broadcast monitors - American Radio History

broadcast monitors - American Radio History
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OCTOBER 1972/VOLUME 8/NUMBER
6
10
Broadcast Industry News
Rich program slated for NAES
14
Interpreting the FCC Rules and Regulations
"Fairness" Revisited
20
Satellites and/or videocassettes deliver in·
struction wherever the
learner is or
wherever he goes.
The Fourth Revolution-Radio/TV
for a Learning Society
/Cassettes
The Open University, university extension, gaming and simulation, interactive TV, cost-effective TV, hopes for radio, the bio-medical network.
32
Automatic Telco Line Recording
A technique for automatically recording call-ins
34
SECAM/60 Could Solve CCTV Color Problems
Stable, faithful color with no adjustments
40
'
The Videocassette Is Beginning To Roll
Large corporations are first customers; educators next?
BROADBAND
INFORMATION SERVICES, INC.
274 Madison Ave.
New York, N. Y. 10016
212-685-5320
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The 4-2-4 matrix systems are growing; AES Convention report
49
Editor
James A. Lippke
Associate Editor
Robin Lanier
Art Director
Gus Sauter
Production Manager
Arline G. Jacobs
FCC Counsel
Pittman Lovett Ford
Hennessey and White
Advertising
Director
Charles C. Lenz Jr.
Broadcast Equipment
New and significant products for broadcasters
60
New Literature
Useful reading materials
Contributing
Editor
M. L. H. Smith
Assistant Editor
A. E. Gehlhaar
Why Not Broadcast Quad Stereo Right Now?
CM/E MAGAZINE: For those with cable interests/Following page 48
11Jii1.1
BM/ E, BROADCAST
MANAGEMENT/ENGINEERING,
rs published monthly by Broadband Information Services,Inc. All notices pertaining to undeliverable mail or subscriptions should be addressedto 274 MadisonAve., NewYork, N.Y. 10016. BM/E
is circulated without charge to those responsible for station operation and for specifying
and authorizing the purchase of equipment used in broadcast facilities. These facilities
include AM, FM, and TV broadcast stations; CATV systems; ETV stations; networks and
studios; audio and video recording studios; consultants, etc, Subscription prices to' others:
$15.00one year, $25.00two.
Copyright © 1972 by BroadbandInformation Services,Inc., New York City.
Controlled Circulation postage paid at East Stroudsburg, Penna.
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OCTOBER,1972-BM/E
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Rich Program Slated
For NAEB Meet in Las Vegas
A full and varied program of discussions, panel sessions, technical demonstrations and equipment exhibits will
portray the vigorous state of American educational radio and television at
the 48th annual convention of the National Association
of Educational
Broadcasters, Las Vegas. October 29
through November I. 1972. The hidden agenda will be the society's state
of ill health-where
will operating
money for survival come from?
The organization will give its distinguished service award to John Macy,
whose health and failure to win Administration support caused him to resign as president of the Corporation
for Public Broadcasting
(see next
story). At the same session, Monday
morning, October 30, William Harley,
president of NAEB, will give the keynote address. He will have a lot to talk
about, if he tries to show the way for
the 5000 attending to gain financial
support without doing violence to their
principles.
Topics of the convention will include key developments and problems,
not only in radio and television broadcasting. but also in cable television,
video recording and computer-aided
education. A few of the many subjects arc: "Storefront" programming
via cable; satellite projects: opening up
the university with technology: strong
local service by public radio; up-to-theminute status of video recording. For
more data: NAEB, 1346 Connecticu
Ave. N.W .. Washington, D. C. 20036~.
Macy Resigns From CPB
John W. Macy Jr., who took over as.
president of the Corporation for Pub.
lie Broadcasting in February 1969, resigned from that post in August, effective at a date not later than October IS
1972. He commented that recent
trends in the industry (non-suppo
from the Nixon Administration) madi
it desirable for him to seek some oth
form of public service. At presstime n
successor had been selected, and Joh
Golden. director of planning and n
search, was acting president pendin
the selection.
SMPTE Meeting Set For LA
Conference of the Society of Motion'
Picture and Television Engineers will
run October 22-27 at the Century
Plaza Hotel in Los Angeles. Frank P.
Brackett Jr., program chairman, an·
nounced wide-ranging session topics,
among them: lab practices in tele·
vision; photosensitive materials; sound
recording and reproduction; satellites
and CATV; the great film-vs-tape de·
bate. A long list of manufacturers will
show their latest products.
Info:
SMPTE, 9 East 41st Street, New York
10017.
Radio Listening Much Larger
Than Thought, Says CBS Exec
On-line computer link now in use by J. Walter Thompson
helps spot broadcast media buyers do pool buying. San Francisco
office negotiates radio and TV spot buys for other agency offices.
Radio listening between 6:00 a.m. and
midnight by adults has increased 36%
since 1967 and is far larger than most
people think. Maurie Webster, vice
president of CBS Radio Division, told
the Rocky Mountain Broadcasters As·
sociation meeting in Sun Valley, Idaho.
Hitting other "myths" about radio's
audience, Mr. Webster said that car
radios do not furnish most drive-time
listening, but only 14% in the morning
and 24% in the afternoon; that the 10
a.m. to 3 p.m. audience is not almost
all female, but more than 43 % male;
that the male audience during that
continued on page 8
OCTOBER, 1972-BM/E
6
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TOWNSHIP
Telephone:
JCTOBER, 1972-BM/
E
LIN
E
ROAD
•
(215)643-0250
•Telex:
See us at Booth 23, NAEB
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BLUE
BELL.PA.
19 4 2 2
84-6358
7
NEWS
same period is 97'/~ as large as during
drive-time. He said that currently, on
a 24-hour basis. the average adult
spends 87% as much time on radio as
he does on television.
Radio Revenue and Profit
Rose in 1971, Says NAB
The listener strength of radio (preceding story) has a complement
in the
profit area. according to a survey just
released by the National Association
of Broadcasters.
Time sales for the
median (typical) station in 1971 were
$171,000, up 5.7% over the $162.300
of 1970. Profits rose fractionally,
from $10,500 to $11.500. reflecting
increasecl costs.
Network and Spot Down,
Local Ads Up, in 1971
The FCC's annual summary of TV
financial elata for calendar year 1971
showed total revenues at $2.75 billion.
down 2.1 % from 1970. Profits dropped
14.2% to $389 million. The year was
the first in which the industry had to
do without
cigarette
advertising,
which had accounted for 6'/r of total
revenue in 1970. To produce the drop
in revenue, network advertising went
down 3.9% and national and regional
spots were down 7 .2 o/c: these were offset hy a rise of I :vr in local advertising.
The Television Bureau of Advertising projects an increase of 6% for
1972.
WNEW Will Use Abto System
To Put News in Color
Abto, Inc. of New York announced
an agreement
with WNEW-Tv, Metromedia flagship station in New York.
for use of the Abto color system in the
station's news operation, allowing the
filming of stories with black-and-white
film and projection of the film in full
color into the TY chain for broadcast.
According to the announcement,
it was
the first sale of the Abto system to a
major commercial
television system.
Color information is coded in blackand-white on the film during shooting,
and is decoded during projection. Processing costs are low since black-andwhite. rather than color, techniques
arc needed.
Adler Sees TV of 1985
As Simplified, Trouble-Free
Television will gain greatly in importance during the coming decade and
will be based largely on modular solidstate units that will make component
failure a rare event, according to Dr.
Robert Adler, vice president and director of research, Zenith Corporation.
Dr. Adler, in his address to a joint
convention
of national and international electronics
service associations
in New Orleans, also said that TV will
come in a variety of forms, including
flat screen panels. Low-cost video recording and playback equipment is on
the way, he said. as well as information retrieval systems for the home
and for industry.
This greatly increased complexity will maintain high
demand
for skilled
servicing,
he
added.
CRTC Approves Large TV Net
For Southern Ontario
A network of six TY stations, fed
from studios in Toronto and Ottawa,
and reaching about six million viewers, has been licensed by the Canadian
Radio-Television
Commission for construction
in Southern
Ontario.
The
project is aimed at, among other things,
recapturing
can a cl i an advertising
revenue that now goes to TV stations
in the Buffalo area on the American
side of the border.
Licensee
for the six stat ions is
Global Communications,
Ltd., Canadian firm owned in part by other
Canadian corporations,
which will sell
puhlic stock for about 57 percent of
its equity capital. Global, according to
the CRTC announcement,
promised to
make its programs available to broadcasters in other parts of Canada: to
concentrate on programs using Canadian creative resources;
and to sell
only eight commercial-minutes
per
hour.
25G Grants Available for
Public-Service Radio Stations
The Corporation for Public Broadcasting announced that it will make grants
of up to $25,000 each to non-profit
corporations.
or community-based
organizations, submitting approved plans
for full-service public radio stations in
any of 15 named cities. Existing noncommercial stations are eligible, or the
sponsoring group may plan to build a
station. Winners will be eligible for
grants of up to $15,600 the second year
and. in addition, may get financial help
for equipment purchases from the Educational Broadcast Facilities program
of HEW. The station becomes eligible
for further CPB assistance, and also
becomes part of the National Public
Radio network.
The cities from which CPB is seeking applications
are Miami, Denver,
Providence,
San Antonio,
Dayton,
Sacramento, Birmingham, Akron/Canton, Toledo,
Hartford,
Honolulu,
8
Tulsa, Allentown,
New Haven, and
Orlando.
Further data: Don Trapp,
Corporation
for Public Broadcasting,
888 16th St. N.W., Washington, D.C.
20006.
WFMT, Chicago, Sets Record1
Straight on First Live Quad
In a letter to this magazine with accompanying documentation,
Alfred C.
Antlitz Jr., vice president of FM station WFMT in Chicago, has taken exception to the claim of WCBS-FM in
New York (reported in BM I E, August
1972) that it was the first nonexperimental
quad broadcast of live
material. Wess put on its premiere in
June 1972; WFMT established a clear
priority with its Sansui QS broadcast
of the Chicago Lyric Opera's produc-l
tion of "Serniramide"
in September
1971.
ITS and NITA Will Merge
Joseph Gorman, president of the Industrial Television
Society, and Ed
Palmer, president of the National Industrial
Television
Association,
announced that the two organizations
will merge effective January 1, 1973.
The two groups, both of which
serve specialists in business, corporate,
and industrial television, and both of
which have been growing rapidly in
the last two years, have a combined
strength of about 500 members in the
U.S., Canada, and overseas. The new
organization will have its first national
conference March 28 to 30, 1973, in
Washington,
D.C. Interested persons
can get in touch with Gorman at
Moore Business Forms, Inc., P.O. Box
542, Niagara Falls, N.Y. 14302; or
with Palmer at New England Telephone Co., 185 Franklin sr.. Boston,
Mass. 02107.
Echo Science To Build
Videotape Recorders
Echo Science Corporation,
of Mountain View, Calif., announced
a development program for a full line of
videotape recorders for broadcast and
allied
applications.
According
to
James Ayers, chairman of the board,
the machines will have performance
on a par with present quadraplex
units, but will sell at about half the
price of comparable
equipment.
In:::lucled will be studio VTRs and a port·
able unit weighing about 37 pounds.
All will be high-band units and will
use the Echo Science Video Format,
successful
in several VTR models
made for Department
of Defense applications.
Editor's Note: At the time this section
continued
on page 10
OCTOBER,1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
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OCTOBER, 1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
another new
NEWS
mcmartin console
''FIVE"channel mixer
was sent to the printer, a paper wag
delivered at the International Broadcasting Conference, London, announcing a new helical scan standard fo
broadcast developed by IVC and Ji.
censed to Rank and CSF Thompson.
The new system is said to surpas
quad standards.
Harmful Oversight in FM
Translator Rule, Says NAB
8-501 Mono Console $750.00
8-502 Stereo Console S1,050.00
McMartin has designed a series of 5-mixer consoles for production or
subcontrol room application
. with enough flexibility to serve as the
main control console in smaller station operations.
Two models are available: The B-501 mono and the B-502 stereo
version.
Plug-in card design for all program circuits permits full latitude in assignment of ten input sources to the five mixing channels.
Professional performance . . human engineering
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NAB Asks FCCTo Drop
Antenna Cut-Out Rule
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The NAB told the FCC that the FM
translator rule, as written, can damage
existing stations or even subvert the
whole system of FM allocations because it allows a group separate from
an FM station to carry that station's
signal beyond its service contour, in
competition with a station in the area
served. Under the rule the station itself cannot put up a translator beyond its service area, which clearly,
intends that a station be protected i
its allocated area. But the protectio
disappears, says the NAB, if any group
brings a "foreign" signal into the area.
•
I
-~~,
, .]
The National Association of Broadcasters petitioned the FCC to reconsider
the rule that takes a directional radio
station off the air automatically if
there is a malfunction in the antenna
system. The rule went into effect July
14 as part of the series connected with
authorization for use by higher-power
stations of third-class operators for
routine transmitter
operation if a
first-class operator is a full-time employee.
The NAB said that the public interest would be served better by continuing service with some kinds of malfunction, and it should be left to the
operator's judgment how serious the
trouble is in each case.
Meetings Set for
Six Cities by NAB
License challenges, counter-advertising, consumerism, and other hot pub·
lic issues will be on the agenda
along with the nuts and bolts of station operation at one-day conferences
to be held in six cities by the NAB
this fall.
A member of Congress will address
each meeting, and there will be a
series of panel discussions, a quiz on
difficult problems of station managment, and a rap session moderated by
NAB President Wasilewski. The cities
and dates are: Denver, October 10;
continued on page 66
IOb on Reader Service Card
10
OCTOBER,1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
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INTERPRETING
THE~~~óltTIONS
"rairness" Revisited
Returnina to our annual treatment of the Fairness
Doctrine,b this column will consider a significant
Commission ruling-and
its likely effect-as
such
relates to broadcasters and cablecasters.
