NDIRF Aquatics manual - North Dakota Insurance Reserve Fund

NDIRF Aquatics manual - North Dakota Insurance Reserve Fund
NEW LEGISLATION THAT COULD AFFECT YOU!
President Inks New Aquatics Law
(This article appeared in the NDIRF Participator)
In an unprecedented move, George W. Bush signed a new law concerning the swimming pool,
spa and hot tub industry.
The Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act was passed as an amendment to a
comprehensive energy bill. Virginia Graeme Baker was the granddaughter of the former
Secretary of State James “Jim” Baker. She died after becoming entrapped by the suction of a spa
drain, thus drowning her. The new law takes effect December 19, 2008.
Pool and spas must have entrapment-proof drain covers. Existing non-compliant drains and pools
must be retrofitted to comply with the new law. Main drains must comply with ASME/ANSI
A112.19.8. Public pools with a single main drain (other than the unblockable kind) also will
need a system designed to prevent suction entrapment. This would include a safety vacuum
release, gravity drainage system, suction-limiting vent system, automatic pump shut-off system,
and drain disablement system or other system determined to be effective. The Consumer
Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is involved with the new legislation. The comment period
to the CPSC closed on March 28, 2008. However, their 4-page interpretation drafts of compliant
equipment is still available online at http://www.cpsc.gov/pssa.html
There is also a grant program that will be established for those states that pass laws addressing
drowning and entrapment prevention. The CPSC is the governing agency responsible for
determining qualifying legislation.
Numerous states have their own laws (North Dakota has virtually none) that regulate pools, spas
and hot tubs. Many cities also have their own local ordinances that regulate these. We suggest
that entities owning a pool, spa and/or hot tub carefully examine their equipment for compliance
using the CPSC drafts as a guide.
Late additions that did not appear in the original article:
1.
This legislation will apply to all pools and spas (hot tubs) operated by a
governmental entity regardless of whether is fee is charged or not. It will also
apply to organizations that have members, apartment complexes, and hotels.
2.
Enforcement of the law will begin in 12 months.
3.
Safety vacuum release systems must be tested by an independent third party to
conform to ASME/ANSI Standard 112.19.17 or ASTM Standard F2387.
4.
We strongly recommend that documentation of conformance to standards be kept
on file.
January 2014
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ADA Swimming Pool Guidelines Now Law
The President has signed into law new revisions to the Title II (states, local governments, &
public entities) and Title III (non-profits and businesses open to the public) provisions of the
Americans with Disabilities Act or ADA. Included was the adoption of the 2010 Standards for
Accessible Design that codifies accessibility requirements for pools. The term “pools” includes
spas, lazy rivers, and wave pools.
Generally, the rules are effective after a six-month grace period. Compliance is expected after 18
months. Failure to comply with these regulations could subject you to lawsuits and/or
complaints filed with the Department of Justice.
Some exceptions will be allowed. To be granted an exception you must prove undue financial
hardship, reasonable accommodations are not readily achievable, or compliance would
significantly alter the historic nature of your facility. The Department of Justice has warned that
this will be difficult to prove.
How you respond depends on the total lineal footage of your pool’s walls. A pool with 300+
lineal feet of pool wall requires you to have at least two accessible means of entry. One entry
must be either a sloped entry or a pool lift. The secondary entry can be a lift, sloped entry,
access stairs, transfer system or transfer wall. There are specifications included in the guidelines
for each type of entry.
The Model Aquatic Health Code or MAHC
The Model Aquatic Health Code may be new to some and familiar to others that are affected.
The National Swimming Pool Foundation, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC) along with public health and industry representatives from across the nation are working
on this new set of guidelines for the aquatics industry. The term “guidelines” is used guardedly
as many entities will adopt the MAHC as a law, regulation, or ordinance.
The impetus for this code is the lack of a uniform national set of pool codes. This has led to a
hodge-podge approach to design, construction, operation, and maintenance of aquatic facilities.
The new code is designed to be a data-driven and knowledge-based risk reduction approach
providing a user-friendly scientifically supported uniform model national code.
Not yet completed. The difficult task of establishing a consensus amongst so many different
entities and individuals takes time. Twelve technical committees have been established based on
specialized knowledge and expertise. The committees are:





Contamination Burden,
Disinfection & Water Quality,
Facility Design & Construction,
Hygiene Facilities,
Lifeguarding/Bather Supervision,
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




Monitoring & Testing,
Recirculation Systems & Filtration,
Regulatory Program Administration,
Risk Management/Safety, and
Ventilation & Air Quality.
We at the NDIRF look forward to the completion of this code. It will greatly simplify and
provide support for our recommendations made in surveys of our members’ aquatics facilities.
For detailed information on the Revised ADA Regulations visit:
http://www.ada.gov/regs2010/ADAregs2010.htm
For detailed information on the proposed Model Aquatic Health Code visit:
http://www.cdc.gov/healthywaters/swimming/pools/mahc
Acknowledgements
We would like to thank the following for their input, assistance, and guidance in establishing this
manual:
North Dakota Recreation and Parks Association
Lorri Amsden - Williston Parks and Recreation Department
Rick Bergeson - 1st District Health Unit
Wayne Beyer - Wahpeton Parks and Recreation
Randy Bina - Bismarck Park District
Leo Brunner - Minot Park District
Barb Erbstoesser - West Fargo Park District
Bob Gillen - Grand Forks Park District
Jeff Gustafson - Hazen Parks and Recreation
Doug Hogan - Jamestown Parks and Recreation
Tyler Jacobson - Valley City Parks and Recreation
Dave Klundt - Fargo Park District
James Kramer - Dickinson Parks and Recreation Department
Steve Neu - Bismarck Park District
Ann Poeschel - West – Grafton Parks and Recreation Department
Brigid Robinson - Beulah Parks and Recreation
Jim Sullivan - Williston Parks and Recreation Department
Terry Wallace - Devil’s Lake Park Board
January 2014
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Introduction
The pool needs to open soon and there are a million things to do. “Where do I go?” “What is
that?” “How do I do that?” “Who has the answers I need?” If you are an operator of a medium
to smaller pool, you’ve probably asked these questions. This manual is for you! It was meant to
provide you with some answers to these questions.
Swimming pools should be fun and safe places for all of our citizens to recreate. And for the
most part, they are. However, accidents do occur at our swimming facilities every year; from
stubbed toes to slip and falls, to chlorine leaks and drowning. This manual will help to point out
some of the areas where these accidents occur along with ideas on preventing them from ever
occurring.
This manual is NOT the definitive book on pool operations and will not answer all of your
questions. If we did that, the manual would be huge. In performing our Liability Hazard
Surveys over the years, we have found commonalities in our swimming facilities across the
State. These are the areas we focused on. And in the absence of State guidelines or regulations,
we also have found that there are just about as many differences as commonalities. Some of
these commonalities and differences create problems. “So what is the standard for this?” “How
is this supposed to be done?” We have distilled information from a variety of sources and
reworked it into a format that hopefully, you will find useful. It is a “meat and potatoes” manual
with very little in terms of philosophy. This doesn’t mean that ideas and presented in this
manual are the ONLY ways to do something.
If this manual eliminates headaches for you, answers some of your questions, and generally helps
you to run a safer and smoother aquatics operation, we have succeeded in our objective.
January 2014
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
New Legislation That Could Affect You Article
Pages 1 – 3
Acknowledgements
Page 3
Introduction
Page 4
Table of Contents
Page 5
Codes and Standards
Pages 6, 7
Employee Acknowledgement Form
Page 8
Employment Disclaimer Form
Page 9
A Short Course in Duty
Pages 10 - 18
Opening Your Pool
Pages 18, 19
Pool Manual
Pages 19 - 57
Marketing
Pages 58, 59
Skin and Eye Care
Pages 59 – 62
Customer Relations
Pages 62 - 67
Water Chemistry
Pages 67 - 86
Routine Maintenance
Pages 86 - 95
Closing Your Pool
Pages 95 - 102
Certifications
Pages 102 - 105
Employee Training Record
Page 106
Swimming Pool Standards and Agencies
Pages 107 - 118
Glossary
Pages 118 - 131
Index
Pages 131 - 137
January 2014
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Codes and Standards
These terms are not interchangeable. Codes are rules, designs, procedures and practices that
have been established to protect the public. The board establishing the codes is usually
comprised of experts in their particular field. Establishing or revising codes is a time consuming
process. There must be a balance between protecting the public, costs, and the time involved in
implementing the code. Frequently, governing political bodies (federal, state, and local) adopt
industry codes as law. Codes change as technology changes and new practices are established.
Occasionally there is some overlap in codes. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
and the Uniform Building Code (UBC) is one example. The differences usually stem from the
particular area of emphasis that each code applies to. This can create some interesting dilemmas.
One code says to have something one way, and another code says to have it a different way.
What do you do? You need to talk to the authorities with jurisdiction. These might include your
local building inspector, insurance professional, fire marshal, electrical inspector, etc. Most
likely, you will be asked to implement the more stringent of the codes. This of course is to
protect the public health and safety. The bad news is that frequently, although not always, this is
the more expensive code to implement.
Standards are frequently designs, rules, policies, and procedures that have been established by a
group or association of professionals or manufacturers with a common interest or area of
expertise. An example would be the Consumer Product Safety Commission’s guidelines for
public playground equipment. Most of the playground equipment manufacturers will produce
equipment that meets these guidelines. By having the vast majority of manufacturers all
producing equipment that meets these guidelines, there has been a standard created throughout
the industry. Standards will frequently be used as the minimum benchmark in litigation.
Guidelines are recommendations. They allow you some leeway in your implementation. Not all
situations can be accounted for when establishing codes and standards. Guidelines can assist you
in unusual or difficult situations. Common practice among entities or individuals frequently
comes from the guidelines area. In the absence of codes and standards, common practice can
become “the standard”.
The difficulty with swimming pool codes, standards, and guidelines lies in that there are
numerous entities or governing agencies with ties to swimming pool activities.
“Grand fathering” is frequently mentioned when discussing codes and standards. Some codes
will grand father certain areas and others may not. Your facility or parts of it may have met code
when it was constructed but may not meet today’s code. This situation should not be viewed as a
“way out” of upgrading. Entities should examine these areas and make some careful decisions.
Additionally, there can be a huge variance between pool agency standards. There is also
variance between different states and their respective statutes.
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Design Codes Affect Safety
Formulas and anticipated bather load are used when calculating the size of the swimming pool to
be constructed. It would not be unrealistic to have 300 bathers during peak attendance in a town
of 10,000 residents. To allow more bathers may compromise the ability of your sanitation system
to do its job. Allow more bathers will also probably violate your local health code.
Additionally, lifeguards may not be able to adequately do their job. Therefore it is important to
keep an accurate running count of the number of swimmers at the pool at all times.
Depths
The maximum and minimum depths for public pools can vary somewhat. The variation stems
from the types of activities being conducted at the pool and when the pool was constructed. For
example, family recreation, swimming lessons, competitive events. The shallow end of the pool
is usually 3 to 3 ½ feet deep. However there is a growing trend toward zero-depth entry pools.
This is somewhat in response to the Americans with Disabilities Act requirements.
Slope
Historically, the State of North Dakota has allowed a bottom slope of 1:15 ratio if the pool depth
(not water depth) is less than 5’6”. If the length of the pool is less than 42 feet in length, the ratio
changes to a maximum of 1:8. If designing a new pool, this may be different.
January 2014
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I have read, reviewed, and understand the contents of this Handbook. I understand
that this Handbook does not constitute a contract of employment. I understand
further that this book is the property of the ______________________________and
that it is to be returned upon termination of employment with the
__________________________.
________________________________________
Employee Signature
_________________
Date
________________________________________
Supervisor Signature
_________________
Date
cc: Employee’s personnel file
January 2014
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DISCLAIMER
The guidelines, policies and procedures set forth in this Handbook
are for the purpose of providing general information to employees
about the ____________________________________ operating
policies and guidelines concerning employment matters.
This Handbook does not represent an employment contract between
the _______________________________ and its employees. The
materials herein are for informational purposes only and may be
changed by the _____________________________at its sole
discretion.
Employees and the _____________________ are engaged in an at-will
employment relationship, meaning that either are free to terminate the
relationship at any time, with or without reason, and with or without
notice. The________________________________ is also not bound by any
oral promises concerning an employee’s length of employment.
THE __________________________
RESERVES THE
UNILATERAL RIGHT TO MAKE CHANGES TO THIS
EMPLOYEE HANDBOOK AT ANY TIME.
January 2014
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A SHORT COURSE IN DUTY
Negligence
The term is not synonymous with liability. Negligence is failing to do what a reasonable person
would do in a similar situation. It can also be; doing something that a reasonable person would
not have done in a similar situation. Sometimes this is called the “reasonable person” theory or
defense. It is important that you remember a “reasonable person” in this case means someone
who is in a similar capacity or has similar training; in other words, another pool person.
Generally, there needs to be all four of the following conditions present for there to be
negligence:
1.
2.
3.
4.
The person (or entity) has a duty.
The actions of the person or entity were a violation of law, obligation, or
standard (breach of duty).
Harm must result to another.
The breach was the direct cause of harm.
To avoid negligence, policies and procedures need to be established, written, followed as written,
and documented.
Consent
Before care is rendered for an ill or injured patron, it is preferable to obtain the person’s consent.
It is understood that this is not always possible. When asking for their consent you should
inform them as to:
*
*
*
*
Tell them who you are (lifeguard).
Why you wish render care (what you think is wrong).
What care you intend to administer.
Your level of training or expertise.
This is known as informed consent. It is advisable to have a witness to corroborate this consent.
Of course, this should be documented after the incident is over.
An injured person that is unconscious may be seriously ill, or confused. These people cannot
give you their verbal o.k. to treat them. In these cases, you are afforded some legal protection as
the law presumes that they would indeed grant you permission to treat them if they were able to
do so.
This is called implied consent. Implied consent also applies to minors needing emergency
assistance when their guardian is not immediately available.
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Refusal of Care
Occasionally, sick or injured people will refuse your offer of care. This is a tricky situation
because the victim may be confused or not understand the seriousness of their situation. Do not
abandon these people. Injuries and illness can rapidly deteriorate. You may need to render
immediate emergency assistance. Repeat your offer of assistance again. Observe these people
until they leave your facility. Offer to contact EMS and have them evaluate the person. It is best
if the sick or injured person can sign off on a form stating that they refused your offer of help. If
this is not possible, at least have another staff member witness their refusal. Then, of course you
will document this.
Abandonment
Once you start to treat someone, you must continue that treatment until the care is completed or
relieved by someone with a higher level of training like EMS personnel. In serious cases, such
as with cardiac arrest or non-breathing, you can only stop for one of two reasons:
1.
2.
You are relieved by someone who has equal or greater medical training than you
or,
You are physically unable to continue the treatment.
Stopping for any other reason than the two above could constitute abandonment.
Confidentiality
When you treat a sick or injured person, you will likely glean some personal information about
them. Just as treatment between you and your doctor is confidential, so is the treatment you
administer to your patrons. Remember, you are a professional! Probing reporters, attorneys, and
just plain folks will ask questions about the person and the treatment. Do not answer these
questions! Only EMS personnel and law enforcement personnel should be given information
about such matters. Ideally, this should be done in the presence of your pool manager.
Questions from all other individuals should be directed to pool manager.
Whenever an accident occurs, it is very important that only ONE person (usually the manager)
speaks with the media. This person may want to contact their employer’s attorney and/or
insurance carrier (agent) prior to discussing incidents at the pool with the public. Governing
officials such as City commissioners must keep mum on the incident unless they are the
designated spokesperson.
Documentation
If it isn’t written down, it didn’t happen. This is unfortunate, but true. Documentation or record
keeping is critical to protecting yourself and your entity. Good record keeping eliminates many
lawsuits. The detail of your record keeping will vary depending upon the purpose the record.
The length of time you keep records also will vary. Some only need to be kept for a short period
of time; others for years.
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Some of the reasons for keeping specific records include:
*
To comply with State and local statutes. For example, water quality testing.
*
To document accidents and injuries of your patrons or staff. Frequently, these records are
examined in litigation and workers compensation claims. They are also valuable tools in
determining areas for possible improvements.
*
To establish an expenditure history for specific areas, items, and operations. This is
important information for the budget process. A thorough cost history can justify future
expenditures.
*
To honor the conditions of warranties for specific items.
*
To insure that tasks, procedures and training are being performed on a timely basis and in
accordance with policy, code, and/or law.
*
To document the employment history of employees.
Some items need only minor documentation; others may require extensive. Getting started on
documentation is the hardest part. Most people don’t like to do paperwork. But, the more you
do it, the easier it becomes. It will become part of your normal routine.
Identifying Your Risks
No two pools in the North Dakota are alike. Consequently, there isn’t a cookie cutter program
for identifying all of your risks. First, you need to identify your particular risks before
determining any remedial action. Accept the fact that you and your pool operation are not
perfect. That’s o.k. as long as you are willing to improve. Remember, the risks are always
changing. Identifying and managing your risks is not just a one-time thing. They need to be
addressed on a continuous basis. Some areas need to be identified a couple times a day. Other
areas maybe only need to be evaluated once a year.
Evaluating Your Risks
You may find after identifying your risks that you have a lengthy list. Don’t become
discouraged! Not all risks will need to be eliminated. Using the “shotgun approach” is not
recommended. What is the likelihood that the event will occur? What is the severity (worst case
scenario) of that event? Don’t spend time, money, and energy on an event that has never
occurred or is likely to never occur and has little consequences? You can use this method to
determine how to evaluate these risks. Then, prioritize the risks.
Eliminate, Mitigate, and Transfer Risks
There are several ways to deal with your risks. First, you could eliminate the risk entirely. This
can be accomplished easily in some cases. In other cases, it is difficult. An important point to
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remember is that you don’t want to eliminate all of the risk in some areas. That probably would
eliminate the pool entirely. There always is some risk associated with swimming. The question
you need to answer is, “Is this an acceptable risk (as is) for us?”
Sometimes a risk (like an old residential-type slide) can be replaced with a newer one that
incorporates safety features. Does the new slide have risks? Yes. Is the new slide an acceptable
risk? More than likely, the answer is yes.
Sometimes a current hazard can be modified or retrofitted slightly to eliminate or reduce the
hazard. Installing non-slip tape next to the shower areas would be one example. Do not
underestimate your entire staff when trying to address these risks. People look at things
differently and one of your folks may just have the perfect solution. Ask them their opinion;
they’ll respect you for that.
Establishing procedures can be one way to mitigate (or reduce the severity of the outcome)
certain risks. Do you have established procedures to evacuate or isolate patrons in the event of
severe weather? Without them, the outcome of severe weather striking your facility during
public hours could be tragic. By the way, you should have these.
Can you transfer the risk to someone else? Sometimes this is the best method of reducing or
eliminating your exposure to liability. Purchasing insurance coverage is the classic example of
transferring risk. Requiring contractors and vendors to carry (and provide proof of) appropriate
coverage is another example. There have been instances where insurance coverage for
contractors was not verified. A loss occurred that should have been covered by the contractor’s
insurance. Since there was no coverage in place, the entity’s insurance coverage was called upon
to pay for the loss.
There are some exposures that you cannot control. This is usually due to human nature. Yes, we
humans are unpredictable creatures. Just because you have rules posted doesn’t mean that
everyone will follow them. Should someone choose to ignore a safety rule, they may become
injured before pool personnel can observe and eliminate the behavior.
You can’t be in all places at all times and know everything (unless you’re a mom!). Therefore,
you will need to rely on others for information about your risks. Start with your staff. They
probably are looking at the pool from a different perspective than you are. They might have
some input on areas/items that you might have missed. Others to consider contacting might
include:
1.
Insurance industry personnel.
2.
Local building inspector.
3.
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel.
4.
Fire department personnel.
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5.
Other pool managers.
6.
Swimming pool, equipment, and chemical vendors.
7.
Your patrons. Yup, no kidding. But, use this one cautiously. Instead of asking
what exposures they have noticed, try “what, or in which areas of the pool
operation would you like to see improvements made?”
Documents can provide valuable information on some of the risks with your pool operation.
Documents such as training records of your staff, accident reports, maintenance records,
evaluations by outside agencies etc. are good places to start.
Let’s get down to business with identifying some of your risks.
Streets
Crosswalks should be in place to allow patrons an acceptable place to cross the street to your
pool. Signs need to be in place indicating the presence of a crosswalk. Contact your City street
department about these.
Parking Lots
The parking lot should be able to easily accommodate your patrons’ vehicles. Is there a pick up
lane directly in front of the pool? Is it identified as such? The lot surface should be smooth and
level. Structures such as utility poles and LP tanks need to be identified and protected from
accidental vehicle contact. Curb stops (those annoying bars of concrete that rip out the valance
of your car) are a common problem. The securing hardware (usually rebar) for these should not
protrude beyond the surface of the curb stop. If the parking lot is used in the evening or low
light hours, adequate lighting needs to be in place.
Sidewalks
Sidewalks should be level and free of cracks, breaks (other than expansion joints), and debris.
Bicycle racks should be provided so that bicycles do not block the sidewalks or entrances/exits.
Are wheel chair ramps provided and are they ADA compliant?
Fencing
Fencing should be a minimum of 6 feet high. Barbed wire (use only on fences at least 8 feet
high) at the top of the fencing will deter climbing over the fence. The barbed wire should angle
to the outside of the fence. The fencing should be securely attached to the pool building
(unattached fencing frequently is not covered by property insurance). Signing should be in place
on the fencing at routine intervals with wording that prohibits trespassing. Fencing should have
a gate that will allow fire department or emergency medical personnel direct access to the pool
deck or location(s) where chemicals are stored.
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Out Buildings
Occasionally, buildings are separate from the main pool. These usually contain pumps, filters
and/or chlorination equipment. These buildings need to be kept locked at all times. Ledges on
buildings (especially where windows are present) can provide access to the pool via the roof.
These should be eliminated if possible or covered.
Main Building
Entry doors should swing outward. If the doors have windows, it is recommended that the glass
be either tempered or wired. Both doors (if equipped with double doors) must remain unlocked
whenever the building is occupied. The doors should be equipped with panic hardware.
Remember that handles should be ADA compliant. If there is room, just above the entry door(s)
is a good place for a sign stating pool regulations, hours, etc. Be careful of mounting signs
beside the entry doors as the sign may be covered when the doors are opened. Frequently,
beverage vending machines are located near the front entrance. Insure that these machines are
plugged into electrical outlets that are ground fault protected. Vendors should provide proof of
insurance for liability regarding their machines.
If concessions are sold or vending machines are present, make sure that garbage receptacles are
in place. Bees, hornets, wasps and other stinging insects are particularly attracted to empty pop
and juice containers. To reduce the amount of these insects, provide waste receptacles with tight
fitting covers. Plastic can liners are also advisable. Trash needs to be removed frequently. Do
not allow concessions on the deck area of the pool.
Lighting
Lighting can allow for extended hours of pool operation. It will also deter mischievous youths
who choose to scale the fence for late night dips. There have been great advances in the lighting
industry the last few years. These advances yield greater illumination and frequently with lower
energy consumption.
You cannot simply rely upon overhead lighting. There will be too much glare created upon the
water. Lighting should also be present in the pool walls. For pool wall lighting, contact a
swimming pool manufacturer/vendor.
Remember that when installing outdoor lighting, bulbs will occasionally need to be changed.
Try to have them installed in a location (or be of a certain style) where maintenance activities
can be performed without disrupting normal pool activities. They also need to be installed high
enough so that guards are not blinded when sitting in their chairs. Light lenses should be
covered with protective grills or shields to guard against vandalism.
Indoor pool lighting is more specialized, especially if competitive events take place. Some
entities require a specific foot-candle (one measure of a light’s brightness) at the water level for
sanctioned events to occur. Lights located directly over the pool surface can be a maintenance
headache. Changing bulbs can be time consuming and labor intensive. Direct lighting can cause
January 2014
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glare on the water surface. This makes observing things (or swimmers) under the surface display
shatter-resistant lenses.
Front desk
This is the first contact the public will have with your pool. First impressions count here. The
area should be well lighted. The area also should display signing containing your rules,
regulations, fees, and greeting. Yes, a greeting. Welcome the public to your facility. An entry
mat here is advisable. This will help prevent materials from being tracked into the locker and
pool area. Is there room here for a wheel chair to pass through to the locker area? Is there room
for a gurney to pass should emergency medical personnel require one on the deck area? Does
the counter allow a wheel chair to gain access to it?
Telephones. Is there a pay telephone present to allow patrons to call out? Is the telephone ADA
compliant? You don’t want patrons calling home for a ride and tying up your lines. Frequently,
baskets are located directly behind the counter area. The stand(s) for these baskets should be
securely mounted to the wall and/or floor.
Hallways/Stairs
Slips and falls frequently occur at these areas. Take measures to reduce the likelihood of slips
and falls. Non-slip tape, carpet, and rubber mats are frequently used. These areas will require
additional maintenance. Stairs that are all of the same color are difficult to distinguish from one
another. The leading edge of each stair should be of a different color than the rest of the stair.
Paint or tape (preferably the gritty kind) works well for this.
Locker/Dressing Rooms
A sign stating that showers with soap are mandatory should be located before the entrance to the
dressing room. Soap should be provided in dispensers for patrons. These areas are frequent sites
of slip and fall accidents. Therefore, non-slip measures should be implemented. Benches should
be securely mounted to the floor/wall, free of cracks, with paint in good condition. Lockers and
basket racks need to be secured to the wall and/or floor. Lights (if present) should have
protective shields over the lenses. An alternative would be to have shatter resistant lenses or
globes. All electrical outlets need to be ground fault protected. Wall mounted hand and hair
dryers should be double insulated and U.L. listed. Shower hardware should be in good
condition. Pull chains are not advised. Has the hot water temperature been checked to insure
that patrons cannot be scalded? Clothes hooks and pegs should be round and large enough so
that if a patron falls against one that the risk of injury is minimal. Hooks should be mounted
parallel rather than perpendicular to the wall. In either case, mounting a shelf directly over the
hooks/pegs reduces the likelihood of eye and head injuries from sharp or small hooks. Do
benches meet the ADA requirements? Are showers wheel chair accessible? Locker room doors
should swing outward from the room.
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Pool Deck
The pool deck should be a minimum of 10 feet wide and free of cracks, breaks (except expansion
joints) and holes. Drain covers need to be in place and secured.
Benches need to be in good condition and the seats free of cracks and breaks. They should be
secured to the deck or stable enough so that they will not tip over easily.
Sun/Skin Products
Tanning oils, sunscreens and blocks don’t really create any liability problems to speak of except
for occasional slippery spots on the deck. They will, however, make your equipment work
harder. It is also more difficult to maintain correct pool chemistry with these products in the
pool water. They would be nice to ban in terms of making your chemistry easier. However, the
flip side is that we should be warning the public about the dangers of exposure to the sun. You
could tell them via signing that you want them to shower with soap before entering the water
(unless it is waterproof goop) if they have applied sun/skin products. Tough call.
Deck Signing
Rules and regulations need to be prominently displayed so that they may be easily read from
anywhere on the pool deck. Consider using pictographs or international signing alongside text
whenever possible. Water depth (not pool depth) needs to be displayed on the deck. Numerals
should be a minimum of 4 inches high. NO DIVING needs to be prominently displayed for
areas where diving is prohibited. This wording needs to be at least 8 inches in height.
Pictographs should accompany the text. Water depth also needs to be indicated on the walls of
the pool basin. The text needs to be above the waterline. Many older pools have a raised
concrete ledge surrounding the pool basin. This can create a trip and fall hazard. Painting the
entire ledge can make it slippery. Painting a small strip along the edge can help reduce trips and
stubbed toes.
Diving Boards
Many serious accidents occur with the use of diving boards. Many of these accidents might have
been eliminated with some simple retrofitting of the board apparatus.
All 1-meter boards need to have side rails in place. These rails need to extend at least to the edge
of the pool decking. It would be advisable to have a midrail in place on these rails.
3-meter boards are a subject of controversy. Many people (including some insurance people)
feel they are an unnecessary risk. Other people find the risk to be acceptable. There are still a
fair amount of these in service throughout the State. However, there is a trend to phase them out
and replace them with other devices. The overwhelming number of accidents with the 3-meter
boards involved falling from the apparatus. As with the 1-meter boards, railings are a must and
need to extend at least to the water. Midrails should also be in place. On the 3-meter board rails,
it is recommended the lower portion (from the midrail down) be covered to positively prevent
January 2014
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anyone from slipping through onto the deck. Visibility should be still be maintained. Therefore,
chain link fencing is an excellent choice for covering the lower portion of the rails.
The ladder to most existing 3-meter boards is perfectly vertical. This forces the climber to lean
slightly backwards while ascending the ladder. They are also climbing with wet hands and feet.
This is not the best combination in the world. Retrofit the ladder so that the new ladder is
slightly inclined. Consider installing slightly gritty tape on the backside of the pipe where your
fingers grab the pipe. It is also recommended that thick rubber matting be installed around the
base of the ladder. This should extend in a minimum 6-foot radius from the ladder.
