Champion Officials Group 3-Man Football Mechanics Manual

Champion Officials Group 3-Man Football Mechanics Manual

Champion Officials Group

3-Man Football Mechanics Manual

August 2006

© 2006 Champion Officials Group. All Rights Reserved

Table of Contents

PAGE

Chapter 1: Pre-Game Responsibilities ................................................................................................................... 3

Chapter 2: Coin Toss, Second Half Options, Overtime Procedures ...................................................................... 4

Chapter 3: Free Kicks ............................................................................................................................................ 5

Chapter 4: Point After Touchdown and Field Goal Try ........................................................................................ 7

Chapter 5: Basic Scrimmage Down Areas of Responsibility ................................................................................ 8

Chapter 6: Basic Pass Coverage Areas of Responsibility.................................................................................... 10

Chapter 7: Scrimmage Kicks ............................................................................................................................... 11

Chapter 8: Basic Goal Line Responsibilities ....................................................................................................... 13

Chapter 9: Time Outs........................................................................................................................................... 14

Chapter 10: Measurements ................................................................................................................................. 15

Chapter 11: Procedures for Calling Fouls............................................................................................................ 16

Chapter 12: End of Periods .................................................................................................................................. 18

Chapter 13: Bean Bag Mechanics........................................................................................................................ 19

Chapter 14: Chain Crew Procedures.................................................................................................................... 20

Chapter 15: Written Records ................................................................................................................................ 21

Appendix 1: Diagrams .......................................................................................................................................... 22

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Chapter 1: Pre-Game Responsibilities

ALL:

R & LJ:

Arrive on the field 20 minutes prior to scheduled start as a unit. Go to bench on press box side and then disperse for pregame duties.

Note location of press box, team areas and benches. Check identities of team doctors and trainers.

R & LJ:

Inspect entire field. Observe any unusual markings or serious irregularities and advise other officials. Take measures to remedy or remove any hazardous obstructions within or near boundary lines, requesting assistance from home team and from other officials as necessary.

Ensure the yard markers are 2 yards off the side line.

Go to home team coach first. Referee introduces himself and Line Judge, and does all the talking. Referee should:

1. Certify coach

2. Confirm starting time

3. Ask if any special circumstances surround game (i.e. homecoming)

4. Get captain’s numbers (note who will be the speaking captain)

5. Ask for any special or unusual plays

6. Ask if there are any injured or specially equipped players that need to be checked and approved.

7. Repeat process with visiting team’s head coach, advising him of any special circumstances surrounding game.

8. Get medical note from the coach if required.

9. Line Judge will spot check player equipment, bandages, tapes, etc. Report deficiencies to the head coach and have trainer(if available) make any needed corrections.

NOTE: When working youth games, it is acceptable to speak and certify to both coaches at the same time.

L:

Organize your chain crewmembers; have them ready with all equipment on the sideline opposite the press box. An auxiliary box and line to gain indicator(s) may be used on the press box side. The auxiliary box and line to gain indicator(s) if used will be under supervision of the LJ. Remain on the same side throughout the game. Check the chain for kinks, knots and weak spots. Check chain against 10-yard measure on the field. Check chain for tape marker at mid-point.

CHAIN CREW INSTRUCTIONS:

Set down marker, rods and clip where indicated by you. Position ground markers adjacent to sideline. Box man places down marker on sideline where indicated. Chains are then set six feet off the sideline and clip attached (by box man) on side of yard line closest to rear chain rod. Emphasize that your “assistants” should move only at your direction and to step lively when a move is indicated. NOTE: Be prepared to give complete and thorough instructions to the chain crew if a different line to gain device is to be used in the game.

See that the chain is taut and unkinked at all times.

Make no remarks to players or express opinions concerning any ruling.

Never move down markers, chains or change the number of the down unless so directed by you. The Linesman will check with the Referee.

Remove themselves and all equipment outside the limit line for free kicks.

Lay chains down and only the down marker is to be used when there is a first down inside the ten-yard line.

At least one member to be back behind the goal post on any kick for points.

Remain neutral and follow instructions at all times.

ALL:

Discuss any particular plays or situations that need to be covered.

Review coverage in different situations and types of plays particularly free and scrimmage kicks.

Wing officials should discuss what signals they will use in communicating with each other.

Review coin-toss mechanics.

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Chapter 2: Coin Toss, Second Half Options, Overtime Procedures

Coin Toss:

The Referee and Line Judge will locate the captains, introduce themselves to the captains, gather around the 50 yard line and prepare to take them to the center of the field.

On signal from the Referee, the Line Judge and the Referee will escort the Captains to the center of the field. The captains should be shoulder to shoulder and situated so the talking captains will be positioned so that they will be next to the Referee when in the center of the field. The captains will face each other’s sideline when administering the coin toss. The Referee's back will be to a goal line.

The Referee's back should be to a goal line. The Line Judge will face the Referee. The Referee will instruct the captains to introduce themselves to each other. The Referee will introduce himself and the Line Judge to the captains.

Ask the captains to shake hands.

Announce that the visiting team will call heads or tails prior to the flip. Once the captain has made his call, the Referee & Line

Judge will repeat the call to each other and the Referee will flip the coin and announce the winner. Explain to the winning team their options. If the winning team defers their choice to the 2 nd

half, immediately signal to the press box that the winner of the

• toss has deferred (tap winning captain’s shoulder, then use the”no good/incomplete” signal). Continue with remaining options.

Once all options have been decided, have captains face the appropriate goal line (In some cases this will require no movement of the captains). Signal to the press box, which team will receive the ball. Ask captains to shake hands and advise them to be ready to start in 1 minute. (This entire process should take no longer than 1:30)

The Line Judge will secure the ball that the kicking team will use to start the game.