Preliminarily,
the Doctrine may be succinctly
defined, in laymen's terms, as follows: 1) when
programming involving important, controversial issues is presented, there is a responsibility to present
a reasonable amount of programming on all other
sides of that issue and 2) there is an obligation to
provide some controversial-issue
programming. The
U.S. Congress codified the Fairness Doctrine, in
1959, by 1nscrting provision Section 31 S(a) in the
Communications
Act. The U.S. Supreme Court
confirmed the constitutionality of the Fairness Doctrine in its 1969 Red Lion decision.
"Fairness" and the Presidential Address
Jn its first action on its broad-ranging study of the
Fairness Doctrine and related public interest policies, the Commission issued an important decision,
on June 22, 1972, that may suggest a general trend
in future rulings. Jn essence, the Commission declined to apply the "equal opportunities"
rationale
to Presidential broadcasts not covered under Section
315 of the Communications A ct (see BM/ E, "Political Use of Broadcast and Cablecast Facilities,"
June 1972).
The Commission acted in accordance with a policy set forth in its Memorandum Opinion and Order
(FCC 70-881), as adopted August 14, 1970, which
stated, in pertinent part:
29 ....
The f'airuess doctrine is a 1er111 of art. A layman might say that if A got 30 minutes to speak on
sorne issue, it i' only "Iair" that a spokesman for the
other vide also get 30 minutes in the same time period.
Thus. in 'Lich a lay viewpoint, "fairness" would alway'
entail "equal opportunities." But, as shown. that is not
the thruvt of the fairness doctrine, as developed by the
Cornmission and codified in the law in Section 315. The
[airncss doctrine does 1101 require equality b111 reasonahle11r'.H-that in the circumstances there has been 'reasonable opportunity for the discussion of conflicting viewpoints on controversia! issues of public importance.":"
(Emphasis supplied.)
With this backdrop, the Commission asserted its
reluctance to substitute absolute, mechanical requirenients for the discretionary programming judgment of the licensee. "The issue is not whether the
American people shall be reasonably informed concerning the contrasting viewpoints on issues covered
by Presidential reports," said the Commission, "but
rather whether something more-something
akin to
equal time-is required."
The Commission was quick to point out that, in
applying the Fairness Doctrine, it has traditionally
yielded "wide discretion" to the licensee to choose
the appropriate spokesman, format, and time for the
l. Federal Election
Section 315(a).
Campaign
Act of 197t (Public
Law 92-225),
presentation
of opposing
views. The import of this
decision is to maintain and, arguably, further this
policy.
Indeed, the Commission cites only three instances
in which licensee discretion on "fairness" issues is
limited. First, under Section 315 of the Communications Act, licensees are required to afford equal time
to legally qualified candidates (see BM /E, "Political Use . . . ," June I 972). Second, under the
political editorializing rules, the licensee must afford
a reasonable opportunity for a candidate or his
spokesman to respond when the licensee has either
I ) opposed him, or 2) supported his opponent in an
editorial. Third, under the "quasi-equal opportunities" or Zapple doctrine, the licensee must afford
comparable time to a candidate's opponents when
said candidate or supporters
purchase time to
broadcast a discussion of the candidates or campaign issues (where said candidate does not, himself, appear). The licensee is not required to afford
free time to the opponents, if the initiating candidate, in fact, purchased time.
Jn rejecting the logic of applying absolute requirements to a discretionary area, the Commission
urged all licensees to make a good faith effort to
present contrasting viewpoints on issues covered by
Presidential addresses. Indeed, the Commission will
be judging the balance or lack thereof of broadcaster performances
upon complaint and/or
at
renewal. In a word, the Commission requires balance, not equal time, on Presidential addresses and
shifts the burden of imposing the latter, as follows:
There is a substantial issue, the Commission noted, as
to whether such a requirement
(equal time) might not
run counter to the Congressional
scheme. Jn Section
:i 15(a). the Commission said Congress specified that
equal opportunities
apply to appearances
of legally
qualified candidates and that in other instances 'fairnevs' is applicable. It said that while fairness may entail different requirements
in particular circumstances,
there was a question as to whether it was not up to
Congress to take the discussion of public issues by the
President out of the fairness area and place it within
the equal opportunities requirement-just
as it was up
to Congress in 1960 to take appearances by candidates
for President out of equal opportunities and place them
under fairness.'
Jn addition, the Commission suggested revision of
the equal opportunities requirement to make it applicable only to major party candidates. It further
noted that the burden of making distinctions between Presidential addresses (national issues) and
those by a Governor or Mayor (state or local issues) is also uniquely within the province of Congress. Moreover, the Commission cautioned that, in
cases where candidates supply broadcasters with audio recordings and film excerpts, the rules require
2. FCC Report No. 7838, Action in Docket Case No. 19260, June
22, 1972.
14
continued on page 16
OCTOBER,1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
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FCC RULES
continued from page 14
that the broadcaster or cablecaster disclose both 1)
the identity of the tape or film, and 2) any editing
by the licensee.
"Fairness"
and Cable
Carr) ing its inquiry to all aspects of the Fairness
Doctrine. the Commission should soon be handing
dow n ruling'> on the rights and responsibilities of
cable operator'> in handling controversial matters. ln
light of this initial Commission action dealing with
Presidential broadcasts. a trend 11w,· be developing
in its treatment of the Fairness Doctrine as applied
to cable.
\1 anifcstly. the Fairness Doctrine was developed
in the context of broadcasting where the management and staff arc responsible for the programming
emanating from only a single station. A cable telcvision operator and his staff of comparable or less
size, on the other hand, would appear to be responible for the application of the Fairness Doctrine to
all non-broadcast channels used in "origination cablecasting,"
The n~e\\' February
2, 1972 rules provide: "A
cable television system engaging in origination cablccasring shall afford reasonable opportunity for
the discussion of conflicting views on issues of public
importance. "3
As the economics and technology unfold, it i~ not
unlikely that cable S) sterns will gradually expand to
substantially more non-broadcast channels than appears likely toda). Hence, the CATV problems of
supervision, control, operation, and responsibility
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The TFT 713 uses the same advanced technology that has made
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So. before you buy any monitor,
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may well become 1O, 20, or more tim
that of the broadcaster. The difference between th
regulation and control of these many channels by
CATV operator is substantially different from th·
of a broadcaster's single channel.
A cable operator, under the new
must provide one or more public access channel.
educational channels, government channels an,
leased channels with the opportunity, under som
ircurnstances. to recapture them temporarily. He¡
prohibited from exercising program control ov
these "access" channels. Yet, he must provide oper
ating rules for the public access channels. (Som
franchises require as many as four channels on .
first-come, first-served, no censorship basis.) Th
cable operator must I ) provide first-come non
discriminatory
access; 2) prohibit advertising (in·
eluding advertising of candidates for public offi
lottery information. obscene or indecent material
and 3) maintain a record of all persons requestin]
access. The rules for the other "access" channels ar.
to be similar with appropriate changes to suit theii
purpose. 1
All of these channels will engage in "originntio¡
cable casting." In short, the CAT\' operator is giver
the responsibility to prevent the violation of th
Fairness Doctrine on all of these channel'. At th,
same time, he is prohibited from exercising progran
control. To insure fairness. without the authority h'
do so. seems like a very unfair burden for a C .ÁT\
operator to meet.
In light of the Commission's initial "Fairne
action (declining to apply the "equal opporruniti
.1. 47 CTR §76 209
4. 47 CFR §76 ~51 (al
continued on page 64
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OCTOBER.1972-BM/ E
www.americanradiohistory.com
The rourlh Revolution
Radio/TV/Cassettes
lor a Learning Society
1972 INSTRUCTIONAL
TELEVISION
and instructional radio have made no great impact on the
educational process-in
many schools they haven't
even made a dent. In some it has boomeranged-a
camera, an unworkable VTR, and other video gear
arc locked securely in supply closets.
But hope
spri ngs eternal.
Five years back Eric Ashby identified developments in electronics-radio,
television, tape recorders, and the computer-as
the fourth revolution" in
education. This summer the Carnegie Commission
BY
A-V Expert Includes Slides
in Revolution; Focuses on Individual
in More Open Society
Robert Heinich, Prof. of Education, Audio Visual
Center, Indiana University, and 1971-72 president
of the Association for Education Communication
and Technology, in a keynote address at VidExpo
'72, included audio-tutorial teaching and mixed
multi-medra packages as part of the Fourth Revolution. The role of audio tapes in conjunction with
slides or printed workbooks has grown at a fantastic rate, Heinich said.
Current thrust in programming, says Heinich, is
to make mediated instruments designed for mass
use adaptable for individual study. Here's where
videocassettes dial access, and cable systems fit
m. "Satellites can deliver instruction wherever the
learner is or where he goes," Heinich said. Cassettes make instruction portable.
The individual's needs will be served through
these new media. The open university concept
otters college education to all at a relatively low
cost. Compulsory high school attendance is no
longer necessary. Learners can get high school
cquivalcncy degrees simply by passing GEDs. Michigan has lowered the age to 16. There is no need
to go to a formal classroom if material can be
learned elsewhere (at home, a library, learning
center, etc.). Such trends can lower the cost of
education.
Herruch sees private programmers producing
learning packages with states responsible for set·
ting protrciency standards and testing rather than
instruction itself. As school financing and budgetary methods change (to fulfill court demands for
equalization of quality; to lower the high cost of
cducat on because of the present extreme laborintensivenessy, effective material resources will be
favored over teacher resources. Teacher roles will
change and, rn the long run, schools will be the
biggest market for videocassette material, Heinich
said.
on Higher Education picked the term "The Fourth
Revolution" as the title of its report and recommendation on use of instructional
technology in higher
education.
Noting that the fourth revolution has
been emerging for the past three decades-much
more slowly than earlier prophesied-the
Commission nevertheless
predicted
that certainly by the
year 2000 ten to 20 percent of all instruction at
colleges and universities, and perhaps as much as
80 percent of off-campus instruction and learning,
will be carried on through educational technology.
Use of the new technology increases opportunities
for independent
study and provides
students a
greater variety of courses and ways of learning.
Students, for example, can choose between a lecturer, a computer program, or other multi-media pack- "'
age. Or, as the Commission notes, they can "choose
total immersion in one subject at a time" rather
than classroom group instruction.
Access to audio or videocassettes,
computerassisted instruction, and learning kits at 1) learning
centers in schools or libraries (public and private)
on a 24-hour basis; 2) on cable TV on a nearly
individual demand basis; or 3) over-the-air several
times a week at even the most remote spots in the
world via satellite, make it possible for us to become
'ft
truly a learning society.
V
The Carnegie Commission and others predict that
much of the cost of the new technology can be paid
for out of what would be saved by not having to
continually
construct
new buildings
to house a
growing
student body simultaneously
on spacebound campuses. The cost-effectiveness
of instruction (learning gained per dollar spent) can certainly
be improved by more wide spread application of
technology used in a systems approach. To precipitate the coming revolution, the Commission recommends federal support. lts report called for $100
million to be spent in 1973 (which would include
funding for several regional cooperative
learning
centers), increasing thereafter to reach an amount
equal to one percent of the total national expenditure on higher education.
Comparable
or more extensive efforts should be
made in the elementary
and secondary
sector.
There is hope that more positive help will spring
from the efforts of the proposed National Institute
"First revolution was when parents selected
themselves, and schools rather than the home
cate their young; the second was the adaption
as a tool (before then it was all oral); and
the invention of printing and the easy access
20
teachers rather
as the place to
of the printed
the third came
to books.
than
eduword
with
OCTOBER,1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
Participation is the key
to instructional TV. At
WNVT, students run TV
equipment and appear on
the camera in live
simulation game.
See page 24.
of Education
and the new separate
Center for Educational Technology
now within the U .S. Office of
Education.
What follows in this report is not a com1Iiplete examination
of events
that will shape the
revolution,
but an update on several significant
developments
underway including:
• A report on how videocassettes
are beginning to
cl roll (separate article, page 40);
• What is being learned from Open University
·• peri men ts;
• University extension as interim step;
ex-
• How gaming and simulation
via TY involve
large numbers effectively:
• A progress report on one company's advances in
interactive television;
• A progress report on how one state is trying to
bring about more cost-effective television:
• Hopes for instructional radio;
• The biomedical communication network;
• Progress in cable TV delivery systems (CM E
section).
Opea Uaiversily: Abroad aad Here
GREAT BRITAIN's OPEN UNIVERSITY-its structure.
range of media utilized, decision-making
process,
teaching system, success and shortcomings,
and
problems in transferring the concept of the OU to
the United States-was
described in July to partici.11 pants at Harvard's
"Institute on Telecommunications and Public Policy." Making the presentation
was Richard Hooper, senior producer, BBC Open
University Productions.
The Open University differs from conventional
universities in one major respect-its
students arc
all based at home rather than on a campus or in
extension classrooms. OU has been operating for
two years and is presently serving around 30,000
adult students studying part-time. Most of these students are in full-time employment.
Because the students participate from home, a
variety of media is used in the teaching /Iearning
system. Hooper addressed his remarks particularly
to this aspect of the OU.
The range of media includes:
• Home instructional
materials
which arc sent
through the Post Office to students. These materials
include: correspondence
texts; TV and radio notes;
computer-marked
assignments: home study kits (for
science and technology courses); slides. stills. and
discs; audiocasscttc recorders and audiocasscttcs.