OPENING YOUR POOL – Some physical aspects to consider.
This can seem like an endless process with all of the things to do. However, you can get through
it with a little planning.
For those with a safety cover, remove this. Clean it well and allow it to thoroughly dry before
storing it. This should prevent any mildew or mold from forming.
Drain the water in the pool if you have any remaining. Some of you have to keep water in your
pool to keep the bottom and/or walls from heaving. You may have to get your hand skimmer out
and clean all the debris out of the water first. Be careful here! The bottom may be slimy.
Walk around the basin of the pool. Look for cracks that need to be repaired. This is a good time
to check the paint job to see if a new one is in order. If it is, do this next.
Fill the pool with water. Remember, the water should be halfway up the skimmer. This is
frequently done via the fire department’s hose connected to a fire hydrant. If this is not the
method you use, just fill it up as you normally would fill it. If you are new to the job and are not
sure how your pool is filled, ask the City water person. They probably know.
Next, remove all the plugs that you installed last year at the end of the season from the return
jets. Don’t forget any! Reinstall the eyeballs in the return jets if you have these. Now move the
eyeballs toward the top of the water level and to your right (when standing over the pool and
looking at the jets). Doing this allows the water to circulate counterclockwise. This is important
as it allows the skimmer to work to its maximum capacity.
Now remove the winter plugs from the skimmers and replace the skimmer baskets.
Remove the plugs from the ladder holes/sleeves and clean out any debris that might have
accumulated over the winter. Check for cracks that are radiating from the sleeves and fill them.
If you don’t, they will spread. Reinstall the ladders in their proper locations.
Prior to reinstalling the diving board(s), if you took them down last year, carefully examine
them. Pay particular attention to attachment and fulcrum points. Cracks undermine the
structural integrity of the board. The cracks may just be in the outer skin of the board but it is
January 2014
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best not to guess, replace it. Cracks at the rear bolt holes are almost assuredly from overtorqueing the bolts. Always use a torque wrench to avoid this. Most manufacturers are now
recommending leaving the boards in place over the winter.
Reinstall the lights if you have them. Check the gaskets and replace them if necessary.
Install the drain plug(s) on your pump(s) and filters. Reinstall the pressure gauge on the filter.
If your filter has a sight glass and/or air relief, reinstall them at this time.
For those with heaters, reconnect the pressure switch.
Add the chemicals at this time. For most areas, an initial blast of 2 lbs. of shocking chemical can
get you started. If your pool is larger than 35,000 gallons, start with 3 lbs. of chemical. Now
add 1 quart of super strength (polymer) Algaecide. A recommended chemical to add at this time
if you have metals (like iron) in your water is a Metal Sequestering Agent. Check your records
to see if this has been used before. Also, contact your chemical supplier. They may have
records on this or will be able to make some suggestions here. Remember that your supplier can
best assist you if they know your pool dimensions, what type of chemicals you are using, and
they have a baseline chemical analysis of your supply water. So have those ready.
POOL MANUAL
Mission Statement
Your Pool should have a mission statement. It should coincide with your park district (school or
city) Mission Statement. This statement usually covers the broad strokes of:
*
What the pool will provide i.e. recreational opportunities.
*
To whom will the opportunities be provided? Ages, stages of
life, abilities, etc.
*
Visibility of the pool. The awareness of the public to your pool
and the lifelong benefits it provides.
*
The contribution of the pool to the local quality of life.
*
How the staff will treat its customers (with courtesy, respect, a
willingness to assist them in enjoying their stay, etc.).
The Welcome Page
This is where you welcome them to your pool team. It will set the tone for the rest of the
manual. Let them know that they are valuable and appreciated members of the swimming pool
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staff. The staff is critical in the operation of the pool and must rely on each other to fulfill the
goals of the Mission Statement. Impress upon them that the job can be a “fun” job but that it is
to be taken very seriously. Swimming pools have the potential for numerous types of accidents
and the staff must be vigilant in their duties. Expect them to always be on the lookout for
deficiencies and hazards and empower them to correct them. Also, encourage them to find other
ways to improve the overall operation of the pool and the experiences of its patrons. Remind
them that they are highly visible in their positions and thus must act as ambassadors of your park
district (school or city). Frequently, they are looked on as role models (whether they like it or
not) and need to act accordingly.
Impress upon them (as this may their first job) that once they receive their life guarding
certification, their training is just beginning. As with any job, continuous training improves
knowledge and skills. It also sustains proficiency in the skills they have acquired. The old
adage, “Use it or lose it” applies here.
Lastly, challenge them to be the best they can be and make your pool the best it can be.
Facility Description
There are several reasons to put into words a description of your pool facility. The first reason is
so that you will have to find out for yourself what exactly you have, for example, “How much
water it will hold” etc., etc.
This can be very beneficial when trying to solve problems with your water chemistry, dealing
with vendors, obtaining the correct information from others about mechanical problems; even
determining how many supplies you’ll need. A facility map should be made. A copy should be
given to all local EMS facilities.
The description should include:
1.
The general location of your pool in your community.
2.
The street address.
3.
Is parking available? Street or lot? Paved or gravel?
4.
Is the facility ADA compliant?
5.
When updates were made in the past.
6.
Was the facility built or updated with grant money? If yes, from where were the
funds obtained?
7.
Special features of the pool such as, slide (include footage), diving board(s)
(include heights), fountains, etc.
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8.
The water depth (not depth from bottom to deck) of the shallow end to the depth
in the deepest portion.
9.
Total gallons the pool will hold.
10.
Is the pool heated? If yes, between what temperatures
11.
Type of filtration system.
12.
Brief locker room description. Number of showers, lockable baskets, benches,
etc.
13.
If the pool is located in a park, you may want to give brief description of what the
park offers. If it is a stand-alone facility, what is nearby the pool that could be of
interest?
14.
Is the pool facility available for rent or parties?
In essence, you are creating a press release about your facility. In fact, it could be used for that
purpose. A chamber of commerce, economic development commission and the like can also use
it when pitching the virtues of your city/park/school.
Lastly, who runs or administrates your pool facility; the park board, the city, a recreation council,
school.
Policies and Procedures Section
This section covers all of the things that pertain to the policies and procedures of your staff.
There are volumes of information out there on the things to cover in this section. Here are just of
few items with some comments.
Conduct: Staff needs to be told what is expected of them. For many, this may be their first job.
Don’t assume they know how to act while on the job.
Appearance: This entails grooming and attire.
Drug Use: Alcohol, smoking, and even prescription drug use should be addressed. Do you want
lifeguards on duty if taking certain prescription medications?
Language: Yes. Let them know that profanity is prohibited.
Disciplinary Action: Lay out what your discipline plan is. Remember not to deviate from this
plan and do not discriminate when enforcing it. This may be a good spot to let them know that
employment is “at will” and they can be terminated at any time.
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Harassment: Harassment will not be tolerated, period. Let them know the specific procedure
you want them to follow if they feel they are being harassed.
Termination: What is expected from the employee when they are terminated? What procedures
will be taken or steps completed by both parties? Also see Employment Disclaimer Form at the
end of this section.
Benefits: If you offer any benefits, what are these?
Personal Visits and Communication: Will you allow visits and telephone calls from friends or
family of employees? This one can be difficult for teenagers to follow.
Payroll: How often will the employees be paid? If the end of a pay period falls on a holiday or
weekend when will receive their paycheck?
Absence and Leave: What is your policy regarding sick employees? What procedure do you
wish them to follow in notifying someone when they are ill? Other items to address can be
military leave, funerals, weddings, etc. What do you wish the employees to do on days of
inclement weather?
Emergencies and Safety: This one covers fires, tornadoes, chemical emergencies, accidents and
injuries. There should be a policy in place for each.
Weather: Generally speaking, outdoor pools do not open the pool unless a certain air
temperature is met. This should be put into writing. This will save you a lot of headaches with
the public by establishing a written policy on this one. Storm conditions should be the signal to
close the pool. If lightning is seen or thunder heard, the pool should be evacuated. An excellent
tool is a NOAA alert radio. They only turn on when threatening weather is approaching. These
are very inexpensive and should be placed at the front desk.
Rentals or Special Events: Renting the pool for private parties or special events can be a good
source of additional income. However, accidents seem to occur more during these functions than
during open swim. Do not compromise your staff-to-swimmer ratio for these functions. Also,
rental groups must understand that all pool policies, procedures, and rules will be strictly
enforced.
Admissions/Prices: A price schedule needs to be in place for admission to the facility; daily,
half days, evenings, lessons, season passes, family passes, rentals. These are a few categories to
include. Will you allow refunds if the pool closes early? Establish a written policy for this.
Don’t forget about our Canadian friends. Will you accept admission at par or will you be
checking the exchange rate daily? You may want to post this.
Patron Pool Rules
This list can become quite extensive and it’s easy to get carried away. Some of the items to
cover follow.
January 2014
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*
Communicable diseases, open cuts, or diarrhea in the last two weeks. If patrons have
these they should be prohibited from the pool.
*
Food and drink (except water) should be prohibited on the pool deck area. No glass
containers.
*
Patrons must shower with soap prior to entering the pool. They must wash hands after
using toilet facilities.
*
No running. No rough play including chicken fights, dunking, pushing into the pool, etc.
*
Animals. Prohibited.
*
Alcohol and Drugs. Patrons under the influence of alcohol or other drugs where
judgment has been impaired are prohibited.
*
Swimsuits only. No cutoffs.
*
Tobacco. Smoking and chewing tobacco are prohibited.
*
Swim diapers. These need to be required of all patrons who are not fully toilet trained.
Have these available for sale at the front desk.
*
Toys. It is recommended that these be prohibited. This means no tubes, rafts, squirt
guns, balls, etc. Masks, fins, and snorkels are acceptable. Personal floatation devices are
acceptable only if they are Coast Guard approved. Water wings are NOT floatation
devices.
*
Diving. If allowed, designate the area. It is recommended that a separate diving sign be
posted at this area. It should show and explain proper diving technique.
*
Supervision. An individual who is at least 15 years old should accompany children.
*
No spitting, spouting, or nose blowing in the pool.
*
No profanity.
*
Personal communication devices and devices capable of taking photographic images are
prohibited in the locker/changing room areas.
Slide Rules
If you have a slide at your facility here are some basic rules.
*
To use the slide, you should be able to swim at a water depth of a minimum of 5 feet.
Possible exceptions to this are if an adult is in the catch basin.
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*
Users must go one at a time and the catch basin be clear.
*
Users must either be seated or lying on their back. No head first sliding or stopping once
started.
*
After exiting the slide, move immediately out of the splash area or catch basin.
*
Running or horseplay on the stairs is prohibited. Handrail use is recommended.
Diving Board Rules
*
WARNING (In large red print) Head and neck injuries can result from improper diving.
Use caution when diving. Once again, a picture and explanation of proper diving
technique is recommended.
*
Persons weighing more than 175 pounds may incur additional hazards.
*
One bounce only.
*
Dive straight off the end of the board.
*
Do not swim under the board or loiter (hang out) in the diving area.
*
Only one person at a time one the board.
*
Diving off the board only. No diving from the deck area.
*
Do not adjust the fulcrum.
*
Be sure to check the diving area before diving. Let the previous diver reach the wall or
ladder before diving.
*
If you are uncertain about anything pertaining to diving, ask the lifeguard first.
Enforcement of Rules
Posting of rules and regulations is not enough. The rules need to be enforced. This needs to be
done by all staff firmly, yet politely. Employees need to be consistent and fair when enforcing
the rules. If a patron needs to be expelled, document the expulsion.
Relieving a Lifeguard
This procedure is for relieving a lifeguard at an elevated position or guard stand. It follows
American Red Cross standards.
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1.
The incoming guard will take a position next to the stand and observes the area of
responsibility for that particular stand. When the incoming guard has scanned the area
and is aware of the ongoing activity, he/she signals the guard in the elevated position to
climb down.
2.
The outgoing lifeguard then takes position on the deck and observes ongoing activity,
then signals the incoming guard to take up their position in the stand. Once positioned,
the incoming guard informs the outgoing guard that they can leave.
3.
Outgoing guards should observe the deck area for any problems or concerns prior to
going on break. Litter should be picked up and bathhouse/changing areas should be
inspected prior to going on break.
Coverage
Zone Coverage: Each lifeguard should be assigned a specific zone to cover from each station.
This may change, as sometimes there will be more guards on duty due to increases in swimmer
load. Guards should be expected to know how many guards are on duty and what zones are to be
covered.
Have a chart that shows where the zones are for the number of guards on duty. If there is a
problem with covering a zone for whatever reason, the pool manager should be notified prior to
deviating from the established schedule. Common areas to miss when scanning zones are
directly below the chair or station, slides, and ladders. Make sure they know to include these
areas when scanning. There are different techniques to use when scanning and you will have to
establish the method you want your staff to use.
Back-up Coverage: Should an emergency occur, one or more lifeguards might need to leave
their station. The remaining guards should then move in to cover the missing guard’s zone.
Lifeguard Communication
Communication with patrons can be accomplished through use of the whistle in combination
with verbal and hand signals. Guards will also need to be able to communicate with each other
in a system that is simple, quick, and understood by all. Excellent communication in an
emergency can make all the difference in the world in terms of the outcome.
You should establish your own system. However, here is one system that works.
*
One short whistle blast and point – use this to get a swimmer’s attention.
*
Two short whistle blasts – this is used to get another guard’s attention.
*
Three short whistle blasts – tells the other guards that there is an emergency and
help is required.
January 2014
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*
One long blast – clear the pool.
*
Standing – Use this in combination with other signals above.
Standing is a visual cue to other guards that a potential rescue is imminent.
Emergencies
There can be several levels of emergency. There needs to be an established plan in place to deal
with these emergencies. Practice these plans as hesitation in implementing a plan can have
devastating results.
Non-Life Threatening First Aid Required: This category entails things like cuts, abrasions,
insect bites, and sunburn.
*
Guard Awareness – the lifeguard sees or someone tells of a problem.
*
Victim Recognition – the lifeguard identifies the person requiring first aid.
*
Guard Reaction – Whenever possible, the lifeguard on duty at a particular station should
direct the individual to the first aid area. This is more than likely the pool office. The
guard should try to observe the individual making their way to the first aid area. If the
person is too young or too upset to make it over to the first aid area, the guard should get
the attention of the next closest guard and indicate that to that guard that they will be
leaving their station. The Zone Coverage Section then comes into play. The guard
should then assist the person over to the first aid area. If the injured person will not go to
the first aid area, the guard should then go to the office to get someone who can return to
the person and perform the necessary first aid.
*
Back-up Coverage – Once the initial lifeguard has notified a 2nd guard, the 2nd guard
should notify any other guard who will have to adjust their zone so that the missing
guard’s area is being observed.
*
First Aid – A lifeguard or other qualified individual will perform the necessary first aid.
When necessary, this person will also complete the accident report. The pool manager,
or head guard, will call the parents/guardians if it is felt a younger swimmer should go
home.
Life Threatening – Drowning in Progress: This includes both equipment and swimming
rescues to conscious victims. Some of these situations will require clearing the pool while others
will not.
*
Guard Awareness – The lifeguard is told by someone or actually witnesses that there is
problem.
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*
Victim Recognition – The lifeguard identifies who is in trouble and quickly determines if
he/she will be able to assist the person by entering the water or remaining on the pool
deck.
*
Guard Reaction – The guard should notify the other guards using the signaling system
established. The guard should notify the other guards if he/she intends to enter the water.
See the Zone Coverage Section now. If the victim is close enough, the guard may use
the Shepard’s Crook or ring buoy. The guard then pulls the victim to safety. The guard
should continually talk to the victim and assure him/her that they will be all right. Once
the victim is safe and the incident is over, the guard should then immediately fill out a
rescue form.
*
Back-up Coverage – Once the other guards were notified that the first guard was entering
the water, back-up procedures should go into effect. All guards will then need to adjust
their zones of coverage. If all staff is needed, the pool should be cleared.
*
Rescue Form – Once the victim is safe, the guard should go to the office and fill out a
rescue form. When the guard goes to fill out the form, a replacement guard should take
his/her place until they can return.
*
Rescue Completion – When the guard or replacement returns to their station, other guards
should be notified of the return and guarding zones should return to their original
patterns.
Life Threatening – Suspected Spinal Injury or Unconscious Victim
*
Guard Awareness – The lifeguard sees or is informed that there is a problem.
*
Victim Recognition – The lifeguard visually identifies the swimmer in trouble and
determines what type of rescue is warranted.
*
Guard Reaction – The guard notifies other guards with the established signal. Assistance
will be needed for this situation. Once the first guard has entered the water, the 2nd
closest guard will need to supervise that zone and be prepared to assist the first guard.
The 2nd guard should then alert the 3rd guard who should then give the signal to clear the
pool. The 3rd guard should then call the Emergency Medical System (EMS). This guard
should then inform the front desk not to admit any more patrons. The front desk should
then contact the Director of Parks and Recreation. The 3rd guard should be waiting for
the EMS personnel to direct them to the appropriate area. If it is available, unlock the
emergency access in the fence. As soon as possible, all but two guards should gather at
the area of the pool where the rescue is underway. The remaining two guards will be
crowd control, steering crowds away from the area where the EMS personnel will be
arriving and, the rescue area. Once the first guard reaches the victim and assesses their
breathing, they need to inform the other guards of the victim’s status. Now the other
guards will enter the water and begin the established suspected spinal cord injury
procedures.
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Spinal cord injury procedures will be followed as outlined in the Red Cross lifeguard
manual. Once the victim is strapped to the backboard, the victim will not be removed
from the water until the EMS personnel arrive and direct pool personnel to do so. The
only exception to this would be the need to initiate Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
(C.P.R.) or Artificial Respiration (rescue breathing) or utilize an AED. Once the victim is
removed from the pool by EMS personnel, guards will return to their duty positions and
swimmers can reenter the pool.
*
Rescue Form – The first guard involved will immediately complete an accident form and
rescue form and discuss it only with the pool manager and/or Parks Director. Guards
must not discuss the victim’s status or accident whatsoever with the media or other
swimmers. All inquiries must be directed to the Director of Parks.
Life Threatening – C.P.R., Heat Stroke, Extensive Bleeding Outside the Water
*
Guard Awareness – Lifeguard sees or is informed of a problem.
*
Victim Recognition – The lifeguard makes visual recognition of the victim.
*
Guard Reaction – The first guard to identify the victim of any life threatening injury
needs to alert other guards with the established signaling system. The guards
immediately leave their stations and attend to the victim. Once the first guard has left
their station, the 2nd closest guard should supervise that zone and be prepared to assist the
first guard. The second guard should alert the 3rd guard who should give the audible
signal to clear the pool. This guard should then initiate the EMS and wait for the EMS
personnel to arrive and direct them accordingly. Guards should not allow any additional
patrons to enter the facility. All calls and inquiries should be directed to the head of the
Parks Department. The remainder of the guards should report to the accident scene as
soon as possible to act as crowd control. A guard should remain with the family of the
victim if they are present. Once the EMS personnel have left the facility, patrons may
be allowed to reenter the facility.
*
Form Completion – As soon as the EMS personnel have left the facility, the first guard
should complete an accident form and discuss it with the facility manager.
Guards should be instructed not to discuss or comment on the accident or the victim’s status with
the media. All inquiries should be directed toward the head of the Parks department.
*
Post accident Meeting – After a life threatening event or when artificial respiration (also
AED) has been used, a staff meeting should be held with all personnel to discuss the
event. Guards should support each other after any traumatic event. In the event of a near
drowning or drowning, counselors may need to be involved to assist guards in dealing
with the event.
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Missing Persons
If a patron reports that they are unable to locate someone who is believed to be at the facility,
they should be directed to the pool manager or the head guard on duty. Initially, the suspected
missing person’s name should be announced over the loudspeaker or via bullhorn. They should
be directed to immediately report to the office. If the suspected missing person is a small child,
the guard on break and the pool manager will assist in attempting to locate the child. Telephone
calls may need to be made to see if the person has found a ride home. It is possible that the pool
will have to be cleared to find a missing child.
Maintenance
Regular maintenance can be a headache and time consuming. However, failing to perform this
maintenance can result in areas or items that become hazards or will breakdown. Additionally,
the public expects to see a clean and well-maintained facility at all times. Although most staff
will have assigned duties when it comes to maintenance, it is important to point out to all staff
that are expected to pick up trash, clean up spills, etc. without being told.
Damage to the facility should be immediately reported to the pool manager. This includes
damage in the parking lot and surrounding grounds.
Some typical routine maintenance items that should be assigned to staff include:
*
Taking water samples.
*
Cleaning of the pool deck and surrounding areas.
*
Cleaning and disinfecting bathrooms and shower areas.
*
General cleaning of the pool office/desk area.
*
Emptying of all trash receptacles.
*
Pulling weeds around the facility.
Maintenance of equipment used to chlorinate or pump water should be restricted to a limited
number of personnel. Insure that personnel who operate and maintain this equipment have been
thoroughly trained on each piece.
Generally, there is little to no maintenance regarding chemicals. However, occasionally
chemicals in storage will need to be moved for cleaning an area. Also, storage of chemicals may
need to be adjusted. Make sure that proper precautions are taken when transporting chemicals
even short distances.
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Hazard Communication
At first Hazard Communication can be a headache to implement. However, it is vital that all
employees receive training in this area. The object of Hazard Communication is that all
employees have the right to know what chemicals they are or might be exposed to, how to handle
them and work with them safely, and basic first aid procedures regarding each chemical.
Training is the key here and all training should be ongoing, documented and kept on file.
There should be a master list of all the chemicals used in your facility. Every employee should
know the location of this list and have access to the list. Every chemical on hand should have a
corresponding Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). All MSDS are required to have certain
information. However, there are differences in the MSDS format used by manufacturers of
chemicals. Become familiar with the different formats used.
All containers containing chemicals need to display the contents of the container. The label
should list the chemicals, manufacturer, appropriate warnings, and other pertinent information.
Try to avoid transferring chemicals into non-original containers.
Fire Extinguishers
Extinguishers need to be mounted, clearly visible and accessible, and inspected on a monthly
basis. Staff should receive training on the appropriate use of fire extinguishers. Local fire
departments are usually happy to provide this.
Pay special attention to the use of fire extinguishers and swimming pool chemicals. Special
precautions may need to be taken with fire extinguishers and these chemicals.
Blood Borne Pathogens and Infectious Disease
To protect your staff and the patrons of the pool, training should take place in this area. When
blood and other body fluids are present, it is very rare that you will know whether or not the
patron has an infectious disease. Therefore, you must assume that they do have an infectious
disease and take appropriate precautions.
A kit containing items such as a protective shield (mask) and gloves can be obtained through
various sources. Vinyl gloves without powder are recommended, as many people are allergic to
latex gloves and the powder. It is also recommended that a jug of bleach be on hand to disinfect
surfaces where blood and other body fluids have come in contact. The pool staff should receive
the Hepatitis B series vaccinations.
A short list of precautions includes:
*
Assume that blood, body fluids, and accident victims are contaminated with an infectious
disease.
*
Avoid contact with these fluids whenever possible.
January 2014
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*
Wear gloves whenever you anticipate coming in contact with these fluids.
*
Wash hands and other skin parts that have come in contact with these fluids immediately
after caring for the patron, even if gloves were worn.
*
Dispose of contaminated waste properly.
Pool Manager – Position Description
This can be modified to suit the particular needs of your pool. However, if you don’t have
anything in this area, here is a start.
The pool manager is part of the Park District/School team that supervises the operations of the
swimming pool. Remember that the manager is the on-site supervisor and is responsible for the
impression the pool gives to the public. They are also the link between the public and the Parks
and Recreation department or school administration.
The pool is generally open for twelve to fourteen weeks during the summer months. Indoor
pools are generally open year around. Pool activities include (feel free to expand or subtract here
as necessary): morning swimming lessons, general open swimming, pool rentals, and water
programs. On-site supervision of the pool will be performed by the manager and, in their
absence, the head guard. The chain-of-command needs to be stressed and utilized at all times.
Job Prerequisites: Current certification in Lifeguard Training, WSI, First Aid, C.P.R. and
A.E.D. Previous supervisory experience is preferred. A certified Aquatics Facility Operator or
Certified Pool Operator is highly recommended.
Scope of Responsibility: The pool manager is responsible for the overall supervision of the pool
staff, and the on-site operation of the pool.
Supervision: The pool manager will report to the director of the Parks and Recreation (or the
school administrator).
General Responsibilities:
*
Make certain the pool staff is serving the public in a positive way.
*
Be aware and knowledgeable of pool maintenance, admissions, and emergency
procedures.
*
Insure that pool rules, policies, and procedures are being adhered to.
*
Insure the facility is kept clean and well maintained at all times.
*
Communicate concerns and issues with appropriate parties.
January 2014
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*
Assist the Director of Parks and Recreation (school administrator) in planning and
coordinating staff training and staff skill checks.
*
Coordinate efforts with rental parties and special events.
*
Coordinate facility concerns and program development with swimming lessons.
Special Duties:
*
Determine the staffing levels of at the pool.
*
Develop staff work schedules.
*
Assign lifeguard rotations.
*
Prepare payroll.
*
Monitor staffing hours and clear any overtime shifts with Supervisor.
*
Monitor and complete daily cash deposits.
*
Test and record water for ph., chlorine and alkalinity at designated intervals throughout
the day.
*
Completion of accident forms, maintenance forms, and daily reports.
*
Perform accident follow-up calls.
*
Routinely inspect the facility for repairs or safety concerns.
*
Inventory control of supplies and ordering of supplies needed.
*
Assume lifeguarding and instructing duties as warranted or scheduled.
*
Establish and maintain programming schedules such as swimming lessons.
*
Liaison and spokesperson to the public on matters relating to the swimming pool.
Head Lifeguard – Position Description
The head lifeguard is part of the management team that supervises the operations at the pool.
The head lifeguard is responsible for the image given by the lifeguard staff.
In the absence of the pool manager, the head lifeguard will assume the on-site supervisory role at
the pool.
January 2014
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Job Prerequisites: Current in Lifeguard training, WSI, First Aid, C.P.R. and A.E.D.
Scope of Responsibilities: The head lifeguard is responsible for the continual monitoring of staff
lifeguard skills. The head lifeguard will step in and assume responsibility for the facility when
assigned by and in the absence of the pool manager.
Supervision: The head lifeguard will report to the pool manager and the Director of Parks and
Recreation (school administrator).
General Responsibilities:
*
Make certain the lifeguard staff is serving the public in a positive way.
*
Be aware and knowledgeable of emergency action plans.
*
Insure pool rules, policies and procedures are being adhered to.
*
Advise the lifeguard staff in skills and training areas.
*
Insure the facility is kept clean and well maintained at all times.
*
Communicate concerns and issues with appropriate parties.
*
Work as a practicing lifeguard and/or instructor.
Specific Duties:
*
Act as the lifeguard captain – make certain the guards are at their stations on time and
following procedures as outlined in the staff manual.
*
Daily monitoring of first aid and safety supplies.
*
Assist manager in determining appropriate guard staffing levels.
*
Monitor that first aid is administered adequately.
*
Make certain that all zone charts are up-to-date.
*
Occasionally assume the responsibility of pool manager.
*
Cell phones, pagers, blackberries and other personal communication devices shall not be
with you while lifeguarding.
January 2014
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Lifeguard – Position Description
Job Prerequisites: Current certification in Lifeguard Training, First Aid, C.P.R. and A.E.D..
Lifeguards at our pool are responsible for providing a safe environment at our facility. Guards
will provide a positive image of the facility and its services by attentive, conscientious and
courteous behavior on the job. Guards report to the pool manager, head lifeguard and the
Director of Parks (School administrator). Duties shall include:
*
Warn facility patrons against unsafe practices.
*
Watch swimmers through safe scanning practices and perform rescue/assist as necessary.
*
Enforce pool and facility rules and regulations.
*
Maintain order in the pool area, bathhouse and deck area.
*
Perform assigned cleaning duties.
*
Guards will test water, inspect equipment, clean areas, and treat water as directed.
*
Guards will complete accident report forms, rescue forms, and incident forms.
*
Guards will perform first aid, C.P.R. and artificial respiration as needed.
*
Cell phones, pagers, blackberries and other personal communication shall not be with you
while lifeguarding.
Other responsibilities and guidelines of the lifeguard position include:
*
Guards on duty in the pool area will not leave their station until relieved by another
guard.
*
Guards will remain in the pool facility while on duty. This includes break times.
*
Guards will not sit or stand together while on duty. Each guard will be assigned a zone to
cover.
*
Guards will be trained and will enforce safe operation of slides, ladders, boards, and
general pool use guidelines.
*
Guards may be assigned to be “on call” on poor weather days and may be sent home on
low attendance days.
*
Guards will assist in working as the cashier during their scheduled shift time.
*
Guards will not swim on duty unless permission has been granted by the pool manager.
January 2014
Page 34
*
If a guard has any doubts about a person’s ability to swim, he/she will ask the person to
perform a swimming test. If the person refuses or fails the test, they must remain in the
shallow end of the pool. They cannot enter the deep end of the pool.