The Linesman will remain at the sideline. After it has been determined which direction the receiving team will line up, move the chain crew to that 40-yard line. Be sure to instruct the chain crew to keep the chains off the field and several yards from the sideline on ALL kickoffs.

Post-Coin Toss:

At conclusion of toss procedures and when captains have been dismissed, all officials will meet at the 50-yard line at the center of the field, reviewing and writing down what each team selected as their options, and receive final instructions from the

Referee.

All officials will record which team has the first choice for second half.

At Referee's signal, all officials will hustle to their kickoff positions at the same time. The Linesman and Line Judge should clear the sidelines before going to their kickoff positions.

Second Half Options:

The respective team captains should be asked their second half choice as they leave the field for half time

All officials should record the results.

Overtime and 10-yard line procedure:

The coin toss will be held three minutes after the completion of the fourth period.

The coin-toss will be conducted using pre-game coin toss mechanics.

The winner of the coin-toss shall choose end of field at which ball will be put in play, or choose to go on offense or defense first.

The Referee will indicate the winner of toss by placing a hand on the winning captain's shoulder:

The Referee will then position the offensive captain facing the goal toward which the ball will be advanced and defensive captain facing his opponent and opposite goal.

The Referee will give the 1st down signal toward goal being used. To start each new series, the team may designate the location of ball between the in-bounds lines.

4

Chapter 3: Free Kicks

Line Judge:

Count K players and verify 11.

Always hand the ball to the kicker and instruct kicker not to kick until the Referee has sounded his whistle.

When ready, signal to the Linesman and leave field together. Move to a position just outside the sideline on K's free kick line on the press box side of field (opposite Linesman's side).

If ball falls from tee, BLOW WHISTLE - DO NOT ALLOW KICK.

Watch for illegal action on kicker and/or holder.

Should there be a penalty that dictates re-kicking, you will signal the press box with the proper signal and administer the penalty.

Watch for 1st touching by K.

If there is an obvious situation that suggests an onsides kick, signal to your fellow officials by holding up your beanbag.

If the return breaks up your sideline, you now become the "lead" official. You are responsible for your sideline from goal line to goal line.

Remember K cannot advance a KICK. K can only recover one!

Linesman:

Count R players and verify 11. When ready, signal to the Line Judge and leave field together. Move to a position just outside the sideline on R's free kick line on the side of the field where the chains are located.

Watch for illegal action on R's front line.

If there is an obvious situation that suggests an onsides kick, signal to your fellow officials by holding up your beanbag.

Make sure the ball travels 10 yards.

Watch for blocking below the waist.

If the return breaks up your sideline, you now become the "lead" official. You are responsible for your sideline - from goal line to goal line.

Remember K cannot advance a KICK. K can only recover one.

Referee:

Before kick:

Position relatively close to goal line and always behind the deepest R player. Favor the hash mark on the Line

Judge’s side of the field. (Note: When working youth football, it is acceptable to move to the side of the field if you a certain the kick will be heading in that direction to maximize coverage. I.e. the kicker has the ball lined up to go in a certain direction.)

Count R & K players and verify 11.

Check position of other officials.

After ready signs from Line Judge and Linesman have been received, sound whistle to signal that the kick can be made.

If a short free kick is anticipated, take position even with R's deepest receiver.

Be alert to assist other officials.

After kick:

If the kick is down the middle of the field:

Signal clock to start when kick is touched other than first touching by K.

Pick up runner and follow until releasing to covering official.

K cannot advance a kick or muffed kick. K can advance a fumble.

Always watch blocking that takes place just ahead of the runner. See the ENTIRE block. Do not call a clip unless you are positive it was clearly a clip and you saw the entire contact from beginning to end.

If the kick is deep:

If the kick is in either side zone:

Rule on touchback..

If kick caught inside five (5) yard line and player is downed in end zone, or ball goes out-of-bounds there, rule on whether player's momentum took him into end zone and mark spot of catch with bean bag.

Move cautiously with play.

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Observe action of players in vicinity of runner.

Serve as clean up behind, to side of, and around runner.

Once the ball is dead move quickly to the dead ball spot, release the Linesman as soon as possible and signal first and ten.

Linesman:

Before kick:

Position: R's free kick line on sideline opposite the press box and line judge.

Monitor bench area and assist receiving team in getting into position.

Be certain all non-team personnel are behind the limit lines and coaches and substitutes are in the team box.

After receiving ready signal from Line Judge, hold arm above head to indicate to Referee that you are ready. Be alert for first touching by K or kick which does not cross R's free kick line.

After kick:

If the kick is to your side of the field:

Pick up runner and follow.

When ball becomes dead, sound whistle and give timeout signal.

Be alert for first touching by K.

Mark spot of first touching with beanbag.

Mark spot where kick goes out-of-bounds on your side of field: o

Beanbag if last touched inbounds by R. o

Penalty marker if untouched inbounds by R.

Maintain position enabling coverage of your sideline to the goal line at all times.

Observe legality of blocks and action away from ball when you are not covering runner. See the ENTIRE block.

Do not call a clip unless you are positive it was clearly a clip and you saw the entire contact from beginning to end.

Line Judge:

If the kick is to opposite side of field:

Move cautiously toward play.

Observe action of other players in vicinity of runner. Cleanup behind the play.

Once the ball is dead move quickly to your sideline and set up the chains for the ensuing down.

Before Kick:

Be certain all non-team personnel are behind restraining lines, and that coaches and substitutes are in the team box area.

Position: K's free kick line, outside sideline opposite the Linesman's side of the field.

Hold arm above head to indicate to Referee that you are ready.

Watch for any infractions involving free kick lines.

If short free kick is anticipated, position on K's free kick line. Have beanbag in hand.

