MAX16936 36V, 220kHz to 2.2MHz Step-Down Converter
EVALUATION KIT AVAILABLE
MAX16936
36V, 220kHz to 2.2MHz Step-Down Converter
with 28µA Quiescent Current
General Description
The MAX16936 is a 2.5A current-mode step-down converter with integrated high-side and low-side MOSFETs
designed to operate with an external Schottky diode
for better efficiency. The low-side MOSFET enables
fixed-frequency forced-PWM (FPWM) operation under
light-load applications. The device operates with input
voltages from 3.5V to 36V, while using only 28FA quiescent current at no load. The switching frequency is
resistor programmable from 220kHz to 2.2MHz and can
be synchronized to an external clock. The MAX16936’s
output voltage is available as 5V/3.3V fixed or adjustable
from 1V to 10V. The wide input voltage range along with its
ability to operate at 98% duty cycle during undervoltage
transients make the MAX16936 ideal for automotive and
industrial applications.
Under light-load applications, the FSYNC logic input
allows the MAX16936 to either operate in skip mode for
reduced current consumption or fixed-frequency FPWM
mode to eliminate frequency variation to minimize EMI.
Fixed-frequency FPWM mode is extremely useful for
power supplies designed for RF transceivers where tight
emission control is necessary. Protection features include
cycle-by-cycle current limit and thermal shutdown with
automatic recovery. Additional features include a powergood monitor to ease power-supply sequencing and a
180N out-of-phase clock output relative to the internal
oscillator at SYNCOUT to create cascaded power supplies with multiple MAX16936s.
The MAX16936 operates over the -40NC to +125NC
automotive temperature range and is available in 16-pin
TSSOP-EP and 5mm x 5mm, 16-pin TQFN-EP packages.
Features
SWide 3.5V to 36V Input Voltage Range
S42V Load Dump Protection
SEnhanced Current-Mode Control Architecture
SFixed Output Voltage with ±2% Accuracy (5V/3.3V)
or Externally Resistor Adjustable (1V to 10V)
S220kHz to 2.2MHz Switching Frequency with Three
Operation Modes
 28µA Ultra-Low Quiescent Current Skip Mode
 Forced Fixed-Frequency Operation
 External Frequency Synchronization
SSpread-Spectrum Frequency Modulation
SAutomatic LX Slew Rate Adjustment for Optimum
Efficiency Across Operating Frequency Range
S180° Out-of-Phase Clock Output at SYNCOUT
SLow-BOM-Count Current-Mode Control
Architecture
SPower-Good Output
SEnable Input Compatible from 3.3V Logic Level
to 42V
SThermal Shutdown Protection
S-40°C to +125°C Automotive Temperature Range
SAEC-Q100 Qualified
Applications
Point-of-Load Applications
Distributed DC Power Systems
Navigation and Radio Head Units
Ordering Information/Selector Guide appears at end of data
sheet.
Typical Application Circuit appears at end of data sheet.
For related parts and recommended products to use with this part, refer to: www.maximintegrated.com/MAX16936.related
For pricing, delivery, and ordering information, please contact Maxim Direct at
1-888-629-4642, or visit Maxim Integrated’s website at www.maximintegrated.com.
19-6626; Rev 5; 3/14
MAX16936
36V, 220kHz to 2.2MHz Step-Down Converter
with 28µA Quiescent Current
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
SUP, SUPSW, LX, EN to PGND.............................-0.3V to +42V
SUP to SUPSW......................................................-0.3V to +0.3V
BIAS to AGND..........................................................-0.3V to +6V
SYNCOUT, FOSC, COMP, FSYNC,
PGOOD, FB to AGND......................... -0.3V to (VBIAS + 0.3V)
OUT to PGND.........................................................-0.3V to +12V
BST to LX..................................................................-0.3V to +6V
AGND to PGND....................................................-0.3V to + 0.3V
LX Continuous RMS Current....................................................3A
Output Short-Circuit Duration.....................................Continuous
Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70NC)*
TSSOP (derate 26.1mw/NC above +70NC)..............2088.8mW
TQFN (derate 28.6mw/NC above +70NC)................2285.7mW
Operating Temperature Range......................... -40NC to +125NC
Junction Temperature......................................................+150NC
Storage Temperature Range............................. -65NC to +150NC
Lead Temperature (soldering, 10s).................................+300NC
Soldering Temperature (reflow).......................................+260NC
*As per JEDEC51 standard (multilayer board).
Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to absolute
maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
PACKAGE THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS (Note 1)
TSSOP
TQFN
Junction-to-Ambient Thermal Resistance (BJA)........38.3NC/W
Junction-to-Case Thermal Resistance (BJC)..................3NC/W
Junction-to-Ambient Thermal Resistance (BJA)........... 35NC/W
Junction-to-Case Thermal Resistance (BJC)...............2.7NC/W
Note 1: Package thermal resistances were obtained using the method described in JEDEC specification JESD51-7, using a four-layer
board. For detailed information on package thermal considerations, refer to www.maximintegrated.com/thermal-tutorial.
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(VSUP = VSUPSW = 14V, VEN = 14V, L1 = 2.2FH, CIN = 4.7FF, COUT = 22FF, CBIAS = 1FF, CBST = 0.1FF, RFOSC = 12kI,
TA = TJ = -40NC to +125NC, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25NC.)
