RTEMS POSIX API User`s Guide - RTEMS

RTEMS POSIX API User`s Guide - RTEMS
RTEMS POSIX API User’s Guide
Edition 4.9.4, for RTEMS 4.9.4
18 March 2010
On-Line Applications Research Corporation
On-Line Applications Research Corporation
TEXinfo 2009-08-14.15
c 1988 - 2008.
COPYRIGHT On-Line Applications Research Corporation (OAR).
The authors have used their best efforts in preparing this material. These efforts include
the development, research, and testing of the theories and programs to determine their
effectiveness. No warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, with regard to the software
or the material contained in this document is provided. No liability arising out of the
application or use of any product described in this document is assumed. The authors
reserve the right to revise this material and to make changes from time to time in the
content hereof without obligation to notify anyone of such revision or changes.
The RTEMS Project is hosted at http://www.rtems.com. Any inquiries concerning
RTEMS, its related support components, its documentation, or any custom services for
RTEMS should be directed to the contacts listed on that site. A current list of RTEMS
Support Providers is at http://www.rtems.com/support.html.
i
Table of Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1
Process Creation and Execution Manager . . . . 3
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
2
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.4.1 fork - Create a Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.4.2 execl - Execute a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.4.3 execv - Execute a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.4.4 execle - Execute a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.4.5 execve - Execute a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.4.6 execlp - Execute a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.4.7 execvp - Execute a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.4.8 pthread atfork - Register Fork Handlers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.4.9 wait - Wait for Process Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.4.10 waitpid - Wait for Process Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.4.11 exit - Terminate a Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Signal Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.1
2.2
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.2.1 Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.2.2 Signal Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.3 Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.3.1 Signal Set Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.3.2 Blocking Until Signal Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.3.3 Sending a Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.4 Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.4.1 sigaddset - Add a Signal to a Signal Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.4.2 sigdelset - Delete a Signal from a Signal Set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.4.3 sigfillset - Fill a Signal Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.4.4 sigismember - Is Signal a Member of a Signal Set . . . . . . . . . 20
2.4.5 sigemptyset - Empty a Signal Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.4.6 sigaction - Examine and Change Signal Action . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.4.7 pthread kill - Send a Signal to a Thread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.4.8 sigprocmask - Examine and Change Process Blocked Signals
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.4.9 pthread sigmask - Examine and Change Thread Blocked
Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.4.10 kill - Send a Signal to a Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.4.11 sigpending - Examine Pending Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
ii
RTEMS POSIX API User’s Guide
2.4.12 sigsuspend - Wait for a Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.4.13 pause - Suspend Process Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.4.14 sigwait - Synchronously Accept a Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.4.15 sigwaitinfo - Synchronously Accept a Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.4.16 sigtimedwait - Synchronously Accept a Signal with Timeout
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.4.17 sigqueue - Queue a Signal to a Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.4.18 alarm - Schedule Alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.4.19 ualarm - Schedule Alarm in Microseconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3
Process Environment Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.1
3.2
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 Users and Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2 User and Group Names. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.3 Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.1 Accessing User and Group Ids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.2 Accessing Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.1 getpid - Get Process ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.2 getppid - Get Parent Process ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.3 getuid - Get User ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.4 geteuid - Get Effective User ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.5 getgid - Get Real Group ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.6 getegid - Get Effective Group ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.7 setuid - Set User ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.8 setgid - Set Group ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.9 getgroups - Get Supplementary Group IDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.10 getlogin - Get User Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.11 getlogin r - Reentrant Get User Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.12 getpgrp - Get Process Group ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.13 setsid - Create Session and Set Process Group ID . . . . . . . .
3.4.14 setpgid - Set Process Group ID for Job Control . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.15 uname - Get System Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.16 times - Get process times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.17 getenv - Get Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.18 setenv - Set Environment Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.19 ctermid - Generate Terminal Pathname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.20 ttyname - Determine Terminal Device Name . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.21 ttyname r - Reentrant Determine Terminal Device Name
............................................................
3.4.22 isatty - Determine if File Descriptor is Terminal . . . . . . . . .
3.4.23 sysconf - Get Configurable System Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37
37
37
38
38
38
38
38
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
iii
4
Files and Directories Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
4.1
4.2
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
4.2.1 Path Name Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
4.3 Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
4.4 Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
4.4.1 opendir - Open a Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
4.4.2 readdir - Reads a directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
4.4.3 rewinddir - Resets the readdir() pointer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
4.4.4 scandir - Scan a directory for matching entries . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
4.4.5 telldir - Return current location in directory stream . . . . . . . 69
4.4.6 closedir - Ends directory read operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
4.4.7 chdir - Changes the current working directory . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
4.4.8 fchdir - Changes the current working directory . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
4.4.9 getcwd - Gets current working directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
4.4.10 open - Opens a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
4.4.11 creat - Create a new file or rewrite an existing one . . . . . . . 76
4.4.12 umask - Sets a file creation mask. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
4.4.13 link - Creates a link to a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
4.4.14 symlink - Creates a symbolic link to a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
4.4.15 readlink - Obtain the name of a symbolic link destination
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
4.4.16 mkdir - Makes a directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
4.4.17 mkfifo - Makes a FIFO special file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
4.4.18 unlink - Removes a directory entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
4.4.19 rmdir - Delete a directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
4.4.20 rename - Renames a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
4.4.21 stat - Gets information about a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
4.4.22 fstat - Gets file status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
4.4.23 lstat - Gets file status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
4.4.24 access - Check permissions for a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
4.4.25 chmod - Changes file mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
4.4.26 fchmod - Changes permissions of a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
4.4.27 getdents - Get directory entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
4.4.28 chown - Changes the owner and/or group of a file. . . . . . . . 93
4.4.29 utime - Change access and/or modification times of an inode
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
4.4.30 ftruncate - truncate a file to a specified length . . . . . . . . . . . 95
4.4.31 truncate - truncate a file to a specified length . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
4.4.32 pathconf - Gets configuration values for files . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
4.4.33 fpathconf - Gets configuration values for files . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
4.4.34 mknod - create a directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
iv
5
RTEMS POSIX API User’s Guide
Input and Output Primitives Manager . . . . . 103
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
6
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
5.4.1 pipe - Create an Inter-Process Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
5.4.2 dup - Duplicates an open file descriptor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
5.4.3 dup2 - Duplicates an open file descriptor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
5.4.4 close - Closes a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
5.4.5 read - Reads from a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
5.4.6 write - Writes to a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
5.4.7 fcntl - Manipulates an open file descriptor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
5.4.8 lseek - Reposition read/write file offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
5.4.9 fsync - Synchronize file complete in-core state with that on
disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
5.4.10 fdatasync - Synchronize file in-core data with that on disk
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
5.4.11 sync - Schedule file system updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
5.4.12 mount - Mount a file system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
5.4.13 unmount - Unmount file systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
5.4.14 readv - Vectored read from a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
5.4.15 writev - Vectored write to a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
5.4.16 aio read - Asynchronous Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
5.4.17 aio write - Asynchronous Write . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
5.4.18 lio listio - List Directed I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
5.4.19 aio error - Retrieve Error Status of Asynchronous I/O
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
5.4.20 aio return - Retrieve Return Status Asynchronous I/O
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
5.4.21 aio cancel - Cancel Asynchronous I/O Request . . . . . . . . . 126
5.4.22 aio suspend - Wait for Asynchronous I/O Request . . . . . . 127
5.4.23 aio fsync - Asynchronous File Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . 128
Device- and Class- Specific Functions Manager
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.1 cfgetispeed - Reads terminal input baud rate . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.2 cfgetospeed - Reads terminal output baud rate. . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.3 cfsetispeed - Sets terminal input baud rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.4 cfsetospeed - Sets terminal output baud rate . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.5 tcgetattr - Gets terminal attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.6 tcsetattr - Set terminal attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.7 tcsendbreak - Sends a break to a terminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.8 tcdrain - Waits for all output to be transmitted to the
terminal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
129
129
129
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
v
6.4.9 tcflush - Discards terminal data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.10 tcflow - Suspends/restarts terminal output. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.11 tcgetpgrp - Gets foreground process group ID . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.12 tcsetpgrp - Sets foreground process group ID . . . . . . . . . . .
7
Language-Specific Services for the C
Programming Language Manager . . . . . . . . . 143
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
8
138
139
140
141
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
7.4.1 setlocale - Set the Current Locale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
7.4.2 fileno - Obtain File Descriptor Number for this File . . . . . . 145
7.4.3 fdopen - Associate Stream with File Descriptor . . . . . . . . . . 146
7.4.4 flockfile - Acquire Ownership of File Stream . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
7.4.5 ftrylockfile - Poll to Acquire Ownership of File Stream . . . 148
7.4.6 funlockfile - Release Ownership of File Stream . . . . . . . . . . . 149
7.4.7 getc unlocked - Get Character without Locking . . . . . . . . . . 150
7.4.8 getchar unlocked - Get Character from stdin without Locking
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
7.4.9 putc unlocked - Put Character without Locking . . . . . . . . . 152
7.4.10 putchar unlocked - Put Character to stdin without Locking
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
7.4.11 setjmp - Save Context for Non-Local Goto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
7.4.12 longjmp - Non-Local Jump to a Saved Context . . . . . . . . . 155
7.4.13 sigsetjmp - Save Context with Signal Status for Non-Local
Goto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
7.4.14 siglongjmp - Non-Local Jump with Signal Status to a Saved
Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
7.4.15 tzset - Initialize Time Conversion Information . . . . . . . . . . 158
7.4.16 strtok r - Reentrant Extract Token from String . . . . . . . . . 159
7.4.17 asctime r - Reentrant struct tm to ASCII Time Conversion
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
7.4.18 ctime r - Reentrant time t to ASCII Time Conversion . . 161
7.4.19 gmtime r - Reentrant UTC Time Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . 162
7.4.20 localtime r - Reentrant Local Time Conversion . . . . . . . . . 163
7.4.21 rand r - Reentrant Random Number Generation . . . . . . . . 164
System Databases Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.1 getgrgid - Get Group File Entry for ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.2 getgrgid r - Reentrant Get Group File Entry . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.3 getgrnam - Get Group File Entry for Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.4.4 getgrnam r - Reentrant Get Group File Entry for Name . .
165
165
165
165
166
167
168
169
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8.4.5
8.4.6
getpwuid - Get Password File Entry for UID. . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
getpwuid r - Reentrant Get Password File Entry for UID
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
8.4.7 getpwnam - Password File Entry for Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
8.4.8 getpwnam r - Reentrant Get Password File Entry for Name
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
9
Semaphore Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
9.1
9.2
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
9.2.1 Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
9.2.2 "sem t" Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
9.2.3 Building a Semaphore Attribute Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
9.3 Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
9.3.1 Using as a Binary Semaphore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
9.4 Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
9.4.1 sem init - Initialize an unnamed semaphore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
9.4.2 sem destroy - Destroy an unnamed semaphore . . . . . . . . . . . 178
9.4.3 sem open - Open a named semaphore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
9.4.4 sem close - Close a named semaphore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
9.4.5 sem unlink - Unlink a semaphore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
9.4.6 sem wait - Wait on a Semaphore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
9.4.7 sem trywait - Non-blocking Wait on a Semaphore . . . . . . . 183
9.4.8 sem timedwait - Wait on a Semaphore for a Specified Time
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
9.4.9 sem post - Unlock a Semaphore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
9.4.10 sem getvalue - Get the value of a semaphore . . . . . . . . . . . 186
10
Mutex Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
10.2 Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
10.2.1 Mutex Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
10.2.2 PTHREAD MUTEX INITIALIZER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
10.3 Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
10.4 Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
10.4.1 pthread mutexattr init - Initialize a Mutex Attribute Set
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
10.4.2 pthread mutexattr destroy - Destroy a Mutex Attribute Set
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
10.4.3 pthread mutexattr setprotocol - Set the Blocking Protocol
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
10.4.4 pthread mutexattr getprotocol - Get the Blocking Protocol
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
10.4.5 pthread mutexattr setprioceiling - Set the Priority Ceiling
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
10.4.6 pthread mutexattr getprioceiling - Get the Priority Ceiling
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
10.4.7 pthread mutexattr setpshared - Set the Visibility . . . . . . . 195
vii
10.4.8 pthread mutexattr getpshared - Get the Visibility . . . . . . 196
10.4.9 pthread mutex init - Initialize a Mutex. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
10.4.10 pthread mutex destroy - Destroy a Mutex . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
10.4.11 pthread mutex lock - Lock a Mutex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
10.4.12 pthread mutex trylock - Poll to Lock a Mutex . . . . . . . . 200
10.4.13 pthread mutex timedlock - Lock a Mutex with Timeout
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
10.4.14 pthread mutex unlock - Unlock a Mutex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
10.4.15 pthread mutex setprioceiling - Dynamically Set the
Priority Ceiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
10.4.16 pthread mutex getprioceiling - Get the Current Priority
Ceiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
11
Condition Variable Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
11.2 Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
11.3 Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
11.4 Directives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
11.4.1 pthread condattr init - Initialize a Condition Variable
Attribute Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
11.4.2 pthread condattr destroy - Destroy a Condition Variable
Attribute Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
11.4.3 pthread condattr setpshared - Set Process Shared Attribute
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
11.4.4 pthread condattr getpshared - Get Process Shared Attribute
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
11.4.5 pthread cond init - Initialize a Condition Variable . . . . . . 210
11.4.6 pthread cond destroy - Destroy a Condition Variable . . . 211
11.4.7 pthread cond signal - Signal a Condition Variable . . . . . . 212
11.4.8 pthread cond broadcast - Broadcast a Condition Variable
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
11.4.9 pthread cond wait - Wait on a Condition Variable . . . . . . 214
11.4.10 pthread cond timedwait - Wait with Timeout a Condition
Variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
12
Memory Management Manager . . . . . . . . . . . 217
12.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.2 Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.3 Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4 Directives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.4.1 mlockall - Lock the Address Space of a Process . . . . . . . . .
12.4.2 munlockall - Unlock the Address Space of a Process . . . .
12.4.3 mlock - Lock a Range of the Process Address Space . . . .
12.4.4 munlock - Unlock a Range of the Process Address Space
...........................................................
12.4.5 mmap - Map Process Addresses to a Memory Object . . .
12.4.6 munmap - Unmap Previously Mapped Addresses . . . . . . .
12.4.7 mprotect - Change Memory Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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12.4.8 msync - Memory Object Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
12.4.9 shm open - Open a Shared Memory Object. . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
12.4.10 shm unlink - Remove a Shared Memory Object . . . . . . . 227
13
Scheduler Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
13.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2 Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.1 Priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.2 Scheduling Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.3 Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.4 Directives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.4.1 sched get priority min - Get Minimum Priority Value . .
13.4.2 sched get priority max - Get Maximum Priority Value . .
13.4.3 sched rr get interval - Get Timeslicing Quantum . . . . . . .
13.4.4 sched yield - Yield the Processor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
Clock Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
14.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2 Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.3 Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.4 Directives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.4.1 clock gettime - Obtain Time of Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.4.2 clock settime - Set Time of Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.4.3 clock getres - Get Clock Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.4.4 sleep - Delay Process Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.4.5 usleep - Delay Process Execution in Microseconds . . . . . .
14.4.6 nanosleep - Delay with High Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.4.7 gettimeofday - Get the Time of Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.4.8 time - Get time in seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
229
229
229
229
229
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233
234
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235
235
235
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
Timer Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
15.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.2 Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3 Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.4 System Calls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.4.1 timer create - Create a Per-Process Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.4.2 timer delete - Delete a Per-Process Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.4.3 timer settime - Set Next Timer Expiration . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.4.4 timer gettime - Get Time Remaining on Timer . . . . . . . . .
15.4.5 timer getoverrun - Get Timer Overrun Count . . . . . . . . . .
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245
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245
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16
Message Passing Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
16.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
16.2 Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
16.2.1 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
16.2.2 Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
16.2.3 Message Queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
16.2.4 Building a Message Queue Attribute Set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
16.2.5 Notification of a Message on the Queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
16.2.6 POSIX Interpretation Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
16.3 Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
16.3.1 Opening or Creating a Message Queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
16.3.2 Closing a Message Queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
16.3.3 Removing a Message Queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
16.3.4 Sending a Message to a Message Queue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
16.3.5 Receiving a Message from a Message Queue . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
16.3.6 Notification of Receipt of a Message on an Empty Queue
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
16.3.7 Setting the Attributes of a Message Queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
16.3.8 Getting the Attributes of a Message Queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
16.4 Directives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
16.4.1 mq open - Open a Message Queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
16.4.2 mq close - Close a Message Queue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
16.4.3 mq unlink - Remove a Message Queue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
16.4.4 mq send - Send a Message to a Message Queue . . . . . . . . . 260
16.4.5 mq receive - Receive a Message from a Message Queue . . 261
16.4.6 mq notify - Notify Process that a Message is Available . . 262
16.4.7 mq setattr - Set Message Queue Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
16.4.8 mq getattr - Get Message Queue Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
17
Thread Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
17.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.2 Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.2.1 Thread Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.3 Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.4 Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17.4.1 pthread attr init - Initialize a Thread Attribute Set . . . .
17.4.2 pthread attr destroy - Destroy a Thread Attribute Set . .
17.4.3 pthread attr setdetachstate - Set Detach State . . . . . . . . .
17.4.4 pthread attr getdetachstate - Get Detach State . . . . . . . .
17.4.5 pthread attr setstacksize - Set Thread Stack Size . . . . . . .
17.4.6 pthread attr getstacksize - Get Thread Stack Size . . . . . .
17.4.7 pthread attr setstackaddr - Set Thread Stack Address . .
17.4.8 pthread attr getstackaddr - Get Thread Stack Address
...........................................................
17.4.9 pthread attr setscope - Set Thread Scheduling Scope . . .
17.4.10 pthread attr getscope - Get Thread Scheduling Scope
...........................................................
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17.4.11 pthread attr setinheritsched - Set Inherit Scheduler Flag
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
17.4.12 pthread attr getinheritsched - Get Inherit Scheduler Flag
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
17.4.13 pthread attr setschedpolicy - Set Scheduling Policy. . . . 279
17.4.14 pthread attr getschedpolicy - Get Scheduling Policy . . . 280
17.4.15 pthread attr setschedparam - Set Scheduling Parameters
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
17.4.16 pthread attr getschedparam - Get Scheduling Parameters
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
17.4.17 pthread create - Create a Thread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
17.4.18 pthread exit - Terminate the Current Thread. . . . . . . . . . 285
17.4.19 pthread detach - Detach a Thread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
17.4.20 pthread join - Wait for Thread Termination . . . . . . . . . . . 287
17.4.21 pthread self - Get Thread ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
17.4.22 pthread equal - Compare Thread IDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
17.4.23 pthread once - Dynamic Package Initialization . . . . . . . . 290
17.4.24 pthread setschedparam - Set Thread Scheduling
Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
17.4.25 pthread getschedparam - Get Thread Scheduling
Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
18
Key Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
18.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.2 Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.3 Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.4 Directives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18.4.1 pthread key create - Create Thread Specific Data Key . .
18.4.2 pthread key delete - Delete Thread Specific Data Key . .
18.4.3 pthread setspecific - Set Thread Specific Key Value . . . . .
18.4.4 pthread getspecific - Get Thread Specific Key Value . . . .
19
293
293
293
293
294
295
296
297
Thread Cancellation Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
19.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.2 Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.3 Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.4 Directives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19.4.1 pthread cancel - Cancel Execution of a Thread . . . . . . . . .
19.4.2 pthread setcancelstate - Set Cancelability State . . . . . . . .
19.4.3 pthread setcanceltype - Set Cancelability Type . . . . . . . . .
19.4.4 pthread testcancel - Create Cancellation Point . . . . . . . . .
19.4.5 pthread cleanup push - Establish Cancellation Handler
...........................................................
19.4.6 pthread cleanup pop - Remove Cancellation Handler . . .
299
299
299
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
xi
20
Services Provided by C Library (libc) . . . . 307
20.1
20.2
20.3
20.4
20.5
20.6
20.7
20.8
20.9
20.10
20.11
20.12
21
307
307
308
308
309
310
310
310
310
312
313
313
Services Provided by the Math Library (libm)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
21.1
21.2
22
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Standard Utility Functions (stdlib.h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Character Type Macros and Functions (ctype.h). . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input and Output (stdio.h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Strings and Memory (string.h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Signal Handling (signal.h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time Functions (time.h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Locale (locale.h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reentrant Versions of Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous Macros and Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Variable Argument Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reentrant System Calls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Standard Math Functions (math.h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Status of Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
Command and Variable Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Concept Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Preface
1
Preface
This is the User’s Guide for the POSIX API support provided in RTEMS.
The functionality described in this document is based on the following standards:
• POSIX 1003.1b-1993.
• POSIX 1003.1h/D3.
• Open Group Single UNIX Specification.
Much of the POSIX API standard is actually implemented in the Cygnus Newlib ANSI C
Library. Please refer to documentation on Newlib for more information on the functionality
it supplies.
This manual is still under construction and improvements are welcomed from users.
Chapter 1: Process Creation and Execution Manager
3
1 Process Creation and Execution Manager
1.1 Introduction
The process creation and execution manager provides the functionality associated with the
creation and termination of processes.
The directives provided by the process creation and execution manager are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
fork - Create a Process
execl - Execute a File
execv - Execute a File
execle - Execute a File
execve - Execute a File
execlp - Execute a File
execvp - Execute a File
pthread_atfork - Register Fork Handlers
wait - Wait for Process Termination
waitpid - Wait for Process Termination
_exit - Terminate a Process
1.2 Background
POSIX process functionality can not be completely supported by RTEMS. This is because
RTEMS provides no memory protection and implements a single process, multi-threaded
execution model. In this light, RTEMS provides none of the routines that are associated
with the creation of new processes. However, since the entire RTEMS application (e.g.
executable) is logically a single POSIX process, RTEMS is able to provide implementations of many operations on processes. The rule of thumb is that those routines provide a
meaningful result. For example, getpid() returns the node number.
1.3 Operations
The only functionality method defined by this manager which is supported by RTEMS is the
_exit service. The implementation of _exit shuts the application down and is equivalent
to invoking either exit or rtems_shutdown_executive.
1.4 Directives
This section details the process creation and execution manager’s directives. A subsection
is dedicated to each of this manager’s directives and describes the calling sequence, related
constants, usage, and status codes.
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RTEMS POSIX API User’s Guide
1.4.1 fork - Create a Process
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sys/types.h>
int fork( void );
STATUS CODES:
ENOSYS
This routine is not supported by RTEMS.
DESCRIPTION:
This routine is not supported by RTEMS.
NOTES:
NONE
Chapter 1: Process Creation and Execution Manager
1.4.2 execl - Execute a File
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int execl(
const char *path,
const char *arg,
...
);
STATUS CODES:
ENOSYS
This routine is not supported by RTEMS.
DESCRIPTION:
This routine is not supported by RTEMS.
NOTES:
NONE
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RTEMS POSIX API User’s Guide
1.4.3 execv - Execute a File
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int execv(
const char *path,
char const *argv[],
...
);
STATUS CODES:
ENOSYS
This routine is not supported by RTEMS.
DESCRIPTION:
This routine is not supported by RTEMS.
NOTES:
NONE
Chapter 1: Process Creation and Execution Manager
1.4.4 execle - Execute a File
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int execle(
const char *path,
const char *arg,
...
);
STATUS CODES:
ENOSYS
This routine is not supported by RTEMS.
DESCRIPTION:
This routine is not supported by RTEMS.
NOTES:
NONE
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1.4.5 execve - Execute a File
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int execve(
const char *path,
char *const argv[],
char *const envp[]
);
STATUS CODES:
ENOSYS
This routine is not supported by RTEMS.
DESCRIPTION:
This routine is not supported by RTEMS.
NOTES:
NONE
Chapter 1: Process Creation and Execution Manager
1.4.6 execlp - Execute a File
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int execlp(
const char *file,
const char *arg,
...
);
STATUS CODES:
ENOSYS
This routine is not supported by RTEMS.
DESCRIPTION:
This routine is not supported by RTEMS.
NOTES:
NONE
9
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RTEMS POSIX API User’s Guide
1.4.7 execvp - Execute a File
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int execvp(
const char *file,
char *const argv[]
...
);
STATUS CODES:
ENOSYS
This routine is not supported by RTEMS.
DESCRIPTION:
This routine is not supported by RTEMS.
NOTES:
NONE
Chapter 1: Process Creation and Execution Manager
1.4.8 pthread atfork - Register Fork Handlers
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sys/types.h>
int pthread_atfork(
void (*prepare)(void),
void (*parent)(void),
void (*child)(void)
);
STATUS CODES:
ENOSYS
This routine is not supported by RTEMS.
DESCRIPTION:
This routine is not supported by RTEMS.
NOTES:
NONE
11
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RTEMS POSIX API User’s Guide
1.4.9 wait - Wait for Process Termination
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/wait.h>
int wait(
int *stat_loc
);
STATUS CODES:
ENOSYS
This routine is not supported by RTEMS.
DESCRIPTION:
This routine is not supported by RTEMS.
NOTES:
NONE
Chapter 1: Process Creation and Execution Manager
1.4.10 waitpid - Wait for Process Termination
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int wait(
pid_t pid,
int
*stat_loc,
int
options
);
STATUS CODES:
ENOSYS
This routine is not supported by RTEMS.
DESCRIPTION:
This routine is not supported by RTEMS.
NOTES:
NONE
13
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RTEMS POSIX API User’s Guide
1.4.11
exit - Terminate a Process
CALLING SEQUENCE:
void _exit(
int status
);
STATUS CODES:
NONE
DESCRIPTION:
The _exit() function terminates the calling process.
NOTES:
In RTEMS, a process is equivalent to the entire application on a single processor. Invoking
this service terminates the application.
Chapter 2: Signal Manager
15
2 Signal Manager
2.1 Introduction
The signal manager provides the functionality associated with the generation, delivery, and
management of process-oriented signals.