Be alert for first touching by K or kick which does not cross R's free kick line.

After kick:

Be alert for first touching by K - mark spot with beanbag.

If ball becomes dead in your area, sound whistle and give time-out signal.

If Linesman is covering dead ball spot - move to relieve him as soon as possible. He needs to be released to set up the chains for the ensuing down.

Mark spot where kick goes out-of-bounds on your side of field: o

Beanbag if last touched inbounds by R. o

Penalty marker if untouched inbounds by R.

Maintain position enabling coverage of your sideline to the goal line at all times.

After ball has gone downfield, move deliberately in that direction while watching for fouls away from the ball

6

Chapter 4: Point After Touchdown and Field Goal Try

The Referee will be positioned looking into the ball and the holder.

To maximize field coverage, the line official opposite the Referee will remain on the line.

The line official on the same side of the field as the Referee will take a position behind the uprights, i.e. the

Linesman or Line Judge, depending on the Referee's position, will cover the uprights under the goal. (Note: If the line official is looking at the referee's back, he should be deep, behind the upright.)

Line Judge / Linesman - (behind the uprights - 5 yards deep of the end line)

1. Rule on success or failure of field goal and try attempts. Sound whistle. Give signal. Hold signal until

Referee looks at your signal. He could be watching continuing action against the holder or kicker.

2. Be alert for ball striking an upright or a cross bar.

3. Break out into position to cover end zone in the event of a fake attempt and be ready to cover passes and runs as usual.

Linesman or Line Judge: Take regular position straddling neutral zone, responsible for:

1. Normal sideline responsibilities. Prior to the snap - all play along the line of scrimmage. Post snap -

Coverage to/and including the goal line.

2. Quick passes and helping out with blocking on linebackers,

3. Covering play on short receiver on short field goal attempts.

4. Once it is apparent that the kick is away, move to the center of the field and officiate the players. Let them know you are there.

Referee

1. Responsible for action on center, kicker and holder.

2. Basic position is one to two yards to the rear and two to three yards to the side of the kicker facing the holder.

3. Once there is no threat of action on the kicker or holder, look to official under the goal for the ruling on the play.

4. Face the press box or home team side and signal good or no good.

7

Chapter 5: Basic Scrimmage Down Areas of Responsibility

Linesman:

Echo Referee's down signal verbally and with one hand over head.

Check the offensive formation and count both offensive and defensive players. Observe that replaced players leave the field immediately.

Take original position on or near sideline and adjust to the spot of the snap. Set the box with your heel for the chain crew after each 1st down, penalty, and start of period. Read the offensive formation and recognize the eligible receivers.

After moving chains for a first down, with a verbal and a visual signal, such as a pointed finger, indicate to the Referee that the chains are set and that he may make the ball ready for play.

Watch for illegal formations, including encroachment and false starts prior to the snap.

Watch for illegal motion/shift by offensive players.

Indicate to the receiver closest to you the offensive line of scrimmage by extended foot, and then take final position straddling the neutral zone.

Cover man in motion going away from you for illegal motion. This man continues to be your responsibility, even if he changes direction (opposite official should assist making this call if it is obvious).

If widest eligible receiver is off the line of scrimmage, hold arm extended towards the backfield until the snap. Drop signal if receiver goes in motion and the closest man to you is now on the line of scrimmage.

After play, mirror end of run spot with Line Judge so that Referee may take spot from either official (always square off your dead ball spots). If the dead ball spot is close to a first down, and you have the spot - ask Referee to hand you the ball so you can spot it at the point of your foot. Linesman and Line Judge are responsible for counting for minimum of seven offensive linemen.

Line Judge:

Echo referee's down signal verbally and with an overhead hand signal back to the Referee.

Observe that the box has the correct down.

Confirm count of both offensive and defensive players. Observe that replaced players leave the field immediately.

Take original position on or near sideline and adjust to the spot of the snap. Read the offensive formation and know your eligible receiver responsibilities.

Watch for illegal formations/shifts/motion, prior to, and immediately following the snap.

Watch for false starts by offensive players and encroachment by defensive players.

Indicate the offensive line of scrimmage by extended foot to the closest offensive receiver, and then take final position straddling the neutral zone.

Cover man in motion going away from you for illegal motion. This man continues to be your responsibility, even if he changes direction. (Does not relieve opposite official from assisting you in making obvious call).

If widest eligible receiver (closest to you) is off the line of scrimmage, hold arm extended towards the backfield until the snap.

Drop signal if receiver goes in motion and new widest receiver/end is on the line of scrimmage.

After play, mirror end of run spot with Linesman so the Referee may take the spot from either official. Always square off your run to the dead ball spot. Avoid coming to the spot on an angle.

The Line Judge will keep the game clock.

MARKING FORWARD PROGRESS:

Usually the wing officials will rule on a runner’s forward progress. Once you have determined that the runner’s forward progress has stopped, take the following steps:

1. Square off the spot and move towards the center of the field as far as the importance of the spot. (If its close to a first down, run to that spot)

2. Always hold the spot of forward progress especially when it’s close to a first down.

3. If the players are driven backwards, you should stay at the spot of forward progress and observe the action of the players from that spot. Use your voice and your whistle but never leave this spot.

4. Once the play has cleared, you can have someone spot the ball in the center of the field or demand the ball if it’s close to a first down.

5. Be definitive with your spot. If you come in at an angle or shuffle around near the spot, this will send signals that you are not sure of the spot.

6. You should only use the bean bag as a last resort if things get out of hand. If this is done, mentally note the spot and drop your bean bag. ONLY AS A LAST RESORT.

