve and up
Divide the players into two teams.
Each team is responsible for half of the parachute.
Place the balls on the parachute and have players make waves to try to make the ball(s) bounce off the
other team’s side.
MUSHROOM RUN
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
Upper body development, agility
Parachute
Large open area
Any number that can stand around the parachute
Children make a mushroom.
As soon as they move into the center, they release holds and run once around the inside of the parachute,
counterclockwise, back to their place.
197
CIRCULAR DRIBBLE
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Upper body development, dribbling
Parachute and a ball for each child
Large open area
Any number that can stand around the parachute
Each child has a ball suitable for dribbling.
The object is to run in circular fashion, holding onto the parachute with the left hand and dribbling with
the right, retaining control of the ball.
The dribble should be started first, and then, on signal, students start to run. If the student loses the ball,
he/she must recover it and try to hook on at their original place.
To help students learn to dribble with their other hand, reverse the direction.
PARACHUTE GOLF
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Upper body endurance
Parachute and two balls with different markings that will fit through the hole in the center of the
parachute
Indoor or outdoor
Twelve and up
Divide the class into two teams.
Each team is responsible for half of the parachute.
Each team has a ball, which it places on the parachute.
On the signal, both teams attempt to get their ball in the center hole of the parachute to score a point.
Ball must be moved by moving the parachute and not by touching with hands.
MOUSETRAP
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Basic locomotor moves
Parachute
Indoor or outdoor
Twelve and up
Depending on the size of the group, select two or more students to be mice.
Students create a mushroom, and the mice run in and out between the players holding the parachute.
Teacher calls “Run across” and mice attempt to run across the circle before the students holding the
parachute can trap them.
Continue the game until all students have been mice.
Vary the locomotor moves used (i.e. running, jumping, skipping, etc.).
NUMBER EXCHANGE
SKILLS:
SUPPLIES:
AREA:
PLAYERS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Basic locomotor moves
Parachute
Indoor or outdoor
Twelve and up
Players stand around the parachute and count off by fives.
Players create a mushroom.
Teacher calls a number and players whose number is called move under the parachute to a point opposite
their original position.
Vary the locomotor moves used (i.e. running, jumping, skipping, etc.).
198
Fitness
It is recommended that each school select at least one fitness test to give to all students annually. Physical fitness
test materials can be obtained by contacting any of the following sources:
President’s Physical Fitness Challenge
Poplars Research Center
400 E. 7th Street
Bloomington, IN 47405
Phone: (800) 258-8146
www.indiana.edu/~preschal/index.shtml
Fitness Gram
P.O. Box 5076
Champaigne, IL 61825-5076
Phone: (800) 747-4457
www.americanfitness.net/Fitnessgram/
Physical Best Fitness
AAHPERD
1900 Association Drive
Reston, VA 20191
Phone: (800) 213-7193
Fax: 703-476-9527
e-mail: [email protected]
www.aahperd.org
STRETCHING
Definition:
Stretching is a movement that moves body parts away from the body center. Stretching
sometimes involves moving a joint through the range of movement. It is important for children
to understand that stretching the muscles involves some minor discomfort and controlled
movement. The muscle-stretching process is necessary for maintaining and increasing
flexibility.
Important points to remember about stretching:
1.
Stretching should be extended to the full range of movement.
2.
Stretching should be done in many positions.
3.
Stretching is done slowly and smoothly, DO NOT JERK.
4.
Hold full stretching position for 10 seconds.
THE FOLLOWING STRETCH ACTIVITIES CAN BE VERY HELPFUL TO INCREASE PHYSICAL MOBILITY AND REDUCE
INJURY, IF FOLLOWED REGULARLY.
199
RUNNING/JOGGING
To receive cardiovascular benefits, jogging needs to be sustained for minimum of 15 minutes. Within the constraints
of the physical education class time, it is difficult to do this on a regular basis. For this reason it is suggested that
students jog regularly (three times a week), in physical education class one-half to one mile (800 m to 1.6 k). The
instructor should constantly, enthusiastically, encourage all students to jog on their own. flexibility.