*
Guards will partition off areas of the pool for different programs and activities.
*
Guards will wear the required uniform. It is strongly recommended that guards wear a
hat or visor, ultraviolet (UV A and UV B) eye protection with polarized lenses, and sun
block.
*
While on duty, guards are expected to be dressed and in the uniform. Other attire is not
authorized.
*
Long hair must be tied back while on duty. Jewelry shall be limited to waterproof
watches. Post earrings will be allowed.
*
Guards must arrive at the facility in the uniform and be ready to work at the start of their
shift.
*
Guards will participate in periodic skill reviews and emergency drills when provided.
*
Guards will have the authority to correct any violations of rules but should be courteous
at all times. If a rule is violated after a first warning has been given, guards may ask the
person to sit out of the water for 10-15 minutes. If a 2nd warning is given and violated,
guards may send the person home. The pool manager should be notified whenever a
person is sent home. An incident report should be completed as soon as possible.
*
Guards are responsible for recording their time correctly on the time card. Timecards
shall be given to the pool manager on the designated days. NOTE: Any overtime
recorded on a timecard must have been approved by the pool manager prior to it being
worked.
*
Facility keys that are checked out to the pool staff will be turned in at the end of the
season. Final paychecks will be held until staff turns in their designated key(s).
Swim Instructors
Some staff members will also be teaching swimming lessons. This position requires the same
basic standards as any other position listed in this manual. Additional items for Swim
Instructors:
*
Instructors need to be WSI certified in addition to Lifeguard Training, C.P.R., First Aid,
and A.E.D.
January 2014
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*
The pool manager will supervise instructors. Any problems with the instructional aspect
of the position should be addressed to the manager. The pool manager is also available to
assist you with any problem you are having with a particular student or aspect of the
class.
*
Instructors will see that their timecards have a separate area for recording instructional
hours worked. These hours need to be separated from regular lifeguarding hours.
*
The pool manager will make work schedules for instructional hours. The schedule will be
given to instructors/guards every two weeks prior.
*
At a minimum, midseason and/or post season evaluations on your performance will be
conducted by the pool manager and Director of Parks (School Administrator). Your
input is encouraged throughout the program. Our instructional program continues to
improve because of the suggestions provided by our instructors and students.
Cashier Guide
There will some differences from facility to facility on this subject but here is a general guide to
follow.
Daily Admission Fees
Everyone (except those under the age of 2) must pay the daily admission or buy a season pass.
The fee schedule should be listed separately for cashiers. Non-swimmers should not be allowed
in the facility for free. Requests may come from parents, grandparents, and daycare operators to
just “watch” and indicating that do not plan to swim. Please politely explain to them that the fee
is a facility admission fee and not a swimming fee.
Employees of the pool may swim free if it is a scheduled workday for that employee. The
employee should come early or stay late to swim. Otherwise, all staff will be expected to pay
admission fees (unless it is a perk you provide) if swimming with friends, family, or spending
leisure time at the pool.
Season Passes
Your procedure may vary here but this how one facility operates their season passes.
Season passes can be purchased from either the Parks office or at the pool facility. A number
will be issued to the patron(s) to use for the season. This number is taken from their receipt and
that number will be recorded in an index file for future confirmation. If a patron gives you a
number that you suspect is false, you will need to obtain further information from them to verify
validity of the number (address, telephone number, etc.).
January 2014
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Please note that a “Family” season pass is defined as the immediate family only. This would be
mom, dad, brothers, and sisters. It does not apply to baby sitters, daycare providers,
boyfriend/girlfriend etc. They must purchase a separate pass or pay the daily admission fee.
Carry-Ins
Your policy may vary on this subject.
Patrons are able to bring in such items such as lawn chairs, swim floaties/ toys and beverages
contained in plastic containers. Balls, inner tubes, and squirt guns are prohibited. Glass
containers, sunflower seeds, gum, all tobacco products and alcohol are prohibited.
Recording Daily Admissions
Each admittance into the pool facility must be accounted for on the daily tally sheet. Even those
that are free (infants) or use a season pass need to be recorded under the appropriate column.
This information provides necessary daily attendance figures.
Pool staff will be trained in how to use the daily tally sheets. It is important that you fully
understand how the information is recorded and tallied. So, if you have any questions
throughout the season, please ask the designated bookkeeper or the pool manager for
clarification.
Daycare groups, with prior permission from the Parks and Recreation office (school
administration) will be permitted to “charge” admission. The groups eligible to do so will be
listed inside the season passes index file. When a group charges, you will need to look up their
card and use it to complete a Charge Form. It is important that all patrons are accounted for.
The pool manager/head lifeguard will be responsible to turn the Charge Form in to the Parks and
Recreation (school business office) main office. These forms will need to be turned in the very
last day of each month.
When selling punch cards, season passes or swimming lessons, the information also needs to be
recorded on the daily tally sheet in the appropriate column.
General Cashier Guidelines
1.
Count the start change prior to beginning your shift – verify the amount of the sign out
sheet.
2.
Close the moneybox between each transaction, do not leave open or out in the open when
not in use.
3.
Personal checks are accepted for the amount of purchase only. Please make sure the
patron’s driver’s license number and current telephone number is listed on the check.
4.
No two-party checks will be cashed.
January 2014
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5.
Leave any cash a customer gives you turned sideways on the top of the drawer until the
transaction is complete. Then if a customer indicates that they gave you a $20.00 bill
when you gave them change for a $10.00 bill, you can double check the denomination.
6.
Credit/debit cards will not be accepted at the pool.
7.
Never leave the money in the drawer unattended or unlocked.
8.
All monies and receipts need to be stored in the provided safe at the end of each day.
9.
The staff person who assists in preparing the daily tally sheet at the end of the day must
input their signature in the designated area. The pool manager will also sign off after
double-checking the prepared tally sheet.
10.
Unless you plan to give our northern neighbors admission at “par”, you will need to know
the exchange rate. This rate changes daily.
Answering the Telephone
All staff is responsible for answering the telephone during hours of operation. Please answer
with the following greeting:
“___________ Pool, this is (your name) How may I help you?”
Please be sure to give out accurate information in a pleasing fashion. The tone of your voice sets
the stage for whether or not the person on the other end of the phone will have a positive image
of your pool. Do not take the last sentence lightly or for granted. The overwhelming majority of
the calls will be concerning the hours of operation and costs. If you are unsure about an answer
for a question, do not guess! Direct the caller to the pool manager or head lifeguard on duty.
Ask the patron if you may put them on hold until these personnel can be reached.
The telephone is a business tool. Employees should refrain from making personal calls from this
telephone. Do not leave your station to run messages to guards on duty. Write the message
down and post it on the bulletin board identifying who the message is for. Inform the caller that
messages will not be delivered but posted and the employee should see the message at their next
break or by the end of their shift.
Patrons may use the telephone to secure a ride home or in the event of an emergency. (This
could be prohibited if you have a pay telephone available).
Janitorial Responsibilities
When working in the pool office, staff will be responsible for monitoring the bathhouse. On
busy days, each rest/change room area should be checked at least hourly. Employees are to
dispose of any littler/debris that is found, restock needed items, close off dripping water valves,
and look for/repair signs of vandalism.
January 2014
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If the pool office is busy and you are needed, report any major cleaning needed to the pool
manager or the next rotating staff assigned to the pool office.
Lost and Found
A box will be left at the pool office for lost/found items. Hopefully, most people will check back
to see if their lost item is at the pool. This box will remain in the pool office until the end of the
season. Any unclaimed items at this time will be donated to charity.
Locker/Changing Room Rules
*
No horseplay.
*
No towel snapping.
*
No running.
*
Facility is NOT responsible for lost, damaged, or stolen items. If your items are
important, use your own lock to secure your items.
*
Personal communication such as cell phones, blackberries, and pagers are prohibited in
this area.
*
Cameras and any other picture taking devices are prohibited in this area.
January 2014
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Pool Reservation Form
NAME OF GROUP:___________________________________________________________
CONTACT PERSON:__________________________________________________________
ADDRESS:___________________________________________________________________
WORK PHONE#:_______________________ HOME PHONE#:______________________
CITY/STATE/ZIP CODE:______________________________________________________
RESERVATION DATE:________________________________________________________
HOURS OF RESERVATION:___________________________________________________
# IN
GROUP:_____________________________________________________________________
DETAILS:
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
RECEIPT#:__________________________________________________________________
RESERVED BY (STAFFER NAME):_____________________________________________
DATE RESERVATION MADE:_________________________________________________
RECORDED IN POOL MANAGER’S SCHEDULE BOOK?:________________________
January 2014
Page 40
Payroll Procedures for Pool Employees
It is the responsibility of each employee to submit his or her completed timecard to the pool
manager. The timecards are due by 8:30 am on each payroll date. No exceptions will be made.
If we do not receive a timecard by 8:30, the employee will have to wait until the next payroll
date to be paid. All necessary paperwork (W-4, I-9) must be on file with the main office of the
Parks and Recreation (school business office) before an employee is placed on the payroll.
Timecards must contain the following information:
*
Employee’s name.
*
Employee’s social security number.
*
Pay period dates.
*
Total hours of instruction.
*
Total hours of life guarding.
*
Employee’s signature (This signature is to be done before you turn in the timecard to the
pool manager. It signifies to the manager and the payroll clerk that you agree to the
information being submitted).
Pay Periods (example dates below)
Monday May 15th
Wednesday May 31st
Thursday June 15th
Friday June 31st
Friday July 14th
Friday July 28th
Tuesday Aug 15th
Thursday Aug 31st
Friday Sept 15th
Paychecks may be picked up after 4:00 on the assigned pay date.
January 2014
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INCIDENT REPORT
Use this report for rescues, discipline problems, and equipment problems)
DATE:_______________________________________________________________________
TIME:_______________________________________________________________________
PATRON’S NAME:___________________________________________________________
STAFFER’S NAME:___________________________________________________________
INCIDENT
DESCIPTION:________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
ACTION TAKEN BY STAFFER:________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
REVIEWED BY: _____________________________________________________________
Director’s (administrator’s) Signature:____________________________________________
January 2014
Page 42
MONTHLY EVALUATION OF SEASONAL EMPLOYEE
Name of
Employee:____________________________________________________________________
Job Title:_____________________________________________________________________
Evaluation Period From:______________________ To:______________________________
Instructions for Evaluations:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
1.
Evaluate all factors.
Place a check mark in the box next to each factor that most closely indicates your
judgment.
Consider factors only as they are defined.
Comments must be made of each factor evaluated.
Evaluate the employee only on the position that is currently held.
Quality of work: (Disregard Volume) Consider accuracy, neatness, thoroughness. Did
the employee turn out work which met acceptable standards?
O
Unacceptable____________________________________________________________
O
Substandard_____________________________________________________________
O
Satisfactory_____________________________________________________________
O
High Type of Work_______________________________________________________
O
Exceptional_____________________________________________________________
Comments:
2.
Quantity of Work: (Disregard Quality) Did employee produce an acceptable amount of
work?
O
Very Low_______________________________________________________________
O
Low__________________________________________________________________
O
Normal_________________________________________________________________
O
Above Normal___________________________________________________________
O
Exceptionally High_______________________________________________________
Comments:
January 2014
Page 43
3.
Dependability: How reliable was the employee in performing work and carrying out
orders?
O
Unreliable______________________________________________________________
O
Required considerable supervision___________________________________________
O
Reliable; required normal supervision_________________________________________
O
Very successful__________________________________________________________
O
Exceptionally successful___________________________________________________
Comments:
4.
Contact with Others: How well did the employee work with and for others?
O
Ineffective______________________________________________________________
O
Had some difficulty_______________________________________________________
O
Generally successful______________________________________________________
O
Very successful__________________________________________________________
O
Exceptionally successful___________________________________________________
Comments:
5.
Attitude: Consider employee’s attitude toward ________Parks & Recreation (School
District) and its policies, as well as the job. Was it constructive?
O
Poor___________________________________________________________________
O
Fair____________________________________________________________________
O
Good__________________________________________________________________
O
Very good______________________________________________________________
O
Excellent_______________________________________________________________
Comments:
January 2014
Page 44
6.
Initiative: Consider the employee’s talent for starting action. Did employee see things
not being done and do them?
O
Always had to be told_____________________________________________________
O
Frequently had to be told___________________________________________________
O
Occasionally had to be told_________________________________________________
O
Rarely had to be told______________________________________________________
O
Never had to be told_______________________________________________________
Comments:
7.
Judgment: Consider the intelligence, logic, and thought used in arriving at decisions,
suggestions, and conclusions as related to the employee’s job.
O
Poor___________________________________________________________________
O
Frequent errors___________________________________________________________
O
Usually sound___________________________________________________________
O
Well above average_______________________________________________________
O
Exceptionally sound and logical_____________________________________________
Comments:
8.
Appearance: Considering employee’s neatness in dress, grooming and cleanliness in
relation to the job, was the employee’s appearance…
O
Satisfactory_____________________________________________________________
O
Unsatisfactory___________________________________________________________
Comments:
January 2014
Page 45
9.
Punctuality and Attendance: Consider employee’s promptness in reporting to work,
respect of break and lunch times and frequency of absences.
O
Satisfactory_____________________________________________________________
O
Unsatisfactory___________________________________________________________
Number of days absent from scheduled work ______
Comments:
10.
Development: How has the employee developed on the job?
O
Very slowly_____________________________________________________________
O
Slowly_________________________________________________________________
O
Normally_______________________________________________________________
O
Rapidly_________________________________________________________________
O
Very Rapidly____________________________________________________________
Comments:
11.
Safety: Consider the employee’s use of safety equipment, attitude toward using safe
work methods, and following established safety policies and procedures.
O
Satisfactory_____________________________________________________________
O
Unsatisfactory___________________________________________________________
Comments:
Evaluated by: ___________________________________Date:___________________________
Reviewed by: ___________________________________Date:___________________________
(Employee’s Signature)
Signing this evaluation does not constitute your agreement with the evaluation. It
simply means that you have read the evaluation.
January 2014
Page 46
Lifeguard Personnel Evaluation
Name of Lifeguard: ___________________________________________________________
The following evaluation was completed based on your summer performance as a lifeguard. The
scales can be interpreted by a “5” meaning “Very good” or “always” and a “1” meaning “never”
or “poor”. The circled responses are a general statement of your performance on each specific
factor. After you have read this evaluation, please sign it and return it to the main office.
Signing it does not constitute your agreement with the contents of the evaluation. It simply
means that you have read the evaluation.
1.
2.
Promptness
Arriving and being prepared on time
Up on guard chair
# of days late to work _________
5
5
5
4
4
4
3
3
3
2
2
2
1
1
1
Scanning techniques
Rules enforcement
Rescues/assists performed
5
5
5
5
5
5
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
First Aid
Ability to perform first aid
Willingness to perform first aid
5
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
Public Relations
Cooperative spirit with patrons
Positive representation of District/School
5
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
Maintenance
Willingness to clean facility
Initiative to clean without being asked
Quick reporting of damaged equipment
5
5
5
4
4
4
3
3
3
2
2
2
1
1
1
Lifeguard skills
Attentiveness
Ability to anticipate problems
Identification of problems/quick reaction time
3.
4.
5.
January 2014
Page 47
6.
General
Appropriate uniform worn daily
Attitude toward District/School & policies
Attitude toward lifeguarding position
Motivation to work
5
5
5
5
4
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
Evaluated by: _______________________________________Date_______________________
Reviewed by: _______________________________________Date_______________________
(Employee’s Signature)
January 2014
Page 48
Group Charge Account Form
Group Name: _______________________________________Date: ______________________
Contact Person: _____________________________________Phone: _____________________
Address: ______________________________________________________________________
All groups must have prior authorization to use this form. If you have questions whether or not a
group has been authorized, please call the main office (_____________). This form should be
submitted to Park District/School’s main office the first day of each month. The group will be
billed on a monthly schedule. Statements must be paid within 10 days of receipt to avoid an
additional late charge. An agency check is the preferred method of payment.
Month: ____________________________ Year: _______________________
Specific Dates
January 2014
#of Patrons @ $_________each
Total Amount Due
Page 49
Fecal Accident Response Recommendations for Pool Staff*
(As taken from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Poop in the Pool!!
*Check for existing guidelines from your local health unit or municipality before implementing.
These recommendations do not replace local regulations or guidelines.

These recommendations are for responding to fecal accidents in chlorinated
recreational water venues.

Improper handling of chlorine-based disinfectants can cause injury. Always follow
proper occupational safety and health requirements when following these
recommendations.

Pool Closures: Fecal accidents are a concern and an inconvenience to both pool
operators and patrons. Pool operators should carefully explain to patrons why the
pool needs to be closed in response to a fecal accident. Understanding that pool
closure is necessary for proper disinfection and protection of the health and safety of
swimmer is likely to promote support rather than frustration. Pool closures allow
chlorine to do its job – to kill germs and help prevent Recreational Water Illnesses
(RWIs).
Important Background Information
What Are Recreational Water Illnesses (RWIs)?
What is the first thing that pops into your head when you think about water safety? Drowning?
Slipping? Lightning? These are all good answers, and all are very important. But, did you know
that germs can contaminate swimming water? These germs cause RWIs that have made many
people sick.
RWIs are caused by germs such as “Crypto” (KRIP-toe), which is short for Cryptosporidium,
Giardia (gee-ARE-dee-uh), E. coli 0157:H7, and Shigella (Shi-GEL-uh).
How Are RWIs Spread?
RWIs are spread by swallowing pool water that has been contaminated with fecal matter. How?
If someone has diarrhea, that person can easily contaminate the pool. Thank about it. Pool water
is shared by every swimmer. Really, it’s communal bathing water. It is not sterile. It is not
drinking water.
The good news is that germs causing RWIs are killed by chlorine. However, chlorine doesn’t
work right away. It takes time to kill germs and some germs like Crypto can live in pools for
days. Even the best maintained pools can spread illness.
January 2014
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Should All Fecal Accidents Be Treated the Same?
NO! A diarrheal fecal accident is a higher-risk event than a formed stool accident. With most
diarrheal illnesses, the number of infectious germs fund in each bowl movement decreases as the
diarrhea stops and the person’s bowel movement returns to normal. Therefore, a formed stool is
probably less of a risk than a diarrheal accident that you may not see.
A formed stool may contain no germs a few, or many that can cause illness. You won’t know.
The germs that may be present are less likely to be released into the pool because they are mostly
contained within the stool. However, formed stool also protects the germs inside from being
exposed to the chlorine in the pool, so prompt removal is necessary.
Germ Inactivation Time for Chlorinated Water*
Germ
E. coli O 157:H7 Bacterium
Hepatitis A Virus
Giardia Parasite
Crypto Parasite
Time
Less than 1 minute
About 16 minutes
About 45 minutes
About 15,300 minutes or 10.6 days†
Should You Treat a Formed Fecal Accident As If It Contains Crypto?
No. In 1999, pool staff volunteers from across the country collected almost 300 samples from
fecal accidents that occurred at waterparks and pools¶.
The CDC then tested these samples for Crypto and Giardia. None of the sampled fecal samples
tested positive for Crypto, but Giardia was found in 4.4% of the samples. These results suggest
that formed fecal accidents pose only a very small Crypto threat but should be treated as a risk
for spreading other germs (such as Giardia). Remember a diarrheal fecal accident is considered
to be a higher-risk event than a formed-stool fecal accident.
Formed Stool Plan
1.
For both formed – stool and diarrheal fecal accidents, direct everyone to leave the pool.
If you have multiple pools that use the same filter – all pools will have to be shut down.
Do not allow anyone to enter the contaminated pool(s) until decontamination procedures
are completed.
2.
For both formed – stool and diarrheal fecal accidents, remove as much of the fecal
material as possible using a net or scoop and dispose of it in a sanitary manner. Clean
and disinfect the net or scoop (e.g., after cleaning, leave the net or scoop immersed in the
pool during disinfection).
DO NOT VACUUM THE STOOL FROM THE POOL!
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3.
Raise the chlorine to 2 ppm (if less than 2 ppm), and ensure the water’s pH is between 7.2
– 7.5 and temperature is about 770 F (250C). This chlorine concentration was selected to
keep the pool closure time to approximately 30 minutes. Other concentrations or closure
times can be as long as the CT inactivation value* is kept constant (discussed later).
4.
Maintain the chlorine concentration at 2 ppm, pH 7.2 – 7.5, for at least 25 minutes before
reopening the pool. Local regulations may require a higher chlorine concentration level
in the presence of chlorine stabilizers† which are known to slow disinfection. Ensure that
the filtration system is operating while the pool reaches and maintains the proper FREE
chlorine concentration during the disinfection process.
Establish a fecal accident log. Document each fecal accident by recording date and time of
the event, whether it involved formed stool or diarrhea, and the free chlorine and pH levels at
the time or observation of the event. Before reopening the pool, record the free chlorine and
pH levels, the procedures followed in response to the fecal accident (including the process
used to increase chlorine levels if necessary), and the contact time.
Diarrheal Stool Plan
1.
For both formed – stool and diarrheal fecal accidents, direct everyone to leave the pool.
If you have multiple pools that use the same filter – all pools will have to be shut down.
Do not allow anyone to enter the contaminated pool(s) until decontamination procedures
are completed.
2.
For both formed – stool and diarrheal fecal accidents, remove as much of the fecal
material as possible using a net or scoop and dispose of it in a sanitary manner. Clean
and disinfect the net or scoop (e.g., after cleaning, leave the net or scoop immersed in the
pool during disinfection).
3.
Raise the free chlorine concentration to 20 ppm (mg/L)¶§ and maintain the water’s ph
between 7.2 – 7.5 and temperature at about 770 F (250 C).The chlorine and pH should
remain at these levels for at least 12.75 hours to achieve the CT inactivation value* of
15,300. Crypto CT values are based on the inactivation of 99.9% of oocysts. Laboratory
studies indicate that this level of Crypto inactivation cannot be reached in the presence of
50 ppm chlorine stabilizer†**, even after 24 hours at 40 ppm free chlorine, pH 6.5 at a
temperature of about 770F (250C).
4.
Ensure that the filtration system is operating while the pool reaches and maintains the
proper chlorine level during disinfection. If necessary, before attempting the
hyperchlorination of any pool, consult an aquatics professional to determine the
feasibility, the most optimal and practical methods, and needed safety considerations.
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5.
Backwash the filter thoroughly after reaching the CT value. Be sure the effluent is
discharged directly to waste and in accordance with local, district or state regulations. Do
not return the backwash through the filter. Where appropriate, replace the filter media.
6.
Allow swimmers back into the pool after the required CT value has been achieved and
the chlorine level has been returned to the normal operating range allowed by the local or
district regulating authority.
Establish a fecal accident log. Document each fecal accident by recording date and time of
the event, whether it involved formed stool or diarrhea, and the free chlorine and pH levels at
the time or observation of the event. Before reopening the pool, record the free chlorine and
pH levels, the procedures followed in response to the fecal accident (including the process
used to increase chlorine levels if necessary), and the contact time.
*
1 ppm (1mg/L) chlorine at pH 7.5 and 770F (250C).
†
Shields, JM; Arrowood, MJ; Hill, VR and Beach, MJ. (2007) Inactivation of
Cryptosporidium parvum under chlorinated recreational water conditions. Journal of
Water and health. In Press.
¶
Prevalence of Parasites in Fecal Material from Chlorinated Swimming Pools – United
States, 1999 (2001) MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep (20):410-2.
*
CT inactivation value (or contact time) refers to concentration © of free chlorine in ppm
multiplied by time (T) in minutes at a specific pH and temperature.
†
Chlorine stabilizers include compounds such as cyanuric acid, dichlor, and trichlor.
¶
Many conventional test kits cannot measure free chlorine levels this high. Use chlorine
test strips that can measure free chlorine in a range that includes 20 ppm (such as those
used in the food industry) or make dilutions with chlorine-free water when using a
standard DPD test kit.
§
If pool operators want to use a different chlorine concentration or inactivation time, they
need to ensure that CT values always remain the same (see next page for examples of
how to accomplish this).
**
CDC, unpublished data.
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Pool Disinfection Time
How long does it take to disinfect the pool after a fecal accident? This depends on what type of
fecal accident has occurred and at which chlorine levels you choose to disinfect the pool. If the
fecal accident is formed stool, follow Figure 1, which displays the specific time and chlorine
levels needed to inactivate Giardia. If the fecal accident is diarrhea, follow Figure 2, which
displays the specific time and chlorine levels needed to inactivate Crypto.
*
*
†
Figure 1 – Giardia inactivation for Formed – Stool Fecal Accident
Chlorine Level (ppm)
Disinfection Time*
1.0
45 minutes
2.0
25 minutes
3.0
19 minutes
These closure times are based on 99% inactivation of Giardia cysts by chlorine at pH 7.5,
770F (250C). These closure times were derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking Guidance manual. These
closure times do not take into account “dead spots” and other areas of poor pool water
mixing.
Figure 2 – Crypto Inactivation Time for a Diarrheal Fecal Accident
Chlorine Level (ppm)
Disinfection Time*†
1.0
15,300 minutes (255 hours)
10
1,530 minutes (25.5 hours)
20
765 minutes (12.75 hours)
Shields, JM; Arrowood, MJ; Hill, VR and Beach, MJ. (2007) Inactivation of
Cryptosporidium parvum under chlorinated recreation water conditions. Journal of
Water and Health. In press
At pH 7.5, 770F (250C).
The CT inactivation value is the concentration © of free chlorine in ppm multiplied by time (T)
in minutes (CT value = C x T). The CT value for Giardia is 45 and the CT value for Crypto is
15,300 (both at about pH 7.5, 770F [250C]). If you choose to use a different chlorine
concentration or inactivation time, you must ensure that the CT values remain the same.
For example, to determine the length of time needed to disinfect a pool after a diarrheal accident
at 15 ppm, use the following formula: CT x T = 15,300.
Solve for time: T = 15,300 ÷ 15 ppm = 1020 minutes or 17 hours. It would take 17 hours to
inactivate Crypto at 15 ppm. You can do the same for Giardia by using the CT inactivation
value of 45.
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POOL FACILITY DAILY INSPECTION CHECKLIST
This checklist is to be followed and the items performed each day. This list is the minimum
items that need to be completed. By all means, if you see something not on this list that needs
attention, fix it, clean it, pick it up, or tell someone about it.
Week of: ________________(Initial each area after the job is completed).
BATHHOUSE
MON. TUE. WED. THR.
FRI.
SAT.
SUN.
Floor Swept, Mopped, & Disinfected
Proper Lighting
Plumbing Working
Drains, Sinks, Showers Cleaned
Doors Secured Properly
Supplies Stocked
Empty Garbage Can & Replace Liner
Signage
Comments:
POOL DECK
MON. TUE. WED. THR. FRI.
SAT. SUN.
MON. TUE.
SAT.
Swept & Free of Debris
No Obstructions
Equipment Stored Properly
Drains Cleaned
Empty Garbage Can & Replace Liner
Depth Markers Intact
Lighting
Signage
Pool Blanket/Cover Cleaned, Undamaged
Emergency Equipment
Comments:
POOL LADDERS
WED. THR.
FRI.
SUN.
Firmly in Place
Rungs Firmly in Place
Check for Sharp Edges
Handrails Firmly Attached
Comments:
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SLIDE FEATURES
MON. TUE.
WED. THR. FRI.
SAT.
SUN.
BOARDS
Intact and Secured
Clean
Handrails intact and Secured
Grit on Steps and Board
Integrity (No cracks)
Rails in Place
Rails Secure
Comments:
MON. TUE.
WED. THR.
FRI. SAT.
SUN.
FACILITY BOUNDARIES
MON. TUE. WED. THR.
FRI.
SAT. SUN.
MON. TUE.
FRI.
SAT.
Intact and Secured
Clean
Area Under Slides free from Algae
Comments:
Fencing Intact/Secure
Area Next to Bldg. Weeded
Sidewalk cleaned and Swept
Empty Garbage Can & Replace Liner
Lighting
Signage
Doors/Gates/Windows/Fence Secure
Comments:
GUARD CHAIRS
WED. THR.
SUN.
Steps/Seats Intact
Stand Secured to Deck
Loose Bolts/Accessories
Clean
Comments:
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POOL WATER
MON. TUE.
WED. THR.
FRI.
SAT.
SUN.
MON. TUE. WED. THR.
FRI.
SAT.
SUN.
MON. TUE.
FRI.
SAT.
SUN.
Data Taken/Recorded Throughout Day
Clear of debris
Vacuum (only on assigned days)
Grate Covers Clean and in Place
Comments:
CHEMICAL/FILTER/EQUIP. ROOM
Lighting
Floor Space Cleaned/No Obstacles
Ventilation
Proper Storage of Chemicals/Supplies
Safety Equipment in Place
Backwash Schedule
Water Turned Off
Filter Gauge Readings
Garbage Emptied & Liner Replaced
Drains Clear
Doors Secured
MSDS Book
Comments:
POOL OFFICE
WED. THR.