7. Wing officials should make a concerted effort to spot the ball in unison. If the ball is in the Line Judge’s side zone, and he or she clearly has the spot, the Head Linesman should adjust his spot to match that of the Line Judge. It severely undermines the credibility of the crew if the wing officials do not agree on a forward progress spot. If a disagreement occurs, one of the wing officials must yield to the other in order to keep crew integrity intact.

8

Referee:

Stand near the ball (within 2-4 yards) before making it ready for play. Be sure you are clearly visible when giving the signal. Do not stand right over the ball or right next to a team's huddle.

Mirror Linesman's down signal verbally and with an overhead hand signal - repeat this with the Line Judge.

After making ball ready for play, move to your position, keeping the ball in view. Do not turn your back to the football.

Count players for the offense and defense. Ensure that offense does not break their huddle with 12.

Be in a position where you may be comfortable to see the ball and backs and tackle on your side. Position is 5 to 7 yards behind and outside the deepest back or backs, no closer than 12 yards to the line of scrimmage. Alternate which side of the formation you lineup on. This will allow you to officiate both sides of the line of scrimmage - eyeing the action of interior lineman. (Do not stay on the throwing arm side of the quarterback for the entire game. You must be able to officiate both sides of the formation. Alternate the linemen you concentrate on.)

Check the offensive formation and count the offensive players. Observe that replaced players leave the field immediately.

Check the setbacks and quarterback for illegal motion/shift at the snap. Assist the wingmen if there is movement (false start) of restricted lineman.

If play moves into a side zone, move behind the play, covering the runner to the line of scrimmage and then cleaning up the action behind the run.

Delay moving towards line too quickly to avoid interfering with a reverse or delayed play. Do not get caught inside with the ball still alive.

Referee will time the 25-second clock and the 1-minute timeout interval.

9

Chapter 6: Basic Pass Coverage Areas of Responsibility

Line Judge & Linesman:

Read through the end on your side to read the initial actions of the lineman. Hesitate moving downfield after the snap. Your initial movement at the snap is one step into the backfield. Read the play and adjust your position accordingly.

Responsible for the entire sideline to both end lines.

Observe action on receivers and linebackers to your side - check that the receiver is not held attempting to move downfield and that the receiver is not illegally blocking or clipping defensive players (especially linebackers).

Assist Referee and crew on ruling direction of the pass by extending and holding arm towards backfield on any quick sideline passes that are backwards.

Officiate from the outside in. Do not let pass receivers get between you and the sideline.

Responsible to cover any receivers on your side of the formation. If a receiver runs a deep pattern you must release and go with him. You're responsible to cover your half of field from the line of scrimmage to area in front of Line Judge.

Be prepared to rule on short passes to receivers running crossing patterns or to backs running pass routes through the middle of the line of scrimmage.

Be ready to rule on passes at the sidelines. Straddle the sideline to determine if ball is in control of receiver and that at least one foot touches down in-bounds. Be alert for the possibility of the receiver being pushed out of bounds while in the air.

When ball is thrown, watch for interference by either team. If there is contact, be sure it interferes with the play. Use your best judgment. If in doubt there is no penalty.

Do not "drift" into the center of the field too quickly. Be prepared to adjust your coverage if the potential passer becomes a runner.

If ball is intercepted inside of the 5-yard line, and the interceptor is downed in his end zone- be ready to rule whether the momentum exception applies. Drop a beanbag at the spot of all interceptions inside the 5-yard line.

Square off all dead ball spots - do not enter the field on an angle.

If you are unsure of the status of a completed pass near the line of scrimmage and you observe pass interference, flag the penalty and after the down has ended, advise the Referee to confer with the other wing official to ascertain if the reception was beyond the line.

Referee:

Position is behind and about 5-7 yards outside the deepest back or backs.

Alternate which side of the quarterback you lineup on. It is a good practice to be on the open side of the field to help maximize coverage.

Stay behind and aside from passer. Be deep enough and wide enough to be able to "see through" the passer, observing the blocking in and around the pocket.

Observe backs illegally blocking below the waist.

Observe that backs and lineman are not clipping or holding rushing defensive lineman.

Do not release coverage too quickly. Remain focused on the passer after the throw and observe action around the passer.

If the quarterback roles out and attempts to run, stay close behind him. Protect him all the way until he is in a position to be picked up by another covering official. If he scrambles and goes into the sidelines, you should be with him. Referee rules

(and only the referee) on intentional grounding and roughing the quaterback.

10

Chapter 7: Scrimmage Kicks

Line Judge:

Initial Position is normally 7 to 10 yards wide of and slightly ahead of the deepest receiver opposite the Lineman's side of field.

Be no closer than the hash mark.

Count Team B Players.

Line Judge is responsible for:

1. Moving into position ruling on validity of catch or signal, ruling on interference, and following the ball all the way to the goal line if the receiver fails to field kick. If the KICK enters the end zone, blow your whistle immediately and signal touchback. If the receiver signals fair catch, make sure he catches the ball completely and then sound your whistle and signal timeout and first down.

2. Be in position to rule on legality of handoffs/reverses.

3. Ruling on plays of the ball near goal line; be alert for batting violations.

4. Covering the runner until he enters another official's zone.

If the kick is caught inside the 5-yard line, be prepared to rule on momentum if the receiver is downed in the end zone. Drop a beanbag at the spot of the catch on any kicks caught inside the 5-yard line.

Be prepared to rule on touching of the kick by either team.

If the Kickers are the first to touch the ball beyond the neutral zone, drop a beanbag at the yard line of 1st touching, and continue to cover the play.

If the receivers are the first to touch the ball beyond the neutral zone and the kicking team recovers the kick, signal time-out and whistle the play dead immediately - the kicking team may only advance a fumble by the receivers beyond the neutral zone

- NOT A MUFF.

When the play is completed and you are the covering official, square off your spot, signal timeout, and then point in the direction that the team next to snap will be advancing.

