service manual - Daewoo Bus Australia

service manual - Daewoo Bus Australia
SERVICE
MANUAL
SM-1E-0505
SECTION INDEX
DAEWOO BUS
SECTION
SERVICE MANUAL
CHASSIS
FOREWORD
This manual includes special notes, important
points, service data, precautions, etc. that are
needed for the maintenance, adjustments, service,
removal and installation of the
components of the vehicles.
The section index on the contents page enables
the user to quickly locate any desired section.
At the beginning of each section containing more
than one major subject is a Table of Contents, which
gives the page number on which each
major subject begins.
An index is placed at the beginning of each major
subject within the section. Any reference to
brand names in this manual is intended merely is
an example o the types of lubricants, tools,
materials ,etc. recommended for use in servicing
Daewoobus vehicles.
In all cases, an equivalent may be used.
This manual should be kept in handy place for
ready technician to better serve the owners of
Daewoobus built vehicles.
All information, illustrations and specifications
contained in this literature are based on the
latest publication approval. The right is
reserved to make changes at any time without
notice.
NAME
1
GENERAL INFORAMTION
2
CLUTCH
3
TRANSMISSION
4
PROPELLER
5
REAR AXLE
6
FRONT AXLE
7
STEERING
8
BRAKE
9
SUSPENSION
10
WHEEL AND TIRE
SECTION 1
GENERAL INFORMATION
CONTENTS
PAGE
1. GENERAL REPAIR INSTRUCTIONS
2
2. IDENTIFICATION
2.1.
CHASSIS NUMBER
3
2.2.
ENGINE NUMBER
3
2.3.
V.I.N. PLATE
3
3. SPECIFICATION
3.1.
BODY DIMENSION
4
3.2.
MAIN DATA
9
4. LUBRICATION
4.1.
OIL VISCOSITY CHART
36
4.2.
RECOMMENDED LUBRICATION LIST
38
4.3.
LUBRICATION CHART
39
1
1. General Information
When a service operation is completed, make
a final check to be sure everything has been done
properly.
1. General Repair Instructions
▣
To assure safety, park the vehicle on level
ground and brace the front or rear wheels when
lifting the vehicle.
▣
▣
To assurance safety, always slowly release air
pressure from the air tanks before disconnecting
pipes, hoses or other parts from any unit under air
pressure.
Raise the vehicle with a jack set against the
axle or the frame and perform service operations
after supporting the vehicle on chassis stands.
▣
Before performing service operation,
disconnect the grounding cable from the battery
to reduce the chance of cable damage of burning
due to short-circuiting.
▣
Use a cover on the body, seats and floor to
protect them against damage and contamination.
▣
Brake fluid and anti-freeze solution must be
handled with reasonable care as they can cause
paint damage.
▣
The use of proper tools and special tools
where specified is important to efficient an
reliable service operation.
▣
▣
Use genuine Daewoobus parts.
Use cotter pins, gaskets, O-rings, oil seal, lock
washers and self lock nuts should be discarded
and new ones should be prepared for installation
as normal function of the parts can not be
maintained if these parts are reused.
▣
To facilitate proper and smooth reassembly
operation, keep disassembled parts neatly in
groups. Keeping fixing bolts and nuts separate is
very important as they vary in hardness and
design depending on position of installation.
▣
Clean the parts before inspection or
reassembly. Also clean oil ports, etc. with
compressed air to make certain they are free from
obstructions.
▣
Lubricate rotating and sliding faces of all parts
with oil or grease before installation.
▣
When necessary, use a sealer on gaskets to
prevent leakage.
▣
Carefully observe all specifications for bolt
and nut torques.
▣
2
1. General Information
2. Identification
2.1. Chassis Number
The type A is applicable for buses in all
countries except GCC members.
The chassis number of the front engine bus
is stamped on the left front side of the chassis
frame.
▣
The type B is applicable for buses in GCC
members
The chassis number of the rear engine bus is
stamped on the left rear side of the chassis
frame within the engine compartment.
▣
2.2. Engine Number
The engine number is stamped on the face of
the cylinder body.
2.3. V.I.N. Plate
The vehicle identification number plate is
attached above the front door.
3
1. General Information
3. Specification
3.1. Body dimension
▣ Model BF106
▣ Model BM090
4
1. General Information
▣ Model BS090
▣ Model BH090
5
1. General Information
▣ Model BS106
▣ Model BH115E
6
1. General Information
▣ Model BH116
▣ Model BH117
7
1. General Information
▣ Model BH120
8
1. General Information
3.2. MAIN DATA
▣ ENGINE ( Euro Ⅰ )
Model
DE12
DE12T
DE12Ti
DV15T
Water cooled 4 cycle in-line, overhead valve type
V type
Type
Direct injection type
Cylinder liner type
Dry type
No. of piston ring
Wet type
Compression ring : 2EA oil ring : 1 EA
No of cylinder
9
8
Bore x stroke (㎜)
123 x 155
128 x 42
Piston displacement (㏄)
11051
14618
Compression ratio
17.1 : 1
16.5 :1
1317
1394
Engine
Dimension
(㎜)
Length
Width
746
847
874
1024
Height
1028
1021
1090
963
945
960
990
1050
BTDC 12
BTDC 7
Engine weight (dry) (kg)
600 ± 50
Idle speed
Fuel injection timing
BTDC 10
Fuel injection order
Intake
valves
Exhaust
valves
BTDC 9
1-5-3-6-2-4
1-5-7-2-6-3-4-8
Open at
BTDC 18
BTDC 12
Close at
ABDC 34
ABDC 48
Open at
BBDC 46
BBDC 61
Close at
ATDC 14
ATDC 11
Oil pump type
Gear type
Oil cooler type
Water cooled
Oil capacity (ℓ)
Engine total : 20.0ℓ, (Oil fan : 17.0ℓ)
Cooling method
Fresh water forced circulation
Cooling water capacity
(ℓ)
19
Water pump type
Centrifugal type
Thermostat type
Wax-pellet type
Max. output
(ps/rpm, SAE)
Max. torque
(kg.m/rpm, SAE)
Starter motor output
(V-KW)
Eng. total : 27.0ℓ
(Oil fan : 24.0ℓ)
235/2200
300/2200
340/2100
365/2300
81.5/1400
110/1300
135/1200
138/1300
24-6.0
Battery capacity (V-AH)
24-6.6
24-150
9
1. General Information
ENGINE ( Euro Ⅱ )
DE08Tis
Model
D1146
DE12Ti
D1146Ti
DE12Tis
DE12
225PS
240PS
DV15T
280PS
310PS
340PS
290PS
310PS
DV15Tis
340PS
Water cooled 4 cycle in-line, overhead valve type
Type
Direct injection type
Cylinder liner type
Dry type
No. of piston ring
Wet type
Compression ring : 2EA, Oil ring : 2EA
No of cylinder
6
8
Bore x stroke (㎜)
111x139
123x155
128x142
Piston displacement (㏄)
8,071
11,051
14,618
Compression ratio
Engine
Dimension
(㎜)
18.0:1
Length
16.7:1
18.5:1
1,253
17.1:1
1,169
1,317
16.5:1
17.4:1
1,290
1,112
811.5
812.5
812
744
847
1,024
1,024
Height
934.5
1,009
1,003
1,015
1,064
1,023
1,015
872
910
920
950
730
745
Idle speed
600±50
600~650
Fuel injection timing
BTDC15 BTDC9
BTDC3
600±50
BTDC10
Fuel injection order
Exhaust
valves
17.0:1
Width
Engine weight (dry) (kg)
Intake
valves
16.1:1
BTDC12
600~650
600±50 550~600
BTDC1
BTDC7 BTDC5.5
1-5-3-6-2-4
1-5-7-2-6-3-4-8
Open at
BTDC16
BTDC18
BTDC18
BTDC12 BTDC15
Close at
ABDC36
ABDC34
ABDC32
ABDC48 ABDC35
Open at
BBDC46
BBDC70
BBDC61 BBDC71.5
Close at
ATDC14
ATDC30
ATDC11 ATDC15.5
10
1. General Information
DE08Tis
Model
D1146
DE12Ti
D1146Ti
DE12Tis
DE12
225ps
DV15T
240ps
280PS
310PS
340PS
Oil pump type
Gear type
Oil cooler type
Water cooled, integral type
Oil capacity (ℓ)
Engine:15.5
Engine:19.0
Oil Pan:13.0
Oil Pan:15.5
Engine:20.0 Oil Pan:17.0
Cooling method
11
Centrifugal type
Thermostat type
Wax-pellet type
Max. torque
(kg.m/rpm, SAE)
Starter motor output
(V-KW)
Battery capacity (V-AH)
DV15Tis
340PS
Engine:22.0 Oil Pan:19.0
Engine:27.0
Engine:23.0
Oil Pan:24.0
Oil Pan:20.0
19
Water pump type
(ps/rpm, SAE)
310PS
Fresh water forced circulation
Cooling water capacity (ℓ)
Max. output
290PS
21
182/2500 205/2200 225/2300 240/2300 230/2200 280/2100 310/2100 340/2100 290/2100 310/2100 340/2100 365/2300 390/2200
57/1600
75/1400
82/1000
90/1000
81/1300
115/1260 125/1260 135/1260 112/1260 125/1260 145/1260 138/1300 160/1300
24x4.5
24x6.0
24x150
11
24x6.6
24x200
24x150
1. General Information
▣ CLUTCH
BF106
Distinction
D1146
Outside dia.
380
430
Inside dia.
240
250
Thickness
5
Clutch clamping force(㎏)
Clutch pedal
DE12
1240±10%
1470±10%
1380±10%
Ratio
7.09
Free play
48.8
Max. stroke
170
Clutch minipack start working
pressure(㎏/㎠)
5.5
Master cylinder bore dia. (㎜)
20
Distinction
BM090/BS090
BH090/BS106
BH115E
←
BH120E
Dry single plate with coil spring dampers hydraulic circuit
Incorporating clutch minipack
Type
Outside dia.
380
430
←
←
Inside dia.
240
250
←
←
Thickness
5
←
←
←
Clutch facing
dimension(㎜)
Clutch
clamping
force(㎏)
DE08Tis
Dry single plate with coil spring dampers hydraulic circuit
Incorporating clutch minipack
Type
Clutch facing
dimension(㎜)
DE08Tis
D1146
1240±10%
D1146Ti
1470±10%
DE12
1380±10%
DE08Tis(210ps)
1360±10%
DE08Tis(240ps)
1450±10%
DE12/T/Ti/Tis(280ps)
1950±10%
DE12Ti/Tis(310ps)
2100±10%
DE12Ti/Tis(340ps)
2320±10%
Ratio
6.75
6.67
6.75
←
Free play
46.4
46.6
47.2
47.4
Max. stroke
170
150
170
←
Clutch minipack start working
pressure(㎏/㎠)
5.5
6.1
5.5
←
Clutch pedal
20
Master cylinder bore dia. (㎜)
12
1. General Information
Distinction
Type
Clutch facing
dimension(㎜)
Clutch
clamping
force(㎏)
BH116
BH117
BH120
Dry single plate with coil spring dampers hydraulic circuit
Incorporating clutch minipack
Outside dia.
430
←
←
Inside dia.
250
←
←
Thickness
5
←
←
DE12T
1950±10%
DE12Ti/Tis(310ps)
2100±10%
DE12Ti/Tis(340ps)
2320±10%
DV15T/15Tis
Clutch pedal
Ratio
6.75
←
←
Free play
47.2
47.2
←
Max. stroke
170
←
←
5.5
←
←
Clutch minipack start working
pressure(㎏/㎠)
20
Master cylinder bore dia. (㎜)
13
1. General Information
▣ TRANSMISSION (MANUAL)
Model
K805A
K805P
K806P
T8HS5B
T8HS5P
T8HS6P
T-9
T10S5B
Speed
5.D.D
5.O.D
6.O.D
5.D.D
5.O.D
6.O.D
5.D.D
5.D.D
Torque(㎏.m)
82
←
←
←
←
←
90
125
1st
6.666
5.455
6.666
6.571
5.405
6.571
←
6.589
2nd
3.826
3.130
3.826
3.807
3.447
3.807
←
4.002
3rd
2.213
1.728
2.213
2.201
1.739
2.201
←
2.430
4th
1.417
1.000
1.417
1.463
1.000
1.463
←
1.507
5th
1.000
0.745
1.000
1.000
0.738
1.000
←
1.000
6th
-
-
0.734
-
-
0.751
-
-
Rev.
6.851
5.606
6.851
6.240
5.650
6.240
6.239
6.888
Dry weight(㎏)
192
←
200
234
←
279
240
250
Oil capacity(ℓ)
9.8
←
11.2
10.0
←
12.0
10
13
Model
T13S5B
K1005C
K1005P
K1006R
K1205C
K1205P
K1206R
K1405A
K1406P
Speed
5.D.D
5.D.D
5.O.D
6.O.D
5.D.D
5.O.D
6.O.D
5.D.D
6.D.D
Torque(㎏.m)
135
115
←
←
125
←
←
145
←
1st
6.589
6.608
5.500
←
6.608
5.500
←
6.608
6.608
2nd
4.002
3.993
3.323
3.482
3.993
3.323
3.482
4.184
4.184
rd
2.430
2.423
1.782
2.147
2.423
1.782
2.147
2.580
2.580
th
1.507
1.518
1.000
1.348
1.518
1.000
1.348
1.518
1.618
5th
1.000
←
0.755
1.000
←
0.755
1.000
←
←
6th
-
-
-
0.755
-
-
0.755
-
0.759
Rev.
6.888
6.937
5.774
←
6.937
5.774
←
7.003
←
Dry weight(㎏)
250
←
←
260
250
←
260
290
340
Oil capacity(ℓ)
13
9.7
←
11.2
9.7
←
11.2
14.5
16.0
Gear
ratio
3
Gear
ratio
4
14
1. General Information
▣ TRANSMISSION (AUTO)
Model
MT643
B300R
B400R
B500R
D851.2
D863
D854.2
D864
HP500
HP590
HP600
Speed
4.D.D
4DD/5OD/6OD
4DD/5OD/6OD
4DD/5OD/6OD
3.D.D
3.D.D
4.O.D
4.O.D
4DD/5OD/6OD
4DD/5OD/6OD
4DD/5OD/6OD
Torque(㎏.m)
88.4
97.8
125.4
179.6
102
132.7
102
132.7
112.2
127.6
142.9
3N 6.2
3S 5.9
4N 5.4
4S 5.1
3S 5.9
4N 5.4
4S 5.1
3N 6.2
3S 5.9
4N 5.4
4S 5.1
3.43
←
←
3N/3S 1.43
4N/4S 1.36
3N/3S 1.00
4N/4S 1.00
←
←
←
2.01
←
←
←
←
←
1.42
←
←
st
3.58
3.49
←
3.51
2nd
2.09
1.86
←
1.91
3rd
1.39
1.41
←
1.43
4th
1.00
←
←
←
-
-
3N/3S 0.70
4N/4S 0.73
←
1.00
←
←
5th
-
0.75
←
0.74
-
-
-
-
0.83
←
←
6th
-
0.65
←
0.64
-
-
-
-
0.59
←
←
3N 6.2
3S 5.9
4N 5.4
4S 5.1
3N 6.2
3S 5.9
4N 5.4
4S 5.1
3N 6.2
3S 5.9
4N 5.4
4S 5.1
4.84
←
←
1
Gear
ratio
5.67
5.03
←
4.80
3N 6.2
3S 5.9
4N 5.4
4S 5.1
Dry weight(㎏)
231
227
←
412
295
300
330
335
310
315
330
Oil capacity(ℓ)
25
←
←
45
28
←
←
←
30
←
←
Rev.
15
1. General Information
▣ PROPELLER SHAFT (Manual Transmission)
BF106
D1146
Distinction
D1146
DE12
K805A/P
T8HS5B/P
K806P
T8HS6P
K806P
T8HS6P
Length
1586
1494.2
1485.2
1535.8
1526.8
Outside dia.
88.9
←
←
←
←
Inside dia.
80.9
←
←
←
←
Length
1467.5
←
←
1334.1
←
Outside dia.
88.9
←
←
←
←
Inside dia.
80.9
←
←
←
←
Length
1360
←
←
1350
←
Outside dia.
88.9
←
←
←
←
Inside dia.
80.9
←
←
←
←
st
1 piece(㎜)
(when equipped)
1st piece(㎜)
(when equipped)
1st piece(㎜)
(when equipped)
D1146
Distinction
K805A
K805P
T-9
K4005C
K1005P
K1006R
T-10
K1205C
K1205P
K1206R
Length
Outside dia.
Inside dia.
Length
Outside dia.
Inside dia.
Length
Outside dia.
Inside dia.
Length
Outside dia.
Inside dia.
Length
Outside dia.
Inside dia.
Length
Outside dia.
Inside dia.
Length
Outside dia.
Inside dia.
DE08Tis
D1146Ti
BM090
BM090
BS090
BS090
320
88.9
80.9
340.0
88.9
80.9
BH090
DE12
BS106
BS106
690.0
88.9
80.9
577.0
88.9
80.9
557.
88.9
80.9
463.0
88.9
80.9
DE12T
BH115E
BH115E
BH120E
BH120E
←
←
←
←
←
←
560.0
101.6
91.6
367.0
101.6
91.6
535.8
101.6
91.6
560.0
101.6
91.6
367.0
101.6
91.6
DE12Ti
BS106
BH115E
BH120E
DE12Tis
BS106
BH115E
BH120E
320.0
←
←
16
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
535.8
101.6
91.6
560.0
101.6
91.6
367.6
101.6
91.6
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
535.8
101.6
91.6
560.0
101.6
91.6
367.6
101.6
91.6
1. General Information
DE12T
Distinction
DE12Ti/Tis
(310ps)
BH116
K1105C
K1006R
K1006R
T-10S5B
K1205C
K1205P
K1206R
K1405A
K1406P
T16DS5A
K1605A
DE12Ti/Tis
(340ps)
BH116/BH117
Length
600.2
Outside dia.
101.6
Inside dia.
91.6
Length
400.7
Outside dia.
101.6
Inside dia.
91.6
Length
569.9
569.9
Outside dia.
101.6
101.6
Inside dia.
91.6
91.6
Length
600.2
Outside dia.
101.3
Inside dia.
91.6
Length
400.7
Outside dia.
101.6
Inside dia.
91.6
DV15T
DV15TiS
BH117/BH120F
Length
541.4
730.3
Outside dia.
101.6
101.6
Inside dia.
91.6
91.6
Length
620.3
Outside dia.
101.6
Inside dia.
91.6
Length
709.8
Outside dia.
114.3
Inside dia.
101.1
Length
678.0
Outside dia.
114.3
Inside dia.
101.1
17
1. General Information
▣ PROPELLER SHAFT (Auto Transmission)
D1146
Distinction
MT643
B300
B400
D851.2
D854.2
D863
D864
HP500
HP600
Length
Outside dia.
Inside dia.
Length
Outside dia.
Inside dia.
Length
Outside dia.
Inside dia.
Length
Outside dia.
Inside dia.
Length
Outside dia.
Inside dia.
Length
Outside dia.
Inside dia.
Length
Outside dia.
Inside dia.
Length
Outside dia.
Inside dia.
Length
Outside dia.
Inside dia.
DE08Tis
D1146Ti
BM090
BM090
BS090
BS090
BH090
DE12
BS106
BS106
577.0
470.0
88.9
80.9
DE12T
BH115E
BH115E
BH120E
BH120E
626.0
88.9
80.9
88.9
80.9
←
←
←
←
←
←
660.0
88.9
80.9
557.0
88.9
80.9
←
←
←
529.0
114.3
101.6
393.0
88.9
80.9
676.0
88.9
80.9
566.0
88.9
80.9
18
←
←
←
569.5
101.6
91.6
569.5
101.6
91.6
DE12Ti
BS106
BH115E
BH120E
DE12Tis
BS106
529.0
114.3
101.1
569.5
101.6
91.6
569.5
101.6
91.6
BH115E
BH120E
1. General Information
DE12T
DE12Ti/Tis
(310ps)
DE12Ti/Tis
(340ps)
DV15T/DV15Tis
BH116
BH116
BH116/BH117
BH120F
Length
555.8
←
Outside dia.
114.3
←
Inside dia.
101.1
←
Length
482.8
←
Outside dia.
101.6
←
Inside dia.
91.6
←
Length
599.3
Outside dia.
101.6
Inside dia.
91.6
Distinction
Length
B400R
Outside dia.
Inside dia.
Length
B500R
Outside dia.
Inside dia.
Length
D851.2
Outside dia.
Inside dia.
Length
D854.2
Outside dia.
Inside dia.
D863
D864
HP500
HP590
Length
599.3
Outside dia.
101.6
Inside dia.
91.6
19
1. General Information
▣ FRONT AXLE
Distinction
BF106
BM090
BS090
BH090
BS106
BH115E
BH120E
Type
Reverse elliot I beam
Tire tread(㎜)
2050
Capacity(㎜)
6000
King pin(㎜) Outside dia.
50
Length
Toe-in(㎜)
Wheel
alignment
4~6
←
0~2
4~6
0~2
0.5˚±30'
-1˚00'±30'
0˚12'±30
1˚30'±30
-0˚36'±30
King pin
Inclination(˚)
Steering angle
BH117
252
Camber(˚)
Caster(˚)
BH116
0˚12'±30
1˚30'±30
7.5˚±10'
Inside(˚)
42˚
45˚
Outside(˚)
34˚
37˚
20
BH120
1. General Information
▣ REAR AXLE
Distinction
BF106
BM090
BS090
BH090
BS106
Type
BH120E
BH116
BH117
BH120
Banjo full floating type
Final drive gear type
Final
gear
Ratio
BH115E
Spiral bevel
Hypoid gear
39/6
39/7
-
39/7
-
39/7
39/8
39/8
39/8
39/8
39/8
-
39/10
-
39/10
Option
39/11
←
←
←
39/11
39/11
39/11
39/11
39/12
39/12
39/12
39/12
11.5~12.5
Oil capacity (ℓ)
Axle load capacity (㎏)
39/10
9500
10500
21
1. General Information
▣ STEERING
Distinction
BF106
BM090
BS090
BH090
BS106
BH115E
BH120
BH116
Type
Recirculating ball with integral power assisted
Steering wheel diameter (㎜)
500
Power
steering
Gear ratio
22.4:1
Sector gear
Operating angle
96˚
Gear oil capacity(㎜)
1
BH120
1.5
200
Length of drop arm (㎜)
Oil capacity (ℓ)
BH117
5
6
7
22
7.5
1. General Information
▣ BRAKES (Air Over Hydraulic circuit)
Distinction
BF106
Drum inside
Diameter (㎜)
Front
410
Rear
410
Brake lining (㎜)
L x W x T-N
Front
209 x 155 x 16 - 8
Rear
209 x 180 x 16 - 8
Wheel cylinder
Bore dia. (㎜)
Front
53.5
Rear
55.56
Anchor pin (㎜)
Dia. x length
Front
30 x 133.5
Rear
35 x 132
Internal expansion drum type
Type
Parking
Brake
K805A/P, K806P
T8HS5B/P, T8HS6P
Brake drum inside dia. (㎜)
254
304.8
Brake lining (㎜)
LxWxT
288 x 60 x 5.5
353 x 75 x 6.15
Auxiliary brake
Exhaust brake
←
▣ BRAKES ( Full Air circuit)
Distinction
BF106
BM090/BS090/BH090
BS106/BH115E/BH120
BH116/BH117/BH120
Drum inside
Diameter (㎜)
Front
410
←
←
Rear
410
←
←
Brake lining (㎜)
L x W x T-N
Front
209 x 155 x 19 - 8
←
←
Rear
209 x 220 x 19 - 8
←
←
Wheel cylinder
Bore dia. (㎜)
Front
←
←
Anchor pin (㎜)
Dia. x length
Front
30 x 106.5
←
←
Rear
35 x 121.5
←
←
Rear
23
1. General Information
▣ SUSPENSION ( Leaf Spring )
Distinction
BF106
Type
Front
Leaf
Spring
Rear
Damp
force(㎏)
BS106
BH115E
BH120E
Semi elliptical alloy steel
Span(㎜)
1400
1500
Width(㎜)
80
90
Thickness
-no. of leaf
11-2
12-7
11-1
13-6
13-7
13-8
Spring constant
(㎏/㎜)
32.83
25.33
33.5
36.42
Span(㎜)
1660
Width(㎜)
100
Thickness
-no. of leaf
12-2
11-3
16-4
14-4
15-4
15-1
14-9
14-11
Spring constant
(㎏/㎜)
32.86
43.5
47.9
50.31
Type
Shock
absorber
BM090
BS090
Hydraulic, double acting telescopic
Front rebound
650
595
Front compression
275
260
Rear rebound
650
650
Rear compression
260
260
24
1. General Information
▣ SUSPENSION ( Air Spring )
FRONT
REA R
Distinction
BH116
BH090
BH116
BH1117
BH120
BH090
BH117
STD
Type
Air
Spring
Variable throttle type with stabilizer
Effective dia. (㎜)
250
Design height(㎜)
270
Max. out dia. (㎜)
310
260
250
270
316
L/V
260
310
No. of springs
2
4
Stroke of ext.
100
100
Spring(㎜) comp.
100
100
Type
Shock
Absorber
WIDE
Double acting telescopic type
Out. dia. (㎜)
86
86
74.5
Base shell dia. (㎜)
76.3
76.3
65
No. of S/A
2
2
4
Extension (㎜)
594
545
710
Compression (㎜)
384
338
465
No of leveling valve
1
2
25
BH120
1. General Information
▣ WHEEL AND TIRE
9.00-20-14PR
(Tube)
9.00R20-14PR
(Tube,Radial)
10.00-20-14PR
(Tube)
10.00-20-16PR
(Tube)
10.00R20-16PR
(Tube, Radial)
Out dia. (㎜)
1014~1034
1006~1032
1046~1076
←
←
Max width (㎜)
229
←
254
←
←
Front
7.7㎏/㎠(109psi)
8.0㎏/㎠(113psi)
7.0㎏/㎠(99psi)
8.1㎏/㎠(115psi)
←
Rear
7.0㎏/㎠(99psi)
7.3㎏/㎠(103psi)
6.3㎏/㎠(89psi)
7.4㎏/㎠(105psi)
←
Disc. Wheel size
7.00T-20
←
←
←
←
Distinction
11.00-20-16PR
(Tube)
11.00R20-16PR
(Tube, Radial)
11R22.5-16PR
(Tubeless)
12R22.5-16PR
(Tubeless)
295/80R22.5-16PR
(Tubeless)
Out dia.(㎜)
1078~1108
1068~1098
1037~1067
1068~1098
1030~1058
Max width (㎜)
295
293
295
305
295
Front
8.4㎏/㎠(119psi)
←
←
←
8.3㎏/㎠(118psi)
Rear
7.7㎏/㎠(109psi)
←
←
←
8.3㎏/㎠(118psi)
7.50V-20
←
8.25x22.5
←
←
Distinction
Tire
Tire
Inflation
Pressure
Tire
Tire
Inflation
Pressure
Disc. Wheel size
26
1. General Information
▣ COOLER ( Sub Cooler )
Type
PBC-2400(D)
Cooling capacity (㎉/h)
26,000
Refrigerant
R-12/R-134a (OPTION)
Weight
ABOUT 550㎏
Model
KIA S-2
Piston displacement(㏄)
2209
No. of cylinder
4
Engine
Rotating
Speed (rpm)
High
1850
mid
1450
Low
1150
Type
ND 6C-500
Piston displacement (㎜)
495
Compressor
Condenser
AL FIN & CU TUBE
Blower capacity (㎥/min) (AT 40㎜ Aq)
66.7
Expansion valve
Thermostatic expansion valve
Receiver capacity (ℓ)
2.6
27
1. General Information
▣ COOLER ( Roof-On
Cooler )
Type
Standard
Tropical
Heavy duty
Compressor
1
←
←
Cooling capacity (㎉/h)
21,000
←
←
Refrigerant
R-12/R-134a (OPTION)
Type
Compressor
4PFC/4PFCY(OPTION)
No. of cylinder
4
←
←
Diameter (㎜)
210
←
←
Stroke (㎜)
57
←
←
Capacity (㏄/rev)
560
←
←
Type
AL FIN & CU TUBE
Condenser
Condenser
fan
Total area (㎥)
0.466
0.762
←
Type
PROPELLER
FAN x 3
PROPELLER
FAN x 5
←
Capacity (㎥/h)
4700
7200
←
Required power (A)
5.5A/EA
←
←
Type
Receiver
Tank
Horizontal
3.4
Capacity (ℓ)
Type
0.346
Total area (㎥)
Type
Expansion
Valve
←
AL FIN & CU TUBE
Evaporator
Evaporator
Fan
←
←
SIROCCO FAN x 8
←
SIROCCO FAN
x 12
Capacity (㎥/h)
400/EA
←
←
Required power (A)
5.5A/EA
←
←
Type
External equalizing pressure
Capacity (RT)
Total weight(㎏)
28
8
←
←
190
218
240
1. General Information
ENGINE ( Euro Ⅲ )
Model
DL08
DV11
Type
Water-cooled, 4 cycle, in-line
Turbo charged & inter-cooled
Water-cooled, 4 cycle, V-type 90˚
Turbo charged & inter-cooled
Direct injection type
Cylinder liner type
Replaceable dry liner
Wet type
Timing gear system
Gear driven type
No. of piston ring
2 compression ring, 1 oil ring
No of cylinder
6
Bore x stroke (㎜)
108 x 139
128 x 142
Piston displacement (㏄)
7,640
10,964
Compression ratio
17:1
17.1 : 1
1,356 x 919 x 1,153
1,203 x 1,031 x 1,070
Engine Dimension (㎜)
(Length x Width x Height)
Rotating direction
(from flywheel)
Counter clockwise
Engine weight (dry) (kg)
836
904
Firing order
1-5-3-6-2-4
1-4-2-5-3-6
Fuel high pressure Pump type
Bosch CP3.3 fuel high pressure
pump type
Bosch CP3.4 fuel high pressure
pump type
Engine control system
Injection type
Fuel injection pressure (㎏/㎠)
Valve
clearance
250bar(operating pressure 1,600bar)
0.3
0.4
Exhaust valve
0.4
0.5
Jake brake
1.5
1.5
Open at
26.3˚ (BTDC)
24.0˚ (BTDC)
Close at
34.3˚ (ABDC)
30.0˚ (ABDC)
Open at
53.0˚ (BBDC)
52.5˚ (BBDC)
Close at
13.0˚ (ATDC)
14.5˚ (ATDC)
Fuel filter type
Fuel injection
pressure
(㎏/㎠)
Multi-hole (9xΦ0.197 Bosch
DLLA146)
Multi-hole (9xΦ0.147)
Intake valve
Intake valves
Exhaust
valves
Electric control type (ECU)
Full-flow (cartridge)
At idle speed
1.0~3.0
At rated speed
3.0~5.5
29
1. General Information
Model
DL08
DV11
Using lubrication oil
ACEA-E5 (API CI-4 class)
Lubrication method
Full forced pressure feed type
Oil pump type
Gear type driven by crank shaft
Oil filter type
Cartridge type
Full-flow, paper element type
(double)
Lubricating oil capacity
( max./min.) (ℓ)
Bus : 27 / 21
Bus : 34/26
Oil cooler type
Water cooler
Oil pressure indicator
Oil pressure unit
Water pump
Belt driven centrifugal type
Cooling method
Pressurized circulation
Cooling water capacity (ℓ)
Thermostat
13.3
14.3
Type
Wax pallet type
Open at (℃)
83℃
Open wide at(℃)
95℃
Valve lift (㎜)
8
Water temperature indicator
Water temperature sensor mounted
Type
Air
compressor
Water cooled
Capacity(㏄/rev)
440
550
Revolution ratio
1:1(engine speed ; air compressor
speed)
1 : 1.265(engine speed ; air
compressor speed)
Type
Steering
pump
Gear driven, vane type
Capacity
16 or 18
16 / 18 / 25
Adjusting
pressure(㎏/㎠)
125
125 / 150
Revolution ratio
1 : 1.303
(engine speed : pump speed)
1 : 1.265
(engine speed : pump speed)
Turbocharger
Exhaust gas driven type ( waste gate)
Engine stop system
Fuel feeding shut-off by ECU
Engine brake
Control by ECU
Alternator
( voltage-capacity) (V-A)
Starting motor
(voltage-output)(V-kW)
Air heater capacity (V-A)
24-60
24-60 or 24-150
24-4.5
24-6.0
12V-1.3kW x 2EA
24V-2.64kW
Battery capacity (V-AH)
24-150
30
1. General Information
▣ CLUTCH
Distinction
BS090
BH090
BH119
BH120
Outside
dia.
430
430
Inside dia.
250
242
Thickness
5
4
Clutch clamping
force(㎏)
Clutch
pedal
BH117
BX212
Dry single plate with coil spring dampers hydraulic
circuit incorporating clutch minipack
Type
Clutch
facing
dimensions
(㎜)
BS106 BH115E BH116
Free play
1585±10%
46.4
47.4
2000±
10%
DL08 : 2000±10%
DV11 : 2300±10%
DV11(160㎏.m) : 2000±10%
DV11(170㎏.m) : 2300±10%
47.5
47.1
47.4
Max.
stroke
170
Clutch minipack start
working pressure(㎏/㎠)
5.5
Master cylinder
bore dia.(㎜)
20
31
1. General Information
▣ TRANSMISSION
BS090
BH090
Type
XDB
HGF SCC
XDB
HGF SCC
Model
T9DS5A
T9DS5P
K1005R
K1005R
Speed
5 D.D
5 O.D
5 D.D
5 O.D
Speed
Gear
14/6
15/6
14/6
Control
GBD
K1005D
15/6
FGC/FQD
T9DS5A
MS6
MR5 MSS
MN9
MS5 MS6
5 O.D
5 D.D
14/6
14/6
12/6 11/6 12/6 11/6 12/6 11/6 12/6 11/6
MANUAL
MANUAL
MR5
MS6
DL08
GE08Ti
Power
250PS
240PS
MR5
MT2
MN9
Model
Speed
Speed
Gear
FGC/FBO
T10DS5C K1205D T10DS6C
1206Q
250PS
270PS
Code
FGC
XAD
K1205C T14DS5A K1405A T14DS6P K1405T
K1205D T10DS5C K1206Q T10DS6Q K1205C
6 O.D
5 D.D
5 D.D
6 O.D
5 D.D.
6 O.D
12/6
14/6
11/6
11/7
12/7
12/6
14/6
MANUAL
MT3
MK1
MR6
MK2
MP7
MP9
250PS
270PS
MT3
MP7
DL08
GE12Ti
300PS
290PS
XHD
T10S5B
5 D.D
IHD/HHD/ESD
K1405A T14DS5A K1406T
5 D.D
11/6
T14DS6P T16DS6F
MP5
MT4
Engine
DL08
GE12Ti
DV11
Power
310PS
310PS
340PS
MK3
MK1
MT3
MK2
MR6
MP9
12/7
MP7
K1606T
6 O.D
T17DS6F K1706T
6 O.D
12/7
12/7
POWER SHIFT
MT5
ML0
BH117/BH119/BH120
GBO
5 D.D
Control
MK1
BH116(BH115E)
GBO
T10S5B
MN6
DL08
BH115E
FBO
GBE
5 D.D
Engine
Type
XAD/XMD/X01
T9DS5P T9DS5PN K1005R K1005RN K1005D T10DS5C T10DS5B K1005C
MANUAL
Code
BS106
POWER SHIFT
MP5
MT5
MK3
MT4
MT6
MK4
MT7
MK5
DV11
360PS
32
380PS
1. General Information
▣ PROPELLER SHAFT
Model
Flange
(R/A-T/M)
BS090
GE08Ti
DL08
240PS
250PS
BH090
DL08
BS106
BH115E
GE12Ti
DL08
DL08
290PS
300PS
GE12Ti
BH116
DV11
DL08
GE12Ti
BH117
BH119
BH120
DV11
DV11
340PS
360PS/380PS
Engine
T9DS5A
347.6
K1005D
344.1
T9DS5A
370.0
K1005D
362.5
250PS
270PS
310PS
340PS
310PS
HR-CF
T9DS5P/PN
373.3
K1005R/RN
365.8
T10S5B
565.4
566.1
T10S5B
581.3
585.5
T10DS6Q
591.1
597.1
K1005C
596.1
596.7
K1205C
C/F-C/F
600.2
T10DS5C
670.6
671.2
675.5
K1205D
719.3
719.1
724.8
T14DS6P
836.2
841.7
K1406T
846.6
852.0
K1405A
897.6
903.0
T14DS5A
926.2
931.6
K1606
X/S-X/S
570.0
/1706T
T13
/T17DS6P
33
741.8
741.8
952.2
795.2
1. General Information
▣ REAR AXLE
Distinction
BS090
BH090
BS106
Type
BH115E
BH116
BH117
BH119
BH120
BX212
Banjo full floating type
Final drive gear type
Final gear ratio
Pinion cage length
Spiral bevel
39/8
Hypoid gear
39/8
39/9
39/12
39/9
39/10
39/8
425
( 16 – M12 x 1.25 )
Operation type
39/8
39/9
39/11
39/12
444.5
( 12 –M16 x 1.5 )
39/11
4x2
10.5
Oil capacity (ℓ)
11.5
▣ FRONT AXLE
Distinction
BS090
BH090
BS106
Type
Wheel
Alignment
Steering
angle
BH116
BH117 BH119H BH120
Reverse elliot I beam
Φ50x252
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
Front
2,050
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
Rear
1,853
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
2˚36'±30'
←
King pin out. dia. (㎜)
Tire
BH115E
Toe-in
Bias : 4~6㎜, Radial : 0~1㎜
Camber
0.5˚±30'
Caster
0˚12'±30' 1˚30'±30' -0˚36'±30' 0˚12'±30' 1˚30'±30'
King pin
Inclination
7˚30'±30'
Front
45˚
Rear
37˚
34
1. General Information
▣ STEERING
Distinction
BS090
BH090
Type
BS106
BH115E
BH116
BH117
BH119H
BH120
Recirculating ball with integral power assisted
Steering wheel
Diameter(㎜)
500
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
22.4 : 1
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
96˚
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
1.5
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
Length of drop arm(㎜)
200
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
oil capacity(ℓ)
7
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
Gear ratio
Power
steering
Sector gear
operating angle
Gear oil
capacity(ℓ)
▣ BRAKE
Distinction
BF106
BS090
Service brake type
Drum inside diameter (㎜)
BH090
BS106
BH115E
BH116
BH117
BH119
BH120
BX212
Full air (dual circuit)
410
←
←
←
←
Brake lining(㎜)
LxWxT-N
Front
209x155-19-8
←
←
←
←
Rear
209x220-19-8
←
←
←
←
No. of
lining rivet
-diameter
Front
24-Φ7.3
←
←
←
←
Rear
32-Φ7.3
←
←
←
←
0.3±0.1㎜
←
←
←
←
0.5~0.8㎜
←
←
←
←
Lining clearance
Manual slack
adjuster
Auto slack
adjuster
35
1. General Information
▣ SUSPENSION (Leaf Spring)
Leaf Spring
Shock absorber
Length x Width x Thickness
- no. of leaf
Damping force(㎏)
Rebound/Compression
Front
1,500x9013-6
595/150
Rear
1,660x100x12-2
1,660x100x16-5
650/150
Front
1,500x90x13-6
595/150
Rear
1,500x100x14-5
1,500x100x15-4
650/150
Front
1,500x90x13-7
595/150
Rear
1,660x100x15-1
1,660x100x14-9
650/150
Distinction
BS090
BS106
BH115E
▣ SUSPENSION (Air Spring)
FRONT
REAR
Distinction
BH116 / BH117 / BH119 / BH120
Type
Air
Spring
Variable throttle type with stabilizer
Effective dia. (㎜)
250
250
Design height (㎜)
270
270(STD)
260(WIDE)
Max out. dia. (㎜)
275
275
No. of springs
2
4
Extension
100
←
Compression
100
←
Stroke
Type
Double acting telescopic type
Outside dia. (㎜)
86
←
Shock
Base shell dia. (㎜)
76.3
←
Absorber
No. of S/A
2
Extension
570
Compression
100
←
1
2
stroke
L/V
2(STD)
4(WIDE)
595(SD)
300(WIDE)
No. of leveling valve
36
1. General Information
4. LUBRICATION
4.1. OIL VISCOSITY CHART
▣ Engine oil
▣ Gear oil
37
1. General Information
4.2. Recommended lubrication list
Lubricant
Lubricant point
Capacity
Oil change period
Specification
Maker and brand name
Engine oil
Engine
15.5ℓ
(BF,BS)
20ℓ (BH)
First : 1,000㎞
Every : 5,000㎞
(D1146)
CC grade
CD grade
CALTEX : 20RPM DELO 40
SHELL : RIMULA X
Transmission
Gear oil
Rear axle
8ℓ (BF,BS)
9.8ℓ (BH)
8ℓ (BF,BS)
10ℓ (BH)
15,000 (DE12,DV15)
GL-5 grade
First : 3,000~5,000㎞
CALTEX : Multi-Purpose
THUBAN EP
SHELL : SPIRAX H.D
MOBIL : MOBILUBE H.D
Power steering
oil
Power
steering
6ℓ (BF,BS)
8.5ℓ (BH)
Every : 24,000㎞
DEXRON R-11
Brake fluid
Brake & clutch
4ℓ
First : 1,000㎞
SAE J1703
CALTEX : BRAKE FLUID
Grease
Wheel bearings
Grease fittings
Needed
quantity
Every : 24,000㎞
Every 1 year
Every : 4,000㎞
Multi-purpose
Type grease
NLGI No. 2 or 3
CALTEX : MARFAK
MOBIL : GREASE MP
SHELL : ALVANIA EP R2
4.3. Lubrication chart
The lubrication chart gives all information
necessary for providing the vehicle chassis with
correct lubricating attention.
In the following chart, the kinds of lubricant and
hydraulic oil to be used, intervals of lubricating
services, type of service required, and lubrication
points are indicants are for quick reference.
The lubricants are recommended for use when
adding lubricant or when disassembling parts.
When using the lubricants, observe the following.
When the vehicle was assembled in Daewoobus,
the various parts were lubricated throughout.
Therefore, before lubricating according to the
following chart, drain and clean all parts thoroughly
of all such lubricant.
When lubricating, always use the same product
consistently.
Never mix lubricants of different manufactures. If
the above precautions are observed conscientiously,
bearing seizure or other troubles may be prevented
and the vehicle service life will be appreciably
lengthened.
38
CALTEX : DEXRON
SHELL : DEXRON
1. General Information
LUBRICATION CHART FOR FRONT ENGINE BUS
39
1. General Information
LUBRICATION CHART FOR REAR ENGINE BUS
40
SECTION 2
CLUTCH
CONTENTS
PAGE
1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION
1.1.
CONSTRUCTION
42
1.2.
SPECIFICATION
42
2. SERVICING OF CLUTCH ASSEMBLY
2.1.
REMOVAL
44
2.2.
DISASSEMBLY
45
2.3.
INSPECTION OF DISASSEMBLED PARTS
46
2.4.
REASSEMBLY AND INSTALLATION
49
3. SERVICING OF CLUTCH CONTROL ASSEMBLY
3.1.
CLUTCH MASTER CYLINDER
51
3.2.
MINI-PACK (AIR-BOOSTER)
53
3.3.
CLUTCH PEDAL AND RELATIVE PARTS
62
3.4.
ADJUSTMENT OF CLUTCH PEDAL FREE PLAY
68
3.5.
BLEEDING OF CLUTCH HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT
69
4. TROUBLE SHOOTING
71
41
2. Clutch
1. General description
1.1. Construction
This model is equipped with a dry single plate
type clutch with coil spring dampers to permit
coupling and uncoupling of the engine and
transmission. The clutch assembly consists
principally of the pressure plate, driven plate,
clutch cover, springs, release levers, etc.
The driven plate is positioned between the
engine flywheel and pressure plate and is held
in good contact with the flywheel and pressure
plate by the action of the springs to carry the
engine torque to the transmission through
frictional resistance. The clutch control is
hydraulically actuated and when the clutch
pedal is depressed, foot pressure is relayed via
the master cylinder and clutch mini-pack to the
link rod which, in turn, move the clutch shift
fork lever, shift block and release levers,
thereby releasing the pressure plate.
