Avid|DS - User`s Guide - Avid DS Support Center

Avid|DS - User`s Guide - Avid DS Support Center
USER’S GUIDE
VERSION 6.01
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© 1997–2002 Avid Technology, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Avid, Avid Unity, Avid Xpress, AVX, DigiTranslator, Elastic Reality, Equinox,
Marquee, Media Composer, MediaLog, Meridien, OMF, Open Media
Framework, ProEncode, Pro Tools, SOFTIMAGE, Symphony, XSI and the
Avid|DS logo are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Avid
Technology, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries. mental ray and
mental images are registered trademarks of mental images GmbH & Co. KG
in the U.S.A. and some other countries. Toonz is developed in Italy by Digital
Video S.r.l. and is distributed by Softimage Co. All other trademarks
contained herein are the property of their respective owners.
The Avid|DS application uses JScript and Visual Basic Scripting Edition from
Microsoft Corporation. The Avid|DS application contains portions of
imaging code owned and copyrighted by Pegasus Imaging Corporation,
Tampa, FL.
This document is protected under copyright law. The contents of this
document may not be copied or duplicated in any form, in whole or in part,
without the express written permission of Avid Technology, Inc. This
document is supplied as a guide for the Avid|DS product.
Reasonable care has been taken in preparing the information contained in this
guide. However, this document may contain omissions, technical
inaccuracies, or typographical errors. Avid Technology, Inc. does not accept
responsibility of any kind for customers' losses due to the use of this
document. Product specifications are subject to change without notice.
Cast and Crew: Beverly Iachetta, Luc Langevin, Beatrice W. Mukora,
Tristan Le Rudulier, Marianne Rodrigues, Liven Tam, and John Verrilli.
Document No. 0130-05126-02
Printed in Canada.
Contents
Contents
C h a p t er 1
Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
The Avid|DS Learning Roadmap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Using the Documentation Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Document Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Avid|DS Customer Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Hotline Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
E-mail Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Web Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
FTP Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Mailing List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Comments? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Logging on to Your Workstation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Starting Avid|DS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Exiting Avid|DS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Viewing Avid|DS Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Viewing the Avid Event Log. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Sorting Columns and Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
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C h a p t er 2
Working with Projects and Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
The Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
What is Media? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Working with Projects and Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
Configuring Media Storages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Adding Media Storages to a Media Indexing Service. . . . . . . . . . . .31
Sharing Storages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Establishing Direct Connections to Storages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Adding a Media Indexing Service to a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Managing Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
Organizing Your Project Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
Opening Projects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
Creating a New Project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Opening an Existing Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
Archiving Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
Restoring Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
Moving Projects to Another Workstation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
Deleting Projects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
Managing Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
Sorting Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
Viewing Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65
Searching for Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65
Defragmenting Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
Verifying Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
User’s Guide • 3
Contents
Copying Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Moving Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Deleting Media. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Purging Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
C h a p t er 3
Capturing Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Workflow: Capturing Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Preparing to Capture Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Configuring the External Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Specifying the Capture Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Previewing Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Logging and Capturing Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Logging and Capturing Clips from Tape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Capturing Material from File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Linking to a Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Capturing Clips On-the-Fly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Performing a Live Capture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Batch Capturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Importing Render Passes from SOFTIMAGE|3D or
SOFTIMAGE|XSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
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C h a p t er 4
Working with Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Workflow: Working with Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Opening Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Creating a New Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Opening an Existing Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Setting Sequence Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Setting the Audio and Video Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Setting the Working Video Quality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Changing the Sequence Preferences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Saving Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Creating a Copy of a Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Searching for Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Importing Sequences from Another Project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Deleting Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
C h a p t er 5
Conforming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Workflow: Conforming with AAF and AFE Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Workflow: Conforming with OMF, EDL, and ALE Files . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Conforming with AAF and AFE Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Before You Begin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Working with HD Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Sharing Compressed and Uncompressed Media. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Creating and Importing AAF Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Creating and Importing AFE Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
4 • User’s Guide
Contents
Viewing Information in a Bin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166
Transferring Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167
Creating a Sequence and Master Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167
Recapturing Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170
Exchanging Audio Media with Avid Pro Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170
Completing the Conformed Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171
Creating Real-Time Graphics from Conformed Titles . . . . . . . . . . .171
Conforming with OMF Compositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173
Opening an OMF File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173
Conforming an OMF File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174
Exporting an OMF File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180
OMF Level of Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182
Conforming with EDLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186
Opening an EDL File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187
Setting EDL Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188
Conforming an EDL File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
Modifying an EDL File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193
Exporting an EDL File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195
Printing an EDL File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196
Proofing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196
Conforming with ALE Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
Importing an ALE file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
Getting Information on ALE Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198
Logging Clips from an ALE File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198
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C h a p t er 6
Building a Rough Cut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201
Workflow: Editing Audio and Video. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203
Creating Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205
Preparing Source Clips for Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205
Placing Clips on the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208
Adjusting the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221
Playing Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222
Varying the Playback Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .224
Moving to Points on the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .225
Looping Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .225
Viewing Unprocessed Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .226
Manipulating Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227
Selecting Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227
Moving Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228
Renaming and Adding Comments to Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
Cutting Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232
Copying Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232
Deleting Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232
Lifting Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233
Extracting Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233
User’s Guide • 5
Contents
Revealing Unused Material on Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Changing the Activeness of Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Using Match Frame and Match Bin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Matching a Frame in a Master Clip or Subclip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Matching a Frame in a Subclip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Matching Bins for a Clip on the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Extracting Parts of a Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Converting a Timeline Region or Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Creating Multiple Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Replacing Timeline Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Grabbing Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Creating a Master Clip from a Snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Creating an Image File from a Snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Rippling Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Inserting Clips in Ripple Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Editing Clips in Ripple Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Synchronizing Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Aligning Clips for Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Creating a Sync Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Manipulating Synchronized Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Editing Synchronized Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Resyncing Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Deleting Synchronized Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Referencing Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Creating Reference Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Converting a Container Clip to a Reference Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Processing Reference Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
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C h a p t er 7
Applying Effects and Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Applying Effects on the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Applying Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
Cutting to a Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
Creating One-Sided Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Creating Transitions between Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Editing Transition Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Aligning Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Removing Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Nesting Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Creating Nested Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Navigating within Nested Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Deleting Nested Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Processing Sequences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
C h a p t er 8
Trimming Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
Workflow: Trimming Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
6 • User’s Guide
Contents
Understanding Trimming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280
Methods of Trimming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .282
Selecting and Breaking Edit Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .283
Selecting Trim Sides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .283
Breaking and Relinking Edit Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .285
Performing a Basic Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287
Trimming the Edit Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .288
Trimming with the Trim Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .290
Trimming Audio Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .294
Backtiming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .294
Snapping Edit Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .295
Reviewing a Trim Edit or Transition in Trim Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . .295
Trimming On-the-Fly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296
Creating Overlap Edits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .297
Trimming Container Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .298
Trimming Transition Effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .299
Slipping or Sliding Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .300
Slipping Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .300
Sliding Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .301
Performing a Slip or Slide Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .301
Maintaining Sync While Trimming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .303
Creating a Gap When Trimming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .303
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C h a p t er 9
Painting and Titling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .305
Workflow: Painting and Titling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307
Applying Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .309
Setting the Working Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .309
Applying Graphics on the Video or Background Tracks. . . . . . . . .309
Applying Graphics on the Timeline Effect Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . .311
Applying Graphics on a Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312
Applying Graphics in an Effects Tree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .313
Using Presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314
Loading and Saving Presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314
Using Stroke or Text Presets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316
Setting Drawing Tool Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318
Setting the Paint Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318
Setting Brush Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .320
Creating Custom Brushes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322
Setting the Titling Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .323
Setting the Font Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324
Setting the Masks Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .325
Setting the Time Span Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .326
Defining Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328
Working with Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .330
Wireframe Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .330
User’s Guide • 7
Contents
Wireframe Preview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Drawing Polylines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Drawing Freehand Strokes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Drawing Rectangles and Ellipses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Using the Magic Wand Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
Selecting Graphics Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Locking Graphics Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Hiding Graphics Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Creating Clusters of Graphics Objects and Vertices . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Aligning Graphics Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Editing the Shape of a Stroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Reshaping a Stroke. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Working with Titles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Using Text from Other Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Selecting and Editing Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
Aligning Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Searching for Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
Creating Rolls and Crawls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354
Creating Handwritten and Type-On Animation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
Manipulating Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Editing Graphics Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Cutting, Copying, and Pasting Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
Duplicating Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
Deleting Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
Changing the Order of Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
Transforming Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
Tracking Graphics Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Transformation Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Tracking Vertices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Working in Raster Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
Creating Mattes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Creating a Travelling Matte. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Scratch Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
Importing an Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
Importing Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
Processing Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
?
Chapter 10
3D DVE and Titling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Workflow: Creating 3D DVEs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
Workflow: Titling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
Working in the 3D World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
Three-Dimensional Space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
Lights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
Setting Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
Using a Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
8 • User’s Guide
Contents
?
Working in Direct View Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .389
Displaying Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .391
Working in Wireframe Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .393
Setting the Viewer Quality Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .394
Working with the Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .395
Viewing Through the Alternate Camera. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .395
Manipulating the Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .398
Resetting the Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .399
Setting the Camera Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .399
Defining the Camera Interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .399
Setting the Clipping Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400
Selecting a Projection Method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400
Setting the Field of View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401
About Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .402
About Drawing Tool Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .403
Manipulating Objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .404
Selecting and Deselecting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .404
Cutting, Copying, and Pasting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .405
Moving Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .406
Locking and Unlocking Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .406
Reordering Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .407
Positioning Objects at Specific Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .407
Aligning Objects Relative to Each Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .408
Grouping and Ungrouping Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409
Showing and Hiding Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409
Changing the Visibility of Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .410
Modifying Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .410
Renaming Objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .414
Setting the Time Span . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .414
Working with 3D DVEs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .416
Creating DVEs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .416
Simulating a Textured Surface Using a Displacement Map . . . . . .418
Applying Profile Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .419
Extruding an Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .420
Blurring Moving Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .420
Working with Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .422
Creating Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .422
Editing Shapes and Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .425
Working with Compound Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .429
Reversing the Direction of a Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .430
Working with Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .431
Creating a Text Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .432
Using Special or Unicode Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .433
Importing Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434
Placing the Insertion Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .436
Resizing a Text Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .436
User’s Guide • 9
Contents
Selecting and Deselecting Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
Editing Text. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
Formatting Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
Adjusting the Kerning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
Adjusting the Leading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
Adjusting the Paragraph Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
Adjusting the Text Margins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
Controlling Rolling, Crawling, and Path Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
Clipping Text. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
Placing and Moving Text on a Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
Working with Surfaces and Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
Applying Materials to Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
Skipping the Drawing of the Back Faces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
Editing Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
Allowing Material to be Affected by Light Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
Controlling the Appearance of Overlapping Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . 461
Working with Lights and Shadows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
Adding, Moving, and Deleting Light Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
Editing Light Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
Turning Light Sources On or Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
Changing the Light Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
Using Colored Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
Changing the Intensity of a Light Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
Positioning a Light Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
Adjusting Spot Light Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
Identifying Light Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
Adding Shadows to Objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
Importing and Exporting Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
Working with Decks and Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
Setting the Output Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
Dampening Jittery Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
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Chapter 11
Mixing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
Workflow: Mixing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
Building an Audio Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
Creating Audio Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486
Mixing Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
Fine-tuning the Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
Adjusting the Mixer Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
Adjusting the Mixer Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
Animating the Audio Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
Animating the Input Strip Controls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
Bypassing the Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
Editing the Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
Deleting Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496
10 • User’s Guide
Contents
Converting the Sample Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .497
Converting Sequence Sample Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .497
Converting Clip Sample Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .497
Processing the Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .499
Chapter 12
Animating Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .501
Workflow: Animating Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .503
Creating Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .504
Setting Keyframes Automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .504
Setting Keyframes Manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .506
Editing Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .507
Editing Keyframes Manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .508
Editing Animation on the Animation Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .509
Offsetting Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .516
Copying Animation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .517
Repeating Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .521
Trimming Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .524
Removing Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .525
Processing Animation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .526
?
Chapter 13
Outputting Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .527
Workflow: Outputting Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .529
Preparing for Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .530
Selecting an Area to Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .530
Checking the Status of the External Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .531
Outputting Material. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .532
Outputting to Tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .532
Exporting to File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .534
Exporting QuickTime Reference Movies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .536
Appendix A
Avid|DS Product Family Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .539
Picture Editing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .541
Global Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .541
Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .542
Compositing and Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .542
3D DVE and Character Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .543
2D Character Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .543
Keying Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .543
Color Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .544
Paint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .544
Audio Editing and Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .544
Video and Audio Capture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .545
Media Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .546
Avid|DS RP (Remote Processing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .546
Archive and Restore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .546
User’s Guide • 11
Contents
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547
?
12 • User’s Guide
?
Chapter 1
Getting Started
User’s Guide • 13
Getting Started
The Avid|DS Learning Roadmap
The Avid®|DS package includes a comprehensive set of learning materials. With this
Roadmap, you’ll know where to find the information you need to get up and running
quickly and effectively.
?
Start with the Workstation Setup & Administration Guide to prepare your site for
Avid|DS. This includes assembly of your workstation, reinstalling and/or licensing any of the
components, and tips on the daily maintenance of your system.
Use the Drivers CD if you need to reinstall or update the drivers for any of the
components or troubleshoot problems with Avid|DS. This CD also contains PDF
versions of all the documentation and a few utilities you may find useful.
Note: In order to view the documentation on the CD, you need Adobe Acrobat Reader
5.01 and QuickTime version 5.0 or later installed. Acrobat Reader is included on the
Drivers CD. QuickTime can be downloaded from the Apple website.
Refer to the Release Notes for feature limitations and workarounds.
If you’re new to Avid|DS, work through the Getting Started book to learn how to use the
features in the context of a basic production. This full-color tutorial gives you step-by-step
instructions on how to create a two-minute spot.
If you’re already familiar with Avid|DS, read the New Features Guide; it briefly describes all
the new features in version 6.
Avid|DS Discussion Group
You can join the worldwide network of Avid|DS users exchanging ideas and techniques
by e-mail. To subscribe, send an e-mail to [email protected] with the
following text in the body of your message: subscribe ds.
14 • User’s Guide
The Avid|DS Learning Roadmap
At Avid|DS Authorized Training Centers (ATCs)
around the world, you can further your Avid|DS
education by attending the DS-101, DS-201, & DS-301
courses. These multi-day courses teach you about the
interface and workflow while producing short projects.
For details, visit http://avid.com/training.
The User’s Guide contains
comprehensive information on
how to perform basic and
advanced post-production tasks.
?
The Compositing & Effects
Guide contains information and
visual examples on how to use
effects in Avid|DS, and shows
you how to perform
compositing and tracking.
®
The Drivers CD contains all the Avid|DS
documentation in electronic form (PDF
format). See next page for how to use
the Documentation Library.
The online help contains on-screen reference
information on interface elements,
commands, and parameters. There are two
ways to access it:
• Click the ? icon or Help button in any
property editor, dialog box, or view.
• Choose Help > Contents and Index
from the main menu bar in Avid|DS.
Comments?
We’d appreciate any comments or suggestions you may
have about this book or any other piece of our
documentation. Just send them to: [email protected]
Keyboard shortcuts are available from the
Help menu in Avid|DS. Print out the
Keyboard Shortcuts card and keep them
close at hand.
User’s Guide • 15
Getting Started
Using the
Documentation Library
The Documentation Library contains all the Avid|DS documentation in PDF
format. If it was installed on your system, you can access it from the Help
menu in Avid|DS.
You will need Adobe Acrobat Reader installed to view the
documentation online.
To access the Documentation Library
?
• In Avid|DS, select Help > Documentation Library.
or
1. Insert the Drivers CD in your CD-ROM drive.
2. From the main menu, select Avid|DS Documentation.
To install Adobe Acrobat Reader
1. Insert the Drivers CD in your CD-ROM drive.
2. Under the Various section, select Utilities.
Document
Conventions
This guide uses the following symbols and conventions:
Bold
Bold is used for menu commands, dialog box and property
editor options, and file/folder names.
Italics
Italics place emphasis on certain words.
>
The greater than (>) sign indicates menu commands (and
subcommands) in the order that you choose them. For example,
File > Import means to open the File menu and then choose the
Import command. This applies to menus from the main menu bar
and pop-up menus that appear when you right-click on the interface.
Notes are reminders or contain important information.
Tips are useful bits of information, workarounds, and shortcuts that
you may find helpful in a particular situation.
Warnings are used when you can lose or damage information or
equipment, such as deleting data or not being able to easily undo an
action. Warnings always appear before you attempt a task!
Information that is specific to the Avid|DS HD Editor system only.
16 • User’s Guide
The Avid|DS Learning Roadmap
Mouse, Pen and Keyboard
In Avid|DS, you can use a two-button mouse (with wheel) or a pen and tablet.
The left and right mouse buttons perform different operations. Unless
otherwise stated, use the left mouse button.
?
The mouse and pen operate slightly differently. All the procedures in this
guide are documented for the mouse. You can, however, easily use a pen or
the keyboard. The following table shows the terms relating to the mouse, pen,
and keyboard.
This term
Means this with a mouse
Means this with a pen
Click
Quickly press and release the
left mouse button. Always use
the left mouse button unless
otherwise stated.
Tap the tablet once with the tip
of the pen, or touch the pen to
the tablet with enough pressure
to click.
Double-click
Click the left mouse button
twice rapidly.
Quickly tap the tablet twice in
the same screen pixel or press
the F5 key to go from single to
double-click.
Right-click
Quickly press and release the
right mouse button.
Press the top portion of the
switch on the side of the pen or
press the F6 key to go from left
to right-click.
Drag
Hold down the left mouse
button or the wheel while you
move the mouse.
Press the pen to the tablet while
moving the pen.
Alt+key,
Ctrl+key,
Shift+key,
etc.
Hold down the first key while you press the second key. For
example, “Press Alt+F1” means to hold down the Alt key while you
press the F1 key.
Customizing the Pen or Mouse
By customizing the pen, you can adjust the click pressure, switch functions,
and other features. For information on customizing the pen, refer to the
documentation provided with your Avid|DS system.
You can also customize the mouse. For example, you can select left-handed
configuration or change the double-click speed. For information on
customizing the mouse, refer to the Windows online help.
User’s Guide • 17
Getting Started
Avid|DS Customer Support
Customer support for Avid|DS is provided by your Avid local reseller working
together with Avid|DS Customer Support. Immediate assistance for any
technical issue is available through your local Avid reseller, our
North American hotline, e-mail, and FTP support services.
Hotline Support
?
Avid resellers provide first line support for Avid|DS according to their specific
geographical area and time zone. Working as an extension of Avid|DS
Customer Support, these fully trained agents provide the most efficient and
effective support possible to all our customers.
Contact information for your Avid reseller is available through the Avid
Reseller Locator at http://avid.com/cgi/locator/index.asp or www.avid.com.
You can reach Avid|DS Customer Support in North America:
tel: 1 800 800-AVID (2843)
fax: 514 845-8252
9:00 am to 9:00 pm (Eastern)
2:00 pm to 2:00 am (GMT)
Hotline assistance is also available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week for an
additional fee.
For international enquiries and support services, contact your local Avid
Reseller. Support offerings may vary per location.
E-mail Support
The Avid|DS e-mail address for customer support is: [email protected]
You can use it for sending bug reports, usability questions, and avidds.cab
audit reports for system analysis. All e-mails are logged in the support
database and assigned a case number. Send one support request per e-mail.
It is mandatory that you include your SID number in the body of
your e-mail message for verification of your maintenance contract
and case logging, otherwise response will be delayed.
Web Support
18 • User’s Guide
The Avid|DS Customer Support and Download sections at
http://www.softimage.com/avidds provide quick access to a wide range of
resources from the Avid|DS teams and user community. Downloads,
including presets, drivers, and Quick Fix Engineering (QFE), provide the
latest solutions for using with your Avid|DS system. Online documentation,
tutorials, and Knowledge Base articles ensure that you get the most out of
your work with Avid|DS. It's like having a dedicated Avid|DS Customer
Support engineer sitting at your desk!
Avid|DS Customer Support
FTP Support
For trouble shooting purposes, an FTP server is available for uploading large
files for Avid|DS Customer Support personnel to examine. You can upload a
project's archive, media files, or other large piece of data. Simply zip the files
to upload and use a short name for easy retrieval, such as archive.zip or
Case274877.zip. You can use a Windows Command Prompt or an FTP
application to upload files to our server.
Command Prompt Commands
?
Command
Description
Site access
ftp ftp.softimage.com [Enter]
Folder access
cd incoming [Enter]
User name
anonymous [Enter]
Password
“your e-mail address” [Enter]
Transfer mode
bin [Enter]
Upload command
Put “path:\file name” [Enter]
Once the file upload is complete, send an e-mail to [email protected] to
inform Customer Support as there is no automatic notification when a file is
uploaded on the FTP server. Please provide the complete and exact file name
(case sensitive) to retrieve.
Mailing List
Although the Avid|DS mailing list is frequently monitored by Avid employees,
it is not part of the official support channels. You are invited to send your
support requests to any of the above channels when required.
If you have an e-mail account, you can join the worldwide network of Avid|DS
users exchanging ideas. The mailing list has proven to be quite useful for
users, with a constant stream of new subscribers.
To subscribe, send an e-mail to [email protected] with the
following text in the body of your message: subscribe ds. You can get further
information on using the automated list server by e-mailing
[email protected] with “help” as your message.
Comments?
We’d appreciate any comments or suggestions you may have about this book
or any other piece of our documentation. Just send them to:
[email protected]
User’s Guide • 19
Getting Started
Logging on to Your Workstation
Avid|DS is designed to make full use of the Windows operating system. This
includes setting user preferences on an individual basis.
Before you can start Avid|DS, you must first log on to your Windows
workstation with your personal user identification (user ID). The user ID
provides security for each user, a unique profile (user profile), and lets you
access an environment that includes your customized layouts, keyboard
shortcuts, toolbar contents, and preferences. Each user profile is unique, so as
not to conflict with the settings of other users on the same workstation. This
profile is automatically stored on a local drive and is used each time you start
Avid|DS. When you set any personal or project preferences while logged on,
Avid|DS saves them to your user ID. The next time you log on to that
machine, it recalls your previous settings.
?
To log on to a Windows workstation
• On your Windows workstation, enter your user name and password to
access your applications and files.
Starting Avid|DS
You can start Avid|DS by double-clicking its icon on the desktop or by
choosing Avid|DS from the Start menu.
To start Avid|DS from the Start menu
• On the Windows desktop, click Start and choose Programs >
Avid Products > Avid|DS v6.0 > Avid|DS v6.0.
If you selected the Load Last Sequence at Startup option in the User
Preferences dialog box and want to bypass this option, press Shift
and double-click on the Avid|DS shortcut on the desktop. This starts
the application and displays the Open Project dialog box from which
you can choose a different project.
Exiting Avid|DS
After you’ve completed your work session, save your work, and exit Avid|DS.
If you made any changes to the desktop layout or user preferences, you can
save them to your user profile and recall them the next time you start Avid|DS.
To exit Avid|DS
Do one of the following:
• From the File menu, choose Exit.
• Click the Close button at the far right of the title bar.
• Click the Avid|DS icon at the far left of the title bar and choose Close.
• Press Alt+F4.
20 • User’s Guide
Viewing Avid|DS Events
Viewing Avid|DS Events
While working with Avid|DS, you can track important processes, such as the
start up and shut down of Avid|DS applications, Avid|DS RP processing
messages, or Explorer errors when a folder cannot be accessed. This is done
using the event logging service in Avid|DS. The event-logging service stores
events from various sources in a single collection called an event log.
Notifications of events include informative messages, errors, and warnings.
?
The event log records important software and hardware events to help you
determine the conditions that caused the error and the context in which it
occurred. By periodically viewing the event log, you may be able to identify
problems before they cause damage.
The event logging service does not replace direct messages that are displayed
when an action is necessary. The event log simply allows you to view the
results of any actions.
A reasonable amount of disk space is reserved for the event log. When the log
is full, older events are erased to make room for new ones.
The following Avid applications log events in the event log:
• Avid|DS 6.0
• Avid|DS RP 6.0
• Avid Media Indexer
• Avid Project Indexer
Viewing the Avid
Event Log
The event logging system consists of two parts, the viewer and the event log
file. The Avid Event Log is a list of all previously logged events.
To view the Avid event log
• From the View menu, choose Multi-Instance Views > Avid Event Log.
The Avid Event Log window is displayed.
To view the Avid event log from the Avid Explorer
Show/Hide
Panel
1. Click the arrow next to the Show/Hide Panel button and choose My
System from the menu. Click the Show/Hide Panel button.
2. From the tree, click Views to expand the tree and then click
Avid Event Log.
The Avid Event Log view is displayed in a bin, along with a list of software
and hardware events that have occurred.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Avid Event Log.
User’s Guide • 21
Getting Started
3. Double-click on an event log entry to display additional information.
?
Viewing the Windows Event Log
If you cannot start Avid|DS due to a fatal error, Windows also has an Event
Viewer so that you can browse through the event logs. In the Windows Event
Viewer, events from all open applications, the operating system, and other
system services are logged.
To view the Windows event log
1. On the Windows desktop, right-click on the My Computer icon and
choose Manage from the menu.
2. Click System Tools and then Event Viewer.
An event log is displayed for the different Windows applications.
3. Double-click the Avid Event Log to view the Avid|DS events.
22 • User’s Guide
Viewing Avid|DS Events
Sorting Columns and
Events
You can reorder the columns and events that are displayed.
To set the column order
• Click on a column heading and drag it left or right to a new position.
To sort the list of events
?
• Click on the column heading to sort the contents below the column in
ascending or descending order.
You can perform secondary sorts on multiple columns for better
grouping of events. For instance if you want to sort the events by
type and then by time, click the Type column heading, press Ctrl
and click the Date - Time heading. You will notice a (0) and a (1)
appear in the respective columns.
You can also sort the columns in the reverse order by pressing Ctrl
and clicking the column heading again. An up or down arrow will
appear in the column heading to indicate the direction of the sort.
User’s Guide • 23
Getting Started
?
24 • User’s Guide
?
Chapter 2
Working with Projects and Media
User’s Guide • 25
Chapter 2 • Working with Projects and Media
In This Chapter...
This chapter describes how your project files and media are handled in
Avid|DS. Since project organization plays a key part in the editing process,
you will learn how to set up your storage areas, create projects, and use the
Avid Explorer to organize your media into folders. You will also learn how to
use your disk space efficiently by purging and archiving media.
The Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
?
Configuring Media Storages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Managing Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Managing Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
26 • User’s Guide
The Project
The Project
A project is the all encompassing structure for your work, linking and
tracking the master clips and sequences with their associated media to make
your file management tasks easier.
?
Projects contain master clips,
sequences, and any special presets
and/or scripts you create
Sequence files contain information
about your edit decisions,
composites, and any effects you’ve
applied to your clips
What is Media?
Master clips are
representations of the
digitized media stored on
your disk array
These master clips can be
shared between sequences
within the same project
Source material is the original, unaltered material from videotapes or digital
recordings. This source material comes from a variety of sources, such as
video, audio, animated sequences, graphics, and still images.
When you capture material with Avid|DS, you are digitally transferring audio
or video material from an external device to a disk array connected to your
workstation.
Captured material (source media), is displayed as master clips in the Avid
Explorer. These clips contain information, such as the location of the media
on your disk array, the source data’s tape name, and the original in/out
timecodes. With this information, you can recapture the material at any time.
Media is also created when you apply an effect, transition, or composite in the
sequence to the originally captured data (source media) and then process it.
Processed media are called caches; they are stored separately from the source
media. When Avid|DS encounters processed effects during playback, it uses
the cache instead of the source media.
User’s Guide • 27
Chapter 2 • Working with Projects and Media
Source material
?
Clips refer to media
on disk array
Captured video and/or audio is stored in project
folder and represented as master clips in the
Avid Explorer
Working with Projects
and Media
Actual digitized material (source media) is
stored on disk array
When working with several digitized video and audio files, it is important to
understand how Avid|DS handles your data, so that you can work efficiently.
When you capture material, the media is stored on the disk array, and the
master files (known as master clips) representing this media are stored in the
project folder on your workstation’s local disk drive. You can see these clips in
the Avid Explorer. Master clips contain information about the location and
source timecodes of the corresponding media on the disk array.
The following illustration shows how project files and media are handled
in Avid|DS:
28 • User’s Guide
The Project
Captured or processed
media can be saved at
multiple qualities
?
5
Media on
disk array
Source media
1
Archive media
to tape or
external disk
Caches
3 Process effects and composites
in the sequence
Capture material
Clips
Sequences
Custom presets
4
Project files
on local disk
Archive
project files
2
Build sequence
When you place clips on the timeline to build your sequence, they maintain
pointers to the source media on your disk array. Any edits or effects that you
apply to the clips are noted in the sequence file. Clips, sequences, and presets
are all considered project files, which should be stored in the project folder.
That way, you can archive, restore, and/or purge all files related to a project
when required.
When you archive your project, a copy of the media is saved to tape or
external disk and the project files are saved in another location. With the
archived project files and associated media, you can reconstruct everything in
your project when necessary.
User’s Guide • 29
Chapter 2 • Working with Projects and Media
Configuring Media Storages
Storage devices hold the media for all your work, so it is important to define
them properly before capturing any media.
Avid|DS uses a service called the Media Indexer to set up your storage areas
and manage your media. The default configuration of audio and video storage
areas is stored in your local media indexing service. This service actively
monitors and indexes the storage areas that you’ve defined, to allow for
improved performance, better sharing of media across a network, and better
interaction between Avid|DS and an Avid|DS RP (remote processing) station.
?
Each workstation has its own media indexer which manages the audio and
video storage areas on that workstation. If you need to access media on an
external storage device, it is more efficient to connect to the Media Indexer on
that machine rather than directly to its storage area.
The illustration below shows the type of setup that you may have for your
media storages.
Avid File Manager
Avid|DS
Avid|DS
Media
Indexer
Media
Indexer
Media
Indexer
Your Avid|DS workstation
G:
H:
Storage
areas
I:
X:
Storage
areas
Y:
Z:
Avid|DS workstation
Storage
areas
Avid Unity
In this scenario, you want to access media on other workstations, as well as
Symphony™ or Media Composer® uncompressed media on an Avid Unity™.
You will therefore configure the media indexing service on your own
workstation, as well as establish a connection to the media indexing services
on other Avid|DS workstations and the Avid Unity.
You can connect directly to the Avid Unity storage, but this will slow
down the performance of your workstation as the storage will get reindexed each time the project is opened. Therefore, you should
connect to its Media Indexer instead.
30 • User’s Guide
Configuring Media Storages
This is how your Media Storage Configuration will look:
Your Avid|DS workstation
Other Avid|DS workstation
?
Avid Unity
Adding Media
Storages to a Media
Indexing Service
During installation, Avid|DS configures the disk array on your workstation as
the main storage area for your media. The audio and video storage folders
that you specified are configured in the media indexing service on your
workstation.
You can add or change these storage areas at any time by defining additional
storage devices or setting up different folder locations on these devices for
your audio or video media. You can even define different storage areas for
different projects.
Before you add another storage, make sure that you’ve installed the
storage device according to the vendor’s specifications.
User’s Guide • 31
Chapter 2 • Working with Projects and Media
To configure your media storages
1. From the Data Management menu, choose Media Tool or Configure
Storages.
2. If you chose Media Tool, click Media Indexer.
The Media Storage Configuration dialog box displays the media indexing
services or storages (if any) for the current project.
?
3. Select the Avid Media Indexing Service for your workstation and click the
Change button if you want to change a storage area in your existing media
indexing service.
If you don’t have any Avid Media Indexing Services in your list, or you
want to add a new indexing service to your project, see Adding a Media
Indexing Service to a Project on page 37.
32 • User’s Guide
Configuring Media Storages
4. In the Avid Media Indexing Service dialog box, click Change.
The Media Storage Configuration for this indexing service is displayed.
?
You can now click the Add, Remove, or Change buttons to modify your
list of storages that this indexing service will manage—see Adding a
Storage on page 33, Modifying a Storage on page 35, or Deleting a Storage
on page 35.
These storages will be accessed in the order in which they are listed. Use
the Move Up or Move Down buttons to change the access priority.
Click Help for detailed information on this dialog box.
5. After configuring your storage list, click Close to save the configuration
for the media indexing service.
6. In the Avid Media Indexing Service dialog box, click OK.
7. In the Media Storage Configuration box, click OK to save the
configuration for the current project.
Adding a Storage
You can add any number of storage areas to a media indexing service.
1. In the Media Storage Configuration dialog box, click Add.
The Available Storage Types dialog box is displayed.
User’s Guide • 33
Chapter 2 • Working with Projects and Media
?
2. Select one of the following storage types from the list:
Storage type
To
Avid|DS Video Storage
Connect to your video media folder.
Avid|DS Audio Storage
Connect to your audio media folder.
Avid|DS OMFI Media Files
Connect to your Symphony or Media Composer
uncompressed media.
3. Click OK.
4. In the Media Indexer, each storage area is uniquely identified by the
machine name and folder on which the media resides.
Enter the full Windows path name (drive:\folder_name or
\\machine_name\folder_name) where the storage area is located, or use the
browse (...) button to find it. For example, D:\VideoStorage or
\\DSStorage4\VideoStorage.
5. Select the Read Only option if you want to restrict anyone else from
writing information to the storage area.
6. Select the Use Avid Throttle Manager option if you want this storage area
to be managed by the Avid Throttle Manager.
34 • User’s Guide
Configuring Media Storages
Select this option if you are working in a workgroup environment
and you have the Avid Throttle Manager installed on a workstation.
The Avid Throttle Manager allows for more efficient bandwidth
management between your workstation, storage areas, and an
Avid|DS RP workstation.
7. Click OK.
?
The storage area is added to the Installed Media Storages.
Modifying a Storage
You can change the name or physical location of your storage area at any time.
When you change a storage area, you will not be able to play clips or
sequences that refer to the original storage area.
To modify a storage area
1. In the Media Storage Configuration dialog box, select the storage to be
modified.
2. Click Change.
3. Change the Windows path name to the folder where the media is stored,
or use the browse (...) button to find the folder.
4. Select the Read Only option if you want to restrict anyone else from
writing information to the storage area.
5. Click OK.
The location and name of the storage area is changed for the current project.
Deleting a Storage
If you no longer need access to a storage area, you can easily remove it from
the storage list. The media is not deleted, but you will not be able to access it
on this storage device.
If you uninstall Avid|DS or delete an indexing service, the storage
areas remain in the system’s registry. When you reinstall Avid|DS or
add the indexing service back to your configuration, the Media
Indexer automatically retrieves this information and displays the
storage areas.
To delete a storage area
1. In the dialog box, select the storage to delete.
2. Click Remove.
The storage area is no longer defined for the current project.
User’s Guide • 35
Chapter 2 • Working with Projects and Media
Sharing Storages
Sharing media saves you time and disk space as you only have to capture the
media once. If other users in your workgroup want to use the media, they can
import or copy the sequence into their project. The master clips will then link
directly to the media from within their own projects.
You can share media between projects on your own workstation, on other
workstations on your network, or on Avid Unity MediaNet. The limitation
with sharing media, however, is that if the storage area is connected across a
network, there may not be sufficient bandwidth to provide real-time access to
the media for more than one user at a time. However, if the storage device has
sufficient bandwidth, as with a fibre-optic cable to an Avid Unity MediaNet
storage, real-time playback is possible.
?
By default, the Media Indexer sets any new storage areas to automatically have
full read/write access by any user on the network. To restrict access to your
media, you can change the share permissions through Windows. Shared
storage areas also let you take advantage of remote processing. For details on
the physical setup of storages in your workgroup environment, refer to the
Avid|DS Workstation Setup & Administration Guide.
Establishing Direct
Connections to
Storages
If you need to access media on an external storage device, it is more efficient
to connect to the Media Indexer on that machine rather than directly to its
storage area.
You can connect directly to a storage (e.g. Avid Unity), but this will slow down
the performance of your workstation as the storage will get re-indexed each
time the project is opened. Also, if the storage is on a remote workstation, this
can cause heavy network traffic resulting in a slow down on your workstation.
To add a storage
1. From the Data Management menu, choose Configure Storages.
2. In the Media Storage Configuration dialog box, click Add.
The Available Storage Types dialog box is displayed.
36 • User’s Guide
Configuring Media Storages
3. Select one of the following storage types from the list:
Storage type
To
Avid|DS Video Storage
Connect to your video media folder.
Avid|DS Audio Storage
Connect to your audio media folder.
Avid|DS OMFI Media Files
Connect to your Symphony or Media Composer
uncompressed media.
?
4. Click OK.
5. In the Media Indexer, each storage area is uniquely identified by the
machine name and folder on which the media resides.
Enter the full Windows path name (drive:\folder_name or
\\machine_name\folder_name) where the storage area is located, or use the
browse (...) button to find it. For example, D:\VideoStorage or
\\DSStorage4\VideoStorage.
6. Select the Read Only option if you want to restrict anyone else from
writing information to the storage area.
7. Select the Use Avid Throttle Manager option if you want this storage area
to be managed by the Avid Throttle Manager.
Select this option if you are working in a workgroup environment
and you have the Avid Throttle Manager installed on a workstation.
The Avid Throttle Manager allows for more efficient bandwidth
management between your workstation, storage areas, and an
Avid|DS RP workstation.
8. Click OK.
The storage area is added to the Installed Media Storages.
Adding a Media
Indexing Service
to a Project
A media indexing service is defined for each Avid|DS workstation on the
network. Once the media indexing service is configured, you’ll have access to
all the video storages to which it is connected. Other workstations can then
User’s Guide • 37
Chapter 2 • Working with Projects and Media
connect to this media indexing service. If you delete a media indexing service
in the list, it disconnects your access to the media on those storage areas.
In addition to the indexing service for your own local storages, you can add
other indexing services to your project if you need to access storage areas on
other workstations on a network. You can connect directly to a storage area,
although, it is more efficient to connect to the media indexing service on that
workstation.
?
When you import a sequence from another project, Avid|DS
maintains a connection to the media even if it resides on an external
storage. If the storage where this media resides is not already
configured in your storage list, Avid|DS will also automatically add
the media indexing service for that storage to your storage list.
To add a media indexing service to a project
1. From the Data Management menu, choose Configure Storages.
The Media Storage Configuration - Current Project dialog box is displayed.
By default, the media indexing service on your workstation is already
configured with the storage folders that you specified during installation.
2. If you need to access media on another workstation, you will need to
connect to the media indexing service on that workstation.
In the Media Storage Configuration dialog box, click Add.
The Available Storage Types dialog box is displayed.
3. Select Avid Media Indexing Service and click OK.
Avid|DS scans the network for all workstations in your workgroup that are
running media indexing services.
4. From the Avid Media Indexing Service dialog box, select the network
name of the machine on which the service is running and click OK.
The media indexing service is added to the Installed Media Storages list.
5. Click Close to exit the Media Indexer.
38 • User’s Guide
Managing Projects
Managing Projects
Project management is a key part of the editing process. When working with
digitized video and audio, it’s easy to consume large amounts of valuable
space. For that reason, you must use your storage space efficiently.
Managing a project involves organizing, moving, and copying your project
files to subfolders. In addition, you must delete clips, or purge media and
cache files that you no longer need. You can also archive projects that have
been completed, and restore them only when you need to work with them.
?
When working on long projects, such as corporate videos or TV
programs, you can perform the numerous editing jobs either with
individual sequences or by creating reference clips. For example, if
there are several scenes in your project, you can create a separate
sequence or reference clip for each scene. By dividing the project
into several manageable sequences, you can work more efficiently.
This can also reduce the memory load on your system, which speeds
up load and save time, and timeline interactivity. For more
information, see Referencing Sequences on page 255.
A project containing several sequences
Organizing Your
Project Folder
Before you start capturing material and editing sequences, create subfolders in
your project folder to hold master clips, sequences, and custom presets. You’ll
find that creating subfolders helps organize your project, so that you can
locate files quickly and easily.
Also, when Avid|DS archives a project, it gathers and archives all the files in
the project folder. Therefore, it is important that you keep all the project files
within the project folder.
When you create a new project in Avid|DS, a project folder is automatically
created and displayed in the Avid Explorer. It also creates subfolders for
DSPresets and scripts. This default structure can be customized so that all
projects you create are already organized. For more information, see Creating
a Standard Folder Structure on page 41.
User’s Guide • 39
Chapter 2 • Working with Projects and Media
There are ways to set up your folders that make tasks, such as recapturing,
much easier. Here is an example of a simple but effective folder setup:
Contains all master clips logged from AAF files
Contains master clips
Contains all presets for the current project
?
Contains scripts
Contains sequence files
When capturing clips, you can choose the AutoSource option. This
automatically creates a folder for your master clips with the same
name as the tape from which you are capturing material.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Avid Explorer.
Creating or Deleting Folders in the Explorer
Using the Avid Explorer, you can create folders (bins) in which to store master
clips and other project files.
Show/Hide Panel
To create a folder
1. In the Avid Explorer, click one of the Show/Hide Panel buttons to display
a panel. Then click the arrow next to the button and choose Project from
the menu.
2. In the Project view, select your project folder.
The contents of the folder are displayed on the right in a bin.
3. Right-click on an empty area of the bin and choose New > Folder from
the menu.
The new folder is displayed in the bin with the name New Folder highlighted.
4. Type in a new name and press Enter.
5. Continue adding as many folders as you need. You can even create
subfolders under your new folders. Simply click on the new folder in the
Project view and then right-click on the bin to add a new folder.
To delete a folder
• In the Project view or bin, right-click on a folder and choose Delete from
the Windows section of the menu.
40 • User’s Guide
Managing Projects
Creating a Standard Folder Structure
If you want Avid|DS to create a standard folder structure for new projects, you
can create an .ini file that will specify the folders that will appear in the Avid
Explorer when a new project is created. The .ini file must be called folder.ini
and must be stored in the \Preferences\username folder. You can have different
.ini files for each Avid|DS user.
?
To create a standard folder structure for new projects
1. Open a text file using a text editor.
2. On the first line of the file, type the following in uppercase letters:
[FOLDERS].
3. Type in the names of the folders you want to appear in the Avid Explorer.
For example:
•
•
•
•
Graphics
Master Clips
Sequences
Trash
The order of the folders is not important, as they will be sorted in
alphabetical order or according to the sorting method used in the
Avid Explorer.
4. Save the file as folder.ini and save it in the following location:
C:\Program Files\Avid\DS_v6.0\Preferences\username
Any new projects that are created will contain the folders specified in
the .ini file.
The DSPresets, Scripts, and Views folders are created by default.
User’s Guide • 41
Chapter 2 • Working with Projects and Media
Renaming Project Files
You can rename a master clip, sequence, or folder in your project.
You cannot change the name of a clip or sequence if it is open or
when previewing it in the Source viewer.
To rename a clip, sequence, or folder
?
1. In a bin, click the name of a clip, sequence, or folder.
2. Type in a new name and press Enter.
When you rename a clip, sequence, or other Avid|DS file, make sure
to keep the file extension (.Clip, .Segment, and so on). Avid|DS
cannot manage the file properly without the extension.
A file name can contain up to 255 characters and include spaces.
But, it cannot contain any of the following characters: \ / : * ? " < > |
Moving Files between Folders
You can rearrange the files in your project folders by dragging them to a
new folder.
To move a file to another folder
• Drag a file from a bin to a folder in the Project view or to another bin.
The No Entry icon changes to a Move icon when you place the pointer
over a folder in the Project view.
You cannot move clips or sequences between projects, but you can
import a sequence into another project. For more information, see
Importing Sequences from Another Project on page 153.
To make a copy of a file
• Select the clip or sequence that you want to copy, press Ctrl and drag the
clip to an empty area in the current folder, or to another folder in the tree.
Opening Projects
42 • User’s Guide
Avid|DS lets you create and open projects from a dialog box so that you can
view and manage all projects anywhere on the network. Each project in the list
has its own list of sequences. When you open a sequence, you automatically
open its associated project, so that you access all the master clips and custom
presets stored in the project folder.
Managing Projects
?
Open Project dialog box
By default, all projects created with Avid|DS are stored in their own folder
under the DS Projects folder. It’s important that you keep all the files related
to a project inside the project folder, so that they can be archived, restored,
and/or purged.
If you’re running more than one version of Avid|DS on your
workstation, new projects will be classified by version, and will be
stored in a subfolder of the \DS Projects folder. You can use the Scan
Disk option to change the project path folder so that only the
projects in a particular version folder are displayed.
Creating a New Project
When you first start Avid|DS, or when you want to start a new project, you are
prompted to name your project, designate a location for it, and set
the project’s preferences. Once you’ve done this, a project folder is created at
the specified location. By default, all sequences associated with this project are
saved in this folder.
Project preferences define the way your material is captured, processed, and
output by Avid|DS. Once you set the project preferences, they become the
default settings for the sequences that you create in this project.
By default, the sequence preferences come from the project, but you
can still customize the preferences for each sequence. For more
information, see Setting Sequence Preferences on page 129.
User’s Guide • 43
Chapter 2 • Working with Projects and Media
To open a new project
1. Do one of the following:
• From the Open Project dialog box, click New Project.
• From the File menu, choose New > Project.
?
Browse button
44 • User’s Guide
Managing Projects
2. In the New Project dialog box, enter a unique name for your project in the
Project Name text box.
3. In the Location text box, enter the path where you would like the project
files to reside. You can also use the browse (...) button to locate the folder
in which you want to save your project.
4. Set the video and audio settings for your project.
?
Click Help for detailed information on the New Project properties.
5. Click OK to save the project preferences.
The Editing layout is displayed for you to start building your sequence,
and the Avid Explorer displays your project as the favorite. For more
information on setting favorites in the Explorer, click Help.
User’s Guide • 45
Chapter 2 • Working with Projects and Media
Opening an Existing
Project
Once you’ve created project folders in Avid|DS, they are presented as a list
from which you can choose a specific project or sequence.
To open an existing project on your workstation
1. From the File menu, choose Open > Project.
The Open Project dialog box is displayed.
?
2. From the Select a Project list, select a project name.
3. From the Select a Sequence list, do one of the following:
• Click New DS Sequence and then click New Sequence.
• Double-click on an existing sequence name or click on the sequence name
and then click Open.
If you created a new sequence, the New Sequence dialog box is displayed.
You must set the sequence preferences and then click OK. For more
information, see Setting Sequence Preferences on page 129.
A new or existing sequence is opened.
To open an existing project on another workstation
1. From the File menu, choose Open > Project.
The Open Project dialog box is displayed.
2. From the Project List box, click Scan Disk.
The Scan Subdirectories for Projects dialog box is displayed.
3. Locate the \DS Projects folder on the network that contains the project
you want to open and click Select.
Avid|DS searches through the selected folder and creates a project list. You
can now open any one of these projects and/or sequences.
46 • User’s Guide
Managing Projects
Archiving Projects
Archiving is a way to create backups of your project, move a project to another
workstation, or free up space on your local disk. You can restore archived
projects later, if necessary.
You can archive both the project files and its related media. If you choose to
archive only the project files, you can recapture the media easily once the
project is restored.
?
Archive all
files related
to project
Project files
Sequences and
clips refer to
media on disk
Archived project files and media
Only media related to
clips and sequences in
project are archived
Source and cache media
To archive a project
1. From the Data Management menu, choose Project Manager from the menu.
The Project Manager is displayed.
2. Select the Archive tab.
User’s Guide • 47
Chapter 2 • Working with Projects and Media
Projects
?
3. Choose a project to archive by selecting it from the list of displayed projects.
You can archive projects from anywhere on the network. To access
other project folders, click Select Project Directory, navigate to the
desired location, and then click Select. The projects in the selected
folder appear in the project list.
4. If you want to archive the media associated with your project, select the
type of media you want to archive from the Media Archive Options box.
For video media and video cache media, you must specify a compression
rate and resolution for the media you want to archive. For audio media
and audio cache media, you must specify a sample rate.
Video is always archived to tape, and audio is always archived to the
specified media location on disk.
The status area displays the amount of time required on tape to archive
your video media. It also displays the amount of disk space that the
project files, including the audio media (if any) will consume. If the media
archive is longer than the length of your tape, you need to split the media
onto two tapes. For more information, see Creating Multiple Archives of
the Same Project on page 51.
Click Help for detailed information on the media archive options.
48 • User’s Guide
Managing Projects
5. By default, all projects are archived in the \DS Archives folder. You can select a
different destination folder for the project files by doing one of the following:
• Enter the path in the Project Archive Destination text box.
• Click Browse to search for the appropriate folder.
?
Avid|DS does not let you archive a project at the root of a drive, such
as F:\. The archive must be within a folder. For example, F:\DS
Archives\ is a valid location for a project archive.
6. Click Archive to begin archiving your project.
If your project contains linked clips, a message is displayed, warning you
that linked clips cannot be archived as the media does not reside within
the current project. You should backup these files separately.
If you are archiving video media to tape, once the archive is opened (and
the audio is archived), the Creating Media Archive dialog box is displayed.
7. In the Archive Tape Options box, select a device to which you want to
archive the media files.
User’s Guide • 49
Chapter 2 • Working with Projects and Media
Before starting the archive, create an external device preset, so that it
is available from the Device list when you archive your media to
tape. For more information on creating an external device preset, see
Configuring the External Device on page 78.
Set the Edit Mode to Assemble in your preset to avoid having to
stripe the entire tape before archiving your media to tape. Even with
Assemble mode, you must stripe the first few seconds of the tape.
?
8. In the Archive Tape Options box, enter a value in the In-point timecode
box to set the starting timecode of the archive on the tape. By default, the
in-point timecode is set to 00:00:00:00.
9. Click Continue.
Your media files are archived to tape.
If you’re currently previewing clips in the viewer, you cannot archive
your project. This may not be obvious if you’re using the dual
viewer. To close the dual viewer, click Done in the preview controls.
Click Help for detailed information on the media archive properties.
After you’ve archived your project, make sure that there is an archivetape.log
file in the archive folder. Without this log file, you cannot restore your media.
It is also a good idea to compare the timecodes in the archivetape.log file with
those on the archive tape. If they’re the same, you shouldn’t have any
problems restoring your project. If they’re different, however, archive the
project again.
The archive.log file contains the Avid|DS version number, so you
know which version you were using when the archive was created.
Once the archive is complete and the log file has been checked, you can delete
your project to make space on your disk. For more information, see Deleting
Projects on page 58.
If you want to archive a project with a non-standard video format,
you can create an archive of the project files only (do not include the
media), and then back up the folder that contains the media for your
project on another medium, such as CD, Jaz, or DLT. When restoring
this project, all you have to do is make sure you copy the folder
containing the media files back to its original location. All the media
will be linked back to the original master clips inside the project.
50 • User’s Guide
Managing Projects
Creating Multiple Archives of the Same Project
If you archive a large project and its media, you may find that one tape is not
enough to hold all your media. You can create two separate archives of the
same project, each one containing different types of media, such as:
?
Archive
Contents
1
Project data, audio media, audio cache, and video media
2
Project data and video cache
It’s very important that the project data for both archives are identical for you
to be able to restore the project accurately at a later date.
Be sure to keep track of which projects were archived using the
multiple archive method as Avid|DS does not remind you when it
comes time to restore the project. It is also important to name your
tapes appropriately, so that you can easily distinguish the media on
the tapes.
To create multiple archives of the same project
1. From the Project Manager, select the Archive tab.
2. Choose a project to archive by selecting it from the list of displayed projects.
3. Select the following media archive options:
• Archive video media files to tape
• Archive audio media files to disk
• Archive audio cache media to disk
4. For the video media, select a compression rate and resolution of the media
you want archived. For the audio media and audio cache media, select a
sample rate.
5. Enter a path in the Project Archive Destination text box where you want
the archive to reside.
6. Click Archive to begin archiving the first part of your project.
The project files and audio media are archived to disk and the Creating
Media Archive dialog box is displayed before it starts to archive any
video media.
7. In the Archive Tape Options box, select the device to which you want to
archive the media files.
8. Enter a value in the In point timecode box to set the starting timecode of the
archive on the tape. By default, the in-point timecode is set to 00:00:00:00.
User’s Guide • 51
Chapter 2 • Working with Projects and Media
9. Click Continue.
Avid|DS archives your video media to tape.
10. Without making any changes to your project folder, choose the same
project to archive by selecting it from the list of displayed projects.
11. From the Media Archive Options box, select the Archive video cache files
to tape option.
?
12. Select the compression rate and resolution of the media you want to archive.
13. Click Archive to begin archiving the cache media.
The project data is archived to disk again and the Creating Media Archive
dialog box is displayed.
14. From the Archive Tape Options box, select the device to which you want
to archive the media files.
15. Enter a value in the In point timecode box to set the starting timecode of the
archive on the tape. By default, the in-point timecode is set to 00:00:00:00.
16. Click Continue.
Avid|DS archives your cache media to tape. You now have two archives of
the same project on two separate tapes.
After you’ve archived your project, make sure that there is an
archivetape.log file in the archive folder. Without this log file, you
cannot restore your media. It’s also a good idea to compare the
timecodes in the archivetape.log file with those on the archive tape.
Restoring Projects
Projects are archived when a job is completed, to create backups of your
project files, or to move a project to another workstation. If you need to work
on the project again, you simply have to restore it. You can restore the project
files, as well as any video and/or audio media that was archived with it.
If you restore a project that contains third-party plug-in effects onto
a machine that does not have the plug-ins installed, the effects will
appear over the clips they were applied to, but they will be empty.
They will be editable after you install the plug-ins.
If you only want to work on a small portion of an archived project, you can
choose which parts of the project you want to restore.
Additional information about archived files can be found in text files
in the project’s archive folder. The archive.log file records the dates
of all archive and restore operations for a selected archive, and the
archivetape.log file keeps a list of all its archived media files. You can
use this file to determine the compression ratios and resolutions at
which the media was archived.
52 • User’s Guide
Managing Projects
Restoring a Complete Project
From the Project Manager, you can restore the project files and corresponding
media. If you’re restoring a project whose media was archived on more than
one tape, see Restoring a Project Archived on Multiple Tapes on page 56.
To restore a complete project
1. From the view switcher, click the Project Manager icon.
?
2. From the Project Manager, select the Restore tab.
3. In the Archive Folder text box, enter the location of the archived project
file that you want to restore, or click Browse to search for the file.
Searching for an archived file in the default DS Archives folder
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Chapter 2 • Working with Projects and Media
4. In the Project Name text box, specify the folder in which you want to place
the restored files.
5. If you want to restore the project’s media, select the Select media to
restore option from the Options box.
The Media Options (1/2) dialog box lets you select specific clips or
sequences for which you want the media to be restored.
6. Since you want to restore the complete project, ignore this dialog box and
click OK. The Media Options (2/2) dialog box is displayed.
?
7. Select the type of media you want to restore with the corresponding
compression ratio and resolution, and click OK.
If you have video material archived on tape, you will be prompted to
insert the tape into the deck. If you have material on disk, it will
automatically be restored from your archive.
8. Click Restore.
If you’re restoring material from videotape, Avid|DS controls the deck,
searches for the appropriate footage on the tape, and then digitizes it.
If you encounter problems restoring material from tape, you should
disable the viewer using the Viewer button in the status bar and try
capturing again. When restoring full resolution HD material at 29.97
and 30 frames per second, the viewer is automatically disabled.
Avid|DS usually stops the deck, rewinds, and then pre-rolls before
capturing material. With an archive, however, the media should be stored
on tape one right after the other. As a result, the pre-roll is skipped and the
all media is captured in one pass. This feature, known as streaming
capture, greatly reduces the time to restore an archive.
54 • User’s Guide
Managing Projects
If the restore is not entirely successful, that is, some clips were not
restored, click Restore to recapture the missing clips.
You can only restore NTSC media while an NTSC sequence is open.
If you restore a project that contains both PAL and NTSC media,
you must restore the NTSC media in an NTSC sequence, and then
restore the PAL media in a PAL sequence.
?
Once a project is restored, you can open the project from the Project
Manager and work with its sequences.
Restoring Parts of a Project Archive
At times, you may only want to restore part of a project, some of its clips, or
one particular sequence. Avid|DS lets you choose which project files and
associated media files to restore.
To restore parts of a project archive
1. From the Project Manager, select the Restore tab.
2. In the Archive Folder text box, enter the location of the archived project file
that you want to restore, or click Browse to search for the file.
3. In the Project Name text box, specify the folder in which you want to place
the restored files.
4. To restore the media of a selected part of your project archive, click Select
Media to Restore from the Options box.
The Media Options (1/2) dialog box lets you select specific clips or
sequences for which you want the media to be restored.
5. Select the Only Restore media referenced by the following files option to
activate the selective restore function.
6. Click one of the following:
• Add Clip to select individual clips for which you want the media to
be restored.
• Add Sequence to select individual clips for which you want the media
to be restored.
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Chapter 2 • Working with Projects and Media
7. In the Avid Explorer , select the clips or sequences for which you want
media to be restored and click OK.
The selected clips or sequences are displayed in the Media Options (1/2)
dialog box.
To remove items from the list, select the items and click Delete.
?
8. When you have all the clips and/or sequences you want, click OK.
The Media Options (2/2) dialog box is displayed.
9. Select the type of media you want to restore with the corresponding
compression ratio and resolution, and click OK.
If you have video material archived on tape, you are prompted to insert
the tape into the deck. If you have material on disk, it is automatically
restored from your archive.
10. Click Restore.
If you’re restoring material from videotape, Avid|DS controls the deck,
searches for the appropriate footage on the tape, and then digitizes it.
Restoring a Project Archived on Multiple Tapes
You can restore a project whose media was archived on multiple tapes. As the
project files are archived with each tape, you must be careful not to overwrite
your project files.
To restore a project archived on multiple tapes
1. From the Project Manager, select the Restore tab.
2. In the Archive Folder text box, enter the location of the archived project file
that you want to restore, or click Browse to search for the file.
3. In the Project Name text box, specify the folder in which you want to place
the restored files.
56 • User’s Guide
Managing Projects
4. From the Options box, select the Select media to restore option to restore
the audio media files.
The Media Options (1/2) dialog box is displayed.
5. Since you want to restore the complete project, leave this dialog box
inactive and click OK.
The Media Options (2/2) dialog box is displayed.
?
6. Select the audio media and audio cache file options, and then click OK.
7. Click Restore.
8. Once the project data and audio media files are restored, you can begin
restoring the video and cache files.
9. Repeat steps 2 to 7, but this time restore your video media files. When
Avid|DS asks you if you would like to skip the restoration of the project
information, click Yes.
By choosing Yes, you are only restoring the video media files and not
overwriting the project data.
10. Repeat steps 1 to 7 again, but this time restore the video cache files.
Your entire project with media and cache files are now restored. You can
open the project from the Project Manager and work with your sequences.
Moving Projects to
Another Workstation
You can easily move your project files to another Avid|DS workstation. Simply
archive your files with or without the associated media, copy them to a folder on
the new workstation, configure the media storages so that they match those of
the machine on which the project was archived, and then restore the project.
If you want to move individual media files, see Moving Media on
page 67.
To move a project to another workstation
1. Archive your project to a location on the network—see Archiving Projects
on page 47.
Make a note of your current storage paths, so that you can easily
configure the storages on the new workstation where you will be
restoring your project.
2. On the new workstation, make sure that you’ve configured the same
storage areas as the machine on which you archived your project—see
Configuring Media Storages on page 30.
3. Restore your project from the network location—see Restoring Projects on
page 52.
User’s Guide • 57
Chapter 2 • Working with Projects and Media
Deleting Projects
When you no longer need a project, archive it first and then delete it from
your system.
When you delete a project, the project folder, project files, and all media
associated with the project are deleted. You can also delete individual files
within a project, such as clips and sequences. You can delete project files and
their corresponding media from the Avid Explorer or clip tray.
To delete a project
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1. Close the project that you want to delete.
2. From the Project Manager, select the Delete tab.
3. Choose a project to delete by selecting it from the list of displayed projects.
4. Click Delete.
You are prompted to confirm your decision.
5. Click Yes to delete the project and its media.
Click Help for detailed information on the Project Manager dialog box.
58 • User’s Guide
Managing Projects
Deleting a Clip
When you first capture media into Avid|DS, a clip is created in the Avid
Explorer to represent the digitized media on your storage device. This is the
master clip. You can delete master clips and any clip on the timeline.
When deleting master clips, you have two options:
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• You can check that no other clips in this sequence or another are using its
media before the clip is deleted. If the media is being used by another clip,
then only the clip is deleted and not the media.
• You can quickly get rid of clips and their media without verifying if the
media is being used by another clip in this sequence or another. Although
this is quicker, it can be risky. You should only do this when you are
absolutely sure that you don’t need the media associated with this clip.
Since project files and their media are stored separately, you can delete the
media, but keep the clip so that you can later recapture the media. For
more information, see Purging Media on page 68.
You can also delete clips on the timeline. Since the clip on the timeline is
usually just a copy of the master clip in the Avid Explorer, the clip is removed
only from the sequence. The master clip in the Avid Explorer and the media
on the disk array remain intact.
If you created clips on the timeline from an EDL (Edit Decision List)
or OMF® (Open Media Framework®) file without creating logs in
the Avid Explorer, the clips on the timeline are the only instances of
these clips. If you remove them from the sequence, they will no
longer exist anywhere in your project. If there was media associated
with these clips it will remain on your disk array, but you will not
have access to it because it is no longer associated with any clip. The
media will remain on your disk array until it is deleted when you
purge unreferenced media.
To delete a clip in the Avid Explorer
1. From a bin in the Avid Explorer, select the clip(s) that you want to delete.
To select multiple clips, hold down the Ctrl key while selecting clips.
2. Right-click on a selected clip, and choose one of the following from the menu:
• Delete Clip & Unused Media: Deletes the clip. Also deletes the media for
this clip if the clip is not being used in another sequence.
• Delete Clip & All Media: Deletes the clip and associated media without
verifying if this clip is used elsewhere.
User’s Guide • 59
Chapter 2 • Working with Projects and Media
3. Click Yes.
A progress bar appears, showing that the delete is in progress. You can
click Cancel to stop the delete process.
If you are having difficulty deleting a clip, it may have been corrupted.
Use the Media Tool to locate the clip so that you can then and delete it.
For more information, see Managing Media on page 62.
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Deleting a Sequence
A sequence is an arrangement of clips, effects, edit points, and transitions.
Like master clips, sequences do not contain any media. They simply refer to
the media that is stored on your disk array. So when you delete a sequence, the
master clips and their media remain intact.
When you delete a sequence, you also delete any processed media
(caches) for this sequence, unless they’re used by other sequences.
To delete a sequence
1. From a bin in the Avid Explorer, select the sequence(s) that you want
to delete.
Select multiple sequences by holding down the Ctrl key while
selecting sequences.
2. Right-click on the selected sequence, and choose one of the following
from the menu:
• Delete Clip & Unused Media: Deletes the sequence. Also deletes the media of
any clips in this sequence if the clips are not being used in another sequence.
• Delete Clip & All Media: Deletes the sequence, clips, and associated media
without verifying if they are used elsewhere.
3. Click Yes.
A progress bar appears, showing that the delete is in progress. You can
click Cancel to stop the delete process.
60 • User’s Guide
Managing Projects
Example: Purging versus Deleting Media
Purge master clip from sequence A.
Result: The master clip is never deleted.
Master clip
If Keep Media Used in Other Sequences is selected, and
the master clip is used in another sequence, then the
media is not deleted.
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If Keep Media Used in Other Sequences is not selected,
then the media is deleted.
Sequence A
Sequence B
Once the media is deleted, when you play back a
sequence that uses this master clip, the “Media Not
Available” message is displayed in the viewer whenever it
encounters this clip.
Because the master clip was not removed, it’s easy to
recapture the media from the Avid Explorer or timeline.
Media
Delete Clip & Unused Media for master clip from
sequence A.
Master clip
Result: Deletes the master clip in the Avid Explorer.
Avid|DS checks to see if this clips media is used
elsewhere. If it is, then the media is not removed.
Although the master clip is deleted, the clips remain on
the timeline in sequence A and B, and still refer to the
original media.
Sequence A
Sequence B
Media
Delete Clip & All Media for master clip from sequence A.
Master clip
Result: Deletes the master clip in the Avid Explorer as well
as its associated media regardless of whether this clip is
used in another sequence.
Although the master clip is deleted, the clips on sequence
A and B remain on the timeline. When you play back either
of your sequences, the “Media Not Available” message is
displayed in the viewer whenever it encounters this clip in
your sequence.
Sequence A
Sequence B
General Note
Purge always keeps the master clip; it removes the media
depending on setting.
Media
Delete always removes the master clip; it removes the
media depending on the command selected.
User’s Guide • 61
Chapter 2 • Working with Projects and Media
Managing Media
Avid|DS uses a service called Media Indexer to manage your media. Media
files in Avid|DS contain information called metadata. The Media Indexer uses
this information to quickly sort and access media files on your storages. Using
metadata, the Media Indexer can manage media of different formats, such as
video, audio, source, cache, .gen files (the native Avid|DS format), and .omf
files (the native Avid Symphony and Avid Media Composer format).
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Media Indexer actively monitors the media directories that you’ve defined. This
allows for improved performance, better sharing of media across a network, and
better interaction between Avid|DS and a remote processing station.
Even with the Media Indexer monitoring your media, you still need to learn
how to manage your source and cache media. When working on big projects,
you can easily accumulate large amounts of media captured from different
sources in different formats, resolutions, and compression ratios. You must be
able to sort, search through, find, purge, move, and delete media.
You can manage the media files within your current project effectively using
the Media Tool. You can group files by properties, such as project, storage,
format, quality, and source. The Media Tool also lets you move, delete, copy,
or defragment media files, as well as determine the media files to which clips
and sequences are associated.
Media associated with linked clips does not appear in the Media
Tool because the media does not actually reside on your disk array.
For more information, see Linking to a Clip on page 103.
To access the Media Tool
1. Do one of the following:
• From the Data Management menu, choose Media Tool from the menu.
From the View menu, choose Single-Instance Views > Media Tool from
the menu.
From the view switcher, click the Media Tool icon.
2. When Media Tool opens, click Refresh to update its contents.
Sorting Media
62 • User’s Guide
You can view media by project, storage, quality, or source using the media tree
in the Media Tool. You can also sort the media into sub-areas by setting the
sort order of properties in the media tree. For example, you can group media
by storage to determine how much media exists on each storage, and then
perform a secondary sort by quality to view the media according to the
different resolution or compression at which they were captured.
Managing Media
These are the properties that you can sort:
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Field
Description
Quality
The resolution and/or compression of the media.
Project
The name of your project.
Source
The material from which this media originated—tape, CD,
imported from file, or a file processed within Avid|DS.
Storage
A partitioned area on the disk array for storing your media.
To sort your media
1. From the Media Tool, click Options.
In the Media Tree Properties dialog box, the Media Tree Sorting Order list
determines what is displayed in the media tree.
2. Move the properties between the Available Properties list and the Media
Tree Sorting Order list by clicking an item in either list and using the
Add >> or << Remove buttons to set the properties you want to view.
You can also move an item from one list to another by doubleclicking it.
Click Help for detailed information on the Media Tree Properties dialog box.
User’s Guide • 63
Chapter 2 • Working with Projects and Media
3. Establish the media tree hierarchy by selecting a property in the Media
Tree Sorting Order list, and clicking Move Up or Move Down to set the
sorting order for the properties.
4. Click OK to save your changes.
The media tree displays the properties you selected for the sort and the
Contents view displays the associated media files.
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List of media in the Contents view
You can quickly reorder columns in the Contents view by dragging a
column heading left or right.
Sorting Media Using Filters
You can sort and find media easily using various filtering options.
To find a media file using filters
1. From the Media Tool, click Options.
2. From the Filter Options list in the Media Tree Properties dialog box, select
the type of media you want to search for.
Click Help for detailed information on the Media Tree Properties dialog box.
3. From the Project list, select a project.
Avid|DS limits its search to the selected project.
4. Click OK.
The media files for the selected filter option are displayed in the Contents
view of the Media Tool.
64 • User’s Guide
Managing Media
Viewing Media
You can view media files as thumbnails, making it easier to identify and locate
particular media. You can also step through the media files by changing the
frame that is displayed on the thumbnail. This gives you a basic idea of what is
included in each media file.
To view media files in Thumbnails mode
1. From the Media Tool, select a group of media in the media tree.
The media for that group is displayed in the Contents view.
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2. Click the Thumbnails icon.
Each media or cache file is represented as a thumbnail.
Click Help for detailed information on the Media Tool.
To change the frame displayed on the thumbnail
1. Display the media for a group in Thumbnails mode.
2. Right-click on a media file and choose View Frame and one of the
following from the menu:
Command
To
First Frame
Display the first frame of the media file.
Middle Frame
Display the middle frame of the media file.
Last Frame
Display the last frame of the media file.
Advanced
Find the clip information and the total number of frames
contained in this clip. It also lets you enter a particular frame
number to be displayed.
The thumbnail displays the frame number you chose.
Searching for Media
In Avid|DS, you can search for clips and sequences that reference a specific
media file. The search looks through all the files in a project.
To search for a clip or sequence using a media file
• In the Contents view of the Media Tool, right-click on a media file and
choose Find Clips from the menu.
Avid|DS searches through your project and lists any clips or sequences in
which this media file is used. These clips and sequences are listed in the
clip tray.
User’s Guide • 65
Chapter 2 • Working with Projects and Media
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You can now drag these clips and sequences to the viewer or timeline for
previewing or editing.
Click Help for detailed information on the clip tray.
Defragmenting Media
The more you capture, delete, and purge media from your system, the more
likely that your media files become fragmented on your disk array.
Fragmented media may slow down your system or cause playback problems,
such as skipped frames, therefore you should defragment your disk array
regularly. This, however, can be a lengthy process.
If you want to quickly defragment one or two clips that are causing playback
problems, you can defragment them using the Media Tool.
To defragment media files
1. From the Media Tool, select one or more media files that you think might
be fragmented.
2. Right-click on one of the selected files and choose Defragment from
the menu.
Avid|DS will defragment the files.
66 • User’s Guide
Managing Media
Verifying Media
If you encounter problems while playing back your sequences, there may be
corrupted media on your disk array. You can check to see if media is corrupt
by using the Media Tool.
To verify your media
• From the Media Tool, click Verify Media.
If you have any corrupted files, the Media Tool prompts you to delete
them. Media that you delete will have to be recaptured or reprocessed.
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Copying Media
You can copy media from one storage area to another. You can copy one file at
a time, a selection of files, or an entire folder of media files.
To copy a media file
1. In the Contents view of the Media Tool, right-click on a media file and
choose Copy from the menu.
To copy more than one file, hold down the Ctrl key while selecting
files, and then right-click on one of the selected files to select the
Copy option from the menu.
2. From the Copy Media dialog box, sort your media list by Storage.
3. Select the video and audio storage area to which you want to copy your
media.
Avid|DS will automatically link any projects using this media to your local
drive. This is because, by default, the Media Indexer is configured to look at
your local storage area first. You can verify this by opening the Media Indexer
and verifying that your local storage is the first one in your list. For more
information, see Configuring Media Storages on page 30.
To copy a media folder
1. From the media tree, select the parent folder of the folder that you want
to copy.
2. In the Contents view of the Media Tool, right-click on the media folder that
you want to move, and choose Copy from the menu.
3. From the Copy Media dialog box, specify the video and/or audio storage
area to which you want to copy your media.
Moving Media
If you add or remove a storage device from your system, you may have to
move some media files from one storage area to another. You can easily move
media files between storage areas using the Media Tool. You can move one file
at a time, a selection of files, or an entire folder of media files.
User’s Guide • 67
Chapter 2 • Working with Projects and Media
To move a media file
1. In the Contents view of the Media Tool, right-click on a media file and
choose Move from the menu.
To move more than one file, hold down the Ctrl key and click the
necessary files, and then right-click on one of the selected files to
display the menu.
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2. From the Move Media dialog box, select the video and audio storage area
to which you want to move your media.
To move a media folder
1. From the media tree, select the parent folder of the folder that you want
to move.
2. In the Contents view of the Media Tool, right-click on the media folder that
you want to move, and choose Move from the menu.
3. From the Move Media dialog box, specify the video and/or audio storage
area to which you want to move your media.
Deleting Media
If you’re sure that you no longer need certain media files, you can manually
delete them from your storage area. When media is deleted, the clips that refer
to that media are maintained, but indicate that no media is attached to them.
Since the master clips are not deleted, it is possible to recapture this media later.
To delete media files
1. In the Contents view of the Media Tool, right-click on a media file and
choose Delete from the menu.
You are prompted to confirm your decision.
2. Click Yes to delete the media.
Purging Media
Media files often contain large amounts of information that can quickly use up
your system storage space. It is good practice to purge unused media, especially
if you have captured different qualities of media from the same source.
There are two types of media generated in Avid|DS:
68 • User’s Guide
Managing Media
• Source media is created when you capture or import files.
• Processed media (cache) is generated when you process effects, graphics,
or composites in your sequence.
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You can purge your source media and cache files without losing vital
information about the edits you made. Since a clip is a representation of the
digitized media stored on your disk array, you can delete your media without
deleting the clip and sequence files. This is called purging your media. You can
later use the clip or sequence files to recapture the source material or reprocess
the effects. Purging source media requires you to recapture the original
media, while purging caches requires you to reprocess the sequence before it
can be played back in real time.
When a clip’s source media is deleted, the clip icon in the Avid Explorer turns
red. When caches are purged, the icon does not change color, but areas of the
timeline that rely on this processed media are highlighted in red.
To check what type of media is associated with a clip, right-click on
the clip and choose Properties from the menu. For more
information, refer to Displaying File Properties in the online help.
It is possible to purge only the video or audio portion of a clip. In this case, the
icon in the Avid Explorer does not turn red, as there is still media associated
with the clip. You can only purge media from the current project. If you want
to purge media in another project, you must open that project and then purge
the media.
There are several ways to purge source media or cache files in Avid|DS.
Purge from
To do this
Avid Explorer
Delete media of selected clips and sequences.
Clip tray
Delete media and cache files of selected clips and sequences.
Cache bar menu
Delete the caches associated with the cache bar, the cache
files below the cache bar, or both.
Toolbar
Delete all cache files from the current sequence, all interactive
memory caches, or a cache file associated with a particular
clip, effect, or area on the timeline.
Purge dialog box
Delete source and cache media of specific clips, sequences, or
projects. This option gives you more control over what types of
media are deleted and from what source they will be deleted.
Purging Source Media
Source media is the digitized form of source material after it has been
captured and imported from tape or file into Avid|DS. You can select the type
of media you want to delete.
You can purge media at the clip, sequence, or folder level:
User’s Guide • 69
Chapter 2 • Working with Projects and Media
• Purging a clip deletes media that was captured for that clip.
• Purging a sequence deletes media for all clips in the sequence.
• Purging a folder deletes media of the master clips contained in that folder.
To purge a file or folder from the Avid Explorer
1. In the Avid Explorer, right-click on a clip, sequence, or folder, and choose
Purge Media from the menu.
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The Purge dialog box is displayed.
The media for your selection will be purged unless you change the option
under the Display Associated Media For list.
To purge everything but the clips selected in the Avid Explorer, select
the Except For option in the Display Associated Media list.
70 • User’s Guide
Managing Media
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2. Select the other options as necessary.
Click Help for detailed information on the options in the Purge dialog box.
User’s Guide • 71
Chapter 2 • Working with Projects and Media
Tips
• To remove the largest number of unused media files and gain
storage space, select the Unreferenced Media option and the
Optimize For Maximum Storage Space Recovery option. Note
that this is a time-consuming process.
• You should keep media used in other project files unless you are
absolutely sure that they are not required.
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• You can delete cache media and reprocess it later. For more
information, see Purging Caches on page 72.
3. Click Refresh Purge List.
A list of media that meets all the criteria that you selected is displayed in
the Purge list. By default, all the files in the list are selected, but you can
choose any number of media files from the list to purge.
4. Click Purge to begin deleting the media.
After you purge source media and it is deleted from your disk array, the clips
that reference this media have a red icon beside them in the Avid Explorer.
Clips on the timeline that have no associated media, display the “Media Not
Available” message in the viewer when you play back the sequence.
Purging Caches
When you process effects, graphics, and/or a composite in your sequence, a
cache file is generated on your disk array so that you can play back the newlycreated media.
If you need storage space, you can delete this cache media and reprocess it at a
later time. When you delete a sequence’s caches, the Process icon on the
timeline turns red, and the unprocessed regions are highlighted on the
timeline ribbon.
If you’re using cache bars to generate caches, you can purge the caches at the
different levels at which they were created. The cache bar’s color indicates if
playable media exists for the entire region covered by the cache bar. If any part
under the cache bar is unprocessed, the cache bar will be yellow. If the entire
region has been processed and playable media exists, the cache bar is green.
For more information, see Processing on page 117.
72 • User’s Guide
Managing Media
Tips
• To purge the cache of selected objects on the timeline, select
select one or more clips, effect bars, container clips, or tracks,
and then click Purge > Cache from the Editing toolbar on the
left of your timeline.
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• To purge caches generated with cache bars, right-click on a cache
bar and choose one of the following:
- Purge Selected to purge only the cache media associated with
the selected cache bar.
- Purge Below to purge any unnecessary cache media that lies
below the cache bar, while keeping the cache real time
playable. (This option is useful if you processed using the
Complete option and no longer need the caches at each level
anymore.)
- Purge to purge the cache media associated with the cache bar,
as well as any cache media that lies below it.
User’s Guide • 73
Chapter 2 • Working with Projects and Media
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74 • User’s Guide
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Chapter 3
Capturing Material
User’s Guide • 75
Chapter 3 • Capturing Material
In This Chapter...
This chapter describes how to configure your media storage, prepare to
capture material, specify the capture quality, and capture and log material so
that you can edit it in Avid|DS.
Workflow: Capturing Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Preparing to Capture Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
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Logging and Capturing Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
76 • User’s Guide
Workflow: Capturing Material
Workflow: Capturing Material
You can capture material for your project from different sources, such as tape
or file. The following illustration shows you the process of capturing material:
1
Configure inputs and quality settings
• Configure video and audio input settings
• Configure audio/video quality and storage
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• Configure external devices, such as VTR or audio controller
2
Preview material
Adjust level of
incoming audio
signal
and
Preview material on an
external device
3
Log and capture material
Log or capture from...