Linesman:

Count offensive and defensive players.

You MUST hold your position until the ball crosses the neutral zone, even after a muffed snap. Rule on whether or not kick has crossed neutral zone.

Assist Referee in knowing if a player tips the kick. Always give the tip signal (3 times) if a ball is partially blocked or tipped at the line. On short line-drive kick, watch for ball being touched by K or R beyond the neutral zone expanded.

When it appears that the kick will be short and land inside your area of the field, you are responsible for:

1. Moving into position ruling on validity of catch or signal, ruling on interference

2. Being ready to take over runner if the return comes to your side.

3. Covering the runner all the way to the goal line (you have 120 yards of sideline responsibility.

When it appears that the ball will land anywhere other than your area, you are responsible for watching the action of players in advance of the receivers, paying particular attention to clipping and low illegal blocks.

On a kick that travels in flight out of bounds over your sideline:

1. Sound whistle and signal time-out.

2. Move downfield beyond the yard line where the kick went out of bounds, raise your hand straight over your head, walk slowly up field, look to the Referee and stop at the spot where he signals that the kick went out of bounds. Signal first down.

On a kick that rolls or is carried out of bounds across your sideline:

Sound whistle and signal time-out.

Hold spot and observe any action. If action carries out of bounds, turn and stay with players. Hold your spot and watch all dead ball activity.

If you receive no help from other officials (in a timely fashion), drop beanbag at the dead ball spot and go after players out of bounds, retrieve ball. Protect the players especially when they are in the bench area of their opponents. (Use should only use your bean bag as a last resort)

If the kick is blocked be prepared to assist the referee in covering K's goal line if the blocking team advances the ball.

Referee:

Count Offensive players.

Take a position on the kicking leg side of kicker, wide enough to see the ball from snap to kick, and be in position to be even with or slightly in front of the kicker when ball is kicked.

Be able to see blockers and kickers at the same time.

11

If the flight of the kick is toward a sideline, move quickly to position in line with the flight and use arm signals to direct the covering official to the out-of-bounds spot.

If the kick is blocked be prepared to cover K's goal line if the blocking team advances the ball.

If it's an errant snap over the head of the Kicker - the ball is your responsibility.

12

Chapter 8: Basic Goal Line Responsibilities

Linesman and Line Judge:

Stay wide near the sideline to get a good, full view of the runner.

If the ball is snapped inside the 5-yard line your first movement should be towards to the goal line, not in the backfield.

Close in towards the play only after you are positive the play has gone into the line or away from you.

Be careful when running in. Be conscious that the ball carrier could bounce off a tackle and turn to the outside. Never get caught inside the play!

If there is a play up the middle, a pile-on occurs and neither wing official can’t see the ball (recognized by neither giving a touchdown signal or the next down), both wings need to charge into the middle and find the ball. Do not just stand there. Get to the ball and make the call ASAP.

When ball is dead on your side, mark forward progress. Sell the call when you are down near the goal line, and on 3rd down or

4th down and short. Be emphatic about your spot.

Do not give a signal (visual or verbal) until you are positive you see a touchdown. SEE THE BALL BREAK THE GOAL LINE

PLANE.

ALL:

Position yourself the same as a running play, but emphasis is on forward progress.

ONLY the official who sees and rules the touchdown should signal touchdown. The referee will mirror this call to the press box.

The opposite wing official should not mirror the signal unless you see the touchdown scored.

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Chapter 9: Time Outs

Charged time outs:

1. The Referee shall signal a requested charged time out by facing the requesting team's goal line and giving the time out signal (S3) followed by a "chucking signal" with the arms shoulder high. There is no need for the

Referee to sound his whistle.

2. If the time out is the third and final one charged to that team, the Referee will personally ensure that the Head

Coach and captain of the team are aware that all their time outs have been used.

3. The official recognizing the time out shall notify the Referee of the number of the requesting player.

4. All officials must record all time outs, including the quarter and time remaining on the clock.

5. The wing officials shall inform the Head Coach of the team on their side of the field of the number of time outs remaining for each team and the time remaining.

6. The Referee will time the 1- minute time out.

7. During the time out:

The Line judge remains with the ball at the succeeding spot.

The Linesman observes the defensive team, being responsible for checking the number of players in the huddle.

The Referee observes the offensive team, being responsible for checking the number of players in the huddle.

8. After 45 seconds (or earlier if both teams indicate readiness to resume) the Referee shall announce for the coaches to leave the field. After 60 seconds, the Referee will blow his whistle and give the ready for play signal

(S1).

9. If a team requests a time out when all theirs have been used, all officials shall ignore the request and order the team to play on.

Official's Time Outs:

1. If a time out is not to be charged to either team, the Referee shall signal time out (S3) and then tap his chest.

2. The Referee shall declare the ball ready for play as soon as the reason for the time out has been met (e.g. an injured player has left the field and is not in any danger).

3. If an injury time out is prolonged, or the game is suspended for some other reason, send the players to their team areas.

4. Only the Referee can stop the clock for a coach's conference. The conference will take place at or near the sideline. Another official, normally the wing official on that side of the field, must go with the Referee to witness the conference. If after the conference the ruling is not altered, his team will be charged a time out, in which case the procedure for a charged time out (including giving the team their full entitlement of time) will be carried out. If a team asks for a time out which is in fact intended to be a request for a coach's conference and the ruling is then altered, they should only be charged with a time out if they subsequently request a further time out.

5. If the game is disrupted for any reason, all officials should record the down, the team in possession, the position of the ball and the chain, and the time remaining. In addition, the Line Judge should record the lateral position of the ball with respect to the inbounds lines and the Linesman should record the position of the chain clip.

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Chapter 10: Measurements

Where doubt exists that the line to gain has been reached, the Referee shall arrange for the distance gained to be measured.