Thus, the driven plate is brought into free state
to uncouple the engine and transmission. When
the clutch pedal is released, the pressure plate
forces the driven plate against the engine
flywheel by the action of the clutch springs to
couple the engine and transmission.
1.2. Specification
Distinction
BM090
BF106
BH115E
Outside dia.
380
430
Inside dia.
240
250
Thickness
Clutch clamping force (㎏)
Clutch pedal
BH115
BH116
BH117
BH120
Dry single plate with coil spring dampers hydraulic
circuit incorporating clutch minipack
Type
Clutch facing
dimension(㎜)
BS106
5
1380±10% (DE12)
1950±10%(DE12T)
2100±10%(DE12Ti)
1470±10%
(DE12Ti)
2320+8%-6%
(DE12Ti/DV15T)
Ratio
6.75
7.09
6.67
6.75
6.75
6.75
Free play
46.4
48.8
46.6
47.1
47.2
47.4
Max. stroke
170
180
150
170
170
170
Clutch minipack start working
pressure(㎏/㎠)
5.5
Master cylinder bore dia. (㎜)
20
42
2. Clutch
CLUTCH ASSEMBLY IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
1.
Plate A-pressure
9.
Bearing-clutch, REL.
2.
Plate A-driven
10.
Fork-shift, clutch
3.
Bolt-hex M10 x 1.5
11.
Screw-set, shift fork
4.
Washer-spring
12.
Washer-spring
5.
Shaft-W/lever
13.
Spring-return, shift block
6.
Nipple-grease
14.
Hose-flexible
7.
Key-feather, clutch shaft
15.
Nipple-grease
8.
Block-shift
16.
Clip
43
2. Clutch
2. Servicing of clutch assembly
Service tools : A set of open-end wrenches, offset
wrenches, socket wrenches, wire, pliers, hammer, hoist,
transmission jack, micrometer, vernier
calipers, dial indicator, square, spring
tester, feeler gauge, straighter edge.
Special tools : Clutch pilot bearing aligner, clutch
release lever aligner, clutch pilot
bearing remover, clutch release
bearing ruler
Disconnect the speedometer cable at the joint on the
transmission side.
▣
2.1. Removal
Raise the transmission assembly on a hoist or
support the transmission assembly on a transmission
jack and remove the bolts mounting the clutch housing.
Remove the transmission assembly rearward.
Removal the clutch assembly from vehicle together
with the transmission assembly in the following
procedure.
▣
Disconnect the propeller shaft at the flange yoke on
the transmission side.
▣
Note. Handle the transmission assembly with care as it
is heavy weighing approximately 280kg. Pull out the
transmission assembly horizontally using care not to
cause distortion of the driven plate.
Remove the bolts from the rubber holder fixing the
center bearing cushion rubber.
▣
▣
Remove the propeller shaft.
▣
Remove the floor board within the cab.
Remove the gearshift lever assembly or connecting
rod and disconnect the wiring of the back-up lamp
switch on the quadrant box.
▣
Disconnect the parking lever assembly or
connecting rod from the relay lever at the joint pin.
Remove the parking brake lever assembly or
connecting rod.
▣
Remove the bolts fixing the clutch pressure plate
assembly. Remove the pressure plate assembly.
▣
Note. The driven plate comes out of position when
removing the pressure plate. For assurance of safety,
hold the driven plate assembly in position by inserting
special tool, clutch pilot bearing aligner into splined
portion of the driven plate.
Remove the clutch mini-pack assembly together
with the bracket and fasten the mini-pack assembly to
the frame member with wire. It is not necessary to
disconnect air and oil pipes unless when inspecting or
replacing them.
▣
44
2. Clutch
levers and holder springs.
2.2. Disassembly
2.2.1. Disassembly of Pressure Plate Assembly
Pull out cotter pin from the release levers and
remove the release lever pins. Remove the release
levers and holder springs.
▣
Depress the clutch cover with a bench press to
compress the clutch springs and remove the release
lever lock nuts.
▣
2.2.2. Disassembly of Clutch Shift Fork and
Relative Parts
Note. Clutch springs can not be compressed by merely
depressing the spring case without applying pressure
onto the clutch cover.
Remove the clutch shift fork set bolts. Remove the
cover by tapping on the end of the shaft with a copper
hammer from the shift lever side. ( clutch mini-pack
side )
▣
Remove the release lever lock nuts and distance
pieces.Turn loose bench press gradually and remove
the clutch cover from the pressure plate.
▣
Drive the shaft part way out by tapping on its end
from the cover side using a suitable bar and a hammer.
When the keys on the shift form clear, remove the
keys and pull out the shift fork shaft toward the minipark side.
▣
Remove the clutch spring cases and clutch springs
from the pressure plate.
▣
Pull out the cotter pin from the release levers and
remove the release lever pins. Remove the release
▣
Remove the shift fork from the front cover together
with the shift block. Remove the return springs.
▣
45
2. Clutch
Remove the bolts mounting the clutch housing.
Remove the clutch housing from the transmission case.
▣
When replacing the release bearing, take out the
bearing from the shift block using the special toolbearing puller.
▣
▣
Wash clean disassembled parts.
2.3. Inspection of Disassembled Parts
Check the clutch driven plate for warage using a
dial indicator. Take measurement at the portion
170mm apart from the center of the driven plate.
Replace the driven plate if the amount of warpage is
beyond the limit.
▣
2.3.1. Driven Plate
Unit : ㎜
Driven plate
warpage
Allowance for
assembly
Limit for use
1.0 or less
1.5 or more
Assemble the clutch driven plate to the splined
portion of the transmission top gear shaft and check
the amount of play in the springs in rotary direction at
the outer edge of the driven plate.
▣
Check the friction face of the driven plate for cracks,
hardening of material and a sign of slippage due to
contact with oil or grease. Check the rivets for
looseness and damper springs for checks and wear.
▣
Note. To obtain correct measurement, apply a mark to
the outer circumference of the driven plate and set the
probe of surface rotary direction.
Measure the depression (t) of the rivet heads from
the surface of the clutch facing on both sides. Replace
the driven plate if measured value is less than the limit.
▣
Unit : ㎜
Unit : ㎜
Depression
of river
heads (t)
Nominal
value
Limit for
use
BM/BF
3.6
0.2
BS/BH
3.0
0.2
Play of clutch
center splines in
rotative direction
(at the outer edge
of driven plate)
46
Standard
value for
assembly
Limit for use
0.09~0.24
0.42
2. Clutch
▣
If the amount of play is beyond the limit, check
condition of step wear on the top gear shaft splines to
determine the parts to be replaced. Slight amount of
step wear on the top gear shaft splined may be
removed using a scrapper or other suitable tool.
Note. If material in thickness of more than 1.0mm is to
be removed from the pressure plate through correction,
it is necessary to adjust set length of the clutch springs
by installing a washer equivalent in thickness to the
material removed under each spring.
Check the clutch facing for cracking, scores and
hardening of material due to heating. Replace the
driven plate if found to be defective.
2.3.3. Release Lever Pins
▣
Check the damper springs for weakening and rivets
for looseness. Replace the driven plate assembly as
necessary.
▣
2.3.2. Pressure Plate and Clutch Cover
Measure the outside diameter of the release lever pins
with an outside micrometer. Replace the release lever
pin if the measured value is beyond the limit of heavy
scores are noticeable.
Unit : ㎜
Check the pressure for scoring, warpage and
reduction in thickness due to wear. If the amount of
warpage or depth of scoring is within 1.5mm, correct
with a surface grinder.
Nominal
diameter
Limit for
use
15”(Φ380)
31
30.5
17”(Φ430)
60
59.5
▣
Outside
diameter
Check the dry bushing (made up of sintered alloy
with teflon coating) for wear. Replace the parts if the
amount of wear is considerable.
▣
Unit : ㎜
Thickness of
pressure plate
(t)
Nominal
thickness
Limit for
use
15”(Φ380)
31
30.5
17”(Φ430)
60
59.5
2.3.4. Release Levers
Check the tip end of the release levers for wear.
Release the release lever if the amount of wear is in
excess of 1 mm.
▣
47
2. Clutch
2.3.5. Clutch Springs.
2.3.6. Shift Fork and Relative Part
With a spring tester measure the load required to
compress the clutch springs to set length of 57.6 mm.
Reject the spring if measured value is beyond the limit.
▣
Check the contacting face of the shift fork and shift
block for wear.
Replace the parts if the amount of wear is in excess of
1 mm. If a slight amount of wear is noticeable, correct
with an oil-stone.
▣
Inspection of thrust bearing
Check the thrust bearing by turning it with hand.
Replace the bearing if it produces abnormal noise.
▣
Measure the free length of the clutch springs with a
spring tester. Replace the spring if measured value is
beyond the limit.
▣
Set load : when
compressed to set
length of 67mm
Free length
(reference value)
Nominal
spring tension
and free
length
Limit of
use
115㎏
105k㎏
62.6㎜
61.3㎜
Check the clutch shift fork shaft for wear.
If uneven wear or step wear is noticeable, replace the
shift fork shaft together with the needle roller bearing.
▣
2.3.7. Replacement of Needle Roller Bearing
To replace needle roller bearing, proceed as follows
Drive out the needle roller bearing from both sides of
the housing using a soft metalbar and a hammer.
The needle roller bearing on the shift lever side (clutch
mini-pack side) is fitted with an oil seal.
Remove the oil seal together with the bearing using a
soft metal bar.
▣
Check ends of the clutch springs for distortion.
Position the clutch springs on a surface plate as shown
in the drawing and check the amount of inclination
from vertical using a square. Replace upper end of the
spring and square is beyond the limit.
▣
Installation of new bearing
Drive the bearing, with marked side out, into the
housing, using a hammer carefully so as not to scratch
the oil seal.
▣
Unit : ㎜
Inclination from
vertical
Nominal
clearance
Limit for
use
1.0 or less
2.5 or more
48
2. Clutch
the flywheel.
Unit : ㎜
Depth of friction
face from clutch
cover fitting face
Nominal
depth
Limit for use
48
49
If the friction face of the flywheel has been worn or
ground, or if pressure plate has been ground, causing
more than 1 mm of increase in the seat length of the
clutch springs, resulting reduction in contacting
pressure should be compensated for b installing
washers equivalent in thickness to the amount of
increase in the set length of the clutch springs in
position between the pressure plate and clutch springs.
▣
The clutch pilot bearing is fitted to the engine
flywheel. Remove the pilot bearing cover an remove
the pilot bearing.
▣
Wash clean the bearing in detergent oil and abnormal
noise.
Replace the bearing if found to be defective.
2.4. Reassembly and Installation
Apply wheel bearing grease to the clearance
between dust seal and needle roller bearing when
installing the dust seal.
▣
2.4.1. Reassembly
Note. Refer to the drawing above for dust seal setting
position
To reassemble the clutch assembly, follow the
disassembly procedure in the reverse order and note
the following points.
Install the plug on the left side face of the housing
when installing of the clutch shaft is completed.
▣
▣
▣
If the set length of the clutch springs has been
increased by more than 1 mm due to wear of the
flywheel or through grinding of the pressure plate,
clutch spring set load should be adjusted by installing
under each clutch spring a washer which is equivalent
in thickness to the amount of clutch spring set length
increased..
2.3.8. Flywheel and Pilot Bearing
Check the friction face of the flywheel for cracks,
scores and damage. Replace or correct by grinding if
cracks or scores could be removed within the limit of
reduction in thickness. Measure the depth of the
friction face of the flywheel from the clutch cover
fitting face. If the amount of wear is excessive, replace
▣
Leave the release lever adjust nuts semi-tight as
they are to be fully tightened when release lever height
▣
49
2. Clutch
adjustment is completed after the installation of the
clutch assembly on the vehicle.
2.4.2. Installation
Before installation, wipe clean surface of the
flywheel, driven plate and pressure plate and check
that they are free from oil or grease.
▣
50
2. Clutch
3. Servicing of clutch control assembly
3.1. Clutch master cylinder
Clutch Master Cylinder in Disassembled View
A.
Master cylinder A-clutch
10.
Plate
1.
Body
11.
Ring-retaining
2.
Piston
12.
Rod
3.
Primary cup
13.
Boot
4.
Secondary cup
14.
Nut-hex M10 x 1.25
5.
Spacer
15.
Nut hex M10 x 1.25
6.
Seat-spring
16.
Joint-jaw
7.
Spring
17.
Packing
8.
Valve A-check
18.
Retainer
9.
Connector
19.
Nipple-hose
51
2. Clutch
wear, damage and elasticity and replace with
new ones as necessary.
3.1.1. Removal
Disconnect the vinyl pipe connected
between the master cylinder and fluid reservoir
from master cylinder joint nipple.
▣
② Check the cylinder body and piston for
wear and damage and replace with new ones if
found to be excessive wear and damage.
Take out the joint bolt and disconnect the
flexible hose.
▣
Unit : ㎜
Note. Prepare a suitable container to receive
brake fluid that flows out when the pipe and
hose are disconnected.
Standard
value for
assembly
Limit for
use
0.10
More than
0.15
Clearance
between the
body and piston
Pull out the push rod joint pin and
disconnect the pedal arm from the push rod.
▣
③ Check the return spring for damage and
weakening
※ Reference
set load / set length
2.7
Free length
④ Check the boot for damage and elasticity
and replace with a new one as necessary.
3.1.3. Reassembly and Installation
Take out the master cylinder fixing bolts,
then remove the master cylinder.
▣
Reassembly and install the master cylinder
on the vehicle in the reverse order of
disassembly and removal and note the
following points.
▣
3.1.2. Disassembly and inspection
▣
Take out the boot and push rod.
Discard used piston cups and install new
ones when reassembling.
▣
Submerge the parts in the clean brake fluid
when reassembling.
▣
▣
Note the director piston cups.
Remove the clip, then take out the 1 stopper,
2 piston assembly, 3 spacer, 4 piston cup, 5
return spring and 6 check valve.
▣
Wash clean the disassembled parts and
check them in the following manner.
▣
Note. : Never use the gasoline and diesel fuel.
▣ When installation of master cylinder is
completed, adjust the clutch pedal free play
and bleed the hydraulic circuit.
① Check the primary and secondary cups for
52
2. Clutch
3.2. Mini-Pack (Air-Booster)
3.2.1. General description
The clutch mini-pack assembly is a compressed air assisted clutch booster and consists essentially of
compressed air circuit and hydraulic circuit integrated into a compact unit. The mini-pack assembly is
nearly equal to brake air-master in construction and operation. The clutch mini-pack serves as a clutch
slave cylinder and controls the clutch lever, via the push rod.
53
2. Clutch
MINIPACK ASSEMBLY IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
54
2. Clutch
A.
Booster A-clutch
25.
Gasket
1.
Connector
26.
Bush
2.
Gasket
27.
Bolt
3.
Spring
28.
Steel cylinder A
4.
Valve-poppet
29.
Washer
5.
Body-valve
30.
Nut
6.
Spring
31.
Guard A
7.
Diaphragm
32.
Cup-packing
8.
Fitting
33.
Cup-packing
9.
Gasket
34.
Piston
10.
Ring-snap
35.
Cylinder-hydraulic
11.
Cup-packing
36.
o-ring
12.
Piston-relay
37.
Ring-retainer
13.
Cover-exh.
38.
Washer
14.
Cap-protector
39.
Retainer
15.
Screw-air bleeding
40.
Cup-packing
16.
End plate A
41.
Washer
17.
Seal-oil
42.
Bolt-W/Washer
18.
O-ring
43.
Gasket
19.
Rod-push
44.
Gasket
20.
Spring
45.
Bolt-eye
21.
O-ring
46.
Connector-eye
22.
Piston-power
47.
clamp
23.
Cup-packing
24.
Nut
55
2. Clutch
3.2.2. Removal of Clutch Mini-pack
▣
Remove the clutch mini-pack return spring.
▣
Disconnect the air pipe and oil pipe at the
joint.
Note. Plug or tape opening in the mini-pack
and pipes to prevent entry of foreign matter.
Remove the pin and disconnect the clutch
lever from the yoke at the end of the clutch
mini-pack push rod.
▣
Clamp the end plate flange in a vise and
remove the valve adapter from the upper valve
body using a wrench, then remove he gasket,
poppet valve spring and poppet valve.
▣
Remove the stud bolts and nuts from the
bottom the end plate flange bolts, then remove
the clutch mini-pack from the remove the
clutch mini-pack from the bracket.
▣
▣
Drain the clutch mini-pack.
Note. Oil can be drained by loosening bleeder
screw on the way relay valve.
3.2.3. Disassembly of Clutch Mini-pack
Assembly
Wipe clean exterior of the mini-pack
assembly prior to disassembly. Apply setting
mark to the joining portions before
disassembling.
▣
Upper valve body removal
Remove the bolts fixing the end plate and take
out the upper valve body, valve spring and
diaphragm assembly from the end plate.
▣
Note. Do not attempt
diaphragm assembly.
56
to
disassemble
2. Clutch
1. Hydraulic cylinder
2. Hydraulic piston
3. Hydraulic piston cup
Loosen the bushing connecting the end plate
with the control tube.
A seal is fitted into the end of the bushing.
Remove the four bolts fixing the end plate to
the cylinder shell and take out the end plate
assembly, piston return spring and piston push
rod assembly.
▣
Removal of hydraulic cylinder assembly
Remove the hydraulic cylinder assembly with
the hydraulic piston using a wrench.
▣
Clamp the hexagonal portions of the push
rod in a vise and removal the gasket retainer
nut, piston gasket expander, felt gasket, gasket
retainer plate, piston gasket and O-ring in the
order described.
▣
Relay valve piston removal
Clamp the end plate in a soft-jawed vise and
remove the valve fitting using valve fitting
wrench or a box wrench. The valve fitting
includes retaining ring, relay valve piston,
hydraulic piston cup, valve and fitting seal.
▣
Remove the hydraulic piston and piston
cups from the hydraulic cylinder.
▣
Note. Discard used hydraulic piston cups and
O-rings and install new ones at the time of
reassembly.
57
2. Clutch
①
snap ring
⑤
push rod washer
②
stop washer
⑥
oil seal
③
seal retainer
⑦
end plate
④
push cup
3.2.4 Inspection
Wash metallic parts in essential metal
cleaner ( Trichioroethylene, Metal clean, etc )
and keep them neatly on a clean bench.
Check these parts for using, correction and
damage.
Metal parts with rust can be cleaned by lapping
with chrome oxide power. Discard parts if
condition of rust or corrosion is beyond
correction.
▣
Remove the hydraulic piston cup from the
relay valve piston.
▣
Note. Avoid hard with rust sanding or the use
of coarse sand paper for removal of rust, or
leakage of oil or air will result.
Rubber parts are to be replaced with new
ones each time the clutch mini-pack assembly
is overhauled. However, they may be reused
after cleaning with brake fluid if not too long a
time has passed since previous overhauling.
▣
①
retaining ring
③
②
piston cup
④
valve fitting
Relay valve
piston
Remove the bleeder screw using a wrench.
Removal of the exhaust pipe and screw
assembly is unnecessary.
▣
Check the hydraulic piston and hydraulic
cylinder wall for wear of damage and replace
them with new ones as necessary.
▣
Remove the O-ring and snap ring from
inside of the hydraulic cylinder and take out
the piston stop washer, seal retainer, hydraulic
piston cup, push rod washer and oil seal in the
order described.
▣
Inspection of mini-pack return spring.
Check free length of the return spring and
replace with a new one if the measured value is
beyond the limit.
▣
Standard value Free
length of return spring
Note. Discard used hydraulic piston cups and
O-rings and install new ones at the time of
reassembly.
These rubber parts are available as a repair kit.
58
100 mm
2. Clutch
④ Insert the O-ring into the shell side groove
of the end plate. Apply generous amount of air
master paste to the inner face of the end plate,
then assemble the push rod washer, hydraulic
piston cups, retainer seal and piston stop
washer to the end plate in the order described.
Secure these parts in position with the snap
ring, then install the O-ring and bleeder screw.
3.2.5. Reassembly
▣
Reassembly of end plate assembly.
▣
Reassembly piston and push rod assembly.
① apply air master paste to the hydraulic
piston cups, seals and O-ring before
installation. Assemble the hydraulic piston
cups, back to back, to the relay valve piston.
① Apply a thin coat of air master paste to the
piston gasket fitting face of the piston plate
before installation.
② Clamp the hexagonal portion of the push
rod in a vise and install the O-ring, piston, cup
packing and packing plate nut. Caulk opposed
two portions of the nut.
Note. 1. Apply generous amount of vacuum
cylinder oil to the cup packing.
2. Apply air master paste to the push rod.
▣
Reassembly of hydraulic piston assembly
② insert the relay valve piston with the cups
into the valve fitting into wrench into which
retaining ring has been assembled.
( check to make certain the lipped portions of
the piston cups are correctly seated. )
③ Apply air master paste to the valve fitting
seal and insert it into the adapter groove in the
valve fitting. Clamp the flanged portion of the
end plate in a vise and install the valve fitting
using special tool : valve fitting wrench or I
type box wrench.
Tightening torque
Apply air master paste to the hydraulic piston
cups before fitting them to the hydraulic piston.
The piston cups should be assembled, back to
back, to the piston as illustrated.
0.3m-㎏
Installation of hydraulic piston
Apply a thin coat of air master paste to the
▣
59
2. Clutch
inner wall of the hydraulic cylinder and insert
the hydraulic piston into the cylinder from the
end plate fitting side.
④ Align setting marks applied at the time of
disassembly and tighten the nuts evenly, then
install the plug on the bottom face of the
cylinder shell and tighten it to 1 m-kg torque.
Then install the control tube bushing on the
end plate.
Apply air master paste to the hydraulic
cylinder and screw it carefully into the end
plate.
Note. Screwing hydraulic cylinder quickly into
end plate can cause damage to the O-ring.
⑤ Clamp the flanged portion of the end plate
in a vise and fully tighten the hydraulic
cylinder with a wrench, then wipe clean the
end plate and valve fitting.
Major reassembly
① Wipe clean the inner wall of the cylinder
shell and apply a thin coat of air master paste
to the entire wall.
▣
⑥ Install the diaphragm assembly and
position the valve spring over the diaphragm.
Align the upper valve body with the mark on
the end plate, then install and tighten the bolts.
② Insert the bushing and seal into the control
tube.
③ Insert the piston push rod assembly, piston
spring, end plate and seal assembly, then fasten
the clylinder shell with the end plate using
bolts.
⑦ Insert the poppet valve and spring to the
upper valve body and tighten the valve adapter
together with gasket to the upper valve body.
Note. When installing the piston and push rod
assembly use care not to cause distortion of the
piston gasket.
Note. Before installing the upper valve body,
check to mark certain the hydraulic piston
returns quickly by applying compressed air
into the cylinder shell from the end plate side.
If the movement of the piston is unsmooth,
loosen the nuts fastening the end plate with the
cylinder shell and stroke the piston repeatedly
before retightening the nuts.
This test is important as slugguish movement
of the piston will result in oil leakage.
3.2.6. Testing of Clutch Mini-Pack Assembly
after Installation
Air leak test
When installation of the clutch mini-pack
assembly is completed, start and let the engine
run until compressed air reaches 6 kg/㎠, then
loosen the plug on the bottom face of the
cylinder shell and exhaust cover and check for
air leakage.
▣
Oil leak test
Depress the clutch pedal and check the joints
▣
60
2. Clutch
in the hydraulic circuit for leakage. Hold the
clutch pedal depressed and check for variation
in pedal feel and movement of the push rod. If
the clutch pedal feel remains unchanged and
push rod stays still, it indicates that the piston
cups and oil seals are in good order.
Operation test
Depress and release the clutch pedal repeatedly
and check movement of the mini-pack push rod
and listen for hiss accompanied by discharge of
compressed air to make certain clutch system
operates without delay.
▣
Bench test
Performance of the clutch mini-pack can be
test accurately using a brake booster tester and
a clutch test kit.
▣
61
2. Clutch
3.3. Clutch Pedal and relative parts
3.3.1. Disassembled View
62
2. Clutch
1.
Pedal arm A-clutch
18.
Tank A-oil
2.
Seal-plate
19.
Hose
3.
Seal-rubber
20.
Grommet
4.
Cover-seal, rubber
21.
Clip-board
5.
Pad-pedal
22.
Clamp
6.
Cover-pedal pad
23.
Bracket-oil tank
7.
Spring
24.
Bolt hex M10 x 1.25
8.
Shaft
25.
Nut-hex M10 x 1.25
9.
Screw-set
26.
Washer-spring
10.
Washer-spring
27.
Bolt-hex M6 x 1.0
11.
Nipple-grease
28.
Nut-hex M6 x 1.0
12.
Bracket-clutch master cylinder
29.
Bolt-hex M10 x 1.25
13.
Bracket-clutch pedal
30.
Washer-spring
14.
Master cylinder A-clutch
31.
Bolt-hex M10 x 1.25
15.
Pin-joint
32.
Stopper-pedal
16.
Washer-plain
33.
Bolt-hex M6 x 1.0
17.
Pin-split
34.
Washer-spring
63
2. Clutch
3.3.2. DISASSEMBLED VIEW(BS106)
64
2. Clutch
1.
Support A-clutch pedal
21.
Washer-plain
2.
Arm A-clutch pedal
22.
Support-clutch pedal mounting
3.
Bush
23.
Bolt-hex, M12 x 1.25
4.
Shaft
24.
Washer-spring
5.
Nut-hex, M10 x 1.25
25.
Washer-plain
6.
Washer-plain
26.
Oil tank A-clutch master cylinder
7.
Washer-spring
27.
Bracket
8.
Pad-clutch pedal
28.
Bolt-hex M5 x 0.8
9.
Bolt-hex, M10
29.
Nut-hex, M5 x 0.8
10.
Washer-spring
30.
Washer-spring
11.
Nut-hex, M10
31.
Hose-rubber
12.
Spring-return
32.
Grommet
13.
Master cylinder A-clutch
33.
Clip
14.
Pin-joint
34.
Clamp
15.
Washer-plain
35.
Cover-clutch pedal pad
16.
Pin-shaft
17.
Stopper-upper
18.
Stopper-lower
19.
Bolt-hex
20.
Washer-spring
65
2. Clutch
3.3.3. DISASSEMBLUED VIEW (BH Series)
66
2. Clutch
1.
Pedal arm A-clutch
21.
Clip
2.
Rubber-seal
22.
Clamp
3.
Plate-seal
23.
Bracket
4.
Cover-seal rubber
24.
Bolt-hex, M8 x 1.25
5.
Pedal-pad
25.
Nut-hex M8 x 1.25
6.
Cover-pedal pad
26.
Washer-spring
7.
Spring
27.
Bolt-hex M8 x 1.25
8.
Shaft
28.
Nut-hex M8 x 1.25
9.
Stopper
29.
Washer-spring
10.
Bracket-clutch pedal
30.
Bolt-hex M10 x 1.25
11.
Bracket-clutch pedal
31.
Washer-spring
12.
Bracket-clutch control
32.
Bolt-hex M10 x 1.25
13.
Bracket
33.
Nut-hex M10 x 1.25
14.
Master cylinder A-clutch
34.
Washer-spring
15.
Pin-joint
35.
Bolt-hex
16.
Washer-plain
36.
Nut-hex M5 x 0.8
17.
Pin-split
37.
Washer-spring
18.
Oil tank A-clutch M/cyl.
38.
Bolt-hex M8 x 1.25
19.
Hose-vinyl
39.
Nut-hex M8 x 1.25
20.
Grommet
40.
Washer-spring
67
2. Clutch
3.3.4. Inspection of clutch pedal bushing for
wear
Standard value for assembly
( clearance between pin and pin hole )
Check the clutch pedal bushing for play by
shaking the clutch pedal vertically with the
clutch pedal return spring and master cylinder
push rod jaw joint pin removal.
If a considerable amount of play is noticeable,
disassemble the clutch pedal assembly and
check the bushing for wear. Measure the
clearance between the pedal bushing and shaft.
If the amount of clearance is beyond the value
indicating need for servicing, replace either the
bushing or the shaft with higher rate of wear.
0.1㎜
▣
Clearance
between
bushing
and shaft
Standard value
for assembly
Value
indicating
need for
servicing
0.06㎜
0.25㎜ or
more
3.3.6. Inspection of pedal stopper rubber
Check end stopper rubber for fatigue or
damage and replace with a end new one as
necessary.
3.4. Adjustment of clutch pedal free play
It is necessary to adjust the clutch pedal free
play when overhauling of the clutch pedal
assembly, master cylinder assembly or clutch
mini-pack assembly is completed.
Clutch pedal free play adjustment is also
necessary when the amount of free play is
decreased ( less than 35mm ) due to driven
plate wear.
▣
Note. Clutch pedal free play should be checked
with the mini-pack in free state. ( air pressure
0kg/㎠).
Apply grease to the clutch pedal bushing and
shaft after installation.
① Clutch pedal free play consists of the
following two factors.
② Clutch pedal free stroke before mini-pack
push rod begins to move. 25~30mm.
Clutch pedal free stroke before relese bearing
comes into contact with release lever
( clearance between release bearing and release
lever 1.5~2.0mm) 20~25mm.
Standard free play ( ① and ② ) 45~55mm.
3.4.1. Adjustment of clutch pedal stopper
3.3.5. Inspection of pedal jaw joint pin for
wear
Adjust the clutch pedal stroke to 165mm by
means of the pedal stopper bolt.
( reference ) Height of pedal from floor :
approx. 180mm
Replace the jaw joint pin with a new one if
a considerable amount of play is noticeable.
▣
68
2. Clutch
3.5. Bleeding of clutch hydraulic circuit
3.4.2. Adjustment of master cylinder push
rod
Remove the boot and loosen the push rod
lock nut and turn the push rod until it is
brought into contact with the piston, then back
off 1/2 of a turn and tighten the lock nut.
Bleeding operation should be performed when
the clutch hydraulic circuit is drained and
refilled or when overhauling of master cylinder
assembly of mini-pack assembly is completed.
To bleed the clutch hydraulic circuit, proceed
as follows:
▣ Remove the return spring and check that a
clearance exists between the push rod and
piston.
▣
▣
Check the level of fluid in the clutch fluid
reservoir and replenish as necessary to
maintain the specified level during the
bleeding operation.
▣ Pull out the lock pin and install the boot and
return spring.
3.4.3. adjustment of mini-pack push rod
▣
Remove the push rod return spring and boot.
Remove the bleeder rubber cap on the upper
part of the mini-pack. Connect the vinyl tube to
the bleeder and insert the other end o the tube
into a transparent container filled with brake
fluid.
▣
Loosen the push rod lock nut and turn the
push rod until the piston is fully returned, then
back off the push rod 1 2/3 turns and tighten
the lock nut.
▣
Depress and release the clutch pedal
repeatedly and hold it down.
▣
Note. Bleeding operation should be performed
with the engine stationary and with air drained
from the air tank to hold the clutch mini-pack
in free state.
Note. When adjusting the mini-pack push rod
clearance without removing return spring,
remove the check hole cover on the clutch
housing and check the clearance between the
release lever and release bearing (1.5~2.0mm)
▣
With the clutch pedal depressed, loosen the
bleeder screw 1/2 of a turn to discharge brake
fluid with air and tighten it immediately.
▣
Install the boot and return spring.
69
2. Clutch
Repeat the operation until air bubbles
disappear completely from the fluid being
forced out into the container.
▣
When bleeding operation is completed,
check clutch pedal free play and operation of
the clutch.
▣
70
2. Clutch
4. Trouble shooting
4.1. Clutch slipping
▣
▣
▣
when accelerating, vehicle speed does not increase sharply in response to increase in engine speed.
Engine overheating
Engine lacks power.
CAUSE
①
②
③
④
⑤
CORRECTION
①
②
③
④
⑤
Clutch pedal free play insufficient
Oil or grease on driven plate
Driven plate worn excessively
Clutch spring broken or weakened
Shift block binding
Adjust to specification (45~55mm)
Clean or replace driven plate
Replace
Replace
Correct shift block and front cover
4.2. Clutch dragging
▣
Hard-shifting gear grating occurs when gear shifting is attempted.
CAUSE
CORRECTION
① Adjust to specification (45~55mm)
② Replace piston cups. Replace piston and
cylinder if found to be worn.
③ Adjust
④ Correct or replace driven plate, pressue
plate, fly-wheel, thrust bearing,
support pins.
⑤ Readjust
⑥ Perform bleeding operation or correct
mini-pack assembly
⑦ Clean splines and apply bell moly paste
( made by sumico lubracation co.)
①
②
③
④
⑤
Clutch pedal free play excessive
Clutch fluid leaking
Height of release levers unequal
Uneven wear of clutch parts.
Clutch mini-pack push rod stroke
insufficient due to presence of air in
clutch hydraulic circuit
⑥ Movement of driven plate unsmooth due
to wear or sticking of driven plate and
top gear shaft splines
4.3. Clutch juddering
▣
Juddering occurs when clutch is engaged for starting.
CAUSE
CORRECTION
① Replace
② Correct or replace
① Driven plate warped or worn unevenly
② Pressure plate and flywheel
worn unevenly
③ Cushion plate on driven plate cracked
or broken
④ Rivet(s) on driven plate broken
⑤ Damper spring(s) on driven plate
weakened or broken
⑥ Height of release levers unequal
⑦ Clutch springs weakened or broken
③ Replace
④ Replace
⑤ Replace
⑥ Adjust
⑦ Replace
71
2. Clutch
4.4. Clutch noisy
▣ Rattling noise occurs when clutch pedal is depressed
▣ Clutch pedal arm squeaks.
CAUSE
CORRECTION
① Replace
② Apply grease
① Thrust bearing worn or seized
② Clutch pedal shaft poorly
72
SECTION 3
TRANSMISSION
CONTENTS
PAGE
1. GENERAL DESCRIPTIN
1.1.
MODEL
74
1.2.
MAIN DATA AND SPECIFICATION
74
1.3.
TRANSMISSION CONTROL
87
2. SERVICING OF K SERIES TRANSMISSION
2.1.
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
91
2.2.
DISASSEMBLY
93
2.3.
INSPECTION
103
2.4.
REASSEMBLY
105
3. TROUBLE SHOOTING
110
73
3. Transmission
1. General description
1.1.Model
The transmission is 5 speed overdrive type or 5 speed direct drive type and has constant mesh type gears
with blocker ring type synchromesh on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th gears. The gears are supported on the main
shaft via the needle roller bearings for improved durability.
The countershaft is supported in the ball bearing at the front end and by the roller bearing at the rear to
provide a long service life under severe operation condition.
1.2. Main data and specification
TRANSMISSION MODELS APPLICATION
Model
K805A
K805P
K806P
T-9
T-10S5B
T-13S5B
Type
5.D.D
5O.D
6O.D
5D.D
5D.D
5D.D
1st
6.666
5.455
6.666
6.571
6.589
6.589
2nd
3.826
3.130
3.826
3.807
4.002
4.002
3rd
2.213
1.728
2.213
2.201
2.430
2.430
4t
1.417
1.000
1.417
1.463
1.507
1.507
5th
1.000
0.745
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000
6th
-
-
0.734
-
-
-
Rev
6.851
5.606
6.851
6.239
6.888
6.888
Oil capacity(ℓ)
9.8
9.8
11
11
13
13
Input torque(㎏.m)
82
82
82
90
125
135
Weight(㎏)
192
192
200
240
250
250
Gear
Ratio
Model
K1005C
K1005P
K1006R
K1205C
K1205P
K1206R
K1405A
Type
5D.D
5O.D
6O.D
5D.D
5O.D
6O.D
5D.D
1st
6.608
5.500
5.500
6.608
5.500
5.500
6.608
2nd
3.993
3.323
3.482
3.993
3.323
3.482
4.184
rd
2.423
1.782
2.147
2.423
1.782
2.147
2.580
4t
1.518
1.000
1.348
1.518
1.060
1.346
1.518
5th
1.000
0.755
1.000
1.000
0.755
1.000
1.000
6th
-
-
0.755
-
-
0.755
-
Rev
6.937
5.774
5.774
6.937
5.774
5.774
7.003
Oil capacity(ℓ)
9.7
9.7
11.2
9.7
9.7
11.2
14.5
Input torque(㎏.m)
115
115
115
125
125
125
145
Weight(㎏)
250
250
260
250
250
260
290
3
Gear
Ratio
74
3. Transmission
TRANSMISSION IN SECTIONAL VIEW
Model K805
75
3. Transmission
TRANSMISSION IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
Model K805
76
3. Transmission
1
Shaft-Top gear, W/Dog clutch
26
Sleeve-1st/ Reverse
2
Bearing-Top gear shaft
27
Gear-1st main
3
Ring-Snap, Top gear shaft
28
Collar-1st gear
4
Shaft-Main, Transmission
29
Washer-Thrust, 1st gear
5
Bearing-Pilot main shaft
30
Bearing-Main shaft, Rear
6
Ring-Snap, Pilot bearing
31
Piece-Distance, Main shaft
7
Hub-Clutch, 4th/5th
32
Gear-Speedometer
33
Shaft-Counter
8
Sleeve- 4th/5
th
th
9
Ring-Block, 4th/5
34
Bearing-Counter shaft, front
10
Block-Detent, Synchronizer
35
Ring-Snap
11
Plunger-Detent, Synchronizer
36
Gear-Counter shaft drive
12
Spring-Detent, Synchronizer
37
Key-Feather counter
38
Collar-Distance
13
th
Ring-Snap, 4th/5 clutch hub
th
14
Gear-4 , W/Dog, clutch
39
Gear-O/Drive, counter shaft
15
Bearing-Needle, 4th Gear
40
Key-Feather counter
16
Gear-3rd, Main W/Ring
41
Bearing-Counter shaft, rear
17
Bearing-Needle, 2nd/3rd
42
Ring-Snap, counter shaft, rear
18
Collar-3rd, gear
43
Shaft-Reverse
19
Ring-Snap, 3rd gear
44
Gear-Reverse
20
Hub-Clutch, 2th/3th
45
Bearing-Needle, reverse
21
Synchronizer A-2nd/3rd
46
Piece-Distance, needle bearing
22
Gear-2nd main
47
Washer-Thrust, reverse
23
Bearing-1st/reverse gear
48
Screw- Set, reverse shaft
24
Gear-Reverse, main
49
O ring-Reverse shaft
25
Hub-Clutch, 1st/Reverse
77
3. Transmission
TRANSMISSION IN SECTIONAL VIEW
Model K1005/K1205
78
3. Transmission
TRANSMISSION IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
Model K1005/K1205
79
3. Transmission
1.
Shaft-Top gear
28.
Hub-Clutch 1st/ Reverse
2.
Clutch-Dog Top gear
29.
Sleeve-1st/ Reverse
3.
Circlip-Dog, clutch set
30.
Gear-1st main shaft
4.
Bearing-Top gear shaft
31.
Collar-1st gear
5.
Ring-Snap, Top gear shaft
32.
Washer-Thrust, 1st gear
6.
Shaft-Main
33.
Bearing-Main shaft rear
7.
Bearing-Pilot main shaft
34.
Gear-Speedometer drive
8.
Ring-Snap pilot bearing
35.
Shaft-Counter
36.
Bearing-Counter shaft, front
37.
Ring-Snap
9.
Hub-Clutch 4th/5
th
th
10.
Sleeve-4th/5
11.
Ring-Block 4th/5th
38.
Gear-Counter shaft drive
12.
Insert-Synchronizer
39.
Key-Feather counter
13.
Plunger-Synchronizer
40.
Piece-Distance
14.
Spring-Plunger
41.
Gear-4th
15.
Spring-Block, ring set
42.
Synchronizer A-4th/5th
16.
Ring-Snap 4th/5th clutch
43.
Gear-3rd counter shaft
17.
Gear-4th, W/Dog clutch
44.
Key-Feather counter
18.
Bearing-Needle, 4th gear
45.
Bearing-Top gear shaft
19.
Gear-3rd main W/Ring
46.
Ring-Snap bearing
20.
Bearing-3rd gear
47.
Shaft- Reverse
21.
Collar-3rd gear
48.
Gear- Reverse
22.
Ring-Snap, 3rd gear
49.
Bearing-Needle reverse
23.
Hub-Clutch, 2nd/3rd
50.
Piece-Distance needle bearing
24.
Synchronizer A-2nd/3rd
51.
Washer-Thrust reverse
25.
Gear-2nd main shaft
52.
Screw-Set reverse shaft
26.
Bearing-3rd gear
53.
Washer-Spring
27.
Gear-Reverse main shaft
80
counter shaft
3. Transmission
TRANSMISSION IN SECTIONAL VIEW
Model K1405
81
3. Transmission
TRANSMISSION IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
Model K1405
82
3. Transmission
1.
Shaft-Top gear
28.
Hub-Clutch 2nd/3rd
2.
Clutch-Dog Top gear
29.
Sleeve-1st/ Reverse
3.
Circlip-Dog, clutch set
30.
Gear-1st main
4.
Bearing-Top gear shaft
31.
Collar-1st gear
5.
Ring-Snap, Top gear shaft
32.
Washer-Thrust gear
6.
Shaft-Main mission
33.
Bearing-Main shaft rear
7.
Bearing
34.
Gear-Speedometer drive
8.
Ring-Snap pilot bearing
35.
Shaft-Counter
36.
Bearing-Counter shaft, front
37.
Ring-Snap 3rd collar
9.
Hub-Clutch 4th/5
th
th
10.
Sleeve-4th/5
11.
Ring-Block 4th/5th
38.
Gear-Counter shaft drive
12.
Insert-Synchronizer
39.
Key-Counter shaft/4th
13.
Plunger-Synchronizer
40.
Piece- Counter shaft
14.
Spring-Plunger
41.
Gear-4th counter shaft
15.
Spring-Block, ring set
42.
Bearing-2nd gear
16.
Ring-Snap 4th/5th clutch
43.
Gear-3rd counter shaft
17.
Gear-4th, M/Shaft W/Dog(28T)
44.
Key- counter shaft 3rd gear
18.
Bearing-Needle, 4th gear
45.
Bearing-Main shaft rear
19.
Gear-3rd main W/Ring
46.
Ring-Snap 3rd gear
20.
Bearing-3rd
47.
Shaft- Reverse, shaft
21.
Collar-3rd
48.
Gear- Reverse, shaft
22.
Ring-Snap, 3rd collar
49.
Bearing-Needle reverse
23.
Hub-Clutch, 2nd/3rd
50.
Piece-Distance needle bearing
24.
Synchronizer A-2nd/3rd
51.
Washer-Thrust reverse
25.
Gear-2nd main
52.
Screw-Set reverse shaft
26.
Bearing-2nd gear
53.
Washer-Spring
27.
Gear-Reverse main
54.
Synchronizer A-4th/5th
83
3. Transmission
TRANSMISSION IN SECTIONAL VIEW
Model
84
T-9
3. Transmission
TRANSMISSION IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
Model T-9
85
3. Transmission
1.
Shaft-Main
25.
Sleeve-1st/ Reverse
2.
Ring-Snap
26.
Hub-1st/ Reverse constant
3.
Bearing-Pilot
27.
Bearing- Ball
4.
Nut-Lock
28.
Gear-Main shaft 1st
5.
Washer-Lock
29.
Bearing-Needle roller
30.
Sleeve-1st gear bearing
th
6.
Ring-SYN, 4th/5
7.
Hub-4th O/D
31.
Pinion A-Drive
8.
Key-Shifting
32.
Bearing -Ball
9.
Spring-Detent
33.
Ring-Snap
10.
Sleeve-4th O/D Synchronizer
34.
Shaft-Reverse gear
11.
Gear A-M/S 4th
35.
Gear-Reverse idle
12.
Bearing-Needle roller
36.
Bearing-Needle
13.
Spacer-Bearing
37.
Spacer-Bearing
14.
Sleeve-Needle bearing
38.
Washer-Reverse gear side
15.
Washer-Thrust
39.
O-ring
16.
Gear A-M/S 3rd
40.
Piece-Reverse shaft lock
17.
Bearing-Needle roller
41.
Bolt-Flange, M10 X 20
18.
Sleeve-Needle bearing
42.
Shaft-Counter
19.
Hub-2nd/3rd synchronizer
43.
Gear-C/S constant
20.