Then recapture from...
Timeline
File
Tape
Avid Explorer
AAF/EDL/OMF/ALE
User’s Guide • 77
Chapter 3 • Capturing Material
Preparing to Capture Material
Before capturing media, you must configure the settings for your workstation.
This includes specifying the audio and video input signals coming from the
external device, as well as indicating the capture quality and storage location
for the captured media.
You can map all commands on the Input panel of the Media Input/
Output layout to a keyboard shortcut or place them in a toolbar.
By using shortcuts and toolbar buttons, you can set up the capture
setting and start capturing without switching to the Media Input/
Output layout. For more information, refer to Customizing the
Command Map in the online help.
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If you are capturing material from file, you can configure the capture settings
in advance through the Capture Settings view. For more information, see
Capturing Material from File on page 94.
Configuring the
External Device
You can specify the manufacturer and model of the external device connected
to your workstation. You can also select the audio input format that you want
to capture and/or output, as well as assign how the physical audio outputs from
the external device are connected to your audio inputs on your workstation.
You can do all this on the Configuration panel of the Media Input/Output
layout. Avid|DS lets you set certain parameters that are important to the
capture and output process, and it lets you save all these settings as a preset, so
that you don’t have to reconfigure your external devices every time you want to
capture or output. You can remove your presets from the list at any time.
To configure the external device
1. From the Media Input/Output layout, select the Configuration panel.
2. From the External Device box, make a selection from the Input and
Priority lists.
The input you select will depend on the audio hardware connected to
your system.
78 • User’s Guide
Preparing to Capture Material
The Input, Priority, and Audio Physical Patching settings are all
saved with the device preset.
3. Use the Audio Physical Patching matrix to assign the audio outputs from
from the external device to the audio inputs on your workstation.
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If the material you want to capture has more audio tracks than the
number of physical inputs on your workstation, you can capture the
audio tracks in different passes. For each pass, you can re-assign the
audio physical patching to capture the tracks you need.
For example, assume you only have two
physical inputs (I1 and I2), but have four
tracks of audio to capture (A1, A2, A3, and
A4). On the first pass, you can capture
tracks A1 and A2.
On the second pass, you can change the
audio physical patching to A3 and A4, which
lets you capture audio tracks 3 and 4.
You can also use the patching to:
• Rearrange the track destination
• Import specific tracks from a device
• Remove unwanted tracks
Since the Audio Physical Patching is saved with the device preset,
each device can have its own specific audio patching.
4. From the Manufacturer list, select the name of the external device.
5. From the Model list, select the model number.
If you’re using a deck that can be addressed in a format different from
its recording speed, two bin columns provide you with a quick way to
find your clips on the source tape. The Avid|DS Physical In and
Avid|DS Physical Out columns show timecodes in the same format as
the deck faceplate.
6. From the COM Port list, select the COM port that connects the external
device to your system.
The external device is connected to either COM1 or COM2.
User’s Guide • 79
Chapter 3 • Capturing Material
7. From the TC Mode list, select one of the following:
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Mode
To
Auto
Let the external device decide which timecode to read.
LTC
Set the external device to read only LTC (Longitudinal
Timecode). Your device may experience some difficulty reading
LTC when the tape is not moving or moving very slowly.
VITC
Set the external device to read only VITC (Vertical Interval
Timecode). Unlike LTC, your device can read VITC when the
tape is moving very slowly or not moving at all.
If your external device cannot find a timecode when previewing
material, your TC Mode setting may be incorrect.
8. When outputting to tape, you must specify the edit mode by selecting one
of the following from the Edit Mode list:
Mode
To
Auto
Add material on a certain track to the existing material on
the tape. Auto mode requires that the control track be
present on the tape. If there is no control track, you will not
be able to record. This option is commonly referred to as
insert editing. This option also deactivates all channels during
capture to prevent any interruption of signal between the
deck and your system.
Auto
Assemble
Erase all tracks, so that they are clean and then record over
them. The tape can be blank, but must have at least a few
seconds of stripe at the beginning.
Due to the nature of assemble mode editing, a small portion of the
tape is erased beyond the end of your sequence, creating a series of
garbage frames. To work around this inherent limitation, you can set
an in-point at the beginning of your sequence, an out-point ten
frames after the end of your sequence, and then output from in to
out. This records a series of black frames between the end of your
sequence and the garbage frames.
9. From the Edit Field list, select one of the following:
80 • User’s Guide
Parameter
To
Deck Settings
Use the settings on the external device.
F1
Have the output start on field 1.
F2
Have the output start on field 2.
F1/F2
Have the output start with the same material on field 1 and 2.
Preparing to Capture Material
10. In the Preroll text box, enter the amount of time that you want the external
device to play before Avid|DS starts to capture or output.
11. If you’re experiencing an offset between the external device and your
system, you can compensate by adding or subtracting frames in the Play
Bias and Record Bias text boxes. The Play Bias option offsets the timeline
whereas the Record Bias option offsets the VCR timecode entry point.
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When you first connect the external device to your system, you
should perform several capture and output tests to verify that the
timecodes are accurate.
12. Select the Auto detect VTR change option if you want to receive a
notification during a recapture from the Avid Explorer or the timeline. If
the external device preset that you selected is different from the external
device connected to your machine, you have the option to change it.
After changing any of the settings in the Configuration tab, you
must either click Check Machine or save your settings as a preset.
Otherwise, the changes will not be recognized.
Click Help for detailed information on the Configuration panel.
Saving External Device Settings
You can save the settings for your external device as a preset, so that you don’t
have to reconfigure the device each time you use it for capture or output.
To save the external device settings as a preset
1. From the Configuration panel, configure the external device and click
Save Config.
2. In the Save Configuration dialog box, select one of the following options:
• Existing Preset to save the changes you made to an existing preset. Choose
the name of the preset from the Existing Preset list.
• New Preset to create a new preset. Enter a name in the New Preset text box.
User’s Guide • 81
Chapter 3 • Capturing Material
3. Click OK.
The preset name is added to the Device list.
Every time you make a change to the external device configuration,
you should resave the preset, so that you can keep your changes for
the next capture or output session. If you don’t, the changes will not
be recognized.
?
To remove a preset from the device list
1. From the Configuration panel, click Remove Config in the External
Device box.
2. In the Remove Configuration dialog box, select the preset that you want to
remove from the Preset list.
3. Click OK.
The preset is removed from the Device list.
To check the status of the external device
• From the Configuration panel, click Check Machine.
If the communication between the external device and your system is
operating properly, nothing happens. If there is a problem, a message box
appears, stating the possible cause of the problem.
You can also verify that the external device is operating within
normal parameters by checking the five items in the External Device
Status area.
Specifying the Capture
Quality
The video and audio capture quality are set when you created your project or
sequence. You can keep these default settings or adjust them for the material
you are going to capture or recapture.
For your video material, you can change the compression, resolution and
storage device. For your audio material, you can change the sample rate, bit
depth, and storage device.
To see if a clip has more than one capture quality, right-click on the
clip in a bin and choose Properties from the menu. In the Property
dialog box, select the Media property page.
82 • User’s Guide
Preparing to Capture Material
Specifying the Video Capture Quality
Video capture settings let you define the compression ratio and resolution at
which images are captured.
?
You can save space on your disk array by capturing video material in
compressed format. Typically, compressed material is used for a rough cut,
where you capture large amounts of material at a lower quality. After that,
you can recapture the edited material uncompressed before proceeding with
a more detailed edit.
To define video capture settings
1. From the Media Input/Output layout, select the Input panel.
2. In the Video box, select a resolution from the Resolution list.
3. Select one of the following options:
• Uncompressed to work with media that is not compressed.
• Compressed to compress your media. From the corresponding list,
select a ratio.
4. From the Capture To list, select the storage device on which your video
media will be stored.
The status of the storage device you select is displayed. If the storage
device is accessible in real time, the status is green. If the storage device is
not accessible in real time, the status marker is red.
The Time Available box indicates how much video material you can
successfully capture based on your quality settings. If you have insufficient
storage space, consider deleting any unused media on your disk array. For
more information, see Purging Media on page 68.
User’s Guide • 83
Chapter 3 • Capturing Material
5. From the Field Dominance box, select one of the following:
?
Parameter
To
Auto
Use the sequence’s setting.
Odd
Flag the incoming media as interlaced or field-based, and set
the media to begin with the odd-numbered field.
Even
Flag the incoming media as interlaced or field-based, and set
the media to begin with the even-numbered field.
None
Flag the incoming media as progressive or frame-based,
which means that the odd and even fields are the same.
Click Help for detailed information on the Input panel.
Specifying the Audio Capture Quality
The capture settings let you define the quality at which your audio material
is captured. These settings depend on the audio hardware connected to
your workstation.
When you’re capturing material from a digital input, the audio input sample
rate and protocol settings are set according to the input signal detected by
your hardware.
With digital input, such as AES/EBU or S/PDIF, the sample rate is determined
and set by the external device (CD player, DAT, etc.). If the digital input
cannot be detected (for example, the external device is turned off), the default
sampling rate is set to 48 kHz.
To define audio capture settings
1. From the Input panel, select a sample rate from the Sample Rate list. The
higher the sample rate, the more accurate the capture process will be.
2. From the Bit Depth list, select a bit depth. The higher the value, the more
precise the audio will be.
3. From the Capture To list, select the disk array on which your audio
material will be stored.
The status of the storage device you select is displayed. If the storage
device is accessible in real time, the status marker is green. If the storage
device is not accessible in real time the status marker is red.
The Time Available box indicates how much audio material you can
successfully capture based on your quality settings. If you have insufficient
storage space, consider deleting any unused media on your disk array. For
more information, see Purging Media on page 68.
84 • User’s Guide
Preparing to Capture Material
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4. From the Audio Format list, select one of the following:
Format
To
Mono
Create separate streams for each audio input.
Stereo
Combine the left and right audio inputs to create stereo pairs.
Quad
Combine the left, right, left rear, and right rear audio inputs
to create quadraphonic master clips.
LCRS
Combine the left, center, right, and surround audio inputs to
create LCRS master clips.
4 Stream
Combine four generic audio inputs to create four stream
master clips.
5.1
Combine the left, right, center, LFE, left surround, and right
surround audio inputs to create 5.1 master clips.
6.1
Combine the left, right, center, LFE, surround center, left
surround, and right surround audio inputs to create 6.1
master clips.
7.1
Combine the left, right, center, LFE, left surround, right
surround, left center, and right center audio inputs to create
7.1 master clips.
8 Stream
Combine eight generic audio channels to create eight stream
master clips.
Click Help for detailed information on the Input panel.
Previewing Material
Before capturing video or audio material from a tape or live capture session,
you can preview it to decide how much pre-roll or post-roll to add, or to
monitor the audio levels. When you preview audio material, you can use the
input monitor to set incoming audio levels.
To preview video or audio material from tape or live
1. From the Input panel, select Tape or Live from the Capture Source list.
User’s Guide • 85
Chapter 3 • Capturing Material
2. To preview the source material on tape, click the viewer, and then click the
Play button on the transport controls.
If you capture material in YUV color space, you should use a
vectorscope to verify that the colors fall within the RGB color space.
Avid|DS always creates processed media or cache files in RGB color
space, regardless of the color space you set for the current sequence.
If the colors of the captured material fall outside valid RGB color
space, you may notice flickering or color changes when using nonreal-time effects.
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Monitoring Audio Levels
Each input strip in the input monitor corresponds to channels that are
recorded from the source device. You can use the fader on the input strip to
lower the incoming signal. Once you set the audio levels on the input monitor,
they’re saved with the audio clip. For more information, refer to The Mixer
View and The Input Monitor in the online help.
When you later recapture this material from the Avid Explorer, Avid|DS uses
the levels that you set when you originally captured the material.
The available input and output channels in the Media Input/Output
layout reflect the number of channels supported by your installed
audio hardware and the particular configuration to which it is set.
To adjust the audio input levels
1. From the Input panel, select Tape, Live, or On-the-fly from the Capture
Source list.
86 • User’s Guide
Preparing to Capture Material
2. From the Audio Format list, select one of the following:
?
Format
To
Mono
Create separate streams for each audio input.
Stereo
Combine the left and right audio inputs to create stereo pairs.
Quad
Combine the left, right, left rear, and right rear audio inputs
to create quadraphonic master clips.
LCRS
Combine the left, center, right, and surround audio inputs to
create LCRS master clips.
4 Stream
Combine four generic audio inputs to create four stream
master clips.
5.1
Combine the left, right, center, LFE, left surround, and right
surround audio inputs to create 5.1 master clips.
6.1
Combine the left, right, center, LFE, surround center, left
surround, and right surround audio inputs to create 6.1
master clips.
7.1
Combine the left, right, center, LFE, left surround, right
surround, left center, and right center audio inputs to create
7.1 master clips.
8 Stream
Combine eight generic audio channels to create eight stream
master clips.
3. Assign the incoming audio tracks to the desired audio channels of your
clip using the audio channel routing matrix.
Audio track 1 is assigned to the right (R) channel and audio
track 2 is assigned to the left (L) channel, and so on.
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Chapter 3 • Capturing Material
4. From the view switcher, click the Input Monitor icon.
Two mono tracks on
the input monitor
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5. On the transport controls, click Play.
6. If necessary, drag the fader controls to adjust the gain while the audio
is playing.
88 • User’s Guide
Logging and Capturing Material
Logging and Capturing Material
If you’re capturing material from a tape or file, you can log the clips needed for
your sequence before batch capturing them later. Logging lets you specify the in
and out-points for material on tape without actually capturing the material.
You can also create logged clips from the following sources:
•
•
•
•
•
?
EDLs (Edit Decision Lists)
OMF files (Open Media Framework®)
ALEs (Avid Log Exchange)
AAF files (Advanced Authoring Format)
AFE files (Avid Log Exchange)
For more information on conforming to a Avid|DS sequence, see
Conforming on page 155.
Depending on the source from which you are capturing material, you can:
•
•
•
•
Preview the material before capturing it.
Log the material and batch capture it later.
Log and capture the material at the same time.
Log a clip that is linked to material that exists anywhere on your network.
After logging and/or capturing your material, they appear as master clips in
the Avid Explorer. These clips contain information about the original media
on tape or file, as well as the source in and source out timecodes.
The source timecodes are not available for material that was
recorded from file.
Logging and Capturing
Clips from Tape
When capturing material from tape, you can digitize the media between
selected in and out-points or log them as empty master clips in the Avid
Explorer. The digitized clips are displayed in a bin. Icons for the audio and
video clips without media are red. Logged video clips display the Avid|DS
clapboard in the Thumbnails and Script view. You can still place these clips on
the timeline to create a sequence and then edit them like any other master clip.
Later, you can capture the media at any time directly from the timeline.
User’s Guide • 89
Chapter 3 • Capturing Material
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In the Thumbnails view of the Avid Explorer, video and
audio clips without media are displayed with red icons.
In the Details view of the Avid Explorer, video and audio
clips without media are preceded by a red icon.
To log and capture clips from a tape
1. From the Media Input/Output layout, select the Input panel.
2. From the Capture Source list, select Tape.
The Input panel changes to display the properties for capturing clips
from a tape.
3. Select a location to hold the clips by doing one of the following:
• From the Capture Target list, choose Project Root to create clips in the
folder with the project name (the project folder),
• From the Capture Target list, choose Auto-Source to create your master
clips in a folder with the same name as the tape name.
• Click the browse button (...) to navigate and select a folder in which to
create clips.
90 • User’s Guide
Logging and Capturing Material
You cannot create master clips outside the current project, so Avid|DS
checks the path to make sure the folder is within the project folder.
4. From the Source Name list, select the tape’s name. If the tape is new, click
Source Name and enter a name for the tape.
It’s important to assign a unique name to every tape because
Avid|DS uses this same name to identify the captured media.
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5. In the Base Clip Name text box, enter a name to prefix all captured clips.
6. To record additional material before the in-point and after the out-point,
enter the appropriate number of frames in the Heads and Tails text boxes.
7. Select the Video option to capture the video channel of the material.
8. Select the Audio option to capture the audio channel(s) of the material.
9. Set the appropriate Audio Format.
10. Assign the incoming audio tracks to the desired audio channels of your clip
using the audio channel routing matrix. To do so, click in the square that
will assign the audio track to the appropriate audio channel. You should
know, in advance, to which tracks the audio has been recorded on the tape.
If you click on a square in the matrix and an unfilled circle appears,
that particular assignment is not available due to limitations of the
audio hardware.
For example, if you are working with S/PDIF audio hardware in Stereo
format, your audio channel routing matrix will look like this:
Old assignment
To switch the settings for track A1 and A2 so that track A1 is assigned to
Right (R) and track A2 is assigned to Left (L), click the R square in column
A1 and the L square in column A2. Notice that you can have only one
track assigned to one audio channel.
New assignment
The number of audio channels available depends on the audio
hardware and format you’re using.
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Chapter 3 • Capturing Material
11. Select the Timecodes May Repeat option to flag your tape as having
multiple occurrences of the same timecode. When recapturing, Avid|DS
detects the flag and deactivates the streaming capture capabilities, which
lets you manually cue the tape before capturing each clip.
If you have flagged a tape with the Timecodes May Repeat option
during capture, don’t deactivate it during recapture because it may
cause recapture errors.
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12. On the transport controls, click Play to play the source material.
13. While the clip is playing, click Mark In at the point where you want to
start the capture.
The timecode of the in-point you selected is displayed in the In timecode box.
Mark In
In timecode box
Mark Out
Out timecode box
14. Play or shuttle the tape to advance to the point where you want to end the
capture and click Mark Out.
The out-point is displayed in the Out timecode box. The Duration
timecode box displays the length of material to be captured.
If you already know the in and out timecodes, you can enter them
directly in the In or Out timecode boxes. You can also directly enter
a value for the duration and Avid|DS will automatically calculate the
out-point.
15. From the Material box, select the Log or Log and capture option.
16. Set the Field Dominance.
If the field dominance of a clip does not match the field dominance
of the sequence, you will need to process it before playing it back on
the timeline.
17. Depending on whether you chose the Log or Log and capture option,
click one of the following:
• Capture to begin the recording.
• Log to log the clips in the Avid Explorer.
As the material is logged and/or captured, clips appear in the Avid
Explorer according to the in and out times that you specified.
92 • User’s Guide
Logging and Capturing Material
If Avid|DS is unable to capture the material on the first attempt, it
will attempt the capture a second time. If it fails again, Avid|DS will
attempt the capture a third time with an additional pre-roll of five
seconds. If the capture fails again, an error message is displayed with
a possible explanation for the problem.
?
If you encounter problems capturing material from tape, you should
disable the viewer using the Viewer button in the status bar and try
capturing again. When capturing full resolution HD material at
29.97 and 30 frames per second, the viewer is automatically disabled.
Logged video clips appear with an image of the Avid|DS clapboard, since
they do not have any media. Both video and audio clip icons are also red
to show that no media has been captured. You can later capture these clips
in one batch directly from the Avid Explorer.
If any frames are skipped during the capture, the capture stops, and
an error message is displayed. Clips are created for the material that
was captured up to the point where frames were dropped.
If Avid|DS detects any problems during capture, the Capture Error Log is
displayed. The Capture Error Log dialog box displays the clip that could
not be captured, including tape source name, in, and out-point. It also
gives you a brief description of the type of error that occurred.
18. To save this log as an .html file, click Save As.
19. In the Save As dialog box, navigate to an appropriate folder, enter a name
for the log and click Save.
The log is saved as an .html file and can be viewed in any Explorer.
Click Help for detailed information on the Input panel.
Avid|DS stops a capture session if it detects any timecode breaks on
the source tape. It creates a master clip from the in-point to the
timecode break. The capture session may stop a frame or two after
the actual timecode break. If this happens, you may have to cut or
trim some of the unusable frames from your clip.
To resume capture, enter new in and out-points in the In/Out
timecode boxes, and click Capture.
If there is insufficient material for the deck to pre-roll before
capturing, you will not be able to capture the material. In this case,
use the Live capture option to capture the material.
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Chapter 3 • Capturing Material
Capturing Material
from File
When capturing material from file, you can do any one of the following:
• Capture media from selected files,
• Log the selection as clips without capturing the media, or
• Create linked clips, which act as pointers to source media located on a
local disk or anywhere on the network.
You can capture material from video, audio, and image files.
When you capture material from a file, it’s important to select the correct
media conversion mode, pixel ratio, and premultiplication setting. The media
conversion modes let you determine how media of differing formats are
converted when captured into Avid|DS. Files coming from different formats,
such as NTSC, PAL, and computer graphics, all have different file pixel ratios.
If the pixel ratio of the source file is different than that of the current
sequence, then the file’s pixels are scaled to match those of the current
sequence. When you select the correct premulitplication setting, you can
avoid incorrect compositing results.
?
If you’re capturing still images, you can specify their duration on the Editing
property page of the User Preferences dialog box. By default, the duration of
captured still images is set to 30 frames.
You can capture from a single file or a series of files at the same time.
You can capture from the following file formats:
94 • User’s Guide
File format
File extension
Supports
alpha
Supports
compression
AIFF (uncompressed)
.aif, .aiff, .aifc
-
-
Alias
.als
No
No
AVI
.avi
Yes
Yes
Avid|DS (Video Hal)
.gen,.omf
No
No
Bitmap (Windows)
.bmp
No
Yes
CINEON
.fido
No
Yes
JFIF (JPEG)
.jpeg, .jfif, .jpg
No
No
MAP
.map
No
No
Meridien™
.gen,.omf
No
No
Microsoft Windows
Paintbrush
.pcx
No
No
PGM
.pgm
No
Yes
Photoshop
.psd
Yes
Yes
PICT
.pict, .pct
Yes
Yes
PPM
.ppm
No
Yes
Logging and Capturing Material
File format
File extension
Supports
alpha
Supports
compression
QuickTime
.mov, .qt
Yes
Yes
.sgi, .rgb
Yes
Yes
.pic
Yes
Yes
SGI
SOFTIMAGE®
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Show/Hide Panel
(3D &
XSI®)
TIFF
.tif,.tiff
Yes
Yes
Targa
.tga
Yes
Yes
WAV
.wav
-
-
Wavefront
.rla
Yes
No
YUV
.yuv
No
Yes
To log and capture clips from a file
1. In the Avid Explorer, click one of the Show/Hide Panel buttons to display
a panel. Then click the arrow next to the button and choose My System
from the menu.
2. In the tree, click My Computer or My Network Places and navigate to the
folder where the files that you want to capture are located.
The files are displayed in a bin.
3. In the bin, select the file or files that you want to capture.
To select series of files, click the first file, hold down the Shift key, and click
the last file. To select multiple files, hold down the Ctrl key and click each
individual file name.
If you select a sequential list of still files of the same type, such as all
.jpg or all .bmp, during capture you are given the choice of
combining the files into one master clip or creating individual clips.
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Chapter 3 • Capturing Material
4. Right-click on a file and choose Capture Settings from the menu.
Help icon
?
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Capture Settings dialog box.
5. In the Media Capture section of the Capture Settings dialog box, select a
location to hold the clips by doing one of the following:
• From the Capture Target list, choose Project Root to create clips in the
folder with the project name (the project folder),
• From the Capture Target list, choose Auto-Source to create your master
clips in a folder named: File Source.
• Click the browse button (...) to navigate and select a folder in which to
create clips.
96 • User’s Guide
Logging and Capturing Material
You cannot create master clips outside the current project, so Avid|DS
checks the path to make sure the folder is within the project folder.
6. From the Media Conversion list, select one of the following modes:
Mode
To
Center, Keep
Original Size
Center the media in the viewer along both the X and Y
axes. Any portion of the image falling outside the viewer
is cropped. This option does not modify the original size
of the media.
Scale to Fit
Scale the media in both the X and Y axes to fit the
sequence settings. This option may reduce image clarity.
Scale, Keep
Aspect Ratio
Scale the media in both the X and Y axes to fit the image
settings, but retain the ratio between width and height.
Keep Original Size
and Position
Display the media in the viewer without modifying its
original size or position.
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Center, Keep Original Size
Scale to Fit
Scale, Keep Aspect Ratio
Keep Original Size and Position
A 540×304 image captured using various media conversion modes
7. If the source image contains an alpha channel that you want to capture
with the clip, select the Keep Alpha option. Only image formats that
support alpha channels are applicable. For example, .bmp images do not
support alpha channels.
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Chapter 3 • Capturing Material
8. Depending on whether your source file was premultiplied, select or
deselect the Premultiplied Alpha option.
Premultiplication is a mathematical process whereby the RGB channels of
an image are multiplied by their corresponding alpha channels.
When compositing two or more images, Avid|DS automatically
premultiplies your images unless they were already set as premultiplied
when you captured them. If the premultiplication setting is incorrect,
undesirable results, such as a halo or black outline, may appear in
your image.
?
If you know how an image was created using an external graphics
application, you should set the premultiplication accordingly. In general,
rendered 3D images are already premultiplied. However, other computergenerated images may not be. For example, in Adobe Photoshop the alpha
channel is created as a separate layer and is not premultiplied with the
RGB channels. Therefore, when you capture from a Photoshop image into
Avid|DS, do not select the Premultiplied Alpha option—refer to
Compositing with Premultiplied Images on page 111 of the Avid|DS
Compositing & Effects Guide.
9. If you want to convert the frame rate of the file you are capturing to the
same frame rate used by the sequence, select the Convert Video Frame
Rate option.
This option does not apply to still images or audio files.
When you capture from an audio file with a different sample rate than what
is currently set in the Audio Sample Rate list, a message box is displayed
asking you if you want to convert the audio file to the selected rate.
10. If you want to adjust the colors of the captured file to remove banding,
select Auto-Dither. This banding might appear in images that contain
smooth luminance or chrominance transitions (such as gradients) as a
result of the conversion of RGB images to the YUV color space.
Because the dithering process adds a small noise factor to a group of
pixels, the noise might become visible on images containing large regions
of constant color. In these cases, deselect the Auto-Dither option.
11. To set the File Pixel Ratio, select one of the following options:
• Standard to capture from a file that has a standard file pixel ratio. You can
choose from one of the following standard settings:
98 • User’s Guide
Logging and Capturing Material
?
Parameter
To
Computer
Graphics (Square)
Capture from files created with square pixels. Most
computer graphic applications create images with
square pixels.
NTSC (0.9)
Capture from files originated in NTSC format.
PAL (1.07)
Capture from files originated in PAL format.
NTSC 16×9 (1.2)
Capture from files originated in NTSC 16:9 format.
PAL 16×9 (1.42)
Capture from files originated in PAL 16:9 format.
• Custom to capture from a file that has a non-standard file pixel ratio
12. From the Field Dominance box, select one of the following:
Parameter
To
Auto
Use the sequence’s setting.
Odd
Flag the incoming media as interlaced or field based,
and that the media begins with the odd field.
Even
Flag the incoming media as interlaced or field based,
and that the media begins with the even field.
None
Flag the incoming media as progressive or frame based,
which means that the odd and even fields are the same.
13. Close the Capture Settings dialog box to save your settings.
14. Right-click on the selected file or files and choose one of the following:
Parameter
To
Capture
Create master clips and capture the media. This option
takes substantially longer because the media must be
digitized.
Log
Create master clips without capturing the media.
Link
Create linked clips, which act as pointers to source media
located on a local disk or anywhere on the network.
You can cancel the capture session at any time by clicking Cancel in
the progress bar. A message box is displayed asking you if you want to
keep the material that was captured so far. If you click Yes, clips are
created for the material that was captured until you clicked Cancel.
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Chapter 3 • Capturing Material
As the material is logged or captured, clips appear in the target bin.
Logged clips appear with the message “Media Not Available” when
they are placed in the viewer or timeline. You can later capture these
clips in one batch directly from the Avid Explorer or the timeline.
Capturing from Layered Adobe Photoshop Files
There are two ways to capture from Adobe Photoshop files into Avid|DS:
?
• Select the file or files in a bin, right-click and choose Capture.
• On the Editing toolbar, click Generate > Import Photoshop.
The first option captures only the flattened Photoshop image as a still. If you
want to preserve all the layer information, you should use the second option.
When you capture from a layered Photoshop image into Avid|DS using the
Import Photoshop command, a targa image file is created for each Photoshop
layer. A sequence file with one composite container clip is created in a new
folder in the Avid Explorer along with a master clip for each layer. These
master clips are linked to the targa files. Each layer in the Photoshop file is
recreated in the composite container clip as a layer and corresponding clip on
a composite track. Each layer is composited in the same order as the original
Photoshop file.
DVEs are applied to each clip to position them appropriately, and the opacity
of each layer is adjusted to match the opacity levels in the original Photoshop
file. An additional folder is created called Linked layers, which contains the
source targa files to which the master clips are linked. Having access to these
source files makes it easier for you to delete them, if needed.
The Photoshop images must be 8 bit RGBA, or grayscale files. Only normal
blending information is supported, and text and shape information are
rasterized when captured.
100 • User’s Guide
Logging and Capturing Material
Every time you capture from a layered Photoshop file, a new folder is
created in the Avid Explorer. The folder is named after the
Photoshop file you captured. The sequence, master clips, and Linked
layers folder are all stored in this new folder. The master clips are
named after the layer they represent followed by the name of the
Photoshop file in parenthesis.
?
For example, if you capture from a Photoshop file called Poster.psd
that contains the following layers:
• Sky
• Sea
• Boat
A new folder called “Poster” is created in the Avid Explorer. Within
that folder, a new sequence called “Poster” is created, a folder called
“Linked layers” is created, as well as the following master clips:
• Sky (Poster)
• Sea (Poster)
• Boat (Poster)
The \Linked layers folder will contain the following files:
• Sky (Poster).tga
• Sea (Poster).tga
• Boat (Poster).tga
To capture from layered Photoshop files
1. In the Avid Explorer, select the folder in which you want the new folder to
be created.
2. In the Editing toolbar, click Generate > Import Photoshop.
The Import Adobe Photoshop dialog box is displayed.
3. Select the Photoshop file and click OK.
A message is displayed telling you that the clip was successfully saved.
4. Click OK.
A new folder is created in the Avid Explorer and named after the
Photoshop file. Within that folder, a folder called Linked layers is created
that contains the source Targa files. A sequence file with one composite
container clip is also created, along with a master clip for each layer. In the
composite container clip, each layer in the Photoshop file is recreated as a
layer and corresponding clip on a composite track. The lower-left corner of
the final composited image is placed in the lower-left corner of the viewer.
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Linked layers folder
contains targa files
A sequence file is created along
with a master clip for each layer
The lower-left corner of the final
composited image is place in the
lower-left corner of the viewer
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New file created in Avid Explorer
All layers are visible
DVE applied to each clip
Since the master clips are linked to the targa files, the images maintain
their original size. To view images that are larger than the sequence
resolution, right-click in the result area of the layer view to turn off the
Output Frame Size option.
For more information, refer to Working with Layered Photoshop Images on
page 108 of the Avid|DS Compositing & Effects guide.
Importing Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) Files
You can import EPS files into Avid|DS, but they are treated differently than
other file imports. EPS files are imported from within the Graphics layout and
no master clips are created for the EPS file. Instead, the EPS information is
imported directly into your current graphics session. The color information
in the EPS files is retained and each shape in the EPS file is a separate stroke
in Avid|DS.
You can import solid colors, but not gradients.
Avid|DS can import files created with Adobe Illustrator 8.0 or earlier
versions. To work with Illustrator 9.0 files, save it as a version 8.0 file.
You can also import EPS files as brush strokes. For more information, see
Creating Custom Brushes on page 322.
To import an EPS file
1. With the position indicator over a clip in the timeline, switch to the
Graphics layout.
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2. From the GFX Creation toolbar, click Import EPS.
The Open dialog box is displayed.
3. Select an EPS file and click Open.
The EPS file is imported into your graphics session.
Linking to a Clip
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By creating links to media files that are not stored on your disk array, you can
work with media files without having to capture them to your disk. These
files, called linked clips, can reside on a local disk or anywhere on the network
until you’re ready to output your sequence.
Some projects may require you to work with images at varying resolutions. If
you capture these files, you must convert the material to the working
resolution of the current sequence. By linking to the material instead, you can
keep the material at its original resolution regardless of the sequence’s frame
size. Once you’ve completed your edits, you can process the linked material,
which creates a cache file of the image area that is visible in the viewer.
Linking clips can also be useful when more than one person needs access to
the same file. You can capture the file as a linked clip, and continue to use it as
a reference while another person continues to work on the source media file.
Changes made to the original file automatically appear in the linked clip, both
in the Avid Explorer and on the timeline.
If another person tries to modify a file that’s linked to a clip in an
open project, they will not be able to save that file due to a sharing
violation. You must close the project that contains the linked clip for
them to be able to save the original file.
Once you’re ready to output the sequence, you can either capture the source
file or simply process the clip on the timeline. If you process the material, a
cache file is created. Once a cache is created, Avid|DS no longer refers to the
source media file, but uses this cache file during playback. Any further
changes to the source file do not appear in the linked clip on the timeline. Like
any other cache however, the cache for the linked clip can be purged which
relinks the clip to the source file. For more information, refer to Cache
Management in Avid|DS on page 136 of the Avid|DS Compositing &
Effects Guide.
Linked clips appear in the Avid Explorer as regular clips, but their file type
icons are underlined in red, indicating that no actual media has been
captured. As a result, you cannot play them back in real time until you have
processed them.
If the “Media Not Found” message appears in the viewer when using linked
clips, it’s possible that Avid|DS has lost the connection to the linked file. All
you have to do is re-establish the link. For more information, see Relinking a
Clip on page 104.
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To link to a clip
1. In the Avid Explorer, open a bin and select the file (s) that you want to
capture as linked clips. To select a series of files, click the first file, hold
down the Shift key, and click the last file. To select multiple files, hold
down the Ctrl key and click each file name.
If you select a sequential list of still files of the same type (such as all
.jpg or all .bmp), you are given the choice of combining the files into
one master clip or capturing individual clips.
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2. Right-click on a file and choose Capture Settings.
The Capture Settings dialog box is displayed.
3. Select the settings that apply to the file(s) that you want to capture—see
Capturing Material from File on page 94.
Since linked files are brought into Avid|DS at their original
resolutions, there is no need to convert them to the current
sequence’s resolution. As a result, the Media Conversion modes are
not applicable when the Link option is selected.
4. Close the Capture Parameters dialog box.
5. Right-click on the selected file(s) and choose Link from the menu.
As the material is linked, clips appear in the selected bin. The clip icons are
underlined in red to indicate that no media has actually been captured.
Relinking a Clip
If you move the media of a linked clip to a new location, you will need to reestablish the link from your sequence.
To relink a clip
1. Right-click on a clip in a bin and choose Properties from the menu.
The Clip Properties dialog box is displayed.
2. Select the File Info tab.
In the Status text box, the following message is displayed: “File is missing
from expected location”.
3. Click Relink File.
4. In the Relink File dialog box, navigate to the location where the file has
been moved, select it, and click OK.
5. Close the Clip Properties dialog box by clicking OK.
The link is re-established.
If you go back into the Clip Properties dialog box, you will see that
the status of the linked file has changed to “File is Present.”
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Capturing Clips Onthe-Fly
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You can capture material from tape as it plays. All you have to do is start the
tape, and then set in and out-points for the material you want to capture.
Once the tape finishes, clips are created in the Avid Explorer based on the
various in and out-points you set during playback.
Unlike the Live capture option, the On-the-fly option records the accurate
timecode of the source material, letting you recapture the material at any
time. This option also lets you create several clips by setting multiple in and
out-points without having to start and stop playback.
To log and capture clips on-the-fly
1. From the Media Input/Output layout, select the Input panel.
2. Prepare to capture material by adjusting the settings in the Video and
Audio boxes.
3. From the Capture Source list, select On-the-fly.
4. Select a location to hold the clips by doing one of the following:
• From the Capture Target list, choose Project Root to create clips in the
folder with the project name (the project folder),
• From the Capture Target list, choose Auto-Source to create your master
clips in a folder with the same name as the tape name.
• Click the browse button (...) to navigate and select a folder in which to
create clips.
You cannot create master clips outside the current project, so Avid|DS
checks the path to make sure the folder is within the project folder.
5. From the Source Name list, select the tape’s name. If the tape is new, click
Source Name and enter a name for the tape.
6. In the Base Clip Name text box, enter a name to prefix all your captured clips.
7. Select the Video option to capture the video channel of the material.
8. Select the Audio option to capture the audio channel(s) of the material.
9. Set the Audio Format.
10. Assign the incoming audio tracks to the desired audio channels of your
clip—see Logging and Capturing Clips from Tape on page 89.
11. Select the Timecodes May Repeat option to flag your tape as having
multiple occurrences of the same timecode. When recapturing, Avid|DS
detects the flag and deactivates the streaming capture capabilities, which
lets you manually cue the tape before capturing.
12. Set the Field Dominance.
13. Click Capture.
The tape begins playback.
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14. Click in the viewer to set an in-point, and then right-click in the viewer to
set an out-point.
A clip is created for each of the in and out-points that you set. Continue to
set in and out-points of the material you want to capture.
15. To finish the capture session, click Cancel in the progress bar.
Clips appear in the folder you selected for each of the in and out-points
that you set. The clips are named as follows: Base Clip Name001, Base Clip
Name002, and so on. Each clip’s timecode matches that on the tape,
making it possible for you to recapture the material at a different
compression rate or resolution.
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If you encounter problems capturing material from tape, you should
turn off the viewer by deselecting the Viewer icon in the status bar
and try capturing again. When capturing full resolution HD
material at 29.97 and 30 frames per second, the viewer is
automatically disabled.
Click Help for detailed information on the Input panel.
Performing a Live
Capture
You can perform a live capture of audio and video material as the tape is
playing from a variety of external devices. A live capture is essentially the same
as a capture from tape except that you control the capture as the tape is
playing (without any pre-roll). If there is a proper SMPTE or AES/EBU
timecode signal, the material is assigned the incoming timecode. If no
timecode signal is present, Avid|DS assigns an arbitrary timecode to the clip,
starting at 00:00:00:00. Even if the material is assigned its appropriate
timecode, the timecode may not be completely accurate.
Material captured using this option is considered live material and
cannot be recaptured at a later time.
To perform a live capture
1. From the Media Input/Output layout, select the Input panel.
2. Prepare to capture material by adjusting the settings in the Video and
Audio boxes.
3. From the Capture Source list, select Live.
4. Select a location to hold the clips by doing one of the following:
• From the Capture Target list, choose Project Root to create clips in the
folder with the project name (the project folder),
• From the Capture Target list, choose Auto-Source to create your master
clips in a folder with the same name as the tape name.
• Click the browse button (...) to navigate and select a folder in which to
create clips.
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You cannot create master clips outside the current project, so Avid|DS
checks the path to make sure the folder is within the project folder.
5. From the Device list, select a device.
6. From the Source Name list, select the tape’s name.
If the tape is new, click Source Name and enter a name for the tape.
It is very important to assign a unique name to every tape because
Avid|DS uses it to identify the captured media.
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7. In the Base Clip Name text box, enter a name to prefix all captured clips.
8. Select the Video option to capture the video channel of the material.
9. Select the Audio option to capture the audio channel(s) of the material.
10. Set the Audio Format.
11. Assign the incoming audio tracks to the desired audio channels of your
clip using the channel routing matrix—see Logging and Capturing Clips
from Tape on page 89.
12. Select the Timecodes May Repeat option to flag your tape as having
multiple occurrences of the same timecode. When recapturing, Avid|DS
detects the flag and deactivates the streaming capture capabilities, which
lets you manually cue the tape before capturing.
13. Set the Field Dominance.
14. Click Capture.
The capture begins and the progress bar displays the number of seconds of
material captured. This value updates while the capture is in progress.
If you encounter problems capturing material from tape, you should
disable the viewer using the Viewer button in the status bar and try
capturing again.When capturing full resolution HD material at
29.97 and 30 frames per second, the viewer is automatically disabled.
15. When you want to stop capturing, click Stop on the progress bar.
The captured material is represented by a clip in the folder you selected.
Click Capture again to resume capturing.
Click Help for detailed information on the Input panel.
Batch Capturing
In Avid|DS, you usually start your offline session using compressed media or
logged clips. When it comes time for your online session, you need to capture
the media from the logs or recapture the media uncompressed. If you had to
capture each clip one at a time, it would take too long. Fortunately, you can
capture a bunch of clips from the Avid Explorer or timeline in one pass. This
is called batch capturing.
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Capturing Clips from the Avid Explorer
When you create a log of clips, empty master clips (without media) are
created in the Avid Explorer, where you can capture source material from tape
or file. The master clips hold information about the in and out-points of
material from tape, or about the location of an original file.
Recapturing clips with existing media lets you select a different capture
quality for these clips. You can initially capture clips at a lower quality to save
disk space and increase processing time. You can also recapture clips with
existing media that have been partially or completely purged.
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Avid|DS stops the deck, rewinds and then pre-rolls before capturing
material. If, however, it detects two or more clips on the same tape
and they are separated by less than 5 seconds, it will skip the pre-roll
and capture both pieces of media in one pass. This feature, known as
streaming capture, can reduce the time to recapture media especially
if your media is lined up one right after the other on a single tape.
To recapture clips from the Avid Explorer
1. From the Media Input/Output layout, select the Input panel.
2. From the Capture Source list, select Explorer.
3. From a bin of the Avid Explorer, select the master clips that you want to
capture or recapture.
4. Click Video to recapture the video portion of your media.
5. Click Audio to recapture the audio portion of your media.
6. Assign the incoming audio tracks to the appropriate channels of your clip
using the channel routing matrix.
7. If you want the capture to begin immediately, leave the Time Delay option
deselected. If you want to capture certain files at a specific time in the
future, select the Time Delay option.
You can recapture master clips from the Avid Explorer or timeline at
a specific date and time using the Time Delay option. This is useful
when you’re using 3D rendered image files in your sequence. You
can render the 3D image files at night, set the Time Delay option to
begin capture after the render is complete and have everything
captured by the next morning.
The Time Delay option is only valid for media that was originally
imported from file.
The date/time properties on your computer determine when to start
and end your recapture. Make sure your clock is accurate, so that the
recapture occurs at the desired time.
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8. Click Capture.
If you’re capturing from a tape that is currently in the VTR, then capture
starts automatically. As the clips are captured, the progress bar updates.
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If Avid|DS is unable to capture the material on the first attempt, it
will attempt the capture a second time. If it fails again, Avid|DS will
attempt the capture a third time with an additional pre-roll of five
seconds. If the capture fails again, the error is displayed in the
Capture Error Log, with the possible cause of the problem.
If you encounter problems recapturing material from tape, you
should disable the viewer using the Viewer button in the status bar
and try capturing again. When recapturing full resolution HD
material at 29.97 and 30 frames per second, the viewer is
automatically disabled.
If the tape is not in the VTR, the Insert Tape dialog box is displayed.
• Use the transport controls in the dialog box to cue up the VTR.
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• If the current device preset is incorrect in any way, including the
assignment of audio inputs from the external device, you can modify it
by clicking Change Device. The Device Configuration dialog box is
displayed—see Configuring the External Device on page 78.
• Click Skip Tape to bypass capturing all the clips with this tape’s source name.
If you selected the Time Delay option, the Start Capture At dialog box is
displayed. Enter the date and time at which you want the capture to begin
and click OK. The progress bar appears with the current date and time, as
well as the capture start date and time you specified.
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If any problems are detected during recapture, the Capture Error Log
is displayed.
The Capture Error Log dialog box lists all the clips, including tape source
name, in, and out-points, that could not be recaptured. It also gives you a
brief description of the type of error that occurred.
9. To save this log as an .html file, click Save As.
10. In the Save As dialog box, navigate to an appropriate folder, enter a name
for the log, and click Save.
The log is saved as an .html file and can be viewed in any Explorer.
If the name or location of the original file has changed, press Ctrl
and click Capture to open the Import File(s) dialog box. You can
browse to the appropriate location, or modify the name in the dialog
box to match that of the new file you want to capture.
Click Help for detailed information on the Input panel.
Capturing Clips from the Timeline
When you create a log of clips from a tape, file, EDL, OMF, or ALE, master
clips with no media are created in the Explorer. You can still place these clips
on the timeline, and edit their in and out-points before capturing the media.
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You can also capture media from clips on the timeline when you want to use a
different quality.
When you capture from the timeline, all the frames in a clip are
recaptured unless otherwise specified.
To recapture clips from the timeline
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1. From the Media Input/Output layout, select the Input panel.
2. From the Capture Source list, select Timeline.
3. In the Tracks to Capture box, select the tracks from which you want
to capture.
4. To record additional material before the in-point and after the out-point,
enter the appropriate number of frames in the Heads and Tails text boxes.
You can only add heads and tails to the clip on the timeline up to the
length of the original master clip. You cannot extend the clip beyond
what was originally captured.
5. To capture only the active frames of clips on the timeline, select the
Capture Only Active Material option.
When you select this option, clips with time effects (Timewarp,
Interlace, Deinterlace, 3:2 Expand, or 3:2 Contract) are recaptured
in their entirety regardless of the active areas. For all other types
of container clips, only the active portions of the container clips
are recaptured.
6. If you want the capture to begin immediately, leave the Time Delay option
deselected. If you want the capture to begin at a specific time, select the
Time Delay option.
7. To capture the clips on the timeline, select one of the following options:
• Complete Timeline to capture the entire timeline.
By default, the full length of the current timeline’s in and out-points are
displayed in the In and Out timecode boxes.
• Time Span Only to capture a specific section of the timeline. You must
indicate the in and out timecodes in the In and Out timecode boxes.
8. Click Capture.
If you’re capturing from a tape that is currently in the VTR, then capture
starts automatically. As the clips are captured, the progress bar updates.
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If Avid|DS is unable to capture the material on the first attempt, it
will attempt the capture a second time. If it fails again, Avid|DS will
attempt the capture a third time with an additional pre-roll of five
seconds. If the capture fails again, the error is displayed in the
Capture Error Log, with the possible cause of the problem.
If you encounter problems recapturing material from tape, you
should disable the viewer using the Viewer button in the status bar
and try capturing again. When recapturing full resolution HD
material at 29.97 and 30 frames per second, the viewer is
automatically disabled.
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If the tape is not in the VTR, the Insert Tape dialog box is displayed.
• Use the transport controls in the dialog box to cue up the VTR.
• If the current device preset is incorrect in any way, including the
assignment of audio inputs from the external device, you can modify
it by clicking Change Device. The Device Configuration dialog box is
displayed—see Configuring the External Device on page 78.
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• Click Skip Tape to bypass capturing all the clips with this tape’s source name.
If you selected the Time Delay option, the Start Capture At dialog box is
displayed. Enter the date and time at which you want the capture to begin
and click OK. The progress bar appears with the current date and time, as
well as the capture start date and time you specified.
If Avid|DS detects any problems during recapture, the Capture Error Log
is displayed.
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The Capture Error Log dialog box lists all the clips, including tape source
name, in, and out-points, that could not be recaptured. It also gives you a
brief description of the type of error that occurred.
9. To save this log as an .html file, click Save As.
10. In the Save As dialog box, navigate to an appropriate folder, enter a name
for the log and click Save.
The log is saved as an .html file and can be viewed in any Explorer.
Creating a Batch Capture List
When you have several clips to recapture, it is sometimes useful to generate a
list to review what you’re recapturing. The capture list in Avid|DS not only lets
you review what you’re capturing, but also lets you prioritize items, as well as
remove items from the list.
To create a batch capture list
1. Select the items for recapture in the Avid Explorer or timeline.
2. In the Media Input/Output layout, select the Input panel.
3. From the Capture Source list, select either Timeline or Explorer.
4. Set the capture settings as required—see Capturing Clips from the Avid
Explorer on page 108 or Capturing Clips from the Timeline on page 110.
5. Press Alt and click Capture.
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The Capture List dialog box is displayed.
Clips with check
marks beside
them are part of
the list and will be
recaptured
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6. Double-click an entry in the list to remove it from the list of clips to be
recaptured. Double-click it again to add it back to the list.
7. Using the Move Up and Move Down buttons, prioritize the capture list by
moving more important clips to the top of the list and less important ones
to the bottom.
8. Click Source Name or Clips in the title bar to sort the list according to the
source name or the clip name.
9. Click OK to begin capturing.
If you are capturing from a tape that is currently in the VTR, then capture
starts automatically. As the clips are captured, the progress bar updates.
If the tape is not in the VTR, the Insert Tape dialog box is displayed.
• Use the transport controls in the dialog box to cue up the VTR.
• If the current device preset is incorrect in any way, including the
assignment of audio inputs from the external device, you can modify it by
clicking Change Device. The Device Configuration dialog box is
displayed—Configuring the External Device on page 78.
• Click Skip Tape to bypass capturing all the clips with this tape’s source name.
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If you selected the Time Delay option, the Start Capture At dialog box is
displayed. Enter the date and time at which you want the capture to begin
and click OK. The progress bar appears with the current date and time, as
well as the capture start date and time you specified.
If Avid|DS detects any problems during recapture, the Capture Error Log
is displayed.
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The Capture Error Log dialog box lists all the clips, including tape source
name, in, and out-points, that could not be recaptured. It also gives you a
brief description of the type of error that occurred.
10. To save this log as an .html file, click Save As.
11. In the Save As dialog box, navigate to an appropriate folder, enter a name
for the log and click Save.
The log is saved as an .html file and can be viewed in any Explorer.
Click Help for detailed information on the capture list options.
Using Scripts to Capture Media
Avid|DS lets you create scripts to automate the capture process. Instead of
defining the capture properties each time you capture media, you can do it
once, create a script based on what you did, and then run that script the next
time you capture. Creating a script can be as simple as copying the contents of
the History pane to the Editing pane of the Script Editor and then saving it.
You can use scripts to capture media from file only.
A script is a set of commands that can be executed in sequence as if they were
a single command. Simple scripts are a set of native Avid|DS commands.
More advanced scripts use a third-party scripting language as the glue that
holds the commands together. With a scripting language, your scripts can use
variables, constants, conditional statements, loops, and procedures. You can
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change the default scripting language on the User Preferences dialog box
(Scripting/Logging property page). For more information, see Choosing a
Scripting Language in the online help.
When using a script to capture media, make sure that the Start
Capture command appears only once at the end of your script.
If your script contains more than one Start Capture command,
it wil not work.
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To create a script for capturing media
1. From the View menu, choose Single-Instance Views > Script Editor.
The Script Editor view is displayed.
Menu bar
History pane
Editing pane
2. From the Media Input/Output Layout, select the Input panel.
3. Configure the video and audio input.
Each command that you set is logged in the History pane of the
Script Editor.
4. Do one of the following:
• Choose a capture source (Explorer or Timeline), select the appropriate
settings for your capture session, and click Capture.
• In the Avid Explorer, select a file, right-click, and choose Capture, Log,
or Link.
5. Once the capture is complete, select the contents of the History pane in
the Script Editor.
6. From the menu bar, click Copy or press Ctrl+C.
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7. Click in the Editing pane and then click Paste or press Ctrl+V.
The contents of the History pane are displayed in the Editing pane.
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Copy contents from
History pane to Editing
pane to create a script.
8. Click Save.
The Save As dialog box is displayed.
9. Enter a name for your script in the File name text box and click Save.
By default, all scripts are saved in the DSScripts folder.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Script Editor.
To run an existing script
1. From the Script Editor, choose Open from the File menu.
The Open dialog box is displayed.
2. Browse through the folders to locate the script you want to run. Select the
file and click Open.
The contents of the script appear in the Editing pane of the Script Editor.
3. If you want to make changes to the script, you can modify the contents of
the script by cutting, copying, or typing directly into the Editing pane.
4. Click Run.
The script runs through each line and performs the associated commands.
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Once a script is running, the only way to terminate it is to exit Avid|DS.
Never test your script by running it on valuable unsaved data.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Script Editor.
To create a toolbar button for a script file
1. Create a media input script and save it in the \DSScripts folder.
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2. In the Avid Explorer, open the \DSScripts folder.
3. Select the script file you created and drag it to a toolbar.
The Add Script Command dialog box is displayed.
You can also create a toolbar button from one or more lines in the
History or Editing pane of the Script Editor. Select the contents of
the script and then drag them onto a toolbar. A toolbar button is
created with the name Scriptnumber.
4. In the Command Name text box, enter a name for the toolbar button.
By default, the Command Name is the name of the saved script file.
5. Specify a Command Name for Scripting. This is the name that is logged to
the command history when you click on the toolbar button. You can also
use this name to invoke this script from within another script. The
command name for scripting cannot use spaces or punctuation.
6. If necessary, select the scripting language from the Language list. The list
contains the supported languages that are installed on your computer.
If you dragged lines from the Script Editor onto the toolbar, then the default
language is the one specified in your preferences—refer to User Preferences
dialog box (Scripting/Logging property page) in the online help.
If you dragged a saved file, the default language is based on the file
name extension:
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Scripting language
File extension
JScript
.js
PerlScript
.pls
Python Active X Scripting Engine
.pys
VB Script Language
.vbs
Logging and Capturing Material
7. Do one of the following:
• If your script does not contain any procedures, there is nothing more to
do. Click OK to close the Add Script Command dialog box and add the
button to your toolbar.
• If your script does contain procedures, continue with the following:
8. Click Parse Script.
?
The script is parsed and the procedures and arguments are “found”.
Parsing a script may execute global code, that is, any code that is not
within a defined procedure. In such cases, it will also run procedures
that are called from global code.
9. If your script contains procedures, you can specify which one to execute
when the button is clicked. Select a procedure from the Script Procedure
box. If you do not specify a procedure, only global code will be executed,
as well as any procedures that are called from global code.
Even when a procedure is specified, global code may be executed
before the procedure is called. This is a side-effect of parsing the script
with some scripting engines. To be certain that your script behaves
predictably in all situations, do not mix global code and procedures.
10. If the selected procedure contains arguments, they are listed under
Parameters. For each argument, specify the value to use when the script is
run by doing one of the following:
• Enter a value in the corresponding Value box. This value will be used
whenever you click the button to run the script.
• Click twice in the Value box, and select Prompt On Run from the list.
With this option, when you click the button to run the script, a dialog box
prompts you to enter a value.
11. Click OK. The Add Script Command dialog box closes and the new
button is added to the toolbar.
If you want to go back and edit the script, right-click on the toolbar
button and choose Edit Script from the menu. A dialog box is
displayed asking you if you want to save your script, click No. The
contents of your script are displayed in the Editing pane of the Script
Editor and are ready for editing.
User’s Guide • 119
Chapter 3 • Capturing Material
Importing Render
Passes from
SOFTIMAGE|3D or
SOFTIMAGE|XSI
If you work with 3D elements produced in SOFTIMAGE|3D, you can quickly
and easily preview render passes in Avid|DS. From a SOFTIMAGE|3D or
SOFTIMAGE|XSI .gen file, you can create a master clip in Avid|DS and then
play it back in real time.
To create a master clip from the rendered .gen file
1. In the Avid Explorer, browse to the location of the .gen file.
2. Right-click on the file and click Link.
?
A new master clip appears in the Avid Explorer.
The .gen files should be in a valid VideoStorage directory.
The name of the master clip created will be the same as the name of the
selected .gen files. You can now drag the clip to the timeline. For the clip to be
real-time playable, the project and .gen file types must match (either RGB or
YUV). If not, you must first process the clip to convert the type.
Once the master clip has been created, you can re-render your scene
and then play it back in Avid|DS without having to create another
master clip or recapture your media.
120 • User’s Guide
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Chapter 4
Working with Sequences
User’s Guide • 121
Chapter 4 • Working with Sequences
In This Chapter...
This chapter describes how to work with sequences, search for sequences, and
set your video and audio preferences.
Workflow: Working with Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Opening Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Setting Sequence Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
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Saving Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Searching for Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Importing Sequences from Another Project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Deleting Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
122 • User’s Guide
Workflow: Working with Sequences
Workflow: Working with Sequences
Before you open a sequence, you must first open the project to which it
belongs. The sequence is where you perform all your editing. The following
illustration shows a simple editing scenario in Avid|DS.
1
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Open project and sequence
Select project
Select sequence
2
Set sequence preferences
Set your video and audio formats, and
video resolution or compression
Sequence preferences
can be changed during
the course of a project
to work on media at
different qualities
3
Construct and save
sequence
Process and output media at
the new quality settings
User’s Guide • 123
Chapter 4 • Working with Sequences
You can easily create, open, and manage the sequences in your project using
the Open Project dialog box. When you open a sequence in Avid|DS, you can
immediately begin audio/video editing, compositing, painting, titling, or
audio mixing. Because the Avid|DS environment is nonlinear, these tasks can
be performed in any order, changed at any time, and moved to any location.
Avid|DS also gives you the flexibility to work with different media qualities
within your sequence. For example, working with media at a higher
resolution increases processing time, so initially, you may want to process
your clips at lower resolution to obtain quicker results. When you’re ready to
output the final sequence, you can recapture the media at a higher resolution,
and reprocess the effects.
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124 • User’s Guide
Opening Sequences
Opening Sequences
A sequence is an arrangement of clips on the timeline; it contains information
about edit decisions, applied graphics and effects, animation settings, and
working preferences.
Sequence
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Sequences always belong to a particular project. Before you create or open a
sequence, you must open the project to which it belongs. To get a quick view
of all the projects on any workstation on the network, open the Open Project
dialog box.
To access the Open Project dialog box
• From the File menu, choose Open > Project.
The Open Project dialog box is displayed.
User’s Guide • 125
Chapter 4 • Working with Sequences
Creating a New
Sequence
You must create sequences from within a project. You can either select a
project from the Open Project dialog box and then create a new sequence, or
if your project is already open, you can create a new sequence directly from
the File menu.
To create a sequence
1. From the File menu, choose Open > Project.
The Open Project dialog box is displayed.
?
2. From the Select a Project box, select the project to which your sequence
will belong.
The Select a Sequence box displays any other sequences that belong to
this project.
3. From the Select a Sequence box, select New DS Sequence from the list.
4. Click New Sequence.
The New Sequence dialog box is displayed. By default, the sequence
preferences are inherited from the settings established when the project
was created. These settings can be changed. For more information, see
Setting Sequence Preferences on page 129.
Avid|DS requires that you have at least 10% of your system memory
(RAM) free at all times. As a result, you may not be able to create
sequences with a custom formats which have resolutions that are
much greater than the standard video resolution, such as
2000×1500. To avoid this problem, either reduce the size of your
custom sequence or add more memory to your system.
5. Click OK to accept the settings.
A new sequence is opened and the Editing layout is displayed.
While you have a project open, you can create new sequences
directly from the File menu.
To create a new sequence within the current project
1. From the File menu, choose New Sequence.
If the sequence you’re currently working on has not been saved, you are
prompted to do so.
2. Click Yes to save the sequence.
A new sequence is opened in your current project with the same
preferences as those of the project.
126 • User’s Guide
Opening Sequences
To create a new sequence with different sequence preferences
1. From the File menu, choose New > DS Sequence.
If the sequence you are currently working on has not been saved, you are
prompted to do so.
2. Click Yes to save the sequence.
The New Sequence dialog box is displayed.
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3. Set the preferences for the new sequence and click OK.
A new sequence is opened in the current project with the new
sequence preferences.
Click Help for detailed information on the New Sequence dialog box.
Opening an Existing
Sequence
You can open a sequence in one of three ways:
• From the Open Project dialog box, if you want to open a sequence in
another project,
• From the File menu, if a project is already open, or
• By double-clicking on the sequence in the Avid Explorer.
You can modify the contents and working quality options of a sequence at
any time.
Each time you start Avid|DS, you can automatically load the last
sequence on which you were working by selecting the Load Last
Sequence at Startup option in the User Preferences dialog box.
To open a sequence from the Open Project dialog box
1. From the File menu, choose Open > Project.
If the sequence you are currently working on has not been saved, you are
prompted to do so.
2. Click Yes to save the current sequence.
User’s Guide • 127
Chapter 4 • Working with Sequences
The Open Project dialog box is displayed.
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3. From the Select a Project box, select the project to which your sequence
will belong.
The Select a Sequence box displays any other sequences that belong to
this project.
4. From the Select a Sequence box, select a sequence and click Open Sequence.
Click Help for detailed information on the Open Project dialog box.
To open a sequence from the File menu
1. From the File menu, choose Open > Sequence.
If the sequence you are currently working on has not been saved, you are
prompted to do so.
2. Click Yes to save the current sequence.
The Load Sequence dialog box is displayed.
3. Browse through the folders and select a sequence. All sequences are
indicated by the sequence icon.
4. Click OK or double-click on the sequence to open it.
To open a sequence from the Avid Explorer
1. Locate the sequence in the Avid Explorer.
2. Double-click on the sequence.
If the sequence you are currently working on has not been saved, you are
prompted to do so.
3. Click Yes to save the current sequence.
The sequence is opened.
128 • User’s Guide
Setting Sequence Preferences
Setting Sequence Preferences
Sequence preferences define the format and quality of the audio and video
clips in your sequence. By default, the sequence preferences are inherited from
the settings you created for the current project. You can, however, change the
preferences for each sequence in a project.
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Setting preferences for a new sequence
There are three questions that you should ask yourself before creating
your sequence:
1. What video and audio format am I going to work with?
2. What resolution should I use for my media?
3. Do I need to compress my media?
Depending on your hardware configuration, you can work in a variety of
video formats, such as PAL D1, NTSC D1, 720p, 1080i, 1080p, or other
custom formats.
Some parameters (like field dominance and pixel ratio), are set automatically
based on the format you choose. For some of the video formats, you must also
select a corresponding aspect ratio, color space, and frame rate. Other
formats, such as the Custom option, let you set most of the parameters
yourself. Once you set the video format, it cannot be changed.
User’s Guide • 129
Chapter 4 • Working with Sequences
You can also work with a variety of different audio sample rates and/or bit
depths. Audio sample rate and bit depth can be changed at any time. For more
information, see Changing the Sequence Preferences on page 140.
When working with sequences of custom formats with resolutions
that are much greater than the standard video resolution, such as
2000×1500, a minimal amount of system memory (RAM) must be
kept available at all times. Otherwise, you may notice significant
slowdown when working on your system.
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The second and third questions determine how Avid|DS performs during the
editing process. The working video settings let you work with video media at
high or low resolution, with or without compression. You can change these
settings at any time to accommodate the task you’re performing.
Working at a lower resolution is useful when producing a rough cut of your
sequence, because your clips are processed at a much faster rate. Working with
compressed media lets you save storage space on your disk array.
Setting the Audio and
Video Format
The audio and video formats set the standard for the audio and video clips
that will be used in your sequence. Avid|DS supports several standard video
formats, as well as a custom format that allows you to set the parameters the
way you want.
When you create a new sequence, you must select an audio and video format.
For more details on these settings, click the Help button in the New Sequence
dialog box.
To set the video format
• In the New Sequence dialog box, select a format from the Format list in
the Video Settings box.
When you choose a video format other than Custom, Avid|DS
automatically sets the aspect ratio, color space, frame rate, frame size, field
dominance, and pixel ratio based on the format you chose. These settings
cannot be changed after you click OK.
If you choose a drop-frame format, such as NTSC, you have the
option to display timecode as either drop frame or non-drop frame.
This option only affects the timecode display and not the sequence
frame rate.
For HD sequences, you can use 720p, 1080p, 1080i video formats.
130 • User’s Guide
Setting Sequence Preferences
To set the audio format
• In the New Sequence dialog box, select a sampling rate from the Sample
Rate list in the Audio Settings box.
You can later change the current sequence’s audio quality settings in
the Sequence Preferences dialog box.
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About Frame Size
Frame size is the dimensions of a digital image in Avid|DS. These measurements
are based on pixels.
720
An NTSC D1 4:3 image by default
has a frame size of 720×486 pixels.
A PAL D1 4:3 image, however, has
a default frame size of 720×576
pixels.
486
A 16:9 HD image can have a
variety of frame sizes, such as
1920×1080 pixels or 1280×720
pixels.
Frame size or dimensions of an NTSC image within Avid|DS
About Field Dominance
Video images are displayed half a frame at a time, where each half, referred to
as a field, is comprised of alternate lines of video information (odd and even).
The two fields are combined (interlaced) to form one frame.
NTSC, PAL, and HD video material can either be interlaced or progressive,
such as 1080i or 1080p. Interlaced video contains two fields, which make up
every frame. Progressive video, however, creates full frames by scanning each
line sequentially. As a result, field dominance is not an issue.
For more information, refer to Frames versus Fields on page 24 and Interlacing
versus Progressive Scanning on page 24 of the Avid|DS Compositing &
Effects Guide.
User’s Guide • 131
Chapter 4 • Working with Sequences
Odd fields
Even fields
Two fields are
interlaced to form
one frame
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Frames
Interlaced fields
The order in which odd and even fields occur over time is referred to as field
order or field dominance. With even field dominance, even fields come first.
In odd field dominance, odd fields come first.
In Avid|DS, you can deinterlace a clip to display the odd and even fields as
separate frames. This is useful when retouching clips or creating paint
animation and field-based rotoscopy. For more information, refer to
Deinterlace Effect on page 331 and Interlace Effect on page 333 of the Avid|DS
Compositing & Effects Guide.
About Color Space
Color space determines how the color components of the video signal are
stored in Avid|DS. There are three pixel formats available in Avid|DS: YCbCr
(YUV) 4:2:2 (601), YCbCr (YUV) 4:2:2 (709), and RGB. Avid|DS converts all
imported material to the color space of the sequence. All material imported in
RGB color space uses 32 bits per pixel, even if you did not import the alpha
channel. YUV 4:2:2 uses 16 bits per pixel and YUVA (YUV with alpha) 4:2:2
uses 24 bits per pixel.
Cache media, created from processed effects, transitions, or composites, is
treated the same way as source media. Some effects, however, require an
internal conversion to RGB. As a result, some banding may occur when you’re
working with a YUV sequence with these effects. To solve this problem, you
can apply the RGB-YUV Dither effect. For more information, refer to RGBYUV Dither Effect on page 251 of the Avid|DS Compositing & Effects Guide.
About Aspect Ratio
Aspect ratio is the numerical ratio of picture width to height. The standard
aspect ratio for NTSC and PAL video and television is 4:3. For material shot
on film or HD, 16:9 is the standard aspect ratio. You can also create nonstandard aspect ratios.
132 • User’s Guide
Setting Sequence Preferences
About Pixel Ratio
Pixel ratio refers to the shape of one pixel. Different video standards have
different pixel ratios. NTSC and PAL pixels have ratios of 0.9 and 1.07
respectively, while computer-generated images, typically have square pixels
with a ratio of 1.0.
Avid|DS can compensate for different pixel ratios so that a captured image does
not appear distorted. When you capture material from file, you must set the file’s
pixel ratio, which tells Avid|DS the original state of the material. For example, if
you are importing a computer-generated image, set the pixel ratio to 1.0.
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About Audio Quality
Audio quality defines the sample rate and bit depth at which an audio signal is
captured. You can set the sample rate conversion quality, so that Avid|DS can
convert audio material that has a different sample rate than the current sequence.
The higher the sample rate, the more accurate the digital representation of the
signal. A higher sample rate, however, does use more disk space.
Setting the Working
Video Quality
When working with digitized video and audio, it’s easy to consume large
amounts of valuable storage space. That’s why it is important to use your
storage space efficiently. Avid|DS gives you the flexibility to work with
different media qualities.
Video media quality is determined by two factors:
• Resolution, which is the amount and degree of detail in a video image, and
• Compression, which is a technique used to reduce the amount of space
necessary to store video data.
You can work at full, half, or quarter resolution, and with compressed media
at different ratios. This multi-quality feature lets you balance image quality
and system performance during the different phases of your work. The
working video settings (compression and resolution) determine the quality at
which your media is displayed in the viewer, as well as the quality at which it is
processed by Avid|DS. You can change the video settings at any time if you
want to display or process media at a different quality.
When you create a new sequence or open an existing sequence, and
change the working quality settings, you can also set new defaults for
capturing, outputting, and processing files. You can override these
settings when capturing or outputting media.
User’s Guide • 133
Chapter 4 • Working with Sequences
To define the working quality
1. From the File menu, choose New > DS Sequence.
2. In the Working Video Settings box, make a selection from the Resolution
list. Setting it at full resolution results in large, high-quality media and
cache files. Setting it at quarter resolution results in smaller, lower-quality
media and cache files.
When working in Avid|DS HD, you can work in quarter resolution
mode so that you can play your effects in real-time. For more
information, see Playing Real-Time Effects in Avid|DS HD on page 79
of the Avid|DS Compositing & Effects Guide.
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3. Select one of the following options:
• Uncompressed to work with media that is not compressed.
• Compressed to work with compressed media. From the Preferred Ratio
list, select a compression ratio that best suits your needs.
4. Select one of the following options:
• Use the closest media format available if it is not crucial that you have an
exact video media match with your sequence preferences. If Avid|DS
cannot find an exact match, it finds and displays the closest alternative.
• Display a ‘media not available’ message if you only want to work with
video media of a specific quality.
Avid|DS uses only the media that matches the selected working video
settings. If there is no media to match the working settings, a “Media Not
Available” message is displayed in the viewer. This serves as a good
indicator when you’ve captured video that does not conform to your
sequence preferences. For more information about displaying the closest
media, see About Video Quality Matching on page 135.
Click Help for detailed information on the New Sequence dialog box.
About the Working Resolution
The resolution you set affects the size of cache files. The higher the resolution,
the larger the size of the cache files.
When you’re performing a rough cut, you can increase throughput and limit
storage requirements by working at low resolution. Later on in the editing
process, you can use high-resolution media to obtain better results.
In Avid|DS HD, working in quarter resolution gives you the same realtime effects that are available in the standard version of Avid|DS.
For more information, refer to Using Multiple Real-Time Effects on
page 77 of the Avid|DS Compositing & Effects Guide.
134 • User’s Guide
Setting Sequence Preferences
About the Working Compression Ratio
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Compression is a technique used to reduce the amount of space necessary to
store video information. You can compress material at capture time to reduce
the size of the media file. High compression is useful when you capture media
for your initial edit. This lets you store large amounts of material using the
least amount of storage space. Compressed data usually suffers some loss or
degradation from the original source. If you choose to work with compressed
media, you can use clips that have been captured at different compression
ratios. After you’ve done a rough cut, you can purge the compressed media,
and recapture the edited material with less or no compression.
If you’re working with only compressed media, you can mix different
compression ratios within a sequence. If you’re working with both compressed
and uncompressed media, you may run into certain circumstances where both
cannot be used at the same time within the same sequence.
About Video Quality Matching
Since Avid|DS supports multiple qualities for your video material, you can
choose the version of the captured media that you want to use.
As you set your sequence preferences, such as the working resolution,
compression, or sample rate, you are defining the quality at which clips are
previewed and processed. If a video clip was captured at a different quality
than the option set in your sequence preferences, Avid|DS can either:
• Display no media, or
• Use the media which best approximates the resolution or compression
ratio, or audio sample rate.
Quality matching is used for both video and audio. An audio clip can have
media at multiple sample rates, just like a video clip can have media at multiple
resolutions, compression ratios, or aspect ratios. In both cases, Avid|DS first
tries to find the media that exactly matches your sequence preferences. For
more information, see About Audio Quality Matching on page 139.
For video, Avid|DS looks for an exact match when the position indicator
passes over the clip on the timeline. To find an exact match for the video
media, Avid|DS does the following:
1. Resolution: Verifies if there is an exact resolution match.
2. Aspect ratio: Verifies if the aspect ratio matches that of the current sequence.
3. Compression ratio: Verifies if there is an exact compression ratio match.
For the purposes of quality matching, uncompressed media has a
compression ratio of 1.0.
4. Frame rates: Verifies if the frame rates are identical.
User’s Guide • 135
Chapter 4 • Working with Sequences
5. Field dominance: Verifies if the field dominances are compatible. For this
criteria, the match does not have to be exact, since some media files, such
as stills, can be tagged as having a field dominance of None. The matching
criteria works as follows:
Media quality
Sequence
preference
?
None
Even
Odd
None
Yes
No
No
Even
Yes
Yes
No
Odd
Yes
No
Yes
6. Image formats: Verifies if the following are identical:
• Color Model
• Frame Setup: Physical structure of the image
• Pixel Format: Structure of an image’s pixels (YUV 4:2:2 or RGB)
• Bits per Channel: Number of bits used to encode a channel
The test is done sequentially. If it finds video media that meets all the criteria,
then the media is displayed in the viewer. If any one of the criteria fails then
the “Media Not Available” message (if this option was selected) is displayed in
the viewer.
If you choose the Use the closest media format available option, Avid|DS first
looks for an exact match. If it does not find an exact match, then it tries to find
the closest match. Once it finds a candidate, it then continues to verify if there
are any other candidates that more closely match the sequence preferences.
When choosing a closest match, Avid|DS does the following:
1. Compression: In HD sequences, since compression is still not supported
for HD media, verifies if the compression is compatible. If you are looking
for compressed media, any compression ratio will do, except
uncompressed (compression ratio of 1.0). Similarly, if you are looking for
uncompressed media, only media with a compression ratio of 1.0 will do.
2. Frame rate: Verifies if the frame rates are identical, except for linked clips.
If, after this search, no candidates are found, the “Media Not Available”
message is displayed in the viewer. If more than one candidate is found,
136 • User’s Guide
Setting Sequence Preferences
Avid|DS uses the following criteria to determine which media file is a closer
match and will be displayed:
1. Compression ratio: Verifies if there is an exact compression ratio match. If
none of the candidates match the compression ratio, then the media with
the smaller compression ratio is determined to be a closer match.
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This does not apply to HD sequences since compression is not
supported for HD media.
2. Captured versus linked media: Captured media is considered a closer
match than linked media.
3. Conversion needs: Media with an image format, size, resolution,
compression ratio or field dominance that does not need to be converted
to match the preferences of the current sequence is a closer match than
media that needs to be converted.
4. Resolution width: Media which matches the resolution width is a closer
match than one that does not. If none of the candidates match the
resolution width of the current sequence, then the media with the greater
resolution width is determined to be a closer match.
5. Resolution height: Media which matches the resolution height is a closer
match than one that does not. If none of the candidates match the
resolution height of the current sequence, then the media with the greater
resolution height is determined to be a closer match.
6. Image format: Media with the same image format as the current sequence
is a better match than one that is different.
7. Aspect ratio: Media with the same aspect ratio as the current sequence is a
better match than one that is different.
• Width in square pixels: Media with the same aspect ratio width in square
pixels is a closer match than one with a different width. If none of the
candidates have the same width as the current sequence, then the media
with the greater width is determined to be a closer match.
• Height in square pixels: Media with the same aspect ratio height in square
pixels is a closer match than one with a different height. If none of the
candidates have the same height as the current sequence, then the media
with the greater height is determined to be a closer match.
User’s Guide • 137
Chapter 4 • Working with Sequences
Once it finds the candidate that is the closest match, Avid|DS determines if it
needs to convert the media to fit into the current sequence. The conversion
method is based on the following properties:
1. Image format: If the image format is different than the current sequence,
it will need to be converted.
2. Image size: If the image size is different than the current sequence size, it
will need to be converted.
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3. Resolution: If the resolution is different than the current sequence, it will
need to be converted.
4. Field Dominance: If the field dominance is set to None, then no conversion
is needed. Odd and even are incompatible, so a field conversion is required.
The following table shows where conversion is required:
Sequence
preference
Media quality
None
Even
Odd
None
No
No
No
Even
No
No
Yes
Odd
No
Yes
No
Processed media (caches) are also created based on the video
resolution and compression settings. The same quality matching
method is used to select the quality of the cache during playback.
138 • User’s Guide
Setting Sequence Preferences
About Audio Quality Matching
Unlike video media, you don’t have the choice to use an exact match or a closest
match for audio media. Avid|DS first tries to find audio media that matches the
audio settings for the current sequence. If an exact match cannot be found, then
it automatically tries to find the closest match. To find an exact audio media
match, Avid|DS does the following:
1. Sample Rate: Verifies if there is an exact sample rate match.
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2. Bit Depth: Verifies if there is an exact bit depth match.
If an exact audio media match is found, then that audio media is used during
playback. If any one of the criteria fails, then Avid|DS looks for the media that
most closely matches the current sequence settings. When choosing a closest
match, Avid|DS looks at the following criteria:
1. Sample Rate: Verifies if there is an exact sample rate match.
If no candidates are found with the same sample rate, the audio tracks
turn red and you’re prompted to convert the audio media to the sample
rate of the current sequence. If there are several candidates with the same
sample rate, Avid|DS uses the following criteria to determine which media
is a closer match:
2. Captured versus Linked Media: Captured media is considered a closer
match than linked media.
3. Bit Depth: Media which matches the bit depth of the current sequence is a
closer match than one that does not. If none of the candidates match the bit
depth, media with a greater bit depth is determined to be a closer match.
User’s Guide • 139
Chapter 4 • Working with Sequences
Changing the
Sequence Preferences
The video and audio formats determine the image frame size and audio
sampling rates, respectively. The video format cannot be changed once you
create the sequence. You can, however, change the working video settings,
processing and presets settings, and audio preferences at any time.
To change the sequence preferences
1. From the File menu, choose Sequence Preferences.
?
2. In the Processing box, select one of the following from the Mode list:
• Field to convert the image to fields, which processes each field of your
effects and graphics separately, and then reconverts the video information
to frames to display the results. Field-based processing takes longer, but is
designed to increase the accuracy of animated effects, graphics, and DVEs.
• Frame to process the entire frame (both fields together). This option is
typically used with frame-based material.
Even though you set the processing mode for the sequence as a
whole, you can still change it in the Processing Options dialog box.
For more information, refer to Setting the Processing Options on
page 125 of the Avid|DS Compositing & Effects Guide.