PARAMETER
Supply Voltage
Load Dump Event Supply
Voltage
Supply Current
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS
VSUP, VSUPSW
VSUP_LD
ISUP_STANDBY
MIN
TYP
3.5
tLD < 1s
MAX
UNITS
36
V
42
V
Standby mode, no load, VOUT = 5V,
VFSYNC = 0V
28
40
FA
5
8
FA
Shutdown Supply Current
ISHDN
VEN = 0V
BIAS Regulator Voltage
VBIAS
VSUP = VSUPSW = 6V to 42V,
IBIAS = 0 to 10mA
4.7
5
5.4
V
VBIAS rising
2.95
3.15
3.40
V
450
650
mV
BIAS Undervoltage Lockout
BIAS Undervoltage Lockout
Hysteresis
VUVBIAS
Thermal Shutdown Threshold
+175
NC
Thermal Shutdown Threshold
Hysteresis
15
NC
Maxim Integrated
2
MAX16936
36V, 220kHz to 2.2MHz Step-Down Converter
with 28µA Quiescent Current
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued)
(VSUP = VSUPSW = 14V, VEN = 14V, L1 = 2.2FH, CIN = 4.7FF, COUT = 22FF, CBIAS = 1FF, CBST = 0.1FF, RFOSC = 12kI,
TA = TJ = -40NC to +125NC, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25NC.)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
5
5.1
UNITS
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (OUT)
VOUT_5V
VFB = VBIAS, 6V < VSUPSW < 36V,
MAX16936____A/V+, fixed-frequency
mode
4.9
VOUT_3.3V
VFB = VBIAS, 6V < VSUPSW < 36V,
MAX16936____B/V+, fixed-frequency
mode
3.234
3.3
3.366
4.9
5
5.15
3.234
3.3
3.34
FPWM Mode Output Voltage
(Note 2)
Skip Mode Output Voltage
(Note 3)
VOUT_5V
VOUT_3.3V
No load, VFB = VBIAS, MAX16936____A/
V+, skip mode
VFB = VBIAS, 6V < VSUPSW < 36V,
MAX16936____B/V+, skip mode
V
V
Load Regulation
VFB = VBIAS, 300mA < ILOAD < 2.5A
0.5
%
Line Regulation
VFB = VBIAS, 6V < VSUPSW < 36V
0.02
%/V
BST Input Current
LX Current Limit
IBST_ON
High-side MOSFET on, VBST - VLX = 5V
IBST_OFF
High-side MOSFET off, VBST - VLX = 5V,
TA = +25°C
ILX
LX Rise Time
Skip Mode Current Threshold
RON_H
Low-Side Switch
Leakage Current
mA
5
FA
4.5
A
400
mA
100
220
mI
1
3
FA
1.5
3
I
1
FA
20
100
nA
1.0
1.015
V
150
300
4
ns
fOSC Q6%
ILX = 1A, VBIAS = 5V
High-side MOSFET off, VSUP = 36V,
VLX = 0V, TA = +25NC
RON_L
2
3.75
Spread spectrum enabled
High-Side Switch Leakage
Current
Low-Side Switch
On-Resistance
TA = +25°C
1.5
3
RFOSC = 12kW
ISKIP_TH
Spread Spectrum
High-Side Switch
On-Resistance
Peak inductor current
1
ILX = 0.2A, VBIAS = 5V
VLX = 36V, TA = +25NC
TRANSCONDUCTANCE AMPLIFIER (COMP)
FB Input Current
IFB
FB Regulation Voltage
VFB
FB Line Regulation
DVLINE
Transconductance
(from FB to COMP)
gm
Minimum On-Time
tON_MIN
Maximum Duty Cycle
DCMAX
Maxim Integrated
FB connected to an external resistor
divider, 6V < VSUPSW < 36V (Note 4)
0.99
6V < VSUPSW < 36V
0.02
%/V
VFB = 1V, VBIAS = 5V
700
FS
(Note 3)
80
ns
98
%
3
MAX16936
36V, 220kHz to 2.2MHz Step-Down Converter
with 28µA Quiescent Current
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued)
(VSUP = VSUPSW = 14V, VEN = 14V, L1 = 2.2FH, CIN = 4.7FF, COUT = 22FF, CBIAS = 1FF, CBST = 0.1FF, RFOSC = 12kI,
TA = TJ = -40NC to +125NC, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25NC.)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
RFOSC = 73.2kI
340
400
460
kHz
RFOSC = 12kI
2.0
2.2
2.4
MHz
OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY
Oscillator Frequency
EXTERNAL CLOCK INPUT (FSYNC)
External Input Clock
Acquisition time
tFSYNC
External Input Clock
Frequency
1
RFOSC = 12kI (Note 5)
1.8
1.4
External Input Clock High
Threshold
VFSYNC_HI
VFSYNC rising
External Input Clock Low
Threshold
VFSYNC_LO
VFSYNC falling
Soft-Start Time
tSS
5.6
Enable Input High Threshold
VEN_HI
2.4
Enable Input Low Threshold
VEN_LO
Enable Threshold Voltage
Hysteresis
VEN_HYS
Cycles
2.6
MHz
V
8
0.4
V
12
ms
ENABLE INPUT (EN)
Enable Input Current
IEN
V
0.6
0.2
TA = +25NC
V
0.1
1
FA
POWER GOOD (PGOOD)
PGOOD Switching Level
VTH_RISING
VFB rising, VPGOOD = high
93
95
97
VTH_FALLING
VFB falling, VPGOOD =low
90
92
94
10
25
50
PGOOD Debounce Time
PGOOD Output Low Voltage
ISINK = 5mA
PGOOD Leakage Current
VOUT in regulation, TA = +25NC
SYNCOUT Low Voltage
%VFB
Fs
0.4
V
1
FA
ISINK = 5mA
0.4
V
SYNCOUT Leakage Current
TA = +25NC
1
FA
FSYNC Leakage Current
TA = +25NC
1
FA
OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION
Overvoltage Protection
Threshold
Note
Note
Note
Note
VOUT rising (monitored at FB pin)
107
VOUT falling (monitored at FB pin)
105
%
2: Device not in dropout condition.