The directives provided by the signal manager are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
sigaddset - Add a Signal to a Signal Set
sigdelset - Delete a Signal from a Signal Set
sigfillset - Fill a Signal Set
sigismember - Is Signal a Member of a Signal Set
sigemptyset - Empty a Signal Set
sigaction - Examine and Change Signal Action
pthread_kill - Send a Signal to a Thread
sigprocmask - Examine and Change Process Blocked Signals
pthread_sigmask - Examine and Change Thread Blocked Signals
kill - Send a Signal to a Process
sigpending - Examine Pending Signals
sigsuspend - Wait for a Signal
pause - Suspend Process Execution
sigwait - Synchronously Accept a Signal
sigwaitinfo - Synchronously Accept a Signal
sigtimedwait - Synchronously Accept a Signal with Timeout
sigqueue - Queue a Signal to a Process
alarm - Schedule Alarm
ualarm - Schedule Alarm in Microseconds
2.2 Background
2.2.1 Signals
POSIX signals are an asynchronous event mechanism. Each process and thread has a set
of signals associated with it. Individual signals may be enabled (e.g. unmasked) or blocked
(e.g. ignored) on both a per-thread and process level. Signals which are enabled have a
signal handler associated with them. When the signal is generated and conditions are met,
then the signal handler is invoked in the proper process or thread context asynchronous
relative to the logical thread of execution.
If a signal has been blocked when it is generated, then it is queued and kept pending until
the thread or process unblocks the signal or explicitly checks for it. Traditional, non-realtime POSIX signals do not queue. Thus if a process or thread has blocked a particular
signal, then multiple occurrences of that signal are recorded as a single occurrence of that
signal.
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RTEMS POSIX API User’s Guide
One can check for the set of outstanding signals that have been blocked. Services are
provided to check for outstanding process or thread directed signals.
2.2.2 Signal Delivery
Signals which are directed at a thread are delivered to the specified thread.
Signals which are directed at a process are delivered to a thread which is selected based on
the following algorithm:
1. If the action for this signal is currently SIG_IGN, then the signal is simply ignored.
2. If the currently executing thread has the signal unblocked, then the signal is delivered
to it.
3. If any threads are currently blocked waiting for this signal (sigwait()), then the
signal is delivered to the highest priority thread waiting for this signal.
4. If any other threads are willing to accept delivery of the signal, then the signal is
delivered to the highest priority thread of this set. In the event, multiple threads of
the same priority are willing to accept this signal, then priority is given first to ready
threads, then to threads blocked on calls which may be interrupted, and finally to
threads blocked on non-interruptible calls.
5. In the event the signal still can not be delivered, then it is left pending. The first
thread to unblock the signal (sigprocmask() or pthread_sigprocmask()) or to
wait for this signal (sigwait()) will be the recipient of the signal.
2.3 Operations
2.3.1 Signal Set Management
Each process and each thread within that process has a set of individual signals and handlers
associated with it. Services are provided to construct signal sets for the purposes of building
signal sets – type sigset_t – that are used to provide arguments to the services that mask,
unmask, and check on pending signals.
2.3.2 Blocking Until Signal Generation
A thread may block until receipt of a signal. The "sigwait" and "pause" families of services
block until the requested signal is received or if using sigtimedwait() until the specified
timeout period has elapsed.
2.3.3 Sending a Signal
This is accomplished via one of a number of services that sends a signal to either a process
or thread. Signals may be directed at a process by the service kill() or at a thread by the
service pthread_kill()
2.4 Directives
This section details the signal manager’s directives. A subsection is dedicated to each of
this manager’s directives and describes the calling sequence, related constants, usage, and
status codes.
Chapter 2: Signal Manager
2.4.1 sigaddset - Add a Signal to a Signal Set
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <signal.h>
int sigaddset(
sigset_t *set,
int
signo
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
Invalid argument passed.
DESCRIPTION:
This function adds the signo to the specified signal set.
NOTES:
NONE
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RTEMS POSIX API User’s Guide
2.4.2 sigdelset - Delete a Signal from a Signal Set
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <signal.h>
int sigdelset(
sigset_t *set,
int
signo
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
Invalid argument passed.
DESCRIPTION:
This function deletes the signo to the specified signal set.
NOTES:
NONE
Chapter 2: Signal Manager
2.4.3 sigfillset - Fill a Signal Set
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <signal.h>
int sigfillset(
sigset_t *set
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
Invalid argument passed.
DESCRIPTION:
This function fills the specified signal set such that all signals are set.
NOTES:
NONE
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2.4.4 sigismember - Is Signal a Member of a Signal Set
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <signal.h>
int sigismember(
const sigset_t *set,
int
signo
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
Invalid argument passed.
DESCRIPTION:
This function returns returns 1 if signo is a member of set and 0 otherwise.
NOTES:
NONE
Chapter 2: Signal Manager
2.4.5 sigemptyset - Empty a Signal Set
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <signal.h>
int sigemptyset(
sigset_t *set
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
Invalid argument passed.
DESCRIPTION:
This function fills the specified signal set such that all signals are cleared.
NOTES:
NONE
21
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2.4.6 sigaction - Examine and Change Signal Action
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <signal.h>
int sigaction(
int
sig,
const struct sigaction *act,
struct sigaction
*oact
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
Invalid argument passed.
ENOTSUP
Realtime Signals Extension option not supported.
DESCRIPTION:
This function is used to change the action taken by a process on receipt of the specfic signal
sig. The new action is specified by act and the previous action is returned via oact.
NOTES:
The signal number cannot be SIGKILL.
Chapter 2: Signal Manager
2.4.7 pthread kill - Send a Signal to a Thread
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <signal.h>
int pthread_kill(
pthread_t thread,
int
sig
);
STATUS CODES:
ESRCH
The thread indicated by the parameter thread is invalid.
EINVAL
Invalid argument passed.
DESCRIPTION:
This functions sends the specified signal sig to thread.
NOTES:
NONE
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RTEMS POSIX API User’s Guide
2.4.8 sigprocmask - Examine and Change Process Blocked Signals
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <signal.h>
int sigprocmask(
int
how,
const sigset_t *set,
sigset_t
*oset
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
Invalid argument passed.
DESCRIPTION:
This function is used to alter the set of currently blocked signals on a process wide basis.
A blocked signal will not be received by the process. The behavior of this function is
dependent on the value of how which may be one of the following:
SIG_BLOCK
The set of blocked signals is set to the union of set and those signals
currently blocked.
SIG_UNBLOCK
The signals specific in set are removed from the currently blocked
set.
SIG_SETMASK
The set of currently blocked signals is set to set.
If oset is not NULL, then the set of blocked signals prior to this call is returned in oset.
NOTES:
It is not an error to unblock a signal which is not blocked.
Chapter 2: Signal Manager
25
2.4.9 pthread sigmask - Examine and Change Thread Blocked
Signals
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <signal.h>
int pthread_sigmask(
int
how,
const sigset_t *set,
sigset_t
*oset
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
Invalid argument passed.
DESCRIPTION:
This function is used to alter the set of currently blocked signals for the calling thread. A
blocked signal will not be received by the process. The behavior of this function is dependent
on the value of how which may be one of the following:
SIG_BLOCK
The set of blocked signals is set to the union of set and those signals
currently blocked.
SIG_UNBLOCK
The signals specific in set are removed from the currently blocked
set.
SIG_SETMASK
The set of currently blocked signals is set to set.
If oset is not NULL, then the set of blocked signals prior to this call is returned in oset.
NOTES:
It is not an error to unblock a signal which is not blocked.
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RTEMS POSIX API User’s Guide
2.4.10 kill - Send a Signal to a Process
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <signal.h>
int kill(
pid_t pid,
int
sig
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
Invalid argument passed.
EPERM
Process does not have permission to send the signal to any receiving
process.
ESRCH
The process indicated by the parameter pid is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
This function sends the signal sig to the process pid.
NOTES:
NONE
Chapter 2: Signal Manager
27
2.4.11 sigpending - Examine Pending Signals
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <signal.h>
int sigpending(
const sigset_t *set
);
STATUS CODES:
On error, this routine returns -1 and sets errno to one of the following:
EFAULT
Invalid address for set.
DESCRIPTION:
This function allows the caller to examine the set of currently pending signals. A pending
signal is one which has been raised but is currently blocked. The set of pending signals is
returned in set.
NOTES:
NONE
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RTEMS POSIX API User’s Guide
2.4.12 sigsuspend - Wait for a Signal
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <signal.h>
int sigsuspend(
const sigset_t *sigmask
);
STATUS CODES:
On error, this routine returns -1 and sets errno to one of the following:
EINTR
Signal interrupted this function.
DESCRIPTION:
This function temporarily replaces the signal mask for the process with that specified by
sigmask and blocks the calling thread until the signal is raised.
NOTES:
NONE
Chapter 2: Signal Manager
29
2.4.13 pause - Suspend Process Execution
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <signal.h>
int pause( void );
STATUS CODES:
On error, this routine returns -1 and sets errno to one of the following:
EINTR
Signal interrupted this function.
DESCRIPTION:
This function causes the calling thread to be blocked until an unblocked signal is received.
NOTES:
NONE
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RTEMS POSIX API User’s Guide
2.4.14 sigwait - Synchronously Accept a Signal
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <signal.h>
int sigwait(
const sigset_t *set,
int
*sig
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
Invalid argument passed.
EINTR
Signal interrupted this function.
DESCRIPTION:
This function selects a pending signal based on the set specified in set, atomically clears it
from the set of pending signals, and returns the signal number for that signal in sig.
NOTES:
NONE
Chapter 2: Signal Manager
31
2.4.15 sigwaitinfo - Synchronously Accept a Signal
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <signal.h>
int sigwaitinfo(
const sigset_t *set,
siginfo_t
*info
);
STATUS CODES:
EINTR
Signal interrupted this function.
DESCRIPTION:
This function selects a pending signal based on the set specified in set, atomically clears it
from the set of pending signals, and returns information about that signal in info.
NOTES:
NONE
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RTEMS POSIX API User’s Guide
2.4.16 sigtimedwait - Synchronously Accept a Signal with
Timeout
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <signal.h>
int sigtimedwait(
const sigset_t
*set,
siginfo_t
*info,
const struct timespec *timeout
);
STATUS CODES:
EAGAIN
Timed out while waiting for the specified signal set.
EINVAL
Nanoseconds field of the timeout argument is invalid.
EINTR
Signal interrupted this function.
DESCRIPTION:
This function selects a pending signal based on the set specified in set, atomically clears
it from the set of pending signals, and returns information about that signal in info. The
calling thread will block up to timeout waiting for the signal to arrive.
NOTES:
If timeout is NULL, then the calling thread will wait forever for the specified signal set.
Chapter 2: Signal Manager
33
2.4.17 sigqueue - Queue a Signal to a Process
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <signal.h>
int sigqueue(
pid_t
pid,
int
signo,
const union sigval value
);
STATUS CODES:
EAGAIN
No resources available to queue the signal. The process has already
queued SIGQUEUE MAX signals that are still pending at the receiver or the systemwide resource limit has been exceeded.
EINVAL
The value of the signo argument is an invalid or unsupported signal
number.
EPERM
The process does not have the appropriate privilege to send the signal
to the receiving process.
ESRCH
The process pid does not exist.
DESCRIPTION:
This function sends the signal specified by signo to the process pid
NOTES:
NONE
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2.4.18 alarm - Schedule Alarm
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <unistd.h>
unsigned int alarm(
unsigned int seconds
);
STATUS CODES:
This call always succeeds.
If there was a previous alarm() request with time remaining, then this routine returns the
number of seconds until that outstanding alarm would have fired. If no previous alarm()
request was outstanding, then zero is returned.
DESCRIPTION:
The alarm() service causes the SIGALRM signal to be generated after the number of seconds
specified by seconds has elapsed.
NOTES:
Alarm requests do not queue. If alarm is called while a previous request is outstanding,
the call will result in rescheduling the time at which the SIGALRM signal will be generated.
If the notification signal, SIGALRM, is not caught or ignored, the calling process is terminated.
Chapter 2: Signal Manager
35
2.4.19 ualarm - Schedule Alarm in Microseconds
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <unistd.h>
useconds_t ualarm(
useconds_t useconds,
useconds_t interval
);
STATUS CODES:
This call always succeeds.
If there was a previous ualarm() request with time remaining, then this routine returns the
number of seconds until that outstanding alarm would have fired. If no previous alarm()
request was outstanding, then zero is returned.
DESCRIPTION:
The ualarm() service causes the SIGALRM signal to be generated after the number of microseconds specified by useconds has elapsed.
When interval is non-zero, repeated timeout notification occurs with a period in microseconds specified by interval.
NOTES:
Alarm requests do not queue. If alarm is called while a previous request is outstanding,
the call will result in rescheduling the time at which the SIGALRM signal will be generated.
If the notification signal, SIGALRM, is not caught or ignored, the calling process is terminated.
Chapter 3: Process Environment Manager
37
3 Process Environment Manager
3.1 Introduction
The process environment manager is responsible for providing the functions related to user
and group Id management.
The directives provided by the process environment manager are:
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getpid - Get Process ID
getppid - Get Parent Process ID
getuid - Get User ID
geteuid - Get Effective User ID
getgid - Get Real Group ID
getegid - Get Effective Group ID
setuid - Set User ID
setgid - Set Group ID
getgroups - Get Supplementary Group IDs
getlogin - Get User Name
getlogin_r - Reentrant Get User Name
getpgrp - Get Process Group ID
setsid - Create Session and Set Process Group ID
setpgid - Set Process Group ID for Job Control
uname - Get System Name
times - Get Process Times
getenv - Get Environment Variables
setenv - Set Environment Variables
ctermid - Generate Terminal Pathname
ttyname - Determine Terminal Device Name
ttyname_r - Reentrant Determine Terminal Device Name
isatty - Determine if File Descriptor is Terminal
sysconf - Get Configurable System Variables
3.2 Background
3.2.1 Users and Groups
RTEMS provides a single process, multi-threaded execution environment. In this light, the
notion of user and group is somewhat without meaning. But RTEMS does provide services
to provide a synthetic version of user and group. By default, a single user and group is
associated with the application. Thus unless special actions are taken, every thread in the
application shares the same user and group Id. The initial rationale for providing user and
group Id functionality in RTEMS was for the filesystem infrastructure to implement file
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RTEMS POSIX API User’s Guide
permission checks. The effective user/group Id capability has since been used to implement
permissions checking by the ftpd server.
In addition to the "real" user and group Ids, a process may have an effective user/group Id.
This allows a process to function using a more limited permission set for certain operations.
3.2.2 User and Group Names
POSIX considers user and group Ids to be a unique integer that may be associated with a
name. This is usually accomplished via a file named /etc/passwd for user Id mapping and
/etc/groups for group Id mapping. Again, although RTEMS is effectively a single process
and thus single user system, it provides limited support for user and group names. When
configured with an appropriate filesystem, RTEMS will access the appropriate files to map
user and group Ids to names.
If these files do not exist, then RTEMS will synthesize a minimal version so this family
of services return without error. It is important to remember that a design goal of the
RTEMS POSIX services is to provide useable and meaningful results even though a full
process model is not available.
3.2.3 Environment Variables
POSIX allows for variables in the run-time environment. These are name/value pairs that
make be dynamically set and obtained by programs. In a full POSIX environment with
command line shell and multiple processes, environment variables may be set in one process
– such as the shell – and inherited by child processes. In RTEMS, there is only one process
and thus only one set of environment variables across all processes.
3.3 Operations
3.3.1 Accessing User and Group Ids
The user Id associated with the current thread may be obtain using the getuid() service.
Similarly, the group Id may be obtained using the getgid() service.
3.3.2 Accessing Environment Variables
The value associated with an environment variable may be obtained using the getenv()
service and set using the putenv() service.
3.4 Directives
This section details the process environment manager’s directives. A subsection is dedicated
to each of this manager’s directives and describes the calling sequence, related constants,
usage, and status codes.
Chapter 3: Process Environment Manager
3.4.1 getpid - Get Process ID
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int getpid( void );
STATUS CODES:
The process Id is returned.
DESCRIPTION:
This service returns the process Id.
NOTES:
NONE
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3.4.2 getppid - Get Parent Process ID
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int getppid( void );
STATUS CODES:
The parent process Id is returned.
DESCRIPTION:
This service returns the parent process Id.
NOTES:
NONE
Chapter 3: Process Environment Manager
3.4.3 getuid - Get User ID
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int getuid( void );
STATUS CODES:
The effective user Id is returned.
DESCRIPTION:
This service returns the effective user Id.
NOTES:
NONE
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3.4.4 geteuid - Get Effective User ID
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int geteuid( void );
STATUS CODES:
The effective group Id is returned.
DESCRIPTION:
This service returns the effective group Id.
NOTES:
NONE
Chapter 3: Process Environment Manager
3.4.5 getgid - Get Real Group ID
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int getgid( void );
STATUS CODES:
The group Id is returned.
DESCRIPTION:
This service returns the group Id.
NOTES:
NONE
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3.4.6 getegid - Get Effective Group ID
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int getegid( void );
STATUS CODES:
The effective group Id is returned.
DESCRIPTION:
This service returns the effective group Id.
NOTES:
NONE
Chapter 3: Process Environment Manager
3.4.7 setuid - Set User ID
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int setuid(
uid_t uid
);
STATUS CODES:
This service returns 0.
DESCRIPTION:
This service sets the user Id to uid.
NOTES:
NONE
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3.4.8 setgid - Set Group ID
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int setgid(
gid_t gid
);
STATUS CODES:
This service returns 0.
DESCRIPTION:
This service sets the group Id to gid.
NOTES:
NONE
Chapter 3: Process Environment Manager
3.4.9 getgroups - Get Supplementary Group IDs
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int getgroups(
int
gidsetsize,
gid_t grouplist[]
);
STATUS CODES:
NA
DESCRIPTION:
This service is not implemented as RTEMS has no notion of supplemental groups.
NOTES:
If supported, this routine would only be allowed for the super-user.
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3.4.10 getlogin - Get User Name
CALLING SEQUENCE:
char *getlogin( void );
STATUS CODES:
Returns a pointer to a string containing the name of the current user.
DESCRIPTION:
This routine returns the name of the current user.
NOTES:
This routine is not reentrant and subsequent calls to getlogin() will overwrite the same
buffer.
Chapter 3: Process Environment Manager
49
3.4.11 getlogin r - Reentrant Get User Name
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int getlogin_r(
char
*name,
size_t namesize
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The arguments were invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
This is a reentrant version of the getlogin() service. The caller specified their own buffer,
name, as well as the length of this buffer, namesize.
NOTES:
NONE
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3.4.12 getpgrp - Get Process Group ID
CALLING SEQUENCE:
pid_t getpgrp( void );
STATUS CODES:
The procress group Id is returned.
DESCRIPTION:
This service returns the current progress group Id.
NOTES:
This routine is implemented in a somewhat meaningful way for RTEMS but is truly not
functional.
Chapter 3: Process Environment Manager
51
3.4.13 setsid - Create Session and Set Process Group ID
CALLING SEQUENCE:
pid_t setsid( void );
STATUS CODES:
EPERM
The application does not have permission to create a process group.
DESCRIPTION:
This routine always returns EPERM as RTEMS has no way to create new processes and thus
no way to create a new process group.
NOTES:
NONE
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3.4.14 setpgid - Set Process Group ID for Job Control
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int setpgid(
pid_t pid,
pid_t pgid
);
STATUS CODES:
ENOSYS
The routine is not implemented.
DESCRIPTION:
This service is not implemented for RTEMS as process groups are not supported.
NOTES:
NONE
Chapter 3: Process Environment Manager
53
3.4.15 uname - Get System Name
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int uname(
struct utsname *name
);
STATUS CODES:
EPERM
The provided structure pointer is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
This service returns system information to the caller. It does this by filling in the struct
utsname format structure for the caller.
NOTES:
The information provided includes the operating system (RTEMS in all configurations),
the node number, the release as the RTEMS version, and the CPU family and model. The
CPU model name will indicate the multilib executive variant being used.
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3.4.16 times - Get process times
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sys/time.h>
clock_t times(
struct tms *ptms
);
STATUS CODES:
This routine returns the number of clock ticks that have elapsed since the system was
initialized (e.g. the application was started).
DESCRIPTION:
times stores the current process times in ptms. The format of struct tms is as defined
in <sys/times.h>. RTEMS fills in the field tms_utime with the number of ticks that the
calling thread has executed and the field tms_stime with the number of clock ticks since
system boot (also returned). All other fields in the ptms are left zero.
NOTES:
RTEMS has no way to distinguish between user and system time so this routine returns
the most meaningful information possible.
Chapter 3: Process Environment Manager
55
3.4.17 getenv - Get Environment Variables
CALLING SEQUENCE:
char *getenv(
const char *name
);
STATUS CODES:
NULL
when no match
pointer to value
when successful
DESCRIPTION:
This service searches the set of environment variables for a string that matches the specified
name. If found, it returns the associated value.
NOTES:
The environment list consists of name value pairs that are of the form name = value.
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3.4.18 setenv - Set Environment Variables
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int setenv(
const char *name,
const char *value,
int overwrite
);
STATUS CODES:
Returns 0 if successful and -1 otherwise.
DESCRIPTION:
This service adds the variable name to the environment with value. If name is not already
exist, then it is created. If name exists and overwrite is zero, then the previous value is
not overwritten.
NOTES:
NONE
Chapter 3: Process Environment Manager
57
3.4.19 ctermid - Generate Terminal Pathname
CALLING SEQUENCE:
char *ctermid(
char *s
);
STATUS CODES:
Returns a pointer to a string indicating the pathname for the controlling terminal.
DESCRIPTION:
This service returns the name of the terminal device associated with this process. If s is
NULL, then a pointer to a static buffer is returned. Otherwise, s is assumed to have a
buffer of sufficient size to contain the name of the controlling terminal.
NOTES:
By default on RTEMS systems, the controlling terminal is /dev/console. Again this
implementation is of limited meaning, but it provides true and useful results which should
be sufficient to ease porting applications from a full POSIX implementation to the reduced
profile supported by RTEMS.
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3.4.20 ttyname - Determine Terminal Device Name
CALLING SEQUENCE:
char *ttyname(
int fd
);
STATUS CODES:
Pointer to a string containing the terminal device name or NULL is returned on any error.
DESCRIPTION:
This service returns a pointer to the pathname of the terminal device that is open on the file
descriptor fd. If fd is not a valid descriptor for a terminal device, then NULL is returned.
NOTES:
This routine uses a static buffer.
Chapter 3: Process Environment Manager
3.4.21 ttyname r - Reentrant Determine Terminal Device Name
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int ttyname_r(
int
fd,
char *name,
int
namesize
);
STATUS CODES:
This routine returns -1 and sets errno as follows:
EBADF
If not a valid descriptor for a terminal device.
EINVAL
If name is NULL or namesize are insufficient.
DESCRIPTION:
This service the pathname of the terminal device that is open on the file descriptor fd.
NOTES:
NONE
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3.4.22 isatty - Determine if File Descriptor is Terminal
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int isatty(
int fd
);
STATUS CODES:
Returns 1 if fd is a terminal device and 0 otherwise.
DESCRIPTION:
This service returns 1 if fd is an open file descriptor connected to a terminal and 0 otherwise.
NOTES:
Chapter 3: Process Environment Manager
61
3.4.23 sysconf - Get Configurable System Variables
CALLING SEQUENCE:
long sysconf(
int name
);
STATUS CODES:
The value returned is the actual value of the system resource. If the requested configuration
name is a feature flag, then 1 is returned if the available and 0 if it is not. On any other
error condition, -1 is returned.
DESCRIPTION:
This service is the mechanism by which an application determines values for system limits
or options at runtime.
NOTES:
Much of the information that may be obtained via sysconf has equivalent macros in
<unistd.h. However, those macros reflect conservative limits which may have been altered by application configuration.
Chapter 4: Files and Directories Manager
4 Files and Directories Manager
4.1 Introduction
The files and directories manager is ...
The directives provided by the files and directories manager are:
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opendir - Open a Directory
readdir - Reads a directory
rewinddir - Resets the readdir() pointer
scandir - Scan a directory for matching entries
telldir - Return current location in directory stream
closedir - Ends directory read operation
getdents - Get directory entries
chdir - Changes the current working directory
fchdir - Changes the current working directory
getcwd - Gets current working directory
open - Opens a file
creat - Create a new file or rewrite an existing one
umask - Sets a file creation mask
link - Creates a link to a file
symlink - Creates a symbolic link to a file
readlink - Obtain the name of the link destination
mkdir - Makes a directory
mkfifo - Makes a FIFO special file
unlink - Removes a directory entry
rmdir - Delete a directory
rename - Renames a file
stat - Gets information about a file.
fstat - Gets file status
lstat - Gets file status
access - Check permissions for a file.
chmod - Changes file mode
fchmod - Changes permissions of a file
chown - Changes the owner and/ or group of a file
utime - Change access and/or modification times of an inode
ftruncate - Truncate a file to a specified length
truncate - Truncate a file to a specified length
pathconf - Gets configuration values for files
fpathconf - Get configuration values for files
mknod - Create a directory
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4.2 Background
4.2.1 Path Name Evaluation
A pathname is a string that consists of no more than PATH_MAX bytes, including the terminating null character. A pathname has an optional beginning slash, followed by zero or
more filenames separated by slashes. If the pathname refers to a directory, it may also have
one or more trailing slashes. Multiple successive slahes are considered to be the same as
one slash.
POSIX allows a pathname that begins with precisely two successive slashes to be interpreted
in an implementation-defined manner. RTEMS does not currently recognize this as a special
condition. Any number of successive slashes is treated the same as a single slash. POSIX
requires that an implementation treat more than two leading slashes as a single slash.
4.3 Operations
There is currently no text in this section.
4.4 Directives
This section details the files and directories manager’s directives. A subsection is dedicated
to each of this manager’s directives and describes the calling sequence, related constants,
usage, and status codes.
Chapter 4: Files and Directories Manager
65
4.4.1 opendir - Open a Directory
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <dirent.h>
int opendir(
const char *dirname
);
STATUS CODES:
EACCES
Search permission was denied on a component of the path prefix of
dirname, or read permission is denied
EMFILE
Too many file descriptors in use by process
ENFILE
Too many files are currently open in the system.
ENOENT
Directory does not exist, or name is an empty string.
ENOMEM
Insufficient memory to complete the operation.
ENOTDIR
name is not a directory.
DESCRIPTION:
This routine opens a directory stream corresponding to the directory specified by the
dirname argument. The directory stream is positioned at the first entry.
NOTES:
The routine is implemented in Cygnus newlib.
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4.4.2 readdir - Reads a directory
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <dirent.h>
int readdir(
DIR *dirp
);
STATUS CODES:
EBADF
Invalid file descriptor
DESCRIPTION:
The readdir() function returns a pointer to a structure dirent representing the next
directory entry from the directory stream pointed to by dirp. On end-of-file, NULL is
returned.