140 • User’s Guide
Setting Sequence Preferences
3. Select the Display source material when processing is needed option to
view the underlying material instead of the “Processing Needed” message
when unprocessed material is encountered during playback. If you don’t
select it, when you play back a sequence, the “Processing Needed” message
is displayed in the viewer when unprocessed material is encountered. This
option is only available when working in a SD sequence.
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4. To change how preset files are converted when used in other video formats,
select one of the following from the Presets Conversion Mode list:
Parameter
To
Scale to Fit
Scale the preset in both the X and Y axes to fit the
sequence settings, such as 16:9 and 4:3. This option
does not maintain the aspect ratio of the original preset.
Scale to Fit Scale,
Keep Aspect Ratio
Scale the preset in both the X and Y axes to fit the
sequence settings, but maintains the ratio between
width and height. It takes the larger axis of the preset
and scales it to fit in the viewer. Then it centers the
preset on the other axis.
Center, Keep
Original Size
Center the preset in the viewer along both the X and
Y axes. This option does not modify the original size
of the preset.
Fit X Axis, Keep
Aspect Ratio
Scale the preset in the X axis to fit the sequence
settings, then scales the preset along the Y axis to
maintain the ratio between width and height intact.
If the resulting preset is larger or smaller than the
sequence settings, it is centered along the Y axis.
Fit Y Axis, Keep
Aspect Ratio
Scale the preset in the Y axis to fit the sequence
settings, then scales the image along the X axis to
maintain the ratio between width and height intact.
If the resulting preset is larger or smaller than the
sequence settings, it is centered along the X axis.
5. To change how media in both clips and sequences are converted when
used in sequences with different video formats, select one of the following
from the Media Conversion Mode list:
Parameter
To
Scale to Fit
Scale the media in both the X and Y axes to fit the
sequence settings, such as 16:9 and 4:3. This option
does not maintain the aspect ratio of the original media.
Scale, Keep Aspect
Ratio
Scale the media in both the X and Y axes to fit the
sequence settings, but maintains the ratio between
width and height. It takes the larger axis of the preset
and scales it to fit in the viewer. Then it centers the
preset on the other axis.
User’s Guide • 141
Chapter 4 • Working with Sequences
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Parameter
To
Center, Keep
Original Size
Center the media in the viewer along both the X and
Y axes. This option does not modify the original size of
the media.
Keep Original Size
and Position
Display the media in the viewer without modifying its
original size or position.
Fit X Axis, Keep
Aspect Ratio
Scale the media in the X axis to fit the sequence
settings, then scales the media along the Y axis to
maintain the ratio between width and height intact.
If the resulting image is larger or smaller than the
sequence settings, it is centered along the Y axis.
Fit Y Axis, Keep
Aspect Ratio
Scale the media in the Y axis to fit the sequence
settings, then scales the media along the X axis to
maintain the ratio between width and height intact.
If the resulting image is larger or smaller than the
sequence settings, it is centered along the X axis.
Force Premultiplied
Output
Force the background track to use the matte of a clip
on this track, or treat it like it has a full alpha for the
RGB composite. This behavior is apparent when you
have a clip on the background track, and there are no
other clips on the video tracks below it. You’ll see the
image without the key applied. If you select this option,
you’ll see the image keyed over a black background.
Note: If you select the Force Premultiplied Output
option, any real-time effects will no longer be playable
in real-time.
6. From the Working Video Settings box, select a working resolution and
compression ratio—see Setting the Working Video Quality on page 133.
142 • User’s Guide
Setting Sequence Preferences
7. To change the audio settings, select the Audio tab.
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8. From the Sample Rate list, select a sampling rate for your sequence. The
higher the sampling rate, the more accurate the audio will be.
When you place audio clips on the timeline that contain different
sampling rates than the current sequence, you are prompted to
convert the clip to match the current sequence sampling rate. If you
do not convert the clip, you will not have access to the audio media
unless you change the sequence preferences.
9. From the Bit Depth list, select a bit depth value. The higher the value, the
more precise the audio will be.
10. From the Sample Rate Conversion box, select the Conversion on Drop
option if you want to convert all sample rates imported into your
sequence to the sample rate of the current sequence.
11. Deselect the Confirm Each Time option if you don’t want a confirmation
dialog box to appear every time you import an audio file with a different
sample rate into the current sequence.
12. Drag the Conversion Quality slider in the direction of one of the following:
• Fast to convert the sample rate quickly, but at a low quality.
• High to preserve quality, but this setting takes longer to convert the
sample rates.
13. Click OK to accept the changes you made.
Click Help for detailed information on the Sequence Preferences dialog box.
User’s Guide • 143
Chapter 4 • Working with Sequences
Understanding the Conversion Modes
Since Avid|DS is resolution independent, you can work with media and
sequences with different resolutions, all within the same sequence. Avid|DS
lets you decide how these different formats will fit together.
There are three different situations in which you convert media:
1. When you import media,
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2. When you drop a clip or sequence on the timeline, and
3. When you change the conversion mode for clips that are already on
the timeline.
The first case deals with digitized media, and is therefore slightly different
than the other two cases, which deal more with how media is treated on
the timeline.
When you digitize or import media, it gets converted to the current sequence
preferences using the conversion modes on the Input panel of the Media
Input/Output layout. Since you’re determining how media is being digitized,
the scale/pan settings applied to the media are fixed. This means that you
cannot change these settings when you recapture the media. For more
information, see Capturing Material from File on page 94.
In the second case, you’re dealing with how clips are converted when they’re
placed on the timeline. The conversion mode you select determines how clips
and sequences of different resolutions are displayed when they’re placed on
the timeline. You can set the conversion mode in the Sequence Preferences
dialog box.
The clips that are already on the timeline will not be affected by a
change in the Sequence Preferences settings. Only clips placed on the
timeline after the change will be affected.
In the third case, you’re dealing with clips that are already on the timeline. You
can set the conversion mode for each clip individually using the conversion
mode settings in the Clip Properties property page. This overrides the
conversion mode in the Sequence Preferences dialog box.
As previously explained, when you place a clip on the timeline which has a
different resolution than the current sequence, the image will be converted
using the method you set in the Sequence Preferences dialog box.
144 • User’s Guide
Setting Sequence Preferences
However, when you place a sequence on the timeline, the conversion becomes
a little more complicated, since you may be dealing with various resolutions
within that sequence. Avid|DS treats the clips within that sequence as a single
unit in order to preserve the relationship between the clips. By doing so,
Avid|DS ensures that the ratio between each clip remains the same. Once the
clips are grouped together, Avid|DS uses the conversion mode you set in the
Sequence Preferences dialog box to convert all the clips as a single unit.
If your clip is converted more than once, it can’t be assigned one of
the defined conversion modes. Instead, a separate conversion mode
called “Multiple Conversions” is used to specify that the clip has
been converted multiple times.
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When you insert a sequence within another sequence, you can always override
the current sequence preference conversion mode by modifying each clip’s
conversion mode individually in the Clip Properties property editor. Only the
clip whose conversion mode you modified will be affected. All other clips will
remain in custom sequence mode.
If you use a sequence that has processed effects within another
sequence, the caches will remain valid as long as both sequences
have the same settings. If, however, you change the conversion
mode, you must process the effects again.
The following table summarizes how each item is converted in Avid|DS:
Item
Media conversion treatment
Captured clip
Frame size* is scaled and panned to the current sequence size
Linked clip
Image size is scaled and panned to the current sequence size
Sequence
Sequence size is scaled and panned to the current sequence size
*The sequence size at the time of capture.
Example
The following is an example of how a sequence, which contains linked images
of various resolutions, is converted when inserted into a sequence that has a
different resolution.
User’s Guide • 145
Chapter 4 • Working with Sequences
Sequence A is an NTSC D1 sequence at 720 × 486 resolution. It contains the
following images:
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Image 1: 1440×972 linked
image set to Scale to Fit
Image 2: 300×300 linked
image set to Keep Original
Size and Position
Image 3: 1000×1000 linked
image set to Center, Keep
Original Size
Sequence B is a custom sequence at 360 × 243 resolution. The conversion
mode in the Sequence Preferences dialog box is set to Center, Keep Original
Size. When you place sequence A into sequence B, the following occurs (the
original frame size of sequence A is outlined in white):
The clips are grouped together
and treated as a single unit.
Since image 1 was centered in
the original sequence, it will
remain centered in the new
sequence. Since sequence B has
a smaller resolution, the image
just fills up more of the viewer.
This clip has been converted in
both sequences, so its
conversion mode will be set to
Multiple Conversions.
146 • User’s Guide
Image 2 was not centered in the
original sequence, so in this
sequence, the star gets cut out
of the viewer. Since the original
linked clip was set to Keep
Original Size and Position, it has
only been converted once and
its conversion mode will be set
to that of the current sequence.
Since image 3 was centered in
the original sequence, it remains
centered. Because the circle is so
large, it fills the entire viewer.
This clip has been converted in
both sequences, so its
conversion mode will be set to
Multiple Conversions.
Setting Sequence Preferences
If you change the conversion mode in the Sequence Preferences dialog box to
Scale to Fit, and place sequence A into sequence B again, the following occurs:
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If you compare these images with the images in the original sequence, they will be exactly the same,
except smaller. Since the images are grouped together as a sequence, the individual images are not
scaled to fit the resolution of the current sequence. Instead, the whole sequence is scaled down to fit the
new sequence resolution, which, in this case, produces a smaller version of the original sequence.
You can then go into the Clip Properties property page and change the
conversion mode for each clip individually.
When applying a conversion mode to a clip
individually, the original sequence settings
are ignored and Avid|DS refers back to the
original image.
For example, the conversion mode for image 1
was set to Keep Original Size and Position.
Notice how the displayed image is the
1440×972 clip. If Avid|DS had referred back to
the original sequence, then the clip would have
been displayed at 720×486 resolution.
After changing the conversion mode of an individual clip, you can always
change it back to its original setting.
User’s Guide • 147
Chapter 4 • Working with Sequences
To change the sequence conversion mode
1. From the File menu, choose Sequence Preferences.
The Sequence Preferences dialog box is displayed.
2. In the Conversion Mode box, select a mode for Presets and/or Media.
From now on, when you place clips or sequences on the timeline, they will
be converted using the mode you selected.
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To change the conversion mode for a clip or sequence on the timeline
1. Right-click a clip on the timeline and choose Properties from the menu.
The Clip property editor is displayed.
2. From the Conversion Mode list, select a conversion mode.
The clip will be converted using the mode you selected.
148 • User’s Guide
Saving Sequences
Saving Sequences
When you save a sequence, you are saving the contents of the timeline. Any
clips, container clips, transitions, caches, effects, and edit markers are saved
with the sequence.
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It is good practice to save your sequences at regular intervals, or when you
have completed an important part of your work. The first time you save a
sequence, all information related to the sequence is saved. However, the next
time you save this sequence, only the modifications to the sequence are saved,
so it takes less time.
You can also create a crash recovery file for your current sequence at
regular intervals. This lets you recover the latest work on your
sequence in the event of a system failure. For more information, see
Autosaving Sequences in the online help.
To save a sequence for the first time
1. From the File menu, choose Save.
The Save Sequence dialog box is displayed.
2. Use the Avid Explorer tools to navigate to the folder in which you want to
save the sequence.
3. Type in a name for your sequence in the File Name text box and click OK.
The sequence is saved and a sequence icon with the sequence name
appears in the Avid Explorer. You can now continue editing or close the
current sequence, and begin work on a new sequence or project.
To save an existing sequence
• From the File menu, choose Save.
The existing sequence is overwritten.
The sequence is saved and a sequence icon with the sequence name
appears in the Avid Explorer. You can now continue editing or close the
current sequence, and begin work on a new sequence or project.
User’s Guide • 149
Chapter 4 • Working with Sequences
Creating a Copy of a
Sequence
You can save different versions of a sequence in a project folder. If, for
example, you’ve been hired to create a series of spots for a client, you create a
project that is completely contained in a single folder. Inside that folder, you
create a number of subfolders to store elements, such as master clips, presets,
mattes, and backgrounds.
Inside that project, you create a sequence for the first spot by dragging clips to
the timeline, and saving the sequence in your project folder. For the second
spot, make a copy of the sequence calling it “Scene 2 - Take 2”, and make the
necessary adjustments. Continue to do the same for each of the spots.
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To save a copy of a sequence
1. From the File menu, choose Save As.
2. Enter a new name for the sequence.
The sequence is saved. You can now make the necessary edits to
this sequence.
Another way to create versions of your sequence is by selecting the
sequence in the Avid Explorer, pressing the Ctrl key, and dragging
the file to an empty area of the folder. Copying the sequence in the
Avid Explorer takes less time than creating a copy with the Save As
command.
150 • User’s Guide
Searching for Sequences
Searching for Sequences
Large projects can contain many sequences and even more master clips.
Although you can use the Avid Explorer to find a particular sequence or clip,
it can be more efficient to search for sequences and master clips using the Clip
Search tool.
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The Clip Search tool lets you search for master clips or sequences within your
current project. You can do searches by source, file name, or file properties.
All clips found in the search appear in the clip tray.
To search for sequences or master clips
1. From the View menu, choose Single-Instance Views > Clip Search.
The Clip Search dialog box is displayed.
2. Select the Master Clips and/or Sequences option(s) to search for one, the
other, or both.
3. To search by:
• Source: Select a tape source name or file from the Referencing the
following source list and click Go.
• File name: Enter the file name in the With name containing text box and
click Go.
• File property: Select an attribute from the list, either Contains or Equals,
enter the text you are searching for in the text box, and click Go.
User’s Guide • 151
Chapter 4 • Working with Sequences
The clips and/or sequences found in your search are displayed in the
clip tray.
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You can only perform a clip or sequence search using one filter
option at a time.
Click Help for detailed information on the Clip Search dialog box.
152 • User’s Guide
Importing Sequences from Another Project
Importing Sequences from Another Project
Depending on how you set up your sequences and projects, you may want to
use the same sequence in more than one project. When you import sequences,
the media (both source and cache), remain linked into the original project.
You can also import master clips from one project to another in the
same way as you import sequences.
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By creating a link to the media, Avid|DS shares the media between the two
projects which saves space on your disk array.
Shared storage devices can be any storage area on your local
machine or anywhere on the network. The limitation with media
sharing is that, unless you are connected to an Avid Unity, the
storage device may not have sufficient bandwidth to provide realtime access to the media for more than one user at a time. However,
if the storage device has sufficient bandwidth, real-time playback is
possible.
If you are not getting realtime playback on effects, you can either
reprocess your effects or copy the media from the shared storage to
your local storage. For more information on copying media, see
Copying Media on page 67.
To import a sequence from another project
1. In the Avid Explorer, open the project folder of the sequence you want
to import.
If you want to import a sequence that is on another workstation on
the network, you must share the project folder and the folder
containing the media at the Windows level.
2. In the Contents view of the Avid Explorer, right-click on the sequence and
choose Import to Current Project from the menu.
If you archive a project with media that is shared between projects,
the media will be archived with both projects. When it is restored,
Avid|DS will check to see if the media is still in its original location.
If it is, the link is recreated. If it is not, the media is restored to its
original location.
3. In the Avid Explorer, go back to the current project folder.
A new folder appears in the Avid Explorer within the current project
folder, entitled “Imported from project projectname”.
User’s Guide • 153
Chapter 4 • Working with Sequences
Deleting Sequences
If you no longer require a sequence, you can create an archive of the project in
which it resides or delete it from the project. Before you delete a sequence, you
should make sure that you remove any associated media if it is not being used
by other sequences.
To delete a sequence
1. From the view switcher, click the Avid Explorer icon.
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2. In the Contents view of the Avid Explorer, right-click on a sequence that is
not currently open and choose one of the following from the menu:
• Delete Clip & Unused Media to delete your sequence and its media
(source or cache) files after having verified that they are not being used by
another sequence.
• Delete Clip & All Media to quickly delete your sequence and its media
(source or cache) files without checking to see if they are being used
elsewhere. Although this is a quick way to alleviate disk space on your
drive, it can be risky. You should only do this when you’re absolutely sure
that you no longer need the sequence’s media.
Do not use the Delete option under the Windows section of the
menu as it will “orphan” all your media. i.e. it will keep unecessary
media on your disk.
3. Click Yes to delete the sequence.
154 • User’s Guide
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In This ...
Conforming is the process of bringing a project from an offline environment
into Avid|DS, so you can continue the editing process. This describes how to
load an Advanced Authoring Format (AAF), Avid File Exchange (AFE), Edit
Decision List (EDL), Open Media Framework (OMF), or Avid Log Exchange
(ALE) file into Avid|DS and recreate a sequence on which you can apply
further edits and effects.
Workflow: Conforming with AAF and AFE Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157
Workflow: Conforming with OMF, EDL, and ALE Files . . . . . . . . . . .158
Conforming with AAF and AFE Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159
Conforming with OMF Compositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173
Conforming with EDLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186
Conforming with ALE Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
User’s Guide • 155
•
Workflow: Conforming with AAF and AFE Files
The following illustration shows the basic steps in the conform process using
AAF or AFE files.
1
Export the AAF or AFE file
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Export an AAF file
directly from the Avid
editing system
Export an AFE file
through Avid MediaLog
or
Open the AAF or
AFE file in an Avid
Explorer bin
2
Log as clips into the Avid Explorer
3
4
or
Drag directly onto the timeline
Drag a sequence
to the timeline or
drag clips to a bin
Link directly to
compressed or
uncompressed
media, or
recapture media
in uncompressed
or HD format
156 • User’s Guide
Link to a removable
drive or Avid
MediaNet
or
Recapture media
from tape or file
Workflow: Conforming with OMF, EDL, and ALE Files
Workflow: Conforming with OMF, EDL, and ALE Files
The following illustration shows the basic steps in the conform process using
OMF files, EDLs, or ALE files into Avid|DS.
1
Import the EDL, OMF,
or ALE file
2
Conform the file
to Avid|DS
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or
Log as clips in the Avid Explorer
3
or
Load directly onto timeline
Capture media
Recapture media from
tape or file into
Avid|DS.
User’s Guide • 157
•
Conforming with AAF and AFE Files
AAF (Advanced Authoring Format) and AFE (Avid File Exchange) files are
both efficient ways to transfer project information from an Avid editing
system to an Avid|DS system. Both file formats are part of a similar workflow.
AAF files can contain only a single clip or sequence; AFE files can contain all
bins, master clips, and sequences in a project.
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Before You Begin
Before you begin the conform process, check the following:
• Consider that not every effect in the original sequence will be completely
conformed. During the conform process, you can view a log which lists
any effects and parameters that are not supported.
• Place titles in the sequence before you create the AFE file. You cannot drag
a title from an AFE bin to a sequence in the timeline.
• If you need to share AVX® plug-ins, make sure the same plug-ins are on
both systems. Avid|DS currently supports only AVX 1.0 plug-ins.
• If your original sequence includes a three-track matte key, collapse the
effect to a single track. Make sure to include the foreground track.
• For detailed information about transferring projects and media between
Macintosh and Windows systems, refer to the Avid Products
Collaboration Guide, which is available on the Documentation tab of the
Avid Knowledge Center.
• If you are copying project files from a CD-ROM, the files will be marked
as read-only and cannot be edited. After you have copied the files, rightclick on the file icon, choose Properties, and clear the Read-only attribute.
• To make it easier to move files between products and across platforms, use
the following guidelines when naming files:
- Do not use the following characters in project, bin, or other file names:
/\:*?”<>|
The Windows system does not recognize these characters in file names
and will substitute other characters, possibly making the file name
unrecognizable or causing other problems.
- Do not add spaces at the beginning or end of a file name. The Windows
system will display such files but might be unable to open them.
- Do not use a period at the end of a file name. The Windows system will
display such files but might be unable to open them.
- On Avid Macintosh systems, you can enable a setting that prevents you
from using Windows restricted characters in file names and
automatically adds the correct file name extensions to files for your
project. When you select the Use Windows Compatible File Names
158 • User’s Guide
Conforming with AAF and AFE Files
setting, the file name extension .avp is added to project files and .avb is
added to bin files when they are saved. These file name extensions are
attached to existing files, also.
• If the project includes titles and you are moving between Macintosh
and Windows systems, make sure you have the same font with exactly
the same name (preferably from the same manufacturer) on both the
Macintosh and Windows systems. Check the font carefully because the
same font can have slightly different names. For example, Times New
Roman on the Macintosh system is named Times New Roman Regular
on the Windows system.
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For best results, use TrueType® or PostScript® fonts. Bitmap fonts can
cause scaling problems.
Working with HD
Media
If you want to use Avid|DS to conform an HDTV (high-definition TV)
project, follow this basic workflow:
1. Downconvert the HD source tapes to SDTV (standard-definition TV) tapes.
2. Digitize the SDTV source tapes into Symphony, Media Composer, Avid
Xpress®, or Avid Xpress DV using an offline resolution.
3. Edit the sequence on a Symphony, Media Composer, Avid Xpress, or Avid
Xpress DV system.
4. Use an AFE or AFF file to recreate the project or sequence on the
Avid|DS system.
5. Recapture the HD media on the Avid|DS system.
6. Finish and output the project.
Sharing Compressed
and Uncompressed
Media
Avid|DS can share compressed and uncompressed media with Symphony,
Media Composer, and Avid Xpress systems. You can share media by using
Avid Unity MediaNet shared storage or by transferring media files.
You can use uncompressed or low-compression media to finish a program for
final output. You can use high-compression media to view and edit a sequence
and then recapture the media for final finishing.
You must process compressed media before you can play it in real time.
Avid|DS does not support OMFI NTSC 24p resolutions, PAL 25p
resolutions, DV resolutions, or AVR resolutions.
To share compressed or uncompressed media
1. Do one of the following, depending on how you are sharing media:
• If you are sharing media on a MediaNet workspace, make sure that both
the offline and the online systems have access to the workspace.
User’s Guide • 159
•
• If you are transferring files on a removable drive, make sure that you can
correctly transfer the drive. For information on connecting and
disconnecting an external media drive, see your system setup guide.
• If you are copying files to a local drive (one already attached to your DS
system) or a drive you can access through the Media Indexer, locate or
create a folder named OMFI MediaFiles on the drive.
This folder name must use the correct uppercase and lowercase letters and
include a space between OMFI and MediaFiles.
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2. Configure media storage for Avid OMFI files, as described in . If you are
transferring files on a removable drive, you need to configure media
storage after you have connected the drive to the Avid|DS system.
Creating and
Importing AAF Files
AAF (Advanced Authoring Format) is a cross-platform, multimedia file
format that allows interchange of media and composition information
between AAF-compliant applications. There are two general types of data that
can be included in an AAF file:
• Composition information, which provides the instructions needed to
combine and modify the media portions of the AAF file. Composition
information consists of either a sequence and its associated master clips or
a single master clip.
• Audio and video media.
If you are transferring information from an offline Avid editing system to
Avid|DS, export an AAF file as composition only.
You cannot export an AAF file from Avid|DS.
To create and import an AAF file
1. On the Avid editing system, select the sequence you want to conform and
export it as an AAF file.
The exact steps for exporting an AAF file vary, depending on the Avid
editing product and its version. For any product or version, create a
composition with linked media. Do not create a composition with
embedded media.
Avid editing systems give you the option of consolidating or
copying media to a selected media drive at the same time you
create an AAF file.
2. Transfer the AAF file to a location that you can access from the Avid|DS
workstation.
You can use removable media, a network connection, or an Avid Unity
shared storage system.
160 • User’s Guide
Conforming with AAF and AFE Files
3. On the Avid|DS system, use the Avid Explorer to navigate to the AAF file.
The AAF file is displayed in a bin.
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4. Double-click on the AAF file.
The sequence and its associated master clips appear in the bin, along with
AAF/AFE settings.
AAF/AFE settings
AAF sequence
and master clips
Click the Help icon on the Avid Explorer tools for detailed information on the
AAF/AFE view.
Creating and
Importing AFE Files
AFE files are based on AAF technology. AFE files, however, are designed for
sharing projects information among Avid applications. AFE files let you
transfer one or more bins, their contents, and information about the contents,
including master clips, subclips, titles, and sequences.
User’s Guide • 161
•
To create AFE files, use Avid MediaLog™ 11.1 or later. You can use MediaLog
on either the Avid editing system or the Avid|DS system.
MediaLog is available on two CDs (a Windows version and a
Macintosh version) that are shipped with your Avid|DS system. For
complete information about MediaLog, see the MediaLog Help or
the Avid MediaLog User’s Guide (available in Adobe Acrobat
format on the MediaLog CDs).
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To create and import an AFE file
1. If you are running MediaLog on an Avid editing system, close the Avid
editing application.
2. If you plan to run MediaLog on an Avid|DS system, transfer the Avid editing
project folder to the \MediaLog\Avid Projects folder on the Avid|DS
workstation or use Avid Unity shared storage.
3. Open MediaLog.
The Select Project and User dialog box is displayed.
Directory pop-up
menu
4. Create a new user by clicking New User.
Do not share user settings between MediaLog and the Avid
editing system.
5. Use the Directory pop-up menu to navigate to the project you want to
transfer. Select the project and click OK.
The project opens.
162 • User’s Guide
Conforming with AAF and AFE Files
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Bins
Project window
6. Do one of the following:
• To create a file that includes all bins in a project, select the project window
and choose File > Save Project Copy As. The Save Project Copy As dialog
box is displayed. Choose a location, name the file, and click Save.
• To create a file that includes the contents of a single bin, open the bin,
select the bin, and choose File > Save Bin Copy As. The Save bin name As
dialog box is displayed. Choose Avid File Exchange (*.afe) from the Save
as type file list. Choose a location, name the file, and click Save.
• To create a file that includes a single sequence, select the sequence and
choose File > Export. Click AFE. The Export As dialog box is displayed.
Choose a location, name the file, and click Save.
7. If you are running MediaLog on an Avid editing system, make sure the
AFE file is in a location that you can access from the Avid|DS workstation.
You can use removable media, a network connection, or an Avid Unity
shared storage system.
If you open a project in an Avid editing system after you have
created an AFE file from the project, you might get a message that
reads “An incompatible (or damaged) setting has been skipped.”
The original project should not be affected.
8. On the Avid|DS system, use the Avid Explorer to navigate to the AFE file.
The AFE file appears in a bin.
User’s Guide • 163
•
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9. Double-click on the AFE file.
The imported bins are displayed in the bin, along with the AAF/AFE settings.
AAF/AFE settings
Imported bins
10. Double-click on an imported bin to display its contents.
The contents can include master clips, subclips, titles, and sequences.
Click the Help icon in the Avid Explorer tools for detailed information on the
AAF/AFE view.
164 • User’s Guide
Conforming with AAF and AFE Files
You cannot drag a title from an AFE bin to a sequence in the
timeline. Place titles in the sequence before you create the AFE file.
Viewing Information
in a Bin
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Bin and sequence information from the Avid editing system is transferred to the
Avid|DS system. For bins transferred through AFE files, the columns initially
displayed match the columns displayed when the AFE file was created. You can
show additional columns or hide selected columns.
Columns and information from AAF and AFE files are not
associated with new Avid|DS master clips.
To add or remove columns of information
1. Click the Details or Script icon.
2. In the bin tools, click the Settings icon.
A dialog box appears within the bin. The currently displayed column
headings are marked by colored bands.
Details
Script
3. Do one or more of the following:
• Select the columns that you want to display.
• Deselect columns that you do not want to display.
User’s Guide • 165
•
• Click All to select all columns.
• Click None to deselect all columns.
4. Click Apply to apply your changes.
5. Click Close to close the dialog box.
The columns you have selected are displayed in the bin.
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Transferring Media
If you are using a removable drive to share media, disconnect the drive from
the offline system and connect it to the Avid|DS system. For information on
connecting and disconnecting an external media drive, see your system setup
guide and Sharing Compressed and Uncompressed Media on page 160.
Creating a Sequence
and Master Clips
Use the following procedure for both AAF and AFE files.
To create a sequence and master clips
1. In the bin, select the Create Associated Clips option.
Select this option to create master clips by dragging an imported clip or
sequence to the timeline or by dragging an imported clip or sequence to a
folder.
Deselect this option if you have already created master clips and you want
to avoid creating a duplicate set. Duplicate clips are marked by the
addition of the word “new”.
2. To append the AAF or AFE project name to the master clip source names,
select the Force Creation of External Tape Sources option. This option
distinguishes between clips that are created from tapes associated with the
conform and clips that are not.
3. Specify the path for the folder in which you want to create the master clips
after you drag a clip or sequence to the timeline. Click the browse (...)
button to navigate to the folder.
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Conforming with AAF and AFE Files
Avid|DS checks the path to make sure the folder is within the project folder.
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4. To keep the same folder for any new master clips you create, select the Lock
Path option. Deselect this option to create master clips in folders that match
the names of the imported bins (AFE files only). Deselecting this option
keeps the original project structure when you conform with AFE files.
5. Open a new sequence in your project.
6. Drag the sequence from the bin into the timeline.
To match the timecode of the imported sequence to the timecode of the
sequence in the timeline, hold down the U key while you drag the
sequence to the timeline.
The conform process begins. Depending on the length of the sequence, a
progress bar is displayed.
When the conform is complete, the sequence, its clips, titles, and
supported effects are recreated on the timeline. Associated master clips are
created in the location you specified.
If you are sharing media, the clips are automatically linked.
If you are recapturing media, empty master clips are created in the folder
that you have specified. When you open the folder in a bin, the clip icons
are red since no media has been captured yet.
A message box displays a summary of the information contained in the
AAF/AFE Conform Log and asks if you want to view the log.
User’s Guide • 167
•
7. To view the AAF/AFE Conform Log, click Yes.
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The AAF/AFE Conform Log window displays information about how the
effects and parameters were supported. Use this information to finish the
final sequence.
8. To save the log as an .html file, click Save.
The Save As dialog box is displayed.
168 • User’s Guide
Conforming with AAF and AFE Files
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9. Navigate to an appropriate folder, type in a name for the log, and click
Save. Click OK to close the log window.
10. Save the sequence.
Recapturing Media
Unless you’re sharing media, you need to recapture media for the empty master
clips. After you recapture the media, the sequence is displayed in the Record
viewer.
Exchanging Audio
Media with Avid Pro
Tools ®
Your project may require audio that has been sweetened using Avid Pro Tools.
Two possible workflows are:
• Exporting audio media from Avid|DS and importing after it has been
processed in Pro Tools—see Conforming with OMF Compositions on
page 173.
• Exporting audio media from Media Composer or another Avid editing
system and importing it to Avid|DS after it has been processed in Pro
Tools.
To conform audio that has been exported from an Avid editing
system and processed in Pro Tools
1. From Media Composer or another Avid editing system:
• Export the audio track as an OMF file (composition and audio media).
• Export the entire sequence as an AAF file (composition only). Later, on
the Avid|DS system, recapture the media in the desired resolution.
2. Transfer the OMF file to the Pro Tools workstation and sweeten the audio.
3. Transfer the OMF file from the Pro Tools workstation to the Avid|DS
workstation.
4. Create a new sequence and conform the OMF file.
User’s Guide • 169
•
Conforming an OMF file requires a new sequence, so conform the
OMF file before conforming the AAF file.
5. Conform the AAF file by dragging it to the existing sequence.
6. Batch capture the video media. Optionally, capture the audio if you want
to use it for a scratch track.
7. Sync the sweetened sound.
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8. (Optional) Delete the audio scratch track.
Completing the
Conformed Sequence
Depending on the number and types of effects, you may need to process or
recreate effects. Refer to the AAF/AFE Conform Log as you review the
sequence.
Creating Real-Time
Graphics from
Conformed Titles
After you have conformed the sequence, you might need to adjust conformed
titles, so that they play as real-time graphics. The basic guidelines for real-time
play are:
• All graphics objects must be applied on RGB channels (not on RGBA channels).
• Apply the Graphics effect directly on the clips and remove the Filler.
In addition, make sure the graphics objects meet the following real-time conditions:
• Only the Airbrush, Color Blend, and Cutout effects can be played in real
time. Color Gradient cannot be played in real time.
• Properties of the graphics objects must not be animated, except for the
translation. Only translations in the X or Y axes can be played in real time.
• Animation that moves at different speeds cannot be played in real time.
Make sure all graphics objects move in the same direction (either X axis
only or Y axis only) at the same speed.
For more information, refer to Graphics property editor (General property
page) in the online help or of the Avid|DS Compositing & Effects Guide.
To create real-time graphics from conformed titles
1. With the conformed titles on the timeline, double-click on the
corresponding Graphics effect.
The Graphics layout is displayed.
2. Select all graphics objects.
3. On the Masks property editor, deselect Alpha in the Paint on Channel box.
4. Switch back to the Editing layout.
5. Select the Graphics effect and cut it by pressing Ctrl+X.
170 • User’s Guide
Conforming with AAF and AFE Files
6. Select the clip below the Filler (if any) and paste the effect on it by
pressing Ctrl+V.
7. Delete the Filler.
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User’s Guide • 171
•
Conforming with OMF Compositions
Avid|DS supports the OMF (Open Media Framework) file format. OMF files
facilitate the transfer of digital media from one system to another. They can
contain both media and composition information. An OMF composition is
basically an advanced form of an EDL. It contains instructions for transitions,
timewarps, keys, titling, and some other effects information. The OMF view
preserves all the layering information from an OMF file, so that you can select
events and layers that you want to recreate on the timeline.
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Support for OMF media is limited to the import and export of audio
media only.
Avid|DS can import only OMF 2.0 files.
Avid|DS supports many types of Media Composer and Symphony effects. For
a complete list, see OMF Level of Support on page 182.
Opening an OMF File
You can import OMF files created on other systems. By using the OMF file
format to transfer sequences from an offline system to Avid|DS, you can quickly
import sequences with most of the offline editing and effects work intact.
To open an OMF file
1. Do one of the following:
• In the view switcher, click the OMF icon.
• From the View menu, choose Single-Instance Views > OMF.
172 • User’s Guide
Conforming with OMF Compositions
2. From the OMF view, click the Load OMF icon and select a file from the
Open dialog box.
The selected OMF file is displayed in the OMF view.
OMF tools
Record in-point
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OMF tree
When you load an OMF file with more than one composition, you
are prompted to choose which composition to import.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the OMF view.
Conforming an
OMF File
You can log your clips in the Avid Explorer to create master clips that can be
reused in other sequences, recreate your sequence in Avid|DS by loading the
OMF file onto the timeline, or both. It’s a good idea to do both, so that when a
clip is deleted from the timeline, you always have the master clip in a folder.
You also have the option of importing any audio media in the OMF file.
To conform an OMF file without audio media
1. Open a new sequence in your project.
2. Load an OMF file into the OMF view.
User’s Guide • 173
•
3. In the OMF view, click the Conform OMF icon.
The OMF Conform dialog box is displayed.
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4. If you want to log clips, select the folder in which you want to create the
clips. The default folder is displayed in the text box at the top of the dialog
box. Click the browse (...) button to select a new folder.
5. Select one of the following options:
Option
To
Create Logs
Log the clips in the selected folder.
Create Timeline Clips
Recreate the sequence on the timeline based on the
composition information in the OMF file.
Create Both
Log the clips in the selected folder and recreates the
sequence based on the composition information in
the OMF file.
6. To add material before the in-point and after the out-point of all tape
sources, enter the appropriate number of frames in the Heads and Tails
text boxes.
174 • User’s Guide
Conforming with OMF Compositions
7. To add the project name from the OMF file to the tape sources for the
master clips, select the Force creation of external tape sources option.
8. If you need to reconfigure the incoming audio tracks, select a tape name
from the Tape Name list and assign the audio tracks to the audio channels
of your clip by clicking in the audio channel routing matrix.
You can assign the audio tracks differently for each tape name.
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9. Click Set after you have assigned the audio tracks for each tape name to
save the settings.
10. Click Conform to begin conforming the OMF.
The clips, transitions, and supported effects are recreated on the timeline
using the composition information and empty master clips are created in
the selected folder. When you open the folder in a bin, the clip icons are
red since no media has been imported yet.
Effects that are not supported by Avid|DS are marked by effect bars that
have been deactivated. These effect bars indicate where the effect was
originally placed.
User’s Guide • 175
•
If there are any unsupported effects, a message is displayed, asking if you
would like to view the error log. If you click Yes, the list is generated and
displayed in the Conform Error Log dialog box.
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The Conform Error Log dialog box displays the in and out-points of the
effect, the name of the original effect, as well as a brief description of the
type of error that occurred.
11. To save this log as an .html file, click Save.
The Save As dialog box is displayed.
12. Navigate to an appropriate folder, type in a name for the log and click Save.
The log is saved as an .html file and can be viewed in any HTML browser.
176 • User’s Guide
Conforming with OMF Compositions
To conform an OMF file with audio media
1. Open a new sequence in your project.
2. Load an OMF file which contains audio media into the OMF view.
3. In the OMF view, click the Conform OMF icon.
The OMF Conform dialog box is displayed.
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4. If you want to log clips, select the folder in which you want to create the
clips. The default folder is displayed in the text box at the top of the dialog
box. Click the browse (...) button to select a new folder.
User’s Guide • 177
•
5. Select one of the following options:
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Option
To
Create Logs
Log the clips in the selected folder.
Create Timeline Clips
Recreate the sequence on the timeline based on the
composition information in the OMF file.
Create Both
Log the clips in the selected folder and recreates the
sequence based on the composition information in
the OMF file.
6. To add material before the in-point and after the out-point of all tape
sources, enter the appropriate number of frames in the Heads and Tails
text boxes.
7. If you need to reconfigure the audio tracks, select a tape name from the
Tape Name list and assign the audio tracks to the audio channels of your
clip by clicking in the audio channel routing matrix.
You can assign the audio tracks differently for each source name.
The audio media will be imported using the assignment specified in the
audio channel routing matrix and not those originally set in the file.
8. Click Set after you have assigned the audio tracks for each source name to
save the settings.
9. Select the Import Audio Data option.
10. Select one of the following options:
• Import All Media to import all the audio media contained in the OMF file
into the current project.
• Only Import Used Media to import only the audio media used in the
actual sequence into the current project.
11. From the Sample Rate list, select a sampling rate at which to convert your
audio media. The higher the sampling rate, the more accurate the
conversion will be.
Make sure the sample rate you select matches the sample rate of
your current sequence. If the sample rates do not match, no audio
media will be available for playback.
To playback the audio media, you would have to change the sample
rate of the sequence in the Sequence Preferences dialog box.
12. From the Bit Depth list, select a bit depth value. The higher the value, the
more precise the audio conversion will be.
13. From the Capture To list, select a storage area on which your audio media
will be stored.
178 • User’s Guide
Conforming with OMF Compositions
14. Click Conform to begin conforming the OMF.
Depending on the settings you chose, any of the following will occur:
• The clips, transitions, and supported effects are recreated on the timeline
using the composition information.
• Master clips are created in the selected folder.
• The audio media is imported to your disk array.
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Since no video media was imported, the video clip icons that appear when
you open the folder in a bin are red, indicating that no media has been
captured yet.
Effects that are not supported by Avid|DS are marked by effect bars that
have been deactivated. These effect bars act as markers to indicate where
the effect was originally placed.
Although Avid|DS may not be able to import certain effects, it will
keep any keyframed information, which you can use as a reference
to recreate the effect.
If there are any unsupported effects, a user message is displayed that asks
you if you would like to view the generated list. If you click Yes, the list is
generated and displayed in the Conform Error Log dialog box.
The Conform Error Log dialog box displays the in and out-points of the
effect, the name of the original effect, as well as a brief description of the
type of error that occurred.
15. To save this log as an .html file, click Save.
The Save As dialog box is displayed.
16. Navigate to an appropriate folder, type in a name for the log and click Save.
The log is saved as an .html file and can be viewed in any Avid Explorer.
Exporting an OMF File
If you ever need to do some audio finishing on Pro Tools, Avid|DS lets you
create, save, and export OMF files for the audio portion of your sequence.
When you create and save an OMF file from within Avid|DS, both the
composition information and audio media can be included.
Only the audio portion of your sequence can be exported to an
OMF file. Any video clips on the timeline are ignored when you
create an OMF file.
No audio effects are exported, but edit points are created to show
where effects were originally placed.
You will need DigiTranslator™ to convert the OMF files into a
format that Pro Tools can read.
User’s Guide • 179
•
Creating and Saving an OMF File
The OMF file may contain both the media and information about all the
timecode, transitions, and supported effects. Once you’ve created an OMF file
of the audio portion of your sequence, you can save it and then transfer the
information to another system.
Avid|DS exports only OMF 2.0 files.
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To create and save an OMF file with audio media
1. From the OMF view, click the Timeline > OMF icon to create an OMF file
of the audio portion of the current sequence.
The Export Composition dialog box is displayed.
2. Select the Embed Media option to include the media in the OMF file you
are creating.
3. Select the Consolidate option to include only the media that is being used
on the timeline.
If the Consolidate option is not selected, the entire audio clip will be
included in the OMF file.
4. From the Bit Depth list, select 16 (16-bit audio) or 24 (24-bit audio). The
higher the bit depth value, the more precise the audio conversion will be.
5. In the Handles Length box, do the following:
• Add a number in the Heads text box if you want to add extra frames
before the material used on the timeline. These additional frames will be
included in the OMF file for source material coming from tape only.
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Conforming with OMF Compositions
• Add a number in the Tails text box if you want to add extra frames of
material after the end of the material used on the timeline. These
additional frames will be included in the OMF file for source material
coming from tape only.
6. Click OK.
The Save As dialog box is displayed.
7. Navigate to an appropriate folder, enter a name in the File Name text box,
and then click Save.
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All the information obtained from the audio tracks on the timeline are
saved as an OMF file in the location you specified. You can now transfer it
to another system.
OMF Level of Support
Avid|DS supports many effects that are imported via OMF from Media
Composer 10.0 and later and Symphony 2.1 and later. However, the level of
support can vary; consult the table and legend below for full details.
The support information for the Audio (Export) category is for use
with Pro Tools.
Category
Legend
3D
A = Effect supported. The effect is
imported as a corresponding
Avid|DS effect. All parameters are
set to match, as much as possible,
the original effect.
Audio
(Import)
B = Imported with some
parameters.
Audio
(Export)
C = Imported without parameters.
D = Replaced when imported.
E = Not supported. Effect replaced
by a “null” fade and keyframe
locations are kept.
NS = Not supported. The effect is
ignored by Avid|DS.
AVX = AVX plug-in. Effect must
be installed on an Avid|DS system
for the effect to be loaded.Only
AVX 1.0 plug-ins are supported.
Blend
Effect
Support
level
Comment
E
Transitions
D
Audio Effects
F
Mono Audio
Gain
C
Mono Audio
Transition
D
Audio Effects
NS
3D Warp
E
Dip to Color
E
Dissolve
C
Fade from Color
E
Fade to Color
E
Picture-in-Picture
A
Superimpose
A
All audio transitions are replaced
with a crossfade.
Replaced with an audio
transition. No parameters are
exported.
User’s Guide • 181
•
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Category
Effect
Support
level
Box Wipe
All
A
Conceal
All
D
Edge Wipe
All
A
Film
1.66 Mask
B
Background color not imported.
1.85 Mask
B
Background color not imported.
16:9
B
Background color not imported.
Anamorphic
Mask
B
Background color not imported.
Blowup
E
Film Dissolve
C
Film Fade
C
Mask
B
Color Correction
E
Color Effect
C
Flip
A
Flip-Flop
A
Flop
A
Mask
B
Paint Effect
E
Pan and Scan
A
Resize
B
Scratch Removal
E
Spot Color
E
Submaster
A
Animatte
E
Chroma Key
C/D
Luma Key
E
Matte Key
B
Image
Key
182 • User’s Guide
Comment
Replaced by corresponding
SMPTE wipes.
Background color not imported.
Background color not imported.
Background color not imported.
If used as a transition, then
imported as a dissolve.
Conforming with OMF Compositions
Effect
Support
level
RGB Keyer
AVX
L-Conceal
All
D
Replaced by corresponding
SMPTE wipes.
Marquee®
Marquee
AVX 1.5
AVX 1.5 effects are not
supported in Avid|DS.
Matrix Wipe
Grid
E
One-way Row
E
Speckle
E
Spiral
E
Zig Zag
E
Peel
All
D
Replaced by corresponding
SMPTE wipes.
Push
All
D
Replaced by corresponding
SMPTE wipes.
Shape Wipe
4 Corners
E
Center Box
D
Circle
A
Clock
A
Diamond
D
Replaced by circle wipe.
Ellipse
D
Replaced by circle wipe.
Horizontal Bands
E
Horizontal Blinds
E
Vertical Blinds
E
X Spin
B
Border not supported. Effect is
similar in Avid|DS, but not
identical.
Y Spin
B
Border not supported. Effect is
similar in Avid|DS, but not
identical.
Z Spin
B
Border not supported.
Squeeze
All
D
Replaced by corresponding
SMPTE wipes.
Ultimatte
Keyer
AVX
Category
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Spin
Comment
Replaced by circle wipe.
User’s Guide • 183
•
Category
Effect
Support
level
Timewarp
Strobe
A
Freeze Frame
A
Variable Speed
A
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Comment
Symphony and Media Composer
don’t export negative speed
values.
Acceleration curves are always exported by Symphony and Media
Composer as linear curves.
Only the following effects applied to a Filler track in Media
Composer and Symphony are imported:
• Blend Masks
• Pan and Scan
An effect applied to a Filler track is converted into a timeline effect
in Avid|DS. This may produce unwanted results, since an effect
applied to a Filler track in Symphony or Media Composer systems
only impacts the tracks below it. In contrast, when the effect is
conformed to Avid|DS as a timeline effect, it is applied to all tracks.
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Conforming with EDLs
Conforming with EDLs
Avid|DS supports the import of edit decision lists (EDLs). An EDL is a detailed
list of the edits contained in a sequence, including all the timecode and
supported effects information required to recreate the sequence in an online
session. Avid|DS accommodates EDLs from many different systems. It is
compatible with the standard EDLs as well as CMX, GVG, and OMF formats.
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The EDL file is organized into a series of chronological instructions called
events. You can use these events to create clips or to completely recreate the
sequence on the timeline.
The EDL view lets you import an EDL file produced on any external system,
and capture material based on the edits in that EDL. When you import an
EDL into Avid|DS, it appears in the EDL view, where you can see the list of
events. After importing your EDL into Avid|DS, you can select the events that
you want to recreate. To do this, you can either log the events as master clips
in the Avid Explorer, or edit the list onto the timeline, or both. You can then
capture media from either the clips in the Avid Explorer or on the timeline.
You can only recapture logged clips created from an EDL that
originated on tape. Avid|DS does not support recapture from file for
logged clips created from an EDL.
Clip names are created from the event number. If you have more than one
EDL in a project, however, there will be at least two clips with the same name.
To avoid the conflict, the name of the EDL is appended to the clip name.
For example:
001 (NewYork1)
001 (NewYork2)
After the clips are created, you can rename them at any time.
The Avid EDL Manager is available on the Avid|DS Drivers CD.
The Avid EDL Manager is an application that lets you convert
between different EDL formats, such as Sony, GVG, or CMX. You
can also convert EDL files to OMF 1.0 files. Since Avid|DS only
supports OMF 2.0 files, you will need to further convert the OMF
1.0 files so that they can be read by Avid|DS.
You can use the Avid EDL Manager to read EDL files from RT-11
disks and then save the files in CMX or GVG format for import into
Avid|DS. Avid|DS cannot read RT-11 disks.
You can also use the Avid EDL Manager to create an EDL that
displays additional types of information, such as comments or
patches. You can specify the different audio and video tracks in the
sequence, as well as specify the assembly modes that the online edit
controller uses when creating your sequence. For more information,
refer to the Avid EDL Manager User’s Guide.
User’s Guide • 185
•
Opening an EDL File
Avid|DS supports both the GVG and CMX EDL formats.
To open an EDL
1. Do one of the following:
• In the view switcher, click the EDL icon.
• From the View menu, choose Single-Instance Views > EDL.
The EDL view is displayed.
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2. To load a new EDL, click the Load EDL icon.
The Open dialog box is displayed.
3. Select an EDL. If you know the system from which the EDL was generated,
select the appropriate file type (DS, CMX, GVG).
4. In the Comment Placement box, select whether you want comments
placed above or below the corresponding edit.
5. Click Open.
The selected EDL is displayed in the EDL view.
If you selected the wrong file type, you are prompted to convert the file to
the appropriate type.
186 • User’s Guide
Conforming with EDLs
EDL name
EDL tools
Record in-point
Edit list
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Click the Help icon for detailed information on the EDL view.
Setting EDL Properties
You can specify options for the currently displayed EDL in the EDL Properties
dialog box, such as displaying timecodes as drop frame and determining
comment placement.
To set EDL properties
1. Right-click on the main area of the EDL view and choose Properties from
the menu.
The EDL Properties dialog box is displayed.
2. Use the controls in the EDL Properties dialog box to set the EDL properties.
Click Help for detailed information on the EDL Properties dialog box.
Conforming an EDL
File
When conforming your EDL, you have the choice of logging the events in the
Avid Explorer, recreating the list of events on the timeline, or both. Once the
events are logged, you can capture the media at any time from either the Avid
Explorer or the timeline.
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•
Before conforming your EDL, you should check if there are any layers to be
composited. Offline editors often create multiple EDLs because the
convention is to put separate layers into separate EDLs. Any audio or video
events in the list are automatically loaded onto the appropriate tracks.
During the conform process, you can set up the appropriate heads and tails
values for each clip. This is important if you need additional material at the
beginning and end of each clip to do minor changes during the final stage of
the edit. You can also configure the audio channel patching for each tape.
?
If you recreate your sequence on the timeline, you may want to process a
rough cut and proof it against the original EDL. You can do this by reloading
the EDL onto a new video track, adding a fade or crop effect to the video track
and processing it, and then playing the sequence to make sure that the cuts
and transitions on the two tracks occur in sync.
If the proofing session is successful, you can then remove the video track you
added and continue to add effects and finishing touches to the original
sequence.
To conform an EDL file
1. Open a new sequence in your project.
2. Import or open an edit list in the EDL view.
3. From the EDL view, click the Conform EDL icon.
The EDL Conform dialog box is displayed.
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You can capture all events in the edit list, or hold down the Ctrl key
and click the EDL events associated with the source material you
want to capture.
4. If you want to log clips, select the folder in which you want to create the
clips. The default folder is displayed in the text box at the top of the dialog
box. Click the browse (...) button to select a new folder.
?
5. Select one of the following options:
Option
To
Create Logs
Create a log of events in the selected folder.
Create Timeline Clips
Recreate the events on the timeline.
Create Both
Create both a log of events in the selected folder and
a sequence based on the events in the EDL.
6. Select the Overwrite Video Track option to overwrite clips on the timeline
at the same timecodes. If this option is not selected, the clips will be added
to a new video track.
7. To add material before the in-point and after the out-point of all tape
sources, enter the appropriate number of frames in the Heads and Tails
text boxes.
8. If you need to reconfigure the audio tracks, select a tape name from the
Tape Name list and assign the incoming audio tracks to the audio
channels of your clip by clicking in the audio channel routing matrix.
Audio channel routing matrix
You can assign the audio channels differently for each tape name or
you can multi-select the tape names, and make the audio channel
assignment the same for all of them.
9. Click Set after you’ve assigned the audio tracks for each tape name to save
the settings.
User’s Guide • 189
•
10. Click Conform to begin conforming the EDL.
The events are recreated on the timeline as empty clips, and master clips
are created in the selected folder for each event. When you open the folder
in a bin, the clip icons are red since they have no media yet.
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Audio events in the edit list do not support stereo clips. When a
stereo clip (two streams) is created on the timeline, it is split onto
two mono tracks; each track holds one stream.
Creating Layers from an EDL
Receiving multiple EDLs for different levels in a composite occurs frequently.
For example, there may be an EDL for the background and another for the
foreground. When this happens, both layers must be in sync on the timeline.
You can either place the layers on video tracks, which allows more than one
layer to be active at a time, or you can place these two layers in a container
clip.
To create a layer from an EDL
1. Open a new or existing sequence in your project.
2. Import or open an edit list in the EDL view.
3. From the EDL view, click the Conform EDL icon.
The EDL Conform dialog box is displayed.
4. Select one of the following:
• Create Timeline Clips to recreate the events on a video track.
• Create Both to create both a log of events in the selected bin and a
sequence based on the events in the EDL.
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5. Deselect the Overwrite Video Track option, so that each EDL is recreated
on an individual video track.
6. Set the Heads and Tails and configure the audio inputs as required—see
Conforming an EDL File on page 189.
Click Help for detailed information on these options.
7. Click Conform to recreate the events on a video track on the timeline.
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Avid|DS ignores the current setting of the Ripple mode when
performing an EDL to timeline. By default, all EDL conforms are
performed with the Ripple mode off.
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•
Modifying an EDL File
Avid|DS lets you modify certain properties of the EDL after you’ve loaded it
into the EDL view. You can change the name of the source tape, as well as
ripple the source timecodes.
Changing the Source Tape Name
If your source tape name is too long, or the name of the tape has changed
between the offline and the online, you can modify the name of your tape
directly in Avid|DS. Once you’ve loaded an EDL into the EDL view, you can
modify the source name of any one of the sources.
?
To change the source name of a tape in an EDL
1. Load an EDL into the EDL view.
2. Right-click on the main area of the EDL view and choose Change Source
Name from the menu.
The Change Source Name dialog box is displayed.
3. From the Old Source Name list, select the name of the tape you want
to change.
4. Enter the new name in the New Source Name text box and click OK.
The Source Name is changed in the EDL view.
Rippling the Source Timecodes
If there’s a time delay between your master tapes and the offline EDL list, or
the time of an event has changed, you can push or ripple any one of the source
timecodes forwards or backwards directly in Avid|DS.
To ripple all source timecodes in an EDL
1. Load an EDL into the EDL view.
2. Right-click on the main area of the EDL view and choose Ripple Sources
from the menu.
The Ripple Sources dialog box is displayed.
3. In the Ripple By timecode box, enter the amount by which you want the
source timecodes to move.
To ripple the source timecode backwards, enter the amount
preceded by a minus (–) sign in the Ripple By timecode box.
4. Click OK.
The source timecodes of all your source tapes are modified by the amount
you specified.
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To ripple the source timecode of one event in an EDL
1. Load an EDL into the EDL view.
2. Select the event in the Edit list.
3. Right-click and choose Ripple Sources from the menu.
The Ripple Sources dialog box is displayed.
?
4. In the Ripple By timecode box, enter the amount by which you want the
source timecode to move.
To ripple the source timecode backwards, enter the amount
preceded by a minus (–) sign in the Ripple By timecode box.
5. Click OK.
The source timecode of that one event is modified by the amount
you specified.
To ripple the timecodes of all events from one source
1. Load an EDL into the EDL view.
2. Right-click on the main area of the EDL view and choose Ripple Sources
from the menu.
The Ripple Sources dialog box is displayed.
3. Select the Apply To All Edits From This Source option to modify the
source timecode of one of your source tapes.
4. Select the name of the tape from the list.
5. Enter the amount by which you want the source timecodes to move in the
Ripple By timecode box and click OK.
All the timecodes for that one source tape are modified by the amount
you specified.
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•
Exporting an EDL File
If you want to perform certain tasks on another system, you can create an EDL
of your current sequence, save it to file, and then transfer it.
Avid|DS creates an EDL for each track of your current sequence and for some
effects. Depending on the track, the EDL contains information about the
timecode, transitions, and supported effects. Once you’ve created EDLs of
the current sequence, you can save them and transfer the information to
another system.
?
To create and save EDLs of the current sequence
1. From the EDL view, click the Timeline to EDL icon to create one or more
EDLs of the current sequence.
2. If Avid|DS created more than one EDL, choose the EDL that you want to
display from the EDL name list.
3. Click the Save EDL icon to save your EDL to file.
The Save As dialog box is displayed.
4. Navigate to an appropriate folder, enter a name in the File Name text box,
and click Save.
The EDL is saved in the location you specified.
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Printing an EDL File
When you need a hard copy of your EDL for review or want to keep a hard
copy as a reference, you can print one out from within the EDL view. You can
set the number of copies to print, as well as the orientation of the page. The
EDL is printed on your default printer.
To print an EDL file
1. Load an EDL into the EDL view.
2. From the EDL view, click Print.
?
The Print EDL dialog box is displayed.
3. In the Number of Copies text box, enter the number of copies you want
to print.
4. Choose either Portrait or Landscape as the page orientation for the EDL.
5. Click Print.
The EDL is printed on your default printer.
To change your default printer, modify the printer settings in
Windows 2000.
Proofing
If you recreated your sequence on the timeline, you may want to process the
rough cut, and proof it against the original EDL to make sure that the timing
is correct.
To proof the EDL to Timeline
1. Reload the EDL onto a new video track. Make sure you deselect the
Overwrite Video Track option.
2. Add a diagonal wipe or crop effect to the video track.
3. Process the effect.
4. Play the sequence to make sure that the cuts and transitions on the two
tracks occur in sync.
If the proofing session is successful, you can remove the video track and
continue to add effects and finishing touches to the original sequence.
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•
Conforming with ALE Files
Avid|DS supports ALE (Avid Log Exchange) files—a file format specifically
designed to hold information about log files generated by other Avid systems.
ALE files contain only information about the source material, so you can’t
import sequences, effects or other higher level information.
Although the ALE file format was designed for log files generated by
Avid editing systems, many other systems can output ALE files as
well.
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You can use ALE files to transfer information from MediaLog to Avid|DS.
MediaLog is a tool that helps you select and log footage before your editing
session. Although you can log footage with Avid|DS, using MediaLog can free
up your Avid|DS system for editing and effects. After logging shots, you can
use Avid|DS to digitize and edit the footage.
You can import bins created in MediaLog into Avid|DS. To do this, you must
first export the bin as an ALE file. You can then load the ALE file into Avid|DS
and create logs. For more information, refer to the Avid MediaLog User’s
Guide and the Converting Avid MediaLog Bins to Avid|DS Logs article.
To import an ALE file into Avid|DS, make sure the following
columns are displayed in MediaLog:
•
•
•
•
End
Start
Tape
Tracks
You can display other columns as well. Only columns that are
displayed in MediaLog will be displayed in Avid|DS.
You can also use MediaLog to export AFE files. For more information, see
Conforming with AAF and AFE Files on page 159.
MediaLog is available on a CD that is shipped with your Avid|DS
system.
Importing an ALE file
ALE files can be imported and interpreted by Avid|DS.
To import an ALE file
1. From the View menu, choose Single-Instance Views > ALE Import.
2. In the ALE Import view, click the Load ALE File icon.
3. In the Open dialog box, select a file.
The selected ALE file appears in the ALE Import view.
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Load ALE
Create Logs
ALE Info
?
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the ALE view.
Getting Information
on ALE Files
You can view the global properties of an ALE file, which includes the location
of the file and the values of various global properties, such as video/audio
format, fps, and more in the ALE Import view.
To get information on ALE Files
• In the ALE Import view, click Info.
The ALE Global Properties dialog box is displayed.
Logging Clips from an
ALE File
After you’ve imported an ALE file into Avid|DS, you can select the clips you
want to log in the Avid Explorer. However, before you can log master clips, the
clips must have associated values for the following properties:
•
•
•
•
•
End
Name
Start
Tape (or a global tape property)
Tracks
If any of these properties don’t have associated values, the Create Logs icon
will appear dimmed.
To log a master clip in the Avid Explorer
1. Load an ALE file into the ALE view.
2. Select the clip(s) you want to log in the Avid Explorer by clicking them. To
select more than one clip at a time, select a clip, hold down the Ctrl key
and click the others.
If no clips are selected in the ALE Import view, Avid|DS creates logs
for every clip.
User’s Guide • 197
•
3. In the ALE Import view, click the Create Logs icon.
The Create Logs dialog box is displayed.
?
Routing
matrix
4. Select the folder in which you want to create the logged clips. The default
folder is displayed in the text box at the top of the dialog box. Click the
browse (...) button to select a new folder.
5. To add material before the in-point and after the out-point of all tape
sources, enter the appropriate number of frames in the Heads and Tails
text boxes.
6. If you need to reconfigure the audio tracks, select a tape name from the
Tape Name list and assign the audio tracks to the audio channels of your
clip by clicking in the audio channel routing matrix.
You can assign the audio tracks differently for each source name.
7. Click Set after you have assigned the audio tracks for each tape name to
save the settings.
8. Click Create Logs to begin creating logs from the ALE file.
In the Avid Explorer, master clips are created for each selected clip. Once
the clips have been logged, you can capture the media at any time.
Only source material from tape can be recaptured from clips logged
from an ALE file.
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Chapter 6
Building a Rough Cut
User’s Guide • 201
Chapter 6 • Building a Rough Cut
In This Chapter...
This chapter describes how to perform basic editing tasks, such as preparing
source clips, arranging clips on the timeline, and synchronizing clips to create
a rough cut.
Workflow: Editing Audio and Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Creating Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
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Playing Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Manipulating Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Using Match Frame and Match Bin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Extracting Parts of a Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Grabbing Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Rippling Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Synchronizing Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Referencing Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
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Workflow: Editing Audio and Video
Editing is the process of assembling audio and video clips on the timeline,
creating transitions between these clips, and synchronizing the sound with the
images. The following illustration shows how you can build and edit a
sequence in Avid|DS.
1
Locate and prepare media for editing
?
2
Preview and trim your source
media in the Source viewer
3
Place clips on the timeline
Create a rough cut of your sequence by
dragging clips to the timeline
4
Manipulate clips
Move, trim, slip, slide, and
nest clips on the timeline
5
Apply transitions
Create cuts, wipes, dissolves,
crossfades, and DVE-type transitions
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Chapter 6 • Building a Rough Cut
6
Synchronize audio with video
Synchronize video or audio events
by using locators.
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7
Process the sequence
Process all transitions and
container clips in the
sequence to play the
results in real time.
Click Process icon
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Building Sequences
Creating Sequences
A sequence is an arrangement of clips on the timeline. It contains information
about edit decisions, applied graphics and effects, animation settings, and
working preferences.
Before constructing your sequence, it’s important to realize that the edits you
make to clips are non-destructive. That is, you’re not actually editing the
source media. The clips that you see in the bin and on the timeline are simply
references to the media on the disk array.
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Setting up your sequence involves previewing and editing source clips, and
then placing them on the timeline. The quickest way to create your rough cut
is to place clips directly on the timeline. You can, however, preview your
source clips to set new in and out-points before placing them on the timeline.
You can also use the clip tray to gather and organize your clips
before editing them in the Source viewer or on the timeline. For
more information, refer to Clip Tray in the online help.
You may also want to bring in a project from an offline environment into
Avid|DS via an edit decision list. You can import an EDL (or OMF) into the
Avid Explorer as logged clips, or onto the timeline as a sequence. For more
information, see Conforming on page 155.
Preparing Source Clips
for Editing
Before you place a clip on the timeline, you can prepare it in the Source viewer. If
a single viewer is displayed, when you drag a clip to the viewer, it changes into a
dual viewer that displays the Source and Record viewers. The Source viewer lets
you view and edit source clips.
To move a clip to the Source viewer
• Drag a clip from a bin to the Source viewer.
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Bin
Source viewer
?
Clip
The source clip is displayed in the Source viewer. The Record viewer displays
the frame (if any) at the current location of the position indicator on the
timeline. This lets you compare a source clip with the clip on the timeline
where it will be inserted.
Source viewer: Frame at position of
position indicator on source clip
Record viewer: Frame at position of
position indicator on timeline
Transport controls
Using the dual viewer to preview clips
Each viewer has its own set of controls for manipulating the source clips,
timeline clips, or material on an external device. The controls under the
Source viewer help you prepare source clips before inserting them on the
timeline. You can continuously cue and mark your source material without
affecting the sequence.
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For an overview of all the controls in the Source viewer, refer to
Transport Controls in the online help.
After marking the appropriate in and out-points on the source clip, use the
Record viewer to locate the frame (in your sequence) on which the new clip is
to be inserted. You can also decide whether or not to use all the channels of
the source clip, and on which track you want to place the clip. For more
information, see Patching Tracks on page 215.
?
After the clip has been placed on the timeline, you can continue working in
dual viewer mode or use a single viewer to display only the clips on
the timeline.
Editing Source Clips
You can place master clips, container clips, or sequences in the Source viewer
for previewing. This lets you cue or mark new in and out-points on the source
clip, and then insert, overwrite, replace, or fit-to-fill clips on the timeline with it.
In-point
Position indicator
Out-point
Position bar
Timecode box
Mark In-point
Play
Mark Out-point
To edit a clip for use in your sequence
1. Click Play below the Source viewer to play the source clip.
2. Click one of the following:
• Mark In when the position indicator reaches the desired in-point.
• Mark Out at the desired out-point.
• Type a timecode in the I (in) or O (out) timecode box and click I or O.
An in-point or out-point appears in the position bar, in the timeline
ribbon, and Locators view (if open). If you need to adjust these points,
drag them to a new location.
3. Click Play again to stop playing the clip.
4. You can now place the clip directly on the timeline—see Placing Pre-edited
Clips on the Timeline on page 213.
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Creating Subclips
Instead of placing the marked clip on the timeline, you can first create a
subclip from it. This leaves the original clip untouched while a copy of the
original clip with new in and out-points is saved in the bin.
To create a subclip
1. When you’re certain about the position of the in-point and out-point,
click Create Subclip (above the Source viewer).
?
2. In the Create Subclip dialog box, enter a name for the subclip.
You can use the default name, which is the parent clip name appended
with a number, such as RealClip - 001.
3. Click OK.
The new clip is created and saved in the bin.
The source clip maintains its original in and out-points.
To change the thumbnail frame of the subclip displayed in the bin
1. Drag the subclip to the Source viewer.
2. Move the position indicator to the fame you want to display as the
thumbnail frame.
3. Click Update Thumbnail (above the Source viewer) to change the
thumbnail frame of the subclip.
Placing Clips on the
Timeline
The timeline is where you place and edit clips to build a sequence. You can
create any number of audio and video tracks on the timeline, and place clips
anywhere on these tracks. While working with multiple tracks, you can use
the Track selector to select, manipulate, delete, ripple, patch, and monitor
your tracks. You can use multiple tracks to layer audio effects and sound,
or to add video titles and other effects.
Before editing your clips, you can customize the timeline to suit
your work by changing the settings to show, hide, or minimize some
display areas. You can also change the ruler’s time scale to display
other time formats, including drop frame, non-drop frame, and
frame numbers. For more information, refer to Ruler and Timeline
in the online help.
Dragging and dropping clips onto the timeline overwrites frames of existing
clips. A clip cannot be placed on a track if the clip completely covers, or is
completely covered by, another clip. If you activate the Ripple mode on the
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timeline, however, then clips are inserted at the timecode at which they are
dropped. Existing clips are moved down the timeline to accommodate the
inserted clip.
You can only place clips on selected tracks.
?
When you drag a clip from a bin to the timeline, the move cursor is displayed.
As you drag over the timeline, a shadow appears to indicate the section where
the clip will be placed.
The move cursor
Clip shadow
Clips assume activeness when you place them on the timeline. Activeness
refers to the sections of a clip that can be used in the final sequence. These
active frames are indicated by an activeness bar below a clip. Not all active
clips in a sequence are included when you play the final sequence. Whether an
active clip plays in a sequence or not depends on the position of the clip on the
timeline and the track selector settings.
The behavior of clip activeness varies between audio, video, and background
tracks.
• Background tracks: Only one video clip can be active at any given time.
• Video tracks: Multiple video clips can be active at the same time. The clips
on the top tracks play on top of clips on the lower tracks. The effects and
video clips with full-screen alpha clips placed on top tracks are
composited over the active clips on the lower tracks.
• Audio tracks: All active audio clips play back. This lets you play multiple
audio streams at the same time.
For more information, see Changing the Activeness of Clips on page 235.
Activeness bars
Multiple audio clips active at the same timecode
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Video clips can be placed only on video tracks and background tracks, and
audio clips only on audio tracks. When a clip with synchronized video and
audio components is placed on the timeline, the video and audio are placed as
separate clips on the audio and video or background tracks.
Placing Multiple Clips on the Timeline
You can select multiple clips from a bin and drag them to the timeline or
timeline ribbon for editing. This is a quick way to edit several clips together.
For example, if you have previously classified material by scene number, you
can quickly sort clips by scene number and then drag them all to the timeline.
Clips are placed on the timeline in the order in which you selected them.
When you select all the clips in a bin, they appear in the order in which they
were sorted.
?
To place multiple clips on the timeline
1. In the bin, do one of the following:
• To select clips randomly, hold down the Ctrl key and click any clips that
you want to select.
• To select clips sequentially, click the first clip and then hold down the Shift
key and click the last clip that you want to select.
2. Drag the selected clips to the timeline.
If the bin is set to Details view, you can select multiple clips by
dragging over a region in the bin.
Same Track versus Multi-track Editing
Although you can easily place all your video clips on a single video track,
working on multiple video tracks gives you more flexibility when editing. You
can use video tracks to layer effects. When clips are active, the clips on the top
video tracks play over the clips on the lower tracks. Any effects and video clips
with full-screen alpha clips placed on top video tracks are composited over the
active clips on the lower tracks.
The active frames and position on the timeline determine the sequence of
events. For example, you can place shots taken with different cameras on
separate tracks. You can then easily switch the view from one camera to
another by activating and deactivating clips. For more information, see
Cutting to a Clip on page 260.
The following example shows how the same sequence is produced on one
video track and on multiple video tracks. The activeness bars in both
scenarios indicate which frames are used in the sequence. However, when
working with multiple tracks, the activeness of clips on the top tracks indicate
the frames used. In both scenarios, the same frames on the clips are used.
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Same-track editing:
Clip is added to the
same track
Before
After
?
Multi-track editing:
Clip is added to a
new track
Before
New track
After
Frames not displayed
during playback
When you place clips on multiple tracks, you can reveal extra frames while
editing. This is especially useful when you want to see how many frames are
available for slipping or sliding. For more information, see Revealing Unused
Material on Clips on page 234.
When working with audio, placing your audio clips on different
tracks lets you play multiple audio streams simultaneously.
Marking In and Out-points on the Timeline
When you create a new sequence, an in-point is automatically placed at the
beginning of the timeline. If you want to place the clip at a specific timecode,
you can mark the in-point on the timeline where you want to place the clip.
After you place a clip at this in-point, the in-point moves to the last frame of
the clip, ready for you to place the next clip in the sequence.
Once the in-point and out-point are set on the timeline, the I (in) or O (out)
timecode boxes display the exact timecodes. You can change the position of
the in-point or out-point by dragging it along the timeline ribbon. For more
information, refer to Timeline Ribbon in the online help.
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To mark an in-point or out-point on the timeline
1. Place the position indicator at the location where you want to place the inpoint or out-point.
2. Click the Mark In or Mark Out button below the Record viewer.
An in-point or out-point is displayed on the timeline ribbon and in the
position bar below the viewer.
?
To mark an in-point, out-point, or selected region
1. Click the viewer that is displaying a clip or sequence.
2. Press any number on the keyboard.
A timecode box is displayed in the selected viewer.
3. Enter the timecode of the frame you want to mark by using the keyboard,
followed by one of the following:
• I to mark the in-point.
• O to mark the out-point.
• D to set the duration. Positive timecode changes the out-point and
negative timecode changes the in-point.
If you type in a positive timecode, and the in-point is undefined, it is
treated as negative timecode. If you type in a negative timecode, and
the out-point is undefined, it is treated as positive timecode.
• Enter to set the location of the position indicator.
The in-point and out-point for the clip or sequence is set.
To close the timecode box
• Press the Esc key.
To place an in-point and out-point on a selected region
1. On the timeline navigation bar, make sure the Selection Mode icon is selected.
2. On the timeline, select a clip, effect, or activeness bar, or drag to define a
region where you want to set the in-point and out-point.
3. On the timeline controls, click Mark In/Out icon.
An in-point and an out-point are displayed on the timeline ribbon and on
the position bar below the viewer.
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Placing Pre-edited Clips on the Timeline
If you’ve previewed and edited your source clip in the Source viewer, there are
different ways to place the clip on the timeline. You can manually drag it to
the timeline, or use the Overwrite, Insert, or Replace buttons.
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The following instructions apply only when the Ripple button is
deactivated on the tracks. For more information, see Rippling Clips
on page 244.
To drag a clip to the timeline
1. Mark an in and/or out-point on the timeline—see Marking In and Outpoints on the Timeline on page 211.
2. Click the Source viewer and drag the clip to a track on the timeline,
moving it close to the in-point.
• To insert the clip, hold down the V key.
• To overwrite the existing clips, hold down the B key.
The magnetism of the in-point automatically draws the clip to the
marked timecode.
The Autoswitch command on the Trim Mode menu must be
deselected before you can drag a clip from the Source viewer to the
timeline.
When you drag a clip to a video or audio track the clip becomes active.
When you drag a clip to a background track, the clip becomes active only
in areas where there are no other active clips.
Background tracks
Inserted
clip
Before
After
Dragging a clip to a background track on the timeline
If you want to perform three-point editing, set both an in-point and outpoint on the timeline. As a general rule, the in-point and out-point on the
timeline determine the amount of space inserted into the sequence. For
example, if the clip is longer than the marked region on the timeline, the outpoint of the clip is trimmed to fit the specified duration. If the clip is shorter
than the marked region on the timeline, a gap is added in areas not covered by
the inserted clip.
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In-point
Out-point
Placing a clip between marked points on the timeline
To insert or overwrite a clip on the timeline
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1. Mark an in-point at the timecode where you want to place your clip.
2. If you want to edit source audio or video onto a track other than the
parallel track displayed in the Track selector, see Patching Tracks on
page 215.
3. Click one of the following:
• Overwrite Clip to place the clip at the in-point and overwrite any existing
clips over the section that it covers.
Inserted clip
• Insert Clip to place the clip at the in-point and ripple all subsequent clips
on the timeline.
The clip that is “inserted” on the timeline becomes active regardless of
other active clips on the timeline.
Inserted clip
• Fit to Fill to size the clip to fit perfectly between the marked in and outpoints on the timeline. To use this option, you must also have specific in
and out-points marked on the clip.
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If the clip is longer or shorter than the marked region on the
timeline, the clip is placed in a timewarp container clip and
stretched or shortened accordingly. This speeds up or slows down
the action in the clip.
To replace a clip on the timeline
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode icon.
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2. Select a clip on the timeline.
3. If you want to edit source audio or video onto a track other than the
parallel track displayed in the Track selector, see Patching Tracks on
page 215.
4. Click the Replace Clip button to overwrite the selected clip with the one
that is currently in the Source viewer.
Patching Tracks
When working with multiple tracks, you can encounter a circumstance where
you must edit source audio or video onto a track other than the parallel track
displayed in the Track selector. To edit the source material onto another
record track above or below it, you must patch the source track to the targeted
record track.
You can perform only one patch per edit, but there is no limit on the number
of times you can patch from the same source track. Audio can patch only to
audio tracks, and video only to video or background tracks.
To perform a patch
• In the Track selector, drag from a source track (audio or video) to the
targeted record track (a black line appears during the patch).
Patching V1 source track to
V2 record track
After patching
tracks
The selected source track moves beside the record track to which it is
patched. The patched track remains selected in preparation for your edit.
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Placing Video Clips on the Timeline
A video clip can consist of live action, graphics, animation, or imported
images. You can place video clips on video tracks or background tracks.
Placing clips on the video tracks lets you composite over other clips on the
tracks below it. Active clips on video tracks are composited in the order in
which the video tracks appear on the timeline. For more information, see
Placing Clips on the Timeline on page 208.
As you drag video clips to background tracks, the clips detect areas that are
occupied, so that you don’t overwrite clips that have already been positioned
in time.
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To place a video clip on the timeline
1. Mark an in and/or out-point on the timeline—see Marking In and Outpoints on the Timeline on page 211.
2. Drag a clip from a bin, Source viewer, or clip tray to the timeline ribbon,
video track, or background track on the timeline, and align it close to the
in-point.
A shadow appears on the timeline to indicate the area where your clip will be
placed. The magnetism of the clip is attracted to other objects in close
proximity. This helps you align clips with other clips, in-point, or out-points.
To temporarily deactivate magnetism, hold down the Shift key as
you drag an object.
3. If you’re satisfied with the location, release the clip.
The clip is automatically placed on the timeline and becomes active. If the
video clip is placed on a background track, then the video clip is only
active on areas where there are no other active clips on background tracks.
You can also insert or overwrite clips on your tracks and specify the
track on which to place a clip. To do this, right-click on a clip and
drag it from the bin or clip tray to any video track. This opens the
Track Router dialog box from which you can select a video or
background track.
When you place a clip on the timeline, the in-point moves to the end of the
clip. The out-point (if any) is deleted.
You can display the unused frames of the clip by right-clicking on
the overview area and choosing Display > Display Unused Material
from the menu before placing the clip on the timeline.
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The following illustration shows the timeline after a video clip is added to a
video track.
Unused frames
Active frames
Inserted clip
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Inserted clip showing unused material
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Placing Audio Clips on the Timeline
Audio clips are the sound portion of your sequence. They contain material
like sound effects, music, and dialogue.
When you place an audio clip on an empty timeline, an activeness bar is
automatically displayed under the audio clip. Unlike video clips on
background tracks, multiple audio clips can be active at the same time span,
as long as they’re on different tracks.
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Audio clips that do not have the sample rate specified in the user
preferences can still be placed on the timeline. However, you will not
be able to hear the clips until you recapture the audio material at the
proper sampling rate. For more information, see Converting the
Sample Rate on page 497.
Audio clips can be mono, stereo, quadraphonic, LCRS, 4 Stream, 5.1, 6.1, 7.1, or
8 Stream, depending on how many audio channels they have.
This type of audio clip...