3: Guaranteed by design; not production tested.
4: FB regulation voltage is 1%, 1.01V (max), for -40°C < TA < +105°C.
5: Contact the factory for SYNC frequency outside the specified range.
Maxim Integrated
4
MAX16936
36V, 220kHz to 2.2MHz Step-Down Converter
with 28µA Quiescent Current
Typical Operating Characteristics
(VSUP = VSUPSW = 14V, VEN = 14V, VOUT = 5V, VFYSNC = 0V, RFOSC = 12kI, TA = +25NC, unless otherwise noted.)
50
5V
40
PWM MODE
5V
60
40
4.98
4.96
4.94
10
10
4.92
0
0
0.1
10
0.001
2.26
4.98
433
2.22
2.20
2.18
430
429
427
426
4.90
2.10
2.0
2.5
425
0
0.5
ILOAD (A)
2.5
2.16
2.12
2.08
VOUT = 3.3V
-40 -25 -10 5 20 35 50 65 80 95 110 125
Maxim Integrated
0.5
1.0
2.00
1.50
1.25
1.00
0.75
0.50
45
40
35
30
25
20
5V/2.2MHz
SKIP MODE
15
0.25
72
RFOSC (kΩ)
2.5
SUPPLY CURRENT vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE
1.75
42
2.0
50
MAX16936 toc08
2.25
12
1.5
ILOAD (A)
0
2.00
TEMPERATURE (°C)
0
SUPPLY CURRENT (µA)
VOUT = 5V
2.20
2.04
2.0
2.50
SWITCHING FREQUENCY (MHz)
2.24
1.5
SWITCHING FREQUENCY vs. RFOSC
MAX16936 toc07
VIN = 14V,
PWM MODE
1.0
ILOAD (A)
FSW vs. TEMPERATURE
2.28
VOUT = 3.3V
428
VOUT = 3.3V
2.12
1.5
2.5
431
2.14
1.0
2.0
VOUT = 5V
432
4.92
0.5
1.5
VIN = 14V,
PWM MODE
434
VOUT = 5V
2.16
2.2MHz
0
1.0
FSW vs. LOAD CURRENT
435
FSW (MHz)
FSW (MHz)
5.00
4.94
VIN = 14V,
PWM MODE
2.28
2.24
400kHz
4.96
0.5
ILOAD (A)
MAX16936 toc05
5.06
5.02
0
10
FSW vs. LOAD CURRENT
2.30
MAX16936 toc04
VOUT = 5V, VIN = 14V
PWM MODE
5.04
0.1
LOAD CURRENT (A)
VOUT LOAD REGULATION
5.08
2.2MHz
4.90
0
LOAD CURRENT (A)
5.10
MAX16936 toc03
5.00
20
0.001
400kHz
5.02
30
0
VOUT (V)
PWM MODE
20
30
FSW (MHz)
5.04
3.3V
3.3V
50
5.06
MAX16936 toc09
3.3V
5V
70
VOUT = 5V, VIN = 14V
SKIP MODE
5.08
MAX16936 toc06
3.3V
60
SKIP MODE
80
EFFICIENCY (%)
70
fSW = 400kHz, VIN = 14V
90
5.10
VOUT (V)
SKIP MODE
5V
80
EFFICIENCY (%)
MAX16936 toc01
fSW = 2.2MHz, VIN = 14V
90
VOUT LOAD REGULATION
EFFICIENCY vs. LOAD CURRENT
100
MAX16936 toc02
EFFICIENCY vs. LOAD CURRENT
100
102
132
10
6
16
26
36
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
5
MAX16936
36V, 220kHz to 2.2MHz Step-Down Converter
with 28µA Quiescent Current
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
(VSUP = VSUPSW = 14V, VEN = 14V, VOUT = 5V, VFYSNC = 0V, RFOSC = 12kI, TA = +25NC, unless otherwise noted.)
4.99
7
5
4
3
5.02
5V/2.2MHz
SKIP MODE
0
6
5.05
12
18
24
30
36
5.00
4.98
4.96
4.94
VIN = 14V,
PWM MODE
4.92
4.90
6
12
18
24
30
36
42
VIN (V)
SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
TEMPERATURE (°C)
VOUT vs. VIN
FULL-LOAD STARTUP BEHAVIOR
SLOW VIN RAMP BEHAVIOR
MAX16936 toc14
5V/400kHz
PWM MODE
ILOAD = 0A
5.03
4.96
4.95
4.94
-40 -25 -10 5 20 35 50 65 80 95 110 125
MAX16936 toc13
1
4.97
4.93
4.92
4.91
4.90
MAX16936 toc12
5.04
VOUT (V)
VBIAS (V)
6
5V/2.2MHz
PWM MODE
ILOAD = 0A
5.06
4.98
2
VOUT (V)
ILOAD = 0A
5.01
5.00
5.08
MAX16936 toc11
8
SUPPLY CURRENT (µA)
5.02
MAX16936 toc10
9
VOUT vs. VIN
VBIAS vs. TEMPERATURE
SHDN CURRENT vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE
10
MAX16936 toc15
10V/div
0V
5V/div
0V
VIN
VOUT
5.01
VIN
0V
VOUT
0V
5V/div
1A/div
4.99
10V/div
5V/div
0A VPGOOD
5V/div
ILOAD
4.97
VPGOOD
0V
2A/div
0V
ILOAD
4.95
6
12
18
24
30
2ms
36
0A
4s
VIN (V)
SLOW VIN RAMP BEHAVIOR
SYNC FUNCTION
MAX16936 toc16
DIPS AND DROPS TEST
MAX16936 toc17
MAX16936 toc18
10V/div
10V/div
VIN
0V
VIN
5V/div
VLX
5V/div
0V
VPGOOD
VFSYNC
2V/div
0V
10V/div
VLX
0V
2A/div
ILOAD
Maxim Integrated
5V/div
VPGOOD
0A
4s
0V
5V/div
VOUT
0V
VOUT
5V/2.2MHz
5V/div
200ns
0V
10ms
6
MAX16936
36V, 220kHz to 2.2MHz Step-Down Converter
with 28µA Quiescent Current
Typical Operating Characteristics (continued)
(VSUP = VSUPSW = 14V, VEN = 14V, VOUT = 5V, VFYSNC = 0V, RFOSC = 12kI, TA = +25NC, unless otherwise noted.)
