Ku Band Link Utilization Analysis System

Ku Band Link Utilization Analysis System
Ku Band Link Utilization
Analysis System
A
PROJECT
REPORT
Summer Project Work for Second Year
B.Tech CSE
Under Guidance:
Mr. A S Dobre
Manager(Programming)
Project ICE(Basis)
ONGC, New Delhi
Submitted by:
Asankhaya Sharma
Roll No. 03712
2nd Year
B Tech CSE
National Institute of Technology
Warangal, AP
1
OIL AND NATURAL GAS CORPORATION
LIMITED
PROJECT ICE, 14th floor, Core-4, South Tower, Scope
Minar,
Laxmi Nagar, Delhi-92. Tel : 22446171, Fax: 22446426.
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Mr. Asankhaya Sharma (Roll No. 03712) a student of
4th semester of Bachelor of Computer Science & Engineering (B.Tech) at
National Institute of Technology, Warangal, has been undergoing project
training at Project ICE ONGC Delhi from May 2005 to June 2005.
He has successfully completed the project on “KU Band Link Utilization
Analysis System” under the supervision and guidance of Mr. A S Dobre,
Manager (Programming).
In the project he has worked in ABAP/4 (Advanced Business Application
Programming) on SAP 4.6c ERP platform and covered various topics
related to SAP R/3 Systems.
Countersigned
(Dr. S.S. Arora)
Chief Mathematician
ABAP Team Lead
(Mr. A.S. Dobre)
Manager (Programming)
ICE Basis
2
Acknowledgement
I take this opportunity to express my profound sense of gratitude and
respect to all those who helped me throughout the duration of this project.
First and foremost I would like to express my thanks to Mr. A.S. Dobre,
Manager (Programming) ONGC, Delhi for giving me an opportunity to
undertake this project and providing crucial feedback that influenced the
development of this project, which were critical in the deployment of the
project without which I would not have been able to complete the project.
I would especially like to thank Dr. S.S. Arora, Chief Mathematician, ABAP
Team Lead, for giving me an opportunity to undertake the project work in
this esteemed concern.
Finally I would like to extend my profound thanks to all my esteemed
colleagues who extremely helped me in specific areas of this project.
(Asankhaya Sharma)
3
Abstract
The well planned, properly executed industrial training helps a lot in
inducting good work culture. It provides linkage between student and
industry in order to develop awareness of industrial approach to problem
solving based on broad understanding of process & operation industrial
organization.
This project is based on the requirements of ONGC related to the
maintenance of KU Band and to analyze its utilization by generating
different types of critical and specific reports as per the needs of the
management.
The system being diversified in nature demanded a three to four weeks
period for understanding the ABAP/4 concepts, business processes and
familiarizing with the platform of development for the purpose of
completion of the project.
The project has been developed on SAP platform using ABAP/4 language
providing a good user interface making its use simple. The project helped
me in understanding the key development concepts related to
programming in ABAP/4 for customer requirement. The study was
exploratory in nature and hopefully laid the foundation for future work in
this area.
The training undertaken in such an indigenous company gave me an
opportunity to gain practical experience increasing my horizon of
knowledge. I have tried to share some of my knowledge by way of this
project report.
4
Preface
Title
Page no.
1.
Company Profile
7
2.
Enterprise Resource Planning
9-15
2.1 What is ERP?
2.2 ERP implementation in ONGC
2.3 Need for implementing SAP
3.
9
10
13
System Application Product (SAP)
14-34
3.1 About SAP
3.2 Distributed Processing and Integration with R/3
3.3 R/3 Basics
3.4 R/3 Instance Provider Services
3.5 Architecture of SAP R/3 Systems
3.6 SAP Application Modules
3.7 Advantages of SAP Approach
3.8 R/3 Lock Concept
3.9 Hardware and Software Specifications
14
16
18
20
21
24
26
28
33
4.
Basis Details
35
5.
Advanced Business Application Programming 36-60
5.1 Introduction to ABAP Programming Language
5.2 Salient Features of ABAP
5.3 Types of ABAP Program
5.4 ABAP Development Workbench
5.5 Tools for Software Development
6.
Ku Band Analysis System
6.1 Existing System
6.2 Objectives of Proposed System
6.3 Feasibility Study
5
36
37
42
33
46
61-80
61
62
63
6.4 System Design
6.5 Database Design
6.6 Context Analysis
6.7 Data Flow
6.8 Testing Plan
65
66
71
72
79
7.
Conclusion
81
8.
Bibliography
82
9.
Annexure
83-116
9.1 Sample Output
9.2 Source Code
83
86
6
Company Profile
Born as a modest corporate entity within serene Himalayan settings on 14th
August, 1956 as Commission, Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC),
has grown in to a full-fledged horizontally integrated upstream petroleum
company.
Today, ONGC is a flagship public sector enterprise and India’s highest profit
making corporate, which has achieved the landmark of registering a net profit of
Rs. 12983.05 crore in the year 2004-05. Since its inception ONGC has produced
more than 600 million metric tones of crude oil and supplied more than 200 billion
cubic meters of gas, thus Fuelling India’s economy.
To achieve this sustained growth, ONGC decided to double the oil and gas
reserves. In 45 years of operation, ONGC accreted six billion tones oil and oil
equivalent reserves, and ONGC has drawn a plan to double these reserves in
the next 20 years. Secondly, the global recovery factor of ONGC is of the order
of 28 percent; the target is to raise this to the level of 40 percent, over the same
20 years.
Out of the six billion tones of oil and gas reserve accretion, four billion tones are
expected to come from Offshore and Deep Waters. To improve recovery factor
from the existing fields, ONGC is investing Rs. 2,000 crore in 15 Redevelopment
Schemes.
ONGC has recognized the need to expand its business through profitable
ventures related to petroleum and energy sectors by entering into joint ventures
with other Indian and foreign companies.
7
ONGC-Joint venture group (ONGC-JVG) has been formed to give impetus to
joint venture activities in areas other than E&P. ONGC-JVG is responsible for
identification and developing new business opportunities with Indian and foreign
companies in following areas:
¾ Participation in downstream projects like refining/gas processing /LNG/
power projects etc.
¾ Participation in construction projects, pipelines, process plants etc.
The Corporation is now venturing out to new areas i.e. deepwater exploration
and drilling, exploration in frontier basins, marginal field development,
optimization of field development plan field recovery and other allied areas of
service sector. Engagements in these areas will require best-in-class technology,
processes and practices and savvy use of the R&D assets to their fullest
advantage.
ONGC is looking towards companies / service providers established in the
industry for technology transfer and absorption, and technological collaboration
and support. We intend to achieve this objective through alliances and sustained
relationship.
Information Technology and Communication Systems are being integrated and
upgraded. A number of new projects – project PROMISE (Professional Review of
Major Infocom Systems & Equipments), project ICE (Information Consolidation
for Efficiency), project IMPETUS (Implementing Maintenance & Procurement
Efforts Through Upgraded Systems) are launched. All these projects are aimed
at integrating InfoTech resources, integrate company-wide ERP management
system and facilitate better maintenance and repair of equipment and facilities.
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What is ERP?
India’s GNP is now the fifth largest in the world. The transition to an open
economy has thrust India squarely into the information age, an age that is forcing
the country to cope with a deluge of new information relationships. Integrated
ERP solutions optimize source utilization by providing up-to-the-minute
information on demand for quick decision making. It is based on Resource-based
theory combined with the strategy process perspective & with existing literature
on information technology & ERP.
Enterprise Resource Planning system offers a software-based system that
handle’s an enterprise’s total information system needs in an integrated
fashion.
The demand for so-called Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems has
soared. Triggered by Y2K- compliance problems & the popularity of systems
such as SAP R/3, corporate investments in ERP have been significant over the
last years where the global markets is expected to reach $180 billions in the year
2003.It is a software architecture that facilitates the flow of information among all
functions within an enterprise. It sits on a common database and is supported by
a single development environment. ERP systems are customized to support an
organization’s business processes.
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems are modular application software
that helps businesses increase the productivity of such mission-critical
components as human resources, finance, parts purchasing, inventory control,
supply chain and customer relationship management. ERP systems are
enterprise-wide and claim to incorporate best business practices that replace
legacy systems and current business processes.
9
ERP implementation in ONGC
SAP AG (NYSE: SAP) signed the largest ever deal in India with the Oil and
Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC) for implementation of the ICE
(Information Consolidation for Efficiency) Project. The deal worth Rs.950 million
($19 million) is aimed at consolidating the IT efforts at ONGC through the
implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) package on SAP.
“The main objective of the ICE Project is to optimize and
standardize business
processes for integrated information availability.
The ERP package will enable availability of information on real time basis
and elimination of duplication of activities across business processes by
capturing data at source point in turn facilitating decision support, better
operation control and efficient cost management”.
ONGC’s decision to adopt my SAP Oil & Gas Upstream solutions reconfirms
SAP deep industry knowledge and global vision of bringing industry specific
business solutions to its customers.” ONGC will benefit immensely by adopting
the Best Business Practices provided in the my SAP solution evolved from SAP
close association with TOP 10 Oil & Gas Companies like Exxon-Mobil, Shell,
Chevron-Texaco, Saudi Armco etc. using SAP solutions.
ERP implementation in ONGC not only automates and integrates its business
processes, but also strengthens Management Information System and Data
Warehousing for informed and fast decision-making. Like any giant enterprise,
ONGC is made up of various resources that fit into building a vibrant enterprise human, capital, material, etc.
A cohesive synergetic effort from all these resources is vital to take an
organization on the path to progress - Towards a brighter future. Successful
alignment of business and technology goals has long been considered a
business necessity. However, forward- looking, technology-enabled, enterprises
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must move beyond alignment and towards integration, if they have to face the
market competition. The most relevant form of IT in an enterprise is in the form
of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). ERP is a tool that facilitates
management of all the resources that are vital for the efficient functioning of the
enterprise in an
integrated
manner. A number of software packages are
available for implementing ERP, viz., BAAN, SAP, People Soft etc.
ONGC has taken a strategic decision to implement ERP in various business
process areas of the organization. In ONGC, SAP, an industry leader in ERP
solutions, is already being used in UFSO (financial accounting) and SHRAMIK
(HRD) projects.
Existing Scenario in ONGC
In the later half of the nineties, ONGC realized the importance of having
organization-Wide Integrated
Information systems.
Integrated
Material
Management System (IMMS) was conceived as a first step towards BPR. This
was a major strategic initiative with a view to reduce inventory and realize the
concept of just-in-time (JIT) procurement. IMMS demonstrated ONGC’s
capability in adopting IT-based systems for making its business processes more
efficient.
ONGC's workforce had no inhibitions to switch over to IMMS, as it was based on
the existing MM processes. Thus, IMMS proved to be a harbinger for subsequent
ERP initiatives on even wider canvas.
In addition to this support business process, company’s top management took
another strategic decision to implement Exploration & Production Information
Network (EPINET). EPINET is an integrated information database related to
core E&P operations of the organization, which would assist in informed
decision-making in the core business arena.
11
After EPINET, it was the turn of financial accounting system. Up gradation of
Financial Services of ONGC (UFSO) was conceived and rolled out using SAP,
a very powerful ERP implementation tool. A lot of groundwork was done before
the actual implementation, as a result of which UFSO has been a grand success.
After the successes of these earlier projects, ONGC has undertaken SHRAMIK
project for managing HR processes. This project is currently being rolled out and
will be working with UFSO in an integrated manner. The user base of SHRAMIK
is envisaged to be far bigger than the earlier projects.
All these projects are shaping up well and are catering very well to the purpose
for which they were implemented. Integrating them into seamless and cohesive
systems is the next challenge and, an enterprise- wide ERP is the answer. Thus,
company’s reservoir of knowledge would always be one - coherent and relevant.
Project ICE (Information Consolidation for Efficiency) has been
initiated to implement ERP in the following major areas:
A) Enterprise Management - Strategic Enterprise Management, Business
Intelligence, Managerial Accounting, Financial Accounting, Joint Venture
Management.