Sweep & Mop with Disinfectant
Garbage Emptied & Liner Replaced
First Aid Kit Supplies Stocked
Lighting
Concessions Stocked
Emergency Equipment
Comments:
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MARKETING
Marketing the fun factor of swimming pools is fundamental to the operations of a swimming
pool. Developing and programming your facility fully utilizes its physical features and
maximizes its usefulness for citizens and visitors. Special programs and activities add interest
and challenges.
Increase public awareness about benefits of participation in a public swimming pool. Publicize
pool hours and special events in the local newspaper, radio station, Cable TV, posters, summer
recreation programs and speaking engagements.
Innovative communities are installing water slides, splash pools, lazy rivers, water gadgets and
other aquatic features to attract visitors. Consider amenities like hot tubs or spas. Like other
tourist attractions, it is helpful to change your swimming pool to create new interest each year. If
there is no budget, fresh paint will at least freshen up a facility. Hire local artists to paint murals.
Agencies, groups and contacts listed elsewhere in this document are additional resources.
Here are a few ideas to bring more people to your swimming pool.
* Swim lessons. Most swimming pools offer swim lessons for children and follow a
program protocol developed by an organization like the Red Cross. Swim lesson teachers
need to be trained during the off-season so they are certified when the swim lesson
program starts. Offer lifesaving classes at the pool. Consider special classes for adults
who haven’t learned to swim.
* Fun hour. Allow the use of toys, such as noodles and inner tubes, for a designated time.
Toys can be kept to a confined area for safety consideration.
* Swim meets. Many cities have swim teams who participate in competitive swim meets.
In addition to the competition team, recreation swim meets for non-competitive
swimmers are also popular.
* Sun-friendly areas. Provide colorful umbrellas to shade areas that provide ultra-violet
protection for parents. Sun-bathing furniture is inexpensive and also appealing to deckusers.
* Dances on the deck. Consider after-hours events, such as hiring a DJ for teen dances.
Host parties and movies.
* Puppy swims after the season. After the pool has closed to people for the season,
consider letting pet dogs in for an after-season swim before the water is drained.
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* Birthday parties. Promote the swimming pool as a great place to host birthday parties.
Prepare a package to make it a fund-raiser for the swimming pool, such as providing cake
and ice cream.
* Group rentals. Market the swimming pool to businesses for employee appreciation
events. Invite organizations and service clubs to host a family night at the swim pool.
Suggest to fall sports teams such as the football team to have a team swim to cool off.
Make available discounted pool prices when there are special events in town like a boy’s
baseball or girls’ softball tournament.
* Package deals. Offer discounted rates with other local facilities like picnic shelters,
health clubs without swim pools, miniature golf courses, zoos, bowling alleys,
campgrounds, hotels without swimming pools, etc.
* Canoe or kayak lessons. Swim pools are great facilities for first-timers learning how to
canoe or kayak.
* Scuba diving. Recruit a scuba diver to offer lessons at your swim pool.
* Business-sponsored free night. Solicit a business to sponsor a free night at the swim
pool.
* Water aerobics, yoga, therapy or other exercise classes in the water can be popular.
Consider parent-child classes.
* Sports-related equipment, like basketball hoops and volleyball nets, attract tweeners and
teens.
* Designated times for special populations, such as Special Olympics or senior citizens.
* Lap swimming during noon hour or other inactive times.
* Day camps.
* Be innovative to get people into your facility. Think about ideas like carnivals, egg
hunts, dancing on the water, treasure hunts, etc.
* Special nights for Scouts that need to earn merit badges.
SKIN AND EYE CARE
Wow! An entire section devoted to just skin and eye care. How come? Because, your eyes and
your skin are not replaceable. Maybe part of the reason that you took the lifeguarding job was to
get a great tan.
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It is probably true that you could get a good suntan while lifeguarding at an outdoor pool.
However, you are slowly turning your skin into leather by trying to get that tan. And if that’s not
enough, you are dramatically increasing your odds of getting skin cancer. By the way, the
number one Workers Compensation Claim is…sunburn!
Let’s start with some background first. The sun lights and heats the earth. Good things of
course. But there are bad things that come from the sun too. The radiation that causes problems
for our eyes and skin is namely ultraviolet radiation. Now the kicker is that we need a certain
amount of this. Why? To make vitamin D for our bodies. Cool huh? Bet you didn’t know that.
The earth filters out a certain amount of ultraviolet radiation, but some of it still makes it to earth.
The two kinds of radiation that cause problems are UV-A and UV-B. The acute effects of
ultraviolet are short lived and reversible. Yup, your sunburn or suntan eventually goes away
without repeated exposure. There are chronic effects of UV exposure as well. They include:
*
*
*
*
*
Premature aging of the skin. Looking like the Marlboro man at age 35.
Suppression of immune system.
Eye Damage.
Skin Cancer.
Development of photosensitivity and medications.
Sunburn
Sunburn is redness of the skin. It is caused by an increase in blood flow to the superficial blood
vessels in your skin. The blood vessels dilate as a result of exposure to UV radiation. High
doses of UV radiation may also result in edema, blistering, and peeling of the skin. The UV-B
type radiation is believed to be the cause for most sunburns. It is 1,000 times more erythmogenic
than UV-A radiation. However, more UV-A actually reaches the earth’s surface. Consequently,
UV-A is thought to cause approximately 15-20% of sunburns. There are some risk factors that
are involved with how easily you can sunburn. They include fair skin, red or blonde hair, blue
eyes and freckles. Areas of the body that are susceptible include face, neck, and trunk areas are
two to four time s more susceptible than your limbs. Also, kids and the elderly seem to be more
susceptible to UV’s damaging rays. A sunburn usually reaches its maximum redness or
erythema, in about 8 – 12 hours after exposure and usually fades in about a day.
Tanning
Just what is tanning? It is a delayed pigmentation of the skin or melanin pigmentation. Your tan
will become noticeable within a day or two and may last up to a few months. When tanning
there is an increase in the number of functions of your pigment cells called melanocytes. In turn
there is an increase in tyrosinase enzyme. This action leads to an increase in the formation of
new melanin and, an increase the number of melanin granules in the epidural part of the skin. It
isn’t all bad news though. Tanned skin does offer some protection for future exposure to the sun,
albeit moderate protection. Caucasian skin still should use sunscreen or sunblock. In addition to
the others things mentioned with tanning, there is also a thickening of the skin. Moderate
exposure to UV-B radiation is enough for a 3-fold thickening of the statum cornea layer of the
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skin that can last up to a couple of months. This is thought to provide more protection than a
darkening of the skin with regards to photoprotection.
Premature Aging of the Skin
One of the effects of repeated exposure to the sun and its UV rays is the premature aging of our
skin. Structural changes in the skin actually occur. They include dryness, wrinkles, more
pronounced skin furrows, sagging, a loss of elasticity, and mottled pigmentation. These occur
from changes in elastin and collagen. These degenerative changes occur over time and are for
the most part, not reversible. Current thought believes that up to 80% of the premature aging can
occur within the first 20 years of your life. UV-A is a contributor to skin aging but UV-B is
1,000 to 10,000 times more efficient than A in causing sunburn and nonmelanoma skin cancer.
UV-B radiation is 2-50 times more efficient than UV-A for premature aging of the skin.
Immune System Suppression
In a nutshell, UV radiation suppresses the immune system. With the suppressed immune system,
the body rejects the formation of tumors.
Skin Cancer
Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the world. The types include nonmelanoma
skin, basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and melanoma. DNA
damage occurs as a result of UV exposure. The rate of skin cancer is on the increase worldwide.
Interestingly, many people would never subject their lungs to carcinogenic cigarette smoke, but
will fry themselves in the sun possibly subjecting the largest human organ to several types of
cancer.
Eye Damage
More than 99% of the available UV rays are absorbed the eyes. Possible chronic effects of this
include corneal damage, cataracts, macular degeneration, that can lead to blindness. Most people
think of melanoma as a skin cancer. It is. However, it can also develop in the eye. This is more
common in the Caucasian population. The risk of intraocular melanomas is 8 times higher in
whites than blacks.
Cloudy days
Are you at lower risk for UV exposure on a cloudy day than a cloud-free day? Not necessarily.
The effect of clouds on radiation is as varied as the clouds themselves. If sunlight is present on
the cloudy days, the UV levels can actually be higher. Completely overcast days still allow a
substantial amount of UV-B through. People mistakenly, stay outside longer on cloudy days and
take less preventive measures against the sun. Therefore, the benefit of the cloud protection is
negated in many cases.
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Sunscreen vs. Sunblock
So what’s the difference between the two? Sunscreens are typically chemical cocktails that
ABSORB specific wavelengths of radiation. Sunblocks are physical cocktails that scatter,
absorb and reflect up to 99% of UV and visible light. They are almost always opaque in
appearance. The two most common blocking agents used are zinc oxide and titanium dioxide.
So What Do I use?
For optimal protection, use sunblocks when possible. Limit the time you spend in the sun.
Cover exposed areas of skin and wear a hat. Do not forget about your lips. The higher the SPF
rating (they go all the way up to SPF 70), the more protection is afforded. However, you should
reapply the product about every 20-30 minutes. SPF 30 is a good starting point. SPF 50 only
provides 1% to 2% more protection than SPF 30. Check to see if the product screens or blocks
both UV-A and UV-B. Some people are allergic to sun protection ingredients so test on a small
patch of skin and not on your face. If after use, you find that you still are getting red
(sunburned), then get a product with a higher SPF rating. Some of you darker folks may be able
to get by with a product that has a lower SPF rating. To determine your SPF rating, you need a
bit of experimenting. If you sunburn in 10 minutes, a product with an SPF of 15, should last 150
minutes (minutes x SPF rating).
Sunglasses
Don’t skimp here just to be fashionable. You should be wearing glasses that have polarized
lenses. Polarized lenses eliminate reflected light. Swimming pool water and snow have a lot of
reflected light. Try to find ones that are wraparound or that don’t allow light to sneak into the
sides of your glasses. Once again, look for UV-A and B protection.
CUSTOMER RELATIONS
This was one of the hardest sections to write. Why? Because there are scads of resources out
there that have expertise on this subject.
In many municipalities, you are the only game in town. Does anyone else out there have an
aquatics facility that competes with yours? For the majority of folks, the answer is “No”. We do
have some cities out there though that do have competition. Oddly, the approach to customer
relations should be basically the same for any entity, whether it is public, private, or non-profit.
Aquatics facilities are in the recreation and exercise business. We want our recreation to be fun,
relaxing, and memorable. Would you consider yourself to be the Queen or King of fun? If not,
you need to re-examine how you go about your job. And, like it or not, if you are not having a
good time, that “vibe” rubs off on your customers (internal and external).
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Internal Customers – Your Employees
What the heck are internal customers? Excellent question! You have them and didn’t even
know it. They are……………your employees. As the commander-in-chief of your facility, you
set the tone, the rules etc. that employees follow. They are looking to YOU for leadership. If
you are confident, fair, knowledgeable, and have a zeal for your job, they will emulate that. If
you’re not, they will emulate that as well. They will also treat your external customers the same.
In other words, if you approach your job as “job” and hate going to work and have a rotten time
while you’re there, it shows. Why should I as a customer come to your facility when obviously
(by watching you), it is less than stellar?
People tend to feel better when they see someone else feeling good or having fun. You and your
staff can feed off of each other in this area. Happy internal customers (employees) will work
harder, are more loyal, and are more likely to tell others about your facility. Isn’t that one of the
things you want from your staff? Sales and pitches from people you already pay to spread the
word about your facility. Folks, this is FREE ADVERTISING. We all know that in the aquatics
facility business, our people are not the highest paid employees. And there is increasing
competition for the workforce. The private sector is offering higher wages and stealing away
some of our best people. How does one compete with this? Employees don’t always need to be
paid more. You need to make your workplace an inviting place to work.
Employees need to feel that they are a valued member of the team. They want to feel like their
opinions are important and that they can contribute to the success of the facility. Do you ask
employees for their opinions and input? Do you communicate well with the employees or are
“bombs” frequently dropped. Is there flexibility at your facility? Are the employees empowered
or must all decisions be handled by you? Do you encourage thinking outside of the box or are
you stuck in your methods and ways?
Managing Your Diverse Workforce
Unless you have been living on a deserted island for a number of years, you know that today’s
workforce is dramatically different than previous ones. You, as the manager of your facility,
must recognize this, accept it, and adapt or adjust. Not them, YOU. Let’s define a bit just who
we are talking about.
The Mature Workforce
These folks were born between 1920 - 1945. They make up about only 5% of the nation’s
workforce but stay at the same job longer than any other group. The average length of stay is 15
years plus. They are very loyal to their employer. They tend to value consistency and are
conformers. They do the adjusting on the job. They tend to be very disciplined and respectful of
traditions and the past. They are not used to thinking outside of the box. So what motivates this
group? They tend to want to be the mentors or teachers. They need experience to be respected.
Some of these reenter the workforce to gain a sense of fulfillment. They need to be productive.
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The Boomers (baby)
These folks make up the largest percentage of the nation’s workforce at 45%. They were born
between 1946 – 1964. Their stint with an employer averages 6 – 12 years. Their characteristics
tend to be: optimism, team players, self-centered, and become uncomfortable with conflicts.
Motivation for this group is: they seek out success, their career defines them, and they desire to
be fully engaged.
The Xers (Generation X)
The Xers makes up the second highest percentage of the nation’s workforce coming in at about
30%. Born between 1965-1979, they only stay with an employer about 3-5 years. This group is
confident with technology as they grew up with it. They are realistic and informal.
The motivators for this group are: they want a balance between work and personal life, relatively
stubborn about doing things their way, and expect recognition for being ambitious.
The Yers (Generation Y)
The Yers only stay at one place of employment for about 2-4 years. Born between 1980-2000,
they make up only 20% of the workforce. They tend to be overprotective of their kids,
technology savvy, confident, and independent. They are thirsty for your feedback, idealists, and
seek freedom as a sign of respect and trust.
These are generalities and not gospel. Do not take a cookie cutter approach when dealing with
individuals. Use what is presented here as insight that will assist you in working with your staff.
The more you know about and understand what makes your staff tick, the better you will be at
developing a crack facility and team.
Outside Customers – the Public
Our outside customers are the public. Satisfying the public is what we are all about. That is why
we are in business. But, do you really know your clientele? What are the demographics of the
people that visit your facility? Why aren’t you attracting more customers from other
demographic units? To whom is your facility and programming geared toward? Are you
alienating certain segments of the population? Are your customers REALLY happy about your
facility and the services you provide? How do you know? Are you assuming? Has your facility
and programming kept up with the changing needs in your community and the surrounding area?
How do think customers would rate your facility and the services you provide?
Of course it would be nice to keep adding new customers to your base, but are you doing the
things you should be to keep your current customers happy or, developing “brand loyalty”.
Probably the most widely practiced area of brand loyalty is in the automotive sector; especially
pickup trucks. Chevy guys are Chevy guys. F-150 folks keep buying Fords. Neither group
would ever consider buying a Dodge. And hell would have to freeze over before any of them
would consider buying an import. Now that’s brand loyalty! Can you say the same thing about
your customers? Why not? In today’s world, you had better be constantly trying to improve or
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you will lose those loyal customers. It is starting to happen in even the automotive industry as
well. The major American auto makers rested on their laurels too long. They assumed that their
customers would remain brand loyal forever. They are finding out that isn’t so true anymore.
More and more people are asking the question, “What have you done for me lately?” So how do
keep your customers loyal?
Whether they are correct or not, people’s first impressions are lasting ones. People will make
snap judgments based on their senses. It is only human nature. Look professional for your
facility. Although many people don’t like the idea of uniforms, if everyone is wearing the same
color shirt, it is easy to identify you as a staffer. This helps tremendously when customers need
help, directions, or have a problem, or even give out a compliment. Is your facility clean? Is the
facility bright and cheery? Is it well-maintained? Does your staff greet customers when they
arrive? Do you have extra amenities for your customers? What does your website look like?
These are all areas where first impressions are made.
Smile. Smile. Smile. Smile. I can’t stress this enough. Ever go into a store and find employees
who never smile? It’s as if you were an inconvenience to them.
The Telephone. Your tone when answering the phone immediately tells the person on the other
end what kind of mood you are in. Whatever you are supposed to say at your facility, say it like
you really mean it. Put some enthusiasm into it. How about a greeting? How many places do
you call and they don’t even greet you? Recorded messages or an automated system. It is
unbelievable how many places of business use this. Nothing is more impersonal than an
automated system. First of all, you have to listen to the menu of choices. Then, you have to try
and remember which number was the one you needed. Chances are the menu choices didn’t
even come close to helping you get your question answered. Automated systems should only be
used when the facility is closed. How about the places you call and they say, “hold please” then
put you on hold before you can say anything? Isn’t it much better to hear on the other end of the
line, “MAY I put you on hold for a moment while I transfer the call”? This might sound subtle
at first, but it does tell the caller that you care about them. When you pick up the phone to speak
to the person who has been on hold, first thank them for holding, then tell them who you are.
Don’t forget about your voicemail greeting and message.
Names. Of course the first time you meet someone you should use the usual “madam or ma’m”
and “sir”. After that, you should get to know their name and use it. The people out there that
study these kinds of things will tell you that using someone’s name does have a positive effect.
Why? Because people love to hear their name called.
Screw-ups and mistakes. Hey we are all human and make mistakes. That’s o.k. with most folks
as long as you admit it. Even if you personally didn’t do it, it happened at your facility. When
companies try to cover things up or don’t take responsibility, that’s when you have angry
customers.
January 2014
Page 65
Be Visible. At your facility, you simply can’t stay in your office all day. Get out there and
mingle a bit with your customers. Let them know who you are and what you are responsible for.
Tell them your name, even if it is printed on your shirt. That way, when they call for something
and you end up speaking with them, they can picture your face in their head. Ever go to a
website looking for the customer service information? There it is, way down at the bottom in
teensy weensy font. Do you get the feeling that they really would rather you didn’t get a hold of
them?
Wow Them. Besides some of things that were just mentioned, go the extra mile. Do something
little or big (you decide) that will impress your customer. Give them an experience that they will
remember.
Feedback. Your customers are yours. They don’t fall into some weird demographic unit that an
ad person tells you. Take advantage of them. Seek out their input on what is working and what
needs improvement. When you seek out their input, they feel important. Many times customers
are aware of things that you may not be. This need not be lengthy. Heck you can even have a
suggestion box. Yes these do work. Some people are inhibited about telling you that something
is good or needs improvement. The suggestion box is the answer for them. If they signed the
card that is in the box, you MUST call them back and thank them. If you are going to implement
the suggestion, call them again and tell them that you will be implementing their suggestion.
Heck, you could even give them a thank you gift. In your flyers or on your webpage, tell them
the improvement came from their suggestions (or are coming) and to keep them coming.
Communicate. Let the customers know who you are. What you are about. Who is your staff. If
you are going to be making some changes, let the customers know about them. Are there going
to be changes in policy? Tell them about these. Rates changes or changes in hours? Let them
know about these as well. If you rent out your facility for private events, why not advertise this?
Complaints. No matter how good your operation may be, there are going to be some
complaints. Now, bear in mind that some people live to complain. These ones are the toughest
to deal with. There are a few things to remember when dealing with complaints.
First, stop whatever it is you are doing. How many times have you been trying to talk to
someone and they kept on doing what they were doing? Did you feel like they were not giving
you their full undivided attention? If so, now you just got even madder. Consider going
someplace that is private. Why? You have no idea how mad the other person may be. I don’t
think you want a customer ranting and raving where the rest of your customers can hear it all.
Tell them right away that you understand that they have an issue/complaint/problem and that you
want to fix it and make it right. One of customers’ biggest complaints about businesses when
there is a problem is that they don’t think the other person cares. You can vocalize this to the
customer and let them know that you value them as a customer and will try to make it right. Tell
them you are sorry that they are upset (if you can see that they are). Have them tell you what
THE (not their) issue is (not seems to be). Listen very carefully to what is said and look at the
other person when they are speaking. Restate back to them what you believe the problem is
based on what they said. Then ask them if what you said was correct. This may go back and
forth a few times until you get it right. Empathize with them. “I can see how this could upset
you”, and “I would probably feel the same if I were in your place”. Before committing to how
January 2014
Page 66
you plan on resolving the problem, ask them what they think should be done to fix it. Sometimes
their ideas and yours might be vastly different. Don’t commit to your plan or theirs yet.
Sometimes you must do something right away. You might need to repair or replace something
immediately. You could give them a refund or certificate for their inconvenience until you can
correct the problem. Thank them for bringing the problem to your attention and encourage them
to do it again if there are any future issues. Once the problem has been corrected, call them (if
you can) to let them know the problem has been solved. It takes a whole two minutes. Can you
spare two minutes of your time to save a loyal customer? I hope so. Thank them again.
Empower your staff. Customers can be impatient. Staff needs to be able to deal with customers
and problems. You cannot be there every second. They must be able to make decisions on their
own. This way, customers get quicker satisfaction and problems get solved faster. Some of your
staff probably has built up a certain rapport with customers that you haven’t. Staff should
capitalize on this when it comes to asking for feedback (good or bad). This also lets the
customer know that you truly value customer service as well as their opinions.
WATER CHEMISTRY
Perfect water chemistry is noble quest yet extremely difficult to obtain. That is because there are
many variables that affect water chemistry some of which change almost by the minute. Some
of these variables include:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Water chemistry from the municipal source.
Temperature.
Humidity.
Sunlight.
Rainfall.
Wind speed.
Bather load.
Proximity to dirt and other debris.
Proximity to vegetation.
These are only some of the variables. Just being aware of the variables is not enough. You need
to be able to adapt to these.
Remember not to get locked into strictly following your timetable regarding pool chemistry
maintenance and adjustments. Your experience will come in handy here. It takes time to gain
experience. Time has a tendency to make us forget things. So, write EVERYTHING down. It
will come in handy in the future.
Experts say that too many people get “hung up” on using chemicals to obtain quality water.
Remember that 95% of quality water comes from proper filtration and circulation. Here are
some basic rules for mixing and adding chemicals:
January 2014
Page 67
Always dilute any chemicals that are to be added to the pool water. The easiest way to do this is
to mix the chemical into 5 gallons of water. NEVER ADD WATER TO ACID, ALWAYS
ADD THE ACID TO THE WATER! If water is added to the acid, a violent reaction could
occur and splash the concentrated acid on you (another reason for proper Personal Protective
Equipment). After the chemical has been thoroughly mixed, let the solution set for 15 to 20
minutes. Liquid acid need not be stirred but solid chemicals should be to speed up the dissolving
process. Rinse your stirring utensil well. After any solids have precipitated to the bottom of the
bucket, pour the liquid into the pool over an equal area. There are a couple of exceptions to this
that will come later. Spread the chemical out over the entire area to facilitate the mixing of the
chemical with the pool water.
When mixing calcium chloride or soda ash or hypochlorite with water in a pail (NOTE:
NEVER ALL THREE IN THE SAME PAIL), let the stirred mixture set for a few minutes.
You should notice mud-like solids settle in the bottom of the pail. Throw these solids out. Pour
the liquid contents of the pail into the water. Make sure the mud doesn’t go into the water. It
will cause cloudiness and clog filters.
When adding acid to the pool, it should always be diluted with water. Again, ALWAYS ACID
TO WATER, NEVER WATER TO ACID. The size of the pool determines how much acid
can safely be added to the water. Pools with a capacity of 175,000 gallons or less should only
receive 3 gallons or less of acid in a 24 hour period. When treating the pool for high alkalinity
and before swimming has started for the season, add the acid on alternate consecutive days. The
acid needs to work for 48 hours. It can take this long for the acid to affect the chemistry. Make
sure to test the water prior to adding additional acid.
When adding any chemicals to the water, some cloudiness may occur. This is normal as it takes
time for the water and chemicals to balance. Cloudiness should not last beyond 48 hours.
As everything in pool water chemistry is based on the gallons of the pool you need a formula for
determining gallons.
Calculating the Capacity (or gallons) of a Pool
1.
Determine Average Depth of the Pool.
(Depth of shallow end + Depth at deep end) divided by 2
2.
Determine Pool Capacity — For Rectangular or Square Pools
Length X Width X Average Depth X 7.5 = Gallons of Water
Feet
January 2014
X
Feet
X
Feet
X 7.5
Page 68
Length
Width
Depth
Oval/Round Pool Formula – Pool Capacity
Long Diameter X Short Diameter X Average Depth X 5.9 = Gallons of Water
Feet
Feet
X
Length
Feet
X
Width
X 5.9
Depth
Most chemistry problems can be easily solved using simple calculations. However, there are
many chemicals that are used with pools and thus numerous formulas to remember. The
following tables, formulas, and recording forms have been devised to assist you with your
chemical balancing.
Table 1
To Raise Chlorine Level One Part Per Million (1 ppm)
Gallons
of Water
100
1,000
10,000
% Active Chlorine in Product
5%
10 %
12 %
35 %
50 %
65 %
80 %
85 %
90 %
100 %
½
TBS
1/3
Cup
3 1/5
Cup
1/4
TBS
1/5
Cup
1 3/5
Cup
¼
TBS
1/8
Cup
1 1/3
Cup
1/5
tsp
2 1/6
tsp
.238
lb
1/8
tsp
2
tsp
.167
lb
1/10
tsp
1
tsp
.128
lb
1/12
tsp
¾
tsp
.104
lb
1/13
tsp
¾
tsp
.098
lb
1/14
tsp
2/3
tsp
.093
lb
.0083
lb
.083
lb
Table 2
To Raise pH with Soda Ash (Sodium Carbonate)
Gallons
Of Water
Drops of Base Demand Reagent Added
1
100
1,000
10,000
¼
tsp
1
TBS
5
oz
January 2014
2
3
4
½
tsp
2
TBS
10
oz
1
tsp
3
TBS
15
oz
1¼
tsp
¼
Cup
1.25
lbs
5
1½
tsp
1/3
Cup
1.56
lbs
6
7
8
2
tsp
1/3
Cup
1.8
lbs
2
tsp
½
Cup
2.2
lbs
2½
tsp
½
Cup
2.5
lbs
9
1
TBS
2/3
Cup
2.8
lbs
10
1
TBS
2/3
Cup
3.1
lbs
Page 69
Table 3
To Lower pH with Muriatic Acid (Hydrochloric Acid – 20 Baume’)
Gallons
Of Water
100
1,000
10,000
Drops of Acid Demand Reagent Added
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
½
tsp
1½
TBS
1
Cup
1
tsp
3
TBS
1
pt
1½
tsp
1/3
Cup
1½
pt
2
tsp
½
Cup
1
qt
2½
tsp
½
Cup
2½
pts
1
TBS
½
Cup
3
pts
3½
tsp
¾
Cup
3½
pts
4
tsp
¾
Cup
2
qts
1½
TBS
1
Cup
4½
pts
10
1½
TBS
1
Cup
2½
qts
9
5½
tsp
1
Cup
6.0
lbs
10
2
TBS
1¼
Cup
6.25
lbs
Table 4
To Lower pH with Dry Acid (Sodium Bisulfate)
Gallons
Of
Water
100
1,000
10,000
Drops of Acid Demand Reagent Added
1
½
tsp
2
TBS
0.63
lbs
2
1¼
tsp
¼
Cup
1.13
lbs
3
1¾
tsp
1/3
Cup
2.0
lbs
4
2½
tsp
½
Cup
2.5
lbs
5
1
TBS
2/3
Cup
3.0
lbs
6
3½
tsp
¾
Cup
4.0
lbs
7
4½
tsp
¾
Cup
4.5
lbs
8
5
tsp
1
Cup
5.0
lbs
Table 5
To Raise Total Alkalinity With Baking Soda (Sodium Bicarbonate)
Gallons
Of
Water
100
1,000
10,000
Desired Increase In Parts Per Million (ppm)
10ppm
20ppm
30ppm
40ppm
1½
tsp
1/3
Cup
1.5
lbs
1
TBS
1/2
Cup
3.0
lbs
1½
TBS
1
Cup
4.5
lbs
2
TBS
1
Cup
6.0
lbs
January 2014
50ppm
2½
TBS
1½
Cup
7.5
lbs
60ppm
3
TBS
1¾
Cup
9.0
lbs
70ppm
80ppm
3½
TBS
2
Cup
10.5
lbs
¼
Cup
2½
Cup
12.0
lbs
90ppm
1/3
Cup
2¾
Cup
13.5
lbs
100ppm
1/3
Cup
3
Cup
15.0
lbs
Page 70
Table 6
To Lower Alkalinity With Muriatic Acid (Hydrochloric Acid – 20 Baume’)
Gallons
Of
Water
100
1,000
10,000
Desired Decrease In Parts Per Million (ppm)
10ppm
1¼
tsp
¼
Cup
1.3
pts
20ppm
30ppm
40ppm
50ppm
60ppm
70ppm
80ppm
90ppm
100ppm
2½
1¼
5
2
2½
3
3½
tsp TBS
tsp
TBS
TBS
TBS
TBS
½
¾
1
1 1/3
1½
1¾
2
Cup Cup
Cup
Cup
Cup
Cup
Cup
1.3
1.95
2.6
3.25
3.9
1.15
1.3
gal
gal
qts
qts
qts
qts
qts
Special application methods are required. See page 21
¼
Cup
2 1/3
Cup
1.45
gal
¼
Cup
2½
Cup
1.65
gal
90ppm
100ppm
Table 7
To Lower Total Alkalinity With Dry Acid (Sodium Bisulfate)
Gallons
Of
Water
100
1,000
10,000
Desired Increase In Parts Per Million (ppm)
10ppm
20ppm
30ppm
40ppm
50ppm
60ppm
70ppm
80ppm
1½
tsp
1/3
Cup
1.6
lbs
1
TBS
2/3
Cup
3.2
lbs
1½
TBS
1
Cup
4.8
lbs
2
TBS
1¼
Cup
6.4
lbs
2½
TBS
1½
Cup
8.0
lbs
3
TBS
2
Cup
9.6
lbs
¼
Cup
2¼
Cup
11.2
lbs
¼
Cup
2½
Cup
12.8
lbs
1/3
Cup
3
Cup
14.4
lbs
1/3
Cup
3¼
Cup
16.0
lbs
Table 8
To Raise Calcium Hardness With Calcium Chloride
Gallons
Of
Water
100
1,000
10,000
Desired Decrease In Parts Per Million (ppm)
10ppm
20ppm
30ppm
40ppm
50ppm
60ppm
70ppm
80ppm
90ppm
1¼
tsp
¼
Cup
1.25
lbs
2½
tsp
½
Cup
2.5
lbs
1¼
TBS
¾
Cup
3.75
lbs
5
tsp
1
Cup
5.0
lbs
2
TBS
1 1/3
Cup
6.25
lbs
2½
TBS
1½
Cup
7.5
lbs
3
TBS
1¾
Cup
8.75
lbs
3½
TBS
2
Cup
10.0
lbs
¼
Cup
2 1/3
Cup
11.3
lbs
January 2014
100ppm
¼
Cup
2½
Cup
12.5
lbs
Page 71
Table 9
Super Chlorination Table for Algae Removal (30 ppm Shock)
Gallons
Of
Water
100
1,000
10,000
% Available Chlorine
5%
10%
50%
60%
65%
70%
80%
85%
90%
1
Cup
2½
qts
6
gal
½
Cup
1¼
qts
3
gal
5
tsp
½
lb.