COLD CRANK
LOAD DUMP
MAX16936 toc19
MAX16936 toc20
VIN
2V/div
VOUT
2V/div
VPGOOD
10V/div
VIN
0V
VOUT
5V/div
2V/div
0V
0V
400ms
100ms
SHORT CIRCUIT IN PWM MODE
LOAD TRANSIENT (PWM MODE)
MAX16936 toc22
MAX16936 toc21
FSW = 2.2MHz
VOUT = 5V
VOUT
(AC-COUPLED)
2V/div
200mV/div
VOUT
0V
INDUCTOR
CURRENT
0A
2A/div
2A/div
LOAD
CURRENT
0A
5V/div
PGOOD
100µs
Maxim Integrated
0V
10ms
7
MAX16936
36V, 220kHz to 2.2MHz Step-Down Converter
with 28µA Quiescent Current
LX
SUPSW
SUP
EN
16 15 14 13 12 11 10
BST
EN
SUPSW
SUP
LX
LX
PGND
TOP VIEW
PGOOD
Pin Configurations
12
11
10
9
9
LX 13
PGND 14
MAX16936
MAXX16936
PGOOD 15
SYNCOUT 16
7
8
1
2
3
FSYNC
FOSC
OUT
FOSC
6
BIAS
FSYNC
5
AGND
SYNCOUT
4
COMP
3
FB
2
OUT
1
EP
+
BST
7
AGND
6
BIAS
5
COMP
4
FB
EP
+
8
TQFN
TSSOP
Pin Descriptions
PIN
NAME
FUNCTION
TSSOP
TQFN
1
16
SYNCOUT
2
1
FSYNC
Synchronization Input. The device synchronizes to an external signal applied to FSYNC.
Connect FSYNC to AGND to enable skip mode operation. Connect to BIAS or to an
external clock to enable fixed-frequency forced PWM mode operation.
3
2
FOSC
Resistor-Programmable Switching Frequency Setting Control Input. Connect a resistor
from FOSC to AGND to set the switching frequency.
4
3
OUT
Switching Regulator Output. OUT also provides power to the internal circuitry when the
output voltage of the converter is set between 3V to 5V during standby mode.
5
4
FB
Feedback Input. Connect an external resistive divider from OUT to FB and AGND to set
the output voltage. Connect to BIAS to set the output voltage to 5V.
6
5
COMP
7
6
BIAS
8
7
AGND
9
8
BST
Maxim Integrated
Open-Drain Clock Output. SYNCOUT outputs 180N out-of-phase signal relative to the
internal oscillator. Connect to OUT with a resistor between 100I and 1kW for 2MHz
operation. For low frequency operation, use a resistor between 1kW and 10kW.
Error Amplifier Output. Connect an RC network from COMP to AGND for stable
operation. See the Compensation Network section for more information.
Linear Regulator Output. BIAS powers up the internal circuitry. Bypass with a 1FF
capacitor to ground.
Analog Ground
High-Side Driver Supply. Connect a 0.1FF capacitor between LX and BST for
proper operation.
8
MAX16936
36V, 220kHz to 2.2MHz Step-Down Converter
with 28µA Quiescent Current
Pin Descriptions (continued)
PIN
NAME
FUNCTION
9
EN
SUP Voltage Compatible Enable Input. Drive EN low to disable the device. Drive EN high
to enable the device.
11
10
SUP
Voltage Supply Input. SUP powers up the internal linear regulator. Bypass SUP to PGND
with a 4.7FF ceramic capacitor.
12
11
SUPSW
13, 14
12, 13
LX
15
14
PGND
16
15
PGOOD
Open-Drain, Active-Low Power-Good Output. PGOOD asserts when VOUT is above 95%
regulation point. PGOOD goes low when VOUT is below 92% regulation point.
—
—
EP
Exposed Pad. Connect EP to a large-area contiguous copper ground plane for effective
power dissipation. Do not use as the only IC ground connection. EP must be connected
to PGND.
TSSOP
TQFN
10
Internal High-Side Switch Supply Input. SUPSW provides power to the internal switch.
Bypass SUPSW to PGND with 0.1FF and 4.7FF ceramic capacitors.
Inductor Switching Node. Connect a Schottky diode between LX and AGND.
Power Ground
Detailed Description
The MAX16936 is a 2.5A current-mode step-down
converter with integrated high-side and low-side MOSFETs
designed to operate with an external Schottky diode for
better efficiency. The low-side MOSFET enables fixedfrequency forced-PWM (FPWM) operation under light-load
applications. The device operates with input voltages from
3.5V to 36V, while using only 28FA quiescent current at no
load. The switching frequency is resistor programmable
from 220kHz to 2.2MHz and can be synchronized to an
external clock. The output voltage is available as 5V/3.3V
fixed or adjustable from 1V to 10V. The wide input voltage
range along with its ability to operate at 98% duty cycle
during undervoltage transients make the device ideal for
automotive and industrial applications.
Under light-load applications, the FSYNC logic input
allows the device to either operate in skip mode for
reduced current consumption or fixed-frequency FPWM
mode to eliminate frequency variation to minimize EMI.