• Over-the-air
instructional
programs which arc
broadcast over the BBC network of television and
radio, and arc available on demand at some study
centers (in cassette form).
• Face-to-face instruction provided through stud)
centers all over the United Kingdom for counseling
and tutorial sessions, and through one-week summer
school residence at other universities (which arr
residential).
Computers
arc used in two major wayscomputer marked assignments for all students: and
the study and practice of computing techniques.
Hooper stated that the OU makes two basic and
important media decisions: which media to use in
the teaching system; and how the media selected
shou!d be used. Media selection is first handled on
the university-wide level. with consideration given to
financial, logistical. conceptual, and political factors.
Then. with media selection decided, to a large extent, the course 1ea111must decide how to use what is
available to them.
Continued on page 22
OCTOBER,1972-BM/E
21
www.americanradiohistory.com
In Hooper's view, the course team is one of the
most basic and important educational innovations of
the OU. Its uniqueness, he stated, lies in the fact
that educators and media specialists work together
in the creation of course materials from the inception to the finished product. The course team consists of a professor of a given discipline, a BBC
person who is a specialist in the subject matter, and
an educational technologist from the Institute of Educational Technology. They have collective power
over all components of the course, meeting regularly
to construct a course in 12-15 months.
Student work is based on the unit, which consists
of about ten hours to be done in one week. A
half-credit course requires 16-17 units, and a fullcredit course requires 32-34 units. Spectrum constraints limit radio and television broadcasts to one
per unit.
This limitation on the use of electronic media is
governed by the available transmission
times over
the BBC's national network. Hooper said that "only
30 hours in each medium per week has been agreed
Impact of Openness
The structure of the University, with its openness
to all, lack of academic qualifications, first-comefirst-serve selection criteria, makes it "mass educa·
tion for the people as opposed to minority education for the elite." But, Hooper points out, there
are no remedial, preparatory courses for those
"who enter the open door of the university and fall
flat on their faces ... "
Thus far, the appeal of the OU is not as broad
as desired. Most students appear to be from the
middle class; presently about one-sixth of the enrollment is from what is defined as "working
class." This is probably due to the curriculum
content, which doesn't yet meet the people's
needs. It is too academic to attract significant
numbers of working class people.
In addition, OU's pedagogy is mass-produced,
with courses being group-paced and groupprescribed. Thus, there is little individualism viable
in the present system. There is, however, pressure
now to expand the little individual attention that is
available through live tutorials in study centers.
Cost-effectiveness is a plus factor for the Open
University. The cost of the OU is "estimated to be
one-third the cost per graduate at a conventional
university, (assuming 50 percent dropout at the
OU)." The resource cost is one-sixth per equiva
lent undergraduate at a traditional university, and
capital cost per student is six percent of that at a
conventional school ("and this calculation does
not even include residential costs at a normal
institution"). The cost per student in 1973 will be
the equivalent of $500 (U.S. dollars).
With a large student enrollment, there are
economies of scale in the teaching materials be.
cause of large orders for such things as correspond·
ence materials and because broadcasts and texts
are repeated over a four-year cycle.
Also, professors can be "spread" over many
students in this cycle. "In 1973, 200 academic
staff members (not administration staff or part·
time staff) will be 'teaching' 26 undergraduate
courses to 38,000 students. In the university's
steady-state situation, 320 academic staff members will be 'teaching' 110 courses to 48,000 students."
by the BBC. These are not in peak hours. As courses
proliferate there will have to be a smaller proportion
of broadcasts."
Science-based
courses are allowed one television
program per course unit, whereas arts-based courses ,
are allotted less than one to one. "This decision was
made largely on· conceptual
grounds-the
science
courses need broadcast
time to replicate the vital
laboratory experience. Arts courses are traditionally
more verbal. Arts=more
radio. Science=less
ra. "
d 10.
In choosing a particular medium for any part of a
course, and in designing the course in toto, the
course team places its emphasis on the rationale for
wanting to use a certain medium. While subjective '
factors certainly become
involved,
the important
stress remains on which subject matter can best be
carried in what way.
Broadcast roles
The specific roles of the broadcast media in instruction break down into four main categories: 1)
traditional
lecture/tutorial
format; 2) a model of
teaching which Hooper calls Primary Source Material-"The
teacher uses television and radio to bring
the learner in contact with the world, so that the
learner can make his own observations and draw his
own conclusions;"
3) laboratory
demonstrations,
since real experimental
work is sometimes not possible in the home; 4) graphic displays of models of
abstractions,
invisible matter, and theoretical concepts.
According to Hooper, the Open University is trying to do away with the "talking head" approach to
instructional television. On the other hand, he finds
that it is sometimes justifiable in terms of "the need
for personal contact," and "access to top people in
the field."
The broadcast media are valuable to the OU in
ways other than delivering instructional lessons. The
broadcast media provide: openness and publicness;
advertising
and public relations benefits (there is
prestige through being linked with the BBC); and
new students apply after listening to application
information broadcast at the end of each program);
"sense of community in a fragmented home-based
institution"
(all students. wherever they are based,
watch the same programs at the same time); workpacing-students
can work at their own speed using
the correspondence
texts, but the regular broadcasts
linked to the texts tends to keep students moving
forward; "fail-safe
mechanism"-radio
broadcasts
arc used to communicate to all students immediately
if any special problem or change arises.
Transferring the Open University to an American
context is problematical,
said Hooper. First, the
United States already has a more open highereducational system than docs the United Kingdom,
and may not be willing to sacrifice its tradition of
localism for the centralization needed by an OU that
reaches an entire nation.
Secondly, the U.S. has no television set-up comparable to the BBC. The BBC has a reputation for
sophisticated, high quality programming, a good audience ( 50 per cent of the viewing audience), and
22
OCTOBER,1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
1
inancial support. Educational television in the U.S.
low prestige, low viewing, and low
inancing. It is dependent on a political life-style that
loes not foster innovation because it is based on
mnual financing and a four-year schedule of poltics. Adventurous ideas are simply too risky. The
OU has profited from long term planning and the
irornise of future grants.
Finally, the television producer and other broad:asting professionals in this country have consideribly lower status than do their counterparts in the
Jnited Kingdom. There is doubt that they would be
:reated as equals by university academics in the kind
)f teamwork utilized by the OU.
Although Hooper expressed these reservations
about the transferability of the Open University to
the United States, he concluded that the use of
nedia in the OU may represent a turning point in
the history of applying new media to education. He
stated that in the OU these media arc being used
not just to lower costs, but to reach new objectives in
the curriculum and to reach a broader spectrum of
students.
Evidence of this new understanding of media use
in education has been shown by many groups in the
United States. Among them is the Smithsonian Institute, where Hooper recently showed a film on the
OU and spent some time explaining the concepts. S.
Dillon Ripley, secretary of the Smithsonian, wants
the Institute to be more directly involved in the
educational process. The Smithsonian is exploring
various ways of creating an outreach to the people,
and of integrating its offerings with academic curricula. According to Carl Wesley Larsen. director of
public affairs, they arc already forming a telecommunications study group and meeting with representatives of television and other media.
The Open University which has received most
publicity in the U.S. is probably Empire State College, Saratoga, N.Y. Empire State does not currently
use over-the-air broadcasting nor does it have plans
for instituting broadcasting
at an early date. The
State University of Nebraska, on the other hand,
which expects to begin operation in 1973, will use
multi-media extensively.
After an initial clientele study, two popular course>
have been selected for the SUN Open Universityan accounting course." and a psychology course. The
temptation to offer a wider variety has been resisted
by the SUN staff until more first-hand experience
has been gained.
Pilots of the two courses have been prepared and
will be field-tested this fall. Like Great Britain, G.
ras relatively
• To the surprise of the SUN staff, an accounting course rated tops
from potential students ages 16 to ~9. Needless to say, teaching acvia TV is no easy task.
counting
Open University on Communications
The International University of Communications is
now accepting applications for students. with the
possibility of some fellowships available.
IUC is an "alternate" university, with the project
approach, individualized tutorial learning, and the
elimination of courses, classes. curricula, credits,
and grades. It is the first institution to be totally
devoted to using and teaching the use of all forms
of communications to directly solve critical social,
political, economic, and environmental problems,
says an IUC spokesman.
Robert L. Hilliard, president of IUC, developed
the original idea and plans. Included on the
Board of Directors are: R. Buckminster Fuller; Elizabeth Duncan Koontz, director, U.S. Women's Bureau, and Assistant Secretary of Labor; Yoshinori
Maeda. president. NHK, The Japan Broadcasting
Corporation; Donald H. McGannon, chairman and
president, Westinghouse Broadcasting Co.: Harold
Taylor. educational innovator and important figure
in concept of open university; and The Rt. Hon.
The Lord Willis of Chislehurst (House of Lords).
London, England.
IUC is seeking funding. Most of its work is now
handled on a volunteer basis, including the many
experts who serve as tutors.
For information. write: The International University of Communications, 1100 17th Street. N.W.•
Washington, D.C. 20036.
Robert Ross, vp for SUN systems, reports Nebraska
is using an integrated instructional team. In addition
to the accounting and psychology professors arc a
graphics designer, an instructional designer, a correspondence specialist, an educational psychologist.
and a TV producer.
Nothing short of a totally new approach was
deemed necessary at Nebraska. A whole new model
covering course design, learning modes, and delivery
systems is being formulated. Delivery will include
the setting up of videocassette-equipped
learning
resource centers at high schools, libraries, and vocational institutes (ten arc planned initially), and
programming
over the Nebraska
ETV network
which penetrates 99 percent of all homes. New material will be broadcast once with two repeats during
the week (one during the day, another on weekends). Altogether 20-22 hours of air time per week
is envisioned. The program has been coordinated
with all colleges and universities in the area (Nebraska and adjoining states) for full credit transfers.
Eventually SUN hopes to be able to permit individuals to take two years of college instruction
through off-campus study. Course preparation will
be facilitated by the new Nebraska Educational
TelcCommunications
Center which covers 113.920
square feet on six floors.
Ualverslly Exleasioa Aa lalerlm Slep
of delivering college credit courses to the home-centered
student is in the infant stage, university TV extension
ALTHOUGH
THE
OPEN
UNIVERSITY
CONCEPT
courses via private microwave, leased lines. !TFS.
and videotape bicycling, is reaching maturity (BM/ E,
October 1971 and November 1970).
Continued on page 24
23
OCTOBER,1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
In Hooper's view, the course team is one of the
most basic and important educational innovations of
the OU. Its uniqueness, he stated, lies in the fact
that educators and media specialists work together
in the creation of course materials from the inception to the finished product. The course team consists of a professor of a given discipline, a BBC
person who is a specialist in the subject matter, and
an educational technologist from the Institute of Educational Technology. They have collective power
over all components of the course, meeting regularly
to construct a course in 12-15 months.
Student work is based on the unit, which consist
of about ten hours to be clone in one week. A
half-credit course requires 16-17 units, and a fullcredit course requires 32-34 units. Spectrum constraints limit radio and television broadcasts to one
per unit.
This limitation on the use of electronic media is
governed by the available transmission times over
the BBC's national network. Hooper said that "only
30 hours in each medium per week has been agreed
Impact of Openness
The structure of the University, with its openness
to all, lack of academic qualrtrcatrons. first-comeürst-serve selection criteria, makes rt "mass education for the people as opposed to minority educa·
non for the elite." But, Hooper points out, there
are no remedial, preparatory courses for those
"who enter the open door of the university and fall
flat on their faces ... "
Thus far, the appeal of the OU is not as broad
as desired. Most students appear to be from the
middle class; presently about one-sixth of the enrollment rs from what is defined as "working
class." This rs probably due to the curriculum
content, which doesn't yet meet the people's
needs. It rs too academic to attract significant
numbers of working class people.
In addrtron, OU's pedagogy is mass-produced,
with courses being group-paced and groupprescribed. Thus, there rs little indrviduahsrn viable
in the present system. There rs, however, pressure
now to expand the little indrvidual attention that is
available through live tutorials in study centers.
Cost-effectiveness rs a plus factor for the Open
University. The cost of the OU is "estimated to be
onetturd the cost per graduate at a conventional
university, (assuming 50 percent dropout at the
OU)." The resource cost is one-sixth per equivalent undergraduate at a traditional university, and
capital cost per student rs six percent of that at a
conventional school ("and this calculation does
not even include resrdennal costs at a normal
mstituuon"). The cost per student in 1973 will be
the equivalent of $500 (U.S. dollars).
With a large student enrollment, there are
economies of scale rn the teaching materials be
cause of large orders for such things as correspondence materials and because broadcasts and texts
are repeated over a four-year cycle.
Also, professors can be "spread" over many
students rn this cycle. "In 1973, 200 academic
staff members (not administration staff or parttirne staff) will be 'teaching' 26 undergraduate
courses to 38,000 students. In the university's
steady-state situanon, 320 academic staff members will be 'teaching' 110 courses to 48,000 students."
by the BBC. These are not in peak hours. As cour
proliferate there will have to be a smaller proportion
of broadcasts."
Science-based courses are allowed one television
program per course unit, whereas arts-based course
are allotted less than one to one. "This decision was
made largely on· conceptual grounds-the
scien
courses need broadcast time to replicate the vital
laboratory experience. Arts courses are traditionally
more verbal. Arts=more
radio. Science=less
radio."
In choosing a particular medium for any part of a
course, and in designing the course in tolo, the
course team places its emphasis on the rationale for
wanting to use a certain medium. While subjective
factors certainly become involved, the important
stress remains on which subject matter can best be
carried in what way.