Synchronizer A-2nd/3rd
44.
Gear-C/S 4th
21.
Gear A-M/S 2nd
45.
Key-Sunk
22.
Washer-1st gear
46.
Bearing-Ball
23.
Gear-Main shaft reverse
47.
Ring-Snap
24.
Bearing-Needle
48.
Bearing-Ball
86
3. Transmission
1.3. Transmission control
TRANSMISSION CONTROL IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
Model BF105 (LHD TYPE)
1. Lever A-Charge, T/M cont.
7.
Nut-Hex M10 X 1.25
13. Pin-Split
2. Seal-Dust
8.
Washer-Spring
14. Joint
3. Knob A-Change lever
9.
Control rod A-Transmission
15. Collar
4. Bracket-Change lever
10. Pin-Joint, Rod end
16. Nut-Hex slotted
5. Bolt-Hex ,M10 X 1.5
11. Washer-Plain
17. Washer-Plain
6. Washer-Spring
12. Nut-Hex slot, M10 X 1.25
18. Nipple grease
87
3. Transmission
TRANSMISSION CONTROL IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
Model BH115/BH116/BH117
88
3. Transmission
1.
Box A-Transmission control
17.
Pin-Split
2.
Knob A-Change lever
18.
Nipple-Grease
3
Seal-Dust
19.
Bolt-Reamer M10X 1.25
3-1.
Adapter-Boots
20.
Nut-Hex M10X 1.25
4.
Seal-Dust
21.
Washer-Spring
5.
Bolt-Hex M8 X 1.25
22.
Joint-Pipe
6.
Washer-Spring
23.
Bolt-Hex M6X 1.0 X 18
7.
Cover-Transmission control box
24.
Nut-Hex M6X 1.0
7-1.
Boots
25.
Washer-Spring
7-2.
Retainer-Boots
26.
Pin-Taper
8.
Screw-Tap PH M5 X 1.0
27.
Washer-Plain
9.
Pipe-No.1
28.
Pin-Split
10.
Pipe-No.2
29.
Bracket
11.
Pipe-No.3
30.
Support A-Transmission control
12.
Universal joint A-Control rod
31.
Seal-Dust
13.
Yoke
32.
Seal-Dust Support fix
14.
Hub
33.
Damper rod CPL A
15.
Pin
34.
Damper rod A
16.
Nut-Hex slotted
89
3. Transmission
TRANSMISSION CONTROL IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
Model BH120
1.
Control Box A- Transmission
10.
Claim-Conduit
2.
Knob-Change lever
11.
Nut-Hex, M8 X 1.25
3.
Retainer-Boots
12.
Washer-Spring
4.
Boots
13.
Bracket-Transmission Upper
5.
Adapter-Boots
14.
Clip-Cable
6.
Screw-Tapping
15.
Bolt-Hex, M6 X 1.0
7.
Bolt-Hex Flange, M8 X 1.25
16.
Bolt-Hexagon, Flange
8.
Cable A-Transmission control
17.
Nut
9.
Adapter
18.
Washer
90
3. Transmission
2. SERVICING OF K SERIES TRANSMISSION
2.1. Removal and installation
Removal steps
Installation steps
1.
Gearshift control rod
1.
Transmission assembly
2.
Clutch minipack with bracket
2.
Control rod
3.
Yoke flange
3.
Yoke flange
4.
Control rod
4.
Clutch minipack with bracket
5.
Transmission assembly
5.
Gearshift control rod
91
3. Transmission
2.1.1 Removal
▣
▣
▣
▣
▣
Remove the gearshift control rod.
Remove the clutch minipack with bracket
Remove the Yoke flange
Remove the control rod
Remove the transmission assembly, using a
transmission jack.
2.1.2. Installation
Align the transmission inclination with the
engine slope and shift the gear directly.
▣ Install the transmission to the engine
carefully.
▣ Install the control rod.
▣ Install the Yoke flange.
▣ Install the clutch minipack with bracket.
▣ Install the gear shift control rod.
▣
▣
92
3. Transmission
2.2. Disassembly
2.2.1. Major component
93
3. Transmission
A. Housing A-Clutch, W/Bearing
1.
Housing-Clutch
18.
Cover-Front, W/Oil seal
2.
Bearing-Clutch release
19.
Seal-Oil, Cover FRT
3.
Seal-Dust, Clutch release
20.
Bolt-Cover, FRT
4.
Cover-Check hole, UPR
21.
Washer-Spring
5.
Cover-Check hole, Lower
22.
Washer-Plain
6.
Gasket-Liquid, T/M
23.
O ring-Cover bolt FRT
7.
Bolt-Hex HD cover fix
24.
Cover-Rear
8.
Bolt-Hex HD cover fix
25.
Seal-Oil RR cover
9.
Nut-Clutch, HSG fix
26.
Cover-Dust
10.
Bolt-Clutch, HSG T/M case
27.
Bolt-cover RR
11.
Washer-spring
28.
Cover-Side, T/M case
12.
Case-T/M
29.
Bolt-Side cover fix
13.
Plug-Oil drain
30.
Cover-Seal C/Shaft
14.
Packing-Filter
31.
Gear-Speedometer driven
15.
Plug-Oil drain magnetic
32.
Bush-Speedometer, W/Seal & Ring
16.
O ring-Drain plug
33.
Seal-Oil speedometer gear
17.
Bolt-Stud clutch HSG & T/M
34.
O ring-Driven gear
35.
Screw-Set, Bush
94
3. Transmission
▣
Remove the quadrant box assembly
▣
Remove the counter shaft front bearing with
removers.
▣
Remove the counter shaft rear bearing and snap
ring.
▣
The dog gear is installed to the top gear
shaft with the circlip.
▣
The dog gear can be separated from the top
gear shaft by pulling strongly.
▣
Take out the top gear shaft assembly,
remaining the top gear shaft dog gear in
the gear case
▣
Remove the 5th blocker ring, main shaft rear
bearing and snap ring.
Engage two gear sets or wedge a piece of hard
between the gears and case to prevent turning of
main shaft, and remove the flange nut and O-ring
▣
▣
Remove the flange and oil seal cover.
▣
Remove the speedometer driven gear, oil
seal, bushing and O-ring with removers.
▣
Remove the rear cover, oil seal and gasket.
▣
Remove the speedometer drive gear.
▣
Remove the clutch housing, front cover, oil
seal and gasket.
▣
Remove the counter shaft front bearing
cover by gripping the knob with pliers.
95
3. Transmission
▣
Take out the blocker ring together with the
main shaft.
▣
Remove the main shaft assembly from the
case using a suitable hook or wire.
Note. When removing the main shaft assembly
from the case, it is convenient to
install the du㎜y collar.
▣
Remove the counter shaft assembly.
▣
Remove the reverse shaft assembly with a
remover.
96
3. Transmission
2.2.2. Upper Quadrant Box Assembly
A
Control top A-Horizontal
1.
Housing-Control
8.
Screw-Set, Cover
15. Seat-Gear lever,Upper
2.
Shaft-Control, Operating
9.
Washer-Cover
16. Shim-Lever socket
3.
Lever-Shift, Short gear
10. Lever-Shift, Gear stub
17. Washer-Spring, lever socket
4.
Screw-Lock
11. Cover-Dust
18. Screw-Lever socket
5.
Cap-Shift Rail
12. Clip-Hose
19. Breather
6.
Gasket-Liquid
13. Socket-Lever
20. Bolt
7.
Cover-Control housing
14. Seat-Gear lever, Lower
21. Washer-Spring
97
3. Transmission
2-2-3. Lower Quadrant Box Assembly
98
3. Transmission
1.
Box-Quadrant, Lower
21.
Arm-Shift, 1st/ Reverse
2.
Bolt-Q/Box to T/M
22.
Washer-Plain spindle
3.
Washer
23.
Spindle-1st / Reverse
4.
Clip-harness
24.
Washer
5.
Bracket-Mounting
25.
Nut-Hex M12 X 1.25
6.
Gasket-Liquid, Transmission
26.
Arm-Shift, 1st/ Reverse
7.
Screw-Set, Q/Box reverse
27.
Rod-Shift, 1st/ Reverse
8.
Washer
28.
Block-Shift, 2nd/3rd
9.
Cover-Shift rod
29.
Arm-Shift, 2nd/3rd
10.
Switch-Back lamp
30.
Rod-Shift, 2nd/3rd
11.
Cover-Shift rod Quad
31.
Pinion-4th/5th shift
12.
Switch-Neutral
32.
Bearing- Needle, Pinion
13.
Block-Shift, 1st/Reverse, Front
33.
Cover-Pinion
14.
Spring-Coil sleeve
34.
Bolt-Cover fix, pinion washer-Spring
15.
Ball-Detent sleeve
35.
Arm-Shift, 4th/5th
16.
Spring-Coil
36.
Block-Shift, 4th/5th
17.
Sleeve-Shift, 1st/Reverse
37.
Rod-4th/5th block
18.
Cap-Shift, 1st/Reverse
38.
Rod-4th/5th arm
19.
Block-Shift, 1st/Reverse
39.
Ball-Detent, Shift rod
20.
Rod-Shift, 1st/Reverse,Block
99
3. Transmission
▣
▣
Remove the back-up lamp switch, neutral
switch and inter lock ball.
Note. Be careful not to drop the ball into the hole
from which the spring was removed.
Remove the 1st and reverse shifter rod, pin,
shift block and cover.
▣
Remove the inter lock ball.
▣
Remove the 2nd and 3rd shifter rod, shift
block, shift arm, pin, cover, detent ball,
detent Spring, and inter lock ball.
Note. When removing parts, exercise care so as
not to permit detent ball to snap out of position
and be careful not to damage the shift rod hole.
Remove the 4th and 5th shifter rod, shift arm,
cover, detent ball, and detent spring.
▣
▣
Remove the detent ball and detent spring.
▣
100
Remove the 1st and reverse shifter rod, shift
arm and cover.
3. Transmission
2.2.4. Gears
1.
Top gear shaft assembly
15.
2nd gear
2.
Snap ring
16.
Needle roller bearing
3.
Pilot bearing
17.
Thrust washer
4.
5 blocker ring
18.
1st gear, needle bearing and collar
5.
Snap ring
19.
Sleeve and clutch hub
6.
7.
th
th
th
4 and 5 synchronizer assembly
20.
Reverse gear and needle bearing
th
21.
Main shaft
th
4 blocker ring
8.
4 gear
22.
Snap ring
9.
Needle roller bearing
23.
Counter shaft drive gear and key
10.
Snap ring
24.
4th gear and key
11.
Collar
25.
3rd gear and key
12.
3rd gear
26.
Collar
13.
Needle roller bearing
27.
Counter shaft
14.
nd
rd
2 and 3 synchronizer assembly
101
3. Transmission
plungers, spring and clutch hub.
▣
▣
Remove the bearing with a remover
▣
Remove the all parts of item 11 to 16 using
bench press
▣
Remove the front bearing inner race with a
remover
Remove the pilot bearing with a remover
▣
Remove the 4th and 5th synchronizer
assembly from the main shaft using a puller
▣
Disassemble the synchronizer assembly into
blocker rings, springs, sleeve, inserts,
102
3. Transmission
2.3. Inspection and repair
Make necessary correction or parts replacement
if wear, damage of any other abnormal conditions
are found through inspection.
▣
For the should of shifter rod grove, rounding of
shoulder part due to wear can cause slip out of
gear.
▣
Inspect the thickness of the shift arm with a
micrometer caliper.
▣
Inspect all disassembled parts for wear, damage
or other abnormal conditions.
▣
Unit : ㎜
Standard
Inspect the following parts paying particular
attention to the points shown in the illustrations.
▣
Limit
Thickness
Inspect the free length of detent spring with a
vernier caliper.
▣
Unit : ㎜
Standard
Limit
Thickness
For the front and rear cover oil seal
replacement.
▣
1) Note direction of oil seal installation
2) Apply oil to fitting face of oil seal.
3) Insert oil seal until it is properly seated in
position.
4) Fill the cavity between felt and lip of oil seal
with grease.
▣ Inspection the clearance of the synchronizer
inner and outer ring.
Unit : ㎜
Standard
Thickness
103
Limit
3. Transmission
If the fine grooves on the face (A) are found to
have worn completely away, replace the
synchronizer assembly with a new one.
▣
▣
Inspect the free length of the insert spring.
Unit : ㎜
Standard
Inspect the clearance between gear and blocker
ring.
▣
Thickness
Unit : ㎜
Standard
Limit
Thickness
If the fine grooves on the inner face have worn
completely away, replace the blocker ring with a
new one.
▣
▣
Inspect the clearance of the clutch hub.
104
Limit
3. Transmission
2.4. Reassembly
2.4.1. Gears
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Counter shaft
Collar
3rd gear and key
4th gear and key
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
Counter shaft drive gear and key
Snap ring
Main shaft
Needle roller bearing
2nd gear
2nd and 3rd synchronizer assembly
3rd gear
Needle roller bearing
Collar
Snap ring
105
Needle roller bearing
4th gear
4th blocker ring
4th and 5th synchronizer assembly
Snap ring
Pilot bearing
Snap ring
Reverse gear and needle bearing
Sleeve and clutch hub
1st gear, needle bearing, and collar
Thrust washer
5th blocker ring
Top gear shaft assembly
3. Transmission
▣
Assemble the counter shaft and collar.
▣
▣
Assemble the 3rd gear, 4th gear, counter shaft
drive gear, keys and snap ring.
Assemble the main shaft needle roller
bearing and 2nd gear.
Assemble the 4th and 5th synchronizer
assembly, and assemble the block
in alignment with the circumferential
direction of the clutch hub.
▣
Assemble the snap ring.
▣
Assemble the pilot bearing using a installer
kit.
▣
Assemble the snap ring, reverse gear, and
needle bearing.
▣
Assemble the sleeve and clutch hub.
▣
Assemble the 1st gear, needle bearing collar,
and thrust washer.
▣
Assemble the 5th blocker ring.
▣
Assemble the top gear shaft assembly using
a suitable bar and a bench press.
▣
▣
Assemble the 2nd and 3rd synchronizer
assembly, and sleeve with larger protrusion
on the rear side.
▣
Assemble the 3rd gear and needle roller
bearing.
▣
▣
Assemble the collar, snap ring, and needle
roller bearing, using a bench press.
Assemble the 4th gear and 4th blocker ring.
106
3. Transmission
2.4.2. Lower Quadrant Box Assembly
▣
▣
▣
Assemble the 1st and reverse shifter rod,
shift arm, detent spring and detent ball.
Assemble the shift shaft and coat gear oil to
shaft and needle bearing.
Note. Assemble so as to not to roll up the lip of
the oil seal.
▣
Assemble the spring pin and internal select
ever.
▣
Assemble the washer, oil seal and external
select lever.
▣
Assemble the key bolt.
Install the 4th and 5th shifter rod in proper
direction of installation.
Nut torque(kg.m)
▣
Install and lock shift arm of shift block with
bolt and wire, then set the rod in neutral
position.
Assemble the inter lock ball, detent spring and
detent ball.
▣
Assemble the 2nd and 3rd shifter rod, shift block,
shift arm, pin, inter lock ball, detent spring and
detent ball.
▣
▣
Assemble the 1st and reverse shifter rod,
shift block, pin and inter lock ball.
▣
Assemble the neutral switch, back-up lamp
switch and rod cover.
2.4.3. Upper Quadrant Box Assembly
▣
Assemble the upper quadrant box.
Bolt torque(kg.m)
▣
2.8
~
4.6
Assemble the shift lever.
107
0.8
~ 1.8
▣
Assemble the link rod assembly.
▣
Assemble the bush assembly, O-ring and set
screw.
3. Transmission
2.4.4. Major Component
▣
Assemble the thrust washer.
▣
Assemble the reverse gear, distance piece
and needle roller bearing.
▣
Assemble the reverse gear with O-ring and
align the set screw in the shaft hole in
in the case.
▣
▣
Assemble the countershaft assembly.
▣
Assemble the main shaft assembly and
thrust washer.
▣
Assemble the main shaft bearing and snap
ring with a installer kit.
▣
Assemble the 5th blocker ring.
The adjusting groove on the shaft should be
turned rearward and aligned in the vertical
direction.
Install the top gear shaft with cutaway portion
of dog gear down.
The top gear shaft assembly can be mounted only
after the counter shaft assembly is dropped in the
transmission case.
▣
▣
Assemble the reverse shaft set screw and
apply liquid gasket to the set screw.
Torque(kg.m)
1.5 ~ 2.8
108
3. Transmission
Torque(kg.m)
0.4 ~ 0.6
After tightening, caulk nut against slot in main
shaft.
Note. The collar may become deformed if the
nut is tightened excessively.
▣
Assemble the counter shaft rear bearing with
snap ring using a installer kit.
▣
Assemble the speedometer drive gear.
▣
Assemble the rear cover, oil seat and gasket
and apply liquid gasket to the bolt.
Torque(kg.m)
▣
5.8 ~ 8.7
0.4 ~ 0.6
▣
Assemble the flange and oil seal cover.
▣
Discard used flange nut and install a new
one and O-ring using a box wrench.
Assemble the front cover, oil seal and gasket.
▣
Assemble the clutch housing.
▣ Before installing the quadrant box to the
transmission case, refill the case with the specified
new gear oil. Assemble the quadrant box assembly.
Assemble the speedometer driven gear, oil
seal, bushing and O-ring.
Torque(kg.m)
▣
109
3. Transmission
3. Trouble shooting
NOISE
If a noise arises from around the transmission when the engine is running at idle, disengage the clutch to
see if the noise stops, If so, it indicates that the trouble is within the transmission
Cause
Correction
(1) Insufficient gear oil
(1) Replenish
(2) Wrong oil in use
(2) Replace with reco㎜ended oil
(3) Gears defective
(3) Correct or replace
(4) Bearing or splines worn
(4) Replace
Hard-Shifting (Gear grating occurs when gear shifting is attempted)
Cause
Correction
(1) Clutch dragging
(1) Adjust
(2) Insufficient gear oil
(2) Replenish
(3) Wrong oil in use
(3) Replace with recommended oil
(4) Wrong synchronizer assembly
(4) Replace
(5) Remote control rod joints worn
(4) Replace worn parts
Slipping Out of Gears While Running
Cause
Correction
(1) Worn shift rod of lock ball,or sagged spring
(1) Adjust with shim or replace
(2) Worn shift rod ball groove
(2) Replace
(3) Excess play in rotational direction of spline
(3) Replace
(4) Parts off-centered due to loosening
(4) Rectify or retighten
(5) Worn of bent shift arm
(5) Rectify or replace
(6) Gear with considerable partial wear
(6) Replace gear
(7) Bearing with considerable partial wear
(7) Replace bearing
(8) Stepped portion on main shaft, clutch
hub and shaft, clutch hub and sleeve and
shoulder portion on splines worn.
(8) Replace
110
SECTION 4
PROPELLER SHAFT
CONTENTS
PAGE
1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION
1.1.
CONSTRUCTION
112
1.2.
SPECIFICATION
112
2. SERVICING OF PROPELLER SHAFT
2.1.
REMOVAL
117
2.2.
DISASSEMBLY
117
2.3.
INSPECTION
118
2.4.
REASSEMBLY AND INSTALLATION
119
3. SERVICING OF PROPELLER SHAFT
3.1.
REMOVAL
121
3.2.
DISASSEMBLY
121
3.3.
INSPECTION
122
3.4.
REASSEMBLY
122
4. TROUBLE SHOOTING
124
111
4. Propeller shaft
1. General description
1.1. Construction
1.1.1. Front Engine
Each propeller shaft is made up of a hollow steel tube to provide sufficient bending strength and torsional
rigidity. Each propeller shaft assembly is carefully balanced for smooth rotation.
1.2. Specification
Distinction
BM090
BF106
BS106
BH115E
BH115
BH116
BH117
BH120
Length
345.1
1,586
613.8
597.4
600.2
600.2
541.4
730.3
Outside dia.
*
88.9
88.9
88.9
88.9
88.9
101.6
101.6
Inside dia.
*
80.9
82.9
82.9
82.9
88.9
96.6
96.6
Length
*
1,468
*
*
*
*
*
*
Outside dia.
*
88.9
*
*
*
*
*
*
Inside dia.
*
80.9
*
*
*
*
*
*
Length
*
1,360
*
*
*
*
*
*
Outside dia.
*
88.9
*
*
*
*
*
*
Inside dia.
*
80.9
*
*
*
*
*
*
ST
1 piece(㎜)
(when equipped)
nd
2 piece(㎜)
(when equipped)
rd
3 piece(㎜)
(when equipped)
112
4. Propeller shaft
1.1.2. Rear Engine
The propeller shaft assembly serves to deliver the engine torque to the rear axles.
The transmission is supported on the chassis frame with the engine while the rear axles are floatingly
suspended on the chassis frame via the springs. The relative position between the transmission and rear
axles varies because of flexibility of the chassis frame and springing action of the suspension system.
And, to allow for variation in the working length and relative angle of the propeller, shaft, the propeller
shaft assembly incorporates the spline shaft, sleeve and universal joints.
The propeller shaft assembly consists basically of the tube, spline shaft and flange of integral construction,
yoke flanges, sliding sleeve, universal joints (spiders, needle roller bearings, seals), etc.
113
4. Propeller shaft
PROPELLER SHAFT IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
FRONT ENGINE
114
4. Propeller shaft
1.
2.
Shaft-1st, propeller
12.
Pin-split
nd
13.
Nipple-grease
rd
Shaft-2 , propeller
3.
Shaft-3 , propeller
14.
Bolt-hex
4.
Joint A-universal
15.
Washer-plain
5.
Bearing A-center
16.
Nut-hex
6.
Flange-yoke
17.
Pin-split
7.
Flange-companion
18.
Nut-hex M14x1.5
8.
Flange-yoke
19.
Washer-spring
9.
Yoke-sliding
20.
Bolt-hex
10.
Washer
21.
Bolt-hex
11.
Nut
22.
Washer-spring
23.
Nut-hex
115
4. Propeller shaft
PROPELLER SHAFT IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
REAR ENGINE
A
Shaft A-propeller
5.
Strap-lock
1.
Yoke-flange
6.
Bolt
2.
Bearing kit-journal
7.
Bolt-hex
3.
Yoke A-slip
8.
Washer-spring
4.
Nipple-grease
9.
Nut-hex M14x1.5
116
4. Propeller shaft
2. Servicing of propeller shaft
( Front Engine)
2.1. Removal
▣ Remove the bearing by tapping on the shoulder
of the yoke lightly with a copper hammer.
▣ Remove the bearings remaining in position by
tapping on the spider from side to side lightly with
a copper hammer. Disassembly of sleeve retainer
and felt ring is not normally required.
Disassemble the transmission side universal joint
and 2nd propeller shaft universal joint.
▣ Remove the flange yoke bolts on the rear axle
side of the 2nd propeller shaft.
Remove the 2nd propeller shaft rearward.
2.2.2. Center bearing assembly
Disconnect the 1st propeller shaft at the flange
yoke on the transmission side.
▣
Remove the bolts fixing the center bearing
bracket and rubber holder. Remove the 1st
propeller shaft assembly.
▣
2.2. Disassembly
Disconnect the 1st propeller shaft with flange yoke
from the universal joint.
▣ Remove the bolts fixing the lock washer and
remove the lock washer. Remove the flange nut
(hexagonal 56㎜) using a box wrench.
2.2.1. Universal joint assembly
▣ Mount the flange yoke to the flange yoke
bracket and remove the needle roller bearing
covers.
▣ Pull out the flange and remove the center
bearing rubber. Remove the center bearing case
and distance piece using special tool bearing
puller.
117
4. Propeller shaft
2.3. Inspection
2.3.1. Universal spider pins and needle roller
bearings.
Unit : ㎜
Propeller shaft
run-out
Standard value
for assembly
Value indicating
need for servicing
0.3 or less
0.4 or more
Note. : S-1610
2.3.3. Splines
▣ Measure the outside diameter of the universal
joint spider pins with an outside micrometer.
Replace the universal joint if the measured valve
is beyond the limit.
Unit : ㎜
Spider pin
outside
diameter
Note. : S-1510
Nominal
diameter
Limit for
use
27.7
27.5
▣ Check the amount of play between the sleeve
yoke and 2nd and 3rd propeller shaft splines in
rotative direction using a pointed feeler gauge.
If the amount of play is in excess of 0.5㎜, replace
either of the parts with higher rate of wear.
2.3.4. Center Bearing and Yokes
Check the universal joint needle roller bearings
for wear, corrosion and seizure.
Replace the bearings if any abnormal condition is
noticeable.
2.3.2. Propeller Shaft
▣ Check the amount of play in the center bearing
by holding the bearing inner race and moving the
outer race with hand.
Replace the center bearing if the measured value
is in excess of 0.2㎜.
Check the propeller shaft for run-out using a
dial indicator.
If the amount of run-out of beyond the value
indicating need for servicing, correct with a bench
press without applying heat.
▣
▣ Check the center bearing cushion rubber for
fatigue and replace as necessary.
▣ Check the flange yokes and spline yoke for
cracks and bearing fitting face for distortion.
Replace the parts of found to be defective.
118
4. Propeller shaft
2.4.2. Reassembly
2.4. Reassembly and installation
2.4.1. Installation
Insert the felt ring into the bearing case which
has been disassembled. Apply bearing grease into
the bearing before installing it into the bearing
case.
▣
Note. The center bearing is of a sealed type to
eliminate the need for frequent servicing.
However, it should be repacked with specified
grease every 48,000km or when overhauling the
propeller shaft assembly.
Amount of grease required for repacking : 60g
▣ Assemble the spider to the spline yoke.
Install the bearings with dust cover and gasket
into the yoke using a mallet.
Install the bearing case assembly on the
propeller shaft.
Assembly the center bearing cushion rubber to the
bearing case by fitting recessed portion of the
cushion rubber to the projected portion of the
bearing case.
▣
Note. Grease fittings have an angle of
approximately 60 degrees.
Install the universed joint on the transmission side
of the 1st propeller shaft, center bearing side of the
2nd propeller shaft and rear axle side of the 3rd
propeller shaft, so that grease fittings are pointed
upward and yoke arms positioned vertically.
▣ Assemble the yoke to the spider and install the
bearings.
▣ Install the bearings covers by fitting them into
the bearing stopper groove.
▣
Install the lock plate and bolts
1. Install the 1st universal joint on the
transmission side.
2. Assemble the 2nd universal joint to the 1st
propeller shaft rear flange. Install the sliding
sleeve.
3. Assemble the 3rd universal joint to the yoke
on the 2nd propeller shaft.
▣ Assemble the flange to the splined portion.
Install and tighten the flange nut to specified
torque(50-60m-kg)/
Align the bolt holes in the lock washer and flange
nut. Install three bolts.
Note. If the bolt holes in the lock washer and
flange nut are out of alignment, reverse.
119
4. Propeller shaft
2.4.3. Installation of propeller shaft
Install the propeller shaft assembly in the reverse order of removal and note the following points;
The propeller shaft assembly is carefully balanced for smooth rotation.
Check to be certain the setting marks and flange yokes are lined up properly.
Tightening torque
Unit : ㎏.㎜
T/M side
14.2~17.4
Rear axle side and others
14.2~17.4
Flange bolt
Center bearing spline flange nut
50-60
Rubber holder bolt
16-24
120
4. Propeller shaft
3. Servicing of propeller shaft
3.1. Removal
▣
Brace the wheels
Take out the yoke flange bolt on the
differential side of the propeller shaft and
disconnect the propeller shafts at the flange.
▣
▣ Disassemble the remaining universal joint by
following the same procedure.
3.2. Disassembly
1. Spider
4. Seat
Prior to disassembly, apply setting mark to the
joining portions of the propeller shaft assembly as
it is carefully balanced.
2. Dust cover
5. Needle roller bearing
3. Rubber ring
3.2.1. Universal Joint Assembly
Flatten out the lock plate and remove the cover
fixing bolts, then remove the plate and cover.
▣
▣ Remove the needle roller bearing by tapping
on the shoulder of the flange yoke.
▣ Remove the needle roller bearing remaining on
the spider by tapping on the spider.
121
4. Propeller shaft
Note. Note the direction of the dust cover and seat.
3.3. Inspection
3.3.1. Universal Joint
Check the edge of the spider pins for burrs or
damage and replace the spider assembly with a
new one as necessary.
▣
▣ Check the needle roller bearings for wear,
seizure, binding of corrosion and replace the
entire assembly if found to be defective. On
model with bearing seals, replace the bearings if
the seals have been broken.
▣ Assemble the spider to the flange yoke by
noting the direction of the grease fitting.
3.3.2. Propeller shaft splines
Note. Install the grease fitting at an angle of
approximately 30 degrees, then assemble the
spider to the yoke, so that the grease fitting is
pointed upward.
Clamp the spline shaft in a vise and assemble
the sliding sleeve to the shaft, then check for play
in direction of rotation using a feeler gauge.
▣
▣ Correct splines with an oil stone if step wear is
noticeable even if the amount of play is within the
limit.
▣ Install the needle roller bearing by aligning the
hole in the yoke with the spider pin using a mallet.
Note. Note the direction of the needle roller
bearing stopper grooves.
Unit : ㎜
Inspection item
Standard
value for
assembly
Limit for use
Play in splines
0.15
0.5
Note. S-1610
3.4. Reassembly
Install the dust cover, O-ring (or rubber ring)
and seat on the spider in the order described.
▣
▣ Install the needle roller bearing in the opposite
position by following the same step.
Align the cover with the bearing stopper groove
and install the cover and lock plate. When the
cover bolts are tightened, bend the tabs on the
lock plate.
Note. Discard used lock plates and install new
122
4. Propeller shaft
ones at the time of reassembly.
▣ Assemble the spider, needle roller bearings,
covers and plates to the yoke on the spline sleeve
and shaft sides.
▣ Assemble the retainer and felt ring to the
splined portion of the shaft and install the spline
sleeve and yoke.
▣ Position the retainer over the sleeve and caulk
four positions of the retainer with a chisel.
123
4. Propeller shaft
4. Trouble shooting
▣ Propeller shaft and vehicle vibrate.
CAUSE
① Yokes nut properly installed
② Propeller shaft bent or distorted
③ Propeller shaft parts loosened in
mount or nut of balance
CORRECTION
① Correct setting of yokes
② Replace or correct
② Replace or correct
▣ Propeller worn noises
CAUSE
① Splines worn excessively
② Spider pins or needle roller bearing
worn, seized or damaged
③ Propeller shaft parts loosened in mount
④ Propeller shaft parts poorly lubricated
⑤ Center bearing(s) worn or damaged
CORRECTION
① Check amount of play in rotary
direction.
Replace worn parts
② Replace
③ Correct
④ Lubricate with chassis grease
⑤ Replace
124
SECTION 5
REAR AXLE
CONTENTS
PAGE
1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION
126
2. SERVICING OF DIFFERENTIAL CARRIER ASSEMBLY
2.1.
REMOVAL
133
2.2.
DISASSEMBLY
133
2.3.
INSPECTION
135
2.4.
REASSEMBLY
135
2.5.
INSTALLATION
141
3. SERVICING OF REAR HUB ASSEMBLY
3.1.
DISASSEMBLY
142
3.2.
INSPECTION
143
3.3.
REASSEMBLY
144
4. TROUBLE SHOOTING
146
125
5. Rear Axle
1. General description
These models adopt a full-floating type rear axle. The axle case is a banjo type of differential carrier
assembly consisting of the final drive gearing and differential assembly to which rear axle shafts are
connected. The outer end of each axle shaft is connected to the rear hub.
The final drive assembly uses a spiral or hypoid gearing to effect a signal reduction and final drive pinion
is fitted, via a pair of taper roller bearings and spacers, to the pinion cage which, in turn, is assembled to
the differential carrier.
The final driven gear is installed on the differential cage into which a pair of side gears and four pinion
gears are assembled via the spider. The differential assembly is mounted, via the taper roller bearings, to
the differential carrier and driven gear is engaged with the drive pinion.
Specification
Distinction
BM090
BF105
BS106
Type
Final drive gear type
Final gear ratio
BH115E
BH115
BH116
BH117
BH120
Banjo full floating type
Spiral bevel
39/8
39/6
39/7
39/8
Hypoid gear
39/8
39/8
39/10
39/11
39/10
39/10
39/11
Oil capacity (ℓ)
10
Axle capacity (㎏)
11,500
126
39/10
39/11
39/12
39/11
39/11
39/12
39/12
5. Rear Axle
DIFFERENTIAL IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
MODEL BF105, BS106, BH115E, BH120
127
5. Rear Axle
A.
Final drive A
19
Bearing-pilot, pinion
1.
Carrier A-differential, rear
20
Ring-snap, pilot bearing
2.
Bolt-bearing cap fixing
21
Bearing
3.
Nut-adjust differential cage
22
Tag-ratio
4.
Flange A-composition, W/cover
23
Spacer-pinion bearing
5.
Plate-lock, bearing adjust nut
24
Cage-final pinion
6.
Plate-lock, bearing adjust nut
25
Shim-pinion cage
7.
Bolt-adjust, lock plate
26
Seal-oil, pinion cage
8.
Bearing
27
Bolt-final pinion cage
9.
Cage A-differential, W/fix
28
Washer-spring, pinion cage
10.
Bolt-differential cage setting
29
Washer-pilot bearing, retainer
11.
Nut-differential cage setting
30
Bolt-pilot bearing retaining
12.
Pinion-differential
31
Nut-pilot bearing retaining
13.
Gear-side, differential
32
Pin-split, pilot bearing
14.
Spider-differential pinion
33
Nut-final pinion
15.
Washer-thrust, differential pinion
34
Bolt-adjust D/gear, thrust
16.
Washer-side gear
35
Pad-adjust bolt, gear thrust
17.
Gear & pinion set
36
Nut-hex
18.
Bolt-drive gear
128
5. Rear Axle
REAR AXLE IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
MODEL BF105, BS106,BH115E,BH115
129
5. Rear Axle
A.
Axle A-rear
14.
Wheel pin-rear
1.
Case A-rear axle
15.
Nut-wheel
2.
Bolt-hex M12 x 1.25
16.
Bearing-roller outer
3.
Washer-spring
17.
Seal-oil, OTR
4.
Breather-rear axle case
18.
Bearing-roller inner
5.
Plug-oil filter
19.
Seal-oil, inner
6.
Packing
20.
Ring-snap
7.
Plug-drain magnet
21.
Washer-lock, bearing nut
8.
O-ring-drain plug
22.
Nut-rear hub bearing
9.
Hub & drum A-rear
23.
Bolt-hex M6 x 1.0
10.
Drum-brake, rear
24.
Washer-spring
11.
Hub-rear wheel
25.
Axle shaft-rear
12.
Wheel pin kit
26.
Bolt-hex
13.
Nut-hex
27.
Washer-spring
28.
Nipple-grease
130
5. Rear Axle
REAR AXLE IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
MODEL BH Series with Air Spring
131
5. Rear Axle
1.
Case A-axle rear
14.
Wheel pin-rear
2.
Bolt-hex, M16 x 1.5
15.
Nut-wheel pin
3.
Washer-spring
16.
Bearing-roller outer
4.
Breather-axle case, rear
17.
Seal-oil, hub outer
5.
Plug-oil filter
18.
Bearing-roller inner
6.
Packing-axle case, rear
19.
Seal-oil, hub inner
7.
Plug-drain, main axle, rear
20.
Ring-snap
8.
O-ring-drain plug
21.
Washer-lock bearing nut
9.
Hub & drum A-rear
22.
Nut-bearing hub, rear
10.
Drum-brake, rear
23.
Bolt-W/washer, M6 x 1.0
11.
Hub-wheel, rear
24.
Shaft-axle, rear
12.
Wheel pin kit-rear
25.
Bolt-hex
13.
Nut-hex
26.
Washer-spring
132
5. Rear Axle
2. Servicing of differential carrier
assembly
2.1. Removal
▣
Prior to removal, drain the differential case
by removing the drain plug.
▣
Disconnect the propeller shaft at the
differential side joint.
▣
2.2. Disassembly
▣
Removal of final assembly.
Remove the bolts fixing the final pinion cage.
Remove the final pinion assembly.
▣
Remove the driven gear adjust bolt on the
side face of the differential carrier.
▣
Removal of differential carrier bearing caps.
Remove the bolts fixing the rear axle shafts.
Pull out the rear axle shafts. If the axle
shaft is stuck and does not come out
smoothly, screw the axle bolt alternately
into the threaded holes in
the flange.
① Apply setting mark to the right and left side
bearing caps.
② Remove the lock plate from the bearing caps.
③ Remove the bearing caps and adjust nuts.
▣
Remove the differential carrier mounting
bolts.
Remove the bolt on the uppermost position
as the final step o differential carrier
removal for assistance of safety.
Raise the differential carrier assembly on a
hoist using differential check hole in the rear
body floor, or support the differential carrier
assembly on a tans mission jack and screw
the differential carrier mounting bolt into
three threaded holes in the differential
carrier fitting face alternately in progression.
▣
133
Removal of differential cage assembly.
5. Rear Axle
Put a round bar through the axle shaft fitting hole
and lift the differential cage assembly off the
differential carrier using a hoist and wire.
④ Remove the pinion inner bearing using a bench
press and bearing puller.
Note. Keep the side bearing outer races separate
to prevent interchanging.
▣
Pilot bearing removal.
Remove the cotter pin, nut, blot and washer fixing
the pinion pilot bearing.
▣
Remove the pilot bearing.
Disassembly of differential cage assembly
① Apply setting mark to the joining portion of the
differential cages A and B.
② Remove the nuts fixing the differential cage.
③ Separate the differential cages and remove the
side gear thrust washers. Spider and differential
pinion gears.
▣
Disassembly of final pinion assembly
① Mount the final pinion assembly to the spline
yoke bracket and clamp these parts in a vise.
② Flatten out the pinion nut lock washer.
Remove the pinion nut using a box wrench.
④ Driven gear is bolted to the differential cage using
lock-tight. Do not attempt to separate these parts
unless when parts replacement is necessary. If it is
necessary to remove the driven gear, remove the set
bolts.
③ Remove the flange, retainer, oil seal, washer,
bearing outer, shim and spacer.
134
5. Rear Axle
⑤ Remove he bearings from the differential
cages “A” and “B” by fitting a tool into the
grooves in the differential cages.
2.3. Inspection
Inspection of gear teeth
Check the teeth of the final drive pinion, driven
gear and differential pinion side gears for poor
contact and damage. Replace the gear if found to
be defective.
▣
Inspection of bearings
Check the differential cage side bearings and drive
pinion bearings for separation, wear and noise.
Replace the bearing if any abnormal condition is
noticeable.
▣
Inspection o clearance between differential
pinions and spider
Measure the inside diameter of the differential
pinions and outside diameter of the spider pins.
Compare the measured values to determine the
amount of clearance. If the clearance is beyond
the value indicating need for servicing, replace the
parts with higher rate of wear.
▣
Inspection of clearance between side gears and
differential cage
Measure the inside diameter (d1) of the side gear
fitting holes and outside diameter (d2) of the side
gears. Compare the measured values to determine the
amount of clearance. If the clearance is beyond the
value indicating need for servicing, replace either the
side gears or the differential cage.
▣
Unit : ㎜
Clearance
between side gear
and differential
cage
Unit : ㎜
Clearance
between pinions
and spider pins
Standard
value for
assembly
Value
indicating
need for
servicing
0.040~0.105
0.5
Standard
value for
assembly
Value
indicating
need for
servicing
0.07
0.15 or more
Check the differential pinion and side gear thrust
washers for wear. Replace he pars if the amount of
wear is considerable
▣
Inspection o side gear splines
Check the amount of play between the side gear
and axle shaft splines in rotary direction using a
dial indicator. If the amount of play is beyond the
limit, replace either the side gears o the axle.
▣
Limit for use : 0.5㎜
2.4. Reassembly
2.4.1. Final Pinion Assembly
Install the inner bearing on the final pinion using a
bench press.
▣
▣
135
Install the bearing preload adjust shims and
5. Rear Axle
spacers on the pinion. Install all of the shims and
spacers removed at the time of disassembly. If the
shims are found to be defective, discard them and
install new ones in the order of thickness, so that
thinner one is on the inner bearing side. Install the
spacers.
seal), or sliding resistance of the felt ring and oil seal
will give a false indication o bearing preload.)
② If the measured value deviates greatly from the
specified range, disassemble the final pinion
assembly and adjust the bearing preload by installing
shims of different thickness ( or by varying thickness
of shims of combines spacer ).
Starting torque : 5kg
Bearing preload adjusting shims are available in 11
different thicknesses (graduated in thickness by 0.01
㎜). spacers are also available in 5 different
thicknesses (graduated in thickness by 0.2㎜).
▣ Install the pinion cage, outer bearing and
retainer. Assemble the flange yoke to the splines.
Install and semi-tighten the flange nut.
③ Discard used felt ring and install new one in the
retainer. Check the lipped portions of the oil seal.
Replace the oil seal if any abnormal condition is
noticeable. Apply grease to lipped portions o the oil
seal.
Mount the flange yoke to the yoke bracket and
clamp these parts in a vise. Tighten the flange nut
to 50~60kg.m using a box wrench.
④ Install the gasket in position between and tighten
the flange nut to specification (50~60kg.m). bent
down the lock washer.
▣
▣
Measurement of bearing preload
① Hook a spring scale to one of the bolt holes in
the differential pinion cage .pull it in tangential
direction o rotation and read the scale when the
pinion cage begins to rotate.
Note. Bearing preload should be checked without
installing the retainer (fitted with felt ring and oil
136
5. Rear Axle
2.4.2. Differential Cage Assembly
If the driven gear has been removed from the differential cage, install and fix in position with the bolts
in the following manner.
▣
Procedure
Steps
No.
Cautions
Process
Wash clean bolts and driven
gear in alkaline solution,
tichloroethylene, aceton
or either.
1
Washing
2
Drying
3
Application of
Loctite
Apply loctite to top end of
bolts cover 3-4 threads
4
Tightening of
bolts
Tighten the bolts to 33.2㎏.m
① Do not gasoline, kerosene or other
petroleum product for washing.
② Never use sparks or open flames when
detergent is in use
③Use detergent in a well ventilated place.
Apply Loctite i㎜ediately before
tightening.
Avoid applying shock load to the driven
gear after tightening bolts.
At least 1(one) hour should be allowed for
Loctite to dry before testing driving
Assemble these parts into the differential cage A
by engaging the differential pinions with the side
gears. Assemble the differential cage B with the
side gears to the differential cage A by aligning
the setting marks applied at the time of
disassembly.
Install the side bearing into position on the
defferential cages “A” and “B”.
▣
Assemble the thrust washer to the differential
cages A and B by aligning dowel pins with the
dowel pin holes. Install the side gears.
▣
Install and semi-tighten the differential cage
fixing bolts to 10kg-m. insert a feeler gauge into
the differential cage through the opening and
measure the amount of clearance behind the side
gears.
(These clearances are to be used to determine the
amount of backlash between the side gears and
pinion gears.)
If the amount of backlash deviates greatly from
the specified range, adjust with the thrust washers.
▣
Assemble the differential pinions and thrust
washers to the differential spider.
▣
137
5. Rear Axle
Unit : ㎜
Clearance
between
differential cage
and side gear
Standard
value for
assembly
Thrust
washer`s
available
0.20~0.28
2.8, 2.9, 3.0
3.1, 3.2, 3.3,
3.4
② Check the bearing preload by pulling one of
the final driven gear set bolts with a pull scale in
tangential direction of rotation. Make necessary
adjustment with the adjust nuts, so that pull
required to rotate the driven gear becomes
2.7~3.1kg-m.
At driven gear set bolt position : 2.7~3.1kg
▣
When new bearings are installed
Tighten the differential cage fixing bolts to
12.5~15.5kg-m.
At driven gear set bolt position : 4.5~5kg
Caulk 2-3 portions of each nut.
③ Check the amount of driven gear run out using
a dial indicator. If the amount of run out is
excessive, changes are that foreign matter may be
lodged in between the differential cage and driven
gear. Disassemble the differential assembly and
check for presence of foreign matter.
Replace the driven gear if the amount of run-out is
excessive and foreign matter could not be found
through careful examination.
2.4.3. Major Reassembly
Inspection of differential side bearing preload
and driven gear run-out.