Fixed frequency FPWM mode is extremely useful for
power supplies designed for RF transceivers where tight
emission control is necessary. Protection features include
cycle-by-cycle current limit, overvoltage protection, and
thermal shutdown with automatic recovery. Additional features include a power-good monitor to ease power-supply
Maxim Integrated
sequencing and a 180N out-of-phase clock output relative to the
internal oscillator at SYNCOUT to create cascaded power
supplies with multiple devices.
Wide Input Voltage Range
The device includes two separate supply inputs (SUP and
SUPSW) specified for a wide 3.5V to 36V input voltage
range. VSUP provides power to the device and VSUPSW
provides power to the internal switch. When the device
is operating with a 3.5V input supply, conditions such as
cold crank can cause the voltage at SUP and SUPSW to
drop below the programmed output voltage. Under such
conditions, the device operates in a high duty-cycle mode
to facilitate minimum dropout from input to output.
Linear Regulator Output (BIAS)
The device includes a 5V linear regulator (BIAS) that provides power to the internal circuit blocks. Connect a 1FF
ceramic capacitor from BIAS to AGND. When the output
voltage is set between 3V and 5.5V, the internal linear
regulator only provides power until the output is in regulation. The internal linear regulator turns off once the output
is in regulation and allows OUT to provide power to the
device. The internal regulator turns back on once the
external load on the output of the device is higher than
100mA. In addition, the linear regulator turns on anytime
the output voltage is outside the 3V to 5.5V range.
9
MAX16936
36V, 220kHz to 2.2MHz Step-Down Converter
with 28µA Quiescent Current
OUT
COMP
FB
FBSW
PGOOD
FBOK
EN
SUP
AON
HVLDO
BIAS
SWITCH
OVER
BST
SUPSW
EAMP
LOGIC
PWM
HSD
REF
LX
CS
SOFT
START
BIAS
LSD
MAX16936
PGND
SLOPE
COMP
SYNCOUT
OSC
FSYNC
FOSC
AGND
Figure 1. Internal Block Diagram
Power-Good Output (PGOOD)
The device features an open-drain power-good output,
PGOOD. PGOOD asserts when VOUT rises above 95%
of its regulation voltage. PGOOD deasserts when VOUT
drops below 92% of its regulation voltage. Connect
PGOOD to BIAS with a 10kI resistor.
Synchronization Input (FSYNC)
FSYNC is a logic-level input useful for operating mode
selection and frequency control. Connecting FSYNC to
BIAS or to an external clock enables fixed-frequency
FPWM operation. Connecting FSYNC to AGND enables
skip mode operation.
The external clock frequency at FSYNC can be higher
or lower than the internal clock by 20%. Ensure the duty
cycle of the external clock used has a minimum pulse
Maxim Integrated
width of 100ns. The device synchronizes to the external
clock within one cycle. When the external clock signal
at FSYNC is absent for more than two clock cycles, the
device reverts back to the internal clock.
System Enable (EN)
An enable control input (EN) activates the device from its
low-power shutdown mode. EN is compatible with inputs
from automotive battery level down to 3.5V. The high voltage compatibility allows EN to be connected to SUP, KEY/
KL30, or the inhibit pin (INH) of a CAN transceiver.
EN turns on the internal regulator. Once VBIAS is above the
internal lockout threshold, VUVL = 3.15V (typ), the controller activates and the output voltage ramps up within 8ms.
10
MAX16936
36V, 220kHz to 2.2MHz Step-Down Converter
with 28µA Quiescent Current
A logic-low at EN shuts down the device. During shutdown, the internal linear regulator and gate drivers turn
off. Shutdown is the lowest power state and reduces the
quiescent current to 5FA (typ). Drive EN high to bring the
device out of shutdown.
Spread-Spectrum Option
The MAX16936 has an internal spread-spectrum option
to optimize EMI performance. This is factory set and the
S-version of the IC should be ordered. For spread-spectrum-enabled ICs, the operating frequency is varied ±6%
centered on FOSC. The modulation signal is a triangular
wave with a period of 110µs at 2.2MHz. Therefore, FOSC will
ramp down 6% and back to 2.2MHz in 110µs and also ramp
up 6% and back to 2.2MHz in 110µs. The cycle repeats.
For operations at FOSC values other than 2.2MHz, the modulation signal scales proportionally, e.g., at 400kHz, the 110µs
modulation period increases to 110µs x 2.2MHz/400kHz =
605µs.
The internal spread spectrum is disabled if the IC is synced
to an external clock. However, the IC does not filter the
input clock and passes any modulation (including spreadspectrum) present on the driving external clock to the
SYNCOUT pin.
Automatic Slew-Rate Control on LX
The MAX16936 has automatic slew-rate adjustment that
optimizes the rise times on the internal HSFET gate drive to
minimize EMI. The IC detects the internal clock frequency
and adjusts the slew rate accordingly. When the user
selects the external frequency setting resistor RFOSC such
that the frequency is > 1.1MHz, the HSFET is turned on in
4ns (typ). When the frequency is < 1.1MHz the HSFET is
turned on in 8ns (typ). This slew-rate control optimizes the
rise time on LX node externally to minimize EMI while maintaining good efficiency.
Internal Oscillator (FOSC)
The switching frequency, fSW, is set by a resistor (RFOSC)
connected from FOSC to AGND. See Figure 3 to select
the correct RFOSC value for the desired switching frequency. For example, a 400kHz switching frequency is set
with RFOSC = 73.2kI. Higher frequencies allow designs
with lower inductor values and less output capacitance.
Consequently, peak currents and I2R losses are lower at
higher switching frequencies, but core losses, gate charge
currents, and switching losses increase.