The readdir() function may (or may not) return entries for . or .. Your program should
tolerate reading dot and dot-dot but not require them.
The data pointed to be readdir() may be overwritten by another call to readdir() for
the same directory stream. It will not be overwritten by a call for another directory.
NOTES:
If ptr is not a pointer returned by malloc(), calloc(), or realloc() or has been deallocated with free() or realloc(), the results are not portable and are probably disastrous.
The routine is implemented in Cygnus newlib.
Chapter 4: Files and Directories Manager
67
4.4.3 rewinddir - Resets the readdir() pointer
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <dirent.h>
void rewinddir(
DIR *dirp
);
STATUS CODES:
No value is returned.
DESCRIPTION:
The rewinddir() function resets the position associated with the directory stream pointed
to by dirp. It also causes the directory stream to refer to the current state of the directory.
NOTES:
NONE
If dirp is not a pointer by opendir(), the results are undefined.
The routine is implemented in Cygnus newlib.
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4.4.4 scandir - Scan a directory for matching entries
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <dirent.h>
int scandir(
const char
*dir,
struct dirent ***namelist,
int (*select)(const struct dirent *),
int (*compar)(const struct dirent **, const struct dirent **)
);
STATUS CODES:
ENOMEM
Insufficient memory to complete the operation.
DESCRIPTION:
The scandir() function scans the directory dir, calling select() on each directory entry.
Entries for which select() returns non-zero are stored in strings allocated via malloc(),
sorted using qsort() with the comparison function compar(), and collected in array
namelist which is allocated via malloc(). If select is NULL, all entries are selected.
NOTES:
The routine is implemented in Cygnus newlib.
Chapter 4: Files and Directories Manager
69
4.4.5 telldir - Return current location in directory stream
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <dirent.h>
off_t telldir(
DIR *dir
);
STATUS CODES:
EBADF
Invalid directory stream descriptor dir.
DESCRIPTION:
The telldir() function returns the current location associated with the directory stream
dir.
NOTES:
The routine is implemented in Cygnus newlib.
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4.4.6 closedir - Ends directory read operation
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <dirent.h>
int closedir(
DIR *dirp
);
STATUS CODES:
EBADF
Invalid file descriptor
DESCRIPTION:
The directory stream associated with dirp is closed. The value in dirp may not be usable
after a call to closedir().
NOTES:
NONE
The argument to closedir() must be a pointer returned by opendir(). If it is not, the
results are not portable and most likely unpleasant.
The routine is implemented in Cygnus newlib.
Chapter 4: Files and Directories Manager
71
4.4.7 chdir - Changes the current working directory
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <unistd.h>
int chdir(
const char *path
);
STATUS CODES:
On error, this routine returns -1 and sets errno to one of the following:
EACCES
Search permission is denied for a directory in a file’s path prefix.
ENAMETOOLONG Length of a filename string
POSIX NO TRUNC is in effect.
exceeds
PATH MAX
and
ENOENT
A file or directory does not exist.
ENOTDIR
A component of the specified pathname was not a directory when
directory was expected.
DESCRIPTION:
The chdir() function causes the directory named by path to become the current working
directory; that is, the starting point for searches of pathnames not beginning with a slash.
If chdir() detects an error, the current working directory is not changed.
NOTES:
NONE
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4.4.8 fchdir - Changes the current working directory
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <unistd.h>
int fchdir(
int fd
);
STATUS CODES:
On error, this routine returns -1 and sets errno to one of the following:
EACCES
Search permission is denied for a directory in a file’s path prefix.
ENAMETOOLONG Length of a filename string
POSIX NO TRUNC is in effect.
exceeds
PATH MAX
and
ENOENT
A file or directory does not exist.
ENOTDIR
A component of the specified pathname was not a directory when
directory was expected.
DESCRIPTION:
The fchdir() function causes the directory named by fd to become the current working
directory; that is, the starting point for searches of pathnames not beginning with a slash.
If fchdir() detects an error, the current working directory is not changed.
NOTES:
NONE
Chapter 4: Files and Directories Manager
73
4.4.9 getcwd - Gets current working directory
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <unistd.h>
int getcwd( void );
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
Invalid argument
ERANGE
Result is too large
EACCES
Search permission is denied for a directory in a file’s path prefix.
DESCRIPTION:
The getcwd() function copies the absolute pathname of the current working directory to
the character array pointed to by buf. The size argument is the number of bytes available
in buf
NOTES:
There is no way to determine the maximum string length that fetcwd() may need to return.
Applications should tolerate getting ERANGE and allocate a larger buffer.
It is possible for getcwd() to return EACCES if, say, login puts the process into a directory
without read access.
The 1988 standard uses int instead of size_t for the second parameter.
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4.4.10 open - Opens a file
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
int open(
const char *path,
int
oflag,
mode_t
mode
);
STATUS CODES:
EACCES
Search permission is denied for a directory in a file’s path prefix.
EEXIST
The named file already exists.
EINTR
Function was interrupted by a signal.
EISDIR
Attempt to open a directory for writing or to rename a file to be a
directory.
EMFILE
Too many file descriptors are in use by this process.
ENAMETOOLONG Length of a filename string
POSIX NO TRUNC is in effect.
exceeds
PATH MAX
and
ENFILE
Too many files are currently open in the system.
ENOENT
A file or directory does not exist.
ENOSPC
No space left on disk.
ENOTDIR
A component of the specified pathname was not a directory when a
directory was expected.
ENXIO
No such device. This error may also occur when a device is not ready,
for example, a tape drive is off-line.
EROFS
Read-only file system.
DESCRIPTION:
The open function establishes a connection between a file and a file descriptor. The file
descriptor is a small integer that is used by I/O functions to reference the file. The path
argument points to the pathname for the file.
The oflag argument is the bitwise inclusive OR of the values of symbolic constants. The
programmer must specify exactly one of the following three symbols:
O RDONLY
Open for reading only.
O WRONLY
Open for writing only.
O RDWR
Open for reading and writing.
Chapter 4: Files and Directories Manager
75
Any combination of the following symbols may also be used.
O APPEND
Set the file offset to the end-of-file prior to each write.
O CREAT
If the file does not exist, allow it to be created. This flag indicates
that the mode argument is present in the call to open.
O EXCL
This flag may be used only if O CREAT is also set. It causes the
call to open to fail if the file already exists.
O NOCTTY
If path identifies a terminal, this flag prevents that teminal from
becoming the controlling terminal for thi9s process. See Chapter 8
for a description of terminal I/O.
O NONBLOCK
Do no wait for the device or file to be ready or available. After the file
is open, the read and write calls return immediately. If the process
would be delayed in the read or write opermation, -1 is returned and
errno is set to EAGAIN instead of blocking the caller.
O TRUNC
This flag should be used only on ordinary files opened for writing. It
causes the file to be tuncated to zero length..
Upon successful completion, open returns a non-negative file descriptor.
NOTES:
NONE
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4.4.11 creat - Create a new file or rewrite an existing one
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
int creat(
const char *path,
mode_t
mode
);
STATUS CODES:
EEXIST
path already exists and O CREAT and O EXCL were used.
EISDIR
path refers to a directory and the access requested involved writing
ETXTBSY
path refers to an executable image which is currently being executed
and write access was requested
EFAULT
path points outside your accessible address space
EACCES
The requested access to the file is not allowed, or one of the directories
in path did not allow search (execute) permission.
ENAMETOOLONG path was too long.
ENOENT
A directory component in path does not exist or is a dangling symbolic link.
ENOTDIR
A component used as a directory in path is not, in fact, a directory.
EMFILE
The process alreadyh has the maximum number of files open.
ENFILE
The limit on the total number of files open on the system has been
reached.
ENOMEM
Insufficient kernel memory was available.
EROFS
path refers to a file on a read-only filesystem and write access was
requested
DESCRIPTION:
creat attempts to create a file and return a file descriptor for use in read, write, etc.
NOTES:
NONE
The routine is implemented in Cygnus newlib.
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4.4.12 umask - Sets a file creation mask.
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
mode_t umask(
mode_t cmask
);
STATUS CODES:
DESCRIPTION:
The umask() function sets the process file creation mask to cmask. The file creation mask
is used during open(), creat(), mkdir(), mkfifo() calls to turn off permission bits in the
mode argument. Bit positions that are set in cmask are cleared in the mode of the created
file.
NOTES:
NONE
The cmask argument should have only permission bits set. All other bits should be zero.
In a system which supports multiple processes, the file creation mask is inherited across
fork() and exec() calls. This makes it possible to alter the default permission bits of
created files. RTEMS does not support multiple processes so this behavior is not possible.
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4.4.13 link - Creates a link to a file
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <unistd.h>
int link(
const char *existing,
const char *new
);
STATUS CODES:
EACCES
Search permission is denied for a directory in a file’s path prefix
EEXIST
The named file already exists.
EMLINK
The number of links would exceed LINK_MAX.
ENAMETOOLONG Length of a filename string
POSIX NO TRUNC is in effect.
exceeds
PATH MAX
and
ENOENT
A file or directory does not exist.
ENOSPC
No space left on disk.
ENOTDIR
A component of the specified pathname was not a directory when a
directory was expected.
EPERM
Operation is not permitted. Process does not have the appropriate
priviledges or permissions to perform the requested operations.
EROFS
Read-only file system.
EXDEV
Attempt to link a file to another file system.
DESCRIPTION:
The link() function atomically creates a new link for an existing file and increments the
link count for the file.
If the link() function fails, no directories are modified.
The existing argument should not be a directory.
The caller may (or may not) need permission to access the existing file.
NOTES:
NONE
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4.4.14 symlink - Creates a symbolic link to a file
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <unistd.h>
int symlink(
const char *topath,
const char *frompath
);
STATUS CODES:
EACCES
Search permission is denied for a directory in a file’s path prefix
EEXIST
The named file already exists.
ENAMETOOLONG Length of a filename string
POSIX NO TRUNC is in effect.
exceeds
PATH MAX
and
ENOENT
A file or directory does not exist.
ENOSPC
No space left on disk.
ENOTDIR
A component of the specified pathname was not a directory when a
directory was expected.
EPERM
Operation is not permitted. Process does not have the appropriate
priviledges or permissions to perform the requested operations.
EROFS
Read-only file system.
DESCRIPTION:
The symlink() function creates a symbolic link from the frombath to the topath. The
symbolic link will be interpreted at run-time.
If the symlink() function fails, no directories are modified.
The caller may (or may not) need permission to access the existing file.
NOTES:
NONE
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4.4.15 readlink - Obtain the name of a symbolic link destination
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <unistd.h>
int readlink(
const char *path,
char
*buf,
size_t
bufsize
);
STATUS CODES:
EACCES
Search permission is denied for a directory in a file’s path prefix
ENAMETOOLONG Length of a filename string
POSIX NO TRUNC is in effect.
exceeds
PATH MAX
and
ENOENT
A file or directory does not exist.
ENOTDIR
A component of the prefix pathname was not a directory when a
directory was expected.
ELOOP
Too many symbolic links were encountered in the pathname.
EINVAL
The pathname does not refer to a symbolic link
EFAULT
An invalid pointer was passed into the readlink() routine.
DESCRIPTION:
The readlink() function places the symbolic link destination into buf argument and returns the number of characters copied.
If the symbolic link destination is longer than bufsize characters the name will be truncated.
NOTES:
NONE
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4.4.16 mkdir - Makes a directory
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
int mkdir(
const char *path,
mode_t
mode
);
STATUS CODES:
EACCES
Search permission is denied for a directory in a file’s path prefix
EEXIST
The name file already exist.
EMLINK
The number of links would exceed LINK MAX
ENAMETOOLONG Length of a filename string
POSIX NO TRUNC is in effect.
exceeds
PATH MAX
and
ENOENT
A file or directory does not exist.
ENOSPC
No space left on disk.
ENOTDIR
A component of the specified pathname was not a directory when a
directory was expected.
EROFS
Read-only file system.
DESCRIPTION:
The mkdir() function creates a new diectory named path. The permission bits (modified
by the file creation mask) are set from mode. The owner and group IDs for the directory
are set from the effective user ID and group ID.
The new directory may (or may not) contain entries for.. and .. but is otherwise empty.
NOTES:
NONE
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4.4.17 mkfifo - Makes a FIFO special file
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
int mkfifo(
const char *path,
mode_t
mode
);
STATUS CODES:
EACCES
Search permission is denied for a directory in a file’s path prefix
EEXIST
The named file already exists.
ENOENT
A file or directory does not exist.
ENOSPC
No space left on disk.
ENOTDIR
A component of the specified path was not a directory when a directory was expected.
EROFS
Read-only file system.
DESCRIPTION:
The mkfifo() function creates a new FIFO special file named path. The permission bits
(modified by the file creation mask) are set from mode. The owner and group IDs for the
FIFO are set from the efective user ID and group ID.
NOTES:
NONE
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4.4.18 unlink - Removes a directory entry
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <unistd.h>
int unlink(
const char path
);
STATUS CODES:
EACCES
Search permission is denied for a directory in a file’s path prefix
EBUSY
The directory is in use.
ENAMETOOLONG Length of a filename string
POSIX NO TRUNC is in effect.
exceeds
PATH MAX
and
ENOENT
A file or directory does not exist.
ENOTDIR
A component of the specified path was not a directory when a directory was expected.
EPERM
Operation is not permitted. Process does not have the appropriate
priviledges or permissions to perform the requested operations.
EROFS
Read-only file system.
DESCRIPTION:
The unlink function removes the link named by path and decrements the link count of the
file referenced by the link. When the link count goes to zero and no process has the file
open, the space occupied by the file is freed and the file is no longer accessible.
NOTES:
NONE
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4.4.19 rmdir - Delete a directory
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <unistd.h>
int rmdir(
const char *pathname
);
STATUS CODES:
EPERM
The filesystem containing pathname does not support the removal of
directories.
EFAULT
pathname points ouside your accessible address space.
EACCES
Write access to the directory containing pathname was not allowed
for the process’s effective uid, or one of the directories in pathname
did not allow search (execute) permission.
EPERM
The directory containing pathname has the stickybit (S ISVTX) set
and the process’s effective uid is neither the uid of the file to be
delected nor that of the director containing it.
ENAMETOOLONG pathname was too long.
ENOENT
A dirctory component in pathname does not exist or is a dangling
symbolic link.
ENOTDIR
pathname, or a component used as a directory in pathname, is not,
in fact, a directory.
ENOTEMPTY
pathname contains entries other than . and .. .
EBUSY
pathname is the current working directory or root directory of some
process
EBUSY
pathname is the current directory or root directory of some process.
ENOMEM
Insufficient kernel memory was available
EROGS
pathname refers to a file on a read-only filesystem.
ELOOP
pathname contains a reference to a circular symbolic link
DESCRIPTION:
rmdir deletes a directory, which must be empty
NOTES:
NONE
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4.4.20 rename - Renames a file
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <unistd.h>
int rename(
const char *old,
const char *new
);
STATUS CODES:
EACCES
Search permission is denied for a directory in a file’s path prefix.
EBUSY
The directory is in use.
EEXIST
The named file already exists.
EINVAL
Invalid argument.
EISDIR
Attempt to open a directory for writing or to rename a file to be a
directory.
EMLINK
The number of links would exceed LINK MAX.
ENAMETOOLONG Length of a filename string
POSIX NO TRUNC is in effect.
exceeds
PATH MAX
and
ENOENT
A file or directory does no exist.
ENOSPC
No space left on disk.
ENOTDIR
A component of the specified pathname was not a directory when a
directory was expected.
ENOTEMPTY
Attempt to delete or rename a non-empty directory.
EROFS
Read-only file system
EXDEV
Attempt to link a file to another file system.
DESCRIPTION:
The rename() function causes the file known bo old to now be known as new.
Ordinary files may be renamed to ordinary files, and directories may be renamed to directories; however, files cannot be converted using rename(). The new pathname may not
contain a path prefix of old.
NOTES:
If a file already exists by the name new, it is removed. The rename() function is atomic. If
the rename() detects an error, no files are removed. This guarantees that the rename("x",
"x") does not remove x.
You may not rename dot or dot-dot.
The routine is implemented in Cygnus newlib using link() and unlink().
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4.4.21 stat - Gets information about a file
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
int stat(
const char *path,
struct stat *buf
);
STATUS CODES:
EACCES
Search permission is denied for a directory in a file’s path prefix.
EBADF
Invalid file descriptor.
ENAMETOOLONG Length of a filename string
POSIX NO TRUNC is in effect.
exceeds
PATH MAX
and
ENOENT
A file or directory does not exist.
ENOTDIR
A component of the specified pathname was not a directory when a
directory was expected.
DESCRIPTION:
The path argument points to a pathname for a file. Read, write, or execute permission for
the file is not required, but all directories listed in path must be searchable. The stat()
function obtains information about the named file and writes it to the area pointed to by
buf.
NOTES:
NONE
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4.4.22 fstat - Gets file status
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
int fstat(
int
fildes,
struct stat *buf
);
STATUS CODES:
EBADF
Invalid file descriptor
DESCRIPTION:
The fstat() function obtains information about the file associated with fildes and writes
it to the area pointed to by the buf argument.
NOTES:
If the filesystem object referred to by fildes is a link, then the information returned in
buf refers to the destination of that link. This is in contrast to lstat() which does not
follow the link.
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4.4.23 lstat - Gets file status
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
int lstat(
int
fildes,
struct stat *buf
);
STATUS CODES:
EBADF
Invalid file descriptor
DESCRIPTION:
The lstat() function obtains information about the file associated with fildes and writes
it to the area pointed to by the buf argument.
NOTES:
If the filesystem object referred to by fildes is a link, then the information returned in
buf refers to the link itself. This is in contrast to fstat() which follows the link.
The lstat() routine is defined by BSD 4.3 and SVR4 and not included in POSIX 1003.1b1996.
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4.4.24 access - Check permissions for a file
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <unistd.h>
int access(
const char *pathname,
int
mode
);
STATUS CODES:
EACCES
The requested access would be denied, either to the file itself or one
of the directories in pathname.
EFAULT
pathname points outside your accessible address space.
EINVAL
Mode was incorrectly specified.
ENAMETOOLONG pathname is too long.
ENOENT
A directory component in pathname would have been accessible but
does not exist or was a dangling symbolic link.
ENOTDIR
A component used as a directory in pathname is not, in fact, a directory.
ENOMEM
Insufficient kernel memory was available.
DESCRIPTION:
Access checks whether the process would be allowed to read, write or test for existence of
the file (or other file system object) whose name is pathname. If pathname is a symbolic
link permissions of the file referred by this symbolic link are tested.
Mode is a mask consisting of one or more of R OK, W OK, X OK and F OK.
NOTES:
NONE
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4.4.25 chmod - Changes file mode.
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
int chmod(
const char *path,
mode_t
mode
);
STATUS CODES:
EACCES
Search permission is denied for a directory in a file’s path prefix
ENAMETOOLONG Length of a filename string
POSIX NO TRUNC is in effect.
exceeds
PATH MAX
and
ENOENT
A file or directory does not exist.
ENOTDIR
A component of the specified pathname was not a directory when a
directory was expected.
EPERM
Operation is not permitted. Process does not have the appropriate
priviledges or permissions to perform the requested operations.
EROFS
Read-only file system.
DESCRIPTION:
Set the file permission bits, the set user ID bit, and the set group ID bit for the file named
by path to mode. If the effective user ID does not match the owner of the file and the
calling process does not have the appropriate privileges, chmod() returns -1 and sets errno
to EPERM.
NOTES:
NONE
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4.4.26 fchmod - Changes permissions of a file
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
int fchmod(
int
fildes,
mode_t mode
);
STATUS CODES:
EACCES
Search permission is denied for a directory in a file’s path prefix.
EBADF
The descriptor is not valid.
EFAULT
path points outside your accessible address space.
EIO
A low-level I/o error occurred while modifying the inode.
ELOOP
path contains a circular reference
ENAMETOOLONG Length of a filename string
POSIX NO TRUNC is in effect.
exceeds
PATH MAX
and
ENOENT
A file or directory does no exist.
ENOMEM
Insufficient kernel memory was avaliable.
ENOTDIR
A component of the specified pathname was not a directory when a
directory was expected.
EPERM
The effective UID does not match the owner of the file, and is not
zero
EROFS
Read-only file system
DESCRIPTION:
The mode of the file given by path or referenced by filedes is changed.
NOTES:
NONE
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4.4.27 getdents - Get directory entries
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <unistd.h>
#include <linux/dirent.h>
#include <linux/unistd.h>
long getdents(
int
dd_fd,
char *dd_buf,
int
dd_len
);
STATUS CODES:
A successful call to getdents returns th the number of bytes read. On end of directory, 0
is returned. When an error occurs, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.
EBADF
Invalid file descriptor fd.
EFAULT
Argument points outside the calling process’s address space.
EINVAL
Result buffer is too small.
ENOENT
No such directory.
ENOTDIR
File descriptor does not refer to a directory.
DESCRIPTION:
getdents reads several dirent structures from the directory pointed by fd into the memory
area pointed to by dirp. The parameter count is the size of the memory area.
NOTES:
NONE
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4.4.28 chown - Changes the owner and/or group of a file.
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <unistd.h>
int chown(
const char *path,
uid_t
owner,
gid_t
group
);
STATUS CODES:
EACCES
Search permission is denied for a directory in a file’s path prefix
EINVAL
Invalid argument
ENAMETOOLONG Length of a filename string
POSIX NO TRUNC is in effect.
exceeds
PATH MAX
and
ENOENT
A file or directory does not exist.
ENOTDIR
A component of the specified pathname was not a directory when a
directory was expected.
EPERM
Operation is not permitted. Process does not have the appropriate
priviledges or permissions to perform the requested operations.
EROFS
Read-only file system.
DESCRIPTION:
The user ID and group ID of the file named by path are set to owner and path, respectively.
For regular files, the set group ID (S ISGID) and set user ID (S ISUID) bits are cleared.
Some systems consider it a security violation to allow the owner of a file to be changed, If
users are billed for disk space usage, loaning a file to another user could result in incorrect
billing. The chown() function may be restricted to privileged users for some or all files.
The group ID can still be changed to one of the supplementary group IDs.
NOTES:
This function may be restricted for some file. The pathconf function can be used to test
the _PC_CHOWN_RESTRICTED flag.
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4.4.29 utime - Change access and/or modification times of an
inode
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sys/types.h>
int utime(
const char
*filename,
struct utimbuf *buf
);
STATUS CODES:
EACCES
Permission to write the file is denied
ENOENT
Filename does not exist
DESCRIPTION:
Utime changes the access and modification times of the inode specified by filename to
the actime and modtime fields of buf respectively. If buf is NULL, then the access and
modification times of the file are set to the current time.
NOTES:
NONE
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4.4.30 ftruncate - truncate a file to a specified length
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <unistd.h>
int ftrunctate(
int
fd,
size_t length
);
STATUS CODES:
ENOTDIR
A component of the path prefix is not a directory.
EINVAL
The pathname contains a character with the high-order bit set.
ENAMETOOLONG A component of a pathname exceeded 255 characters, or an entire
path name exceeded 1023 characters.
ENOENT
The named file does not exist.
EACCES
The named file is not writable by the user.
EACCES
Search permission is denied for a component of the path prefix.
ELOOP
Too many symbolic links were encountered in translating the pathname
EISDIR
The named file is a directory.
EROFS
The named file resides on a read-only file system
ETXTBSY
The file is a pure procedure (shared text) file that is being executed
EIO
An I/O error occurred updating the inode.
EFAULT
Path points outside the process’s allocated address space.
EBADF
The fd is not a valid descriptor.
DESCRIPTION:
truncate() causes the file named by path or referenced by fd to be truncated to at most
length bytes in size. If the file previously was larger than this size, the extra data is lost.
With ftruncate(), the file must be open for writing.
NOTES:
NONE
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4.4.31 truncate - truncate a file to a specified length
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <unistd.h>
int trunctate(
const char *path,
size_t
length
);
STATUS CODES:
ENOTDIR
A component of the path prefix is not a directory.
EINVAL
The pathname contains a character with the high-order bit set.
ENAMETOOLONG A component of a pathname exceeded 255 characters, or an entire
path name exceeded 1023 characters.
ENOENT
The named file does not exist.
EACCES
The named file is not writable by the user.
EACCES
Search permission is denied for a component of the path prefix.
ELOOP
Too many symbolic links were encountered in translating the pathname
EISDIR
The named file is a directory.
EROFS
The named file resides on a read-only file system
ETXTBSY
The file is a pure procedure (shared text) file that is being executed
EIO
An I/O error occurred updating the inode.
EFAULT
Path points outside the process’s allocated address space.
EBADF
The fd is not a valid descriptor.
DESCRIPTION:
truncate() causes the file named by path or referenced by fd to be truncated to at most
length bytes in size. If the file previously was larger than this size, the extra data is lost.
With ftruncate(), the file must be open for writing.
NOTES:
NONE
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4.4.32 pathconf - Gets configuration values for files
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <unistd.h>
int pathconf(
const char *path,
int
name
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
Invalid argument
EACCES
Permission to write the file is denied
ENAMETOOLONG Length of a filename string
POSIX NO TRUNC is in effect.
exceeds
PATH MAX
and
ENOENT
A file or directory does not exist
ENOTDIR
A component of the specified path was not a directory whan a directory was expected.
DESCRIPTION:
pathconf() gets a value for the configuration option name for the open file descriptor
filedes.
The possible values for name are:
PC LINK MAX
returns the maximum number of links to the file. If filedes or path
refer to a directory, then the value applies to the whole directory.
The corresponding macro is _POSIX_LINK_MAX.
PC MAX CANON returns the maximum length of a formatted input line, where
filedes or path must refer to a terminal. The corresponding macro
is _POSIX_MAX_CANON.
PC MAX INPUT
returns the maximum length of an input line, where filedes or path
must refer to a terminal. The corresponding macro is _POSIX_MAX_
INPUT.
PC NAME MAX
returns the maximum length of a filename in the directory path or
filedes. The process is allowed to create. The corresponding macro
is _POSIX_NAME_MAX.