Contains these audio channels
Mono
A single audio channel
Stereo
Two audio channels: Left and right
Quadraphonic
Four audio channels: Left, right, left rear, and
right rear
LCRS
Four audio channels: Left, right, center, and surround
4 streams
Four generic audio channels: Output 1, output 2,
output 3, and output 4
5.1
Six audio channels: Left, right, center, LFE, left
surround, and right surround
6.1
Seven audio channels: Left, right, center, LFE,
surround center, side left, and side right
7.1
Eight audio channels: Left, right, center, LFE,
left surround, right surround, left center, and
right center
8 streams
Eight generic audio channels: Output 1 to 8
When you place an audio clip on the timeline, it generates a waveform to
display the audio channels. Each channel has a distinct waveform. For
example, a mono clip has a single waveform, a stereo clip has two waveforms,
and an 8-stream clip has eight. Each waveform has a zero line running
through the middle.
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A mono audio clip
A stereo audio clip
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Like audio clips, audio tracks can also be mono, stereo, quadraphonic, LCRS,
4 stream, 5.1, 6.1, 7.1, or 8 stream. You can place any kind of audio clip on any
kind of audio track. If the clip and the track are not the same type:
1. The clip appears yellow to indicate that the clip and track formats do not
match, and
2. The clip’s audio channels are assigned to the track’s audio channels, as
much as possible.
For example, if you place a stereo clip on an 8-stream track, the stereo clip’s two
audio channels will be assigned to the first two audio channels in the
8-stream track. Conversely, if you place an 8-stream clip on a stereo track, the
8-stream clip’s first two audio channels will be assigned to the stereo track’s two
channels, while the other six channels in the 8-stream clip are ignored. You can
adjust the way that a clip’s audio channels occupy a track’s audio channels in
the mixer. For more information, see Adjusting the Mixer Outputs on page 492.
You can also mix different audio signals by creating an audio
container clip. Audio container clips let you group several audio
clips, mix them together, and treat them as a single clip on the top or
parent timeline. For more information, see Creating an Audio
Container Clip on page 269.
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To place an audio clip on the timeline
1. Mark an in and/or out-point on the timeline—see Marking In and Outpoints on the Timeline on page 211.
2. Drag a clip from a bin, Source viewer, or clip tray to the timeline ribbon or
audio track on the timeline, and align it close to the in-point.
If you want to select a specific track on which to place the clip, rightclick on the clip and drag it from a bin or clip tray to any of the
audio tracks on the timeline. This opens the Track Router dialog box
from which you can select an audio track.
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A shadow appears on the timeline to indicate the area where your clip will
be placed. The magnetism of the clip is attracted to other objects in close
proximity. This helps you align clips with other clips, in-points, or out-points.
To temporarily deactivate magnetism, press Shift as you drag an object.
3. If you’re satisfied with the location, release the clip.
The clip is automatically placed on a new audio track on the timeline and
becomes active even where there are existing audio clips because you can
play multiple audio tracks simultaneously.
When you place a clip on the timeline, the in-point moves to the end of the clip.
The out-point (if any) is deleted. Audio clips can be active simultaneously.
Newly-placed clip
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Adjusting the Timeline
Framing the media on the timeline lets you make better use of the overview
area. This is particularly useful when media starts at a timecode other than
00:00:00:00. The Avid|DS system considers the start time of the media and
frames it according to the earliest timecode on which material is present, as
opposed to 00:00:00:00.
To trim the timeline to the media
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• Right-click on the overview area of the timeline and choose Trim
Timeline to Media from the menu.
The overview area readjusts to show the full length of your sequence.
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Playing Sequences
You can use various Record viewer buttons, the position indicator, and
keyboard keys to play and shuttle your sequence.
Using the buttons below the Record viewer, you can play back your sequence in
the Record viewer and on the external monitor. When you play the sequence,
only its active frames are displayed in the Record viewer (or heard on the
speakers), allowing you to view the sequence as it will appear in the final
sequence. While previewing, however, you can play selected tracks of your
sequence to isolate some sounds or images. For information about isolating
tracks, see Tracks in the online help.
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You can use variable-speed play controls (J-K-L keys on the
keyboard) to shuttle, step, or pause during playback. For more
information, see Varying the Playback Speed on page 224.
Go to End/Fast Forward
Position bar
Skipped Frame indicator
Frame Backward
Frame Forward
Go to Start/Rewind
10 Frames Backward
Play/Stop
10 Frames Forward
Play From In/Out-point
Position indicator
Loop
Transport controls
While playing a sequence, you may see one of the following messages display
in the viewer:
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Processing Needed
Some clips, on which you’ve placed effects, need to be
processed before you can see the results.
Media not Available
There is no media for this clip at the quality (resolution and
compression) that you have specified in your sequence
preferences—see About Video Quality Matching on
page 135.
Media not Found
Avid|DS could not find the media for this clip. The media
may have been deleted or moved to another location, or
the connection to your storage may be faulty. If the media
has been deleted, you will need to recapture it at the
quality specified in your sequence preferences.
Building Sequences
To play a sequence
1. Deselect the Mute button on the Track selector for all tracks.
Muted tracks do not play back.
2. Click the Go to Start button below the Record viewer.
The position indicator moves to the start of the sequence.
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3. Click the Play button below the Record viewer.
If you’re playing a video sequence, the Record viewer updates accordingly.
When playing your sequence, the Play button may turn amber if any
frames are skipped during playback. Frame skipping may occur
when it reaches a point where a frame cannot be computed before
display time. For more information, see Playing Real-Time Effects on
page 76 of the Avid|DS Compositing and Effects Guide.
To stop playing a sequence
During playback, do one of the following:
• Click the Play button below the Record viewer.
• Click the Record viewer.
• Click the timeline ruler.
• Press the space bar.
The position indicator moves to the position you clicked and playback stops.
To skip to a new position on the timeline and keep playing
• Press Shift and click the new position on the timeline ruler.
To scrub clips on the timeline
• On the timeline ruler, drag right or left to play or rewind the clips at your
own speed, or
• Drag the position indicator in the position bar below the Record viewer.
To isolate specific tracks when playing the sequence
1. In the Track selector, do one of the following:
Mute
• Click the Solo button on the video or audio tracks that you want to play.
Solo
• Click the Mute button on the audio tracks that you do not want to play.
2. Click the Play button below the Record viewer.
Only the images or sounds from the selected tracks are played.
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Varying the Playback
Speed
The J-K-L keys on the keyboard let you play back, step, and shuttle through
footage at varying speeds. This feature, also referred to as three-button or
variable-speed play, lets you use three fingers to manipulate the speed of
playback for greater control.
You can also use the J-K-L keys to perform smooth audio scrubbing of
selected tracks.
To shuttle through the footage using the J-K-L keys on the keyboard
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1. Deselect all objects in the timeline before shuttling through the footage.
2. Use the following keys to shuttle at varying speeds:
• Press the L key to move forward through the footage at normal speed. You
can increase the speed by pressing the L key a number of times.
Press the L
key
To play footage at
NTSC rate
PAL rate
24p rate
2 times
2x normal speed
60 fps
50 fps
48 fps
3 times
3x normal speed
90 fps
75 fps
72 fps
4 times
5x normal speed
150 fps
125 fps
120 fps
5 times
8x normal speed
240 fps
200 fps
192 fps
• Press the J key to move backward at the same shuttle speed increments.
• Press the K and L keys together for slow forward (8 fps for NTSC, 6 fps for
PAL, and 6 fps for 24p projects).
• Press the K and J keys together for slow backward.
• Hold down the K key and press the L or J key to step through footage one
frame at a time.
3. Press the K key to pause the shuttling.
4. Press the spacebar to stop the shuttling.
To shuttle clips using the position indicator
Do one of the following:
• Drag the position indicator in the position bar right or left to fast forward
or rewind the clips on the timeline.
• On the timeline ruler, drag the position indicator left or right. The farther
you drag, the faster the playback speed.
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Moving to Points on
the Timeline
There are three ways to move around on the timeline. You can move the
position indicator manually to any frame in your sequence, use the buttons
below the Record viewer, or enter a timecode in a timecode box to quickly
move to marked points on the timeline.
To move the position indicator
Do one of the following:
• Click any point in the position bar below the Record viewer.
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• Deselect the Selection Mode icon in the timeline navigation bar, and then
click any point on the timeline.
The position indicator moves to this position and the Record viewer
displays the frame at this timecode.
• Drag the position indicator left or right while reading the timecode
displayed in the P (position indicator) timecode box.
The exact position of the position indicator is displayed.
To move the position indicator to a specific timecode
Do one of the following:
• Type a value in the P (position indicator) timecode box and click P.
• Without selecting any timecode boxes, enter a timecode value, press P on
the keyboard, and press Enter.
When typing a timecode value you can skip fields by typing a dot (.).
For example, type 12..22 for timecode 12:00:00:22.
• Select a reference locator from the Locator view.
• Click the Go to In or Go to Out button if there is an in-point or out-point
in the timeline ribbon.
The position indicator moves to the specified point.
Looping Clips
You can play back a section of the timeline continuously by marking it with in
and out loop markers. This is useful if you want to view a small section of the
sequence while editing.
To loop a clip
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode icon.
2. Do one of the following:
• Select a clip.
• Select a region by dragging over a section of the timeline.
The selected area or clip becomes highlighted.
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3. Click the Loop button below the Record viewer.
Loop markers are displayed on the timeline ribbon at the beginning and
end of the selected region or clip including pre-roll and post-roll.
You can also select an effect bar, transition area, or activeness bar
for looping.
4. Adjust the loop markers by dragging them to the appropriate timecodes.
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Timeline ribbon
Loop markers
5. Click Play to play the clips within the specified region.
The marked section continues to play until you click Play again.
6. Click the Loop button again to deactivate loop mode.
Viewing Unprocessed
Frames
While playing a sequence, the message “Processing Needed” is displayed in the
Record viewer if clip effects in your sequence have not been processed. To
view a clip before processing its effects, you can either play it frame by frame
or preview it. Previewing an effect reduces the quality of the picture during
playback in order to process each frame at an acceptable speed.
To play a clip frame by frame
1. Press Ctrl and click Play to play your video clip frame by frame.
The playback is slow since each frame needs to be processed. Each
processed frame is stored temporarily as an interactive cache, so the next
time you visit that frame, the results appear instantly in the viewer.
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In this mode, the video plays but the audio is muted.
2. Click Play again to stop playing the clips.
To preview a clip with an effect
1. From the effect’s property editor, click Preview.
The preview will loop until you stop it. The playback is choppy since
Avid|DS drops frames in order to display the effect.
t
In this mode, the video plays but the audio is muted.
2. Click Stop to stop playing the clip.
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Manipulating Clips
After placing all your clips on the timeline, you can begin arranging them to
create a rough cut of your sequence. You can then adjust the edit points
between clips, as well as move, copy, or delete them.
As you rearrange your clips, the impact on other clips and their
activeness depends on what you select and whether or not the Ripple
mode is activated. When the ripple mode is on, any change to the
length of a clip propagates across the timeline to subsequent clips.
For more information, see Rippling Clips on page 244.
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Selecting Clips
All editing tasks are based on what you select on the timeline. The clips are
associated with tracks, activeness bars, edit points, transition bars, effect bars,
and regions. Selecting and manipulating any of these objects affects the
position and appearance of the clip in the final output. When editing clips,
you typically work on one clip at a time.
Before you can select objects on the timeline you must click the Selection
Mode icon on the timeline navigation bar to enter Selection mode.
In-point
Clip
Effect bar
Selected
region
Tracks
Activeness bar
Transition
Edit point
Selectable objects on the timeline
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To select clips on the timeline
On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode icon, and do one of
the following:
• To select a single clip, click a clip.
• To select multiple clips, click the first clip, press Ctrl, and click any other
clips you want to select.
• To select multiple clips within the track area, hold down the Shift key and
drag right to left over the clips you want to select.
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The selected clip(s) are surrounded by a red border. When a single clip is
selected the timecode boxes on the status bar reflect its start and end
positions. The D (duration) timecode box specifies the length of time
between the two points. You can adjust the in, out, and duration
timecodes by entering values directly in the timecode boxes. This is useful
when you know the exact timecode where you want to move a clip.
Clip start
Moving Clips
Clip end
Clip duration
You can drag clips along the same track to move them to a different point in
time. You can also drag clips from one track to another. When working with
audio clips, however, you can only move mono clips to mono tracks and
stereo clips to stereo tracks.
Synchronized video and audio clips always move together. If you need to
move them independently, you must unlock them first. For more
information, see Synchronizing Clips on page 248.
Moving Clips on the Same Track
You can drag a clip anywhere along a track. If there are other clips in its path,
it passes directly over these clips if the Ripple mode is activated. If it is not,
then you must move it around these clips.
To drag a clip horizontally
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode icon.
2. Click a clip to select it.
A red border surrounds the clip and the pointer changes to a move cursor.
3. Drag the clip right or left.
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To drag multiple clips horizontally
1. On the timeline, select multiple clips.
2. Drag one of the clips in the selection right or left.
To move a clip with its activeness
1. Press Shift and click the clip to select it.
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A blue border surrounds the clip and the pointer changes to the Move
with Activeness cursor.
2. Drag the clip right or left.
The clip retains its activeness and changes the activeness of any clips with
which it collides.
To move multiple clips with their activeness on background tracks
1. On the timeline, select multiple clips.
2. Press Shift and drag the clips in the selection right or left.
The clips in the selection retain their activeness and change the activeness
of any clips with which they collide.
To move one clip past another on the same track
1. Drag a clip to the timeline ribbon.
A shadow appears on the timeline as you drag the clip.
2. Without releasing the mouse button, drag the clip back to the original
track and drop it at the new location.
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Moving Single Clips between Tracks
When you move clips to a different track, clip shadows appear on the timeline
where the clips will be placed.
To move a clip to a different track
• Using the ruler as a guide, drag a clip to a different track.
To move a clip to a different background track with its activeness
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1. Press Shift and click a clip to select it.
2. Using the ruler as a guide, drag the clip to the appropriate track.
To move a clip to a different track and constrain it to the same
timeline location
1. Select the clip.
2. Press U and drag the clip to another track.
Moving Multiple Clips between Tracks
You can move multiple clips of different types between tracks simultaneously.
The clips that you select do not have to be on the same track.
To move multiple clips to different tracks
1. On the timeline, select multiple clips.
2. Using the ruler as a guide, drag a clip to a different track.
The Track Router dialog box is displayed.
3. Specify the destination track for the material in each selected track, and
click OK.
The selected clips are moved to the specified destination tracks.
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To move multiple clips to different tracks with their activeness
1. On the timeline, select multiple clips.
2. Drag the clips to a different track.
The Track Router dialog box is displayed.
3. Specify the destination track for the material in each selected track, and
click OK.
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The selected clips are moved to the specified destination tracks.
To move multiple clips to different tracks and constrain them to the
same timeline locations
1. On the timeline, select multiple clips.
2. Press the U key, and drag a clip to a different track.
The Track Router dialog box is displayed.
3. Specify the destination track for the material in each selected track, and
click OK.
The selected clips are moved to the same timeline locations on the
specified destination tracks.
Renaming and Adding
Comments to Clips
You can rename clips in a bin or on the timeline. Since clips on the timeline
are copies of the clips in the bin, renaming a clip on the timeline has no effect
on the name of the source clip in the bin. In the Clip property editor, you can
also add comments to clips as notes or reminders for yourself.
To rename a clip on the timeline
1. Right-click on a clip in the timeline and choose Properties from the menu.
2. In the Name text box, edit the name of the clip and press Enter.
The new name appears on the clip in the timeline.
To add comments to clips
1. Right-click on a clip in the timeline and choose Properties from the menu.
2. In the Comments text box, type your notes and press Enter.
When you reopen the clip properties dialog box, the comments are
displayed in the Comments box.
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Cutting Clips
Cutting a clip in two lets you manipulate the pieces independently of each other.
To cut a clip
1. Place the position indicator at the point where you want to apply the cut.
2. From the toolbar, click Editing > Add Edit.
Although the clips appear to have been cut into two, you can still stretch
them both out to their original size by revealing the extra frames. For
more information, see Revealing Unused Material on Clips on page 234.
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The Add Edit command duplicates the clip or container on the
timeline. Although the duplicated clip or container doesn’t appear
on the timeline, it does double the size of the information on the
timeline and every element of the container.
Copying Clips
You can easily copy clips on the timeline. When you copy a clip, you do not
duplicate the media stored on disk. Both clips still refer to the original media.
When you make a copy of a clip on the timeline, the new clip’s name is
prefixed by “Copy of...”. For example, if the original name of a clip is Car.
Copy the clip to a new track, the copied clip is now called Copy of Car. If you
copy the same clip again to another track, the name of the new clip is Copy 2 of
Car. This numbering scheme continues for each copy you create of the clip.
To copy a clip
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode icon.
2. Select one or more clips to copy.
3. From the Edit menu, choose Copy.
4. Place the position indicator at the precise timecode that you want to place
a copy of the clip, and click the Track button.
5. From the Edit menu, choose Paste.
A copy of the clip appears at the selected point. You can stretch this new
clip out to reveal the necessary frames. The name of the copy is prefixed by
“Copy of...”.
Deleting Clips
You can delete any clip on the timeline. This removes the clip from the
timeline. The master clip in the bin and its media are not affected.
To delete a clip
• Select a clip or group of clips, and press Delete, or
• Right-click on a clip or a multiple clip selection, and choose Delete Clip
from the menu.
The clip or selection is removed from the timeline.
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Lifting Material
Lifting lets you remove selected material from a track in the sequence and
leaves a gap. You can later move or fill this gap with other footage. When you
lift material, the overall duration of the track (or sequence) remains the same.
Material is placed in
the Clipboard
Lifted Clip X
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Clip W
Blank space
Clip Y
Clip Z
To lift material
1. Mark in and out-points at the start and end of the material in the
sequence that you want to lift.
2. Select the tracks that contain the material.
Material is lifted from the selected tracks only.
3. Click the Lift button to complete the edit.
Extracting Material
Extracting lets you remove selected material from a track in the sequence and
closes the gap left by its removal. When you extract material, the duration of
the track or sequence is shrunk.
Extracted Clip Y
Before
extract
After
extract
Clip X
Clip Y
Material is placed in
the Clipboard
Clip Z
Track is shortened
Clip X
Clip Z
To extract material
1. Mark in and out-points at the start and end of the material in the
sequence that you want to extract.
2. Select the tracks that contain the material.
Material is extracted from the selected tracks only.
3. Click the Extract button to complete the edit.
If the clip is sync-locked with another audio or video clip, the other
clip remains on the timeline. You must delete it independently.
If Ripple mode is on, however, all the sync-locked elements are deleted.
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Revealing Unused
Material on Clips
When editing, you often need to see how much material is available at the
head or tail of a clip. When you display unused material, the selected clip
displays red handles on its top corners. These are the reveal handles; when
stretched out, they show any extra frames in a clip.
Reveal in handle
Shows extra frames at
the head of Smell clip
Reveal out handle
Shows extra frames at
the tail of Smell clip
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Extra frames
Activeness bar indicates
active frames in clips
To display unused material
• Right-click on the overview area and choose Display > Display Unused
Material from the menu.
To reveal or hide frames of unused material on a clip
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode icon.
2. Select a clip.
3. Place the pointer over the reveal handle of a clip.
An arrowhead pointing left or right is displayed.
Reveal handles
Extra material
Dragging the reveal handles to show unused material
You can view extra material only when there is empty space on the
track. Editing on multiple tracks gives you this flexibility.
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4. Drag the reveal handles left or right to show or hide unused material.
• To reveal more frames on the clip, drag the handle outwards. You can only
reveal as far as the last frame on the source clip.
• To hide frames on the clip, drag the handle inwards. You can only hide
frames up to the active area of the clip.
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Changing the
Activeness of Clips
Activeness refers to the sections of a clip that are available for the final
sequence. The timeline uses a bottom-up hierarchy for video tracks when
playing sequences. When active clips on the top tracks overlap active clips on
lower tracks, the clips on top track are viewed on top of the clips on the lower
tracks during playback.
These active frames are indicated by the activeness bar below a clip. When you
play a sequence, you can view and hear the active frames of a clip depending
on the clip’s location on the timeline and the track selector settings. Inactive
frames still appear in the timeline, but are not seen or heard when the
sequence is played.
Activeness bars indicate active clip frames
You can adjust the activeness bar to add or remove active frames at the head or
tail of the clip. You can also activate or deactivate the entire length of the clip
using the tools on the Editing toolbar.
Activating and Deactivating Clips
In addition to adjusting the activeness bar to trim the heads or tails of clips,
you can also activate or deactivate all the frames in a clip. This is useful when
you have multiple layers of video effects and need to isolate clips on lower
tracks for viewing. Activating a clip on a video track does not change the
activeness of any other clips that overlap it. However, when you activate a clip
on a background track, the overlapping areas of other clips become inactive.
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To activate or deactivate the full length of a clip
1. Place the position indicator at the point where you want to apply the cut.
Selected clip
Before
?
2. From the toolbar, click Editing and choose one of the following:
• Activate to make all the currently displayed frames in the selected clip
active.
Video track
Activated clip
After
Activeness bar is added
Background track
Activated clip
After
Overlapping areas of other
clips become inactive
Activeness bar is
added
• Deactivate to make all frames on the selected clip inactive. Deactivating a
clip does not change the activeness of any other clips that overlap it.
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To activate or deactivate a region of a clip
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode icon.
2. Drag over a section of a clip.
The selected region is highlighted.
3. From the toolbar, click Editing and choose one of the following:
• Activate to make all the frames in the selected region active.
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• Deactivate to deactivate the selected region.
The activeness bar is removed from the selected region.
Selected region
Before
After
Deactivated section
You can also right-click on an activeness bar and choose Delete
Activeness from the menu. This removes its activeness bar.
Activeness of clips on background tracks is not always recalculated when you
deactivate clips or move them on the timeline. You can activate any section of
a selected clip on a background track where it does not overlap other active
clips on background tracks, by using the Fill Activeness command.
To fill in the activeness of a clip
• Right-click on the clip that needs to be activated and choose Fill
Activeness from the menu.
The clip becomes active wherever there are no other active clips on
background tracks.
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Using Match Frame and Match Bin
You can retrieve additional material from a master clip, a subclip, or subclip’s
master clip, as well as locate the bin in which you saved your clip.
When you perform a match frame, the master clip or subclip that corresponds
to the currently selected clip in the timeline or Record viewer is located, and the
source master clip or subclip is loaded in the Source viewer.
Performing a match bin is the same as performing a match frame, but it also
selects the original clip and displays its location in a bin.
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Matching a Frame in a
Master Clip or Subclip
You can match a frame on any master clip or subclip on the timeline. You
cannot perform a match frame directly on a container clip, unless it is a
timewarp container. You must first open the container clip and select the
desired clip. For sync-locked clips, select either the audio or video clip, and
Avid|DS will locate the corresponding video and audio components of the
source media.
To match a frame on the timeline
1. On the timeline, move the position indicator to the desired frame.
2. Do one of the following:
• Click the Match Frame button below the Record viewer.
• From the toolbar, click Editing > Match Frame.
The clip’s corresponding master or subclip is located and loaded into the
Source viewer, and markers are added to indicate the source in and outpoints of the clip on the timeline. The position indicator below the Source
viewer is placed at the precise timecode to match the currently displayed
frame on the timeline.
Length of parent/master clip
Length of clip on timeline
Position bar
In-point
Position indicator
Out-point
3. If necessary, you can replace frames at this point—see To replace a clip on
the timeline on page 215.
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Matching a Frame in a
Subclip
You can match a frame in a subclip that was derived from another subclip
using the Source viewer. Avid|DS locates the next corresponding parent or
master clip.
To match a frame in a subclip using the Source viewer
1. From the bin, drag the subclip to the Source viewer.
The subclip is displayed in the Source viewer.
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2. Select the Source viewer.
3. Do one of the following:
• Click the Match Frame button below the Source viewer.
• From the toolbar, click Editing > Match Frame.
The clip’s corresponding parent is located and loaded into the Source
viewer, replacing the subclip. In and out-points are added to indicate the
subclip’s in and out-points.
4. Click Match Frame again to locate the next corresponding parent clip.
Matching Bins for a
Clip on the Timeline
As with match frame, you can locate the bins for any clip on the timeline, but
you cannot do this directly on a container clip. You must first open the
container clip and select the desired clip. For sync-locked clips, select either
the audio or video clip, and Avid|DS will locate the corresponding video and
audio components of the source media.
To locate the bin of a clip on the timeline
1. On the timeline, move the position indicator to the desired frame.
2. Do one of the following:
• Click the Match Bin button below the Record viewer.
• From the toolbar, click Editing > Match Bin.
The bin containing the clip’s corresponding master or subclip is displayed
with the master or subclip selected. The master or subclip is loaded into
the Source viewer and markers are added to indicate the source in and
out-points of the clip on the timeline. The position indicator below the
Source viewer is placed at the precise timecode to match the currently
displayed frame on the timeline.
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Extracting Parts of a Sequence
In Avid|DS, you can extract portions of your sequence to create new master
clips. You can create master clips from selected regions on the timeline, or
from selected objects.
This is useful when you’re satisfied with the effects that you’ve applied to a
clip, and you want to create a new master clip that includes the effects, or
when you want to create a single master clip from the contents of a container
clip. Combining effects or container contents in a single clip can help to
reduce processing time.
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You can convert individual clips, multiple clips, or regions of the timeline to
new master clips. If you’ve selected regions of the timeline or multiple
timeline objects, you can create a single new master clip that combines all of
the selected timeline material, or multiple new master clips; one for each
selected object. You can automatically replace the existing timeline material
with the new master clips.
If you create a single master clip from both audio and video
material, the result is a combined audio and video clip.
You can also specify what types of tracks to convert from the timeline, and
configure limited processing options like granularity and resolution.
Converted clips will include timeline material in different ways, depending on
how you select material.
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If you select...
The new master clip will include...
One clip
The clip and all of its effects.
Multiple clips on one
track
All selected clips, all clip effects, and track effects. Frames
in the new master clip are black for the duration of
unselected material between clips.
Multiple clips on
multiple tracks
All selected clips, all clip effects, all track effects, and
timeline effects. Frames in the new master clip are black
for the duration of unselected material between clips.
Time span on one
track
All material in the selected time span, including clips, clip
effects, and track effects. Frames in the new master clip are
black for the duration of unselected material between clips.
Time span on
multiple tracks
All material in the selected time span, including clips, clip
effects, track effects and timeline effects. Frames in the
new master clip are black for the duration of unselected
material between clips.
Time span on the
timeline effect track
All material in the selected time span.
Building Sequences
Use the Timeline to Clip Options dialog box to specify how you want to
convert timeline material to new clips.
?
Converting a Timeline
Region or Object
You can convert a portion of your timeline or an object on the timeline to a
master clip.
To convert a region of your timeline or a timeline object to a clip
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode icon.
2. Do one of the following:
• On the timeline effect track, drag to select a region.
• Select one or more objects on the timeline.
3. From the toolbar, click Generate > Timeline to Clip.
4. In the Timeline to Clip Options dialog box, select the appropriate options
and click OK.
The new clip is processed and saved to the bin you specified.
Click Help for more information on the Timeline to Clip properties.
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Creating Multiple Clips
You can convert a timeline region or multiple selected clips into multiple
master clips.
To create multiple clips from objects on the timeline
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode icon.
2. Do one of the following:
• On the timeline effect track, drag to select a region.
?
• Select one or more objects on the timeline.
3. From the toolbar, click Generate > Timeline to Clip.
4. In the Timeline to Clip Options dialog box, select the appropriate options,
making sure to deselect Create one clip and click OK.
Click Help for more information on the Timeline to Clip properties.
The new clips are processed and saved to the bin you specified.
You cannot create multiple clips from a selected timeline region. To
create multiple clips, you must multi-select objects on the timeline.
Replacing Timeline
Material
Replacing the timeline material overwrites the Timeline to Clip source
material with the new master clip.
To replace material on the timeline with new master clips
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode icon.
2. Do one of the following:
• On the timeline effect track, drag to select a region.
• Select one or more objects on the timeline.
3. From the toolbar, click Generate > Timeline to Clip.
4. In the Timeline to Clip dialog box, select the appropriate options, making
sure to select Replace Selection.
Click Help for more information on the Timeline to Clip properties.
5. Click OK.
The new clip is processed and saved to the bin you specified. The Timeline
to Clip Options dialog box is closed, and you are returned to the timeline.
The new clips appear on the timeline in place of the selection.
You cannot replace a region of the timeline with multiple clips, even
if the region spans multiple clips. Instead, clips, or parts of clips in
the selected region, will be replaced with a single clip.
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Grabbing Frames
You can create master clips or image files from the frame currently displayed
in the Record viewer.
Creating a Master Clip
from a Snapshot
?
You can create a master clip from the image on which the position indicator is
currently positioned. The master clip is automatically captured (logged and
digitized) under the name and location you specify. The resulting master clip
is identical to other master clips and allows you to recapture it at a different
resolution or compression ratio. You can specify the length of a master clip.
To create a master clip
1. On the timeline, move the position indicator to the desired frame.
2. From the toolbar, click Generate > Snapshot to Clip.
3. In the Save Snapshot dialog box, specify the bin and file name, and
click OK.
The Snapshot to Clip command works best with images that are set
to uncompressed and full D1 resolution.
A master clip is created in the bin you specified.
Creating an Image File
from a Snapshot
You can export an image of the frame on which the position indicator is
currently positioned. The image is exported as a bitmap image file in one of
several formats and saved in a bin you specify.
To create an image file
1. On the timeline, move the position indicator to the desired frame.
2. From the toolbar, click Generate > Snapshot to File.
3. In the Export to File dialog box, specify the bin, file name, and file type
and click OK.
The image file is saved in the bin you specified. You can import the file
into Avid|DS or use it in other applications.
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Rippling Clips
The Ripple mode is very important in Avid|DS as it lets you preserve the integrity
of previous edits as you continue to perform other edits on the timeline. As you
move, trim, insert, or delete clips on the timeline, you can decide if the clips that
follow the edit point should move to accommodate the change.
?
Inserting clips in Ripple mode
You can ripple all tracks (timeline effect, video, background, and audio)
across the timeline or limit the rippling only to the video tracks or other
selected tracks. For example, if you’ve already edited your video clips, and now
want to work on the audio alone, simply activate the Ripple mode only for the
audio tracks.
When you activate the Ripple mode on any background track, it is
also activated on all background tracks. Only the audio and video
tracks can be rippled on a per track basis.
Working in Ripple mode is like working in insert mode. When you insert a
clip anywhere along the timeline, any successive clips are automatically
pushed later in time. Any clips that are sync-locked, such as the audio and
video components of a clip, are rippled in sync. The edits of any preceding
clips are not affected.
When you’re not in Ripple mode, you’re in the default overwrite mode. Any
clip that you place on the timeline occupies the space in which it was placed. It
does not change the position or activeness of the other clips.
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To activate or deactivate Ripple mode
1. From the timeline controls, click the main Ripple button.
The Ripple mode is activated. By default, the Ripple buttons on all the
tracks are also activated and highlighted in blue. This makes all clips in a
sequence ripple across the timeline as you perform your edits.
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Activate Ripple mode
Activate timeline
effect track ripple
Activate track ripple
2. Deactivate the Ripple button on tracks that you do not want to ripple as
you insert new clips on the timeline.
3. To deactivate the Ripple mode, click the main Ripple button.
The Ripple mode is deactivated for all tracks on the timeline.
Notice that the setting of the Ripple buttons on the tracks are preserved
even after the Ripple mode is deactivated. Although the buttons are not
highlighted in blue, they still appear activated.
Active state is preserved
This indicates that you’re inserting clips from the Source viewer to the
timeline. The Insert button on the Source and Record viewer temporarily
activates the Ripple mode, allowing you to ripple clips on tracks where
this button is activated—see Manipulating Clips on page 227.
Setting a Ripple End
You can select a timecode beyond which you no longer want to work in Ripple
mode. Setting the ripple end at this timecode leaves Ripple mode on for the
preceding time span, and turns it off for the succeeding time span.
When you place clips on the timeline before the ripple end, any successive
clips will be pushed up to, but not beyond the ripple end timecode. Clips
placed after the ripple simply occupy the space where they are placed, without
changing the position or activeness of the other clips.
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To set the ripple end
1. Move the position indicator to the timecode where you want to deactivate
Ripple mode.
2. From the toolbar, click Editing > Set Ripple End.
A light blue bar is displayed on the timeline, indicating the end of the
ripple zone.
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Inserting Clips in
Ripple Mode
You can insert clips at a specified point on the timeline by activating the
Ripple mode. When the clip is inserted, all other clips from that point are
pushed forward.
To insert a clip on the timeline
1. From the timeline controls, click Ripple.
Main Ripple
button
2. Click the Ripple button on the tracks that you want to ripple forward.
3. Drag a clip from a bin, Source viewer, or clip tray to the timeline.
All other clips from that timecode forward are rippled on the tracks where the
Ripple mode was activated. If you inserted the clip in the middle of another
clip, that clip is split into two and the new clip is inserted between them.
Press the V (insert) or B (overwrite) keys while dragging clips to the
timeline will override the current ripple setting.
Before
Insertion point
Ripple mode on
Ripple mode off
Inserting clip in Ripple mode
Inserted clip
Remainder of
clip is rippled
After
Clip not rippled
Only clips on the tracks in Ripple mode are moved
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Editing Clips in Ripple
Mode
When moving, trimming, or deleting clips while in Ripple mode, it’s
important to preserve the integrity of edit points on other clips. Any edits that
you perform to one clip affects all successive clips on the timeline.
Instead of rippling all clips on the timeline, you can select the tracks on which
you want clips to ripple. This is useful, for instance, when you do not want the
trimming of video clips to affect the audio clips.
To edit a clip in Ripple mode
?
1. From the timeline controls, click the main Ripple button.
Main Ripple
button
2. Click the Ripple button on the tracks that you want to ripple.
3. Adjust the clip’s edit points as necessary.
All clips are moved left or right to accommodate the changes on the
selected clip.
If you delete a clip, all succeeding clips are moved together to close the gap
where the clip was active.
Clip to be deleted
Position of clips before deletion
Clips moved by
amount of deleted
clip’s activeness
Position of clips after deletion (in Ripple mode)
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Synchronizing Clips
Synchronizing (syncing) clips refers to aligning points on different clips, so that
they occur simultaneously. When you synchronize clips in Avid|DS, you can
sync-lock them together, so that they do not fall out of alignment. You can break
the sync-lock on clips at any time to edit them independently of each other.
A locked group of synchronized clips is called a sync group. Each sync group
has a master clip and one or more slave clips. The master clip acts as the focal
point for the sync group, and the position of slave clips is always relative to the
master clip’s position.
?
One of the most common synchronization tasks that you can perform is
syncing audio clips with video clips, so that the sound in the audio clip
matches the action in the video clip.
Aligning Clips for
Synchronization
Using locators can help you synchronize video and audio clips. You can place
reference locators on the timeline ribbon and then drag the clip locator to
align it with the reference locators or with other clip locators.
To align a clip at a specific timecode
1. Move the position indicator to the timecode at which you want to
synchronize the clips.
2. Right-click on the timeline ribbon and choose Add Locator at Playback
Position from the menu, and choose a color from the submenu.
This places a local locator on the timeline ribbon to define the point at
which to align your clips.
3. Right-click on the clip and choose Add Locator from the menu, and then
choose an appropriate location from the submenu.
A clip locator with a triangular head is displayed on the clip.
Reference locator
Clip locators
4. Place a locator on each of the other clips that are to be aligned.
5. Drag the head of the clip locator left or right to align it with the reference
locator.
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The clip turns blue and moves with the locator as you drag it. When you
get close to the reference locator, the magnetism between the locators
helps align the clip.
Audio and video clips
aligned at position of
reference locator
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6. Align the other clips in the same way.
Creating a Sync Group
Once you’re satisfied with the way the clips are aligned, you can lock them
together in a sync group. When you move one clip, the rest of the group
moves with it. This is especially useful when trimming audio and video clips
on multiple tracks, because the sound and accompanying images are trimmed
in sync.
You can have any number of video or audio clips synchronized together, but
you must select at least two clips to apply a sync-lock. The master clip is the
center of the sync group. If the position of any clip is offset, the offset will
always be displayed as the number of frames from the master clip.
When you create a sync group, the order in which you selected the clips is
maintained. If you delete the master clip in the group, the second clip that you
originally selected becomes the new master clip.
When a clip containing both audio and video is placed on the
timeline, its audio and video components fall on separate tracks as
individual clips. These clips remain sync-locked to each other.
To lock clips in sync
1. Align your clips on the timeline.
2. Do one of the following:
• Press Ctrl and click at least two clips to lock together.
• Place the position indicator on the clips you want to lock together.
3. From the toolbar, click Editing > Sync Lock.
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The name of the first clip that you selected ends with “Master” while the
names of the other clips end with “Slave”.
Master clip
?
Slave clip
Adding to an Existing Sync Group
As you place clips on the timeline, you can add them to existing sync groups.
If, for example, you have a sync group containing a video track and an audio
track, you can align a second audio track with the sync group, and add it to
the group when you’re satisfied with its position.
To add clips to a sync group
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode icon.
2. Select a clip from the sync group to which you want to add the clip.
3. Press Ctrl and select the clip that you want to add to the sync group.
4. From the toolbar, click Editing > Sync Lock.
The clip is added to the sync group.
Combining Two Sync Groups
You can combine two or more sync groups to form a single group, containing
all of the clips in the original groups. The clips in the second group that you
select are appended, as slave clips, to the first group that you select.
To combine existing sync groups
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode icon.
2. Select a clip from the sync group that you want to combine with
another group.
3. Press Ctrl and select a clip from the group that you want to add.
4. From the toolbar, click Editing > Sync Lock.
The groups are merged into a single sync group. The clips in the added
group are all slaves and the master of the first group remains the master.
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Unlocking Synchronized Clips
You can remove individual clips from a sync group without removing them
from the timeline. When a clip is no longer synchronized, you can edit it
independently of the other clips in the group. If you remove the master clip
from a sync group, the next clip that you originally selected becomes the new
master clip.
Applying the Timewarp, Interlace/Deinterlace, and 3:2 Expand/3:2
Contract effects automatically breaks the lock on synchronized clips.
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To break a sync-lock
1. Do one of the following:
• Place the position indicator on the synchronized clips.
• On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode icon, and select
one or more synchronized clips.
2. From the toolbar, click Editing > Sync Lock.
Only the selected clips are removed from the rest of the sync group, and
can now be edited independently.
Manipulating
Synchronized Clips
You can select and move synchronized clips the same way that you would with
non-synchronized clips. There are, however, a few differences.
When you select synchronized clips, they are surrounded by a red border.
Other clips in the group are surrounded in yellow to indicate that they’re part
of the same group, but were not directly selected. If you multi-select clips in a
group or select an entire group, the selected clips will share the focus, and be
surrounded in brown.
When you move synchronized clips, the entire group moves together. You can,
however, move single clips in a sync group independently of the other clips in
the group. For more information, see Manipulating Clips on page 227.
Selecting All Clips in a Sync Group
You can select all of the clips in a sync group at the same time. This is useful if,
for example, you want to delete an entire sync group.
To select all clips in a sync group
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode icon.
2. Click one clip from the group that you want to select.
3. From the toolbar, click Editing > Select Sync Peers.
All clips in the sync group are selected. Selected clips have red handles and
an orange outline.
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Moving Synchronized Clips Independently
When Ripple mode is off, you can move one clip in the sync group
independently of the other clips in the group. Moving synchronized clips
independently creates an offset between the master clip and slave clips. When
an offset occurs, the name of each offset slave clip turns red, and includes the
number of frames by which it is offset from the master clip.
If you move a group’s master clip independently, all of the slave clips
in the group will show an offset.
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To move a synchronized clip independently
1. Make sure that the main Ripple button is deselected.
2. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode icon.
3. On the timeline, select the clip that you want to move.
4. Press the W key, drag the clip along the timeline.
The position of the other clips in the sync group will not change. Any
resulting offsets will be displayed next to the names of the slave clips.
Cutting Synchronized Clips
You can cut one or more clips in a sync group in two. When you cut a single
clip, the part that you cut off remains synchronized as a new clip. If you cut
multiple clips in a group, the two new clips or group of clips become a new
sync group with the same master/slave relationships as the original group.
For more information, see Cutting Clips on page 232.
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Editing Synchronized
Clips
The same rules that apply to editing clips on the timeline, apply to all
synchronized clips. That is, you can still moved, slide, or trim them.
When you edit synchronized clips, red handles appear on the first selected edit
point. You can use the trim handles to adjust the clip as necessary. If you want
to trim multiple clips in the group simultaneously, you can select the edit
points of all sync group members at the same timecode.
To select all synced edit points at a specific timecode
?
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode icon.
2. Select an edit point of a clip in the sync group.
3. From the toolbar, click Editing > Select Sync Peers.
All of the sync group members’ edit points, at the same timecode are
selected. The clips can now be edited simultaneously.
When working with synced audio and video clips, it may be
necessary to trim an edit point on one clip independently of the
others. For example, if you want a synchronized audio clip to
continue for a few seconds past the end of its video clip peers, you
can perform a split edit. For more information, see Selecting Trim
Sides on page 283.
Resyncing Clips
Offsets that were created by moving a synchronized clip independently of its
peers can be corrected, partially or even completely, by resyncing the clip.
Resyncing slips the offset clip until the offset is back to zero, or until the offset
clip runs out of unused material. For more information, see Slipping or Sliding
Clips on page 300.
To resync an offset clip
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode icon.
2. On the timeline, select the offset clip.
3. From the toolbar, click Editing > Resync.
The clip is slipped until the offset is corrected, or no unused material is left.
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Chapter 6 • Building a Rough Cut
Deleting Synchronized
Clips
When you delete a sync-locked clip, only the highlighted clip is deleted. The
other clips that were synchronized with it remain synchronized. If you delete
an entire group, none of the clips remain on the timeline.
If you delete a group’s master clip, the second clip that you selected when you
created the group becomes the new master clip. All subsequently selected clips
remain as slave clips.
If the group from which you deleted the clip contained only two clips, the
other clip in the group will remain on the timeline as a single clip (neither
master nor slave).
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To delete a synchronized clip
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode icon.
2. On the timeline, select a clip to delete.
A red border surrounds the selected clip.
3. Press Delete to delete the clip.
The selected clip is removed. If the group contained more than two clips,
the next selected clip in the group becomes the new master clip.
To delete a sync group
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode icon.
2. Select one clip from the group that you want to delete.
3. From the toolbar, click Editing > Select Sync Peers.
4. Press Delete to delete the clip.
The selected group is removed.
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Referencing Sequences
Referencing other sequences lets you place pointers to other sequences on the
timeline in the current sequence. These pointers are called reference clips.
A reference clip points to another sequence within the current project.
Because reference clips only point to a sequence, they consume less memory
and load faster than container clips. This improves performance on complex
timelines. Using a reference clip also allows you to work on that portion of
your sequence separately. Once it’s updated, the changes are automatically
reflected in sequences that contain this reference clip.
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Creating Reference
Clips
You can create a reference to any sequence that exists within the current project.
A reference clip cannot be placed on a track if it completely covers another clip.
In this case, you must place the reference clip on a different track.
You can only play back the video and background tracks of a
referenced sequence. Any audio tracks within the sequence will not
be heard.
To create a reference to an existing sequence
1. Select a sequence from the Avid Explorer.
2. Press the Alt key and drag the sequence to the timeline.
The sequence appears as a clip on the timeline.
Once you’ve created a reference clip, you cannot move or rename the
sequence to which it points. If the referenced sequence has been
moved or renamed, then the Record viewer will display a
“Referenced sequence not found” message. You can avoid this by
placing the sequence back in its original location or changing its
name back to the original.
Audio Reference Clips. When you create a reference to a sequence
that contains audio, the created reference clip for audio becomes
red. This requires that you process the audio (see Processing
Reference Clips on page 256).
Converting a
Container Clip to a
Reference Clip
You can lighten the load on your timeline and improve performance by
converting complex container clips to reference clips. This saves the contents
of the container clip to disk as a sequence. In the container clip’s place on the
timeline will a reference to the saved sequence.
To convert a container clip to a reference clip
1. Right-click on the container clip and choose Convert to Reference Clip
from the menu.
You are prompted to save your current sequence.
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2. Click OK to save the current sequence and continue.
The current sequence is saved, and the container clip is saved as a
sequence with the same name as the container clip.
To open a reference clip
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode icon.
2. Select the reference clip.
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3. From the toolbar, click Editing > Expand Ref Clip.
To close a reference clip and return to the top timeline
• From the toolbar, click Editing > Collapse Ref Clip.
Processing Reference
Clips
If a reference clip contains any unprocessed material, then the marker ribbon
and/or clip is highlighted in red and a message “Referenced sequence needs
processing” is displayed in the Record viewer during playback.
Processing a reference clip from a master sequence using the Process
Reference command does not let you choose processing options.
Avid|DS will process the referenced sequence according to the
processing options of that sequence, except that it will change the
mode to Minimal.
To process a single reference clip
1. Place the position indicator on a reference clip you want to process.
2. From the toolbar, click Processing > Process Reference Clip.
You are prompted to save the current sequence.
3. Click OK to save the current sequence or click Cancel to bypass the save.
Avid|DS closes the current sequence, opens the referenced sequence,
processes it, saves it, and then reloads the original sequence.
To process the entire timeline, including any reference clips
1. From the toolbar, click Processing > Process Timeline and References.
You are prompted to save the current sequence.
2. Click OK to save the current sequence or click Cancel to bypass the save.
Avid|DS processes the entire timeline, and also opens and processes any
reference clips on the top timeline.
256 • User’s Guide
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Chapter 7
Applying Effects and Transitions
User’s Guide • 257
Chapter 7 • Applying Effects and Transitions
In This Chapter...
This chapter describes how to apply effects and transitions, and how to nest
clips on the timeline.
Applying Effects on the Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Applying Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
Nesting Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
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Processing Sequences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
258 • User’s Guide
Building Sequences
Applying Effects on the Timeline
Any effects that you apply on the timeline are based on what you have
currently selected. You can apply video and audio effects to the entire
timeline, individual clips or tracks, or to a selected region of a clip or track.
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Before you can select anything on the timeline, you must be in
Selection mode. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection
Mode icon.
Effects applied to clips are called clip effects and effects applied to a track are
called track effects. Clip effects are effects that are attached to a clip and move
with the clip on the timeline. Clip effects affect only the clips on which you’ve
applied them. Track effects can be placed on audio tracks, video tracks,
background tracks, and the timeline effect track. Track effects modify only the
clips on the track on which the effect is applied. An effect placed on the
timeline effect track affects all the tracks in the timeline.
For more information, refer to Applying Effects on page 33 and Image
Transition Effects on page 299 of the Avid|DS Compositing & Effects Guide.
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Chapter 7 • Applying Effects and Transitions
Applying Transitions
Transitions are changes, like dissolves, wipes, fades, DVEs, or cuts that you
can apply to or between clips on the timeline. You can apply transitions to the
beginning or end of a single clip, or between two clips.
For example, you can use a one-sided transition to fade into a clip at the
beginning of your sequence. You can then apply wipes, cuts, and dissolves
between other clips on the timeline to move smoothly from one clip to the next.
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The type of transition you apply depends on the media you’re working with.
For instance, you can apply a dissolve, wipe, or DVE to video clips, while you
can apply a crossfade, fade-in, or fade-out to audio clips. For more
information, refer to Image Transition Effects on page 297 of the Avid|DS
Compositing & Effects Guide.
Cutting to a Clip
A cut is a jump or sharp transition between two clips. The cut transfers
activeness from one clip to another. The Cut To transition is especially useful
for multicamera editing when you need to constantly switch between different
camera shots to create the desired edit. In this case, you must place each
camera take on a separate track. You can then “cut on the fly” by switching the
activeness from one take to another.
The behavior of a Cut To is the same for both audio and video clips.
To cut to a clip
1. Place the clips on different tracks and overlap the clips at the
appropriate timecodes.
Active clip from
camera 1
Clip on camera 2 that
you want to cut to
2. Place the position indicator at the point, on the next clip, at which you
want to make a cut.
If the clip you are cutting to is inactive or on a lower track, you
cannot see its frames in the viewer. To view that clip’s frames, click
the Solo button on the track on which the clip is located.
3. Select the clip that you want to cut to.
4. From the toolbar, click Editing > Cut To.
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The activeness is switched from the first clip to the selected clip at the
position indicator.
Cut between clips
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Clip from camera 1 is active
5. Continue to cut back and forth between the two cameras by placing the
position indicator at the appropriate frame, selecting the clip you want to
cut to, and then clicking Editing > Cut To from the toolbar.
Cut to clip from camera 2
Creating One-Sided
Transitions
You can apply one-sided transitions to clips on the timeline. One-sided
transitions are usually applied to the beginning or end of a single clip to
transition into it or out of it.
To apply a one-sided transition to a clip
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode icon to select it.
2. On the timeline, select a clip’s in-point or out-point.
3. From the toolbar, do one of the following:
• If you selected a video clip’s in-point or out-point, click Video Effect and
choose an effect from the menu.
• If you selected an audio clip’s in-point or out-point, click Audio Effect and
choose an effect from the menu.
The transition’s property editor is displayed, and the transition appears as
a gradient on the clip’s activeness bar.
You can edit the duration of a one-sided transition the same way you
would edit a transition between clips; simply drag the transition points.
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Chapter 7 • Applying Effects and Transitions
Creating Transitions
between Clips
You can apply a transition between clips on the same track, or on different
audio and background tracks. You can not apply transitions to different video
tracks. Transitions can be created only when there is extra material available
on one of the clips.
To apply a transition between clips
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode icon.
2. On the timeline, overlap the clips that you need to work with. These clips
can be on the same track, on different audio tracks, or on different
background tracks.
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3. Select the edit point between the two clips.
4. From the toolbar, click Transition Effects and choose Dissolve/Crossfade,
Wipe, or DVE from the menu.
The transition’s property editor is displayed.
The edit point can be set to be the start, end, or center of the transition.
You can also change the type of transition that you’ve applied. All these
options are available in the property editor.
After a transition is applied between two clips, it is automatically shown as
a gradient on the activeness bar.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the transition properties.
262 • User’s Guide
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Same-track transition
Transition area
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A transition between
two clips on different
background tracks
Before
Edit points
Transition point at beginning of transition
After
Transition area
Transition point at end
of transition
Transitions have their own properties with edit points that indicate the
beginning, center, and end of the transition. These edit points become
highlighted when you select them.
Editing Transition
Properties
Once you’ve applied a transition between two clips, you can change the
properties of the transition.
To change the properties of a transition
1. Do one of the following:
• Right-click on the transition edit point and choose Properties from the menu.
• Double-click on the transition edit point.
2. Change the properties in the transition’s property editor.
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Chapter 7 • Applying Effects and Transitions
Aligning Transitions
You can change the alignment of a transition to begin at the start, end, or
center of the edit point.
To change the alignment of a transition
1. In Trim mode, click the transition’s edit point to select it.
2. Right-click on the Transition Alignment button and choose one of the
following from the menu:
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• Transition Start to align the transition to the right of the edit point.
Transition starts at
edit point
• Transition Center to align the transition to center around the edit point.
Transition is centered
at edit point
• Transition End to align the transition to the left of the edit point.
Transition ends at
edit point
Removing Transitions
You can easily remove a transition and restore the original clips. When you
remove a transition, it becomes a cut from one clip to the next as the edit
point remains the same.
To remove a transition
• Do one of the following:
- Select the transition’s edit point and press Delete.
- Right-click on the transition’s activeness bar and choose Delete
(transition type) from the menu.
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Nesting Clips
You can break down complicated tasks into more manageable sections by
nesting multiple clips in a container clip. This way, an entire special effects
scene, for example, can be presented as one container clip on the timeline.
Container clips behave just like any other clip on the timeline. The same rules
of activeness, rippling, and other editing functions (trimming, slipping,
sliding) apply.
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There are three basic types of container clips that you can use:
• Composite container clips lets you layer several video clips together on
video tracks. The result is treated as a single clip.
• Background container clips let you edit several video clips together on
background tracks and treat the result as a single clip on the top or
parent timeline.
• Audio container clips let you group several audio clips, mix them
together, and treat them as a single clip on the top or parent timeline.
In addition, there are image processing utilities (such as Timewarp, Interlace/
Deinterlace, and 3:2 Expand/3:2 Contract) that automatically create container
clips to hold the original clip before the effect is applied.
When you close a container clip, it appears as a single clip on the timeline.
You can reopen a container clip at any time to add, modify, or delete
its components.
Creating Nested Clips
When you open a sequence, you are always viewing the top timeline. Container
clips provide you with a new timeline on which you can place clips. This lets
you focus your tasks specifically on clips within the container clip.
By default, the ruler inside the container clip starts at 00:00:00. This lets you build
a subsequence that is independent of the final sequence on the top timeline.
Create container
from this clip
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Chapter 7 • Applying Effects and Transitions
A container clip timeline is nested in the top or parent timeline. When you
open a container clip, it displays its contents on this new timeline. When you
close the container clip, however, the clip appears relative in time to all other
clips on the parent timeline.
New container clip timeline
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An icon appears on
the taskbar to
indicate that you’re
in a container clip
You can add more clips to the container clip and layer or arrange them
sequentially for compositing, audio mixing, or editing subsections of a larger
project. You can even nest other container clips in this container clip.
You can also set the ruler in the container clip to correspond to the one on the
top timeline. This lets you view clips at the exact timecode that they will
appear in the final sequence.
By default, a container clip is named “Background Container x”, “Audio
Container x”, or “Composite Container x”, where x is the next sequential
number for that type of container clip. You can easily rename a container clip
with a more suitable name by using the clip’s property editor.
A closed container clip
represented as a single
clip on the top timeline
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Creating a Composite Container Clip
Composite container clips let you layer video clips and apply graphics, color
correction, keyer, and DVE effects to each layer. Clips placed on video tracks
are composited over each other, and when the container is closed, the result is
displayed as a single clip on the top or parent timeline.
If you use background tracks within your composite container, they
are combined into a single background container within the
composite container. All video tracks are stacked on top of the
background container within the composite container.
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You can also create a composite container clip to draw graphics or add titles to
your clips. A composite container clip can contain a number of video clips,
and is used primarily for compositing clips and treating the result as a single
clip. For more information, see Building a Composite in a Container Clip on
page 94.
To create a composite container clip
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode icon.
2. On the timeline, select the video clips that you want to use in the
container clip.
To select more than one clip at a time, press Ctrl while clicking on clips.
3. Do one of the following:
• From the toolbar, click Containers > Composite Container Clip from
the menu.
• From the taskbar, click the Create Container icon and choose Create
Composite Container Clip from the menu.
A container clip timeline opens. You can now place additional clips on the
tracks, add effects, and perform other editing tasks to the clips.
Composite
Container Clip icon
Also, notice that a new container clip timeline icon is displayed in the
taskbar to indicate that you’re working in a composite container clip.
4. Do one of the following after you have finish editing the clips in this
container clip:
• From the toolbar, click Navigation > Go to Top Timeline from the menu.
• From the taskbar, click the Top Timeline icon.
Container clip icon
The composite container clip is closed and the top timeline is displayed.
All the clips are displayed as one clip on the timeline. You can reopen the
container clip at any time by clicking the icon in the title bar of the
container clip.
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Chapter 7 • Applying Effects and Transitions
Creating a Background Container Clip
Background container clips let you edit several video clips together on a
background track, and treat the result as a single clip on the top or parent
timeline. Any editing tasks that can be performed on the top timeline can also
be done in a background container clip.
For example, to perform a double dissolve (commonly known as a bi-pack),
you first dissolve two clips in a container clip. On the top timeline, you then
dissolve the container clip with a third clip.
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To create a background container clip
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode icon.
2. On the timeline, select the video clips that you want to use in the
container clip.
To select more than one clip at a time, press Ctrl while clicking on
clips. All these clips will be placed in the same container clip.
3. Do one of the following:
• From the toolbar, click Containers > Background Container from
the menu.
• From the taskbar, click the Create Container icon and choose Create
Background Container Clip from the menu.
Top Timeline icon
Background Container
Clip icon
A container clip timeline opens. You can now place additional clips on the
background tracks, add effects or transitions, or perform other editing
tasks on the clips.
Also, a new container clip timeline icon is displayed in the taskbar to
indicate that you are working in a background container clip.
4. Do one of the following after you finish editing the clips in this container clip:
• From the toolbar, click Navigation > Go to Top Timeline from the menu.
• From the taskbar, click the Top Timeline icon.
Container clip icon
The background container clip is closed and the top timeline is displayed.
All the clips are displayed as one clip on the timeline. You can reopen the
container clip at any time by clicking the icon in the title bar of the
container clip.
An option allows the container icon to appear on the clip. For more
information, refer to User Preferences dialog box (General property
page) in the online help.
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Creating an Audio Container Clip
Audio container clips let you group several audio clips, mix them together,
and treat them as a single clip on the top or parent timeline. These audio
container clips can be synchronized with corresponding video clips or mixed
with other audio clips.
You can create submixes by nesting audio container clips in other audio
container clips. For example, you can create a container clip just to create a
submix of all the drum sound tracks, while another container clip can be used
for the guitar submix. These two container clips can then be mixed together to
generate the final recording.
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To create an audio container clip
1. On the timeline navigation bar, click the Selection Mode icon.
2. On the timeline, select the audio clips that you want to use in the
container clip.
To select more than one clip at a time, press Ctrl while clicking on clips.
3. Do one of the following:
• From the toolbar, click Containers > Audio Container from the menu.
• From the taskbar, click the Create Container icon and choose Create
Audio Container Clip from the menu.
Audio Container
Clip icon
A container clip timeline opens. You can now place additional clips on the
tracks, add effects and transitions, and perform other editing tasks on the
clips. In the audio container clip, you can set your ruler to display frames
or milliseconds for greater accuracy when editing audio clips.
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Chapter 7 • Applying Effects and Transitions
Also, a new container clip timeline icon appears in the taskbar to indicate
that you are working inside an audio container clip.
Stereo
audio tracks
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Mono audio
track
Audio container clip
4. Do one of the following after you finish editing the clips in this container clip:
• From the toolbar, click Navigation > Go to Top Timeline from the menu.
• From the taskbar, click the Top Timeline icon.
Container clip icon
A closed audio container
clip represented as a
single clip on the timeline
270 • User’s Guide
The audio container clip is closed and the top timeline is displayed. All the
clips are displayed as one clip on the timeline. You can reopen the
container clip at any time by clicking the icon in the title bar of the
container clip.
Building Sequences
Navigating within
Nested Clips
When you first open a sequence, the top timeline is displayed. The top
timeline is the topmost level of the timeline. This is where you can see all the
clips that comprise your sequence.
A container clip timeline is nested in the top or parent timeline. When you
open a container clip, it displays the contents of the container clip on this
new timeline.
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You can also create container clips in container clips. A container clip that
contains another is called the parent container clip. Each time you create or
open a container clip, its corresponding icon appears at the bottom of the
taskbar. As you continue to nest container clips, the list of icons on the taskbar
continues to grow. These icons provide a quick way of navigating between
container clips. The timeline icons in the taskbar indicate how deep the
container clip is nested.
Top Timeline
Parent Timeline
Current Timeline
Container clip timelines
that are currently open
Create new container clip
You can identify container clips by the type of icon that appears in the taskbar.
This icon
Represents
A composite container clip.
A background container clip.
An audio container clip.
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Chapter 7 • Applying Effects and Transitions
Opening Container Clips
The icon at the top of the timeline icons in the taskbar represents the top
timeline. As you create nested container clips, more timeline icons appear on
the taskbar. The type of timeline icons that appear correspond to the opened
container clips.
Container clip icon
To open a container clip
Do one of the following:
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• Click on the icon in the container clip.
Step In
• Double-click on the container clip.
• Select the clip and click the Step In icon on the timeline navigation bar.
The container clip timeline is displayed. A new container clip icon is
displayed in the taskbar, representing the container clip in which you’re
currently working.
Closing Container Clips
After you’ve made changes to the container clip, you can close your current
container clip and go to the top or parent timeline by clicking the respective
navigation icon on the taskbar.
When you click the Top Timeline icon, it closes all of the container clips below
it and displays the top timeline.
Similarly, when you click on a parent container clip icon, it closes any nested
container clips within it and displays only the contents of the selected
container clip.
To close a container clip and return to the top timeline
Do one of the following:
Top Timeline icon
Parent Timeline icon
• From the toolbar, click Navigation > Go to Top Timeline.
• From the taskbar, click the Top Timeline icon.
This closes all open container clips and returns to the top timeline.
To close a container clip and return to the parent timeline
Do one of the following:
• From the toolbar, click Navigation > Go to Parent Timeline.
Step Out
• In the taskbar, click any container clip icon (Parent Timeline icon) above
the current container clip icon.
• On the timeline navigation bar, click the Step Out icon.
The current container clip is closed and the parent container clip’s
timeline is displayed.
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Building Sequences
Deleting Nested Clips
You can delete any container clip on the timeline. Deleting a container clip
removes the container clip and its contents from the timeline.
To delete a container clip and its contents
Do one of the following:
• Select a container clip and press Delete.
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• Right-click on a container clip and choose Delete Clip from the menu.
The container clip is removed from the timeline.
If the container clip is sync-locked with another audio or video
component, the other component remains on the timeline. You have
to delete it as an independent clip.
To delete a container clip but preserve its contents
1. Open a container clip.
2. Press Ctrl and select all the clips in the container clip.
3. Press Ctrl+C to copy the clips.
4. Close the container clip.
5. Press Delete to delete the container clip.
6. Place the position indicator at the point on the timeline on which you
want to place the clips you copied.
7. Press Ctrl+V to paste the clips back on the timeline.
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Chapter 7 • Applying Effects and Transitions
Processing Sequences
If you’ve applied transitions and effects to clips and then nested them in
container clips, you must process them before playing them. Processing is not
performed automatically, since it takes time and system resources to process
your clips. You can process all or part of the timeline. You can also choose
different levels at which to process your clips. For more information, refer to
Processing Effects on page 115 of the Avid|DS Compositing & Effects Guide.
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All audio and some video effects and transitions do not need to be
processed as they are computed during real-time playback.
To process a sequence
1. Do one of the following:
• From the toolbar, click Processing > Process.
• In the timeline controls, click the Process icon.
Process icon
Highlighted timeline
ribbon indicates
unprocessed section of
the sequence
274 • User’s Guide
Building Sequences
2. In the Processing Options dialog box, select the appropriate options.
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3. Click OK to begin processing.
A progress indicator appears on the bottom of the desktop to show the
status of the process.
4. Click Cancel to stop the process at any time.
Click Help for detailed information on the processing options or refer to
Processing Effects on page 115 of the Avid|DS Compositing & Effects Guide.
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Chapter 7 • Applying Effects and Transitions
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276 • User’s Guide
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Chapter 8
Trimming Clips
User’s Guide • 277
Chapter 8 • Trimming Clips
In This Chapter...
This chapter describes how to trim edit points after you create a rough
cut sequence.
Workflow: Trimming Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Understanding Trimming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Methods of Trimming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
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Selecting and Breaking Edit Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
Performing a Basic Trim. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Creating Overlap Edits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
Trimming Container Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Trimming Transition Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Slipping or Sliding Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
Maintaining Sync While Trimming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
278 • User’s Guide
Workflow: Trimming Clips
Trimming is the process of fine-tuning the transitions between clips to create
smooth transitions for the final sequence.
The following illustration shows how you can trim edit points in Avid|DS.
1
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Select either edit handles, trim
handles, or clips
Trim handles
2
Perform a dual-roll trim or a single-roll trim
Drag the selected trim object right or
left to trim the edit point
Clip
Before
<Edit handles
3
Trim with Ripple mode to change
recording timecode
After
4
Transition area
Ripple button
Trim clips using Trim mode
Enter Trim mode to display the
incoming and outgoing frame for
fine-tuning the trim
Trim transition effects
Use the tools in Trim mode or drag the
transition’s edit points to trim transition effects
Set Ripple mode to change the recording
timecode when trimming with trim handles
5
Trimming to
the left
6
Slip or slide a clip using Slip/Slide mode
Enter Slip/Slide mode to display the
head, tail, incoming, and outgoing
frames when slipping or sliding a clip
User’s Guide • 279
Chapter 8 • Trimming Clips
Understanding Trimming
Basic editing in the timeline initially produces a rough cut, which can be
loosely defined as a series of straight-cut edits with many rough edges and few
effects. After creating a rough cut, you can fine-tune the transitions between
each clip or between several clips. You can also trim edits as you build a
sequence rather than create a rough cut first.
Trimming lets you fine-tune the incoming or outgoing frames at the edit
points of a clip. Each clip has elements that you can select and edit; they’re the
trim handles and edit points. Edit points are located at the ends of the
activeness bar of a clip, or where it transitions to another clip.
?
Selected activeness bar
Edit points
The activeness bar also displays any transition effects that were applied to the
clip, such as a dissolve, wipe, or crossfade. Transition areas have their own edit
points that indicate the beginning and end of the transition. For more
information, see Applying Transitions on page 260.
Edit point
Edit point
280 • User’s Guide
Transition area
Activeness bar
When you select an edit point, it displays trim handles and edit handles at that
edit point.
Trim-out handle
Changes the outgoing
frame on clip A
Trim-in handle
Changes the incoming
frame on clip B
?
Base edit handle
Changes edit time without moving clips
The edit point identifies the time at which the indicated frame will start or
end recording. You can trim clips by adjusting the edit or trim handles at an
edit point.
Trimming the edit handle changes the incoming or outgoing frame and the
recording timecode. Adjusting the trim handle changes the incoming or
outgoing frame, but keeps the recording timecode (unless in Ripple mode).
For information about Ripple mode, see Rippling Clips on page 244.
When trimming clips, it’s helpful to know how much material you have
available. You can use the Display Unused Material mode to see how many
extra frames you have available at the head or tail of a clip. For more
information, see Revealing Unused Material on Clips on page 234.
User’s Guide • 281
Chapter 8 • Trimming Clips
Methods of Trimming
There are two methods in which you can trim clips. Both methods have their
advantages:
• Interactively on the timeline
When you trim clips on the timeline, you immediately see how it affects
the other clips in the sequence. Also, when you select and drag an edit or
trim handle, the frames are updated in the Record viewer, so that you can
search for frames as you trim the clip.
?
• Using the Trim mode
This mode provides a set of controls for fine-tuning edits, as well as
viewing the incoming and outgoing frames at the same time. It also
provides more controls for performing trimming tasks.
The Trim mode provides a close-up view of a clip, so that you can trim the
clip on a frame-by-frame basis. The results are the same as if you were
dragging the clip’s trim handles or edit points on the timeline, except that
you are given more tools to work with in the Trim mode. For more
information, refer to Trim Mode in the online help.
When trimming a clip, you may want to preserve the integrity of edit
points on other clips. To do this, you must deactivate the Ripple
mode on the timeline.
Trimming a clip provides different results depending on whether
you’re working in Ripple mode or not. For more information, see
Rippling Clips on page 244.
282 • User’s Guide
Selecting and Breaking Edit Points
Before you can trim a clip you need to select an edit point. When you select an
edit point on a clip, its trim handles and edit handles are displayed.
Depending on the type of trim you want to perform, you can select and
deselect the various trim handles and edit handles.
When an edit point is selected, all other edit points at that timecode are also
selected. You can break linked edit points to trim the clips independently of
each other.
?
Before you can select edit point and trim handles on the timeline,
you must click the Selection Mode icon on the timeline navigation
bar to enter Selection Mode.
Selecting Trim Sides
You can select and deselect the various trim handles and edit handles of a
clips’s edit point. When you select an edit point you are selecting the clip’s in
or out-point.
With video clips, an edit point is shared when one clip intersects with another.
If you adjust this edit point, you perform a dual-roller trim in which both
clips are trimmed simultaneously.
You can perform a single-roller trim by selecting either an in or out-point.
You can also select edit points on multiple audio and video clips at the same
timecode. This is useful when editing synchronized audio and video clips.
When an edit point is selected, you can turn it on or off. This is especially
useful if you want to break an edit point, so that you can trim clips
independently of each other (or perform a split edit).
To select an edit point
Do one of the following
• On the activeness bar, click an edit point.
• In Trim mode, click the Go to Previous Edit or Go to Next Edit button.
By default, Avid|DS selects the nearest transition in either direction of
selected tracks for trimming.
To select edit points on multiple audio and video clips
• Press Shift and drag left to right on the timeline to surround the
transitions you want to trim.
This method is useful when you need to select multiple transitions
staggered across parallel tracks (overlap cuts) for simultaneous trimming.
• Press Shift and click an edit point.
All other edit points at the same timecode are selected regardless of the
clip type.
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Chapter 8 • Trimming Clips
• Press Ctrl and click an edit point to select or deselect the edit point or trim
handles for single-roll trimming. This adds a + (plus) or - (minus) to the
pointer icon.
Select an edit
point
Both edit points
on connected
clips become
selected
?
Video clips
Audio clips
Shift-click to select
all edit points at
that timecode
Ctrl-click to deselect
an edit point
To deselect all edit points
• Click another location on the timeline.
To select the sides of a transition to trim
Do one of the following:
• In Trim mode, click the outgoing (A-side) or incoming (B-side) view.
A red border surrounds the incoming and outgoing frames to indicate
which clip will be trimmed.
• In Trim mode, click between the outgoing (A-side) or incoming (B-side)
view to select both sides of a transition.
A red border surrounds both the incoming and outgoing frames.
• Click the trim handles to select or deselect side A, side B, or both.
284 • User’s Guide
The selected trim handle turns yellow and a red border surrounds the
incoming and outgoing frames to indicate which clip will be trimmed.
?
Select a trim handle
Breaking and Relinking
Edit Points
When an edit point is selected, all other edit points at that timecode are also
selected. You can break edit points to independently trim clips. Since Avid|DS
preserves all edit points between clips in a sequence, you cannot break an edit
point by dragging edit points apart. To break edit points, you must use the
Break Links command on the Editing toolbar. Linked edit points are
highlighted in yellow.
Dragging an
intersecting edit
point right or
left adjusts both
points at that
timecode
Ctrl-click an edit
point to
deselect it
You can now trim this edit point independently
User’s Guide • 285
Chapter 8 • Trimming Clips
To break an edit point
• Select the edit points of contiguous clips, and do one of the following:
- Press Ctrl and deselect the edit point that you do not want to adjust. The
deselected edit point is no longer highlighted.
- From the toolbar, click Editing > Break Links.
You can now trim the clips independently of each other.
?
To relink edit points at the same timecode
1. Select an unlinked edit point.
2. (Optional) Press Ctrl and click another edit point (of the same clip type)
at the same timecode.
Both edit points are highlighted.
3. From the toolbar, click Editing > Link Edits.
Linked edit points are highlighted with yellow.
286 • User’s Guide
Performing a Basic Trim
With transitions and trim sides selected, you can perform a basic trim by
doing any of the following:
• In the Trim mode, use the Trim buttons to trim forwards or backwards by
one or ten-frame increments—refer to Trim Mode in the online Help.
• Use the J-K-L keys to trim forwards or backwards in the sequence—see
Trimming On-the-Fly on page 296.
?
• Use the keyboard or numeric keypad to:
- Move the transition a specific number of frames, type a plus sign (+) or
minus sign (–) after you type the number of frames (from 1 to 99) that
you want to move forward or backward. Then, press Enter.
If the number of frames is larger than 99, type a period (.) before you
type the number of frames. For example, to enter 100 frames, type .100
and press Enter. The transition moves 3 seconds and 10 frames.
- Move the transition to an exact point in the timecode, type a timecode
number larger than 99, including frames. For example, type 102 to enter
1 second and 2 frames (1:02).
When typing a timecode value, you can skip fields by typing a dot
(.). For example, type 12..22 for timecode 12:00:00:22.
- In Trim mode, to move the transition a specific number or frames, type
the number of frames in the Frame Offset Counter box.
• Select an edit point, a trim-in handle, or a trim-out handle, and adjust the
values in the timecode boxes on the status bar. This edits frames at the
selected point more accurately.
For selected object
Start
End
Duration
Position indicator
In
For in/out markers
Out
Duration
• Drag the trim-in or trim-out handles left or right to change the incoming
or outgoing frames of a clip. This does not change the recording timecode
(unless in Ripple mode)—see Trimming with the Trim Handles on
page 290.
• Drag the edit handle left or right to change the start or end time at which a
clip is recorded. This also changes the incoming or outgoing frame. When
trimming with the edit handles, it does not matter if Ripple mode is on or
off—see Trimming the Edit Point on page 288.
User’s Guide • 287
Chapter 8 • Trimming Clips
If you want to trim synchronized audio and video clips, you must
simultaneously select multiple edit points. For more information,
see Selecting Trim Sides on page 283.
As you trim, all selected transitions in the timeline move in unison. The
Frame Offset counters display the frame count backward or forward for one
or both trim sides, and the Trim viewer displays the new incoming or
outgoing frames.
?
Trimming the Edit
Point
When you move the edit handle at an edit point, you are changing the start or
end recording time for the clip. This also changes the incoming or outgoing
frame.
When trimming with the edit handles, it does not matter if Ripple
mode is on or off.
The following illustration shows the different ways of trimming an edit point:
Before
Trimming edit point to the left
After
More frames are available at beginning of clip
Before
Trimming edit point to the right
After
Frames are hidden from
beginning of clip
Before
Trimming intersecting edit point to the right
After
288 • User’s Guide
Edit points can only be dragged as far as there is available material on the clip.
To trim an edit point on a clip
1. Select an edit point on a clip.
The clip’s edit handles are displayed.
2. Drag the edit point left or right.
Depending on the direction in which you drag the clip, more frames are
made available or hidden.
?
To trim edit points between clips
1. Select an edit point between two clips.
The edit handles on both clips are displayed.
2. Drag the edit point left or right.
As you move the edit point, it reveals more frames on one clip and hides
frames on the other.
You can also adjust an edit point more precisely by selecting it and
entering a value in the S (start) or E (end) timecode boxes on the
status bar.
Select one edit point
between contiguous clips.
Both points are
automatically selected
Drag edit point
right or left
Both edit points at that timecode
are adjusted
Adjusting the in and out-points on clips
User’s Guide • 289
Chapter 8 • Trimming Clips
Trimming with the
Trim Handles
Trim-in handle
?
The trim handles on a clip are used to change the incoming or outgoing
frames of a clip. This does not change the recording timecode. When you
move the trim-in handle of a clip, you change the incoming frame on a clip.
Similarly, if you move the trim-out handle of a clip, you are changing its
outgoing frame.
Trim-out handle
When Ripple mode is activated, trimming clips gives you different results than
when it is deactivated. The following illustrations show how clips are affected
when you trim them with and without the Ripple mode. The first scenario
illustrates what happens when you trim an in-point.
290 • User’s Guide
Trimming an in-point
Ripple mode on
Before
Trimming to the left
?
After
The following clip(s)
ripple
Before
Trimming to the right
After
The following clip(s) ripple
back
Ripple mode off
Before
Trimming to the left
After
Edit point remains
fixed on timeline
Before
Trimming to the right
After
User’s Guide • 291
Chapter 8 • Trimming Clips
Trimming an out-point
Ripple mode on
Before
Trimming to the left
?
After
Following clip(s) ripple back
Before
Trimming to the right
After
The following clip(s)
ripple
Ripple mode off
Before
Trimming to the left
After
Second clip extends as
long as there is more
material available
End point of
following clip
remains fixed
on timeline
Before
Trimming to the right
After
292 • User’s Guide
To adjust the trim handles
1. If you want ripple activated, click the Ripple button in the timeline
controls. Then, if necessary, click the Track Ripple button for the
individual tracks on which you want the clips to ripple.
You can only ripple individual audio and video tracks.
?
2. Select the edit point on the clip that you want to trim.
The clip’s trim handles are displayed just above the edit point.
3. Drag the trim handle to the right or left. The trim handle can only be
moved as far as there is extra material available on the clip.
The following example shows the results of trimming a clip when you’re in
Ripple mode and when you’re not. The clips are placed on multiple tracks, so
that you can see the unused material on the clips.
Before
Trim-in handle to the right
>>
After: Ripple mode off
Clip is slipped to the left
Opposite end’s edit point remains fixed on timeline
Incoming frame remains the same
Trim-in handle when not in Ripple mode
User’s Guide • 293
Chapter 8 • Trimming Clips
Trim-in handle to the right
Before
>>
?
After: Ripple mode on
Clip is slipped to the left
>>
Trim-in handle to the right
Successive clips are moved the
same amount of trimmed frames
Trim-in handle in Ripple mode
Trimming Audio Clips
Using the trim handles to trim audio clips lets you hear the clips as you scrub
over them. For example, in the following illustration, if you move the trim-in
handle of the Drums clip, you’ll hear that clip being played. If however, you
move the trim-out handle of the Bass clip, that’s the clip you’ll hear.
Backtiming
Backtiming is a way of trimming a clip’s out-point without changing its
activeness or position. Instead of overwriting or being overwritten by the
following clip, the selected clip is slipped along its unused material.
When trimming backtime edits, it does not matter if Ripple mode is
on or off. Backtime edits are performed as if Ripple mode is off.
294 • User’s Guide
To perform a backtime edit on a clip
Main Ripple
button
1. Make sure that the main Ripple button is deselected.
2. Select the out-point that you want to edit.
3. Press E and drag the out-point trim handle right or left.
The clip is slipped along its unused material while maintaining its
activeness and position. The previous and next clips in the sequence are
not affected.
?
Snapping Edit Points
If you need to quickly fix a bad edit, instead of selecting the previous or next
edit point and dragging it to the position indicator, you can locate the correct
frame and then snap the edit point to that frame.
To snap an edit point to the position indicator
1. Move the position indicator to the desired position.
The P timecode box indicates the timecode of the position indicator.
2. From the toolbar, click Editing and choose one of the following:
• Snap In to move the in-point to the new timecode.
• Snap Out to move the out-point.
The selected frame becomes the new in or out-point.