Overtemperature Protection
Thermal-overload protection limits the total power dissipation in the device. When the junction temperature
exceeds 175NC (typ), an internal thermal sensor shuts
down the internal bias regulator and the step-down controller, allowing the device to cool. The thermal sensor
turns on the device again after the junction temperature
cools by 15NC.
Applications Information
Setting the Output Voltage
Connect FB to BIAS for a fixed +5V/+3.3 output voltage.
To set the output to other voltages between 1V and 10V,
connect a resistive divider from output (OUT) to FB to
AGND (Figure 2). Use the following formula to determine
the RFB2 of the resistive divider network:
RFB2 = RTOTAL x VFB/VOUT
where VFB = 1V, RTOTAL = selected total resistance of
RFB1, RFB2 in ω, and VOUT is the desired output in volts.
Calculate RFB1 (OUT to FB resistor) with the following
equation:
 V
 
=
R FB1 R FB2  OUT  − 1
 VFB  
where VFB = 1V (see the Electrical Characteristics table).
FPWM/Skip Modes
The MAX16936 offers a pin selectable skip mode or fixedfrequency PWM mode option. The IC has an internal LS
MOSFET that turns on when the FSYNC pin is connected to
VBIAS or if there is a clock present on the FSYNC pin. This
enables the fixed-frequency-forced PWM mode operation
over the entire load range. This option allows the user to
maintain fixed frequency over the entire load range in applications that require tight control on EMI. Even though the
MAX16936 has an internal LS MOSFET for fixed-frequency
operation, an external Schottky diode is still required to supVOUT
RFB1
MAX16936
FB
RFB2
Synchronizing Output (SYNCOUT)
SYNCOUT is an open-drain output that outputs a 180N
out-of-phase signal relative to the internal oscillator.
Maxim Integrated
Figure 2. Adjustable Output Voltage Setting
11
MAX16936
36V, 220kHz to 2.2MHz Step-Down Converter
with 28µA Quiescent Current
port the entire load range. If the FSYNC pin is connected
to GND, the skip mode is enabled on the MAX16936.
In skip mode of operation, the converter’s switching frequency is load dependent. At higher load current, the
switching frequency does not change and the operating
mode is similar to the FPWM mode. Skip mode helps
improve efficiency in light-load applications by allowing
the converters to turn on the high-side switch only when
the output voltage falls below a set threshold. As such,
the converters do not switch MOSFETs on and off as
often as is the case in the FPWM mode. Consequently,
the gate charge and switching losses are much lower in
skip mode.
Inductor Selection
Three key inductor parameters must be specified for
operation with the device: inductance value (L), inductor
saturation current (ISAT), and DC resistance (RDCR). To
select inductance value, the ratio of inductor peak-topeak AC current to DC average current (LIR) must be
selected first. A good compromise between size and loss
is a 30% peak-to-peak ripple current to average current
ratio (LIR = 0.3). The switching frequency, input voltage,
output voltage, and selected LIR then determine the
inductor value as follows:
Input Capacitor
The input filter capacitor reduces peak currents drawn
from the power source and reduces noise and voltage
ripple on the input caused by the circuit’s switching.
The input capacitor RMS current requirement (IRMS) is
defined by the following equation:
IRMS = ILOAD(MAX)
IRMS has a maximum value when the input voltage
equals twice the output voltage (VSUP = 2VOUT), so
IRMS(MAX) = ILOAD(MAX) /2.
Choose an input capacitor that exhibits less than +10NC
self-heating temperature rise at the RMS input current for
optimal long-term reliability.
The input voltage ripple is composed of DVQ (caused
by the capacitor discharge) and DVESR (caused by the
ESR of the capacitor). Use low-ESR ceramic capacitors
with high ripple current capability at the input. Assume
the contribution from the ESR and capacitor discharge
equal to 50%. Calculate the input capacitance and ESR
required for a specified input voltage ripple using the following equations:
V
(V
− VOUT )
L = OUT SUP
VSUP fSW IOUT LIR
ESRIN =
SWITCHING FREQUENCY vs. RFOSC
MAX16936 toc08
SWITCHING FREQUENCY (MHz)
2.25
2.00
1.75
∆IL
2
where:
− VOUT ) × VOUT
(V
∆IL = SUP
VSUP × fSW × L
and:
=
CIN
IOUT × D(1 − D)
VOUT
=
and D
∆VQ × fSW
VSUPSW
where IOUT is the maximum output current and D is the
duty cycle.
1.50
1.25
1.00
0.75
0.50
0.25
0
12
42
72
RFOSC (kΩ)
Figure 3. Switching Frequency vs. RFOSC
Maxim Integrated
∆VESR
IOUT +
where VSUP, VOUT, and IOUT are typical values (so that
efficiency is optimum for typical conditions). The switching
frequency is set by RFOSC (see Figure 3).
2.50
VOUT (VSUP − VOUT )
VSUP
102
132
Output Capacitor
The output filter capacitor must have low enough ESR
to meet output ripple and load transient requirements.
The output capacitance must be high enough to absorb
the inductor energy while transitioning from full-load
to no-load conditions without tripping the overvoltage
fault protection. When using high-capacitance, low-ESR
capacitors, the filter capacitor’s ESR dominates the output
12
MAX16936
36V, 220kHz to 2.2MHz Step-Down Converter
with 28µA Quiescent Current
voltage ripple. So the size of the output capacitor depends
on the maximum ESR required to meet the output voltage
ripple (VRIPPLE(P-P)) specifications:
VOUT
R1
VRIPPLE (P −P ) =
ESR × ILOAD (MAX ) × LIR
The actual capacitance value required relates to the
physical size needed to achieve low ESR, as well as
to the chemistry of the capacitor technology. Thus, the
capacitor is usually selected by ESR and voltage rating
rather than by capacitance value.