B) Exploration and Production - Exploration and Appraisal, Development and
Production.
C) Supply-
Supply Chain Optimization.
D) Manufacturing-Gas
and
Fuel
Manufacturing.
E) Marketing - Contract and Pricing Formulation, Commercial Sales.
F) Business Support - HR Core functions, HR - Analytics, Procurement,
Treasury / Corporate Finance Management, Fixed Asset Management,
E&C and Maintenance.
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Need for implementing ERP
i)
ERP creates a single version of the truth because everyone is using
the same system and database.
ii)
To standardize business processes. Standardizing the processes and
using a single, integrated computer system can save time, increase
productivity and reduce headcount. Implementation of ERP is seen as
an enabler of Business Process Re- Engineering (BPR).
iii)
To standardize HR information - especially, in companies with multiple
business units, HR may not have a unified, simple method for
tracking employee time and, communicating with them about benefits
and services. ERP can fix that.
iv)
To streamline internal processes and create a platform for ecommerce.
Fully integrated ERP implementation in the organization is envisaged to
facilitate the following:
ƒ
Leverage E&P operations of the organization through integrated database.
And knowledge bank thus enabling Improved Oil Recovery (IOR) and
Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR).
ƒ
Help cut down costs, wherever possible, to maintain our competitive edge.
ƒ
Deploy scarce resources in the most optimal fashion.
ƒ
Avoid duplicity of efforts and costs by knowledge sharing through Decision
Support Systems (DSS) and Management Information Systems (MIS).
ƒ
Synergizes initiatives and provide them a strategic direction in tune with
the Organization’s strategy and plan.
13
About SAP
SAP (Systems, Applications, and Products in Data Processing) the company
was founded in Germany in 1972 by five ex-IBM engineers located in Walldorf,
Germany. SAP has subsidiaries in over 50 countries around the world from
Argentina to Venezuela. The original five founders have been so successful that
they have multiplied many times over such that SAP AG is now the third largest
software maker in the world with over 17,500 customers (including more than half
of the world's 500 top companies). SAP are Maintaining and increasing their
dominance over their competitors through a combination Of embracing the
internet with mySAP.com extending their solutions with CRM to head Off Siebel
& adding functionality to their industry solutions.
SAP employs over 27,000 people worldwide today, and had revenues of $7.34
billion and Net Income of $581 million in FY01. SAP is listed in Germany (where
it is one of the 30 stocks which make up the DAX) and on the NYSE.There are
now 44,500 installations of SAP, in 120 countries, with more then 10 million
users.
SAP R/3 is delivered to a customer with selected standard process turned on,
and many other optional processes and features turned off.
At the heart of SAP R/3 are about 10,000 tables which control the way the
processes are executed. Configuration is the
process of adjusting the settings
of these tables to get SAP to run according to the user’s
requirements. Since
SAP contains sensitive and valuable company information it is vital that it be well
secured. SAP security is robust and detailed and provides a mechanism to
decrease the risk of someone causing havoc in your SAP system.
14
SAP structure embodies what are considered the "best business practices". A
company Implementing SAP adapts it operations to it to achieve its efficiencies
and power. The Process of adapting procedures to the SAP model involves
"Business Process Re-Engineering" which is a logical analysis of the events and
relationships that exist in an Enterprise’s operations. SAP structure embodies
what are considered the "best business Practices". A company implementing
SAP adapts it operations to it to achieve its efficiencies and power.
The process of adapting procedures to the SAP model involves "Business
Process Re-engineering" which is a logical analysis of the events and
relationships that exist in an enterprise's operations. In order to understand a
system like SAP a thorough understanding of the events and relationships that
take place in a business is required.
The exact details of each action, the timing of that action and its
interrelationships with every other process must be understood. Before an
operation can be automated or computerized a thorough study of the business
must be undertaken. This task is called Business Process Engineering.
15
Distributed processing and Integration
with R/3:
Distributed Processing:
SAP customers make different demands on R/3 application systems. R/3
technology meets these requirements with flexible concepts:
ƒ
The cost-efficient implementation of R/3 on a centralized or two-tier
client/server system is the ideal solution for small and mid-sized
installations.
ƒ
Mid-sized and large installations require high throughput performance with
an acceptable management effort demanding three-tier client/server
implementation.
ƒ
Very large installations do not simply demand powerful systems. They
also require a very high level of system availability. The use of parallel
database servers in three-tier client/server architecture is considered to be
the optimum solution.
ƒ
Group wide and worldwide installations have the greatest need for
performance and availability. Many other requirements also have to be
considered, such as the integration of existing structures and the
necessity of geographical distribution.
ƒ
The ideal solution is provided by cooperative client/server computing with
distributed applications.
16
Integration and openness:
Business processes do not end at the borders of computers or applications. The
R/3 infrastructure technology provides a software bus to guarantee the complete
implementation of business processes. It handles message-based integration for
almost any number of application components. This ensures that different
applications work together instead of against each other.
ƒ
Messages are exchanged between applications via the Application Link
Enabling
concept (ALE). This technology controls the communication
between R/3 subsystems, R/2 and R/3 applications, and, of course,
between non-SAP systems and R/3.
ƒ
SAP uses OLE technology (Object Linking and Embedding) from Microsoft
and the ODBC standard (Open Database Connectivity) to link PC
components with R/3.
ƒ
SAP Business Workflow controls the individual processing steps executed
in the application components.
17
R/3 Basics
R/3 application programs run within the R/3 Basis system on the work processes of
application servers. This makes them independent of the hardware and operating system
that are used & unable to run outside the R/3 System. All application programs, along
with parts of the R/3 Basis system, are written in the ABAP Workbench using ABAP,
SAP programming language. The individual components of application programs are
stored in a special section of the database called the R/3 Repository. The R/3 Repository
serves as a central store for all of the development objects in the R/3 System. A work
process contains a screen processor for processing user input, an ABAP processor for
processing the program logic, and a database interface for communicating with the
database. These components of a work process determine the following structure of an
application program:
18
An application program consists of two components, each of which has a
different task:
1. Flow Logic: Interaction between application programs and the user is
implemented using screens. Screens are processed by the screen processor of a
work process. As well as the input mask, they consist of flow logic. This is coding
written using a special set of keywords called the screen language. The input
mask is displayed by the SAP GUI which also transfers the user action on the
screen back to the flow logic. In the program flow, screens react to the user
actions and call program modules. These program modules form the processing
logic.
2. Processing logic: The components of application programs that are
responsible for data processing in the R/3 System are ABAP programs. ABAP
programs run on the ABAP processor of a work process. They receive screen
input from the screen processor and send it to the screen processor. ABAP
contains a special set of commands called OPEN SQL allowing to read from and
write to the database regardless of the database being used. The database
interface converts the OPEN SQL commands into commands of the relevant
database. Interfaces provide other means of sending data to and from ABAP
programs. When working together with screens, ABAP programs play a more
passive role, acting as a container for a set of modules that can be called from
the flow logic.
19
R/3 Instance Provider Services
An R/3 Instance provides one or more services. A central R/3 system consists of
one instance, which provides all of the services. In a distributed R/3 system, the
enquire service and the message service is always grouped in one instance: the
central instance. Normally, each instance runs on its own computer, which is the
application server. From an operating-system perspective, one instance consists
of combined processes and the main memory they use. These processes include
one dispatcher and multiple work processes for each instance.
The SAP infrastructure technology is a powerful basis for the R/3 applications
and the ABAP/4 Development Workbench. It enables a virtually unrestricted
distribution of applications and databases, as well as unprecedented integration
of in-house and external software components.
20
Architecture of SAP R/3 systems
SAP R/3 is a highly configurable software package built on best business
practices in the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) areas and developed over
more than 25 years of enterprise systems experience. It is designed to
streamline data collection and processing based on the informational needs of
the industry segment. Better information leads to better business decisions,
which in turn leads to improved business performance. Enterprise Resource
Planning systems represent the most complicated business systems that a
company will implement. This complexity is measured in terms of the number of
system users, database size, transaction volumes, and other system metrics.
Layer by Layer-R/3 System Structure:
The R/3 system's structure follows a layer model with independent function
layers connected by interfaces. The software between the business applications,
operating system, and the hardware is called middleware, and is transparent to
the user. The quality of the middleware strongly influences the performance of
client/server applications, as well as their openness and portability. The basis
layer contains the R/3 system's middleware.
Middleware enables applications to be independent of the system interfaces of
the operating system, database system, and communications system; it also
ensures optimum handling of business transactions. The application layer, which
implements the business functions and processes of the R/3 system, sits on the
basis layer. This basis layer is written in the C/C++ programming language, while
the application layer is written in the SAP-developed 4GL language ABAP/4. The
ABAP/4 Development Workbench is SAP programming environment for the
development of enterprise-wide client/server business solutions.
21
Logical Services in the R/3 System:
An essential characteristic of the R/3 system architecture is the software-oriented
client/server approach, through which various program modules can be
distributed flexibly across different computers (also known as partitioning of
applications). This gives users great flexibility in planning and operating an R/3
system, and provides scalability to match their business growth. The individual
systems in an R/3 environment provide computing capacity and storage for the
logical layers of the client/server architecture.
Management of Working Data:
The database layer is used for the management and administration of the
working data, which includes the master data, transaction data, and the metadata
maintained in the repository that describes the database structure. The industrystandard SQL (Structured Query Language) defines and manipulates all data
and runs on industry-standard relational database management systems
(RDBMS).
The Application Layer where Business Logic Resides:
The entire R/3 business logic runs on the application layer; the application layer
in the middle builds on the underlying database layer. The applications access,
retrieves, and inserts data into the database. Because Internet technology does
not handle business transactions, the Internet-enabling layer has been created
above the application layer. The SAP R/3 system has seven services under the
application layer. The R/3 system's configuration determines the specific
processes available on the server and the extent of the processes.
22
Starting at the Top The Presentation Layer:
The top layer, which is closest to the users, is the presentation layer. It manages
the interface that users operate to access data, run applications, and view
results. Users work with R/3 applications through the SAP graphical user
interface (SAPGUI), which provides a common look-and-feel across all platforms.
23
SAP Application Modules
SAP has several layers where the application modules are the epicenter of the
whole system. These modules may not all be implemented in a typical company
but they are all related and are listed below:
•
FI Financial Accounting—It is designed for automated management and
external reporting of general ledger, accounts receivable, accounts
payable and
other sub-ledger accounts with a user defined chart of
accounts. As entries are made relating to sales production and payments
journal entries are automatically posted. This connection means that the
"books" are designed to reflect the real
•
situation.
CO Controlling— It represents the company's flow of cost and revenue. It
is a management instrument for organizational decisions. It too is
automatically updated as events occur.
•
IS Asset Management— It is designed to manage and supervise
individual aspects of fixed assets including purchase and sale of assets,
depreciation and investment management.
•
PS Project System— It is designed to support the planning, control and
monitoring of long-term, highly complex projects with defined goals.
•
WF Workflow— It links the integrated SAP application modules with
cross- application technologies, tools and services.
•
IS Industry Solutions— It combines the SAP application modules and
additional industry-specific functionality. Special techniques have been
developed for industries such as banking, oil and gas, pharmaceuticals,
etc.
•
HR Human Resources— It is a complete integrated system for
supporting the
planning and control of personnel activities.
24
•
PM
Plant
Maintenance—
In
complex
manufacturing
process
maintenance means more than sweeping the floors. Equipment must be
services and rebuilt. These tasks affect the production plans.
•
MM Materials Management— It supports the procurement and inventory
functions occurring in day-to-day business operations such as purchasing,
inventory management, reorder point processing, etc.
•
QM Quality Management— It is a quality control and information system
supporting quality planning, inspection, and control for manufacturing and
procurement.
•
PP Production Planning— It is used to plan and control the
manufacturing activities of a company. This module includes; bills of
material, routings, work centers, sales and operations planning, master
production scheduling, material requirements planning, shop floor control,
production orders, product costing, etc.