You can also use the Snap In and Snap Out commands to trim
synced clips (for example clips with audio and video content) as
long as the clips are the same length.
You should have enough unused material available to perform this
operation. For more information see Revealing Unused Material on
Clips on page 234.
Reviewing a Trim Edit
or Transition in Trim
Mode
After you trim an edit point in Trim mode, you can review the trim edit to
verify the trim. You can also play a transition in a loop to view the transition.
There are two procedures for reviewing a trim edit or playing a transition
while in Trim mode.
To review the most recent trim edit or play the selected transition
using the Play Preview button
• Click the Play Preview button.
The Avid|DS system enters a playback loop. This loop begins at a preroll
point before the transition and ends at a postroll point, pausing briefly
before beginning playback again.
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Chapter 8 • Trimming Clips
To review the most recent trim edit or to play the selected transition
1. Click the Loop button.
The Loop mode is activated and loop markers appear on the timeline ribbon.
2. Click the Play button.
Avid|DS enters a playback loop. This loop begins at a preroll point before
the transition and ends at a postroll point, pausing briefly before
beginning playback again.
?
To make adjustments to the playback loop for preroll or postroll,
refer to Editing Property Page in the online Help.
3. Stop the playback loop by clicking the Play button again.
4. Click the Loop button again to deactivate the Loop mode and remove the
loop markers.
Trimming On-the-Fly
In Trim mode, you can use the J-K-L keys on the keyboard to play outgoing or
incoming material and mark trim points. For convenience, this method
isolates the trim controls to just three keys.
To trim on-the-fly
1. Click either the outgoing (A-side) or incoming (B-side) view to play in
real time during the trim.
2. Select one or more transitions for single-roller or dual-roller trimming.
3. Use the J-K-L keys to step (jog), play, or shuttle through the footage at
varying speeds:
• Hold down the K key while pressing the J or L key to step slowly backwards
or forwards through the footage. When you find the frame where you want
to relocate the transition, release the K key to complete the trim.
• Press the J or L key once to play at normal speed, or press more than once
to shuttle at higher speeds. When you see the frame where you want to
relocate the transition, press the K key to complete the trim—see Varying
the Playback Speed on page 224.
If you press the spacebar while trimming with the J-K-L keys, the
position indicator moves to the current location. No trim is performed.
The Trim viewer and the timeline are updated to reflect the trim.
When trimming with the J-K-L keys, you cannot completely trim
away a clip. The Avid|DS system always leaves one frame. To remove
the remaining frame, see Performing a Basic Trim on page 287.
296 • User’s Guide
Creating Overlap Edits
You can use an overlap edit to smooth a transition by giving the illusion that
the audio or video is shared between two separate but adjacent clips. Perform
a dual-roller trim to create overlap edits.
Audio overlap example
?
Before
trimming
V1
A1
A2
Clip A
Clip B
Clip C
After
trimming
V1
A1
A2
Clip A
Clip B
Clip C
Clip B audio is extended
Clip C audio is trimmed in
To create an overlap edit
1. Perform a straight-cut edit between two clips, including audio and
video tracks:
• If the timing of the video edit is crucial, mark edit points according to
the video.
• If the timing of the audio transition is crucial, mark edit points according
to the audio.
2. Perform a dual-roller trim (edit point trim) on either the video track or
the audio track, but not on both:
• If the video transition occurs at the correct place, but you want the audio
from one clip to linger into the other (or the reverse), trim the audio
tracks accordingly.
• If the audio transition occurs at the correct place, but you want the video
to transition either before or after the audio cut, trim the video track
accordingly.
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Chapter 8 • Trimming Clips
Trimming Container Clips
You can trim a container clip just as you would trim any other clip on the
timeline. You can drag the in-point out to the start of the material (that is, the
in-point of the first clip in the container clip). The out-point of a container
clip can be dragged to infinity. When you trim a container clip, it does not
affect the length of the clips contained within it. If the clip in the container
clip is longer than the container clip itself, the extra material is not visible in
the final sequence.
?
Top timeline
Container clip
timeline
Container clip ends at 00:00:04:22, so this portion is
not visible in final sequence
298 • User’s Guide
Trimming Transition Effects
Transitions are displayed as part of the activeness bar. When you select a
transition, it is highlighted in red. You can adjust the properties of the
transition by right-clicking on this area and opening its property editor.
?
The edit point between two clips indicates a transition from one clip to
another. You can trim this edit point to change the timecodes at which the
transition takes place.
You can also edit transitions by entering values in the timecode
boxes on the status bar.
Transition’s
start point
Selected
transition
Transition’s
end point
To change the duration of a transition effect
1. Select the edit point of the transition effect.
2. Enter the new length for the transition in one of the following places:
• The Transition Duration timecode box in Trim mode.
• The D (duration) timecode box on the status bar.
To change the position of the transition effect
1. In Trim mode, select the transition effect.
2. Right-click on the Transition Alignment button and choose one of the
following from the menu:
Command
Icon
Description
Transition Start
To start the transition at the edit point.
Transition Center
to center the transition on the edit point.
Transition End
to end the transition at the edit point.
.
In the Source and Record view, you can also change the position of a
transition effect by manually moving the edit point.
To trim the transition area, see Selecting and Breaking Edit Points on page 283.
User’s Guide • 299
Chapter 8 • Trimming Clips
Slipping or Sliding Clips
In addition to fine-tuning your edits by trimming clips, you can also slip the
contents of a clip, or slide the clip to a different location in the sequence.
Slipping lets you change a clip’s contents without affecting its position and
duration on the timeline. Sliding lets you change a clip’s location on the
timeline without affecting its content. Instead, the previous and next clips are
trimmed to accommodate the operation. Slipping and sliding clips do not
affect the overall duration of the sequence or the sync relationships between
multiple tracks.
?
The Slip/Slide mode contains tools for slipping or sliding clips. It allows you to
manipulate an edit’s incoming and outgoing frames on a frame-by-frame basis.
It also shows the incoming and/or outgoing frames of the previous and next
clip (if any). You can slip or slide a clip by entering new in and out timecodes,
or by using the buttons to move the frames incrementally. After slipping or
sliding a clip in the Slip/Slide mode, you can play the results in the viewer.
The Slip/Slide mode shows the frames in the selected clip and any clips to
which it is connected. The Head frame and Tail frame show the start and end
frames of the selected clip. If there are any clips before or after the selected
clip, they’re displayed in the Incoming frame or Outgoing frame.
In the special case where the Slip/Slide mode is used for
manipulating audio clips within an audio container, the Trim Nudge
buttons (<, <<, >, and >>) will affect the clip in units of time
defined by the ruler's display (milliseconds, samples, drop frame, or
non-drop frame).
Slipping Clips
Slipping refers to moving the contents of a clip while its edit points remain
fixed. Imagine looking through a train window as the landscape slides by. The
size of the window always remains the same, but the view keeps changing.
Slipping a clip does not change the position or duration of the active area of a
clip. You slip a clip when you are sure about the duration of a clip, but need to
change the incoming frame. When you slip a clip, the edit points do not move
so any transitions that have been applied are maintained. However, the
transition must be reprocessed.
Active area
Before
After
300 • User’s Guide
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
4
Slip clip right or left
5
6
The frames that precede and follow the clip you are slipping are not effected.
Surrounding material
remains fixed
Slip 1 frame to the right
Before
1
2
3
4
4
5
Frames
After
?
2
3
The active area in the illustration shows the active section of a clip. If you slip
the clip, new frames appear in the active area. You can only slip the clip as far
as there is available material on the clip. Any clips that precede or follow the
slipped clip are not affected.
Sliding Clips
Slide refers to moving a clip to change its location on the timeline, while
retaining its duration and active frames. Sliding a clip moves it along the
timeline with its activeness. As you slide a clip, it trims the activeness of the
previous and next clip. You can only slide the clip as far as there is available
material on the adjoining clips.
For example, you would slide a clip when your shot has the correct action
sequence but needs to be synced with its corresponding audio track. To do
this, slide the clip along the timeline until it aligns with its audio clip.
Active area
A1
A2
A3
1
2
3
4
5
B1
B2
B3
3
4
5
B3
Slide clip right or left
If rolled to
the right...
Performing a Slip or
Slide Trim
A1
A2
A3
A1
A4
A2
A5
A3
1
2
In Slip/Slide mode, you can slip the contents of a clip or slide the clip to a
different location in the sequence.
To slip or slide a clip
1. On the timeline, select the clip that you want to slip or slide.
You can slip audio and video clips together by sync-locking them.
For more information, see Maintaining Sync While Trimming on
page 303.
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Chapter 8 • Trimming Clips
2. From the timeline navigation bar, click the Trim Mode icon.
The four-frame Slip/Slide mode replaces the Source/Record view.
3. Select one of the following options from the Slip/Slide mode:
• Slip to slip the selected clip
• Slide to slide the selected clip.
?
You cannot perform both slipping and sliding functions
simultaneously.
4. Click the Trim Nudge buttons to slip or slide the clip.
Nudge Right/Left 10 frames
Nudge Right/Left 1 frame
You can also enter the number of frames that you want to slip or
slide in the Offset text boxes. A positive number moves the clip
forward and a negative number moves it backward.
5. Monitor the progress of the trim by using the Slip/Slide modes, the Frame
Offset counters, and the timeline.
When you reach the end of available material while slipping a shot, the
trim stops. Similarly, when you reach the next transition while sliding a
shot along a track, the trim stops. A red bracket at the transition indicates
the limit. After completing the initial slide, you can perform another slide
in the same direction. It’s useful to see how much extra material you have
by displaying the frames past the activeness bar. To do this, you must be in
Display Unused Material mode—see Revealing Unused Material on Clips
on page 234.
6. When you’re finished, exit the Slip mode or Slide mode by doing one of
the following:
• Deselect the clip and click the Trim Mode icon.
• Click the Source/Record View icon.
302 • User’s Guide
Maintaining Sync While Trimming
Syncing clips is especially useful when trimming audio and video clips on
multiple tracks, because the sound and accompanying images are trimmed in
sync. Because single-roller (A-side or B-side) trims shorten or lengthen the
duration of the track being trimmed, any relationships that exist with other
tracks downstream of the trim will be thrown out of sync.
Single-roller trims allow you to trim one side of an edit point, whereas, a dualroller trim will trim both sides of the edit point.
?
There are three methods that ensure you do not break sync unintentionally
between two or more video and audio tracks when performing single-roller trims:
• Creating a gap on the track while trimming.
• Sync-locking clips to maintain their relative positions—see Synchronizing
Clips on page 248.
• Rippling tracks to maintain a synchronized relationship—see Rippling
Clips on page 244.
Because dual-roller trims do not cause sync breaks, you can only add
gaps while performing single-roller trims.
Creating a Gap When
Trimming
You can create a gap on either the A-side or the B-side of a transition while
maintaining the overall duration of the track and sync relationships. When
trimming a clip, a gap fills the duration of trimmed frames.
After you create a gap on a track, you can replace the gap with footage. For
more information, see Placing Clips on the Timeline on page 208.
To add a gap while trimming
1. Select the transition.
2. Hold the Alt key and drag the A-side or B-side trim handle.
A gap fills the duration of the trim without changing the duration
of sequence.
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Chapter 8 • Trimming Clips
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Chapter 9
Painting and Titling
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Chapter 9 • Painting and Titling
In This Chapter...
This chapter describes how to create graphics and titles, using vector drawing
tools that let you create images or touch up existing clips without losing the
original content. You can also retouch images, remove scratches, animate titles,
import images, as well as manipulate and rearrange the graphics you create.
Workflow: Painting and Titling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
Applying Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
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Using Presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Setting Drawing Tool Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Defining Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
Working with Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Working with Titles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Manipulating Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
Tracking Graphics Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Working in Raster Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
Creating Mattes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Scratch Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
Importing an Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
Processing Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
306 • User’s Guide
Workflow: Painting and Titling
Workflow: Painting and Titling
All graphics creation are done in the Graphics layout and Graphics combo
view. Avid|DS has two toolsets for creating graphics: Paint and Titling. They
share the same animatable edit tools, color browsers, and paint effects editors.
These toolsets let you touch up and add graphics elements to layers, as well as
create mattes. All strokes and their properties are vector-based and fully
editable, except for when you’re working in the raster paint mode.
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1 Choose a method to apply graphics
or
Create a composite container clip
and apply graphics to a layer.
Apply the Graphics effect to a clip.
2
or
Apply graphics as a node
in the Effects Tree.
Choose a drawing tool
Choose a drawing tool.
Define the tool properties.
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Chapter 9 • Painting and Titling
3
Create graphics object
Draw a stroke or
add a title.
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4
Edit individual graphics objects
5
Process the graphics objects
Process the frames
where the graphics
objects were applied.
308 • User’s Guide
Select object and
edit its properties.
Applying Graphics
Applying Graphics
?
In Avid|DS HD Editor,
the floating Graphics
combo view is
displayed instead of
the Graphics layout.
For more information,
refer to Graphics
combo view in the
online help.
When creating graphics or titles, you’ll be working in a graphics session. A
graphics session is the time span over which graphics objects, such as strokes
or titles, appear. You can create a graphics session by applying the Graphics
effect to a clip or track, by applying graphics on a layer inside a composite
container clip or as a graphics node in an Effects Tree.
Before you begin a graphics session, you’ll have to set up the environment in
which you’re going to create graphics. This includes setting the working
resolution and deciding whether you want to apply graphics as an effect, on a
layer in a composite, or as a node in an Effects Tree.
Applying graphics as an effect lets you add graphics to a single clip or on a video,
background, or timeline effect track, as well as a node in the Effects Tree. You
can also paint on a layer in a composite or on a node in the Effects Tree when
you want to use graphics as one effect among many. The method you choose
depends on the type and complexity of the graphics that you plan to use.
Setting the Working
Resolution
Resolution is the amount and degree of detail in a video image. The working
resolution that you choose affects the processing speed of your graphics
session, as well as the interactivity of the painting and titling process. You can
set the working resolution of your graphics session in the Sequence
Preferences dialog box.
To set the working resolution
1. From the File menu, choose Sequence Preferences.
2. In the Sequence Preferences dialog box, select the Video property page.
3. In the Working Video Settings box, set the working resolution—see
Setting the Working Video Quality on page 133.
Click Help for detailed information on the Sequence Preferences properties.
Applying Graphics on
the Video or
Background Tracks
On a video track, you can apply graphics over all or part of a clip, as well as a
series of clips on the same track. A background track is where you can apply
graphics over all the video tracks on the timeline. You can apply a graphics
effect to a clip or track. For more information, refer to Applying Effects to
Tracks on page 35 of the Avid|DS Compositing & Effects Guide.
To apply the Graphics effect on a video track
1. Select the clip or track on which you want to apply graphics.
2. Right-click on your selection and choose one of the following from
the menu:
• Add Clip Effect if you selected a clip.
• Add Track Effect if you selected a track.
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Chapter 9 • Painting and Titling
3. In the Load Preset dialog box, browse through the folders and select the
Graphics effect from the \Image Effects folder.
The Graphics effect is applied to the selected clip or track, the position
indicator moves to the first frame of the clip or track, and the Graphics
layout is displayed.
4. You can now paint or create titles on the viewer.
To apply the Graphics effect on the background track
?
1. Right-click on the timeline ribbon and choose Create Background Track
from the menu.
A background track is created between the audio and the video tracks.
Timeline ribbon
Background track
2. Select the background track or a clip on the background track and do one
of the following:
• Right-click on the clip and choose Add Clip Effect from the menu.
• Right-click on the upper area of the track and choose Add Track Effect
from the menu.
Upper area of
background track
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Applying Graphics
3. In the Load Preset dialog box, select the Graphics effect from the \Image
Effects folder.
The Graphics effect is applied to the selected clip or track, the position
indicator moves to the beginning of the track/clip, and the Graphics
layout is displayed.
4. You can now paint or create titles on the viewer.
?
Applying Graphics on
the Timeline Effect
Track
The timeline effect track is used to apply effects on top of all other effects on
the video and background tracks. This track is useful for applying graphics
without creating a composite container clip. For example, a title that was
created as a graphics effect in the timeline effect track can be moved, scaled,
and overlapped with other titles without modifying the underlying tracks.
To apply the Graphics effect on the timeline effect track
1. On the timeline effect track, drag to select a region.
2. Right-click on the highlighted area and choose Add Timeline Effect from
the menu.
Timeline effect track
3. In the Load Preset dialog box, select the Graphics effect from the \Image
Effects folder.
The Graphics effect is applied to the selected region, the position indicator
moves to the beginning of the region, and the Graphics layout is displayed.
4. You can now paint or create titles on the viewer.
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Applying Graphics
on a Layer
Painting on a layer is useful when you want to create complex effects where
paint is used with other tools, and then apply the effects to several layers
independently. Here are some of the effects you can apply to a layer:
•
•
•
•
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Color correction effects
DVEs for creating effects, such as transformations
Graphics for creating travelling mattes
Keyers for creating a matte to reveal underlying layers
Before you can apply graphics to a layer of a composite, you must first create a
composite container clip, which is created from the selected clip on which the
position indicator is located.
To apply graphics on a layer
1. Place the position indicator over the clip that you want to use in
the composite.
2. Do one of the following:
• From the taskbar, click the Compositing layout icon.
• Select the clip and from the taskbar, click the Create Container Clip icon
and choose Create Composite Container Clip from the menu.
• Right-click on the clip and choose Create Composite Container.
A composite container clip is opened and the Compositing layout is
displayed. The selected clip is automatically placed in a layer in the Layers
view. If the Layers view is not displayed, click the Layers icon from the
view switcher to display the layers in your composite.
3. If desired, you can add more clips to the composite.
4. Click the Gfx button of the layer on which you want to paint.
The Graphics layout is displayed.
5. You can now paint or create titles in the viewer.
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Applying Graphics
Applying Graphics in
an Effects Tree
Applying graphics in an Effects Tree is similar to applying graphics on a layer.
However, with an Effects Tree you can add multiple graphics effects to any
input or effect node.
To apply graphics in an Effects Tree
1. Right-click on a layer in the Compositing layout and choose Effects Tree
(layer) from the menu.
?
The Effects Tree view for the layer is displayed.
2. Right-click on the Effects Tree and choose Add Effect from the menu.
3. From the Load Preset dialog box, select Graphics from the \Image
Effects folder.
A Graphics effect node is added to the Effects Tree.
4. Connect the Graphics effect node input and output—refer to Viewing and
Bypassing Nodes on page 50 of the Avid|DS Compositing & Effects Guide.
5. Double-click on the Graphics effect.
The Graphics layout is displayed. You can now create the graphics you
require—see Working with Graphics on page 330.
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Chapter 9 • Painting and Titling
Using Presets
A preset is a customized set of properties for a graphics session, drawing tool,
property, stroke, or text body. You can use the presets that come with Avid|DS,
or you can create your own by saving the properties that you have already set
and reusing them in other graphics sessions. Either way, presets let you work
more efficiently.
Most graphics-related presets are in the \Dspresets\Paint folder. Graphics
session presets are in the \Dspresets\Image Effects\Graphics Sessions folder.
?
In the Graphics layout, there are presets for:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Loading and Saving
Presets
Graphics sessions
Drawing tools (Freehand, Polyline, Rectangle, Ellipse, Magic Wand, and Text)
Graphics (strokes and text bodies)
Paint Style (Brush, Brush Fx, and Fill Fx)
Titling Style (Face Fx, Edge Fx, and Shadow Fx)
Masks
Time Span
Transformations
There are several ways to load and save presets. You can use the property
editors, toolbars, Graphics property editor, or the Stroke Preset or Text Preset
tools in the GFX Creation Tools toolbar. You can also load a preset by using
the pop-up menu in the graphics property tree.
To load or save a preset using a property editor
1. In the graphics property tree, click a property icon.
Load Preset
2. In the property editor, click the Load Preset or Save Preset icon.
Save Preset
3. In the Load Preset dialog box, do one of the following:
• To load a preset, select a preset.
The graphics property tree displays the properties of the preset you selected.
• To save a preset, enter a name for the preset you’re saving.
The preset you saved appears in the folder in which you saved it.
To load a preset using the toolbars
1. Do one of the following:
• From the General toolbar, click Select and select an object on which to
apply the preset.
• From the GFX Creation Tools toolbar, click a drawing tool to set the preset
as the default properties before painting.
314 • User’s Guide
Using Presets
2. In a toolbar, click a preset button.
If you selected a graphics object, the preset is applied to it. If you selected a
drawing tool, the preset’s properties are loaded into the graphics property
tree. When you paint on the viewer, these preset properties will be applied
to the graphics you create.
To save a preset using the toolbars
?
1. In a property editor, drag the thumbnail to a toolbar.
Thumbnail is
dragged to toolbar
2. In the Save Preset As dialog box, enter a name and description for the
preset in the corresponding text boxes.
A toolbar icon is created in the toolbar.
To load a preset using the pop-up menu
From the graphics property tree, right-click on a property icon and do one of
the following:
• Choose a preset from the menu.
• Choose Load from the menu, browse through the folders and select
a preset.
The preset is loaded into the graphics property tree.
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Chapter 9 • Painting and Titling
Using Stroke or Text
Presets
A stroke or text preset is a stroke or title that you saved along with all of its
properties. Using a preset lets you instantly apply the settings of a stroke or
title of any complexity to the current image without having to define any of its
properties. Once applied, the stroke or title behaves as a regular graphics
object - you can select and edit its properties.
To load a stroke or text preset
1. From the GFX Creation Tools toolbar, click Stroke Preset or Text Preset.
?
2. In the Load Stroke Preset dialog box, browse through the folders and
select a preset.
The preset is applied to the current frame in the viewer.
To save a stroke or text preset
1. In the viewer, select an object.
2. In the graphics property tree, do one of the following:
• Click the Stroke property icon if you selected a stroke.
• Click the Titling Body property icon if you selected a text body.
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Using Presets
3. In the property editor, click the Save Preset icon.
?
4. In the File Name text box, enter a name.
5. In the Comments text box, enter a description.
The preset is saved with the file name you specified, and can be accessed at
any time by clicking the Stroke Preset or Text Preset button in the GFX
Creation Tools toolbar. Stroke presets are saved in the \Strokes folder and
Titling Body presets are saved in the \Bodies folder.
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Chapter 9 • Painting and Titling
Setting Drawing Tool Properties
Before you create graphics or titles, you must define how the brush strokes or
titles will appear. Using the property editors in the graphics property tree, you
can set individual brush or text properties.
Each time you select a drawing tool from the GFX Creation Tools toolbar, its
properties are displayed in the graphics property tree. When you click any of
the property icons in the graphics property tree, its corresponding property
editor is displayed.
?
You can set the default properties of the drawing tool before creating an
object. When you do this, the new settings become the default properties that
are applied to the objects you create. These properties remain in effect until
you change the properties of any of the drawing tools. If you decide to create
an object before setting its properties, you can select the object you created
and then modify its properties. When you do this, only the properties of the
selected object are modified.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the graphics property tree.
Properties of the
Freehand tool
Properties of
the Text tool
Graphics property trees
Setting the Paint Style
The paint style properties let you define the artistic style of the graphics you
create. In the Paint Style property editor, you can specify whether to paint
with a brush or a fill, or both.
Brush only
Brush and fill
You can also set the fill opacity and appearance of its boundary. If you’re using
a pen and graphic tablet, you can vary the amount of pressure you apply to
the pen. This affects the brush opacity and size.
Make sure your pen is adjusted for pressure sensitivity. For more
information, refer to your graphics tablet documentation.
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Setting Drawing Tool Properties
To define the paint style
1. From the GFX Creation Tools toolbar, click one of the following drawing
tools: Freehand, Polyline, Rectangle, Ellipse, or Magic Wand.
2. From the graphics property tree, click the Paint Style property icon.
?
3. On the Paint Style property editor, select the Use option from the Brush
box to create strokes and apply effects to them.
4. Select the Antialiased option to smooth the jagged edges along the lines
and curves of strokes.
5. If you’re using a pen, select the Size and/or Opacity options from the
Pressure box.
The opacity and width of strokes respond to the amount of pressure you
apply to the pen.
6. In the Fill box, select the Use option to fill the object with the effects
you specify.
Freehand and polyline strokes are automatically closed and filled. If you
deselect the Fill option, the curve is open.
7. Select the Below Brush option to place the fill behind the stroke edge.
If you deselect this option, the fill is superimposed over the inside edge of
the stroke.
8. Select the Invert option to invert the fill. When creating a stroke, the area
outside of the stroke is filled.
9. Use the Opacity controls to adjust the fill transparency.
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Chapter 9 • Painting and Titling
10. In the Feathering box, select the Use option to feather the edges of the fill.
11. Select the Crop option to confine the feathered area within the stroke.
12. Adjust the Soft Radius controls to define how far inside and outside the
stroke edge the feathered area extends.
13. Adjust the Soft Profile controls to adjust the fall off rate for the fill.
14. Adjust the Blur X and Y Radius controls to adjust the blur in the
horizontal and vertical directions.
?
15. You can now paint or create titles on the viewer.
The strokes you create are displayed with the properties you specified.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Paint Style properties.
Setting Brush
Properties
The brush properties define the brush’s size, shape, smoothness, softness, and
opacity. For example, you can simulate a calligraphic stylus by specifying a
rectangular brush shape with a slight angle. Or you can simulate an airbrush
using the opacity controls to create a round brush with a solid center and a
transparent edge.
To define the brush properties
1. In the GFX Creation Tools toolbar, click one of the following drawing
tools: Freehand, Polyline, Rectangle, Ellipse, or Magic Wand.
2. From the graphics property tree, click the Brush property icon.
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Setting Drawing Tool Properties
3. In the Brush property editor, select a brush shape from the Shape box.
The brush shape is displayed in the preview box.
4. Use the X and Y controls to set the width and height of the brush.
When using the freehand tool, you can interactively resize the brush
by pressing Ctrl and dragging in the viewer.
?
5. Select the Lock Aspect Ratio option to link the X and Y controls, so that
when you adjust one, the other increases or decreases proportionally.
6. Select the Soft Edge option for a soft brush edge. Deselecting this option
gives you a hard brush edge.
7. Use the Hardness Diameter controls to adjust the proportion of the brush
diameter that is solid.
8. Use the Softness Profile controls to adjust the gradient fall-off rate.
9. Use the Opacity controls to define the transparency of the brush.
10. Use the Sampling Ratio controls to set the distance between each brush
stamp in a stroke. The default sampling ratio is 25 for optimum
interaction speed.
If you deselect the Continuous Interpolation option in the Freehand
Tool property editor, the sampling ratio has no impact on the stroke.
11. Use the Angle controls to adjust the rotational angle of the brush.
The brush’s new angle of rotation is displayed in the preview box.
12. You can now paint in the viewer.
Any strokes that you create use the properties you specified.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Brush properties.
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Chapter 9 • Painting and Titling
Creating Custom
Brushes
You can create custom brushes using a closed stroke or an Adobe Illustrator
EPS file (created with version 8.0 or earlier). You can also save your custom
brush as a preset and then reuse it. For more information, see Importing
Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) Files on page 377.
To create a custom brush using a stroke
1. From the General toolbar, click Select and select a stroke or group of
strokes from the viewer.
?
To create a custom brush, the stroke must be a closed shape. You can
do this by holding down the C key while drawing the stroke. For
more information, see Drawing Freehand Strokes on page 332.
2. From the General toolbar, click Make Brush.
The brush is loaded with the custom shape. Using one of the drawing
tools, you can begin creating strokes in the viewer.
To see the shape of the brush, choose a drawing tool and look in the
Brush property editor. For more information, see Setting Brush
Properties on page 320.
To create a custom brush with an EPS shape
1. From the GFX Creation Tools toolbar, click a drawing tool.
2. From the graphics property tree, click Brush.
The Brush property editor is displayed.
3. Click Import EPS.
In the Open dialog box, select an EPS file to use as your brush.
The brush is loaded with the EPS shape. Using one of the drawing tools,
you can begin creating strokes in the viewer.
Not all versions of EPS files are supported.
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Setting Drawing Tool Properties
Setting the Titling
Style
?
The titling style properties let you define the artistic style of graphics. By
adjusting these properties, you can define the appearance of a character’s face,
edge, and shadow. You can also apply numerous visual effects including softcolored edges, cloned faces, inverted shadows, etc.
Certain properties apply to the entire text body, and others apply only to the
words or characters that you select in a text body. You can define the character
edge, face, and shadow, and then use masks on the titles you create. A variety
of fonts, and text formats lets you enhance the appearance of titles. Many of
the properties you assign to text can be animated.
Edge
Face
Shadow
To define the titling style
1. From the GFX Creation Tools toolbar, click Text.
2. From the graphics property tree, click the Titling Style property icon.
3. In the Titling Style property editor, set the face, edge, and shadow properties.
4. You can now create a title on the viewer.
The face, edge, and shadow of each character in the text body changes
according to the properties you specified.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Titling Style properties.
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Chapter 9 • Painting and Titling
Setting the Font
Properties
The font properties define the font, style, and size of individual text characters
and text in a text body, as well as set the kerning and hinting options. Avid|DS
comes with a selection of TrueType fonts. Other fonts, in the \Fonts folder of
your operating system, are also available for use. For more information, refer
to the Avid|DS Workstation Setup & Administration Guide.
To define the font properties
1. From the GFX Creation Tools toolbar, click Text.
?
2. From the graphics property tree, click the Font property icon.
3. In the Font property editor, select a font, style, and size.
4. Select the Kern Pairs option to move a character closer to the previous
character in the same word to improve the appearance of the text. (This
applies only to certain font types. )
5. Select the Font Hinting option to control the display of artifacts, such as
blurry edges, when processing. When this option is selected, redraw
information is provided to prevent these artifacts from appearing in the
viewer and rendered output. This option is not recommended when
animating the text.
6. In the Kerning box, you can set the amount of horizontal space between
characters, expressed as a percentage of the current font size. You can
select individual characters or part of the text body and set the kerning
individually. The default value is 1.
7. You can now create a title in the viewer.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Font properties.
324 • User’s Guide
Setting Drawing Tool Properties
Setting the Masks
Properties
?
The masks properties let you create graphics using a matte (stencil) or a paper
grain effect, and choose the channel(s) on which you will create graphics. You
can use any of the R, G, B, and alpha channels. If you select only the red
channel, for example, only the red component of the image is modified when
you paint on it. By using only the alpha channel, you can create a matte, which
is a grayscale image that defines the transparency of an image when it’s
composited over another.
You may want to use a mask when applying graphics to clips. A mask is an
image, portion, or component of an image. A matte is defined by the alpha
component of an image, and is used differently in the Graphics and
Compositing layouts:
• In the Graphics layout, a matte is used as a stencil to protect portions of
the image. Where alpha is 0, no paint is applied.
• In the Compositing layout, a matte determines the transparent portions of
a layer. Wherever alpha is 0, the image is transparent. Wherever alpha is
100 the image is opaque.
For example, if an object from one clip must appear over a background from
another clip, you place the clips on two different layers in the Compositing
layout, and then draw a matte on the top layer. The matte defines an opaque
object on an otherwise transparent layer. For more information, refer to
Compositing on page 81 of the Avid|DS Compositing & Effects Guide.
To define the masks properties
1. In the GFX Creation Tools toolbar, click one of the following drawing
tools: Freehand, Polyline, Rectangle, Ellipse, Magic Wand, or Text.
2. From the graphics property tree, click the Masks property icon.
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Chapter 9 • Painting and Titling
3. On the General property page, select the channels on which you want to
paint from the Paint on Channel box.
4. In the Matte box, select the Use Alpha Channel option to use the alpha
channel as a matte.
The Alpha and Use Alpha Channel options cannot be used
simultaneously.
?
5. Select the Invert option to invert the alpha channel.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Masks properties.
Setting the Time Span
Properties
The time span properties define the duration of graphics. You can define the
start and end time of an object before you create it. This duration becomes the
default time span and is applied to all subsequent objects you create. Or you
can create graphics using the default time span, and then change its start, end,
or duration time later on.
In the Time Span property editor, the timecode refers to the graphics session
time. That is, 00:00:00:00 is the beginning of the graphics session regardless of
its position on the timeline.
To define the time span properties
1. In the GFX Creation Tools toolbar, click one of the following drawing
tools: Freehand, Polyline, Rectangle, Ellipse, Magic Wand, or Text.
2. From the graphics property tree, click the Time Span property icon.
326 • User’s Guide
Setting Drawing Tool Properties
3. In the Time Span property editor, specify the duration by clicking one of
the following:
?
Button
To
This Frame Only
Make the time span one frame.
This Frame to End
Make the time span start at the current frame and end
at the last frame of the graphics session.
Start to End
Make the time span start at the first frame and end at
the last frame of the graphics session.
Start to this Frame
Make the time span start at the first frame and end at
the current frame of the graphics session.
Custom
Specify a custom time span in the Out and Duration
timecode boxes. All values must be expressed in SMPTE
timecode.
If you’re setting the default time span, the In text box is dimmed
because Avid|DS defines the start time.
If you’re editing the time span of a selected object, the Custom button is
always highlighted.
4. If you’re editing the time span of a selected object, you can select the Lock
option to lock the duration.
If you’re defining the default time span properties before creating an
object, the Lock option is deselected. You must select an object
before using this option.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Time Span properties.
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Chapter 9 • Painting and Titling
Defining Color
In Avid|DS, color is considered to be an effect that you can apply to an image
using the brush or fill properties of a stroke, or the face, edge, or shadow
properties of a title. Like any other effect, the Color Blend effect can be
substituted for other effects, such as Noise or Smear.
To define colors, you can pick a color from the default palette or from the
color wheel, use the color picker to select a color from an existing image, or
use other color palettes that are available in the \Palettes folder. If a color is not
displayed on the color palette, you can create it by adjusting the RGB values of
another color to obtain the exact color you want. You can also create your
own color palettes and save them for use on other projects.
?
You can apply color to selected strokes or you can define the color properties
before you draw a stroke. These properties then apply to all the subsequent
strokes you create.
For more information, refer to Color Blend Effect on page 408 of the Avid|DS
Compositing & Effects Guide.
To open the Color Blend property editor
1. Do one of the following:
• From the General toolbar, click Select and select an object from the viewer.
• From the GFX Creation Tools toolbar, click a drawing tool to create a
new object.
The graphics property tree is displayed.
2. From the graphics property tree, right-click on one of the following
property icons and choose Color Blend from the menu:
• For paint strokes: Brush Fx or Fill Fx.
• For text bodies: Edge Effect, Face Effect, or Shadow Effect
The Color Blend effect is loaded in the property icon that you selected
from the graphics property tree.
Color Blend effect loaded as Brush Fx
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Defining Color
3. From the graphics property tree, click the Color Blend property icon.
Preview box
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Striped boxes
contain no color
Color channels
A quick way to apply color is with the Pick Color tool. Once you
have chosen your drawing tool, hold down 6. The pointer turns into
an eyedropper. Pick a color from the image in the viewer. You can
now paint with this color until you decide to load another color.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Color Blend properties.
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Working with Graphics
The drawing tools in the GFX Creation Tools toolbar let you create different
kinds of graphics objects including freehand, polylines, rectangles, ellipses,
and Magic Wand strokes. You can then edit the graphics you create.
You can control the appearance of graphics by using the property editors in
the graphics property tree. Property editors let you define characteristics, such
as the brush, fill, edge, face, and shadow. When you start to paint in the
viewer, the graphics you create are displayed with the default properties.
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If the edges of graphics appear jagged, right-click on the viewer and
choose Square Pixels to make them appear smooth.
Wireframe Mode
While painting, you can activate the wireframe mode to easily see the outline
of the strokes you create. This lets you precisely edit and manipulate strokes
without being distracted by any of the effects defined for it. Working in
wireframe mode also increases the speed of interaction because wireframe
objects are not processed.
Freehand object
Freehand object in
wireframe mode
To activate or deactivate wireframe mode
• In the General toolbar, click Wireframe or press Ctrl+W.
Strokes in the viewer appear in wireframe mode.
Text bodies cannot be displayed in wireframe mode.
Wireframe Preview
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When you work with animated graphics objects, you may want to preview the
results of the animation without having to process the sequence. This lets you
work more quickly and eliminates processing time. When previewing
graphics animation, the clip plays back and graphics objects are processed in
wireframe over a black background.
Working with Graphics
To view animated objects in wireframe mode
• In the General 2 toolbar, click Wireframe Preview or press Ctrl+Shift+W.
The sequence plays back and the animated graphics objects appear in
wireframe mode. When the clip is finished, the position indicator moves
to the first frame at which the preview started.
Drawing Polylines
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The Polyline tool lets you draw straight lines, Bézier curves, or a combination
of the two.
To draw a polyline
1. From the GFX Creation Tools toolbar, click Polyline or press Q.
2. In the graphics property tree, use the property editors to define the
characteristics of the polyline.
3. Depending on the type of curve you want, do one of the following:
• Click the viewer as many times as needed to add straight line segments to
the polyline.
• Constrain a polyline to a 45 degree angle by holding down the Alt key.
• Drag a vertex to display and adjust the tangent handles.
End point
Tangent handle
4. When you’re done, do one of the following:
• Press Esc to end the polyline.
• Press Ctrl and click to close the polyline.
A polyline is displayed in the viewer with the properties you specified.
Once a polyline is ended, you cannot undo polyline segments.
You can undo segments only as you are creating the polyline.
5. From the General toolbar, click Select.
The stroke is selected.
6. Press Enter or Edit Shape to edit the stroke geometry.
The stroke’s control points are displayed.
To constrain polyline segments to a 45 degree angle, hold down
the Alt key.
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Drawing Freehand
Strokes
The Freehand tool lets you draw open or closed freeform strokes, and
simulates the feeling of drawing with a pencil on paper. Use this tool when
you want to create a hand-drawn look or quickly sketch on your image.
As you draw freehand strokes, you’re imprinting a series of stamps onto your
image. By defining the appearance of the brush stamps, you can create a
continuous stroke or a stroke with discrete brush stamps.
To draw a freehand stroke
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1. From the GFX Creation Tools toolbar, click Freehand or press W.
2. In the graphics property tree, use the property editors to define the
characteristics of the freehand stroke.
3. From the property tree, click the Freehand property icon.
4. In the Freehand property editor, select the Close option if you want to
create a closed freehand stroke.
To create a closed freehand stroke quickly, hold down the C key
before beginning to draw the stroke.
5. Select the Continuous Interpolation option to draw a continuous path.
The number of brush stamps is based on the sampling ratio defined in the
Brush property editor.
6. Select the Fast Feedback option to view an outline of the stroke as you
draw it, instead of applying the specified effect. This also increases the
interaction speed.
7. In the Curve Fitting box, select the Fit Curve option to create a freehand
stroke with the minimum number of control points.
8. Use the Tolerance controls to specify the number of control points the
redrawn curve will retain from the original curve.
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The Curve Fit option is usually used after the stroke is drawn by
selecting the stroke, editing the shape, and selecting the Curve Fit
option in the Edit Shape property editor.
9. Select the Overlay Brush option to show or hide the outline of the brush
while you paint.
10. Create a stroke in the viewer by dragging on the viewer.
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Once you release the mouse or pen, the stroke is complete. The freehand
stroke is displayed in the viewer with the properties you specified. If you
selected the Fill option in the Paint Style property editor, the freehand
stroke is closed and filled.
A stroke with
continuous
interpolation
A stroke without
continuous
interpolation
Slow drawing motion
Fast drawing motion
11. From the General toolbar, click Select.
The stroke is selected.
12. Press Enter or Edit Shape to edit the stroke—see Editing the Shape of a
Stroke on page 342.
The stroke’s control points are displayed.
Using the Express Tools
The Express tools let you access a set of freehand tool brush effects quickly
and easily. By holding down a key that has been assigned to a freehand tool
brush effect, you can erase or paint with one keystroke. When you release the
key, the previous tool is reactivated. By default, the Express tools represent the
Erase, Blur, and Color Blend effects, but you can assign your favorite freehand
tool brush effects as well. This is very useful when cleaning up a matte, since
you can access the Erase tool without having to change your current tool.
The keys assigned to the Express tools are the numbers 1 through 5 on the
upper-left of your keyboard.
To use the Express tools
1. In the Graphics layout, hold down the key assigned to the Express tool you
want to activate.
A freehand tool brush effect is loaded.
2. While continuing to hold down the key, work in your graphics session.
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3. Release the key.
The tool you were using previous to the Express tool is reactivated.
To customize the Express tools
1. In the Graphics layout, hold down one of the keys on the upper-left of the
keyboard (numbers 1 to 5).
2. Right-click on Brush Fx from the graphics property tree and load a paint
effect, such as Color Blend or Erase.
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3. Release the key.
The key is assigned to the selected freehand tool brush effect.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Freehand Tool properties.
Drawing Rectangles
and Ellipses
The Rectangle tool lets you create rectangular and square shapes. The Ellipse
tool lets you create oval and circular shapes. After creating a square or round
shape, you can edit them to create unique shapes.
To draw a rectangle or ellipse
1. From the GFX Creation Tools toolbar, do one of the following:
• Click Rectangle or press R.
• Click Ellipse or press E.
2. In the graphics property tree, use the property editors to define the
characteristics of the rectangle or ellipse.
3. Create a stroke in the viewer by dragging in the viewer. To maintain the
aspect ratio, press Shift and drag.
A rectangle or ellipse is displayed in the viewer with the properties
you specified.
4. From the General toolbar, click Select.
The rectangle or ellipse is selected.
5. Press Enter to edit the stroke—see Editing the Shape of a Stroke on page 342.
The stroke’s control points are displayed.
To view and move the tangent handles on the control points of a
rectangle, press H while selecting the control point in Edit Shape mode.
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Using the Magic Wand
Tool
Using the Magic Wand tool, you can create a stroke that has the same shape as
a selected area of an image. The selection is based on RGBA or HLSA values of
an image. Once created, you can edit the stroke.
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A shape based on RGB values
To define a stroke
1. From the GFX Creation Tools toolbar, click Magic Wand or press Y.
2. In the graphics property tree, use the property editors to define the
characteristics of the shape.
3. Click the viewer.
A shape is created corresponding to the selected area. Control points are
visible along the shape.
4. From the graphics property tree, click the Magic Wand property icon.
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?
5. In the Magic Wand property editor, select a color model from the Color
Model list.
6. In the Color Tolerance controls, select the channels that you want to use
to control the range of pixel values included in the selected area.
7. Adjust the Color Tolerance controls to set the range of color values for each
channel. Continue refining the settings until the desired shape is obtained.
The shape changes according to the new settings.
8. Use the Fit Tolerance controls to adjust the way the edges of the selection
are determined.
9. Select the Invert option to invert the selection.
10. Select the Similar option to select all of the pixels in the color range of the
specified range.
11. Select or click one of the following:
• Autocreate to automatically create the stroke when you click the viewer.
• Confirm to create the stroke defined by the shape.
A stroke is created with the desired shape, and is displayed using the
properties you specified.
12. From the General toolbar, click Select.
The stroke is selected.
13. Press Enter to edit the shape—see Editing the Shape of a Stroke on page 342.
The shape’s control points are displayed.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Magic Wand properties.
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Working with Graphics
Selecting Graphics
Objects
You must select an object before you can move it or edit its properties or
shape. You can move an object around in the viewer, as well as select single or
multiple graphics objects. When you select an object, the graphics property
tree displays the properties of that object.
To select graphics objects
1. From the General toolbar, click Select.
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The graphics object you last created is automatically selected.
2. In the viewer or the Graphics Object View (GOV), click an object to select it.
A yellow bounding box surrounds each selected object, and the graphics
property tree displays its properties.
When working with many graphics objects, you can hide their
bounding boxes by clicking the Show/Hide Bounding Box icon or
pressing Ctrl+H. The object is still selected and you can edit the
properties of the graphics object.
3. Do any of the following:
• Press the comma (,) key to select the previous graphics object.
• Press the period (.) key to select the next object.
• Press Shift and click each additional object.
• Press Shift+comma (,) and keep pressing the comma to select multiple
objects in descending order.
• Press Shift+period (.) and keep pressing the period to select multiple
objects in ascending order.
By default, a yellow bounding box surrounds each selected object.
Drag on the viewer to make a rectangular selection. All graphics
within the rectangle are selected.
To select all objects
Do one of the following:
• From the General toolbar, click Select All.
• From the Edit or Graphics menu, choose Select All.
• Press Ctrl+A.
In the viewer, all objects are selected. Objects whose time span do not
cover the current frame will not be selected.
The Select All command in the Edit menu is not available when
using the Edit Text tool.
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To select objects in Edit Shape mode
1. From the General toolbar, click Edit Shape.
2. Press Alt and click a stroke to select or deselect it.
Locking Graphics
Objects
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When you’re working with overlapping graphics objects, it’s useful to lock
some of the graphics objects on which you don’t need to work. Once an object
is locked, you can’t select or modify it in any way. Locked objects remain
locked when a sequence is closed and reopened. Also, locked objects cannot
be selected or edited in the GOV—you can only unlock them. When a
graphics object is locked, its bar in the GOV changes to a light gray color.
To see a wireframe outline of locked objects, position the pointer
over the graphics bars in the GOV and the shape of the locked
objects will be displayed in wireframe in the viewer.
You can also lock/unlock a graphics object by right-clicking on its
corresponding bar in the GOV and choosing a menu command.
To lock graphics objects
Select the graphics objects that you want to lock and do one of the following:
• From the Graphics menu, choose Objects > Lock.
• Click the Lock icon on the toolbar.
• Right-click on the graphics object in the GOV and choose Lock from
the menu.
Locked objects are now represented by a light gray bar in the GOV and are
automatically deselected.
You can multi-select graphics objects by holding down the Shift key.
To unlock graphics objects
Do one of the following:
• To unlock all graphics objects on the current frame, choose Objects >
Unlock All - Frame from the Graphics menu or click the Unlock All Frame icon in the toolbar.
• To unlock all graphics objects in the current graphics session, choose
Objects > Unlock All - Session from the Graphics menu or click the
Unlock All - Session icon in the toolbar.
All locked graphics objects are unlocked.
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Hiding Graphics
Objects
When you’re working with overlapping graphics objects that clutter the
viewer, you can hide some of the graphics objects on which you don’t want to
work. This makes objects temporarily invisible and may improve performance
when working on large or complex projects.
Once an object is hidden, you cannot select or modify it in any way, except
for trimming. Hidden objects remain hidden when sequences are closed
and reopened.
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When a graphics object is hidden, its bar in the GOV changes to a light
purple color.
To see a wireframe outline of hidden objects, position the pointer
over the graphics bars in the GOV and the shape of the hidden
objects will be displayed in wireframe in the viewer.
You can also hide/show graphics objects by right-clicking on its
corresponding bar in the GOV and choosing a menu command.
To hide graphics objects
Select the graphics objects that you want to hide and do one of the following:
• From the Graphics menu, choose Objects > Hide.
• Click the Hide icon on the toolbar.
• Right-click on the graphics object in the GOV and choose Hide from
the menu.
Hidden objects are represented by a light purple bar in the GOV and are
automatically deselected.
To show graphics objects
Do one of the following:
• To show all graphics objects on the current frame, choose Objects > Show
All - Frame from the Graphics menu or click the Show All - Frame icon in
the toolbar.
• To show all graphics objects in the current graphics session, choose
Objects > Show All - Session from the Graphics menu or click the Show
All - Session icon in the toolbar.
All hidden graphics objects are shown and selected. Any previously
selected objects are deselected.
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Hiding Bounding Boxes
Hiding the bounding boxes of graphics objects makes it easy for you to see the
effect of any adjustments you make to its parameters. You can still select and
edit the graphics objects after hiding the bounding boxes.
To show/hide bounding boxes
• Click the Show/Hide Bounding box icon in the toolbar or press Ctrl+H.
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Creating Clusters of
Graphics Objects and
Vertices
Multiselecting graphics objects or vertices can be very convenient when you
want to reuse a specific selection. You can build presets of one or more
selected graphics objects or vertices.
To create a cluster of graphics objects
Build
Cluster
icon
Select
Cluster
icon
1. In the General toolbar, click Select and select the graphics objects you
want to add to the cluster.
2. On the Clusters Select toolbar, click one of the Build Cluster icons.
The graphics objects are assigned to a cluster icon.
To recall a graphics object cluster
• From the Clusters Select toolbar, click the corresponding yellow Select
Cluster icon.
The graphics objects assigned to this cluster number are selected in
the viewer.
To build a cluster of vertices
1. In Edit Shape mode, select the vertices you want to add to the cluster.
Build Vertex
Cluster icons
Select Vertex
Cluster icon
2. Click one of the Build Vertex Cluster icons.
The group of vertices is assigned to the cluster icon.
To recall a vertex cluster
• From the Clusters Vertex toolbar, click the corresponding yellow Select
Vertex Cluster icon.
The vertices assigned to this cluster number are selected in the viewer.
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Aligning Graphics
Objects
Graphics alignment tools allow you to align graphics objects with respect to
other graphics objects or the safe action/title area. Absolute alignment tools
allow you to align graphics using the safe action/title area as a reference.
Relative alignment tools allow you to align graphics object using other
selected graphics objects as a reference.
When using the alignment tools, it’s useful to display the guides.
Right-click in the viewer and choose Viewer Properties. On the
Guides property page, select the Safe action/title option.
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To align graphics objects
1. In the viewer, select the objects you want to align.
2. From the Absolute Align or Relative Align toolbar, click the alignment
tool you want to use.
The selected objects are aligned in the viewer.
Use this
To
Absolute Align
Bottom
Align the bottom edge of the bounding box of selected
graphics objects to the bottom edge of the safe action/title area.
Absolute Align
Vertical Center
Align the vertical center of selected graphics objects to the
vertical center of the safe action/title area.
Absolute Align
Left
Align the left edge of the bounding box of selected graphics
objects to the left edge of the safe action/title area.
Absolute Align
Horizontal Center
Align the horizontal center of selected graphics objects to the
horizontal center of the safe action/title area.
Absolute Align
Right
Align the right edge of the bounding box of selected graphics
objects to the right edge of the safe action/title area.
Absolute Align
Top
Align the top edge of the bounding box of selected graphics
objects to the top edge of the safe title/action area.
Relative Align
Bottom
Align all selected graphics objects relative to the bottom edge of
the bounding box of the bottom-selected graphics object.
Relative Align
Vertical Center
Align all selected graphics objects relative to the vertical center
of the collective bounding box of all the selected objects.
Relative Align Left
Align all selected graphics objects relative to the leftmost edge
of the bounding box of the left-selected graphics object.
Relative Align
Horizontal Center
Align all selected graphics objects relative to the horizontal
center of the collective bounding box of all the selected objects.
Relative Align
Right
Align all selected graphics objects relative to the right edge of
the bounding box of the right-selected graphics object.
Relative Align Top
Align all selected graphics objects relative to the top edge of the
bounding box of the top-selected graphics object.
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Editing the Shape of a
Stroke
The shapes of all the strokes created by the Freehand, Polyline, Rectangle,
Ellipse, and Magic Wand tools are determined by line segments and vertices
that indicate a change in line direction. Each vertex in an object has a control
point, which you can use to alter its shape. Before you can edit the shape of a
stroke, you must select it.
To edit the shape of a stroke
1. From the General toolbar, click Select, and click a stroke in the viewer.
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The selected stroke is surrounded by a yellow bounding box, and the
graphics property tree displays the stroke’s properties.
2. From the General toolbar, click Edit Shape or press Enter.
The stroke’s contour and control points are displayed, and the Edit Shape
tool is activated.
To select or deselect a shape while in Edit Shape mode, press Alt and
click a stroke.
3. From the graphics property tree, click the Edit Shape property icon.
4. In the Path box, click:
• Open to open a closed curve.
• Closed to close an open curve.
5. In the Curve Fitting box:
• Click Fit Curve to sample all the control points of the original curve.
• Use the Tolerance controls to set the number of controls points that the
redrawn curve retains from the original.
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6. In the Animation box, use the buttons to set, delete, and navigate
between keyframes.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Edit Shape properties.
Selecting Control Points
?
When you select control points on a stroke, they remain selected between
frames. You can edit the shape of single or multiple strokes by dragging the
control points.
To select control points
1. From the General toolbar, click Select, and click a stroke in the viewer.
The selected stroke is surrounded by a yellow bounding box, and the
graphics property tree displays the stroke’s properties.
2. From the General toolbar, click Edit Shape or press Enter.
The stroke’s contour and control points are displayed, and the Edit Shape
tool is activated.
3. Do one of the following:
• Click a control point to select a single control point.
• Hold down the Shift key and click a control point, and then click each
subsequent control point.
• Drag to make a rectangular selection in the viewer, and select multiple
points simultaneously.
The selected control points are highlighted in yellow.
Control point
To edit a control point
• Press A and click the line or curve segment between two control points to
add a control point.
• Click a control point to select it and drag to move it.
• Click a control point and press Delete to delete control points.
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To move a control point
• To move 1 pixel: Press an arrow key on the keyboard number pad.
• To move 10 pixels: Hold down the Ctrl key and press an arrow key on the
keyboard number pad.
Breaking and Unifying Strokes
A stroke’s path can be broken into any number of subpaths, which you can
later reunify. Subpaths remain part of the stroke and cannot be unified with
the subpaths of other strokes.
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Stroke path
Subpaths of a
stroke
To break or unify a stroke
• Hold down K and drag a control point.
The stroke path is broken and a subpath is created.
• Hold down U and drag one control point and drop it over another.
The subpaths are unified.
Combining and Separating Strokes
You can combine multiple strokes to create a single compound stroke.
Similarly, you can separate compound strokes into individual strokes.
To combine strokes
1. From the General toolbar, click Select, and select the strokes you want
to combine.
The selected strokes are surrounded by yellow bounding boxes and
highlighted in yellow in the GOV.
2. From the General toolbar, click Combine Strokes.
The selected strokes are combined and surrounded by one bounding box,
and are shown in the GOV as one compound stroke.
When strokes are combined, they’re assigned the properties of the
first selected stroke. If you want to retrieve the properties of an
individual stroke before it was combined, use the undo operation.
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To separate a stroke
1. From the General toolbar, click Select, and select the stroke you want
to separate.
The selected stroke is surrounded by yellow bounding boxes and is
highlighted in yellow in the GOV.
2. From the General toolbar, click Separate Strokes.
?
The combined stroke is separated into individual strokes.
Morphing Strokes
You can select strokes which exist at different frames and automatically
interpolate between them to create interesting effects.
You can also copy shapes and paste them between the start and end
frames of the morph. For more information, see Copying and Pasting
Shapes on page 360.
To morph strokes
1. Using the transport controls, go to the first frame that contains the stroke
you want to use at the beginning of the morph.
2. From the General toolbar, click Select and select the stroke that you want
to morph.
3. From the General toolbar, click Morph Start to begin the morph.
4. Using the transport controls, advance to the frame that contains the next
stroke you want to add to your morph.
5. From the General toolbar, click Select and select the stroke.
6. From the General toolbar, click Morph Add.
The stroke is added to your morph.
7. Continue adding selected strokes to your morph using the Morph Add
command.
8. When you’re about to add the last stroke, click Morph End in the General
toolbar to end your morph.
The resulting morphed stroke has an animated shape.
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Changing the Slope of a Curve
At any control point, you can change the slope of a curve by changing the
length and direction of its tangent handle. You can also create discontinuity in
a curve by breaking the tangent handle at a control point.
To change the slope of a curve
1. Drag a control point or press H to give selection priority to the handles
instead of the control point. The tangent handles may sometimes lie
under the control point.
?
2. Drag the tangent handle.
The shape of the curve changes on both sides of the control point.
Tangent handles
To create a discontinuous curve
1. Click a control point to display its tangent handles.
2. Hold down the B key and drag a tangent handle.
The tangent handle breaks in the center, and the slope of the curve
changes on one side of the control point.
Discontinuous curve
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Reshaping a Stroke
There may be times when you want to edit the shape of a stroke using a
“freehand” approach. This is especially useful for rotoscoping and
animating shapes.
With the Reshaper tool, you can modify the geometry of a stroke without
being constrained to the shape’s control points. By tracing the edge of a shape,
you can interactively reshape a stroke.
?
In addition, you can chop, scale, rotate, skew, stretch, and move a shape, as
well as adjust its opacity. When reshaping a stroke, keyframes are
automatically set.
Since it’s difficult to reshape overlapping strokes, you can hide or
lock graphics objects that clutter the viewer. For more information,
see Locking Graphics Objects on page 338 and Hiding Graphics
Objects on page 339.
Edge of shape
To trace a shape
1. Do one of the following:
• In the General toolbar, click Reshaper or press P.
• From the Graphics menu, choose Tools > Reshaper.
2. To trace, do any of the following:
• Drag along the edge of the stroke.
• To trace a straight line, hold down the Alt key and trace along the edge of
the shape.
• To trace without moving existing control points, hold down the Shift key
while you trace.
To trace more quickly, make sure the shape has a minimum of
control points. To reduce the number of control points, use the Fit
Curve option in the Edit Shape property editor.
3. Press Esc to exit the Reshaper tool.
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Chopping Control Points
If a shape contains a segment that you’d like to eliminate, you can always chop
out the unwanted control points.
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Before
After: A finger is chopped off.
To chop control points
• Hold down C and drag along the edge of the shape that you want to chop.
The area is chopped from the shape.
Moving a Shape
You can move the entire shape to a new location.
To move a shape
• Hold down A and drag the shape to a new location.
Scaling, Rotating, and Skewing a Shape
When scaling, rotating and skewing a shape, you must first position the point
of origin, which is represented by a small red circle in the viewer.
To position the origin
1. Hold down one of the following keys:
• S to scale
• D to rotate
• F to skew
2. Drag the origin to a new location.
3. To center the origin, right-click on the shape.
The origin is positioned at the center of the stroke’s geometry.
To scale a shape
• Hold down S and drag the shape to scale it.
To scale proportionally, press Shift+S.
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To rotate a shape
• Hold down D and drag the shape to rotate it.
To skew a shape
• Hold down F and drag the shape to skew it.
Stretching a Shape
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Stretching lets you extend portions of a shape, while maintaining the rest of it.
When stretching a shape, you must first position the stretch limits on the edge of a
shape. The stretch limits are represented by two small gray squares in the viewer.
Leg is stretched
Stretch limits
To stretch a shape
1. Hold down G to access the stretch tool.
2. Place each stretch limit at the desired location along the edge of the stroke.
3. Drag the edge of the shape between the stretch limits.
The segment between the two stretch limits is stretched. The other parts of
the shape remain unchanged.
Changing the Opacity of a Stroke
When performing rotoscoping, it’s sometimes helpful to see what's in the
image underneath the stroke. This makes it easier to reshape the stroke from
one frame to the next.
To change the opacity of a stroke
• Hold down the O key and drag the stroke in the viewer.
When changing the opacity, the stroke fill and brush opacity is
changed, if they were used. If the opacity is animated, a temporary
value is set. If the opacity is not animated, a value is set but a key is
not created.
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Working with Titles
A text body is a graphics object that consists of a group of words, lines, and
paragraphs. You create, edit, and select titles using text bodies in the Edit
Text mode.
By default, word wrapping is on when using the Text tool. When the edge of a
text body is reached, the text continues on to the next row.
There is no automatic word hyphenation. Line breaks always occur at the end
of a word. If a word is longer than the text body, the word breaks at the edge.
To prevent the word from breaking, increase the width of the text body.
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To create a title
1. From the GFX Creation Tools toolbar, click Text or press T.
2. In the graphics property tree, use the property editors to define the
properties of the title.
3. Click the viewer.
A text box is displayed.
4. Begin entering text in the text body.
5. From the General toolbar, click Select.
The text body is selected and displays the title with the properties
you specified.
6. Press Enter or click Edit Text to return to Edit Text mode.
The text body in Edit Text mode is displayed.
Using Text from Other
Applications
You can cut, copy, and paste text to and from any text generation application
that uses the Windows Clipboard. Because Avid|DS uses a Rich Text Format
(RTF) compatible text engine, you can exchange text with an application, such
as Microsoft Word.
Without having to select any of the tools in the Graphics layout, you can
directly paste the copied text into a graphics session. The text and much of its
formatting will be pasted into a text body. Not all formatting, however,
remains intact when you use text from external applications.
Graphics, such as strokes or clip art, cannot be imported or exported.
To use text from an external application
1. In the external application, cut or copy the text.
The text is copied to the Clipboard.
2. In the Graphics layout, press Ctrl+V.
The text and most of its formatting is pasted in a text body.
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To copy text to an external application
1. From the General toolbar, click Edit Text.
2. In a text body, select the text to be copied and press Ctrl+C.
The text is copied to the Clipboard.
3. In the external application, place the pointer at the insertion point and
press Ctrl+V.
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The text is pasted in the external application.
Importing HTML Text
You can import an HTML file and convert it into a text body. As many text
properties as possible are retained, such as font, size, and color. This is very
useful when setting up rolls and crawls with different styles for headers and
names, since you can set up the text before working in Avid|DS.
To import HTML text
1. From the GFX Creation Tools toolbar, click Import HTML.
The Open dialog box is displayed.
2. Select a file to import and click OK.
The text is imported as a text body.
Selecting and Editing
Text
After you create a text body, you can select and edit the text it contains, as well
as its format properties. You can edit the properties of the entire text body or
individual characters within the text body.
To select a text body
1. From the General toolbar, click Select and select a text body.
The selected text body is surrounded by a yellow bounding box.
2. From the General toolbar, click Edit Text.
You can now edit the text body properties.
Selected text body
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To select individual text characters
1. From the General toolbar, click Select and select a text body.
The selected text body is surrounded by a yellow bounding box.
2. From the General toolbar, click Edit Text.
3. In the text body, select the character that you want to edit by clicking and
dragging over it.
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“D” selected only
A selection bar appears at the bottom of the selected character.
4. You can now edit the properties of the individual characters.
To select text characters with the same fonts or styles
1. From the General toolbar, click Select, and select a text body.
The selected text body is surrounded by a yellow bounding box.
2. From the General toolbar, click Edit Text.
3. Hold down the Ctrl key, drag over a character possessing the style or font
you want to select.
You can set your user preferences for titling selection in the User
Preferences dialog box. You can choose to select characters that share
the same titling style, titling font, or both when you hold down the
Ctrl key and select.
4. You can now edit the properties of the selected text.
To edit the font and kerning
1. In Edit Text mode, select the text body or individual text.
2. In the graphics property tree, click the Font property icon.
The Font property editor is displayed.
3. Select the Font, Style, and Size you want to apply to your text.
4. Select the Kern Pairs option to move a character pair closer to each other.
This applies to certain fonts only.
5. Select the Font Hinting option to prevent blurry artifacts from appearing
after processing.
This option is not recommended for animated titling sequences.
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6. To adjust the horizontal spacing between characters, enter a value in the
Kerning box. The default value is 1.
7. Select the Filtering option to reduce the flickering perceived when the text
is viewed on an interlaced screen.
8. Adjust the Character Transform controls to transform characters in X and Y.
Aligning Text
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You can specify a justification for a selected text body. By adding character
tabs, you can also justify character tabs within a text body.
To justify a text body
• With the text body selected in Edit Text mode, right-click on the left
margin of the text body and choose a justification from the list.
Right-click on
left margin to
justify text body
The text body is aligned as specified.
To add a character tab to the text body
• With the text body selected in Edit Text mode, hold down the Ctrl key and
double-click inside the text body at the point where you want to insert a tab.
A tab is inserted in the text body. You can move the tab around by clicking
on it and dragging. To remove them, choose Remove from the menu.
To justify a character tab
• With the text body or individual text selected in Edit Text mode, rightclick on the character tab, and choose a justification from the list.
Right-click on
character tab
to justify
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Converting Text to Strokes
You can convert a text body into individual strokes that you can then edit
individually. You can animate the strokes, edit the characters to create a
custom “font”, or use the stroke to create a custom brush.
To convert strokes to text
1. From the General toolbar, click Select and select a text body.
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2. From the General toolbar, click Text to Strokes.
Each character is surrounded by a yellow bounding box and appears as a
separate stroke in the GOV.
Searching for Text
When working with large text files, such as credit rolls, it may be difficult to
locate text. You can search through a text body for keywords.
To search for a keyword in a text body
1. With the text body selected in Edit Text mode, click in the text body at the
position where you want to begin the text search.
2. Press Ctrl+F.
3. In the Find dialog box, enter a keyword in the String to Find text box.
The keyword is located and underlined with a selection bar.
Creating Rolls and
Crawls
A roll or crawl typically contains the titles or credits of a program. You can
create a traditional roll in which a title moves from the bottom of the screen to
the top, or a traditional crawl in which a title moves from the right of the
screen to the left. Single or multiple titles can be used for a roll or crawl.
You create rolls or crawls by using the Graphics property editor. This lets you
quickly and easily create standard rolls or crawls that involve few titles. When
you do this, the time span of the titles change to match the duration of the
graphics session.
You can also create the animation manually by using the Animation Key icon
to set individual keyframes. This lets you create a complex roll or crawl that
involves many titles that start and end in different locations. You can also
include paint strokes in a roll or crawl.
When you create a roll or crawl using the Graphics property editor,
the entire duration of the clip is used.
Also, rolls and crawls are real-time effects so you can view the results upon
playback without having to first process them.
In rare cases, real-time effects may require processing to ensure that no
frames are skipped. For more information, refer to Working with RealTime Effects on page 74 of the Avid|DS Compositing & Effects Guide.
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To create a roll or crawl
1. From the GFX Creation Tools toolbar, click Text to create a text body.
2. From the graphics property tree, open the Font property editor and
specify the font type, style, and size.
3. Click the viewer and type in some text.
4. When you’re done, select the text body.
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5. From the General 2 toolbar, click Graphics Properties.
6. In the Graphics property editor, select one of the following options from
the Motion box:
• Roll to create a roll.
• Crawl to create a crawl.
7. In the Start Position box, select one of the following options:
• Onscreen to start the roll or crawl on the screen.
• Offscreen to start the roll or crawl off the screen.
8. In the End Position box, select one of the following options:
• Onscreen to end the roll or crawl on the screen.
• Offscreen to end the roll or crawl off the screen.
9. To guarantee optimal quality when building rolls/crawls, select the
Standard Speed option.
10. Click Build Motion.
The title’s transformation is animated.
11. To apply an automatic fade, roll, and crawl animation to selected graphics
objects only, select the Apply to Selection option.
12. To modify the transformation properties of the title, select the title, and
do one of the following:
• From the graphics property tree, open the Transformations property
editor, and modify the values.
• From the View menu, choose Views > Animation Editor. Select the
Transformation property and adjust the function curve.
Creating a Fade
You can automatically create fades by using the Graphics property editor.
When you apply a fade to a graphics object, its time span changes to match the
duration of the graphics session. In addition, the existing opacity settings for a
stroke (brush and fill) and text body (edge, face, shadow) are overwritten with
the new fade values.
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To fade an object
1. From the GFX Creation Tools toolbar, select a drawing tool.
2. In the graphics property tree, define the properties for your tool.
3. Create an object in the viewer.
4. Move the object to the desired fade-in position.
5. From the General 2 toolbar, click Graphics Properties.
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6. In the Fade box, set the In and Out values in frames.
7. Click Build Fade.
The object’s opacity properties are animated.
8. To modify the opacity properties of the object, select the object and
adjust the Opacity controls on the Paint Style, Brush, and Titling Style
property editors.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Graphics properties.
Creating Handwritten
and Type-On
Animation
You can create animated, scrolling text effects that simulates handwriting or a
typewritten effect.
You can generate a handwritten type of animation on a single or combined
stroke, which is useful for simulating the look of a pen writing across the screen.
You can also generate an animated typewritten effect based on a selected text
body, giving it the appearance of a typewriter typing each character. You can
specify the direction, beginning, and end of the animation, as well as adjust
the spacing of the text body.
To create a handwritten animation
1. In the GFX Creation Tool toolbar, click one of the following drawing
tools: Freehand, Polyline, Rectangle, or Ellipse. Create the graphics object
on which you want to apply the handwriting animation.
2. Draw a single stroke or multiple strokes in the viewer. Make sure you’re
using the brush.
Use the Combine Strokes command in the General toolbar to
combine multiple strokes. For more information on combining
strokes, see To combine strokes on page 344.
3. From the General toolbar, click Select and select the stroke to which you
want to apply the handwritten animation.
The stroke is selected and surrounded by a yellow bounding box.
4. In the graphics property tree, set the time span.
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You can only create handwritten animation for strokes that have a
duration that’s longer than one frame.
5. Do one of the following:
• From the General toolbar, click Handwriting.
• In the graphics property tree, click Stroke.
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6. In the Handwriting property editor, click one of the following:
Parameter
Description
Forward
To begin the handwriting animation with the first brush
stamp and move towards the last.
Backward
To begin the handwriting animation with the last brush
stamp and move towards the first.
Center
To begin the handwriting animation in the center of the stroke
and move outwards towards the first and last brush stamps.
7. Use the Custom Settings if you want the animation to begin or end at a
specific point. The default is 0 for the head setting and 100 for the tail.
Click the Help icon for more information on the Handwriting properties.
To create a type-on animation
1. From the General toolbar, click Select and select the text body to which
you want to apply the type-on animation.
The text body is selected and surrounded by a yellow bounding box.
2. Do one of the following:
• From the General toolbar, click Type-On.
• From the graphics property tree, click Titling Body.
3. In the Type-On box, click one of the following:
Parameter
To
Forward
Begin the type-on animation with the first text character
entered and move towards the last.
Backward
Begin the type on animation with the last text character and
move towards the first.
Center
Begin the type on animation in the center of the text body and
move outwards towards the first and last characters drawn.
4. Use the Head and Tail settings if you want the animation to begin or end at
a specific point. The default is 0 for the Head setting and 100 for the Tail.
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Manipulating Graphics
Before you can edit an object, you must select it. Then you can use the
transformation tools to change the rotational angle, size, and skew of a
graphics object. The shape of individual strokes and the contents of a text
body can also be modified. Other tools let you reorder selected objects by
moving them in front of or behind other objects. Selection tools speed up the
editing process since you can simultaneously select, deselect, and delete
multiple objects.
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Editing Graphics
Properties
After you’ve created graphics, you can edit any of its properties. You can edit
the properties of a single object or multiple objects simultaneously. When you
edit the properties of a selected object(s), only its properties are changed. The
default properties for the drawing tools are not changed.
To change the properties of a single object
1. From the General toolbar, click Select and click an object in the viewer.
The graphics property tree displays the object’s properties.
2. From the graphics property tree, click a property icon.
The property editor is displayed.
3. Adjust the desired properties.
In the viewer, the object displays the properties you specified.
To change the properties of multiple objects
1. From the General toolbar, click Select and click an object in the viewer.
The graphics property tree displays the object’s properties.
2. Hold down the Shift key and click the objects you want to select.
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The graphics property tree displays the properties of the selected objects.
Properties common to
all selected objects
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Stroke properties
Text body properties
3. In the graphics property tree, click a property icon.
• If you clicked the Masks, Time Span, or Transformations property icon,
its property editor displays the properties that are common to the
selected objects.
• If you clicked a stroke property, its property editor displays the properties
that are common to the selected strokes.
• If you clicked a text body property, its property editor displays the
properties that are common to the selected text bodies.
When you open additional property editors, they’re displayed one
on top of the other. Drag the property editor to another location to
view multiple property editors simultaneously.
4. In the property editor, modify the properties.
The selected objects display the properties you specified.
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Cutting, Copying, and
Pasting Graphics
You can cut or copy objects in the viewer and paste them on the same frame or
on another frame. Cut or copied objects are placed on the Clipboard in the
system memory and remain there until you perform another cut, copy, or
paste operation.
To cut, copy, or paste an object
1. From the viewer, select an object.
The object is surrounded by a yellow bounding box.
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2. From the Edit menu, choose:
• Cut or press Ctrl+X to cut an object.
• Copy or press Ctrl+C to copy an object.
• Paste or press Ctrl+V to paste an object.
Copying and Pasting Shapes
You can copy the shape of a stroke and apply it to another stroke. The new
stroke is deformed into the new shape, but retains its original properties, such
as color and time span information. You can only copy and paste one stroke
shape at a time.
To copy a stroke’s shape
1. Select the stroke with the shape you want to copy.
2. Do one of the following:
• From the General toolbar, click Copy Shape.
• In the Edit Shape property editor, click Copy Shape.
• Press Alt+C.
3. Select the stroke to receive the shape.
4. Do one of the following:
• To paste the shape on top of the first selected stroke, click Paste at Origin
from the General toolbar.
The shape of the first stroke is applied to the second stroke and is
positioned over the first stroke.
• To paste the shape on top of the second selected stroke, click Paste in Place
from the General toolbar.
The shape of the first stroke is applied to the second stroke and is
positioned over the second stroke.
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Original strokes
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After the Paste at Origin command is
applied, the rectangle takes the shape
of the circle, but retains its color
information. The new shape is pasted
on top of the first circle.
Duplicating Graphics
After the Paste in Place command is
applied, the rectangle takes the shape
of the circle, but retains its color
information. Note that the new shape
is pasted on top of the rectangle.
Duplicating an object lets you copy an object and its associated properties,
including the time span. Duplicating an object differs from copying an object
in that duplicating takes place within the same graphics session, whereas
copying an object lets you copy and paste objects between different graphics
sessions or layers. A duplicate of the object is pasted on the viewer, whereas a
copy of an object remains in the system memory until you paste it on a frame.
To duplicate an object
1. From the viewer, select an object.
The selected object is highlighted by a yellow bounding box.
2. From the General toolbar, click Duplicate or press Ctrl+K.
The selected object is duplicated and placed on top of the original object.
To see the two objects, you must select the duplicate and move it.
Original object
Duplicate object (surrounded
by a yellow bounding box)
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Deleting Graphics
You can delete graphics objects one at a time or delete them all simultaneously.
Objects are deleted over their entire duration. For example, if an object in the
current frame has a duration of 5 frames, all 5 frames are deleted.
Once an object is deleted, it cannot be retrieved except by choosing
the Undo command from the Edit menu.
To delete an object
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1. From the viewer, select an object.
The object is surrounded by a yellow bounding box.
2. Do one of the following:
• Press Delete.
• From the Edit menu, choose Clear.
The object is deleted.
To delete all objects that intersect on the current frame.
• In the General toolbar, click Delete All - Frame or press Ctrl+Delete.
All objects in the current frame are deleted.
To delete all objects in a graphics session
• In the General toolbar, click Delete All - Session.
Changing the Order of
Graphics
Each time you create a graphics object, it’s added to the existing graphics
session. You can change the order of objects by using the Front, Raise, Lower,
and Back tools. The last object you create is placed on top of all other objects.
Graphics applied on layers in a container clip are all part of the same
compositing layer.
Reordering three strokes
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To reorder objects
1. From the viewer, select an object.
The object is surrounded by a yellow bounding box.
2. In the General toolbar, click any of the following:
• Bring to Front or press Shift+Pg Up (number pad) to move the object in
front of all other objects.
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• Raise or press Pg Up (number pad) to move the object up by one level.
• Lower or press Pg Dn (number pad) to move the object down by one level.
• Send to Back or press Shift+Pg Dn (number pad) to move the object to
the back of all other objects.
Transforming Graphics
You can transform an object by moving, scaling, rotating, or skewing it. When
you do this, objects are surrounded by a yellow bounding box and handles are
displayed at its corner and sides. You can manipulate these handles to
transform objects.
For interactive updates while moving, scaling, rotating and skewing
graphics objects, press Ctrl while you drag a handle.
Moving Objects
To move graphics objects, you must use the Select tool.
To move an object
1. In the General toolbar, click Select.
2. In the viewer, click an object to select it.
A yellow bounding box surrounds the selected graphics object and the
graphics property tree displays its properties.
3. Do one of the following:
• Drag to move the selected object.
• Use the arrows on the number pad to move the object by 1 pixel.
• Hold down the Ctrl key and use the arrow keys on the number pad to
move the object by 10 pixels.
Scaling Objects
You can modify the height and width of strokes and titles using the Scale tool.
The height and width are scalable as independent values or proportionally.
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To scale an object
1. In the General toolbar, click Scale.
2. In the viewer, click an object.
A bounding box with handles surrounds the object, and a red circle marks
the object’s center.
3. Drag one of the handles.
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Press Shift and drag to increase or decrease the height and width of
the object proportionally.
Press Ctrl and drag. One or more of the opposite handles are pinned
in place while you drag.
By default the object is scaled according to its center and its
transformation properties are set in the Transformations property editor,
where you can edit them.
Object center
Bounding box
handles
Scaled object
Original object
Rotating Objects
You can rotate selected objects around their rotation point. The Rotate tool
lets you modify the rotational angle of an object. By default, an object rotates
around its center. You can move this center to any position in twodimensional space. This lets you rotate an object around its corner or around
another object in the image.
To rotate an object
1. In the General toolbar, click Rotate.
2. In the viewer, click an object.
A bounding box with handles appears at each corner of the bounding box,
and a red circle marks the object’s center.
3. Drag a handle clockwise or counterclockwise.
The object rotates around its center and its transformation properties are
set in the Transformations property editor, where you can edit them.
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To move an object’s center
1. In the General toolbar, click Select.
2. In the viewer, click an object to select it.
A yellow bounding box surrounds the selected graphics object and the
graphics property tree displays its properties. The object’s center is
displayed as a small red circle.
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3. Press Shift and drag the center to a new location.
Bounding box
handles
Object center
Object center is moved
Skewing Objects
The Skew tool lets you slant an object according to the angle you specify.
To skew an object
1. In the General toolbar, click Skew.
2. In the viewer, click an object.
A bounding box with handles surrounds the object.
3. Drag the handles left or right until the required slant is reached.
The bounding box handles for skewing appear on each edge of the
bounding box. The object is skewed and its transformation properties are
set in the Transformations property editor, where you can edit them.
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Setting the Transformation Properties
The transformations properties let you apply transformations, such as
translating, scaling, skewing, rotating, and centering the objects you create.
The transformation properties appear in the graphics property tree when you
select an object.