▣
① Assemble the outer race to the differential side
bearings and mount these parts to the differential
carrier.
Note. Check the position of side bearing outer
races fitted into the differential cages “A” and “B”
to avoid interchanging.
Install the bearing adjust nuts. Install the bearing
caps by aligning the setting marks. Install and
tighten bearing cap clamping nuts to 5kg-m.
Unit : ㎜
Driven gear
run-out
Note. The final pinion assembly is not installed at
this stage of reassembly operation.
138
Standard value
for assembly
Value indicating
need for
servicing
0.1
0.2
5. Rear Axle
▣
▣
Installation of drive pinion assembly
① Apply red check to both faces of 7~8 gear
tooth.
② Turn the driven gear in both directions slowly
while imposing a drag on the gear with hand.
③ Tooth contact patterns and adjustment
procedure are indicated in the following table.
① Install the drive pinion assembly using all of
the adjusting shims that have been removed at the
time of disassembly. If the differential carrier,
pinion cage, drive pinion ear or driven gear has
been replaced, select the thickness of shims to be
installed according to the following table.
② Assemble the drive pinion assembly with
adjusting shims to the differential carrier, shims
and pinion cage. Install 3-4 bolts and semi tighten
them.
Inspection of backlash between driven gear and
pinion.
▣
The amount of backlash between the driven
gear and pinion can be adjusted with the bearing
adjust nuts. To maintain bearing preload
adjustment intact, turn in the adjust nuts on one
side the same amount if the nuts on the other side
are turned out.
▣
Standard value for
assembly
Backlash between
driven gear and pinion
Inspection of gear tooth contact and adjustment.
0.28~0.36
139
5. Rear Axle
Tooth contact patterns an adjustment procedure
Tooth contact
Cause
Adjustment procedure
Normal contact
Normal tooth contact is indicated by a
trace of tooth contact which is well
centered on the pitch line of the teeth
covering 70 percent of the entire
length, leaving intact area of
approximately 5㎜ on the toe side.
Position of drive pinion relative to the
driven gear can be adjusted by means
of the shims fitted to he drive pinion
cage. Position of driven gear relative
to the drive pinion can be adjusted by
following he backlash adjustment
procedure.
1. Move the drive pinion toward the
driven gear by decreasing the
thickness of shims fitted behind the
drive pinion cage.
Drive pinion is too far away
from driven gear.
Drive pinion is too close
to the driven gear.
Driven gear is too close
to the pinion.
Driven gear is too far away
from the drive pinion.
140
2. Adjust the backlash
by moving driven
gear away from the
drive pinion.
1. Move the drive pinion away from
the driven gear by increasing
thickness of shims fitted behind
the drive pinion cage.
2. Adjust the backlash
by moving driven
gear in toward the
drive pinion.
1. Move the drive pinion away from
driven gear by increasing thickness
of shims fitted behind the drive
pinion cage.
2. Adjust the backlash
by moving driven
gear away from the
driven pinion.
1. Move the drive pinion in toward
the driven gear by decreasing
thickness of shims fitted behind
the drive pinion cage.
2. Adjust the backlash
by moving driven
gear in toward the
drive pinion.
5. Rear Axle
Install and tighten the bearing cap nuts.
Install the cotter pins.
▣
Bearing cap nut torque : 18~25㎏.m
2.5. Installation
Install the differential assembly into the rear axle
case in the reverse order of removal. Bond the
gasket to the joining face of the rear axle case
with adhesive. Install and tighten 16 bolts.
Since the side bearing cap fixing method in the
differential unit has been altered from stud & nut
to bolt & lock wire, the bolt tightening torque
should be changed as follows.
Bolt torque : 16~20㎏.m
Bolt torque : 27~33㎏.m
Install the side bearing adjust nut lock plate by
aligning it with the adjust nut grooves.
Install an tighten the bolts.
▣
▣
Fully tighten the drive pinion cage fixing bolts :
The differential assembly should be installed with
its correct side up, so that the driven gear is on left
side of the driven pinion.
Bolt torque : 10.5~13.5㎏.m
▣ Turn the adjust bolt on the side face of the
differential carrier all the way in until it is brought
into contact with the driven gear and back out 1/8
of a turn (45 degrees).
▣ Install the propeller shaft assembly in the
reverse order of removal by aligning the direction
of yokes of the front and rear ends of the propeller
shaft.
Fill the rear axle case to the level plug with
specified gear oil.
▣
When this step is followed, a clearance of 0.25㎜
will be provided between the driven gear and
adjusted bolt.
When installing the adjust bolt, apply liquid
gasket (adhesive) to the portion indicated in the
drawing to prevent oil leakage.
▣
141
5. Rear Axle
3. Servicing of rear hub assembly
Special tools : Brake return spring replacer
Rear hub nut wrench
Rear hub puller
Other tools and equipments :
General tools
Micro-meter
Feeler gauge
Dial indicator with magnetic
stand
Spring scale
Removal of hub bearing nut
Remove the lock washer. Remove the rear hub
bearing nut using hub nut wrench.
▣
3.1. Disassembly
Removal of wheels
Remove the wheel pin nuts with the wheel pin nut
wrench. Remove the wheels. Wheel pin nuts on
the right side wheels have right-handed threads
and those on the left side wheels have left-handed
threads.
▣
① Loosen the wheel pin nuts; outer and jack up
the rear axle. Remove the wheel pin nuts and
outer wheel.
② Lower the jack until the wheels touch the
ground and loosen the wheel pin nuts; inner. Jack
up and support the rear axle on rigid racks.
Remove the wheel pin nuts an inner wheels.
▣ Remove the rear hub assembly by fitting
special tool hub puller into the axle shaft bolts
holes in the rear hub.
Remove the bolts fixing the axle shaft and pull
out the axle shaft. If the axle shaft is stuck and
does not come out easily, screw the axle shaft
bolts alternately into the 2 threaded holes in the
axle shaft flange.
▣
Disconnect the brake pipe from the wheel
cylinder.
Remove the brake shoe return spring using special
tool spring replacer.
▣
Remove the oil seal by pulling the center rib
with pliers. Remove the distance piece.
▣
142
5. Rear Axle
Inspection of rear hub bearings
Check the hub bearing outer races for separation,
wear and abnormal noise. Replace the parts if
found to be defective.
▣
Remove the bolts and nuts attaching the anchor
bracket to the rear axle flange. Remove the brake
assembly.
▣
Inspection of oil seals
Check the lipped portions of the oil seals for wear
and fatigue. Replace oil seal if any abnormal
condition in noticeable.
▣
Inspection of hubs
Check the wheel pin stopper grooves in the hubs
for expansion also check the portions into which
the oil seal and bearing are to be installed and
replace the parts if fitting interference is no longer
provided.
▣
Remove the snap ring and oil. Insert soft metal
bar into cut-away portions o the hub grease
reservoir and remove the outer bearing outer race
and inner bearing by tapping on the rear face of
the bearing sleeve.
▣
Note. Hub inner oil seal comes out with inner
bearng.
Remove the nuts from the wheel pins on the
inner face of the brake drum. Separate the rear
hub from the brake drum.
▣
Note. The left hub uses left-handed-thread and the
right hub uses right-handed thread.
3.2. Inspection
Inspection of rear axle shafts
Support the rear axle shaft on V block at its end
and check for run-out using a dial indicator. If the
amount of bending is in excess of 0.5㎜ (amount
of run-out is in excess of 1.0㎜), replace the shaft
with a new one. Also check the shaft with a new
one.
▣
Nominal size
Unit : ㎜
A
Φ174
B
Φ170
C
Φ160
D
Φ163
Inspection of rear axle case
Check the entire rear axle case for bending and
cracking. Check oil seal fitting faces of the rear
axle case for wear and damage. Replace the rear
axle case if found to be defective. Also check
flanges and spring fitting faces for cracking and
distortion. The use of red check is recommended
▣
143
5. Rear Axle
when checking the rear axle case for cracking.
Install the rear hub inner bearing and oil seal.
Secure these parts in position with the snap ring.
▣
Nominal Size
Unit : ㎜
A
Φ118
B
Φ95
C
Φ90
Install the rear brake assembly in the reverse
order of removal. Fully contact the brake shoes by
turning the brake shoe adjust cam.
Assembly the rear hub assembly to the rear axle.
Install the outer bearing and hub bearing nut.
▣
Hub bearing preload adjustment
With hub nut wrench turn in the hub bearing nut
until brake drum becomes dragged. Loosen the
hub bearing nut just enough so that the brake
drum can be turned easily with hand. Retighten
the bearing nut to obtain specified bearing preload.
To check bearing preload ( starting torque), hook
one of the wheel pins in tangential direction of
rotation with a spring scale and read the scale
when the hub begins to rotate.
▣
3.3. Reassembly
Mount the brake drum to the rear hub with the
wheel pins and nuts. Tighten the nuts on the brake
drum side wheel pins to 45-50kg-m. Caulk three
portions of each nut with a chisel and a ha㎜er.
▣
Note. When replacing brake drums, check o be
certain new drums are installed on the correct
sides as they are unequal in direction o threads
and have different part numbers.
* Starting torque = pull required to rotate hub x
distance between wheel pin and center of axle.
Pull measured with
a spring scale
hooked to wheel pin
New bearing preload
7~9㎏
Bearing preload after
brake-in
2~3㎏
Install the inner and outer hub bearing outer
races. Apply grease to the hub bearing and hub
grease reservoirs.
▣
Amount of grease
required
Grease reservoir in
rear hub
1,150g
Install the lock plate and fix it in position with
three lock bolts.
▣
144
5. Rear Axle
Assemble the distance piece and oil seal to the
hub, then install the axle shaft.
▣
▣
Install the rear axle shaft.
Install the rear wheel; inner. Install and tighten
the wheel pin inner nuts to specification.
▣
Wheel pin nut torque : 45~50㎏.m
Install the rear wheel ; outer, so that air valve
on the outer and inner wheels are oppositely
positioned. Install and tighten the wheel pin nuts
to specification.
▣
145
5. Rear Axle
4. Trouble shooting
Rear axle noises
Complaint
Cause
Correction
Gear worn
Noise on pull
Gears backlash insufficient
When driving at high
speed
Continuous
noise
When driving at a
constant speed
Intermittent
noise
When driving at a
constant speed
Gear worn
Replace gears or
adjust backlash
Gear backlash excessive
Gear oil level too low
Replenish
Drive pinion bearing or
differential bearings worn or
loosen in mount
Replace or adjust preload
Driven gear worn
Replace
Driven gear loosened
Replace bolts. Apply Loctite
and tighten securely.
Gears defective
Replace
Foreign matter in axle case
Check
Play in axle shaft splines
excessive
replace
Oil leak
Complaint
Oil leaks from the flange yoke(s)
Cause
Correction
Oil level too high
Adjust
Oil seal(s) defective
Replace
Air breather clogged
Clean or replace
Differential carrier
bolts loosened
mounting
Retighten
Differential carrier gasket broken
Replace
Axle case cracked
Replace
Air breather clogged
Clean or replace
Hub outer oil seal(s) defective
Replace
Oil level too high
Adjust
Hub oil seals defective
replace
Oil leaks from axle
Oil leaks into rear hub(s)
Oil leaks into brake drum(s)
Engine torque not being carried to drive wheel(s)
Complaint
Cause
Correction
Rear axle shaft(s) broken
Replace
Gears damaged
replace
Propeller shaft turns
146
SECTION 6
FRONT AXLE
CONTENTS
PAGE
1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION
148
2. SERVICING OF FRONT AXLE ASSEMBLY
2.1.
DISASSEMBLY
154
2.2.
INSPECTION
156
2.3.
REASSEMBLY
158
2.4.
ADJUSTMENT OF FRONT WHEEL ALIGNMENT
161
2.5.
ADJUSTMENT OF MAXIMUM STEERING ANGLES
163
3. TROUBLE SHOOTING
165
147
6. Front Axle
1. General description
Two kind of front axle be equipped depending on the vehicle type. A steering knuckle is pivotally
assembled to each end of the axle via the kingpin. Each front wheel is mounted to the steering
knuckle via the front hub bearings and hub.
The knuckle arm and tie-rod to form a part of the steering linkage through which turning motion of
the steering wheel is relayed to the steering knuckles and causes them to pivot about the kingpin.
To maintain running stability of the vehicle, the front axle has various built-in angles such as “toe-in”,
“camber”, “caster”, “kingpin inclination” etc. that generally referred to as “front end alignment”.
Specifications
Distinction
BM090
BF105
BS106
BH115E
BF115
BH116
Type
Reverse Elliot I Beam
Tire tread (㎜)
2,050
Capacity (㎏)
6,500
King
pin(㎏)
Wheel
alignment
Outside dia.
50
Length
252
Toe in (㎜)
BIAS : 4~6, RADIAL : 0~1
Camber (˚)
1˚±30'
Caster (˚)
-30˚±30'
Kingpin
inclination (˚)
Steering
angle
50˚±30'
7˚±10'
Inside (˚)
45˚
42˚
45˚
Outside (˚)
37˚
34˚
37˚
148
BH117
BH120
6. Front Axle
REVERSE ELLIOT I BEAM TYPE(Applicable for leaf Spring)
I BEAM TYPE ( Applicable for Air Spring)
149
6. Front Axle
FRONT AXLE ASSEMBLY IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
MODEL BF105
150
6. Front Axle
A.
Axle A-front
32
Nut-hex M12 x 1.25
1
Axle-front, I beam
33
Washer-spring
2
Bolt-key, king pin
34
Nipple-grease
3
Nut-hex M10 x 1.25
35
Joint ball
4
Washer-spring
36
Seat-ball
5
Knuckle
37
Spring-coil comparison
6
Ring-snap
38
Plug-adjust
7
Plug-plate knuckle
39
Ring-snap
8
Bolt-hex
40
Cover
9
Nut-hex M18 x 1.5
41
Nut-hex
10
Bearing-upper
42
Pin-split
11
Bearing-lower
43
Hub & drum A-front
12
Seal-king pin
44
Hub-front
13
Pin-knuckle, drum cover
45
Drum-brake
14
Pin-king
46
Wheel pin kit-front
15
Washer-thrust
47
Pin-wheel, front
16
Bearing-thrust roller
48
Nut-hex, drum
17
Nipple-grease
49
Nut-wheel
18
Cover-king pin
50
Bearing-front, hub outer
19
Bolt-hex M12 x 1.25
51
Bearing-taper roller, inner
20
Arm-knuckle
52
Washer-lock
21
Packing-king pin cover
53
Nut-bearing
22
Arm-knuckle
54
Washer-lock
23
Bolt-hex
55
Bolt-w/washer, M6 x 1.0
24
Bolt-hex
56
Cap-hub bearing outer
25
Nut-hex
57
Packing-hub cap
26
Arm-tie rod
58
Bolt-hex M8 x 1.25
27
Bolt-hex
59
Washer-spring
28
Rod A-tie
60
Cover-hub bearing inner
29
Rod-tie
61
Ring-snap
30
End A
62
Seal-oil
31
Bolt-hex M12 x 1.25
151
6. Front Axle
FRONT AXLE IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
MODEL BH SERIES ( With Air Spring)
152
6. Front Axle
1.
Front axle-I beam
40.
Tie rod arm
2.
Key bolt-king pin
41.
Tie rod arm
3.
Nut-hex M10 x 1.25 washer-spring
42.
Nut-hex
4.
Knuckle
43.
Tie rod A
5.
Knuckle
44.
Link rod
6.
Ring-snap, knuckle plug
45.
End A-tie rod
7.
Plug-plate knuckle
46.
End A-tie rod
8.
Bolt-hex
47.
Nut-hex
9.
Nut-hex, M18 x 1.5
48.
Wheel pin-front
10.
Bearing-upper
49.
Nut
11.
Bearing-lower
50.
Washer-spring
12.
Seal-king pin
51.
Cover
13.
Pin-knuckle drum cover
52.
Ring-snap
14.
King pin
53.
Joint ball
15.
Thrust washer (OPT)
54.
Ball seat
16.
Bearing-thrust roller
55.
Spring-coil comp
17.
Grease nipple
56.
Adjust plug
18.
Bolt
57.
Nipple-grease
19.
Bolt-hex, knuckle arm
58.
Bolt-hex
20.
Bolt-hex, knuckle arm
59.
Nut-hex M12 x 1.25
21.
Knuckle arm
60.
Bracket A
22.
Hub & drum A-front
61.
Bracket-rear
23.
Drum-brake, front
62.
Bolt
24.
Hub-front
63.
Nut-hex M18 x 1.5
25.
Wheel pin kit-front
64.
Spacer
26.
Nut-hex, drum
65.
Washer-spring
27.
Bearing-front hub outer
66.
Bracket
28.
Bearing-taper roller inner(OPT)
67.
Bracket-lower
29.
Washer-lock
68.
Bolt
30.
Nut-bearing
69.
Nut-hex M18 x 1.5
31.
Washer-lock
70.
Washer-spring
32.
Bolt-w/washer, M6 x 1.0
71.
Spacer-front, spring lower
33.
Cap-hub bearing outer
72.
Bolt-hex M12 x 1.25
34.
Packing-hub cap
73.
Nut-hex M12 x 1.25
35.
Bolt-hex M8 x 1.25 washer-spring
74.
Washer-spring
36.
Cover-hub bearing inner
75.
Bracket-leveling valve
37.
Ring-snap
76.
Bolt-hex M10 x 1.25
38.
Seal-oil
77.
Washer-spring
39.
Nut-hex
153
6. Front Axle
2. Servicing of front axle assembly
2.1. DISASSEMBLY
Remove the oil seal, snap ring and inner hub
bearing.
Remove the inner bearing and outer bearing outer
races by fitting remover into grooves in the grease
reservoir.
▣
▣ Loosen the wheel pin nuts with a wheel pin nut
wrench. Jack up the front axle. Remove the wheel
pin nuts and wheel.
Take out the wheel pin nuts from the inner part
of the brake drum and separate the brake drum
from the hub when replacement of the hub or
brake drum is necessary.
▣
Position rigid racks under rear of the front
spring rear brackets.
▣
▣
Note. The left side hub nuts have left-handed
threads and those on the right side have right
handed threads.
Remove the front the hub cap.
▣
▣
Remove the front hub bearing nut lock plate.
▣
Remove the hub using a hub nut wrench.
Removal of front brake assembly.
1) Prior to removing the front brake assembly,
take out the tie-rod end ball joint nut and
disconnect the tie-rod from the tie-rod arm.
Note. 1. The above operation may be omitted
when disassembly of tie-rod arm and tie-rod
assembly is unnecessary.
2. The ball joint is tapered for positive connection
with the tie-rod arm. Remove the ball joint by
tapping on the side face of the tie-rod arm end
with a copper hammer.
Fully contract the brake shoes by turning the
brake shoe adjust cam. Remove the front hub
using a hub puller.
▣
Note. When disconnecting the brake flexible hose,
loosen the nuts in sequence as shown below and
avoid disconnecting the hose at the joint on one
side only or twisting and damage to the hose will
result.
154
6. Front Axle
Wheel cylinder side
1) Remove the kingpin cover and pull out the
kingpin with the aid of kingpin puller.
Remove the steering knuckle and thrust bearing.
Note. If the kingpin turns, tighten the center bolt
on puller with a wrench.
3) Take out the snap ring and remove the plate
plug from the lower face of the steering knuckle.
▣ Remove the U bolts and nuts using a box
wrench. Lower the jack carefully and remove the
front axle toward the front of vehicle.
Remove 4 bolts fixing the anchor pin bracket.
Remove the front assembly.
The 2 bolts on the lower side of the anchor pin
bracket are used to fixing the tie-rod arm.
▣
▣
Tie-rod assembly
Steering knuckle arms
1) Pull out the cotter pin from the drag link
adjust screw.
Remove the adjust screw and disconnect the
drag link from the knuckle arm.
▣
2) Remove the 2 bolts connecting the knuckle
arm. Disconnect the knuckle arm.
▣
Kingpin
1) Loosen the joint not fastening the tie-rod arm
with the tie-rod end until its outer face is flush
with the end of joint ball.
Disconnect the joint ball from the tie-rod arm by
tapping on the joint nut with a hammer.
2) Remove the tie-rod end fixing bolt, then screw
out the tie-rod end.
3)Take out the snap ring fixing the tie-rod end
adjust screw. Remove the adjust screw, spring ball
seat, joint ball, ball seat and dust cover.
1) Loosen the kingpin key bolt nut until its outer
face is flush with the end of the key bolt. Loosen
the key bolt by tapping on the nut with a hammer.
Remove the nut and key bolt.
155
6. Front Axle
2.2. Inspection
2.2.1. Kingpins and Needle Roller Bearings
Check the kingpins visually for cracking, step
wear, scoring or corrosion and replace with new
ones as necessary, use red check for detection of
cracking.
▣
1) Remove the bearing using special tool : kingpin
needle roller bearing remover and a hammer or a
bench press. Oil seal comes out together with the
bearing.
2) Press the needle roller bearing into position by
holding special tool against the marked side of the
bearing case.
Note. Do not install the needle roller bearing with
their faces reversed, or damage to the bearing case
will result.
Measure the outside diameter at several
portions of the kingpins using an outside portions
of the kingpins an outside micrometer.
Take measurement at the upper and lower ends
(bearing fitting faces) in two directions at a right
angle to each other.
▣
a. Install the upper side needle roller bearing by
aligning the grease hole in the knuckle and press it
in just enough, so that its outer face is depressed
2.5mm from the upper edge of the knuckle.
b. Install the two lower side needle roller bearings
from the lower side of the knuckle. Press it in just
enough, so that there is provided a clearance of
5.5mm between the inner edge of the knuckle and
inner face of the bearing. Install another bearing
and press it in just enough so that its outer face is
flush with the plug fitting face.
Assemble the needle roller bearings to the
knuckle and install the kingpin, then check that
the needle roller bearings rotate smoothly without
binding.
▣
Measure the clearance between the kingpin and
kingpin needle roller bearings. If the clearance is
beyond the value indicating need for servicing,
replace the needle roller bearings with new ones.
▣
Inspection item
Kingpin outside
diameter
Clearance between
kingpin and needle
roller bearing
3) Installation of oil seal
Standard
Value indicating Limit for
value for
need for servicing
use
assembly
50Φ
-
49.9Φ
0.12
-
0.001~
0.007
▣ Kingpin needle roller bearing replacement
procedure
156
6. Front Axle
2.2.3. Joint Balls
▣ Check the joint balls for wear, identification
and damage. Replace the parts if found to be
defective.
Install the oil seal from the inner face of the
steering knuckle using a protective plate
exercising care not to cause distortion o the oil
seal.
Apply a thin coat o grease to the oil seal before
installation.
▣
Measure the outside diameter of the joint balls.
Replace the parts if the measured value is beyond
the limit.
▣
2.2.2. Steering Knuckles, Knuckle Arm and
Tie-rod Arms
Unit : ㎜
Knuckle arm joint
ball outside
diameter
Outside joint ball
outside diameter
Nominal diameter
Limit for use
Φ35
35±0.03
Φ35
35±0.03
▣ Check the joint balls for poor contact by
applying a thin coat of the special compound (red
lead and oil mixture) to the tapered portion of the
joint balls and assembling them to the tie-rod arms,
drop arm and knuckle arm. Correct or replace the
parts with new ones if abnormal contact is
noticeable.
Check the steering knuckles, knuckle arm and
tie-rod arms for bending and distortion. Check
these parts further for cracking paying particular
attention to the tapered portions of the knuckle
arm and tie-rod arms which are subject to
localized stresses using red check and replace
them if found to be defective.
▣
2.2.4. Tie-rod
Check the bearing fitting faces and oil seals for
wear and replace as necessary.
▣
Support the tie-rod on v-blocks at its ends and
check for run-out by turning it slowly. A slight
amount of bending may be corrected with a bench
press without applying heat.
▣
2.2.5. Front Hubs
Check the front hub for crack. Check the wheel
pin stopper grooves in the front hubs and bearing
fitting holes for expansion.
Replace the front hub if fitting interference is no
longer provided and bearing fits loosely into the
hole.
▣
157
6. Front Axle
Unit : ㎜
Nominal diameter
Φ136.5
B
Φ114.3
Thickness
1431711-230
1431711-230
1431711-230
1431711-230
1431711-230
1431711-230
1431711-230
1431711-230
4.90
4.95
5.00
5.05
5.10
5.15
5.20
5.25
2) Install kingpins or test bars of the same
diameter into the kingpin fitting holes in the front
axle.
Stretch a thin cord across the kingpin centers.
Unit : ㎜
A
Part number
2.2.6. Bearings
Wash clean the bearings in detergent oil, then
check them for wear, separation and abnormal
noise and replace with new ones as necessary.
2.3. Reassembly
▣ Assemble the front axle to the leaf springs
using U bolts.
U bolt nut torque(Kg-m)
▣
:
3)Look down on the front axle and check for
alignment between the cord and center bolt holes
in the spring seats.
32~48
Selection of kingpin thrust washers.
1) Assemble the knuckle and thrust bearing to the
front axle, then install the kingpin. Measure the
clearance between the knuckle and front axle.
4) Check the kingpins for indication as viewed
from side to side.
Note. Install the thrust bearing on the upper face
of the axle, and take measurement with the
kingpin fitted half way into the front axle.
▣
Select the thrust washer equivalent in thickness to
the clearance (H) plus 0.05㎜.
158
Front axle for vertical misalignment
6. Front Axle
Assemble the knuckle, thrust bearing and thrust
washer to the front axle.
Apply bell moly paste or engine oil to both faces
of the thrust washer and install it in position using
thrust washer driver.
▣
Stretch a core and check for alignment between
the cord and upper face of the spring seats. Front
axle with slight amount of bending or distortion
may be corrected with a bench press without
applying heat.
▣
Note. Install the thrust bearing so that its dust
covered face is turned up.
Bell Moly paste is a kind of molybdenum
lubricant. (Made by Sumico Lubrication Co.)
Check fit of the kingpin into the kingpin fitting
hole in the front axle using a new kingpin.
Replacement of the front axle using axle is
necessary if the kingpin fits loosely or if the
amount of wear at the upper and lower edges of
the kingpin fitting holes is excessive.
▣
Apply grease to the needle roller bearing and
thrust bearings. install the kingpin into position
using kingpin sleeper by aligning the groove with
the key bolt hole in the front axle.
▣
Check the ends of the front axle carefully for
cracks using red check. Replace the front axle
with a new one if found to be cracked.
▣
Standard value for
assembly
Clearance
between knuckles
and front axle
Interference 0.05
Unit : mm
Value indicating
need for servicing
When installing he kingpin, exercise care not to
cause distortion of kingpin head.
Clearance more
than 0.5
▣ Install the key bolt, spring washer and nut.
Tighten the nut securely.
159
6. Front Axle
Install the kingpin cover with gasket and fix
these parts in position with the bolts.
4) Assemble the ball seat upper, joint ball, ball
seat lower and spring to the tie-rod end in the
order described, then install the adjust plug. Turn
in the adjust plug. Turn in the adjust plug fully
and back out 1/3 of a turn and drill a hole sizing
2.2mm in diameter and 9-12mm in depth, then
install the snap ring.
▣
Install the plug on the lower face of the steering
knuckle and fix it with the snap ring.
▣
▣ Assemble the knuckle arm to the steering
knuckle. Apply Bell moly paste with engine oil
(paste 1 : oil 4) to the bolts and tighten the nuts,
and caulk 2 portion o each nut.
Nut torque :
▣
Assemble the tie-rod end assembly to the tie
rod.
▣
50~55kg-m
Note. Apply generous amount o Bell moly paste
to the threaded portions of the tie-rod end. Turn in
the tie-rod end until a setting mark applied at the
time of disassembly is covered and leave it in that
position so that the bolt is torqued to specification
when toe-in
adjustment is completed.
Front brake assembly
Tie-rod end bolt torque
▣
: 7.7~9.5㎏-m
Install the tie-rod to the tie-rod arm.
Tie-rod arm joint ball nut torque :
Note. Caulk opposed two portions of the nut after
tightening.
1) Assemble the front brake assembly to the
steering knuckle by fitting the dowel pin hole in
the anchor pin bracket to the dowel pin on the
steering knuckle.
Install and turn in drag link adjust screw until
the outer end o the screw is flush with the face of
the drag link and install the cotter pin.
If the pin holes in the drag link are not in
alignment with the corresponding groove in the
adjust screw, turn in the screw just enough to
obtain alignment.
▣
2) Install the anchor pin bracket with the bolts ( 2
bolts on the lower side of anchor bracket are used
to fix the tie-rod arm).
Unit : ㎏-m
Bolt torque : upper bolts
16.8~20.6
Bolt torque : lower bolts
( Apply Bell moly paste
and engine oil )
50.0~55.0
35~40㎏-m
▣
Hub assembly
3) Connect the brake flexible hoses to the wheel
cylinders.
1) If the hub and brake drum assembly has been
disassembled, fasten them together using wheel
pins and nuts.
Tighten wheel pins to 45~50kg-m. and caulk 3
portions of each nut.
160
6. Front Axle
2) Apply grease to the inner bearing. Install the
inner bearing and bearing cover on the hub and fix
them in position with the snap ring, then install
the oil seal. Install the outer bearing outer race on
the hub and fill the front hub grease reservoir with
grease.
Fill 1/3 of space within the hub cap with grease.
Install the hub cap.
▣
Adjust the brakes, then perform bleeding
operation on brake hydraulic circuit.
▣
3) Install the outer bearing outer race and apply
grease to the grease port.
Total amount of grease
required (each wheel)
Install the wheels and wheel pin nuts. Semitighten the wheel pin nuts with a wheel pin nut
wrench. Remove the rigid racks from under the
front axle and lower the wheels to ground. Tighten
the wheel pin nuts to 45-50kg-m. Do not overtighten wheel pin nuts.
▣
400g
Fully contract the brake shoes by turning the
brake shoe adjust cam and install the brake drum
and front hub.
▣
2.4. Adjustment of front wheel alignment
Various front end angles such as toe-in, camber,
caster, kingpin inclination, etc. are referred to as
“front wheel alignment”.
Install the outer bearing, bearing washer and
hub nut. Fully tighten the hub nut and loosen it.
▣
2.4.1. Preparation for front wheel alignment
Check to be certain the front hubs, kingpins,
tie-rod joints and “U” bolts are tightly fitted and
have no excessive play.
▣
▣
Check the disc wheels for wobbling.
Check and adjust tire inflation pressure as
necessary.
▣
Adjust the bearing preload by turning in the
hub, so that a pull required to rotate the hub
becomes 3-5kg when checked with a spring scale
hooked to one of the wheel pins.
▣
Front
and rear
Starting torque (or bearing
preload) when measured with
a spring scale hooked to
wheel pin
Hub bearing preload after
break-in
Hub bearing preload on new
bearings
▣
Install
▣
Tire size
Standard
inflation
pressure
10.00-20-16PR
11.00-20-19PR
11R-22.5-16PR
6.75㎏/㎠
(6.6x100kpa)
Unload and park the vehicle on a level ground.
2.4.2. Adjustment of Tie-in
1.0㎏
Apply chalk to front and rear part of the tire
tread. Mark a tire center line on the tread by
turning the wheel carefully with a scriber held in
contact with the center of the tire.
▣
3.0~5.0㎏
lock washer and lock bolts
Set the end o the positer on the toe-in gauge to
the height of steering knuckle spindle.
▣
When the adjustment is completed, install the lock
plate.
Note. If the bolt holes in the lock plate are not in
alignment with the corresponding holes in the nut,
reverse the lock plate.
If the bolts holes are out still of alignment, turn in
the nut just enough to obtain alignment.
161
6. Front Axle
3) Remove the front hub cap and mount a gauge
to the end of the steering knuckle spindle.
▣
Measurement of camber angle
▣ Measure the distance A and B with toe-in
gauge. Compare the measured values to determine
the amount of toe-in.
▣ If
the measured value deviates from the
specified range, adjust by loosening the bolt on
the tie-rod end and turning the tie-rod as necessary.
When a correct adjustment is obtained, securely
tighten the bolts.
▣
Tie-rod end bolt torque
8~9 ㎏-m
With the gauge installed on the steering knuckle
spindle properly, the camber angle can be directly
read on the gauge.
2.4.3. Measurement of camber angle, caster
angle and kingpin inclination
▣
Various types of instruments for measuring
camber angle, caster angle and kingpin inclination
are in use but in this section front end angles are
measured using a level vial type camber, caster
and kingpin inclination gauge.
▣
Measurement of caster angle and kingpin
inclination
Take measurement on each front
Wheel in the following manner;(Right wheel)
Preparation for measurement
1) Position each front wheel on a turning radius
gauge, so that the tire center line is well centered
on the running radius gauge. Set the front wheels
in straight ahead position.
2) Position a piece of wood equivalent in
thickness to the height of the turning radius
gauges under the rear wheel.
1) Turn the steering wheel clockwise. Make sure
to depress the foot brake pedal and hold when
turning the steering wheel with the front wheels
positioned on turning radius gauges.
162
6. Front Axle
amount of side slippage using a side slip tester.
If the amount of side slippage is in excess of 5mm
per distance of 1m, readjustment of the wheel
alignment is necessary.
2.5. Adjustment of maximum steering angles
The maximum steering angle of the front wheels
can be adjusted with the knuckle stopper bolts and
the drop arm stopper bolts. The maximum steering
angle of the front wheels determines the minimum
turning radius.
2) Steer the front wheels to an angle of 20 degrees
(inner wheel) and hold then in position. Calibrate
the scale on the kingpin inclination and caster
gauge to zero by means of the adjust screw on the
rear face of the gauge.
Position each front wheel on the center of the
turning radius gauge in a straightened position.
▣
Set the parking brake securely.
3) Turn the steering counter-clockwise until the
light wheel (outer) is steered to an angle of 20
degrees.
Loosen the drop arm stopper bolt and knuckle
stopper bolt lock nuts and turn in the stopper bolts,
then turn the steering wheel and adjust setting of
the knuckle stopper bolt so that the front wheels
are steered to the specified angles.
▣
Read the scale on the caster and kingpin
inclination gauge. If the caster of kingpin
inclination angle is incorrect, the following
troubles are suspectable:
Note. 1. Maximum steering angles should be
checked and adjusted after the adjustment of front
wheel alignment.
2. Hold the brake pedal depressed when turning
the steering wheel with the front wheels
positioned on the turning radius gauges.
① Kingpins and kingpin bearing worn
excessively.
(Maximum steering angle)
Inner
Outer
BF105
42˚
34˚
BS106
BM090
BH115E
45˚
37˚
BH115
BH120
② Front axle bent or distorted.
Incorrect front wheel alignment will not result
from normal operation of the vehicle. However, if
the front wheel alignment if found to be incorrect,
check condition of the related systems to locate
the cause of trouble and give necessary service
attention before attempting to correct alignment.
Adjust setting of the drop arm stopper bolt, so
that the drop arm comes into contact with the
stopper bolt when the knuckle is steered to stop.
▣
2.4.4. Measurement of side slippage
When adjustment of the toe-in, camber, caster and
kingpin inclination is completed, measure the
163
6. Front Axle
When adjusting the setting of the drop arm
stopper bolt and knuckle arm stopper bolt is
completed, turn the steering wheel to lock and
check that the knuckle and drop arm are brought
into contact with the stopper bolts at a time and
that the steering angles are within the specified
value.
▣
▣
Repeat the same adjustment on both sides.
164
6. Front Axle
3. Trouble shooting
(1) Steering unstable and steering shimmy occurs.
Cause
Clearance between kingpins and bearing excessive
Play in tie-rod end and drag link joints
Excessive “U” bolts loosened
Spring pin bushing worn
Front axle alignment incorrect
Wheel pin nuts loosened
Tires not uniformly inflated
Rotating parts out of balance
Correction
Replace kingpins or needle roller bearing
Adjust or replace if amount of wear is considerable
Retighten
Replace bushings
Adjust
Retighten
Adjust
Balance
(2) Return action of steering wheel poor
Cause
Moving parts poorly lubricated
Joints worn
Wheel alignment incorrect
Correction
Lubricate
Adjust or replace
Adjust
(3) Hard-steering
Cause
Moving parts poorly lubricated
Kingpins fitted too tight
Thrust bearings defective
Joint balls fitted too tight
Tires under-inflated
Front wheel alignment incorrect
Thrust bearing incorrectly installed
Correction
Lubricate
Adjust clearance between kingpins and needle
roller bearings
Replace
Adjust
Adjust to recommended pressures
Adjust
Correct
(4) Steering pulls to one side
Cause
Tires not uniformly inflated
Tread height of tires unequal
Front springs on one side weakened or broken
Front wheel alignment incorrect
Correction
Adjust
Adjust by replacing tires as necessary
Replace
Correct
165
6. Front Axle
(5) Maximum steering angle(s) insufficient
Cause
Correction
Drop arm stopper bolt or knuckle stopper bolt(s) set
Adjust to obtain specified steering angle(s)
incorrectly
(6) Premature or uneven tire tread wear
Cause
Correction
Tires not properly inflated
Adjust
Wear on center part of tread indicates overinflation
Wear on shoulders part of tread indicates underCorrect
inflation
Balance
Front wheel alignment incorrect
Rotating parts out of balance
166
SECTION 7
STEERING
CONTENTS
PAGE
1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION
167
2. SERVICING OF STEERING ASSEMBLY
2.1.
REMOVAL
175
2.2.
DISASSEMBLY, INSPECTION AND REASSEMBLY
176
3. POWER STEERING-ROTARY VALVE TYPE
3.1.
CONSTRUCTION
180
3.2.
OPERATION
181
3.3.
MAIN SPECIFICATIONS
184
3.4.
DISASSEMBLY AND REASSEMBLY
184
4. TROUBLE SHOOTING
198
167
7. Steering
1. General description
An increase force for steering operation gives a
rise to fatigue of the operator particulary in a
long distance haulage, and therefore ,a means
should be provide that relieves the operator of
undue fatigue, for assurance of driving safety.
The power steering system provides automatic
hydraulic assistance to the turning effort
applied to the mechanical steering system. The
power steering system consists of a control
valve, power cylinder, and a hydraulic pump
used with the steering gear. The power cylinder
is moved by operation of the control valve
which supplies steering fluid to either side of
the power cylinder piston as required,
depending on the position of the valve. The
control valve is either a rotary-type or spooltype valve which is mounted directly to the
steering gear assembly. The pressure used to
operate this system is supplied by a vane-type
oil pump.
The steering system consists basically of the
steering wheel, steering shaft, yoke, universal
joint, spline shaft, steering column, steering
unit, drop arm, drag link assembly, etc.
The steering unit is of an integral powerassisted type and worm shaft is connected, via
the yoke, universal joint and steering shaft, to
the steering wheel. When the steering wheel is
turned, the turning motion of the worm shaft is
changed into sliding motion of the ball-nut
rack is engaged with the taper gear on the
sector shaft to which the drop arm is connected,
so that turning motion of the steering wheel is
relayed to the steering linkage via the drop arm.
Due to increase in the size of vehicles and
resulting increase in the front axle load and to
use of low inflation tires for improved riding
quality, ground contact resistance of the front
wheels has increased remarkably, causing a
substantial increase in the force for steering
operation.
Specifications
Distinction
BM090
BF106
BS106
BH115E
BH115
BH116
BH117
Type
Recirculation ball with integral power assisted
Steering wheel
diameter(㎜)
500
Power
Gear ratio
20.2 : 1
Sector gear
94˚
Gear oil
capacity(ℓ)
1.2
1
1.5
1.7
200
Length of prop arm(㎜)
Oil capacity (ℓ)
BH120
6
5
7
168
7.5
7. Steering
STEERING ASSEMBLY IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
MODEL BF106
169
7. Steering
1.
Steering wheel complete
19.
Washer-spring
2.
Wheel A-steering
20.
Seat-rubber
3.
Horn-button
21.
Bracket-upper, strg shaft
4.
Nut-hex M20x1.5
22.
Bolt-hex M10 x 1.25
5.
Washer
23.
Washer-plain
6.
Shaft & column – steering
24.
Washer-spring
7.
Shaft-steering
25.
Nut-hex M10 x 1.25
8.
Bush-steering shaft
26.
Stay-steering column
9.
Column-steering
27.
Bolt-hex M8 x 1.25
10.
Grommet
28.
Washer-plain
11.
Flange-steering
29.
Washer-spring
12.
Key-feather
30.
Nut-hex M8 x 1.25
13.
Screw-set
31.
Bracket
14.
Washer-spring
32.
Cap-bracket
15.
Bracket A-column
33.
Bolt-hex M10 x 1.25
16.
Bracket-column
34.
Washer-spring
17.
Cap-column bracket
35.
Bolt-hex M8 x 1.25
18.
Screw-cap
36.
Washer-spring
170
7. Steering
STEERING ASSEMBLY IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
MODEL BM090, BS106
171
7. Steering
1.
Complete A-steering wheel
16.
Bracket-stay
2.
Body A-steering wheel
17.
Strut-steering column
3.
Pad A-button, horn
18.
Boot-steering, UPR
4.
Nut-hex M20 x 1.5
19.
Bracket-steering column, LWR
5.
Washer
20.
Bolt-hex M6 x 1.0
6.
Column A-steering
21.
Washer-spring
7.
Shaft A-steering column
22.
Cover A-steering column
8.
Tube A-steering column
23.
Steering column-housing UPR, FRT
9.
Bearing-ball
24.
Steering column housing UPR, RR
10.
Ring-snap
25.
Screw-machine, pan HD
11.
Stay-steering column
26.
Screw-machine, pan HD
12.
Bolt-hex M8 x 1.25
27.
Nut-spring
13.
Washer-spring
28.
Seal-rubber, steering column
14.
Washer-plain
29.
Cover-seal rubber
15.
Nut-hex M8 x 1.25
172
7. Steering
STEERING ASSEMBLY IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
MODEL BH116/BH117/BH120
173
7. Steering
1.
Complete A-steering wheel
12.
Column-steering, housing UPR, RR
2.
Body A-steering wheel
13.
Screw-tapping fan head
3.
Pad A-button, horn
14.
Screw-machine fan head
4.
Nut-hex M20 x 1.5
15.
Stay-steering
5.
Washer-lock
16.
Bracket-stay
6.
Column A-steering
17.
Structure-steering shaft
7.
Boot-steering column
18.
Bolt-hex flange
8.
Plate-boot
19.
Bolt-hex M12R
9.
Bolt-hex, flange, M6 x 1.0
20.
Nut-hex M12 x 1.0
10.
Cover A-steering column
21.
Seal-rubber
11.
Column-steering, housing UPR, FRT
22.
Cover-seal
174
7. Steering
Note. Before disconnecting the oil pipe, clean
the steering unit paying particular attention to
the area around the joint, and plug or tape the
oil port after disconnecting the pipe, to prevent
entry of dust or other foreign matter.
2. Servicing of steering assembly
2.1. Removal
2.1.1. Steering wheel assembly
Remove the horn button assembly by
turning the horn ring nut counter-clockwise
then remove the grounding plate.
▣
Flatten out the steering shaft nut lock
washer and remove the nut and washer.
Remove the steering wheel using steering
wheel puller.
▣
▣
Removal of combination switch
① Take out the screw fixing the combination
switch cover and remove the combination
switch cover together with the emergency
switch lever.
▣ Remove the cotter pin from the adjust screw
on the front end of the drag link. Loosen the
screw and disconnect the drag link from the
drop arm ball joint.
② Remove the screws fixing combination
switch assembly. Remove the clip fixing the
switch wiring to the steering column and
remove the combination switch assembly.
▣ Pull out the bushing upward by depressing
the bosses on the side face of the bushing with
screw drivers.
Note. When removing the bushing, use care
not to break the horn wiring.
▣ Remove the bolts fixing the steering column
boot and plate. Remove the boot and plate and
withdraw the steering shaft assembly upward.
Take out the bolts and remove the power
steering unit from the frame together with the
mounting bracket.
▣
2.1.2. Steering unit
Prior to removing the steering unit, drain the
steering oil by disconnecting the oil pipes.
Remove the drop arm from the power
steering using special tool-drop arm remover.
▣
175
7. Steering
▣ Reassemble the drag link assembly in the
reverse order of disassembly after lubricating
the ball seats and adjust screws with grease.