Any official may stop the clock for this purpose.

Be alert to a captain's request for a measurement, but do not grant unreasonable requests made after the ball has been declared ready for play for the next down. If the Referee believes that the line to gain has been reached, he may attempt to gain agreement of the defensive captain to forego the measurement. Because of the importance of the situation after a fourth down play, a measurement should be arranged unless there is absolutely no doubt in anyone's mind as to whether or not the line to gain has been reached.

The ball must never be moved from the dead-ball spot until after the measurement is made, in particular the ball must not be moved if it becomes dead in a side zone. If it becomes dead out of bounds it shall be placed in the correct spot on the sideline. If the wing official inadvertently starts to move the ball into the center of the field, instruct him to place the ball at his feet.

The Line judge shall ensure that the ball is at the correct dead-ball spot, and hold it there if necessary.

The Line Judge shall move quickly to a position on the appropriate yard line to indicate where the Linesman shall place the clip in order to make an accurate measurement (i.e. in line with the ball).

Unless there is a flag on the play, the Linesman shall instruct the box operator to place the down box exactly at the position of the front stake. The Linesman shall grasp the chain at the point where the clip is set and direct the stake operators to bring the chain to the required position on the field. The Linesman shall place the chain so that its position corresponds exactly to that which it occupied on the sideline, and then call "ready".

The Line Judge shall take the front stake from the operator and, when the Linesman calls "ready", gently pull the chain taut.

The Referee shall determine whether the line to gain has been reached and announce his ruling. He will signal either the next down or signal first down. If the ball is short of the first down and outside the hash marks, the Referee will grasp the chain at the forward point of the ball and position the ball at the hash mark using the chain as a guide to placement.

• The Referee shall signal the ball ready for play when the Linesman ensures that the chain is reset in the correct location

.

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Chapter 11: Procedures for Calling Fouls

Covering Official:

Any official observing a foul shall drop or throw a penalty marker (flag) at the proper spot, making a mental note of the yard line. If the flag falls on the wrong spot, move it to the correct spot. (move the flag with authority- don't try to nudge it with your foot in the hope that no one will notice!)

If the ball is live, do not blow the whistle until the ball becomes dead (unless foul causes ball to become or remain dead).

When the ball becomes dead, continue to blow your whistle in short blasts until all other officials know that you have seen a foul. Give the time out signal (S3). If the foul is a spot foul ask an available colleague to cover your flag.

Unless you are holding the dead-ball spot, go quickly to the Referee and verbally report the foul. Give the following information:

1. The nature of the foul

2. The offending team, by color and/or by offense/defense

3. The offending player, by number or position

4. The spot of the foul, or whether the foul should be enforced from the end of the run or the end of the kick.

5. Whether the ball was live or dead at the time of the foul and, if appropriate, whether it occurred before or after a change of team possession or while loose from a pass, kick, or fumble.

If more than one official throws his flag for a foul (e.g. scrimmage line infractions, interference), all calling officials shall consult with each other before reporting the foul. Don't assume that everyone saw the same as you. If you have to throw a flag for a foul clearly in someone else's area, it is courteous to discuss it with them.

When reporting fouls to the Referee, do not point to teams or players. After reporting, stay near the Referee in case he needs to ask you for further details. Avoid conferences except when absolutely necessary to obtain information from more than one official.

Other Officials:

All other officials should repeat the time out signal (S3).

If the ball is not at the dead-ball spot, assist in getting it there. Cover and hold the dead-ball spot. Leave the ball on the ground until it is called for. Note the yard line.

If the foul is a spot foul, cover and hold the spot of the foul. If the foul has post-scrimmage kick enforcement, cover and hold the end of the kick. Hold the spot as long as necessary. When the Line Judge starts to enforce the penalty, pick up the flag and return it to the official who called the foul.

If other officials are huddling to discuss a situation, keep players away from them.

Each official shares an equal responsibility for rule interpretation. If you believe a foul has been called or administered incorrectly it is your responsibility to draw this to the Referee's attention without fuss, indiscretion, or delay. If an official blows a rule interpretation, the whole crew has blown it.

Enforcement Procedure:

After receiving the report of the foul, the Referee shall in a crisp and clear manner:

1. Give the preliminary signal to the press box side.

2. Explain the foul(s) and option(s) to the offended team. Notify the captain of the offending team of the foul called and , if possible, the number or position of the offending player.

3. Notify both captains and Head Coaches if the penalty involves the loss of a down.

While the Referee gives the preliminary signal, the Line Judge shall call the captains together, so that they may be notified of the foul and the options. The Line Judge shall be present when the options are given, and should check that they are given correctly.

If the offended captain's choice of option is obvious, the Referee shall announce it and proceed with enforcement or declination. If the captain objects or the choice is not obvious, the Referee shall fully explain the options to him and conform to his choice.

The Referee shall instruct the Line Judge as to the spot of enforcement and the yardage to be marked off. The Line Judge, while carrying the ball, shall determine the spot to which the ball should be taken and move directly to it, without stepping off each yard of the penalty.

While the Line Judge is marching off the penalty, the Referee shall take a position in clear view and give the final signals to the press box side of the field only.

If there are multiple dead-ball fouls which do not cancel by rule, all penalties must be marched off and the position of the chain reconsidered after each. Half distance enforcement should also be checked before each penalty. The chain clip, however, need only be set after the last penalty has been enforced.

The wing official on the appropriate side of the field must relay to the Head Coach details of the foul if it is by his team, including, where possible, the number or position of the offending player and precisely what the player did that was illegal. If the penalty involves loss of down, the Coach must be notified of that fact. The coach must also be notified of any unusual

16

enforcements or judgments whether or not they are against his team.