•
SD Sales and Distribution— It helps to optimize all the tasks and
activities
carried out in sales, delivery and billing. Key elements are: pre-
sales support, inquiry processing, quotation processing, sales order
processing, and delivery processing, billing and sales information system.
25
Advantages of SAP Approach
SAP solutions have major advantages over other available solutions namely:
Architecture: SAP SEM is built on state-of-the-art computing technologies
based on the business framework architecture-capable of processing huge
volumes of information & supporting rapid decision-making. Unlike other
solutions on the market, SAP implementation offers high levels of data
integration by ensuring synchronization of information between SAP SEM & the
underlying business execution systems. This open connectivity allows business
components to interact with multiple business systems.
Functionality: Building on existing SAP R/3 functionality, SAP SEM includes
functionality for advanced business consolidation & business information
collection which links internal information with automated collection of relevant
external information through the internet. SAP SEM also supports advanced
business planning and simulation based on both internal & external informationallowing modeling risks & rewards & more effectively manage the uncertainties of
the future.
Ease of implementation: SAP SEM is based on business framework
architecture using SAP Business Information Warehouse technology with easy
access for end users through the Business Explorer & its advanced data
warehouse & OLAP capabilities.
Ready-to-use ABAP enables easy integration with the business execution
systems & with those of external partners. Web-enabled end-user access in
combination with SAP Business Framework architecture & other advanced SAP
R/3 & Business Information Warehouse technologies, allows flexible & rapid
deployment of SAP SEM enterprise-wide.
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Componentization: As with other SAP solutions, the Business Framework
architecture lets you deploy SAP SEM components incrementally because SAP
uses state-of-the-art, object-oriented techniques, one can start deploying SAP
SEM components today & integrate future components step-by-step.
Lowest Total Cost of Ownership: Companies implementing or planning to
implement non-SAP SEM-type components are all too familiar with the expense
involved. Using SAP R/3 as the foundation for SAP SEM, SAP customers will
achieve lowest total cost of ownership, by virtually eliminating the additional costs
& concerns over version compatibility that result form attempting to integrate
multiple vendor products. SAP is focusing its development efforts on significantly
enhancing the already impressive SAP SEM solution – bringing more cost
benefits in the future.
27
R/3 Lock Concept
Lock Mechanisms in the Database System:
The database system automatically sets database locks when it receives change
statements (INSERT, UPDATE, MODIFY, DELETE) from a program. Database
locks are physical locks on the database entries affected by these statements.
We can only set a lock for an existing database entry, since the lock mechanism
uses a lock flag in the entry. These flags are automatically deleted in each
database commit. This means that database locks can never be set for longer
than a single database LUW; in other words, a single dialog step in an R/3
application program.
Physical locks in the database system are therefore insufficient for the
requirements of an R/3 transaction. Locks in the R/3 System must remain set for
the duration of a whole SAP LUW, that is, over several dialog steps. They must
also be capable of being handled by different work processes and even different
application servers. Consequently, each lock must apply on all servers in that R/3
System.
SAP Locks: To complement the SAP LUW concept, in which bundled database
changes are made in a single database LUW, the R/3 System also contains a
lock mechanism, fully independent of database locks,
That allows you to set a lock that spans several dialog steps. These locks are
known as SAP locks. The SAP lock concept is based on lock objects. Lock
objects allow you to set an SAP lock for an entire application object. An
application object consists of one or more entries in a database table, or entries
from more than one database table that are linked using foreign key
relationships.
28
A lock object definition contains the database tables and their key fields on the
basis of which locking is to be set. When a lock object is created, the system
automatically generates two function modules with the names ENQUEUE_<lock
object name> and DEQUEUE_<lock object name> .We can then set and release
SAP locks in your ABAP program by calling these function modules in a CALL
FUNCTION statement.
These function modules are executed in a special enquire work process. Within
an R/3 System, enquire work processes run on a single application server. This
server maintains a central lock table for the entire R/3 System in its shared
memory.
29
The enquire function module sets an SAP lock by writing entries in the central
lock table. If the lock cannot be set because the application object (or a part of it)
is already locked, this is reflected in the return code sy-subrc. The following
diagram shows the components of the R/3 System that are involved in setting a
lock.
Unlike the database, which sets physical locks, the SAP lock mechanism sets
logical locks. This means that
•
A locked database entry is not physically locked in the database
table: The lock entry is merely entered as a lock argument in the central
R/3 lock table. The lock argument is made up of the primary key field
values for the tables in the lock object. These are import parameters of the
enquire function module. The lock is independent of database Lows. It is
released either implicitly when the database update or the SAP
transaction ends, or explicitly, using the corresponding desuetude
30
function module. You can use a special parameter in the update function
module to set the exact point at which the lock is released during the
database update.
•
A locked entry does not necessarily have to exist in a database table:
To set a lock as a precaution for a database entry that is not written to the
database until the update at the end of the SAP LUW.
•
The effectiveness of the locks depends on cooperative application
programming: Since there are no physical locks in the database tables
themselves, all programs that use the same application objects must look
in the central table themselves for any locks. There is no mechanism that
automatically prevents a program from ignoring the locks in the lock table.
Lock Types:
There are two types of lock in the R/3 System:
•
Shared lock: Shared locks (or read locks) allow you to prevent data from
being changed while you are reading it. They prevent other programs from
setting an exclusive lock (write lock) to change the object. It does not,
however, prevent other programs from setting further read locks.
•
Exclusive lock: Exclusive locks (or write locks) allow you to prevent data
from being changed while you are changing it yourself. An exclusive lock,
as its name suggests, locks an application object for exclusive use by the
program that sets it.
No other program can then set either a shared lock or an exclusive lock
for the same application object.
31
Lock Duration: If several programs running concurrently all set a shared lock
for the same application object in the system, it can make it almost impossible to
set an exclusive lock, since the program that needs to set that lock will be unable
to find any time when there are no locks at all set for that object. Conversely, a
single exclusive lock prevents all other programs from reading the locked object.
At the end of an SAP LUW, you should release all locks. This either happens
automatically during the database update, or explicitly, when you call the
corresponding desuetude function module. Locks that are not linked to a
database update are released at the end of the SAP transaction.
32
Hardware & Software Specifications
When setting up a SAP System, we need to install the main components that
enable the system to operate. These are the:
•
Central instance.
•
Database instance.
•
Dialog instances, if required.
The configuration of the system is generally planned well in advance of the
installation together with the hardware vendor. Configuration planning involves
deciding whether a central system or standalone database system is to be
installed, and how many dialog instances are required. The configuration is
worked out with the hardware partner on the basis of sizing information that
reflects the system workload. Details such as the set of applications that are to
be deployed, how intensively these are to be used, and the number of users
enables the hardware vendor to recommend a configuration that performs well.
An SAP System consists of a database server, (optional) additional application
servers, and a number of front end computers. The graphic below shows a
typical distribution of the instances of an SAP System over several computers.
The database server is the computer on which the database is installed. This
server can also accommodate the central instance (the SAP instance that
includes the message server and enquire server processes). If the central
instance is installed on a separate application server, the database server is
called a standalone database server.
33
Software Requirement
SAP R/3 4.6c with Oracle 9.2.0.4.0 as backend database.
Hardware Requirement
Production Server
: HP Superdome 9 CPU 875 MHz PA870
Main Memory: 10GB
Development Server
: HP RP 8410 8 CPU 875 MHz
Main Memory: 10 GB
Quality Server
: HP RP 8710 9 CPU 875 MHz
Main Memory: 16 GB
Application Server
(7 Nos.)
: HP RP 7410 PA8700 8 CPU
Main Memory: 16GB
Hard Disk Array
: Storage Area Network 22.5 TB
Backup Unit
: Robotic Tape Library ESL 9000, 594 tapes of 400
GB each.
Clients
: Intel 2.4 GHz/256 MB/40 GB/Windows XP/
SAP GUI 6.2
34
Basis Details
BASIS Software:
¾ The R/3 Basis software also called middleware provides the runtime
environment for the R/3 applications.
¾ It
defines
a
stable
architectural
framework
for
future
system
enhancements.
¾ Enables the distribution of recourses and components.
¾ Offers interfaces to distribute system components and non-SAP products.
¾ Contains the administration tools for the entire system.
Day to Day Work (24x7 Basis):
™ System Administration
™ User Maintenance – Help Desk Manning
™ Job Monitoring
™ Background Job Overview
™ Log Monitoring
™ Co-ordination with project teams and outside project
™ Backup of the Systems
™ Monitoring and Ensuring Suitable Environmental Conditions for Data
Center
™ Archive Management
™ Copy Analysis Log
™ Lock Transactions
™ Monitor Current Workload
™ Setups/Tune Buffers
™ System Trace Operating System Monitor
™ Spool Administration
™ User Master Data Reconciliation
35
Introduction to ABAP/4 Programming
Language
SAP R/3 incorporates its own unique programming language called ABAP. ABAP
is an event-driven fourth-generation language. It is a language that is constantly
evolving with recent releases incorporating object-oriented capabilities (ABAP
objects). The robustness of the language is evident in the wide range of
functionality and high performance capabilities within the R/3 system, allowing
applications to process huge amounts of customer data. SAP R/3 provides an
environment rich in tools for developing business applications using the ABAP
programming language.
ABAP stands for Advanced Business Application Programming 4GL. ABAP/4 is
SAP fourth-generation language & it is the backbone of R/3 system boasting a
combination of features that give it power and flexibility. Although other
languages may offer similar capabilities, ABAP/4 is designed specifically for SAP
functionality—making it a more efficient tool for SAP development in many cases.
The language’s flexibility & ease of use combined with its specially designed
commands enable to quickly design & implement both small & large scale
business solutions for R/3 systems.
Originally, SAP developed the programming language ABAP/4 (Advanced
Business Application Programming) for internal use, to offer the application
developers better working conditions. ABAP/4 is continually improved and
adapted to the growing requirements of the business applications. Today,
ABAP/4 is the only tool for developing applications at SAP.SAP customers use
ABAP/4 for their own enhancements or for modifying R/3 standard solutions
according to their special requirements.
The ABAP/4 Development Workbench contains all tools you need to create
and maintain ABAP/4 programs.
36
Salient Features of ABAP:
ABAP/4 is event-driven
The language is structured to accommodate applications that don’t simply start
and stop or respond to user dialog; ABAP/4 applications are executed by user
interaction and by events occurring elsewhere in the system, and they're set up
to initiate other down line events and applications in response to user decisions.
Whereas other languages require complex programming to achieve this sort of
event-oriented execution, ABAP/4 is loaded with conveniences to enable it. User
actions and system events control the application’s execution.
Thus developers can develop complex interactive programs that support “drilldown” events.
ABAP/4 is designed to enable distributed applications
SAP systems are distributed systems, unifying diverse databases within a
company and beyond, integrating applications in your client’s company, and
creating distributed systems between your client and your client’s partner
companies. This distribution is enabled by Remote Function Calls (RFCs),
function modules that can be called on between systems. RFCs can enable
applications between SAP systems or between a SAP system and a non-SAP
system. They enable SAP-external applications, establishing a path for extraction
of SAP data to non-SAP applications. Making good use of RFCsBAP/4
applications can be given tremendous flexibility whatever may be its purpose.
Defining subroutines
ABAP/4 provides two techniques for defining subroutines: forms in ABAP/4 are
local subroutines of a single program, & functions are global components that are
called by many different programs. The language provides two techniques for
defining subroutines: local and global. Global subroutines, called Function
37
Modules, are stored in a central library and available to all programs. They use a
standard interface for passing parameters and exemption handling. The Function
Module library has efficient searching tools allowing developers to find
appropriate modules to incorporate into their programs.
Both kinds of subroutines support encapsulation of local data as well as different
methods to transfer data via interface parameters.