2.2. Disassembly, Inspection and reassembly
2.2.1. Disassembly
▣ Remove the adjust screw. Remove the joint
ball, ball seats, spring and spacer in the order
described.
Remove the mud guard. Remove the
knuckle arm side ball joint assembly in the
order of the adjust screw, spacer, spring and
ball seats.
▣
▣ Tighten the adjust screw and back off
2/12~3/12 of a turn(60~90˚) to align the cotter
pin holes then install the cotter pin.
2.2.2. Inspection
▣ Prior to inspection, wash clean disassembled
parts in detergent oil. Check the drag link, ball
seats and springs for wear, cracking and
damage. Replace the parts if any abnormal
condition is noticeable. Check the mud guards
for fatigue, distortion and damage. Replace the
parts if found to be defective.
▣ Check free length and tension of the springs
with a spring tester.
Replace the spring with new ones if measured
valves deviate greatly from the limit.
Normal valve
Limit for use
Free length
67.9mm
66.9mm
Set load
Set length
200kg/63.3mm
163kg/63.3mm
2.2.3. Reassembly
176
7. Steering
3. Power steering-rotary valve type
Power steering unit and disassembled view
177
7. Steering
A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
Steering unit-power
Gear box
Bearing-needle
Plug-taper
Packing-Y
Ring-back up
Seal-oil
Housing-valve
O ring
Ring-seal
O ring
O ring
O ring
Shaft A-worm
Pin-dowel
Plug-adjust
Bearing-ball
Packing-Y
Pistion-rack
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37
178
O ring
Ring-piston
Shaft-sector
Screw-Adjust
Retainer
Cover-side
Bearing-needle
Ring-back up
Packing-Y
O ring
Nut-Hex
Bolt-W/washer
Plug-breather
Nut-Hex
Bolt-W/washer
Washer-plain
Washer-spring
Bolt-W/washer
Universal joint A
7. Steering
Power steering unit sectional view
Rotary valve type
179
7. Steering
operates entirely on dispatching oil to provide
hydraulic oil pressure assist only turning.
As the entire gear assembly is always full of oil,
all internal components of the gear are
immersed in oil, making periodic lubrication
unnecessary. In addition this oil acts as a
cushion to absorb road shocks that may be
transmitted to the driver.
The steering shaft, hydraulic valve, worm and
the rack piston nut are all in line making a
compact and space saving gear, all oil passages
are internal except the pressure and return
hoses between the gear and pump.
3.1. Construction
The control valve, power cylinder and
complete mechanical steering gear are all
accommodated in the housing of the ball and
nut power steering gear. The steering gear
housing is designed as cylinder for piston,
which moves axially when the input shaft is
turned.
The gear incorporates the re-circulating ball
system in which steel ball acts as a rolling
thread between the steering worm shaft and
rack piston.
The rack piston is geared to the sector of the
pitman shaft. Lash between the pitman shaft
and rack piston is maintained by and adjusting
screw which is retained in the end of the
pitman shaft gear.
The rotary valve is contained in the gear
housing thus eliminating the need for
separately mounted valve and cylinder
assemblies.
The rotary valve power steering assembly
The rotary valve feature provides a smooth
transmission through the driving range of
steering wheel effort.
A torsion bar transmits the road feel to the
driver. Response of the steering gear to effort
applied to the steering wheel is greatly
increased. This increased response gives the
driver greater control and minimizes oversteering.
180
7. Steering
steering shaft flange.
Twisting of torsion bar allows the rotor(valve
spool) to displace or move its position in
relation to the valve body, there by directing oil
to the proper area in the gear to provide a
hydraulic assist on turns. During the turn the
steering worm as the turn. This causes the rack
piston nut to move which in turn applies a
turning effort to the pitman shaft gear.
The rotary valve is shown schematically in
figure and is an open-center, rotary-type valve.
The rotor (valve spool) is inside the valve body
and is held in a neutral position by a torsion
bar attached to one end of the valve body
through the torsion bar cap and extends
through this valve. The other end of the torsion
bar in attached to a stub shaft which in turn is
splined to the gear flange that bolts to the
3.2. Operation
3.2.1. When driving straight forward
(Neutral)
rack position is located. Since all passages are
open, flow resistance is low in neutral position
at all times except when steering in turns, the
power required to operates the pump is at the
minimum.
In the straight ahead or neutral position, oil
flows from the power steering pump through
the open position of the rotary valve and back
to the power steering pump reservoir without
circulating in the power cylinder in which the
181
7. Steering
twisting force is applied to the steering stub
shaft from the steering wheel, there are same
clearances between the grooves and the flow
resistance is same to permit oil to flow to the
return port via the hole of worm shaft. Thus,
the pressure of oil on both sides of the rack
piston is balanced.
The power cylinder is full of oil at all times,
although in the straight ahead
position the pressure on both side of the rack
position is equal and very low.
Oil from the steering gear pump flows through
a passage in the gear housing to an annular
groove around the valve body. When no
3.2.2. When steering wheel is turned clockwise.
As a result the fluid flows, past the groove, into
the chamber “A” within the cylinder and
causes and increase in the pressure of fluid
trapped within the chamber. As the pressure of
fluid increases, the piston receives a thrust
force in direction of the arrow and relays the
force to the pitman shaft to turn and reduces
driver turning effort in executing the right turn.
As the piston strokes, the fluid in the chamber
“B” is simultaneously forced out through the
rotary valve and back to the pump reservoir.
When the steering wheel is turned to the right,
resistance to turning is encountered between
the front wheels and the roadbed, tending to
twist the stub shaft. Since the stub shaft is pinlocked to the torsion at one end and the
opposite end connects the rotor by a pin on the
stub shaft, the twisting action moves the rotor
to right in relation to the valve body. As the
rotor turns, the clearance communicating the
oil pump with the chamber “B” decreases and
prevents flow of fluid into the outlet port.
182
7. Steering
amount of smooth hydraulic assistance at all
times. As the driver stops applying steering
effort to the steering wheel and then relaxes the
wheel, the rotor is forced back into is bar.
When this happens, the fluid pressure is again
equal on both side of the rack piston nut and
the steering geometry of the vehicle causes the
wheels to return to the straight ahead position.
The higher the resistance to turning between
the roadbed and the front wheel, the more the
rotor is displaced, and the higher the oil
pressure in the chamber “A”. since the amount
of valve displacement and, consequently, the
amount of hydraulic pressure built in the
cylinder is dependent upon the resistance to
turning, the driver is assured of the proper
3.2.3. When steering wheel is turned counter-clockwise
As shown on the figure, the fluid from the
steering gear pump flows through rotary valve
into chamber “B’ to force the rack piston in
direction of the arrow and this forces the
pitman shaft to turn and reduces driver turning
effort in executing the left turn. The oil in the
chamber “A” is simultaneous by forced out
through the rotary valve form a drilled passage
in the housing and back to the pump reservoir.
When the steering wheel is turned to the left,
similar action takes place but with the direction
of motion of the valve, torsion bar and piston
are reversed.
Executing a left turn causes the fluid to flow
from the power steering ump through the
rotary valve and to the area between the rotary
valve and the rack piston via drilled passage.
This is to assist in forcing the rack piston to
turn the pitman shaft and linkage.
183
7. Steering
▣ Handling precautions
Keep the disassembled parts clean and in good
order to prevent the parts from loss or damage.
Such as pitman shaft, piston rotor and worm
shaft should be treated with meticulous care as
they are precision finished and carefully
matched to maintain exact dimension.
3.2.4. Manual Operation
Even when no hydraulic pressure I applied to
the power steering as the engine has stopped or
due to a trouble of the oil pump or damaged
gydraulic circuit, a stopper is formed shaft and
groove on the stub shaft as illustrated, and
manual steering can be performed by pushing
the piston directly.
Special service tools
For efficient and correct service operations the
use of the special service tools is recommended.
▣
3.3. Main specifications
Item
Specification
Gear ratio
22.4 : 1
Sectional area of piston
78.5
Sector gear operating angle
(Deg.)
96˚
Worm helix direction
Left
Valve stopper angle (Deg.)
±8.5˚
3.4. Disassembly and reassembly
3.4.1. Disassembly and reassembly
Precautions.
▣ Preparation
Prior to disassembling the power steering unit
clean the work bench and wash the exterior
surface of the power steering unit with the
solvent.
Then drain the oil from the power steering unit
by stroking the piston.
184
7. Steering
3.4.2. Disassembly
▣ Remove the nut from the housing by using
special wrench assembly(910-10742).
▣
Clamp the power steering unit in a vice.
▣
Remove the protector from the oil port.
▣
Remove the dust cover from the stub shaft.
Remove the adjusting plug from the valve
housing by turning it 180˚ with special wrench
assembly(910-10743).
▣
▣ Unscrew the adjusting screw fixing nut and
side cover fixing bolts and washers.
Note. When removing the adjusting plug
exercise care not to pop out the bearing from
the housing.
Bring the sector shaft into center position,
then remove the sector shaft with the side
cover by tapping on the serrated portions
lightly with a plastic hammer.
▣
▣ Unscrew the valve housing fixing bolts, then
remove the ball screw and valve housing
assembly from the steering body.
Note. ① The sector shaft can not be removed
unless when it is held in center position.
② When removing the sector shaft never use
the steel hammer.
Note. Remove the ball screw and valve
housing assembly carefully so as not to scratch
185
7. Steering
the inner surface of steering body and piston.
▣ Disassemble the sector shaft and side cover
assembly as follows.
④ Remove the retainer by using special
bar(910-22811) from the sector shaft and
remove the adjusting screw.
Disassemble the ball screw and valve
housing assembly as follows.
▣
① Remove the side cover assembly by turning
the adjusting screw clockwise with a screw
driver.
Note. Do not clamp the sector shaft in a vise
without any protector.
① Place the ball screw and valve housing with
the piston side down and rotate the stub shaft
until the worm shaft is removed. Drop the steel
balls installed in the ball race into the inside of
piston.
Remove the O-Ring, Y-packing and back-up
ring by prying off with special needle(91021200). It is not necessary to remove the
needle bearing unless it damaged.
Note. Use care not to lose the steel ball.
③ Flatten out two caulked taps with a punch.
② Disassemble the Y-packing and bearing
from the adjusting plug.
②
186
7. Steering
▣
Disassemble the shaft assembly as follows.
Remove the clip fixing screws and remove
the clip.
▣
① Drop the steel balls out of the shaft
assembly into a clean pan and disassemble the
side race and bearing cage.
▣ Remove the ball tube from the piston with
fingers.
Note.
1. Never attempt to pry off the ball tube with
a screw driver.
2. Use care not to lose any steel ball which
may remain in the ball tube.
Note. Use care not to lose any steel ball.
(Number of balls : 18)
② Remove the rotor from the shaft assembly,
then remove the seal ring from the rotor using
special needle(910-21200).
▣ Remove the seal ring and O-ring from the
outside grooves of piston.
③ Remove three O-rings and three seal rings
from the inside grooves of valve housing.
▣ Remove the oil seal, back-up ring and Ypacking from the steering body.
187
7. Steering
3.4.3. Inspection
replaced as a matched assembly.
▣ Wash all parts in clean solvent and blow out
all oil holes with compressed air.
▣ Inspect ball tubes, making sure that the ends
where the balls enter and leave the guides are
not damaged.
▣ If the drive pin in the lower shaft or valve
body is cracked, excessively worn or broken,
replace the complete valve and shaft assembly.
▣ Inspect lower thrust bearing and washers for
scores or excessive wear. If any of the
conditions are found, replace the thrust bearing
and washer.
▣ If there is evidence of leakage between the
torsion bar and the stub shaft or scores, nicks,
or burrs on the ground surface of the sub shaft
that cannot be cleaned up with crocus cloth, the
entire valve and shaft assembly must be
replaced.
▣ Inspect rack piston teeth for scoring or
excessive wear. Inspect the external ground
surfaces for wear, scoring or burrs. If any of
these conditions exist and are excessive, both
the rack piston and worm must be replaced.
Check the outside diameter of the rotor and
the inside diameter of the valve body for nicks,
burrs, or bad weat spots. If the irregularities
cannot be cleaned up by the use of crocus cloth,
the complete valve and shaft assembly will
have to be replaced.
▣
3.4.4. Reassembly
▣ Assemble the sector shaft assembly as
follows.
If the small notch in the skirt of the valve
body is excessively worn, the complete valve
and shaft assembly will have to be replaced.
▣
Lubricate the rotor with power steering fluid
and check the fit of the valve spool in the valve
body ( with the valve spool dampener “O” ring
removed). If the valve does not rotate freely
without binding, the complete valve and shaft
assembly will have to be replaced.
▣
Check sector shaft bearing surface in the
side cover for scoring. If badly worn or scored,
replace the side cover.
▣
① After protecting the sector shaft with cloth,
clamp the sector shaft in a vise.
② Apply generous amount of grease into the
adjusting screw hole on the sector shaft, then
install the adjusting screw and retainer and
tighten the retainer using special bar(91022811)
Check the sealing and bearing surfaces of
the sector shaft for roughness, nicks, etc. if
minor irregularities in surface cannot be
cleaned by use of crocus cloth, replace the
sector shaft.
▣
Note. When installing the retainer tighten the
retainer fully, then loosen it to 180 degrees.
And then tighten it again to 4kg.m o torque and
loosen it to 20 degrees. Check that adjusting
screw turns freely.
Replace sector shaft assembly if teeth are
damaged or if the bearing surfaces are pitted or
scored.
▣
▣ Check sector shaft lash adjusting screw. It
must be free to turn with no perceptible end
play. If adjusting screw is loose replace the
sector shaft assembly.
Inspect the worm and rack piston grooves
and all the balls scoring. If either the worm or
rack piston needs replacing, both must be
▣
188
7. Steering
③ Insert the special insert tool assembly into
the side cover to seat the back-up ring properly.
Assemble the valve housing and shaft
assembly as follows.
▣
④ After tightening the retainer, caulk two
points of upper face of the retainer using a
special tool.
▣ Assemble the side cover assembly as
follows.
① Insert the o-rings and seal rings into the
groove in the inner circumference of the valve
housing.
② Insert the special insert tool into the valve
housing to seat the O-rings and seal rings
properly.
① Insert the Y-packing and back-up ring into
the groove in the inner circumference of the
side cover.
Note. Prior to installing the Y-packing apply
grease to the Y-packing then insert it in
position so that the lip of Y-packing is pointed
to the needle bearing.
③ Press the Y-packing into the adjusting plug
using special press fit tool(910-20404) and
hand press.
② Insert the O-ring into the groove in the
outer circumference of the side cover.
189
7. Steering
④ Apply generous amount of grease to the lip
of Y-packing, then install the ball bearing.
steel balls are seated properly in position.
⑨ Remove the special guide tool(910-20333)
and install another side race.
⑤ Insert the seal ring into the groove in the
outer circumference of the rotor, then seat it
properly with special insert tool.
⑩ Install the shaft and slide bearing assembly
in the valve housing.
⑥ Assemble the rotor between the stub shaft
and worm shaft by aligning the notch on the
rotor with the straight pin.
Note. When installing the valve housing
exercise care not to scratch the seal ring fitted
into the groove in the inner circumference of
valve housing.
⑦ Place the special guide tool(910-20333) on
the special tool assembly (910-10611) then fit
the worm shaft assembly in the special tool.
⑪ Clamp the special attachment assembly
(910-10671) in a vise, then mount the shaft and
valve housing assembly on the special
attachment assembly.
⑧ Insert the side race, bearing cage and steel
balls in order, then slide the special tool
assembly (910-10611) downward so that the
190
7. Steering
⑫ Insert the O-ring into the groove in the
inner circumference of the valve housing, then
install the adjusting plug in the valve housing.
Note. When installing the adjusting plug, be
extremely careful not to damage the Y-packing
fitted in the stub shaft.
② Place the piston on a work bench and hold
it firmly.
③ Apply generous amount of grease into the
ball tube and insert 10 or 11 each of steel balls
into the ball tube. Insert the steel ball into the
other ball tube in the same manner.
Note. Never clamp the piston in a vise.
⑬ Tighten the adjusting plug using the special
wrench (910-10743), then check that the stub
shaft turns freely.
② Slide the worm shaft and valve housing
assembly into the rack piston.
⑭ Insert the O-rings into the grooves in the
outer circumference of valve housing and the
inner circumference of oil part respectively.
⑤ Turn the worm shaft until the ball race of
piston is aligned with the ball race of worm
shaft.
Assemble the piston assembly as follows
⑥ Feed the remaining balls into the piston,
while slowly rotating the stub shaft clockwise.
▣
① Insert the O-ring and seal ring into the
grooves in the outer circumference of piston,
then seat them properly using the special insert
tool (910-21718).
⑦ Insert the ball tube which contains steel
balls inside in the piston, then install the clamp
and tighten two clamp screws to
0.45~0.55kg.m torque.
Note. When installing the ball tube, never
apply excessive force to the ball tube.
▣
191
Assembly the steering body as follows.
7. Steering
① Insert the back-up ring and Y-packing into
the groove in the inner circumference of the
steering housing.
① Clamp the steering body in a vise.
② Install the piston and worm shaft assembly
with its splined side ahead, into the steering
body and check that rack gear is turned upward
as view and from side cover fitting window.
Note. Prior to installing the Y-packing apply
grease to the Y-packing then insert it in
position so that the lip of Y-packing is pointed
to the needle bearing.
Note. When installing the piston and worm
shaft assembly, be extremely careful not to
damage the seal ring fitted on the piston.
② Seat the back-up ring and Y-packing
properly using the special insert tool.
③ Align the oil passage of steering body with
the oil port of valve housing and tighten the
bolts to 12~13kg.m torque.
③ Apply grease to the oil seal and press the
oil seal into position using the special insert
tool(910-1101)
④ Assemble the sector shaft with the side
cover by rotating the adjusting screw counter
clockwise.
Assemble the individual units together as
follows.
▣
192
7. Steering
⑤ Insert the O-ring into the groove in the
outer circumference of the side cover.
⑨ Apply the liquid gasket to the inner face of
nut and install it on the valve housing.
⑩ Tighten the nut to 12kg.m torque, then
caulk two points of nut securely using a punch.
⑥ Insert the sector shaft assembly, with its
serrated end ahead, into the steering gear body,
using care not to scratch the Y-packing. Align
the tapered portion of the sector gear and rack
of the piston and worm shaft assembly.
⑪ Install the dust cover on the stub shaft.
Adjust the backlash between rack piston and
sector shaft as follows.
▣
⑦ Tighten the side cover fixing bolts to
5.5~6.5kg.m torque.
① Assembly the pitman arm to the sector
shaft.
② Hold the piston and worm shaft assembly
in neutral position and measure the amount of
play. The amount o play of pitman should be
within 0.1~0.45mm.
⑧ Tighten the adjusting plug assembly to
23~25kg.m torque using the special wrench
(910-10743).
193
7. Steering
③ If the measured value deviates from the
specified range, make an adjustment by
rotating the adjusting screw.
④ When correct backlash is obtained, lock the
adjusting screw with the lock nut and apply the
liquid gasket to the lock nut.( nut tightening
torque : 12~13kg.m)
Note. Hold the adjusting screw with a screw
driver when tightening the lock nut.
3.4.5. Installation
Refer to “Power steering-spool valve type” in
this section.
Also inspect and adjust the steering parts after
installation on vehicle according to the
procedure described in “Power steering spool
valve type” in this section.
194
7. Steering
3.4.6. Special Service Tools
#
Appearance
Tool Name(Tool No.)
Application
1
Seal
Assembly
(910-10611)
Thrust bearing
2
Guide
Seal
(910-23033)
Thrust bearing
Steel ball guide
3
Attachment
Assembly
(910-10671)
Valve housing
4
Wrench
Assembly
(910-10742)
Lock ring
5
Wrench
Assembly
(910-10743)
195
7. Steering
#
Appearance
Tool Name(Tool No.)
Application
6
Inside seal
Assembly
(910-11001)
Inside seal
Assembly using with
Inside #7
7
Inside
(910-21704 : Φ58
910-21715 : Φ48
910-51716 : Φ45
910-21717 : Φ40)
Output shaft
Y-packing
8
Press fit
(910-20404)
Input shaft
Y-packing
9
Needle
(910-21200)
O-ring
Seal ring
Y-packing
10
Inside
(910-21701 : 100Φ
910-21718 : 85Φ,90Φ)
Piston
Seal ring
196
7. Steering
#
Appearance
Tool Name(Tool No.)
Application
11
Squeeze
(910-21801)
Adjusting screw
Retainer
12
Inside
(910-22772)
Valve housing seal ring
Rotor seal ring
13
Bar
(910-22811)
Adjusting screw
Retainer
197
7. Steering
4. Trouble shooting
Complaint
Oil pressure will not rise
Steering wheel dragging
Cause
Correction
1. Oil pump malfunction or defective.
2. Flow control valve or pressure relief
valve seized or damaged
3. Valve spring fatigued or damaged
4. Power cylinder control valve seized or
damaged
5. Oil leak at connections or oil lines
plugged
1. Replace
2. Clean or replace
1. Insufficient oil in tank
2. Air in oil line
3. Low oil pressure
4. Control valve seized
5. Failure of piston to correspond to
movement of steering wheel
1. Replenish
2. Bleed air
3. Refer to above
4. Clean or replace
5. Replace with assembly
3. Replace
4. Clean or replace
5.Tighten Connections.
replace with assembly
Steering wheel fails to 1. Piston will not correspond to the 1.Replace with assembly
return to its position
movement of steering wheel
(when front alignment us 2. Power steering control valve seized or 2. Clean or replace
correctly made)
damaged
Wheels wanter ( with the
front alignment correctly 1. Free play in control valve spool
made)
Noise
1. Insufficient oil in tank
2. Clogged inlet tube or filter
3. Loose or poor pipe joint or
connection. Improperly bent or
collapsed pipe.
4. Defective pump
198
1. Tighten spool nut
1. Replenish
2. Wash or replace
3. Replace
4. Replace
SECTION 8
BRAKE ( FULL AIR TYPE )
CONTENTS
PAGE
1. CONSTRUCTION
1.1.
FRONT BRAKE
201
1.2.
ADJUSTER
202
1.3.
REAR BRAKE
203
1.4.
BRAKE CIRCUIT
204
2. SPECIFICATON
204
3. BRAKE ASSEMBLY IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
3.1.
FRONT BRAKE
205
3.2.
REAR BRAKE
207
4. BRAKE ASSEMBLY IN SECTIONAL VIEW
4.1.
FRONT BRAKE
210
4.2.
REAR BRAKE
212
5. SERVICING OF BRAKE ASSEMBLY
5.1.
DISASSEMBLY OF FRONT BRAKE ASSEMBLY
210
5.2.
DISASSEMBLY OF REAR BRAKE ASSEMBLY
212
5.3.
INSPECTION OF DISASEMBLED PARTS
213
5.4.
REASSEMBLY OF BRAKE ASSEMBLY
215
5.5.
BRAKE ADJUSTMENT
216
5.6.
SERVICING OF POWER CHAMBER
216
5.7.
SERIVCING OF SPRING BRAKE
218
6. SERVICING OF BRAKE CONTROL
6.1.
DUAL BRAKE VALVE
226
6.2.
RELAY VALVE
240
6.3.
PRESSUER CONTROL VALVE
242
6.4.
AIR TANK AUXILIARY PARTS
243
7. TROUBLE SHOOTING
24
199
8. EXHAUST BRAKE
8.1.
INSPECTION
246
8.2.
TROUBLE SHOOTING
248
9. AUTO SLACK ADJUSTER ( OPTION )
9.1.
CONSTRUCTION
249
9.2.
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
251
9.3.
INSTALLATION AND CHECK
254
10. ABS/ARS (OPTION)
10.1.
INSTRODUCTION
255
10.2.
ABS CONTROL
255
10.3.
ARS CONTROL
256
10.4.
ABS / ARS DIAGRAM FOR AIR BRAKE SYSTEM
260
10.5.
ECU SELF-TEST FEATUER
261
10.6.
ABS / TROUBLE SHOOTING PROCEDURE
264
200
8. Brake (Full Air)
1. Construction
The full air brake system consists of the leading and trailing type front and rear brakes to ensure
positive brake action.
1.1. Front Brake
The front brakes are of the cam-actuated internal-expanding type with the brake drum and linings sizing
410㎜ in diameter and 155㎜ in width, respectively. The brake anchor bracket is of an integral
construction and is mounted to the knuckle with dowels and four bolts. The bolts on the lower part the
anchor bracket are also used to connect the tie-rod arm.
A pair of bushing are fitted to cam side of the anchor bracket to support the camshaft and are lubricated
with grease via the grease fitting. To balance the force applied to the leading and trailing shoes when
the shoes are expanded outward by the pivoting motion of the cam, the brake assembly adopts and
asymmetrical cam.
When assembling the front brake assembly, install the camshaft on the anchor bracket by turning
outward the arrow pointer on the splined end of the camshaft, then install the adjuster, stopper plate and
snap ring. The stopper plated should be installed by aligning the arrow mark on the plate with that n the
end of the camshaft.
The brake shoes have on their ends in contact with the cam, a roller and pin which are secured in
position with the snap ring. Two pieces of linings are riveted to each brake shoe.
With an aim to even out wear of the linings on the leading and trailing sides and to improve brake
action, concaved linings are installed on the trailing side broke shoes. These should not be interchanged
with those on the leading side at the time of relining.
201
8. Brake (Full Air)
1.2. Adjuster
The adjuster assembly consists of the worm gear and worm shaft assembled to the lever.
When the worm shaft is rotated, its motion is carried via the worm gear to the camshaft thereby
adjusting the power piston stroke and brake lining clearances. The adjuster is fitted with a stopper plate
to prevent adjustment beyond the limit as the linings are worn excessively.
202
8. Brake (Full Air)
1.3. Rear brake
The rear brakes are of the cam-actuated internal-expanding type with the brake drum and linings sizing
410㎜ in diameter and 220㎜ in width, respectively.
The brake anchor of the rear axle case with eight bolts.
The rear brake assembly is identical with the front brake assembly in construction except that two brake
show return springs are used in the rear brake system. The return springs are hooked to the pins on each
brake shoe.
Two pieces of brake linings are riveted to each brake shoe.
The brake linings on the leading and trailing side brake shoes are unequal in shape to help even out
lining wear.
203
8. Brake (Full Air)
1.4. Brake circuit
The brake circuit consists of independent front and rear brake circuits which are operated
simultaneously by the action of the dual brake valve to ensure positive brake action.
When the brake pedal is depressed, air from the tank is fed, via the dual brake valve, to the relay valve
in the front and rear. The relay valve, in turn, feeds compressed air into the power chamber to provide
brake action.
2. Specification
Distinction
BF105 BM090 BS106 BH115E BH115 BH116 BH117 BH120
Service brake type
Full air brake, dual circuit
Drum inside
Diameter(㎜)
Front
410
Rear
410
Brake lining(㎜)
LxWxT-N
Front
186 x 155 x 19-8
Rear
186 x 220 x 19-8
Wheel cylinder
Bore dia.(㎜)
Front
-
Rear
-
Anchor pin(㎜)
Dia. length
Front
30 x 106.5
Rear
30 x 121.5
204
8. Brake (Full Air)
3. Brake disassembled view
3.2. Front brake
205
8. Brake (Full Air)
A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
Brake A-FRT
Cover-drum
Cover-check hole
Bolt-Hex M10x1.25
Washer-spring
Chamber A-power
Slack adjust A
Washer-spring
Bolt
Shoe A-brake, FRT
Bush-brake shoe
Pin-roller
Roller
Clip-roller pin
Pin-shoe return spring
Shoe
Rivet
Lining-front
Spring A-W/cover
Pin-anchor
Lock plate
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
206
Washer-lock
Bolt-Hex M10x1.25
Bracket-anchor
Seal-oil
Bush-cam shaft
Nipple-grease
Ring-spacer
Cam shaft
Felt ring-cam shaft
Collar-cam shaft
Spacer-cam shaft
Nut-Hex M16x1.5
Plate-stopper
Ring-snap
Bracket-UPR
Bracket-LWR
Washer-plain
Bolt-Hex M8x1.25
Nut-Hex
Washer-spring
8. Brake (Full Air)
3.2. Rear brake
207
8. Brake (Full Air)
A.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21
22
23
Brake A-RR
Cover-drum
Cover-check hole
Bolt-Hex M10x1.25
Washer-spring
Bracket-anchor
Bush-cam shaft
Seal-oil
Pin-anchor
Lock plate
Washer-lock
Bolt-Hex M10x1.25
Bolt
Cam shaft
Ring
Collar
Clip
Felt ring-cam shaft
Chamber A-spring
Shoe A-brake, RR
Shoe
Lining-rear
Rivet
Pin-roller
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
208
Roller
Clip-roller pin
Pin-shoe return spring
Bush
Pin-spring
Spring A
Spring A-return
Nut-Hex M14x1.5
Washer-spring
O ring
Bush-cam shaft
Bracket-bush
Nipple-grease
Bolt-Hex M10x1.25
Nut-Hex M10x1.25
Washer-spring
Spacer-cam shaft
Plate-stopper
Ring-snap
Washer-plain
Washer-spring
Bolt-Hex M12x1.25
Bracket-auto slack adjust A
Slack adjust A
8. Brake (Full Air)
4. Brake assembly in sectional view
4.1. Front brake
4.2. Rear Brake
209
8. Brake (Full Air)
5. Servicing of brake assembly
5.1. Disassembly of front brake assembly
5.1.1. Removal of brake drum
▣
▣
Refer to “Front axle” for brake drum
removal procedure.
Remove the brake shoe return spring using
a remover.
5.1.4. Removal of brake shoe assembly
Pull out the anchor pin and remove the
brake shoe assembly.
▣
Note. If the anchor pin is stuck and does not
come out easily, use a slide ha㎜er by fitting
the tool into the threaded portion of the anchor
pin.
5.1.2. Removal of anchor pin lock plate
▣ Flatten out the lock plate bolt lock washer
and remove the bolt and lock plate from the
anchor pin groove.
▣ Remove the pin from the eye joint
connecting the brake adjuster with the power
chamber.
5.1.3. Removal of drum cover assembly
▣ The drum cover assembly is of the split type
and each section is fixed in position with three
bolt.
Note. The lower brake shoe assembly falls off
when the drum cover is removed.
5.1.5. Removal of camshaft and brake
adjuster
▣ Remove the snap ring retaining the
camshaft and remove the stopper plate.
Remove the adjuster from the camshaft and
pull out the camshaft from the anchor bracket.
Note. the camshaft and stopper plate are
provided with an arrow mark to facilitate
210
8. Brake (Full Air)
alignment.
5.1.6. Removal of anchor bracket
▣ The anchor bracket is mounted to the
knuckle with four each of bolts and nuts and
those on the lower side are used to connect the
tie-rod arm.
5.1.7. Disassembly of brake adjuster
Take out the worm shaft lock ball screw and
remove the spring and ball.
Pull out the stopper pin and remove the worm
shaft by turning itself.
Note. The worm gear is fixed to the body with
the side cover and rivets. Do not attempt to
remove the worm gear unless when absolutely
necessary.
211
8. Brake (Full Air)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Worm gear
Grease fitting
Bushing
Ball
Spring
Plug
plug
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
O-ring
Boot
Worm shaft
Cover
Rivet
Pin
5.2. Disassembly of rear brake assembly
5.2.1. Removal of brake drum
▣ Refer to “Rear axle” for brake drum
removal procedure.
5.2.2. Removal of brake shoe return springs
▣ Removal the outer return spring using a
reomver. To remove the inner side return
spring, proceed as follows: Hook the arm of
the remover and installer to the end of the
return spring from the inner side of the brake
shoe and insert the handle into the arm through
the guide hole, then turn the handle.
Refer to “Disassembly of front brake
assembly” for brake drum cover and brake
shoe removal procedure.
▣
Pull out the pin from the eye I\joint
connecting the adjuster with the power
chamber.
▣
Note. Refer to “spring brake” for spring brake
service procedure.
212
8. Brake (Full Air)
Compare the measured values to determine the
amount of clearance.
If the amount of clearance is beyond the valve
indicating the need for servicing, replace the
bushing.
5.2.3. Removal of camshaft and brake
adjuster
▣ Remove the snap ring retaining the camshaft
and remove the stopper plate. Remove the
adjuster from the camshaft and pull out the
camshaft from the anchor bracket.
Note. the camshaft and stopper plate are
provided with an arrow mark to facilitate
alignment.
5.2.4. Removal of anchor bracket
▣ The anchor bracket is mounted to the axle
flange with an ten bolts and nuts. Remove the
bolt and nut, then remove the anchor bracket
from the axle flange.
Unit : ㎜
Value
5.3. Inspection of disassembled parts
Nominal
indicating
diameter
need for
servicing
5.3. Inspection of brake shoe assembly
Standard
value for
Limit for use
servicing
Clearance
between
Check the brake shoe for deformation or
crack and replace with a new one as necessary.
Remove the end roller pin from the brake shoes
and check the roller for wear or damage. Then
check the amount of clearance between the
roller and pin. Replace the parts with new ones
if the amount of clearance is excessive.
▣
0.25 or
anchor pin and
more00.1
brake shoe
bushing
Outside
diameter of
Φ30
29.85
anchor pins
5.3.2. Inspection o brake shoe return springs
Check the brake shoe return springs for
weakening, corrosion of damage and replace
with new ones if found to be defective.
Also check the spring covers for corrosion
damage, or looseness of fir and replace with
new ones as necessary.
▣
Free length(㎜)
Set local/set
length
(kg) / (㎜)
Measure the outside diameter of the anchor
pins and inside diameter of the brake shoe
bushing using outside and inside micrometers.
▣
213
front
Rear inner
Rear outer
190
232
194
40/212
48/257
64/212
8. Brake (Full Air)
5.3.3. Inspection of camshaft
5.3.4. Inspection of brake adjuster
assembly
Check the camshaft for run out using a dial
indicator. Replace the camshaft with a new one
if the amount of run-out is excess of 1㎜.
▣
Check the adjuster worm shaft for wear or
damage and replace as necessary. If the worm
gear is found to be defective, remove the three
rivets and take out the worm gear, then install a
new one.
▣
Check the working face of the cam for wear
of scuffing and replace with a new one as
necessary.
▣
▣ Check the retainer spring and o-ring for
wear and replace with new ones as necessary.
Check the fit of the joint pin into the pin hole
at the end of the adjuster for looseness.
Replace the parts if a considerable amount of
play is noticeable.
▣ Assemble the adjuster to the splined portion
of the camshaft and check for play in rotative
direction. Replace both of the parts if the
amount of play is excessive.
Unit : ㎜
Nominal diameter of joint pin
Standard clearance between
bushing and pin
16Φ
0.09~0.17
5.3.6. Inspection of brake drums
▣ Check the brake drums for uneven wear,
scores and cracking. If the amount of uneven
wear is beyond the value indicating need for
servicing or if scores are noticeable, correct
with a grinder.
If the amount of increase in brake drum inside
diameter due to wear or grinding is in excess of
2.0㎜, install oversize brake linings.
Replace the brake drum with a new one if the
amount of increase in the inside diameter is in
excess of 4.0㎜.
5.3.4. Inspection of clearance between
camshaft and bushings
Measure the outside diameter of the
camshaft and inside diameter of the bushings
in the anchor bracket or power chamber
bracket and compare the measured values to
determine the amount of clearance between the
parts. If the amount of clearance is beyond the
value indicating need of servicing, replace
either the bushings or the camshaft.
▣
Nominal
diameter
Increase in
brake drum
inside
diameter
Uneven wear
and/or scores
Standard
value for
assembly
410Φ
Run-out :
0.05㎜ or
less
Value
indicating Limit for
use
need for
servicing
2.0㎜ or
more: install
4.0
oversize brake
linings
0.2 or more
Thickness of brake lining
Standard : 16㎜
Oversize : 17㎜
Nominal
size
Clearance between
cam shaft and
bushing
Outside diameter of
cam shaft
49Φ
Standard
value
Value indicating
need for servicing
0.05~0.11
0.6
5.3.7. Brake shoe relining precautions
The brake linings on the leading and trailing
side shoes are not equal in shape; brake shoes
on the trailing side are fitted with concaved
±1.0
214
8. Brake (Full Air)
type brake linings.
5.4. Reassembly of brake assembly
To reassemble the brake assembly, follow the
disassembly procedure in the reverse order and
note the following points:
5.4.1. Anchor bracket installation
Lubricate the bolts with molybdenum
bisulfide grease before installation of the front
side anchor bracket. When the entire bolts are
torqued to specification, lock the bolts and nuts
that are used to connect the tie-rod arm using a
punch.
▣
Anchor bracket tightening torque ㎏.m
Front
Rear
Upper side 17~21
12~14
Lower side 50~55
5.4.3. Brake shoe installation
5.4.2. Camshaft installation
Install the power chamber bracket before
installing the camshaft on the rear side brake.
Tightening torque 11.5~16kg.m
Apply molybdenum bisulfide grease to the
brake shoe anchor pin and bushings before
installation.
Install the lock plate and bolts, then bend down
the lock washer.
▣ Mount the cover with a felt ring to the end
of the anchor bracket (front side) or power
chamber bracket (rear side).
5.4.4. Brake shoe return spring installation
▣
▣
▣
▣ To install the brake shoe return spring on the
inner side, follow the removal procedure in the
reverse order. Install the outer side brake shoe
return spring on the rear brake ( or install brake
shoe return spring on the front brake ) using a
setting tool.
Install the power chamber assembly.
Assemble the O-ring to the camshaft (on
front brakes, install the O-ring in position
within the anchor bracket) and apply chassis
grease to the working face of the camshaft and
bushings, then install the camshaft. The
camshaft should be so installed that the arrow
mark on the splined end of the camshaft is
pointed outward.
▣
5.4.5. Adjuster installation
Adjust the length of the power chamber
push-rod to the specified value.
▣
215
8. Brake (Full Air)
lining clearance through the lining check hole
in the back plate and adjust the lining clearance
by turning the adjuster shaft with a wrench, so
that the feeler gauge fits snugly into the
clearance. The brake lining clearance increases
as the worm shaft is turned clockwise and
decreases as it its turned counter-clockwise.
Assemble the adjuster to the splined portion
of the camshaft by aligning the hole at the end
of the adjuster with the joint fitting hole in the
power chamber push-rod. If the holes are out
of alignment, turn the adjuster worm gear.
Apply molybdenum bisulfide grease to the pin
before installation.
▣
Standard clearance (Front and Rear) 0.3㎜
Install the stopper plate by aligning the
arrow mark on the stopper plate with that on
the splined end of the camshaft, then install the
snap ring.
▣
▣ Operate the power chambers by depressing
the brake pedal and check that the push-rod
stroke is within the value specified in the table.
standard
5.4.6. Brake drum installation
Front
Refer to “Front axle” or “Rear axle” for
brake drum installation procedure.
▣
57㎜
35~40㎜
Rear
Rear
30~35㎜
(with spring brake)
5.5. Brake adjustment
When the worm shaft on the adjuster is turned,
its movement is relayed to the camshaft
thereby adjusting the clearances between the
brake drum and brake linings.
63.5㎜
63.55
If the push-rod stroke deviates from the
specified range, recheck the brake lining
clearances and adjust as necessary.
5.6. Servicing of power chamber
Check that pressure of air within the air
tanks is 6kg/㎤ (5.9x 100Kpa) or higher.
▣
5.6.1. Removal of power chamber assembly
▣ Brace the front and rear wheels and release
the parking brake.
▣
Insert a 0.3㎜ feeler gauge into the brake
▣
▣
Limit
Remove the joint pin connecting the brake
adjuster with the power chamber.
216
Disconnect the air hose.
8. Brake (Full Air)
Take out the two nuts fixing the power
chamber and remove the power chamber
assembly from the bracket.
▣
5.6.3. Inspection of power chamber
assembly
Check the diaphragm and spring for damage
and replace with new ones if found to be
defective.
5.6.2. Disassembly of power chamber
assembly
▣
Clamp the power chamber assembly in a
vise and take out the two bolts fixing the clamp
ring, then remove the clamp ring.
Release the vise gradually and remove the
power chamber and individual parts.
▣
5.6.4. Reassembly of power chamber
assembly
▣ To reassembly the power chamber assembly,
follow the disassembly procedure in the
reverse order and adjust the length of the pushrod to the standard value specified under
paragraph.
217
8. Brake (Full Air)
5.7. Servicing of spring brake
5.7.1. Spring brake actuator in disassembled view
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Caging Tool Plug
Chamber A
Diaphragm
Adapter A
Clamp Band A
Carriage Bolt & Nut A
Diaphragm
Service Push Rod
Return Spring
10.
11
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
218
Dust Shield
Housing A
Washer
Nut
Dust Boot A
Jaw Nut T
Clevis A
Clevis Pin
Vent Hole Plug
8. Brake (Full Air)
5.7.2. Mechanical release of spring brake
To cage compression spring, tighten release
stud nut with handwrench ( DO NOT USE
IMPACT WRENCH ) and make certain push
rod is retracting.
▣
Remove dust plug from release tool keyhole
in center of spring chamber.
▣
Remove release tool assembly from side
pocket of adapter.
▣
① DO NOT OVER TORQUE RELEASE
STUD ASSEMBLY:
DANGER : Over torquing the nut can cause
pressure plate damage:
S-Cam type 35 ft.lb (47 Nm Maximum)
② To ensure compression spring is fully
caged, the stud length beyond the nut should
measure:
DANGER
Do not attempt to mechanically release (cage)
the spring when spring brake shows structural
damage and/or when safety ears* have been
removed. Caging the spring or disassembly of
the chamber may result in the forceful release
of the spring chamber and its contents which
could cause death, severe personal injury
and/or property damage. Remove spring brake
and replace with new unit.
DANGER
The above instructions only apply when spring
brake is not pressurized. If air pressure is used
to compress the spring, do not tighten release
stud nut more than finger tight. Torquing the
nut can cause pressure plate damage resulting
is sudden release of the spring causing death or
sever personal injury.
▣ Insert release stud through key hole in
chamber into the pressure plate.
▣
Turn release stud 1/4 turn clockwise.
Pull on release stud to ensure stud cross pin
is properly seated in the pressure plate.
▣
WARNIGN : If the reco㎜ended “X”
dimension is not correct for chamber size and
torque value, the spring brake should be
considered structurally damaged. See removal
of instruction on preceding page.
▣ Assemble release stud washer and nut on
release stud finger tight.
X dimension
30 “chamber-2.875” Minimum
5.7.3. Service diaphragm replacement
Follow mechanical Release of Spring Brake
instructions.
▣
Note. Always cage compression spring with
release tool. Do not rely on air pressure to keep
spring compressed.
219
8. Brake (Full Air)
To prevent sudden release spring of the
piggy back or service push rod assembly and to
facilitate the installation of the new diaphragm,
the service push rod should be prevented from
retracting by clamping he service push rod in
place with vise grip pliers as shown.
Be certain the diaphragm is properly seated
between the adapter and housing lip and
reassemble the service clamp assembly. Torque
carriage bolts and clap assembly for proper
seating around the adapter and housing lip and
remove vise grip pliers from service push rod.
▣
▣
▣ Apply a maximum of 120 PS/G air pressure
to the service port and check diaphragm seal
for leakage by applying a water and soap
solution to the service clamp area (no leakage
allowed)
▣ Uncage compression spring and reassemble
release tool in side pocket of adapter.
▣ Release dust in release tool keyhole in
center of chamber.
WARNING : First follow instructions for
mechanical release of spring brake. After
reassembly, check for proper emergency and
service operation. If installed on vehicle, check
brake adjustment. ( for brake adjustment
follow vehicle manufacturer instructions.)
5.7.4. Emergency / Parking diaphragm
replacement
Remove service clamp assembly and
discard old diaphragm.
▣
DANGER
If spring brake appears damaged or if the
proper “X” dimension is not obtained, DO
NOT attempt disassembly of the spring portion
of the brake. Replace the piggyback or
combination unit and dispose removed unit
using a safety chamber.
Inspect the service clamp assembly, the
adapter wall and lip, the housing, the service
return spring and service push rod. If any
structural damage is noted, replace with new
part.
▣
▣ Wipe the surface push rod plate clean of any
oil, grease or dirt.