To define the transformations properties
1. From the General toolbar, click Select, and select an object from the viewer.
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2. From the graphics property tree, click the Transformations property icon.
3. In the Transformations property editor, set the Center, Translation,
Dimensions, Rotation, and Skew properties.
The selected object is transformed according to the transformation
properties you defined.
Click the Help icon for more information on Transformation properties.
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Tracking Graphics Objects
Tracking Graphics Objects
Tracking graphics objects can be very useful in rotoscopy tasks. You can track
the transformation of a graphics objects over time, as well as track the
deformation of shapes. To choose an appropriate tracking method, you’ll have
to decide if it’s more effective to track an entire graphics object or its vertices.
For more information, refer to Tracking on page 431 of the Avid|DS
Compositing & Effects Guide.
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Transformation
Tracking
You can transform a stroke or a text body by applying one or two trackers
directly to the entire stroke or text body. When applying only one tracker, the
stroke or text body will only translate over time. When applying two trackers,
the stroke or text body can undergo translation, rotation, and scaling.
To transform a graphics object using the tracker
1. From the GFX Creation Tools toolbar, select a drawing tool.
2. Draw a shape that defines the region you want to track.
3. Select the graphics object.
4. From the General toolbar, click Tracker.
The Select (Tracker) property editor is displayed.
5. You are now ready to position the trackers, set the tracker options, and
begin tracking—refer to Using the Shape Tracker on page 453 of the
Avid|DS Compositing & Effects Guide.
To help you position and view the trackers, click Hide Gfx to hide
the graphics object.
Tracking Vertices
You can deform the shape of a stroke by applying trackers to vertices.
To deform a shape using the tracker
1. From the GFX Creation Tools toolbar, select a drawing tool.
2. Draw a shape defining the region you want to track.
S
You can use any drawing tool, but the Polyline tool gives you distinct
control points. When using other drawing tools, select the Curve Fit
option in the Edit Shape property page to reduce the number of
control points.
3. From the General toolbar, click Select and select the graphics object.
4. In the General toolbar, click Edit Shape.
5. In the Edit Shape property editor, select the Tracker tab.
6. You are now ready to position the trackers, set the tracker options, and
begin tracking—refer to Using the Shape Tracker on page 453of the
Avid|DS Compositing & Effects Guide.
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Working in Raster Mode
Raster mode (also known as destructive mode) lets you perform tedious tasks,
such as rotoscoping quickly and effectively. Since this mode is not vectorbased, processing is not required. The time required to load and save graphics
objects is also dramatically reduced.
As you paint frame-by-frame, the finished, or burned, frames are placed in a
cache and the original graphics objects are deleted. Working in Raster mode
deactivates the recording of graphics objects in the Graphics Objects View
(GOV), flattens them, and stores the resulting images on individual frames
directly to a cache. You can choose to have the frame you’re currently working
on automatically “burned” or you can choose to burn frames later, when
you’re satisfied with the results.
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When burning frames, keep in mind that clip effects previously applied to a
sequence will be no longer be editable. If you want to apply clip effects to your
sequence, it’s best to use the raster mode to burn your frames first.
Raster mode only works for graphics objects that have a duration of
one frame.
Effect in which Raster mode is used
Clip effects that will be uneditable
after frames are burned
When working in raster mode, you cannot undo an operation once a
frame has been burned. You can use the Delete Burned command
from the Raster Paint toolbar to undo your work on that frame
entirely and start over.
To use the raster mode
1. From the General 2 toolbar, click Graphics Properties.
2. On the Raster Mode property page, click Start.
A message box is displayed to warn you that the operation you’re about to
attempt cannot be reverted.
3. Click OK to proceed in the Raster mode.
4. Do one of the following:
• To automatically burn or “destroy” frames as you advance frames, select
the Burn on Frame Change option.
• Deselect the Burn on Frame Change option if you want to burn frames on
demand. You can do this by clicking Burn Frame in the Raster Paint
toolbar when you’re satisfied with your work.
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5. To create a copy of the rastered strokes when advancing frames, select the
Copy Burned Strokes option.
6. If you don’t want to work in real time, select the Non Real-time option.
7. To deactivate the warning message that appears concerning undo/redo
operations when you change frames, select the Remove Warning When
Burning option.
8. To easily retrieve work done in the raster mode, enter a file name in the
Base Cache File Name text box. It should not exceed ten alphanumeric
characters. If you do not enter a file name, one will be entered by default
based on the sequence name. For more information on working with
caches, refer to Raster Mode Caches on page 138 of the Avid|DS
Compositing & Effects Guide.
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9. Use the transport controls to advance the clip to a frame where you want
to begin using the raster mode.
10. Apply paint strokes to the first frame.
When you’ve completed the first frame, you can advance to the next
one by using the right arrow key on the keyboard.
11. Advance to the next frame.
If you selected the Burn on Frame Change option, when advancing to a
new frame, the graphics objects applied to the previous frame are burned
and saved to a cache. A small white box appears under the timeline in the
GOV to indicate that the frame has been burned.
In the GOV, white boxes
indicate burned frames
To work even more quickly, you can use the Raster Paint toolbar.
The toolbar can be accessed from the View menu, choose Toolbars >
Raster Paint.
To delete burned, rastered strokes
While you’re painting frame-by-frame, you may decide to redo a rastered
frame. To do this, you must still be in the current graphics session in order to
delete the rastered strokes.
1. Using the transport controls, advance the clip to the frame on which you
want to delete the rastered strokes.
2. From the View menu, choose Toolbars > Raster Paint.
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3. From the Raster Paint toolbar, click Delete Burned.
The strokes created before burning the frame are now deleted and the
white box disappears for that frame in the GOV.
Using the GOV in Raster Mode
The GOV provides useful information when working in the Raster Paint
mode. The Raster Paint log lets you save a list of the rastered frames in a text
file. It provides you with information about the rastered frames, so that you
can easily locate them in the cache. The GOV also provides tooltips of the
rastered framed, so that you can locate a frame if you want to delete or redo it.
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To create and save a Raster Paint log
1. In the GOV, right-click on a small white box.
Right-click on
a white box
2. Click Save Raster Paint Log.
A dialog box appears, prompting you to save the log.
3. Choose the folder in which you want to save the Raster Paint Log
information. You may want to save your work for different graphics
sessions in separate folders.
4. Click Save.
A text file is created.
Date the file
was created
Name of
rastered frame
Base cache file name
To see the file name of a rastered frame, place the pointer over the
frame’s white box and a tooltip appears indicating the file name.
370 • User’s Guide
Creating Mattes
Creating Mattes
A matte is a grayscale image that defines the transparency of an image when it
is composited over another. An image can have a matte in its alpha channel
(internal matte) or use a matte derived from another image (external matte).
When you use the graphics tools to create a matte, it is created in the alpha
channel of the clip or layer that will be composited.
A garbage matte can be used on images in which portions of an image are
difficult to key out. This occurs when colors in the foreground image are
similar to the background colors that you want to key out. A garbage matte
lets you block out areas that cannot be properly keyed.
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Creating a Travelling
Matte
A travelling matte is used for compositing a part of a foreground image onto
the background image. You can then animate the geometry of the shape so
that it matches the outline of the object in every frame of the sequence.
When the element you want to rotoscope is a fast moving object,
such as a car, you should apply the Deinterlace effect inside the
composite container clip, perform the graphics or compositing tasks
and then go to the parent timeline to apply the Interlace effect. For
more information, refer to Deinterlace Effect on page 331 of the
Avid|DS Compositing & Effects Guide.
To create a travelling matte
1. From the Avid Explorer, drag the background clip to a video track on the
timeline.
2. Click the Compositing layout icon in the taskbar.
This automatically creates a composite container.
3. Right-click on the timeline effect track, and select Create Background
Track from the menu.
4. From the Avid Explorer, drag the foreground clip to the new
background track.
5. Drag the track icon for the new video track to the Layers view.
A layer is created in the Layers view.
6. Make sure the Autokey button is deactivated.
7. On the top layer, click the Gfx button.
The Graphics layout is displayed.
8. From the GFX Creation Tools toolbar, click Polyline.
9. In the graphics property tree, load the Fill Fx property icon with the Color
Blend or Reveal effect.
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10. In the graphics property tree, click the property icons, and do the following:
• Paint Style: Select the Fill option, and deselect the Brush option.
• Fill Fx: If you’re using the Color Blend effect, set the Alpha value to 0.
• Masks: On the General property page, select the Alpha option, and
deselect the R, G, and B options in the Paint on Channels box.
• Time Span: Set a stroke duration.
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11. In the viewer, draw an outline of your subject.
12. From the General toolbar, click Select and then click Edit Shape.
Polyline stroke
reveals the
background
image (sky)
13. Edit the object’s shape.
14. Open the Edit Shape property editor, and click Set Key.
A keyframe is set at the current timecode.
15. Advance to the next frame, edit the object’s shape, and set another
keyframe. Repeat these steps until you’re done.
16. When you’re done, press Esc to exit Edit Shape tool.
17. From the General 2 toolbar, click Process to process the graphics session.
Use the transport controls to play the clip.
18. To view the matte, click the Layers icon on the view switcher.
372 • User’s Guide
Scratch Removal
Scratch Removal
Avid|DS includes tools for fixing flaws, such as dropouts in video frames or
defects in film-originated footage. If the flaw is on one frame, you can isolate
it and create a two-frame region using the Scratch Removal tool. The frame
that precedes the flawed frame must contain clean material. When using the
Scratch Removal tool, a Graphics (Scratch Removal) effect is applied to the
clip you select.
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If more than one frame is scratched, you can trim the Graphics effect on the
timeline, or apply the Scratch Removal preset on the clip.
You cannot access frames outside of the region you have marked
when you are removing scratches.
When using a clip that contains an in-point and out-point, scratch removal
will start at the frame before the in-point and end at the frame before the
out-point if:
• Both the in-point and out-point intersect the selected clip, and
• The position indicator intersects the in/out time span or is located at the
frame immediately before the in-point.
To remove scratches
1. In the Editing layout, select the clip that contains the flaw(s) that you want
to remove.
2. Locate the flawed frame and place the position indicator on that frame.
The frame that precedes the flawed frame must contain clean material.
3. From the toolbar, click Editing > Scratch Removal.
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A Graphics (Scratch Removal) effect, with a duration of two frames, is
applied to the selected clip on the timeline and the Graphics combo view
is displayed. The default scratch removal properties are:
• Tool: Freehand with Clone as the brush effect
• Source Frame
- Type: Relative
- Frame: -1
• Time span: This Frame Only
374 • User’s Guide
Scratch Removal
4. In the viewer, paint away any scratches or flaws.
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Scratch
Click the Help icon for more information on the Clone properties, or refer to
Scratch Removal in the online help.
You can also use the Noise effect to remove flaws from images. For more
information, refer to Clone Effect on page 405 and Noise Effect on page 418 of
the Avid|DS Compositing & Effects Guide.
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Chapter 9 • Painting and Titling
Importing an Image
Importing an image in your graphics session lets you use images of any size
without having to capture them. You can also import images that were created
in other paint applications, as well as use the image’s alpha. For example, you
can import a logo created in Adobe Photoshop or Illustrator, and use it in
your graphics session.
When you import an image in Avid|DS, a rectangular stroke is created in the
viewer and filled with the image you imported. The original size of the
imported image is retained. That is, the image is not scaled or cropped. You
can treat the imported image as a graphics object, which means you can edit
any of its properties, as well as animate and transform it.
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You can import still images, but not video sequences.
To import an image
1. From the GFX Creation Tools toolbar, click Import Image.
2. From the Import Image dialog box, select an image to import.
The image, in its original size, is imported and appears in the lower-left
corner of the viewer. The default time span is one frame. If the imported
image is small, you can see the entire image in the viewer. If the imported
image is large, part of the image will lie outside the viewer.
The imported image, a
small logo, is actually a
rectangular stroke that is
filled with the image you
imported. The stroke was
scaled and moved to the
upper-center of the viewer.
3. To use an image’s alpha, select the stroke, open the Fill Fx (Cutout)
property editor, and select the Use Alpha option.
If you can’t see the entire stroke, zoom out of the viewer by pressing
Shift+Z and dragging.
376 • User’s Guide
Importing an Image
A zoomed out view of
a large imported
image. Because of its
size, only the map
portion of the image is
displayed in the viewer.
The rest of the image
lies outside the viewer.
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Importing
Encapsulated
PostScript (EPS) Files
If you have EPS files that you want to use in your current graphics session, you
can import them directly into your graphics session. The color information in
the EPS files is retained. Once imported, each shape in the EPS file is a
separate stroke in Avid|DS.
You can import solid colors, but not gradients.
Avid|DS can import files created with Adobe Illustrator 8.0 or earlier
versions. To work with Illustrator 9.0 files, save it as a version 8.0 file.
You can also import EPS files as brushes. For more information, see Creating
Custom Brushes on page 322.
To import an EPS file
1. From the GFX Creation Tools toolbar, click Import EPS.
The Open dialog box is displayed.
2. Select an EPS file and click Open.
The EPS file is imported into your graphics session.
If your EPS file contained closed characters, such as a, b, d, o, p, 6, 8, 9, or
0, their shapes may not appear as expected. That’s because each character
consists of several strokes. Avid|DS imports each stroke separately and
then fills it. For example, the letter “O” consists of two strokes, the inner
and outer shapes; both are filled. To “knock out” the inner shape, select
the inner and outer stroke of the character and click Combine Strokes.
After import, both
inner and outer
shapes are filled
Combined inner and
outer shapes. Inner
shape is “knocked out”.
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Processing Graphics
Avid|DS lets you play some graphics effects in real time without having to
manually process them:
•
•
•
•
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Airbrush
Color Blend
Cutout
Animations, such as rolls and crawls, when using the above effects
Others cannot be played in real time due to effect properties that demand
processing requirements that exceed the system’s ability to complete
processing on the fly. For example, if there are large graphics objects that cover
most of a frame, the system will slow down during playback. In such cases,
you need to process the effects before final output.
A message is displayed at the bottom of the Graphics property editor
to indicate why your session can’t be played in real time.
Also, you can select the non-real-time configuration from the
Graphics Properties property editor if you do not want your system
to play back real-time effects.
You can process all or part of the timeline, as well as choose different levels at
which to process your clips. You can process graphics you have created in full
resolution, and view them on playback. The results of the processing is stored
in a new media file (cache), so that your source media remains unaltered. For
more information on processing, refer to Processing Effects on page 115 of the
Avid|DS Compositing & Effects Guide.
To process graphics
1. Do one of the following:
• From the General 2 toolbar, click Process.
• In the timeline controls, click the Process icon.
Process icon
Highlighted timeline ribbon
indicates unprocessed
section of the sequence.
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Processing Graphics
2. In the Processing Options dialog box, select the appropriate options.
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3. Click OK to begin processing.
A progress indicator appears on the bottom of the desktop to show the
status of the process.
4. Click Cancel to stop the process at any time.
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380 • User’s Guide
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Chapter 10
3D DVE and Titling
User’s Guide • 381
Chapter 10 • 3D DVE and Titling
In This Chapter...
This chapter describes how to create and edit 3D DVEs, graphics, and titles.
You’ll also learn how to work with surfaces, materials, lights, and shadows, as
well as import and export projects.
Workflow: Creating 3D DVEs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
Workflow: Titling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
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Working in the 3D World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
Setting Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
Working with the Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
About Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
Manipulating Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
Working with 3D DVEs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
Working with Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
Working with Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
Working with Surfaces and Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
Working with Lights and Shadows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
Importing and Exporting Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
Setting the Output Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
382 • User’s Guide
Workflow: Creating 3D DVEs
Workflow: Creating 3D DVEs
You can create and manipulate 3D DVEs in the 3D DVE layout. The following
illustration shows the typical workflow of a 3D DVE session.
1
Select a clip to use as the DVE
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Apply 3D DVE
effect to clip on
timeline
Clip used as 3D DVE
A 3D layer is automatically created
in the 3D DVE Layers view.
2
Decide whether you want to work in Direct View mode.
3
Manipulate the 3D DVE in
the viewer
4
Add effects to the 3D DVE
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Chapter 10 • 3D DVE and Titling
Workflow: Titling
You can create and manipulate 2D and 3D titles in the 3D DVE layout. The
following illustration shows the typical workflow of a titling session.
1
Decide whether you want to create a 2D or 3D title.
Apply the 2D Titling or 3D Titling effect to your clip.
Clip is used as background for titles.
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Depending on the effect you selected, either a 2D layer or
3D layer is automatically created in the 3D DVE Layers view.
Decide whether you want to work in Direct View mode.
2
3
Select the Text tool and set its properties
Text tool
4
Create a title in the viewer
5
Select the title and edit its properties
The word “Venice” was kerned to match
the length of the words above it.
384 • User’s Guide
Working in the 3D World
Working in the 3D World
Before you create 3D DVEs, graphics, or titles, you should be aware of some
basic 3D concepts, such as three-dimensional space, materials, and lights.
Three-Dimensional
Space
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It’s essential to understand the notion of working within a virtual threedimensional space using a two-dimensional user interface. To represent the
geometry of an object, Avid|DS uses the classical Euclidean/Cartesian
mathematical representation of space. It is based on three perpendicular axes
X, Y, and Z, intersecting at one point called the origin.
XYZ Axes
To remember the direction of the X, Y, Z axes, use the “right-hand” rule: hold
up your right hand so that your palm is facing you, then extend your thumb
to the right, hold your index finger up, and point your middle finger towards
you. Your thumb is pointing in positive X, your index finger in positive Y, and
your middle finger in positive Z. The point of origin is 0, 0, 0. The opposite
directions represent negative X, Y, and Z.
XYZ Coordinates
With the Cartesian coordinate system, you can locate any point in space using
three coordinates. For example, if X = +6, Y = –6, Z = +6, a point would be
located to the right of, below, and in front of the origin.
XZ, XY, YZ Planes
Since you’re working with a two-dimensional interface, spatial planes are used
to locate points in three-dimensional space. The perpendicular axes extend as
spatial planes: XZ, XY, and YZ. Imagine that the XZ, XY, and YZ planes are
folded together like the top, front, and right side of a box. This helps you keep
a sense of orientation when you’re working.
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Chapter 10 • 3D DVE and Titling
Global and Local Coordinate Systems
The XYZ coordinate system can be global or local.
When you place an object in 3D space, it is inside a world with the origin at
(0, 0, 0) of the ground plane in the viewer. Accordingly, the XYZ coordinates
that locate the object in relation to the origin are called global coordinates.
A local coordinate system is thought of in terms of an object’s own point of
reference, which is its own center. This center also has three axes: X, Y, and Z.
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The center of an object is only a reference—it is not necessarily in the middle
of the object because it can be moved (as well as rotated and scaled).
Materials
Once you’ve created an object, you can apply materials to define its surfaces’
appearance. A surface is an area of an object. You can control the visibility and
appearance of each surface by applying a set of properties called a material.
You can modify the appearance of the various surfaces of an object. For
example, you can apply a brick texture to a rectangle to give the appearance of
a brick wall, a gradient to a wavy shape that runs along the left edge of the
view to enhance a scene, or a reflective texture to the edges of the characters in
a word to simulate a chrome outline. For more information, Working with
Surfaces and Materials on page 455.
Lights
Another basic element you will work with is light. Light sources are points in
three-dimensional space that emit light, causing objects (with materials that
can be affected by light) to appear illuminated. There are three kinds of light
sources: infinite, local, and spot.
You specify the location of light sources relative to objects in the scene by
using light source objects, which exist above all other objects in the scene.
For more information, see Working with Lights and Shadows on page 465.
386 • User’s Guide
Setting Preferences
Setting Preferences
Often, when setting up an animation or creating text, you don’t really need to
see all the other layers and effects in your sequence. When working with 3D
DVEs, there are many ways to improve the responsiveness of Avid|DS. You can
use the features you really need and turn off the rest, such as the following:
• Working in Direct View mode—see Working in Direct View Mode on page 389.
• Viewing the background—see Using a Background on page 387.
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• Suspending output to the output monitor—see Suspending Output to the
Output Monitor on page 390.
• Working in wireframe mode—see Working in Wireframe Mode on page 393.
• Viewing preferences and quality level—see Setting the Viewer Quality
Level on page 394.
All of your choices depend on the complexity of the objects you plan on
creating in the 3D DVE layout, as well as how responsive you want Avid|DS to
be. Just keep in mind that in a typical scenario, Avid|DS processes one entire
frame before displaying the output in the viewer and output monitor. As a
result, this slows down the responsiveness of Avid|DS.
Using a Background
You’ll have to decide whether you want to composite your graphics onto the
background inside the 3D DVE or outside. We recommend that you do so
within the 3D DVE so you can see the background while working in the
Direct View mode. The background lets you easily place titles or graphics, so
that they appear in the correct location relative to the background.
However, if your background is large, it is probably better to leave it outside the
3D DVE. For more information, see Working in Direct View Mode on page 389.
There are two ways to include a background in your 3D DVE session:
• Use a clip on the timeline or
• Select a background image from the 3D DVE/Options property editor.
Using a clip as the background
Using an image as the background
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To use a clip on the timeline as the background
1. On the timeline, select a clip and place the position indicator over it.
2. From the toolbar, click Video Effects and choose one of the following:
• 2D Titling to create 2D titles.
The 3D DVE layout is displayed, the selected clip is used as the
background, and a 2D layer is created in the 3D DVE Layers view.
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• 3D Titling to create 3D titles.
The 3D DVE layout is displayed, the selected clip is used as the
background, and a 3D layer is created in the 3D DVE Layers view.
To use a background image
1. On the timeline, select a clip and place the position indicator over it, and
click the 3D DVE layout icon on the taskbar.
You can also access the 3D DVE layout in a floating combo view, by
pressing Ctrl and clicking the 3D DVE layout icon.
The 3D DVE layout is displayed.
2. From the 3D DVE/Options property editor, select the Preferences
property page.
3. Select the Background option and then select an image from the list:
388 • User’s Guide
Blinds
Boilerplate
Brick
BrickRed
Brushed
Metal
Clouds
Concrete
Default
Default
Gradient
FloorMat
Fur
GiraffeFur
GoldWave
Granite
Metal
OakBoard
Peanuts
Pearl
Setting Preferences
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Pennies
People
Rivets
Satin
Silver
SilverWave
Speaker
TreeBark
Wood
The selected image is centered behind all objects in the viewer and scaled
down (if larger than the pixel dimensions of the scene) or padded with a
black border (if smaller than the pixel dimensions of the scene).
You can also select an input (from the list) to use the clip on the
timeline as the background.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Preferences properties.
To show or hide the background
1. From the 3D DVE/Options property editor, select the Direct View
property page.
2. Select the View Background option. For quicker previews of your
sequence, hide the background.
The View Background option is for viewing purposes only and does
not affect the processed output.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Direct View properties.
Working in Direct
View Mode
Just like all other effects in Avid|DS, the 3D DVE layout, by default, displays
the results of one entire frame in the viewer. While this may be convenient for
viewing the results of your sequence, including the output of the 3D DVE
effect, it can be quite slow, reducing the responsiveness of Avid|DS and some
or all of the effects before you can see them in the viewer.
If you have a complex sequence, such as the following:
• A 3D DVE effect on the background track that contains a picture-inpicture effect with a spotlight,
• A large blur effect on top of the 3D DVE effect, and
• A background clip in the timeline,
It would be faster not to view all of this while you’re working on the 3D DVE
portion of the sequence, especially the large blur, which takes time to process.
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This is where the Direct View mode comes in handy; it lets you focus
exclusively on your 3D DVE session, without being slowed down by the
processing of other clips or effects in the frame. This improves the
performance of Avid|DS, especially when working with text.
The Direct View mode is for viewing purposes only and does not affect
the output.
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Default mode show the results of your
entire sequence in the viewer
Direct View mode shows only the
results of your 3D DVE session
To work in Direct View mode
• From the Viewer toolbar, click Direct Mode.
The viewer displays only the contents of your 3D DVE session.
Suspending Output to the Output Monitor
By suspending (or not sending) the output of your scene to the output monitor,
you can increase the interaction speed when working in the 3D DVE layout.
You can only suspend output to the output monitor when working
in the Direct View mode.
To suspend output to the output monitor
• From the Viewer toolbar, click Suspend Output.
The output of your scene is not displayed on the output monitor.
390 • User’s Guide
Setting Preferences
Displaying Guides
You can display various guides or hide parts of objects in the viewer to
position objects relative to each other and to the edges of the viewable area.
Guides are not visible in the final sequence.
Showing the Safe Action/Title Areas
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The safe action area is the central area of the viewer where action can occur
without having noticeable distortion. The safe title area, also in the central
area of the viewer, is where you can safely place graphics and titles without
having any of its edges cut off. These areas delineate where action and titles
should occur to be fully visible on a television set.
Safe action guide
Safe title guide
To show or hide the safe action/title areas
Do one of the following:
• Right-click on the viewer and choose Safe Action/Title from the menu.
• From the Viewer toolbar, click the Safe Action/Title icon.
When the safe action/title guides are displayed. When you move objects
near the safe action/title guides, they snap to it. You can, however, still
move the objects outside the safe action/title areas.
Showing Construction Lines
Construction lines define the boundaries of objects, such as text and the scene
itself. By showing construction lines, you can identify the location and size of
these types of objects, as well as any that are empty. Construction lines also
display the shadow plane for projected shadows. For more information, see
Changing a Shadow’s Location on page 471.
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Construction line
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To show or hide construction lines
• From the Viewer toolbar, click the Construction Lines icon.
Construction lines appear as dashes around the borders of objects.
Showing the Grid
The grid consists of evenly spaced points that you can use to align objects to
each other or to the sides of a scene. The grid uses a standard 16×12 layout.
When you show the grid while in the 3D DVE layout, by default, it’s in Snap to
Grid mode. For more information, see Positioning Objects at Specific Locations
on page 407 and Aligning Objects Relative to Each Other on page 408.
The grid is not visible in the final production.
To show or hide the grid
• From the Viewer toolbar, click the Grid icon.
The grid appears as points at the intersections of the grid lines.
Showing Objects Viewable Within the Frame
The frame of a project is the dimensions of the scene, which represent the
output resolution. If there are objects moving in or out of a frame over time,
you may want to show or hide those parts of the objects that are “outside the
frame”. Viewing only the visible portions of objects may make previewing the
project less distracting. However, when you’re editing objects, you will usually
want to see all the objects.
Objects outside of the viewable frame will be hidden only if you have
not tumbled the scene.
Although objects may be hidden from view, you can still select them.
392 • User’s Guide
Setting Preferences
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Clip to Frame: Selected
Clip to Frame: Deselected
To show or hide all objects within a frame
• From the Viewer toolbar, click the Clip to Frame icon.
Working in Wireframe
Mode
Working in wireframe mode lets you easily see the outline of all the objects in
your scene, making it easier to select and edit them. This can be useful when
there are objects hidden behind other objects.
You can also precisely edit and manipulate objects without being distracted by
any of the effects defined for it. The wireframe mode increases the speed of
interaction because wireframe objects are not processed.
To work in wireframe mode
1. In the 3D DVE/Option property editor, select the Direct View property page.
2. Select the View as Wireframe option.
All objects in the viewer appear in wireframe.
For fast animation playback, suspend the output (to output
monitor) and press Ctrl-play. The sequence will play back and
animated objects appear in wireframe mode.
Rendering Objects as a Wireframe
You can draw select objects as a wireframe to help you focus on the placement
of objects in a scene, and not on how the objects appear.
To render objects in wireframe
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From the Effect property editor, select the Render as Wireframe option.
The Render as Wireframe option affects the final sequence.
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Rendered normally
Rendered as a wireframe
The wireframe is drawn using the object’s main material.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Effect properties.
Setting the Viewer
Quality Level
You can change the processed on-screen quality of objects in the viewer by
adjusting the quality level. Increasing the quality level improves the visual
accuracy of objects, but at the expense of system responsiveness. Decreasing
the quality level makes it faster for you to move and edit objects, but at the
expense of visual accuracy and detail. The quality setting does not affect the
processing quality.
To set the quality level
1. From the 3D DVE/Options property editor, select the Direct View
property page.
2. Adjust any of the following properties that affect the quality of objects
rendered in the viewer:
• From the Antialiasing list, select one of the following:
- None to apply no antialiasing. This setting produces jagged or aliased edges.
- Fast 2D to draw flat objects.
• Texturing controls the quality of textured surfaces in proportion to the
time required to render the texture onto the surface.
• Lighting controls the quality of lit surfaces.
• Tessellation controls the smoothness or approximation of curved edges
on characters and shapes.
• Shadowing controls the quality of soft shadows.
• Motion Blur applies a motion blur on fast moving objects.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Direct View properties.
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Working with the Camera
Working with the Camera
The camera in Avid|DS is similar to a real camera, letting you view objects in
the scene from different angles and perspectives. You can create interesting
effects, such as camera fly throughs, by animating the camera’s parameters.
The camera shows you what the scene will look like when you render it.
The main camera icon in the viewer has two arrows. The blue arrow indicates
where the camera is “looking”, that is, the direction the lens is facing. This is
called the interest. The camera is always constrained to the interest. The green
arrow indicates the camera’s up direction. You can change the camera’s
direction by rolling the camera.
?
You can only see the camera icon while you’re viewing through the
alternate camera. For more information, see Viewing Through the
Alternate Camera below.
Green arrow shows up direction
Blue arrow points towards interest
To select the camera
Do one of the following:
• In the 3D DVE Object View, click the bar that corresponds to the camera.
• In the 3D DVE Layer view, click Camera.
• Click the camera in the viewer.
Viewing Through the
Alternate Camera
In addition to the main camera, there’s also an alternate camera. In many
ways, the main and alternate cameras are similar, except that the alternate
camera is not an actual object. It’s only a tool for viewing and navigating
through your scene; it is not displayed in the viewer and does not have any
properties for you to edit.
When viewing through the alternate camera, you can see the main camera,
and the background, if any, is not visible. You cannot select or animate the
alternate camera.
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Viewing through the main camera, which is
not visible as you are looking through it.
Viewing through the alternate camera.
The main camera is visible.
?
Zoomed out view through the alternate camera.
Snapping the Camera
By snapping the main camera to the alternate camera or vice versa, you can
get a different view of your scene.
To snap one camera to the other
Click one of the following icons in the Viewer toolbar:
• Snap Alternate Camera to Main Camera
• Snap Main Camera to Alternate Camera
To toggle the current camera
• In the Viewer toolbar, click the Toggle Camera icon.
If you were using the main camera, the view is switched to the alternate
camera and vice versa.
Viewing a Scene from Different Angles
Using the alternate camera, you can view the objects in your scene from
different angles. This is useful when positioning or animating objects.
Viewing the scene through the alternate camera does not affect the
final output of your scene.
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Working with the Camera
To view the scene from different angles
• From the 3D DVE Viewer toolbar, click one of the following icons:
Icon
Example
Description
View Top
Displays scene
from above
View Left
Displays scene
from left
View Front
Displays scene
from the front
View Right
Displays scene
from the right
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If you were using the main camera, the view is switched to the alternate
camera and you can see your scene from different angles.
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To tumble the scene
• From the Viewer toolbar, click the Tumble icon and drag on the viewer.
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A tumbled scene
A light-colored orientation grid and axis appear in the viewer as you
tumble the scene. The X, Y, and Z axes identify the orientation of the
frame, with Y identifying the top of the frame and Z identifying the front
of the frame.
Manipulating the
Camera
It’s easier to view your scene when you manipulate the camera by zooming,
panning, dollying, or rolling it.
To zoom the camera
• Click the Zoom icon in the Viewer toolbar. In the viewer, drag down/left
to zoom in or drag up/right to zoom out.
To pan the camera
• Click the Pan icon in the Viewer toolbar and drag in the viewer.
To dolly the camera
• Click the Dolly icon in the Viewer toolbar and drag in the viewer.
To roll the camera
Do one of the following:
• Click the Roll icon in the Viewer toolbar. In the viewer, drag down/left to
roll clockwise or drag up/right to roll counterclockwise.
• In the Camera property editor, set the Roll angle. Negative values make
the camera roll left and positive values make the camera roll right.
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Resetting the Camera
If you’ve zoomed in and out too much and the perspective on your camera is
in need of a reset or refresh, you can always reset it.
To reset the camera
Do one of the following:
• In the Camera property editor, click Reset.
This resets all the properties of the main camera to the default values.
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• In the Viewer toolbar, click the Reset Current Camera icon.
The properties of the current camera (main or alternate) are reset to the
default values.
Setting the Camera
Position
The camera’s position defines where the camera exists in the scene. These
coordinates are local and are not affected when a transformation is applied to
the camera.
To set the camera position
Do one of the following:
• In the viewer, select the camera and drag it to a new location.
• In the Camera property editor, enter values in the Position box.
Defining the Camera
Interest
The interest, what the camera is always looking at, is at the center of the interest
plane. The interest plane is defined as the area visible through the camera. It is
represented by a cross, which you can view through the alternate camera.
You can translate and animate the position of the interest as you would any
other parameter. By animating the interest, you can keep a certain object in
the scene in every frame.
Interest
Interest plane
Viewing the interest and interest plane through the alternate camera
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To define the camera interest
• In the Camera property editor, enter values in the Interest box.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Camera properties.
Setting the Clipping
Planes
?
Clipping planes are useful when you want to show or hide specific objects.
You can use clipping planes to set the minimum and maximum viewable
distances from the camera. Objects outside these planes are not visible. By
default, the near plane is very close to the camera and the far plane is very far
away, so most objects are usually visible.
To set clipping planes
In the Camera property editor, set the following:
• Near Plane to set the minimum viewable distance from camera. Objects in
front of this plane will not be visible.
• Far Plane to set the maximum viewable distance camera. Objects behind
this plane will not be visible.
You can reduce processing time by choosing appropriate clipping
planes. Smaller ranges of clipping planes take less time to process.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Camera properties.
Selecting a Projection
Method
When you rotate an object around the X or Y axis or move the object away
from the center of the scene, you can control the amount of perspective
distortion applied to the object. The perspective distortion simulates the realworld appearance of a rotated or far-away object, where points on the object
farther away look smaller than points closer to you.
Depending on the look you want to achieve, you can change the view from an
orthographic to a perspective projection. When you select an orthographic
projection, objects do not change size as they change distance from the
camera. A perspective projection simulates depth and is useful for simulating
a real camera.
Orthographic projection
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Perspective projection
Working with the Camera
To set the perspective
From the Camera property editor, select one of the following options from the
from the Projection box:
• Orthographic perspective in which all camera rays are parallel and objects
do not change size as they change distance from the camera.
• Perspective perspective to simulate depth. This projection simulates a real
camera. You can also adjust the Vertical Field of View value. Higher values
produce exaggerated distortions, whereas lower values produce subtle
distortions.
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Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Camera properties.
Setting the Field of
View
The field of view is the angular measurement of how much the camera can see
at any one time. By changing the field of view, you can distort the perspective
to give a narrow, peephole effect or a wide, fish-eye effect.
To set the field of view
1. From the Camera property editor, set the Angle in the Field of View box.
Small angles are equivalent to a telephoto lens and large angles are
equivalent to a wide angle lens.
2. Select one of the following options:
• Horizontal to apply the angle to the horizontal field of view.
• Vertical to apply the angle to the vertical field of view
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Camera properties.
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About Objects
Objects are the building blocks of your 3D DVE session. An object is anything
you can create or manipulate in the viewer while working in the 3D DVE
layout. For example, text, two-dimensional graphics (rectangles and circles),
and even the background itself are objects.
You can create and modify the following types of objects:
• DVE objects whose appearances you can deform based on an effect or
image you apply to them. For example, you can create spheres, page curls,
and ripples—see Working with Surfaces and Materials on page 455.
?
• Text objects contain characters (letters, numbers, and other symbols) that
you type. The characters in a text object can be static, move vertically
(rolling text), or move horizontally (crawling text). You create text objects
using the Text tool—see Working with 3D DVEs on page 416.
• Graphics objects are geometric shapes, such as rectangles and ellipses. You
create graphics objects by using the Shape, Rectangle, and Ellipse tools—
see Working with Surfaces and Materials on page 455.
• Path objects or paths are shapes onto which you can place or crawl text.
You can convert shapes into paths or paths into shapes—see Placing and
Moving Text on a Path on page 450.
• Layers allow you to create simple two-dimensional effects or more
complex three-dimensional effects in which objects can intersect.
Some objects can contain subobjects, such as the characters you type in a text
body. The 3D DVE session contains all the objects you create while working in
the 3D DVE layout. You can modify subobjects separately.
Object (text object)
Subobject (characters)
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About Objects
About Drawing Tool
Properties
?
The 3D DVE layout is similar to the Graphics layout. That is, before you create
titles or DVEs, you must define how the titles or DVE will appear. Using the
property editors, you can set the object’s properties, such as the color or font.
Each time you select a tool, its properties are displayed in the property editors.
You can set the default properties of the drawing tool before creating an
object. When you do this, the new settings become the default properties that
are applied to the objects you create. These properties remain in effect until
you change the properties in any of the drawing tools. If you decide to create
an object before setting its properties, you can select the object you created
and then modify its properties. When you do this, only the properties of the
selected object are modified.
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Manipulating Objects
You can select, deselect, arrange, modify, and identify objects. You can copy
and move objects around in the scene, and align objects relative to the scene
or each other. You can also remove objects you no longer need.
Selecting and
Deselecting Objects
?
Before you can edit an object, you must first select it with the Edit tool. You
can select multiple objects at a time to perform the same operation, such as
changing the color on multiple objects at the same time.
When you select an object, its bounding box appears, displaying the bounds
or extent of the selected object.
Bounding box
Bounding box handle
To select a single object
Using the Edit tool, do one of the following:
• In the viewer, click an object or drag a selection box around an object.
• In the 3D DVE Object View or 3D DVE Layers view, click an object’s name.
To select multiple objects
Using the Edit tool, do one of the following:
• In the viewer, press Shift and click the objects.
• In the viewer, drag to make a rectangular selection box around the objects.
• In the 3D DVE Object View or 3D DVE Layers view, press Shift and click
the objects.
To select all visible objects in the current frame
• Using the Edit tool, click the Select All icon in the 3D DVE Layer toolbar.
To select characters or a grouped object using the Edit or Rotate tool
• Alt-click the character or grouped object.
To deselect all objects
Using the Edit tool, do one of the following:
• Click away from any object in the viewer.
• From the 3D DVE Layer toolbar, click the Deselect All icon.
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Cutting, Copying, and
Pasting Objects
You can cut or copy objects in the viewer, and paste them to the same frame or
to another frame. Cut or copied objects are placed on the Clipboard and
remain there until you perform another cut, copy, or paste operation. At the
end of your 3D DVE session, all objects that were cut or copied from the
viewer are permanently deleted.
To copy an object to a different location or page
?
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From the Edit menu, choose Copy or press Ctrl+C.
A copy of the selected object is placed on the Clipboard.
3. Pan or zoom to the location in the scene or the time in the project in
which you want to copy the objects.
4. Click in the page to activate it.
5. From the Edit menu, choose Paste or press Ctrl+V.
The selected objects are pasted in the new location or page. If the original
object was locked, the copy of the object is also locked.
To move an object to a different location or page
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From the Edit menu, choose Cut.
The selected object is placed on the Clipboard.
3. Pan or zoom to the location in the scene to move the object.
4. From the Edit menu, choose Paste or press Ctrl+V.
A copy of the Clipboard’s contents is pasted.
To remove an object from the scene
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. Do one of the following:
• Press Delete.
• From the Edit menu, choose Cut.
When you use Cut, you can paste the object in another location.
• Right-click on the object in the 3D DVE Layers view and choose Delete
from the menu.
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Moving Objects
You can move objects freely within the scene, constrained horizontally or
constrained vertically. For rotated objects, you can move an object along the
local or global axes. You can also prevent objects from being moved
accidentally when clicking objects.
If the safe title guide is currently displayed, moving an object near this guide
automatically snaps the sides and corners of an object’s bounding box to the
guide. Subobjects within objects, such as characters in a text body, do not
snap to the safe title guide. For more information, see Showing the Safe Action/
Title Areas on page 391.
?
To move an object freely
• Drag a selected object to a different location.
To move an object horizontally or vertically
• Hold down the Shift key and drag a selected object. The direction you first
drag becomes the constrained axis of movement.
To move a selected object by one pixel
• Hold down the Ctrl key and press one of the arrow keys.
To move a selected object by one-quarter of a pixel
• Hold down the Ctrl+Alt keys and press one of the arrow keys.
To move a rotated object freely within its rotated, local plane
• Hold down the Ctrl+Alt keys and drag a selected object.
To move a rotated object horizontally or vertically along its local axes
• Hold down the Ctrl+Alt+Shift keys and drag a selected object. The
direction you first drag becomes the constrained axis of movement.
Locking and Unlocking
Objects
Locking objects prevents you from moving them accidently when you’re
working with multiple objects. Once you’ve locked an object, you can still
modify the object’s properties using the property editors.
To lock an object
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From the 3D DVE Layer toolbar, click the Lock icon.
To unlock an object
1. Using the Edit tool, select a locked object.
2. From the 3D DVE Layer toolbar, click the Unlock icon.
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Reordering Objects
If you want an object to appear in front of or behind another object, such as
moving a gradient oval behind some text, or want to draw an object before or
after another object, you can reorder them in the viewer or 3D DVE Layers view.
Although objects in a 3D layer are positioned based on their
positions along the Z axis, the stacking order of an object still affects
perspective and overlap effects.
Also, you cannot reorder characters in a text object.
?
To reorder objects in the viewer
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. Click one of the following icons in the 3D DVE Layer toolbar:
• Bring to Front to move the object to the front of all other objects.
• Raise to move the object up one level.
• Lower to move the object back one level.
• Send to Back to move the object behind all other objects.
You cannot move an object between layers using these toolbar
buttons. For more information, refer to Copying and Moving Objects
Between Layers in the online help.
Positioning Objects at
Specific Locations
You can move objects to specific locations within the scene. Each object has
nine common locations (the four corners, four sides, and center) where you
can quickly position other objects. If the safe title guide is displayed, you can
quickly position objects within it instead of the scene.
To position an object within its boundaries (layer or group)
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From the Viewer toolbar, click the Scene View icon or one of the Layer
View icons in the toolbar to make sure you’re not viewing the scene or
layer at an arbitrary angle.
3. Click an icon in the Position toolbar.
Use the Lower Left, Lower Center, or Lower Right buttons for lowerthird titles.
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Upper center
?
Upper left
Upper right
Middle left
Middle right
Lower left
Lower right
Lower center
Center
Each selected object moves to the selected position within the safe title
area. However, note the following behavior:
• If an object is extruded, the object’s front face determines how to position
the object.
• If an object is rotated, the object is positioned based on the front face of
the object.
• If your effect uses perspective projection, objects may appear positioned
incorrectly. This is a side effect of perspective projection. Switching to
orthographic projection will show the correct positioning of objects—see
Selecting a Projection Method on page 400.
• If an object’s position on the Z axis is not 0, the object may not be
positioned properly.
Aligning Objects
Relative to Each Other
You can align the edges or centers of multiple objects relative to each other to
ensure a consistent layout in a scene. You can align objects to their bounding
box edges or centers. Objects will align to the safe title guide if it’s displayed.
To align objects relative to another object
1. Using the Edit tool, select the objects to align.
2. Hold down the Shift key and select the object to which all other selected
objects will be aligned. This is the reference object, as its bounding box
handles are solid instead of hollow.
If you drag on the viewer or use the Select All icon to select the
objects, the reference object is the frontmost object.
3. Click the Scene View icon or one of the Layer View icons in the toolbar to
make sure that you’re not viewing the scene or layer at an arbitrary angle.
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4. To select a different object alignment, click a different Align icon.
Align horizontally
Align left edges
Align right edges
Align bottom edges
Align top edges
Align vertically
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The selected objects align themselves relative to the reference object.
Object alignment has the same limitations as object positioning. For more
information, see Positioning Objects at Specific Locations on page 407.
Grouping and
Ungrouping Objects
If you want to scale or rotate several objects as if they were part of a larger
object, you can group the objects together.
To group objects together
1. Using the Edit tool, select the objects.
2. From the 3D DVE Layer toolbar, click the Group icon.
The grouped objects appear with a single bounding box.
Hold down the Alt key and click an object in a group to modify the
object separately.
To ungroup grouped objects
1. Using the Edit tool, select a grouped object.
2. From the 3D DVE Layer toolbar, click the Ungroup icon.
If you group an animated collection of objects, animate the group,
and then ungroup the objects, parts of the animation may be lost.
Showing and Hiding
Objects
By showing or hiding objects, you can isolate the effect of certain objects or
focus your work on specific parts of the scene.
Mute
Solo
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To hide a single object
• In the 3D DVE Layers view, click the Mute button for the object.
To show a single object and hide all others
• In the 3D DVE Layers view, click the Solo button for the object. You can
solo multiple objects.
To show all hidden objects
?
• From the 3D DVE Layer toolbar, click the Unhide All icon.
To show or hide objects
1. Using the Edit tool, select one or more objects.
2. From the Render property editor, do one of the following:
• Select the Show Object option to show the object.
• Deselect the Show Object option to hide the object.
Changing the Visibility
of Objects
You can control the visibility of each object in a scene from fully transparent
to opaque. By controlling visibility, you can blend or mix objects in a scene to
produce subtle effects, such as having objects fade in and out over time.
An object with an opacity of zero still requires rendering.
To change the opacity of an object
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From the Surfaces property editor, adjust the Master Opacity value.
Unlike the opacity settings for each material on an object, this master
opacity control determines the appearance of the entire object, including
its shadow (if one exists).
Modifying Objects
When you scale and rotate objects, they occur relative to the anchor point, a
location on the selected object from which the operation is based.
If you scale or rotate multiple objects, each object is modified
independently. To modify a collection of objects as a single entity,
you should group them first. For more information, see Grouping
and Ungrouping Objects on page 409.
For graphics objects, you can also deform the object. For more information,
see Editing Shapes and Paths on page 425.
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Adjusting the Anchor Point
When you scale or rotate objects, the objects change based on a point in threedimensional space called the anchor point. Scaling and rotation operations use
the same anchor point.
Crosshairs
?
Object’s bounding box
To adjust the anchor point
Do one of the following:
• Using the Rotate tool, drag the small crosshairs at the intersections of the
axes on the rotation sphere to the intended location.
The anchor point moves along the plane of the crosshair.
• From the Transform property editor, adjust the Anchor Point values
(X, Y, and Z).
You can adjust the Z value of the anchor point only if the object
is extruded.
To reset the anchor point
Do one of the following:
• Using the Rotate tool, select an object, right-click and choose Reset
Anchor Point from the menu.
• In the Anchor Point box of the Transform property editor, enter 0 in the
X, Y, and Z boxes.
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Scaling Objects
Although you can draw an object at a specific size, you can still make the
object larger or smaller by scaling it. You can scale an object either
independent of or constrained to its original aspect ratio. Also, you can scale
an object relative to the opposite bounding box handle or to its anchor point.
For more information, see Adjusting the Anchor Point on page 411.
?
Original object
Scaled down
(unconstrained)
Scaled down
(constrained)
To scale an object
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. To scale the object, do one of the following:
• Drag one of the bounding box handles.
The object scales relative to the bounding box handle on the opposite side
or corner of the object’s bounding box.
• To constrain scaling to the object’s aspect ratio, press Shift and drag one of
the object’s bounding box handles.
• To constrain scaling relative to an object’s anchor point, hold down the
Shift+Ctrl keys and drag one of the object’s bounding box handles—see
Adjusting the Anchor Point on page 411.
• To scale an object in all directions, press Ctrl and drag one of the object’s
bounding box corner handles.
Resizing Objects
Text boxes and groups are objects that have width, height, and depth
dimensions. You can resize an object to any dimensions or fit it exactly around
its contents’ bounding box. Unlike scaling a object, which scales the contents,
resizing an object does not affect the size of its contents.
To resize a text box
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. Hold down the Alt key and drag one of the object’s bounding box handles.
When resizing a text box, the bounding box changes size, but its
contents do not.
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Rotating Objects
Rotation occurs in three-dimensional space around the X, Y, and Z axes.
Angles of rotation increase in the counterclockwise direction around an axis,
whereas they decrease going clockwise. Rotation adjustments are applied to
objects in the following order: X, Y, and then Z.
y
90°
?
180°
x
z
0°/360°
270°
To rotate an object
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From the Tools toolbar, click the Rotate icon.
A rotation sphere appears around the selected object.
3. Use the controls on the sphere to adjust the anchor point—see Adjusting
the Anchor Point on page 411.
Default rotation
anchor point
Object rotated
45 degrees
Rotation anchor point
moved off center
Object rotated 45
degrees
4. Rotate the object by doing one of the following:
• To rotate around a single axis, drag the circle on the rotation sphere
corresponding to the axis.
• To constrain rotations to 15-degree increments, hold down the Shift key
and drag an axis circle.
To reset the rotation of a selected object
1. In the Rotation box of the Transform property editor, enter 0 in the X, Y,
and Z boxes.
2. Using the Rotate tool, select an object, right-click and choose Reset
Rotation from the menu.
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Renaming Objects
Each object has a name and optional comment you can assign to it. The layers
in the 3D DVE Layers view display these object names. Using unique names
will helps you differentiate similar objects in a scene, and using comments will
remind you of information about an object, such as its purpose in the scene.
To change the name of an object
1. Select an object in the 3D DVE Layers view or use the Edit tool to select an
object in the viewer.
?
2. Do one of the following:
• From the Info property editor, enter a new name in the Name text box.
• In the 3D DVE Layers view, right-click and choose Rename from the
menu, and then enter a new name.
To add a comment to an object
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From the Info property editor, enter a description in the Comment text box.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Info properties.
Setting the Time Span
The time span defines the duration of 3D DVE objects. By default, the time
span is from the start of the 3D DVE session to the end. You can make an
object appear on one frame only, from the current frame to the end of the
session, from the beginning of the session to the end, or from the first frame
to the current frame. You can also set custom time spans for specific objects.
In the Time Span property editor, the timecode refers to the 3D DVE session
time. That is, 00:00:00:00 is the beginning of the 3D DVE session regardless of
its position on the timeline.
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To define the time span
1. Select an object from the viewer or 3D DVE Layers view.
The corresponding bar in the 3D DVE Object View (3D OV) turns yellow.
2. In the Time Span property editor, specify the duration by clicking one of
the following:
?
Parameter
To
This Frame Only
Make the time span one frame.
This Frame to End
Make the time span start at the current frame and end
at the last frame of the 3D DVE session.
Start to End
Make the time span start at the first frame and end at
the last frame of the 3D DVE session.
Start to this Frame
Make the time span start at the first frame and end at
the current frame of the 3D DVE session.
3. To specify a custom time span, use the In, Out, and Duration timecode
boxes. All values must be expressed in SMPTE timecode.
While you’re editing the time span of a selected object, you can select
the Lock option to lock the duration.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Time Span properties.
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Working with 3D DVEs
A 3D DVE is an object whose appearance you can deform based on an effect
or image you apply to it. Some examples of DVEs are spheres, page curls, and
ripples. For some DVEs, you can simulate a displaced surface by applying a
grayscale texture known as a displacement map.
What’s the difference between using a 3D DVE and a simple rectangle? You
can extrude rectangles, but not the DVE and you can apply effects to a DVE,
such as displacement maps.
?
You can modify DVEs like other objects, with the following exceptions:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Creating DVEs
Editing using the Shape tool
Profile effects
Extrusion
Wireframe rendering
Converting to a path
Combining with other shapes or DVEs
You can create multiple DVEs within a scene, as well as delete DVEs that you
no longer need. DVEs have properties common to all DVE types, as well as
properties specific to the effect you’re using.
To create a DVE
1. From the Tools toolbar, click the Add DVE Node icon.
A rectangle appears within the current layer and covers the entire scene.
2. Using the Edit tool, select the DVE.
3. To change the effect, open the DVE property editor and select an effect
from the Effect list. Here are some examples:
Effect
Default
Examples
Border
Size: 2.50
Softness: 0.00
Color: Black
Default
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Size: 10.00
Softness: 50.00
Color: Brown
Working with 3D DVEs
Effect
Default
Examples
Page Curl
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Radius: 0.10
Angle: 0.00
Curl time: 40.00
Radius: 0.25
Angle: 30.00
Curl time: 45.00
Radius: 0.02
Angle: -75.00
Curl time: 30.00
Amplitude: 0.10
Angle: 0.00
Ripple time: 0.00
Frequency: 1.00
Amplitude: 0.10
Angle: 0.00
Ripple time: 0.45
Frequency: 1.00
Amplitude: 0.15
Angle: 30.00
Ripple time: 0.45
Frequency: 2.50
Angle:120.00
Distortion: 0.00
Angle: 360.00
Distortion: 0.00
Angle: 360.00
Distortion: -40.00
Angle: 360.00
Distortion: 100.00
Angle: -180.00
Distortion: 100.00
Angle: -360.00
Distortion: -100.00
Ripple
Sphere
A list of effect-specific properties appears in the Options box next to the
Effect list.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the DVE properties.
To delete a DVE
1. Using the Edit tool, select a DVE.
2. Press Delete.
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Simulating a Textured
Surface Using a
Displacement Map
In addition to the deformation of an object produced by a DVE, you can also
use a texture to define convex and concave areas on its surface. The luminance
values of the color in the texture (the alpha channel is ignored) define the
convex (raised) and concave (lowered) areas on the surface.
A displacement map cannot be used on the Border DVE.
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To use a displacement map on a DVE
1. Select a DVE.
2. From the Surfaces property editor, select the Enable Lighting option for
the Main surface.
3. From the DVE property editor, adjust the following in the Displacement box:
Parameter
Description
Texture
Lets you select an image whose grayscale version defines the
contour on the surface
Scale
Sets the magnitude of the displacement
Offset
Sets the grayscale level in the texture that represents no
displacement of the surface
Softness
Adjusts the smoothness of the surface. You can soften a
displacement map to hide irregularities in grayscale levels in
the texture.
4. To adjust the detail of the DVE’s appearance, adjust the X and Y values in
the Detail box. Lower values produce a less accurate appearance, but
rendering is faster and vice versa. For displacement maps, increase the
detail of the DVE.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the DVE properties.
To remove a displacement map from a DVE
1. Select a DVE.
2. From the DVE property editor, select Default from the Texture list.
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Applying Profile
Effects
The outline of characters or shapes is known as its profile. You can set the
profile to one of the predefined profile effects, such as Bevel, Ridge, or Tube,
in one of three thicknesses.
To apply a profile effect to objects
1. Using the Edit tool, select the objects.
2. From the Effect property editor, select a profile from the Profile list.
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An object that uses a profile effect will not have antialiased edges in
the viewer. To view antialiased edges, render a preview on screen or
output to disk.
For a glow effect, use a colored shadow. For more information, see
Using Shadows to Simulate Glows on page 474.
Profile
Profile
Profile
Bevel
Border
Box
Chisel
Default
Emboss
Frame
Ridge
Inset
Ridge
Round
Tube
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Effect properties.
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Extruding an Object
By default, new objects are two dimensional. You can change the depth or
thickness of an object by extruding it. The extruded surface can use its
own material.
To extrude an object
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From the Effect property editor, adjust the Extrude Depth value.
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For objects that have a profile, adjusting the extrude depth does not
affect the profile.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Effect properties.
Blurring Moving
Objects
In real life, an object that moves quickly appears blurred. Imagine a camera
taking a picture of the moving object. The object in the picture appears
blurred because the object moved during the short time that the camera’s
shutter was open. If the shutter was open for a shorter time, the object would
appear sharper.
To apply motion blur
1. From the 3D DVE/Options property editor, select the Output property page.
2. Select the Enable Motion Blur option.
3. Adjust the Exposure value. The blurriness of a moving object depends on
how long the camera’s shutter is open. The longer the shutter is open, the
blurrier the object appears, and vice versa. The exposure time, measured
in seconds, represents the duration that the shutter is open.
Motion blur is a very time-intensive effect, especially when you use a
long exposure time.
4. If desired, change the quality of the blurred motion by adjusting the
Custom Quality parameters.
Motion blur (deselected)
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Motion blur (selected)
Working with 3D DVEs
The motion blur effect applies to all objects in the 3D DVE session, over
the duration of the session. Also, if the object changes materials, such as its
color or visibility over its duration, these changes will appear faded or
smoothed out as a result of the motion blur effect.
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Although you can set a maximum quality for blurred objects,
objects that move very fast will not simulate blurred motion as well
as slower moving objects. You may need to experiment with
exposure time and quality settings to get the desired results.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Output properties.
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Working with Graphics
A graphics object is made up of control points and tangent handles that define a
shape. The portion of a shape between control points is called a segment. You
can modify the shape of an object at any time.
Tangent handle
Control point
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Creating Graphics
You can use the following tools to create shapes: Rectangle, Ellipse, and Shape.
When you create new shapes, they become the frontmost objects in the scene.
You cannot create a shape if a shape is currently selected.
Creating Squares and Rectangles
The Rectangle tool lets you create square and rectangular shapes. For example,
you can use this tool to create the basis for a textured backdrop or gradient fill
onto which you add text objects.
To create a rectangle or square shape
1. Click the Rectangle tool in the Tools toolbar.
2. Do one of the following:
• To create a rectangular shape, drag diagonally from left to right.
• To create a square shape, hold down the Shift key and drag diagonally
from left to right.
Rectangle
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Square
Working with Graphics
• To create a rectangular or square shape from the center, hold down the
Ctrl key and drag (rectangle), or hold down the Ctrl+Shift keys and drag
(square) from the intended center of the shape.
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Rectangle
Square
Creating Circles and Ovals
The Ellipse tool lets you create circular and elliptical (oval) shapes.
To create an ellipse or circle shape
1. Click the Ellipse tool in the Tools toolbar.
2. Do one of the following:
• To create an ellipse, drag diagonally from left to right.
• To create a circle shape, hold down the Shift key and drag diagonally from
left to right.
Ellipse
Circle
• To create an ellipse or circle from the center, hold down the Ctrl key and
drag (ellipse), or hold down the Ctrl+Shift keys and drag (circle) from the
intended center of the bounding box.
Ellipse
Circle
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Creating Polylines and Curved Shapes
The Shape tool lets you create polyline shapes, such as polygons and curves.
To create a freehand shape with the Shape tool
1. Click the Shape tool in the Tools toolbar.
2. Do one of the following:
• To create a polyline shape, click at the location where you want to place
the starting control point.
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• To start a curved shape, drag from the location of the starting point in the
direction you want the curve to point.
3. Place subsequent control points, as follows:
• To create a straight-line segment, click at the location for the next
control point.
• To create a curved-line segment with a smooth point, drag from the
location of the next control point.
• To create a curved-line segment with a corner (angular) point, drag from
the location of the next control point. Then, hold down the Alt key and
drag the tangent handle.
Alt-drag
Drag
Cusp
Smooth
Corner
4. To create a closed shape, click the first control point you created.
5. To create an open shape, do one of the following:
• Press Esc.
• Click the right mouse button.
• Click a different tool.
Closed shapes are filled with the default main material. Open shapes
cannot be filled.
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Editing Shapes and
Paths
For shapes and paths, you can modify the actual Bézier points and curves that
define the form of the shape.
Selecting and Deselecting Control Points
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For many shape-editing operations, you must select a control point first. You
can select multiple control points to adjust them at the same time, or deselect
control points that you do not want to modify. You cannot select control
points on multiple shapes at the same time.
Selected control point and
tangent handles
Unselected control point
To select a control point
• Using the Shape tool, click a control point.
To select multiple control points
1. Using the Shape tool, select a shape.
2. Do one of the following:
• Hold down the Shift key and click the control points.
• Drag to select the control points.
To select all control points on a shape
1. Select a shape.
2. Right-click on the shape and choose Select All Points from the menu.
To deselect all control points
Do one of the following:
• Click away from a shape.
• Right-click on the shape and choose Deselect All Points from the menu.
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Editing a Shape
The location of control points and curvature near control points determine
the form of a shape. You can add, delete, and move control points, as well as
adjust a control point’s tangent handles to change a shape’s form.
You can modify all selected control points if the pointer is not above
a control point at the time you choose the command. Simply rightclick on the shape and choose a command from the menu. Not all
commands apply to multiple control points.
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To add a control point
Do one of the following:
• Hold down the Alt key and click along a shape’s outline.
• Move the pointer above the area of a shape to add a control point, rightclick and choose Insert Point from the menu.
To delete a control point
Do one of the following:
• Select a control point and press Delete.
• Move the pointer above a control point, right-click and choose Delete
Points from the menu.
To move a control point
• Drag the control point to a new location.
To move a control point on a rotated object
• Hold down the Shift key and drag the control point. The direction in
which you begin dragging becomes the constrained axis of movement.
To move a control point horizontally or vertically
• Hold down the Ctrl+Shift keys and drag the control point. The direction
in which you begin dragging becomes the constrained axis of movement.
To change the curvature of a shape near a control point
• Right-click on a shape and choose a command from the menu.
• Hold down the Ctrl or Alt key and drag a tangent handle. This affects the
control point under the pointer. The following table describes the various
operations you can perform on control points.
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To make a
Do the following
Cusp point
With the pointer above a control point, right-click and
choose Make Cusp Points from the menu.
Smooth point
Press Ctrl and drag a tangent handle away from a control
point or, with the pointer above a control point, right-click
and choose Make Smooth Points from the menu.
Corner point
Press Alt and drag a tangent handle away from a
control point.
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To extend the length of a single tangent handle
• Hold down the Shift key and drag the tangent handle.
The length of the tangent handle is extended and its orientation does
not change.
Opening and Closing Shapes
Another way to edit the form of shapes is to open, split, close, or connect them.
To thicken an open shape, use a Frame, Round, or Tube profile
effect.
To open a closed shape or split an open shape in two
• Position the pointer above the control point at which you want to open or
split the shape, right-click and choose Break Point from the menu.
Before
After
Opening a closed shape
Before
After
Splitting an open shape in two
The fill of a closed shape is lost when the shape is opened. Also, if you split
an open path in two, the text on the path moves to one of the new paths.
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To close an open shape or connect two open shapes
• Drag an end point onto another end point on the same shape (to close a
shape) or onto another shape (to connect the shapes).
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Before
After
Before
Closing an open shape
After
Connecting two open shapes as one
Filling Shapes
You can control the appearance of the interior of closed shapes by specifying
whether the shape is filled or not.
Only closed shapes can be filled.
When you close an open shape that was not filled, the closed shape is
not automatically filled.
To fill a shape
• Right-click on the edge of a shape, and select or deselect Fill Curve from
the menu.
Filled
Not filled
Removing Segments
Another way to open a shape or split a shape in two is to remove a segment
from the shape.
To remove a segment from a shape
• With the pointer above a segment, right-click and choose Delete Segment
from the menu.
Before
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After removing a
segment
After removing a
second segment
Working with Graphics
If you remove a segment from a closed path, the text on the path adjusts to the
new length of the path. If you remove a segment from an open path (splitting
the path in two), the text on the path moves to one of the paths.
If a shape has only one segment, such as a line, removing the
segment produces two single-point shapes.
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Working with
Compound Shapes
You can combine multiple shapes into a single compound shape to create
interesting effects. A compound shape is a single object composed of multiple,
individually editable shapes. For example, if you want to create a custom
version of a letter, such as a stylized letter A for a company logo, you can
define the various pieces of the letter and determine how they’re combined.
Compound shapes
Compound shapes are not the same as a group of shapes. All the shapes
within a compound shape exist at the same Z position in three-dimensional
space. Also, the entire compound shape uses the same surface materials. You
cannot modify the material of each shape within the compound shape.
Creating and Separating Compound Shapes
You can combine shapes into a compound shape, make a copy of a shape
that is part of a compound shape, and separate all the shapes within a
compound shape.
Before combining shapes
After combining and
repositioning shapes
To create a compound shape
1. Select the shapes. The properties of the last shape you select will be used
for the combined shape.
2. From the Commands toolbar, click Combine Shapes.
By default, a shape within another shape inverts or “cuts out” the outer
shape. If you select a path to combine with other shapes, the text on the
path is removed.
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To copy a shape that is part of a compound shape
• With the pointer above a shape, right-click and choose Copy As Shape
from the menu.
The copied shape appears above the original shape.
Any transformations (translation, scaling, and rotation) or
animation applied to the compound shape will not be applied to the
copied shape.
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To separate a compound shape into its individual shapes
1. Select a compound shape.
2. From the Commands toolbar, click Separate Shapes.
The properties of the separated shapes will be the same as those of the
original compound shape. However, material properties, such as how a
texture is applied to the object, may be altered.
Combining Shapes Within a Compound Shape
The way you drew the shapes within a compound shape can affect the
appearance of the compound shape. When the shapes of a compound shape
do not overlap each other, both shapes appear in the compound shape.
However, when shapes of a compound shape overlap, the inner shape “cuts
out” or subtracts from the outer shape. However, you can add the overlapping
shape to the compound shape instead of subtracting from it.
To control how one shape affects another within a compound shape
• With the pointer above a shape, right-click and choose Combine Mode
from the menu and one of the following:
- Subtract to remove the area where the shapes overlap.
- Add to fill in the area where the shapes overlap.
Reversing the
Direction of a Shape
Control points on a shape are numbered sequentially, starting at the first
control point on the shape. The route, through sequentially numbered control
points, determines the shape’s direction. This direction controls how the
shape is drawn when it’s part of a compound shape, how the profile of the
shape is drawn, and how the text on a path is laid out. You can change the
default direction for a shape or path.
To reverse the direction of a shape or path
• With the pointer above a shape or path, right-click and choose Reverse
Direction from the menu.
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Working with Text
Working with Text
A text object contains characters and appears as a text body. There are four
types of text objects: static, rolling, crawling, and path text.
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Each type of text object can be stationary (static) or have motion over time.
You can also control whether the text moves outside the dimensions of the
text body. For more information, see Controlling Rolling, Crawling, and Path
Text on page 447.
• Static text does not move (scroll) within its text body. The text can still
move around if you manually move each character. Static text is the
default text object.
• Rolling text moves vertically within a text object over its duration, starting
and ending with no text visible, such as the list of credits that usually
appear at the end of television movies and feature films.
You can create rolling text that moves up and down within a text body.
If you enter more text than can fit on one line, the extra words and
characters appear on a new line. The lines of text word wrap.
• Crawling text is a single line of text that moves horizontally, usually from
right to left. A stock price ticker or weather warning messages along the
bottom of a television screen are common types of crawling text that you
see on television or websites.
• Path text (or text along a path) is a single line of text that fits to or moves
along a straight or curved path, such as letters that follow the contour of a
car or words that seem to float in the sky. You can create path text that
moves along the path or is fixed on it.
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Creating a Text Object
When you want to add text, you create a text object, a box into which you type
the text or import an ASCII text file. The box can either expand to fit the text
you type or remain a fixed size into which the text word-wraps to fill it. By
default, text does not animate (roll or crawl). For more information, see
Creating Rolling or Crawling Text on page 447.
To create a text object
1. Using the Text tool, do one of the following:
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• Click on the viewer. If the text cursor is active in an existing text object,
click away from the text object.
You cannot create a new text object while you’re editing the text in
an existing text object.
• Drag on the viewer to define a text body.
The cursor or insertion point (a vertical bar) appears in the upper-left
corner of the text body.
2. Type in some text.
By default, text aligns along the left edge of the text body and uses the
current text properties in the Text property editor. For more information,
see Aligning Text into Columns on page 439.
The new text object becomes the frontmost object in the scene. Clicking
outside the text body or clicking another tool finishes the creation of the text
object and allows you to modify the text object or the characters within it.
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To enter text along a path
1. Create a path—see Creating and Deleting a Path on page 450.
2. Using the Text tool, click on the path and type in some text.
Using Special or
Unicode Characters
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You can type a special (extended) character, such as a copyright symbol (©) or
any Unicode character into a text body if the font supports the actual
character. TrueType fonts work better than Type 1 fonts.
Determining a Character’s Unicode Value
Before you can enter special or Unicode characters, you must determine their
value. For example, the registered trademark symbol (®) has a Unicode value
of 00AE. You can look up the value in the Character Map utility in Windows.
To determine the Unicode value using the Character Map utility
1. On the Windows desktop, click Start and choose Programs >
Accessories > System Tools > Character Map.
The Unicode Character Map window is displayed.
Unicode value
2. From the Font list, select the font that you intend to use in Avid|DS.
3. Click the character you want to use.
The Unicode value appears in the lower-left corner of the Character Map
window. Use this four-character value in Avid|DS.
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Entering Special and Unicode Characters
Once you know the special or Unicode value of the character that you want to
enter, you can enter it in a text body in Avid|DS. The hexadecimal Unicode
value is used to identify special or Unicode characters; this value appears in
the Info property editor.
To enter a Unicode value
1. Click in a text body.
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2. Hold down the Alt key and type the value on the numeric keypad. For
example, the registered trademark (®) symbol in the Times New Roman
font uses the Alt+0174 key sequence.
3. Release the Alt key.
The special or Unicode character appears in the text body and its
hexadecimal value appears in the Info property editor.
Importing Text
You can import text from an ASCII text file. For example, you can import a
previously created text file containing the names in a credit roll.
Only the first 6,000 characters of a text file are imported. Also, if the
text file contains binary characters, only the text up to the first
binary character is imported.
To import text
1. Create a text body or place the cursor in an existing text body.
If a text body is not currently active, the imported text appears in a new
text body that is half the width and height of the current text body.
2. From the Commands toolbar, click Import Text.
3. In the Import Text dialog box, select the ASCII text file to import.
The text in the selected text file appears in the current text body, using the
current object properties.
Text Overflow
When a text object contains more characters than can appear at one time, the
text object appears differently when the cursor is active in the text object.
When the insertion point is in a text object, a scroll bar appears along the left
edge (for rolling text) or bottom edge (for crawling text) of the text object.
The scroll bar allows you to view and edit any part of the text in the text
object. A scroll bar does not appear for path text.
If you’re currently editing text, press Esc to adjust the scroll bar.
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Rolling text
Crawling text
Scroll bar
Scroll bar
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When the cursor is not in a text object, a scroll bar appears along the left edge
(for rolling text) or along the bottom edge (for crawling text and path text) of
text objects. The scroll position arrow controls the section of text that is
visible at the current point in time, letting you create rolling or crawling text.
Also, for rolling and crawling text, small arrows appear along the sides of the
text object as you drag the scroll position arrow.
The scroll bar appears when you’re editing text, whereas the scroll position
slider appears when you’re animating the section of text visible over time.
Rolling text
Crawling text
Scroll position slider
Scroll position arrow
More text indicators
Path text
Scroll position arrow
To edit the scroll position property of a text body, select the text
body with the Edit tool and adjust the Scroll Position control in the
Text property editor.
For more information, see Controlling Rolling, Crawling, and Path Text on
page 447.
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Placing the Insertion
Point
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Resizing a Text Object
To specify the location where you want to type new text in a text object, place
the insertion point (displayed as a vertical bar) at the desired location in the
block of text. The following table describes the different ways that you can
move the insertion point within the text.
To move to
Press this key
Previous character
Left Arrow
Next character
Right Arrow
Previous line
Up Arrow
Next line
Down Arrow
If you resize a text object, you can reformat the text by:
• Scaling the text along with the text object or
• Resizing the text object only, keeping the font size(s) of the text the same.
This is not available for text on a path.
To scale the text as you resize the text object
1. Using the Edit tool, select a text object.
2. Drag one of the object’s bounding box handles.
Before
After
To resize the text object but not the text within it
1. Using the Edit tool, select a text object.
2. Hold down the Alt key and drag one of the object’s bounding box handles.
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Al
t-d
?
rag
Before
After
The text within the text object reformats to the new dimensions. For
rolling text, the text wraps to fit the text object. For crawling text, you see
more or less of the text.
Selecting and
Deselecting Text
Before you can modify a block of text (change its font, size, style, or other
attribute), you must select the text. You can select text directly in the viewer or
in the 3D DVE Layers view if the text is difficult to edit because it’s rotated or
not visible.
To select a block of text
Do one of the following:
• Drag across a block of text.
• With the insertion point at one end of a text block, hold down the Shift
key and click at the other end of the text block.
The selected text is highlighted in pink.
To select all the text in a text object
• With the cursor in a text object, click the Select All icon in the 3D DVE
Layers toolbar.
To select individual letters
• Using the Edit tool, hold down the Alt key and click a letter at the same
time. Now release the Alt key and you can still continue selecting
individual letters.
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To select multiple letters
• Using the Edit tool, hold down the Shift key and click the letters you want
to select.
A red bounding box surrounds the selected letter(s), which you can now
edit individually. They are, however, still part of the text object.
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To deselect selected text
Do one of the following:
• Click anywhere in a text object.
• From the 3D DVE Layers toolbar, click the Deselect All icon.
Editing Text
You can use common cut, copy, or paste operations on text.
To cut, copy, or paste text
1. From the viewer, select some text.
2. From the Edit menu, choose:
• Cut or press Ctrl+X to cut the text.
• Copy or press Ctrl+C to copy the text.
• Paste or press Ctrl+V to paste the text.
Formatting Text
You can format blocks and columns of text, such as changing the font, font
size, as well as adjust column width and alignment.
Changing Fonts and Font Sizes
Traditionally, a font is a specific typeface (type family) at a specific font
size (height), and with specific font styles (visual enhancements). In
Avid|DS, a font is defined as a specific typeface. The size and styles are
specified separately.
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To change the font and font size of text
1. Using the Text tool, select a block of text.
2. From the Text property editor, select a font from the Font list.
To try different fonts, display the font list and press the up and down
arrow keys on the keyboard.
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3. Set the Size value.
You can also change the font size of the text in a text object by scaling the
text object itself using the Edit tool—see Scaling Objects on page 412.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Text properties.
Changing the Direction of Text
As you type new characters into a text object, the text cursor moves from left
to right by default. You can switch the direction if you’re typing in a language
that is read from right to left, such as Hebrew. You can switch the direction of
a text object at any time.
To change the direction of text in a text object
• Using the Text tool, right-click in a text object, and choose Direction and
one of the following:
- Left-to-Right to add each new character to the right of the previous
character. This is the default direction.
- Right-to-Left to add each new character to the left of the previous character.
The text in a text object that uses the Right-to-Left direction does
not automatically switch to right-aligned text.
Aligning Text into Columns
By default, a text object contains a single column of left-aligned text. You can
create columns of text, change the width and alignment of text within a column,
and remove columns. Columns are useful for tabular information or to save
vertical space, such as when using a three-column layout for names in a credit
roll. The text within each column should fit within the width of the column.
You cannot animate the number of columns, the width of columns,
or the alignment of text within columns over the duration of a
text object.
Text alignment does not work for crawling text, including text
crawling along a path. However, you can align static text on a path.
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Adding a Column
You can add a column to a text body to break a line of text into two separate
sections, each of which can have its own text alignment. For example, you can
use a two-column layout for ending credits, where the actresses’s name is
right-aligned in the first column and the character she portrays is left-aligned
in the second column.
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Before
After adding a column
and typing text into it
To add a column
1. Using the Text tool, place the insertion point in the paragraph that
contains the column.
2. From the Paragraph property editor, select the row that corresponds to the
column. Each column defined in the current paragraph of the text body
appears as a row of the following values:
• Left: The left edge of the column.
• Right: The right edge of the column.
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• Alignment: The alignment of the text within the column.
The Left and Right values are numbers between 0 (left edge of the text
body) and 100 (right edge). The distance between the Left and Right
values defines the width of a column.
3. Select the Update All Selected Paragraphs option to apply changes to
selected paragraphs only.
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4. Click Add. You can create up to ten columns in a paragraph.
The existing column’s width is split in half.
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for each new column that you add.
6. To type in the next column, press Tab. Tab characters are interpreted as a
jump to the next column in a paragraph.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Paragraph properties.
Removing a Column
You can remove a column when you no longer need to separate the text
alignment for sections of text.
Before (two columns)
After removing the right column and
resizing one column to its full width
To remove a column
1. Using the Text tool, place the insertion point in a text body.
2. From the Paragraph property editor, select the entry that corresponds to
the column you want to remove.
You cannot remove the last column of text. Each text object must
contain at least one column.
3. Click Remove.
4. If you want the remaining columns to occupy the space left by the
removed column, adjust their widths.
The remaining columns do not automatically widen to occupy the
space left by the removed column. For more information, see
Changing a Column’s Width on page 442.
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The text in the removed column moves to the previous column, separated
from the previous column’s contents by a space. If you remove the first
column, the text moves to the next column.
If you change from two columns to one column, the text word-wraps.
However, if you start with three or more columns, the text does not
word-wrap.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Paragraph properties.
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Changing a Column’s Width
You can change the width of a column to adjust the positioning of text within
the column. You can adjust the position of adjacent columns by creating a
gap, called a gutter, between them. If you’re using justified or equally spaced
columns, gutters are important to help differentiate the contents in each
column. By default, there is no gap between columns.
To change the width of a column
1. Using the Text tool, place the insertion point in the paragraph that
contains the column.
2. From the Paragraph property editor, select the row that corresponds to the
column whose width you want to change.
3. To change the left edge of a column, click the Left column value, and then
change the value in the text body. Press Enter.
The width of a column is relative to the width of the column’s text body,
where 0 is the left edge of the text body and 100 is the right edge. Columns
cannot overlap.
Column 1
0
Column 2
45
55
Gutter (10%)
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4. To change the right edge of a column, click the Right column value, and
then change the value in the text body. Press Enter.
The text in the current column adjusts to the new column width, but long
lines of text do not word wrap.
By changing the left and right sides of adjacent columns, you change the
gutter between the columns.
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Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Paragraph properties.
Setting All Columns to the Same Width
Balancing the columns is another way to adjust the positioning of text in
multiple columns, so that they use the same width for all the columns on a
line. You can also adjust columns after removing a column to make the widths
of each column the same.
To set all the columns in a paragraph to the same width
1. Using the Text tool, place the insertion point in the paragraph that
contains the column.