5
lbs
4
tsp
6½
oz
4.2
lbs
1
TBS
6
oz
3.8
lbs
1
TBS
5½
oz
3.6
lbs
1
TBS
5
oz
3.1
lbs
1
TBS
4½
oz
2.9
lbs
1
TBS
4½
oz
2.8
lbs
January 2014
100%
2
tsp
4
oz
2.5
lbs
Page 72
DATE MORNING
Cl
pH
MIDAFTERNOON
DAY
Cl pH
Cl
pH
END
Amt Chemicals/Day
DAY
TOTAL Chlorine Soda Acid
Cl
Ash
Remarks
Initials
# of
Swimmers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
January 2014
Page 73
POOL WATER ANALYSIS DATA SHEET
Pool Volume ______________ gal.
Pool Age _______________
Filtration: ___________________________________
Yrs.
___________________
Pool Interior Finish:_______________________________________
Disinfection Program:_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Liquid Bleach/Calcium Hypochlorite/Tablets/Gas Other:____________________________________________________
Fill Water Source: _________________________________________________________________________________________________
Test Number
Pool Spa (Circle One)
pH
0
Temperature
F
Calcium Hardness
Total Alkalinity
Free Chlorine Residual
Total Chlorine
Combined Chlorine Residual
Cyanuric Acid
Total Dissolved Solids
Saturation Index Calculation
Temp.
32
39
46
53
60
68
76
84
94
110
128
ppm
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
5
25
50
75
100
150
200
300
400
800
1000
Hardness
0.3
1.0
1.3
1.5
1.6
1.8
1.9
2.1
2.2
2.5
2.6
Test #1
Test #2
Test #3
Test #4
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
S.I. Over Plus 0.3 is scale forming
S.I. Below Minus 0.3 is corrosive
Alkalinity
0.7
1.4
1.7
1.9
2.0
2.2
2.3
2.5
2.6
2.9
3.0
pH
Temp.
Hardness
Alkalinity
Total
Less
12.1
12.1
12.1
12.1
Comments:
IDEAL RANGES
pH…………..7.4 –7.6
Calcium Hardness…200 – 400
Alkalinity…………………80 –
120
Chlorine………………….1.5 – 3.0
TDS…………………Not over
2000
January 2014
Signed: ____________________________________________
Date: ________________________________
Page 74
Pool Equipment
Normal filter operating pressure:_________________Pool______________________
Spa_____________________________
Backwash Filter at:____________________________Pool______________________
Spa______________________________
Use Filter Cleaner: _________________________________________________________________________________________
Change Sand: _____________________________________________________________________________________________
Misc. Filters: _________________________________________________________________________
Filter Media: _________________________________Pool______________________
Spa_____________________________
Media Age: __________________________________Pool______________________
Spa_____________________________
Filter MFG/Model: ____________________________Pool______________________
Spa_____________________________
Pump Misc.: ______________________________________________________________________________________________
Pump #1 MFG/Model _________________________________Age___________Pump #2 MFG/Model _______________________Age______
Pump #3 MFG/Model _________________________________Age___________Pump #4 MFG/Model _______________________Age______
Motor #1 MFG/Model _________________________________Age___________Motor #2 MFG/Model ______________________Age______
Pool MFG/Model _________________________________________ Spa MFG/Model _________________________________
Pool Temperature: ________________________________________
Spa Temperature: ________________________________
Flow Meter Reading (Minimum) __________________________Pool______________________ Spa______________________
Chlorinator___________________________________________Pool______________________ Spa______________________
Blower Spa MFG/Model____________________________________ Blower Age______________________________________
Pool Model# ____________________________________Volt________________ Watt_____________ Amps ______________
Spa Model# ____________________________________ Volt_________________Watt_____________ Amps ______________
Skimmer_______________________________________Pool____________________________ Spa______________________
Main Drain_____________________________________Pool____________________________ Spa______________________
Vacuum MFG/Model____________________________________________ Vacuum Age________________________________
Ladder MFG/Model______________________________________________ Ladder Age________________________________
Slide MFG/Model__________________________________________________Slide Age________________________________
Slide MFG/Model__________________________________________________Slide Age________________________________
Board MFG/Model________________________________________________ Board Age________________________________
Board MFG/Model________________________________________________ Board Age________________________________
January 2014
Page 75
Miscellaneous_________________________________________________________________________
Pool Chemical Inventory
ITEM
January 2014
UNIT
SIZE
QNTY ON HAND
QNTY NEEDED
DIST./MFG.
Page 76
CALCULATION FORMAULAS
AMOUNT CONVERSIONS
Ounces to Pounds
Fluid ounces to Gallons
Ounces ÷ 16 = Pounds
Fluid Ounces ÷ 128 = Gallons
DISTANCE CONVERSIONS
Yards to Feet
Meters to Feet
Yards x 3 = Feet
Meters x 3.28 = Feet
SURFACE AREAS
Rectangle or Square
Length x Width = Square Feet
Circle
3.14 x Radius x Radius = Sq. Feet
(Radius = Diameter ÷ 2)
POOL VOLUME
Surface Area x Average Depth x 7.48 = Gallons
(Average depth = shallow + deep ÷ 2)
TURNOVER RATE
Pool Volume ÷ Flow Rate ÷ 60 = Hours
FLOW RATE
Pool Volume ÷ Turnover rate (hours) ÷ 60 = Gallons/Minute (GPM)
FILTER SURFACE AREA
Flow Rate ÷ Filtering Rate = Sq. Feet
BTUs-HEATERS
Volume x 8.33 x Degrees Raised = BTU
MAKEUP WATER
Inches to Add x Length x Width x 6.25 = Gallons
January 2014
Page 77
LANGLIER SATURATION INDEX
pH + Temperature (0F) Factor + Calcium Hardness Factor + Total Alkalinity Factor – 12.1 =
S.I.
Temperature
(0F) = Factor
32…………0.1
37…………0.1
46…………0.2
53…………0.3
60…………0.4
66…………0.5
76…………0.6
84…………0.7
94…………0.8
105………..0.9
128………..1.0
Calcium Hardness =
Factor
5 ppm………………..0.3
25 ppm………………1.0
50 ppm………………1.3
75 ppm………………1.5
100 ppm……………..1.6
125 ppm……………..1.7
150 ppm……………..1.8
200 ppm……………..1.9
250 ppm……………..2.0
300 ppm……………..2.1
400 ppm……………..2.2
800 ppm……………..2.5
1000 ppm……………2.6
Total Alkalinity = Factor
5 ppm…………………………………0.7
25 ppm………………………………..1.4
50 ppm………………………………..1.7
75 ppm………………………………..1.9
100 ppm………………………………2.0
125 ppm………………………………2.1
150 ppm………………………………2.2
200 ppm………………………………2.3
250 ppm………………………………2.4
300 ppm………………………………2.5
400 ppm………………………………2.6
800 ppm………………………………2.9
1000 ppm……………………………..3.0
CALCULATION RESULTS
+0.5 to –0.5 = Balanced Water
> +0.5 = Carbonate Scale Formation
< -0.5 = Corrosive Water
January 2014
Page 78
DOSAGES REQUIRED TO CHEMICALLY TREAT 10,000 GALLONS OF
WATER
Parameter - Chemical
Given Change
1 ppm
1.3 oz.
2 oz.
13 fl. oz.
10 ½ oz.
2 ½ oz.
1 ½ oz.
10 ppm
1 ½ lbs.
10 ppm
2/3 qt.
1 ½ lbs.
7.2 – 7.4
6 oz.
7.8 – 7.6
12 fl. oz.
10 ppm
1 lb.
5 ppm
6 ½ oz.
13 oz.
1 ppm
FREE AVAILABLE CHLORINE
Chlorine Gas
Calcium Hypochlorite
Sodium Hypochlorite
Lithium Hypochlorite
Dichlor
Trichlor
INCREASE TOTAL ALKALINITY
Sodium Bicarbonate
DECREASE TOTAL ALKALINITY
Muriatic Acid
Dry Acid – Sodium Bisulfate
INCREASE pH
Soda Ash
DECREASE pH
Muriatic Acid
INCREASE CALCIUM HARDNESS
Calcium Chloride (100%)
INCREASE STABILIZER
Cyanuric Acid
Dichlor
NEUTRALIZE FREE AVAILABLE
CHLORINE
Sodium Thiosulfate
Sodium Sulfite
1 oz.
3 ¼ oz.
The Formula
POOL VOLUME (gal.)
÷ 10,000 GAL.
AMNT. OF CHEMICAL
(OZ., LBS., GAL., ETC.)
January 2014
(A)
x “A”
CALCULATED CHANGE (B)
÷ GIVEN CHANGE (ppm. Etc.)
x
“B”
= TOTAL
Page 79
WATER BALANCE RANGES
TOTAL ALKALINITY – Measure of Resistance to change of pH
RANGE:
IDEAL:
60 PPM
80 PPM
-
150 PPM
120 PPM
For Liquid Chlorine and Calcium Hypochlorite
RANGE:
80 PPM
-
100 PPM
pH – Measure of Acid vs. Base
RANGE:
IDEAL:
7.2
7.4
-
7.8
7.6
CALCIUM HARDNESS – Measure of Calcium Ions in Water
RANGE:
IDEAL:
150 PPM
200 PPM
-
1000 PPM
400 PPM
TEMPERATURE
POOLS:
Competition
Recreation
Special Groups
780
820
860
-
800
840
880
SPAS:
NOT TO EXCEED
1040
TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS – Measure of All Minerals Dissolved in the Water
January 2014
Page 80
CHLORINE TREATMENT COMPOUNDS
Trade Name (proper name)
Gas (Gas Chlorine)
Liquid Chlorine (sodium
Hypochlorite
Litho (lithium Hypochlorite)
Cal Hypo (Calcium Hypochlorite)
Dichlor (Sodium Dichloro-striazinetrione Dihydrate)
Dichlor (Sodium Dichloro-striazinetrione Anhydrous)
Trichlor (Trichloro-s
triazinetrione)
% Available Chlorine
100%
12%
pH
=2.0
13.0
35%
65%
56%
10.7
11.8
6.0
62%
6.0
90%
3.0
Eye and Skin Irritations
Eye and skin irritations are another common problem for swimming pool bathers. In addition to
such irritations within the water, nasal irritations can also be noticed in indoor pool areas with
poor ventilation and excessive levels of combined chlorine.
There are two basic causes of eye and skin irritations. These include an improper pH and a
chloramines problem. The human eye is most comfortable in water with a pH of about 7.5.
Therefore a low pH, below 7.2 can be quite irritating as well as a high pH, above 8.0. Low and
high pH levels irritate eyes and skin.
A chloramines problem is caused when combined chlorine levels exceed 0.2 ppm as determined
by a DPD test. Though many people incorrectly blame high chlorine for stinging eye irritations,
it is actually the lack of adequate free available chlorine and the presence of chloramines, which
cause the eye irritations.
EYE AND SKIN IRRITATION
Cause
Treatment
High or low pH
Adjust pH to recommended
range & retest.
Combined Chlorine
Shock treat or superchlorinate.
Scale Formations
Crusty white deposits on pool surfaces signal a severely high level of one or more of the water
balance factors. Scale deposits not only make pool surfaces rough, but also reduce water
circulation as scale builds up within the filter and plumbing system.
January 2014
Page 81
If scale deposits are readily noticeable on pool surfaces the pH, calcium hardness, or total
alkalinity must be tested and adjusted immediately. Most likely one, if not all three, are much
too high and need to be reduced. The first step is to reduce the pH and alkalinity since reducing
the calcium hardness level is more difficult.
If hardness or total dissolved solids is the cause of the scale, it is best to drain a portion of the
pool water and replace it with fresh make-up water low in hardness and total dissolved solids.
SCALE
Confirmation
Cause
Treatment
Crusty deposits on pool surfaces
1. High calcium hardness
2. High pH and alkalinity
3. High TDS
1. Adjust pH & alkalinity to ideal
ranges (7.2 – 7.6 & 8.0 – 120
respectively).
2. Replace a volume of pool water with
water low in hardness and dissolved
solids. Consult a pool professional to
determine the replacement amount.
3. Use a sequestering agent to prevent
scale buildup if high hardness levels
are a continuing problem.
It is recommended that dry chemicals first be mixed into a small amount of water in increments
of about two pounds, and the pre-dissolved mixture be distributed evenly around the pool unless
directed otherwise.
PRECAUTIONS
*
*
*
Never add water to acid; always add the acid to the water.
Never add calcium chloride to skimmers since it produces heat upon mixing with water.
Always follow manufacturer’s recommendations and warnings on product labeling.
Lowering pH with Muriatic Acid*
1,000
5,000
10,000
20,000 Gallons 50,000
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons
PH
Pts
Oz
Pts
Oz
Pts
Oz
Pts
Oz
Pts
Oz
7.6 –7.8
0
1.3
0
6.4
0
12.8
1
9.6
4
0
7.8 – 8.0
0
1.9
0
9.6
1
3.2
2
6.4
6
0
8.0 – 8.4
0
2.6
0
12.8
1
9.6
3
3.2
8
0
>8.4
0
3.2
1
0
2
0
4
0
10
0
*Treatment recommendations are affected by total alkalinity. At low alkalinity levels less acid
may be required and at higher alkalinity levels more acid may be required.
January 2014
Page 82
Lowering pH with Dry Acid*
(Sodium Bisulfate)
1,000
5,000
10,000
20,000
50,000
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons
pH
Lbs
Lbs
Lbs
Lbs
Lbs
Oz
Oz
Oz
Oz
Oz
7.6 –7.8
0
0
0
1
5
1.6
8.0
16.0
12.0
0
7.8 – 8.0
0
0
1
3
8
2.4
12.0
4.0
8.0
0
8.0 – 8.4
0
0
1
4
10
3.2
16.0
12.0
4.0
0
>8.4
0
4.0
1
0
3
0
5
0
13
0
*Treatment recommendations are affected by total alkalinity. At low alkalinity levels less acid
may be required and at higher alkalinity levels more acid may be required.
Raising pH with Soda Ash*
1,000
5,000
10,000
20,000 Gallons 50,000
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons
pH
Lbs
Oz
Lbs
Oz
Lbs
Oz
Lbs
Oz
Lbs
Oz
7.2 –7.4
0
0.6
0
3.2
0
3.2
0
6.4
2
0
7.0 – 7.2
0
1.0
0
4.8
0
9.6
1
3.2
3
0
6.8 – 7.0
0
1.3
0
6.4
0
12.8
1
9.6
4
0
>6.7
0
1.6
0
8.0
1
0
2
0
5
0
*Treatments in low alkalinity waters require less soda ash while treatments in high alkalinity
waters may require more soda ash.
Raising Chlorine 1 ppm
1,000
5,000
10,000
20,000
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons
Oz
Oz
Oz
Oz
Gas
.01
1
1
3
Sod hypo
0.1
0.5 pints
0.5 pints
1.5 pints
Lithium
0.4
2
4
8
Cal hypo
0.2
1
2
4
Dichlor
0.2
1
2
5
Dichlor
0.2
1
2
4
Trichlor
0.1
1
1
3
*This is a liquid and the calculation assumes 1 liquid oz. = 1 dry oz.
Italicized values are in PINTS
January 2014
50,000
Gallons
Oz
7
3.5 pints
19
10
12
11
7
Page 83
Lowering Alkalinity with Dry Acid
1,000
5,000
10,000
20,000
50,000
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons
ppm
Lbs
Oz
Lbs
Oz
Lbs
Oz
Lbs
Oz
Lbs
Oz
10
0
3
1
0
2
0
4
0
10
0
20
0
6
2
0
4
0
8
0
20
0
30
0
10
3
0
6
0
12
0
30
0
40
0
13
4
0
8
0
16
0
40
0
50
1
0
5
0
10
0
20
0
50
0
60
1
3
6
0
12
0
24
0
60
0
70
1
6
7
0
14
0
28
0
70
0
80
1
10
8
0
16
0
32
0
80
0
90
1
13
9
0
18
0
36
0
90
0
100
2
0
10
0
20
0
40
0
100
0
Be sure to note chemical precautions. Always follow manufacturer’s recommendations.
Lowering Alkalinity with Muriatic Acid
1,000
5,000
10,000
20,000
50,000
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons
ppm
Pts
Oz
Pts
Oz
Pts
Oz
Pts
Oz
Pts
Oz
10
0
2.5
0
13.0
1
10.0
3
4.0
8
2.5
20
0
5.0
1
10.0
3
4.0
6
8.5
16
0
30
0
8.0
2
7.0
4
14.0
9
12.5
24
0
40
0
10.5
3
4.0
6
8.5
13
0.5
32
0
50
0
13.0
4
1.0
8
2.5
16
0
40
0
60
0
15.5
4
14.0
9
12.5
19
0
48
0
70
1
2.0
5
11.0
11
6.5
22
0
57
0
80
1
5.0
6
8.5
13
0.5
26
0
65
0
90
1
7.5
7
5.5
14
10.5
29
0
73
0
100
1
10.0
8
2.5
16
4.5
32
0
81
0
Be sure to note chemical precautions. Always follow manufacturer’s recommendations.
Raising Alkalinity with Sodium Bicarbonate
1,000
5,000
10,000
20,000
50,000
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons
ppm
Lbs
Oz
Lbs
Oz
Lbs
Oz
Lbs
Oz
Lbs
Oz
10
0
2
0
11
1
7
2
13
7
1
20
0
5
1
7
2
13
5
10
14
1
30
0
7
2
2
4
4
8
7
21
2
40
0
9
2
13
5
10
11
4
28
2
50
0
11
3
8
7
1
14
1
35
3
60
0
14
4
4
8
7
16
14
42
3
70
0
16
4
15
9
14
19
11
49
4
80
1
2
5
10
11
4
22
8
56
4
90
1
4
6
5
12
11
25
5
63
4
100
1
7
7
1
14
1
28
2
70
5
January 2014
Page 84
Raising Hardness with Calcium chloride
1,000
5,000
10,000
20,000
50,000
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons
ppm
Lbs
Oz
Lbs
Oz
Lbs
Oz
Lbs
Oz
Lbs
Oz
10
0
2.0
0
10.0
1
4.0
2
8.0
6
4.0
20
0
4.0
1
4.0
2
8.0
5
0
12
8.0
30
0
6.0
1
14.0
3
12.0
7
8.0
18
12.0
40
0
8.0
2
8.0
5
0
10
0
25
0
50
0
10.0
3
2.0
6
4.0
12
8.0
31
4.0
60
0
12.0
3
12.0
7
8.0
17
0
43
8.0
70
0
14.0
4
6.0
8
12.0
17
8.0
43
12.0
80
1
0
5
0
10
0
20
0
50
0
90
1
2.0
5
10
11
4.0
22
8.0
56
4.0
100
1
4.0
6
4.0
12
8.0
25
0
62
8.0
Note that a significant amount of heat can be generated when mixing calcium chloride in
water. Follow manufacturer’s recommendations carefully.
ppm
10
20
30
40
50
Establishing or Raising Cyanuric
1,000
5,000
10,000
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons
Lbs
Oz
Lbs
Oz
Lbs
Oz
0
1.3
0
6.4
0
12.8
0
2.6
0
12.8
1
9.6
0
3.8
1
3.2
2
6.4
0
5.1
1
9.6
3
3.2
0
6.4
2
0
4
0
Acid Level
20,000
Gallons
Lbs
Oz
1
9.6
3
3.2
4
12.8
6
6.4
8
0
50,000
Gallons
Lbs
Oz
4
0
8
0
12
0
16
0
20
0
Lowering Total Alkalinity with Acid – Application methods
Muriatic acid is corrosive and will damage pools walls if not diluted first. Dilute the acid by
adding one quart of muriatic acid slowly to one gallon of water. SAFETY ALERT! Never add
water to acid, always add the acid to the water. When adding the acid to the pool water, make
an extra effort to pour the acid out into the pool as far as possible. Applying the acid from the
end of 1-meter diving board might work well. Pour as close to the water surface as possible to
avoid splashing the acid on you. Different application methods will produce different alkalinity
results.
Method One
Stand in one place and pour slowly in a column fashion. This should produce an area of low pH
water of 5.5 or below. This method converts some of the carbonate alkalinity (CO3) into carbon
dioxide (CO2). As you know, carbon dioxide is a gas so this dissipates from the water. Repeat
this procedure daily until your desired total alkalinity level is reached. However, don’t add more
than one quart of acid to an area per day. If you have a large pool, you may want to perform this
procedure over several areas each day.
January 2014
Page 85
Method Two
This method involves spreading the acid evenly over the pool water, usually by walking while
pouring. An alternative is injecting the acid slowly via feeder pump. This method prevents the
water from dropping below a local pH of 6.0. Because of this, little carbon dioxide is formed
and the subsequent total alkalinity change will only be slight. Only use this method when you
desire to lower the pH and slightly lower the total alkalinity.
ROUTINE POOL MAINTENANCE
Why do routine maintenance? Several reasons come to mind.
1.
To achieve and maintain proper water chemistry.
2.
To prolong the life of the pool and the associated equipment.
3.
To give the staff something to do!
4.
Because you take pride in your pool and want it to look good.
5.
The more you work with the pool, the easier it becomes to understand what it
takes to run your particular pool.
6.
Repairing and replacing small or inexpensive parts can prevent repairing and
replacing large and expensive ones.
Although swimming pools vary in size and scope of operations, there are some commonalities
between all pools. This section will try to address the basics of routine maintenance. Remember
that with an unlimited budget, time, and staff, you could have the finest routine maintenance
program around. However, you don’t have these. You will have to tweak schedules and
procedures to fit the needs of your particular pool and operation.
Testing the water. You probably already do this, but it is important to remember not to add any
chemicals to the water until after it has been tested and maintenance is completed.
Netting. Use your nets to physically remove all the leaves and other debris that has
accumulated. Generally speaking, these nets were not made for shoes, bottles, bowling balls and
other things the local delinquents have deposited in your pool overnight. You’ll find that
shallow basket nets work best for surface debris and, the deep basket ones better for stuff that has
settled to the bottom. Leaves, bandages, and other floating debris clog drains, baskets, and
vacuums. This in turn strains or prevents adequate circulation and filtration of water.
Additionally, leaves absorb chlorine and chlorine alternatives. Leaves also can contain algae
spores, which can lead to algae outbreaks. Ballpark, netting takes 15 minutes.
January 2014
Page 86
Brushing. The pool will occasionally need to be brushed. This is one of, if not the most
commonly overlooked tasks. Yet, it is one of the most important. Dirt, algae, stains, and scale
may be present on the walls and floor of the pool. Often, microscopic stuff is present on the
walls. Brushing removes this stuff and puts it into the water where the chlorine can kill it. You
may need to add a clarifier to coagulate (clump together) the small particles so that they will be
large enough to be trapped by the filters. Brushes are typically 18 inches long. They have either
nylon or stainless steel bristles. Nylon can be used on any surface. The stainless steel ones are
for that stubborn stuff on concrete, gunite, shotcrete, or fiberglass.
Brushing technique involves starting at the shallow end and working toward the deep end. Start
at the top of the walls and work toward the pool floor. Brushing should be performed at least
twice a week. If an algae outbreak occurs, brushing will be daily for sure and perhaps multiple
times per day. Always brush the day before you vacuum. Make sure the pool equipment is
running a couple of hours after brushing to allow the drain and skimmers can do their jobs and
remove the stuff you just brushed off. Then, if you have overnight vacuuming equipment, shut it
off. This will allow the dirt and debris to settle to the bottom overnight. Vacuum in the
morning. After you vacuum, eyeball the pressure gauge for a while. If it rises 8-10 p.s.i. above
normal, clean the filters.
Baskets. Sometimes, the operating pressure on the pressure gauge of the filter will be low. This
can cause the circulation to be poor. The culprit could be clogged baskets. However, first check
to make sure that there is enough water in the pool. Generally, this will be a water level that is
halfway up the skimmer basket. If the level is good, it’s probably clogged baskets. Some steps
for cleaning the basket(s):
*
Remove the lid from the top of the skimmer. For some pools the lid is one the
deck; others have no deck access lids. Reach down into the skimmer opening
inside the pool to access these units.
*
Remove the basket and empty out the contents.
*
Spray off the basket with a hose.
*
Replace the basket and lid (for those with deck lids).
*
Repeat the process for all skimmers.
If the skimmer baskets are really full, you should probably shut the equipment off temporarily
until the baskets are cleaned.
Pump Basket. This is your last line of defense against “junk” that can damage the pump. The
skimmer baskets will screen out most of the stuff in the water. However, the small stuff like hair
January 2014
Page 87
and pine needles can get by the skimmer basket. The pump basket should screen these out
thereby preventing damage to the pump. You should look at the basket at least daily and clean it
when needed. Cleaning is as follows:
*
Turn the power off temporarily.
*
Turn the valves to the main drain and skimmers to the closed position.
*
Remove the lid from the pump basket unit.
*
Spray out the basket and replace it in the unit.
*
Make sure that the rubber ring (usually an “O” ring) is in place and lubricated.
This insures that air doesn’t enter the pump. Make sure you use lubricant
specifically designed for the ring. Just any old lubricant can contain chemicals
that screw up the chemistry of the water.
*
Turn the valve for ONLY the main drain back to the “open” position.
*
Immediately turn the equipment on. The time limit from “off” to “on” should be
1 minute maximum.
*
If the pump fails to start after 1½ minutes, you’ll need to prime the pump.
*
If the pump DOES start, open the skimmer valves slowly and one at a time
Vacuuming. There are two different ways to vacuum the pool. The first is with the “on filter”.
The second is to “waste”.
Vacuuming “On Filter”. This process sucks out dirt and water, filters it through the filter, and
returns clean water back into the pool. Steps are as follows:
*
The night before, brush the walls and floor.
*
After brushing, keep the equipment on for at least 2 hours to allow the skimmers
and pump filter to clean out the stuff you scrubbed off. Then, turn the equipment
off to allow the stuff to settle to the pool floor overnight.
*
The day of vacuuming, make sure the water level is halfway up the skimmer
baskets.
Make sure the multiport is turned to the “filter” position. This needs to be done
with the equipment turned off.
*
*
January 2014
Isolate the suction to the skimmer or the designated vacuum line that will be used
to operate the vacuum. If using a skimmer, then close the main drain valve and
Page 88
any other valves for skimmers (other than the one being used to vacuum). If
using a dedicated vacuum line, close the valves for the main drain and all
skimmers.
*
Attach the telepole to the vacuum.
*
Install one end of the vacuum line to the vacuum head.
*
Go to the deep end of the pool and place the vac head into the water. Let it sink
to the bottom.
*
Stretch the remaining vacuum hose out along the pool deck.
*
Where the hose meets the surface of the eater, push the remaining hose from the
deck downward (into the water) and toward the wall. Only the end of the hose
that attaches to the skimmer or dedicated vacuum line should be out of the water.