PC PATH MAX
returns the maximum length of a relative pathname when path or
filedes is the current working directory. The corresponding macro
is _POSIX_PATH_MAX.
PC PIPE BUF
returns the size of the pipe buffer, where filedes must refer to a
pipe or FIFO and path must refer to a FIFO. The corresponding
macro is _POSIX_PIPE_BUF.
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PC CHOWN RESTRICTED
returns nonzero if the chown(2) call may not be used on this file.
If filedes or path refer to a directory, then this applies to all
files in that directory. The corresponding macro is _POSIX_CHOWN_
RESTRICTED.
NOTES:
Files with name lengths longer than the value returned for name equal _PC_NAME_MAX may
exist in the given directory.
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4.4.33 fpathconf - Gets configuration values for files
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <unistd.h>
int fpathconf(
int filedes,
int name
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
Invalid argument
EACCES
Permission to write the file is denied
ENAMETOOLONG
Length of a filename string
POSIX NO TRUNC is in effect.
exceeds
PATH MAX
and
ENOENT
A file or directory does not exist
ENOTDIR
A component of the specified path was not a directory whan a directory was expected.
DESCRIPTION:
pathconf() gets a value for the configuration option name for the open file descriptor
filedes.
The possible values for name are:
PC LINK MAX
returns the maximum number of links to the file. If filedes or path
refer to a directory, then the value applies to the whole directory.
The corresponding macro is POSIX LINK MAX.
PC MAX CANON returns the maximum length of a formatted input line, where
filedes or path must refer to a terminal. The corresponding macro
is _POSIX_MAX_CANON.
PC MAX INPUT
returns the maximum length of an input line, where filedes or path
must refer to a terminal. The corresponding macro is _POSIX_MAX_
INPUT.
PC NAME MAX
returns the maximum length of a filename in the directory path or
filedes. The process is allowed to create. The corresponding macro
is _POSIX_NAME_MAX.
PC PATH MAX
returns the maximum length of a relative pathname when path or
filedes is the current working directory. The corresponding macro
is _POSIX_PATH_MAX.
PC PIPE BUF
returns the size of the pipe buffer, where filedes must refer to a
pipe or FIFO and path must refer to a FIFO. The corresponding
macro is _POSIX_PIPE_BUF.
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PC CHOWN RESTRICTED
returns nonzero if the chown() call may not be used on this file.
If filedes or path refer to a directory, then this applies to all
files in that directory. The corresponding macro is _POSIX_CHOWN_
RESTRICTED.
NOTES:
NONE
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4.4.34 mknod - create a directory
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include
#include
#include
#include
<unistd.h>
<fcntl.h>
<sys/types.h>
<sys/stat.h>
long mknod(
const char *pathname,
mode_t
mode,
dev_t
dev
);
STATUS CODES:
mknod returns zero on success, or -1 if an error occurred (in which case, errno is set appropriately).
ENAMETOOLONG pathname was too long.
ENOENT
A directory component in pathname does not exist or is a dangling
symbolic link.
ENOTDIR
A component used in the directory pathname is not, in fact, a directory.
ENOMEM
Insufficient kernel memory was available
EROFS
pathname refers to a file on a read-only filesystem.
ELOOP
pathname contains a reference to a circular symbolic link, ie a symbolic link whose expansion contains a reference to itself.
ENOSPC
The device containing pathname has no room for the new node.
DESCRIPTION:
mknod attempts to create a filesystem node (file, device special file or named pipe) named
pathname, specified by mode and dev.
mode specifies both the permissions to use and the type of node to be created.
It should be a combination (using bitwise OR) of one of the file types listed below and the
permissions for the new node.
The permissions are modified by the process’s umask in the usual way: the permissions of
the created node are (mode & ~umask).
The file type should be one of S_IFREG, S_IFCHR, S_IFBLK and S_IFIFO to specify a normal
file (which will be created empty), character special file, block special file or FIFO (named
pipe), respectively, or zero, which will create a normal file.
If the file type is S_IFCHR or S_IFBLK then dev specifies the major and minor numbers of
the newly created device special file; otherwise it is ignored.
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The newly created node will be owned by the effective uid of the process. If the directory
containing the node has the set group id bit set, or if the filesystem is mounted with BSD
group semantics, the new node will inherit the group ownership from its parent directory;
otherwise it will be owned by the effective gid of the process.
NOTES:
NONE
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5 Input and Output Primitives Manager
5.1 Introduction
The input and output primitives manager is ...
The directives provided by the input and output primitives manager are:
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pipe - Create an Inter-Process Channel
dup - Duplicates an open file descriptor
dup2 - Duplicates an open file descriptor
close - Closes a file
read - Reads from a file
write - Writes to a file
fcntl - Manipulates an open file descriptor
lseek - Reposition read/write file offset
fsync - Synchronize file complete in-core state with that on disk
fdatasync - Synchronize file in-core data with that on disk
sync - Schedule file system updates
mount - Mount a file system
unmount - Unmount file systems
readv - Vectored read from a file
writev - Vectored write to a file
aio_read - Asynchronous Read
aio_write - Asynchronous Write
lio_listio - List Directed I/O
aio_error - Retrieve Error Status of Asynchronous I/O Operation
aio_return - Retrieve Return Status Asynchronous I/O Operation
aio_cancel - Cancel Asynchronous I/O Request
aio_suspend - Wait for Asynchronous I/O Request
aio_fsync - Asynchronous File Synchronization
5.2 Background
There is currently no text in this section.
5.3 Operations
There is currently no text in this section.
5.4 Directives
This section details the input and output primitives manager’s directives. A subsection is
dedicated to each of this manager’s directives and describes the calling sequence, related
constants, usage, and status codes.
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5.4.1 pipe - Create an Inter-Process Channel
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int pipe(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
This routine is not currently supported by RTEMS but could be in a future version.
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5.4.2 dup - Duplicates an open file descriptor
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <unistd.h>
int dup(
int fildes
);
STATUS CODES:
EBADF
Invalid file descriptor.
EINTR
Function was interrupted by a signal.
EMFILE
The process already has the maximum number of file descriptors
open and tried to open a new one.
DESCRIPTION:
The dup function returns the lowest numbered available file descriptor. This new desciptor
refers to the same open file as the original descriptor and shares any locks.
NOTES:
NONE
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5.4.3 dup2 - Duplicates an open file descriptor
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <unistd.h>
int dup2(
int fildes,
int fildes2
);
STATUS CODES:
EBADF
Invalid file descriptor.
EINTR
Function was interrupted by a signal.
EMFILE
The process already has the maximum number of file descriptors
open and tried to open a new one.
DESCRIPTION:
dup2 creates a copy of the file descriptor oldfd.
The old and new descriptors may be used interchangeably. They share locks, file position
pointers and flags; for example, if the file position is modified by using lseek on one of the
descriptors, the position is also changed for the other.
NOTES:
NONE
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5.4.4 close - Closes a file
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <unistd.h>
int close(
int fildes
);
STATUS CODES:
EBADF
Invalid file descriptor
EINTR
Function was interrupted by a signal.
DESCRIPTION:
The close() function deallocates the file descriptor named by fildes and makes it available
for reuse. All outstanding record locks owned by this process for the file are unlocked.
NOTES:
A signal can interrupt the close() function. In that case, close() returns -1 with errno
set to EINTR. The file may or may not be closed.
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5.4.5 read - Reads from a file
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <unistd.h>
int read(
int
fildes,
void
*buf,
unsigned int nbyte
);
STATUS CODES:
On error, this routine returns -1 and sets errno to one of the following:
EAGAIN
The O NONBLOCK flag is set for a file descriptor and the process
would be delayed in the I/O operation.
EBADF
Invalid file descriptor
EINTR
Function was interrupted by a signal.
EIO
Input or output error
EINVAL
Bad buffer pointer
DESCRIPTION:
The read() function reads nbyte bytes from the file associated with fildes into the buffer
pointed to by buf.
The read() function returns the number of bytes actually read and placed in the buffer.
This will be less than nbyte if:
• The number of bytes left in the file is less than nbyte.
• The read() request was interrupted by a signal.
• The file is a pipe or FIFO or special file with less than nbytes immediately available
for reading.
When attempting to read from any empty pipe or FIFO:
• If no process has the pipe open for writing, zero is returned to indicate end-of-file.
• If some process has the pipe open for writing and O NONBLOCK is set, -1 is
returned and errno is set to EAGAIN.
• If some process has the pipe open for writing and O NONBLOCK is clear, read()
waits for some data to be written or the pipe to be closed.
When attempting to read from a file other than a pipe or FIFO and no data is available.
• If O NONBLOCK is set, -1 is returned and errno is set to EAGAIN.
• If O NONBLOCK is clear, read() waits for some data to become available.
• The O NONBLOCK flag is ignored if data is available.
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NOTES:
NONE
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5.4.6 write - Writes to a file
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <unistd.h>
int write(
int
fildes,
const void
*buf,
unsigned int nbytes
);
STATUS CODES:
EAGAIN
The O NONBLOCK flag is set for a file descriptor and the process
would be delayed in the I/O operation.
EBADF
Invalid file descriptor
EFBIG
An attempt was made to write to a file that exceeds the maximum
file size
EINTR
The function was interrupted by a signal.
EIO
Input or output error.
ENOSPC
No space left on disk.
EPIPE
Attempt to write to a pope or FIFO with no reader.
EINVAL
Bad buffer pointer
DESCRIPTION:
The write() function writes nbyte from the array pointed to by buf into the file associated
with fildes.
If nybte is zero and the file is a regular file, the write() function returns zero and has no
other effect. If nbyte is zero and the file is a special file, te results are not portable.
The write() function returns the number of bytes written. This number will be less than
nbytes if there is an error. It will never be greater than nbytes.
NOTES:
NONE
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5.4.7 fcntl - Manipulates an open file descriptor
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <unistd.h>
int fcntl(
int fildes,
int cmd
);
STATUS CODES:
EACCESS
Search permission is denied for a direcotry in a file’s path prefix.
EAGAIN
The O NONBLOCK flag is set for a file descriptor and the process
would be delayed in the I/O operation.
EBADF
Invalid file descriptor
EDEADLK
An fcntl with function F SETLKW would cause a deadlock.
EINTR
The functioin was interrupted by a signal.
EINVAL
Invalid argument
EMFILE
Too many file descriptor or in use by the process.
ENOLCK
No locks available
DESCRIPTION:
fcntl() performs one of various miscellaneous operations on fd. The operation in question
is determined by cmd:
F DUPFD
Makes arg be a copy of fd, closing fd first if necessary.
The same functionality can be more easily achieved by using dup2().
The old and new descriptors may be used interchangeably. They
share locks, file position pointers and flags; for example, if the file
position is modified by using lseek() on one of the descriptors, the
position is also changed for the other.
The two descriptors do not share the close-on-exec flag, however. The
close-on-exec flag of the copy is off, meaning that it will be closed on
exec.
On success, the new descriptor is returned.
F GETFD
Read the close-on-exec flag. If the low-order bit is 0, the file will
remain open across exec, otherwise it will be closed.
F SETFD
Set the close-on-exec flag to the value specified by arg (only the least
significant bit is used).
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F GETFL
Read the descriptor’s flags (all flags (as set by open()) are returned).
F SETFL
Set the descriptor’s flags to the value specified by arg. Only O_
APPEND and O_NONBLOCK may be set.
The flags are shared between copies (made with dup() etc.) of the
same file descriptor.
The flags and their semantics are described in open().
F GETLK, F SETLK and F SETLKW
Manage discretionary file locks. The third argument arg is a pointer
to a struct flock (that may be overwritten by this call).
F GETLK
Return the flock structure that prevents us from obtaining the lock,
or set the l_type field of the lock to F_UNLCK if there is no obstruction.
F SETLK
The lock is set (when l_type is F_RDLCK or F_WRLCK) or cleared
(when it is F_UNLCK. If lock is held by someone else, this call returns
-1 and sets errno to EACCES or EAGAIN.
F SETLKW
Like F_SETLK, but instead of returning an error we wait for the lock
to be released.
F GETOWN
Get the process ID (or process group) of the owner of a socket.
Process groups are returned as negative values.
F SETOWN
Set the process or process group that owns a socket.
For these commands, ownership means receiving SIGIO or SIGURG
signals.
Process groups are specified using negative values.
NOTES:
The errors returned by dup2 are different from those returned by F_DUPFD.
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5.4.8 lseek - Reposition read/write file offset
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <unistd.h>
int lseek(
int
fildes,
off_t offset,
int
whence
);
STATUS CODES:
EBADF
fildes is not an open file descriptor.
ESPIPE
fildes is associated with a pipe, socket or FIFO.
EINVAL
whence is not a proper value.
DESCRIPTION:
The lseek function repositions the offset of the file descriptor fildes to the argument offset
according to the directive whence. The argument fildes must be an open file descriptor.
Lseek repositions the file pointer fildes as follows:
• If whence is SEEK SET, the offset is set to offset bytes.
• If whence is SEEK CUR, the offset is set to its current location plus offset bytes.
• If whence is SEEK END, the offset is set to the size of the file plus offset bytes.
The lseek function allows the file offset to be set beyond the end of the existing end-of-file
of the file. If data is later written at this point, subsequent reads of the data in the gap
return bytes of zeros (until data is actually written into the gap).
Some devices are incapable of seeking. The value of the pointer associated with such a
device is undefined.
NOTES:
NONE
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5.4.9 fsync - Synchronize file complete in-core state with that on
disk
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int fsync(
int fd
);
STATUS CODES:
On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.
EBADF
fd is not a valid descriptor open for writing
EINVAL
fd is bound to a special file which does not support support synchronization
EROFS
fd is bound to a special file which does not support support synchronization
EIO
An error occurred during synchronization
DESCRIPTION:
fsync copies all in-core parts of a file to disk.
NOTES:
NONE
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5.4.10 fdatasync - Synchronize file in-core data with that on disk
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int fdatasync(
int fd
);
STATUS CODES:
On success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.
EBADF
fd is not a valid file descriptor open for writing.
EINVAL
fd is bound to a special file which does not support synchronization.
EIO
An error occurred during synchronization.
EROFS
fd is bound to a special file which dows not support synchronization.
DESCRIPTION:
fdatasync flushes all data buffers of a file to disk (before the system call returns). It
resembles fsync but is not required to update the metadata such as access time.
Applications that access databases or log files often write a tiny data fragment (e.g., one
line in a log file) and then call fsync immediately in order to ensure that the written
data is physically stored on the harddisk. Unfortunately, fsync will always initiate two
write operations: one for the newly written data and another one in order to update the
modification time stored in the inode. If the modification time is not a part of the transaction
concept fdatasync can be used to avoid unnecessary inode disk write operations.
NOTES:
NONE
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5.4.11 sync - Schedule file system updates
CALLING SEQUENCE:
void sync(void);
STATUS CODES:
NONE
DESCRIPTION:
The sync service causes all information in memory that updates file systems to be scheduled
for writing out to all file systems.
NOTES:
The writing of data to the file systems is only guaranteed to be scheduled upon return. It
is not necessarily complete upon return from sync.
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5.4.12 mount - Mount a file system
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <libio.h>
int mount(
rtems_filesystem_mount_table_entry_t
rtems_filesystem_operations_table
rtems_filesystem_options_t
char
char
);
**mt_entry,
*fs_ops,
fsoptions,
*device,
*mount_point
STATUS CODES:
EXXX
DESCRIPTION:
The mount routines mounts the filesystem class which uses the filesystem operations specified
by fs_ops and fsoptions. The filesystem is mounted at the directory mount_point and the
mode of the mounted filesystem is specified by fsoptions. If this filesystem class requires
a device, then the name of the device must be specified by device.
If this operation succeeds, the mount table entry for the mounted filesystem is returned in
mt_entry.
NOTES:
NONE
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5.4.13 unmount - Unmount file systems
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <libio.h>
int unmount(
const char *mount_path
);
STATUS CODES:
EXXX
DESCRIPTION:
The unmount routine removes the attachment of the filesystem specified by mount_path.
NOTES:
NONE
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5.4.14 readv - Vectored read from a file
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sys/uio.h>
ssize_t readv(
int
fd,
const struct iovec *iov,
int
iovcnt
);
STATUS CODES:
In addition to the errors detected by Input and Output Primitives Manager read - Reads
from a file, read(), this routine may return -1 and sets errno based upon the following
errors:
EINVAL
The sum of the iov_len values in the iov array overflowed an ssize_
t.
EINVAL
The iovcnt argument was less than or equal to 0, or greater than
IOV_MAX.
DESCRIPTION:
The readv() function is equivalent to read() except as described here. The readv()
function shall place the input data into the iovcnt buffers specified by the members of the
iov array: iov[0], iov[1], ..., iov[iovcnt-1].
Each iovec entry specifies the base address and length of an area in memory where data
should be placed. The readv() function always fills an area completely before proceeding
to the next.
NOTES:
NONE
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5.4.15 writev - Vectored write to a file
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sys/uio.h>
ssize_t writev(
int
fd,
const struct iovec *iov,
int
iovcnt
);
STATUS CODES:
In addition to the errors detected by Input and Output Primitives Manager write Write to a file, write(), this routine may return -1 and sets errno based upon the
following errors:
EINVAL
The sum of the iov_len values in the iov array overflowed an ssize_
t.
EINVAL
The iovcnt argument was less than or equal to 0, or greater than
IOV_MAX.
DESCRIPTION:
The writev() function is equivalent to write(), except as noted here. The writev()
function gathers output data from the iovcnt buffers specified by the members of the iov
array: iov[0], iov[1], ..., iov[iovcnt-1]. The iovcnt argument is valid if greater
than 0 and less than or equal to IOV_MAX.
Each iovec entry specifies the base address and length of an area in memory from which data
should be written. The writev() function always writes a complete area before proceeding
to the next.
If fd refers to a regular file and all of the iov_len members in the array pointed to by
iov are 0, writev() returns 0 and has no other effect. For other file types, the behavior is
unspecified by POSIX.
NOTES:
NONE
Chapter 5: Input and Output Primitives Manager
5.4.16 aio read - Asynchronous Read
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int aio_read(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
This routine is not currently supported by RTEMS but could be in a future version.
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5.4.17 aio write - Asynchronous Write
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int aio_write(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
This routine is not currently supported by RTEMS but could be in a future version.
Chapter 5: Input and Output Primitives Manager
5.4.18 lio listio - List Directed I/O
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int lio_listio(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
This routine is not currently supported by RTEMS but could be in a future version.
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5.4.19 aio error - Retrieve Error Status of Asynchronous I/O
Operation
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int aio_error(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
This routine is not currently supported by RTEMS but could be in a future version.
Chapter 5: Input and Output Primitives Manager
5.4.20 aio return - Retrieve Return Status Asynchronous I/O
Operation
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int aio_return(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
This routine is not currently supported by RTEMS but could be in a future version.
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5.4.21 aio cancel - Cancel Asynchronous I/O Request
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int aio_cancel(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
This routine is not currently supported by RTEMS but could be in a future version.
Chapter 5: Input and Output Primitives Manager
5.4.22 aio suspend - Wait for Asynchronous I/O Request
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int aio_suspend(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
This routine is not currently supported by RTEMS but could be in a future version.
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5.4.23 aio fsync - Asynchronous File Synchronization
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int aio_fsync(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
This routine is not currently supported by RTEMS but could be in a future version.
Chapter 6: Device- and Class- Specific Functions Manager
129
6 Device- and Class- Specific Functions Manager
6.1 Introduction
The device- and class- specific functions manager is ...
The directives provided by the device- and class- specific functions manager are:
•
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
cfgetispeed - Reads terminal input baud rate
cfgetospeed - Reads terminal output baud rate
cfsetispeed - Sets terminal input baud rate
cfsetospeed - Set terminal output baud rate
tcgetattr - Gets terminal attributes
tcsetattr - Set terminal attributes
tcsendbreak - Sends a break to a terminal
tcdrain - Waits for all output to be transmitted to the terminal
tcflush - Discards terminal data
tcflow - Suspends/restarts terminal output
tcgetpgrp - Gets foreground process group ID
tcsetpgrp - Sets foreground process group ID
6.2 Background
There is currently no text in this section.
6.3 Operations
There is currently no text in this section.
6.4 Directives
This section details the device- and class- specific functions manager’s directives. A subsection is dedicated to each of this manager’s directives and describes the calling sequence,
related constants, usage, and status codes.
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6.4.1 cfgetispeed - Reads terminal input baud rate
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <termios.h>
int cfgetispeed(
const struct termios *p
);
STATUS CODES:
The cfgetispeed() function returns a code for baud rate.
DESCRIPTION:
The cfsetispeed() function stores a code for the terminal speed stored in a struct termios.
The codes are defined in <termios.h> by the macros BO, B50, B75, B110, B134, B150,
B200, B300, B600, B1200, B1800, B2400, B4800, B9600, B19200, and B38400.
The cfsetispeed() function does not do anything to the hardware. It merely stores a
value for use by tcsetattr().
NOTES:
Baud rates are defined by symbols, such as B110, B1200, B2400. The actual number
returned for any given speed may change from system to system.
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6.4.2 cfgetospeed - Reads terminal output baud rate
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <termios.h>
int cfgetospeed(
const struct termios *p
);
STATUS CODES:
The cfgetospeed() function returns the termios code for the baud rate.
DESCRIPTION:
The cfgetospeed() function returns a code for the terminal speed stored in a struct
termios. The codes are defined in <termios.h> by the macros BO, B50, B75, B110, B134,
B150, B200, B300, B600, B1200, B1800, B2400, B4800, B9600, B19200, and B38400.
The cfgetospeed() function does not do anything to the hardware. It merely returns the
value stored by a previous call to tcgetattr().
NOTES:
Baud rates are defined by symbols, such as B110, B1200, B2400. The actual number
returned for any given speed may change from system to system.
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6.4.3 cfsetispeed - Sets terminal input baud rate
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <termios.h>
int cfsetispeed(
struct termios *p,
speed_t
speed
);
STATUS CODES:
The cfsetispeed() function returns a zero when successful and returns -1 when an error
occurs.
DESCRIPTION:
The cfsetispeed() function stores a code for the terminal speed stored in a struct termios.
The codes are defined in <termios.h> by the macros B0, B50, B75, B110, B134, B150, B200,
B300, B600, B1200, B1800, B2400, B4800, B9600, B19200, and B38400.
NOTES:
This function merely stores a value in the termios structure. It does not change the
terminal speed until a tcsetattr() is done. It does not detect impossible terminal speeds.
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6.4.4 cfsetospeed - Sets terminal output baud rate
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <termios.h>
int cfsetospeed(
struct termios *p,
speed_t
speed
);
STATUS CODES:
The cfsetospeed() function returns a zero when successful and returns -1 when an error
occurs.
DESCRIPTION:
The cfsetospeed() function stores a code for the terminal speed stored in a struct termios.
The codes are defiined in <termios.h> by the macros B0, B50, B75, B110, B134, B150,
B200, B300, B600, B1200, B1800, B2400, B4800, B9600, B19200, and B38400.
The cfsetospeed() function does not do anything to the hardware. It merely stores a
value for use by tcsetattr().
NOTES:
This function merely stores a value in the termios structure. It does not change the
terminal speed until a tcsetattr() is done. It does not detect impossible terminal speeds.
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6.4.5 tcgetattr - Gets terminal attributes
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <termios.h>
#include <unistd.h>
int tcgetattr(
int
fildes,
struct termios *p
);
STATUS CODES:
EBADF
Invalid file descriptor
ENOOTY
Terminal control function attempted for a file that is not a terminal.
DESCRIPTION:
The tcgetattr() gets the parameters associated with the terminal referred to by fildes
and stores them into the termios() structure pointed to by termios_p.
NOTES:
NONE
Chapter 6: Device- and Class- Specific Functions Manager
6.4.6 tcsetattr - Set terminal attributes
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <termios.h>
#include <unistd.h>
int tcsetattr(
int
fildes,
int
options,
const struct termios *tp
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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6.4.7 tcsendbreak - Sends a break to a terminal
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int tcsendbreak(
int fd
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
This routine is not currently supported by RTEMS but could be in a future version.
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6.4.8 tcdrain - Waits for all output to be transmitted to the
terminal.
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <termios.h>
#include <unistd.h>
int tcdrain(
int fildes
);
STATUS CODES:
EBADF
Invalid file descriptor
EINTR
Function was interrupted by a signal
ENOTTY
Terminal control function attempted for a file that is not a terminal.
DESCRIPTION:
The tcdrain() function waits until all output written to fildes has been transmitted.
NOTES:
NONE
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6.4.9 tcflush - Discards terminal data
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int tcflush(
int fd
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
This routine is not currently supported by RTEMS but could be in a future version.
Chapter 6: Device- and Class- Specific Functions Manager
6.4.10 tcflow - Suspends/restarts terminal output.
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int tcflow(
int fd
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
This routine is not currently supported by RTEMS but could be in a future version.
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6.4.11 tcgetpgrp - Gets foreground process group ID
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int tcgetpgrp(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
This routine is not currently supported by RTEMS but could be in a future version.
Chapter 6: Device- and Class- Specific Functions Manager
6.4.12 tcsetpgrp - Sets foreground process group ID
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int tcsetpgrp(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
This routine is not currently supported by RTEMS but could be in a future version.
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143
7 Language-Specific Services for the C
Programming Language Manager
7.1 Introduction
The language-specific services for the C programming language manager is ...
The directives provided by the language-specific services for the C programming language
manager are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
setlocale - Set the Current Locale
fileno - Obtain File Descriptor Number for this File
fdopen - Associate Stream with File Descriptor
flockfile - Acquire Ownership of File Stream
ftrylockfile - Poll to Acquire Ownership of File Stream
funlockfile - Release Ownership of File Stream
getc_unlocked - Get Character without Locking
getchar_unlocked - Get Character from stdin without Locking
putc_unlocked - Put Character without Locking
putchar_unlocked - Put Character to stdin without Locking
setjmp - Save Context for Non-Local Goto
longjmp - Non-Local Jump to a Saved Context
sigsetjmp - Save Context with Signal Status for Non-Local Goto
siglongjmp - Non-Local Jump with Signal Status to a Saved Context
tzset - Initialize Time Conversion Information
strtok_r - Reentrant Extract Token from String
asctime_r - Reentrant struct tm to ASCII Time Conversion
ctime_r - Reentrant time t to ASCII Time Conversion
gmtime_r - Reentrant UTC Time Conversion
localtime_r - Reentrant Local Time Conversion
rand_r - Reentrant Random Number Generation
7.2 Background
There is currently no text in this section.