Broadcast roles
The specific roles of the broadcast media in inst ruction break down into four main categories: I)
traditional lecture/tutorial
format; 2) a model of
teaching which Hooper calls Primary Source Material-"The
teacher uses television and radio to bring
the learner in contact with the world, so that the
learner can make his own observations and draw his
own conclusions;"
3) laboratory
demonstrations,
since real experimental work is sometimes not possible in the home; 4) graphic displays of models of
abstractions,
invisible matter, and theoretical concepts.
According to Hooper, the Open University is trying to do away with the "talking head" approach to
instructional television. On the other hand, he finds
that it is sometimes justifiable in terms of "the need
for personal contact," and "access to top people in
the field."
The broadcast media are valuable to the OU in
ways other than delivering instructional lessons. The
broadcast media provide: openness and publicness;
advertising and public relations benefits (there i
prestige through being linked with the BBC); and
new students apply after listening to application
information broadcast at the end of each program);
"sense of community in a fragmented home-based
institution" (all students. wherever they are based
watch the same programs at the same time); workpacing-students
can work at their own speed using
the correspondence texts, but the regular broadcast
linked to the texts tends to keep students moving
forward; "fail-safe mechanism"-radio
broadcast
arc used to communicate to all students immediately
if any special problem or change arises.
Transferring the Open University to an American
context is problematical,
said Hooper. First, the
United States already has a more open highereducational system than docs the United Kingdom,
and may not be willing to sacrifice its tradition of
localism for the centralization needed by an OU that
reaches an entire nation.
Secondly, the U.S. has no television set-up comparable to the BBC. The BBC has a reputation for
ophisticated, high quality programming, a good audience ( 50 per cent of the viewing audience), and
22
OCTOBER,1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
nancial support. Educational television in the U.S.
as relatively low prestige, low viewing, and low
mancing. It is dependent on a political life-style that
loes not foster innovation because it is based on
nnual financing and a four-year schedule of poltics. Adventurous ideas are simply too risky. The
)U has profited from long term planning and the
irornise of future grants.
Finally, the television producer and other broad>asting professionals in this country have consider.bly lower status than do their counterparts in the
Jnited Kingdom. There is doubt that they would be
reated as equals by university academics in the kind
1fteamwork utilized by the OU.
Although Hooper expressed these reservations
rbout the transferability of the Open University to
he United States, he concluded that the use of
nedia in the OU may represent a turning point in
he history of applying new media to education. He
.tated that in the OU these media are being used
10t just to lower costs, but to reach new objectives in
he curriculum and to reach a broader spectrum of
.tudents,
Evidence of this new understanding of media use
n education has been shown by many groups in the
ilnited States. Among them is the Smithsonian Institute, where Hooper recently showed a film on the
::>U and spent some time explaining the concepts. S.
Dillon Ripley, secretary of the Smithsonian, wants
the Institute to be more directly involved in the
educational process. The Smithsonian is exploring
various ways of creating an outreach to the people,
and of integrating its offerings with academic curricula. According to Carl Wesley Larsen. director of
public affairs, they are already forming a telecommunications study group and meeting with representatives of television and other media.
The Open University which has received most
publicity in the U.S. is probably Empire State College, Saratoga, N.Y. Empire State does not currently
use over-the-air broadcasting nor does it have plans
for instituting broadcasting at an early date. The
State University of Nebraska, on the other hand,
which expects to begin operation in 1973, will use
multi-media extensively.
After an initial clientele study, two popular course'
have been selected for the SUN Open Universityan accounting course" and a psychology course. The
temptation to offer a wider variety has been resisted
by the SUN staff until more first-hand experience
has been gained.
Pilots of the two courses have been prepared and
will be field-tested this fall. Like Great Britain, G.
"To the surprise of the SUN staff. tin accounting course rntcd (ops
from potential students ages 16 to ~9 Needless 10 <a). 1c.1ch111~accounting
via TV is no easy task.
Open University on Communications
The International University of Communications is
now accepting applications for students, with the
possibility of some fellowships available.
IUC is an "alternate" university, with the project
approach, individualized tutorial learning, and the
elimination of courses, classes, curricula, credits,
and grades. It is the first institution to be totally
devoted to using and teaching the use of all forms
of communications to directly solve critical social,
political, economic, and environmental problems,
says an IUC spokesman.
Robert L. Hilliard, president of IUC, developed
the original idea and plans. Included on the
Board of Directors are: R. Buckminster Fuller; Eliz·
abeth Duncan Koontz, director, U.S. Women's Bureau, and Assistant Secretary of Labor; Yoshinori
Maeda, president, NHK, The Japan Broadcasting
Corporation; Donald H. McGannon, chairman and
president, Westinghouse Broadcasting Co.; Harold
Taylor, educational innovator and important figure
in concept of open university; and The Rt. Hon.
The Lord Willis of Chislehurst (House of Lords),
London, England.
IUC is seeking funding. Most of its work is now
handled on a volunteer basis, including the many
experts who serve as tutors.
For information, write: The International University of Communications, 1100 17th Street, N.W.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
Robert Ross, vp for SUN systems, reports Nebraska
is using an integrated instructional team. In addition
to the accounting and psychology professors arc a
graphics designer, an instructional designer, a correspondence specialist, an educational psychologist.
and a TV producer.
Nothing short of a totally new approach was
deemed necessary at Nebraska. A whole new model
covering course design, learning modes, and delivery
systems is being formulated. Delivery will include
the setting up of videocasscttc-cquippccl
learning
resource centers at high schools, libraries, and vocational institutes (ten arc planned initially), and
programming
over the Nebraska ETV network
which penetrates 99 percent of all homes. New material will be broadcast once with two repeats during
the week (one during the clay, another on weekends). Aitogcthcr 20-22 hours of air time per week
is envisioned. The program has been coordinated
with all colleges and universities in the area (Nebraska and adjoining states) for full credit transfers.
Eventually SUN hopes to be able to permit indivicluals to take two years of college instruction
through off-campus study. Course preparation will
be facilitated by the new Nebraska Educational
TclcCommunications
Center which covers 113.920
square feet on six floors.
Ualverslly Exleasioa Aa lalerlm Slep
AL Tl-tOUGl-1 Tl-IE OPEN UNIVERSITY CONCEPT of delivering college credit courses to the home-centered
student is in the infant stage, university TV extension
courses via private microwave, leased lines. !TFS.
and videotape bicycling, is reaching maturity (BM/E,
October 1971 and November 1970).
Continued on page 24
23
OCTOBER.1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
University TV extension courses which started as
a means of permitting
professionals
(engineers
for
the most part)
to take graduate
courses
at their
place of work through a satellite classroom,
rather
than to travel to a campus
(or forego the whole
attempt),
have expanded
to provide special courses
for all levels of employees.
Those industries
which
arc cooperating
with universities
arc now designing
new courses which may be tailored to their own busincsscs. The universities
arc available to help.
The
Association
for
Continuing
Education
lACE)
is a non-profit
organization
representing
a
consortium
of companies
that started out working
with Stanford's
School of Engineering
in ofTering
graduate
courses. It now offers an MBA degree in
cooperation
with Golden State College of San Francisco. This summer the classes scheduled
included
EE- I OO. "Practica]
Transistors,"
a 15-hour
videotape course for non-professionals,
and SR-800A.
a
shorthand
review course. ln addition,
a number of
supervisory
management
courses were offered. Last
spring, an ACE student
could take a course on
effective reading
(an adapted
Xerox Learning
System course),
and another
on "Personal
Financial
Development"
produced
by several principals
of a
private company.
Chuck Davis, general manager of ACE. secs the
program growing on a completely
self-sustaining
basis (although
industry employees
usually get all or
part of their tuition paid for by their employer).
However,
such endeavors
are not problem
free.
ACE can lose money if 30 students or more do not
sign up. This calls for advance planning and publicity. Many of the courses
arc real-time
on lTFS
systems
(four channels)
with audio talkback
arrangements.
ACE has now worked out a plan for
videotaping
these courses
in advance
and having
them ofTcrcd for sale to other than ACE members.
Gcncsys Systems Inc. of Palo Alto will do the marketing.
Gcncsys Systems, under the leadership
of Albert
J. Morris, president,
has been in the forefront
of
actually installing
university
instructional
TV networks, and Mr. Morris co-authored
a comprehensive review of the subject which appeared
in the
Journal of Educationa! Technology and Systems,
Vol. I, No. I (One Northwest Drive, Farmingdale,
N.Y. 11735).
The Gcncsys stafT has tabulated a brief summary
of ITV university extension activities at some 40
institutions.
Among the interesting proposals prepared by
Gcncsys is the one for Taiwan which would establish three open TV schools, an open university, an
open high school, and an open technical school..
Taiwan, as a rapidly-growing country, has a vital
need for education. In fact, growing economies are
the result of good educational systems, Morris says.
Yet, the cost of expanding an educational system is
often excessively demanding. The way out of the
dilemma is the open TV school which would make
extensive use of videotaped courses already taught
at existing schools. The National Advisory Committee could choose the best instructor for each course. '
At least a four-channel system would be called I
for. (A typical four-year college curriculum in the
U.S. leading to a bachelor's degree requires about
1800 hours of classroom contact. One channel operating from 7:00 a.m to 11 :00 p.m. every day could 1
program 5840 hours per year. Assuming programs
arc repeated twice each clay. one of the four channels could probably handle high school requirements and the remaining three the open university
(20-24
curricula
plus some for the technical
school).
There arc four ways of reaching homes and commercial or industrial locations: VHF TV, UHF TV,
CATV or !TFS. Of these, Gcncsys suspects UHF to
be the most practical-although
no in-depth study
has been made. There arc not enough VHF bands
available. CATV has a high initial investment and
ITFS requires special down converters.
The ACE system is entirely a university-industry
affair-as
have been most systems in operation so
far. A broadened scope to provide. for example,
retraining of unemployed engineers, calls for additional support. In August. the National Science
Foundation announced they arc supplying a grant
of $99.575 to the University of Southern California
for this purpose. (USC has a fine Norman Topping
Instructional Television Center constructed with a
grant from the Olin Foundation.)
- Experimental programs will be designed for both
refresher and retraining purposes. Two Los Angeles
County classroom facilities wil: be constructed. Industrinl firms and government organizations
will
also participate in the program. The USC project is
under the direction of Dr. Jack Munushian, Prof. of
EE, University of Southern California. Four ITFS
channels will be used.
Simulation Gaming Proves Valuable
SIMULATION GAMING has been in existence since
ancient rulers planned war strategics. As the world
grew, so simulation gaming became more complex.
As an educational tool, it has been used in most
formal disciplines, as well as in business, government, and research. With the aid of the computer,
whole new capabilities have unfolded. Now television may play its role too. This past school year a
computer simulation game was tied in with tclcvi-
sion for possibly the first time.
Under various government
grants, "Tri-City,"
was designed by Enviromctrics,
Inc. (since absorbed by Planning Research Corporation)
to be
used for simulating problems on a local-metropolitan
scale. lt was adapted for television by station WNVT/
Channel 53, Annandale, Virginia, whose licensee is
the Northern Virginia Educational Television Association. Game operators were Jan Cooper and Phil
24
OCTOBER, 1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
Laub, both of PRC.
"Tri-City" was used with the twelfth grade local
~overriment course in 23 schools, in five counties
ind one city (5000 sq. mile area), with approxmatcly 1000 students participating
in the game.
I'he game simulates a three-jurisdictional
urban
government system in which students make all the
ocal-level decisions that would affect the three cities' operation, change, and growth. Decisions outside the local region which affect the local system,
and decisions within the local system that arc either
particularly routine or far too cumbersome for the
students to make, arc handled by computer.
Divided into weekly rounds, each representing a
year, the game was played at WNVT for six weeks,
with the three "governments" holding meetings for
three hours each Monday at the television studios.
Before the game was begun, James Dillard, consultant to WNVT and liaison between the schools and
the game operators, sketched the model to participating teachers. They were consulted throughout the
game.
Each school was given either an economic or a
social role, and had five governmental representatives and one newsman to attend the Monday rncct-rings. There were "bureaucrats,"
"social advocates,"
and "entrepreneurs."
While each school "belonged"
' to one of the three jurisdictions in the game, it also
had economic or social interests in all three jurisdictions, thus creating conflicts that added realistic
complexities to the game. Each player could make
his own decisions, trying to influence others, calling
for better schools, planning new roads, buying land.
holding secret sessions, and any number of open11 end alternatives.
Because there were basically no
restrictions,
absurd decisions were occasionally
made. But these provided good learning experiences
1 too-especially
as students saw the results of these
decisions, and as pressure was applied by other
students.
Following each round of "Tri-City,"
students
recorded their decisions on special coding forms
which were then given to the two game operators,
Cooper and Laub, who checked the forms. Paul
Raschi, who handled the technical aspects of the
game and had direct interface with the computer,
key-punched the information onto computer cards
and took them to an office of Univac which offered
free computer service for the game.
Computer printouts, presenting all the changes
made by the decisions in the three jurisdictions.
were dropped off at delivery points on Tuesday and
made available to all participants at their schools on
Wednesday of each week. Each representative and
his classmates could then sec how his and others'
decisions had made changes, and how his interests
had fared. Even if he made no decisions at all. he
would probably find that decisions made by others
had effected this area.
After the three-hour strategy sessions at WNVT's
studios, V2-inch videotapes were made of each
council holding 40 minutes of public deliberation.
Next, the broadcast journalists took over. A unique
adaptation of the game to the television medium. th_e
broadcast journalist roles provided a rare opportu111OCTOBER.1972-BM/E
In the game, "Tri-City," the mayor has to make
a decision while on camera.