This eliminates air from the vacuum hose and fills it with water (priming). Don’t
fall into the pool!
*
Now, attach the vacuum hose to the skimmer or dedicated suction line. If your
skimmer doesn’t have a vacuum seal plate, think about getting one to help hold in
the suction.
*
With the pole, vacuum the bottom of the pool. Do this slowly as not to stir up the
contents on the floor.
Items to consider about vacuuming:
*
Just like at home, as you vacuum, the filter will fill with material. This causes the
pressure to rise in the equipment and the vacuum may not suck so well. Monitor
the gauge. If the pressure rises more than 8-10 psi above normal, stop. Clean the
filter.
Vacuuming “TO WASTE”. You perform this function when “stuff” is really thick and heavy in
the pool. If you try to vacuum “to filter” instead, you will spend all of your time changing or
emptying filters. Here are the steps:
*
Raise the water in the pool until it almost overflows.
*
Make sure the multiport is on the “waste” or “drain” position. The equipment
needs to be turned off prior to moving the handle.
*
Water level is now high enough and the waste or drain is on. Turn the equipment
back on.
January 2014
Page 89
*
Isolate the suction to the skimmer or designated vacuum line. If using a skimmer,
close the valves for the main drain and other skimmers except the isolated one. If
using a dedicated vacuum line, close the main drain and all skimmer valves.
*
Attach the pole to the vac head.
*
Attach one end of the vacuum hose to the vac head.
*
Go to the deep end of the pool and place the vac head into the water. Let it sink
to the bottom.
*
Stretch the remaining vacuum hose out along the pool deck.
*
Where the hose meets the surface of the water, push the remaining hose from the
deck downward (into the water) and toward the wall. Only the end of the hose
that attaches to the skimmer or dedicated vacuum line should be out of the water.
This eliminates air from the vacuum hose and fills it with water (priming). Don’t
fall into the pool!
*
Now, attach the vacuum hose to the skimmer or dedicated suction line. If your
skimmer doesn’t have a vacuum seal plate, think about getting one to help hold in
the suction.
*
With the pole, vacuum the bottom of the pool. Do this slowly as not to stir up the
contents on the floor.
*
Vacuum only until the water level drops just above the bottom of the skimmer (or
just above the bottom of the designated vacuum line). Now STOP! Never let the
water level drop to or below the skimmer (or designated vacuum line). If you do
allow the water to get too low, air enters the system. This can cause you to lose
the prime (at best) or cause the motor to overheat which can lead to an
EXPENSIVE replacement.
Note - When vacuuming to the “waste” or “drain” it is not a bad idea to have a garden hose in
the skimmer to compensate for the lost water. If you’re using a designated vacuum line, put the
hose anywhere.
Filters. There are three kinds: Sand, diatomaceous earth or D.E., and cartridge. All three need
to be periodically cleaned.
Sand Filter Cleaning. It will need to be cleaned when the pressure is about 8 – 10 psi above the
standard operating pressure. Steps are as follows:
*
Turn the equipment off.
*
Turn the multiport handle from “filter” to “backwash*”.
January 2014
Page 90
*
Turn the equipment back on.
*
Let the equipment backwash for 2- 3 minutes. If your filter has a sight glass,
eyeball it until it turns from cloudy or dirty to clean.
*Note – when backwashing you will sacrifice some of the chlorinated pool water. You
could also lose some of the volume in the pool. After the backwash check the
chlorine (or alternative) level in water and make adjustments as needed. If the
water level drops, add some until the water is at least halfway up the skimmer.
*
Once the backwash is complete, turn the equipment to “off” again.
*
Turn the handle from “backwash” to “rinse”.
*
Turn the equipment on again.
*
Rinse the sand for about 20-30 seconds to assure that all of the dirt and debris has
been eliminated from the clean sand.
*
Turn the equipment “off” again.
*
Move the handle from “rinse” to “filter”.
*
Turn on the equipment again.
Notes on Sand Filter cleaning. Sand will not clean forever. It should be professionally replaced
about every 4 – 5 years. Once the filter cycle decreases (when it takes less time for the pressure
gauge to show a rise of 8 – 10 psi) and the need to backwash increases, the sand needs to be
changed. You probably want to have this done by a pool professional as there are fragile
components at the bottom. If you crack or break one of these, sand will enter the pool among
other possible problems.
Inadequate cleaning of the sand as well as poor water chemistry can lead to problems with the
sand. Mudballs may form due to poor chemistry, particularly in high pH water. Water with a
high pH cannot keep calcium in solution. This calcium winds up in the sand/filter. Also,
channeling can occur. Essentially, water, dirt and debris pass through the channel and not the
sand ending up back in the water. Watch for signs of this.
D.E. Filter Cleaning. If you have a D.E. filter and you find that the standard operating pressure
is 8 –10 psi above normal you will need to backwash. There is a drawback to this. As the dirt
and debris are removed during the backwash, so is the D.E. media (or powder). This means you
will have to add D.E. media each time you backwash. There is a newer style of these filters out
there. It is called a Regenerative D.E. filter. These have a “bump” mode to prolong the filter
January 2014
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cycle and reduce the need for backwashing. However, eventually, you will still need to
backwash. Here are the steps:
*
Turn the power off.
*
Turn the multiport handle from “”filter” to “backwash”.
*
Turn the power back on.
*
Let the equipment backwash for 2- 3 minutes. If your filter has a sight glass,
eyeball it until it turns from cloudy or dirty to clean. Note – when backwashing
you will sacrifice some of the chlorinated pool water. You could also lose some
of the volume in the pool. After the backwash check the chlorine (or alternative)
level in water and make adjustments as needed. If the water level drops, add
some until the water is at least halfway up the skimmer.
*
Once the backwash is complete, turn the equipment to “off” again.
*
Turn the handle from “backwash” to “rinse”.
*
Turn the equipment on again.
*
Rinse the new D.E. layer (media) for about 10 seconds. This removes the dirt and
debris from the media.
*
Turn the equipment “off” again.
*
Turn the multiport handle from “rinse” to “filter”.
*
Turn the equipment “on” again.
*
Add new D.E. powder
*
Using a bucket of water, mix up the new D.E. powder according to the
manufacturer’s direction.
*
Pour this mixture into a skimmer. This will now enter the D.E. filter and spread
out across the grids. This will now form what is known as a filter cake on the
grids.
*
More is not better here. If too much is used, the powder can cause the “cake” to
be too thick. This in turn, causes an adhesion (sticking) of the dirty powder to the
grids. Should this happen, the grids will need to be cleaned. Only experienced
personnel should perform this operation as the
grids are fragile and can easily be torn.
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*
Too little D.E. powder can also cause problems. This can cause dirt and debris to
become trapped (actually imbedded) on the grids. This ruins them.
NOTES: There are new generation D.E. filters out called Regenerative D.E. filters.
These require less backwashing than the old ones that should prolong the filter life. You can
“bump” these to readjust the D.E. powder. Here is how to “bump”.
BUMPING
*
When the operating pressure is 8 – 10 psi above normal, close all of the valves.
This would be the main drain and skimmers.
*
Now turn the equipment “off” for at least 2 – 3 minutes.
*
Hopefully you have a “bump” handle. Most of the Regenerative DE filters
have one. Slowly pull down and rigorously push up on the handle 5 – 10 times.
This causes the D.E. powder to fall to the bottom of the filter.
*
When about 5 –10 “bumps” are finished and about 2 –3 minutes have passed,
open up all of the valves and turn the equipment back “on”. Just like magic,
new D.E. powder forms instantly on the grids of your D.E. filter!
*
If you don’t have a “bump” handle, simply hit the actual filter/body with a
RUBBER hammer about 5 – 10 times.
*
Periodically, you need to check the grids on the D.E. filter. This is needed as
eventually stuff builds up on them. If the grids are torn or frayed, replace them.
*
These new “bump” filters can only be “bumped” so many times before
backwashing is necessary. Once the filter cycle decreases and the need to
“bump” increases, backwash the filter and add new D.E. powder using the steps
above.
Cartridge Filter cleaning. No backwashing is performed with these filters. When the operating
pressure is above 8 –10 psi above normal, clean the filter. The individual pleated filter elements
need to be removed and hosed off with a garden hose. The steps:
*
Turn the equipment to “off”.
*
Remove the lid to the filter tank. The lid may be stubborn. Many filters have a
band that holds the filter to the base of the filter. If yours is different or you have
problems getting the lid off, call a pool professional or a colleague for advice.
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*
Take out the filter element(s) from the filter. Some filters use one big filter
element; others several smaller ones.
*
Spray each filter with a garden hose equipped with a nozzle. Make sure you get
in the folds. This is where most of the junk collects.
*
Put the element(s) back into the filter.
*
Replace and secure the filter lid. There should be a rubber O-ring to help seal the
lid. Check it out. Replace it if it is in less than good shape. About once a month
(or whenever needed) lubricate the O-ring. This is important.
*
Turn the equipment back “on” and let it run.
NOTES - The individual elements should be replaced yearly. The drawback to cartridge filters
is their expense. The benefit is the ease of cleaning and filtering capabilities. If the filters are
still in good shape, hang on to them for a backup.
Shock. With chemical, not electricity! Once you become familiar with your own pool, this
should become easier. If you ask ten pool people how often to shock the pool you will likely get
ten different answers. Generally, you should only shock the pool when you need to. This seems
obvious but many pool people do it on a regular basis whether the chemistry dictates it or not.
Remember that chemicals are expensive. Shocking the water is warranted when there is a
build-up of ammonia or other undesired matter in the water. This matter hinders the sanitizing
effects of the chlorine.
Some of the variables in when to shock are as follows: First and foremost is temperature. Then
there is humidity, sunlight, bather load and use. The last two are not synonymous terms. Bather
load refers to how many people are in the pool at one given time. Use refers to time people are
actually in the water. Are there swimmers in the pool from 6:00 am straight on through until
9:00 pm? Or do you just have open swim from noon until 7:00 pm? Remember that
documenting the history of your pool’s water chemistry will greatly assist in determine when to
shock your own pool. Here are some general suggestions on shocking to get you started:
*
Cooler temperatures with limited usage – about every 2 weeks.
*
Cooler temperatures with normal usage – about every 1 – 1 ½ weeks.
*
Cooler temperatures with heavy usage – about every week.
*
Seasonal temperatures with limited usage – about 1 ½ to 2 weeks.
*
Seasonal temperatures with normal usage – about every 1 – 1 ½ weeks.
*
Seasonal temperatures with heavy usage – about every week.
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*
Hot/humid temperature with limited usage – about every week.
*
Hot/humid temperature with normal usage – about every 6th day.
*
Hot/humid temperature with heavy usage – about every 5th day.
Please remember these are strictly guidelines. Your shocking schedule will vary with your
particular weather, bather load, and usage. You may find yourself having to shock more or less
than these guidelines. Also, you will need to determine what constitutes “limited”, “normal”,
and “heavy” usage as well as “cooler”, “seasonal”, and “hot/humid” for your pool. Thorough
documentation will allow you to develop a history of your pool and should make this process
much easier. A start might be to contact other pools in your area. Some additional points to
consider:
*
As climate, bather loads, and usage change, so will your shocking routine.
*
The hotter the temperature, the higher the humidity, the higher the bather load, the
more often you will need to shock the pool.
*
Always remember to read the manufacturer’s instructions prior to shocking the
pool. The can be quite of bit of variance here on methods.
*
When diluting chemicals. Always, always add the chemical to the water and not
vice versa. Adding water to chemical can have dire consequences!
CLOSING YOUR POOL
One source highly recommends that you contract with swimming pool installers to close down
and winterize your pool. At a minimum, they recommend they be contracted to blow all the
water from the plumbing lines. Their reasoning is that if all the water is not removed from these
lines and then properly flushed with antifreeze, the lines will probably crack. This will lead to
leaking of the pool and the service to repair the lines is very expensive as well as timeconsuming. You can perform some of the other light duties such as removing the ladders and
installing a cover (if you have one), thereby saving money. It is probably a wise idea to check
this out at the beginning of the season and possibly lock in a date if you choose to contract the
work. Remember, your pool equipment is a several thousand-dollar investment. By choosing to
blow and flush the lines yourself, you are taking a major risk. That being said, should you choose
winterize the pool yourself, here are some recommendations.
In addition to not removing all the water from the lines, the biggest mistake new pool operators
make is not leaving water in the pool basin. Not all pools will need to leave water in the basin.
A lot of this depends upon the water table where your pool is located as well if there are any
hidden leaks in the lines or basin. Leaving water in the basin will help to prevent frost heave in
winter and spring. There have been a few instances where water was not left in the basin and the
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result was major cracks in the basin as well as the deck. Big bucks to repair. Ask previous pool
managers and local officials if water is routinely left in the pool.
Chemicals. You will probably have to add chemicals one last time BEFORE your pool is
winterized. If your ranges (chlorine, pH, Alkalinity, and Hardness) are within acceptable
parameters, your pool water next spring will look a lot better. If these ranges are not acceptable
and the water is not balanced, your pool water in the spring will probably be downright nasty.
This nasty water also can have an effect on the pool basin material (concrete, gunite, shotcrete,
vinyl liner, or fiberglass). Algae can actually grow right into the material itself making cleaning
in the spring extremely difficult. Test your water about a week before actually blowing the lines.
If your pool has an automatic chemical feeder, make sure that the chemical (probably chlorine) is
gone from the system.
Final Maintenance Touches. You should perform one final vacuum before shutting the pool
down. The night prior to vacuuming, thoroughly brush the pool walls and floor. Allow your
drains, skimmers, and pumps and filters at least 2 hours to thoroughly remove the debris that you
brushed off the walls and floor. Then shut off the equipment overnight to allow the remainder of
the suspended debris to settle to the pool floor. In the morning, with the equipment still in the
“off” mode, clean out all of your pump and skimmer baskets. Now turn the equipment back
“on”. Net out any big pieces of debris such as leaves. Now vacuum the pool “to filter”. After a
vacuum, you will need to clean the filter again. The cleaning will depend upon the particular
type of filter that you have. Filter cleaning was discussed previously in the manual. Keep
netting the pool until your cover (if you have one) is installed.
Draining the Pool. You will need to drain the pool 3” to 5” inches below the lowest plumbing
line in the pool. Typically, this is the line to the return water jets.
Turn the equipment to the “off” position. Move the skimmer valve(s) to the “closed” position so
that ONLY the main drain valve is “open”.
Now move the multiport handle from “filter” (or current position) to “waste” or “drain”. Turn
the equipment back to the “on” position.
The water should now drain through the waste-line. If you do not have a main drain, you will
need to drain the pool with a submersible pump or create a siphon with a garden hose.
While the Pool is Draining. Here are some things you can take care of while the pool is
draining:
*
If you have a heater, make sure that the power source to the heater is turned off. This
should be electricity, natural gas or propane.
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*
Remove all your ladders and put plugs in the holes.
*
Remove your handrails.
*
Locate your winter cover and accessories (if you have one).
- If you use a mesh safety cover, begin by pulling up the anchors with an Allen wrench,
or better yet, a cordless drill.
- If you use a waterbag cover, begin filling the waterbags (or hauling out the heavy
sandbags).
- If you have a “Foxx” cover. Start recruiting. These things require a lot of bodies and
are a real “pain” to install.
Immediately after the Pool is Drained. Once again, this is when the water level is 3” to 5”
below the lowest plumbing line. Move on to these items:
*
Turn off the equipment to stop draining the pool.
*
Remove the eyeballs from the return jets.
*
Remove the skimmer baskets from all of the skimmers.
*
Add your winterizing chemicals.
- 2 lbs. of strong chlorine-based shock treatment – Dichlor (granular chlorine) works best
for winterizing. It is stabilized chlorine product and should be more effective at
preventing algae growth over the winter. Dichlor must be diluted 1 lb. at a time. Using
warm water will dilute the granules much faster. If your pool is over 35,000 gallons
use 3 pounds.
- 1 quart of super strength (polymer) Algaecide. This may be in the form a specially
formulated Winterizing Algaecide.
- 1 quart of a Metal Sequestering Agent is optional at this point but may prevent staining
or formation of scale.
Blowing Water Out of the Plumbing Lines. ATTENTION. CAUTION. WARNING. If
correct procedure is not followed for your pool, you are running the risk of cracking your lines.
This could easily cost several thousand dollars to repair, give you a large headache and, sideline
your pool for possibly the entire season. Paying the pool guys a couple hundred bucks to
perform this task may be well worth the cost.
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Still reading? O.k. Superman or Wonder Woman, you still think you can do this yourself?
WARNING. The following information is provided “AS IS” and provides no guarantee of any
kind that this procedure will work for your pool. Remember that pools are unique and your
particular pool may have some equipment or design peculiarities that would require adjustment
to this procedure:
*
Last chance to call the professionals. O.k. you have been warned.
*
You’ll need at least a 4 horsepower Wet/Dry Vacuum (a.k.a. Shop-vac) with a
vacuum and a blower side.
*
If you have a shop-vac move on to the next step because if you haven’t been
convinced by now to contact the professionals, you never will.
*
Remove the drain plugs from the pump. Some pumps have more than one drain
plug. This allows the water to drain from the pump.
*
Remove the lid from the pump housing – the front part of the pump.
*
The pump should now be empty. Thread the plugs back into the pump
temporarily.
*
The main drain valve was probably open already since you used it to drain your
pool. Leave it open. Also, make sure the skimmer valve(s) are open. Essentially,
you now want all of your valves to the “open” position.
*
With your shop-vac in hand, go to a skimmer and suck (vacuum side) out as much
water as possible. Put the hose in the opening at the bottom of the skimmer (this
hole leads to the plumbing) and suck out water. Do this for each and every one of
your skimmers.
*
Now, take the trusty shop-vac over to your equipment and blow out each suction
line (main line and skimmers) one at a time. Make sure you are using the blow
side and not the suction side of the vac. It does not matter what position the
multiport handle is located.
*
Now, pick a skimmer, any skimmer. Close the main drain valve as well as any
other valves that are open (except the one you are at).
*
Turn the blower side on and blow water through the pump housing. This is where
the suction lines enter the actual pump. Make sure that the hose of the blower is
located inside the pump housing and pressed against the opening that leads to the
suction lines. Blow continuously until only a faint mist is coming from that
skimmer. If you have more than one skimmer, just repeat the process until all
January 2014
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lines have been blown out. Remember to close all the other lines except the one
you are working on and have that valve open.
*
The skimmer(s) should now be free of water. Blow out the main drain. Again,
place the hose inside the pump housing when performing this step. It is very
difficult to know when enough is enough, since you are blowing out a line that is
in the floor of the pool. Basically, blow this line until tiny bubbles form and turn
into a steady stream of bubbles. Once you can see the steady stream of bubbles,
blow the line for an additional 30 seconds. Trained and experienced pool
professionals can perform this step and know when to quit by feel and experience.
You must also close the main drain valve while still blowing into the line. This
prevents the water from backfilling into the main drain line while closing the
valve.
*
Moving on to the return lines.
*
Turn the blower on and blow through the discharge side of the pump. This is
where the pump forces water back into the pool. Continue blowing this line until
a faint mist is hissing from the return jet. Once the mist appears, thread a winter
plug into the jet. Unthread a plug from another jet. Repeat the process until water
is blown from each line.
*
Anti-freeze time. One at a time, unthread each winter plug from the jet. Put a
funnel into the opening and add about ½ gallon of antifreeze per line. Do each
line, one at a time. When each line is completed, immediately finger-tighten each
winter plug into the threads. Remember that the threads on the plug should either
have Teflon tape or an O-ring.
*
Antifreeze the skimmer lines. Add ¾ of the antifreeze to the skimmer opening.
Thread a gizmo (obtained from any pool professional) into the skimmer opening.
You will need to know the skimmer opening size when purchasing a gizmo.
Usually, they are either 1 ½” or 2” openings. Pour the remaining ¼ of the antifreeze into the skimmer for additional protection. Repeat this process for each
skimmer you have. Insure that there is Teflon tape or an O-ring on the threads of
the gizmo.
*
Now to winterizing the actual equipment. Move the multiport handle to the
“closed” or “winterize” position.
If you have a heater, remove all plugs from the heater. Disconnect the pressure switch at this
time. Turn the gas valve (if your heater is natural gas or propane fired) to the “off” position.
Blow water though the heater to insure it is free of any standing water.
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*
For those with automatic chemical feeders, remove any plugs from the device.
Remove any and all chemical left in the feeder. Isolate the feeder and blow
through it to insure there is no remaining water standing.
*
Remove the plugs from the pump. The plug/cap should already be removed from
the filter, as the standing water needs to gravity drain from the filter. Also
remove the pressure gauge (as well as the sight glass and the air relief valve, if
applicable).
*
A good place to store all of these miscellaneous parts is in the
pump basket located within the pump housing. Reinstall the lid to help protect
the parts.
Installing the Safety Cover. The steps are as follows:
*
With an Allen wrench, or better yet, a cordless drill, pull up the heads of all the
anchors.
*
Unfold the cover so that you can see how it will fit over the pool.
*
Using your safety cover tool, install the springs to the anchors on one side of the
pool.
- If your pool is rectangular, attach the springs to the anchors on the short side of
the rectangle.
- If your pool is any other shape, attach the springs to the anchors to a strategic
side in order to start.
*
Walk the cover to the opposite side of where you started and attach the springs to
these anchors.
*
Using your tool, attach the remaining springs to the anchors.
Installing a Waterbag Cover. The steps are as follows:
*
Fill all of the waterbags ¾ full of water. Leaving them ¼ empty will allow the
expansion of water freezing.
*
Unfold the cover so that you can see how it will fit over your pool.
*
Install the waterbags over the cover on one side of the pool.
- If you have a rectangular pool, start on the short side.
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- For any other shape, install the waterbags on a strategic side.
*
Walk the cover to the opposite side of where you started and install the waterbags
on this side.
*
Install the remainder of the waterbags on the remaining sides of the pool cover.
*
Installing a waterbag cover is NOT as easy as this makes it sound. These things
are quite heavy and are difficult to work with. After installing one you may find
that installing a mesh safety cover is the way to go. Think about ordering one.
*
Immediately run your garden hose and add about ¾” – 1’ of water over the top of
the cover to help keep the wind from blowing it off.
Installing a “Foxx” cover. Here are the steps:
*
Recruit an army if you haven’t already done so. This is the heaviest cover on the
market. It is, as they say, a “bearcat” to install.
*
Unfold the cover so that you can see how the beast fits on your pool.
*
Install the lip of the “Foxx” cover into the special track that accompanies ONLY
“Foxx” pools on one side of the pool.
- If you have a rectangular pool start on the short side.
- For any other shape of pool, start on a strategic side.
*
Walk the cover over to the opposite of the pool of where you started.
*
Install the lip of the cover into the track on this opposite side.
*
Install the lip of the cover to the remaining sides of the pool.
*
Add ¾” to 1” of water over the top of the cover to help keep it in place.
*
SERIOUSLY consider ordering a mesh safety cover to install next year.
Other Items to Take Care of.
*
Winterize your toilets and faucets if applicable.
*
Properly store all remaining chemicals. Check with your supplier if you are
unsure about exact storage requirements. Also inquire if they will accept any
excess chemicals.
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*
Evaluations.
- Sit down with your staff and discuss the operation of the pool for the season just
completed. Ask for suggestions on ways to improve anything and everything
related to the operation.
- Reexamine your policies and procedures manual. Make appropriate
adjustments as needed.
- Write reports. Write one report for attendance for the year, one for budget
purposes, one that covers swimming lessons, one report covering staff training,
and one overall summary/evaluation.
*
Retention of staff. Good staff is hard to come by and even harder to keep. The
following are just a few suggestions to help retain your staff for the next season:
- Training reimbursement. Getting trained can be expensive. Is there any way
that you can help defray these costs?
- Thank you gifts. As a way of saying, “thank you” for a job well done over the
season.
- Use of other park/school facilities. Can you offer them punch cards to use at
other park facilities?
- Can you offer them employment somewhere else in the system?
- Keep in contact with them during the “off” season. Find out where they will be
going. Send them birthday cards. Drop them an occasional phone call or Email. Have an “off” season gathering. Send them an invitation to apply next
season.
CERTIFICATION AND TRAINING
Training is one thing that needs to be ongoing throughout the year for all staff. You want your
people to be knowledgeable and proficient at their jobs. The public expects this when they come
to your pool. Attorneys look at the level and amount of training that the staff has undergone in
the event of a claim or litigation. Certification takes training to a higher level.
There are certifications that your lifeguards can attain through agencies like the American Red
Cross, YMCA, and others. These agencies can be found in the AGENCIES section of this
manual. Typically, there is an end of course examination that the student is required to pass to
receive their certification. The certifications are usually nationally recognized but require
refresher or on-going training to remain current in their certification.
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Two courses that you as a pool operator may be interested in attending are the Certified Pool and
Spa Operator course and, the Aquatics Facility Operator (AFO) course. These are run under the
direction of two different entities. The Certified Pool and Spa Operator or CPO, is run by the
National Swimming Pool Foundation. The certification for this course is required in over 26
states. It is also a requirement by some city ordinances. The course is a two day course but
online courses are required prior to attending the classroom portion. The certification is good for
3 years. Some of the topics covered in classroom portion include:
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Pool and Spa Management
Regulations and Guidelines
Must know calculations
Water contamination
Disinfection
Water balance
Chemical Feed and Control
Common Problems
Circulation
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Heat and air circulation
Chemical Testing
Record Keeping
Facility Safety
Spa and Therapy Operations
Maintenance
Troubleshooting
Facility renovation and design
Filtration
As of the writing of this manual, the following fees applied to this course from one vendor:
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Traditional Course Registration
Traditional Course late registration charge
Online Primer Course Registration
Fusion Completion Registration
English Course Handbook
(Included in all course registration)
Pool Math Handbook
Certified Pool-Spa Operator Inspector
Training CD
Advance Shipment of Training Materials
And Manuals
$299.95
$30.00
$149.95
$199.95
$64.95
$19.95
$59.95
$11.95
The second national certification is the Aquatics Facility Operator Course (AFO). It is taught
through and sponsored by the National Recreation and Parks Association. This curse is 16
hours in length. The certification is good for 3 years. Recertification is available on-line.
Course materials are included in the registration. Some of the topics covered in the course
include:
*
*
*
*
January 2014
Disinfection
Water Testing and Treatment
Facility Management
Chemical Feeders
*
*
*
*
Hot Tub and Spa Operation
Recirculation
Control Systems
Risk Management
Page 103
*
*
Heating Systems
Filtration
*
Facility Troubleshooting
At the time of this writing, the approximate cost of this course is $320.00
The Aquatic Safety Research Group, LLC also offers some certifications programs. This
company is not as well-known as the two previous entities. However, the founder of the
company is none other than Dr. Tom Griffiths. Dr. Griffiths is a well-known and respected
author and designer in the area of swimming pool safety. Their first certification program is
called Practical Pool Management Plus (PPM+). This course is 2 day course of instruction and
has been deemed to be the equivalent of the CPO and AFO certifications. Recertification is every
5 years. Some of the topics covered in the course include:
*
*
*
*
Maintenance and Safety
Filtration
Safety and Risk Management
Backwashing
*
*
*
*
Circulation
Chemistry
Legal Liability for Managers
Pool Signage
The second course and certification offered by the Aquatic Safety Group is the Practical Pool
Management course. This is a one day course and the materials covered are similar to the two
day course. The recertification for this course is also every 5 years.
The company also offers courses without certification. The company calls them their A.R.M.
Series. You must choose one of the tracks that you wish to attend. Upon completion of the
workshop, you will receive a suitable for framing certificate of completion. The three separate
workshops are:
1.
2.
3.
A.R.M. Hotel/Motel Pools
A.R.M. Public Pools
A.R.M. Beaches
Training
As mentioned earlier, training must be constant with employees. Many public swimming pools
simply address the lifesaving techniques when it comes to training. However, there are several
areas listed in this manual where ongoing training should occur. On example of ongoing training
would be in the area of Hazardous Communication. No matter what training has occurred, it
needs to be documented and kept on file. It is recommended that an individual training record be
kept in each employee’s file. This could be in conjunction with a master list of training.
Many of us are not natural born instructors. Don’t sweat it. There are plenty of people out there
in the public that can teach a course. You just need to call them. Sometimes your own staff can
teach a course or two. You might be surprised if you just ask them.
If you are going to teach the course yourself, think outside the box and be creative. Use humor.
When people are enjoying the class, they a much more likely to learn the material being
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presented. If they are bored, they probably won’t remember anything except that training was
boring.
As said previously, document all training. It is better to put down more information about the
training than less. Excellent training records are a huge benefit and defense mechanism when
claims or litigation occurs with a pool. We have included a sample form that you can plug in the
information or design your own.
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Employee Training Record
Name: _____________________________________________________________________________________________________
Date of Hire: ________________________________________________________________________________________________
Home Address: ______________________________________________________________________________________________
Telephone Numbers: __________________________________________________________________________________________
Position of Employee: _________________________________________________________________________________________
Dates
Course Subject
January 2014
Sponsoring Agency
Instructor
Class Hours
Score
Page 106
Swimming Pool Standards & Agencies
Networking with other pool operators is a key component to a successful operation. These
professionals have the expertise and experience that you cannot find in any book or manual.