7.3 Operations
There is currently no text in this section.
7.4 Directives
This section details the language-specific services for the C programming language manager’s directives. A subsection is dedicated to each of this manager’s directives and describes
the calling sequence, related constants, usage, and status codes.
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7.4.1 setlocale - Set the Current Locale
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int setlocale(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 7: Language-Specific Services for the C Programming Language Manager
7.4.2 fileno - Obtain File Descriptor Number for this File
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int fileno(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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7.4.3 fdopen - Associate Stream with File Descriptor
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int fdopen(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 7: Language-Specific Services for the C Programming Language Manager
7.4.4 flockfile - Acquire Ownership of File Stream
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int flockfile(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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7.4.5 ftrylockfile - Poll to Acquire Ownership of File Stream
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int ftrylockfile(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 7: Language-Specific Services for the C Programming Language Manager
7.4.6 funlockfile - Release Ownership of File Stream
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int funlockfile(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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7.4.7 getc unlocked - Get Character without Locking
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int getc_unlocked(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 7: Language-Specific Services for the C Programming Language Manager
7.4.8 getchar unlocked - Get Character from stdin without
Locking
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int getchar_unlocked(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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7.4.9 putc unlocked - Put Character without Locking
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int putc_unlocked(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 7: Language-Specific Services for the C Programming Language Manager
153
7.4.10 putchar unlocked - Put Character to stdin without Locking
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int putchar_unlocked(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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7.4.11 setjmp - Save Context for Non-Local Goto
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int setjmp(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 7: Language-Specific Services for the C Programming Language Manager
7.4.12 longjmp - Non-Local Jump to a Saved Context
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int longjmp(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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7.4.13 sigsetjmp - Save Context with Signal Status for Non-Local
Goto
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int sigsetjmp(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 7: Language-Specific Services for the C Programming Language Manager
7.4.14 siglongjmp - Non-Local Jump with Signal Status to a
Saved Context
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int siglongjmp(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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7.4.15 tzset - Initialize Time Conversion Information
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int tzset(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 7: Language-Specific Services for the C Programming Language Manager
7.4.16 strtok r - Reentrant Extract Token from String
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int strtok_r(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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7.4.17 asctime r - Reentrant struct tm to ASCII Time Conversion
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int asctime_r(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 7: Language-Specific Services for the C Programming Language Manager
7.4.18 ctime r - Reentrant time t to ASCII Time Conversion
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int ctime_r(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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7.4.19 gmtime r - Reentrant UTC Time Conversion
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int gmtime_r(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 7: Language-Specific Services for the C Programming Language Manager
7.4.20 localtime r - Reentrant Local Time Conversion
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int localtime_r(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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7.4.21 rand r - Reentrant Random Number Generation
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int rand_r(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 8: System Databases Manager
165
8 System Databases Manager
8.1 Introduction
The system databases manager is ...
The directives provided by the system databases manager are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
getgrgid - Get Group File Entry for ID
getgrgid_r - Reentrant Get Group File Entry
getgrnam - Get Group File Entry for Name
getgrnam_r - Reentrant Get Group File Entry for Name
getpwuid - Get Password File Entry for UID
getpwuid_r - Reentrant Get Password File Entry for UID
getpwnam - Get Password File Entry for Name
getpwnam_r - Reentrant Get Password File Entry for Name
8.2 Background
There is currently no text in this section.
8.3 Operations
There is currently no text in this section.
8.4 Directives
This section details the system databases manager’s directives. A subsection is dedicated
to each of this manager’s directives and describes the calling sequence, related constants,
usage, and status codes.
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8.4.1 getgrgid - Get Group File Entry for ID
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int getgrgid(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 8: System Databases Manager
8.4.2 getgrgid r - Reentrant Get Group File Entry
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int getgrgid_r(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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8.4.3 getgrnam - Get Group File Entry for Name
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int getgrnam(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 8: System Databases Manager
8.4.4 getgrnam r - Reentrant Get Group File Entry for Name
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int getgrnam_r(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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8.4.5 getpwuid - Get Password File Entry for UID
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int getpwuid(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 8: System Databases Manager
8.4.6 getpwuid r - Reentrant Get Password File Entry for UID
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int getpwuid_r(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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8.4.7 getpwnam - Password File Entry for Name
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int getpwnam(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 8: System Databases Manager
173
8.4.8 getpwnam r - Reentrant Get Password File Entry for Name
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int getpwnam_r(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 9: Semaphore Manager
175
9 Semaphore Manager
9.1 Introduction
The semaphore manager provides functions to allocate, delete, and control semaphores.
This manager is based on the POSIX 1003.1 standard.
The directives provided by the semaphore manager are:
• sem_init - Initialize an unnamed semaphore
• sem_destroy - Destroy an unnamed semaphore
• sem_open - Open a named semaphore
• sem_close - Close a named semaphore
• sem_unlink - Remove a named semaphore
• sem_wait - Lock a semaphore
• sem_trywait - Lock a semaphore
• sem_timedwait - Wait on a Semaphore for a Specified Time
• sem_post - Unlock a semaphore
• sem_getvalue - Get the value of a semeaphore
9.2 Background
9.2.1 Theory
Semaphores are used for synchronization and mutual exclusion by indicating the availability
and number of resources. The task (the task which is returning resources) notifying other
tasks of an event increases the number of resources held by the semaphore by one. The
task (the task which will obtain resources) waiting for the event decreases the number of
resources held by the semaphore by one. If the number of resources held by a semaphore is
insufficient (namely 0), the task requiring resources will wait until the next time resources
are returned to the semaphore. If there is more than one task waiting for a semaphore, the
tasks will be placed in the queue.
9.2.2 "sem t" Structure
The sem_t structure is used to represent semaphores. It is passed as an argument to the
semaphore directives and is defined as follows:
typedef int sem_t;
9.2.3 Building a Semaphore Attribute Set
9.3 Operations
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9.3.1 Using as a Binary Semaphore
Although POSIX supports mutexes, they are only visible between threads. To work between
processes, a binary semaphore must be used.
Creating a semaphore with a limit on the count of 1 effectively restricts the semaphore to
being a binary semaphore. When the binary semaphore is available, the count is 1. When
the binary semaphore is unavailable, the count is 0.
Since this does not result in a true binary semaphore, advanced binary features like the
Priority Inheritance and Priority Ceiling Protocols are not available.
There is currently no text in this section.
9.4 Directives
This section details the semaphore manager’s directives. A subsection is dedicated to each
of this manager’s directives and describes the calling sequence, related constants, usage,
and status codes.
Chapter 9: Semaphore Manager
177
9.4.1 sem init - Initialize an unnamed semaphore
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int sem_init(
sem_t
*sem,
int
pshared,
unsigned int value
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The value argument exceeds SEM VALUE MAX
ENOSPC
A resource required to initialize the semaphore has been exhausted
The limit on semaphores (SEM VALUE MAX) has been reached
ENOSYS
The function sem init is not supported by this implementation
EPERM
The process lacks appropriate privileges to initialize the semaphore
DESCRIPTION:
The sem init function is used to initialize the unnamed semaphore referred to by "sem".
The value of the initialized semaphore is the parameter "value". The semaphore remains
valid until it is destroyed.
ADD MORE HERE XXX
NOTES:
If the functions completes successfully, it shall return a value of zero. Otherwise, it shall
return a value of -1 and set "errno" to specify the error that occurred.
Multiprocessing is currently not supported in this implementation.
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9.4.2 sem destroy - Destroy an unnamed semaphore
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int sem_destroy(
sem_t *sem
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The value argument exceeds SEM VALUE MAX
ENOSYS
The function sem init is not supported by this implementation
EBUSY
There are currently processes blocked on the semaphore
DESCRIPTION:
The sem destroy function is used to destroy an unnamed semaphore refered to by "sem".
sem destroy can only be used on a semaphore that was created using sem init.
NOTES:
If the functions completes successfully, it shall return a value of zero. Otherwise, it shall
return a value of -1 and set "errno" to specify the error that occurred.
Multiprocessing is currently not supported in this implementation.
Chapter 9: Semaphore Manager
179
9.4.3 sem open - Open a named semaphore
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int sem_open(
const char *name,
int
oflag
);
ARGUMENTS:
The following flag bit may be set in oflag:
O_CREAT - Creates the semaphore if it does not already exist. If O CREAT is set and the
semaphore already exists then O CREAT has no effect. Otherwise, sem open() creates a
semaphore. The O CREAT flag requires the third and fourth argument: mode and value
of type mode t and unsigned int, respectively.
O_EXCL - If O EXCL and O CREAT are set, all call to sem open() shall fail if the semaphore
name exists
STATUS CODES:
EACCES
Valid name specified but oflag permissions are denied, or the
semaphore name specified does not exist and permission to create
the named semaphore is denied.
EEXIST
O CREAT and O EXCL are set and the named semaphore already
exists.
EINTR
The sem open() operation was interrupted by a signal.
EINVAL
The sem open() operation is not supported for the given name.
EMFILE
Too many semaphore descriptors or file descriptors in use by this
process.
ENAMETOOLONG The length of the name exceed PATH MAX or name component is
longer than NAME MAX while POSIX NO TRUNC is in effect.
ENOENT
O CREAT is not set and the named semaphore does not exist.
ENOSPC
There is insufficient space for the creation of a new named semaphore.
ENOSYS
The function sem open() is not supported by this implementation.
DESCRIPTION:
The sem open() function establishes a connection between a specified semaphore and a
process. After a call to sem open with a specified semaphore name, a process can reference
to semaphore by the associated name using the address returned by the call. The oflag
arguments listed above control the state of the semaphore by determining if the semaphore
is created or accessed by a call to sem open().
NOTES:
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9.4.4 sem close - Close a named semaphore
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int sem_close(
sem_t *sem_close
);
STATUS CODES:
EACCES
The semaphore argument is not a valid semaphore descriptor.
ENOSYS
The function sem close is not supported by this implementation.
DESCRIPTION:
The sem close() function is used to indicate that the calling process is finished using the
named semaphore indicated by sem. The function sem close deallocates any system resources that were previously allocated by a sem open system call. If sem close() completes
successfully it returns a 1, otherwise a value of -1 is return and errno is set.
NOTES:
Chapter 9: Semaphore Manager
181
9.4.5 sem unlink - Unlink a semaphore
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int sem_unlink(
const char *name
);
STATUS CODES:
EACCESS
Permission is denied to unlink a semaphore.
ENAMETOOLONG The length of the strong name exceed NAME MAX while
POSIX NO TRUNC is in effect.
ENOENT
The name of the semaphore does not exist.
ENOSPC
There is insufficient space for the creation of a new named semaphore.
ENOSYS
The function sem unlink is not supported by this implementation.
DESCRIPTION:
The sem unlink() function shall remove the semaphore name by the string name. If a process
is currently accessing the name semaphore, the sem unlink command has no effect. If one
or more processes have the semaphore open when the sem unlink function is called, the
destruction of semaphores shall be postponed until all reference to semaphore are destroyed
by calls to sem close, exit(), or exec. After all references have been destroyed, it returns
immediately.
If the termination is successful, the function shall return 0. Otherwise, a -1 is returned and
the errno is set.
NOTES:
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9.4.6 sem wait - Wait on a Semaphore
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int sem_wait(
sem_t *sem
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The "sem" argument does not refer to a valid semaphore
DESCRIPTION:
This function attempts to lock a semaphore specified by sem. If the semaphore is available,
then the semaphore is locked (i.e., the semaphore value is decremented). If the semaphore
is unavailable (i.e., the semaphore value is zero), then the function will block until the
semaphore becomes available. It will then successfully lock the semaphore. The semaphore
remains locked until released by a sem_post() call.
If the call is unsuccessful, then the function returns -1 and sets errno to the appropriate
error code.
NOTES:
Multiprocessing is not supported in this implementation.
Chapter 9: Semaphore Manager
183
9.4.7 sem trywait - Non-blocking Wait on a Semaphore
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int sem_trywait(
sem_t *sem
);
STATUS CODES:
EAGAIN
The semaphore is not available (i.e., the semaphore value is zero), so
the semaphore could not be locked.
EINVAL
The sem argument does not refewr to a valid semaphore
DESCRIPTION:
This function attempts to lock a semaphore specified by sem. If the semaphore is available,
then the semaphore is locked (i.e., the semaphore value is decremented) and the function
returns a value of 0. The semaphore remains locked until released by a sem_post() call.
If the semaphore is unavailable (i.e., the semaphore value is zero), then the function will
return a value of -1 immediately and set errno to EAGAIN.
If the call is unsuccessful, then the function returns -1 and sets errno to the appropriate
error code.
NOTES:
Multiprocessing is not supported in this implementation.
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9.4.8 sem timedwait - Wait on a Semaphore for a Specified Time
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int sem_timedwait(
sem_t
*sem,
const struct timespec *abstime
);
STATUS CODES:
EAGAIN
The semaphore is not available (i.e., the semaphore value is zero), so
the semaphore could not be locked.
EINVAL
The sem argument does not refewr to a valid semaphore
DESCRIPTION:
This function attemtps to lock a semaphore specified by sem, and will wait for the semaphore
until the absolute time specified by abstime. If the semaphore is available, then the
semaphore is locked (i.e., the semaphore value is decremented) and the function returns
a value of 0. The semaphore remains locked until released by a sem_post() call. If the
semaphore is unavailable, then the function will wait for the semaphore to become available
for the amount of time specified by timeout.
If the semaphore does not become available within the interval specified by timeout, then
the function returns -1 and sets errno to EAGAIN. If any other error occurs, the function
returns -1 and sets errno to the appropriate error code.
NOTES:
Multiprocessing is not supported in this implementation.
Chapter 9: Semaphore Manager
185
9.4.9 sem post - Unlock a Semaphore
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int sem_post(
sem_t *sem
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The sem argument does not refer to a valid semaphore
DESCRIPTION:
This function attempts to release the semaphore specified by sem. If other tasks are waiting
on the semaphore, then one of those tasks (which one depends on the scheduler being used)
is allowed to lock the semaphore and return from its sem_wait(), sem_trywait(), or sem_
timedwait() call. If there are no other tasks waiting on the semaphore, then the semaphore
value is simply incremented. sem_post() returns 0 upon successful completion.
If an error occurs, the function returns -1 and sets errno to the appropriate error code.
NOTES:
Multiprocessing is not supported in this implementation.
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9.4.10 sem getvalue - Get the value of a semaphore
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int sem_getvalue(
sem_t *sem,
int
*sval
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The "sem" argument does not refer to a valid semaphore
ENOSYS
The function sem getvalue is not supported by this implementation
DESCRIPTION:
The sem getvalue functions sets the location referenced by the "sval" argument to the value
of the semaphore without affecting the state of the semaphore. The updated value represents
a semaphore value that occurred at some point during the call, but is not necessarily the
actual value of the semaphore when it returns to the calling process.
If "sem" is locked, the value returned by sem getvalue will be zero or a negative number
whose absolute value is the number of processes waiting for the semaphore at some point
during the call.
NOTES:
If the functions completes successfully, it shall return a value of zero. Otherwise, it shall
return a value of -1 and set "errno" to specify the error that occurred.
Chapter 10: Mutex Manager
187
10 Mutex Manager
10.1 Introduction
The mutex manager implements the functionality required of the mutex manager as defined
by POSIX 1003.1b-1996. This standard requires that a compliant operating system provide
the facilties to ensure that threads can operate with mutual exclusion from one another and
defines the API that must be provided.
The services provided by the mutex manager are:
• pthread_mutexattr_init - Initialize a Mutex Attribute Set
• pthread_mutexattr_destroy - Destroy a Mutex Attribute Set
• pthread_mutexattr_setprotocol - Set the Blocking Protocol
• pthread_mutexattr_getprotocol - Get the Blocking Protocol
• pthread_mutexattr_setprioceiling - Set the Priority Ceiling
• pthread_mutexattr_getprioceiling - Get the Priority Ceiling
• pthread_mutexattr_setpshared - Set the Visibility
• pthread_mutexattr_getpshared - Get the Visibility
• pthread_mutex_init - Initialize a Mutex
• pthread_mutex_destroy - Destroy a Mutex
• pthread_mutex_lock - Lock a Mutex
• pthread_mutex_trylock - Poll to Lock a Mutex
• pthread_mutex_timedlock - Lock a Mutex with Timeout
• pthread_mutex_unlock - Unlock a Mutex
• pthread_mutex_setprioceiling - Dynamically Set the Priority Ceiling
• pthread_mutex_getprioceiling - Dynamically Get the Priority Ceiling
10.2 Background
10.2.1 Mutex Attributes
Mutex attributes are utilized only at mutex creation time. A mutex attribute structure
may be initialized and passed as an argument to the mutex_init routine. Note that the
priority ceiling of a mutex may be set at run-time.
blocking protcol
is the XXX
priority ceiling
is the XXX
pshared
is the XXX
10.2.2 PTHREAD MUTEX INITIALIZER
This is a special value that a variable of type pthread_mutex_t may be statically initialized
to as shown below:
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pthread_mutex_t my_mutex = PTHREAD_MUTEX_INITIALIZER;
This indicates that my_mutex will be automatically initialized by an implicit call to pthread_
mutex_init the first time the mutex is used.
Note that the mutex will be initialized with default attributes.
10.3 Operations
There is currently no text in this section.
10.4 Services
This section details the mutex manager’s services. A subsection is dedicated to each of this
manager’s services and describes the calling sequence, related constants, usage, and status
codes.
Chapter 10: Mutex Manager
189
10.4.1 pthread mutexattr init - Initialize a Mutex Attribute Set
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_mutexattr_init(
pthread_mutexattr_t *attr
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute pointer argument is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_mutexattr_init routine initializes the mutex attributes object specified by
attr with the default value for all of the individual attributes.
NOTES:
XXX insert list of default attributes here.
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10.4.2 pthread mutexattr destroy - Destroy a Mutex Attribute
Set
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_mutexattr_destroy(
pthread_mutexattr_t *attr
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute pointer argument is invalid.
EINVAL
The attribute set is not initialized.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_mutex_attr_destroy routine is used to destroy a mutex attributes object.
The behavior of using an attributes object after it is destroyed is implementation dependent.
NOTES:
NONE
Chapter 10: Mutex Manager
191
10.4.3 pthread mutexattr setprotocol - Set the Blocking Protocol
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_mutexattr_setprotocol(
pthread_mutexattr_t *attr,
int
protocol
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute pointer argument is invalid.
EINVAL
The attribute set is not initialized.
EINVAL
The protocol argument is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_mutexattr_setprotocol routine is used to set value of the protocol attribute. This attribute controls the order in which threads waiting on this mutex will
receive it.
The protocol can be one of the following:
PTHREAD_PRIO_NONE in which case blocking order is FIFO.
PTHREAD_PRIO_INHERIT
in which case blocking order is priority with the priority inheritance
protocol in effect.
PTHREAD_PRIO_PROTECT
in which case blocking order is priority with the priority ceiling protocol in effect.
NOTES:
There is currently no way to get simple priority blocking ordering with POSIX mutexes
even though this could easily by supported by RTEMS.
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10.4.4 pthread mutexattr getprotocol - Get the Blocking Protocol
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_mutexattr_getprotocol(
pthread_mutexattr_t *attr,
int
*protocol
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute pointer argument is invalid.
EINVAL
The attribute set is not initialized.
EINVAL
The protocol pointer argument is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_mutexattr_getprotocol routine is used to obtain the value of the protocol
attribute. This attribute controls the order in which threads waiting on this mutex will
receive it.
NOTES:
NONE
Chapter 10: Mutex Manager
193
10.4.5 pthread mutexattr setprioceiling - Set the Priority Ceiling
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_mutexattr_setprioceiling(
pthread_mutexattr_t *attr,
int
prioceiling
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute pointer argument is invalid.
EINVAL
The attribute set is not initialized.
EINVAL
The prioceiling argument is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_mutexattr_setprioceiling routine is used to set value of the prioceiling
attribute. This attribute specifies the priority that is the ceiling for threads obtaining this
mutex. Any task obtaining this mutex may not be of greater priority that the ceiling. If it
is of lower priority, then its priority will be elevated to prioceiling.
NOTES:
NONE
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10.4.6 pthread mutexattr getprioceiling - Get the Priority Ceiling
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_mutexattr_getprioceiling(
const pthread_mutexattr_t *attr,
int
*prioceiling
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute pointer argument is invalid.
EINVAL
The attribute set is not initialized.
EINVAL
The prioceiling pointer argument is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_mutexattr_getprioceiling routine is used to obtain the value of the
prioceiling attribute. This attribute specifies the priority ceiling for this mutex.
NOTES:
NONE
Chapter 10: Mutex Manager
10.4.7 pthread mutexattr setpshared - Set the Visibility
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_mutexattr_setpshared(
pthread_mutexattr_t *attr,
int
pshared
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute pointer argument is invalid.
EINVAL
The attribute set is not initialized.
EINVAL
The pshared argument is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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10.4.8 pthread mutexattr getpshared - Get the Visibility
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_mutexattr_getpshared(
const pthread_mutexattr_t *attr,
int
*pshared
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute pointer argument is invalid.
EINVAL
The attribute set is not initialized.
EINVAL
The pshared pointer argument is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 10: Mutex Manager
197
10.4.9 pthread mutex init - Initialize a Mutex
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_mutex_init(
pthread_mutex_t
*mutex,
const pthread_mutexattr_t *attr
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute set is not initialized.
EINVAL
The specified protocol is invalid.
EAGAIN
The system lacked the necessary resources to initialize another mutex.
ENOMEM
Insufficient memory exists to initialize the mutex.
EBUSY
Attempted to reinialize the object reference by mutex, a previously
initialized, but not yet destroyed.
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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10.4.10 pthread mutex destroy - Destroy a Mutex
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_mutex_destroy(
pthread_mutex_t *mutex
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The specified mutex is invalid.
EBUSY
Attempted to destroy the object reference by mutex, while it is locked
or referenced by another thread.
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 10: Mutex Manager
199
10.4.11 pthread mutex lock - Lock a Mutex
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_mutex_lock(
pthread_mutex_t *mutex
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The specified mutex is invalid.
EINVAL
The
mutex
has
the
protocol
attribute
PTHREAD PRIO PROTECT
and
the
priority
of
calling thread is higher than the current priority ceiling.
EDEADLK
The current thread already owns the mutex.
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
of
the
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10.4.12 pthread mutex trylock - Poll to Lock a Mutex
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_mutex_trylock(
pthread_mutex_t *mutex
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The specified mutex is invalid.
EINVAL
The
mutex
has
the
protocol
attribute
PTHREAD PRIO PROTECT
and
the
priority
of
calling thread is higher than the current priority ceiling.
EDEADLK
The current thread already owns the mutex.
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
of
the
Chapter 10: Mutex Manager
201
10.4.13 pthread mutex timedlock - Lock a Mutex with Timeout
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
#include <time.h>
int pthread_mutex_timedlock(
pthread_mutex_t
*mutex,
const struct timespec *timeout
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The specified mutex is invalid.
EINVAL
The nanoseconds field of timeout is invalid.
EINVAL
The
mutex
has
the
protocol
attribute
PTHREAD PRIO PROTECT
and
the
priority
of
calling thread is higher than the current priority ceiling.
EDEADLK
The current thread already owns the mutex.
ETIMEDOUT
The calling thread was unable to obtain the mutex within the specified timeout period.
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
of
the
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10.4.14 pthread mutex unlock - Unlock a Mutex
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_mutex_unlock(
pthread_mutex_t *mutex
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The specified mutex is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 10: Mutex Manager
10.4.15 pthread mutex setprioceiling - Dynamically Set the
Priority Ceiling
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_mutex_setprioceiling(
pthread_mutex_t *mutex,
int
prioceiling,
int
*oldceiling
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The oldceiling pointer parameter is invalid.
EINVAL
The prioceiling parameter is an invalid priority.
EINVAL
The specified mutex is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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10.4.16 pthread mutex getprioceiling - Get the Current Priority
Ceiling
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_mutex_getprioceiling(
pthread_mutex_t *mutex,
int
*prioceiling
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The prioceiling pointer parameter is invalid.
EINVAL
The specified mutex is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 11: Condition Variable Manager
205
11 Condition Variable Manager
11.1 Introduction
The condition variable manager ...
The directives provided by the condition variable manager are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
pthread_condattr_init - Initialize a Condition Variable Attribute Set
pthread_condattr_destroy - Destroy a Condition Variable Attribute Set
pthread_condattr_setpshared - Set Process Shared Attribute
pthread_condattr_getpshared - Get Process Shared Attribute
pthread_cond_init - Initialize a Condition Variable
pthread_cond_destroy - Destroy a Condition Variable
pthread_cond_signal - Signal a Condition Variable
pthread_cond_broadcast - Broadcast a Condition Variable
pthread_cond_wait - Wait on a Condition Variable
pthread_cond_timedwait - With with Timeout a Condition Variable
11.2 Background
There is currently no text in this section.
11.3 Operations
There is currently no text in this section.
11.4 Directives
This section details the condition variable manager’s directives. A subsection is dedicated
to each of this manager’s directives and describes the calling sequence, related constants,
usage, and status codes.
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11.4.1 pthread condattr init - Initialize a Condition Variable
Attribute Set
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_condattr_init(
pthread_condattr_t *attr
);
STATUS CODES:
ENOMEM
Insufficient memory is available to initialize the condition variable
attributes object.
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 11: Condition Variable Manager
11.4.2 pthread condattr destroy - Destroy a Condition Variable
Attribute Set
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_condattr_destroy(
pthread_condattr_t *attr
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute object specified is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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11.4.3 pthread condattr setpshared - Set Process Shared
Attribute
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_condattr_setpshared(
pthread_condattr_t *attr,
int
pshared
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
Invalid argument passed.
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 11: Condition Variable Manager
11.4.4 pthread condattr getpshared - Get Process Shared
Attribute
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_condattr_getpshared(
const pthread_condattr_t *attr,
int
*pshared
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
Invalid argument passed.