DANGER
DO NOT attempt to repair or replace any part
of a sealed piggyback assembly. Remove
complete piggyback assembly and replace with
a new brake.
▣ Check to see that weep holes in housing are
not plugged.
▣ Place the new service diaphragm in adapter
and center the housing over the diaphragm and
adapter.
WARNING : First follow instructions for
mechanical release of spring brake.
Follow Mechanical Release of Spring Brake
instructions.
▣
▣ If vehicle air pressure was used to aid in the
caging process.
Note. The use of “one way air valves” in
disassembly of spring brakes in not
recommended.
220
8. Brake (Full Air)
damage or leak is noted replace complete
piggyback assembly.
Remove emergency clamp assembly only if
the safety hooks are intact and air pressure has
been exhausted from spring brake.
▣
▣ Carefully wipe pressure plate surface clean
of any oil or grease.
Check to see that weep holes in chamber are
not plugged. If plugged, open weep holes so
chamber can drain.
DANGER
DO NOT attempt to remove the compression
spring.
Disassembly of the release fool from the
chamber assembly will result in the forceful
release of the compression spring and pressure
plate and may result in sever personal injury or
death.
Disarm chamber assembly using a safety
chamber before discarding.
▣ To reassemble, place the piloted emergency
diaphragm in chamber and slide the chamber
assembly sideways back on the adapter.
To break diaphragm seal, rotate chamber
(Arrow A).
To aide breaking the diaphragm loose, a knife
edge may be inserted between the diaphragm
and adapter lip. Do not pry or strike any part of
the chamber.
Do not cut or remove chamber safety hooks
(ears).
▣
▣ Slide chamber sideways off the adapter and
discard oil diaphragm. (Arrow B)
Note. Piloted diaphragms to be used only on
anchorlock spring brakes and only the
emergency side. Use on the service side will
result in a reduction of stroke length.
Be certain that the diaphragm is properly
seated between the adapter and chamber lip
and reassemble clamps. Torque carriage bolts
and clamps for proper seating. Do not strike
the clamp0s or any other part with ha㎜er.
▣
▣ Apply a maximum of 120PG/G air pressure
to the emergency port and check seal for
leakage by applying a water and soap solution
to the emergency clamp area (no leakage is
slowed).
▣ Inspect the clamp assembly, the chamber
ears, lip and sidewall and the adaptor lip and
sidewall.
Inspect adapter push rod seal, adapter push
rod plate and return spring. If any structural
▣
▣
221
Uncage compression spring and reassemble
8. Brake (Full Air)
release tool in side pocket of adapter.
▣ To rotate spring chamber only.
(Clockwise of counterclockwise rotation)
▣ Reinstall dust plug in release tool keyhole in
center of chamber.
▣ See 5.7.2. for mechanical release of spring
brake.
WARNING : After reassembly, check for
proper emergency operation, service operation
and brake adjustment ( for brake adjustment
follow vehicle manufacturer`s structions.)
DANGER
Failure to comply with all instructions for
mechanical release may result in the forceful
release of the spring and cause death, severe
personal injury and/or property damage.
5.7.5. Rotating mounting bolts, clamps, and
air port
▣ If vehicle air pressure was used to aide in
the caging process, exhaust the air pressure.
TO
ROTATE
SERVICE
HOUSING
MOUNTING STUDS ONLY
(Clockwise or counter-clockwise rotation)
See 5.7.2. for mechanical release of spring
brake.
▣ Remove emergency clamp band assembly
only if the safety hooks are intact and air
pressure has been removed form the spring
brake.
DANGER
Failure to comply with all instructions of
mechanical release may result in the forceful
release of the spring and cusses death, severe
personal injury and/or property damage.
▣
Rotate spring chamber to deserted position .
For reassembly of the spring chamber,
follow instructions 5.7.4.
▣
▣ If vehicle air pressure was used to aid in the
caging process, exhaust the air pressure.
▣ To prevent sudden release of service
housing assembly and to facilitate rotation, the
service push rod should be prevented from
retracting by clamping the service push rod in
place with vise grip pliers.
▣ To rotate air ports.
(clockwise or counterclockwise rotation)
see pages 5.7.2. for mechanical release of
spring brake.
DANGER
Failure to comply with all instructions of
mechanical release may result may result in the
forcefully release of the spring and cause death,
severe personal injury and/or property damage.
Remove service clamps an rotate housing to
desired position
▣
▣ For reassembly of the service housing
follow instructions. 5.7.3.
Remove service clamp assembly. (follow
instructions 5.7.5.)
▣
222
8. Brake (Full Air)
▣ Remove emergency clamp assembly. (follow
instructions 5.7.5)
Rotate adapter to desired air port position
without moving the positions of the spring
chamber and service housing.
▣
▣ For reassembly of the spring chamber to the
adapter. (follow instruction 5.7.4)
▣ For reassembly of the service housing to the
piggyback assembly. (follow instruction 5.7.3)
for leakage check. (Follow instruction 10 on
page 22 and instruction 5.7.3, 5.7.4)
Uncage compression spring and reassembly
release tool in side pocket of adapter.
▣
▣ Install dust plug in release tool keyhole in
center of chamber.
223
8. Brake (Full Air)
6. Servicing of brake controls
Brake piping diagram BH117
224
8. Brake (Full Air)
Brake piping diagram BH120
225
8. Brake (Full Air)
6.1. Dual brake valve
The dual brake valve assembly is adapted to control the dual circuits simultaneously to provide an extra
margin of safety.
Dual brake valve assembly in disassembled view
226
8. Brake (Full Air)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
Upper body
Upper valve
Valve retainer
Valve spring
Retainer
O-ring
Washer
Retainer ring
O-ring
Retainer ring
Relay piston spring
Relay piston
O-ring
O-ring
Piston return spring
Stem
Inner spring
Outer spring
Sleeve
Stem washer
Upper piston
Rubber spring
Spring seat
Plain washer
Spring washer
Nut
O-ring
Lowest valve
Lower valve
30
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
227
Valve retainer
Valve spring
Retainer
O-ring
Washer
Retainer ring
O-ring
Cover
Screw
Check
O-ring
Bolt
Plate assy
Plunger
Plunger bolt
Treadle
Treadle boot
Pin
Pin
Roller
Pipe
Split pin
Set screw
Nut
Bolt
Pipe plug
Bushing
Retainer washer
Forming screw
8. Brake (Full Air)
The secondary valve senses the primary valve
pressure, and supplies a pressure nearly equal
to it to the air master relay valve for the
secondary system.
If the primary valve fails to generate a pressure
due to damage to the primary system piping,
for example, the secondary valve is so
designed as to operate in direct response to t he
depressing force applied to the pedal.
As explained above, the dual brake valve
independently controls the two separate brake
system (primary and secondary ) so that even if
one of the brake systems should fail, the other
system can apply the brake, and thus ensure the
safety of the vehicle.
6.1.1. Outline of Dual Brake
The dual brake valve simultaneously controls
two brake systems, one for front axle an rear
axle and the other for the rear axle.
The dual brake valve is a control valve which
operates as the pedal is depressed by the foot,
and supplies an air pressure corresponding to
the depressed angle of the pedal th the relay
valve on the air master. The dual valve consists
of two controls valve, primary and secondary
each of w3hich has an air supply port for
supplying the air from the air tank, and a
discharge port for sending the air to the relay
valve for the air master.
Dual brake valve in sectional view
228
8. Brake (Full Air)
6.1.2. Construction
under the primary piston ⑤.
▣ The pedal ① is mounted on top of the
brake valve in contact with the plunger ② for
the primary valve. The plunger ② is in
contact with a spring seat ③, to which a
rubber spring ④, primary piston ⑤, stem
spring ⑥, relay piston ⑦, and relay piston
spring ⑧ are fitted together.
The primary piston ⑤ is kept pushed upward
by a return spring ⑨.
The primary valve assembly ⑬ is mounted
▣ The second valve has the same construction
as the primary valve, and is pushed to the body
seat by a spring ⑩. Each valve and reach relay
piston ⑦ are hollow, an the discharged air
runs through their hollow centers to push up
D located at the bottom
the exhaust passage ○
end to the exhaust port, and out into the
atmosphere.
229
8. Brake (Full Air)
6.1.3. Operation
▣
When brake valve is depressed.
When the pedal ① is stepped on, the foot`s
depressing force is conveyed via the plunger
②, spring seat ③ and rubber spring ④ to
the piston ⑤ so that the piston compresses the
return spring ⑨ and moves downward. As the
piston ⑤ gone down, the primary exhaust
valve ⑫ at the bottom end of the piston ⑤
contacts the primary inlet valve ⑬ to close
the center exhaust passage
The piston further compresses the primary
valve return spring ④ so that the primary
valve opens to let air out of the supply port. ⑭
A
to chamber ○
and the primary valve
discharge port, from which the air is supplied
to the primary system air master as a command
pressure.
When the primary valve ⑬ operates, port
⑮ of air pressure is routed through part of the
B in the top part of the
body to chamber ○
second valve relay piston ⑦ to push the relay
piston down.
▣
▣
230
8. Brake (Full Air)
▣
16 to the
3) The secondary exhaust valve seat ○
bottom end of the relay piston contact the
17 to close the center
secondary inlet valve ○
exhaust passage.
17 is further pushed
The secondary inlet valve ○
downward to make a clearance between it and
the body inlet valve seat so that the air from
C to
the supply port runs through chamber ○
the secondary discharge port, from which the
air is supplied to the secondary system air
master as a command pressure.
Air pressure stabilization
1) When a depressed angle is kept constant the
air pressure generated by depressing the pedal
is stabilized at a level compressing to the
depressed angle.
When the pedal is stepped on, the exhaust
D closes and the inlet valve ○
13 ○
17
passage ○
opens to start air supply as mentioned above.
The air pressure simultaneously works on the
bottom of the piston ⑤⑦to push it up.
231
8. Brake (Full Air)
3) The secondary relay piston ⑦ falls
according to the air pressure supplied from the
primary inlet valve ⑪, thus generating an air
17 . This
pressure in the secondary inlet valve ○
air pressure simultaneously acts on the bottom
7 . When the secondary
of the relay piston ○
pressure acts on the bottom of the relay piston
⑦ becomes equal to the primary pressure
applied to the top of the piston ⑦, the force
pushing the relay piston ⑦ down is offset so
that the relay piston ⑦ moves upward in
17 .
contact with the secondary inlet valve ○
2) If the pedal depressing angle is kept
constant, the air pressure on the bottom of the
pistons ⑤,⑦ raises the piston to compress the
rubber spring ④ on top of the piston ⑤,⑦.
The piston ⑤ rises in contact with the inlet
valve ⑬, and the inlet valve contacts with the
18 to stop the air supply.
body inlet valve seat ○
The piston ⑤ and inlet valve ⑬ are in
contact with each other, and the air pressure
stabilizes at this point of time.
232
8. Brake (Full Air)
▣
When brake valve is released
1) When the pedal is released, the plunger ②
and piston ⑤ are pushed up by the spring
⑨ and the primary valve air pressure so that
19 at the bottom end
the exhaust valve seat ○
of the piston ⑤ moves away from the
primary inlet valve ⑬, thus opening the
D.
center exhaust passage ○
17 contacts
4) When the inlet valve ③, ○
18 ○
19 , air supply from
cover`s inlet valve seat ○
the supply port to the discharge port is stopped.
Because the exhaust port is closed at this time,
the air pressure stabilizes without rising. At
this point of time, the secondary air pressure
stabilizes at the same level as the primary air
pressure.
The primary valve ⑬ air pressure is released
D and exhaust
through the exhaust passage ○
port ⑪ into the atmosphere.
The relay piston spring ⑨,⑩ plays the role of
reducing pressure difference between the
primary inlet valve ⑬ and secondary inlet
17 .
valve ○
233
8. Brake (Full Air)
▣
2) If the primary air pressure falls, the relay
piston ⑦ is pulled up by the secondary air
pressure and the stem spring ⑥ so that the
exhaust valve seat at the bottom end of the
relay piston ⑦ move away from the
17 , thus opening the
secondary inlet valve ○
D to the atmosphere.
center exhaust passage ○
Therefore, the secondary air pressure is
D and
released through the exhaust passage ○
exhaust port ⑪ into the atmosphere.
Operation in case of breakage
1) Operation of primary valve only
If the secondary brake piping is damaged, the
primary valve ⑬ operates normally because it
17 by
is separated from the secondary valve ○
the relay piston ⑦.
234
8. Brake (Full Air)
2) Operation of secondary valve only
If the primary brake piping is damaged, no
primary air pressure is generated to operate the
17
relay piston ⑦ and the secondary valve ○
as in normal operation. If the pedal is
depressed further than normal, the bottom end
of the piston ⑦ hits the top of the relay piston
⑦ so that the relay piston ⑦ exhaust valve
16 directly pushed the inlet valve ○
17 to
seat ○
generate an air pressure, stabilizes it, and
releases it in the same way as in the primary
valve ⑬ in normal condition.
2. Take out the bolts fixing the dual brake
valve assembly in position on the frame and
remove the valve assembly.
6.1.4. Disassembly of Dual Brake Valve
Assembly
Removal of dual brake valve assembly from
vehicle, discharge compressed air completely
by opening the drain cock on the air tank
before removing the dual brake valve assembly.
▣
▣
Disassembly
1. Prior to disassembly, wash clean the exterior
of the dual brake valve assembly to prevent
entry of dust, grit, water or other foreign matter.
2. Apply setting mark to the joining portions of
the parts before disassembling.
3. Wash disassembled metal parts in metal
cleaner such as trichloroethylene, etc. and use
alcohol for washing rubber parts.
1. Disconnect the supply pipe, delivery pipe
and the link rod.
235
8. Brake (Full Air)
4. Take out the three mounting plate bolts and
remove the mounting plate together with the
brake pedal.
Take out the four bolts fastening the body
with cover and remove the cover, return spring
and O-ring.
▣
5. Take out the retainer and remove the piston
with rubber spring and return spring.
▣ Remove the relay piston outer, inner and Orings from the valve body.
Remove the piston self-locking bolt and
separate the rubber spring.
▣
Take out the upper inlet valve retaining ring
and remove the inlet valve, O-ring, return
spring and spring seat.
▣
Take out the discharge cover retainer ring
and remove the discharge cover, guide valve,
lower inlet valve and O-ring. Take out the
retaining ring from the skirt of the inlet valve
and remove the guide valve and return spring.
▣
236
8. Brake (Full Air)
Return spring data
Pin and remove the roller, boot and plunger.
The fulcrum pin is fitted to the brake pedal
with a dowel pin. Do not remove these parts
unless when absolutely necessary.
(㎜) or (㎏)
Piston
Upper inlet
6.1.5. Inspection of Dual Brake valve
valve
Lower inlet
Discard rubber parts, O-ring and retaining
rings and install new ones at the time of
reassembly.
▣
valve
Relay piston
▣ Check the piston and body for scuffing,
wear or corrosion and replace the parts as
necessary.
Free length
Set length
Set load
80 or more
21.3
7.6~10.6
41 or more
14.3
5~6
25 or more
17.1
3.5~4.5
23 or more
16.7
0.8~1
6.1.6. Reassembly of Dual Brake Valve
Discard used O-ring, inlet valve and rubber
parts and install new ones. These parts are
available replacement kit.
▣
Check the brake pedal pin, bushing and
roller for wear and replace with new ones as
necessary.
▣
▣ Reassemble the dual brake valve assembly
following the disassembly procedure in the
reverse order and note the following.
▣ Check the return springs for weakening or
damage and replace as necessary.
▣ Apply grease to the sliding face, O-ring and
mating parts before installation.
▣ Apply wheel bearing grease to the sliding
face of the pins and plungers. Apply
approximately 1cc of wheel bearing grease into
the plungers and boot.
▣
237
Bolt torque specifications :
Bolt - self locking
: 0.5~0.7m-kg
Cover set bolt
: 1.2~1.9m-kg
8. Brake (Full Air)
1. Depress the brake pedal gradually and check
the angle of the brake pedal when the pressure
indicated on the air pressure gauge begins to
increase.
▣ Wash the clean metal parts to prevent entry
of dust or other foreign matter.
6.1.7. Brake Pedal Free Play Adjustment
Adjust the length of the link rod with the turn
buckle, so that free play of the brake pedal
(stroke of pedal before a resistance is felt) is
held within 12~23㎜.
Standard value
3.5~8㎜
Note. This adjustment is equal to brake pedal
free play adjustment.
6.1.8. Operation Test
2. Set the brake pedal at an angle of 12 degrees
and check reading of air pressure gauge
connected to the discharge side.
Prepare a brake valve support, angle gauge, 3
air pressure gauges, foot pressure tester.
Standard value
1.5~2.1kg/㎠
Mount the dual brake valve assembly to the
support.
▣
Air leak test
1. Apply compressed air of 7kg/㎤ into the
brake valve from the supply side and check for
leakage from around the delivery side port
using soap water.
▣
3. Measure the foot pressure required to
depress the brake pedal to an angle of 12
degrees.
Standard value
2. Connect a pair of air pressure gauges to the
delivery side of the brake valve. Operate the
brake pedal to the specified angles and check
for air leakage at the discharge port. Also
check for leakage from around the joint of
covers, connectors and plugs. If air leakage is
noticeable, correct seating of the inlet valve
and replace O-ring as necessary.
8.5~11.5kg/㎠
4. Further depress the brake pedal and measure
the angle of the brake pedal when the pressure
of air at the supply and discharge sides
becomes equal.
Standard value
20˚
6.1.9. Operating Test On Vehicle
Operate the brake valve and check the air
pressure against the air pressure gauges to see
if the performance of the brake valve is within
the specifications diagrammtically represented.
The upper and lower sections of the valve are
equal in performance, however , the pressure
of air at the discharge port of the lower section
is slightly lower than that of the upper side
(difference of pressure should be0.3kg/㎠ or
less).
▣
Start and let the engine at idle until pressure of
air within the air tank reaches the specified
level, connect air pressure gauge to the
discharge port in the upper and lower sides
after making a leak test. Air pressure gauges
may be connected to the pipes on the relay
valve side.
238
8. Brake (Full Air)
Air leak test
The dual brake valve assembly should be
tested for leakage by following the steps.
Standard value
▣
▣
8~12㎜
4. Measure the pressure of air discharged from
the discharge port against the pressure gauge
when the brake pedal is depressed 35㎜ from
the point.
Operating test
1
1. Apply a mark to a point 24㎜ below the tip
end of the brake pedal ( or a point 200㎜ away
from the fulcrum point of the pedal).
Standard value
1.5~2.1kg/㎠
5. Measure the foot pressure required to
depress the brake pedal to the point described
in the above paragraph.
Standard
value
5~11.5kg
(a point 150㎜ away
from the fulcrum point
of the pedal)
6. Further depress the brake pedal and check
the stroke of the pedal when the pressure of air
at the discharge port becomes equal to the
pressure of air within the air tank. Repeat the
same test on normal control models.
2. Measure the height of the pedal (a) from the
cab floor to the marked point.
3. Gradually depress the brake pedal and
measure the stroke of the pedal when the
pressure indicated on the air pressure gauge
begins to increase.
Standard
value
6.1.10. Dual Brake Valve Performance Diagram
239
51~61㎜(Jidosha Kiki)
8. Brake (Full Air)
providing a brake action.
6.2. Relay valve
As the brake pedal is released, air within the
chamber A is discharged, so that pressure of air
within the chamber B overcomes that in the
chamber A, causing the diaphragm to move
upwards by the action of the return spring.
▣
6.2.1. Operation of Relay Valve
(for Front and Rear wheel brake)
Air supplied from the brake valve is fed into
the chamber where it is further applied to the
diaphragm for compressing the spring 1. as a
result, the passage of air between the discharge
port and chamber C is closed and valve is
pushed open, communicating the chamber C
with the chamber.
Thus, compressed air flows from the clamber
D into the power chamber via the chamber C,
As a result, the valve rod is lifted off the
seat and opens the passage of air between the
chamber C and discharge port, so that air
within the chamber C is discharged, thereby
releasing the brake.
▣
240
8. Brake (Full Air)
▣ Apply air-master paste to the O-rings before
installation.
6.2.2. Disassembly
(1) Disassembly precautions
Perform and operating test and leak test on
the relay valve assembly when reassembly
operation is completed.
▣
Prior to disassembly, wash clean the
exterior of the relay valve assembly to prevent
entry of dirt, grit or other foreign matter.
▣
6.2.5. Operation test and leak test
Apply a setting mark to the joining portions
of the parts prior to disassembly.
▣
▣ Wash metal part in essential metal cleaner
such as trichloroethylene, etc. and use alcohol
for washing rubber parts.
▣ Install the relay valve assembly in position
on the vehicle and set the air pressure gauge in
position of power chamber.
Make a test using air pressure of 7kg/㎠ or
higher.
▣Take out the bolts fixing the body upper and
remove the body, diaphragm and spring.
▣ Check around the discharge port for leakage
using soap water.
▣ Fully depress the brake pedal and check that
pressure of air ait the outlet side of the power
chamber becomes equal to that in the air tank.
Hold the brake pedal fully depressed and check
around the discharged port for air leakage.
▣ Release the brake pedal and check that
pressure of air at the outlet side of the power
chamber becomes zero.
▣ Check for leakage from the joining portions
of the valve body using soap water.
▣ Take out the bolts fixing the body lower and
remove the body, O-ring, valve seat, spring and
O-ring.
6.2.3. Inspection
▣ Check disassembled parts and replace with
new ones as necessary.
6.2.4. Reassembly
▣ Reassemble the relay valve assembly by
following the disassembly procedure in the
reverse order and note the following.
241
8. Brake (Full Air)
the spring brake actuator resulting from
repeated braking there by to prevent brake
dragging.
When the pressure of air within the air tank
lowers beyond the valve opening pressure or
when the parking is applied, the quick release
valve functions to discharge air acting on the
spring brake actuator spring, thereby
facilitating smooth removal of compressed air.
6.3. Quick release valve (QRV)
6.3.1. General description
The quick release valve is to be installed in the
parking brake circuit utilizing a spring brake
actuator for holding the pressure of air within
the spring chamber constant.
The quick release valve is positioned between
the spring brake actuator and parking brake
valve to prevent lowering of air pressure within
6.3.2. Construction
The function of the Quick Release Valve is
to speed up the exhaust of air from the air
chamber. It is mounted close to the chambers it
serves. In its standard configuration the valve
is designed to deliver within one (1) psi of
control pressure to the controlled device;
however, for special applications the valve is
available with greater differential pressure
designed into the valve.
▣ When the parking brake valve is actuated
and pressure of air at the outlet side(A) of the
pressure control valve lowers beyond the valve
opening pressure of 20.4kg/㎠(2.4x100Kpa),
the diaphragm moves up, discharging air
through the exhaust port.
6.3.3 Operation
▣
▣
6.3.4. Servicing
(1) Disassembly
▣
(1) Under normal conditions
▣
Compressed air from the air tank is fed
through the parking brake valve into the quick
release valve and then into the spring brake
actuator via the diaphragm moves down and
outlet port B.
As the piston is pushed against the body as
shown in the figure, the discharge port is held
closed maintaining the pressure of air within
the actuator constant.
▣
▣
Remove four screws.
Remove spring and spring seat
(if so equipped)
Remove diaphragm.
Remove cover O-ring.
(2) Inspection
Wiper clean the rubber parts with clean
cloth saturated with alcohol or thinner.
Wash clean all the metal parts in metal cleaner.
▣
(3) Reassembly precautions
(2) When parking brake is applied
242
8. Brake (Full Air)
▣ Clean all metal parts in mineral spirits. Wipe
all rubber parts clean.
▣ Apply generous amount of air-master paste
to the seating face and sliding faces of the parts
before reassembly.
▣ Handle the parts carefully not to scratch the
seating face and sliding faces of the parts.
(4) Reassembly
Install diaphragm
Install diaphragm.
▣ Install O-ring in cover groove;
▣ Install cover and tighten screws evenly and
securely. (torque to 30-60 inch pounds.)
▣
▣
(5) Inspection after reassembly
When reassembly operation is completed,
check for leakage and perform operating test.
▣
6.4. Air tank auxiliary parts
6.4.1. Air Governor
High pressure valve Low pressure valve
opening pressure
opening pressure
8.5±0.2kg/㎠
7.5±0.2kg/㎠
6.4.2. Air tank safety valve
valve
pressure
opening 9±0.5kg/㎠
6.4.3. Air check valve
6.4.4. Low air pressure warning switch
opening
Closing
pressure(Turning out pressure(Turning in
the lamp)
the lamp)
4.5±0.2kg/㎠
4.5±0.2kg/㎠
243
8. Brake (Full Air)
7. Trouble shooting
7.1. Poor brake action
Cause
Correction
1. Correct or reline.
1. Brake linings in poor contact with brake
drums.
2. Face of brake linings hardened, or oil or
grease on linings.
3. Brake linings clearances or power chamber
stroke excessive.
4. Dual brake valve defective(air leaking)
5. Air pressure insufficient.
2. Correct or reline.
3. Adjust
4. Overhaul
5. Check air pressure gauge and and air line and
correct as necessary.
6. Lubricate or correct cam shaft bushing
7. Overhaul
6. Camshaft sticking or binding.
7. Relay valve defective.
7.2. Brake pedal squeaks
Cause
Correction
1. Rivet heads exposed due to excessive wear to
brake linings, or a clearance exists between
brake linings and brake shoes.
2. Face of brake linings hardened, or material of
linings poor.
3.Anchored face of brake shoes poorly
lubricated.
4.Brake lining clearances incorrect.
brake shoe return springs or spring covers
defective.
5. Foreign matter between brake lining and
brake drum brake drum distorted, worn
excessively or loosened in mount
244
1. Reline
2. Correct or reline
3. Lubricate
4. Adjust
5. Replace
8. Brake (Full Air)
7.3. Brake action one sided
Cause
Correction
1. Brake linings clearance uneven, linings is
poor contact with brake drums, linings
material poor, or oil or grease on
linings.(one side)
2. Brake drum run-out or loosened in mount.
3. Brake drum run-out or loosened in mount.
4. Wheel bearings defective.
5. Tires not uniformly inflated.
6. Pressure of air fed into power-chambers
unequal.
1. Correct, adjust or reline.
2. Overhaul.
3. Correct
4. Overhaul
5. Adjust
6. Check air circuit for air leakage
7.4. Overheating of brake drums causing dragging
Cause
Correction
1. Brake pedal free play insufficient
2. Discharge port in dual brake valve clogged.
3. Dual brake valve defective.
4. Joint between adjuster and push rod binding.
5. Camshaft returning action sluggish.
6. Discharge port in relay valve clogged.
7. Relay valve defective.
8. Brake linings clearances insufficient.
9. Brake shoe return spring weakened or broken.
10. Brake shoe anchor pins sticking.
245
1. Clean or adjust
2. Clean
3. Overhaul
4. Overhaul
5. Correct bushings or lubricate.
6. Clean
7. Overhaul
8. Adjust
9. Replace
10. Overhaul
8. Brake (Full Air)
8. Exhaust brake
General description
The exhaust brake consists basically of a butterfly valve installed within the engine exhaust manifold
and is connected with the air control cylinder via link rod.
The exhaust brake is remotely controlled by means of a switch mounted to the steering column.
1.
2.
3.
Exhaust brake switch
Accelerator switch
Clutch switch
4.
5.
6.
Pilot
Air tank
magnetic
7.
8.
Control cylinder
Exhaust brake valve
8.1. Inspection
8.1.1. Exhaust Brake Switch
Pull out the lever switch and check that the
indicator light operates normally.
If the indicator light does not turn on, check
the fuse, light bulb and exhaust brake switch.
8.1.2. Accelerator Switch
The accelerator switch is provided with the
following 3 terminals:
8.1.4. Magnetic valve
Common terminal, ② Normally open,
③ Normally closed.
Normally closed terminal is not in use. When
installing the accelerator switch, note the
terminals carefully to avoid wrong connections.
Make a continuity test on the coil using a tester.
Check contacting face of the plunger and valve
seat.
Correct as necessary.
If the plunger is sticking, correct with a fine
sand paper and apply a thin coat of engine oil.
8.1.3. Clutch Switch
8.1.5. Exhaust Brake Valve
The clutch switch is factory-adjusted to operate
at the brake fluid pressure of 4-8kg/㎠.
Disconnect the control rod and check operation
of the control lever. Also check that the
butterfly valve is in parallel with the exhaust
manifold and that it closes completely.
Setting of the butterfly valve cannot be
Depress and release the clutch pedal and check
operation of the clutch switch.
246
8. Brake (Full Air)
checked visually without removing the entire
exhaust brake valve assembly. However,
setting angle of the butterfly valve can be
estimated by checking tilting angle of the lever.
If the angle of the lever is incorrect, adjust with
the stopper bolt.
8.1.6. Inspection of Control Cylinder
Assembly
Check the operation of the control cylinder
push rod in the following manner.
▣
▣ Pull the push rod jaw joint with a pull scale
and read the scale when the push rod begins to
move.
Operation of the control cylinder assembly in
normal if the reading of the pull scale is within
the following range.
Stroke of push rod
Reading of pull scale
26.2㎜
A
23kg
48.6㎜(maximum)
B
32.5kg
▣ Depress the accelerator pedal and listen for
the same hissing sound. Operation of the
accelerator switch is under the influence of the
accelerator pedal stroke.
8.1.7. Testing of Exhaust Brake
(With Engine Sationary)
▣ Pull out the exhaust brake switch and check
that exhaust brake indicator light operates.
( Operation of exhaust switch will be
accompanied by a hissing sound which
indicates that air is drawn into the power
chamber.)
▣ Depress the clutch pedal and check that the
indicator light remains on and hissing sound
continues until exhaust brake is released.
247
8. Brake (Full Air)
8.2. Trouble shooting
Complaint
Correction
Exhaust brake does not operate when switch is Fuse burned out. Circuit open
turned on (indicator light inoperative)
Exhaust brake switch defective
Accelerator switch defective circuit open
Clutch switch defective, circuit open
Magnetic valve coil open or poorly grounded
Exhaust brake does not operate when switch is
Magnetic valve sticking
turned on ( indicator light operates)
Air pressure too low
Exhaust brake valve sticking
Exhaust brake cannot be released by depressing Clutch switch defective(when hydraulic circuit is
clutch pedal.
operating normally)
Exhaust brake cannot be released by repressing
Accelerator switch defective or out of adjustment
accelerator pedal.
Valve returning action poor
Discharge port in magnetic valve clogged valve
piston sticking
Valve does not close completely
Setting of stopper bolt incorrect
Butterfly valve off-centered
Valve poorly seat due to deposit of carbon
248
8. Brake (Full Air)
in the cover. Between the cover and the control
arm is a sealing ring. The control disc has a
milled recess for the toe of the rack. The flanks
of the recess are hardened.
Gasket 27 fits between control unit 12 and
housing 1.
Torx-slotted screw 24 (6 off.) hold the control
unit in place.
9. Auto slack adjustment
9.1. Construction
This system automatically adjusts linings
clearance according to brake lining wear.
Caution : As lining wear amount is not
indicated, check remained lining through check
hole on brake anchor plate.
Worm gear 3 and 4 transmits force from
housing 1 to the S-cam shaft. The tooth profile
of the gear is asymmetrical, and both parts are
made of specially treated high-grade steel.
Housing 1 is cast in nodular iron and tenifer
treated to give a low coefficient of friction and
high wear resistance.
The housing is available in different variations
with a choice of lever length, offset and
direction.
O-rings 5 and 28 (2 off.), which are made o
nitrile rubber, protect the mechanical parts
from salt, water and dirt.
Bushing 2 is made of hardened steel and can
be supplied in different dimensions.
Rack 13 converts the rotation of control disc
21 to a reciprocating linear action.
The rack is sintered to a high standard of
density and hardness.
Return springs 14 and 15 keep the rack in
contact with the lower flank of the recess in the
control disc when cone clutch 4 and 9 is
disengaged.
Control unit 12 supplies the motion required
for the compensatory action o the adjuster. The
unit consists of control disc 21, control arm 22
and cover 23. The control rotate freely as a unit
249
8. Brake (Full Air)
Welch plug 16 closes the insertion opening for
the return springs 14 and 15 in housing 1.
One-way clutch 7-8-9 converts the linear
motion o the rack 13 to rotary motion. The
clutch consists of gear wheel 7, clutch spring 8
and clutch ring 9.
Bearing 6 is a radial bearing for worm screw
4; it is made of free cutting steel and is tenifer
treated.
Needle bearing 10, thrust washer 18 and
screw covers 11 and 20 take up the thrust from
coil spring 17.
Coil spring 17 holds worm screw 4 in contact
with clutch ring 9.
Rivets 31 (2 of.) lock screw covers 11 and 20
in the desired position and allow easy
disassembly.
250
8. Brake (Full Air)
9.2. Principle of operation
Application of brake with excessive clearance
When braking occurs with excessive
clearance between the brake into lining and the
drum, the deflection of the slack adjuster can
be divided into following components:
▣
(1) Movement through clearance angle (C)
The slack adjuster moves through angle A until
the toe of the rack 13 pushes against the lower
flank of the recess in the control disc 21. The
brake shoes expand, but not enough to touch
the brake drum. Thus normal clearance (C)
corresponds to the clearance angel (A).
Clearance angle (C) corresponding to normal
clearance.
Excess clearance angle (Ce)
Corresponding to excess clearance due to worn
brake linings, etc.
Elasticity angle (E) accounted for by the
elasticity of the brake drum, brake linings an
transmission components between brake
cylinder and wheel brake.
The working cycle of the slack adjuster can be
divided into the following stages:
(2) Movement through excess clearance
angle (Ce)
The control disc 21 pushes the rack 13 upward
so that it turns the gear wheel 7 of the one-way
clutch 7-8-9. The one-way clutch is disengaged
in this sense of rotation. At the same time the
S-camshaft expands the brake shoes until the
linings are in contact with the brake drum.
Starting position
The control arm of the slack adjuster is located
so that the rack 13 is at the bottom of its travel
and its toe is in contact with the upper flank of
the recess in the control disc 21. Angle A
(clearance angle), between the lower flank of
the recess in the control disc 21 and the toe of
the rack 13 determines the normal clearance
that will be obtained between brake lining and
braked drum.
251
8. Brake (Full Air)
(3) Movement into elasticity zone (E)
The worm screw 4 is displaced axially and
compresses the coil spring 17 so that the cone
clutch between 4 and 9 is disengaged. This
happens when the torque on the S-camshaft
rises rapidly as a result of the brake linings
being pressed with increasing force against the
brake drum.
(2) Movement into clearance zone (C)
The cone clutch 4 and 9 engages when the
torque on the S-camshaft falls to a level at
which the coil spring 17 can push the worm
screw 4 into contact with the clutch ring 9.
(4) Movement through elasticity angle (E)
The control disc 21 continues to push the rack
13 upward. Now, however, the rack turns the
whole one-way clutch assembly 7-8-9 because
the cone clutch 4 and 9 is disengaged.
Release of brake with excess clearance
(3) Movement through clearance angle (C)
The force exerted by the return springs 14 and
15 on the rack 13 is not enough to turn the oneway clutch 7-8-9 when the cone clutch is in
engagement. As a result, contact between the
toe of the rack 13 and the recess in the control
disc 21 shifts from the lower to the upper flack
(angle A).
(1) Movement through elasticity angle (E)
The return springs 14 and 15 hold the toe of
the rack 13 against the lower flank of the
recess in the control disc 21. The rack 13 turns
the one-way clutch assembly 7-8-9 because the
cone clutch 4 and 9 is disengaged.
252
8. Brake (Full Air)
hexagon clockwise. The take up of slack
adjuster per stoke is determined by the gear
ratio.
Braking at normal clearance.
The working cycle in this case is generally as
described above, with the following difference:
▣ When the brake is applied at normal
clearance, the linings touch the drum as soon
as the slack adjuster has rotated through angle
A.
The sequence of events as the brake is applied
harder is the same as before
(see Picture 5 and 6)
Taking up the slack
The control disc 21 pushes the rack down to its
bottom position in the housing 1. As both
clutches are now in engagement the worm
screw 4 is turned by the rack and the worm
wheel 3 and the S-camshaft turn with it.
The net result is an automatic adjustment
which keeps the clearance between the brake
shoes and the drum at a constant value. If the
clearance is abnormally large, e.g, after the
slack adjuster has been removed in connection
with repairs, the brake will have to be applied
many times to adjust the slack adjuster to its
normal stroke. Alternatively the excess
clearance can be taken up manually by turning
When the brake is released, the slack
adjuster acts as already described as far as
point C3, after which the following happens;
The slack adjuster moves through clearance
angle A.
The toe of the rack butts against the upper
flank of the recess in the control disc of at the
same moment as the rack reaches its bottom
limit of travel in the housing 12, so no further
slack is taken up.
▣
253
8. Brake (Full Air)
Secure the adjuster on the S-camshaft.
Check that the adjuster is not pinched and is
returning easily to its original position.
▣
9.3. Installation and check
Check that the brake chamber push rod is in
its fully released position and that the brake
lining-to-drum clearance is larger than the
recommended clearance. If the vehicle is
equipped with spring brakes a minimum
pressure in the system of 6 bars must be
obtained. The anchor bracket should be fitted
but not tightened.
Lubricate S-camshaft splines with an anticorrosive grease before fitting adjuster.
▣
Rotate control arm as far as possible
following radial direction of cast arrow on
housing. Do not hammr control arm. Then
adjust anchor point hole to align with hole in
control arm, without moving position of
control arm. Finally lock the anchor point to
the control arm using the appropriate fixation.
i.e, through bolt/nut or per bolt/nut.
▣
▣ Adjust the clearance by turning the worm
screw hexagon clockwise until the brake
linings meet the drum and then back-off the
worm screw hexagon 3/4 of a turn (Backing off
the adjuster produces a loud clicking sound).
Check the function of the automatic slack
adjuster by performing a few brake
applications. The adjustment can then be seen
when the hexagon head of the worm screw
rotates clockwise at the return stroke.
Place the adjuster on the S-camshaft so that
the arrow on the housing points in the direction
of application of the adjuster. The adjuster is
screwed into the clevis of the piston rod by
turning the hexagon on the end of the worm
screw clockwise until the hole in the adjuster
coincides with the clevis pin holes. Then fit the
clevis pin and secure.
▣
254
8. Brake (Full Air)
accelerates over, even a limited-slip differential
cannot keep the wheels from spinning.
However, ASR automatically regulates engine
power so that the wheel grip the road. Within
physical limits. ABS/ASR is an important aid.
Finally, insurance companies offer a 10%
discount
on
comprehensive
insurance
premiums for vehicles with ABS, and it is
planned that ABS be reguired by law for
commercial vehicles.
10. ABS/ARS (OPTION)
10.1. Introduction
ABS means safety in braking. Today the
antilock braking system is available on almost
all vehicles either as optional or standard
equipment. ABS makes braking safe even
under extreme conditions. On ice an snow,
even if the driver himself over-reacts the wheel
do not lock up. The vehicle remains steerable,
vehicle combinations remain stable in their
lane and stopping distance optimal.
If the pavement under one side of the vehicle is
slippery, the pressure build-up in the brake
cylinder of the wheel with a high coefficient of
friction is limited; the yaw moment builds up
slowly. The driver can keep his vehicle in its
lane with much less steering wheel movement.
10.2. ABS control
When the driver brakes, he feels pressure into
the brake cylinders with the result that the
wheels are decelerated. As long as the brake
slip of a wheel is below the response threshold
of the ABS, brake pressure is not regulated. If
the ABS/ASR control unit calculates from
wheel-speed that one or more wheels are
tending to lock up, the pressure-control valves
are energized. In order to achieve optimum
pressure in the relevant brake cylinder, the
pressure is lowed, maintained or built up
according to the friction ratio between tires and
pavement and vehicle handling.
However, critical driving situation can also
arise when driving off and accelerating,
especially on slippery pavement on hills or in
curves if the powered wheel spin. These
problems were solved by expanding the ABS
to ABS/ARS, antilock braking system with
traction controller. ASR prevents wheel-spin
during drive-off and acceleration.
ASR provides optimum control or
propulsion on pavement that is slippery on one
or both sides, when pulling out of icy parking
spaces at the side of the road (e.g. bus stop),
when accelerating in curves and driving off on
hills.
▣
Spinning wheels, like locking wheels, can
transmit little cornering force: handling
becomes unstable and the rear end breaks away.
With ARS the vehicle stays under control:
ARS increase safety.
▣
At time t1, pressure builds up in the brake
cylinder. The wheel is decelerated. At time t2,
the wheel shows signs of locking up because
the allowable threshold values for wheel
deceleration and slip have been exceeded.
By closing the pressure-holding valve and
opening the outlet valve, pressure in the brake
cylinder is built up until the wheel again
accelerates at time t3.
Pressure I maintained at a constant level by
closing the outlet valve until time t4.
This brings the slip closer to the valve λ=0
and the acceleration of the wheel again reaches
a value that allows a renewed rise in pressure.
Next the pressure is “pulsed up” by the
Spinning wheel lead to a high rate of wear
on the tires nad the drive mechanics
(differential, axle shaft). This becomes
dangerous when a spinning wheel suddenly
hits a non-slippery surface: ARS limits repair
costs.
▣
ASR is always ready and switches on
automatically when needed. When there is a
difference in wheel-spin between the powered
wheels, ASR can differentiate between
cornering and wheel spin.
The tires do not “grind” in tight curves as they
do with mechanical locks. If the drive
▣
255
8. Brake (Full Air)
synchronized (limited-slip differential effect).
This takes place when compressed air from the
storage reservoir is directed via the solenoid
valve into the brake cylinder.
The corresponding pressure-control valve
modulates brake pressure.
momentary opening and closing of the
pressure-holding valve until time t5.
Since the allowable threshold values for wheel
deceleration and slip have again been exceeded,
pressure is again built up. This control-cycle
sequence is repeated until the vehicle is
virtually at a standstill. When adhesion is very
low, braking with the retarder can bring about
high brake slippage on the driving wheel,
reducing vehicle stability to an unacceptable
level. The ABS controls brake slip switching
the retarder on and off.
▣ Engine Control Circuit
If both powered wheels are tending toward
spinning, the drive torque of the engine will,
for example, be reduced by the electronic
engine control system. At speeds of above 30
km/h the spinning of one of the powered
wheels will also be prevented with the aid of
the engine control system. As soon as a
powered wheel tends toward spinning, the
ASR infolight lights up (slippery conditions
warning). Figure 3 shows the drive-off of a
vehicle equipped with ASR. At time t1 the
vehicle drives off. Wheel 1 tends toward
spinning and, beginning at time t2, it is braked
via the brake control circuit. At time t3 the
speed of wheel 1 is again approaching vehicle
speed. Now the brake pressure for wheel 1 is
“pulsed down”. At time t4 wheel 2 tends
toward spinning and is now braked by stages.
Since both wheels are tending toward spinning
at time t5, the electronic engine control system
also intervenes and reduces the drive torque.
10.3. ARS control
When driving off of accelerating,
the transmission of power depends on the
wheel slip between tires and pavement. If a
wheel`s slip is below the response threshold of
the ASR, wheel speed is not controlled. The
ASR logic in the ABS/ASR control unit
monitors the speed o the powered wheels and
recognizes when a wheel through two control
circuits:
Brake Control Circuit
At speeds of up to 20 mph(30 km/h), if a
powered wheel is tending toward spinning, this
wheel is braked and the speed of the wheels are
▣
256
8. Brake (Full Air)
ASR Operation
Vf Vehicle speed
Vr1,Vr2 Speed of powered wheels; Me injected fuel quantity
Pz1,Pz2 Brake pressure in the brake cylinders of the powered driving wheels
HV1,HV2 Pressure holding valves of the pressure control valves for the powered wheels
AV1,AV2 Outlet valves of the pressure control valve for the powered wheel.
Interface for engine control
Pulse length modulated signal:
1. Accelerator pedal position, input
2. Control lever angle, reducing
3. Control lever angle, increasing
257
8. Brake (Full Air)
▣
Electric control unit (ECU)
The ABS/ASR control unit is of digital design
with redundant microprocessors. If features
four functional areas:
The intergrated protection unit renders
electrical disturbances acting on the vehicle
electrical circuit ineffective.
Input stages for conditioning the wheel
speed signals.