ABAP/4 facilitates logical databases
In most SAP data-retrieval applications—from report generation to user dialog to
down line data flow—the business objects are essentially being used data
records of mixed type. While working with the application we work with the
aggregation of databases. SAP allows easy definition and manipulation of logical
databases, providing a convenient way to create data structures that can
accommodate these complex requirements. You can simplify database access
considerably by using ABAP/4 to create application-internal tables mapped from
more static SAP database tables, in essence creating easily manipulated virtual
objects that do the work of pulling out data from many locations in SAP.
Moreover, you can store your logical database configurations in a repository for
later use in other applications.
ABAP/4 comes with all the extras
Like most popular 4GLs, ABAP/4 comes packed in a filled-with-frills workbench.
The ABAP/4 development environment offers a data modeler and a repository for
data models, data and table structures, functions that are reused, and user
interface screens.
ABAP/4 applications have cross-platform portability. And to accommodate SAP
large international installation base, ABAP/4 supports language-dependent text,
allowing users to create programs that will display in their language.
38
Portability
The nature of SAP Basis software guarantees that ABAP programs can be
supported by many different systems. There are only a few cases where transfer
of programs to other platforms could cause problems.
Support for structured programming techniques
Unlike many other programming language, ABAP/4 supports combining of a
sequence of statements that have identical beginnings into a single statement
using a colon & commas with the identical part appearing before the colon.
ABAP/4 features a set of elementary types (including character, integer and date)
& two construction concepts (records & internal tables) helps in building complex
types & data objects. References tell the program to use the definition of the
existing data object for a new data object so that both objects will have the same
information.
Language supported by ABAP/4
ABAP/4 contains a subset of SQL (Open Structured Query Language) that is an
integral part of the language. Open SQL and the database interface of the R/3
system form layers between the Database Management System and the
application program. This layered architecture enables the developer to
concentrate on conceptual aspects rather than worry about things like memory
management, pointer arithmetic or network issues. ABAP/4 programs using
Open SQL can access data from all database systems that are supported by the
R/3 system.
Supporting Internal Tables
The language uses the concept of internal tables, which provide a consistent
mapping of persistent database tables into runtime objects. For example, the
contents of a database table can be mapped into an internal table at runtime,
39
so that the internal table is a snapshot of the database table itself. Internal tables
are a means of storing data with a fixed structure within the memory of an ABAP
program. In ABAP, internal tables provide the functions of dynamic arrays, while
saving the programmer the task of program-controlled dynamic memory
management. One particularly important use is to store and format the contents
of database tables within a program. They are also the best way to implement
very complex data structures in an ABAP program.
Designing Reports & Supporting Graphical User Interface
An ABAP/4 report is a program that retrieves data from the database, groups it
together according to different criteria & presents it on the screen or as a printed
list. Logical databases provides procedures for retrieving complex data from
databases making it easy to develop well-structured reports & re-usability that
distinguishes ABAP/4 from many other programming languages. It also provides
many tools & language constructs for designing applications with dialog boxes &
user-input screens with an easy-to-use Graphical User Interface. Dictionarybased validation rules & consistency checks provide data integrity even at the
user-input level that is the program to make sure data is valid at the time the
user inputs it so that if the data is incorrect, the user has to correct it right then.
Multi-language support
ABAP/4 makes it easy to develop international application programs for
worldwide use. It provides the users, language-dependent texts, whenever text is
displayed on a screen or printed list. These texts can be translated into different
languages without requiring to change or generate a program. ABAP/4 offers
language-dependent
texts
in
the
situations
say
for
example
program
documentation & program title, interface descriptions of functions, selection texts
on selection screens, menu functions & push buttons etc.
40
Re-usability
ABAP/4 supports the system-wide re-use of different component namely
Structure definitions & types from Dictionary, Functions with a flexible interface &
exception handling, Logical databases for data retrieval in report. The ABAP/4
Development Workbench contains a large number of re-usable functions where
each function is uniquely determined by its name & belong to a function group.
Flexibility
ABAP/4 offers a high degree of flexibility firstly if a program is executed after
dictionary objects have been changed & activated, the program is only recompiled if it refers to one of the changed objects avoiding the rigidity of using
header files, secondly the interface of a function can be extended without
affecting existing callers & finally a report using a Logical Database can freely
choose the tables that are to be read from the database.
Open Interfaces
R/3 system users generally work with many different tools & products in a client /
server environment so applications written in ABAP/4 should be able to
communicate with these components. It offers various open interfaces that allows
this communication. Remote Function Call supports direct program-to-program
communication between R/3 systems, between an R/3 system & a main-framebased SAP R/2 system, or between an R/3 system & external programs such as
C/C++ or Visual Basic programs.
SAP R/3 provides the “ABAP Workbench” containing a repository of development
tools. These tools provide the developer with a range of functionality that covers
the entire software development cycle.
41
Types of ABAP/4 programs
There are two types of ABAP/4 programs: dialog programs and reports.
Report Programs:
Report programs are used to analyze data from database tables. Usually, the
result of such a report program is in the form of a list which is output to the
screen or sent to a printer. This list is a report in the usual sense of the word.
Therefore, a report program is a program which creates a report based on the
evaluation of one or more database tables. In reporting ABAP/4 Open SQL is
used to read data from the R/3 database. A report consists of a selection screen,
on which you define the data set you wish to display, and a list, which displays
the data itself. Typically, reports merely read data from the database.
However, it is also possible to make changes in the database using a report.
Report programs are based on logical databases which are special ABAP/4
programs which provide access to all databases. List in SAP is called a report.
Dialog Programs:
Dialog programs are organized as module pools which contain dialog modules.
Each “dynpro “(a Dynamic program which consists of a screen and its flow logic)
is based on exactly one ABAP/4 dialog program.
In dialog programming you use the Screen Painter to create screens and
program the sequence in which they appear.
You write an ABAP program (ABAP/4 module pool) for your screens. Dialog
program is a SAP transaction. This is a collection of dialog modules which are
called by the flow logic of your screens. You use dialog programs for both
reading and changing database tables.
42
ABAP Development Workbench
The ABAP Workbench is SAP graphical programming environment. It allows you
to create new ABAP client/server applications, working as a team, and to change
existing SAP applications. The ABAP/4 programming language is the central tool
in the Development Workbench that is integral to the R/3 Basis and available
with all the R/3 application modules. In addition, the Development Workbench
consists of a set of tools including the ABAP/4 programming language that
support the efficient development of large-scale enterprise applications across a
distributed client/server environment.
The Workbench can be used to program & prepare coding for ABAP
requirements.
ƒ
Designing dialogs with a graphical editor.
ƒ
Creating menus with a menu editor.
ƒ
Debugging an application for pinpointing debugs in the
application.
ƒ
Testing an application for efficiency.
ƒ
Provides predefined functions for easy use.
ƒ
Controlling access to objects under development.
ƒ
Creating
a
new
or
information.
43
accessing
predefined
database
ABAP Development Workbench Architecture
The ABAP/4 Development Workbench provides access to SAP development
tools which cover the entire software development cycle.
•
The Development Workbench is the environment used to create and edit
ABAP/4 programs.
•
These tools can be used both for customer-specific developments and
enhancements to R/3 applications supplied by SAP.
•
All applications created with the ABAP/4 Development Workbench can run
without further modifications on any platforms, database systems and
graphical user interfaces supported by SAP.
ABAP/4 in the SAP R/3 System is a shared development environment. This
means that all programs reside in the R/3 Repository.
Therefore, other
programmers are working with programs that reside in the common storage of
the R/3 Repository. You must exercise care to make sure that your program
follows established naming conventions and are unique within the R/3 System.
The ABAP Workbench provides the following tools for navigating among
development objects: The Repository Browser, the R/3 Repository Information
System, and the application hierarchy.
All three navigation tools use a "file manager" type interface for displaying
development objects. The Workbench also contains the Data Browser for
displaying the contents of database tables Thus ABAP/4 language is the central
tool in the excellent development package called the ABAP/4 development
workbench, and it is the synergy of these two components that guarantees an
efficient development process for large-scale enterprise application across a
distributed client server environment. Using the tools available in the
development package, we can concentrate on the conceptual aspects of new
application, without getting mired down in memory management, pointer
arithmetic, and network optimization. The ABAP/4 development workbench
44
proves its strength in the R/3 system itself, where more than a thousand
developers used the Workbench tools to build an integrated package of business
application. SAP continues to extend the functionality of the workbench with new
improvement such as integrated desktop applications or business process
modeling.
45
Tools for software development:
ABAP/4 Repository:
The R/3 Repository contains all of the development objects in the system. From
the Repository Information System you can search for Dictionary objects,
program objects, function groups, and so on. To access the R/3 Repository
Information System from the ABAP Workbench, choose Overview-> Repository
Infosys. The initial screen of the Repository Information System displays a
hierarchical list of all the different types of objects in your R/3 System. The
Repository can be used to: generate lists of programs, tables, fields, data
elements, and domains, find where tables and fields are used in screens and
ABAP programs, display foreign key relationships and so on. The object
categories in the R/3 System are modeling objects, ABAP Dictionary objects,
programming objects, and environment objects. The Repository Browser is the
central tool for organizing and managing your personal development objects, the
most commonly-used tool in day-to-day development. Its user interface
resembles that of a file manager. These object lists contain every element
belonging to a particular development class, program, or function group. Working
with object lists helps in keeping track of development objects without losing sight
of the overall context. The root node of every object list is always a development
class. The lowest level of objects can be traverse from using the development
class.
46
Application Hierarchy
The Application Hierarchy depicts the organization of all the applications in your
R/3 system. The application hierarchy is an organizational tool. Each company
defines its own hierarchy explicitly. To start the application hierarchy from the
Workbench initial screen, choose Overview
Application hierarchy
SAP or
Customer. The nodes in the application hierarchy are either title nodes or
development nodes. Development nodes have an accompanying development
class indicating there are actual objects associated with the node. Title nodes
have no development class and are used to help visually organize the hierarchy.
Whenever you assign a development class to a title node, a new development
node is created. Direct branching from the application hierarchy to the Repository
Information System is possible. This function can be used whenever you want to
restrict your search to the objects in one or more specific applications.
47
Object Browser
The ABAP Development Workbench contains a special tool, the Object Browser.
The Object Browser is a navigation tool for accessing R/3 Repository objects.
This browser assists in drilling down in the object hierarchy. Development
classes are categories of SAP objects that can be accessed. A common
transport route is defined for all objects
within a development class. Customer-
specific development classes begin with Y or Z.
The Object Browser provides a programming context. Because a program
consists of relationships between data, it is hard for a programmer to see the
relationships among separate data components. The Object Browser corrects
this problem by supplying the context for viewing programming relationships.
Object Browser can be used to navigate through a list of development objects.
Development objects are the components which are used to build an application.
When you use the Object Browser, it automatically calls other tools when your
actions require them. For example, you create a new data definition from the
Object Browser screen. The Browser calls the Data Dictionary and, after you
create your definition, returns you to the Browser screen. An entire application
can be created using the Object Browser without directly calling any of the other
tools.
48
In fact, the recommended method for creating an application is from the Object
Browser because the program is easy to be viewed in the phase of development.
49
Data Modeler
The Data Modeler is a development tool from the ABAP/4 Development
Workbench, which can be used to create data models according to the SAP
SERM method (SERM = Structured Entity Relationship Model). In addition to
supporting modeling functions, the Data Modeler allows to map the models
created by the developer to the ABAP/4 Dictionary. Owing to the close
integration of the Data Modeler with the ABAP/4 Dictionary, both top-down and
bottom-up modeling approaches are possible. The basic objects of the Data
Modeler are data models and entity types, and the relationships and
specializations existing between the entity types. The problem to be modeled generally a small section of the real or abstract world - is mapped to a data
model. The individual (physical or abstract) objects of the section to be modeled
are represented by entity types that are connected by relationships. In the Data
Modeler, data models can be created with any number of hierarchy levels and in
the process reuse parts of data models. The data model components can be
expanded or compressed in a hierarchy list and in the graphics display, thus
facilitating work with large data models. Modeling involves use of a graphical
editor, which allows to design data models.