They also probably have had the same problems and questions that you have. There are several
pool operators across North Dakota. Many of these operators started out at small pools (some
very small) and have gone on to larger pools in other cities. Take some time and get to know one
or two in your area.
1.
American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation &
Dance (AAHPERD)
1900 Association Drive, Reston VA 20191
Tel: 800-213-7193
Website: www.aapherd.org
2.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) - Headquarters
1819 L Street NW 6th Floor, Washington DC 20036
Tel: 202-293-8020 (general inquiries)
Fax: 202-293-9287
Website: www.ansi.org
3.
American Nation Standards Institute (ANSI) – New York City
25 West 43rd Street, 4th Floor, New York NY 10036
Tel: 212-642-4900
Fax: 212-398-0023
4.
American Public Health Association (APHA)
800 I St. NW, Washington DC 20001-3710
Tel: 202-777-2742(APHA)
Fax: 202-777-2533
Website: www.apha.org
5.
American Red Cross - Mid-Dakota Chapter
2021 4th Ave. NW, Minot ND
Tel: 701-852-2828
Fax: 701-852-6583
Website: www.minotredcross.org
6.
American Red Cross - Minn-Kota Chapter
2602 12th Street N, Fargo ND 58102
Tel: 701-364-1800
Fax: 701-364-1805
Website: www.fargoredcross.org
7.
American Red Cross - Burleigh-Morton Chapter
4007 State Street, STE 114, Bismarck ND 58503-0689
Tel: 701-223-6700
Website: www.ndredcross.org
January 2014
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8.
American Swimming Coaches Association/Swim America
5101 NW 21st Ave. Suite 200, Ft. Lauderdale FL 33309
Tel: 954-563-4930 800-356-ASCA
Fax: 954-563-9813
Website: www.swimmingcoach.org www.swimamerica.org
9.
Aquatic Exercise Association
PO Box 1609, Nokomis FL 34274-1609
Tel: 941-486-8600 888-232-9283
Website: www.aeawave.com
Fax: 941-486-8820
10.
Cavalier County Health District
901 3rd Street, Suite 11, Langdon ND 58249
Tel: 701-256-2402
Fax: 701-256-2566
11.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
1600 Clifton Rd, Atlanta GA 30333
Tel: 404-498-1515 800-311-3435
Website: www.cdc.gov
12.
Central Valley Health District (Stutsman co., Logan Co.)
122 2nd Street NW,(use zip 58401) PO Box 880, Jamestown ND 58402
Tel: 701-252-8130
Fax: 701-252-8137
Website: www.CentralValleyHealth.org
Logan County
Logan County Courthouse, PO Box 12, Napoleon ND 58561
Tel: 701-754-2756
Fax: 701-754-2270
13.
City – County Health Department
230 4th St NW Room 102, Valley City ND 58072-2947
Tel: 701-845-8518
Fax: 701-845-8542
14.
Commodore Longfellow Society (of the American Red Cross)
2531 Stonington Rd., Atlanta GA 30338
15.
Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC)
4330 East West Highway, Bethesda MD 20814
Tel: 302-504-7923 Hotline: 800-638-2772
Fax: 301-504-0124 Website: www.cpsc.gov
January 2014
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16.
Custer Health Unit (Morton Co., Mercer Co., Grant Co., Oliver Co., Sioux
Co.)
210 2nd Ave., NW, Mandan ND 58554
Tel: 701-667-3370 888-667-3370 Fax: 701-667-3371
Website:
www.co.morton.nd.us/index.asp?Type=B_BASIC&SEC={0969BF21-3993451A-8FD7-D72D4FA5BF3D}
Mercer County
1021 Arthur Street, PO Box 39, Stanton ND 58571
Tel: 701-745-3599
Fax: 701-745-3579
Grant County
PO Box 164, Carson ND 58529
Tel: 701-622-3591
Oliver County
PO Box 375, Center ND 58530
Tel: 701-794-3105
Sioux County
210 2nd Avenue NW, Mandan ND 58554
17.
Dickey County Health District
PO Box 238, Ellendale ND 58436
Tel: 701-349-4348
Fax: 701-349-3277
18.
Fargo Cass Public Health System
401 3rd Avenue North, Fargo ND 58102-4839
Tel: 701-241-1360
Fax: 701-241-8559
Website: www.cityoffargo.com/health
19.
Fargo-Moorhead Family YMCA
400 1st Ave. S., Fargo ND 58103
Tel: 701-293-9622
Website: www.fmymca.org
20.
January 2014
Fax: 701-232-9545
Federation Internationale de Natation Amateur (FINA)
FINA is the national body governing all swimming including Masters
Swimming, Open Water Swimming, Diving, Water Polo and Synchronized
Swimming.
FINA-Avenue de l’Avant-Poste 4, Lausanne, Switzerland
Tel: +41-21 310 4710
Fax: +41-21 312 6610
Website: www.fina.org
Page 109
21.
First District Health Unit (Ward Co., Bottineau Co., Burke Co., McHenry
Co., McLean Co., Renville Co., Sheridan Co.)
801 11th Ave. SW, PO Box 1268, Minot ND 58702-1268
Tel: 701-852-5043
Fax: 701-852-7292
Website: www.fdhu.org/
Bottineau County
314 5th St. W., Ste. 7, Suite #7, Bottineau ND 58318
Tel: 701-228-3101
Fax: 701-228-3788
Website: www.fdhu.org/bottineau.shtml
Burke County
First District Health Unit, PO Box 326, Burke County, 103 Main St. SE,
Bowbells ND 58721
Tel: 701-377-2316
Fax: 701-377-2326
Website: www.fdhu.org/bowbells.shtml
McHenry County
112 Main Street South, PO Box 517, Towner ND 58788
Tel: 701-537-5732
Fax: 701-537-0804
McLean County
712 5th Ave., PO Box 1108, Washburn ND 58577
Tel: 701-462-8541
Fax: 701-462-3954
Website: www.fdhu.org/washburn.shtml
McLean County
141 N. Main, PO Box 972, Garrison ND 58540
Tel: 701-463-2641
Fax: 701-463-7338
Website: www.fdhu.org/garrison.shtml
Renville County
Courthouse, 205 Main St E, Mohall ND 58761
Tel: 701-756-6383
Fax: 701-756-6783
Website: www.fdhu.org/mohall.shtml
Sheridan County
215 E. 2nd Ave., PO Box 415, McClusky ND 58463
Tel: 701-363-2506
Fax: 701-363-2805
Website: www.fdhu.org/mcclusky.shtml
Ward County (Kenmare)
11 W. Division, Suite 102, PO Box 836, Kenmare ND 58746
Tel: 701-385-4328
Fax: 701-385-3012
January 2014
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22.
Foster County Health Department
1000 5th St. N. Box 80, Carrington ND 58421
Tel: 701-652-3087
Fax: 701-652-3097
23.
Foundation for Aquatic Injury Prevention (FAIP)
13246 Golden Circle, Fenton MI 48430
Tel: 800-342-0330
Fax: 810-714-0354
24.
Grand Forks Public Health Unit
151 South 4th Street, Suite N301, Grand Forks ND 58201
Tel: 701-787-8100
Fax: 701-787-8145
Website: www.grandforksgov.com/publichealth
25.
Grand Forks YMCA Family Center
215 North 7th Street, Grand Forks ND 58203
Tel: 701-775-2586
Fax: 701-775-9611
Website: www.gfymca.org
26.
Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA)
120 Wall St., Floor 17, New York NY 10005
Tel: 212-248-5000
Fax: 212-248-5017/18
Website: www.iesna.org
27.
International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions (IAAPA)
1448 Duke Street, Alexandria VA 22314
Tel: 703-836-4800
Website: www.iaapa.org
Fax: 703-836-9678
28.
James River Family YMCA
918 Seventh Street NE, Jamestown ND 58401
Tel: 701-253-4101
Fax: 701-253-4391
Website: www.jc.edu/ymca
29.
Jeff Ellis and Associates
508 Goldenmoss Loop, Ocoee FL 34761
Tel: 800-742-8720
Website: www.jellis.com/
30.
January 2014
Kidder County District Health Unit
422 2nd Ave NW, Steele ND 58482-7024
Tel: 701-475-2582
Fax: 407-654-1723
Fax: 701-475-2652
Page 111
31.
Lake Region District Health Unit (Ramsey Co., Benson Co., Eddy Co., Pierce
Co.)
524 4th Avenue NE, Unit 9, Devil’s Lake ND 58301
Tel: 701-662-7035
Fax: 701-662-7097
Benson County
West Bay Homes #5, 201 Main St. W., PO Box 263, Minnewaukan
ND 58351
Tel: 701-473-5444
Fax: 701-473-2564
Eddy County
16 South 8th St., New Rockford ND 58356
Tel: 701-947-5311
Fax: 701-947-5213
Pierce County
240 SE 2nd St., Rugby ND 58368
Tel: 701-776-6783
Fax: 701-776-7609
32.
LaMoure County Public Health Department
100 1st Ave. SW, PO Box 692, Omega City Plaza, LaMoure ND 58458
Tel: 701-883-5356
Fax: 701-883-5711
33.
McIntosh District Health Unit
112 N. First St., PO Box 25, Ashley ND 58413
Tel: 701-288-3957
Fax: 701-288-3671
34.
McLaughlin Health Center
Box 879, McLaughlin SD 57642
Tel: 605-823-4458
35.
Minot Family YMCA
PO Box 69, Minot ND 58701
Tel: 701-852-0141
Website: www.minotymca.org/
37.
Missouri Valley Family YMCA
1608 N. Washington, PO Box 549, Bismarck ND 58502
Tel: 255-1525
Fax: 255-0365
Website: www.bismarckymca.org
38.
National Aquatics Safety Company (NASCO)
Admin Offices 68 Gunite Ct., Box 9189, Ellijay GA 30540
Tel: 727-480-5828 (cell)
Fax: 706-635-3770
Headquarters: RR2 Box 580 1002 Ave. L, Dickinson, TX 77539
Website: www.nascoaquatics.com/index.html
January 2014
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39.
National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA – competitive standards)
700 W. Washington St., PO Box 6222, Indianapolis IN 46206-6222
Tel: 317-917-6222
Fax 317-917-6888
Website: www.ncaa.org
40.
National Electric Code (NEC) See National Fire Protection Association
41.
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
1 Batterymarch Park, Quincey MA 02169-7471
Tel: 617-770-3000
Fax: 612-770-0700
Website: www.nfpa.org
42.
National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA)
22377 Belmont Ridge Rd., Ashburn VA 20148
Tel: 703-858-0784
Fax: 703-858-0794
Website: www.nrpa.org
43.
National Safety Council
1121 Spring Lake Dr., Itasca IL 60143-3201
Tel: 800-621-7615 630-285-1121
Fax: 630-285-1315
Website: www.nsc.org
44.
National Sanitation Foundation (NSF)
PO Box 130140, 789 N. Dixboro Rd., Ann Arbor MI 48113-0140
Tel: 734-769-8010 800-NSF-MARK
Fax: 734-769-0109
Website: www.nsf.org
45.
National Spa and Pool Institute (NSPI)
Association of Pool and Spa Professionals
2111 Eisenhower Ave. Suite 500, Alexandria VA 22314-4695
Tel: 703-838-0083
Fax: 703-549-0493
Website: www.apsp.org
46.
National Swimming Pool Foundation (NSPF)
4775 Granby Circle, Colorado Springs CO 80919-3131
Tel: 719-540-9119
Fax: 719-540-2787
Website: www.nspf.com
47.
Native American Recreation and Sport Institute (NARSI)
116 West Osage, Greenfield IN 46140
Tel: 317-462-4245
Fax: 317-462-4275(call first)
Website: www.charismapros.com/p/narsi.htm
January 2014
Page 113
48.
Nelson/Griggs District Health Unit
116 Main Street, PO Box 365, McVille ND 58254
Tel: 701-322-5624
Fax: 701-322-5111
49.
North Dakota Department of Health, Environmental Health Section Water
Quality Division
918 East Divide Avenue, 4th Floor, Bismarck ND 59501-1947
Tel: 701-328-5210
Fax: 701-328-5200
Website: www.health.state.nd.us./WQ/
50.
North Dakota High School Activities Association
PO Box 817, Valley City ND 58072-0817
Tel: 701-845-3953
Fax: 701-845-4935
Website: www.ndhsaa.com
51.
North Dakota Insurance Reserve Fund - NDIRF
1320 W. Century Ave. PO Box 2258 Bismarck ND 58502
Tel: 800-421-1988 701-224-1988
Fax: 701-224-0609
Website: www.ndirf.com
52.
North Dakota Parks and Recreation Department
1600 E. Century Ave Suite E, Bismarck ND 58503-0649
Tel: 701-328-5357
Fax: 701-328-5363
Website: www.parkrec.nd.gov/
53.
North Dakota Recreation and Parks Association
Clearwater Communications Dana Schaar, Executive Secretary
1605 East Capitol Avenue, Bismarck ND 58501
Tel: 701-355-4458
Fax: 701-223-4645
Website: www.ndrpa.org/
54.
Pembina County Health District
301 Dakota St. West #2, Cavalier ND 58220-4100
Tel: 701-265-4248
Fax: 701-265-4876
55.
PoolCenter.com (contains a discussion board)
7101 Wimsatt Rd, Springfield, VA 22151
Tel: 703-778-2579
Website: www.poolcenter.com/INDEX.HTM
56.
Ransom County Public Health Department
404 Forest Street, PO Box 89, Lisbon ND 58054
Tel: 701-683-6140
Fax: 701-683-6168
Website: http://ransomph.homestead.com
January 2014
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57.
Richland County Health Department
413 3rd Avenue North, Wahpeton ND 58075
Tel: 701-642-7735
Fax: 701-642-7746
Website: www.richlandcountyhealth.org
58.
Rolette County Public Health District
211 1st Ave. NE, PO Box 726, Rolla ND 58367-0726
Tel: 701-477-5646
Fax: 701-477-9578
59.
Sargent County District Health Unit
316 Main St., PO Box 237, Forman ND 58032-0237
Tel: 701-724-3725
Fax: 701-724-3296
60.
Standing Rock
PO Box D, Fort Yates ND 58538
Tel: 701-854-7206
Website: www.standingrock.org/
Fax: 701-854-7281
61.
Schlossman YMCA - West
4243 19th Avenue SW, Fargo ND 58103
Tel: 701-281-0126
62.
Sisseton Indian Health
PO Box 189, Sisseton SD 57642
Tel: 605-698-7606
Fax: 605-698-4270
Website: www.earthskyweb.com/sota.html
63.
Southwestern District Health Unit (Stark Co., Adams Co., Billings Co.,
Golden Valley Co., Bowman Co., Slope Co., Dunn Co., Hettinger Co.)
2869 3rd Avenue West, Dickinson ND 58601
Tel: 701-483-0171 800-697-3145
Fax: 701-483-4097
Website: www.swdhu.org
Adams County
609 2nd Ave., PO Box 227, Hettinger ND 58639
Tel: 701-567-2720
Fax: 701-567-4799
Billings/Golden Valley Counties
First Street SE, PO Box 185, Beach ND 58621
Tel: 701-872-4533
Fax: 701-872-4533
Bowman/Slope Counties
202 6th Ave. SW, Bowman ND 58623
Tel: 701-523-3144
Fax: 701-523-3096
January 2014
Page 115
Dunn County
215 Central Ave., PO Box 111, Killdeer ND 58640
Tel: 701-764-5513
Fax: 701-764-5513
Hettinger County
309 Millionaire Ave., PO Box 575, Mott ND 58646
Tel: 701-824-3215
Fax: 701-824-3216
64.
Spirit Lake Tribal Health Program
816 3rd Ave. N., PO Box 480, Fort Totten ND 58335
Tel: 701-766-4236
Fax: 701-766-4878
Website: www.spiritlakenation.com/
65.
Steele County Public Health Dept.
100 Washington Ave., PO Box 317, Finley ND 58230
Tel: 701-524-2060
Fax: 701-524-1715
66.
Three Affiliated Tribes
Minne Tohe Health Center, HC-2, Box 24F, New Town ND 58763
Tel: 701-627-7901
Fax: 701-627-4318
Website: www.mhanation.com/
67.
Towner County Public Health District
404 5th Ave., Suite #3, North Door, PO Box 705, Cando ND 58324-0705
Tel: 701-968-4353
Fax: 701-968-4354
68.
Trenton Indian Service Area
Trenton Community Clinic, Box 210 Trenton ND 58853
Tel: 701-774-0461
Fax: 701-774-8003
69.
Turtle Mountain Chippewa
Quentin Burdick Health Care Facility, PO Box 160, Belcourt ND 58316
Tel: 701-477-8441
Fax: 701-477-8410
Website: www.tmbci.net.
70.
Traill District Health Unit
114 W. Caledonia., PO Box 58, Hillsboro ND 58045
Tel: 701-636-4434
Fax: 701-636-5473
Website: http://mylocalgov.com/traillcountynd/WebDept.asp?key=19
71.
United States Diving (USD)
201 S., Capital Ave., Ste. 430 Indianapolis IN 46225
Tel: 317-237-5252
Fax: 317-237-5257
Website: www.usadiving.org
January 2014
Page 116
72.
United States Lifesaving Association (USLA)
Go to website for email links
Tel: 866-367-8752
Website: www.usla.org
73.
United States Swimming (USS)
1 Olympic Plaza, Colorado Springs CO 80909
Tel: 719-866-4578
Fax: 719-866-4669
Website: www.usswim.org
74.
United States Synchronized Swimming, Inc. (USSSI)
201 Capital Ave., Ste. 901, Indianapolis IN 46225
Tel: 317-237-5700
Website: www.usasynchro.org
75.
United States Water Polo Association (USWPA)
2124 Main Street, Suite 210, Huntington Beach CA 92648
Tel: 714-500-5445
Fax: 714-960-2431
Website: www.usawaterpolo.com
76.
Upper Missouri District Health Unit (Williams Co., Divide Co., McKenzie
Co., Mountrail Co.)
110 West Broadway, Suite 101, Williston ND 58801
Tel: 701-774-6400
Fax: 701-842-6985
Website: www.UMDHU.org
Divide County
300 2nd Ave. N., PO Box 69, Crosby ND 58730-0069
Tel: 701-965-6813
Fax: 701-965-6814
McKenzie County
109 W. 5th St., PO Box 1066, Watford City ND 58854
Tel: 701-444-3449
Fax: 701-444-6472
Mountrail County
Memorial Building, PO Box 925, Stanley ND 58784
Tel: 701-628-2951
Fax: 701-628-1294
77.
78.
January 2014
Walsh County Health District
638 Cooper Ave., Grafton ND 58237
Tel: 701-352-5139
Fax: 701-352-5074
Wells County District Health Unit
66 N. Railway Street, PO Box 6, Fessenden ND 58436
Tel: 701-547-3756
Fax: 701-547-2535
Page 117
79.
World Water Park Association (WWPA)
8826 Santa Fe Drive, Suite 310, Lenexa KS 66212
Tel: 913-599-0300
Fax: 913-599-0520
Website: www.waterparks.org
80.
YMCA of the USA
101N. Wacker Dr., 14th Floor, Chicago IL 60606
Tel: 800-872-9622
Website: www.ymca.net/
81.
YWCA of Minot
1020 N. Broadway, Minot ND 58703
Tel: 701-838-1812
82.
Fax: 701-852-5364
YWCA of the USA
1015 18th Street NW, Suite 1100, Washington DC 20036
Tel: 202-467-0801
Fax: 202467-0802
Website: www.ywca.org
GLOSSARY
Swimming Pool: Any structure, basin, chamber, or tank containing an artificial body of
water for swimming, diving, recreational bathing.
Public Swimming Pool: Any swimming pool usually open to any member of the public.
Acid: A chemical compound that releases hydrogen ions in water solution.
A.E.D.: Automated External Defibrillator. A portable computerized device. It recognizes a
person’s heart rhythm and advises when a shock is needed. The device delivers an electrical
shock in an attempt to restart or rest a person’s normal heart rhythm.
Algae: Microscopic forms of plant life that enter the pool by rain, wind, and dust storms.
There are numerous varieties – some are free floating; others grow on walls and surfaces and
come in different colors. Some are more resistant to chemical treatment than others.
Algaecides: Chemicals that prevent and control algae. Some prevent algae growth; others are
designed to kill specific types of visible algae growth.
Algaestat: A chemical that inhibits the growth of algae.
Alkaline: The property of a compound that allows it to neutralize an acid.
January 2014
Page 118
Alkalinity: The amount of bicarbonate, carbonate and hydroxide compounds present in water
solution. A measure of the pH-buffering capacity of water.
Alum: Any one of several aluminum compounds used in pools to form gelatinous floc on sand
filters or to coagulate and precipitate suspended particles in water. Most commonly refers to
aluminum sulfate.
Aluminum sulfate: See above.
Ammonium hydroxide: An ammonia and water mixture used for detecting chlorine leaks.
Ammonia: A chemical compound of hydrogen and nitrogen that combines with free chlorine
in pools to form chloramines, or combined chlorine.
Ammonia nitrogen: Brought into pools by swimmers: perspiration, urine or waste. Reacts
with chlorine to form chloramines. Causes eye irritation.
Ammonium alum: Ammonium aluminum sulfate. No longer used as a flocculant or
coagulant in pools due to chloramine formation.
Anthracite: Very hard coal.
Anthrafilt: Trade name for anthracite specifically ground into particles of the proper size to
be used in a swimming pool filter.
Atom: The smallest particles into which matter can be broken by ordinary means. Combines
with other atoms to form molecules of chemical compounds.
Automatic feeders: Electronic equipment that senses water variables (primarily chlorine and
pH) and controls feed systems to maintain desired levels.
Available chlorine: Chlorine, both free and combined, that is active to some degree against
bacteria in pool water.
Average head: The resistance to flow of water in a pool recirculation system obtained by
averaging the maximum and minimum resistance encountered in the course of a filter run.
Backwash: The process of cleaning a swimming pool filter by reversing the flow of water
through it.
Backwash rate: The rate of flow, in gallons per minute per square foot of filter surface area,
required for efficient filter cleaning.
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Bacteria: Microorganisms present in all water supplies. Some are necessary to life; others
cause disease.
Bactericide: Any chemical that kills bacteria.
Balanced water: The correct ratio of mineral content and pH level that prevents pool water
from being corrosive or scale forming.
Base or basic: A chemical that neutralizes acids; usually by furnishing hydroxyl ions.
Bluestone: Common name for copper sulfate, an effective algaecide that is declining in
popularity as a swimming pool algaecide because of its toxicity and incompatibility with some
pool chemicals.
Body coat: Diatomaceous earth that builds up on a filter element during the course of a filter
run to help maintain filter porosity.
Body feed: Diatomaceous earth fed constantly or intermittently during a filter run to produce
a body coat.
Bourden tube: A tube, closed at one end that measures pressure against air trapped in the
tube. It is used as the basic element in many pressure gauges and flow meters in swimming pool
instrumentation.
Breakpoint: The point in a rising chlorine residual at which the concentration of available
chlorine becomes great enough to oxidize all organic matter and ammonia compounds in a pool
completely. Chlorine added thereafter will be in an uncombined, or free state. A sudden drop in
total residual available chlorine characterizes breakpoint. The magnitude of the drop depends
upon the amount of combined chlorine present and other factors.
Bridging: Buildup of a body coat on diatomaceous earth filter elements to the point where the
body coats of two adjacent elements touch.
Bromide: A chemical compound containing bromine. Sodium or potassium bromide in
solution; will produce free bromine if an oxidizer is introduced.
Bromthymol blue: A chemical dye sensitive to changes in pH. Used to test pH over a range
of 6.0 to 7.6. Turns from yellow to blue as pH increases.
Calcification: Formation of calcium carbonate on the walls of pools or pipes, or in a filter,
due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate. Also refers to incrustation caused by magnesium
hydroxide.
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Calcium hardness: The calcium portion of the total hardness. About 65-75% of total
hardness. Concentrations of calcium determine whether water is “soft” (too little) or “hard”
(too much). Higher hardness levels can cause cloudy water and scale. Lower levels can harm the
pool and its equipment.
Calcium hypochlorite: A compound of chlorine and calcium used in white granular or
tablet form as a bactericide in pools. In water solution, it provides 65% available chlorine.
MUST BE HANDLED WITH CARE.
Cartridge filter: A pool water filter that uses paper or fabric-like cartridges as its filtering
medium.
Centrifugal force: The outward force exhibited by anything in circular motion. The
principle by which water is propelled through a circulation system by a pump impeller that
imparts circular motion to the water in a pump.
Chemical feeder: Any of several types of devices that dispense chemicals into pool water at
a predictable rate. Types include: diaphragm, piston, erosion, peristaltic, dry and vacuum.
Chloramines: Compounds formed when chlorine combines with nitrogen from urine,
perspiration, etc. Chloramines cause eye and skin irritation, as well as unpleasant odors.
Chlorinator: Any chemical feeder used to dispense any form of chlorine, often used
conversationally to refer specifically to gas chlorinators.
Chlorine: A heavy, green, highly poisonous gas compressed into a liquid form and stored in
heavy steel tanks. Used in swimming pools as a bactericide and algaecide. EXTREME
CAUTION MUST BE USED IN HANDELING.
Chlorine demand: The amount of chlorine necessary to oxidize all organic matter present in
pool water, chloramines, bacteria, and algae.
Chlorine residual: The amount of available chlorine remaining in pool water after the
chlorine demand has been satisfied.
Clarity: The degree of transparency of pool water. Characterized by the ease with which an
object can be seen through a given depth of water.
Coagulant: A chemical, usually alum, used in pools for the purpose of gathering and
precipitating suspended matter.
Coliform organisms: Bacteria found in the intestines of warm-blooded animals. Their
presence indicates the possibility of the presence of disease-causing bacteria.
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Combined chlorine: Chlorine that has combined with a nitrogen compound, usually
ammonia, forming compounds known as chloramines. Although combined chlorine does have
some bactericidal powers, it is far less effective than free chlorine.
Contaminated: Impure. Can refer to presence of harmful bacteria in water or to the presence
of any unwanted substance in any other substance.
Copper sulfate: An effective algaecide, declining in popularity for pool use due to its
toxicity and incompatibility with other compounds found in pool water.
Corrosion: Caused by unbalanced and aggressive water. Metal parts are eaten away, usually
due to acid or very soft water conditions.
C.N.C.A.: Council for National Cooperation in Aquatics. A national organization of agencies
interested in all phases of aquatics.
C.P.R.: Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation. A lifesaving technique used when someone’s
heartbeat and breathing have stopped. It involves a combination of chest compressions and
rescue breathing to keep oxygenated blood flowing throughout the body.
Cross connection: An unprotected connection between a domestic water supply and a pool
or other non-potable water where a contamination of the domestic system could occur.
Protective devices must be used to eliminate possible contamination.
Cyanuric acid: The chemical 2,4,6 trihydroxy-s-triazine, also known as a stabilizer or
conditioner. It stops sunlight from dissipating chlorine strength.
Design rate of flow: The average rate of flow used for design calculations in a system.
Usually refers to gallons per minute per square foot of filter surface area.
Diaphragm pump: A chemical feeder of the positive displacement type in which an
electrically operated flexing diaphragm in conjunction with one-way suction and discharge check
valves makes possible constant, repeatable and adjustable feed rate regardless of varying
injection pressures, flow rates and liquid levels.
Diatomaceous earth. White powder composed of fossilized skeletons of one-celled
organisms called diatoms. Porous, containing microscopic spaces. Used as a filter medium for
swimming pools.
Diatomaceous earth filter: A filter designed to use diatomaceous earth or volcanic ash as a
filter medium. May be either pressure or vacuum type. Commonly called a D.E. filter.
January 2014
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Dichloramines (NHCl2): A poor disinfectant that gives off a disagreeable odor and irritates
the eyes.
Dissociation factor: Percent of HOCl at varying temperatures and pH values.
Disinfectant: A chemical that will destroy infection-causing organisms.
Downwash: A process of filtering water to waste after backwashing to insure that all pipes in
the system are free of debris before beginning a filter run.
DPD: The preferred reagent used in test kits to measure and indicate free available chlorine.
The presence of chlorine turns the indicator pink.
Dry acid: The granular chemical (sodium bisulfate) that slowly lowers pH and total alkalinity.
Safer to handle than liquid (muriatic) acid.
Dry feeder: A chemical or D.E. feed device consisting of a small, electrically operated,
slowly revolving auger in the bottom of the hopper.
Effluent: The outflow of water from a filter, a pump or a pool.
Electrode: A sensor placed in a sample for measurement and control of water variables
through automation.
Emissivity: Thermodynamics, the relative ability of a surface to emit radiant energy
compared to an ideal, black body at the same temperature and with the same area.
Electrolysis: Flow of electrical current through a liquid solution by means of electrically
charged ions. Usually produces corrosion of metals in the liquid.