AGILITY ACTIVITIES
Definition: Agility is the ability to change the position of your body quickly and to control your body’s movement.
Line Jump:
1.
Balance on your right foot on a line on the ground.
2.
Leap onto the left foot so that it lands to the right of the line.
3.
Leap across the line onto the right foot; land to the left of the line.
4.
Leap onto the left foot, landing on the line.
Sliding:
1.
Stand with feet apart, hands at side, eyes on the teacher.
2.
On the signal begin sliding to the right.
3.
On each new signal reverse the direction.
Carioca Run:
1.
Stand with feet apart and arms straight out at shoulder height.
2.
Move right foot in front of left foot, placing it a step’s distance away.
3.
Move left foot behind the right foot, assuming the original stance.
4.
Move right foot behind the left foot, placing it a step’s distance away.
5.
Move left foot in front of right foot, assuming the original stance.
6.
Continue this pattern for specified distance.
AGILITY ACTIVITIES
Supplies:
Area:
Players:
1.
2.
3.
A watch with a second hand
Any play area or classroom
Unlimited
The teacher should lead students in identifying the two best areas to check for pulse.
A.
Radial Pulse (on the wrist)
B.
Carotid Pulse (on the neck)
The teacher should lead students through the process of determining heart rate by having students count
their pulse for 15 seconds and then multiplying by four. Students should also identify an appropriate
resting heart rate for their age.
Students should take their resting heart rate. They should then exercise vigorously for two to three
minutes, and then take their working heart rate to establish the difference between the two.
Possible Resource:
Lessons From the Heart: Individualizing Physical Education with Heart Rate Monitors
Beth Kirkpatrick, Burton Birnbaum, Polar Electro, Inc.
Copyright 1997
136pp ISBN: 0880117648
www.humankinetics.com
200
CIRCUITS
Skills:
Supplies:
Area:
Players:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Basic motor skills
Jump rope, cones, playground ball
Gym or outdoor play area
Unlimited
This group of activities are to be done in succession with 15 seconds rest in between.
Each activity is to be done for two minutes for beginners and increasing up to four minutes.
Circuit
A.
Jumping Rope (stationary)
B.
Jogging
C.
Windmills
D.
Squat Thrusts
E.
Killer Count Down – consists of jumping jacks, leg kicks, alternating front to back foot bounce,
and hopping. The student starts with 10 repetitions of each exercise, then nine repetitions, then
eight, etc., down to one.
Circuit2
A.
Curl Ups (sit ups)
B.
Jumping Rope (while running forward)
C.
Dribble a ball around cones, alternating hands
D.
Leg Lifts (knees bent, brought up to chest while lying on back)
E.
Jumping Jacks
201
202
Player/Spectator
Elementary Sportsmanship Code
Our games should reflect favorably on:
The Lord,
The School, and
The students
* Be Nice To Each Other
* Play Fair
* Have Fun
203
204
SAMPLE
K-8 Lesson Plan Sample
I.
Standard/Goal # 2
II.
L.O. # 3 - Adapt and combine skills to the demands
III.
Essential Pef. Benchmarks
Keep an object going continuously with a partner using a striking pattern
IV.
Assessment
Teacher Observation: Students are asked to work in two’s or three’s and practice
bumping a large soft volleyball to each other.
Criteria:
a. Execute accurate pass where partner can easily get into position
to bump ball back.
b. Participants receive and bump the ball in such a way to keep ball in
the air as long as possible.
Activity:
Students pair up and practice bumping the ball to each other, counting
to see how many times they can bump the ball back and forth. After
practicing in two’s have group get together at volleyball net - ½ the
group on each side of net - Object is to work as a team to keep bumping
ball back and forth as many times as possible without the ball touching
the ground.
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