50
ABAP/4 Dictionary
The ABAP/4 dictionary describes the logical structure of the objects used in the
application development & shows how they are mapped to the underlying
relational database in tables or views completely integrated with ABAP/4
Development Workbench. Tables, Structures and Views are the three most
important objects of ABAP/ 4 dictionary. The basic objects for defining data in the
ABAP/4 dictionary are tables, domains & data elements. Once these objects are
defined & activated they are available to all system components thus ensuring
data consistency, integrity & security.
51
ABAP Programming language
ABAP/4 is a programming language developed by SAP for the interactive
development of application programs.
•
ABAP/4 is a fourth-generation programming language that is the
backbone of the R/3 System.
•
The language is event-driven with user actions and system events
controlling the execution of the applications.
•
You can use the ABAP/4 programming language to create entirely new
Client / server applications, as well as extend existing R/3 modules, which
is the most common use of the ABAP/4 language.
The language links to an integrated Data Dictionary containing type definitions
and data structure that the developer can use in all programs. The Dictionary
contains over 8000 table definitions, most related to the business modules of the
SAP system. SAP provides development models to assist programmers
understand concepts and develop skills.
These models are realistic business models with the relevant database tables
populated with huge amounts of realistic data. The language is event-driven; that
is, user actions and system events control the application’s execution. Thus
developers can develop complex interactive programs that support “drill-down”
events.
The Function Module library has efficient searching tools allowing developers to
find appropriate modules to incorporate into their programs. Embedded in the
language is a subset of Structured Query Language (SQL) called Open SQL.
Open SQL and the database interface of the R/3 system form layers between the
Database Management System and the application program. This layered
architecture enables the developer to concentrate on conceptual aspects rather
than worry about things like memory management, pointer arithmetic or network
issues.
52
ABAP Editor
The ABAP/4 Editor can be used in any one of three available modes: \
PC Mode: It provides word-processing style copy, cut, and paste commands.
PC Mode with Line Numbers: It provides word-processing style copy, cut, and
paste commands but with the addition of line numbers. This is the default mode.
Command Mode: It supplies the same functionality associated with the R/2
version of the SAP enterprise software.
53
The various sample programs illustrated in these lessons assume that you are in
the Editor in PC Mode with Line Numbering. In the PC Mode, you can execute all
functions with the mouse.
Once ABAP/4 Editor has been accessed, switching between editor modes can
be one by choosing Settings Editor mode.
54
Screen Painter
The Screen Painter is an ABAP Workbench tool that allows to create screens for
transactions. It can be used both to create the screen itself, with fields and other
graphical elements, and to write the flow logic behind the screen. In German,
SAP screens are sometimes referred to as “dynopros” means combination of the
screen & its accompanying flow logic. The Screen Painter is used to create and
maintain all elements of a screen.
Screen Attributes
Describe a screen object in the R/3 System. Screen
attributes include the program the screen belongs to and
the screen type.
Screen layout
Screen elements are the parts of a screen with which the
user interacts. Screen elements include checkboxes and
radio buttons.
Elements
Correspond to screen elements. Fields are defined in the
ABAP Dictionary or in your program.
Flow logic
Controls the flow of your program.
The Screen Painter has a layout editor that you use to design your screen layout.
It works in two modes namely Graphical mode & Alphanumeric mode. Both
modes offer the same functions but use different interfaces. In graphical mode,
you use a drag and drop interface similar to a drawing tool. In alphanumeric
mode, you use your keyboard and menus. Graphical mode is available only on
MS Windows 95, MS Windows NT, and Unix / Motif platforms.
55
Menu Painter
ABAP programs contain a wide variety of functions, which fall into different
categories within the user interface. It is important for users to be able to
differentiate between these categories, and to choose the right function easily. In
the R/3 System, you arrange functions using the
Menu Painter.
An instance of the user interface, consisting of a menu bar, a standard toolbar,
an application toolbar, and a function key setting, is called a GUI status. The
GUI status and GUI title defines how the user interface will look and behave in
an ABAP program.
The principal object of a user interface is the GUI status. This can be assigned to
any screen (screen, selection screen, or list). Technically, it consists of a
reference to a menu bar, a standard toolbar, and a function key setting.
56
57
Data Browser
The Data Browser is a tool for retrieving information about a table without using
an ABAP program. You can browse the contents of a table and branch from a
specific entry to its related check table entries. If the table attributes allow it, you
can also create or update table records with the Data Browser. The Data
Browser is used to access table entries without using an ABAP program. The
Data Browser can be used for displaying table records, all table field values &
related text field values & branch from table entries to their related check-table
entries. If a table has Table maintenance allowed set creation or updation of
table records becomes possible with the Data Browser. To start the Data
Browser, choose Overview-> Data Browser from the Workbench tools initial
screen. We can reach the Data Browser from the Environment menu in the
Repository Browser or the Utilities menu in the ABAP Editor.
58
Computer Aided Test Tool
CATT is delivered as an integral component of the ABAP/4 Workbench since R/3
Release 3.0. It contains all functions required for creating, running, maintaining,
and logging test procedures. ABAP/4 Workbench infrastructure provides
functions such as the correction or transport systems, the Repository information
system, or the multi-lingual applications. A correct test run is guaranteed by
synchronous update and explicit table buffer refresh. This is especially important
for transaction sequences in which transactions use the results of previous
transactions. The test procedure runs in the central
R/3 system and controls the transactions via Remote Function Call (RFC) in the
satellite systems. It can be used to test transactions, check system messages,
check values & database updates, setup customizing tables. The CATT logs
contain all information relevant for the test run and are stored centrally in the
database of the executing R/3 system.
¾ CATT is integrated into R/3 infrastructure.
¾ CATT provides a user-friendly recording facility.
¾ CATT has an expert in which complex test scenarios can be created.
¾ The
modular
CATT
concept
minimizes
test
creation
resource
requirements.
¾ CATT performs authorization checks.
¾ CATT logs test results and stores the logs centrally in the database.
59
60
Existing System
ONGC is a very large organization spread over a wide geographic area in India
and as well as abroad. The means of communication between the rigs (where
drilling, testing and entire production of oil is been done) is of prime importance.
Considering this ONGC has installed Ku Band Links form all remote locations.
After the implementation of SAP these remote locations are now connected to
the system. There is no existing system in ONGC to carry out a complete
analysis of the Ku Band with respect to its utilization. The only information
available for these links is through HP Open View software which can tell if a
particular link is down or not.
Since the number of remote locations is very large the there is an urgent need for
creation of a system to monitor the usage of Ku Band. The problems been faced
today are
™ Querying such a bulky data manually is tedious job and may be error
prone.
™ The essential information/exceptional reporting required by the
management are not available readily.
™ There is a delay in compiling available data into meaningful reports.
™ Security, integrity and privacy of data is not maintained.
™ Data redundancy.
™ Information is not available at proper time and it delays the overall
schedule.
61
Objectives of Proposed System
To create a system that can monitor the utilization of all the Ku Band Users
across various remote locations. ONGC has approximately 225 remote locations
spread across India form where the users log on the SAP system.
To maintain the record of users using Ku Band and to generate different reports
as per the need of the management.
The complete analysis of Ku Band usage is necessary as it costs a lot for ONGC
to lease new lines and also it helps to monitor the bandwidth of current usage by
the employees.
This system should give the details of the user utilizing the Ku Band such as the
logon time, company code, business area etc.
The efficiency of the system lies in the database management so as all the
records for the system are properly managed and within a fraction of second all
the necessary reports are generated.
62
Feasibility Study
We do the feasibility study of our software from each and every aspect so that
there should be no complications during the working of the system. The whole
design of the software is based on the results of the initial investigation.
Feasibility study is a test of a system proposal according to its workability impact
on the organization, ability to meet user needs and effective use of resources.
The objective of the feasibility study is not to solve the problem but to acquire a
sense of its scope. During the study the problem definition is crystallized and
aspects of the problem to be included in the system are determined.
The result of a feasibility study is a formal proposal. This is simply a report – a
formal document detailing the nature and scope of the proposed solution. The
proposal summarizes what is known and what is going to be done which is
developed by is a synopsis for the application software.
Technical Feasibility
The technical feasibility of a system determines whether the technology can be
integrated into organization. Technical evolution must also asses whether the
existing system can be upgraded to use the new technology and whether the
organization has the expertise to use it.
The ONGC is already equipped with all the hardware and software. And the non
existence of any current system for this particular problem necessitates the need
for a new system.
63
Operational Feasibility
There are two aspects of the operational feasibility of a system. One aspect is a
technical performance and the other is acceptance. Technical performance
determines whether the system can provide correct and timely information as
required by the organization personnel. Creating a new system to manage the
utilization of Ku Band will ensure that accurate, up-to-date and timely information
is provided to users. Acceptance of a new system revolves around the current
system and the personnel using it. This new system will automate report
generation and make it user friendly. The system also cuts down paper work and
timely delay of the existing manual system.
Economical Feasibility
The economical feasibility of the system looks upon the financial aspect of the
project. It determines whether the investment that goes into the project is
recoverable. The cost-benefit analysis is a commonly used method in evaluating
the effectiveness of the system. As hardware and software are already available
and so investment is to be made in that direction. This system only generates
desired reports fetching the data from the database and by manipulating it, hence
no extra amount has to be spent.
Project Risk
This software is tailored software which can be altered according to the desire
and need of the users interacting with it but as every system has some of its
drawbacks lying in its risk of failure; since it’s a completely new system the risk in
its implementation is minimal. The only risk that could lead to a failure of this
system could be that of the connectivity with the database.
64
System Design
General Design Issues
The most creative and challenging phase of the system development life cycle is
system design. It refers to the technical specification that will apply in
implementing the candidate system that fulfills the requirements of the user,
which in turn are identified during the analysis phase. On the basis of system
analysis the system is designed following a top down approach. Functional
requirements, modular design, data dictionary and input/output format are
carefully analyzed and designed so that it is easy to understand the whole
system by going through the design of the system. Modular approach is taken
into consideration so that there is minimum coupling and maximum cohesion.
System design was used for the creation of the proposed system in which the
logical and detailed structure of the “Ku Band Link Utilization Analysis System”,
which was useful in coding the system in the later stage. System design is the
most creative and challenging phase of the software development cycle. It
provides
the
understanding
and
procedural
details
necessary
for
its
implementation. It includes the designing of database, inputs, outputs and
security.
The design forms the blueprint of the system and how the components relate to
each other. The flow has been meticulously designed in order to maximize the
efficiency. The system design transforms a logical representation of what a given
system is required to do into physical specifications. The specifications are
converted to a physical reality during development. Design and specification of
the design are in accordance with the prescribed rules and practices of an
organization. A structural design is followed in the system design. It’s a data flow
based methodology. This approach begins with a system specification that
identifies inputs and outputs and describes the functional aspects of the system.
65
Database Design
The general theme behind database is to handle information as an integrated
whole. A database is a collection of interrelated data stored with minimum
redundancy to serve many users quickly and efficiently. The general objective is
to make information access easy, quick and efficient. The main objectives of
designing a database are:
Controlled Redundancy:
Redundant data occupies space and therefore is wasteful, if versions of
the same data are in different phases of updating; the system often gives
conflicting information. A unique aspect of database design is storing data
only once or with minimum redundancy.
Ease of Learning and Use:
A major feature of user friendly database package is how easy it is to
learn and use. Related to this point is ways in which the database can be
modified without interfering with established ways of using data.
Data Independence:
An important database objective is changing hardware and storage
procedures or adding new data without having to re-write application
program.
More Information at Low Cost:
Using, storing and modifying data at low cost are important. Although
hardware prices are falling, software and programming costs are on the
rise. This means programming and software enhancements should be
kept simple and easy to update.