2. From the Paragraph property editor, click Balance.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Paragraph properties.
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Changing a Column’s Text Alignment
You can change the alignment or positioning of text within a column to make
the text more readable or to produce a specific type of effect, such as text that
is right-aligned and next to the left edge of a graphic in a scene.
Each column of text can be aligned to either the left or right sides of the
column, centered within the column, or aligned to both sides of the column,
with extra spacing added either between words or characters.
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To change the text alignment in a column
1. Using the Text tool, place the insertion point in a text body.
2. Do one of the following:
• From the Align toolbar, click a text alignment icon.
• Right-click in the column of text, choose Align and one of the following
from the menu: Left, Center, Right, Justify, or Equally Space.
The text in the selected column uses the selected alignment.
Left
Center
Justify
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Right
Equally Space
Working with Text
Adjusting the Kerning
Kerning or character spacing is the horizontal space between characters in a
text object. When you adjust character spacing, you’re adjusting the space
after each selected character, except the last selected character on a line within
a justified or equally spaced column. By default, characters are automatically
kerned, based on the information in the character’s font.
You can create text that expands from the center by using an
unclipped text body with Equally Spaced justification and then
adjusting the kerning.
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To adjust kerning
1. Using the Text tool, select a block of characters or place the cursor
between two characters to adjust the kerning between them.
2. From the Text property editor, adjust the Kerning value.
Kerning = 0
Kerning = 3
Kerning = 6
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Text properties.
Adjusting the Leading
Leading or line spacing is the vertical space between the lines of a wordwrapped paragraph. When you adjust the leading, you’re adjusting the space
after each selected line, except the last selected line in a paragraph.
To adjust leading
1. Using the Text tool, select or place the cursor in the lines of text you want
to adjust.
2. From the Paragraph property editor, change the Leading value.
The leading changes in increments of 10 percent of the font size.
A common setting for leading is 120 percent of the font size (that is,
the Leading value is set to 120).
Leading = 100
Leading = 150
Leading = 200
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Paragraph properties.
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Adjusting the
Paragraph Spacing
Paragraph spacing is the vertical space between the last line of one paragraph
and the first line of the next paragraph. When you adjust paragraph spacing,
you’re adjusting the space after each selected paragraph.
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Space after first paragraph = 50
Space after first paragraph = 100
Space after first paragraph = 200
To adjust paragraph spacing
1. Using the Text tool, either select or place the cursor in the paragraphs you
want to adjust.
2. From the Paragraph property editor, change the Space After value.
Paragraph spacing changes in increments of 10 percent of the font size.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Paragraph properties.
Adjusting the Text
Margins
By default, the characters in a text body can appear anywhere within the text
body’s dimensions. However, if you’re using a background material and want
to offset the text from the sides of the text body and edge of the background
material, increase the side’s margin. You can specify a margin along the top
and bottom of a text body and simulate a margin along the left and right sides
by adjusting the text column settings.
Top margin
Height of text body
Bottom margin
To adjust the top and bottom margins of a text body
1. Using the Edit tool, select a text body.
2. From the Text property editor, adjust the Top Margin and Bottom Margin
values. Adjusting the Top margin moves the text downward. Adjusting the
Bottom margin (for rolling text only) crops the text from the bottom of
the text body. The Bottom margin value has no effect on static and
crawling text.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Text properties.
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To simulate the left or right margin
From the Paragraph property editor, do the following:
• Adjust the Left value for the leftmost column in the text body.
• Adjust the Right value for the rightmost column in the text body.
For more information, see Changing a Column’s Width on page 442.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Paragraph properties.
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Controlling Rolling,
Crawling, and Path
Text
For rolling, crawling, and path text, the text scrolls within the text object over
time. The text in a text object is not visible at the start and end of a text
object’s duration. For example, you may see five lines of text roll by per second
or 10 characters crawl by per second.
Creating Rolling or Crawling Text
Creating rolling, crawling, and path text is as simple as selecting an option
from the Text pop-up menu. Path text is a variation of crawling text.
To make the text roll or crawl within the text object
1. Using the Text tool, right-click in the text body, and choose Motion and
one of the following from the menu:
• Roll to make the text roll.
The Roll option is not available for text on a path.
The text body’s Scroll Position property is automatically set up for a
rolling motion from the bottom to the top of the text body.
• Crawl to make the text crawl.
A crawling motion is created from right to left (for nonpath text) or from
the start to the end of the path (for path text). You can change the speed
and direction of the motion by adjusting the Scroll Position property or
using the scroll position arrow. For more information, see Controlling
Crawling Speed and Direction on page 448.
For nonpath text, a scroll position slider appears along the side of the text
body. Along the slider is a scroll position arrow that controls the portion
of the text visible at the current time.
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If you change from Roll to Crawl, the text appears on a single line and
word-wrapped lines or paragraphs are ignored but preserved. You may
want to shorten the text body to fit the single line of text. If you change
from Crawl to Roll, paragraphs are word-wrapped.
If you click the text object or click away from the text body and are at
the start or end of the text body’s duration, no text appears in the
text boxes. This is because, by default, the text in rolling or crawling
text bodies moves across the text body over its duration, starting and
ending with the text just out of view.
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Controlling Crawling Speed and Direction
For rolling and crawling text, you can adjust the speed and direction of the
roll or crawl by using the Text property editor (the scroll position does not
apply to static text) or the Text tool.
To adjust a text object’s scroll speed and direction with the Edit tool
1. Using the Edit tool, select a text object.
2. From the Text property editor, adjust the Scroll Position.
Higher values move the text upward (for rolling text) or to the left (for
crawling text). Lower values move the text downward or to the right.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Text properties.
To adjust a text object’s scroll speed and direction with the Text tool
1. Using the Text tool, click in a text body.
2. Press Esc.
A scroll position slider and arrow appear for each text object.
3. Drag the scroll position arrow to specify the section of text visible in the
text body at the current time.
The scroll position arrow’s location in the slider represents the Scroll
Position value in the Text property editor.
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Scroll position = 33
Scroll position = 50
Scroll position = 66
Rolling text
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Crawling text
Path text
Clipping Text
The characters in a rolling or crawling text body are, by default, visible only
within the dimensions of the text body; characters (or portions of them) are
clipped to these dimensions.
Turning off clipping allows characters to appear and move outside of the text
body. Unclipped text is useful if you want characters to fly off the screen, or if
the text has a shadow that you do not want clipped.
Text that moves along a path is always clipped between characters.
The character either appears or does not appear; you will not see a
partial character at the ends of a path.
Static text
Clipped
Unclipped
Rolling text
Clipped
Unclipped
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To clip text to the dimensions of the text body
• Using the Text tool, right-click in the text body and choose Clip to Text
Box from the menu.
Clipped rolling text boxes are not clipped on their left and right
sides. Clipped crawling text boxes are not clipped on their top and
bottom sides.
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Placing and Moving
Text on a Path
You can place text on and scroll text along straight or curved paths. A path is an
object that uses a curved path as the baseline for text, which can crawl along the
path. You create and edit paths using the shape drawing tools. Like other
objects, you can move, scale, and rotate the path in three-dimensional space.
Creating and Deleting a Path
You can create a path from a shape, convert a path into a shape, and delete
a path.
Closed paths are not filled. Also, paths are not drawn when you
process the project.
To create a path
1. Draw a path using any of the shape drawing tools—see Creating Graphics
on page 422.
2. From the Commands toolbar, click the Shape to Path icon.
The selected shape becomes a path. If you convert a compound shape, the
first shape within the compound shape becomes the path.
A small square along the path indicates the start of the path and, for leftaligned text, the start of the first character.
To convert a path to a shape
1. Using the Edit tool, select a path.
2. From the Commands toolbar, click the Path to Shape icon.
To delete a path
1. Using the Edit tool, select a path.
2. Press Delete.
Any text that was on the path is deleted.
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Adding Text to a Path
After you create a path, you can use the Text tool to add text to it.
To add text to a path
1. Using the Text tool, click above a path.
The pointer changes to indicate that you can enter text on the path.
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2. Type in your text.
Before typing text
After typing text
By default, text on a path is static and left aligned. That is, the text starts at
the beginning of the path, but does not scroll along the path.
Removing Text from a Path
Like other text objects, you can remove sections of text from a path. You can
also delete the path to remove both the path and the text on it.
To remove text from a path
• Using the Text tool, delete the text as you normally would for any
text object.
The remaining text readjusts accordingly.
Deleting all the text on a path does not delete the path. The path
is empty.
Positioning Text on a Path
Like static and crawling text, you can adjust the position of text on a path.
You can also reverse the direction of the text on the path and offset the text
from the path.
To position text on a path
• If the text is static on the path, right-click on the path, and use the text
alignment commands in the menu or buttons on the Align toolbar—see
Changing a Column’s Text Alignment on page 444.
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Left-aligned
Center-aligned
Right-aligned
Justified
Equally-spaced
• If the text scrolls along the path, adjust the Scroll Position value on the
Text property editor—see Controlling Crawling Speed and Direction on
page 448.
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Scroll Position = 10
Scroll Position = 50
Scroll Position = 80
For rectangular paths, the start of the path is the upper-left corner.
For elliptical paths, the start of the path is the top of the ellipse. For all
other shapes, the start of the path is the first control point you created for
the shape.
To reverse the motion of the text on a path
Do one of the following:
• From the Text property editor, adjust the Scroll Position value.
• Right-click above the shape and choose Reverse Direction from the menu.
To offset the text from a path
1. Using the Edit tool, select a path. Make sure you do not select the text on
the path.
2. From the Path property editor, adjust the Baseline Offset value. A value of
zero means that the baseline of the text is exactly on the path. Values
greater than zero shift the text above the path, whereas values less than
zero push the text below the path.
Baseline offset = 0
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Baseline offset = 5
Baseline offset = –5
Working with Text
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Path properties.
Orienting Text on a Path
By default, characters point in the direction perpendicular to their location on
a path. For example, if the text moves along a circular path, the characters
point away from the center of the circle. If you prefer to keep the characters
upright all the time, adjust the path’s orientation.
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To adjust the orientation of the text on a path
1. Using the Edit tool, select a path and make sure you do not select the text
on the path.
2. From the Path property editor, set the Orientation to one of the following:
• Upright to make the characters stay vertical (to the local Y axis) all the time.
• Follow to make the characters point perpendicular to their locations along
the path. This is the default setting.
Orientation = Upright
Orientation = Follow
You can further control the orientation of text on a path by adjusting the
individual character’s Rotation properties. So, a path that uses Upright
orientation, but whose characters have Rotation values other than zero,
produces text that is not upright.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Path properties.
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Controlling Object Properties Based on Path Position
By default, the properties of characters on a path are dependent on time like
all other properties. For example, to change the height of a character over
time, you modify its Font height function curve. However, you can also
control the font height (or any property) of a character based on its position
along its path. For example, you can easily create characters that gradually
increase and then decrease in size as they scroll along their path.
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To animate character properties based on their positions along a path
1. Using the Text tool, click on a path.
2. With the pointer above the path, right-click and choose Property Mode
and one of the following from the menu:
• Time to base the property values of each character on the current time in
the 3D DVE session. This is the default mode.
• Position to base the property values of each character on the character’s
position along the path. The text is left justified while in this mode.
In Time property mode, the property values of each character is based on
the current time in the project.
Position property mode
Font height changes based on the character’s position along the path
Time property mode
All characters use the same font height
3. Select the characters on the path that you want to modify. In most cases,
you will want to select all the characters on the path.
4. Adjust one or more properties of the selected characters at different points
in time.
If the text is crawling along the path and the path is in Position
property mode, the text may not scroll completely off the path.
To ensure that the text scrolls off the path, adjust the Scroll Position
value at the end of the path’s duration.
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Working with Surfaces and Materials
Working with Surfaces and Materials
A surface is an area of an object. You can control the visibility and appearance
of each surface by applying a set of properties to it called a material.
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You can modify the appearance of the various surfaces of an object. For
example, you can apply a brick texture to a rectangle to give the appearance of
a brick wall, a gradient to a wavy shape that runs along the left edge of the
view to enhance a scene, or a reflective texture to the edges of the characters in
a word to simulate a chrome outline.
You can apply a material to the following surfaces:
• Main: The front and back sides of an object.
• Profile: The surface created by the profile effect of an object—see
Applying Profile Effects on page 419.
• Extrude: The surface created by the extruded sides of an object—see
Extruding an Object on page 420.
• Background: The area behind all objects in text objects or the reverse side
of DVEs—Using a Background on page 387.
Main material
Profile material
Extrude material
Background material
Each material can be one of the following types:
• Solid color: A single color.
Although you can import Avid Marquee projects that use gradient
materials, you cannot create or edit them.
• Texture: An image or an input.
In addition, a material can be lit by light sources. For more information,
see Working with Lights and Shadows on page 465.
You do not need to create a material to change the appearance of an object.
A material is simply a definition or a shortcut way of setting an object’s
material properties to specific values.
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Applying Materials to
Objects
You can apply materials to an object or one of its properties to change the
object’s appearance. You can apply different materials to the front, back,
profile, and extruded materials of an object.
All objects have front and back faces, but only extruded objects have an
extruded face, and only objects with a profile effect have a profile face. You can
specify a material for the background of text objects. For more information,
see Applying Profile Effects on page 419.
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By default, when the main surface of an object has a material on it,
the material appears on the front and back surfaces of the object.
By default, an object uses the main material for the profile and
extrude effects.
When you apply a texture to a text body, each character in the text body uses a
copy of that texture. If, instead, you want the texture to appear across all the
characters in the text body, you must change the texture mapping setting.
For more information, see Editing Materials on page 457.
To apply a material to the surface of an object
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From the Surfaces property editor, select a surface from the Surface list,
and adjust the material properties.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Surfaces properties.
Using a Custom Material for an Object’s Surface
By default, the profile and extrude surfaces of an object use the main surface’s
material. However, you can set each surface to use a different material.
To enable a surface to use a custom material
1. From the Surfaces property editor, select the Enable Surface option.
2. Adjust the material properties.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Surfaces properties.
Skipping the Drawing
of the Back Faces
If you do not intend to show the back faces of an object (for example, you do
not intend to rotate the object around the X or Y axis), you can skip the
drawing of the back faces. As a result, you can decrease processing time and
improve the appearance of transparent 3-dimensional objects that are rotated.
To skip drawing of the back faces of an object
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From the Render property editor, select the Cull Back Faces option.
The back faces of the object become transparent.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Render properties.
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Editing Materials
A material consists of properties (characteristics) that describe its appearance.
For example, you can modify a material’s type, color, opacity, and whether it’s
affected by light sources in the scene. You can modify the material properties
of a surface of an object.
To edit a material used by an object
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From Surfaces property editor, select a surface to edit from the Surface list.
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3. Adjust the material properties.
Changing the Type of Material
Materials can be solid colors or textures. You can change a material’s type at
any time.
To change a material’s type
• From the Surfaces property editor, choose a type from the Type list.
Changing a Material’s Base Color
For solid-color materials, the base color is the color of the material. If textures
are tinted, the base color is the tint color of the material. For more
information, see Tinting a Texture on page 464.
To change a material’s base color
• From the Surfaces property editor, use the Base color control.
Changing a Material’s Opacity
A material’s opacity controls how much of the material, and the object surface
on which it’s applied, is visible. Also, if you’re saving a matte, the opacity level
controls the object’s participation in the generation of the matte.
To change a material’s opacity
• From the Surfaces property editor, adjust the Opacity value.
Opacity = 10
Opacity = 40
Opacity = 70
Opacity = 100
To use an object’s opacity setting to create a matte
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From the Render property editor, select the Generate Matte option.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Surfaces properties.
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Allowing Material to
be Affected by Light
Sources
Materials can have two types of finishes:
• Flat: A matte finish, which is not affected by light sources. The material
appears the same, regardless of the lighting of the scene or the position
and orientation of the surface on which the material is applied.
• Lit: A glossy finish that is affected by light sources. The material changes
appearance depending on the lighting of the scene and the position and
orientation of the surface on which the material is applied
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.
Flat material
Lit material
Lit materials are useful for objects that have depth, such as objects that use
beveled or extruded profiles. For more information, see Applying Profile
Effects on page 419.
When a material is lit, you can adjust the specular highlight and emissive
colors of the material, as well as its shininess. For more information, see
Working with Lights and Shadows on page 465.
To allow a material to be affected by light sources
1. From the Surfaces property editor, select the Enable Lighting option.
2. For textures, select the Tint option. Textures use the specular and emissive
color settings and shininess controls only when the Tint option is selected.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Surfaces properties.
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Adjusting the Specular Highlight Color
When a light source shines on a lit material, the region of the surface that
reflects the light directly to the observer (a specular highlight) appears
brighter. You can control the size of the specular highlight by adjusting the
shininess of the material. For more information, see Adjusting the Shininess of
a Material on page 460.
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Low specular
High specular
To adjust the specular highlight color of a lit material
• From the Surfaces property editor, use the Specular color control.
Adjusting the Emissive Color
When a light source does not shine on a lit material, the material can emit or
glow with a specific color, known as its emissive color. By adjusting the
emissive color, an object can appear red when lit and green when not lit.
Low emissive
High emissive
To adjust the emissive color of a material
• From the Surfaces property editor, click the Emissive color swatch and use
the controls.
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Adjusting the Shininess of a Material
When a light source shines on a lit material, you can control the material’s
shininess.
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Low shininess
High shininess
To adjust the shininess of a lit material
• From the Surfaces property editor, adjust the Shininess value. Values closer
to 0 simulate a very dull surface (specular highlight area is larger and the
light is less focused), whereas values closer to 100 simulate a very shiny
surface (specular highlight area is smaller and the light is more focused).
The Shininess value has no effect if the specular color of the material
is black. For more information, see Adjusting the Specular Highlight
Color on page 459.
Simulating a Reflective Surface Using an Environment Map
When a surface is lit, the specular color appears on the areas of the surface closer
to a light source to simulate a highlight. You can also show a texture, called an
environment map, in the specular highlight areas of the surface. An environment
map is similar to a texture in Reflection mapping mode, except that an
environment map lets you show a reflection of a texture on an existing texture.
To use an environment map for a material
• From the Surfaces property editor, select a texture from the Texture list.
To remove an environment map
• From the Surfaces property editor, click the R (reset) icon.
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Controlling the
Appearance of
Overlapping Surfaces
When two surfaces of the same object or different objects overlap, the material
on one surface does not affect the material on the other surface. However, you
can change the appearance of overlapping surfaces by using Boolean
operations. For example, you can create two different colored shapes whose
intersection or overlapping areas appear in a different color.
When you use Boolean operations, note the following:
• Shadows affect surfaces that use Boolean operations, which may not
produce the effect you want.
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• Boolean operations do not affect the alpha channel of a scene.
• If an object intersects another object at a higher position, the Boolean
operation will not be apparent. Although objects in a 3D layer are
positioned in three-dimensional space, their relative depths affect the
order in which they are drawn in the scene.
• Boolean operations do not produce results that appear correct when
you’re viewing the current layer only or when you tumble the scene.
To control how a surface’s material is affected by the materials of
other surfaces
• From the Surfaces property editor, select an effect from the Overlap list.
When you use a Boolean operation on an object, the object does not
appear antialiased in the viewer. Also, semitransparent surfaces
appear opaque.
Boolean
operation
Example
Description
Normal
The surface is not affected by other surfaces under it. This is the
default setting.
Invert
The color of each pixel under the surface is reversed or inverted.
Changes to the surface’s opacity and type do not affect the result. You
can achieve the best results by using this effect on a solid surface.
And
The color of each pixel under the surface appears tinted.
Changes to the surface’s type affect the result. A solid white surface
does not produce any change to the underlying surfaces.
You can achieve good results using opaque solid colors, but not as
good as when combining gradients or textures with other gradients or
textures or using semitransparent solid colors.
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Boolean
operation
Exclusive Or
Example
Description
The color of each pixel under the surface is reversed or inverted in a
way similar to the Invert overlap effect, except that the surface’s
appearance affects the result.
Changes to the surface’s type affect the result. You can achieve good
results using opaque solid colors. Results are not as good when you
combine textures.
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Not Or
The color of each pixel under the surface is reversed or inverted in
some combinations and tinted in other combinations.
Changes to the surface’s type affect the result. A solid white surface
produces black. A solid black surface produces an effect similar to the
Invert overlap effect.
You can achieve good results using opaque solid colors. Results are not
as good when you combine gradients or textures with other gradients
or textures.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Surfaces properties.
Positioning and Tiling a Texture on a Surface
When you first apply a texture to a surface, the texture is centered on the
surface. You can, however, position (offset) the texture.
To position a texture on a surface
• From the Surfaces property editor, adjust the X and Y values in the
Offset box.
A texture is offset from its original mapping on a surface. Texture offsets
are not based on the scene’s dimensions.
To tile a texture on a surface
1. From the Surfaces property editor, select the Tile option.
2. From the 3D DVE/Options property editor, select the Preferences tab.
Select the Allow Tiling For DS Inputs option.
If a material is tiled, the texture is repeated on all sides. Otherwise,
the texture appears only once.
Scaling a Texture on a Surface
When you first apply a texture to a surface, the texture covers the entire
surface. However, you can scale the texture up or down by using the controls
in the Surfaces property editor.
To scale a texture on a surface
• From the Surfaces property editor, adjust the X and Y values in the
Scale box.
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Working with Surfaces and Materials
A texture is scaled based on its original size, as mapped onto a surface.
Texture scale factors are not based on the scene’s dimensions.
If you reduce a texture on a surface, you can see another copy of the
texture next to it if you use the Tile option.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Surfaces properties.
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Cropping a Texture on a Surface
If you want to use only a region of a texture, you can crop the edges of the
texture before it’s mapped to the surface. Cropping is useful for removing
black lines at the borders of textures captured from a video source. Cropping
is equivalent to a combined action of offsetting and scaling a texture. You can
do one or the other, but not both.
To crop a texture on a surface
1. From the Surfaces property editor, click the Texture Crop icon.
The Crop controls are displayed.
2. In the Texture Crop box, adjust the top, left, right, and bottom values.
The Crop values show the equivalent Offset and Scale values, and vice versa.
Rotating a Texture on a Surface
When you first apply a texture to a surface, the texture is oriented upright on
the surface, based on the object’s original orientation. However, you can
rotate the texture around the Z axis by using the control in the Surfaces
property editor.
To rotate a texture on a surface
• From the Surfaces property editor, adjust the Z value in the Rotation box.
A texture is rotated based on its original orientation (no rotation), as
mapped onto a surface.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Surfaces properties.
Controlling How a Texture is Mapped onto a Surface
The mapping of a texture onto a surface controls how the texture is used. By
changing the texture mapping, you can produce interesting effects.
To control how a texture is mapped onto a surface
1. From the Surfaces property editor, select one of the following from the
Mapping list:
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?
Option
To
Local
Apply the texture to each object as if it were a decal
Container
Apply the texture based on the dimensions of the object.
For example, you can apply a texture to a shape, but make
the texture relative to the scene’s dimensions. This option
also allows you to apply a texture to the contents of an
object, such as the characters in a text body.
Reflection
Use the surface of the object as if it were a mirror reflecting
the texture (reflection map). Reflection maps are mainly
used as “ambient” textures.
2. When you change a texture into a reflection map, the texture is enlarged to
produce less detail in the reflection. If you want more detail from the
texture in the reflection, scale down the texture using the controls in the
Scale box.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Surfaces properties.
Tinting a Texture
If you want to change the tone of a texture to enhance the texture or to create
an interesting effect, use the tint controls in the Surfaces property editor.
When a material is tinted, the base color is used as the tint color. Solid-colored
materials cannot be tinted.
To tint a texture
1. From the Surfaces property editor, select the Tint option.
2. Select the base color.
Use a brown Base color to simulate sepia-toned surfaces.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Surfaces properties.
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Working with Lights and Shadows
Working with Lights and Shadows
Light sources are points in three-dimensional space that emit light, causing
objects (with materials that can be affected by light) to appear illuminated.
You specify the location of light sources relative to objects in the scene. Light
sources exist above all other objects in the scene.
Different types of lights illuminate a scene in different ways.
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• Infinite: Light source is very far away, so that the light rays are essentially
parallel to each other. The sun is an example of an infinite light source;
this type of light source is also known as a directional light.
• Local: The light rays extend from a single point evenly in all directions.
A candle is an example of a local light source. This type of light source is
also known as a point or omni-directional light.
• Spot: The light rays extend from a single point in a cone shape, casting
light on a specific oval or circular area of an object or scene.
For local and spot lights, the intensity of the light decreases in proportion to
the distance from its location.
Infinite
Local
Spot
Lights in Avid|DS, just as in real life, help illuminate a scene, and give objects a
particular look. Improper placement or adjustment of lights can cause
unwanted effects and distract from the content in the scene.
To use lights effectively, place as few lights in a scene as necessary to avoid a
bleached or washed-out appearance. Also, use appropriate light settings for
the material you use. For example, if you use a concrete-looking material, do
not make the material shiny or have a bright specular color. Concrete is not
usually shiny in real life.
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Adding, Moving, and
Deleting Light Sources
You add, move, and remove light sources. You can have up to eight light
sources. Each light source is numbered in the viewer.
To add a light source to a scene
1. Click the Light tool in the Tools toolbar.
The current light sources appear in the viewer.
2. Do one of the following:
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• Hold down the Alt key and click to add a new light source.
• Right-click above the location for a new light source, and choose Add
Light from the menu.
A new light source appears at the pointer location. By default, the light
source is a white local light.
A bright or focused spot light shining on a material may produce
distinct triangular patterns on the surface of objects, known as
undertessellation. To reduce this problem, change the light type,
widen the size of the spot light, decrease the intensity of the light, or
increase tessellation.
To move a light source
1. Using the Light tool, select a light source.
2. Do one of the following:
• Drag the light source to a different location.
• From the Transform property editor, adjust the Position values.
The lighting of the scene changes accordingly. However, shadows on objects
do not change their offsets from their objects. You must modify the shadow
offsets manually if you want to create more realistic shadow effects.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Transform properties.
To delete a light source
1. Using the Light tool, select a light source.
2. Do one of the following:
• Right-click and choose Delete Lights from the menu.
• Press Delete.
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Editing Light Sources
Each light source has a specific visibility, type, and color. You can change these
properties and animate them over time. You can change light source
properties in the Info, Transform, and Light property editors. You can adjust a
light source’s function curve in the animation editor.
To edit a light source
1. Using the Light tool, select the light sources to edit by doing one of
the following:
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• To select a single light source, click it.
• To select multiple light sources, hold down the Shift key and click them.
• To switch the selection of a light source, hold down the Ctrl key and click it.
2. From the Info, Transform, or Light property editor, adjust the light source
properties. These property editors contain different sets of light source
properties.
All selected light sources use the modified properties.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Info, Transform, or
Light properties.
Turning Light Sources
On or Off
You can turn light sources on or off to make them affect or not affect the
objects in the scene. Turning off a light source is the equivalent of a nonexistent light source.
To turn a light source on/off
1. Using the Light tool, select a light source.
2. Do one of the following:
• From the Light property editor, select/deselect the Enable Lights option.
• With the pointer above the light source, choose Enable Lights or Disable
Lights from the Light menu.
Changing the Light
Type
A light source’s type affects how it illuminates the scene. A light source can be
an infinite, local, or spot light. For more information, see Working with Lights
and Shadows on page 465.
To change a light source’s type
1. Using the Light tool, select a light source.
2. Do one of the following:
• From the Light property editor, select a light type from the Type list.
• Right-click above a light source and choose a light type from the menu.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Light properties.
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Using Colored Lights
By default, light sources emit a white light. However, you can change the color
of the light to give lit objects a colored tint.
To change the color emitted from a light source
1. Using the Light tool, select a light source.
2. From the Light property page, click the color swatch and select a color.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Light properties.
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Changing the Intensity
of a Light Source
The intensity of a light source controls how brightly it illuminates the scene.
To change the intensity of a light source
1. Using the Light tool, select a light source.
2. From the Light property editor, adjust the Intensity value.
A value of 0 produces no intensity and light is effectively disabled. A value
of 100 is normal intensity. You can set the intensity to values above 100 for
highly intense lights or below 0 for “negative light,” where light is absent.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Light properties.
Positioning a Light
Source
Light sources, like other objects in the scene, can exist at different locations in
the scene.
To position a light source in the scene
1. Using the Light tool, select a light source.
2. Do one of the following:
• From the Light property editor, select Spot as the type and adjust the Spot
Target values.
• From the Transform property editor, adjust the Position values.
Click the Help icon for more information on the Light/Transform properties.
Adjusting Spot Light
Properties
Spot lights have additional properties that you can control.
To position the target of a spot light
1. Using the Light tool, select the spot light source.
2. From the Light property editor, adjust the Spot Target values.
When you place the target of a spot light near or at the same position as
the spot light itself, the light focuses on a specific area of the scene, which
can cause lit materials to appear with triangular patterns on them. This
problem is known as undertessellation and is caused by the object using
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Working with Lights and Shadows
the lit material not being adequately generated (subdivided into polygons)
to properly create a smooth illuminated surface—see Displaying Guides
on page 391.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Light properties.
To adjust the size of the area lit by a spot light
1. Using the Light tool, select the spot light source.
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2. From the Light property editor, adjust the Spot Size values.
Smaller values focus the spot light onto a small area, whereas larger values
lighten a larger area.
To adjust the amount of falloff
1. Using the Light tool, select a light source.
2. From the Light property editor, adjust the Spot Falloff values.
Smaller values produce little falloff, resulting in a larger, intense light
region. Larger values produce a large falloff with a softer light spread.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Light properties.
Identifying Light
Sources
By default, new light sources are assigned a generic name of “Light.” Like
other objects in the scene,7 you can change the name and attach a comment
to light sources.
To change the name of a light source
1. Using the Light tool, select a light source.
2. From the Info property editor, change the description in the Name text box.
You can describe a light by its color, type, behavior, or other
characteristics.
To add a comment to a light source
1. Using the Light tool, select a light source.
2. From the Info property editor, change the description in the Comment
text box.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Info properties.
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Adding Shadows to
Objects
Each object in a scene can include a shadow. You can control the shadow’s
location relative to the object and the shadow’s appearance.
The location of an object’s shadow in a 3D layer is controlled by the
object’s stacking order in the 3D DVE Layers view, not by its
position along the Z axis.
A shadow is the projection of an object’s outline onto a flat surface called the
shadow plane. Shadows can be a solid color or a texture (also known as a
shadow map).
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An object’s shadow can be one of the following types:
• Drop shadows are on the shadow plane, which is parallel to and always behind
the object. Drop shadows are not affected by light sources in the scene.
• Local shadows are located on the shadow plane, which is either hinged to
a side of the object’s bounding box or parallel to the object.
• Projected shadows are cast from one of the light sources in the scene onto
the shadow plane. By default, the shadow plane is hinged to the bottom of
the scene.
Drop
Local
Projected
(shadow plane and light shown)
Showing and Hiding Object Shadows
By default, objects do not cast shadows. When you use an object’s shadow, you
can simulate the effect of casting a shadow onto a simple plane. You do not
have to light an object’s surface for the object to cast a shadow.
Objects and text objects do not cast shadows. To cast shadows
behind these objects, create a transparent shape the same size as the
object, place it behind the object, and turn on the shape’s shadow. If
all you want is the shadow, turn off the Main material for the shape.
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To show/hide a object’s shadow
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
You can use shadows for more than one object at a time.
2. From the Shadow property editor, select/deselect the Show Shadow option.
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If you selected the option, by default, the object’s shadow appears gray
(black shadow with a 50 percent opacity) and, for drop shadows, is
positioned to the lower right of the object.
If the characters in a static text body are casting a shadow, you may want
to unclip the text body to keep the shadow from being clipped—see
Clipping Text on page 449.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Shadow properties.
Changing a Shadow’s Location
You can easily adjust the location of an object’s shadow. For drop shadows, you
can adjust the offset of the shadow from the object. For local and projected
shadows, you can adjust the location and orientation of the shadow plane.
Shadows and objects cannot intersect, even if they’re in a 3D layer.
To change the offset of a drop shadow
1. Using the Edit tool, select the object that is casting a drop shadow.
2. From the Shadow property editor, adjust the X Offset and Y Offset values.
Negative offsets move the shadow toward the left and bottom sides of the
object. Positive offsets move the shadow toward the right and top sides of
the object.
To create a drop shadow larger than an object, make a larger copy of
the object whose main material is hidden, add a shadow to the copy,
and move the copy behind the original.
X offset = –1
Y offset = 1
X offset = 1
Y offset = 1
X offset = –1
Y offset = –1
X offset = 1
Y offset = –1
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To change the location and orientation of local and projected
shadows
1. Using the Edit tool, select the object that’s casting the local or
projected shadow.
2. For projected shadows, open the Shadow property editor.
3. Select a light source from the Projected From list.
Although all possible light sources are in the list, only those light sources
actually available in the scene will produce a shadow. For example, if a
scene contains three lights and you select a fourth light source, no shadow
will appear. This behavior is equivalent to turning off a light source.
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Light sources that are turned off still produce and affect projected
shadows.
When the Light tool is active, the light sources in the scene are numbered.
These numbers correspond to the light numbers in the Projected From list.
4. From the Hinge box, adjust the location and orientation of the shadow
plane relative to the object by using the following controls:
• Side to specify if the shadow plane is attached (hinged) to a side (left, right,
bottom, top) of the object’s bounding box or parallel to (back) the object.
Left-side hinge
Right-side hinge
Bottom-side hinge
Top-side hinge
Back-side hinge
• Angle to orient the shadow plane a certain number of degrees away from
the object plane.
0 degrees
20 degrees
45 degrees
60 degrees
90 degrees
If you set the shadow side to Back, the angle rotates the shadow around
the Z axis.
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• Offset to position the shadow plane away from the object. For local
shadows, the offset controls the distance of the shadow plane away from
the hinge point. For projected shadows, the offset controls the movement
of the shadow plane along global axes.
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Offset = -0.01
Offset = 0.00
Offset = 0.02
Offset = 0.07
Offset = 0.11
• Skew to slant the shadow plane along its local X axis. Only local shadows
can be skewed.
Skew = 0.60
Skew = 0.30
Skew = 0.00
Skew = 0.45
Skew = 0.90
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Shadow properties.
Changing a Shadow’s Appearance
You can adjust the opacity, softness, color, and texture of an object’s shadow.
To change the opacity of a shadow
1. Using the Edit tool, select the object that is casting a shadow.
2. From the Shadow property editor, adjust the Opacity value.
An opacity of 0 produces a completely transparent shadow, which is not
very useful. An opacity of 100 produces a completely opaque shadow.
Opacity = 0
Opacity = 30
Opacity = 70
Opacity = 100
To change the softness of a shadow
1. Using the Edit tool, select the object that is casting a shadow.
2. From the Shadow property editor, adjust the Softness value.
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A shadow can range from very sharp edges and corners (values closer to 0)
to very soft edges and corners (values closer to 250). The softer a corner,
the more rounded it appears.
Softness = 0
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Softness = 70
Softness = 150
Softness = 230
Soft shadows of large objects take longer to render than they do for
small objects. If you’re working in the viewer, decrease the
Shadowing quality setting to improve performance. For more
information, see Displaying Guides on page 391.
To change the color of a shadow
1. Using the Edit tool, select the object that is casting a shadow.
2. From the Shadow property editor, click the color swatch and select a color.
The selected object’s shadow color changes to the color you selected.
Using Shadows to Simulate Glows
Although Avid|DS does not have a glow profile effect, you can use a shadow to
simulate a colored glow.
To simulate a colored glow
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From the Shadow property editor, set the shadow properties to
the following:
•
•
•
•
•
Show shadow: selected
Type: Drop
X offset: 0
Y offset: 0
Opacity: 50 or higher
Shadow opacity depends on the shadow color you use.
• Softness: 50 or higher. The higher the softness, the longer the shadow
takes to render. Use the highest level of softness required for a particular
effect to reduce the rendering time.
• Shadow color: Glow color. Shadow-based glows do not work well for
semitransparent objects because you can see the shadow behind the
semitransparent areas.
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Importing and Exporting Projects
Importing and Exporting Projects
If you have projects that were created using Avid Marquee, you can import
them for use in Avid|DS. You can import projects that contain decks, edit
objects within pages, and delete decks. You cannot, however, trim or remove
pages within decks, or adjust the timing.
Projects containing decks and pages can only be imported from the
standalone Marquee application.
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To import a Marquee project
1. From the Commands toolbar, click the Import Project icon.
2. From the Load Project File dialog box, select a Marquee project, and
click OK.
The project is loaded in Avid|DS.
To export a project
1. From the Commands toolbar, click the Export Project icon.
2. From the Save Project File dialog box, select a folder in which to save your
project, and give it a name.
3. Click OK.
Working with Decks
and Pages
A page object lets you create transitions between different objects or
collections of objects. For example, you can use page objects to cycle through
several sports box scores. You can also use pages to encapsulate or group
objects for easier placement in the scene or to create hierarchical behaviors,
such as an object rotating in a page that also rotates. A collection or sequence
of pages is called a deck.
A deck object defines the position, size, and overall duration of the pages
within it. Each page within the deck exists for a specific part of the overall
duration. As you adjust a deck object, by default, its pages and their contents
scale accordingly. If you press Alt and drag the deck object, the deck’s contents
stay the same size. You can create gaps between pages to let the objects in
lower tracks show through.
You can import projects that contain decks, edit objects within
pages, and delete decks. You cannot, however, trim or remove pages
within decks, or adjust the timing.
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Deleting Decks
You can delete decks of pages if you no longer need them.
To delete a deck
1. Using the Edit tool, select a deck object by clicking along its border.
Displaying the construction lines lets you see the borders of a deck.
For more information, see Showing Construction Lines on page 391.
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2. Press Delete.
Moving between Pages
When you want to create objects in a page or view a page in a deck, move to
the page by changing the current time.
Objects within a page exist for the duration of the page. If you intend to
animate object properties over the duration of their page, be sure to move to
the start or end of the page’s duration to set the starting and ending points for
the animation.
To move between pages of a deck
Do one of the following:
• In the transport controls, enter a timecode in the Timecode Locator box
and press Enter.
• Move the position indicator on the timeline.
Adding Objects to a Page
When you want to add objects to a page, you can either create them within the
page’s dimensions directly, or copy or move them from another page. You can
also move deck objects within other page objects.
An object is not considered to be in a page unless the upper-left
corner of its bounding box lies within the dimensions of the page. If
an object is not moving along with its page, you must move the
object to the page.
When you copy or move objects between pages, their locations, sizes, and
orientations are retained.
You can create hierarchical behaviors by placing a deck in a page of another
deck (by cutting or copying the deck into the page of another deck). For
example, as a deck rotates, a shape can rotate in a page of a deck.
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Importing and Exporting Projects
To copy or move an object between pages
1. Using the Edit tool, select an object.
2. From the Edit menu, choose one of the following:
• Copy to copy the object.
• Cut to move the object.
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3. Click in the page on which you want to place the object.
4. From the Edit menu, choose Paste.
Editing Objects Within a Page
You edit a page’s objects as you would any other object in the viewer. You may
need to move to the page’s position in time or zoom in to make it easier to
edit objects.
Resizing a Deck
When you want to change the size of a page, you can modify the dimensions
of the page’s deck. All pages in the deck use the same dimensions. You can
either scale the deck and its contents, or resize the deck to keep the contents.
To scale a deck and its contents
1. Using the Edit tool, select a deck.
2. Drag one of the deck’s bounding box handles.
The deck and its pages change to the new dimensions.
Original deck
Scaled-down deck
To resize a deck, keeping the deck’s contents the same size
1. Using the Edit tool, select a deck.
2. Hold down the Alt key and drag one of the deck’s bounding box handles.
The deck changes to the new dimensions, but the contents stay centered
in the deck.
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Setting the Output Options
The rendering process usually involves a trade-off between rendering speed
and image quality. This section provides some useful tips to consider when
rendering. Here is a suggested workflow for you to consider:
1. While working in a 3D DVE session, work in the Direct View mode if you
don’t need to see all the others effects in your sequence. This eliminates
the need to process all the effects in your sequence. Also, use low quality
viewer settings and suspend output to the output monitor when creating a
scene in the Direct View mode—see Working in Direct View Mode on
page 389.
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The Low quality setting for the viewer produces aliased results.
However, Low quality for rendering produces antialiased results.
To work more quickly, suspend output to the output monitor.
2. Once you’re ready to preview your work, use low quality settings to
preview animation or text.
3. Next, preview a high-quality, single frame by outputting.
4. And finally, when you’re ready to do the final output, set the quality
options to high.
To set the quality level
1. From the 3D DVE/Options property editor, select the Direct View
property page.
2. Adjust any of the following properties that affect the quality of objects
rendered in the viewer:
• From the Antialiasing list, select one of the following:
- None to apply no antialiasing. This setting produces jagged or aliased edges.
- Fast 2D to draw flat objects.
• Texturing controls the quality of textured surfaces in proportion to the
time required to render the texture onto the surface.
• Lighting controls the quality of lit surfaces.
• Tessellation controls the smoothness or approximation of curved edges
on characters and shapes.
• Shadowing controls the quality of soft shadows.
• Motion Blur applies a motion blur on fast moving objects.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Direct View properties.
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Setting the Output Options
Dampening Jittery
Text
At certain speeds, small text that scrolls vertically can sometimes appear to jitter.
This is noticeable along the top and bottom edges of the scrolling characters.
To dampen the effect of jittery text that scrolls vertically
1. From the 3D DVE/Options property editor, select the Output tab.
2. Select the Suppress Vertical Jitter option.
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A one-pixel blur is applied to the text to soften the jitter.
If the text is not moving vertically or if no jitter exists, you should
not use the jitter suppression option.
Click the Help icon for detailed information on the Output properties.
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Chapter 11
Mixing Audio
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Chapter 11 • Mixing Audio
In This Chapter...
This chapter describes how to mix audio, as well as how to create mixes and
submixes using audio container clips and effects. You will also learn how to
animate your audio mixes.
Workflow: Mixing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
Building an Audio Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
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Fine-tuning the Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
Animating the Audio Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
Converting the Sample Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
Processing the Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499
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Workflow: Mixing Audio
Workflow: Mixing Audio
Audio mixes are best created in an audio container clip. The following
illustration shows how the audio tracks are created and fed into the mixer.
1
Create an audio container
Create an audio container clip
for your mix
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2
Apply audio effects
Apply effects on
the timeline tracks
Left
Right
Apply effects
on the mixer
input strips
Mixer
3
4
Process the mix
Fine-tune the mix
Adjust the volume and balance
of the audio streams
Close the audio container clip to
automatically process the mix
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Input strips appear on the mixer as you add audio tracks to the timeline. On
each input strip, you can control the sound of all the clips on its
corresponding audio track. You can use the strip controls to adjust the overall
volume, add effects to the whole track, and pan the signal to the output strips.
The results of the adjustments on the input strips are mixed and passed to the
output strips, which let you adjust the output volume of the audio signals.
The signal from the output strips is then directed to an external device.
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484 • User’s Guide
Building an Audio Mix
Building an Audio Mix
You can use the Editing layout to create mixes and add audio effects to your
clips at different stages. You can start your mixing session by overlapping
audio clips on the timeline, and then fine-tune the signal on the mixer by
adding audio effects, and adjusting the volume and balance of the signal
before output.
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Avid|DS supports up to 64 tracks of audio on a timeline. This capability also
depends on the overall throughput of your system. For example, the number
of video tracks, compression settings, disk fragmentation, or audio effects can
all affect the system throughput. Instead of relying solely on the throughput,
you can give yourself more flexibility by creating mixes using audio
container clips.
Audio container clips let you compress as many as 64 tracks down to one,
leaving you more audio tracks to work with. Here are some other reasons to
use container clips:
• Grouping sound tracks: If you want to edit specific sounds more
efficiently, you can group sound tracks and create submixes of common
track types in an audio container clip. For example, you can mix hard
sound effects like creaking floors and footsteps in one container clip, vocal
tracks in another, and instrumentals in yet another container clip. All
of these clips can be premixed in their respective container clips, and then
played simultaneously on the top timeline.
• Animating (automating) your mix: If you need to boost or lower the
signal at different points in time, it’s more efficient to animate the
necessary controls in a container clip. This way, if you move the container
clip, its animation moves with it.
• Sample accurate editing: Inside an audio container, the timeline ruler is
displayed in terms of audio samples, as opposed to video frames. This lets
you have greater control over the placement of your audio clips.
When you close the audio container clip, the tracks are automatically
processed and represented as a single clip on the top timeline. You can now
play the mix in real time.
Before doing your mixes, make sure you’ve already edited your
sound tracks (music and dialogue).
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Creating Audio Tracks
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Whether you’re building a mix in an audio container clip or not, you still need
to add tracks to the timeline. Audio clips and tracks in Avid|DS can have up to
eight channels of audio in any of the following formats:
Format
Description
Mono
Single channel of audio
Stereo
Two audio channels: Left and right
Quadraphonic
Four audio channels: Left, right, left rear, right rear
LCRS
Four audio channels: Left, center, right, surround
4 Stream
Four audio channels: Output 1 to 4
5.1
Six audio channels: Left, right, center, Low Frequency Emitter
(LFE), left surround, right surround
6.1
Seven audio channels: Left, right, center, Low Frequency
Emitter (LFE), surround center, Side left, Side right
7.1
Eight audio channels: Left, right, center, Low Frequency Emitter
(LFE), left surround, right surround, left center, right center
8 Stream
Eight audio channels: Output 1 to 8
To create an audio track
Do one of the following:
• Right-click in the overview area, and choose Create Audio Track and
a track format from the menu.
• Drag an audio clip from the Avid Explorer to the timeline ribbon.
Tracks created this way adopt the format of the audio clip.
486 • User’s Guide
Building an Audio Mix
To determine a clip’s audio format
• Right-click on a clip on the timeline and choose Properties from the menu.
The Clip property editor is displayed, and the audio format is shown in
the Type box.
To determine a track’s audio format
• Right-click on a track and choose Track Properties from the menu.
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The Track property editor is displayed, and the audio format is shown in
the Format list box.
To change a track’s audio format
1. Right-click on a track and choose Track Properties from the menu.
The Track property editor is displayed.
2. In the Format list box, select the format you want.
Audio clips appear yellow if their format does not match the audio
track format, such as when a stereo clip is placed on a mono track.
Mixing Clips
There are several ways of mixing audio on the timeline. You can:
• Place audio clips on different tracks on the timeline, but within the same
region. Unlike video clips on background tracks, audio clips do not lose
their activeness when placed at the same timecodes as other audio clips.
This allows you to play several clips simultaneously.
Both clips
are active
Mixing audio tracks
• Overlap clips on the timeline to create a crossfade from one audio clip to
another. The two audio clips can be on the same track or different tracks.
For more information, refer to Crossfade Effects on page 474 of the
Avid|DS Compositing & Effects Guide.
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Chapter 11 • Mixing Audio
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Crossfade transition
Crossfade between two audio clips
• Create a submix in an audio container clip. Place multiple audio clips in a
container clip and mix them down to a single clip on the top timeline.
Creating a Submix
The mixer can support up to 64 input tracks. If you notice frames skipping
during playback (indicated by a red light on the transport controls), you
should mix your audio tracks in container clips instead.
In a container clip, you can mix 64 tracks of audio down to one, giving you
more tracks to work with. An audio container clip can also contain other
container clips, allowing you to create many more submixes.
For example, create a container clip to hold different dialogue, foley, and
background music tracks, and mix them down to a single track in preparation
for a scene. When the audio container clip is closed, these tracks appear as a
single clip, which you can mix with other audio clips and/or synchronize with
corresponding video clips.
Audio container clips also allow you to display the timeline ruler in samples,
frames, or milliseconds, giving you greater accuracy when editing audio clips.
The initial format of your audio container clip depends on the clip selected.
That is, if the audio container is created from a stereo clip, then the container
will be stereo. You can, however, change the format of an audio container clip,
by changing the mixer configuration within the container. For more
information, refer to Changing the Mixer Configuration in the online help.
To create an audio container clip
1. Place a clip on the track where the container clip will be created.
2. Right-click on the clip and choose Create Audio Container Clip.
You can select more than one clip on a track by holding down the
Ctrl key and clicking the clips that you want to select. These clips all
become part of the new container clip.
Audio container
clip icon
488 • User’s Guide
A new timeline is opened, and the selected audio clip is placed on the first
track. You can now insert additional audio tracks on which to place other
audio clips that form the mix.
Building an Audio Mix
Also, notice that a new container clip icon is displayed in the taskbar. This
icon indicates that you’re working in an audio container clip.
Inside an audio container clip, the ruler time scale is set to samples
by default. You can change the time scale by right-clicking on the
ruler and choosing a different time scale.
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Stereo audio clip
4 stream
audio clip
Mono audio clip
Taskbar
An open audio container clip
3. When you’ve finished editing the clips in this container clip, click the Top
Timeline icon in the taskbar to close the audio container clip and return to
the top timeline.
Taskbar
A closed audio container clip is represented as a single clip on the timeline
Container clip icon
When you close the container clip, Avid|DS automatically processes the
mix and displays a single clip on the parent audio track. While processing,
a progress bar indicates the status of the process. The number of passes
that Avid|DS processes is based on the number of nested container clips in
the current container clip.
After processing, you can mix the resulting clip with other audio clips on
the timeline. You can reopen the container clip by clicking the icon on the
container clip.
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Chapter 11 • Mixing Audio
Fine-tuning the Mix
After you’ve placed and edited your audio clips on the timeline, you can finetune the signal using the mixer. Each input strip in the mixer corresponds to
an audio track on the timeline. The strip controls let you add effects and
adjust the overall volume and balance of each track. The signals from all the
strips are then mixed and routed to the output strips.
A strip’s volume level is displayed in decibels on the level meter. The level meters
resemble a plasma display, which shows the level of energy for an audio signal at
a specific point in time. Stereo tracks have a dual level meter to indicate the
strengths of each stream. Mono tracks only have a single level meter.
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The signal that results from the adjustments on the input strips are then fed
into the mixer, where all the audio signals are combined into a single
composite signal. The mixed audio signals are then directed to the output
strips. Here, again, you have the option to adjust the volume before
outputting it to a parent container clip or external device. For more
information, refer to Mixer in the online help.
Input strips
Adjust levels
before all the
strips are mixed
490 • User’s Guide
Output strips
Adjust levels
after the mix
Fine-tuning the Mix
Adjusting the Mixer
Inputs
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As you add audio tracks to the timeline, the input strips appear on the mixer,
which always reflects the appearance of the audio tracks on the timeline. If
you reorder the audio tracks on the currently-displayed timeline, the mixer is
updated accordingly.
The quality of an audio mix depends on the volume and pan levels on each
input strip. You should set the levels, so that the mix is well balanced. The
controls on the input strips let you manipulate the signal coming from each
audio track on the timeline. You can adjust the volume and pan levels of each
strip before the signal is fed into the mixer. You can also use the Mute and Solo
buttons to listen to the signals coming from individual tracks.
The Solo buttons are for monitoring purposes only and do not stop
the signal from going into the mixer.
The fader is used to control the volume on the mixer strips. It simulates an
audio taper fader, except that the scale is more precise between the +5 dB and
-5 dB range.
The level meter ranges from 20.0 dB to -∞ dB. On the input strip, the level
meter maintains the energy levels even if the volume is adjusted or the strip is
muted. This lets you view the signal as it comes from the audio tracks.
The volume change is only shown on the output strip level meters.
Click Post on the mixer input strip to have the level meter reflect the
volume change.
You can also add effects to the signal before it’s processed in the mixer.
For more information, see Fine-tuning the Mix on page 490.
To fine-tune the sound on an input strip
1. Click the Solo button on the input strip that you want to tune.
Only the sound from this input strip can be heard.
2. Move the position indicator to the beginning of the first audio clip on the
respective track.
3. On the transport controls, click Play.
4. During playback, click the Solo button to hear the effect of the track in
and out of the mix. Click the button again to turn off the effect.
5. As the sequence is played back, drag the fader up or down.
Double-clicking on the fader button returns it to the 0 dB position.
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6. For mono tracks, you can also activate the pan control if you want to
change the routing of the signal. The pan control lets you adjust the
balance among the output strips. Moving the pan control determines the
distribution of the audio signals among the output strips—refer to
Adjusting the Audio Balance in the online help.
7. After you’ve completed the fine-tuning for this strip, deselect the Solo
button, and repeat this procedure for all the other input strips.
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Adjusting the Mixer
Outputs
The results of the adjustments on all the input strips are mixed and passed to
the output strips. Output strips let you adjust the output volume of the audio
signals. The number of output strips on the mixer depends on the selected
mixer configuration. The signal from the output strips is then directed to an
external device.
If you’re working in an audio container clip, the signals are directed
to the parent container clip.
To adjust the volume on the output strip
1. On the output strip you want to listen to, click the Solo button. This lets
you focus on the sounds from this strip alone.
2. Move the position indicator to the beginning of the sequence.
3. On the transport controls, click Play.
4. As the sequence is playing, monitor the output levels on the level meter
and drag the fader up or down to adjust the volume of this strip.
5. Repeat this procedure for the other output strip(s).
6. After you’ve fine-tuned each output strip, make sure you deselect any Solo
buttons to listen to the combined results of the output strips.
492 • User’s Guide
Animating the Audio Mix
Animating the Audio Mix
When you want to adjust the volume or balance at different stages of the
sequence, you can use the animation capabilities of the mixer to automate the
volume and balance of your audio signals.
You can animate the fader, mute, and pan controls on the input strips before
the signal is processed in the mixer. You can also choose the strips that you
want to animate.
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When you animate the pan control, fader and mute settings during real-time
playback, the adjustments are graphed as function curves. You can easily
modify these function curves in the animation graph after the recording
is complete.
All animation is track-based. Therefore, if you move the audio clips
to a different track, you will lose the associated animation.
Animating the Input
Strip Controls
The animation button lets you record any adjustments you make to the pan,
mute, and fader controls on the mixer strip in real time. The Solo button
cannot be animated because it’s a tool that lets you listen to the sounds of the
different tracks.
To activate animation on the strips
1. On the strip that you want to animate, click the Animation button.
Animation
button
By default, all the controls on this strip are animated when you begin the
keyframing process. You can, however, select the controls that you want
to animate.
2. Right-click on the Animation button and choose a command from the menu.
Pan can only be animated if the pan control is activated. Right-click
on the pan control and choose Enable Pan from the menu.
3. Deselect the controls that you do not want to participate in the animation.
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To animate the controls
1. Click the Animation button on the input strips that will participate in
the animation.
2. On the transport controls, click Play.
3. Adjust the controls on the input strip as the sequence is playing.
Any actions that you perform with the previously activated controls are
automatically recorded.
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4. To stop playing the sequence, click Play again.
5. Click the animation button on the input strip to deactivate it.
If you leave the Animation button activated, you can record over the
animation simply by replaying the sequence and redoing the control
movements at the appropriate times. The previous animation’s
function curve is overwritten until you stop the recording.
6. Go to the beginning of the sequence and click Play to see the results of the
recorded animation.
If you open the animation editor, you can see your animated movements
graphed on the function curve.
Function
curve
Keyframes at frames 0,4,9 and 12
The animation editor displays the function curve that you generated
Animation Key icon
494 • User’s Guide
You can also use the Animation Key icon to manually animate your
controls. For more information, see Setting Keyframes Manually on
page 506.
Animating the Audio Mix
Bypassing the
Animation
When you play a sequence that’s been animated, all the controls that were
animated will automatically play back. If you want to monitor certain sounds,
you can bypass the animated movements of some or all of the controls. This
lets you fine-tune your audio signal. Any animated controls that are bypassed
are still processed and sent to the outputs.
To bypass the animation during playback
1. On an input strip, right-click on the Animation button and choose a
command to bypass from the menu.
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A check mark beside the command indicates that it will be bypassed.
2. Select any other commands that you want to bypass during playback.
When you replay the sequence, the controls that you selected for bypass
do not participate in the animation.
Editing the Animation
All animated movements can be modified by adjusting the keyframes that
were set for the animated controls.
To edit the animation
1. Right-click on the Animation Key icon and choose Animation Editor
from the menu.
2. In the animation tree, select the name of the strip on which the animation
was created.
3. Click the plus sign (+) to expand the tree, and then select a property or
control whose keyframes values need to be adjusted.
The corresponding function curve is displayed in the animation graph.
4. Adjust the key points on the function curve at the appropriate timecode settings.
For more information, see Editing Animation on the Animation Graph on
page 509.
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Chapter 11 • Mixing Audio
Deleting Animation
You can delete all or part of the animation on the mixer input strips.
To delete all animation on the mixer
• Right-click on the Animation Key icon and choose Remove Animation
Curves from the menu.
Animation Key icon
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The function curves for the pan, gain, and mute of each input strip in the
mixer are removed.
To delete animation on individual strip controls
Animation
button
On an input strip, right-click on the Animation button and choose one of the
following:
• Any of the Delete options from the bottom of the menu.
• Delete All Animation to remove all animation on this input strip.
496 • User’s Guide
Converting the Sample Rate
Converting the Sample Rate
Avid|DS supports conversion of sample rates for clips, as well as sequences
and projects. You can change the sampling rate of clips to conform to the rest
of the sequence. Similarly, you can change the sample rate of sequences to
conform to the sampling rate supported by your audio hardware.
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Converting Sequence
Sample Rates
If you load a sequence/project with a sample rate that’s not supported by your
audio hardware, you will be prompted to convert the sequence/project to a
supported sampling rate.
If you convert the sample rate of the sequence in this manner,
Avid|DS does not convert the sample rates of the sequence’s audio
clips. You must convert the sample rates of the audio clips manually.
For more information, see Converting the Sample Rate Manually on
page 498.
Converting Clip
Sample Rates
Audio clips can be used in sequences that have a different sample rate. When
you place an audio clip on the timeline, its sample rate is converted according
to the settings in the Sequence Preferences dialog box (Audio property page).
You can convert the sample rate automatically or manually.
Converting the Sample Rate Automatically
Automatic conversion is the process by which Avid|DS converts an audio clip’s
sample rate to match the sample rate of the sequence in which it’s used.
To automatically convert a clip’s sample rate
1. From the File menu, choose Sequence Preferences.
2. In the Sequence Preferences dialog box, select the Audio property page.
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Chapter 11 • Mixing Audio
3. In the Sample Rate Conversion box, select the appropriate options:
• Conversion on Drop to automatically convert the sample rate of a clip
that you place on an audio track.
• Conversion on Drop and Confirm Each Time to prompt you with a
message before converting the sample rate of a clip that you place on an
audio track.
When the clip is placed on an audio track, a dialog box is displayed,
prompting you to start the conversion.
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4. Use the Conversion Quality controls to specify a conversion quality.
Click Help for detailed information on the Sequence Preferences dialog box.
Converting the Sample Rate Manually
You can place clips on the timeline without having their sample rate
automatically converted to match that of the sequence. However, if an audio
clip’s sample rate doesn’t match that of the sequence, you will not be able to
hear it when you play the sequence. To hear the clip, you must manually
convert it to the sample rate of the sequence.
When an audio clip’s sample rate does not match the sequence’s
sample rate, the clip appears red on the timeline.
To manually convert the sample rate of a clip
• Right-click on a clip on the timeline and choose Convert to Current
Sample Rate from the menu.
To manually convert the sample rate of a track
• Right-click on an audio track and choose Convert to Current Sample Rate
from the menu.
Converting Audio Container Clips
When you convert the sample rate of an audio container clip, only the cache
itself is converted. The clips inside the container clip are unaffected. This lets
you use a container clip in a sequence or project that has a different sample rate,
without having to convert all of the clips inside the container clip.
To convert the sample rate of an audio container clip
• Right-click on an audio container clip and choose Convert to Current
Sample Rate from the menu.
To convert the sample rate of audio clips inside a container clip
1. Open a container clip and manually convert the individual clips.
2. Close the container clip.
498 • User’s Guide
Processing the Mix
Processing the Mix
Unlike video clips, all audio clip, track, and strip effects (as well as any
animation) are processed in real time, so that no caches need to be created.
The only exception is when you create audio container clips. These container
clips are processed automatically when you close them.
The following illustration shows how audio effects are processed from the
tracks on the timeline to the strips on the mixer.
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Clip effects processed
1 Clip effects are processed
first, in order from bottom
to top.
2 Track effects processed
Track effects are
processed next, also in
order from bottom to top.
Left
Audio signal passed to input strips
Right
3
The signals from the audio tracks are passed
to the corresponding mixer input strip.
Strip effects processed
5
Effects on the mixer input strip
are processed in order from top
to bottom.
Adjust the volume and
balance
Mixer
4
On the input strips you can
adjust the volume and balance
of the audio signal.
6
Audio signal passed to
output strips
The signals from the input
strips are combined and
passed to the output strips.
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Chapter 11 • Mixing Audio
Audio clip effects are processed before track effects. If the effects are stacked,
then they’re processed from bottom to top. The signal from the audio track is
then passed to the corresponding mixer input strip, where you can adjust the
volume and balance of the incoming signal. If you’re still not satisfied with the
results, you can add more effects to the strip. These strip effects are processed
from top to bottom.
The signals from all the input strips are then mixed together and distributed
to the output strips based on the pan levels set on the input strips. On the
output strips, you can make the final adjustments to the volume level using
the fader.
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The resulting signal is recorded on your external device. If you’re currently
working in a container clip, then the resulting signal is sent to the parent
container clip.
When you close an audio container clip, Avid|DS automatically processes the
mix and displays a single clip on the parent audio track. While processing, it
will indicate the progress. The number of passes that Avid|DS processes are
based on the number of nested container clips in the current container clip.
If you haven’t made any changes to the clips in the container clip, then
processing is not necessary.
For more information, refer to Processing Order on Audio Tracks/Mixer Input
Strips on page 146 of the Avid|DS Compositing & Effects Guide.
500 • User’s Guide
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Chapter 12
Animating Properties
User’s Guide • 501
Chapter 12 • Animating Properties
In This Chapter...
This chapter describes the different ways you can animate an object’s
properties in Avid|DS. You can use the animation tools to create and adjust
animation by setting keyframes and manipulating function curves.
After you master the animation techniques, you can refer to specific chapters
in this guide and the Avid|DS Compositing & Effects Guide to learn how to
animate transitions, video and audio effects, composited layers, or graphics.
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Workflow: Animating Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503
Creating Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504
Editing Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507
Processing Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526
502 • User’s Guide
Workflow: Animating Properties
Workflow: Animating Properties
1
Create animation
Display effect’s
property editor
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Place position
indicator on a frame
Keyframing
Process
Adjust parameters
Set a keyframe
manually
or
automatically
(Autokey mode)
2
Edit animation
Move between
keyframes, adjust
parameters, and
reset, add, and/or
remove keyframes
or
Display animation editor and
modify the function curve
3
Process animation
In the final sequence, the effect’s properties change over time
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Chapter 12 • Animating Properties
Creating Animation
Animation is the change of an object/image over time. To create animation,
you record changes to an object’s properties. Using a process called
keyframing, you specify the object’s properties at the first and last frame of
each change. Properties are automatically calculated and set for the frames in
between, producing a change in the object. You can add as many keyframes to
an object as you need to create your animation.
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Objects and effects that you can animate include transitions, video and audio
effects, layers, and graphics. For example, you can animate the blur on a video
effect, the order of a layer in a composite, the rotation of a stroke, or the color
of a title.
There are several ways to create animation:
• Use the Autokey mode to set keyframes automatically, as you adjust the
object’s properties.
• Use the Animation Key icon to set keyframes manually each time you
adjust the object’s properties.
• Use the animation editor to manipulate the function curves of selected
object properties.
• Create a motion path to animate a DVE.
• Record audio animation in the mixer.
Setting Keyframes
Automatically
When you activate the Autokey mode, keyframes are automatically created
each time you change an object’s properties. Automatic keyframing only sets
keyframes for the properties that you change, which is useful when you want
to adjust specific properties without adding or modifying the keyframes of the
other properties.
To set keyframes automatically
1. When you’re ready to begin animating, do one of the following:
• On the status bar, click the Autokey button.
• From the File menu, choose User Preferences to open the User Preferences
dialog box. From the Animation property page, select the Set Keys When
Changing Values option.
• Right-click on the Animation Key icon, in the property editor of the
object that you want to animate, and choose Autokey from the menu or
click auto in the property editor.
The Autokey mode is activated and the Animation Key icon turns red
whenever a keyframe is set. Keyframes will automatically be set for all
property editors and animatable properties until Autokey is deselected.
504 • User’s Guide
Creating Animation
2. Use the transport controls to go to the frame on which you want the
animation to start.
3. Use the property editor to adjust the values of the properties that you want
to animate.
A keyframe is automatically set each time you adjust the properties.
4. Go to another frame and adjust the properties again.
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A new keyframe is set at the current timecode and property values are
computed for all frames between the keyframes.
5. Continue adding keyframes.
6. If you want to stop adding keyframes automatically, click the Autokey
button again to deactivate the Autokey mode.
7. Do one of the following to view the animation:
• Process the effect and play the clip—see Processing Animation on page 526.
• In the property editor, click Preview.
• Press Ctrl and click Play to play the clip frame by frame.
When you play the clip, the keyframed properties change as the clip advances.
In the Autokey mode, keyframes are set only for the properties that
you modify. To set a keyframe for all animatable properties, you
should use the Animation Key icon. For more information, see
Setting Keyframes Manually on page 506.
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Chapter 12 • Animating Properties
Setting Keyframes
Manually
You can create animation by manually adjusting properties and setting
keyframes at different points in time. This method is useful when you want to
set keyframes using the controls in the property editors or views, or
interactively in the viewer. Manual keyframing places keyframes on all of an
effect’s properties.
To set keyframes manually
1. Open the property editor in which you want to create animation.
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2. Use the transport controls to go to the frame in which you want the
animation to start.
3. Adjust the properties that you want to animate.
4. Do one of the following:
• On the status bar, click the Autokey button.
• In the property editor, click the Animation Key icon to set a keyframe.
A keyframe is set for all the animatable properties in the property editor.
5. If necessary, go to different points in the clip and continue adding
keyframes.
6. Do one of the following to view the animation:
• Process the effect and play the clip—see Processing Animation on page 526.
• In the property editor, click Preview.
• Press Ctrl and click Play to play the clip frame by frame.
When you play the clip, the keyframed properties change as the clip advances.
506 • User’s Guide
Editing Animation
Editing Animation
Once you’ve animated an object, you can use the animation editor to view and
modify its properties. The animation editor represents the animation as one
or more function curves on the animation graph, where the values of the
animated properties are plotted over time.
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Emboss effect
changes over time
Frame 0
Frame 4
Frame 9
Frame 12
Function curve of the Relief property
Relief property
gradually increases
from frames 0 to 9 and
then decreases rapidly
from frames 9 to 12.
Keyframes at frames
0,4,9 and 12
You can use the animation editor to manipulate a function curve, or to finetune the animation frame-by-frame. You can also add, move, or delete
function curves or keyframes, and trim, crop, or remove an entire animation.
The animation editor can display function curves for multiple animations
simultaneously. Pinning an animation to the animation editor keeps its
function curves displayed while you work on other function curves.
Some effects, like fades or transitions, have an animation graph built
into one of their property pages. You can add keyframes on this
function curve the same way you add keyframes to function curves
in the animation editor.
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When you want to adjust properties using the controls in property editors or
layer controls on other views, you can edit animations with the Animation
Key. For example, if you’re adding a graphics animation to a composite, you
would typically create the graphics in the viewer and record keyframes using
the Animation Key.
Editing Keyframes
Manually
?
You can manually set or delete keyframes on a frame-by-frame basis using the
object’s property editor.
To edit keyframes manually
1. Open the property editor in which you want to create animation.
2. In the property editor, right-click on the Animation Key icon and choose
First Key from the menu.
The position indicator moves to the first keyframe in the animation.
3. If necessary, edit the settings and click the Animation Key icon to set
a keyframe.
The new settings at this frame automatically override any previous settings.
4. Click the Next Key button to move to the next keyframe.
5. If you want to add a keyframe, use the Frame Backward and Frame
Forward buttons on the transport controls to advance your clip to the
appropriate timecode. Change the values and click the Animation Key
icon to add a keyframe.
6. Continue to edit keyframes until you reach the end of the animated sequence.
To remove a keyframe
1. In a property editor or view, click the Previous Key or Next Key buttons
(located next to the Animation Key icon) to go to a timecode where a
keyframe has been set.
The Animation Key icon will be red to indicate that a keyframe is set on
the current frame.
2. Right-click on the Animation Key icon and choose Remove Key from
the menu.
The current keyframe is removed.
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Editing Animation
Editing Animation on
the Animation Graph
In the animation editor, each animatable property is represented by a different
function curve on the animation graph. You can modify these curves to edit
the animation.
Pinned function
curve
?
Marked
parameters
Selected
function curve
Keyframes
Selected keyframe
When working in the animation graph, you can display the function curves of
properties that you want to animate, or hide curves to isolate a specific
property. Function curves on the graph appear in blue for the duration of an
effect. When you select them, they’re highlighted in white and their keyframes
are displayed.
As you modify function curves, you can take snapshots that let you compare
the results of a change to a function curve to the original curve. Snapshots
appear in black on the graph.
There are several ways of manipulating keyframes to change the result of an
animation. You can add new keyframes, delete existing ones, move a keyframe
to a new value or time, and control all of the keyframes at a specific timecode.
You can also adjust a keyframe’s tangents to increase or decrease the slope of
the function curve at that keyframe. For example, if you want a property to
change rapidly at a specific time, you can increase the slope of the function
curve at that keyframe.
Once you’ve finished adjusting a curve, you can snap keyframes to the nearest
point on the grid to precisely align keyframes with timecodes.
You can undo any operation performed on a function curve. From
the Edit menu, choose Undo or press Ctrl+Z.
For more information, refer to Animation Graph in the online help.
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Viewing Locators in the Animation Graph
In the animation graph, you can display any locators that you placed on the
timeline to help you align keyframes at specific points in your sequence.
To display locators in the animation graph
• From the animation editor, click View and choose Locators from the menu.
Adding, Moving and Deleting Keyframes
?
Using the animation tools, you can add, move, and delete keyframes to edit
an animation.
On the animation graph, you can move keyframes to values that are out of a
property’s range. However, the values that are actually processed are the
maximum or minimum values displayed in the property editor.
To add a keyframe
1. In the animation tree, click a property to select its function curve.
In the animation graph, the function curve is selected and the keyframes
are displayed in red.
2. To add a keyframe, click the Add Key icon and click the animation graph.
The closest selected function curve updates to pass through the
new keyframe.
You can use the Select tool to change the value of multiple
keyframes. Press Shift and click keyframes to select them. Now enter
a new value in the animation graph value box.
To move a keyframe
1. In the animation tree, click a property to select its function curve.
In the animation graph, the function curve is selected, and the keyframes
are displayed in red.
2. To move a keyframe, click the Select icon and do one of the following:
• Drag a keyframe to a new position.
The value and/or frame of the selected keyframe is updated.
• Click a keyframe and in the Frame and Value boxes, enter a new frame
and/or value.
The function curve is updated to pass through the modified keyframe.
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Editing Animation
To delete a keyframe
1. In the animation tree, click a property to select its function curve.
In the animation graph, the function curve is selected and the keyframes
are displayed in red.
2. To delete a keyframe, click the Remove Key icon, and click on a keyframe.
The keyframe is removed and the function curve is updated.
?
3. To remove all the keyframes on the selected function curve, right-click on
the Animation Key icon and choose Remove Animation from the menu.
You will be prompted to confirm before all the keyframes are deleted.
Pressing the Delete key only deletes selected keyframes.
Adding, Moving, and Deleting Keyframes on Multiple
Function Curves
The meta curve region is a powerful tool that lets you add, move, and remove
keyframes on every visible function curve in the animation graph.
When you display the meta curve region, red locators appear below the
animation graph at every timecode at which a keyframe is placed on a
function curve. If several function curves have keyframes at the same
timecode, all of those keyframes are represented by a single locator.
Though locators in the meta curve region can represent and control
multiple keyframes, those keyframes are not locked together. If you
move a keyframe out of alignment with other keyframes, a new
locator will appear in the meta curve to represent the keyframe’s
new location.
Adding keyframes in the meta curve region places a keyframe on every visible
curve, at the current timecode. Moving a locator in the meta curve region
moves all of the keyframes at that timecode. Deleting keyframes from the
meta curve region removes any keyframes on any function curves at the
current timecode.
To display the meta curve region
From the View menu, choose Meta Curve Region and choose one of
the following:
• Display for selected curves only to display the meta region for selected
curves only.
• Display for all curves to display the meta region for all curves.
The meta curve region is displayed below the animation graph.
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To add a keyframe to all visible function curves
1. From the animation editor, click the Add Key icon.
2. Click anywhere in the meta curve region.
A keyframe is added to every visible function curve in the animation
editor, at the current timecode.
To move all keyframes at a specific timecode
?
1. From the animation editor, click the Select icon.
2. Drag a locator in the meta curve region.
All keyframes represented by the locator are moved to the new timecode.
To delete a keyframe from all visible function curves
1. From the animation editor, click the Remove Key icon.
2. Click a locator in the meta curve region.
All keyframes represented by the locator are deleted.
Synchronizing Animation
You can synchronize keyframes in the animation editor by dragging their
locators in the meta curve region. Moving one locator to the same timecode as
another synchronizes their respective keyframes at the current timecode. This
is useful when, for example, you want to coordinate changes to several of an
object’s properties, at the same time.
To synchronize keyframes
1. In the animation graph, select a function curve and add a keyframe to it.
A locator appears in the meta curve region, representing the first keyframe.
2. Select a different function curve, and add a keyframe to it.
A locator appears in the meta curve region, representing the second keyframe.
3. In the meta curve region, click the second keyframe’s locator and drag it
on top of the first keyframe’s locator.
The keyframes are now synchronized, and represented by a single locator
in the meta curve region. Moving the locator moves both of the keyframes.
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Editing Animation
Modifying Regions
In Avid|DS, you can select and modify a region of the animation graph.
Keyframes in a selected region are automatically selected, and can be moved
simultaneously. You can also stretch or shrink a selected region horizontally
or vertically.
To modify a region of the animation graph
?
1. Click the Select Region icon, and select the region of the function curve
that you want to copy.
The selected region is highlighted, and edit controls appear along on all
four sides.
2. Drag the edit controls to stretch or compress the region.
Changing the Slope of a Function Curve
The slope of a function curve determines how a property changes between
keyframes. For example, in a scene where an actor moves from artificial
lighting to sunlight, you can animate the color correction, so that it changes at
the same rate as the light changes, as illustrated in the following examples:
• If the actor is walking through an open door, the color correction should
increase rapidly along a spline curve.
Spline
• If the actor steadily approaches the end of a tunnel, the color correction
should increase linearly.
Linear
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• If the actor is suddenly exposed to sunlight, the color correction should be
constant, and then change in one step.
Constant
?
To set the type of function curve
1. From the animation editor, select a function curve.
2. Click the Animation Editor Preferences icon.
3. On the Keys property page, select one of the following options from the
Interpolation box:
Option
To
Constant
Create a curve with constant values that change in steps.
Linear
Create a curve where keyframes are joined by straight lines.
Spline
Create a smooth curve whose slope you can modify at
any point.
The curve is updated to the new type.
Click Help for detailed information on the Animation Editor Preferences.
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Editing Animation
To set the tangent slope options
1. From the animation editor, select a function curve.
2. Click the Animation Editor Preferences icon.
3. On the Keys property page, select one of the following options from the
Slope box:
?
• Unified to keep the slopes together as they move, keeping a constant angle
between them.
• Broken to let the slopes move freely as you drag each handle individually.
Click Help for detailed information on the Animation Editor Preferences.
To change the slope of a spline at a keyframe
1. On a spline function curve, select a keyframe.
The tangent handles are displayed at the selected keyframe.
2. Click a tangent handle to select it and drag it to a new position.
The slope of the function curve changes at the keyframe.
If the tangent handle and the keyframe are close together, hold down
the H key and drag. This lets you manipulate the tangent handle.
Making Temporary Copies of Function Curves
Snapshot curves are temporary copies of function curves that stay in the
animation graph after you edit the original curves. Using the snapshot curves,
you can edit function curves, compare the edited curve to the temporary copy
of the original, and revert to the original if you’re not satisfied with the
change. When you’re ready to accept your changes, you can update the
snapshot curve to reflect the edits that you made.
To use snapshot curves
1. From the animation editor, select a function curve.
2. Click the Animation Editor Preferences icon.
3. On the Editor property page, select the Snapshot Curve option from the
View box.
A snapshot curve is created and hidden behind the original function curve.
4. Edit the selected function curve.
The snapshot curve is displayed in black.
5. If you want to revert to the snapshot curve, click the Swap icon.
The original curve is highlighted and you can edit it.
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6. When you’re satisfied with the edits, click the Snap icon.
The black snapshot curve is updated to match the white function curve.
Click Help for detailed information on the Animation Editor Preferences.
Snapping Keys to Grids and Frames
You can make keyframes snap to the nearest frame on the grid’s X axis or to
the nearest frame on the grid’s X axis. Snapping keyframes to the grid lets you
position them at precise timecodes.
?
Snapping a keyframe to the grid
• Click Edit and choose Snap to Grid from the menu.
Snapping a keyframe to its nearest frame
• Click Edit and choose Snap to Frame from the menu.
Click Help for detailed information on the Edit menu commands.
Locking Keyframe Positions
You can freeze a keyframe’s values, as well as its location in time, by locking
the key’s position on the X or Y axis.
If the function curve uses a spline interpolation to transition action to the
next keyframe, you can also freeze the keyframe’s speed of transition and
influence on the function curve by using the animation editor’s tangent
handle locking controls.
To lock a keyframe’s position on the animation graph
1. From the animation graph, select a keyframe.
2. Do one or both of the following:
• Click Keys and choose Lock in X (Time) to lock the key’s location in time
on the X axis.