Broadcast-journalist students play a vital role. Tiley
edit two hours of live material down to 30 minutes
and add analysis. This helps the over-1000 students
participating to stay abreast of developments.
ty for the six journalists chosen through audition
(two from each jurisdiction). They irnrncdi.ucly began replaying and analyzing the videotapes that had
been taped simultaneously. From these. the broadcast journalists, doing all their own editing, along
with summaries and analyses. reduced the 101al twohour broadcast to a half-hour version. They selected
the parts of council sessions they thought to be most
significant-not
without sometimes being charged
with slanting the news; another realistic dimension.
continued on page 26
25
www.americanradiohistory.com
With the sessions meeting on Mondays, the edited
tape was aired on WNVT on Tuesdays back-to-back
from 7:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., thus giving all the
participating classes in the 23 schools an opportunity to see the program at the most convenient time.
The newsmen representing each school were responsible for reporting to their schools the information from the Monday sessions and any behind-thescenes action that was not covered in the broadcasts. Each newsman had an open option on how he
was to do this. On their own, in the first round of
the game, ihc 23 newsmen called a joint meeting
and formed a United Press Corps, which performed
as a ncwsgathcring agency and produced a four-tosix page Bulletin each week. The Bulletin was delivered with the computer
printouts each Tuesday.
According to Portia Meares, WNVT's coordinator,
School Broadcast Services. and prime initiator of the
project, "This news service proved to be an important contribution to communication
between studio
and classroom and was a tribute to student initiative, ingenuity, and hard work."
The "Tri-City" game was the major teaching tool
in the classrooms in which it was used. Through the
broadcasts, the Bulletin, the computer printouts, and
reports from direct participants, the whole class was
involved. Between rounds, decisions and analyses of
actions were made. Additional classroom activities
for the course included: study of local government
patterns, relating reality to simulation; small group
trips to sec government oflicials in the arca and
reporting to the class; inviting local decision-makers
to talk to the class; and visiting local county boarc
meetings and interviewing elected officials.
As well as having the obvious curriculum objective of guiding students to learn more about local
government, WNVT had some special objectives of
its own. Jn a recent publication produced by the station, "Tri-City, Case History of a Television Simulation in Local Government,"
these objectives are
stated:
• To use television technology in such a way that
it becomes integral (as compared with supplemental)
to the learning activity;
• To allow students to use television as a dynamic
tool to further their own learning;
• To use television as a process rather than a product in the learning environment.
During the winter or spring of 1973, WNVT and
its member school systems intend to use another
computer simulation game adapted to television. This
game, "The River Basin Model" will be like "TriCity," with an added feature-a
water resource component. The River Basin Model was developed by
Enviromctrics
for the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency. For this model, planners expect to expand the participation,
both in grade level and in
subject discipline, with classes such as botany and
biology being involved. (Inquiries concerning this
model should be directed to Chief, Publications
Branch (Water),
Research Information
Division,
R & M, Environmental
Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. 20460. Both "Tri-City" and "The River
Basin Model" arc in the public dornain.)
At the completion of the "Tri-City"
game last
spring,
WNVT asked
the
question,
"Should
WNVT/Channel
53 offer a similar television/computer simulation next year?" With both participating
student and teacher response being a unanimous
YES. early in 1973 will find WN\'T's studios once
again overflowing with students, placareis, confusion, bustling activity, and enthusiasm.
Progress in lnslruclional Accounlabilily
Birth control information is being given to a post-partum
patient at Harlem Hospital Medical Center using
ResponsiveTV in a 35·minute educational program
on Family Planning.
LAST OCTOBER, BM/ E devoted considerable editorial space to a much-neglected subject-ITV
accountability. During the last year a lot of attention has
been given the subject. NAEB has instituted workshops on instructional system design, and has made
available a pamphlet on the subject authored by
Warren L. Wade, KTEH, San Jose, (who also addressed the 1971 NAEB Convention).
The Great
Plains National ITV Library Newsletter has been
running a series on instructional design.
One of the ways of constructing ITV lessons to
assure active involvement is to make them interactive. A company that has pioneered in this field is
Data-Plcx systems which has developed Responsive
TV (see box and BM I E, October 197 J).
The Responsive TV learning system is beginning
to break loose. in numerous training and educational
areas covering a broad variety of subjects directed
to a wide range of learner backgrounds.
Thomas Pyle, vice president of marketing, states
that "we are finding not only a willingness but an
eagerness on the part of all learners, regardless of
background,
to interact with video-based learning
26
www.americanradiohistory.com
OCTOBER,1972-BM/E
ateríais through the Responsive
system, as long as
he material
programmed
is at a corresponding
inerest level."
Pyle cites as examples
of programs
currently
in
ise or under development-nurses'
training in postiarturn
care
for Aycrst
Laboratories;
product
nowledgc
training
for "platform
personnel"
for
/irst National
City Bank; family planning programs
or patients in the obstetrical
ward in Harlem Hosiital in New York City; safety training for miners
hrough the Department
of the Interior
Bureau of
Aines. Other applications
being developed
run the
¡auntlet of basic skill training to psychiatric
evaluaions for use by MDs, this latter
project
being
xplored with the Social Security Administration.
According
to Mr. Carl Gambcllo,
manager
of
raining
in Citibank's
Personal
Banking
Division,
'Responsive
TV is being looked
at as a way to
ncrease our personnel's
ability to recognize custom.r needs." Gambello
points out that Responsive
TV
1
imulates real life situations
and allows for immedi-
rte viewer response to those situations.
While the program will initially be introduced on
he trainee level, First National City Bank could
.ventually extend RTV training to some 1400 cusomer representatives
already assigned to branch
bffices,
Using the video-based system with the Rcspon.ive TV capability, Data-Plex has opened a pilot
earning center in Greenwich, Connecticut, directed
it transferring existing programming, as well as de/eloping new materials, so that the learning center
mvironment can be totally videotape-based.
Such a
nove would eliminate two of the biggest problems
n the learning center industry-reduce
servicing
:ime of equipment, coupled with a reduction in the
What Is Responsive TV?
Responsive TV permits individualized instruction at
any time, and any place, using video-based equipment. It can lower the costs of training and education and create viewer involvement through active
participation.
This improves learning and reten·
tion. The Responsive TV system is compatible with
cable television and broadcast TV, as well as with
videotape.
System components
are an inexpensive responder unit plugged into any standard videotape
player (cartridge, cassette, or reel-to-reel), and
a TV monitor/receiver
(black-and-white or color).
The responder unit has four buttons, each
labeled with letters, numbers. or symbols. When
a responsive videotape is played, programmed
questions are seen and heard on the screen, and
ample time is allowed for viewers to answer by
pressing one of the unit buttons. Whatever the
nature of the response-which
is played out on
the screen-the
proper answer is given by tile
narrator as learning reinforcement so that viewers
can test their comprehension
of material just
covered.
Programs for Responsive TV are specially prepared to require viewer involvement and can be
developed for: 1) training; 2) education; 3) role
playing; 4) strategy simulation; or 5) pure entertainment. Responses to all alternatives are carried
simultaneously
on the same videotape from a
central source, whether broadcast or tape cartridge. The viewer, however, sees and hears only
the response which corresponds to his particular
answer.
down-time on existing pieces of equipment that do
not enjoy the heavy usage of soITIL' of' the other
equipment.
Cosl·Elleclive Gains
IN Nov EM BER 1970, BM/ E reported the inception
of Project JCEJT, a television-managed
learning system aimed at increasing teacher cfTicicncy by concentrating professional
time and talent in basic
skills instruction, leaving other arcas to a television-
the
~
place of\§]
ACTIVITY KIT
An activity kit is an integral part of the
"Place of Doors" program.
managed learning system which employs highly
visual student-involving television presentations and
paraprokssional
supervision. Subjects that could be
handled by TV include elementary science, social
studies. health, humanities, and values education.
The /JM/E
article summarized the results of
ICEJT's initial endeavor in Rochester. Ray Graf.
supervisor of the Educational Communications Unit
at the New York State Education Department and
the organizer and mover of the project, i~ pleased te
report that Project ICEIT is alive and well and
living in many parts of New York State these days.
After Rochester, another pilot was conducted in
Baldwin (BM I E, October 1971). The objective of
this pilot was to employ more field testing in the
production of the television modules and. in general.
to improve the program and activity quality. During
the past year, JCEIT has produced an additional
two-clay pilot, "The Place of Doors," which has
proved highly successful. For the first time, commercial television producers and writers were employed
to undertake packaging of the lcurning materials.
Produced in color on quad tape, the program has the
27
OCTOBER.1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
ability to be disseminated by broadcast stations, or
through dubbing to helical format.
During the month of May, "The Place of Doors"
was made available on Sony 3/,i -inch color videocassettes to four schools-East
Greenbush,
Pocantico
Hills, Glen Cove, and Westfield. These districts are
typical of the urban disadvantaged,
suburban middle
class, suburban affluent, and rural districts which arc
found in New York State.
Evaluation was founded on a pre-test, post-test,
re-rest basis. Each student was tested for cognitive
and attitudinal learning. The results were quite positive, indicating that after two half-days of exposure
in the various curriculum arcas, right answers had
improved from 8812 to I 1,528 for an overall advance of 17.66 percent, but a 31.67 percent increase
in right answers. The four-to-six-week
delayed retest indicated that learning retention was good. lt
indicated an increase of 1800 right answers over the
lnslruclional
pre-test for a 24.37 percent improvement.
Encouraged
by these results the Education Department, working in concert with Nassau County
BOCES, has successfully pursued federal funding
for lCEIT under ESEA Title 111. The project is
currently involved in developing, under the Title III '
proposal, up to 20 days of television-managed
learning modules. Work is now under way in developing
the curriculum
to be field tested for inclusion in
those modules. ln the early fall, preliminary curriculum packages will be made available to all interested software
suppliers
in order to seek their
guidance and input with regard to the use of existing
media in the production of those modules. The project would welcome hearing from any of these suppliers. Call (518) 474-5823,
or write to: Project
ICEIT,
Educational
Communications
Unit, New
York State Education
Department,
Albany, New
York 12224.
Radio: Under·Ulilize41 Medium
THE TASK FORCE OF NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL
RADIO (the radio division of the National Association
of Educational Broadcasters)
concludes its chapter,
"Findings and Recommendations,"
(in a report just
released) with this paragraph:
"Radio has been with us for more than 50 years.
It has had many effects upon our nation, but somehow it never has been harnessed in the service of
education to any great extent. Hopefully the work of
the NER Task Force will enable American educators and broadcasters to join forces in doing so."
In early 1971 when the newly appointed staff of
NER surveyed the situation, it found not more than
25 percent of the 200 non-commercial
radio stations
belonging to N AEB using their facilities to provide
instructional
materials to students-in
classrooms,
on campuses, in places of business, or at home.
And, although there was increasing interest in "public programming,"
there was little indication
that
schools and colleges beset with budget problems
would turn to radio. Educational
radio was neither
heavily involved in providing services, nor very
strongly supported by schools.
At the same time, however, there was growing
acceptance of the concept of educational broadcasters becoming telecommunications
centers to help
solve educational problems. NER, therefore, set out
to provide di rcction to those striving to make use of
instructional radio.
Examples of instructional radio were well known
and were covered in an earlier report, "The Hidden
Medium; Educational
Radio." These include, the
Task Force notes, "broadcasts on main-channel radio stations, some with the use of FM subcarriers,
others with audiocassettes,
tape recordings, variable-rate audio devices, control scan video facsimile,
and the like." Applications ranged from pre-school
to post-professional
education. Nevertheless,
there
was little research to document what really happened to learners.
The recommendations
of the Task Force called
for:
0 Steps
to be taken to bring closer working relationships between educational
administrators
and
educational broadcasters;
° Concerted action by all concerned agencies to
improve facilities and to provide financial support to
stations and audio production
centers serving instructional needs (Office of Education
support, in
particular, is asked for);
• A system on the part of NER/NAEB
and .National Public Radio and others to get material to
Commercial Radio Discusses Learning
"What's New in Learning" has been a CBS Radio
Network feature since November 23, 1969. tt is
currently being broadcast by 200 of the 244 stations affiliated with the network. CBS Radio calls
it a commercial public affairs program (spot ads
may be inserted).
Host is Hale Sparks, a pioneer in educational
broadcasting, who started narrating the radio
program "University Explorer" in 1933 for the
University of California. ("University Explorer" and
"Science Editor," another Sparks program, are
regular CBS weekly programs.)
Although the program is only four minutes long,
it covers many interesting things happening in
the field of learning. Among radio subjects: Die·
tionaries written by children for children, helping
a child learn to walk, value of the "external" de·
gree, handling pugnacious grade-schoolers, etc.
ITV Guide From ERIC
Abstracts of the best ERIC documents on instructional television are included in a 30-page paper
edited by Dr. Warren Seibert of Purdue. Write ERIC
Clearinghouse on Media and Technology, Stanford
University, Stanford, Calif. 94305.
28
OCTOBER,1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
sers (including
Demonstration
the preparation
of new material);
projects
to provide
measurement
f results in terms of both learning objectives and
osts;
Action to reserve space on satellites and cable
'Y for narrow-band services.
Part 11 of the report offers guidelines for effective
udio instruction preparation,
and several supplerentary papers shed light on the problem. A deiled survey of instructional radio shows a decided
eclinc in instructional
broadcasting.
Of the 140
adío stations responding
(214 were queried),
59
ercent broadcast instructional materials at one time
or another. Currently only 40 percent are doing so.
As few as I I percent can be viewed as primarily
instructional stations. The majority see their primary
purpose as providing information and culture to a
general audience. The tendency over the years has
been for programs aimed at K-12 students to be
formal for group listening. College level and adult
programs tend to be informal.