Accuracy and Integrity:
The accuracy of a database ensures that data quality and content remain
constant. Integrity controls data inaccuracies where they occur.
66
Performance:
This objective emphasizes response time to inquiries suitable to the use of
data. How satisfactory the response time is depends on the nature of the
user-database dialogue. For example, inquires regarding updating the Ku
Band Users Master Table should be handled in a few seconds.
Security Design:
There are a lot of security features available in ABAP. Only those users
who have valid user-id and user-password can navigate and update the
database that too if the particular transaction is maintained in their role.
Tables Used:
The database design for this project comprises of the following three tables:
S.No.
Name of table
Description
1
Usr41
User Additional Data table
2
Zbc_kub_locmst
Location master table
3
Zbc_kub_login
Login data table
Of these usr41 is present in sap to monitor the logon details and location of the
user as well as the application server to which logged on. The other two were
designed keeping this project in mind. The design of the tables along with their
attributes, data types and their respective size is shown on the following pages.
67
™ Usr41:- User master table showing details.
68
™ Zbc_kub_locmst:- Location master table showing details
69
™ Zbc_kub_login:- Data table login information
70
Context Analysis Diagram
USER
Request
BASIS
Retrieval
Request
Ku Band Link
Utilization Analysis
System
71
Retrieval
Data Flow Diagram
Via Built in
Function
WS_upload
Excel File
(Via BDC)
zbc_bdc_kub
Using program zbc_upload_kub
Using program zbc_bdc_kub
Data Upload
Process
(Location master
table)
zbc_kub_locmst
Data can be manipulated
Screen (GUI)
Program
Zbc_kubscreen
72
Background
Program runs
every 30 mins…
zbc_loginstat_kub
Data Table
(zbc_kub_login)
The primary data on
which the reports will
be made is kept here
Reports are
generated as
necessary by the
using
zbc_kublogin_rep
73
Zbc_loginstat_kub:Enter the ipaddress to generate the statistics. Proposed use is to save a variant
and then schedule the program to run after every 30 minutes.
74
Zbc_kubscreen:This program presents a screen which can be used for maintaining the location
master table. Different commands include creating, changing, displaying and
deleting locations.
75
Zbc_kub_upload:This program uploads the data form the presentation pc to the database using
function pool ws_upload.
76
Zbc_bdc_kub:This program uploads the data from an external file using BDC.
77
Zbc_kublogin_rep:This program generates the reports as per the requirements. The different radio
buttons provide options for users to generate reports as per the requirement.
The following reports can be generated:•
Current Ku Band Users
•
Usage of Ku Band according to IP Address
•
Usage of Ku Band according to IP Address and Name
•
Company Code Wise summary (you can get detailed reports by clicking
the hotspots in the summary list down to the IP address)
•
Region Wise Summary (you can get detailed reports by clicking the
hotspots in the summary list down to the IP address)
78
Testing
Testing is vital to the success of the system. System testing makes a logical
assumption that if all the parts of the system are correct, the goal will be
successfully achieved.
Unit
Testing
Module
Testing
System
Testing
Acceptance
Testing
79
Standard ABAP Extended Syntax check:ABAP has a built in extended syntax checking tool which checks the program for
several errors and warnings such as
•
PERFORM/FORM Interfaces
•
CALL FUCNTION Interfaces
•
Screen Consistency
•
Portability
•
Parameter IDs.
80
Conclusion
“Ku Band Link utilization analysis system” has successfully met the requirement
of the organization. The new system provides up-to-date analysis tool for the
users. The features incorporated in the system are up to their requirements and
will add to their efficiency and productively.
There are many advantages of the new system. During product development a
special emphasis has been given to the user friendly feature of the system.
Throughout the development all the industry standards have been met. Coding
had been done as per the client specified requirements.
81
Bibliography
Books and References:
• Title: ABAP objects
Publisher: Pearson Education
Authors: Dr. Horst Keller and Sascha Kruger
• Title: BC-ABAP
Publisher: SAP AG Press
Web References:
•
www.sap.com
•
www.sapimg.com
•
www.abapmirrorz.com
•
www.it-minds.com
82
Sample Output
All data here is presented as per the test client.
This report is created when the user clicks the radio button for region wise
summary. This report displays the Ku Band Usage region wise. for the next
detailed report when the user clicks a hotspot on region a new report is
generated.
83
This report is the detailed report for a particular company code. Now again if the
user clicks the hotspot for a ip address a new report comes as follows.
84
This is the most detailed report it shows the usage according to ipaddress and
username for that particular company code.
85
Source Code
Program 1:- zbc_kublogin_rep
REPORT zbc_kublogin_rep .
TABLES : zbc_kub_login,
zbc_kub_locmst.
**
TYPE-POOLS: slis.
***
TYPES : BEGIN OF ty_ipadd ,
ipaddress TYPE zbc_kub_login-ipaddress,
time_interval TYPE zbc_kub_login-time_interval,
END OF ty_ipadd.
TYPES : BEGIN OF ty_ipadd1 ,
ipaddress TYPE zbc_kub_login-ipaddress,
bname TYPE zbc_kub_login-bname,
time_interval TYPE zbc_kub_login-time_interval,
END OF ty_ipadd1.
TYPES : BEGIN OF ty_ipadd2 ,
location TYPE t001-bukrs,
time_interval TYPE zbc_kub_login-time_interval,
END OF ty_ipadd2.
TYPES : BEGIN OF ty_ipadd2_det,
86
location TYPE t001-bukrs,
ipaddress type zbc_kub_login-ipaddress,
time_interval TYPE zbc_kub_login-time_interval,
END OF ty_ipadd2_det.
TYPES : BEGIN OF ty_ipadd3 ,
region TYPE zbc_kub_locmst-region,
location TYPE t001-bukrs,
time_interval TYPE zbc_kub_login-time_interval,
END OF ty_ipadd3.
TYPES : BEGIN OF ty_curr_users,
bname TYPE usr41-bname,
terminal TYPE usr41-terminal,
last_name TYPE zusrmst-last_name,
first_name TYPE zusrmst-first_name,
designation TYPE zusrmst-designation,
END OF ty_curr_users.
DATA :
ist_kublogin TYPE STANDARD TABLE OF zbc_kub_login WITH HEADER
LINE,
ist_ipadd TYPE STANDARD TABLE OF ty_ipadd WITH HEADER LINE,
ist_ipadd1 TYPE STANDARD TABLE OF ty_ipadd1 WITH HEADER LINE,
ist_ipadd2 TYPE STANDARD TABLE OF ty_ipadd2 WITH HEADER LINE,
ist_ipadd2_det TYPE STANDARD TABLE OF ty_ipadd2_det WITH
HEADER
LINE,
87
ist_ipadd3 TYPE STANDARD TABLE OF ty_ipadd3 WITH HEADER LINE,
ist_curr_users TYPE STANDARD TABLE OF ty_curr_users WITH HEADER
LINE.
** ALV Tables/structure declartion.
DATA: ist_kub_fldcat TYPE slis_t_fieldcat_alv WITH HEADER LINE,
ist_layout
TYPE slis_layout_alv,
ls_events TYPE slis_alv_event OCCURS 0,
it_events TYPE slis_alv_event,
gt_list_top_of_page TYPE slis_t_listheader.
****
DATA : g_no_lines TYPE sy-tabix,
g_repid LIKE sy-repid.
DATA : wa_cnt1 LIKE sy-tabix.
**--------------------------------------------------------------------** Constant Declaration
**---------------------------------------------------------------------*
CONSTANTS c_mark VALUE 'X'.
*
*
*---------------------------------------------------------------------*
* Initialization Event
- processing prior to selection screen *
*---------------------------------------------------------------------*
INITIALIZATION.
*---------------------------------------------------------------------*
* Select-Options and Parameters & Radio Button Declartions
88
*
*---------------------------------------------------------------------*
SELECTION-SCREEN BEGIN OF BLOCK kub_sel WITH FRAME TITLE text001.
SELECT-OPTIONS: s_ipadd FOR zbc_kub_login-ipaddress,
s_logdt FOR zbc_kub_login-logon_date,
s_region FOR zbc_kub_locmst-region.
SELECTION-SCREEN END OF BLOCK kub_sel.
SELECTION-SCREEN BEGIN OF BLOCK kub_rep_sel WITH FRAME TITLE
text-003.
PARAMETERS: p_sel1 RADIOBUTTON GROUP lim ,
p_sel2 RADIOBUTTON GROUP lim,
p_sel3 RADIOBUTTON GROUP lim,
p_sel4 RADIOBUTTON GROUP lim,
p_sel5 RADIOBUTTON GROUP lim.
SELECTION-SCREEN END OF BLOCK kub_rep_sel.
************************************************************************
* Validation for Select-Options :Purchase Requisition Number
* and Processing Status & Deletion Indicators
*
*
*
*
************************************************************************
*AT SELECTION-SCREEN ON BLOCK kub_sel.
* PERFORM validate_input.
START-OF-SELECTION.
g_repid = sy-repid.
PERFORM generate_itab.
89
PERFORM generate_reports.
* PERFORM init_layout.
* PERFORM generate_fcat.
* PERFORM generate_report.
END-OF-SELECTION.
AT LINE-SELECTION.
CASE sy-lsind.
WHEN '1' .
PERFORM detaillist1.
WHEN '2' .
PERFORM detaillist2.
ENDCASE.
*&---------------------------------------------------------------------*
*&
Form generate_itab
*&---------------------------------------------------------------------*
*
text
*----------------------------------------------------------------------*
* --> p1
text
* <-- p2
text
*----------------------------------------------------------------------*
FORM generate_itab.
CASE c_mark.
WHEN p_sel1.
90
DATA : strval(10) TYPE c.
strval = '10.206%'.
SELECT a~bname a~terminal b~last_name b~first_name b~designation
INTO CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF TABLE ist_curr_users
FROM usr41 AS a INNER JOIN zusrmst AS b
ON a~bname = b~cpfno
WHERE a~terminal LIKE strval.
*
SELECT bname terminal
*
INTO CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF TABLE ist_curr_users
*
FROM usr41 WHERE terminal LIKE strval.
*
WHEN p_sel2.
SELECT ipaddress SUM( time_interval ) AS time_interval
FROM zbc_kub_login INTO CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF TABLE
ist_ipadd
WHERE ipaddress IN s_ipadd AND logon_date IN s_logdt
GROUP BY IPADDRESS .
WHEN p_sel3.
SELECT ipaddress bname SUM( time_interval ) AS time_interval
FROM zbc_kub_login INTO CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF TABLE
ist_ipadd1
WHERE ipaddress IN s_ipadd AND logon_date IN s_logdt
GROUP BY IPADDRESS bname .
WHEN p_sel4.
91
SELECT b~location SUM( a~time_interval ) AS
time_interval
INTO TABLE ist_ipadd2
FROM zbc_kub_login AS a INNER JOIN zbc_kub_locmst AS b
ON a~ipaddress = b~ipaddress
WHERE a~ipaddress IN s_ipadd AND a~logon_date IN s_logdt
GROUP BY B~LOCATION .
WHEN p_sel5.
SELECT b~region b~location SUM( a~time_interval ) AS
time_interval
INTO TABLE ist_ipadd3
FROM zbc_kub_login AS a INNER JOIN zbc_kub_locmst AS b
ON a~ipaddress = b~ipaddress
WHERE a~ipaddress IN s_ipadd AND a~logon_date IN s_logdt
GROUP BY B~REGION b~location.
ENDCASE.
SELECT b~location b~ipaddress SUM( a~time_interval ) AS
time_interval
INTO TABLE ist_ipadd2_det
FROM zbc_kub_login AS a INNER JOIN zbc_kub_locmst AS b
ON a~ipaddress = b~ipaddress
WHERE a~ipaddress IN s_ipadd AND a~logon_date IN s_logdt
GROUP BY B~LOCATION b~ipaddress .