When using low-capacity filter capacitors, such as ceramic
capacitors, size is usually determined by the capacity
needed to prevent voltage droop and voltage rise from
causing problems during load transients. Generally,
once enough capacitance is added to meet the overshoot requirement, undershoot at the rising load edge
is no longer a problem. However, low capacity filter
capacitors typically have high ESR zeros that can affect
the overall stability.
Rectifier Selection
The device requires an external Schottky diode rectifier
as a freewheeling diode when the device is configured
for skip mode operation. Connect this rectifier close to the
device using short leads and short PCB traces. In FPWM
mode, the Schottky diode helps minimize efficiency losses by diverting the inductor current that would otherwise
flow through the low-side MOSFET. Choose a rectifier
with a voltage rating greater than the maximum expected
input voltage, VSUPSW. Use a low forward-voltage-drop
Schottky rectifier to limit the negative voltage at LX. Avoid
higher than necessary reverse-voltage Schottky rectifiers
that have higher forward-voltage drops.
Compensation Network
The device uses an internal transconductance error amplifier with its inverting input and its output available to the
user for external frequency compensation. The output
capacitor and compensation network determine the loop
stability. The inductor and the output capacitor are chosen
based on performance, size, and cost. Additionally, the
compensation network optimizes the control-loop stability.
The controller uses a current-mode control scheme that
regulates the output voltage by forcing the required current through the external inductor. The device uses the
voltage drop across the high-side MOSFET to sense
inductor current. Current-mode control eliminates the
double pole in the feedback loop caused by the inductor
and output capacitor, resulting in a smaller phase shift
Maxim Integrated
COMP
gm
R2
VREF
RC
CF
CC
Figure 4. Compensation Network
and requiring less elaborate error-amplifier compensation
than voltage-mode control. Only a simple single-series
resistor (RC) and capacitor (CC) are required to have a
stable, high-bandwidth loop in applications where ceramic
capacitors are used for output filtering (Figure 4). For other
types of capacitors, due to the higher capacitance and
ESR, the frequency of the zero created by the capacitance
and ESR is lower than the desired closed-loop crossover
frequency. To stabilize a nonceramic output capacitor
loop, add another compensation capacitor (CF) from
COMP to GND to cancel this ESR zero.
The basic regulator loop is modeled as a power modulator,
output feedback divider, and an error amplifier. The power
modulator has a DC gain set by gm O RLOAD, with a pole and
zero pair set by RLOAD, the output capacitor (COUT), and its
ESR. The following equations allow to approximate the value
for the gain of the power modulator (GAINMOD(dc)), neglecting the effect of the ramp stabilization. Ramp stabilization is
necessary when the duty cycle is above 50% and is
internally done for the device.
GAINMOD ( dc
=
) g m × R LOAD
where RLOAD = VOUT /ILOUT(MAX) in I and gm = 3S.
In a current-mode step-down converter, the output
capacitor, its ESR, and the load resistance introduce a
pole at the following frequency:
fpMOD
= 1 (2 π × C OUT × R LOAD)
The output capacitor and its ESR also introduce a zero at:
fzMOD =
1
2 π × ESR × C OUT
13
MAX16936
36V, 220kHz to 2.2MHz Step-Down Converter
with 28µA Quiescent Current
When COUT is composed of “n” identical capacitors in
parallel, the resulting COUT = n O COUT(EACH), and ESR
= ESR(EACH)/n. Note that the capacitor zero for a parallel combination of alike capacitors is the same as for an
individual capacitor.
The feedback voltage-divider has a gain of GAINFB = VFB /
VOUT, where VFB is 1V (typ). The transconductance error
amplifier has a DC gain of GAINEA(dc) = gm,EA O ROUT,EA,
where gm,EA is the error amplifier transconductance,
which is 700FS (typ), and ROUT,EA is the output resistance of the error amplifier 50MI.
A dominant pole (fdpEA) is set by the compensation
capacitor (CC) and the amplifier output resistance
(ROUT,EA). A zero (fzEA) is set by the compensation
resistor (RC) and the compensation capacitor (CC).
There is an optional pole (fpEA) set by CF and RC to
cancel the output capacitor ESR zero if it occurs near
the cross over frequency (fC, where the loop gain equals
1 (0dB)). Thus:
fdpEA =
1
2 π × C C × (R OUT,EA + R C )
fzEA =
1
2π × C C × R C
fpEA =
1
2π × CF × R C
The loop-gain crossover frequency (fC) should be set
below 1/5th of the switching frequency and much higher
than the power-modulator pole (fpMOD):
f
fpMOD << fC ≤ SW
5
The total loop gain as the product of the modulator gain,
the feedback voltage-divider gain, and the error amplifier
gain at fC should be equal to 1. So:
GAINMOD(fC) ×
VFB
× GAINEA(fC) =
1
VOUT
= g m, EA × R C
GAINEA(fC)
fpMOD
=
GAIN
MOD(fC) GAINMOD(dc) ×
fC
Therefore:
GAINMOD(fC) ×
Maxim Integrated
VFB
× g m,EA × R C =
1
VOUT
Solving for RC:
RC =
VOUT
g m,EA × VFB × GAINMOD(fC)
Set the error-amplifier compensation zero formed by RC
and CC (fzEA) at the fpMOD. Calculate the value of CC a
follows:
CC =
1
2 π × fpMOD × R C
If fzMOD is less than 5 x fC, add a second capacitor,
CF, from COMP to GND and set the compensation pole
formed by RC and CF (fpEA) at the fzMOD. Calculate the
value of CF as follows:
CF =
1
2 π × fzMOD × R C
As the load current decreases, the modulator pole
also decreases; however, the modulator gain increases
accordingly and the crossover frequency remains the
same.