The NER report reaffirms a conviction held by its
members that American
education,
currently
in
deep trouble. could find solutions to some of its
difficulties through comparatively
inexpensive audio
technologies.
l'he Biomedical Communications
BROADCASTERS
have to struggle to
onvincc public school educators that instructional
adío (or ITV for that matter) can be of value.
vledical educators already have the message and
he Lister Hill National
Center for Biomedical
~ommunications
is a source of many interesting
., .xperirnents
involving
communications
satellites,
r.ornputcrs and communications
networks, and cable
~DUCATIONAL
rv.
The experimental
Alaskan
Satellite Network,
.tartcd in August 1971, is one project under the
.Jstcr Hill Center's direction. This network is al'eady credited with having saved two lives in mcdi:al emergencies.
Inexpensive
terminals
in villages, field-service
rnit hospitals, and medical centers are intcrconncctid with a voice link operating through the NASA
l\TS-1 satellite. Medical traffic is carried two hours
" l day, seven days per week. Services provided
include:
• Voice consultations
between community
health
laidcs and physicians at hospitals;
• Continuing
education
of health aides, nurses.
l-and physicians;
• Education of villagers in personal health matters.
The system can also be used to permit hospitalized patients to communicate
with their families
, 1back in remote villages. The purpose of the experiment is to determine what useful services can be
adequately provided by voice communications.
The
network is also being used to transmit computer
elata and graphics by facsimile. A similar network is
now being planned for Micronesia,
American Sa1 moa, the Trust
Territory of the Pacific Islands, all
linked to the University of Hawaii.
Jn 1973 the much-discussed NASA ATS-F satellite with video capability, will be launched and
demonstrations
in the Rocky Mountain states will
be conducted.
Not all of the experiments
arc
known, but they will include:
bet ween
medical
• Programmed
instruction
schools, and between medical schools and remote
field sites;
Network
e Medical consultation;
• A combined education and health program for
migrant workers and their families using a mobile
terminal.
Cable TV experiments using a broadband communications link between the University of Colorado Medical School complex and the Denver General Hospital and neighborhood
health clinics will
soon be tried. There will be 24-hour access to information and consultation via the cable, and interactive audio and video information will pass between the medical school and hospital.
In New York City, the Mt. Sinai Medical Center,
which accepts responsibility for the health care of
East Harlem, a large poverty area, will try cable.
Many residents arc on welfare. or subsidy of some
sort, ami in need of special services. There are
many relocated persons in the arca. Since these
individuals clcpcncl on commercial television for information about the world in which they live, Mt.
Sinai will try two-way interactive TV between the
medical schools and individuals in their apartments.
Microwave links arc also being used by the Lister
Hill Center to extend medical resources. One such
link under the Center's sponsorship connects Dartmouth's Medical School and University Hospital in
Hanover, New Hampshire, with Claremont General
Hospital 30 road-miles away. There arc now ten
hours of transmissions a clay, six clays <1 week, passing between the institutions. Programs range from
surgical rounds, to a pharmacology course for licensed practical nurses, to actual psychiatric consultation and therapy. A 150-milc microwave extension into Vermont is scheduled for construction in
early 1973. Part of the network will include a vanmounted microwave unit to tic small hospitals into
the network.
Another project of the Center is to study improved learning techniques.
Arc notebooks
and
handwritten lecture notes obsolete? Is a tape recorder more effective? Can speed compressors be used
in playback? Answers to some of these questions arc
being sought at the Washington University College
of Medicine.
BM/E
29
OCTOBER, 1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
www.americanradiohistory.com
www.americanradiohistory.com
Automatic Telco
Line Recording
By George Endres, Chief Engineer, WGMS AM-FM
HERE'S
A DEVICE built to interface an Ampex 650
tape recorder with the telephone company's
KS19522 Recorder Coupler. It's a List 2 Coupler,
which can be ordered from any regular telephone
company office. If your lines go through a PBX or
Centrex, the Li-.t 2 Coupler is necessary. List 2
Coupler has a voice operated disconnect which
times out after the line is idle for 12 seconds (e.g.
after a party hangs up). The List I Coupler will
not disconnect without central ollicc help. This
help is available on normal direct phones. but after
some period of time after the calling party hangs up.
Incoming calls arc answered after the first ring. A
t
TELCO INT
BLUE RIBBION
25 PIN CONNECTOR e PIN INTERFACE
MALE
26- ¡
2643011
1440119
SP I 21 -='¿t--E-N_A_B_L_E_T_E_L_A_N_S
1 SS
20
:J:
I
-r
I
-rJ
16 :
17
I
I
I
I
¡331
4
I
4
5
4~I
-rt
I
-
re
I¡•
[?
:
DE-ENERGIZED
L.•~
~ATU~
I I • =
!
J-1-
~
MODE
STATUS
LAMPS
~K
•
w INPUT
I
BLINKER
B+
2W
8: I 'í
100MFD.
150VDC.
INTERFACE W AMPEX 650
10 PIN JONES
MALE ON END OF
2 FT CABLE
-e A.C.
~---------------~1
REC ..
7'
2W
+ 10K
117VAC.
I I ..
..STOP..
6.3V.
POTIER-BRUMFIELD
KRP 11 DG
110 voe COIL
RELAY
B+
..ROC-PLT COM ..
x
I '
LATCHUP
(AUDIO)
4 :
5
-----)(
RELAY
lOK
DATA
ARRIVAL
INDICATOR
RESET
LATCH
6 3V
~--AMPEX
~
CM-3S1
DATA
No LINE SEIZURE
CONTACTS
XLR-312 SC
INTERFACE CORD SET
PUSH TO TEST
PB
INCOMING RING NB CONT:CTS
Is s1
6 _§_¡_
+
SW
:-+-i~
----• I I FENABLE ANS.
TRANSFER TO
RECORD w 1400 HZ. BEEP..
DELAY ANSWER
(JUMPERED OUT)
I
AUTO ANSWER CHASSIS
MAN/PB.
I MODE SEL
t AUTO/REC
I
11
12
9~
10
14,
13
pause ending with a "beep" assures the caller that
the recorder is on line and operating. Twelve seconds
after the end of message, the Yox disconnects the
line and stops the recorder. A ringing voltage detector at the start of the call-in activates the blinking status indicator, and the unit can be cued up for
playback after it stops recording. Since cue and
monitor arc regular board functions, they are n~t
duplicated. Headphones could additionally be used
from front panel of Ampex, if. necessary. A possible
modification to the Ampex could be made to alert
the operator that the machine is not loaded with
tape, or that the tape has broken.
BM/E
•
:£
)( 6.3V.
í ~ : ==I
LEVER SW.
MULTl POLE O.T.
117V
PRI
XFORMER
PB8421
STANCOA
'---><
117V
r----r.L
B+
100UF
1
150V.
NOTE: CHOICE OF BLINKER
RELAY ALSO GIVES AUDIBLE
STATUS INDICATION.
32
OCTOBER, 1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
A family of standalone television signal products which alone
or in combination provide line-by-line or continuous resolution of input video time base errors in monochrome and
color composite video signals. Correction to better than
±3 nanoseconds absolute or short-term jitter can be made
either to reference sync, or to an average time phase of
sync or color subcarrier derived from the input composite
video signal.
TMI
EXPANDS
The nominal input video signal to any of these units is 1.0
v p-p composite video sync negative, 75 ohms terminating
internally. The signal source will typically be the DEMOD
or TBC output of a VTR, or the output of a standalone or
integral Dropout Compensator. Applications not involving
a VTR include complex video switching or teleproduction
processing facilities, and satellite communication down link
receivers, for continuous, automatic correction of re-routed
or drifting video signals.
ITS
DELTA SERIES
Delta 44 TIME BASE CORRECTOR
TELEVISION
SIGNAL
TIME BASE
PROCESSING
SYSTEMS
(AVAILABLE
NOW - SEE YOUR DISTRIBUTOR)
Base product of the Delta Series. Input window ±2.2
microseconds wide with respect to external fixed or drifting
H or color subcarrier reference. Output resolution: monochrome - ±25 nanoseconds; color - ±3 nanoseconds, both
with respect to selected fixed or ~rifting reference. Standalone Time Base Corrector for all heliscan and quad VTRs
equipped with head servo systemswhich reference external
sync in reproduce mode. All versions include adjustable
color processing amplifier which rebuilds V and H blanking
intervals using sync and subcarrier from reference source.
Deita 28 TIME BASE DIRECTOR
(AVAILABLE
IN OCTOBER)
Input processor accessory to Delta 44. Detects time phase
of H pulse or burst in input video signal line by line, and
derives drifting average value for use as window-shifting
reference in the Delta 44 in place of fixed reference. Interfaces to heliscan VTRs equipped with "electronic editor"
feature (head servo referencesexternal V sync in reproduce
mode). and quad VTRs not equipped with "lntersync" or
"Pixlock" head servo circuitry, both of whose maximum
acceleration is less than 25 cycles/sec2. Drifting reference
may be looped through Delta 44 to gen lock studio sync
generator, permitting limited post-production processingand
dubbing of tape from v-locked VTR.
Delta 7 HEAD VELOCITY ERROR CORRECTOR
(AVAILABLE
IN NOVEMBER)
Input processor accessory to Delta 44, or may be used as
standalone signal processor when time basecorrection is not
required. Detects average rate of acceleration or deceleration of video head to tape velocity through line by line
computation of burst phase differences in incoming video,
and inserts a new, complementing, linearly varying delay
in each succeeding line. this reduces the hue shift effects
attributable to the head velocity error component of the
total detected error to ±3 nanoseconds with respect to
color burst phase at the beginning of each line. Interfaces
to VTRs which reference external V and H in reproduce
mode.
Delta 635 FULL LINE DRIFT CORRECTOR
(AVAILABLE
IN EARLY 1973)
Input accessoryto Delta 44. Locates H pulse of each incoming TV line, computes its time phase with respect to stable
external reference H, and delays that line appropriately to
cause its arrival at the Delta 44 input within ±0.5 micro·
seconds of the time of arrival of the next external reference
H pulse. Interfaces to heliscan monochrome and color VTRs
whose H frequency drift is lessthan 25 cycles/sec2.
f;.l
Í
--'i:·
,, --~,:····
Á
TMI Delta Series products are sold and serviced
through a nationwide organization of Factory
Authorized Distributors.
Á
Write for complete specifications and a short
form catalog, and the name of your nearest
distributor.
Á
Contact TMI by phone for an immediate demonstration at your facility.
Á
Specifications subject to change prior to introduction.
ASK ABOUT OUR COMPLETE LINE OF
VIDEO DELAY LINES
Delta 400 HEAD SERVO DRIFT SUPPRESSOR
(AVAILABLE
IN SEPTEMBER)
Output accessory for Delta 44. Utilizes the internal voltage
input to the Delta 44 Delay Status Meter to generate steering voltage of ±12 VDC at 10 milliamps. This voltage is
available as an input to any VTR with a V-locked head
servo system. It provides a means of holding the off-tape
signal of VTR in the window of the Delta 44, after-modification and adjustment of the VTR to utilize these signals.
Circle
I 13 on Reader
~JIB
Ul.1iliaJ
TELEVISION MICROTIME. INC.
ANDERSEN LAsa'Fi'AToR1Es. 1Nc.
1280Btue Hdfs Avenue.üroornnotc
Service Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
Conn 06002 • ¡203! 242 ü7ti1
•
T\\o'\
~1Ll.i.''.'o
1~1.
SECAM/60 Could Solve
CCTV Color Problems
By Joseph Roizen
Even with high-priced broadcast equipment, consistently
accurate NTSC color transmission needs a lot of attention
from highly-skilled personnel. CCTV's less refined hardware and smaller operating forces make NTSCcolor more
chancy still, and often for users who need precise colorchemists, pathologists, quality controllers. SECAM/60
could be the answer for stable, faithful color-with a
receiver that needs no color adjustment!
THE CLOSED-CIRCUITTELEVISION MARKET in the
United States is heading for a changeover to color
similar to that which took place in the broadcast
field in the middle sixties. The trend is quite obvious
as evidenced by the emphasis placed on color television demonstrations
at educational and industrial
conferences by suppliers of all varieties of CCTV
equipment.
There arc major differences, however, between
the application of a color television system in the
broadcast industry and in the closed-circuit television field, especially in manpower and money. The
number and caliber of available technicians, and
the size of the budget for the hardware in CCTV,
will undoubtedly be much lower than those which a
profit-making network or large independent studio
can draw upon.
All manner of supposedly low-cost color television devices arc now ofTcrccl by manufacturers of
cameras, VTRs, switchers, monitors, etc ..' with the
clear implication that these new gadgets will produce color pictures barely distinguishable from the
high-priced brand. Unfortunately, the customer discovers only when he uses the equipment that some
of his expectations must be heavily discounted.
Good color television is never easy. The complexities of correct colorimetry, the problem of encoding
and decoding, and the multiplicity of interdependent controls on the display device make it difficult
to provide even a direct color image of adequate
quality. Adel to this the further manipulation of the
color signal by videotape recording. dubbing, and
distribution, and it becomes a miracle that color is
as good as it is.
When color merely serves to enhance the entertainment value of the program, faithful reproduction
of the original scene is desirable, but not mandatory. However. in applications such as surgery, biochemistry, industrial processes, cte., where pathologMr. Roizen
California.
is president
of Telcgen,
Palo
Alto,
ical, chemical, or physical information is conveyed
by precise hue and saturation, precise color is essential. The FM color system (SECAM/60)
described
here eliminates some of the· more troublesome aspects of the NTSC system presently in use and
makes highly accurate color much easier to achieve.