If fouls are committed that are to be enforced at the next free kick, the Referee shall give the final signals and point to the spot of the kick. The Line Judge shall repeat the final signals before enforcing the penalty from the kickoff spot.

The Referee may forego giving a preliminary signal if the enforcement is "obvious" (e.g. false start, delay of game, other dead ball fouls).

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Chapter 12: End of Periods

Near the end of each half, the on-field timekeeper should ensure before the start of each play that all officials are kept informed of the time remaining. He must also inform the captain and Head Coach of each team upon request.

When time expires, the on-field timekeeper shall sound his whistle if the ball is dead. Officials should assist in relaying the ball to the Referee in order that he can signal the end of the quarter.

First and Third Periods:

The Referee and Line judge shall go to the succeeding spot and record (in writing) the yard line on which the ball is placed, its lateral position, and the distance to the line to gain. The Linesman shall record the yard line on which the chain clip is set.

The Referee and Line Judge shall then take the ball downfield to its new location and re-spot it.

The Linesman should grasp the chain and the clip, and keeping hold of it, reverse the chain and move it and its crew to the corresponding yard line in the other half of the field. The down box should be moved to its new position at the same time.

After completion of these duties, all officials should take position for the next play. The ball should not be declared ready for play until one minute has elapsed since the end of the period. The clock will be started again when the ball is next snapped (or legally touched in the field of play after a free kick).

Half Time Intermission:

The Linesman and Line Judge must ensure that one captain from the team on their respective sides of the field reports to the

Referee before leaving the playing area.

The on-field timekeeper shall confirm to the Referee the duration of the interval, the correct time of day, and the correct time that the second half will commence.

The Referee shall relay this information to the captains, with the instruction that the teams must be back on the field ready to restart at the scheduled time.

End of Game:

All officials should immediately assemble near the middle of the field and leave the field together at a leisurely and uniform pace. They should neither seek nor avoid coaches and players. If hassled by anyone they should keep walking.

Any request for discussion regarding the officiating of the game must be directed towards the Referee. The Referee should be prepared to discuss any rules interpretation (not on the field), but should politely refuse to discuss judgment calls.

All officials should complete any administrative duties required of them.

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Chapter 13: Bean Bag Mechanics

All officials shall carry at least one beanbag to use to mark spots other than spots of fouls. Never throw a beanbag; run to the approximate yard line level with the spot and drop it. Make a mental note of the yard line whenever possible. If the beanbag falls on the wrong spot, move it to the correct spot. (move the beanbag with authority - don't try to nudge it with your foot in the hope that no one will notice).

The covering official shall use a beanbag to mark:

1. The end of a scrimmage kick in bounds- this is the post scrimmage kick enforcement spot;

2. The spot where possession was lost on a fumble- this is the end of the related run and may be the succeeding spot if the ball goes out of bounds or the basic spot for fouls occurring during the run or while the ball is loose;

3. The spot where a backward pass or handoff occurs beyond the neutral zone or when there is no neutral zone- this is the end of the related run and is the basic spot for fouls occurring during the run;

4. The spot where an eligible pass receiver goes out of bounds (voluntarily) - this is an indication that a foul will occur should he touch a forward pass in bounds before it has touched an opponent;

5. The spot where a Team A player goes out of bounds during a free or scrimmage kick (voluntarily) - this is an indication that a foul will occur if he returns in bounds. (If the player comes back in bounds immediately after going out of bounds a beanbag is unnecessary and the official need only drop his flag to mark the spot of the foul.

6. All spots where a Team A player illegally touches a free or scrimmage kick - these are the spots where Team B may elect to take the ball as the result of the violation;

7. The spot where a Team B player catches a kick, pass or fumble between his five-yard line and goal line when the momentum exception rule applies - this is the dead-ball spot if the ball subsequently becomes dead in the end zone in

Team B's possession if the player's momentum carried him into the end zone.

8. The spot of forward progress if the quarterback is sacked;

9. The dead-ball spot if the official has to leave the spot to recover the ball or to observe action. This should be used as a last resort.

Unless the spot is also one of the spots listed above, bean bags shall not be used to mark since none are enforcement spots:

1. The spot where an interception is made;

2. The spot where a free kick ends;

3. The spot where a fumble is recovered;

4. The spot where a kick or pass hits the ground.;

5. The spot of forward progress when the runner is driven back.

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Chapter 14: Chain Crew Procedures

It is the responsibility of the officials to see that the chain crew is adequately briefed before the game starts. Introduce yourself to them before the game. Stress to them the importance of their job.

Make the down box operator responsible for the whole crew. He should be the most experienced person on the crew.

Demonstrate to the chain crew the signals that you will use to indicate (i) the down number; (ii) stay!; (iii) move the chain.

Instruct the chain crew never to move the down marker or chain, or change the down number, except at the direction of the

Linesman or Referee. If they are told to move and they can see that a flag has been thrown, they must stay where they are and draw the official's attention to the flag. When they do move, they must move quickly and with no fuss to their new position.

Instruct the crew that the chain never moves on 2nd, 3rd, or 4th down; only the down box does. It is also possible (e.g. after a penalty) for there to be a 1st down and for the chain not to move.

Instruct the down box operator that between downs:

1. He must not move until signaled to do so.

2. He must position the down box even with the front tip of the ball.

3. He should change the number on the down box to that indicated by the Linesman.

4. He should not change the number until after he has positioned the down box.

Instruct the crew that when a new series of downs is awarded:

1. The down box should be moved first to the spot indicated by the Linesman.

2. The chain should then follow, setting the rear-most stake exactly where the down box is. The front stake should then be placed to extend the chain to its full length.