• Click Keys and choose Lock in Y (Value) to lock the key’s value on the Y axis.
The keyframe is frozen in place on the graph editor and cannot move until
Lock in X or Lock in Y is deselected. You can still manipulate the keyframe
tangent handles to change the shape of the slope.
Offsetting Animation
516 • User’s Guide
You can offset an animation by moving an entire function curve. If, for
example, you’re satisfied with a function curve’s slope, but want the
corresponding change in properties to occur later in the animation, you can
move the entire curve farther down the timeline.
Editing Animation
To offset an animation
1. From the animation editor, select a function curve.
2. Hold down the R key, and drag the curve to reposition it on the timeline.
To offset multiple function curves
1. Hold down the Shift key, and click each function curve to select it.
2. Hold down the R key, and drag the curve to reposition it on the timeline.
?
Copying Animation
You can copy the animation of one property to another by copying the
function curve. For example, you can animate the Z position of an object, so
that it appears to move away from the viewer. You can then copy the
animation to a blur effect, so that the blur increases as the objects move away
from the viewer. You can then adjust the blur function curve according to the
scale of the blur parameter.
To copy an animation, you simply copy a property’s function curve and paste it
onto the function curve of another property. You can copy the entire curve or a
region of a curve. When pasting the animation, you can do one of the following:
• Insert the copy at a selected timecode.
• Replace a portion of the function curve at a selected timecode.
• Paste the copy over a selected region.
To copy an entire animation
1. In the animation tree, click a property.
In the animation graph, the property’s function curve is highlighted.
Copy from
this curve
2. Press Ctrl+C.
The animation is copied.
3. In the animation tree, click a property to receive the animation.
In the animation graph, its function curve is highlighted.
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Copy to
this curve
?
4. Press Ctrl+V.
The animation is pasted. In the animation graph, the function curves for
both properties are identical and appear as only one curve.
Two identical
curves appear as
one
To copy a region of a function curve
1. In the animation graph, do one of the following to specify the region that
you want to copy:
• Select contiguous keyframes.
The region to be copied is between the first and last selected keyframes.
• Click the Select Region icon and select the region of the function curve
that you want to copy.
Region to
be copied
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Editing Animation
2. Press Ctrl+C.
The animation is copied.
3. If you want to paste the animation to a different property, select a
function curve.
4. Specify where to paste the animation by clicking the Select Region icon
and doing one of the following:
?
• Clicking a timecode
When the animation is copied, it starts at the specified timecode.
• Selecting a region
When the animation is copied, it fits into this region. If you copy an
animation to a region of a different size, the animation is automatically
scaled in time.
If you do not specify where to paste the animation, it’s pasted at
its original timecode on the selected curve.
5. Press Ctrl+V.
The animation is pasted, replacing the selected function curve over the
specified region.
Animation pasted to second
curve at selected timecode
Animation pasted to selected
region of second curve
To insert a copied region of a function curve
1. In the animation graph, do one of the following to specify the region that
you want to copy:
• Select contiguous keyframes.
The region to be copied is between the first and last selected keyframes.
• Click the Select Region icon and select the region of the function curve
that you want to copy.
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Region to be copied
?
2. Press Ctrl+C.
The animation is copied.
3. If you want to paste the animation to a different property, select a
function curve.
4. Click the Animation Editor Preferences icon.
5. On Paste Options property page, select the Insert option from the Paste
Options box.
6. To specify where to insert the animation, click the Select Region icon, and
click a timecode.
If you do not specify where to paste the animation, it’s pasted at its
original timecode on the selected curve.
7. Press Ctrl+V.
The animation is pasted at the selected timecode on the selected curve.
Copied animation inserted
in second curve
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Editing Animation
Repeating Animation
Cycling animation allows you to repeat a function curve for the duration of an
animation. By applying different types of cycles, you can quickly create
repetitive animations like blurring in and out.
When you create cycles, the repeated information is not added to the function
curve. It’s based on the original keyframes, but does not contain any
keyframes. When you adjust the original keyframes, changes are reflected
throughout the cycle.
?
Creating a Basic Cycle
A basic cycle repeats the shape and pattern of a function curve, as defined by
the keyframes, for the duration of the animation. For example, you can use a
basic cycle to animate a blur in and out of a clip.
To create a basic cycle
1. In the animation graph, select the function curve whose shape you want
to repeat.
2. Click Curves and choose Cycle from the menu.
The pattern is repeated along the X axis of the animation.
Original curve with keyframes
Curve cycled along X axis
without keyframes
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Creating a Relative Cycle
A relative cycle repeats the shape and pattern of the function curve by starting
each cycle at the value of the last key in the preceding cycle. The result is a
progressive offset that creates a gradual overall change in the animation while
repeating the basic pattern. For example, you can use a relative cycle to blur in
and out of a clip, while gradually sharpening the overall focus.
To create a relative cycle
?
1. In the animation graph, select the function curve whose shape you want
to repeat.
2. Click Curves and choose Relative Cycle from the menu.
Last point of one
cycle becomes start
point of next cycle
Freezing a Cycle
Freezing a cycle applies it to the time span between two specified timecodes in the
animation. When the cycle is frozen, the keys in the cycled part of the function
curve are sampled and applied to each cycle in the frozen part of the curve. You
can then edit the function curve. If the cycle is not frozen to the entire length of
the animation, it will be removed from any leading or trailing frames.
Freezing cycles is useful when you only want to repeat a cycle for part of an
animation, or when you want to make slight modifications to the same basic
curve throughout the animation.
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Editing Animation
To freeze a cycle
1. In the animation graph, select the function curve whose shape you want
to repeat.
2. Click Curves and choose Freeze Cycle from the menu.
The Freeze Cycle dialog box is displayed.
3. Enter a start and end timecode.
?
The cycle is applied between the start and end timecodes, and the repeated
information is added to the function curve.
Original cycled curve
Cycle removed from
trailing frames
Cycle removed from
leading frames
Cycle is frozen to this interval
Deleting a Cycle
Since the repeated information is not added to the function curve, you can
delete the cycle while preserving the original keyframes.
To delete a cycle
• Click Curves and choose Constant Extrapolation or Gradient
Extrapolation from the menu.
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Trimming Animation
When you want to trim animation, you should trim the animated effect by
rescaling the function curves or cropping them.
To specify how the animation is trimmed
1. Open the property editor of the effect that you want to trim.
2. In the property editor, do one of the following:
• Deselect the Crop Curves option to rescale the function curves.
?
When you trim the effect on the timeline, the function curves are rescaled
in the animation editor.
• Select the Crop Curves option.
When you trim the effect bar on the timeline, the function curves are
cropped in the animation editor. On the animation graph, the highlighted
area of the function curve shows the new length of the animated effect.
For more information, refer to Trimming Effects on page 65 of the Avid|DS
Compositing & Effects Guide.
Rescaled function curve
Cropped function curve
Trimmed effect
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Editing Animation
Removing Animation
An object’s animation can be composed of more than one function curve.
A separate function curve exists for each animatable property of an object.
When removing animation, you can choose whether you want to remove the
entire animation or just selected animated properties within the animation.
Removing the Entire Animation
?
When you remove an animation, you’re deleting the function curves for all
the animated properties of the selected object.
When you remove animation, locked keys will also be deleted.
To remove the entire animation
1. Open the property editor or view for the property whose animation you
want to remove.
2. Right-click on the Animation Key icon and choose Remove Animation
from the menu.
All keyframes on all functions curves are deleted. The function curves
become straight lines.
Removing the Animation of a Single Property
You can remove the animation of a single property by removing all the
keyframes from the property’s function curve.
To remove all the keyframes on a function curve
1. Select an animated object.
2. In the animation editor, click View, and choose Animation Editor from
the menu.
The animation tree is displayed.
3. From the animation tree, click the property whose function curve you
want to remove.
In the animation graph, the corresponding function curve is highlighted.
4. Press the Backspace key.
All keyframes on the function curve are deleted and the function curve
becomes a straight line.
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Processing Animation
You can view the evolution of your animation by stepping through the
animation frame by frame. Before you can play the clip, you must first process
the animation.
To process animation
1. Do one of the following:
?
• From the toolbar, click Processing > Process.
• In the timeline controls, click the Process icon.
2. In the Processing Options dialog box, select the appropriate options.
3. Click OK to begin processing.
A progress bar appears on the bottom of the desktop to show the status of
the process.
4. Click Cancel to stop the process at any time.
Click Help for detailed information on the processing options or refer to
Processing Effects on page 115 of the Avid|DS Compositing & Effects Guide.
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Chapter 13
Outputting Media
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Chapter 13 • Outputting Media
In This Chapter...
This chapter describes how to output your edited material to tape or file.
Workflow: Outputting Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529
Preparing for Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
Outputting Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
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.
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Workflow: Outputting Media
Workflow: Outputting Media
After you have constructed your sequence and processed any effects that you
applied to it, you can output it to tape, file, EDL or OMF file (audio only).
The following illustration shows you how Avid|DS outputs media.
1
Select the area to output
Select the entire sequence
?
2
or
Select specific region
Select the output device
Select whether you’re outputting to file or
tape. If you’re outputting to tape, you must
select the external device on which the media
will be recorded.
3
Output media
Output the sequence to tape
or
Export it as a media file
or
Export it as an EDL or OMF file (audio only)
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Preparing for Output
Preparing for output requires you to specify the output quality and select the
clips to be output, as well as verifying that the external device is configured
properly. For more information, see Configuring the External Device on
page 78.
When outputting media, Avid|DS uses the video and audio quality settings that
you specified in your sequence preferences. However, if you change them, you
must recapture and reprocess your media before outputting your sequence. For
more information, see Changing the Sequence Preferences on page 140.
?
You can also compress material before outputting to the .avi or .mov
file formats. All compression codecs installed on your machine are
available from within Avid|DS.
Selecting an Area to
Output
With Avid|DS, you can output the entire sequence or just a selected region. You
can also choose to output only video or audio tracks, or a combination of both.
Setting the Duration for Output
You do not have to output your entire sequence at once. You can select a
specific region, or only the contents of a container clip.
To set the duration for output
1. From the Media Input/Output layout, select the Output panel.
2. In the Source box, select one of the following options:
• Entire Sequence to output the entire timeline.
If you’re on the top timeline, the entire sequence is output. If you’re within a
container clip, only the clips on the container timeline are output.
• To output a selected time span, go to the Editing layout and mark in and
out-points on the timeline. Return to the Media Input/Output layout and
select the Sequence In/Out option.
The marked in and out timecodes of the sequence are displayed in the
Sequence In/Out text boxes.
Click Help for detailed information on the Media Input/Output panels.
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Preparing for Output
Selecting the Channels and Tracks for Output
In addition to specifying the length of the sequence to be output, you can also
select specific tracks or audio channels to be recorded. These selections apply
only when you output to tape. When you output to file, Avid|DS uses all
tracks in the sequence.
To select tracks for output
1. From the Media Input/Output layout, select the Output panel.
?
2. Click V for video tracks and A for audio tracks.
Click Help for detailed information on the Media Input/Output panels.
Checking the Status of
the External Device
Before outputting your material, you should check to make sure that the
external device is reading the signal from your system.
To check the status of the external device
• From the Configuration panel of the Media Input/Output layout, click
Check Machine.
If the link between the external device and your system is operating
properly, nothing occurs. If there is a problem, a message box appears,
stating the possible cause of the problem.
You can also verify that the external device is operating within
normal parameters by checking the five items in the External Device
Status area. A green or red light beside each item displays its status.
Items that are grayed out are inactive. This area is available from all
panels in the Media Input/Output layout.
Click Help for more information on each item in the External
Device Status area.
External Device status area
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Outputting Material
When you output a sequence from Avid|DS, you’re taking all the information
contained in a sequence file, such as, timecode information, source media
used, and generated caches, and copying it to an external device or file.
Before you output your sequence, make sure you process any unprocessed
areas on the timeline. For more information, refer to Processing on page 117 of
the Avid|DS Compositing & Effects Guide.
?
In Avid|DS, you can either output to tape or export to file. If you’re outputting
to tape, your hardware should already be configured to output material to a
tape device connected to your workstation. You must configure the device
properly, so take the time to check that all the settings are correct. When
exporting to file, you must select the disk where the file is to be stored.
During output, a red indicator light will flash on the transport
controls if any frames are skipped. The output stops and a message
box appears, stating the possible cause of the problem.
If this problem continues to occur, you can try decreasing the
throughput on the system by creating audio container clips for your
audio material. For more information, see Creating an Audio
Container Clip on page 269.
Outputting to Tape
When you output video to tape, the image size always matches the resolution
set in the Sequence Preferences dialog box.
When you output your material, you can either insert edit (Auto
Edit mode) the material into an existing tape program, or you can
assemble edit your material onto a brand new tape.
When you output audio to tape, you will get the best performance with eight
streams of audio on the top timeline. For example, you can output four stereo
tracks at 48 KHz 16-bit with uncompressed video.
1. From the Media Input/Output layout, select the Output panel.
532 • User’s Guide
Outputting Material
2. In the Output Device box, select the To Tape option.
The preset name of the external device configured to your workstation
appears in the To Tape text box.
?
To change the external device or modify its configuration, select the
Configuration panel, select a new device or make the necessary
changes to the existing preset and resave it. For more information,
see Configuring the External Device on page 78.
3. In the External Device box, click the video and audio tracks to output.
4. On the Input panel, make sure the Capture Source is set to Tape, and then
use the transport controls to locate the position on the tape where you
want the program to start recording.
If you’re insert editing your material, make sure that your tape is
properly striped with timecode before attempting to output your
material.
5. On the Output panel, click Output Now.
The selected media in your sequence is output to tape.
Click Help for detailed information on the Media Input/Output panels.
User’s Guide • 533
Chapter 13 • Outputting Media
Exporting to File
When you export to file, you can set various output options, depending on
the type of file you’re creating. These options define the frame size,
compression, and alpha component of the output.
You can’t export a file at a different frame rate than that of the
current sequence. If you want to convert the frame rate of your file,
you’ll have to use an external media conversion tool, such as the
cleaner application.
?
When outputting to the .avi or .mov file formats, you can choose a
compression codec (compressor/decompressor) directly from within
Avid|DS. Every codec installed on your workstation is available during output.
You can also choose to output QuickTime reference movies. These movies are
very small in size and output very quickly since they only contain composition
information. You can use QuickTime reference movies in combination with
Avid ProEncode™ to quickly create formats suitable for distribution via the
web, DVD, or CD-ROM.
Output resolution is independent of the sequence frame size or working
resolution. By default, output resolution is set to the sequence frame size, but
you can select a different output frame size.
Audio is not exported when the selected export format is an image
format. Similarly, video is not exported when the selected export
format is an audio format.
To export to a file
1. From the Media Input/Output layout, select the Output panel.
2. In the Output Device box, select the To File option.
3. From the file type list, select a file type.
534 • User’s Guide
Outputting Material
Avid|DS supports a wide range of video and audio file formats. When you
export your media as a sequence or as single frames, choose from any of
the following formats:
?
File format
File extension
Supports
alpha
Supports
compression
AIFF (uncompressed)
.aif, .aiff, .aifc
-
-
Alias
.als
No
No
AVI
.avi
Yes
Yes
Avid|DS (Video Hal)
.gen,.omf
No
No
Bitmap (Windows)
.bmp
No
Yes
CINEON
.fido
No
Yes
JFIF (JPEG)
.jpg, .jpeg, .jfif
No
No
MAP
.map
No
No
Microsoft Windows
Paintbrush
.pcx
No
No
PGM
.pgm
No
Yes
Photoshop
.psd
Yes
Yes
PICT
.pct, .pict
Yes
Yes
PPM
.ppm
No
Yes
QuickTime
.mov, .qt
Yes
Yes
SGI
.sgi, .rgb
Yes
Yes
Softimage
.pic
Yes
Yes
TIFF
.tif,.tiff
Yes
Yes
Targa
.tga
Yes
Yes
WAV
.wav
-
-
Wavefront
.rla
Yes
No
YUV
.yuv
No
Yes
If you choose .avi or .mov as the file type, a Video Compression dialog box
is displayed. Choose a compression codec, modify the settings to meet the
quality you require and click OK.
4. From the Options box, select one of the following options:
• Generic to pick a standard resolution from the list.
• Custom to create your own custom resolution. You can create a custom
resolution by entering X and Y values in the appropriate text boxes.
Material is output at the selected frame size.
User’s Guide • 535
Chapter 13 • Outputting Media
5. Select the Preserve Alpha option to retain alpha channel information in
the output file.
This is useful if you plan to reuse the matte information in future
compositing or graphics projects. Not all file formats support alpha
channels, so check the list to make sure.
6. Some file formats, other than .avi and .mov, support compression. If you
have space considerations, select the Use Compression option to reduce the
size of the output material.
?
7. Click Export.
8. From the Export to File dialog box, select a folder in which to save your
material, type in a name for the file, and click Save.
The material is processed, if necessary, and exported to file, and placed in
the selected folder.
When you export a sequence to a still image format, such as .bmp or .tiff,
each frame is saved as a separate file.
For example, if you export your sequence to a file named
“MyPicture.bmp”, the output is saved as independent still image files.
The files are numbered sequentially: for example, MyPicture.001.bmp,
MyPicture.002.bmp, MyPicture.003.bmp, and so on.
You can take a snapshot of the viewer and export it to file. For more
information, see Creating an Image File from a Snapshot on page 243.
Click Help for detailed information on the Media Input/Output panels.
Exporting QuickTime
Reference Movies
A QuickTime reference movie is a QuickTime movie that contains only
composition information. These files do not contain media. Instead, they point
to the original media on your storage device. As a result, they are very quick to
output and are very small in size. When you play back the QuickTime reference
movie, the movie references the original media files on your storage device.
As long as the QuickTime reference movie can access the original media, you
won’t have any problem playing it back. You can move the QuickTime
reference movie to another workstation but make sure that the media is
located on a storage device that is shared between the two workstations. If you
plan to move these type of files to a workstation that does not have access to
the original media, then you should export it as a standard QuickTime file.
QuickTime reference movies do not support compressed media. You
can, however, output at lower resolutions, such as half or quarter
resolution. You can output these files in either 4:3 or 16:9 format.
Before exporting a QuickTime reference movie, process the entire
sequence, including any real-time effects.
536 • User’s Guide
Outputting Material
You can also export QuickTime reference movies directly to ProEncode to
translate your media into formats suitable for distribution via the web, DVD,
or CD-ROM.
To export a QuickTime reference movie
1. From the Media Input/Output layout, select the Output panel.
?
2. In the Output Device box, select the To QuickTime reference movie option.
3. Click Export.
4. From the Export to File dialog box, select a folder in which to save the file,
type in a name for the file, and click Save.
The QuickTime reference file, which contains only the composition
information, is created, and placed in the selected folder. Since the
QuickTime reference movie points to the original media, the output
settings will be the same as the current sequence settings.
A QuickTime reference movie becomes invalid if the media to which
it points is modified.
You must have the QuickTime codec and Avid media QT codec
installed on your workstation in order to play back QuickTime
reference movies.
Exporting QuickTime Reference Movies to ProEncode
If you plan to convert your media into formats suitable for distribution via the
web, DVD, or CD-ROM, you can output QuickTime reference movies directly
to ProEncode. ProEncode software automates the entire encoding process. It
also allows you to distribute the encoding work to other workstations, which
lets you continue working on other tasks.
User’s Guide • 537
Chapter 13 • Outputting Media
To export a QuickTime reference movie to ProEncode
1. From the Media Input/Output layout, select the Output panel.
?
2. In the Output Device box, select the To ProEncode option.
If the ProEncode client is not installed on your workstation, the To
ProEncode option is greyed out.
When you use the To ProEncode option, QuickTime reference
movies are created automatically. Make sure that the source media
for these files resides are on a shared storage area. The source media
must also be accessible to the machine on which the ProEncode
Provider software is running. For information on sharing storage
areas, see Configuring Media Storages on page 30.
3. Click Export.
4. From the Export to File dialog box, select a folder in which to save the file,
enter a name for the file, and click Save.
The QuickTime reference file is created in the selected folder and the
ProEncode client is displayed.
When you output to ProEncode, you must save the QuickTime
reference movie in a shared folder. If the folder is not already shared,
Avid|DS shares the folder for you.
For information on using ProEncode, refer to the ProEncode User Guide and
online help.
The QuickTime reference movies are not deleted when ProEncode is
finished creating its output. You have to delete the QuickTime
reference files manually.
538 • User’s Guide
?
A p p en d ix A
Avid|DS Product Family Features
User’s Guide • 539
Appendix A • Avid|DS Product Family Features
In This Appendix...
This appendix describes the features of the Avid|DS product family, including
Avid|DS, Avid|DS HD, Avid|DS HD Editor, and Avid|DS RP.
Picture Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541
Global Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541
Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542
Compositing and Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542
3D DVE and Character Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543
2D Character Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543
Keying Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543
Color Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
Paint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
Audio Editing and Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
Video and Audio Capture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545
Media Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546
Avid|DS RP (Remote Processing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546
Archive and Restore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546
?
540 • User’s Guide
Picture Editing
• Unlimited number of video and background tracks
• Mix multiple compression ratios, resolutions, and reference image, within a sequence
• Direct timeline manipulation of all edits
• Source and Record timeline and viewer displays
• Individual controls for Source and Record viewers
• Timeline multi-selection for copying, moving, and adding effects to multiple clips
• Ability to overwrite, insert, and replace editing with fit-to-fill capabilites
• Split edits and sync-point editing
?
• Video interlacing and deinterlacing
• 3:2 pulldown removal and replacement
• Sync selection for adding edits to multiple clips simultaneously
• Sophisticated sync-locking capabilities
• Global and local timeline ripple controls
• Full-featured edit trimming, clip slipping and sliding tools
• New zoom and pan controls for easy manipulation of the image
• Unlimited clip, track, and timeline-based effects
• Timeline overview area for fast orientation and navigation
• Ability to display tracks in small, standard, or large format
• Ability to customize start time in the timeline
• Match frame and match bin (clip) capabilities
• Clip and timeline-based locators for navigation and synchronization
• Composite containers for managing multi-layer effects and organizing complex
timelines**
• Background containers for editing several clips together and treating it as a single clip
on the top/parent timeline
• Reference clips allow sharing and reuse of containers with multiple layers and effects
• Use of J-K-L keys for editing variable speed play
Global Features
• Full cache recovery
• Resolution independence: Mix and match different resolutions in a composite and
customizable output resolutions.
• Unlimited levels of undo and redo
• Interactive viewer: comparison buffer, onion skin mode, channel selection, reference
resolution, and pan and zoom
• Parameters of effects can be animated with an unlimited number of keyframes
• Unified animation editor for editing effect parameters across all toolsets
• Automatic keyframing
• Import and export animation (function curves)
• Unlimited user-definable presets for all effects
• User-configurable drag-and-drop toolbars
• User-configurable key accelerators with visual keyboard mapping
* Dependent on specific hardware configuration. Audio I/O requires optional DuaII for outputs other than ADAT.
** Not available on Avid|DS HD Editor.
User’s Guide • 541
Appendix A • Avid|DS Product Family Features
• User-configurable interface layouts
• Automatic save
• Interactive viewer pan and zoom
• Support for dual display monitors with onscreen video playback*
• Graphics tablet and customizable MIDI control surface support
• Optional Software Development Kit (SDK) for creating software extensions
• Support for Toonz cel animation software within the Avid|DS production environment
?
Effects
• Real-time effects support at SD, SD compressed, and HD offline resolutions*
• Real-time dissolves, fades, superimpositions, and standard SMPTE wipes*
• Real-time picture-in-picture effect, improving ability to work interactively with basic
scale, border, and translation effects*
• Keyframe-animatable, interpolated timewarp with position & speed curves
• Motion effects including strobe, freeze frame, reverse, and frame averaging
• High speed Gaussian blur, noise effects,fractal noise generator, edge detection,
custom, emboss, fades, sharpen, reticulation, stamp, ripple, threshold, and gradient
effects. Deflicker, dithering, posterize, and solarize effects. Film effect simulates
appearance of celluloid film.
• Automatic drop shadows with independent 3D DVE control
• Hundreds of Avid|DS Painterly and Impressionist effects presets to choose from or
create your own 3D Warp effect for loading and rendering 3D scenes
• Shape-to-shape spline warping and morphing (based on Elastic Reality® technology)
Compositing and Tracking
• Compositing on unlimited layers and layer duplication **
• Effects Tree: A powerful interface for creating and managing complex multi-layered
composites with interactive features, such as node folding and unfolding, attract and
repel, and the option to display the name of the connected node in an input
port;”kissing”, “twanging”, and “ripping” for modifying connections **
• Unlimited external mattes per layer with matte compositing operations for combining
mattes
• Extensive set of compositing operations between layers and mattes **
• Full animation of all layer parameters **
• Intelligent caching to improve interactive performance
• Direct-manipulation DVE for each layer with motion path editor and real-time
wireframe preview with rotate, coop, scale translate
• Global DVE for manipulating several layers at once
• Fast 1, 2, and 4-point motion tracking including the ability to track in fields **
• Motion stabilization and destabilization **
• Corner pinning **
• Painting directly on any layer
• Support for images with premultiplied alpha
• Field and frame-based rendering per effect
• Comparison buffer: Compare two images using a snapshot (before/after)
542 • User’s Guide
3D DVE and Character Generation **
• 3D environment with interactive OpenGL-accelerated display and true 3D X, Y, and Z
coordinate space
• 3D rotate, scale, translate, and skew controls
• Animatable camera for simulation of common camera effects, including rolls and
zoom-ins
• Full object hierarchy with multiple, high-quality specular light sources, reflection
mapping, and materials editor
?
• Deformation effects, such as cylinder, sphere and 3D page curls
• Interactive manipulation of text and shapes with 3D extrusion, displacement
mapping, and Boolean combinations
• Independent control over face, edge, and drop shadow properties
• Projected, soft and textured drop shadows
• Integrated WYSIWYG 2D and 3D text module
• Text along a path, intercharacter kerning; fully animatable down to individual
characters
• Paragraph formatting controls
• Support for all TrueType fonts; hundreds of Avid|DS fonts included; utilizes MIME for
support of multibyte characters sets for Asian fonts; EPS impact
2D Character Generator
• WYSIWYG, automatic real-time title rolls and crawls
• Copy/Paste support for quick insertion of text from other applications;
import HTML files
• Per character animation, kerning, leading, offset and tracking controls; tabulation
and justification
• Per style selection: select and modify multiple text elements with common font, style,
and format attributes with a single click
• Independent control over face, edge, and drop shadow properties
• User-defined text and style presets
• All Avid|DS HD paint effects can also be applied to titles
Keying Tools
• Keying on any layer or inside any paint stroke
• High-quality blue-green chroma keyer with enhanced spill correction
• Built-in garbage matte tools for all keyers
• General purpose, real-time HLS keyer, linear luminance keyer, and chrominance keyer
based on selected color
• Difference keyer
• Matte enhancer with subpixel shrink and grow
• Painting with keys for fast garbage mattes
* Dependent on specific hardware configuration. Audio I/O requires optional DuaII for outputs other than ADAT.
** Not available on Avid|DS HD Editor.
User’s Guide • 543
Appendix A • Avid|DS Product Family Features
Color Correction
• Real-time, high-quality color correction (SD, SD compressed, and HD offline
resolutions)*
• Global hue, saturation, gain, and brightness control
• Constant-luminance controls for shadows, midtones, and highlights
• Interactive color-curve manipulation
• Selective color correction based on image alpha channel
• Per channel gamma, gain, and offset tools
?
Paint
• Vector-based, non-destructive paint system with high-performance raster mode
for rotoscoping
• Freehand, polyline, and shape-based drawing; animated handwritten strokes;
combine or separate strokes; clusters
• Animated stroke morphing and text-to-strokes feature
• Pressure-sensitive painting tools
• Fully animatable and editable brush strokes, shapes, and parameters, including
interactive brush resizing
• Painting with effects including keying
• Reshaper effect for interactive freehand selection and manipulation of a shape's
geometry without being constrained to control points
• Wireframe preview command for previewing and then rendering animated strokes in
wireframe mode
• Hundreds of Avid|DS HD preset brushes, styles, effects, and textures
• Custom brushes and custom preset and stackable effects
• Clone and noise tools for single-click scratch, dirt, and dropout removal
• EPS file import with retained color properties
• Rotoscoping and matte creation tools
• Paint strokes can be animated by tracking the entire stroke or by applying an
unlimited number of trackers to individual stroke points
• Independent viewing and operating on R, G, B, and Alpha channels
• Magic Wand tool for selecting image regions based on RGB or HLS value
• Animatable cutouts for selecting and manipulating image regions
• Graphics Object View (GOV) for fast timeline-based selection and manipulation of
graphics objects
Audio Editing and Mixing
• Unlimited audio tracks for editing
• Support for multi-channel audio mixing and panning including 5.1 surround sound
• Up to 8 streams of simultaneous 24-bit audio playback*
• Sample and frame-based audio editing
• Automatic audio sample-rate conversion
* Dependent on specific hardware configuration. Audio I/O requires optional DuaII for outputs other than ADAT.
** Not available on Avid|DS HD Editor.
544 • User’s Guide
• Real-time, animatable mixing with volume, pan, mute, and solo per track; real-time
4-band parametric EQ,10-band graphic EQ, and 3-band tone control
• Direct monitoring of up to 8 audio channels*
• Real-time full dynamics effects including compression,expansion and limiting
• Real-time fade ins, fade outs and cross fades
• Fast timeline waveform display; sync status on timeline
• Analog and digital-style audio scrubbing
• Matrix routing
?
• Input and output VU Metering with user controlled headroom, alignment,
minimumlevel, peak level, peak hold and max hold
• High-quality audio time warp*; reverb effect
• Support for optional third party hardware fader control surfaces
Video and Audio Capture
• SMPTE 292M SDI for high-definition video I/O
• SMPTE 259M SDI for standard-definition video I/O
• Uncompressed I/O for NTSC formats: 1080i at 30, 29.97, 25 fps; 1080 PsF at 30,
29.97, 25, 24, 23.97 fps; 720p at 60, 59.94 fps (available on Avid|DS HD only)
• Avid|DS HD Offline mode allows for real-time HD Offline at one-quarter resolution*
• Uncompressed PAL and NTSC ITU-R-601 formats
• Compressed-quality ITU-R 601 images with variable M-JPEG compression ratios from
2:1 to 25:1
• Provided via Avid Equinox™ video subsystem: a 64-bit PCI card and break-out-box
• Variable hardware-based video scaling for proxy resolutions
• HD, NTSC, and PAL support on same system without reformatting drives
• Support for 24p frame rates with audio correction (23.976) for synchronizaton
between video and audio
• Streaming capture and on-the-fly logging
• I/O support for tapes with timecode breaks and repeated timecodes
• Assembly insert mode for output
• 16:9 anamorphic media support
• 8 and 10-bit Serial Digital input
• 8-bit Serial Digital output
• Analog composite and S-video monitoring outputs
• Sony RS-422 and RS-232 machine control; additional support for VISCA, LANC,
Panasonic, and JVC Protocols*
• Up to 8 channels 16-bit digital (AES/EBU, S/PDIF, ADAT) audio input and output*
• Audio sampling at numerous rates including 48, 44.1, and 32 kHz
• Log and capture from tape; capture on the fly
• Capture and recapture from still and movie files,frame sequences,and audio files in
numerous industry-standard formats, including QuickTime 5.0.2, AVI, Photoshop
6.0.1, TIFF, SOFTIMAGE PIC, Cineon, TARGA, YUV, RGB, AIFF, and PICT
• Batch capture and auto-conform from EDLs (CMX and GVG)
* Dependent on specific hardware configuration. Audio I/O requires optional DuaII for outputs other than ADAT.
** Not available on Avid|DS HD Editor.
User’s Guide • 545
Appendix A • Avid|DS Product Family Features
• Automatically conform OMF 2.0 compositions. OMF audio media support; direct
playback support for uncompressed Meridien™ hardware-derived media (Media
Composer and Symphony systems)
• Imports ALE files from external clip logging stations
• Automatic image scaling and audio sample rate conversion on capture
Media Management
• Media management tools for sorting, viewing, moving, and deleting media; share
media across projects and machines
?
• Automatic tracking of multiple media compression ratios and resolutions per clip
• Purge tools for selectively deleting unused media
• Thumbnail and details view of annotatable clips and sequences, with clip data
tracking
• Search tool for locating clips and sequences
• Sophisticated cache management
• Outsource effect allows shots to be sent to third party applications with live update
in Avid|DS HD
• Ability to import PhotoShop files and preserve all of the layers
• Output QuickTime movies that reference original media in the Avid|DS timeline
• Integration of Avid Unity ProEncode capabiltiy for background conversion of media
files into popular web formats
• Print EDL funtionality
Avid|DS RP (Remote Processing)
• Allows you to continue working while CPU-intensive tasks are processed in the
background on a remote system
• View icon or receive e-mail notification when processing is complete
• Functional with both Avid|DS and Avid|DS HD systems
• Ability to install on a wide variety of workstations, from one to many, with the same
operating system as Avid|DS
• Uses standard network configurations, such as 10/100-Base-T Ethernet, Gigabit
Ethernet, or a central storage system, such as Avid Unity
Archive and Restore
• Multiple methods for archiving of project data, video/audio media, and cache files
• Complete archiving of all effects setup information, including paint strokes,
compositing, and audio mixing parameters
• Selective restoration of any part of an archive
• Automatic conversion of effect alpha channels to mattes for archive
• Automatic, unattended restore of all project data, media, and caches
* Dependent on specific hardware configuration. Audio I/O requires optional DuaII for outputs other than ADAT.
** Not available on Avid|DS HD Editor.
546 • User’s Guide
1 A B C D E
F G H
Index
Numerics
?
3D DVE
finishes 458
interest 395
light sources 458
setting time span 414
3D DVE Layers view 388
Refer also to online help
3D DVE Object View (3D OV) 415
Refer also to online help
3D DVE objects
aligning 408
comments 414
copying 405
cutting 405
deleting 405
deselecting 404
distorting 400
grouping 409
hiding 410
identifying 414
locking 406
material, editing 457
matte, generating 457
moving 405, 406
muting 410
naming 414
pasting 405
positioning 407
reference 408
removing 405
renaming 414
reordering 407
rotating 413
scaling 412
selecting 404
shadow workaround 470
snapping to safe title/action
guide 391, 406
thickness 420
ungrouping 409
unlocking 406
I
J
K L M N O P Q R S
3D OV See 3D DVE Object View
3D titles 416 to 454
A
AAF
AVX plug-ins 159
conforming 159
creating 161
described 161
effects and titles tables 171
fonts for titles 160
importing 161
supported effects and titles 171
unsupported effects and titles 171
AAF/AFE view Refer also to online
help 165
Absolute Align commands 341
Activate tool 236
activeness 209, 235
audio clips 218
clips 235
cutting to another clip 260
filling 237
rolling 301
video clips 216
Add Edit tool 232
adding filler during trim 303
Advanced Authoring Format See
AAF
AES/EBU 84
AFE
AVX plug-ins 159
conforming 159
creating and importing 163
described 163
effects and titles tables 171
fonts for titles 160
supported effects and titles 171
titles 159
unsupported effects and titles 171
ALE
creating logs 198
importing 197
loading 197
requirements for logging 198
T U V W X Y Z
Index
Refer also to online help
ALE Import view 197
global properties 198
importing ALE files 197
logging master clips 198
Refer also to online help
alignment
3D DVE objects 408
clips 248
column value 441
locators 248
tools, graphics 341
alpha channel
importing 97
premultiplied 98
anchor point
adjusting 411
resetting 411
restrictions 411
scaling relative to 412
animating
audio 485, 493 to 496
audio bypass 495
input strips 493
mute 493
objects 504
pan 493
relative cycling 522
volume 493
animation
copying 517
copying function curves 515
creating 504 to 506, 521
cycles, deleting 523
cycles, freezing 522
cycling 521
editing 495, 507 to 525
editor 504, 507
fade 355
freezing position 516
function curves 494, 507, 509, 513
function curves, copying 515
graph 509, 516
key 508
User’s Guide • 547
Index
?
1 A B C D E
F G H
keyframes 504 to 506
locking keys 516
meta curve region, displaying 511
methods 504
mixer strips, deleting 496
offsetting 516, 517
pinning 507
processing 526
removing 525
repeating 521
restrictions 439
selecting 493
snapping keys to frame 516
snapping keys to grid 516
snapshot curves 515
synchronizing 512
tree 495
trimming 524
workflow 503
animation editor 504, 507
Refer also to online help
animation graph 509, 516
regions, modifying 513
Refer also to online help
antialiasing, profile effect 419
archive.log file 50, 52
archiving
archive.log file 50, 52
from network 48
large projects 51
linked clips 49
media 48
non-standard projects 50
project files 29
projects 47
shared media 153
to multiple tapes 51
array, disk 28
A-side (outgoing frames), in
trims 296
aspect ratio 130
constraining scaling 412
HD 132
sequence preferences 132
548 • User’s Guide
I
J
K L M N O P Q R S
audio 486
animating 485, 493 to 496
animation, recording 504
assigning inputs 91
capture quality 84
clip formats 486
clip formats, determining 487
configuring input 84
container clip icon 489
container clips 269, 483, 488
crossfade 260, 487
editing 203
formats 486
input configuration 78
input format 78
input strips 484
inputting stereo 85, 87
mixing 483, 485, 487
monitoring input levels 86
output strips 484
outputting 532
panning 491
physical patching 79
sample accurate editing 485
sample rate conversion 497
storage device 84
submix 269, 488
track formats 486
tracks 219, 486
volume 491
waveform 218
workflow 483
audio clips 210
activeness 218
manually converting sample
rate 498
mixing 487
audio container clips 269, 483, 488
audio formats
4 stream 486
5.1 486
6.1 486
7.1 486
8 stream 486
T U V W X Y Z
capturing 91
input 78
LCRS 486
mono 486
quadraphonic 486
stereo 486
Audio Output Monitor Refer to
online help
audio patching matrix 91
audio quality matching, sequence
preferences 139
audio track
manually converting sample
rate 498
types 219
audio track format
changing 487
determining 487
Auto-dither, capture from file 98
Autokey mode 504
automatic framing See Autokey
mode
automation See animation
autosaving sequences 149
Avid Event Log 21
viewing 21
viewing Windows Event Log 22
Avid Explorer
batch capturing clips 108
capturing clips 108
folders, creating/deleting 40
media properties 82
selecting multiple clips 210
standard folder structure 41
Avid File Exchange See AFE
Avid Log Exchange See ALE
Avid Log Exchange view Refer to
online help
Avid Pro Tools 170
Avid ProEncode 537
Avid Unity MediaNet 160
Avid|DS
discussion group 14
exiting 20
projects folder 43
1 A B C D E
?
F G H
starting 20
Avid|DS HD
real-time effects 134
working in quarter resolution 134
AVX plug-ins
AAF and AFE support 159
OMF support 182
axes, XYZ 385
B
background
container clips 268
surface 455
background tracks
applying graphics 310
backtiming 294
balancing column widths 443
base color 457
baseline offset 452
batch capture list
adding entries 114
removing entries 114
batch capturing
Avid Explorer 108
error log 115
list 113
timeline 110
using scripts 115
bevel, profile effects 419
bins
importing through AFE 163
importing through ALE 197
matching 238
matching clips 239
viewing imported columns 166
bi-pack 268
bottom margin 446
bounding box, hiding 340
Box profile effects 419
breaking links 286
brush properties 320
defining 320
B-side (incoming frames), in
trims 296
I
J
K L M N O P Q R S
building sequences 205
burned frames 368
bypassing
audio animation 495
C
caches 27
purging 69, 73
cameras
clipping planes 400
field of view 401
interest 399
position 399
capture from file 94
converting frame rate 98
converting sample rate 98
setting pixel ratio 98
capturing 77, 89, 94
16×9 format 99
additional material 91
audio formats 91
audio patching 91
audio quality, specifying 84
batch 108
bit depth 82
color space 86
compression 82
error log 113
from Avid Explorer 108
from file 94
from tape 89, 106
from timeline 108, 110
images 94
large images 97
live 106
logging clips 89
manual reel 92, 105
on-the-fly 105
oversized images 103
play bias 81
preparing 78 to 88
recapturing 108
record bias 81
resolution 82, 83
T U V W X Y Z
Index
sample rate 82
scaling media 97
small images 97
source material, previewing 85
source timecodes 89
square pixels 99
still images 94
streaming 108
supported file formats 94
time available 83, 84
time delay 108
timecode breaks 93
timecodes may repeat 92, 105
using scripts 115
video quality, specifying 83
workflow 77
Cartesian space 385
CD-ROM
transferring projects from 159
channels, monitoring audio 86
character spacing See kerning
Chisel profile effects 419
chopping control points 348
circle shapes 423
clip
locators 248
clip tray Refer to online help
clipping
objects to frame 393
text 449
clipping planes 400
clips
activating 236
activating region 237
adding comments 231
adding notes 231
adding to sync groups 250
aligning 248
audio 210
backtiming 294
breaking synchronization 251
capturing from Avid Explorer 108
capturing from timeline 110
changing active areas 235
User’s Guide • 549
Index
?
1 A B C D E
F G H
changing activeness 235
constrain drag Refer to Locators in
online help
container See container clips
copying 42, 232
cutting 232
cutting to 260
deactivating 236
deactivating region 237
delete all occurrences 59
delete if media unused 59
deleting 59, 232
deleting from Avid Explorer 59
deleting synchronized 254
deleting sync-locked 233
displaying unused material 216
dragging and dropping 208
dragging to timeline 213
editing 247
filling activeness 237
four-point editing 214
importing 153
inserting 214
inserting with ripple 244, 246
linked 103
locking 249
logging 89
looping 225
manipulating 227 to 237
matching bins 239
moving 42, 228
moving between tracks 230
moving multiple clips with
activeness 229
moving on same track 228
moving one past another 229
moving to different track 230
moving with activeness 229
naming 231
nesting 265 to 273
overwriting 214, 244
overwriting subclip 208
placing audio clips on
timeline 218
550 • User’s Guide
I
J
K L M N O P Q R S
placing on specific tracks 216
placing on timeline 208, 210, 213,
216 to 220
playing 223
playing at various speeds 224
pre-editing 207
previewing 226
processing 274
properties 82, 231
purging 70
recapturing 108
re-establishing links 104
reference 39
renaming 42, 231
replacing 215
resyncing 253
revealing unused frames 234
rippling 244 to 247
scrubbing 223
searching 151
selecting 227
selecting from Avid Explorer 210
selecting multiple 228
shuttling 224
sliding 301
slipping 300
synchronized 210
synchronizing 248 to 254
sync-lock 248
trimming 279, 280 to 299
trimming on the timeline 287
video 210, 216
viewing frame-by-frame 226
viewing unprocessed frames 226
closing shapes 428
clusters, creating 340
CmdLine view Refer to online help
CMX, EDL format 187
codec 534
color
base 457
emissive 459
lights 468
shadows 474
T U V W X Y Z
solid 455
specular 459
color space 130, 132
capturing 86
RGB 132
sequence preferences 132
YUV 132
column
adding 440
alignment setting 441
deleting 441
gutter 442
left value 440
moving to 441
restrictions 439
right value 440
simulating margins 447
text alignment 444
width, balanced 443
width, changing 442
combining
strokes 344
sync groups 250
commenting
3D DVE objects 414
lights 469
composite container clip 267, 312
compound shape 429
separating shapes 430
compression 83
codec 534
HD 136
ratios, mixing 135
sorting media by 63
configuring
audio input 84
external device 78, 84
sample rate 84
video input 83
conform log
AAF/AFE 169
OMF 177
conforming
AAF files 159
1 A B C D E
?
F G H
AFE files 159
ALE files 197
EDLs 186
OMF files 173
workflow (AAF and AFE) 157
workflow (OMF, EDL, ALE) 158
consolidating OMF 181
constrain drag Refer to Locators in
online help
constraining, rotation 413
construction lines 391
identifying decks 476
viewing 392
container clips 265 to 273
audio 265, 269, 483, 488
background 265, 268
closing 272
composite 265, 267
converting to reference clips 255
creating 265 to 267
deconstructing 273
deleting 273
icons 271
identifying 271
navigating 271
opening 271, 272
timeline 266
trimming 298
types 265
Context Switcher Refer to online help
control points 342
adding 426
change curvature of shape 426
chopping 348
deleting 426
deselecting 425
editing 343
moving 344, 426
selecting 343, 425
tangent handle, editing 427
conventions 17
keyboard, mouse, and pen 17
conversion modes
center, keep original size 97
I
J
K L M N O P Q R S
crop 141
keep aspect ratio 141
keep original size and position 97
presets 141
scale 141
sequence 145
coordinates
Cartesian 385
global and local 386
XYZ 385
corner point, creating with Shape
tool 424
crawling text 447
controlling 447
defined 431
speed control 448
crawls 354
cropping
textures 463
crossfade 260, 487
crosshair 411
culling 456
cursor 432
move 209
curved shapes 424
curves
changing slope 346
creating discontinuous 346
filling 428
customer support 18
cut 260
Cut To 260
cutting synchronized clips 252
cycle
basic, creating 521
deleting 523
freezing 522
relative, creating 522
D
Deactivate tool 236
decay of spot lights 469
deck
deleting 476
T U V W X Y Z
Index
modifying size 477
nesting 476
resizing 477
scaling 477
defragmenting media 66
Delete all occurrences command 59,
60
Delete if unused command 59, 60
delete versus purge media 61
deleting
clips 59, 232
clips in Avid Explorer 59
cycles 523
decks 476
DVE 417
external device presets 82
files 58
media 68
projects 58
sequences 60, 154
storage area 35
sync-locked clips 233
Total Delete 154
Deselect All Points command 425
deselecting
3D DVE objects 404
control points 425
destructive mode See raster mode
dimensions
objects 391
directional light 465
discussion group, Avid|DS 14
disk
array 28
array, making space 68
displacement map 416, 418
display, unused material mode 234
dissolve 268
distortion
3D DVE object 400
perspective, adjusting 401
dithering
capture from file 98
document conventions 16
User’s Guide • 551
Index
?
1 A B C D E
Documentation Library 15, 16
dragging and dropping
clips 208
drawing
ellipses 334
freehand strokes 332
polylines 331
rectangles 334
with Magic Wand tool 335
drawing tools 330, 403
Ellipse 334
Freehand 332
Magic Wand 335
Polyline 331
properties 318 to 326
Rectangle 334
drives, fragmented 66
drop frame format 130
drop shadow 470
DS Archives folder 49
DS Presets folder 39
dual viewer 205, 206
Refer also to online help
dual-roller trim 303
duplicating graphics 361
DVE
creating 416
deleting 417
displacement map 418
object 402
E
Edit Decision Lists See EDL
edit handles 281
edit points 280
backtiming 294
breaking 286
linking 286
on transitions 262
selecting 283
snapping to 295
trimming 288
trimming intersecting 289
Edit tool
552 • User’s Guide
F G H
I
J
K L M N O P Q R S
adjusting text scrolling 448
selecting 3D DVE objects 404
editing
audio animation 495
four-point 214
linking edits 286
material on 3D DVE object 457
materials 457
multi-camera 260
preparing media 205
ripple activated 247
same track vs. multi-track 210
sample accurate 485
source clips 207
three-point 213
workflow 203
EDL
audio patching 189
audio stereo clips 191
changing tape name 193
CMX format 187
configuring audio inputs 191
creating 195
creating layers 189, 192
exporting 195
formats 187
GVG format 187
importing 187
layers 189
loading 187
modifying 193
multiple EDL 189
printing 196
proofing 189, 196
rippling timecodes 193
saving 195
setting heads and tails 189
setting properties 188
supported formats 187
EDL formats
CMX 187
GVG 187
EDL Manager 187
EDL view Refer to online help
T U V W X Y Z
effects
glow 474
processing 274
profile 419
suppport levels for AAF/AFE 171
track 259
Effects Tree
graphics, applying 313
Ellipse tool 334
ellipses, drawing 334
elliptical shapes 423
emissive color 459
adjusting 459
lights 468
Encapsulated PostScript files (EPS),
importing 102, 322, 377
environment map 460
event log 21
events 21
EDL 186
exiting Avid|DS 20
Explorer
Refer to Avid Explorer
exporting
Avid Marquee projects 475
EDL 195
OMF 180
series of files 536
to file 534
exposure time 420
Express tools
customizing 334
using 333
external device
capture offset 81
checking status 82, 531
configuring 78, 84, 533
detect change 81
manager 78
presets 81
presets, deleting 82
presets, removing 82
saving settings 81
status area 82, 531
1 A B C D E
F G H
External Device Manager 78
extrude
adjusting 420
defined 420
depth, effect on alignment 409
F
?
fader, animating 493
fades
fade-in 260
fade-out 260
falloff, spot 469
field based 99
field dominance 99, 130, 131, 132
field of view, setting 401
fields
interlacing 131
order 132
file formats
alpha support 535
compression support 535
for input 94
for output 535
File names
Windows and Macintosh 159
file pixel ratio 98
files
capturing as clips 94
EPS, importing 322, 377
Photoshop, importing 100
project 29
purging caches 73
sequences 29
Fill Activeness tool 237
Fill Curve command 428
filler, adding during a trim 303
filling
curves 428
shapes 428
filtering media 64
finishing
shapes 424
text boxes 432
fit to fill 214
I
J
K L M N O P Q R S
flat material finish 458
flaws, removing 373
folders
Avid|DS projects 43
creating 40
deleting 40
DS Archives 49
folder.ini 41
locating 239
moving files 42
project 29
project, organizing files 39
purging contents 70
renaming 42
font size
changing 438
scaling text box 439
fonts 438
attributes 324
changing 438, 439
changing object properties 359
properties 324
style 438
formats
drop frame 130
file 94
non-drop frame 130
video 129
formatting text into columns 439
forum, Avid|DS 19
four-point editing 214
fragmented drives 66
frame rate 130
converting during capture 98
frame size 130, 131
HD 131
NTSC 131
PAL 131
sequence preferences 130, 134
frames 392
active 235
burned 368
dropping 532
head 300
T U V W X Y Z
Index
incoming 281, 300
matching 238
outgoing 281, 300
revealing 234
skipping 532
tail 300
unused 216
viewing objects within 393
framing
graphics objects Refer to online
help
media in timeline 221
objects in animation graph Refer
to online help
freehand strokes, drawing 332
Freehand tool 332
freezing
cycles 522
keyframe 516
function curves 509
animation 507
changing slope 513
constant 514
copying 515
copying region 518
inserting copied region 519
linear 513
making temporary copies 515
manipulating 504
pinning 507
setting type 514
slope of spline, changing 515
slope, changing 513
slopes, tangent settings 515
snapshot curves 515
spline 513
trimming 524
type, setting 514
G
garbage matte 371
generating
mattes 457
global
coordinates 386
User’s Guide • 553
Index
?
1 A B C D E
locators Refer to online help
glossy material finish 458
glows 474
GOV See Graphics Object View
graph, animation 516
graphic tablet 17
graphics 342
aligning 341
animating titles 355
applying as effect 309 to 311
applying in Effects Tree 313
applying on layers 312
applying on tracks 309
bounding box, hide 340
clusters 340
control points 343
copying 360
creating 330 to 351
creating rolls/crawls 354
cutting 360
defining transformations 366
deleting 362
drawing tools 330
duplicating 361
editing shape of strokes 342
editing text 351
Encapsulated PostScript files
(EPS), importing 322, 377
EPS files, importing 322, 377
Express tools 333
fade, creating 356
guides, displaying 341
hiding 339
hiding bounding boxes 340
hyphenating text 350
importing images 376
locking 338
manipulating 358 to 366
mattes 371
methods of applying 309
moving 363
moving object center 365
object 309
object properties 358
554 • User’s Guide
F G H
I
J
K L M N O P Q R S
ordering 362
pasting 360
presets 314
processing 378
property tree See graphics
property tree
real-time 378
reordering 362
reshaping 347
rotating 364
rotoscoping 371
scaling 363
selecting multiple 337
showing 339
skewing 365
time span 326
tools, quick access 333
tracking objects 367
transforming 363
turning on guide properties 341
unlocking 338
vertex 342
word wrapping 350
workflow 307
working resolution, setting 309
graphics alignment tools 341
Graphics Object view
Refer also to online help
graphics objects 402
editing control points 343
moving control points 344
selecting 337
tracking 367
graphics presets, types 314
graphics property tree 318
graphics session 309
importing images 376
grid 392
orientation 398
viewing 392
grouping
3D DVE objects 404, 409
media 63
strokes 344
T U V W X Y Z
gutter 442
GVG
EDL formats 187
EDLs 187
H
handles
edit 281, 288
reveal 234
trim 281, 290
HD 131
aspect ratio 132
compression 136
conforming 160
formats 129
video format 130
heads
adding pre-roll and post-roll 91
help, online
Documentation Library 16
hidden surfaces 456
hiding
3D DVE objects 410
back surface 456
bounding boxes 340
graphics 339
objects using clipping planes 400
shadows 471
hotline support 18
hyphenation 350
I
image file
creating 243
creating from snapshot 243
images
capturing 94
importing in graphics session 376
importing
AAF files 161
AFE files 163
ALE files 197
alpha channel 97
Avid Marquee projects 475
bins 163, 197
1 A B C D E
?
F G H
clips 153
EDLs 187
Encapsulated PostScript files
(EPS) 322, 377
files by reference 103
from another project 153
from SOFTIMAGE|3D or XSI 120
images 97, 376
images, oversized 103
linked clips 103
media conversion 97
OMF files 173
Photoshop layers 100
render passes 120
scaling media 97
sequences 153
still images 94
supported file formats 94
text 434
time delay 108
importing render passes 120
indexing media 37
infinite light 465
in-points
marking 212
Input Monitor
adjusting input levels 88
Refer also to online help
input strips 484
adjusting audio levels 491
animating 493
deleting animation 496
fine-tuning the sound 491
insert mode 244
insertion point 432
positioning 436
intensity of lights 468
interest, 3D DVE 395
interlaced 99
interlacing
fields 131
J
J-K-L keys 224
I
J
K L M N O P Q R S
justified text 444
K
kerning 445
adjusting 445
keyboard conventions 17
keyboard shortcuts 15
keyframes
adding 510, 511, 512
creating automatically 504
creating manually 504, 506, 508
deleting 508, 510, 511, 512
editing 508
freezing position 516
locking position 516
moving 510, 511, 512
snapping to grids and frames 516
keyframing 504
L
layers
3D DVE 402
3D DVE, tumbling 398
applying graphics 312
creating from EDL 189, 192
layouts
Media Input/Output 78
Refer also to online help
L-cut edit (overlap edit) 297
leading 445
recommended setting 445
left column value 440
left margin 447
left-aligned text 444
light sources
3D DVE 458
See also lights
lights 386
adding 466
color 468
comment 469
deleting 466
editing sources 467
effect on shadows 466
effective use of 465
T U V W X Y Z
Index
intensity 468
local, source 465
moving 468
naming 469
omni-directional source 465
point light source 465
positioning, moving and
deleting 466
source, infinite 465
spot, falloff 469
spot, size 469
triangular patterns 466
turning on 467
types 465, 467
line spacing See leading
linked clips 103
archiving 49
re-establishing links 104
linking edits 286
list, mailing 19
lit material finish 458
live capture, performing 106
loading
ALE 197
EDL 187
OMF 173
local
coordinates 386
light source 465
shadow 470
locators
adding, moving, deleting Refer to
online help
aligning 248
for synchronization 248
global Refer to online help
reference 225, 248
locking
3D DVE objects 406
graphics objects 338
keyframe positions 516
synchronized clips 249
log
AAF/AFE conform 169
User’s Guide • 555
Index
?
1 A B C D E
F G H
events 21
logging 89
Avid MediaLog 197
material from tape 89
media from file 94 to 99
off workstation 20
loop markers 225
looping clips 225
M
Magic Wand tool 335
magnetism 216
mailing list 19
Main surface 455
managing
media 62 to 68
projects 39
mapping textures 463
maps
displacement 416
environment 460
reflection 464
margin 446
markers
Refer also to locators
adding, moving, deleting Refer to
online help
loop 225
meta curve region 511
timeline Refer to online help
viewing in animation graph 510
marking, in/out points 211
masks 325
changing object properties 359
properties 325
master clips 27, 89
creating 243
creating from AAF or AFE 167
creating from ALE 198
creating from snapshot 243
searching 151
master opacity, adjusting 410
match bin 239
matching frames
master clip 238
556 • User’s Guide
I
J
K L M N O P Q R S
subclip 238, 239
material 386, 455
affected by light 458
applying to objects 456
base color 457
changing type 457
custom settings 456
editing 457
emissive color 459
environment map 460
finish 458
opacity 457
overlapping 461
retrieving 238
revealing unused 234
shininess 460
source 27
specular color 459
types 455
matte finish, material 458
mattes
conforming 159
controlling 3D DVE object 457
creating 371
generating 3D titles 457
travelling 371
media
capturing 94
checking for corruption 67
compressed 83
copying 67
defragmenting 66
deleting 58, 68
determining space available 83,
84
displaying Media Not Available
message 134
exporting to file 534
filtering 64
grouping 63
logging from file 94 to 99
logging from tape 89 to 93
managing with Media Tool 62
moving 67
T U V W X Y Z
moving to another
workstation 57
not available 222
not found 222
outputting 529, 532
processed 27, 69
processing needed message 222
purging 68
quality 133
restoring 52
scaling 97
searching 64, 65
sharing 36
sharing between projects 153
sorting 62, 63, 64
source 27, 69
tree 62
types 68
uncompressed 83
use best available 136
use closest available 134
verifying 67
viewing 64, 65
viewing as thumbnails 65
media conversion modes 97
media folder, copying 67
media folder, moving 68
media indexer 30 to 35
media indexing service
adding 37, 38
deleting 35, 38
modifying 31
Media Input/Output panels Refer to
online help
Media Manager, accessing 62
Media Not Available message 72,
134, 222
Media Not Found message 222
media storage, configuring 30, 31
Media Tool 62
Refer also to online help
MediaLog
creating AFE files 163
logging clips 197
MediaNet 160
1 A B C D E
?
F G H
memory
efficient use of 39
optimizing 130
memory caches
purging 69
messages
Media Not Available 72, 222
Media Not Found 222
Processing Needed 222
Referenced Sequence Needs
Processing 256
meta curve region 511 to 512
displaying 511
marker 511
Microsoft Word 350
mixer 488
input strips 491
input strips, fine-tuning
sound 491
output strips 492
output strips, fine-tuning
sound 492
Refer also to online help
mixing 483, 485, 487
fine-tuning 490 to 492
panning 491
processing 499
processing order 500
volume, adjusting 491
workflow 483
modes
Autokey 504
Display Unused Material 234
insert 244
overwrite 244
Position property 454
Raster Paint 370
Ripple 244 to 247
Time property 454
wireframe 330, 331
mono audio tracks 490
morphing
strokes 345
motion blur, exposure time 420
motion path
I
J
K L M N O P Q R S
creating 504
motion tracking
graphics objects 367
mouse
conventions 17
move cursor 209
moving
3D DVE objects 406
control points 426
multi-camera editing 211, 260
multi-track editing 210
mute, animating 493
muting
3D DVE objects 410
audio tracks 223
N
nesting decks 476
No Entry icon 42
non-drop frame, format 130
NTSC 99
frame size 131
O
objects 402
applying materials 456
construction lines 391
copying between pages 477
DVE 402
editing in page 477
graphics 309, 402
identifying bounds 391
moving between pages 477
path 402
selecting from group 409
skewing 365
text 402
viewing within frame 393
visibility 410
wireframe, rendered as 393
offset 253
clips, resyncing 253
offsetting
text from path 452
textures 462
OMF
T U V W X Y Z
Index
conform error log 176
conforming with audio 178
consolidating media files 181
creating 181
effects table 182
errors 176
exporting audio 180
importing 173
importing audio media 179
loading 173
media support 173
opening 173
saving 181
supported effects 182
unsupported effects 176, 180
OMF tree 174
OMF view Refer to online help
OMFI compositions See OMF
omni-directional light source 465
one-sided transitions 261
online help 15
on-the-fly log and capture 105
opacity 410
3D DVE object 410
material 457
shadow 473
Open Media Framework See OMF
Open Media Framework view Refer
to online help
Open Project dialog box 125
opening
existing project 46
projects 42
sequences 125
shapes 427
order of rotation 413
orientation
grid 398
path text 453
text 453
text, upright 453
origin 385
global and local 386
out-points
marking 212
User’s Guide • 557
Index
?
1 A B C D E
F G H
Refer also to online help 212
output
assemble editing 532
audio 532
checking external device
status 531
codec 534
compressing material 530
compression 534
configuring external device 530
custom resolution 535
EDL 529
file formats 535
insert editing 532, 533
mattes 536
media 529, 532
OMF 529
preparing for 530
QuickTime reference movies 536
resolution 534
selecting an area 530
selecting channels, tracks, and
clips 531
series of files 536
setting duration 530
standard resolution 535
supported file formats 535
to file 534
to ProEncode 537
to tape 532
using compression 536
output strips 484
adjusting audio levels 492
adjusting volume 492
mixer, fine-tuning sound 492
oval shapes 423
overflowing text 434
overlap edits, creating 297
overlap effects 461
oversized images, importing 103
overwrite mode 244
overwriting clips 244
P
page
558 • User’s Guide
I
J
K L M N O P Q R S
copying objects between 477
editing objects 477
moving objects between 477
resizing 477
scaling 477
Page Curl DVE 417
paint style
defining 319
properties 318
PAL 99
frame size 131
pan
animating 493
mixer 491
paragraph spacing 446
parent timeline 266
password 20
pasting 3D DVE objects 405
patching tracks 215
path, motion
creating 504
paths
baseline offset 452
converting from shape 450
creating 450
deleting 450
editing 425
object 402
orientation of text 453
positioning text on 451
removing text from 451
reversing direction, shape 430
reversing direction, text 452
start 452
text 431, 433, 451
pen
conventions 17
performance
improving timeline
interactivity 39
perspective distortion, adjusting 401
perspective projection
effect on alignment 409
effect on positioning 408
T U V W X Y Z
phone support 18
Photoshop
importing 100
pinning
function curves 507
pixel format, bits per pixel 132
pixel ratio 130
capturing from file 98
custom 98
sequence preferences 133
standard 98
planes
clipping 400
XYZ 385
play bias 81
playback
problems due to corrupted
media 67
slowdown 66
playing
clips 223
clips frame-by-frame 226
sequences 222
varying speed 224
point light source 465
polygon shapes 424
Polyline tool 331
polylines, drawing 331
position indicator
moving 225
moving to a specific timecode 225
scrubbing 223
Position property mode 454
position, locking keyframe 516
post-roll 91
preferences 20
project 43
sequence 129 to 143
premultiplication
setting 98
premultiplied alpha 98
pre-roll 91
presets
graphics 314
1 A B C D E
?
F G H
loading 314, 315
stroke 316
text 316
types of graphics presets 314
presets, saving
stroke 316
using property editor 314
using toolbar 315
previewing
clips 226
source material 85
Pro Tools 170
processed media 27
purging 69
processing
animation 526
audio mix 499
fields 140
graphics 378
order, when mixing 500
output 532
reference clips 256
sequence preferences 140
sequences 274
Processing Needed message 222
ProEncode 537
profile
antialiasing, used with 419
applying 419
effect on alignment 409
reversing 430
surface 455
profile effects
Bevel 419
Box 419
Chisel 419
Ridge Inset 419
Round 419
progressive scanning 131
project files 28, 29
master clips 27
renaming 42
sequences 27
Project Manager 47 to 58
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projected shadow 470
projects 27
archiving 29, 47
backing up 52
creating 43
deleting 58
files, deleting 58
folder structure 41
managing 39
moving 42, 47
moving to another
workstation 57
multiple versions 43
opening 42, 44
opening existing 46
opening from a network 46
organizing 39
preferences 43
renaming files 42
restoring 52, 53, 54
restoring from multiple tapes 56
selective restore 55
subfolders, creating 39
proofing EDLs 189, 196
properties
brush 320
clip 231
drawing tools 318 to 326
font 324
masks 325
paint style 318
text 323
time span 326, 404
property tree, graphics 318
purge versus delete media 61
purging
clips 70
files or folders in Avid Explorer 70
folder contents 70
media 68
memory caches 69
methods 69
processed media 69
sequences 70
T U V W X Y Z
Index
source media 69
timeline caches 73
Q
quality 82
level, viewer 394
video 133
quality matching
audio 139
caches 138
video 135
QuickTime
reference movie, outputting 536
quitting Avid|DS 20
R
raster mode 368
activating 368
automatically destroying
frames 368
burned frames 369
burned strokes, copying 369
burning on frame change 368
non real-time 369
raster paint log 370
Raster Paint toolbar 369
warning message 369
Raster Paint mode 370
Razor tool
Refer to Add Edit tool
real-time effects
graphics 378
in Avid|DS HD 134
recapturing
batch capture list 113
record bias 81
recording audio animation 504
Rectangle tool 334
rectangles
drawing 334
shapes 422
reference
3D DVE object 408
clips 39
locators 225, 248
User’s Guide • 559
Index
?
1 A B C D E
F G H
locators Refer also to online help
reference clips 39
converting from container
clips 255
creating 255
processing 256
using 255 to 256
Referenced Sequence Needs
Processing message 256
reflection map 464
region
marking 212
meta curve 511
Relative Align commands 341
relative cycle 522
removing
scratches/flaws 373
render passes
importing 120
rendering
culling back faces 456
objects as wireframes 393
Reshape tool See Shape tool
reshaping strokes 347
changing opacity 349
chopping control points 348
moving shapes 348
rotating shapes 348
scaling shapes 348
skewing shapes 348
stretching shapes 349
resizing
decks 477
pages 477
text column 442, 443
text object 436
resolution 133
capture 83
output 534
sorting media by 63
video 83
working 309
restoring
complete projects 53
from multiple tapes 56
560 • User’s Guide
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media 54
non-standard projects 50
part of project archive 55
projects 52, 54
selective restore 55
resyncing clips 253
retrieving additional material 238
reveal handles 234
revealing
activating reveal mode 234
unused frames 234
Reverse Direction command 430,
452
reversing
direction of text on path 452
shape direction 430
RGB 132
Ridge Inset profile effect 419
right-aligned text 444
Ripple mode 227, 244 to 247
activating 245
editing clips 247
end, setting 246
inserting clips 246
tracks, video 244
trimming frames 290
rolls
text 354
text, controlling 447
text, creating 447
text, speed control 448
Rotate tool 364
rotating
3D DVE objects 413
graphics objects 364
shadows 472
textures 463
rotation
anchor point, resetting 411
effect on alignment 409
effect on positioning 408
order of 413
resetting 413
sphere 413
T U V W X Y Z
rotoscopy 371
rough cut 205
Round profile effect 419
S
S/PDIF 84
safe action area 391
snapping objects to 391
viewing 391
safe title area 391
3D DVE object positioning
behavior 408
snapping 3D DVE objects to 406
snapping objects to 391
viewing 391
sample accurate editing 485
sample rate
configuring 84
setting 131
sample rate conversion 497
audio container clips 498
automatic 497
capturing from file 98
clips 497
manual 498
sequences 497
Save As command 150
saving
EDL 195
OMF 181
sequences 149
subclips 208
Scale tool 363
scaling
3D DVE objects 412
constrained 412
decks 477
graphics objects 363
pages 477
relative to anchor point 412
text object 436
textures 462
to change font size 439
scanning, progressive 131
scene
1 A B C D E
?
F G H
tumbling 398
scratch removal 373
scratches, removing 373
Script Editor 115
Refer also to online help
scripting languages 118
scripts
creating 116
creating toolbars 117, 118
editing 119
running 117
Script Editor 116
to capture 115
scroll position
arrow 435, 447
slider 435, 447
scrolling text 447, 448, 452
scrubbing 223
searching
clips, sequences, media 65
master clips 151
media 64
sequences 151
segments (graphics) 422
removing 428
sequence conversion mode,
multiple 145
sequence preferences 129 to 143
aspect ratio 132
audio format 131
audio quality 133
audio quality matching 139
changing 140
color space 132
compression ratio, working 135
confirming each time 143
conversion mode 141
converting sample rates 143
field dominance 131
frame size 130, 134
pixel ratio 133
processing 140
resolution, working 134
video format 130
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video quality matching 135
video quality, working 133
Sequence view Refer to online help
sequences 27, 29, 125
autosave 149
building 205, 208
copying 150
creating 126
creating versions 150
creating with different
preferences 127
creating within current
project 126
delete all occurrences 60
delete if media unused 60
deleting 60, 154
importing 153
memory usage 39
opening 125, 127
opening from Avid Explorer 128
opening from File menu 128
opening from Open Project dialog
box 127
outputting 529
playing 222
playing at various speeds 224
processing 274
purging 70
renaming 42
Save As command 150
saving 149
scrubbing 223
searching 151
setting preferences 129 to 143
setting up 205
skip while playing 223
stop playing 223
versioning 150
workflow 123
services, Media Indexer 37
shadows 470
affected by lights 466
color 474
local 470
T U V W X Y Z
Index
location 472
map 470
offset 471
opacity 473
plane, attachment 472
plane, defined 470
positioning 471
projected 470
rotating 472
simulated glows 474
softness 473
suggestions 471
turning off 471
shapes
closed 424
closing 428
compound, creating 429
compound, separating 430
converting to path 450
creating 422, 423, 424
curved 424
editing 425
filling 428
form 426
form, editing 426
open 424
opening 427
reversing direction 430
segment, removing 428
segments 422
selecting control points 425
shared media, archiving 153
sharing
media between projects 153
shininess control 460
Shortcut card 15
shortcuts
keyboard 15
media input/output
commands 78
showing graphics 339
shuttling clips 224
single-roller trim 303
Skew tool 365
User’s Guide • 561
Index
?
1 A B C D E
skewing
graphics objects 365
objects 365
skipped frames, fragmented
media 66
sliding clips 301
Slip/Slide mode 300
Refer also to online help
slipping clips 300
slipping/sliding shots, Slip/Slide
mode 300
slope, changing 513
smooth point, creating 424
Snap In command 295
Snap Out command 295
snapping
edit points 295
keys 516
snapshot 536
curves, animation 509, 515
Snapshot to Clip command 243
Snapshot to File 243
SOFTIMAGE|3D or XSI 120
softness of shadow 473
solid color 455
soloing tracks 223
sorting media 39, 64
by compression 63
by project 62
by properties 63
by quality 62
by resolution 63
by source 62
by storage 62
source
material 27
media 27
source media 27
methods to purge 69
purging 69
spacing, paragraph 446
special characters
determining value 433
entering 433
562 • User’s Guide
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specular highlight 459
spline, changing slope 515
split edits (overlap edits)
creating 297
split-edits (overlap clips) 253, 283
spot light 465
falloff 469
moving 468
properties 468
size 469
spot, target 468
square pixels 99
square shapes 422
static text 431
stereo
input 85, 87
tracks 490
stills, setting duration 94
storage
configuring 30, 31, 32
sharing media 36
storage area
adding (alternate method) 36
configuring 31
configuring (alternate
method) 36
deleting 35
modifying 35
moving 35
storage device 82
during reinstall 35
during uninstall 35
storage space
remaining 83
streaming capture 54, 108
deactivating 92
stretching shapes 349
strokes
breaking 344
changing object properties 359
changing slope of curves 346
combining 344
defining 335
editing 342
T U V W X Y Z
freeform 332
grouping 344
morphing 345
preset 316
reshaping 347
separating 344
ungrouping 344
unifying 344
style
fonts 438
titling 323
subclips
creating 208
overwriting 208
updating 208
subfolders, creating 39
submix 269, 488
support 18
hotline 18
web 18
surface 386, 455
culling 456
extrude 455
overlapping 461
texture position 462
surround channels 218, 486
Surround Panner Refer to online help
sync
maintaining during trim 303
sync-locked tracks
trimming with 303
sync groups 248
adding to 250
breaking 251
combining 250
creating 249
cutting 252
manipulating 251
offset 253
selecting all clip 251
synchronized clips
cutting 252
manipulating 251
moving independently 252
1 A B C D E
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F G H
offset 253
synchronizing animation 512
synchronizing clips 248 to 254
aligning 248
deleting 254
editing 253
using locators 248
sync-lock 248
unlocking 251
T
tangent handle, extending
length 427
tangent slopes
broken 515
setting options 515
unified 515
tangents 509
tape, capturing material 89
technical support 18
telephone support 18
text
3D 384
adjusting scrolling 448
alignment 444
baseline offset 452
clipping 449
columns 439
copying to an external
application 351
crawling 402, 431
creating rolls/crawls 354
deselecting 437
editing 351, 352
editing font properties 352
editing kerning 352
entering 432
entering Unicode characters 433
equally spaced 444
font 324, 438
from other applications 350
hyphenating 350
importing 434
kerning 445
leading 445
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margins 446
Microsoft Word 350
orientation 453
overflowing 434
path 431
path, adding to 451
path, orientation 453
path, positioning 451
path, removing 451
preset 316
properties 323, 359
rolling 402
saving presets 316
scroll control 448
scrolling 452
selecting 437
selecting a text body 351
static 431
word wrapping 350
text body 350
text object 402, 431
creating 432
gutter 442
resizing 436
scaling 436
shadow suggestions 471
text orientation 453
texture 455
as displacement map 418
cropping 463
mapping 463
position on surface 462
rotating 463
scaling 462
tiling 462
tinting 464
three-button play 224
three-dimensional space 385
three-point editing 213
tiling textures 462
Time property mode 454
time span
3D DVE 414
changing object properties 359
T U V W X Y Z
Index
properties 326, 404, 415
timecode
breaks, during capture 93
repeating 92, 105
timeline 205
batch capture 110
building sequences 29, 205
capturing clips 110
converting to a clip 241
creating a master clip 243
creating an image file 243
framing media 221
improving interactivity 39
in-points 211
marking in and out-points 211
marking region 212
moving to marked points 225
of container clip 266
outputs 211
parent 266
placing clips 208, 213, 216
placing multiple clips 210
placing pre-edited clips 213
purging caches 73
top 266
trimming 221
Refer also to online help
timeline effect track
applying graphics 311
Timeline to Clip command 241, 242
tinting
textures 464
titles
3D 416 to 454
conformed as real-time 171
creating See also text
support levels for AAF/AFE 171
titling
style 323
toolbars
Raster Paint 369
top margin 446
top timeline 266
tracing strokes 347
User’s Guide • 563
Index
?
1 A B C D E
F G H
track effects 259
tracking, motion
graphics objects 367
tracks
audio 219, 486
mono (audio) 490
muting audio 223
patching 215
soloing 223
stereo (audio) 490
sync-locked, trimming with 303
transferring projects and media 159
from CD-ROM 159
transformation 366
graphics 363
properties 359
transitions 260 to 264
adjusting 299
applying between clips 262
applying one-sided 261
creating between clips 262
creating one-sided 261
Crossfade 260
cut 260
edit points 262
editing properties 263, 264
Fade-in 260
Fade-out 260
processing 274
removing 264
selecting additional for
trimming 283
trimming 299
transport controls 86, 109
Refer also to online help
travelling matte 371
creating 371
tree
animation 495
applying graphics 313
graphics property 318
media 62
OMF 174
triangular patterns 466
564 • User’s Guide
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trim handles 281
Trim mode 282
reviewing edits 295
selecting several transitions 283
Refer also to online help
trimming
adding filler during 303
adjusting trim handles 293
animation 524
clips 280, 299
container clips 298
edit points 288
function curves 524
intersecting edit points 289
maintaining sync 303
methods 282
on the timeline 287
Ripple mode activated 290
sides, selecting 283, 296
slip and slide procedures 300
split-edits 253
timeline to media 221
transitions 299
two heads or tails 283
with sync-locked tracks 303
with trim handles 290
workflow 279
Tube profile effect 419
tumbling scene 398
typeface 438
U
uncompressed media, sharing 160
undertessellation 468
appearance of 466
ungrouping
3D DVE objects 409
strokes 344
Unicode
determining value 433
entering characters 433, 434
unifying strokes 344
Unity MediaNet 160
unlocking
T U V W X Y Z
3D DVE objects 406
graphics 338
unused material
hiding 234
revealing 234
upright text orientation 453
user
name 20
profile 20
V
variable-speed play 224
verifying
media 67
versioning 43
sequences 150
vertex 342
video
capture quality 83
clips 210, 216
clips, activeness 216
clips, placing on timeline 216
compression 83
container clips See background
container clips
editing 203
format, setting 130
image scaling 97
input configuration 78
media quality 133
quality matching 135
resolution 83
storage device 83
synchronizing 248 to 254
tracks, rippling 244
video format
HD 130
viewer
dual 205, 206
placing clips 205
quality level 394
tumbling in 3D DVE layout 398
Refer also to online help
views
1 A B C D E
?
F G H
Slip/Slide mode 300
trimming 282
Refer also to online help
visibility of material 457
volume
adjusting on output strips 492
fader 491
mixer 491
setting input levels 86
VTR, detect change 81
I
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T U V W X Y Z
Index
Y
YUV color space 132
YZ planes 385
Z
Z axis
effect on alignment 409
effect on positioning 408
W
waveforms 218
web support 18
Windows Event Log, viewing 22
wireframe
mode 330, 331
rendering 393
word wrapping 350, 431
column behavior 443
workflows
3D DVE 383
animation 503
audio 483
capturing material 77
conforming
OMF, EDL, and ALE 158
conforming (AAF and AFE) 157
editing 203
graphics 307
sequences 123
titles 384
trimming 279
working resolution 133
sequence preferences 134
setting 309
working video quality, setting 133
X
XYZ
axes 385
coordinates 385
planes 385
User’s Guide • 565
Index
1 A B C D E
?
566 • User’s Guide
F G H
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T U V W X Y Z
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