SECAM/60-Simplicity, stabiÍity, accuracy
The SECAM/60
color encoding process utilizes
a line-sequential technique to create a color encoding method which considerably simplifies the recording, distribution, and display of color television
images. Because the chrominance information is encoded in a line-sequential form, it is possible to
generate color difference signals by the use of two
frequency modulated subcarriers representing R-Y
and B-Y. The color subcarriers are deviated, in
modulations, several hundred kiloherz to cover the
hue and saturation range of the color data. This
wide modulation swing makes the system immune
over a wide range to differential gain, differential
phase, and time-base displacement errors.
The subcarrier amplitude is not critical since the
color information is contained in the frequency
deviation; thus it is necessary only to have sufficient
amplitude of subcarrier to allow the limiters in the
receiver to function.
In the SECAM/60 process, the subcarrier amplitude is approximately
16 percent of the overall
signal. ln addition to this, the large FM deviation
allows a tolerance of approximately
two kH for
defining a specific color. Even the most unstable
helical recorders are capable of recording and playing the SECAM/60 color signal with sufficient fidelity to satisfy precise end-user requirements. As a
matter of fact, experiments with SECAM/6Q have
shown that even saturated color bars, reproduced
from a helical recorder while the head drum is
subjected to severe externally-induced
time-base error, show no shift in significant hue of the displayed
color image.
·
A line-sequential color system requires means of
34
OCTOBER, 1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
1
ll
sequence for the following field is established. The
identification pulses generate positive and negative
switching pulses in the receiver decoder to produce
the correct color sequence.
It is necessary to use both R-Y and B-Y informa-
cntifying
the proper
sequence
of color lines in
very field. To accomplish
this, identification
pulse
re generated
during
vertical
blanking.
The nine
ines following
the post-equalizing
pulses contain
Iternate
1
swept
frequencies,
in which
the correct
Nine SECAM /60 monitors. which have no color adjustment.
color stability of the system by their extremely close match.
NTSC receivers or monitors
needs frequent
readjustment
N TS
llU(
r-
MA(l(NIA
lllf
R£0
C
Y[llOW
r-
PllA\!
SEC
HUE
GREEN
demonstrate
the
Almost any group of
for acceptable color matching.
CVllN
m vr
!HU£
MA(,(NIA
REO
AM
Y!llOW
HUE
í1RllN
(\AN
lllU[
RUllSI
PHA")t
Basic color encoding is
shown. left. for NTSC. and
at right. for SECAM/60.
1
'"1'111
H <.,pt1{111111•111-----0"i
LUMINANCE
SPECTRUM
CHRClMINAN(
f
\Pf Li RUM
Com posit
tho col
pectrum of SECAM/60
fitted in.
shows how
Stability of the SECAM/60 hue wit h
severe tuuebase error Ci.111 be seen 111
ttus color bill p.r ture. made with dcl1hPr,1te
disturbance of video he.id drurn
35
OCTOBER.1972-BM/ E
www.americanradiohistory.com
tion on every line to create a proper color display.
The home receiver uses an ultrasonic delay line
with a nominal 63.48 microsecond delay to do this.
The practicality of the SECAM/60
system was established when it became possible to produce lowcost delay lines that have adequate bandwidth for
such relatively long delay periods. At the present
time. such delay lines arc available for Jess than five
dollars each.
No receiver color adjustment
A major advantage of the SECAM/60
process is
the absence of any need for color adjustment on the
home receiver or display monitor. A normal SEC AM/60 monitor has only the monochrome
controls of brightness and contrast, plus a very limited
range saturation
control that requires only infrequent adjustment.
There is no hue control in the
system since, once screen balance and tracking arc
adjusted correctly for proper monochrome rendition,
the chrorninancc information is automatically as accurate as the originating source. Immunity of the
SECAM/60
signal to the effects of DG, DP, and
time-base errors makes it recordable, dubbablc, and
distributable
over most black-and-white
equipment.
SECAM/60 compatibility
The SECAM/60
signal, since it uses normal
ETA sync and blanking, is fully compatible with any
monochrome image to the full bandwidth the monitor is capable of. Since the color subcarrier is above
four megahcrz, the resolution of the image is superior to that of the normal NTSC signal.
However.
SEC AM/60
signals cannot be displayed as a color image on the NTSC monitor because the method of color modulation is different.
The decoder function for the chrominance
information in a monitor is only a small portion of the
circuitry. Monitors have been built with switchable
SECAM/60
and NTSC decoders, as well as the
usual single-standard units.
Available hardware
At present, SECAM/60
monitors arc available
in Conrac, RCA Lyceum, arid Sony Trinitron models with plans well under way to produce equivalent
versions with Tektronix,
Magnavox,
Electrohome,
Setchell-Carlson
and others. Normal SECAM receivers made in Europe by major manufacturers,
such as Philips, Thomson, EMO, Schnider, etc., can
be easily adapted to SECAM/60
by exchanging the
European delay line of 64 microseconds for one of
63.5 and readjusting vertical sweep circuits. (Editor's note: Mr. Roizen's
firm, Telegen, has developed encoders for SECAM/60.)
NTSCto SECAM/60-and
vice versa
While it is desirable for the reasons outlined that
a closed-circuit
television
system originate
and
distribute color signals entirely in SECAM/60,
it
may not always be practical because NTSC units
arc already in place. To allow NTSC origination and SECAM/60
distribution,
NTSC can be
transcoded to SECAM/60
by the following process.
The NTSC signal must be of good quality to start
with since no transcoding
process can improve on
the original. This requires either a direct feed from
the source or, as a minimum, direct color recovery
on a highband
recording
in which mathematical
integrity between sync and subcarrier has not been
destroyed.
In addition, no band separation
filters
should have been used to extract chrominance from
luminance in the recording process.
The composite NTSC signal is applied to the
input of a precision comb-filter decoder (CBS Labs
or equivalent).
The decoder now will provide an
RGB output and decoded sync which is correctly
timed to the video signal. These signals are applied
to the SECAM/60
encoder and the output will be a
composite SECAM/60
signal. In order to assure
color matching it is desirable to use a precision
monitor with dual inputs. Tektronix Type 650 with
an NTSC and RGB switchable input makes it possible to match on the same monitor screen the input
and output of the comb-filter decoder thereby assuring color identity.
Tn the reverse situation, where it is necessary to
provide an NTSC copy from a SECAM/60
original, the process is simply inverted. This direction of
transcoding is somewhat preferable since the original SECAM/60
signal has a greater bandwidth
than the NTSC end product. Decoding of the composite SECAM/60
signal is accomplished by a precision decoder (Thomson TTY4635 or equivalent)
and an output on RGB and sync is obtained. These
signals applied to an NTSC encoder will yield a
composite NTSC output. Since the NTSC encoder is
driven by a color sync generator with an integral
3.58 subcarrier,
the NTSC output should be fully
compatible with any other NTSC source, provided
the stability of the original SECAM/60
signal is
adequate.
If it is expected that a SECAM/60
installation will require frequent interface with NTSC
systems it would be preferable that the SECAM/60
encoders be driven by normal ETA color sync,
rather than monochrome.
Over the past three years we have conducted
very precise transcoding
tests in both directions
with analysis equipment capable of extremely critical appraisal of the final result, both by wave-form
measurement
and colorimetric
display. With the
proper originating
signals, transcoded
images are
virtually
indistinguishable
from the standard
in
which they were generated.
Summary-SECAM/60's
advantages
The selection of a color encoding process for
closed-circuit
television application is not a simple
problem, since many factors related to the specific
application and the degree of interchangeability
with
existent systems must be taken into account. Experience to date with the NTSC system has shown that
unless the most rigid technical controls are enforced,
and very high quality equipment is used, the end
result of the final distributed helical tape is often not
acceptable to the critical recipient.
ln addition, the fact that the end viewer may alter
the colorimetry of the displayed image at will with-
36
continued on page 65
OCTOBER, 1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
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The Videocassette Is
Beginning To Roll
But a lot of problems hang heavy over it, among themwhat will the consumer buy and for how much?; how will
the coming titantic intra-industry struggle affect market
progress?
SUMMER-FALL
1972 will probably be marked as
the period when cartridge video (or cassette video
-you
can still take your choice) at last achieved
some solid marketing
motion, enough to refuel
the great industry expectation
machine, with exhubcrant talk about making the multi-billion
consumer market respectable again. Not only marketing,
but technology, got a more solid look than at any
previous period.
The most impressive market advance for record/
play equipment was chalked up by Sony's U-Matic
Vi-inch system, which became available in the U.S.
early in the year. Its main success was as a training
and information
tool for business, industry, and
large organizations of other kinds-the
initial market which Sony, in fact, set out to corner.
For example, the Army's Audio-Visual
Division,
as reported by its director Robert M. O'Boyle, after a
trial run with about 600 U-Matics, decided to standardize on that system and said it would buy 6000 to
10,000 units next year. Just a few of the large-scale
users among large corporations
were Coca-Cola,
Prudential,
Merrill Lynch, Maytag, and the Ford
Motor Co.
But Sony is not going to hold onto this very significant market without a fight. The industry continues to build for a mammoth, winner-take-all struggle
among the electronic giants of the world. According
to a spate of announcements
and press parties during
recent months, the big firms with heavy stakes in
record/play
videocassette development arc all going
full out. Nobody is going to back down, or joinvery soon, at least-any
rival's dominant system. We
are promised before the encl of the year 1/2-inch
and/or ¥1-inch systems from Norelco (already very
strong in Europe and on early form, at least, the
most important international
competitor of Sony);
Panasonic, Concord, JVC, and a number of others.
Back of them is RCA, with its non-compatible
3¡{¡ -inch system promised
for 1973; Ampex Instavicleo, also for 1973; AKAI, with its 1/4-inch system,
already demonstrated
at several shows; and IVC
which has announced,
but not shown, a higherquality 1-inch cartridge device.
Among play-only systems, EVR shows every sign
of staying strong in the fight, even though its developer, Columbia,
has taken a somewhat passive
stance. Motorola, the principal agitator for EVR in
this country (manufacturer
of playback units), together with strong associated firms in England and
Japan, is pushing EVR worldwide. A big sale of
both hardware and software to operators of British
oil tanker fleets for entertainment
of crewmen occurred early in the year, with other shipping outfits ·
interested. Lloyd Singer of Motorola reported more
than 2000 EVR players actually in users' hands.
Looming in back of EVR, and every other playonly system, is the video disc. Teldec was making
somewhat quiet we-are-working
noises, but RCA
rather loudly laid claim to important progress on its
disc, promising more detail before the year is over.
Some outside observers who saw a prototype of the
RCA disc demonstrated at the firm's Princeton laboratory were highly enthusiastic. Zenith has told its
distributors it is working on a video disc. The latest
development
in the disc area is the recent public
demonstration
(in Eindhoven) of the Philips Video
Long Play Disc. Philips has taken an optical approach contrasted
to Teldec's embossed vinyl. A
mirror surface is laser etched with luminance, chro-
4:;
OCTOBER. 197Z-OM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
ninancc,
and sound data; the pick-up
is a laser
'eeding silicon diode. Players arc projected
to cost
S625 and be on the market
in 1974. Television
Digest reports other disc systems are coming from
\.1CA and Thomson-CSF.
The first large move to garner the legendary consumer market (a legend before it was born), came
with sales by Scars in Chicago and other cities of TV
consoles incorporating the Cartrivision system. There
was at least some pub! ic response; Sears is said to
ave reordered units as this issue went to press.
In late August, Cartrivision introduced at a press
show in New York its separate player and recorderolayer units which allow the system to be connected
to any existing TV set in black-and-white
or color,
through the antenna terminals. Results looked high-
quality on a variety of current receivers from all the
leading TV set makers. The units were promised for
regular delivery in the spring of 1973. Retail prices
were pegged at about $700 for the player and $900
for the player/recorder.
Brought very much to the fore by the Cartrivision
show was the question of what the videocassette
home user wants to see, and how much he will pay
for it. Cartrivision has put very large sums of money
clown for its answer which, by and large, is this: what
people like today in the movies and on television is
about what they will pay rather handsomely for as
"self-selec.cd" home video programming. There arc
two ways of getting Cartrivision programming:
a
rental fee of $3 to $6 gets you a movie. which you
can play 011/y once (you can't rewind it at home); a
continued on page 43
EVR player made by MGA (Mitsubishi).
RCAcartridge concept, which will be adopted
by Magnavox and Bell & Howell, has heads
entering cartridge for scanning.
Teldec video disc player shown at VIDCA.
Concord is most recent entry in
videocassette race.
41
OCTOBER,1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
Videocasselle ExhibilionVIDCA, Cannes, March '72
Excerpts from a comprehensive
report on VI DCA pre pa red by Donna and Joseph Roi zen
There were two subjects of paramount interest at
VTDCA-standardization
and copyrights.
It became quite obvious early in the conference that
there is no like Iihood of a universal cassette standard as far as video magnetic tape is concerned. The
two major companies who were demonstrating deliverable units have different devices employing incompatible formats. Tt is also obvious that Sony and
Philips have both decided to compete for as much of
the international market as they can get. Each company has collectecl its own list of adherents through
agreements to participate in the distribution or produce for sale their own configuration. Sony's position
is now strengthened through an already existent
large-scale distribution network and a recent crosslicense agreement with the 3M Company and its consumer arm, Wollensak. Philips has signed up more
than ten European manufacturers, such as Grundig,
Telefunken, Thorn, Zanussi, etc. Both manufacturers claimed adaptability of their units to 60- and
50Hz power areas thereby providing some level of
interchangeability between programs made in North
America and other parts of the world.