Erosion feeder: A chemical feed device in which powder, tablet or sticks are placed in a
closed container through which a regulated stream of pool water is allowed to flow, gradually
eroding the chemical. Feed rate varies with flow velocity.
Equalizer line: A line from below the pool surface to the body of a skimmer, designed to
prevent air being drawn into the filter when the water level drops below the skimmer inlet.
Operates automatically.
Face piping: The piping, with all valves and fittings, that is used to connect the filter system
together as a unit. This includes all valves and piping necessary for the filter plant to perform the
functions of filtering or backwashing, either by the plant as a whole or any unit operating singly.
January 2014
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Feet of head: A basic measurement of pressure or resistance in a hydraulic system that is
equivalent to the height of a column of water that would cause the same resistance. The
DYNAMIC HEAD is the sum of all the resistance in a complete system when in operation. The
principle factors of “head” are vertical distances and resistance due to friction of the flow against
the walls of the pipe or vessel. FRICTION HEAD is the head due to friction only.
Ferric ion: Compounds of iron that are insoluble in water and will precipitate.
Ferrous iron: Compounds of iron that are soluble in water and will impart a clear green
color.
Filter: A mechanical device for straining suspended particles from pool water. Refers to the
complete mechanism including all component parts.
Filter aid: Usually refers to powder-like substance such as diatomaceous earth or volcanic ash
used to coat a septum-type filter. Can also be used to refer to alum as an aid to sand filtration.
Filter cartridge: A disposable element, usually of fibrous material, used as a filter septum in
some pool filters. May filter dirt from the water at the cartridge surface or allow penetration of
smaller suspended particles into internal interstices.
Filter cycle (filter run): The time of filter operation between backwash procedures.
Filter element: A filter cartridge, or that part of a D.E. filter on which the filter aid is
deposited.
Filter media: Any fine grain material, carefully graded as to size that entraps suspended
particles as water passes through.
Filter rate: The rate of flow of water through a filter during the filtering cycle, expressed in
gallons per minute per square foot of effective filter area.
Filter rock: Graded, rounded rock or gravel used to support filter media.
Filter sand: A type of filter media composed of hard, sharp silica, quartz or similar particles
with proper grading for size and uniformity.
Filter septum: That part of a filter on which diatomaceous earth or similar filter media is
deposited. Usually consists of cloth, wire screen or other fine mesh material.
Flocculant: A compound usually used with sand-type filters to form a thin layer of gelatinous
substance on the top of the sand. Aids in trapping fine suspended particles that might pass
through the sand.
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Floc (see flocculant): A gelatinous substance resulting from the use of a flocculant.
Flow meter (see rate of flow indicator).
Foot bath: A shallow water area between bathhouse showers and pool deck through which
pool patrons must walk. Originally designed to contain a disinfectant solution for control of
athlete’s foot. Because it was proved to be ineffective, the foot bath has either been eliminated
or modified to contain a continuous flow of clean water.
Foot spray: A device for spraying bather’s feet with water or disinfectant. Usually a shower
head at knee height to rinse sand and grass from feet before entry into the pool.
Free chlorine: Also called available, usable chlorine. It is the most active form of chlorine
that is free to kill bacteria and algae.
Galvanic action: Creation of electrical current by electro-chemical action.
Galvanic corrosion: Corrosion of metals that occurs when two or more dissimilar metals
are immersed in an electrolyte.
Gutter: Overflow trough at the edge of a pool.
Hardness (water): Refers to the quantity of dissolved minerals, chiefly calcium and
magnesium compounds, that may be deposited as scale in pipes, pools and heaters.
Head (see feet of head).
Hydrochloric acid: Also called MURIATIC ACID when diluted. A very strong acid used
in pools for pH control and for certain specific cleaning needs. A byproduct of the addition of
chlorine gas to water. USE EXTREME CARE IN HANDLING.
Hydrogen: The lightest chemical element. A component of water and a frequent product of
many chemical reactions. In its ionic form it is a measure of acidity and pH.
Hydrogen ion: The positively charged nucleus of a hydrogen atom. Its presence in water
solution is used as a measure of acidity of the solution.
Hydroxyl ion: A negatively charged particle composed of one hydrogen atom and one
oxygen atom.
Hypochlorinator: A chemical feeder through which liquid solutions of chlorine-bearing
chemicals are fed into the pool water at a controllable rate.
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Hypochlorite: Refers to any compound containing a metal and the (OCl-) radical. Most
commonly refers to calcium, sodium or lithium hypochlorite in pool usage.
Hypochlorous acid (HOCl): An unstable acid with excellent bactericidal and algaecidal
properties. The active agent by which chlorine serves as a disinfectant. Formed by dissolving
chlorine gas, any hypochlorite or other chlorinating agent in water.
Impeller: The rotating vanes of a centrifugal pump.
Influent: Water flowing into a pool, a pump, a filter, a chemical feeder or other space.
Iodide: A chemical compound containing iodine. Potassium or sodium iodide, when used
with a suitable oxidizing agent such as chlorine, will release iodine in pool water.
Iodine: A blue-black crystalline chemical element of the same chemical family as chlorine and
bromine. An excellent bactericide in pool water solution. Not effective as an algaecide.
Lifeline: A rope line across a pool to designate a change in slope in the pool bottom or the
beginning of deep water. Usually supported by regularly spaced floats.
Line strainer: A device mounted in the pump influent line to screen out lint and other debris
that might cause damage to the pump.
Liquid acid: Chemicals used to reduce pH and total alkalinity in pool water. Most common
types are muriatic acid and sulfuric acid. They are extremely corrosive and dangerous chemicals
to handle.
Logarithm: A mathematical term. The number that represents the power to which a given
number must be raised to obtain another number. In pool usage, the power to which 10 must be
raised to equal the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration of the pool water. It is
represented by the term pH.
Make-up water: Fresh water used to fill or refill the pool.
Monometer: An instrument that measures pressure differential across an orifice by means of
a column of liquid, usually mercury. In pools, usually calibrated to show rate of flow of water in
gallons per minute.
Micron: A unit of measure representing one millionth of a meter, or one thousandth of a
millimeter.
Microorganism: A microscopic plant or animal.
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Molecule: The smallest particle to which a chemical compound can be reduced without
destroying its chemical composition.
Multiple filter control valve: A special switching valve with a separate position for each
of various filter operations. Combines in one unit the functions of several direct-flow valves.
Muriatic acid: A dilute solution of hydrochloric acid.
Nitrogen: An element introduced into the pool via perspiration, hair spray, cosmetics, etc.
Reduces the effectiveness of chlorine; stimulates algae growth. Forms eye-irritating
chloramines.
N.S.P.I.: National Swimming Pool Institute. A trade organization of people and institutions in
the swimming pool and spa industry.
N.S.P.F.: National Swimming Pool Foundation. A research, education and safety organization
representing both the pool industry and the general public.
Orifice: An opening, usually carefully calibrated in size, through which water flows.
Orifice plate: A disc with a sharp edged, circular orifice in the center. When placed in a
water flow line, it creates a pressure differential to operate a rate of flow indicator, chemical
feeder or other hydraulic mechanism.
Organic wastes: The perspiration, urine, saliva and suntan oil that swimmers introduce into a
pool. When these wastes accumulate, they must be chemically oxidized – because most won’t
filter out.
Organisms: Plant or animal life. Usually refers to algae or bacteria-like growth in pool water.
Orthotolidine: An organic test reagent (also called OTO) that turns yellow-green in the
presence of chlorine, bromine or iodine.
Overflow trough: Trough around the top perimeter of a pool. Used to skim the surface of
the water to waste or to filters. Also called scum gutter.
Oxalic acid: A mild organic acid, usually purchased as a solid white granular substance.
Used specifically to dissolve rust stains on pool walls and floors or to clean rust from filter septa.
POISONOUS; USE WITH CARE.
Pathogen: A microorganism that causes disease in man.
January 2014
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pH: The negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion concentration of a water solution. A measure
of the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution. A pH below 7.0 is considered acid. A pH
above 7.0 is considered alkaline. Above 7.8, the water is too alkaline and could cause cloudiness
and scale formation. Below 7.2, the water is too acidic and could cause corrosion and plaster
etching. Improper pH also affects chlorine’s germ-killing power and causes swimmer
discomfort.
Phenol red: An organic dye that is yellow at a pH of 6.8 and turns progressively deeper red in
color as the pH increases to 8.4. The most commonly used test reagent for pH in pools.
Polymer: A flocculating agent designed to clear cloudy or colored water. Rapidly collects,
settles and allows for easy removal of dead algae, insoluble minerals and suspended iron, copper
or manganese.
Potable: Water that is safe and suitable for drinking.
Potassium alum: Potassium aluminum sulfate. Sometimes used as a flocculant in sand filter
operation.
Potassium peroxymonosulfate: A non-chlorine oxidizer used to shock-treat pool and spa
water and to activate bromide ions to produce hypobromous acid.
Ppm: Parts per million. Calculated in weight units. In dilute water solution, the weightvolume relationship of milligrams per liter may be substituted. Equals 1/10,000 of 1 %.
Psi: Pounds per square inch. Commonly, a unit of pressure or head.
Precipitate: An insoluble compound, such as calcium carbonate, that may appear in a solution
as the result of chemical action. For example, addition of chlorine to a pool containing dissolved
iron will cause a reddish precipitate of insoluble iron compounds.
Precoat: The layer of diatomaceous earth deposited on the filter septa at the start of a filter run
with D.E. filters.
Precoat feeder: A chemical feeder designed to inject diatomaceous earth into a filter in
sufficient quantity to coat the filter septa at the start of a filter run.
Pressure differential: The difference in pressure between two points in a hydraulic system.
As the difference in pressure between the influent and the effluent points of a filter, a pump, a
venturi tube or an orifice plate.
Pump curve: A graph of performance characteristics of a given pump under varying power,
flow and resistance factors. Used in checking and choosing a pump.
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Pump strainer: A device containing a removable strainer basket designed to protect a pump
from debris in the water flow when installed in the pump suction line. Also called lint strainer or
hair and lint catcher.
Quaternary ammonium compounds: A family of compounds (also known as “quats”)
used in various mixtures and concentrations to combat algae growth in pools. May cause foam
on the surface of the water due to their ability to decrease the surface tension.
Rate of flow indicator – flow meter: A device that measures pressure differential across
a calibrated orifice and indicates the rate of flow at that point. Usually in gpm.
Recirculating system: The entire system of pipes and pumps and filters that allows water to
be taken from the pool, filtered, treated and returned to the pool.
Residual: (see chlorine residual).
Reverse circulation: The name given to a pool water circulation system in which water is
taken from the surface of the pool and returned through inlets at the bottom of the pool.
Ringbuoy: A ring-shaped floating buoy capable of supporting a drowning person. Usually
attached to 50 to 60 feet of light line and kept at poolside for rescue use.
Sand filter: A pool filter using sand, or sand and gravel as a filter medium.
Saturation index: A mathematical calculation, based on the interrelation of temperature,
calcium hardness, total alkalinity and pH, that predicts if the pool water is corrosive, scaleforming or neutral.
Scale: Calcium carbonate deposits that can be found deposited in the filter, heater or on pool
wall. Generally caused by high mineral content combined with high pH.
Sequestering agent: A chemical that when added to pool water keeps dissolved metals and
minerals in clear solution.
Service factor: The degree to which an electric motor can be operated above its rated
horsepower without danger of overload failure.
Skimmer: A device other than an overflow trough for continuous removal of surface water
and floating debris from a pool. Usually returns water so removed to the filter system.
Skimmer weir: Part of a skimmer that adjusts automatically to small changes in water level
to assure a continuous flow of water to the skimmer.
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Slurry feed: Body feed for a D.E. filter introduced as a liquid slurry.
Slurry feeder: A chemical feeder designed to handle a gritty slurry without clogging.
Soda ash: Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) used to raise pH and increase total alkalinity in pool
water. Also used to react with alum to produce floc on sand filters and to neutralize hydrochloric
acid resulting from use of chlorine gas for chlorination.
Sodium bicarbonate: A chemical (NaHCO3) used to raise total alkalinity content of a pool
with little change in pH.
Sodium bisulfate: A dry white powder (NaHSO4) that produces an acid solution when
dissolved in water. Used in pools to lower pH. Safer to handle than hydrochloric acid.
Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL): A liquid that provides 12% to 15% available chlorine.
One of the most commonly used products for chlorination of pools. Produces hypochlorous acid
when added to pool water. USE CARE WHEN HANDELING.
Sodium thiosulfate: Chemical solution used to remove all chlorine from a test sample to
avoid false pH test readings or false bacteria test results. It is also used in larger quantities to
dechlorinate swimming pools.
Soft water scale: A particularly rough, coarse form of scale. Formed when the calcium
hardness of water is 100 ppm or less.
Stabilizer (see Cyanuric acid).
Sterilize: To kill all microorganisms by heat or chemical action.
Superchlorination (shock treatment): The practice of adding 8-10 times the normal
chlorine dose to destroy algae or reach breakpoint for reduction of chloramines.
Swimmer load: The number of persons in the pool area at any given moment, or during a
stated period of time.
Total alkalinity: The total amount of carbonates, bicarbonates and hydroxides in the pool.
Total alkalinity affects and controls pH. If total alkalinity is too high, pH will be hard to adjust.
If it’s too low, pH will be unstable, difficult to maintain within the desired range. The total
alkalinity level should be 80 to 150 ppm, depending on sanitizer.
Turbidity: Degree to which suspended particles in pool water obscure visibility. Usually
measured in NTUs.
January 2014
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Turnover rate: The number of times a quantity of water equal to the total capacity of the
pool passes through the filters in a stated time. Usually in turnovers per 24 hours.
Underdrain: The distribution at the bottom of a sand filter to collect the filtered water during
a filter run and to distribute the backwash water during backwash.
Underwater light: A lighting fixture designed to illuminate a pool from beneath the water
surface. May be “wet-niche” located in the pool water, or “dry-niche” located in the pool
sidewall behind a waterproof window and serviced from outside the pool.
Vacuum cleaner: One of several types of suction devices designed to collect dirt from the
bottom of the pool. Some discharge dirt and water into the filters, some discharge to waste, and
some collect debris in a porous container, allowing water to return to the pool. Some are selfpropelled; others must be pushed or pulled across the pool.
Velocity: The rate of movement of water in feet per second.
Venturi tube: A tube mounted in a water line so as to cause restriction of flow. The
constriction causes a change in velocity of water through the tube, resulting in a pressure
differential that is proportional to the flow rate. The pressure differential can be used to measure
flow or operate hydraulic chemical feeders.
Voids: Spaces in or between particles or fibers of a filtering medium. These spaces determine
the permeability and the dirt-holding capacity of the filter.
Volcanic ash: A fine white porous powder similar to diatomaceous earth but lighter in
weight. Used as a filter medium or filter aid in D.E.-type filters.
Index
Abandonment:
Absences:
Acceptable Risk:
Accidents:
Acid:
A.D.A.:
Admissions:
A.E.D.:
Aerobics:
Alcohol:
Algae:
Algaecide:
January 2014
11
22, 31 – 33, 46
13, 14, 17, 23
4, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17, 20, 22, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 50 –
52, 54
53, 68, 70, 71, 73, 74, 79, 80, 82 – 86, 118, 120,
122, 123, 125 – 128, 130
2, 3, 14 – 16, 20
22, 31, 36 - 38
31, 33 – 35, 118
59
21, 23, 37
56, 72, 86, 87, 96, 118, 121, 125, 127 - 130
19, 97, 118, 120 – 122, 126
Page 131
Alkalinity:
Amenities:
Animals:
Appearance:
Aquatics Facility Operator:
Attorneys:
Back-up Coverage:
Backwash:
Baseline Chemical Analysis:
Basin:
Baskets:
Bathhouse:
Benches:
Beverages:
Birthday Parties:
Blood Borne Pathogens:
Blower:
Blowing Lines:
Bolts:
Brushing:
BTU (heater) Formula:
Bumping:
Calcium chloride:
Calcium hypochlorite:
Cameras:
Cancer:
Cartridge Filters:
Cashier:
C.D.C.:
Cell Phones:
Certification:
Charging:
Chemicals:
Chemical Inventory:
Chemistry:
Chloramine:
Chlorinator:
Chlorine:
Circulation:
Closures:
Codes:
Communication:
Competitive Events:
January 2014
32, 68, 70, 71, 74, 78 – 80, 82 – 86, 96, 118, 119,
123, 126, 128 - 130
58, 65
23
21, 45
31, 103
11, 102
25 - 27
53, 57, 75, 90 – 93, 104, 119, 123, 124, 131
19
17, 18, 23, 24, 95, 96, 118
16, 18, 21, 86 – 88, 96, 97, 100, 129
25, 34, 38, 55, 125
16, 17, 21
15, 37
59
30
75, 98, 99
96 - 99
19, 56
88, 96
77
91, 93
68, 71, 79, 82, 85
74, 79 – 81, 121
39
60, 61
90, 93, 94, 121, 124
34, 36, 37
2, 3, 51, 53, 108
33, 34, 39
20, 31, 34, 35, 58, 102 - 104
1, 37, 49
14, 19, 22, 29, 30, 57, 62, 67 – 69, 73, 76, 79, 82,
84, 86, 88, 94 – 97, 101 – 103, 118 - 131
76
17, 20, 67 – 69, 86, 88, 91, 94, 104
81, 119, 121 – 123, 127, 130
75, 121, 125
4, 32, 50 – 54, 69, 72 – 74, 79 – 83, 86, 87, 91, 92,
94, 96, 97, 119 - 130
3, 18, 67, 81, 86, 87, 103, 104, 119, 121, 127, 129
22, 50, 54, 58, 65, 95
2, 3, 6, 7, 12, 113
22, 23, 25, 30, 31, 33, 34, 39, 63, 66, 104
7, 15, 58, 80
Page 132
Complaints:
Concessions:
Conduct:
Consent:
Corrosiveness:
Counselors:
Coverage:
C.P.O.:
C.P.R.:
Cracks:
Credit/Debit Cards:
Crypto (Cryptosporidium):
CT (Contact Time) Inactivation:
Cyanuric Acid (stabilizer):
Daily Admissions:
Daycare:
Deck:
Decontamination:
D.E. (Diatomaceous Earth) Filters:
Depth:
Design:
Diapers:
Dichlor (stabilizer):
Dilution:
Disclaimer:
Disinfection:
Diving Boards:
Documentation:
DPD Test:
Drain Covers:
Draining:
Dry Acid (Sodium Bisulfate):
Emergencies:
Employment at Will:
Employees:
Employee Leave:
EMS:
Enforcement of Rules:
Equipment Form:
Evaluations:
Eye and Skin Care:
Eyeballs:
Fecal Accidents:
Feedback:
January 2014
2, 66
15, 57
21
10
74, 78, 85, 120, 122, 123, 125, 126, 128, 129
28
13, 25 - 27
103, 104
28, 31 – 34, 122
14, 16 – 19, 56, 64, 91, 95 - 97
38
50 - 54
52 - 54
53, 74, 79, 85, 122, 130
22, 31, 36 - 38
36, 37
14 – 18, 21, 23 – 25, 27, 34, 55, 56, 58, 87, 89, 90,
96, 125
51, 52
90 – 93, 122 – 124, 128, 130, 131
7, 17, 21, 23, 55, 68, 69, 77, 121
1, 2, 6, 7, 98, 103, 105, 122
23
53, 79, 81, 83, 97, 123
53, 68, 85, 95, 97, 125, 127, 128
9, 22
2, 29, 30, 50 – 52, 54, 55, 57, 74, 103, 123, 125, 126
17, 18, 20, 23, 24, 85
1, 10 – 12, 14, 24, 30, 58, 94, 95, 104, 105
53, 81, 123
1, 17
1, 18, 82, 87, 88 – 90, 93, 96 – 100, 131
70, 71, 79, 83, 84, 123
10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 22, 25 – 27, 31, 33, 35, 38, 55, 57
9, 21
8, 9, 12, 22, 24, 30, 36, 38, 41, 43 – 46, 48, 59, 63,
65, 104, 106
22
11, 13, 20, 27, 28
1, 21, 22, 24, 34, 47
74
12, 14, 36, 43, 46 – 48, 102
59 - 62
18, 97
50 - 54
64, 66, 67
Page 133
Fencing:
Filters:
Filter Surface Area Formula:
Filtration System:
Fire Extinguishers:
Floatation Devices:
Flow Rate:
Forms:
Free Advertising:
Free Chlorine:
Front Desk:
Garbage/Trash:
Giardia:
Ground Fault Protection:
Group Charge Account Form:
Guardians:
Guard Awareness:
Guard Chairs:
Guard Reaction:
Guidelines:
Hallways:
Harassment:
Hardness:
Hazards:
Hazard Communication:
Head Lifeguard:
Heaters:
Heater (BTU Formula):
Heaving:
Hydrochloric Acid:
Hyperchlorination:
Hypochlorite:
Hypochlorous Acid:
Incidents:
Injured Patrons:
Inspections:
Instructors:
Insurance:
Janitorial Responsibilities:
Jewelry:
Kayaks:
Ladders:
Langlier Saturation Index:
Lap Swimming:
January 2014
14, 15, 18, 27, 56
3, 15, 19, 21, 51 – 53, 57, 67, 68, 74, 75, 77, 81, 86
– 96, 100, 103, 104, 119 – 124, 126 - 131
77
3, 21, 52, 67, 74, 86, 103, 104, 124
30
23
77, 122, 131
1, 11, 13, 24, 29, 30, 34, 36, 39, 42, 49, 51, 57, 71,
76
63
52 – 54, 74, 119, 122, 125
16, 22, 23, 27
15, 55 - 57
50, 51, 54
15, 16
37, 49
10, 26
26 - 28
47, 56
26 - 28
2, 4, 6, 9, 34, 37, 50, 95, 103
16
22
71, 74, 78 – 80, 82, 85, 96, 102, 121, 125, 129, 130
4, 13, 17, 20, 24, 29, 30, 104
30
32 – 34, 37, 38
19, 77, 96, 99, 125, 129
77
18, 95
70, 71, 125, 127, 130
52
68, 74, 79 – 81, 121, 126, 130
126, 130
10, 11, 27, 34, 35, 42
10 – 13, 16, 22, 24, 26 – 28, 50, 111
6, 13, 25, 30, 82, 34, 55, 103
33, 35, 36, 104, 106
6, 11, 13 – 15, 17, 51
38
35
59
18, 24, 25, 34, 55, 75, 95, 97
78
59
Page 134
Lawsuits:
Lessons:
Liability:
Liaison:
Lifeguards:
Lighting:
Lithium Hypochlorite:
Litigation:
Locker Rooms:
Lower Alkalinity w/Dry Acid:
Lower Alkalinity w/Muriatic Acid:
Lowering pH w/Muriatic Acid:
Lowering pH w/Dry Acid:
Main Drain:
Maintenance:
Makeup Water Formula:
Manager:
Marketing:
Metal:
Media (Press):
Media (Chemical):
Mildew:
Missing Persons:
Mission Statement:
Mold:
MSDS:
Muriatic Acid:
Negligence:
Netting:
Overtime:
Package Deals:
Paint:
Parking Lots:
Patrons:
Parties:
Passes:
Payroll:
Performance:
pH:
Pictographs:
Plugs:
Policies/Procedures:
Pool Water Analysis Data Sheet:
January 2014
2, 11
7, 22, 31, 32, 35, 37, 58, 59, 102
4, 10, 13, 15, 17, 104
32
2, 7, 10, 21, 24 – 28, 31 – 38, 47, 48, 59, 60, 102
14 – 16, 19, 55 – 57, 131
79, 81, 83, 126
6, 12, 102, 105
16, 21, 23, 39
71, 79, 84, 123
71, 79, 84, 85, 125 - 127
70, 79, 82, 85, 125 - 127
70, 79, 83, 123
1, 75, 88 – 90, 93, 96, 98, 99
2, 14 – 18, 29, 31 -34, 47, 50, 52, 65, 67, 86, 96,
103, 104, 120
77
11, 14, 25, 26, 28, 29, 31 – 41, 63, 96, 103, 104
58, 59
19, 97, 122, 123, 125, 126, 129
11, 28
53, 75, 91, 92, 124
18
29
19, 20
18
30, 57
70, 71, 79, 82, 84, 85, 123, 125 - 127
10
51, 52, 86, 96
32, 35
59
16 – 18, 58
14, 20, 29
10 – 14, 16, 20, 22 – 25, 27 – 31, 34, 36 - 38, 42,
47, 49, 50, 125
21, 22, 32, 58, 59
22, 36, 37
22, 32, 41
36, 44, 47
32, 52 – 54, 69, 70, 73, 74, 78 – 83, 86, 91, 96, 119,
120, 123, 125, 126, 128 - 130
17
18, 19, 97 - 100
6, 9, 10, 12, 21, 22, 31, 33, 37, 44, 46, 48, 66, 102
74
Page 135
Pressure Gauge:
Pressure Switch:
Programming:
Pump:
Railings:
Raise Alkalinity w/Sodium Bicarbonate:
Raise Hardness with Calcium Chloride:
Raising chlorine:
Raising pH w/Soda Ash:
Reasonable Person Theory:
Records:
Rentals:
Rescue Form:
Reservation Form:
Return Jets:
Rules:
RWIS:
Safety Cover:
Sanctioned Events:
Sand:
Scale:
Scanning:
Schedules:
Sequestering Agent:
Shigella:
Shocking:
Showers:
Sidewalks:
Sight Glass:
Signs:
Skimmers:
Skin Irritation:
Slides:
Slips:
Slope:
Soda Ash (sodium carbonate):
Sodium bicarbonate:
Sodium bisulfate:
Sodium hypochlorite:
Sodium sulfite:
Sodium thiosulfate:
Spokesperson:
Stabilizers:
Staff:
January 2014
19, 87, 91, 100, 120
19, 99
31, 32, 35, 36, 58, 64
1, 15, 19, 29, 75, 86 – 88, 96, 98 – 100, 121 – 123,
126, 128, 129
17
70, 130
71
52, 69, 83
69, 83, 130
10
11, 12, 14, 19, 32, 35 – 37, 40, 57, 69, 103 - 106
21, 22, 31, 32, 59, 66
27, 28, 34, 42
40
18, 97, 99
2, 6, 13, 17, 22 – 24, 31, 33 – 35, 39, 47, 63, 67
50
18, 97, 100, 101
15
75, 90, 91, 119, 124, 125, 128 - 131
15, 74, 78, 81, 82, 87, 97, 120, 121, 125, 128 - 130
25, 34, 47
22, 25, 32, 34, 36, 40, 46, 49, 57, 86, 95
19, 82, 97, 129
50
19, 72, 81, 94, 95, 97, 118, 128, 130
13, 16, 17, 21, 23, 29, 55, 125
14, 56
19, 91, 92, 100
14 – 17, 22, 23, 55, 56, 104
18, 75, 82, 87 – 93, 96 – 99, 123, 129
81, 121
13, 20, 23 – 25, 34, 56, 58, 75
4, 13, 16 – 18, 50
2, 7, 126
68, 69, 73, 79, 83, 130
70, 79, 84, 130
70, 71, 79, 83, 123, 130
79, 81, 130
79
79, 130
11, 32
52, 53, 79, 97, 122, 130
11 – 14, 19 – 22, 24, 25, 27 – 33, 35 – 40, 42, 50,
51, 63 – 67, 86, 102, 104
Page 136
Stairs:
Standards:
Statutes:
Streets:
Sun/Skin Products:
Super chlorinating:
Supervision:
Supplies:
Telephones:
Temperature:
Termination:
Timecards:
Tobacco:
Total Dissolved Solids:
Toys:
Training:
Transferring Risk:
Trichlor (stabilizer):
Turnover Rate:
Uniforms:
Vacuum:
Vandalism:
Vending Machines:
Vendors:
Victim Recognition:
Water Depth:
Water Testing:
Water Wings:
Weather:
Wheel Chairs:
Zone Coverage/Chart:
January 2014
2, 16, 24
1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 24, 35, 43, 107
6, 12
14, 20
17, 35, 60, 62, 127
72, 81, 130
2, 23, 27, 28, 31 – 33, 36, 44
19, 20, 32, 33, 55, 57, 101
16, 22, 29, 36 – 38, 65, 106
16, 21, 22, 52, 53, 67, 74, 75, 78, 80, 87, 94, 95,
123, 129
8, 9, 21, 22
35, 36, 41
23, 37
74, 80, 82
23, 37, 58
10 – 12, 14, 20, 23, 29 – 35, 37, 58, 99, 102 - 106
12, 13
53, 79, 81, 83
77, 131
35, 48, 65
1, 51, 57, 75, 86 – 90, 96, 98, 121, 122, 131
15, 38
15
13 – 15, 20
26 - 28
7, 17, 21, 23, 55, 68, 69, 77, 121
3, 12, 32, 34, 51, 53, 68, 74, 81, 82, 86, 96, 103,
120, 123, 127, 128, 130
23
13, 22, 34, 95
14, 16
25 – 27, 33
Page 137
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