▣
Pressure control valve(PCV)
Each wheel is controlled by a 1-channel
pressure control valve. This valve is comprised
of two diapgragmtype valves (pressure holding
and outlet valves) that are pilot controlled by
solenoid valves. During normal braking,
compressed air flows freely through the
pressure control valve to the brake cylinders. If
one of the wheels tends to lock up, the
ABS/ASR control unit energizes both solenoid
valves, thereby lowering pressure in the brake
cylinder. The activation of the pressure holding
valve brings about the pressure holding phase.
During pressure build up, no current flows to
the two solenoid valves.
▣
▣ Computer
for calculating the brake
slip/traction and wheel deceleration/ wheel
acceleration control signals and energizing the
output stage if one wheel tends to lock up or
spin.
▣ Output stages for energizing the pressure
control valves, the solenoid valve and the
interface for engine control and the axle load
transfer facility.
Voltage supply for delivering a stabilized
voltage for the operation of the control unit.
▣
258
8. Brake (Full Air)
4. Solenoid valve
5. Atmosphere
Pressure control Valve Schematic Diagram
1. From service brake valve
2. To brake cylinder
3. Pressure holding valve
4. Outlet valve
5. Solenoid valve (pilot control of pressure
holding valve)
6. Solenoid valve (pilot control if outlet valve)
7. Atmosphere
Shuttle Valve
1. Sear ring
2. Piston
3. Sear ring
4. From ASR valve
5. To P.C.V
6. From relay valve
Speed sensor
The bosch 4-channel ABS uses four wheel
speed sensors. The sensor consists of a
permanent magnet connected to a metal
rod, around which a coil has been wound.
A pulse wheel mounted to the hub induces
an alternating voltage in the sensor coil.
The frequency of the alternating voltage is
proportional to the wheel speed.
▣
PCV not working
PCV workng
Solenoid Valve and Shuttle Valve
The solenoid valve is a combination of two
pilot controlled 3/2 solenoid valves that
energize the brake cylinder of the powered axle
with compressed air when the corresponding
wheel tends to spin. Two control plungers are
controlled by these solenoid valves.
When no current is flowing, supply 1 is closed
and the cylinder connections are opened up to
the outside.
▣
Speed sensor with pulse wheel
1. From air reservoir
2. Control plunger
3. To shuttle valve RH/LH
259
8. Brake (Full Air)
▣
Braking comparison
10.4. ABS/ASR diagram for air brake
system
Compressed Air supply
1. Air reservoir (air tank)
Service braking system
2. Service brake valve
3. Relay valve
4. Brake cylinder
ABS/ASR component
5. Shuttle valve (connection to ASR)
6. Impulse ring
7. Wheel speed sensor
8. ABS/ASR controller
(electric control unit)
9. Pressure controller
10. Solenoid valve
260
8. Brake (Full Air)
should illuminate for a moment after ignition is
switched on and, if the abs warning lamp does
not illuminate immediately after the ignition
has been switched on, then the bulb or lamp
circuit is defective and must be repaired.
10.5 ECU Self-test feature
When the ignition is switched on, the ECU
microprocessors run a self-test. The self-test
consists of checking the computer memory, the
timer and a number of arithmetic and logic
functions. During operation, the ECR
continuously runs a test of the permanent
memory. Within 0.4 seconds after the ignition
has been switched on, the valve relay (VR1
and VR2) are checked for proper operation and
an active solenoid test is conducted. When the
ABS or ASR functions are required in a
particular instance, the solenoid valves are
constantly checked for correct electrical
function. During the initial self-test and when
abs or ASR is acutated, the solenoid valve
circuits are checked for failures. The self-test
will detect open circuits and shorts to ground
or 12 volts. If the ABS/ASR is not active, only
open circuits and shorts to ground can be
detected. The wheel speed sensor circuits are
constantly monitored by the ECR whenever the
vehicle is in operation. The monitoring will
detect open circuits and shorts to ground and
12 volts in the sensor cables. In addition,
changes in the air gap between the speed
sensor and the pulse wheel are detected.
The abs warning lamp illuminates after the
ignition has been turned on and remains lit
until the first successful speed sensor test.
When the sensors have been tested successfully,
four good sensor signals are received and all
other tests are good, the warning lamp goes out
indicating that the abs is ready for operation.
The warning lamp should go out no later than a
maximum speed of 9 mph has been reached.
The lamp will remain out unless a fault is
detected in the system.
ASR is ready even if the warning lamp is still
on, as would be the case when first driving
away in a low traction situation.
▣ Abs failure modes
If a failure in the ABS/ASR system is detected
during vehicle operation, the failure is recorded
in the ECR memory and the defective portion
of the system is witched off. The abs warning
lamp will illuminate (and remain illuminated),
indicating to the driver that there is as failure.
The intact portion of the ABS/ASR system will
continue to be operational.
On-Board Diagnostics
A blink code diagnostic readout can be called
up by pressing the abs diagnostic button. The
blink code constants of three blocks of blink
pulses. The number of blink pulses in the first
block identifies the configuration of the ECR
(abs only, abs with ASR brake controller, etc.).
The number of blink pulses in the second block
identifies a failure found in diagonal 1(left
front/right rear) and the number of blink pulses
in the third block identifies a failure in
diagonal 2 (right front/left rear).
To store the diagnostic codes, the ignition must
be switched off and back on at least once. In
order to read the code, the abs diagnostic
button must be pressed for at least one second.
The diagnostic blink codes are covered in
detail in the troubleshooting section of this
manual.
If the ECR detects a failure, the corresponding
failure code is stored. The failure code remains
stored until it is detected from the ECR
memory by pressing the diagnostic button
while simultaneously turning the ignition on,
the button should remain depressed for a brief
moment after the ignition has been turned on.
This procedure will also cause the cu to
reconfigure itself to the vehicle system and to
the ABS/ASR components which may be
installed. If no response is received after the
button has been depressed, test the diagnostic
button.
▣
ABS warning lamp and ASR/Diagnostic
lamp
The driver is responsible for monitoring the
abs warning lamp and (if equipped) the ASR
lamp (wheel slip indicator). The ASR light
▣
261
8. Brake (Full Air)
▣
Axle cross diagnosis
▣
Block blink pulse
262
8. Brake (Full Air)
▣Checking
Block
First
and troubleshooting with blink pulse
Pulse
ABS/ASR system application
1
Normal operation
2
ECU trouble
ECR replacement
Exceed clearance between front wheel
Sensor clearance adjusting
speed sensor and impulse ring, harness short
Harness check and replacement
Exceed clearance between front wheel speed
Sensor clearance adjusting
sensor and impulse ring, harness short
Harness check and replacement
4
5,8,12
Harness crack of front sensor and short
7
Harness crack of front sensor and short
9
Voltage drop(below 19V)and short in PCV.
10
Valve defect of rear pressure adjusting
11
Valve defect of rear pressure adjusting
13
Operation defective of valve relay
14
ASR valve defect
And
third
-
Normally 4 times blink
Not used
6
Remark
Trouble shooting
4
3
Second
Check and
Cause
times
Recheck on resetting
Replace ECR in trouble
Clearance between sensor and
impulse ring : 0.1㎜
Clearance between sensor and
impulse ring : 0.1㎜
For trailer
Sensor harness checking
and replacement
Sensor harness checking
Sensor resistance:
950~1,450Ω
and replacement
Sensor resistance:
950~1,450Ω
Source voltage(24V) checking
PCV voltage : 19V
RR PCV checking
and replacement
RR PCV checking
and replacement
Relay checking and replacement
ASR valve checking
and replacement
PCV resistance : 14~21Ω
PCV resistance : 14~21Ω
Relay resistance : 145~175Ω
Relay resistance : 145~175Ω
▣ Diagnosis with system tester
Prior to diagnosis, check the parking brake, battery, alternator and diagnose on normal operation
condition. It is possible to check each component functions and electric resistances of ABS/ASR system
with system tester (0-684-101-605), adaptor cable 35P(1-684-563-204) and multi-tester ㎜D301(0-684500-301), but cannot to check ECU itself. (ECU is diagnosed with blink pulse)
263
8. Brake (Full Air)
10.6 ABS/ASR Trouble shooting procedure
SYMPTOM
ABS warning lamp stays on after
vehicle has exceeded 9 mph or
illuminates during vehicle operation.
POSSIBLE
CAUSE / RPOBLEM
ABS system has detected a failure
ACTION
Store Diagnostic Code
Turn ignition to off position and then on.
Read Diagnostic Code
A. Press diagnostic button of at least one
second and release.
B. Count blink pulses of diagnostic lamp
and write sequence down (Figure 4)
C. Compare configuration display by
blink code(Code block 1) with the
system installed in the vehicle. If
configuration numbers match, then
proceed to code block 2 and 3
troubleshooting procedures.
Diagnostic lamp does not illuminate
after diagnostic button has been pressed.
Diagnostic lamp stays on after diagnostic
button has been pressed.
Diagnostic button was not held
long enough.
Faulty diagnostic circuit wiring of bulb.
Perform service step #3
diagnostic lamp/switch check
Check diagnostic switch, bulb and related
wiring. Repair or replace as required.
No continuity between pins 12 & 14 on
ECU connector.
Check continuity between pins 12 & 14
in ABS harness (Figure 10).
Repair or replace harness as required
Faulty diagnostic
Code block 1 trouble shooting
Press diagnostic button and hold for
more than a second.
Installed options do not match ECU
internal memory list.
Configuration pulse code does not match
configuration on vehicle.
Was service step #1 performed?
ASR cable not connected to ASR valve
(if equipped).
ABS/ASR harness defective.
Perform service step #3 steps 2
Thru. 5 diagnostic lamp/switch
check
Check and replace switch as required
First block configuration
Configuration
No. of pulses
ABS only 12/V
6
ABS W/ASR brake
Contrlooer/12V
8
Note : The ECU is capable of additional
configurations which are not used.
Perform service #1 reconfigure
ECU and erase failure memory
Check/connect ASR valve cable.
Check ABS/ASR harness per ABS tester
instructions Section 11.
Check ABS/ASR harness with
ABS/ASR tester
Perform each step of the ABS tester to
fully test the ABS/ASR harness.
264
8. Brake (Full Air)
SYMPTOM
POSSIBLE
CAUSE / RPOBLEM
Second block diagnostic code
DIAGONAL 1
Steer Axle
■
□
Left Wheel
Drive Axle(s)
□□
■
Right Wheel(s)
□□ ■■
Code block 2
troubleshooting (diagonal 1)
DIAGONAL 1
DIAGNOSTIC CODE
X-1-X
Diagonal is OK
X-2-X
ECU defective
Be sure to perform service step #1 to
confirm that ECU is bad. If problem
clears, ECU is not defective.
X-3-X
ACTION
Problem steer axle speed sensor (Left) :
Large air gap or Shorted wires
If sensor moves when pushed,
check wheel bearing play.
No action required on Diagonal 1
Perform service step #1
replace ECU
Push in sensor (toward pulse wheel)
Perform service step #7 wheel
bearing adjustment
Worn out wheel bearings
Check/replace wheel bearings
Damaged pulse wheel
Damaged hub
Check pulse wheel/hub.
If damaged, replace hub.
Damaged speed sensor
Perform service step #8
replace sensor
CODE BLOCK 2
Diagnostic code (Cont.)
X-4-X
Problem drive axle speed sensor(Right):
Large air gap or
Shorted wires
If sensor moves when pushed,
Possible excessive wheel bearing play
Push in sensor
(toward pulse wheel)
Perform service step #7
wheel bearing adjustment
Worn out wheel bearings
Check/replace wheel bearings
Damaged pulse wheel
Damaged hub
Check pulse wheel/hub
If damaged, replace hub.
Damaged speed sensor
Perform service step #8
replace sensor
X-6-X
Problem steer axle speed sensor (Left):
Faulty sensor
Broken wire in sensor circuit
Short to 12V or ground in sensor circuit
265
Perform service step #4
resistance check of sensor
Perform service step #4 with
sensor connected
Measure resistance across pins 15 & 32
on ECU connector (Figure 10). If reading
is out of range and sensor is good, then
harness wires to sensor are faulty.
Replace sections(s) of harness as
required.
8. Brake (Full Air)
SYMPTOM
POSSIBLE
CAUSE / RPOBLEM
ACTION
Problem drive axle speed sensor (Right)
Faulty sensor
Perform service step #4
resistance check of sensor
CODE BLOCK 2
Diagnostic code (Cont.)
X-7-X
Broken wire in sensor circuit
Short to 12V or ground in sensor circuit.
X-9-X
Low electrical system voltage, VR1 relay
not actuating.
Truck batteries in poor condition
Fuses/circuit breakers blown or faulty
Perform service step #4
with sensor connected
Measure resistance across pins 16 & 33
on ECU connector (Figure 10). If reading
is out of range and sensor is good, then
harness wires to sensor are faulty.
Replace section(s) of harness as required.
Check batteries. Clean Battery terminals
and charge or replace faulty batteries.
Check charging system.
Replace blown fuse/reset of replace
circuit breaker.
Check of cause of blown fuse of tripped
circuit breaker.
Faulty termination in harness
Faulty starter lock-out relay
Replace faulty relay. Use bosch P/N
0 332 204 101 or 332 204 151.
Faulty termination in harness
Troubleshoot harness in VR1
relay circuits.
Fuse/relay push back and not making
contact.
Check for pushed back VR1 relay
terminal or DU fuse terminal.
Reinsert terminal.
CODE BLOCK 2
Diagnostic code (Cont.)
X-10-X
X-11-X
Problem pressure modulation
Valve(PMV) at steer axle(Left)
Faulty PMV
Perform service step #5
measure PMV coil resistance
Faulty PMV connector
Clean terminals or replace
harness section
Faulty PMV cable
Check for pinched or cut cable.
Replace harness section(s) as required
Bad vehicle ground to PMV
Check and repair as required
Problem pressure modulation
Valve(PMV) at drive axle(Right):
Faulty PMV
Perform service step #5
measure PMV coil resistance
Faulty PMV connector
Clean terminals or replace
harness section.
Faulty PMV cable
Check of pinched or cut cable
Replace section(s) required
Bad vehicle ground to PMV
Check and repair as required
266
8. Brake (Full Air)
SYMPTOM
POSSIBLE
CAUSE / RPOBLEM
ACTION
CODE BLOCK 2
Diagnostic code (Cont.)
X-13-X
Problem VR1 relay(Diagonal 1)
Sticking relay contacts
Other relay internal failure
Replace VR1 relay with:
Bosch P/N 0 332 204 151 or
0 332 204 151
Perform service step #1
reconfigure ECR and
erase failure memory
Perform service step #6 measure
ASR valve coil resistance
Terminals or replace harness section.
T
Check for pinched cut cable
Replace harness section.
Check for pinched cut cable .
Replace harness section as required
Code block 3
troubleshoooting
(Diagonal 2 )
Diagnostic code
X-X-1
Diagonal is OK
No action required on Diagonal 2
X-X-2
ECU defective
Be sure to perform service step #1 to
confirm that ECU is bad. If problem
clears, ECU is NOT defective.
X-X-3
Problem steer axle speed sensor (Right):
Large air gap or Shorted wires
If sensor moves when pushed
Check wheel bearing play
Worn out wheel
bearings
Damaged pulse wheel
Damaged hub
Damaged speed sensor
Perform service step #1
reconfigure
ECR and erase failure memory
Push in sensor(toward pulse wheel)
Perform service step #7
wheel bearing adjustment
Check/replace wheel bearings
Check pulse wheel/hub./
If damaged, replace hub.
Perform service step #1
replace sensor
Code block 3
Troubleshooting
(Diagonal 2)
Diagnostic code (Cont.)
X-X-4
Problem drive axle speed sensor (Left):
Large air gap or shorted wires
If sensor moves when pushed.
Possible excessive wheel bearing play
Worn out wheel bearings
267
Push in sensor (toward pulse wheel)
Perform service step #7
wheel bearing adjustment
Check/replace wheel bearings
8. Brake (Full Air)
SYMPTOM
POSSIBLE
CAUSE / RPOBLEM
Damaged pulse wheel
Damaged hub
Damaged speed sensor
X-X-6
X-X-7
Check pulse wheel/hub
If damaged, replace hub
Perform service step #8
replace sensor
Problem steer axle speed sensor (right):
Faulty sensor
Perform service step #4
resistance check of sensor
Broken wire in sensor circuit.
Short to 12V or ground in sensor circuit
Perform service step
with sensor connected
Measure resistance across pins 17 & 34 on
ECU connector (Figure 10). If reading is
out of range and sensor is good, then
harness wires to sensor are faulty.
Replace section(s) of harness as required.
Problem drive axle speed sensor(Left)
Faulty sensor
X-X-9
ACTION
Perform service step #4
resistance check of sensor
Broken wire in sensor circuit
Short to 12V or ground in sensor circuit
Perform service step #4
with sensor connected
Measure resistance across pins 18 & 35
on ECU connector (Figure 10). If reading
is out of range and sensor is good, then
harness wires to sensor are faulty.
Replace section(s) of harness as required.
Low electrical system voltage,
VR1 relay not actuating
Truck batteries in poor condition
Check batteries. Clean battery terminals
and charge or replace faulty batteries.
Check charging system.
Fuses/circuit breakers blown or faulty
Replace blown fuse/reset or replace
circuit breaker. Check for cause of blown
fuse or tripped circuit breaker.
Faulty VR1 relay or
Faulty starter lock-out relay
Replace faulty relay. Use Bosch P/N
0 332 204 101 or 0 332 204 151.
Faulty termination in harness
Troubleshoot harness in VR2
relay circuits
Fuses/relay pushed back and not
making contact
Check for pushed bac VR2 relay terminal
or D2 fuse terminal. Reinsert terminal.
Code block 3
Troubleshooting
(Diagonal 2)
Diagnostic code (Cont.)
X-X-10
Problem pressure modulation
Valve(PMV) at steer axle(Right)
Faulty PMV
Perform service step #5
measure PMV coil resistance
Faulty PMV connector
Clean terminals or replace
harness section
Faulty PMV cable
Check for pinched or cut cable.
Replace harness section(s) as required
Bad vehicle ground to PMV
Check and repair as required
268
8. Brake (Full Air)
SYMPTOM
X-X-11
POSSIBLE
CAUSE / RPOBLEM
Problem pressure modulation
valve(PMV) at drive axle (Left):
Faulty PMV
Perform service step #5 measure
PMV coil resistance
Faulty PMV connector
Clean terminals or replace
harness section
Faulty PMV cable
Check for pinched or cut cable.
Replace section(s) as required
Bad vehicle ground to PMV
Check and repair as required
Problem VR2 relay (Diagonal 2)
Sticking relay contacts
Other relay internal failure
Replace VR2 relay with;
Bosch P/N 0 332 204 101 or
0 332 204 151
Perform service step #1
reconfigure and erase memory
X-X-13
Problem ASR valve (if equipped)
Faulty ASR valve
X-X-14
ACTION
Perform service step #6 measure
ASR valve coil resistance
Faulty ASR valve connector
Clean terminals or replace
harness section.
Faulty ASR cable
Check for pinched or cut cable.
Replace harness section as required.
269
SECTION 9A
SUSPENSION
(Leaf Spring)
CONTENTS
PAGE
1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION
1.1.
FRONT AND REAR LEAF SPRINGS
271
1.2.
SPECIFICATIONS
273
2. SERVICING OF LEAF SPRING DISASSEMBLY
2.1.
INSPECITION PRIOR TO DISASSEMBLY
278
2.2.
REMOVAL
278
2.3.
DISASSEMBLY
279
2.4.
INSPECITION
279
2.5.
REASSEMBLY
279
2.6.
INSTALLATION
280
270
9A. Suspension (Leaf Spring)
assembly is fastened at the center part to the front
axle via the clamp plate with “U” bolts.
Telescopic hydraulic double-acting shock
absorbers are fitted between the axle and chassis
frame to improve riding comfort. The rear
suspension assembly consists of leaf springs just
as in the case of front suspension to gain
adaptability to spring load variations depending
on condition of load on vehicle.
1. General description
1.1. Front and rear leaf springs
The front suspension consists principally of leaf
spring assemblies which are mounted at the front
end to the front bracket with the spring pin and at
the rear end to the rear spring bracket with “H”
type shackle and spring pin. Each front spring
LEAF SPRING ASSEMBLY
Model BF105
271
9A. Suspension (Leaf Spring)
LEAF SPRING ASSEMBLY
Model BM090, BS106
Model BH115E
272
9A. Suspension (Leaf Spring)
1.2. Specifications
LEAF SPRING MAIN DATA
Model
BM090
BF10
Type
FRT
Leaf
spring
RR
Damp force
(kg)
BH115E
Semi elliotical alloy steel
Span(mm)
1500
1400
1500
Width(mm)
90
80
90
Thickness(mm)
-no.of leaf
13-6
11-2
12-6
11-1
13-6
13-7
Spring
constant(kg/mm)
25.33
28.75
25.33
33.5
Span(mm)
1660
Width(mm)
100
Thickness(mm)
-no.of leaf
12-2
16-5
12-1
11-3
16-4
12-2
13-1
16-5
15-1
14-9
Spring
constant(kg/mm)
35.9
28.89
41.5
47.9
Type
Shock
absorber
BS106
Hydraulic, double acting telescopic
FRT rebound
595
595
FRT compression
260
260
RR rebound
650
595
650
RR compression
260
240
260
273
9A. Suspension (Leaf Spring)
FRONT LEAF SPRING IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
Model BF105
1.
Spring A-leaf, front
9.
Nipple-grease
17.
Washer-plain
2.
Shackle A-front
10.
Plate-clamp
18.
Wedge-caster
3.
Pin-leaf spring
11.
U bolt-spring, front
19.
Nut-Hex M18x1.5
4.
Pin
12.
Nut-Hex M22x1.5
20
Bracket-1st spring, front
5.
Pin-leaf spring
13.
21.
Bracket-2nd spring, front
6.
Washer
14.
22.
Bracket-shock absorber
7.
Nut-Hex
15.
Shock absorber A-front
Pin-shock absorber
setting
Nut-Hex M24 x 2.0
8.
Pin-Split
16.
Washer-spring
274
9A. Suspension (Leaf Spring)
FRONT LEAF SPRING IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
Model BS106, BH115E
1.
Spring A-leaf, front
10.
Shock absorber A-front
2.
Shackle A-front, spring
11.
Pin-shock ABS front frame
3.
Pin-leaf spring
12.
Pin-shock ABS front axle
4.
Washer
13.
Supporter A-front
5.
Nut-Hex
14.
Washer-plain
6.
Pin-Split
15.
Nut-Hex M24x2.0
7.
Plate-Clamp, U Bolt
16.
Washer-spring
8.
U Bolt-front, spring
17.
Nipple-grease
9.
Nut-Hex M22 x 1.5
275
9A. Suspension (Leaf Spring)
REAR LEAF SPRING IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
Model BF105
1.
Spring A-leaf, rear
13.
Washer-plain
2.
Shackle A-rear
14.
U Bolt-spring, rear
3.
Pin-leaf A, rear
15.
Nut-Hex
4.
Bolt-Hex M14 x1.5
16.
Washer-plain
5.
Bolt-hex M14 x 1.5
17.
Pad-rear spring
6.
Nut-Hex M14x1.5
18.
Cushing-rubber, rear
7.
Washer-spring
19.
Bolt-Hex M10x1.25
8.
Pin-spring, rear
20.
Bolt-Hex M10 x1.25
9.
Washer-lock
21.
Shock absorber A-rear
10.
Nut-Hex M24x2.0
22.
Bracket-3rd spring, rear
11.
Washer
23.
Bracket-4th spring, rear
12.
Nipple-grease
24.
Bracket-shock absorber
276
9A. Suspension (Leaf Spring)
REAR LEAF SPRING IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
Model BS106, BH115E
1.
Spring A-leaf, RR
12
Pin
2.
Shackle A-RR spring
13
Pin
3.
Nipple-grease
14
Washer-plain
4.
Pin
15
Nut-Hex M24 x2.0
5.
Nut-Hex
16
Washer-spring
6.
Washer
17.
Nut-Hex M18 x1.5
7.
Pad-U Bolt RR spring
18
Washer-spring
8.
U Bolt-RR spring
19.
Bolt-Hex M10x1.25
9.
Nut
20.
Washer-plain
10.
Cushing rubber-spring, rear
21.
Pin-split
11.
Shock absorber A-rear
22
supporter
277
9A. Suspension (Leaf Spring)
2. Servicing of leaf spring assembly
▣
2.1. Inspection prior to disassembly
▣
Take out the U bolt nuts using a box wrench
and remove the U bolts.
The operation of the suspension assembly is under
a direct influence of the leaf springs, shock
absorbers, buffer rubbers, tire inflation pressure,
etc.
When a suspension trouble is suspected, check the
following points and adjust or correct as necessary
before removing the suspension assembly.
▣
Check tire inflation pressure
▣
Check leaf springs for breakage and
clips for looseness.
▣
Check U bolts for looseness
▣
Check buffer rubbers for distortion,
separation or damage
Remove the shock absorbers.
Note. When removing U bolt nuts, clean threads
and loosen them a few turns with a hand tool
before using an impact wrench to prevent seizing.
Take out the spring pin and shackle pin key
blots, remove the grease fittings, then remove the
pins.
▣
▣ Check shock absorbers for oil leaks, abnormal
noise or looseness in mount and brackets for
distortion or cracking.
▣ Measure the buffer clearances. If the amount
of clearance is much less than the standard value
for new vehicle of a type, check the leaf springs
for weakening.
2.2. Removal
▣
Loosen the wheel nuts.
▣ Jack up the axle just enough so that the front
wheels are lifted off the floor, then support the
frame on chassis stands.
▣ Lower the axle carefully and remove the leaf
spring assembly.
Note. When removing the leaf spring assembly,
use care not to damage brake flexible hoses and
drag link in contact with leaf springs.
Note. Brace the rear (front )wheels before jacking
up the front(rear) axle.
▣
Remove the wheels.
278
9A. Suspension (Leaf Spring)
or distortion and replace as necessary.
2.3 Disassembly
Check the threaded portions of the U bolts for
damage and replace the bolt with a new one if
found to be defective.
▣
Apply a setting mark to the side face of the leaf
springs.
▣
▣ Check the buffer rubbers for separation or
cracking. Replace the parts with a new one as
necessary.
Inspection of shock absorbers
The shock absorbers are of an integral
construction and can not be disassembled for
inspection or adjustment.
The shock absorbers should therefore be replaced
with new ones if found to be no longer serviceable.
▣
1. Check the shock absorbers for oil leakage.
shock absorber with a slight amount of oil seepage
is normal and may be used without any service
attention as it indicates that the piston rod and
seals are being lubricated:
Compress the leaf springs with a bench press or
a leaf spring remover and installer
▣
▣ Remove the spring clips and center bolt.
Loosen the bench press gradually ( or loosen the
nut on the leaf spring remover and installer) and
remove the leaf springs.
2. After driving over rough surface, check for rise
in temperature by touching the shock absorber
inner tube with hand. Normal operation of the
shock absorbers is accompanied by an increase in
temperature of the shock absorber body.
If the shock absorber remains cold after driving
over rough surface, it is out of normal function
and should be replaced with a new one.
2.4 Inspection
Check the leaf springs for cracking or damage
and center bolts and spring clips for distortion or
damage.
Replace the parts with new ones if found to be
defective.
▣
Note. If the shock absorber (double-acting
type)does not give a resistance as pulled with
hand, should be replaced with a new one.
Check the spring pins visually and shackle pins
for abnormal wear or damage. Measure the
outside diameter of the pins with and outside
micrometer and replace the pins with new ones if
the measured values are beyond the limit.
▣
3. check the shock absorber mounting rubbers for
fatigue or distortion and replace with new ones as
necessary.
▣ Measure the inside diameter of the bushings
and compare the measured values with the outside
diameter of the pins to determine the clearance.
Replace the bushings with new ones if the amount
of clearance is beyond the value indicating need
for servicing.
2.5 Reassembly
Reassembly the leaf spring assembly by following
the disassembly procedure in the reverse order
after applying a thin coat of graphite grease to
both faces of each spring.
Compress the leaf spring assembly with a bench
press or a leaf spring remover and installer, then
install and fully tighten the center bolt.
Unit : ㎜
Standard value
for assembly
Limit for use
Pin diameter
32
31.7
Clearance
between pin and
bushing
0.1
0.5
▣
Check the spring bracket shackle for cracking
279
9A. Suspension (Leaf Spring)
2.6 Installation
To install, reverse the removal procedure and note
the following points.
Install the leaf spring assembly, so that the
double coiled end is turned to the front of the
vehicle.
▣
Discard the pin thrust washers and install new
at the time of reassembly if their seals are found to
be worn or damaged.
▣
Install the spring pins by aligning the key bolt
holes.
▣
▣
Bolt torque specifications.
Front
Rear
U-bolt
(㎜)
Torque
(kg.m)
BF105
BS106
M22 x 1.5
45~55
BF105
M24 x 2.0
70~85
BS106
BH115E
M27 x 2.0
85~95
Spring pin key bolt torque : 7.5~9.5kg.m
Lubricate the pivot points using a grease gun
when reassembly operation is completed.
▣
280
SECTION 9B
SUSPENSION
(Air Spring)
CONTENTS
PAGE
1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION
1.1.
FRONT AND REAR AIR SPRING
282
1.2.
SPECIFICATIONS
283
2. SERVICING OF AIR SUSPENSION
2.1.
DISASSEMBLY
292
2.2.
INSPECTION
295
2.3.
AIR SPRING
297
2.4
REASSEMBLY
298
2.5
CAUTION IN INSPECTING AND SERVICING
300
3. SERVICING OF LEVELING VALVE
3.1.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
301
3.2.
OPERATING PRINCIPLE
301
3.3.
LEVELING VALVE MAIN DATA
302
3.4.
INSTALLTION REQUIREMENTS
302
3.5.
MAINTENANCE
303
3.6.
INSPECTION AND SERVICE STANDARDS
305
4. SERVICING OF AIR VALVE
4.1.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
307
4.2.
DISASSEMBLY
308
4.3.
ADJUSTMENT
308
4.4.
INSPECTION
508
281
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
utilizes a torsion bar that is actuated to put the
body back in normal position only when the
body has been inclined laterally. It does not
work when the body moves up and down
uniformly. Each end of the torsion bar is
connected to the support beam through a
rubber bushing. Also, each side of the torsion
bar is provided with an arm which connects
through a link rod the to body structure
member.
1. General description
1.1. Front and rear air spring
1.1.1. Front Air Spring
The front suspension is designed to have
variable throttle type air springs, one on each
side, secured by bolts between the bottom
surface of the longitudinal member and the top
surface of the front axle. The air spring is not
provided with transverse rigidity; therefore,
three torque rods and a radius rod (guide link,
which is positioned perpendicular to the torque
rods) are employed so that the front axle may
be fixed in position. The torque rods, one each
on the right and left of the bottom side and one
at the top center, are connected to the bracket
on the front axle side at one end and to the
body structure member ant the other, through
conical rubber bushings.
The lateral rod, likewise, is connected through
similar rubber bushings to both the axle and
the body structure member so as to fix the axle
position in both longitudinal and lateral
directions.
1.1.2. Rear Air Spring
The rear suspension is designed to gave two
variable throttle type air springs on each side,
right and left, which are mounted, with bolts,
between the bottom surface of the longitudinal
member and the top surface of the support
beam which is secured by bolts to the rear axle.
Two torque rods and two radius rods are used
with the rear axle, also. Two torque rods are
mounted on each side at the bottom , and two
radius rods are mounted on the top. The bottom
rods are connected to each other by a pin to
which rubber has been heat boned, while the
double rod is connected through a slotted
conical rubber bushing to the body structure
member.
This rubber bushing must be installed so that
its slots are positioned at the bushing ends. The
rods are also used for keeping the axle properly
positioned in the lateral direction.
1.1.3. Stabilizer
Suspension springs that are two soft cause a
vehicle to roll or be inclined outward (from
centrifugal force ) when making a sharp turn.
To eliminate this trouble, a stabilizer is
mounted on the support beam. This stabilizer
282
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
1.2. Specification
Front
Distinction
BH
115
BH
116
Type
250
Max. out. dia. (㎜)
310
STD WIDE
BH
117
250
270
316
310
2
4
Extension
100
Comp.
100
Type
L/V
BH116
BH
115
260
No. of springs
Shock
Absorber
BH
120
270
Design height (㎜)
Stroke of
spring(㎜)
BH
117
Variable throttle type with stabilizer
Effective dia. (㎜)
Air
Spring
Rear
Double acting telescoping type
Out. Dia.( ㎜)
86
74.5
Base shell dia.( ㎜)
76.3
65
No. of S/A
2
4
Extension
640
545
636
Compression
407
338
391
No. of levering valve
1
283
2
BH
120
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
FRONT AIR SUSPENSION IN DISASSEMBLY VIEW
MODEL BH115/116/117/120
284
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
1.
Air spring A-Front
21.
Nut-hex M18x1.5
2.
Shock absorber A
22.
Bush-rubber
3.
Bracket –torque rod, upper
23.
Washer
4.
Pin-frame side
24.
Stabilizer bar
5.
Washer-plain
25.
Bush-rubber
6.
Washer-spring
26.
Support
7.
Nut-Hex M18x1.5
27.
Bolt-Hex M12x1.25
8.
Nut-Hex M24x1.5
28.
Washer
9.
Washer-spring
29.
Rod A-W/bush
10.
Torque rod A-upper
30.
Washer-spring
11.
Torque rod A-lower
31.
Washer-spring
12.
Radius rod A
32.
Nut-Hex, M20x1.25
13.
Bush-rubber
33.
Arm-leveling
14.
Bush-pin
34.
Turnbuckle
15.
Plate-end
35.
Bolt-Hex, M14x1.5
16.
Plate-end
36.
Washer-spring
17.
Lock plate
37.
Nut-Hex, M14x1.5
18.
Bolt-Hex M16x1.5
38.
Blot-Hex, M14x1.5
19.
Valve A-leveling
39.
Washer-spring
20.
Bracket-radius rod front
40.
Nut-Hex, M14x1.5
285
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
REAR AIR SUSPENSION IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
Model BH115/116 ( STD TYPE )
286
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
1.
Air spring A-front
18.
Bush-rubber
2.
Spacer-air spring, rear
19.
Plate-end
3.
Beam A-air suspension
20.
Nut
4.
Shock absorber A
21.
Pin-radius rod rear
5.
Pad – U bolt
22.
Lock plate
6.
U bolt
23.
Bar-stabilizer rear
7.
Nut
24.
Bush-rubber
8.
Washer-spring
25.
Retainer
9.
Torque rod A-lower
26.
Bolt-hex M8x1.25
10.
Radius rod A-rear
27.
Nut-Hex M8x1.25
11.
Plate-end
28.
Washer-spring
12.
Pin-stabilizer bar
29.
Rod A-stabilizer bar
13.
Bush-rubber
30.
Cushion rubber
14.
Bush-pin
31.
Plate-end
15.
Bolt-Hex M16x1.5
32.
Washer
16.
Nut-Hex M27x1.5
33.
Nut-lock
17
Stud-axle side
34.
Nut-lock
287
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
REAR AIR SUSPENSION N DISASSEMBLED VIEW
MODEL BH117/120 ( WIDE TYPE )
288
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
1.
Beam A-side
24.
Radius rod A
2.
U bolt-spring, rear
25.
Nut
3.
Pad-U bolt rear
26.
Washer-spring
4.
Air spring A-rear
27.
Plate-end
5.
Spacer-air spring, rear
28.
Pin-torque rod
6.
Shock absorber A
29.
Bush-pin
7.
Stabilizer bar
30.
Bush-rubber
8.
Support
31.
Plate-end
32.
Lock plate
9.
10.
Bolt-Hex M12x1.25
33.
Bolt-Hex M16x1.5
11.
Washer-spring
34.
Plate-end
12.
Rod A-W/bush
35.
Stud-axle side
13.
Plate-end
36.
Nut-slotted
14.
Nut-Hex, M18x1.25
37.
Nut
15.
Washer
38.
Nut-lock
16.
Washer
39.
Pin-split
17
Bush-rubber
40.
Pin-radius rod
18.
Pin
41.
Valve A-leveling
19.
Washer
42.
Arm-leveling
20.
Washer-spring
43.
Turnbuckle
21.
Nut-Hex M16x1.5
44.
Bolt-Hex M12x1.25
22.
Key
45.
Washer-spring
23.
Torque rod A-rear
46.
Nut-Hex, M12x1.25
47.
Washer-spring
289
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
FRONT AIR SPRING IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
MODEL BH115/116/117
1.
Diaphragm (Air bag)
4.
Piston A
2.
Plate A-upper
5.
Nut-Hex M12x1.25
3.
Buffer
6.
Washer-spring
290
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
REAR AIR SPRING IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
MODEL BH115/116/117/120
1.
Diaphragm (Air bag)
4.
Nut-Hex M12x1.25
2.
Plate A-upper
5.
Washer-spring
3.
Piston
291
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
2. Servicing of air suspension
2.1. Disassembly
2.1.1. Front Suspension
with a chance of damaging these parts.
Therefore, it is advisable to fasten the body and
axle together using a wire before jacking. It is
also to be noted that jacking up the front axle
only may bring the rear lower face of the body
into contact with the ground.
▣ Air removal
Brace the front and rear wheels and discharge
compressed air form the entire air suspension
system by opening the drain cock on the main
tank.
It is to be noted that removal of compressed air
from the air suspension system causes lowering
of the vehicle height by 100mm.
▣ Removal of wheels
Check that the vehicle is held securely, then
jack up the front axle and remove the wheel.
Jacking
Jack up the vehicle by setting the jack against
the jacking point of the vehicle body. It is
dangerous and not advisable to position a piece
of wood or other spacer between the jack and
vehicle body.
▣
▣ Loosen the drag link adjust plug and
disconnect the drag link and knuckle arm at the
knuckle arm joint ball.
Leveling valve removal
Remove the ball joint on the lower end of the
leveling valve connecting rod and release
compressed air in the pneumatic system by
stroking the lever several times. Do not loosen
the turnbuckle on the leveling valve connecting
rod.
▣
▣ Raising of axle
Jacking up the body beyond 200mm with the
axle held against the stopper rubber with
compressed air discharged means the support
the weight of the axle assembly only with air
springs, down stoppers and shock absorbers
292
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
the front air spring, then disconnect the air pipe
extending from the leveling valve. Remove the
nuts fastening the end plate and flange and
front axle and piston, then remove the air
spring assembly.
Flexible hose removal
Disconnect the brake flexible hose at the wheel
cylinder.
When disconnecting the brake flexible hose,
use care so as not to spill brake fluid over the
bellows and torque-rod rubber bushing.
▣
2) Remove the nut fixing the lower side piston
and stopper, then remove the diaphragm
assembly.
▣ Removal of shock absorbers
Remove the nut from the shock absorber pin at
ends and take out the shock absorber.
3) Compress the diaphragm inwards.
4) Remove the throttle valve from the flange
▣ Diaphragm removal
1) Remove the pipe end eye joint bolt above
▣
the axle slightly forward and remove the radius
rods in the similar manner.
Torque rod and radius rod removal
Note. The rubber bushing is press-fitted to
each end of the torque rod and nylon is fitted to
the inner tube into which pin is assembled via
the collar. Tap out the pins carefully.
1) Check that front axle is supported on jack
securely.
2) Remove the three bolts on the axle side of
the torque rod and radius rod, then remove the
lock plate together with the end plate.
▣ The front axle assembly is separated from
the body when the above steps are followed.
The arrangement of front side knuckles and
front hubs is in common to the model with leaf
spring type suspension system.
3) Loosen the three bolts attaching the end
plate to the body side of the torque rod and
remove the rod.
Note. Mark the upper and lower torque rods on
each side to prevent interchanging.
4) When three torque rods are removed, move
293
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
and shock absorbers with a chance of
damaging these parts. To prevent this, the axle
should be fastened to the body before jacking.
2.1.2. Rear Suspension
▣ Air removal
Brace the front and rear wheels securely.
Discharge compressed air within the air
suspension system by opening the drain cock
on the main tank. It is to be noted that removal
of compressed air causes lowering of the
vehicle height by approximately 100mm.
Removal of wheels
Check that the vehicles body is supported
securely, then jack up the rear axle and remove
the wheels.
▣
▣ Propeller shaft removal
Remove the flange yoke bolts on the
differential side yoke and disconnect the
propeller shaft.
▣ Jacking
Set the jack against jacking point of the vehicle
body.
▣ Flexible hose removal
Disconnect the brake flexible hose at the 3 way
joint exercising care so as not to spill brake
fluid over the diaphragms and torque rod
rubber bushings.
Raising of axle
Jacking up the beyond 185mm with
compressed air removed and with axle held
against the stopper means to support the weight
of the axle assembly only with the air springs
▣
▣
Remove the bolts mounting the leveling valve
body and take out the leveling valve assembly
from the bracket.
Do not disturb setting of the turnbuckle on the
connecting rod unless when vehicle height
adjustment is necessary. The connecting rod
unless when vehicle height adjustment is
necessary.
Stabilizer removal
1) Loosen the ball joint nut on the upper and
lower ends of the stabilizer rod and disconnect
the stabilizer rod at the lower end, then remove
the nuts on the chassis frame side and remove
the stabilizer rod assembly.
2) To remove the stabilizer bar, loosen the cap
bolts on the right and left side beams, then
remove the cap by supporting the bar. Remove
the stabilizer bar.
Shock absorber removal
The rear shock absorber is mounted with rod
and can be removed in the following manner:
remove the upper and lower double nuts and
cushion rubber, then remove the shock
absorber by compressing it.
▣
▣ Leveling valve removal
Remove the ball joint on the lower end of the
leveling valve connection rod.
294
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
▣
deposit of foreign matter and replace as
necessary.
Diaphragm removal
1) Remove the nuts fixing the flange and end
plate and piston to beam, then remove the air
spring assembly from between the right and
left side beams and sub frame.
▣ Check the faces of the piston in contact with
the diaphragms for corrosion and correct or
replace necessary. At disassembly, wash clean
the diaphragms to remove, oil and wipe dry.
2) Remove the lower piston and stopper fixing
nuts and remove the diaphragms.
When
inspection
the
diaphragms
▣
unassembled condition, check for presence of
dirt, frit and stones between piston and
diaphragms and clean as necessary.
3) To disassemble diaphragms assembly,
compress the diaphragms.
4) Remove the throttle valve assembly from
the flange. (for the model and optional
equipment)
2.2.2 Inspection of Torque Rods, Radius
Rods, Stabilizer Rods and Stabilizer Bars.
Check these parts carefully for bending,
cracks and damage and replace with new ones
if found to be defective. The stabilizer bar is
integrated with the stabilizer arm by welding
and should be checked without disintegrating.
▣
▣
Torque rod removal
1) Remove the three bolts fixing the torque rod,
then remove the torque rod together with the
lock plate and the end plate.
Inspection of torque rod and radius rod
bushings. Check the rubber bushings for
deterioration, deformation, cracks and wear.
Replace the parts with new ones as necessary.
▣
2) Tap out the lower torque rod on each side
horizontally.
▣
Radius rod removal
2.2.3. Inspection of Rear axle case and Beam
1) remove the double nuts fixing the radius
rods, then remove the radius rod with the end
plate
Check the rear axle case and beams for
distortion, cracks and wear at rod fitting faces
and correct or replace the part as necessary.
2) tap out the upper radius rod on each side
horizontally.
2.2.4. Inspection of shock absorber
Note. Keep torque rods on each side separate
to prevent interchanging.
▣
The shock absorbers cannot be adjusted
without the aid of an essential tester. Replace
the entire shock absorber assembly when found
to be faulty.
Beam removal
1) Loosen the U bolt nuts fixing the rear axle
to the beams.
▣ Inspection for oil leaks
A slight amount of oil seepage is a result of rod
and seal lubrication and it does not indicate
leaky condition.
2) Set a jock against the beam carefully to hold
the rear axle, then remove the U bolts and
beam.
▣
▣ Testing
Touch the inner tube of the shock absorbers
with bare hand immediately after driving over
rough surface and check for increase in
temperature. Normal operation of the shock
absorber is accompanied by an increase in
temperature of the tube. If the shock absorber
remains cold, it is defective and should be
replace.