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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11.4.5 pthread cond init - Initialize a Condition Variable
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_cond_init(
pthread_cond_t
*cond,
const pthread_condattr_t *attr
);
STATUS CODES:
EAGAIN
The system lacked a resource other than memory necessary to create
the initialize the condition variable object.
ENOMEM
Insufficient memory is available to initialize the condition variable
object.
EBUSY
The specified condition variable has already been initialized.
EINVAL
The specified attribute value is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 11: Condition Variable Manager
11.4.6 pthread cond destroy - Destroy a Condition Variable
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_cond_destroy(
pthread_cond_t *cond
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The specified condition variable is invalid.
EBUSY
The specified condition variable is currently in use.
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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11.4.7 pthread cond signal - Signal a Condition Variable
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_cond_signal(
pthread_cond_t *cond
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The specified condition variable is not valid.
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
This routine should not be invoked from a handler from an asynchronous signal handler or
an interrupt service routine.
Chapter 11: Condition Variable Manager
213
11.4.8 pthread cond broadcast - Broadcast a Condition Variable
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_cond_broadcast(
pthread_cond_t *cond
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The specified condition variable is not valid.
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
This routine should not be invoked from a handler from an asynchronous signal handler or
an interrupt service routine.
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11.4.9 pthread cond wait - Wait on a Condition Variable
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_cond_wait(
pthread_cond_t *cond,
pthread_mutex_t *mutex
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The specified condition variable or mutex is not initialized OR different mutexes were specified for concurrent pthread cond wait() and
pthread cond timedwait() operations on the same condition variable
OR the mutex was not owned by the current thread at the time of
the call.
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 11: Condition Variable Manager
215
11.4.10 pthread cond timedwait - Wait with Timeout a Condition
Variable
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_cond_timedwait(
pthread_cond_t
*cond,
pthread_mutex_t
*mutex,
const struct timespec *abstime
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The specified condition variable or mutex is not initialized OR different mutexes were specified for concurrent pthread cond wait() and
pthread cond timedwait() operations on the same condition variable
OR the mutex was not owned by the current thread at the time of
the call.
ETIMEDOUT
The specified time has elapsed without the condition variable being
satisfied.
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 12: Memory Management Manager
217
12 Memory Management Manager
12.1 Introduction
The memory management manager is ...
The directives provided by the memory management manager are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
mlockall - Lock the Address Space of a Process
munlockall - Unlock the Address Space of a Process
mlock - Lock a Range of the Process Address Space
munlock - Unlock a Range of the Process Address Space
mmap - Map Process Addresses to a Memory Object
munmap - Unmap Previously Mapped Addresses
mprotect - Change Memory Protection
msync - Memory Object Synchronization
shm_open - Open a Shared Memory Object
shm_unlink - Remove a Shared Memory Object
12.2 Background
There is currently no text in this section.
12.3 Operations
There is currently no text in this section.
12.4 Directives
This section details the memory management manager’s directives. A subsection is dedicated to each of this manager’s directives and describes the calling sequence, related constants, usage, and status codes.
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12.4.1 mlockall - Lock the Address Space of a Process
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int mlockall(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 12: Memory Management Manager
12.4.2 munlockall - Unlock the Address Space of a Process
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int munlockall(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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12.4.3 mlock - Lock a Range of the Process Address Space
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int mlock(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 12: Memory Management Manager
12.4.4 munlock - Unlock a Range of the Process Address Space
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int munlock(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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12.4.5 mmap - Map Process Addresses to a Memory Object
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int mmap(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 12: Memory Management Manager
12.4.6 munmap - Unmap Previously Mapped Addresses
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int munmap(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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12.4.7 mprotect - Change Memory Protection
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int mprotect(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 12: Memory Management Manager
12.4.8 msync - Memory Object Synchronization
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int msync(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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12.4.9 shm open - Open a Shared Memory Object
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int shm_open(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 12: Memory Management Manager
12.4.10 shm unlink - Remove a Shared Memory Object
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int shm_unlink(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
227
Chapter 13: Scheduler Manager
229
13 Scheduler Manager
13.1 Introduction
The scheduler manager ...
The directives provided by the scheduler manager are:
• sched_get_priority_min - Get Minimum Priority Value
• sched_get_priority_max - Get Maximum Priority Value
• sched_rr_get_interval - Get Timeslicing Quantum
• sched_yield - Yield the Processor
13.2 Background
13.2.1 Priority
In the RTEMS implementation of the POSIX API, the priorities range from the low priority of sched_get_priority_min() to the highest priority of sched_get_priority_max().
Numerically higher values represent higher priorities.
13.2.2 Scheduling Policies
The following scheduling policies are available:
SCHED FIFO
Priority-based, preemptive scheduling with no timeslicing. This is
equivalent to what is called "manual round-robin" scheduling.
SCHED RR
Priority-based, preemptive scheduling with timeslicing. Time quantums are maintained on a per-thread basis and are not reset at each
context switch. Thus, a thread which is preempted and subsequently
resumes execution will attempt to complete the unused portion of its
time quantum.
SCHED OTHER
Priority-based, preemptive scheduling with timeslicing. Time quantums are maintained on a per-thread basis and are reset at each
context switch.
SCHED SPORADIC
Priority-based, preemptive scheduling utilizing three additional parameters: budget, replenishment period, and low priority. Under this
policy, the thread is allowed to execute for "budget" amount of time
before its priority is lowered to "low priority". At the end of each
replenishment period, the thread resumes its initial priority and has
its budget replenished.
13.3 Operations
There is currently no text in this section.
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13.4 Directives
This section details the scheduler manager’s directives. A subsection is dedicated to each of
this manager’s directives and describes the calling sequence, related constants, usage, and
status codes.
Chapter 13: Scheduler Manager
231
13.4.1 sched get priority min - Get Minimum Priority Value
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sched.h>
int sched_get_priority_min(
int policy
);
STATUS CODES:
On error, this routine returns -1 and sets errno to one of the following:
EINVAL
The indicated policy is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
This routine return the minimum (numerically and logically lowest) priority for the specified
policy.
NOTES:
NONE
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13.4.2 sched get priority max - Get Maximum Priority Value
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sched.h>
int sched_get_priority_max(
int policy
);
STATUS CODES:
On error, this routine returns -1 and sets errno to one of the following:
EINVAL
The indicated policy is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
This routine return the maximum (numerically and logically highest) priority for the specified policy.
NOTES:
NONE
Chapter 13: Scheduler Manager
233
13.4.3 sched rr get interval - Get Timeslicing Quantum
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sched.h>
int sched_rr_get_interval(
pid_t
pid,
struct timespec *interval
);
STATUS CODES:
On error, this routine returns -1 and sets errno to one of the following:
ESRCH
The indicated process id is invalid.
EINVAL
The specified interval pointer parameter is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
This routine returns the length of the timeslice quantum in the interval parameter for the
specified pid.
NOTES:
The pid argument should be 0 to indicate the calling process.
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13.4.4 sched yield - Yield the Processor
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sched.h>
int sched_yield( void );
STATUS CODES:
This routine always returns zero to indicate success.
DESCRIPTION:
This call forces the calling thread to yield the processor to another thread. Normally this
is used to implement voluntary round-robin task scheduling.
NOTES:
NONE
Chapter 14: Clock Manager
235
14 Clock Manager
14.1 Introduction
The clock manager provides services two primary classes of services. The first focuses on
obtaining and setting the current date and time. The other category of services focus on
allowing a thread to delay for a specific length of time.
The directives provided by the clock manager are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
clock_gettime - Obtain Time of Day
clock_settime - Set Time of Day
clock_getres - Get Clock Resolution
sleep - Delay Process Execution
usleep - Delay Process Execution in Microseconds
nanosleep - Delay with High Resolution
gettimeofday - Get the Time of Day
time - Get time in seconds
14.2 Background
There is currently no text in this section.
14.3 Operations
There is currently no text in this section.
14.4 Directives
This section details the clock manager’s directives. A subsection is dedicated to each of
this manager’s directives and describes the calling sequence, related constants, usage, and
status codes.
14.4.1 clock gettime - Obtain Time of Day
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <time.h>
int clock_gettime(
clockid_t
clock_id,
struct timespec *tp
);
STATUS CODES:
On error, this routine returns -1 and sets errno to one of the following:
EINVAL
The tp pointer parameter is invalid.
EINVAL
The clock id specified is invalid.
236
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
NONE
RTEMS POSIX API User’s Guide
Chapter 14: Clock Manager
14.4.2 clock settime - Set Time of Day
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <time.h>
int clock_settime(
clockid_t
clock_id,
const struct timespec *tp
);
STATUS CODES:
On error, this routine returns -1 and sets errno to one of the following:
EINVAL
The tp pointer parameter is invalid.
EINVAL
The clock id specified is invalid.
EINVAL
The contents of the tp structure are invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
NONE
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14.4.3 clock getres - Get Clock Resolution
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <time.h>
int clock_getres(
clockid_t
clock_id,
struct timespec *res
);
STATUS CODES:
On error, this routine returns -1 and sets errno to one of the following:
EINVAL
The res pointer parameter is invalid.
EINVAL
The clock id specified is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
If res is NULL, then the resolution is not returned.
Chapter 14: Clock Manager
14.4.4 sleep - Delay Process Execution
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <unistd.h>
unsigned int sleep(
unsigned int seconds
);
STATUS CODES:
This routine returns the number of unslept seconds.
DESCRIPTION:
The sleep() function delays the calling thread by the specified number of seconds.
NOTES:
This call is interruptible by a signal.
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14.4.5 usleep - Delay Process Execution in Microseconds
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <time.h>
useconds_t usleep(
useconds_t useconds
);
STATUS CODES:
This routine returns the number of unslept seconds.
DESCRIPTION:
The sleep() function delays the calling thread by the specified number of seconds.
The usleep() function suspends the calling thread from execution until either the number
of microseconds specified by the useconds argument has elapsed or a signal is delivered to
the calling thread and its action is to invoke a signal-catching function or to terminate the
process.
Because of other activity, or because of the time spent in processing the call, the actual
length of time the thread is blocked may be longer than the amount of time specified.
NOTES:
This call is interruptible by a signal.
The Single UNIX Specification allows this service to be implemented using the same timer
as that used by the alarm() service. This is NOT the case for RTEMS and this call has no
interaction with the SIGALRM signal.
Chapter 14: Clock Manager
241
14.4.6 nanosleep - Delay with High Resolution
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <time.h>
int nanosleep(
const struct timespec *rqtp,
struct timespec
*rmtp
);
STATUS CODES:
On error, this routine returns -1 and sets errno to one of the following:
EINTR
The routine was interrupted by a signal.
EAGAIN
The requested sleep period specified negative seconds or nanoseconds.
EINVAL
The requested sleep period specified an invalid number for the
nanoseconds field.
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
This call is interruptible by a signal.
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14.4.7 gettimeofday - Get the Time of Day
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <unistd.h>
int gettimeofday(
struct timeval *tp,
struct timezone *tzp
);
STATUS CODES:
On error, this routine returns -1 and sets errno as appropriate.
EPERM
settimeofdat is called by someone other than the superuser.
EINVAL
Timezone (or something else) is invalid.
EFAULT
One of tv or tz pointed outside your accessible address space
DESCRIPTION:
This routine returns the current time of day in the tp structure.
NOTES:
Currently, the timezone information is not supported. The tzp argument is ignored.
Chapter 14: Clock Manager
14.4.8 time - Get time in seconds
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <time.h>
int time(
time_t *tloc
);
STATUS CODES:
This routine returns the number of seconds since the Epoch.
DESCRIPTION:
time returns the time since 00:00:00 GMT, January 1, 1970, measured in seconds
If tloc in non null, the return value is also stored in the memory pointed to by t.
NOTES:
NONE
243
Chapter 15: Timer Manager
245
15 Timer Manager
15.1 Introduction
The timer manager is ...
The services provided by the timer manager are:
•
•
•
•
•
timer_create - Create a Per-Process Timer
timer_delete - Delete a Per-Process Timer
timer_settime - Set Next Timer Expiration
timer_gettime - Get Time Remaining on Timer
timer_getoverrun - Get Timer Overrun Count
15.2 Background
15.3 Operations
15.4 System Calls
This section details the timer manager’s services. A subsection is dedicated to each of this
manager’s services and describes the calling sequence, related constants, usage, and status
codes.
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15.4.1 timer create - Create a Per-Process Timer
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <time.h>
#include <signal.h>
int timer_create(
clockid_t
clock_id,
struct sigevent *evp,
timer_t
*timerid
);
STATUS CODES:
EXXX -
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 15: Timer Manager
15.4.2 timer delete - Delete a Per-Process Timer
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <time.h>
int timer_delete(
timer_t timerid
);
STATUS CODES:
EXXX -
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
247
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15.4.3 timer settime - Set Next Timer Expiration
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <time.h>
int timer_settime(
timer_t
timerid,
int
flags,
const struct itimerspec *value,
struct itimerspec
*ovalue
);
STATUS CODES:
EXXX -
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 15: Timer Manager
15.4.4 timer gettime - Get Time Remaining on Timer
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <time.h>
int timer_gettime(
timer_t
timerid,
struct itimerspec *value
);
STATUS CODES:
EXXX -
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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15.4.5 timer getoverrun - Get Timer Overrun Count
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <time.h>
int timer_getoverrun(
timer_t
timerid
);
STATUS CODES:
EXXX -
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 16: Message Passing Manager
251
16 Message Passing Manager
16.1 Introduction
The message passing manager is the means to provide communication and synchronization
capabilities using POSIX message queues.
The directives provided by the message passing manager are:
• mq_open - Open a Message Queue
• mq_close - Close a Message Queue
• mq_unlink - Remove a Message Queue
• mq_send - Send a Message to a Message Queue
• mq_receive - Receive a Message from a Message Queue
• mq_notify - Notify Process that a Message is Available
• mq_setattr - Set Message Queue Attributes
• mq_getattr - Get Message Queue Attributes
16.2 Background
16.2.1 Theory
Message queues are named objects that operate with readers and writers. In addition,
a message queue is a priority queue of discrete messages. POSIX message queues offer a
certain, basic amount of application access to, and control over, the message queue geometry
that can be changed.
16.2.2 Messages
A message is a variable length buffer where information can be stored to support communication. The length of the message and the information stored in that message are
user-defined and can be actual data, pointer(s), or empty. There is a maximum acceptable
length for a message that is associated with each message queue.
16.2.3 Message Queues
Message queues are named objects similar to the pipes of POSIX. They are a means of
communicating data between multiple processes and for passing messages among tasks and
ISRs. Message queues can contain a variable number of messages from 0 to an upper limit
that is user defined. The maximum length of the message can be set on a per message
queue basis. Normally messages are sent and received from the message queue in FIFO
order. However, messages can also be prioritized and a priority queue established for the
passing of messages. Synchronization is needed when a task waits for a message to arrive
at a queue. Also, a task may poll a queue for the arrival of a message.
The message queue descriptor mqd_t represents the message queue. It is passed as an
argument to all of the message queue functions.
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16.2.4 Building a Message Queue Attribute Set
The mq attr structure is used to define the characteristics of the message queue.
typedef struct mq_attr{
long mq_flags;
long mq_maxmsg;
long mq_msgsize;
long mq_curmsgs;
};
All of these attributes are set when the message queue is created using mq open. The
mq flags field is not used in the creation of a message queue, it is only used by mq setattr and
mq getattr. The structure mq attr is passed as an argument to mq setattr and mq getattr.
The mq flags contain information affecting the behavior of the message queue. The
O NONBLOCK mq flag is the only flag that is defined. In mq setattr, the mq flag can be
set to dynamically change the blocking and non-blocking behavior of the message queue.
If the non-block flag is set then the message queue is non-blocking, and requests to send
and receive messages do not block waiting for resources. For a blocking message queue, a
request to send might have to wait for an empty message queue, and a request to receive
might have to wait for a message to arrive on the queue. Both mq maxmsg and mq msgsize
affect the sizing of the message queue. mq maxmsg specifies how many messages the queue
can hold at any one time. mq msgsize specifies the size of any one message on the queue.
If either of these limits is exceeded, an error message results.
Upon return from mq getattr, the mq curmsgs is set according to the current state of the
message queue. This specifies the number of messages currently on the queue.
16.2.5 Notification of a Message on the Queue
Every message queue has the ability to notify one (and only one) process whenever the
queue’s state changes from empty (0 messages) to nonempty. This means that the process
does not have to block or constantly poll while it waits for a message. By calling mq notify,
you can attach a notification request to a message queue. When a message is received by
an empty queue, if there are no processes blocked and waiting for the message, then the
queue notifies the requesting process of a message arrival. There is only one signal sent by
the message queue, after that the notification request is de-registered and another process
can attach its notification request. After receipt of a notification, a process must re-register
if it wishes to be notified again.
If there is a process blocked and waiting for the message, that process gets the message,
and notification is not sent. It is also possible for another process to receive the message
after the notification is sent but before the notified process has sent its receive request.
Only one process can have a notification request attached to a message queue at any one
time. If another process attempts to register a notification request, it fails. You can deregister for a message queue by passing a NULL to mq notify, this removes any notification
request attached to the queue. Whenever the message queue is closed, all notification
attachments are removed.
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16.2.6 POSIX Interpretation Issues
There is one significant point of interpretation related to the RTEMS implementation of
POSIX message queues:
What happens to threads already blocked on a message queue when the mode of that same
message queue is changed from blocking to non-blocking?
The RTEMS POSIX implementation decided to unblock all waiting tasks with an EAGAIN
status just as if a non-blocking version of the same operation had returned unsatisfied. This
case is not discussed in the POSIX standard and other implementations may have chosen
alternative behaviors.
16.3 Operations
16.3.1 Opening or Creating a Message Queue
If the message queue already exists, mq open() opens it, if the message queue does not
exist, mq open() creates it. When a message queue is created, the geometry of the message
queue is contained in the attribute structure that is passed in as an argument. This includes
mq msgsize that dictates the maximum size of a single message, and the mq maxmsg that
dictates the maximum number of messages the queue can hold at one time. The blocking
or non-blocking behavior of the queue can also specified.
16.3.2 Closing a Message Queue
The mq close() function is used to close the connection made to a message queue that
was made during mq open. The message queue itself and the messages on the queue are
persistent and remain after the queue is closed.
16.3.3 Removing a Message Queue
The mq unlink() function removes the named message queue. If the message queue is not
open when mq unlink is called, then the queue is immediately eliminated. Any messages
that were on the queue are lost, and the queue can not be opened again. If processes have
the queue open when mq unlink is called, the removal of the queue is delayed until the last
process using the queue has finished. However, the name of the message queue is removed
so that no other process can open it.
16.3.4 Sending a Message to a Message Queue
The mq send() function adds the message in priority order to the message queue. Each
message has an assigned a priority. The highest priority message is be at the front of the
queue.
The maximum number of messages that a message queue may accept is specified at creation
by the mq maxmsg field of the attribute structure. If this amount is exceeded, the behavior
of the process is determined according to what oflag was used when the message queue was
opened. If the queue was opened with O NONBLOCK flag set, the process does not block,
and an error is returned. If the O NONBLOCK flag was not set, the process does block
and wait for space on the queue.
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16.3.5 Receiving a Message from a Message Queue
The mq receive() function is used to receive the oldest of the highest priority message(s)
from the message queue specified by mqdes. The messages are received in FIFO order
within the priorities. The received message’s priority is stored in the location referenced by
the msg prio. If the msg prio is a NULL, the priority is discarded. The message is removed
and stored in an area pointed to by msg ptr whose length is of msg len. The msg len must
be at least equal to the mq msgsize attribute of the message queue.
The blocking behavior of the message queue is set by O NONBLOCK at mq open or by
setting O NONBLOCK in mq flags in a call to mq setattr. If this is a blocking queue, the
process does block and wait on an empty queue. If this a non-blocking queue, the process
does not block. Upon successful completion, mq receive returns the length of the selected
message in bytes and the message is removed from the queue.
16.3.6 Notification of Receipt of a Message on an Empty Queue
The mq notify() function registers the calling process to be notified of message arrival at
an empty message queue. Every message queue has the ability to notify one (and only
one) process whenever the queue’s state changes from empty (0 messages) to nonempty.
This means that the process does not have to block or constantly poll while it waits for a
message. By calling mq notify, a notification request is attached to a message queue. When
a message is received by an empty queue, if there are no processes blocked and waiting for
the message, then the queue notifies the requesting process of a message arrival. There is
only one signal sent by the message queue, after that the notification request is de-registered
and another process can attach its notification request. After receipt of a notification, a
process must re-register if it wishes to be notified again.
If there is a process blocked and waiting for the message, that process gets the message,
and notification is not sent. Only one process can have a notification request attached to
a message queue at any one time. If another process attempts to register a notification
request, it fails. You can de-register for a message queue by passing a NULL to mq notify,
this removes any notification request attached to the queue. Whenever the message queue
is closed, all notification attachments are removed.
16.3.7 Setting the Attributes of a Message Queue
The mq setattr() function is used to set attributes associated with the open message queue
description referenced by the message queue descriptor specified by mqdes. The *omqstat
represents the old or previous attributes. If omqstat is non-NULL, the function mq setattr()
stores, in the location referenced by omqstat, the previous message queue attributes and
the current queue status. These values are the same as would be returned by a call to
mq getattr() at that point.
There is only one mq attr.mq flag that can be altered by this call. This is the flag that
deals with the blocking and non-blocking behavior of the message queue. If the flag is set
then the message queue is non-blocking, and requests to send or receive do not block while
waiting for resources. If the flag is not set, then message send and receive may involve
waiting for an empty queue or waiting for a message to arrive.
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16.3.8 Getting the Attributes of a Message Queue
The mq getattr() function is used to get status information and attributes of the message
queue associated with the message queue descriptor. The results are returned in the mq attr
structure referenced by the mqstat argument. All of these attributes are set at create time,
except the blocking/non-blocking behavior of the message queue which can be dynamically
set by using mq setattr. The attribute mq curmsg is set to reflect the number of messages
on the queue at the time that mq getattr was called.
16.4 Directives
This section details the message passing manager’s directives. A subsection is dedicated
to each of this manager’s directives and describes the calling sequence, related constants,
usage, and status codes.
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16.4.1 mq open - Open a Message Queue
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <mqueue.h>
mqd_t mq_open(
const char
*name,
int
oflag,
mode_t
mode,
struct mq_attr *attr
);
STATUS CODES:
EACCES - Either the message queue exists and the permissions requested in oflags were
denied, or the message does not exist and permission to create one is denied.
EEXIST - You tried to create a message queue that already exists.
EINVAL - An inappropriate name was given for the message queue, or the values of mqmaxmsg or mq msgsize were less than 0.
ENOENT - The message queue does not exist, and you did not specify to create it.
EINTR - The call to mq open was interrupted by a signal.
EMFILE - The process has too many files or message queues open. This is a process limit
error.
ENFILE - The system has run out of resources to support more open message queues. This
is a system error.
ENAMETOOLONG - mq name is too long.
DESCRIPTION:
The mq open () function establishes the connection between a process and a message queue
with a message queue descriptor. If the message queue already exists, mq open opens it, if
the message queue does not exist, mq open creates it. Message queues can have multiple
senders and receivers. If mq open is successful, the function returns a message queue
descriptor. Otherwise, the function returns a -1 and sets ’errno’ to indicate the error.
The name of the message queue is used as an argument. For the best of portability, the
name of the message queue should begin with a "/" and no other "/" should be in the
name. Different systems interpret the name in different ways.
The oflags contain information on how the message is opened if the queue already exists.
This may be O RDONLY for read only, O WRONLY for write only, of O RDWR, for read
and write.
In addition, the oflags contain information needed in the creation of a message queue. O_
NONBLOCK - If the non-block flag is set then the message queue is non-blocking, and requests
to send and receive messages do not block waiting for resources. If the flag is not set then
the message queue is blocking, and a request to send might have to wait for an empty
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message queue. Similarly, a request to receive might have to wait for a message to arrive
on the queue. O_CREAT - This call specifies that the call the mq open is to create a new
message queue. In this case the mode and attribute arguments of the function call are
utilized. The message queue is created with a mode similar to the creation of a file, read
and write permission creator, group, and others.
The geometry of the message queue is contained in the attribute structure. This includes
mq msgsize that dictates the maximum size of a single message, and the mq maxmsg that
dictates the maximum number of messages the queue can hold at one time. If a NULL
is used in the mq attr argument, then the message queue is created with implementation
defined defaults. O_EXCL - is always set if O CREAT flag is set. If the message queue already
exists, O EXCL causes an error message to be returned, otherwise, the new message queue
fails and appends to the existing one.
NOTES:
The mq open () function does not add or remove messages from the queue. When a new
message queue is being created, the mq flag field of the attribute structure is not used.
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16.4.2 mq close - Close a Message Queue
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <mqueue.h>
int mq_close(
mqd_t mqdes
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL - The descriptor does not represent a valid open message queue
DESCRIPTION:
The mq close function removes the association between the message queue descriptor,
mqdes, and its message queue. If mq close() is successfully completed, the function returns a value of zero; otherwise, the function returns a value of -1 and sets errno to indicate
the error.
NOTES:
If the process had successfully attached a notification request to the message queue via
mq notify, this attachment is removed, and the message queue is available for another
process to attach for notification. mq close has no effect on the contents of the message
queue, all the messages that were in the queue remain in the queue.
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16.4.3 mq unlink - Remove a Message Queue
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <mqueue.h>
int mq_unlink(
const char *name
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL - The descriptor does not represent a valid message queue
DESCRIPTION:
The mq unlink() function removes the named message queue. If the message queue is not
open when mq unlink is called, then the queue is immediately eliminated. Any messages
that were on the queue are lost, and the queue can not be opened again. If processes have
the queue open when mq unlink is called, the removal of the queue is delayed until the last
process using the queue has finished. However, the name of the message queue is removed
so that no other process can open it. Upon successful completion, the function returns a
value of zero. Otherwise, the named message queue is not changed by this function call,
and the function returns a value of -1 and sets errno to indicate the error.
NOTES:
Calls to mq open() to re-create the message queue may fail until the message queue is
actually removed. However, the mq unlink() call need not block until all references have
been closed; it may return immediately.