3. The down box operator should give hold of his box to the rear stake man in order that he may position the chain clip.

(If a fourth member of the chain crew is available, he may be designated as the clip operator). The clip must be positioned precisely on the back edge of the yard line (5-yard line if available), normally the one nearest the rear stake.

Instruct the crew that if play develops (or seems to be likely to develop) in their direction they are to move quickly away from the sideline and to drop their equipment to the ground as they go. Emphasize the safety aspects of this, and explain how the chain can be reset using the clip.

Instruct the crew that at the end of the 1st and 3rd periods:

1. The Linesman will record the down number, the distance to the line to gain, the yard line and the line on which the clip is set.

2. The Linesman will grasp the chain at the point where the clip is set and instruct the stake operator furthest from the midfield line to lead the way to the corresponding line in the other half of the field, reversing the chain in the process.

3. The Linesman will position the clip on the correct yard line, then instruct the crew to extend the chain.

4. The down box will be moved to its new position as the ball is moved.

Instruct the crew that when a measurement for a first down takes place:

1. The down box is to be positioned where the front stake is located, unless there is a flag down.

2. The Linesman will grasp the chain at the point where the clip is set.

3. The linesman and stake operators will rapidly carry the chain onto the field of play. The front stake operator will hand his stake to the appropriate official.

4. If a first down is awarded, the stake operators must carry the chain quickly back to the sideline and setup for the new series of downs.

5. If a first down is not awarded and the ball is dead outside the hash marks, the chain will be moved under the direction of the Referee to a position where the ball can be spotted.

6. If a first down is not awarded, the Linesman and stake operators will quickly return the chain to the sideline. The

Linesman will ensure that the clip is accurately repositioned.

7. Once the decision has been signaled by the Referee the down box will then be positioned even with the front of the ball.

When the goal line is the line to gain, or on try downs, only the down box will be used. The chain should be laid on the ground and the stake operators should stand well back so as not to distract the down box operator.

Remind the chain crew that, for the purposes of the game, they are officials and must remain impartial. They must make no remarks to players and express no opinions on official rulings.

If a member of a chain crew fails to perform to an acceptable standard, inform game management that a replacement must be provided.

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Chapter 15: Written Records

Referee:

Record all players or non-players penalized for unsportsmanlike conduct,

Give the completed COG Crew Cards to each head coach during certification.

If there is an ejection in the game, the COG on-line game report will need to be completed within 24 HOURS.

Report any disqualifications to the COG Official Assigner by telephone, fax or email. THIS NOTIFICATION MUST BE

RECEIVED WITHIN 24 HOURS OF THE INCIDENT.

If a game is halted for any reason, and suspended for an extended period of time, follow the procedures detailed in the COG

Inclement Weather Policy.

If a game is halted for any reason, report the information to the COG Official Assigner immediately by telephone.

ALL:

Make written record of scores, charged timeouts, disqualified players and coaches, and unsportsmanlike fouls you call.

When recording unsportsmanlike conduct fouls be sure to keep an accurate record of the time the penalty was called, which team the offending player is on, the player’s number or coach and the specific foul.

Record the position of the ball at the end of the first and third periods, including the down and distance.

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Appendix 1: Diagrams

A1 – A4: COIN TOSS PROCEDURES

A5 – A7: KICKOFF POSITIONS AND MOVEMENT

A8: BASIC

A9:

A10:

A11:

A12:

A13:

A14:

MARKING A SPOT (SQUARING OFF)

MOVEMENT OF BALL (WORKING THE TRIANGLE)

BASIC PASSING PLAYS - KEYS

BASIC

BACIS SCRIMMAGE KICK POSITIONS & FIELD COVERAGE (PUNTS)

A15 – A18: FIELD GOAL & TRY COVERAGE

A19: GOAL LINE COVERAGE 5YARD LINE TO GOAL LINE

A20 – A21: MOVEMENT AFTER SCORING PLAY

A22: MEASUREMENTS

22

PRE COIN TOSS POSITIONS

Pressbox

COIN TOSS – BRING CAPTAINS TO CENTER

Pressbox

COIN TOSS – POSITIONS DURING TOSS

Pressbox

POST COIN TOSS – READY FOR KICKOFF

Pressbox

KICK OFF POSITIONS – WINGS SIGNAL READY THEN CLEAR FIELD

Pressbox

MOVEMENT AFTER KICK OFF

Pressbox

KICK OFF – BALL COVERAGE RESPONSIBILITY

Pressbox

BASIC SCRIMMAGE POSITIONS

Pressbox

MARKING A SPOT (SQUARING OFF)

Referee Trails Play

LJ – Mirror spot of L

Pressbox

MOVEMENT OF BALL (WORKING THE TRIANGLE)

Pressbox

BASIC RUNNING PLAY – BALL COVERAGE

Pressbox

BASIC PASSING PLAY – KEYS

Pressbox

BASIC PASSING PLAY – COVERAGE

Pressbox

BASIC SCRIMMAGE KICK POSITIONS AND FIELD COVERAGE (PUNTS)

R is responsible for the goal

line

Pressbox

FIELD GOAL & TRY COVERAGE

RIGHT FOOT KICKER

Pressbox

FIELD GOAL & TRY COVERAGE

LEFT FOOT KICKER

Pressbox

BUSTED OR FAKE FIELD GOAL OR TRY COVERAGE

RIGHT FOOT KICKER

Pressbox

BUSTED OR FAKE FIELD GOAL OR TRY COVERAGE

LEFT FOOT KICKER

Pressbox

GOAL LINE COVERAGE 5 YARD LINE TO GOAL LINE

Pressbox

MOVEMENT AFTER A SCORING PLAY

ALL: Record Score

Pressbox

MOVEMENT AFTER RECORDING SCORE

L & LJ: Should move up field together.

Pressbox

MEASUREMENTS

Pressbox

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