PCB Layout Guidelines
Careful PCB layout is critical to achieve low switching
losses and clean, stable operation. Use a multilayer board
whenever possible for better noise immunity and power
dissipation. Follow these guidelines for good PCB layout:
1)Use a large contiguous copper plane under the IC
package. Ensure that all heat-dissipating components
have adequate cooling. The bottom pad of the IC
must be soldered down to this copper plane for effective heat dissipation and for getting the full power out
of the IC. Use multiple vias or a single large via in this
plane for heat dissipation.
2)Isolate the power components and high current path
from the sensitive analog circuitry. Doing so is essential
to prevent any noise coupling into the analog signals.
3)Keep the high-current paths short, especially at the
ground terminals. This practice is essential for stable,
jitter-free operation. The high-current path composed
of the input capacitor, high-side FET, inductor, and
the output capacitor should be as short as possible.
4) Keep the power traces and load connections short. This
practice is essential for high efficiency. Use thick copper PCBs (2oz vs. 1oz) to enhance full-load efficiency.
5) The analog signal lines should be routed away from
the high-frequency planes. Doing so ensures integrity
of sensitive signals feeding back into the IC.
14
MAX16936
36V, 220kHz to 2.2MHz Step-Down Converter
with 28µA Quiescent Current
6) The ground connection for the analog and power section should be close to the IC. This keeps the ground
current loops to a minimum. In cases where only one
ground is used, enough isolation between analog return
signals and high power signals must be maintained.
Typical Application Circuit
VBAT
CIN1
CIN2
SUP
LX
FSYNC
MAX16936
CCOMP1
1000pF
RCOMP
20kI
VOUT
FOSC
VBIAS
RSYNCOUT
100I
BIAS
PGOOD
SYNCOUT
PGND
Maxim Integrated
COUT
22µF
D1
VBIAS
VOUT
5V AT 2.5A
FB
RFOSC
12kI
CBIAS
1µF
VOUT
OUT
COMP
CCOMP2
12pF
L1
2.2µH
BST
EN
OSC SYNC PULSE
CBST
0.1µF
SUPSW
RPGOOD
10kI
POWER-GOOD OUTPUT
180° OUT-OF-PHASE OUTPUT
AGND
15
MAX16936
36V, 220kHz to 2.2MHz Step-Down Converter
with 28µA Quiescent Current
Ordering Information/Selector Guide
VOUT
PART
ADJUSTABLE
(FB CONNECTED TO
RESISTIVE DIVIDER) (V)
FIXED
(FB CONNECTED
TO BIAS) (V)
SPREAD
SPECTRUM
TEMP RANGE
PIN-PACKAGE
MAX16936RAUEA/V+
1 to 10
5
Off
-40°C to +125°C
16 TSSOP-EP**
MAX16936RAUEB/V+
1 to 10
3.3
Off
-40°C to +125°C
16 TSSOP-EP**
MAX16936SAUEA/V+
1 to 10
5
On
-40°C to +125°C
16 TSSOP-EP**
MAX16936SAUEB/V+
1 to 10
3.3
On
-40°C to +125°C
16 TSSOP-EP**
MAX16936RATEA/V+
1 to 10
5
Off
-40°C to +125°C
16 TQFN-EP**
MAX16936RATEB/V+
1 to 10
3.3
Off
-40°C to +125°C
16 TQFN-EP**
MAX16936SATEA/V+
1 to 10
5
On
-40°C to +125°C
16 TQFN-EP**
3.3
On
-40°C to +125°C
16 TQFN-EP**
MAX16936SATEB/V+
1 to 10
/V denotes an automotive qualified part.
+Denotes a lead(Pb)-free/RoHS-compliant package.
**EP = Exposed pad.
Chip Information
PROCESS: BiCMOS
Package Information
For the latest package outline information and land patterns (footprints), go to www.maximintegrated.com/packages. Note that a
“+”, “#”, or “-” in the package code indicates RoHS status only.
Package drawings may show a different suffix character, but the
drawing pertains to the package regardless of RoHS status.
PACKAGE
TYPE
Maxim Integrated
PACKAGE
CODE
OUTLINE
NO.
LAND
PATTERN NO.
16 TSSOP-EP
U16E+3
21-0108
90-0120
16 TQFN-EP
T1655+4
21-0140
90-0121
16
MAX16936
36V, 220kHz to 2.2MHz Step-Down Converter
with 28µA Quiescent Current
Revision History
REVISION
NUMBER
REVISION
DATE
0
3/13
Initial release
—
1
4/13
Added non-automotive OPNs to Ordering Information/Selector Guide
16
2
8/13
Updated FPWM and Skip Mode output voltages in Electrical Characteristics, Internal
Oscillator (FOSC) and Compensation Network sections, and removed the non2, 3, 11, 13, 16
automotive parts from the Ordering Information/Selector Guide
3
11/13
Removed future product references from the Ordering Information/Selector Guide
4
2/14
Changed the BST capacitor value from 0.22µF to 0.1µF in Pin Descriptions and
Typical Application Circuit; updated the Linear Regulator Output (BIAS) section
5
3/14
Added lead-free designation to TQFN package code
DESCRIPTION
PAGES
CHANGED
16
8, 9, 15
16
Maxim Integrated cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim Integrated product. No circuit patent
licenses are implied. Maxim Integrated reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time. The parametric values (min and
max limits) shown in the Electrical Characteristics table are guaranteed. Other parametric values quoted in this data sheet are provided for guidance.
Maxim Integrated 160 Rio Robles, San Jose, CA 95134 USA 1-408-601-1000
© 2014 Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.
17
Maxim Integrated and the Maxim Integrated logo are trademarks of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.
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