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16.4.4 mq send - Send a Message to a Message Queue
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include<mqueue.h>
int mq_send(
mqd_t
mqdes,
const char *msg_ptr,
size_t
msg_len,
unsigned int msg_prio
);
STATUS CODES:
EBADF - The descriptor does not represent a valid message queue, or the queue was
opened for read only O RDONLY EINVAL - The value of msg prio was greater than the
MQ PRIO MAX. EMSGSIZE - The msg len is greater than the mq msgsize attribute of the
message queue EAGAIN - The message queue is non-blocking, and there is no room on the
queue for another message as specified by the mq maxmsg. EINTR - The message queue is
blocking. While the process was waiting for free space on the queue, a signal arrived that
interrupted the wait.
DESCRIPTION:
The mq send() function adds the message pointed to by the argument msg ptr to the
message queue specified by mqdes. Each message is assigned a priority , from 0 to
MQ PRIO MAX. MQ PRIO MAX is defined in <limits.h> and must be at least 32. Messages are added to the queue in order of their priority. The highest priority message is at
the front of the queue.
The maximum number of messages that a message queue may accept is specified at creation
by the mq maxmsg field of the attribute structure. If this amount is exceeded, the behavior
of the process is determined according to what oflag was used when the message queue was
opened. If the queue was opened with O NONBLOCK flag set, then the EAGAIN error is
returned. If the O NONBLOCK flag was not set, the process blocks and waits for space on
the queue, unless it is interrupted by a signal.
Upon successful completion, the mq send () function returns a value of zero. Otherwise, no
message is enqueued, the function returns -1, and errno is set to indicate the error.
NOTES:
If the specified message queue is not full, mq send inserts the message at the position
indicated by the msg prio argument.
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16.4.5 mq receive - Receive a Message from a Message Queue
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <mqueue.h>
size_t mq_receive(
mqd_t
mqdes,
char
*msg_ptr,
size_t
msg_len,
unsigned int *msg_prio
);
STATUS CODES:
EBADF - The descriptor does not represent a valid message queue, or the queue was opened
for write only O WRONLY EMSGSIZE - The msg len is less than the mq msgsize attribute
of the message queue EAGAIN - The message queue is non-blocking, and the queue is empty
EINTR - The message queue is blocking. While the process was waiting for a message to
arrive on the queue, a signal arrived that interrupted the wait.
DESCRIPTION:
The mq receive function is used to receive the oldest of the highest priority message(s) from
the message queue specified by mqdes. The messages are received in FIFO order within
the priorities. The received message’s priority is stored in the location referenced by the
msg prio. If the msg prio is a NULL, the priority is discarded. The message is removed
and stored in an area pointed to by msg ptr whose length is of msg len. The msg len must
be at least equal to the mq msgsize attribute of the message queue.
The blocking behavior of the message queue is set by O NONBLOCK at mq open or by
setting O NONBLOCK in mq flags in a call to mq setattr. If this is a blocking queue, the
process blocks and waits on an empty queue. If this a non-blocking queue, the process does
not block.
Upon successful completion, mq receive returns the length of the selected message in bytes
and the message is removed from the queue. Otherwise, no message is removed from the
queue, the function returns a value of -1, and sets errno to indicate the error.
NOTES:
If the size of the buffer in bytes, specified by the msg len argument, is less than the
mq msgsize attribute of the message queue, the function fails and returns an error
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16.4.6 mq notify - Notify Process that a Message is Available
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <mqueue.h>
int mq_notify(
mqd_t
mqdes,
const struct sigevent *notification
);
STATUS CODES:
EBADF - The descriptor does not refer to a valid message queue EBUSY - A notification request
is already attached to the queue
DESCRIPTION:
If the argument notification is not NULL, this function registers the calling process to be
notified of message arrival at an empty message queue associated with the specified message
queue descriptor, mqdes.
Every message queue has the ability to notify one (and only one) process whenever the
queue’s state changes from empty (0 messages) to nonempty. This means that the process
does not have to block or constantly poll while it waits for a message. By calling mq notify,
a notification request is attached to a message queue. When a message is received by an
empty queue, if there are no processes blocked and waiting for the message, then the queue
notifies the requesting process of a message arrival. There is only one signal sent by the
message queue, after that the notification request is de-registered and another process can
attach its notification request. After receipt of a notification, a process must re-register if
it wishes to be notified again.
If there is a process blocked and waiting for the message, that process gets the message,
and notification is not be sent. Only one process can have a notification request attached
to a message queue at any one time. If another process attempts to register a notification
request, it fails. You can de-register for a message queue by passing a NULL to mq notify;
this removes any notification request attached to the queue. Whenever the message queue
is closed, all notification attachments are removed.
Upon successful completion, mq notify returns a value of zero; otherwise, the function
returns a value of -1 and sets errno to indicate the error.
NOTES:
It is possible for another process to receive the message after the notification is sent but
before the notified process has sent its receive request.
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16.4.7 mq setattr - Set Message Queue Attributes
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <mqueue.h>
int mq_setattr(
mqd_t
mqdes,
const struct mq_attr *mqstat,
struct mq_attr
*omqstat
);
STATUS CODES:
EBADF - The message queue descriptor does not refer to a valid, open queue. EINVAL - The
mq flag value is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
The mq setattr function is used to set attributes associated with the open message queue
description referenced by the message queue descriptor specified by mqdes. The *omqstat
represents the old or previous attributes. If omqstat is non-NULL, the function mq setattr()
stores, in the location referenced by omqstat, the previous message queue attributes and
the current queue status. These values are the same as would be returned by a call to
mq getattr() at that point.
There is only one mq attr.mq flag which can be altered by this call. This is the flag that
deals with the blocking and non-blocking behavior of the message queue. If the flag is set
then the message queue is non-blocking, and requests to send or receive do not block while
waiting for resources. If the flag is not set, then message send and receive may involve
waiting for an empty queue or waiting for a message to arrive.
Upon successful completion, the function returns a value of zero and the attributes of the
message queue have been changed as specified. Otherwise, the message queue attributes is
unchanged, and the function returns a value of -1 and sets errno to indicate the error.
NOTES:
All other fields in the mq attr are ignored by this call.
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16.4.8 mq getattr - Get Message Queue Attributes
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <mqueue.h>
int mq_getattr(
mqd_t mqdes,
struct mq_attr *mqstat
);
STATUS CODES:
EBADF - The message queue descriptor does not refer to a valid, open message queue.
DESCRIPTION:
The mqdes argument specifies a message queue descriptor. The mq getattr function is used
to get status information and attributes of the message queue associated with the message
queue descriptor. The results are returned in the mq attr structure referenced by the mqstat
argument. All of these attributes are set at create time, except the blocking/non-blocking
behavior of the message queue which can be dynamically set by using mq setattr. The
attribute mq curmsg is set to reflect the number of messages on the queue at the time that
mq getattr was called.
Upon successful completion, the mq getattr function returns zero. Otherwise, the function
returns -1 and sets errno to indicate the error.
NOTES:
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17 Thread Manager
17.1 Introduction
The thread manager implements the functionality required of the thread manager as defined by POSIX 1003.1b-1996. This standard requires that a compliant operating system
provide the facilties to manage multiple threads of control and defines the API that must
be provided.
The services provided by the thread manager are:
• pthread_attr_init - Initialize a Thread Attribute Set
• pthread_attr_destroy - Destroy a Thread Attribute Set
• pthread_attr_setdetachstate - Set Detach State
• pthread_attr_getdetachstate - Get Detach State
• pthread_attr_setstacksize - Set Thread Stack Size
• pthread_attr_getstacksize - Get Thread Stack Size
• pthread_attr_setstackaddr - Set Thread Stack Address
• pthread_attr_getstackaddr - Get Thread Stack Address
• pthread_attr_setscope - Set Thread Scheduling Scope
• pthread_attr_getscope - Get Thread Scheduling Scope
• pthread_attr_setinheritsched - Set Inherit Scheduler Flag
• pthread_attr_getinheritsched - Get Inherit Scheduler Flag
• pthread_attr_setschedpolicy - Set Scheduling Policy
• pthread_attr_getschedpolicy - Get Scheduling Policy
• pthread_attr_setschedparam - Set Scheduling Parameters
• pthread_attr_getschedparam - Get Scheduling Parameters
• pthread_create - Create a Thread
• pthread_exit - Terminate the Current Thread
• pthread_detach - Detach a Thread
• pthread_join - Wait for Thread Termination
• pthread_self - Get Thread ID
• pthread_equal - Compare Thread IDs
• pthread_once - Dynamic Package Initialization
• pthread_setschedparam - Set Thread Scheduling Parameters
• pthread_getschedparam - Get Thread Scheduling Parameters
17.2 Background
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17.2.1 Thread Attributes
Thread attributes are utilized only at thread creation time. A thread attribute structure
may be initialized and passed as an argument to the pthread_create routine.
stack address
is the address of the optionally user specified stack area for this
thread. If this value is NULL, then RTEMS allocates the memory
for the thread stack from the RTEMS Workspace Area. Otherwise,
this is the user specified address for the memory to be used for the
thread’s stack. Each thread must have a distinct stack area. Each
processor family has different alignment rules which should be followed.
stack size
is the minimum desired size for this thread’s stack area. If the size of
this area as specified by the stack size attribute is smaller than the
minimum for this processor family and the stack is not user specified,
then RTEMS will automatically allocate a stack of the minimum size
for this processor family.
contention scope
specifies the scheduling contention scope. RTEMS only supports the
PTHREAD SCOPE PROCESS scheduling contention scope.
scheduling inheritance
specifies whether a user specified or the scheduling policy and parameters of the currently executing thread are to be used. When this is
PTHREAD INHERIT SCHED, then the scheduling policy and parameters of the currently executing thread are inherited by the newly
created thread.
scheduling policy and parameters
specify the manner in which the thread will contend for the processor.
The scheduling parameters are interpreted based on the specified
policy. All policies utilize the thread priority parameter.
17.3 Operations
There is currently no text in this section.
17.4 Services
This section details the thread manager’s services. A subsection is dedicated to each of this
manager’s services and describes the calling sequence, related constants, usage, and status
codes.
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17.4.1 pthread attr init - Initialize a Thread Attribute Set
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_attr_init(
pthread_attr_t *attr
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute pointer argument is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_attr_init routine initializes the thread attributes object specified by attr
with the default value for all of the individual attributes.
NOTES:
The settings in the default attributes are implementation defined. For RTEMS, the default
attributes are as follows:
•
•
•
•
stackadr is not set to indicate that RTEMS is to allocate the stack memory.
stacksize is set to PTHREAD_MINIMUM_STACK_SIZE.
contentionscope is set to PTHREAD_SCOPE_PROCESS.
inheritsched is set to PTHREAD_INHERIT_SCHED to indicate that the created thread
inherits its scheduling attributes from its parent.
• detachstate is set to PTHREAD_CREATE_JOINABLE.
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17.4.2 pthread attr destroy - Destroy a Thread Attribute Set
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_attr_destroy(
pthread_attr_t *attr
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute pointer argument is invalid.
EINVAL
The attribute set is not initialized.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_attr_destroy routine is used to destroy a thread attributes object. The
behavior of using an attributes object after it is destroyed is implementation dependent.
NOTES:
NONE
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17.4.3 pthread attr setdetachstate - Set Detach State
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_attr_setdetachstate(
pthread_attr_t *attr,
int
detachstate
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute pointer argument is invalid.
EINVAL
The attribute set is not initialized.
EINVAL
The detachstate argument is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_attr_setdetachstate routine is used to value of the detachstate attribute.
This attribute controls whether the thread is created in a detached state.
The detachstate can be either PTHREAD_CREATE_DETACHED or PTHREAD_CREATE_JOINABLE.
The default value for all threads is PTHREAD_CREATE_JOINABLE.
NOTES:
If a thread is in a detached state, then the use of the ID with the pthread_detach or
pthread_join routines is an error.
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17.4.4 pthread attr getdetachstate - Get Detach State
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_attr_getdetachstate(
const pthread_attr_t *attr,
int
*detachstate
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute pointer argument is invalid.
EINVAL
The attribute set is not initialized.
EINVAL
The detatchstate pointer argument is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_attr_getdetachstate routine is used to obtain the current value of the
detachstate attribute as specified by the attr thread attribute object.
NOTES:
NONE
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17.4.5 pthread attr setstacksize - Set Thread Stack Size
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_attr_setstacksize(
pthread_attr_t *attr,
size_t
stacksize
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute pointer argument is invalid.
EINVAL
The attribute set is not initialized.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_attr_setstacksize routine is used to set the stacksize attribute in the
attr thread attribute object.
NOTES:
As required by POSIX, RTEMS defines the feature symbol _POSIX_THREAD_ATTR_
STACKSIZE to indicate that this routine is supported.
If the specified stacksize is below the minimum required for this CPU (PTHREAD_STACK_MIN,
then the stacksize will be set to the minimum for this CPU.
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17.4.6 pthread attr getstacksize - Get Thread Stack Size
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_attr_getstacksize(
const pthread_attr_t *attr,
size_t
*stacksize
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute pointer argument is invalid.
EINVAL
The attribute set is not initialized.
EINVAL
The stacksize pointer argument is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_attr_getstacksize routine is used to obtain the stacksize attribute in the
attr thread attribute object.
NOTES:
As required by POSIX, RTEMS defines the feature symbol _POSIX_THREAD_ATTR_
STACKSIZE to indicate that this routine is supported.
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17.4.7 pthread attr setstackaddr - Set Thread Stack Address
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_attr_setstackaddr(
pthread_attr_t *attr,
void
*stackaddr
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute pointer argument is invalid.
EINVAL
The attribute set is not initialized.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_attr_setstackaddr routine is used to set the stackaddr attribute in the
attr thread attribute object.
NOTES:
As required by POSIX, RTEMS defines the feature symbol _POSIX_THREAD_ATTR_
STACKADDR to indicate that this routine is supported.
It is imperative to the proper operation of the system that each thread have sufficient stack
space.
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17.4.8 pthread attr getstackaddr - Get Thread Stack Address
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_attr_getstackaddr(
const pthread_attr_t *attr,
void
**stackaddr
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute pointer argument is invalid.
EINVAL
The attribute set is not initialized.
EINVAL
The stackaddr pointer argument is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_attr_getstackaddr routine is used to obtain the stackaddr attribute in the
attr thread attribute object.
NOTES:
As required by POSIX, RTEMS defines the feature symbol _POSIX_THREAD_ATTR_
STACKADDR to indicate that this routine is supported.
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17.4.9 pthread attr setscope - Set Thread Scheduling Scope
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_attr_setscope(
pthread_attr_t *attr,
int
contentionscope
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute pointer argument is invalid.
EINVAL
The attribute set is not initialized.
EINVAL
The contention scope specified is not valid.
ENOTSUP
The contention scope specified (PTHREAD SCOPE SYSTEM) is
not supported.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_attr_setscope routine is used to set the contention scope field in the thread
attribute object attr to the value specified by contentionscope.
The contentionscope must be either PTHREAD_SCOPE_SYSTEM to indicate that the thread
is to be within system scheduling contention or PTHREAD_SCOPE_PROCESS indicating that
the thread is to be within the process scheduling contention scope.
NOTES:
As required by POSIX, RTEMS defines the feature symbol _POSIX_THREAD_PRIORITY_
SCHEDULING to indicate that the family of routines to which this routine belongs is supported.
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17.4.10 pthread attr getscope - Get Thread Scheduling Scope
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_attr_getscope(
const pthread_attr_t *attr,
int
*contentionscope
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute pointer argument is invalid.
EINVAL
The attribute set is not initialized.
EINVAL
The contentionscope pointer argument is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_attr_getscope routine is used to obtain the value of the contention
scope field in the thread attributes object attr. The current value is returned in
contentionscope.
NOTES:
As required by POSIX, RTEMS defines the feature symbol _POSIX_THREAD_PRIORITY_
SCHEDULING to indicate that the family of routines to which this routine belongs is supported.
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17.4.11 pthread attr setinheritsched - Set Inherit Scheduler Flag
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_attr_setinheritsched(
pthread_attr_t *attr,
int
inheritsched
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute pointer argument is invalid.
EINVAL
The attribute set is not initialized.
EINVAL
The specified scheduler inheritance argument is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_attr_setinheritsched routine is used to set the inherit scheduler field in
the thread attribute object attr to the value specified by inheritsched.
The contentionscope must be either PTHREAD_INHERIT_SCHED to indicate that the thread
is to inherit the scheduling policy and parameters fromthe creating thread, or PTHREAD_
EXPLICIT_SCHED to indicate that the scheduling policy and parameters for this thread are
to be set from the corresponding values in the attributes object. If contentionscope
is PTHREAD_INHERIT_SCHED, then the scheduling attributes in the attr structure will be
ignored at thread creation time.
NOTES:
As required by POSIX, RTEMS defines the feature symbol _POSIX_THREAD_PRIORITY_
SCHEDULING to indicate that the family of routines to which this routine belongs is supported.
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17.4.12 pthread attr getinheritsched - Get Inherit Scheduler Flag
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_attr_getinheritsched(
const pthread_attr_t *attr,
int
*inheritsched
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute pointer argument is invalid.
EINVAL
The attribute set is not initialized.
EINVAL
The inheritsched pointer argument is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_attr_getinheritsched routine is used to object the current value of the
inherit scheduler field in the thread attribute object attr.
NOTES:
As required by POSIX, RTEMS defines the feature symbol _POSIX_THREAD_PRIORITY_
SCHEDULING to indicate that the family of routines to which this routine belongs is supported.
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17.4.13 pthread attr setschedpolicy - Set Scheduling Policy
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_attr_setschedpolicy(
pthread_attr_t *attr,
int
policy
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute pointer argument is invalid.
EINVAL
The attribute set is not initialized.
ENOTSUP
The specified scheduler policy argument is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_attr_setschedpolicy routine is used to set the scheduler policy field in the
thread attribute object attr to the value specified by policy.
Scheduling policies may be one of the following:
•
•
•
•
•
SCHED_DEFAULT
SCHED_FIFO
SCHED_RR
SCHED_SPORADIC
SCHED_OTHER
The precise meaning of each of these is discussed elsewhere in this manual.
NOTES:
As required by POSIX, RTEMS defines the feature symbol _POSIX_THREAD_PRIORITY_
SCHEDULING to indicate that the family of routines to which this routine belongs is supported.
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17.4.14 pthread attr getschedpolicy - Get Scheduling Policy
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_attr_getschedpolicy(
const pthread_attr_t *attr,
int
*policy
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute pointer argument is invalid.
EINVAL
The attribute set is not initialized.
EINVAL
The specified scheduler policy argument pointer is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_attr_getschedpolicy routine is used to obtain the scheduler policy field
from the thread attribute object attr. The value of this field is returned in policy.
NOTES:
As required by POSIX, RTEMS defines the feature symbol _POSIX_THREAD_PRIORITY_
SCHEDULING to indicate that the family of routines to which this routine belongs is supported.
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17.4.15 pthread attr setschedparam - Set Scheduling Parameters
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_attr_setschedparam(
pthread_attr_t
*attr,
const struct sched_param param
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute pointer argument is invalid.
EINVAL
The attribute set is not initialized.
EINVAL
The specified scheduler parameter argument is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_attr_setschedparam routine is used to set the scheduler parameters field in
the thread attribute object attr to the value specified by param.
NOTES:
As required by POSIX, RTEMS defines the feature symbol _POSIX_THREAD_PRIORITY_
SCHEDULING to indicate that the family of routines to which this routine belongs is supported.
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17.4.16 pthread attr getschedparam - Get Scheduling Parameters
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_attr_getschedparam(
const pthread_attr_t *attr,
struct sched_param
*param
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute pointer argument is invalid.
EINVAL
The attribute set is not initialized.
EINVAL
The specified scheduler parameter argument pointer is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_attr_getschedparam routine is used to obtain the scheduler parameters field
from the thread attribute object attr. The value of this field is returned in param.
NOTES:
As required by POSIX, RTEMS defines the feature symbol _POSIX_THREAD_PRIORITY_
SCHEDULING to indicate that the family of routines to which this routine belongs is supported.
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283
17.4.17 pthread create - Create a Thread
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_create(
pthread_t
*thread,
const pthread_attr_t *attr,
void
(*start_routine)( void *),
void
*arg
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The attribute set is not initialized.
EINVAL
The user specified a stack address and the size of the area was not
large enough to meet this processor’s minimum stack requirements.
EINVAL
The specified scheduler inheritance policy was invalid.
ENOTSUP
The specified contention scope was PTHREAD SCOPE PROCESS.
EINVAL
The specified thread priority was invalid.
EINVAL
The specified scheduling policy was invalid.
EINVAL
The scheduling policy was SCHED SPORADIC and the specified
replenishment period is less than the initial budget.
EINVAL
The scheduling policy was SCHED SPORADIC and the specified
low priority is invalid.
EAGAIN
The system lacked the necessary resources to create another thread,
or the self imposed limit on the total number of threads in a process
PTHREAD THREAD MAX would be exceeded.
EINVAL
Invalid argument passed.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_create routine is used to create a new thread with the attributes specified by
attr. If the attr argument is NULL, then the default attribute set will be used. Modification
of the contents of attr after this thread is created does not have an impact on this thread.
The thread begins execution at the address specified by start_routine with arg as its
only argument. If start_routine returns, then it is functionally equivalent to the thread
executing the pthread_exit service.
Upon successful completion, the ID of the created thread is returned in the thread argument.
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NOTES:
There is no concept of a single main thread in RTEMS as there is in a tradition UNIX
system. POSIX requires that the implicit return of the main thread results in the same
effects as if there were a call to exit. This does not occur in RTEMS.
The signal mask of the newly created thread is inherited from its creator and the set of
pending signals for this thread is empty.
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285
17.4.18 pthread exit - Terminate the Current Thread
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
void pthread_exit(
void *status
);
STATUS CODES:
NONE
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_exit routine is used to terminate the calling thread. The status is made
available to any successful join with the terminating thread.
When a thread returns from its start routine, it results in an implicit call to the pthread_
exit routine with the return value of the function serving as the argument to pthread_exit.
NOTES:
Any cancellation cleanup handlers that hace been pushed and not yet popped shall be
popped in reverse of the order that they were pushed. After all cancellation cleanup handlers
have been executed, if the thread has any thread-specific data, destructors for that data
will be invoked.
Thread termination does not release or free any application visible resources including byt
not limited to mutexes, file descriptors, allocated memory, etc.. Similarly, exitting a thread
does not result in any process-oriented cleanup activity.
There is no concept of a single main thread in RTEMS as there is in a tradition UNIX
system. POSIX requires that the implicit return of the main thread results in the same
effects as if there were a call to exit. This does not occur in RTEMS.
All access to any automatic variables allocated by the threads is lost when the thread exits.
Thus references (i.e. pointers) to local variables of a thread should not be used in a global
manner without care. As a specific example, a pointer to a local variable should NOT be
used as the return value.
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17.4.19 pthread detach - Detach a Thread
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_detach(
pthread_t thread
);
STATUS CODES:
ESRCH
The thread specified is invalid.
EINVAL
The thread specified is not a joinable thread.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_detach routine is used to to indicate that storage for thread can be reclaimed
when the thread terminates without another thread joinging with it.
NOTES:
If any threads have previously joined with the specified thread, then they will remain joined
with that thread. Any subsequent calls to pthread_join on the specified thread will fail.
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287
17.4.20 pthread join - Wait for Thread Termination
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_join(
pthread_t
thread,
void
**value_ptr
);
STATUS CODES:
ESRCH
The thread specified is invalid.
EINVAL
The thread specified is not a joinable thread.
EDEADLK
A deadlock was detected or thread is the calling thread.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_join routine suspends execution of the calling thread until thread terminates.
If thread has already terminated, then this routine returns immediately. The value returned
by thread (i.e. passed to pthread_exit is returned in value_ptr.
When this routine returns, then thread has been terminated.
NOTES:
The results of multiple simultaneous joins on the same thread is undefined.
If any threads have previously joined with the specified thread, then they will remain joined
with that thread. Any subsequent calls to pthread_join on the specified thread will fail.
If value ptr is NULL, then no value is returned.
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17.4.21 pthread self - Get Thread ID
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
pthread_t pthread_self( void );
STATUS CODES:
The value returned is the ID of the calling thread.
DESCRIPTION:
This routine returns the ID of the calling thread.
NOTES:
NONE
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17.4.22 pthread equal - Compare Thread IDs
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_equal(
pthread_t t1,
pthread_t t2
);
STATUS CODES:
zero
The thread ids are not equal.
non-zero
The thread ids are equal.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_equal routine is used to compare two thread IDs and determine if they are
equal.
NOTES:
The behavior is undefined if the thread IDs are not valid.
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17.4.23 pthread once - Dynamic Package Initialization
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
pthread_once_t once_control = PTHREAD_ONCE_INIT;
int pthread_once(
pthread_once_t
void
);
*once_control,
(*init_routine)(void)
STATUS CODES:
NONE
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_once routine is used to provide controlled initialization of variables. The
first call to pthread_once by any thread with the same once_control will result in the
init_routine being invoked with no arguments. Subsequent calls to pthread_once with
the same once_control will have no effect.
The init_routine is guaranteed to have run to completion when this routine returns to
the caller.
NOTES:
The behavior of pthread_once is undefined if once_control is automatic storage (i.e. on
a task stack) or is not initialized using PTHREAD_ONCE_INIT.
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291
17.4.24 pthread setschedparam - Set Thread Scheduling
Parameters
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_setschedparam(
pthread_t
thread,
int
policy,
struct sched_param *param
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The scheduling parameters indicated by the parameter param is invalid.
EINVAL
The value specified by policy is invalid.
EINVAL
The scheduling policy was SCHED SPORADIC and the specified
replenishment period is less than the initial budget.
EINVAL
The scheduling policy was SCHED SPORADIC and the specified
low priority is invalid.
ESRCH
The thread indicated was invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_setschedparam routine is used to set the scheduler parameters currently
associated with the thread specified by thread to the policy specified by policy. The
contents of param are interpreted based upon the policy argument.
NOTES:
As required by POSIX, RTEMS defines the feature symbol _POSIX_THREAD_PRIORITY_
SCHEDULING to indicate that the family of routines to which this routine belongs is supported.
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17.4.25 pthread getschedparam - Get Thread Scheduling
Parameters
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_getschedparam(
pthread_t
thread,
int
*policy,
struct sched_param *param
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The policy pointer argument is invalid.