SELECT * FROM zbc_kub_login
INTO CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF TABLE ist_kublogin
92
WHERE ipaddress IN s_ipadd AND logon_date IN s_logdt.
ENDFORM.
" generate_itab
*&---------------------------------------------------------------------*
*&
Form generate_fcat
*&---------------------------------------------------------------------*
*
text
*----------------------------------------------------------------------*
* --> p1
text
* <-- p2
text
*----------------------------------------------------------------------*
FORM generate_fcat.
DATA : l_pos LIKE sy-tabix.
CLEAR: l_pos.
** ist_fcatpr
l_pos = l_pos + 1.
ist_kub_fldcat-fieldname = 'IPADDRESS'.
ist_kub_fldcat-ref_fieldname = 'IPADDRESS'.
ist_kub_fldcat-ref_tabname = 'ZBC_KUB_LOGIN'.
APPEND ist_kub_fldcat.
CLEAR ist_kub_fldcat.
l_pos = l_pos + 1.
ist_kub_fldcat-fieldname = 'LOGON_DATE'.
ist_kub_fldcat-ref_fieldname = 'LOGON_DATE'.
ist_kub_fldcat-ref_tabname = 'ZBC_KUB_LOGIN'.
ist_kub_fldcat-tabname = 'IST_KUBLOGIN'.
ist_kub_fldcat-col_pos = l_pos.
ist_kub_fldcat-seltext_m = 'Logon_Date'.
APPEND ist_kub_fldcat.
CLEAR ist_kub_fldcat.
93
l_pos = l_pos + 1.
ist_kub_fldcat-fieldname = 'LOGON_TIME'.
ist_kub_fldcat-ref_tabname = 'ZBC_KUB_LOGIN'.
ist_kub_fldcat-seltext_m = 'Logon_Time'.
ist_kub_fldcat-col_pos = l_pos.
APPEND ist_kub_fldcat.
CLEAR ist_kub_fldcat.
l_pos = l_pos + 1.
ist_kub_fldcat-fieldname = 'TIME'.
ist_kub_fldcat-ref_tabname = 'ZBC_KUB_LOGIN'.
ist_kub_fldcat-seltext_m = 'Time'.
ist_kub_fldcat-just = 'C'.
ist_kub_fldcat-col_pos = l_pos.
APPEND ist_kub_fldcat.
CLEAR ist_kub_fldcat.
l_pos = l_pos + 1.
ist_kub_fldcat-fieldname = 'TIME_INTERVAL'.
ist_kub_fldcat-ref_tabname = 'ZBC_KUB_LOGIN'.
ist_kub_fldcat-seltext_m = 'Duration'.
ist_kub_fldcat-col_pos = l_pos.
APPEND ist_kub_fldcat.
CLEAR ist_kub_fldcat.
ENDFORM.
" generate_fcat
*&---------------------------------------------------------------------*
*&
Form generate_report
*&---------------------------------------------------------------------*
94
*
text
*----------------------------------------------------------------------*
* --> p1
text
* <-- p2
text
*----------------------------------------------------------------------*
FORM generate_report.
IF NOT ist_kublogin IS INITIAL.
CALL FUNCTION 'REUSE_ALV_LIST_DISPLAY'
EXPORTING
i_callback_program = g_repid
is_layout
= ist_layout
it_fieldcat
= ist_kub_fldcat[]
*
i_default
= 'X'
*
i_save
= 'A'
*
it_events
= ls_events
TABLES
t_outtab
= ist_kublogin
EXCEPTIONS
program_error
=1
OTHERS
= 2.
IF sy-subrc <> 0.
MESSAGE ID sy-msgid TYPE sy-msgty NUMBER sy-msgno
WITH sy-msgv1 sy-msgv2 sy-msgv3 sy-msgv4.
ENDIF.
ELSE .
MESSAGE i042(zbc).
ENDIF.
95
ENDFORM.
" generate_report
*&---------------------------------------------------------------------*
*&
Form init_layout
*&---------------------------------------------------------------------*
*
text
*----------------------------------------------------------------------*
* --> p1
text
* <-- p2
text
*----------------------------------------------------------------------*
FORM init_layout.
ist_layout-zebra
= 'X'.
ist_layout-no_vline
ENDFORM.
= 'X'.
" init_layout
*&---------------------------------------------------------------------*
*&
Form generate_reports
*&---------------------------------------------------------------------*
*
text
*----------------------------------------------------------------------*
* --> p1
text
* <-- p2
text
*----------------------------------------------------------------------*
FORM generate_reports.
DATA:l_cnt TYPE sy-tabix.
DATA :c_cnt(4) TYPE c.
CASE c_mark.
WHEN p_sel1.
96
NEW-LINE NO-SCROLLING.
SKIP.
WRITE:/37 ' KU Band Current Users Detail Report' COLOR 7.
SKIP 1.
NEW-LINE NO-SCROLLING.
WRITE:/35 '( Status as on ',sy-uzeit,' Hrs of',sy-datum,')'.
WRITE:/(230) sy-uline.
FORMAT COLOR 7.
WRITE :/1 'SrNo', 7 'UserID'.
WRITE : 21 'Last Name',
36 'First Name', 50 'Designation'.
WRITE:/(230) sy-uline.
LOOP AT ist_curr_users .
FORMAT COLOR 2.
l_cnt = l_cnt + 1 .
c_cnt = l_cnt.
WRITE:/1 c_cnt, 7 ist_curr_users-bname,
21 ist_curr_users-last_name,
36 ist_curr_users-first_name,
50 ist_curr_users-designation.
ENDLOOP.
WHEN p_sel2.
NEW-LINE NO-SCROLLING.
97
SKIP.
WRITE:/37 ' KU Band IP Address Wise Detail Report' COLOR 7.
SKIP 1.
NEW-LINE NO-SCROLLING.
WRITE:/35 '( Status as on ',sy-uzeit,' Hrs of',sy-datum,')'.
WRITE:/(230) sy-uline.
FORMAT COLOR 7.
WRITE :/1 'SrNo', 7 'IPAddress'.
WRITE : 22 'Time Interval'.
WRITE:/(230) sy-uline.
LOOP AT ist_ipadd.
FORMAT COLOR 2.
l_cnt = l_cnt + 1.
c_cnt = l_cnt.
WRITE:/ c_cnt,7 ist_ipadd-ipaddress,
23 ist_ipadd-time_interval.
ENDLOOP.
WHEN p_sel3.
NEW-LINE NO-SCROLLING.
SKIP.
WRITE:/37 'KU Band IP Address/User Wise Detail Report ' COLOR 7.
SKIP 1.
NEW-LINE NO-SCROLLING.
WRITE:/35 '( Status as on ',sy-uzeit,' Hrs of',sy-datum,')'.
WRITE:/(230) sy-uline.
FORMAT COLOR 7.
98
WRITE :/1 'SrNo', 7 'IPAddress'.
WRITE : 22 'User Name',36 'Time Interval'.
WRITE:/(230) sy-uline.
LOOP AT ist_ipadd1.
FORMAT COLOR 2.
l_cnt = l_cnt + 1.
c_cnt = l_cnt.
WRITE:/ c_cnt,7 ist_ipadd1-ipaddress,
23 ist_ipadd1-bname ,36 ist_ipadd1-time_interval.
ENDLOOP.
WHEN p_sel4.
NEW-LINE NO-SCROLLING.
SKIP.
WRITE:/37 'KU Band Utilization Company Code Wise Summary' COLOR 7.
SKIP 1.
NEW-LINE NO-SCROLLING.
WRITE:/35 '( Status as on ',sy-uzeit,' Hrs of',sy-datum,')'.
WRITE:/(230) sy-uline.
FORMAT COLOR 7.
WRITE :/1 'SrNo', 7 'Company Code'.
WRITE : 22 'Time Interval'.
WRITE:/(230) sy-uline.
LOOP AT ist_ipadd2.
99
FORMAT COLOR 2.
l_cnt = l_cnt + 1.
c_cnt = l_cnt.
WRITE:/ c_cnt,12 ist_ipadd2-location HOTSPOT ON ,
23 ist_ipadd2-time_interval HOTSPOT ON .
HIDE: ist_ipadd2-location.
ENDLOOP.
WHEN p_sel5.
NEW-LINE NO-SCROLLING.
SKIP.
WRITE:/37 'KU Band Utilization Region Wise Summary' COLOR 7.
SKIP 1.
NEW-LINE NO-SCROLLING.
WRITE:/35 '( Status as on ',sy-uzeit,' Hrs of',sy-datum,')'.
WRITE:/(230) sy-uline.
FORMAT COLOR 7.
WRITE :/1 'Region'.
WRITE :18 'Location' , 36 'Time Interval'.
WRITE:/(230) sy-uline.
LOOP AT ist_ipadd3.
FORMAT COLOR 2.
.
WRITE:/1 ist_ipadd3-region HOTSPOT ON ,
20 ist_ipadd3-location HOTSPOT ON,
36 ist_ipadd3-time_interval HOTSPOT ON.
HIDE: ist_ipadd3-location.
100
AT END OF region.
SUM.
FORMAT COLOR 5.
WRITE:/(95) sy-uline.
SKIP.
WRITE:/1 'Total Link Utilization at',
ist_ipadd3-region,
35 ist_ipadd3-time_interval.
SKIP.
ENDAT.
ENDLOOP.
ENDCASE.
ENDFORM.
" generate_reports
*&---------------------------------------------------------------------*
*&
Form detaillist1
*&---------------------------------------------------------------------*
*
text
*----------------------------------------------------------------------*
* --> p1
text
* <-- p2
text
*----------------------------------------------------------------------*
FORM detaillist1.
DATA:l_cnt TYPE sy-tabix.
DATA :c_cnt(4) TYPE c.
IF NOT ist_ipadd2 IS INITIAL.
IF NOT p_sel4 IS INITIAL.
101
SKIP.
WRITE:/30 'Company Code Wise KU Band Usage Details' COLOR 7.
SKIP 1.
NEW-LINE NO-SCROLLING.
WRITE:/25 '( Status as on ',sy-uzeit,' Hrs of',sy-datum,')'.
WRITE:/(95) sy-uline.
FORMAT COLOR 7.
WRITE :/1 'Comp.Cd', 14 'IPAddress' , 30 'Time Interval'.
WRITE:/(95) sy-uline.
FORMAT COLOR 2.
loop at ist_ipadd2_det where location = ist_ipadd2-location.
write:/1 ist_ipadd2_det-location, 14 ist_ipadd2_det-ipaddress
hotspot on,
30 ist_ipadd2_det-time_interval hotspot on.
hide:
ist_ipadd2_det-ipaddress.
endloop.
ENDIF.
ENDIF.
IF NOT ist_ipadd3 IS INITIAL.
IF NOT p_sel5 IS INITIAL.
SKIP.
WRITE:/30 'Company Code Wise KU Band Usage Details' COLOR 7.
SKIP 1.
102
NEW-LINE NO-SCROLLING.
WRITE:/25 '( Status as on ',sy-uzeit,' Hrs of',sy-datum,')'.
WRITE:/(95) sy-uline.
FORMAT COLOR 7.
WRITE :/1 'Comp Cd', 14 'IPAddress' , 30 'Time Interval'.
WRITE:/(95) sy-uline.
FORMAT COLOR 2.
loop at ist_ipadd2_det where location = ist_ipadd3-location.
write:/1 ist_ipadd2_det-location, 14 ist_ipadd2_det-ipaddress
hotspot on,
30 ist_ipadd2_det-time_interval hotspot on.
hide: ist_ipadd2_det-ipaddress.
endloop.
ENDIF.
ENDIF.
ENDFORM.
" detaillist
*&---------------------------------------------------------------------*
*&
Form detaillist2
*&---------------------------------------------------------------------*
*
text
*----------------------------------------------------------------------*
* --> p1
text
* <-- p2
text
103
*----------------------------------------------------------------------*
FORM detaillist2.
DATA:l_cnt TYPE sy-tabix.
DATA :c_cnt(4) TYPE c.