Remove the rear axle assembly
2.2. Inspection
2.2.1. Inspection of Air Spring Assembly
Diaphragm
Check the diaphragm visually for deterioration,
cuts, cracks, tears, wear, deformation and
▣
▣
295
Check the rubber bushings and support
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
rubber for deterioration, wear, cracks and
damage. Replace the parts as necessary.
2.2.5. Inspection of rubber bushing
Check the guide bushings for wear and
correct or replace as necessary. The guide
bushings with a considerable amount of wear
must be replaced.
▣
Check the cushion rubber and support
rubber for deterioration, wear, crack and
damage. Replace the parts if found to be
defective.
▣
296
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
2.3. AIR SPRING
2.3.1. Construction
▣
Front
▣
Rear
297
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
2) Install eth throttle valve and rubber seat on
the upper face of the air spring to the upper
side flange. Install the lower side of piston on
the front axle seat.
2.4. Reassembly
2.4.1. Front suspension
Carry the front axle assembly to position of
installation using a garage jack or equivalent.
▣
▣
Tightening of radius rod and torque rod
bolts. Loosen the rubber bushing on the rods
and adjust the fitting length of the air spring to
300mm with the aide of the jack. Turn in the
bolts on the rod until end plate on each side is
brought into contact with the pin, then lock the
bolts with the double nuts.
▣
Torque-rod and radius rod installation
▣
Install the leveling on the bracket and check
that the air spring is adjusted to the standard
length, then connect the joint ball on the
leveling valve connecting rod to the axle side
bracket (when properly installed, the leveling
valve lever is held nearly horizontal).
1) Assembly the end plate and rubber bushing
to the pin on the radius rod and torque rod,
then mount the radius rod to the axle side
bracket. Install the bolts and nuts and leave the
nuts semi-tight.
Note. Never use oil or water as lubricant when
installing the rubber and bushing inner tube on
the axle side bracket.
▣ Drag link installation
Connect the drag link to the knuckle arm.
Install and tighten the adjust plug
specification.
Bring the front axle into alignment with the
body side brackets and install the bolts and
nuts. Leave the nuts semi-tight.
to
Air pipe installation
Connect the air pipe to the leveling valve, then
connect the pipe immediately above the
diaphragm using an eye joint.
Discard used gaskets and install new ones.
▣
2) Install the remaining upper and lower torque
rods in the similar manner and leave the nuts
semi-tight. Install the bolts with the double nut
side turned inward.
▣
Leveling valve installation
Shock absorber installation
Install the shock absorber in position using
rubber bushing(install the nut to compress the
rubber bushing).
▣
Diaphragm installation
1) Assemble the diaphragm ring, clip rings,
stoppers and end plates and piston in the
reverse order of disassembly.
▣
298
Brake flexible hose installation
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
Connect the brake flexible hose to the wheel
cylinder and bleed the hydraulic circuit.
Perform the operation carefully so as not to
allow brake fluid and r=grease into contact
with the diaphragms.
▣
Beam installation
▣ Wheel installation
Install the wheels, lower the jack supporting
the axle. Brace the wheels and lower the jack
supporting the body.
▣
Adjustment of vehicle height
Carry the rear axle assembly to the position of
installation
Hold the right and left side beams horizontally
and install the pads on the lower face. Clamp
the beam and rear axle together with the U
bolts, the check that the parts are set properly
to maintain standard dimensions at the front
and rear.
▣
Close the drain cock on the air tank and start
the engine to fill the air suspension system
with air.
When the pressure of air reaches 6.4~7.3kg/㎠
and air suspension system becomes stabilized,
check that the vehicle height is within the
specified range. When the vehicle height
deviates from the specified range, adjust the
height of the air springs with the turnbuckle on
the leveling valve connecting rods. It is
allowable to adjust the height of the front and
rear air springs to a range within 300 plus or
minus 5mm depending on the operating
condition of the vehicle.
Torque (radius) rod installation
▣ Inspection for air leaks
Check the joints in the entire air circuit by
applying soap water.
If air leakage is found and cannot be stopped
by retightening, disassemble and clean the
parts and reassemble them using new gasket.
Install the rubber bushing on the pin at the end
of the upper and lower torque rods.
Install the end plate on each end of the rod,
then install and semi-tighten the bolts or studs.
2.4.2. Rear suspension
Wash clean the parts, paying particular
attention to faces in contact with the rubber
bushings, to remove all traces of oil, then allow
to dry.
▣
▣ Stabilizer bar installation
Install the tubular rubber bushing on each end
299
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
of the stabilizer bar and connect the bar to the
beam support. Install the cap and bolts and
leave the bolts semi-tight. Connect the rod
assembly to the stabilizer bracket on the lower
face of the frame, then connect the arm with
the rod.
within the main tank to reach the specified
level, then check the joints of leaks by
applying soap water. When air leakage is found,
re-tight the joint. If the leakage cannot be
stopped, disconnect the joint and reconnect it
using a new gasket.
▣ Shock absorber installation
Compress the shock absorber and connect it to
the axle side bracket using the support rubbers
and washer. Then, connect the frame side and
fully tighten the nut by expanding the shock
absorber.
▣ With the pressure of air in the tank at normal
level, check that the height o the air springs is
within the standard value plus or minus 5mm
and variance in height between the springs is
within the limit of plus or minus 5mm. If the
height deviates from the specified range, adjust
with the turnbuckle on the leveling valve
connecting rod. Fully tighten the nut when a
correct adjustment is obtained.
▣
Diaphragm installation
1) Reassemble stoppers, end plates and piston
in the reverse order of disassembly.
2.5. Caution in inspection and servicing
2) Install the throttle valve and rubber seat on
the air spring, the connect the air spring to the
upper side flange. Connect the lower side of
piston to the diaphragm seat on the beam and
securely tighten the nut
▣ When inspecting and servicing the vehicle,
pay attention to keep oil from air spring. When
welding near air spring, always consider to
protect the air spring.
▣ When jacking up the vehicle rapidly leaving
axle beneath, the pressure in the air spring
decrease, and guard ring might get out of place.
After lowering the vehicle, make sure that the
guard ring is in the right position. ( Inspection
can be done by uncovering the protector)
Leveling valve installation and retightening
of torque rod bolts.
Adjust the vehicle height and axle center to
specification and install the leveling valve by
connecting the connecting rod to the bracket on
the beam. Loosen the bolts fixing the upper
and lower side torque rods just enough to
remove force acting on the rubber bushing
tighten the bolts. Install the leveling valve and
pipes on the intake and outlet sides properly to
prevent air leaks.
▣
▣ When parking vehicle for a long time, avoid
air spring being compressed by air discharging,
and keep it approximately normal height with
jack stands.
▣ Retightening of stabilizer bolts
Loosen the cap to remove force acting on the
stabilizer bar and rubber bushings, then fully
tighten the cap bolts.
▣ Propeller shaft installation
Connect the propeller shaft and fully tighten
the bolts on the yoke.
▣ Brake flexible hose installation
Connect the brake flexible hose to the3 way
joint tightly, then bleed the hydraulic circuit.
▣ Wheel installation
Install the wheels after checking to make
certain the axle is tightly supported.
▣ Inspection for air leaks
Start the engine and allow pressure of air
300
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
3. Servicing of leveling valve
As the pressure in the air bellows increase, the
chassis height is adjusted, and lever(f) causes
inlet valve(b) to close. In this position, ports 21
and 22 are connected to each other via a
transverse throttle.
3.1. General description
When the vehicle load is decreased, the reverse
process takes place. The vehicle chassis is now
raised by the excess pressure in the air
suspension bellows and lever (f) with eccentric
cam (e) and guide (d) are pulled down. This
causes the pin to be moved downwards from its
seat on inlet valve (b), permitting excess
pressure from the air bellows to escape to
atmosphere via drilling (c) and vent holes 3.
with this drop in pressure in the air bellows,
the chassis height is lowered and lever (f) is
returned to its normal horizontal position. As
drilling (c) is blocked by the pin resting on
inlet valve (b), the leveling valve is again in a
balanced position.
3.2. Operating principle
The vehicle body with is its leveling valve will
move down as the load on the body is
increased. The linkage between valve raises
both lever (f) and guide (d) via eccentric
cam(e).
As guide(d) moves up, it also lifts its pin, thus
opening inlet valve(b), allowing air from the
reservoir to flow through the valve via port 1
and check valve(a) into the air bellows which
are connected to ports 21 and 22. In order to
minimize air consumption, the outside of the
pin is machined in such a way that the passage
of air through the valve is regulated at two
levels depending on the deflection of lever(f).
301
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
3.3. EVELING VALVE MAIN DATA
Part number
3/2 Directional control valve
464 006 0002 0
464 006 100 0
Without
With
Operating pressure
Pe 13 bar max.
Dynamic bellows pressure
Pe 15 bar max.
Permissible medium
Air
-40℃ to ±80℃
Operating temperature range
Round lever Φ6㎜
Linkage
2 x Φ3㎜
Nominal width leveling valve
-
Φ6㎜
0.41㎏
0.51㎏
Nominal width height limiting valve
Weight
The rubber cap beneath the 3/2 –way valve is
to be removed for adjustment purposes and the
setting screw turned with a screwdriver Trox
T30: Turn it anticlockwise to reduce the
closing angle and clockwise to increase. One
full rotation is the equivalent of an angle of
approx. 13.
3.4. Installation requirements
The valve is mounted either vertically with the
exhaust port facing downwards, or horizontally.
It is fastened to the chassis by means of two
bolts M8.
To simplify the installation and the adjustment
of the lever and the connecting linkage, the
unit can be locked into its neutral position by
means of a spike Φ3h8 or a straight pin Φ3h8
x 24 DIN 7 (see dimensional installation
drawing).
The connecting linkage can be mounted with
the vehicle at its normal level. The air
suspension valve is to be fitted with maximum
lever length wherever possible.
FRU : Please pay attention to the service data
of vehicle manufacturer.
With the aide of the table it is possible to
determine the increase in the vehicle`s height
up to the point when the supply air to the
raise/lower valve is cut off, as a function of the
closing angle and the lever length.
Using the hexagon head screw located on the
mounting of the round lever, the adjusting
lever can be fixed at random at any length.
Depending on the space available, it it possible
to use any offset for the lever. Bhy fixing or
turning the lever through 180 the valve can
optionally be actuated on the left or the right.
Depending on tis final mounting position
vertical or horizontal the lever is pushed
through one of the two holes, offset by 90, on
the adjusting shaft.
The leveling valve … 100 is delivered with a
closing angle of 30.
Adjustment is possible between 15 –45. a
closing angle>15 is not allowed, because the
section is reduced and it can be closed.
302
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
Once the body has been lowered onto the bump
stops using the raise/lower valve the height of
the chassis should be measured. The chassis is
then raised using the raise/lower valve. If the
permissible overall travel of the spring is
reached before the air suspension height
limiting comes into effect the raising process is
to be stopped and the vehicle lowered.
Important :
By turning the setting screw on the stop valve
anticlockwise it is possible to reduce the
closing angel and thus the travel of the spring.
If the height limitation comes into effect before
the vehicle has reached the desired height the
vehicle should again be lowered. The setting
screw should be turned clockwise to increase
the closing angle and thus travel of the spring.
This procedure is to be repeated until the
desired travel of the spring ( equal to or smaller
than the maximum travel of the spring
specified by the axle manufacturer) is reached.
The setting screw is self-locking.
No special maintenance is necessary beyond
the tests required by law.
The transmission rods and air suspension
spring lever should not from a straight line
slince the linkage could invert and damage the
air suspension valve.
3.5. Maintenance:
303
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
LEVELING VALVE ASSEMBLY IN DISASSEMBLED VIEW
1.
Housing
10.
Retainer ring
19.
Clamping piece
2.
Lip seal
11.
Spring
20.
Ring
3.
V-ring
12.
Stem
21.
Connecting piece
4.
Felt ring
13.
Ring
22.
Filter
5.
Slide piece
14.
Thread bush
23.
Adjustment plate
6.
Shaft
15.
Felt washer
24.
Washer
7.
Screw
16.
Breather
25.
Screw
8.
Lip seal
17.
Valve
9.
washer
18.
spring
304
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
3.6. Inspection and service standards
3.6.1. Inspection and Service Standard Table
The table includes the inspection and service standards necessary to maintain proper operation the
leveling valves and air suspension assembly.
It is suggested that the leveling valve assembly be inspected and serviced by referring to the inspection
and service standard table.
Inspection interval
Inspection Items
Remark
Daily
Check for exhaust port to leveling valve
and air piping for air leakage
Drain air tanks
1
4
24
48
O
O
Drain leveling valve
O
Clean air cleaner of air compressor
Clean filter on exhaust port
O
Lubricate sliding faces
O
Adjust stabilized range
O
Replace rubber parts
…..Refer to Owner`s and Driver`s Manual
2~3cc.
O
1…………..
4…………..
24………….
48………….
305
Every week or 1,000km
Every month of 4,000km
Every 6 months or 24,000km
Every year or 48,000km
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
3.6.2. Leveling Valve Inspection Procedure
Inspection of the leveling valve should be performed as listed below:
Inspection with leveling valve installed on vehicle
Inspection items
1. Inspection of pipe line
2. Inspection of intake valve
3. Inspection of discharging valve
Inspection procedure
Check the joint, weld portions and
kinked portions of the pipe lines in
the air suspension system for leaks
visually and by using soap water.
Disconnect intake side joint to air
spring and hold main tank under
specified pressure. Hold the lever in
neutral position and check for leaks
at intake hold using soap water
Hold pressure of air in air spring at
specified level. Hold the lever in
neutral position and check air spring
for leaks at discharge port using
soap water
Hold pressure of air in air spring at
specified level and disconnect the
main tank side joint. Raise the lever
4. Inspection of check valve
to hold intake valve in open state
and check the joint to the main tank
for leaks using soap water.
Lower the lever to open discharge
5. Inspection of filter in discharge valve and examine state of
port
discharge of air to check for
restrictions in discharge port.
Hold pressure of air in main tank
and air springs at specified level.
6. Inspection of stabilized point Operate the lever slowly and
(also check for play and looseness measure the stroke of the lever from
in parts)
intake valve opening point to
discharge valve opening points, at
the scale on the end of the lever.
grease the sliding faces of the parts
and check that grease is not exuded
from the discharge port as use of
excess amount of grease may cause
7. Other inspection
plugging of discharge port.
Check the entire parts visually for
damage
306
Correction
Correct or replace defective parts.
When air spring is found to be
leaking, the trouble could be due to
defective valve seal or seat.
Disassemble and check for presence
of foreign matter and clean or
replace parts as necessary. Replace
with a new one as necessary.
When discharge valve is found to be
leaking, wash clean discharge valve
assembly, then check for cause of
leakage and replace the parts as
necessary. Check the diaphragm for
damage and replace with a new one
as necessary . also check O ring at
joint for damage and replace as
necessary.
If leakage is found, the trouble
could be due to presence of foreign
matter or to defective valve seal or
valve seat. Disassemble the check
valve assembly and replace the
parts as needed.
If restrictions are noticeable, wash
clean the filter.
It the lever stroke deviates from the
standard valve, make an adjustment
with the adjusters. Adjustment is
necessary when lever travel is
excess of 16mm.
If a considerable amount of grease
is exuded, remove the end cover and
wiper clean the interior to remove
all traces of grease.
If the parts are found to be damaged
in contact with stones, etc. or if the
connecting rod bushings have a
play, replace the parts.
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
to interrupt flow of air between the split
sections and thus maintaining the main air
brake system in normal function in the event of
a leakage in the latter circuit. Due to action of
the air valve, the circuit on the air tank side is
filled first as the entire air circuit is under low
pressure conditions and valve begins to open
when the pressure of air reaches 4.2kg/㎠,
allowing both circuits to be filled at a time.
(as the air valve is opened, pressure of air in
the air tank side lowers from 4.2kg/㎠ to
3.8kg/㎠ and both circuits are filled at a time
when the pressure of air at each side of the air
valve becomes equalized.
4. Servicing of valve
4.1. General description
The air circuit of model Bh115 is split into two
independent sections by means of the air valve
(refer to the piping diagram)
one section of the air circuit includes the air
compressor, air tanks, main air brake circuit,
etc and the other section is for supplying air to
the air suspension system, clutch minipack,
door engine, exhaust brake system, etc. the
valve remains open when the pressure of air at
each side of the valve is higher than the
specified level but when the pressure becomes
lower than the specified level, the valve closes
307
9B. Suspension (Air Spring)
4.2. Disassembly
Clean the exterior of the air valve to remove
dust, dirt or grit.
▣
▣ Loosen the nut ⑦ and adjust screw ⑤ to
release tension of the spring ⑥.
▣ Loosen the 4 bolts evenly in progression and
remove them and take out the cover ④, so that
diaphragm assembly ② and spring seat ③
can be removed.
If a considerable amount of air leaks from
around the seat after reassembly and
adjustment, remove and wash clean the
diaphragm carefully.
If the seat contact is abnormal or the seat is
scored, lapping is necessary.
The diaphragm assembly should be replaced
with a new one if the amount of scores is
beyond correction.
To make an adjustment on the air valve,
proceed as follows:
Release compressed air in the air spring side
completely and adjust setting of the screw, so
that the valve begins to open when the pressure
of air in the air tank reaches 4.2kg/㎠.
When adjustment is completed, tighten the nut
and recheck operation of the valve.
▣
4.4. Inspection
Apply compressed air of 4.2kg/㎠ to A side
and check that the valve opens. Submerge the
air valve assembly in kerosene with B side
plugged, then apply compressed air of 10kg/㎠
into the air valve from the A side and check for
air bubbles. Using a measuring cylinder, check
the amount of air leaking at the B side by
applying compressed air of 3.5kg/㎠ into the
valve from A side.
(Amount of leakage should be less than
25cc/min.)
similarly, measure the amount of leakage at A
side by applying compressed air of 5.0kg/㎠
into the air valve from B side.
(Amount of leakage should be less than
25cc/min.)
4.3. Adjustment
▣ The air valve actuating pressure diagram is
as shown below.
308
SECTION 10
WHEEL AND TIRE
CONTENTS
PAGE
1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION
1.1.
MAIN DATA AND SPECIFICATIONS
311
1.2.
CONSTRUCTION
311
1.3.
TUNELESS TIRE
314
1.4.
SNOW TIRE AND SNOW SPIKE TIRE
315
1.5.
TIRE PERFORMANCE
315
2. SERVICING AND MAINTENANCE
2.1.
DISASSEMBLY
318
2.2.
INSPECTION
318
2.3.
REASSEMBLY
319
2.4.
TIRE ROTATION
320
2.5.
TIRE INSTALLATION PERFORMANCES
320
2.6.
FRONT WHEEL BALANCING
321
2.7.
TIRE WEAR
322
3. ABNORMAL TIRE TREAD WEAR AND MAJOR CAUSES
309
325
10. Wheel and Tire
Ply rating
1. General description
▣
The road wheel assembly consists of tire and disc
wheel assembly which plays an important role of
supporting the weight of vehicle and road as it
rolls.
The term “ply” refers to number of carcass cord of
the tire structure and in the past, number of layers
of cotton cord is used to represent the tire strength.
However, with the development of advanced tire
cord, the term “ply rating” is used to represent the
tire strength. Higher number of ply rating
indicates that higher inflation pressure can be used
in the tire.
In other words, tire higher inflation pressure can
be made to greater load with safety.
Major Function of Tire
Load characteristics to support load
Traction and braking force to carry engine
torque and brake force to road.
▣ Riding comfort to absorb shocks from road.
▣ Steering characteristics and directional stability
to permit changing direction.
▣
▣
Tire Designation
In general, tire sizes are represented using various
codes which indicate tire width, rim diameter and
ply rating.
The following is the typical code used:
▣
Numeric
10.00
-
20 -
16PR
Ply rating
Nominal rim diameter
in inches (b)
Nominal section
width in inches (a)
310
10. Wheel and Tire
1.1. Main data and specification
Distinction
Size (FRT/RR)
Tire
BM
090
BF
105
BS
106
BH
115E
BH
115
BH
115
BH
116
1046 ~ 1076
Max. width (mm)
293/274
Tire inflation
pressure (psi)
11R-22.5-16PR : 115 ~ 120
Air valve type
10.00-20-16PR : 95 ~ 100
size
7.00T x 20
1.2. Construction
311
BH
120
11R-22.5-16PR
10.00-20-16PR
10.00-20-16PR
Outer Dia.(mm)
Disc
Wheel
BH
117
8.25 x 22.5 / 7.00T x 20
10. Wheel and Tire
The tire assembly is composed of inner tube, air
valve, flap and tire.
It is important to use inner tube selected according
to the size of the tire. To permit installation or
removal of air into or from the inner tube, and air
valve is provided on the inner tube.
A flap is used to seal air valve hole in the rim and
to protect inner tube against damage in contact
with tire bead.
It is strongly advisable to use the flap that fits
properly to the rim and tire bead.
The disc wheel assembly consists of pressed steel
disc to which rim to welded.
Bead section
The tire beads include high tensile carbon steel
wires bundled together to support the ends of
carcass cord and to secure the tire to rim of the
wheel.
Generally, a slight interference is provided
between the beads and rim of the wheel, so that
beads can be fitted tightly into the rim when the
tire is inflated.
▣
Breaker section
The breaker is bias design and serves to protect
the carcass cord against shock load and to prevent
disintegration of tread and carcass.
▣
1.2.1. Tread section
1.2.2. Tread Patterns
Tread patterns of various designs are used for
following purposes.
▣
1) To prevent skidding and side slippage of tires.
2) To facilitate dissipation of heat generated
within the tire.
3) To prevent cuts or other damage to the tread
from spreading.
4) To provide a positive traction or steering ability
depending on vehicle models and types of service
intended.
The tire consists principally of sections which
include tread, carcass, breaker or belt and beads.
The tread section can be split into tread shoulder
section and side walls both of which have
different functions.
The tread patterns can be classified broadly into
rib type, lug type and block type but for practical
applications, these basic patterns are combined in
various forms to provide special characteristics
desired.
▣
Tread section
The term “tread” represents the outer layer of tire
used to protect the carcass cord against wear
damage.
The tread section has on its face a tread pattern
carefully designed to drain water on wet surface
as well as to present tire slippage when a hard
traction or braking force is applied.
▣
Carcass section
The carcass section is made rugged to withstand
load on the tire, stocks from the road and inflation
pressure.
On bias tires, the carcass cord is belted diagonally
across the beads and on radial tires, the carcass
cord is belted radically across the beads.
▣
312
10. Wheel and Tire
1) Rib design
Block design has independent blocks on the tread
face.
The tread with longitudinal grooves cut along the
outer circumference of the tread face is called rib
design.
Features :
Feature:
1. Excellent in traction and braking force
2. Insures excellent mobility in snow and mud
1. Low in rolling resistance
2. Excellent in riding comfort
3. Excellent in steering stability with reduced
possibility of side slippage.
4. Low in tire noise
4) Combined rib / lug design
2) Lug design
This design combines the features of rib and lug
designs.
Features:
Tire tread with transverse grooves cut across the
tread face is called lug design.
1. Ribs at center of tread insure running
stability and prevent side slippage.
2. Lugs at shoulders of tread provide excellent
traction and brake force.
Features :
1. Provide better traction and broken and brake
force.
2. Provide better traction on rough surfaces.
3) Block design
313
10. Wheel and Tire
1.2.3. Classification
▣
Radial tires
Carcass cord arrangement is equal to that of bias
design but belts are placed over the carcass cord
to combine the advantages of radial and bias
designs.
Carcass cords are radially arranged with belt laid
in longitudinal direction to increase tread rigidity.
1. The road performance of belted bias design
tires is intermediate between radial and bias
design tire performance.
Features :
1. High in resistance to wear
2. Less in heat generation
3. Excellent in running stability
4. Low in rolling resistance an excellent in
high speed durability
5. Excellent in brake action
▣
1.3. Tubeless tire
Bias design
Both the tubeless tire and the rim should have
excellent air retentivity as air is retained between
the tire and rim without the aid of any sealer.
Both the rayon and nylon that are used in the
manufacture of the conventional pneumatic tire as
the cord material are permeable to air while the
rubble protecting the cord is also permeable to air
therefore, if the conventional using the inner tube,
ply separation or tread separation will result. To
prevent this, the inner face of the tubeless tire is
lined with butyl rubber sheet which is equivalent
to the inner tube.
▣
Carcass cords are belted across the tire alternately
and guarded with breaker.
Features :
1. Excellent in general performance
2. Excellent in riding comfort
▣
The tire bead is generally protected with the
chafer consisting of a thick textile coated with a
rubber is not adequate for use in the tubeless tire
because it is not sufficiently high in resistance to
▣
Belted bias design
314
10. Wheel and Tire
air.
For this reason, a thick textile made up of
fishing gut which is less permeable to air, or an
ordinary thick textile chemically treated to
improve impermeability to air is used as the base
material and is coated with rubber sheet to form a
chafer. The chafer is bonded to the bead not only
to improve air rententivity but also to protect the
bead against damage resulting from careless
installation or removal of the tire to or form being
exposed even if the bead is damaged.
To improve sealing between the tire bead and rim,
the tubeless tires are made smaller in diameter
with respect to the rim.
Some of the tubeless tires have their bead ridged
to improved air retentivity.
▣
On ice or frozen surface, the snow tires fail to
provide a sufficient traction an snow spike tires
have been developed to meet the demands. Spikes
are driven into the tire tread far enough to keep
their ends projected beyond the tread face, so that
they work into ice to provide a traction or braking
force.
Limit of performance of snow and snow spike
tires
The snow and snow that of the conventional tires,
to provide a sufficient traction on ice.
However, traction provided tends to decline as
wear in the tread advances and to indicate the tire
service life or limit, platforms wear indicator ) are
provided in the tread grooves that appears as the
tread wear becomes 50 percent.
1.4. Snow tire and snow spike tire
▣
Principles of snow tires
1.5. Tire performance
1.5.1. Tire wear
The rate of tire varies depending on tire materials.
However, the rate is known to increase with the
amount of slippage that occurs in area of thread in
contact with the road surface and with the force
acting horizontally over the contact face.
Tire wear is under the influence of the following
factors.
The snow tire has deep grooves in the tread which
work into compress it with the load on the tire.
Snow becomes compressed in direction of motion
when the tire is provided with a traction.
The snow tire utilizes these combined action to
kick caked snow which tends to resist this action.
This resistance is called shear resistance of snow
which is utilized by the snow tire in combination
with scraping action of the tread edges, to obtain a
traction.
▣
Inflation pressure
The lower the inflation pressure, the greater
becomes the rate of slippage of tread face and rate
of wear.
▣
Load
And increase in the tire load causes to increase the
rate of flexing of tire, contact area, slippage of
tread on road surface and tangential force acting
on the face of the tread in contact with the load
surface, accelerating tire tread wear.
▣
Snow spike tire
315
10. Wheel and Tire
Speed
Tangential force acting the tires through traction,
braking while the vehicle is in motion increases in
proportion to speed squared.
In addition, tire temperature increases with an
increase in the speed, causing wear resistance of
tread rubber to deteriorate.
▣
Cornering
When cornering, the vehicle is subjected to
centrifugal force in proportion to the speed
squared and to reciprocal of the radius of the
curvature.
To combat the centrifugal force, tires slip and
tread deforms to produce a centripetal force which
permits cornering when balanced with the
centrifugal force.
The affect of cornering over the rate of tire wear is
great and the rate of tire tread wear I great and the
rate o tire tread wear is known to increase in
proportion to the tire slippage angle squared.
▣
It is advantageous to use synthetic rubber tires in
areas where variations in temperatures are high in
rate because the affect of temperature over (SBR)
is less than that of the natural rubber tires (NR).
Advantages of higher wear resistance of synthetic
rubber tires over natural rubber tires become more
pronounced when the
temperature exceeds 16℃.
1.5.2. Heat Generation
Brake performance
As the relations between braking and rate of wear
are diagrammatically represented, the greater the
vehicle speed, the greater becomes the slippage
and braking force acting on road contact face of
the tire tread, to absorb the energy in proportion to
the vehicle speed squared, causing the rate of tire
tread wear to increase.
▣
▣
Severe flexing takes place at road contacting face
of the tires, and energy that tire cords, tread rubber,
etc. receive in the form of hysteresis loss, friction,
etc. is converted into heat which causes the tire
temperature to increase.
Since the tire rubber, tread rubber, etc. are poor
conductor of heat, heat generated tends to build up
with in the tire and causes the tire temperature to
increase util a balance is obtained between heat
generated tends to balance with the rate of heat
dissipation with in 1 to 2 hours of continuous
driving and causes the tires to reach maximum
temperature.
Road condition
Tire inflation pressure
The tire generates heat through flexing of side
walls and tread section in contact with the road
surface, and flexing action becomes more violent
as the inflation pressure further.
▣
▣
Temperature
Load
The rate of flexing of tire increases with the tire
load and causes the tire temperature to increase.
▣
Speed
Rotating speed of tires increase with the vehicle
▣
316
10. Wheel and Tire
speed and resulting increase in the number of
impact of the tire tread with irregularities on the
road surface causes more heat to be generated.
Tread depth
Reduction in the tread depth will cause tire
temperature to lower due to reduced rate of
hysteresis loss and increased rate of heat
dissipation. This means that most heat is
generated when tire is new.
▣
Tire construction
When compared with bias tires, radial tier is lower
in rate of heat generation. The radial tire is lower
in rate of flexing of tread section and is therefore
lower in rate of hysteresis loss.
▣
317
10. Wheel and Tire
2. Servicing and maintenance
Road Wheel Assembly In Disassembled View (Rear)
1. Tire A
4. Bracket-Wheel cap FRT
7. Wheel cap-FRT
2. Disk wheel A-7.00T, 20
5. Wheel cap-RR
8. Bracket-Wheel cap FRT
3. Wheel Cap-FRT
6. Bracket-Wheel cap RR
2.1. Disassembly
Insert pry bars alternately into position between
the rim and flap. Disengage tire bead from the
disc wheel.
▣
▣ Deflate tire by removing core from the air
valve.
Mark setting position of the air valve on the tire.
Remove the inner tube from the tire using care
not to scratch the inner tube.
▣
2.2. Inspection
2.2.1. Tire Assembly
Check tires for abnormal wear, broken cords,
deterioration in material and bead damage.
Check inside of tires for damage and presence of
foreign matter.
▣
Check tire tread for stones, nails and other
foreign matter.
▣
▣ Disengage tire bead from the rim using a tire
changer.
Insert a pair of pry bars ( approximately 20mm
in width ) alternately into grooves in the side ring
and remove the side ring.
▣
318
10. Wheel and Tire
Check inner tube for swelling, deformation and
deterioration in material.
Check air valve and valve seat for damage.
Check the rim for distortion and disc wheel for
run-out in the following manner: Mount the disc
wheel to the hub and turn the wheel slowly with
the probe of a dial indicator or surface gauge
resting on the wheel.
▣
▣
Unit : ㎜
Standard value
for assembly
Limit for use
Disc wheel run out
( vertical and from side
3.0 or less
5.0 or less
to side )
2.3. Reassembly
Check tires for run-out using a surface gauge. If
a considerable amount of run-out is noticeable,
check disc wheel for distortion an correct as
necessary.
▣
2.3.1. Tube Tire
Insert the inner tube into the tire.
To facilitate smooth installation of inner tube into
the tire, inflate the inner tube slightly and apply
small amount of glycerine, silicone powder or talc
power to the inner tube and inner face of the tire.
▣
2.2.2. Disc Wheel
Check the rim, flange and base for corrosion
and deposit of rubber and other foreign matter. If
corrosion is noticeable , clean with a wire brush or
sand paper.
▣
Install the flap paying attention to the position
of air valve.
▣
Fit tire to the disc wheel by aligning air valve
on the inner tube with the air valve fitting hole in
the disc wheel. Set the air valve into the hole in
the rim using a pry bar.
▣
Check condition of welding on rim and disc.
Check wheel pin holes for wear and cracking.
Replace the disc wheel if any abnormal condition
is noticeable.
▣
Install the side ring into position using a pry bar
and hammer.]
▣
Inflate the inner tube to a certain extent an
check that tire bead is in good contact with the
side ring, then inflate the tire to specified pressure.
▣
▣
319
Check tire for air leakage.
Install valve cap.
10. Wheel and Tire
2.5.1. Single Tire
2.3.2. Tubeless Tire
When installing the wheel pin nuts, clean
threads with a wire brush and lubricate with oil.
▣
Assemble the air valve for tubeless tire with the
rim hole.
▣
Tighten the wheel pin nuts to specified torque
only and avoid over-tightening.
▣
Clean the rim bead seat with dry clothes on
which tire bead is mounted.
▣
On double tires, install the air valve on the
inner and outer tires in position opposed to each
other for convenience of inflation pressure
adjustment.
▣
Apply grease on the former tire bead an the
upper bead seat of rim.
▣
Fit the former tire bead on the upper rim an let
vise-grip plier play a role of anchor by jawing a
rim flange.
▣
Nut torque
:
45 ~50kg-m
It is advisable to use new tires to on the front
side and to transfer them to the rear when 1/3 of
their estimated service life is covered.
▣
Start to fit the latter tire bead to the upper rim
using a lever and make use of another lever in
case of need.
▣
2.5.2. Double
Complete the tire assembling work by applying
grease on about 150mm length of tire bead which
can not be fitted easily.
▣
2.4. Tire rotation
Condition of tire tread wear varies depending on
the position of the tire on the vehicle, and rear
tires normally receive even wear as they are
subject to traction power and braking force
alternately.
However, front tires tend to receive uneven wear
as they are under a direct influence of the
suspension system, steering system and front end
alignment while being subjected only to braking
force.
To even out tire wear, it is strongly advisable to
rotate tired as illustrated below.
The amount of offset of disc wheels is carefully
determined to prevent direct contact between the
tire side walls and to permit installation of tire
chains.
The use of disc wheels with insufficient amount of
offset or under-inflation could cause direct side
wall to side wall contact.
▣
On double tires, it is important to use the outer
and inner tires of a size, ply rating and materialfor if tires of different sizes are installed, larger
tires are made to carry heavier load. The use of
nylon and rayon tires in combination and tires of
different makes and design is not desirable.
If the use of different size tires is unavoidable,
install larger size tire on the outer position.
▣
2.5. Tire installation precautions
320
10. Wheel and Tire
weight (clay or equivalent) in position on the
outer edge og the disc wheel directly opposite the
heavy side of the wheel. To determine whether or
not the wheel is balanced, rotate th wheel to bring
the heavy spot in horizontal position in line with
the center of wheel and see if the wheel tends to
rotate by the effect of heavy spot. If the wheel
remains stopped, it indicates that the wheel is
balanced.
Now, install a balance weight equivalent in weight
to the dummy weight on the side ring.
2.6. Front wheel balancing
Due to continuous development of surface traffic,
chances have increased not only for cars and
medium-sized trucks but also for heavy duty
vehicles to drive continuously at high speed.
High-speed driving may be accompanied by
unique phenomena such a steering shimmy,
pitching, etc. which are not experienced through
driving at low an medium speed, and need has
arisen for balancing front wheels in order to
minimize these troubles.
However, most tire balancing on the market are
designed for small and medium size tires, and
those for large size tires are very limited in
number and costly, and are generally too large in
scale for general applications.
The following section introduces simple methods
of statically balancing large size tires so as to
minimize adverse effect of tire unbalance on the
vehicle.
This method is useful to balance the wheels to
an extent to minimize adverse effect of wheel
unbalance on the vehicle.
Take a 10.00-20-14PR tire for instance, unbalance
of 13 cm-kg or more ( this is equivalent to a
balance weight of 450 kg on the side ring. ) will
result in steering shimmy or pitching at 60 km/h
or higher speed. However, the amount of
unbalance could be held within 3 kg-cm when the
wheel is balanced in the above-mentioned manner.
( maximum unbalance of 3 cm-kg could not be
detected through this test because of resistance in
the hub bearings and oil seals).
▣
2.6.1. Balancing of front wheel on vehicle
Prior to balancing tires, drive the vehicle for 510 km or more in winter. ( This is necessary to run
in hub bearings, to remove flat spots and to heat
bearing grease.). Jack up the front axle and loosen
the bearing nut just enough, so that the wheel
begins to rotate before the reading of pull scale
becomes 300g when checked by pulling the wheel
pin with a pull scale in tangential direction of
rotation.
▣
2.6.2. Balancing of Front Wheel With A Jig
Note. Do not loosen bearing nut beyond need, or
effort required it turn the wheel will increase. Pull
test should be repeated at least three times with
pull scale hooked to different wheel pins.
Start the engine and turn the wheel 2-3 turns an
release hand. Wait until the wheel comes to stop
to locate heavy stop.
Repeat the test at least three times and mark
bottom position on tire each time the wheel comes
to a complete stop. Compare the marks to obtain
averaged heavy spot.
▣
The balancing jig has a dummy knuckle spindle
as shown by A and is so designed that the wheel
to be checked can be mounted on the jig together
with the hub bearings.
As the wheel assembly is supported on the actual
knuckle spindle via the hub bearings B resistance
of bearing grease and oil seals cannot be
▣
Note. Keep the engine running at idle while
making a test as engine vibrations are used to
locate heavy spot on the wheel.
▣
When heavy spot is determined, install counter
321
10. Wheel and Tire
disregarded at the time of wheel balancing.
However, on the jig, the wheel is supported by the
bearings C, so that rolling resistance is very small
and may be disregarded.
For this reason, the amount of static unbalance
of wheels (10.00-20-14PR) could be held as small
as to 1.3 kg-cm when the wheels are checked and
balanced using this jig. Balancing of wheels is
useful not only to minimize steering but also to
prolong service life of the tires. If is, therefore,
recommended that wheels be balanced when
rotating tires.
▣
1) Excessive amount of toe-in will cause
excessive wear on the inner edge of the tread.
2.7. Tire wear
Abnormal tire tread wear may be considered as
sickness assuming normal tire tread wear to be as
fatal.
Even though abnormal tire tread wear does not
always indicate critical conditions, it will
adversely affect the service life of the tire if the
tire used without removing the cause of trouble.
Cause of abnormal wear is generally indicated by
the type if wear developed on the tire tread.
Detection of abnormal wear and correction of
trouble in the early part of the tire service life is
important to obtain longest service life from the
tires.
The following paragraphs outline various types of
abnormal tire tread wear and possible causes.
2) Excessive toe-out will cause excessive wear on
the outer edge of the tread.
2.7.1. Toe-in and Camber
Toe-in and camber angles are carefully
determined, so that front tires indicate side slip
angles, they will continuously receive a sided
force while driving and causes one sided tread
wear and premeature wear.
If the front tires have a tendency of premature
wear, it is wise to check toe-in and camber angles.
▣
3) Excessive camber will cause of the tread.
Toe-in and Camber wear
4) The same condition will result from bent front
axle.
322
10. Wheel and Tire
▣
Side force
Over-inflation causes excessive wear at center
of tread.
▣
The influence of side force on tire tread wear is
well demonstrated at the circles. Making right or
left turns continuously will cause the tires to
receive a side force in one direction producting
feather-edging of ribs on the tread. As apparent
from the drawing, the condition of tread wear
indicates the type of force the tire has received,
showing condition of under-chassis parts and how
the vehicle has been operated.
▣
2.7.3. Out of Balance
Spotty wear on the tire tread could be due to
out of balance or run-out of rotating parts such as
tire, rim, hub, etc.
▣
When driving at high speeds, out-of-balance or
heavy spot on the wheel promotes centrifugal
force and causes wheel tramp or shimmy thereby
accelerating abnormal thread wear.
▣
2.7.2. Under-inflation
Tires are designed and constructed to provide
satisfactory performance when inflated to
recommend pressure and use of tires under
improperly inflated conditions will result in
abnormal wear.
Run-out, out-if-balance or looseness of parts
causes spotty wear.
▣
▣
Particularly, under-inflation promotes flexing
of tire side walls and slipping og tread over rolling
surface, accelerating wear on shoulders.
▣
Once the tire receives abnormal wear resulting
vibrations promote abnormal wear and lead to
early failure of tire tread.
When the tire gives a sign of abnormal wear, it is
wise to check the wheel for run-out and out-ofbalance. Rotating tires is one way to even out
tread wear before abnormal wear develops into
serious trouble. It is recommend to balance the
wheels before driving at high speeds.
▣
▣ Under-inflation causes excessive wear at
shoulders.
2.7.4. Play and Looseness
Looseness in wheel spindles, kingpins or other
steering parts may cause wheel tramp producing
323
10. Wheel and Tire
spotty wear on the tire tread.
If such a condition exists, jack up the front end of
the vehicle and check the wheels for run-out and
looseness. Spotty wear could also result from
dragging brake or out-of-round brake drum which
causes abnormal contact between the drum and
linings.
piece of broken glass and nail on roads is called
cut damaging.
The cut damaging occurs on tread, side wall and
portion where a tire chain used on a snowy comes
into contact, sometimes, this damaging is not
limited on the rubber portion if a tire but also it is
resulted in a burst.
2.7.5. Cornering Wear and Braking Wear
▣
Crack
Crack occurred on the rubber portion of a tire.
Crack may grow, adversely affecting the carcass
and cause the cord to be cut. As the major cracks,
there are ozone cracks, and the portion where a
crack occurs differs depending on the cause.
Quick stopping or hard cornering
accompanying squeal of tires is a great enemy of
tires as the screaming is a result of skidding of
tires, including that the tire tread is wearing
rapidly as if being cut with a file. And in an
extreme case a heavy spotty wear has occurred
after a single braking as a result of hard stopping
on a high way.
Once the tire receives spotty wear, the tendency of
localized wear becomes more pronounced, unless
corrective action is taken, showing how the
vehicle has been operated.
2.7.6. Phenomena and Tire Damages
Separation
The breaker or carcass is separated from the tread
rubber, the breaker is separated from other
breakers, or the carcass is separated from other
breaking-up.
▣
Carcass breaking-up
A carcass cord is broken due to a fatigue. In a
serious case, the cord is broken toward the entire
circumference of the tire or a burst occurs. This
damaging occurs mainly in the range from the
shoulder and bead.
▣
Cut
A damaging of the due to foreign matters such as
▣
324
10. Wheel and Tire
3. Abnormal tire tread wear and major causes
Type of wear
Cause (Points to be checked)
Spotty wear
1. Check tires and wheels for run-out
2. Check hubs and spindles for run-out and
bending.
3. Check bearing and kingpins for play.
4. Check rotating parts for out of balance.
Excessive flat spots
Change tire into
polygonal shape
gradually
Excessive wear one sided
on tread
1. Check rotating parts for out-of-balance
2. Check tires and wheels for run-ou
3. Check hubs and spindles for run-out and
bending.
Excessive wear on sided
on tread
1. This condition is caused by hard.
braking or abrupt starting(Once the tire
receives spotty wear, the affected area tends to
develop into premature wear.)
2. When a piece of canvas is installed within
tire.
Excessive wear at shoulder
( in most cases, excessive
wear occurs at outer
shoulder of tread.)
1. Check camber and toe-in for out of
adjustment.
2. Excessive wear caused by hard-cornering.
Excessive wear at
shoulders opposed to
each other
1. Check tire and wheel for run-out
2. Check hub bearings and kingpin for play.
Shoulder wear
(Excessive wear
at shoulders)
1. This condition is caused by overloading
or underinflation.
325
10. Wheel and Tire
Type of wear
Cause (Points to be checked)
Feather-edging
( on rib tires. Feather-like
edges appear on one side of
ribs.)
1. This condition is caused by talking curves
at excessively high speeds.
2. Toe-in or camber out of alignment.
1. Feather-edging is liable to occur on lug
tires when they are used on the front side as
they are subject only to braking force.
Feather-edging ( on lug tires.
Feather-like edges appear on
one side of treads)
2. When used on the rear side, lug tires generally
receive ever wear as they are subject
alternately to traction power and braking force.
3. It is strong advisable to rotate lug tires
periodically in order to even out tread wear as
they are sensitive and type of wear that they
receive varies greatly depending on position of
installation on the vehicle.
326
Head Office : 188-9, JEONPO-DONG, BUSANJIN-GU
BUSAN, 614-739 KOREA
http://www.daewoobus.com
e-mail : [email protected]
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