EINVAL
The scheduling parameters pointer argument is invalid.
ESRCH
The thread indicated by the parameter thread is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
The pthread_getschedparam routine is used to obtain the scheduler policy and parameters
associated with thread. The current policy and associated parameters values returned in
policy and param, respectively.
NOTES:
As required by POSIX, RTEMS defines the feature symbol _POSIX_THREAD_PRIORITY_
SCHEDULING to indicate that the family of routines to which this routine belongs is supported.
Chapter 18: Key Manager
293
18 Key Manager
18.1 Introduction
The key manager ...
The directives provided by the key manager are:
•
•
•
•
pthread_key_create - Create Thread Specific Data Key
pthread_key_delete - Delete Thread Specific Data Key
pthread_setspecific - Set Thread Specific Key Value
pthread_getspecific - Get Thread Specific Key Value
18.2 Background
There is currently no text in this section.
18.3 Operations
There is currently no text in this section.
18.4 Directives
This section details the key manager’s directives. A subsection is dedicated to each of this
manager’s directives and describes the calling sequence, related constants, usage, and status
codes.
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18.4.1 pthread key create - Create Thread Specific Data Key
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_key_create(
pthread_key_t *key,
void (*destructor)( void )
);
STATUS CODES:
EAGAIN
There were not enough resources available to create another key.
ENOMEM
Insufficient memory exists to create the key.
Chapter 18: Key Manager
18.4.2 pthread key delete - Delete Thread Specific Data Key
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_key_delete(
pthread_key_t key,
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The key was invalid
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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18.4.3 pthread setspecific - Set Thread Specific Key Value
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
int pthread_setspecific(
pthread_key_t key,
const void *value
);
STATUS CODES:
EINVAL
The specified key is invalid.
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 18: Key Manager
297
18.4.4 pthread getspecific - Get Thread Specific Key Value
CALLING SEQUENCE:
#include <pthread.h>
void *pthread_getspecific(
pthread_key_t key
);
STATUS CODES:
NULL
There is no thread-specific data associated with the specified key.
non-NULL
The data associated with the specified key.
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 19: Thread Cancellation Manager
299
19 Thread Cancellation Manager
19.1 Introduction
The thread cancellation manager is ...
The directives provided by the thread cancellation manager are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
pthread_cancel - Cancel Execution of a Thread
pthread_setcancelstate - Set Cancelability State
pthread_setcanceltype - Set Cancelability Type
pthread_testcancel - Create Cancellation Point
pthread_cleanup_push - Establish Cancellation Handler
pthread_cleanup_pop - Remove Cancellation Handler
19.2 Background
There is currently no text in this section.
19.3 Operations
There is currently no text in this section.
19.4 Directives
This section details the thread cancellation manager’s directives. A subsection is dedicated
to each of this manager’s directives and describes the calling sequence, related constants,
usage, and status codes.
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19.4.1 pthread cancel - Cancel Execution of a Thread
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int pthread_cancel(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 19: Thread Cancellation Manager
19.4.2 pthread setcancelstate - Set Cancelability State
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int pthread_setcancelstate(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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19.4.3 pthread setcanceltype - Set Cancelability Type
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int pthread_setcanceltype(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 19: Thread Cancellation Manager
19.4.4 pthread testcancel - Create Cancellation Point
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int pthread_testcancel(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
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19.4.5 pthread cleanup push - Establish Cancellation Handler
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int pthread_cleanup_push(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
Chapter 19: Thread Cancellation Manager
19.4.6 pthread cleanup pop - Remove Cancellation Handler
CALLING SEQUENCE:
int pthread_cleanup_push(
);
STATUS CODES:
E
The
DESCRIPTION:
NOTES:
305
Chapter 20: Services Provided by C Library (libc)
20 Services Provided by C Library (libc)
20.1 Introduction
This section lists the routines that provided by the Newlib C Library.
20.2 Standard Utility Functions (stdlib.h)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
abort - Abnormal termination of a program
abs - Integer absolute value (magnitude)
assert - Macro for Debugging Diagnostics
atexit - Request execution of functions at program exit
atof - String to double or float
atoi - String to integer
bsearch - Binary search
calloc - Allocate space for arrays
div - Divide two integers
ecvtbuf - Double or float to string of digits
ecvt - Double or float to string of digits (malloc result)
__env_lock - Lock environment list for getenv and setenv
gvcvt - Format double or float as string
exit - End program execution
getenv - Look up environment variable
labs - Long integer absolute value (magnitude)
ldiv - Divide two long integers
malloc - Allocate memory
realloc - Reallocate memory
free - Free previously allocated memory
mallinfo - Get information about allocated memory
__malloc_lock - Lock memory pool for malloc and free
mbstowcs - Minimal multibyte string to wide string converter
mblen - Minimal multibyte length
mbtowc - Minimal multibyte to wide character converter
qsort - Sort an array
rand - Pseudo-random numbers
strtod - String to double or float
strtol - String to long
strtoul - String to unsigned long
system - Execute command string
wcstombs - Minimal wide string to multibyte string converter
wctomb - Minimal wide character to multibyte converter
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20.3 Character Type Macros and Functions (ctype.h)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
isalnum - Alphanumeric character predicate
isalpha - Alphabetic character predicate
isascii - ASCII character predicate
iscntrl - Control character predicate
isdigit - Decimal digit predicate
islower - Lower-case character predicate
isprint - Printable character predicates (isprint, isgraph)
ispunct - Punctuation character predicate
isspace - Whitespace character predicate
isupper - Uppercase character predicate
isxdigit - Hexadecimal digit predicate
toascii - Force integers to ASCII range
tolower - Translate characters to lower case
toupper - Translate characters to upper case
20.4 Input and Output (stdio.h)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
clearerr - Clear file or stream error indicator
fclose - Close a file
feof - Test for end of file
ferror - Test whether read/write error has occurred
fflush - Flush buffered file output
fgetc - Get a character from a file or stream
fgetpos - Record position in a stream or file
fgets - Get character string from a file or stream
fiprintf - Write formatted output to file (integer only)
fopen - Open a file
fdopen - Turn an open file into a stream
fputc - Write a character on a stream or file
fputs - Write a character string in a file or stream
fread - Read array elements from a file
freopen - Open a file using an existing file descriptor
fseek - Set file position
fsetpos - Restore position of a stream or file
ftell - Return position in a stream or file
fwrite - Write array elements from memory to a file or stream
getc - Get a character from a file or stream (macro)
getchar - Get a character from standard input (macro)
Chapter 20: Services Provided by C Library (libc)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
gets - Get character string from standard input (obsolete)
iprintf - Write formatted output (integer only)
mktemp - Generate unused file name
perror - Print an error message on standard error
putc - Write a character on a stream or file (macro)
putchar - Write a character on standard output (macro)
puts - Write a character string on standard output
remove - Delete a file’s name
rename - Rename a file
rewind - Reinitialize a file or stream
setbuf - Specify full buffering for a file or stream
setvbuf - Specify buffering for a file or stream
siprintf - Write formatted output (integer only)
printf - Write formatted output
scanf - Scan and format input
tmpfile - Create a temporary file
tmpnam - Generate name for a temporary file
vprintf - Format variable argument list
20.5 Strings and Memory (string.h)
•
•
•
•
•
•
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bcmp - Compare two memory areas
bcopy - Copy memory regions
bzero - Initialize memory to zero
index - Search for character in string
memchr - Find character in memory
memcmp - Compare two memory areas
memcpy - Copy memory regions
memmove - Move possibly overlapping memory
memset - Set an area of memory
rindex - Reverse search for character in string
strcasecmp - Compare strings ignoring case
strcat - Concatenate strings
strchr - Search for character in string
strcmp - Character string compare
strcoll - Locale specific character string compare
strcpy - Copy string
strcspn - Count chars not in string
strerror - Convert error number to string
strlen - Character string length
309
310
RTEMS POSIX API User’s Guide
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
strlwr - Convert string to lower case
strncasecmp - Compare strings ignoring case
strncat - Concatenate strings
strncmp - Character string compare
strncpy - Counted copy string
strpbrk - Find chars in string
strrchr - Reverse search for character in string
strspn - Find initial match
strstr - Find string segment
strtok - Get next token from a string
strupr - Convert string to upper case
strxfrm - Transform string
20.6 Signal Handling (signal.h)
• raise - Send a signal
• signal - Specify handler subroutine for a signal
20.7 Time Functions (time.h)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
asctime - Format time as string
clock - Cumulative processor time
ctime - Convert time to local and format as string
difftime - Subtract two times
gmtime - Convert time to UTC (GMT) traditional representation
localtime - Convert time to local representation
mktime - Convert time to arithmetic representation
strftime - Flexible calendar time formatter
time - Get current calendar time (as single number)
20.8 Locale (locale.h)
• setlocale - Select or query locale
20.9 Reentrant Versions of Functions
• Equivalent for errno variable:
• errno_r - XXX
• Locale functions:
• localeconv_r - XXX
• setlocale_r - XXX
• Equivalents for stdio variables:
• stdin_r - XXX
Chapter 20: Services Provided by C Library (libc)
• stdout_r - XXX
• stderr_r - XXX
• Stdio functions:
• fdopen_r - XXX
• perror_r - XXX
• tempnam_r - XXX
• fopen_r - XXX
• putchar_r - XXX
• tmpnam_r - XXX
• getchar_r - XXX
• puts_r - XXX
• tmpfile_r - XXX
• gets_r - XXX
• remove_r - XXX
• vfprintf_r - XXX
• iprintf_r - XXX
• rename_r - XXX
• vsnprintf_r - XXX
• mkstemp_r - XXX
• snprintf_r - XXX
• vsprintf_r - XXX
• mktemp_t - XXX
• sprintf_r - XXX
• Signal functions:
• init_signal_r - XXX
• signal_r - XXX
• kill_r - XXX
• _sigtramp_r - XXX
• raise_r - XXX
• Stdlib functions:
• calloc_r - XXX
• mblen_r - XXX
• srand_r - XXX
• dtoa_r - XXX
• mbstowcs_r - XXX
• strtod_r - XXX
• free_r - XXX
• mbtowc_r - XXX
• strtol_r - XXX
311
312
RTEMS POSIX API User’s Guide
• getenv_r - XXX
• memalign_r - XXX
• strtoul_r - XXX
• mallinfo_r - XXX
• mstats_r - XXX
• system_r - XXX
• malloc_r - XXX
• rand_r - XXX
• wcstombs_r - XXX
• malloc_r - XXX
• realloc_r - XXX
• wctomb_r - XXX
• malloc_stats_r - XXX
• setenv_r - XXX
• String functions:
• strtok_r - XXX
• System functions:
• close_r - XXX
• link_r - XXX
• unlink_r - XXX
• execve_r - XXX
• lseek_r - XXX
• wait_r - XXX
• fcntl_r - XXX
• open_r - XXX
• write_r - XXX
• fork_r - XXX
• read_r - XXX
• fstat_r - XXX
• sbrk_r - XXX
• gettimeofday_r - XXX
• stat_r - XXX
• getpid_r - XXX
• times_r - XXX
• Time function:
• asctime_r - XXX
20.10 Miscellaneous Macros and Functions
• unctrl - Return printable representation of a character
Chapter 20: Services Provided by C Library (libc)
20.11 Variable Argument Lists
• Stdarg (stdarg.h):
• va_start - XXX
• va_arg - XXX
• va_end - XXX
• Vararg (varargs.h):
• va_alist - XXX
• va_start-trad - XXX
• va_arg-trad - XXX
• va_end-trad - XXX
20.12 Reentrant System Calls
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
open_r - XXX
close_r - XXX
lseek_r - XXX
read_r - XXX
write_r - XXX
fork_r - XXX
wait_r - XXX
stat_r - XXX
fstat_r - XXX
link_r - XXX
unlink_r - XXX
sbrk_r - XXX
313
Chapter 21: Services Provided by the Math Library (libm)
315
21 Services Provided by the Math Library (libm)
21.1 Introduction
This section lists the routines that provided by the Newlib Math Library (libm).
21.2 Standard Math Functions (math.h)
•
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•
•
•
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•
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•
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•
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•
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•
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•
•
acos - Arccosine
acosh - Inverse hyperbolic cosine
asin - Arcsine
asinh - Inverse hyperbolic sine
atan - Arctangent
atan2 - Arctangent of y/x
atanh - Inverse hyperbolic tangent
jN - Bessel functions (jN and yN)
cbrt - Cube root
copysign - Sign of Y and magnitude of X
cosh - Hyperbolic cosine
erf - Error function (erf and erfc)
exp - Exponential
expm1 - Exponential of x and - 1
fabs - Absolute value (magnitude)
floor - Floor and ceiling (floor and ceil)
fmod - Floating-point remainder (modulo)
frexp - Split floating-point number
gamma - Logarithmic gamma function
hypot - Distance from origin
ilogb - Get exponent
infinity - Floating infinity
isnan - Check type of number
ldexp - Load exponent
log - Natural logarithms
log10 - Base 10 logarithms
log1p - Log of 1 + X
matherr - Modifiable math error handler
modf - Split fractional and integer parts
nan - Floating Not a Number
nextafter - Get next representable number
pow - X to the power Y
316
RTEMS POSIX API User’s Guide
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
remainder - remainder of X divided by Y
scalbn - scalbn
sin - Sine or cosine (sin and cos)
sinh - Hyperbolic sine
sqrt - Positive square root
tan - Tangent
tanh - Hyperbolic tangent
Chapter 22: Status of Implementation
317
22 Status of Implementation
This chapter provides an overview of the status of the implementation of the POSIX API
for RTEMS. The POSIX 1003.1b Compliance Guide provides more detailed information
regarding the implementation of each of the numerous functions, constants, and macros
specified by the POSIX 1003.1b standard.
RTEMS supports many of the process and user/group oriented services in a "single
user/single process" manner. This means that although these services may be of limited
usefulness or functionality, they are provided and do work in a coherent manner. This is
significant when porting existing code from UNIX to RTEMS.
• Implementation
• The current implementation of dup() is insufficient.
• FIFOs mkfifo() are not currently implemented.
• Asynchronous IO is not implemented.
• The flockfile() family is not implemented
• getc/putc unlocked family is not implemented
• Shared Memory is not implemented
• Mapped Memory is not implemented
• NOTES:
• For Shared Memory and Mapped Memory services, it is unclear what
level of support is appropriate and possible for RTEMS.
• Functional Testing
• Tests for unimplemented services
• Performance Testing
• There are no POSIX Performance Tests.
• Documentation
• Many of the service description pages are not complete in this manual. These
need to be completed and information added to the background and operations sections.
• Example programs (not just tests) would be very nice.
Command and Variable Index
319
Command and Variable Index
_exit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
A
access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
aio_cancel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
aio_error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
aio_fsync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
aio_read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
aio_return . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
aio_suspend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
aio_write . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34, 35
asctime_r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
fdopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
fileno . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
flockfile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
fork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
fpathconf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
fstat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
fsync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
ftruncate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
ftrylockfile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
funlockfile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
G
dup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
dup2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
getc_unlocked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
getchar_unlocked. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
getcwd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
getdents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
getegid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
getenv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
geteuid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
getgid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
getgrgid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
getgrgid_r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
getgrnam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
getgrnam_r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
getgroups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
getlogin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
getlogin_r. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
getpgrp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
getpid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
getppid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
getpwnam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
getpwnam_r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
getpwuid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
getpwuid_r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
gettimeofday . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
getuid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
gmtime_r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
E
I
execl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
execle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
execlp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
execv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
execve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
execvp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
isatty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
C
cfgetispeed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
cfgetospeed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
cfsetispeed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
cfsetospeed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
chdir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
chmod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
chown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
clock_getres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
clock_gettime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
clock_settime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
close . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
closedir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
creat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
ctermid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
ctime_r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
D
F
fchdir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
fchmod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
fcntl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
fdatasync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
K
kill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
L
link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
lio_listio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
localtime_r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
longjmp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
lseek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
320
lstat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
M
microseonds alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
mkdir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
mkfifo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
mknod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
mlock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
mlockall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
mmap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
mount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
mprotect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
mq_attr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
mq_close . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
mq_getattr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
mq_notify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
mq_open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
mq_receive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
mq_send . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
mq_setattr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
mq_unlink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
mqd_t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
msync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
munlock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
munlockall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
munmap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
N
nanosleep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
O
open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
opendir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
P
pathconf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
pause . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
pthread_atfork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
pthread_attr_destroy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
pthread_attr_getdetachstate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
pthread_attr_getinheritsched . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
pthread_attr_getschedparam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
pthread_attr_getschedpolicy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
pthread_attr_getscope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
pthread_attr_getstackaddr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
pthread_attr_getstacksize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
pthread_attr_init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
pthread_attr_setdetachstate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
pthread_attr_setinheritsched . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
pthread_attr_setschedparam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
pthread_attr_setschedpolicy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
pthread_attr_setscope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
pthread_attr_setstackaddr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
RTEMS POSIX API User’s Guide
pthread_attr_setstacksize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
pthread_cancel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
pthread_cleanup_pop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
pthread_cleanup_push . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
pthread_cond_broadcast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
pthread_cond_destroy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
pthread_cond_init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
pthread_cond_signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
pthread_cond_timedwait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
pthread_cond_wait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
pthread_condattr_destroy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
pthread_condattr_getpshared . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
pthread_condattr_init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
pthread_condattr_setpshared . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
pthread_create . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
pthread_detach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
pthread_equal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
pthread_exit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
pthread_getschedparam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
pthread_join . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
pthread_kill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
pthread_mutex_destroy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
pthread_mutex_getprioceiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
pthread_mutex_init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
pthread_mutex_lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
pthread_mutex_setprioceiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
pthread_mutex_timedlock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
pthread_mutex_trylock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
pthread_mutex_unlock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
pthread_mutexattr_destroy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
pthread_mutexattr_getprioceiling . . . . . . . . . 194
pthread_mutexattr_getprotocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
pthread_mutexattr_getpshared . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
pthread_mutexattr_init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
pthread_mutexattr_setprioceiling . . . . . . . . . 193
pthread_mutexattr_setprotocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
pthread_mutexattr_setpshared . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
pthread_once . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
pthread_self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
pthread_setcancelstate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
pthread_setcanceltype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
pthread_setschedparam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
pthread_sigmask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
pthread_testcancel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
putc_unlocked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
putchar_unlocked. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
R
rand_r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
readdir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
readlink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
readv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
rename . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
rewinddir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
rmdir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Command and Variable Index
S
scandir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
sched_get_priority_max . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
sched_get_priority_min . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
sched_rr_get_interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
sched_yield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
sem_close . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
sem_destroy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
sem_getvalue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
sem_init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
sem_open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
sem_post . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
sem_t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
sem_timedwait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
sem_trywait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
sem_unlink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
sem_wait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
setenv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
setgid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
setjmp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
setlocale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
setpgid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
setsid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
setuid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
shm_open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
shm_unlink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
sigaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
sigaddset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
sigdelset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
sigemptyset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
sigfillset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
sigismember . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
siglongjmp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
sigpending. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
sigprocmask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
sigqueue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
sigsetjmp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
sigsuspend. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
sigtimedwait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
sigwait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
sigwaitinfo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
321
sleep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
stat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
strtok_r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
symlink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
sync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
sysconf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
T
tcdrain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
tcflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
tcflush . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
tcgetattr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
tcgetpgrp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
tcsendbreak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
tcsetattr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
tcsetpgrp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
telldir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
truncate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
ttyname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
ttyname_r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
tzset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
U
umask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
uname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
unlink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
unmount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
usecs alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
usleep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
utime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
W
wait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
waitpid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
write . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
writev . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Concept Index
323
Concept Index
A
acquire ownership of file stream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
add a signal to a signal set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
associate stream with file descriptor. . . . . . . . . . . 146
asynchronous file synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
asynchronous read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
asynchronous write . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
B
broadcast a condition variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
C
cancel asynchronous i/o request. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
cancel execution of a thread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
change access and/or modification times of an
inode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
change memory protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
changes file mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
changes permissions of a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
changes the current working directory . . . . . . 71, 72
changes the owner and/or group of a file. . . . . . . 93
check permissions for a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
close a message queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
close a named semaphore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
closes a file. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
compare thread ids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
create a directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
create a new file or rewrite an existing one . . . . . 76
create a process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
create a thread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
create an inter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
create cancellation point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
create session and set process group id . . . . . . . . . 51
creates a link to a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
creates a symbolic link to a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
D
delay process execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239, 240
delay with high resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
delete a directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
delete a signal from a signal set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
destroy a condition variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
destroy a condition variable attribute set . . . . . . 207
destroy a mutex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
destroy a mutex attribute set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
destroy a thread attribute set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
destroy an unnamed semaphore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
detach a thread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
determine if file descriptor is terminal . . . . . . . . . . 60
determine terminal device name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
discards terminal data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
duplicates an open file descriptor . . . . . . . . . 105, 106
dynamic package initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
dynamically set the priority ceiling. . . . . . . . . . . . 203
E
empty a signal set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
ends directory read operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
establish cancellation handler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
examine and change process blocked signals . . . . 24
examine and change signal action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
examine and change thread blocked signals . . . . . 25
examine pending signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
execute a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
F
fill a signal set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
G
generate terminal pathname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
get character from stdin without locking . . . . . . 151
get character without locking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
get clock resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
get configurable system variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
get detach state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
get directory entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
get effective group id . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
get effective user id . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
get environment variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
get group file entry for id . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
get group file entry for name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
get inherit scheduler flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
get maximum priority value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
get message queue attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
get minimum priority value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
get parent process id. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
get password file entry for uid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
get process group id . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
get process id . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
get process shared attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
get process times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
get real group id . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
get scheduling parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
get scheduling policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
get supplementary group ids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
get system name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
get the blocking protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
get the current priority ceiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
get the priority ceiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
get the time of day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
get the value of a semaphore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
get the visibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
324
RTEMS POSIX API User’s Guide
get thread id . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
get thread scheduling parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
get thread scheduling scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
get thread stack address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
get thread stack size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
get time in seconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
get timeslicing quantum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
get user id . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
get user name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
get user name, reentrant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
gets configuration values for files . . . . . . . . . . . 97, 99
gets current working directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
gets file status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87, 88
gets foreground process group id . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
gets information about a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
gets terminal attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
open a message queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
open a named semaphore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
open a shared memory object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
opens a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
I
R
initialize a condition variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
initialize a condition variable attribute set . . . . 206
initialize a mutex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
initialize a mutex attribute set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
initialize a thread attribute set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
initialize an unnamed semaphore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
initialize time conversion information . . . . . . . . . 158
is signal a member of a signal set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
reads a directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
reads from a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
reads terminal input baud rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
reads terminal output baud rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
receive a message from a message queue . . . . . . 261
reentrant determine terminal device name . . . . . . 59
reentrant extract token from string . . . . . . . . . . . 159
reentrant get group file entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
reentrant get group file entry for name . . . . . . . . 169
reentrant get password file entry for name . . . . 173
reentrant get password file entry for uid . . . . . . . 171
reentrant get user name. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
reentrant local time conversion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
reentrant random number generation . . . . . . . . . 164
reentrant struct tm to ascii time conversion . . . 160
reentrant time t to ascii time conversion . . . . . . 161
reentrant utc time conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
register fork handlers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
release ownership of file stream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
remove a message queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
remove a shared memory object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
remove cancellation handler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
removes a directory entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
renames a file. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
reposition read/write file offset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
resets the readdir() pointer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
retrieve error status of asynchronous i/o operation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
retrieve return status asynchronous i/o operation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
return current location in directory stream . . . . . 69
L
list directed i/o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
lock a mutex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
lock a mutex with timeout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
lock a range of the process address space . . . . . .
lock the address space of a process . . . . . . . . . . . .
123
199
201
220
218
M
makes a directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
makes a fifo special file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
manipulates an open file descriptor . . . . . . . . . . . 111
map process addresses to a memory object . . . . 222
memory object synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
microsecond delay process execution . . . . . . . . . . 240
mount a file system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
N
non . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155, 157, 183
notify process that a message is available . . . . . 262
O
obtain file descriptor number for this file . . . . . . 145
obtain the name of a symbolic link destination . . 80
obtain time of day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
open a directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
P
password file entry for name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
poll to acquire ownership of file stream. . . . . . . .
poll to lock a mutex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
put character to stdin without locking . . . . . . . .
put character without locking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
172
148
200
153
152
Q
queue a signal to a process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
S
save context for non . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
save context with signal status for non . . . . . . . . 156
scan a directory for matching entries . . . . . . . . . . . 68
schedule alarm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
schedule alarm in microseonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Concept Index
send a message to a message queue . . . . . . . . . . . 260
send a signal to a process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
send a signal to a thread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
sends a break to a terminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
set cancelability state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
set cancelability type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
set detach state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
set environment variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
set group id . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
set inherit scheduler flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
set message queue attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
set process group id for job control . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
set process shared attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
set scheduling parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
set scheduling policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
set terminal attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
set the blocking protocol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
set the current locale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
set the priority ceiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
set the visibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
set thread scheduling parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
set thread scheduling scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
set thread stack address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
set thread stack size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
set time of day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
set user id . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
sets a file creation mask. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
sets foreground process group id . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
sets terminal input baud rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
sets terminal output baud rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
signal a condition variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
suspend process execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
suspends/restarts terminal output. . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
synchronize file complete in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
synchronize file in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
synchronize file systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
synchronously accept a signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 31
synchronously accept a signal with timeout . . . . 32
325
T
terminate a process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
terminate the current thread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
truncate a file to a specified length . . . . . . . . . 95, 96
U
unlink a semaphore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
unlock a mutex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
unlock a range of the process address space . . .
unlock a semaphore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
unlock the address space of a process . . . . . . . . .
unmap previously mapped addresses . . . . . . . . . .
unmount file systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
usecs delay process execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
181
202
221
185
219
223
118
240
V
vectored read from a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
vectored write to a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
W
wait for a signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
wait for asynchronous i/o request . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
wait for process termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 13
wait for thread termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
wait on a condition variable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
wait on a semaphore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
wait on a semaphore for a specified time . . . . . . 184
wait with timeout a condition variable . . . . . . . . 215
waits for all output to be transmitted to the
terminal.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
writes to a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Y
yield the processor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
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