NEW-LINE NO-SCROLLING.
SKIP.
WRITE:/37 'KU Band IP Address/User Wise Detail Report ' COLOR 7.
SKIP 1.
NEW-LINE NO-SCROLLING.
WRITE:/35 '( Status as on ',sy-uzeit,' Hrs of',sy-datum,')'.
WRITE:/(230) sy-uline.
FORMAT COLOR 7.
WRITE :/1 'SrNo', 7 'IPAddress'.
WRITE : 22 'User Name',36 'Time Interval'.
WRITE:/(230) sy-uline.
LOOP AT ist_kublogin where ipaddress = ist_ipadd2_det-ipaddress.
FORMAT COLOR 2.
l_cnt = l_cnt + 1.
c_cnt = l_cnt.
WRITE:/ c_cnt,7 ist_kublogin-ipaddress,
23 ist_kublogin-bname ,36 ist_kublogin-time_interval.
ENDLOOP.
ENDFORM.
" detaillist2
104
Program 2:- Zbc_kubscreen
REPORT zbc_kubscreen .
DATA : ok_code LIKE sy-ucomm.
TABLES: zbc_kub_locmst.
****
START-OF-SELECTION.
CALL SCREEN 100.
END-OF-SELECTION.
*&---------------------------------------------------------------------*
*&
Module STATUS_0100 OUTPUT
*&---------------------------------------------------------------------*
*
text
*----------------------------------------------------------------------*
MODULE status_0100 OUTPUT.
SET PF-STATUS 'SCR100'.
SET TITLEBAR 'Ku Band Master Data '.
ENDMODULE.
" STATUS_0100 OUTPUT
*&---------------------------------------------------------------------*
*&
Module USER_COMMAND_0100 INPUT
*&---------------------------------------------------------------------*
*
text
*----------------------------------------------------------------------*
MODULE user_command_0100 INPUT.
CASE ok_code.
105
WHEN 'ADD' .
INSERT INTO zbc_kub_locmst VALUES zbc_kub_locmst.
if sy-subrc <> 0.
MESSAGE i030(zbc) WITH zbc_kub_locmst-ipaddress.
ELSE.
MESSAGE i051(zbc).
ENDIF.
WHEN 'DELETE' .
DELETE FROM zbc_kub_locmst
WHERE ipaddress = zbc_kub_locmst-ipaddress.
IF sy-subrc = 0 .
MESSAGE i050(zbc).
ELSE.
MESSAGE i076(zbc).
ENDIF.
WHEN 'CHANGE' .
UPDATE zbc_kub_locmst FROM zbc_kub_locmst.
WHEN 'DISPLAY' .
SELECT SINGLE * FROM zbc_kub_locmst WHERE
ipaddress = zbc_kub_locmst-ipaddress.
106
IF sy-subrc <> 0.
MESSAGE i049(zbc) .
ENDIF.
WHEN 'REFRESH' .
CLEAR zbc_kub_locmst.
WHEN 'BACK' .
LEAVE TO SCREEN 0.
WHEN 'EXIT' OR 'CANCEL' .
LEAVE TO SCREEN 0.
ENDCASE.
ENDMODULE.
" USER_COMMAND_0100 INPUT
Program 3:- Zbc_loginstat_kub
REPORT zbc_loginstat_kub .
TABLES : zbc_kub_login.
TYPES:
BEGIN OF ty_kub_login,
bname TYPE usr41-bname,
ipaddress TYPE zbc_kub_login-ipaddress,
terminalname TYPE zbc_kub_login-terminalname,
logon_date TYPE usr41-logon_date,
logon_time TYPE usr41-logon_time,
terminal TYPE usr41-terminal,
time TYPE zbc_kub_login-time,
time_interval TYPE zbc_kub_login-time_interval,
107
END OF ty_kub_login.
DATA : wa_kub_login TYPE ty_kub_login,
ist_kub_login TYPE TABLE OF ty_kub_login,
wa_zbc_kub_login TYPE zbc_kub_login.
DATA: strval LIKE zbc_kub_login-ipaddress,
time_int LIKE sy-uzeit,
len TYPE i.
DATA: l_hrs TYPE i,
l_mnt TYPE i,
l_sec TYPE i.
PARAMETERS:
p_ipadd TYPE zbc_kub_login-ipaddress . "obligatory.
START-OF-SELECTION.
IF p_ipadd IS INITIAL.
p_ipadd = '*' .
ENDIF.
strval = p_ipadd .
len = strlen( strval ).
DO len TIMES.
REPLACE '*' WITH '%' INTO strval.
ENDDO.
108
SELECT bname terminal logon_date logon_time FROM usr41 INTO
CORRESPONDING FIELDS OF TABLE ist_kub_login
WHERE terminal LIKE strval.
LOOP AT ist_kub_login INTO wa_kub_login.
wa_kub_login-time = sy-uzeit.
SPLIT wa_kub_login-terminal AT '-' INTO
wa_kub_login-ipaddress wa_kub_login-terminalname.
MOVE-CORRESPONDING wa_kub_login TO wa_zbc_kub_login.
MODIFY zbc_kub_login FROM wa_zbc_kub_login.
MODIFY ist_kub_login FROM wa_kub_login TRANSPORTING time ipaddress
terminalname.
ENDLOOP.
break-point.
LOOP AT ist_kub_login INTO wa_kub_login.
IF wa_kub_login-time < wa_kub_login-logon_time .
time_int = 86400 - ( wa_kub_login-logon_time - wa_kub_login-time ) .
ELSE.
time_int = wa_kub_login-time - wa_kub_login-logon_time .
ENDIF.
l_hrs = time_int+0(2).
l_mnt = time_int+2(2).
l_sec = time_int+4(2).
109
wa_kub_login-time_interval = ( l_hrs * 3600 ) + ( l_mnt * 60 )
+ l_sec .
MOVE-CORRESPONDING wa_kub_login TO wa_zbc_kub_login.
MODIFY zbc_kub_login FROM wa_zbc_kub_login.
ENDLOOP.
END-OF-SELECTION.
Program 4:- Zbc_kub_upload
REPORT ZBC_KUB_UPLOAD .
tables : zbc_kub_locmst.
DATA:FLENGTH TYPE I.
DATA:it_kub type standard table of zbc_kub_locmst with header line.
data: wa_kub like line of it_kub.
CALL FUNCTION 'WS_UPLOAD'
EXPORTING
CODEPAGE
= 'IBM'
FILENAME
= 'C:\test.txt'
FILETYPE
= 'DAT'
IMPORTING
FILELENGTH
= FLENGTH
TABLES
DATA_TAB
= it_kub
110
EXCEPTIONS
CONVERSION_ERROR
=1
FILE_OPEN_ERROR
=2
FILE_READ_ERROR
=3
INVALID_TABLE_WIDTH = 4
INVALID_TYPE
= 5.
if sy-subrc = 0 .
loop at it_kub into wa_kub.
insert zbc_kub_locmst from wa_kub.
endloop.
WRITE: 'SY-SUBRC:', SY-SUBRC,
/ 'Length :', FLENGTH.
endif.
Program 5:- Zbc_bdc_kub
report ZBC_BDC_KUB
no standard page heading line-size 255.
DATA: g_string TYPE string.
" For GUI_UPLOAD Function
SELECTION-SCREEN BEGIN OF BLOCK b1 WITH FRAME TITLE text-001.
PARAMETERS: p_file LIKE rlgrap-filename OBLIGATORY.
SELECTION-SCREEN END OF BLOCK b1.
include bdcrecx1.
INITIALIZATION.
111
group = sy-uname.
parameters: dataset(132) lower case.
***
DO NOT CHANGE - the generated data section - DO NOT CHANGE
*
* If it is nessesary to change the data section use the rules:
* 1.) Each definition of a field exists of two lines
* 2.) The first line shows exactly the comment
*
'* data element: ' followed with the data element
*
which describes the field.
*
If you don't have a data element use the
*
comment without a data element name
* 3.) The second line shows the fieldname of the
*
structure, the fieldname must consist of
*
a fieldname and optional the character '_' and
*
three numbers and the field length in brackets
* 4.) Each field must be type C.
*
*** Generated data section with specific formatting - DO NOT CHANGE ***
types: begin of record,
* data element: IPADDRESS
IPADDRESS_001(015),
* data element: DESC30
REMOTE_LOC_002(031),
* data element: BUKRS
LOCATION_003(004),
* data element: ZREGIONK
REGION_004(003),
end of record.
112
***
*** End generated data section ***
DATA : ist_record TYPE STANDARD TABLE OF record.
DATA : wa_record type record. " work area for record
AT SELECTION-SCREEN ON VALUE-REQUEST FOR p_file.
PERFORM get_filename USING p_file.
PERFORM upload_file USING p_file.
start-of-selection.
perform open_group.
LOOP AT ist_record INTO wa_record.
perform bdc_dynpro
perform bdc_field
using 'ZBC_KUBSCREEN' '0100'.
using 'BDC_CURSOR'
'ZBC_KUB_LOCMST-IPADDRESS'.
perform bdc_field
using 'BDC_OKCODE'
'=DELETE'.
perform bdc_field
using 'ZBC_KUB_LOCMST-IPADDRESS'
wa_record-IPADDRESS_001.
perform bdc_field
using 'ZBC_KUB_LOCMST-REMOTE_LOC'
wa_record-REMOTE_LOC_002.
113
perform bdc_field
using 'ZBC_KUB_LOCMST-LOCATION'
wa_record-LOCATION_003.
perform bdc_field
using 'ZBC_KUB_LOCMST-REGION'
wa_record-REGION_004.
perform bdc_transaction using 'ZBC_KUB_MST'.
endloop.
perform close_group.
*&---------------------------------------------------------------------*
*&
Form get_filename
*&---------------------------------------------------------------------*
*
text
*----------------------------------------------------------------------*
*
-->P_FILE text
*----------------------------------------------------------------------*
FORM get_filename USING
P_FILE.
CALL FUNCTION 'WS_FILENAME_GET'
EXPORTING
def_path
mask
= 'C:\'
= ',*.txt.'
IMPORTING
filename
= p_file
EXCEPTIONS
inv_winsys
=1
no_batch
=2
selection_cancel = 3
selection_error = 4
OTHERS
= 5.
IF sy-subrc <> 0.
PERFORM callerr USING text-003.
114
ENDIF.
ENDFORM.
" get_filename
*&---------------------------------------------------------------------*
*&
Form callerr
*&---------------------------------------------------------------------*
*
text
*----------------------------------------------------------------------*
*
-->P_TEXT_003 text
*----------------------------------------------------------------------*
FORM callerr USING
l_text.
CALL FUNCTION 'FC_POPUP_ERR_WARN_MESSAGE'
EXPORTING
popup_title = text-001
is_error
= 'X'
message_text = l_text
start_column = 30
start_row
= 8.
STOP.
ENDFORM.
" callerr
*&---------------------------------------------------------------------*
*&
Form upload_file
*&---------------------------------------------------------------------*
*
text
*----------------------------------------------------------------------*
*
-->P_P_FILE text
*----------------------------------------------------------------------*
FORM upload_file USING l_filename.
g_string = l_filename.
115
CALL FUNCTION 'GUI_UPLOAD'
EXPORTING
filename
filetype
= g_string
= 'ASC'
has_field_separator
= 'X'
TABLES
data_tab
= ist_record
EXCEPTIONS
file_open_error
=1
file_read_error
=2
no_batch
=3
gui_refuse_filetransfer = 4
invalid_type
=5
no_authority
=6
unknown_error
=7
bad_data_format
=8
header_not_allowed
=9
separator_not_allowed = 10
header_too_long
= 11
unknown_dp_error
access_denied
= 12
= 13
dp_out_of_memory
disk_full
dp_timeout
OTHERS
= 14
= 15
= 16
= 17.
IF sy-subrc <> 0.
PERFORM callerr USING text-003.
ENDIF.
ENDFORM.
" upload_file
116
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