There was very Iittle discussion of the need for a
single standard. As a matter of fact, each representative gave reasons why his format or standard
had been chosen and would be held to. Each felt he
had the answer to the problem of interchangeability
of programs between countries and continents, but
his solution to the problem was for customers to buy
only his machine. But the "also rans" can't make it
because the big companies, mainly Philips and Sony,
are well entrenched with a wide range of distributors
who will sell to their customers the machine that
they have for commercial, political, and technical
reasons. Actually, it appears all the machines make
credibly good pictures at shows and are certainly
usable the way they stand. The question is, can
they do the same in users' hands, something which
is not as easy as it seems at exhibitions.
It was accepted that Super 8 film represented a
"de facto" standard, that EVR being on film might
also become semi-universal and that the video clise
(TELDEC) would automatically be a standard if no
other similar device appeared on the market. Tn the
videotape domain, no uniformity could be expected
since the hardware designs are now frozen into at
least four major configurations (Sony, Philips, Ampex, Cartrivision) and a dozen min or ones.
The CBS-EVR system is on great display in Europe and apparently reports of its demise are somewhat premature. There were at least four different
kinds of players on display, one by the Bosch Company made in Germany, one by Rank made in Britain, one by Thomson, which appears to be a Motorola player with a Thomson name on it, and one by
Mitsubishi which is made in Japan. The EVR partnership was displaying three types of machines in
their own booths while Mitsubishi and Thomson
both had individual EVR players operating in
theirs. Motorola had a private exhibit room showing
samples of a catalog of programs and their players.
Pictures reproduced from the system are better
than the pictures shown in the U.S. on the same
machines. While they appear somewhat soft and
noisy, they are perfectly acceptable color images and
they were shown on relatively large screen monitorsmostly British, French or German, depending upon
the particular booth visited.
The Panasonic booth included a demonstration of
both NTSC and PAL, but Panasonic this year is
only showing one format which is a cartridge onehalf inch machine. It apparently can be made to
work on either NTSC or PAL, but not interchangeably. It is interchangeable in monochrome. In any
case, the cartridge unit, which is a one-half-inch
wide tape, is not compatible with the Philips arrangement and the tapes are different. The Panasonic demonstration
was done with very fancily produced tapes with lots of color shifting and color
changes in which emphasis was placed on production aspects rather than accuracy of the color reproduction. Pictures look reasonably clean and noise
free.
Philips displayed its first SECAM prototype. PAL
units are now available for about $1000-SECAM
units are promised for next year. No NTSC units
were displayed, but are promised for later this year.
There are a variety of configurations, including units
with tuners for off-air recording. Blank cassettes
(reel over reel one-half inch wide) cost 150 DM
($35.00) for 60 minutes. Philips units will be manufactured in Vienna where their audio cassette units
are made.
Sony was making a very strong pitch for the European market this year which they did not do last
year in Europe. Now that they are able to handle
PAL and NTSC with the same machines, they are
going to give Philips a lot of competition there.
The Telclec booth consisted of a single Teldec
piayer with three monitors connected to the same
player. The player is very small-about
the size of
small reel-to-reel audio recorder. The discs themselves are a little larger than a 45 rpm disc, but
very thin and pliable. There were five minutes of·
play on the clise and the pictures shown were reasonably good, although close inspection showed
some color bleeding and moire patterns in the color.
Recording must be in RGB, with encoding of the
signal after it comes off the discs. It cannot be recorded in real time. The discs are produced by a
rather complicated process using a flying scanner
loolcing at a film and recording on the discs in some
reduced time scale.
Nevertheless, the player is very compact and
works smoothly.
www.americanradiohistory.com
¡urchase ranging from about $13 to about $40 buy
mu a cartridge.
which may be anything
over an
.xtrernely wide range, from movies to all kinds of
If-instruction.
self-help.
education
and "cdutuinnent." and culture in all varieties-from
Orson \Vel-
es reading poetry. to lectures on Roman art. etc ..
te. These. of course. can be replayed as often as vou
ike.
'
To capsulize the question: how many people will
~ay on the order of $15 to be able to watch. over
ind over. Julia Child. for example. bake a brook
trout? Cartrivision is betting there will be a lot. and
.naybe they are right. A number of perceptive ob.ervers think the programming demands of the videocassette are quite different from those of movies or
:elevision. and BM E thinks tliev may be right. But
the answer won't be in for awhile. perhaps for sever11years.
Both the successes and the uncertainties
of the
videocassette were much in evidence at two large
mdustry shows during the year. In an accompanying
x are excerpts from a report by Joseph Roizcn on
idea 1972. international
video convention held at
:::annes. France. in March. As Mr. Roizcn saw it. the
industry is bursting with beans. but suffering from
the unanswered question as to who is in charge.
At YidExpo 1972, convention sponsored by the
Billboard publications at the Hotel Roosevelt in New
York. August 22-24, most participants were. again.
in high spirits. There were many signs of snowballing
interest in the videocassette
on the part of users.
actual and potential. The main problems of the videocassette were also perceivable.
More than I 00 press people came to the show.
about 21 O others registered and paid the fees to
attend the talk sessions, and an additional 700 signed
up for the industry exhibits (available separately
well as to the session registrants).
Among the exhibitors:
AKAi showed its 1/4-inch system, including play
and record machines and a camera weighing 53-l
pounds.
Concord introduced its 31-i-inch players and player/recorders,
scheduled for September 1972 delivery, (compatible with Sony U-Matic) as well as a
variety of YTR, CCTV, and A-V equipment.
Mitsubishi International
showed its EV R player.
.íully compatible with world-wide EVR standards on
50- and 60-cycle power. MGA Div. is U.S. outlet.
Motorola showed color EVR cassettes produced at
.the new duplicating plant in England.
Panasonic showed both its 1/2-inch cartridge and
%-inch cassette systems, the former compatible
iwith EIAJ Yi-inch standards and latter compatible
with the Sony U-Matic.
Sony showed its own U-Matic equipment, which.
as already noted, has made the biggest market penetration of any cassette system so far.
Among those with important exhibits on various
iaspects of software were Modern Talking Picture
iService (U-Matic and CATV and CCTV programming); Thomas Valentino, Inc., (music and sou.nd
.effects recordings); Videorecord
Corp. of America
(very extensive U-Matic Iibrary, paralleling in some
respects the Cartrivision
programming
concepts
ª'
available in January in Norclco 1/2-inch Ionn. later
in other Iorrns as well): Video Program International (X-rated. horror. and feature films on U-Matic
dubbing and duplicating service (transfer of unv
video material to U-Matic form). W:lS offered hv s-i·
Videocassette Duplicuting Corp.: this kind of service
is now available in a number of cities coast to coast.
The uses of the videocassette that got a going over
111the t alk sessions. in addition to the very active
corporate training and information field. were m.unlv
those in education and fnr the home viewer. Th~
sc-sion on cduc.uion pointed .1g:1i11to the rc m.uk ablc
aid iha: well-made video programming can give to
the learning procc-s. Prof. Rohen I lcinich of Indiana
nivcrsity said that educational
instiuu ions must
learn how to use the tremendous potcntialx nf video
instruction-aids.
particularly in blending the "mass"
with the "individualized"
approaches possible. He
also told how :1 <tate-wide network. of educational
insriuuions exchanged instructional matcri.rl via videotape. to avoid duplic.uion of inst ruct iunal expense
in a tight-budget time.
Prof. Georgia Noble of Simmons College. lloqon.
uses video to vho«: individual and cultural differcncc- in the teaching viiuation. in a program for
reacher training. Bernard Hanley. of the Ccntcrcach
(New York) school '-Y">lL'm.u">e'i VTR equipment
c xtcn-ivcly for making a vnriel y of community
rcvourcv- available to students. Walter Dale. of the
Port \Va-,hingtnn (New York) Public Library. used
funding from the :"'.Y. Council of Art s to collect
cornmunitv -cvcnt video tapes. to vhow the community how to mirror it<;own activities.
ThL· <chool pcrxonncl. however. \WrL· unhappy
because. with their tight. long-range budget'>. the
Jack of cav-cuc siandardizarion i<,a prime <tumbling
block. The potentially immense school market obviously will stay well below its potential until some
dominant system appears. In addition there remains
a question of whether the qualitv of instructional
material (printed pages. for example) recorded and
played back on 1/2-inch or ~'.!-inch -:quipment will
be good enough. A lot or the dcrno-, have U'-L'd
material originally recorded on cxpcn-ivc quad
equipment and dubbed down to the cartridge form.
The <how was again finally dominated by that
legendary con">UmL'r market. The '><.:"ion titled "The
Multi-Billion
Con">umer Mark<.:t-WhL·n·1"
found
panelists and audience to a large extent poluri/cd
around two opposing projection">: a) because of the
high cost of both hardware and software. and the·
lack of <;tandardi1ation. it would be five to eight
years. and ma) be more. before anything like the
consumer legend becomes a fact: b) not so-the
uniquely new function of recording one'> own video
programs would prove to be an irresistible attraction
for the home user. sweeping in the vidcoca-vcuc
home market within a comparatively <hort period.
The only thing we can be sure of. in the view of
this magazine, i">that the next five )ear"> arc going tn
be surprising. It is possible that e1·eryho(f.\' in the·
videocassette camp is wrong because,
at ka">l two
of the panelists al the show suggested. cable: TV
may take over the main show'
B.\I/ E
ª'
43
OCTOBER,1972-BM/ E
www.americanradiohistory.com
Why Nol Broadcast Quad[
Stereo Righi Now?
Broadcasting four-channel stereo isn't really the pioneering
proposition it was a couple of years ago. With the new
matrixing systems now used for discs (the Sansui system
is described here), it's feasible to go on the air with
quad instantly-with
no special FCC permission or
equipment required. You can even quadcast discrete
tapes and live concerts, with the addition of a simple encoder.
Jr YOU HAVEN'T ALREADY TRIED your hand at
broadcasting
quad stereo, chances arc you've at
least toyed with the idea. Certainly the entire concept of four-channel broadcasting is so exciting and
so promotion-oriented
that it has to be considered
an important part of any station's future programming. But why the future? Why not right now? You
can broadcast quad today, right this minute, with no
FCC approval or special equipment needed.
The secret is in the compatible simulated fourchannel disc, and there arc at this writing three such
systems that arc relatively compatible
with each
other. Naturally each manufacturer
involved (CBS,
Electro-Voice,
Sansui) claims that his system is the
ideal and the one that should definitely become
the industry standard. Each one can cite substantiating evidence for his claims.
With time, each of the three has moved somewhat
closer to its rivals with the result that today virtually
any of the three encoding systems can be played
back on any of the decoders with satisfactory results.
This doesn't mean that all such results will be
equally satisfying, and may certainly be far from
idcalizccl, but satisfactory nonetheless.
Basic encoding
To establish the appropriate
encoding methods
and phase relationships, let's look at a typical fourchannc. matrixing relationship.
Jn this and other
presentations
that follow, LF = left front; RF =
right front; LB -= left back; RB = right back. Jn
the diagrams, BC = back center and FC = front
center.
Fig. 1 shows the basic matrixing used for cutting
compatible discs with the Sansui matrixing system.
(Sec BM/E, December 1971, for description of the
CBS encoding.) Based on these vectors:
L = (LF -1- LB)cosA
-1- (RF - RB)sine
R =-= (RF__¡__RB)cos8
-1- (LF - LB)sin
WhenLF =RF=
RB= LB=
1, then
L = 2 cose = 1.84
R = 2 cose = 1.84
This is the typical output of a four-channel
of the generalized type shown in Fig. 2.
encoder
Mr. Ito is manager, four-channel
system planning
and promotion, Sansui Electric Co., Tokyo.
By Ryousuke Ito
The other systems are essentially similar, excepi
that the initial phase relationships
may differ,
causing an apparent shift in channel location and
certain other phase differences. The result: separation and location can differ (and suffer depending
on the judgment of the listener) from system to
system. Whichever
system becomes
the industry
standard, it must have these features:
• Ability to record sounds occurring at any point in
a 360º sound field, reproducing these sounds in the
correct location during playback.
• Signal quality should not be degraded in noise,
frequency, and non-linear distortion as a result of
being matrixcd.
• System should be totally compatible with existing
playback
equipment,
using standard
components
wherever possible.
• The four-channel
program should be capable of
reproduction
on all standard
two-channel
equipmcnt, with all sonic material from the four-channel
program heard in their proper left/right
positions.
• Monophonic
compatibility
should likewise be total with a full program that doesn't lose or alter
relative levels of any sounds in the original fourchannel program.
• The system should be adaptable to standard software manufacturing practices.
• Any format used should be adaptable to standard software manufacturing
practices.
• Any format used should provide full playing, II
time, or the playing time equivalent of stereo re- IL
cordings.
• The recording matrix should be usable with all W
major recording media and capable of being broad-In
cast.
The decoder output of a typical matrix is as follows:
L = (LF + LB)cos8
-1- (RF - RB)sin8
R = (RF+
RB)cose
(LF - LB)sine
(1)
The relative decoder output is:
LF' = Lcos8
Rsin8 = LF + 2Rsin8cose
+ LBcos28
RF' '--= Rcose
Lsine = RF + 2LFsin8cose
+ RBcos2e
RB' = Rcose - Lsin8 = RB - 2LBsin8cose
RFcos28
LB' = Leos O - Rsine = LB - 2RBsin8cose
LFcos28
(2)
From these equations, if LB = RB = 1, or when
there is a sound source at the back center of the
44
www.americanradiohistory.com
+
+
+
+
+
(Encoder)
LF
___
L(='
.,
;;
cm-.
RB•-•
R)
-·-
ta
I
~
2ch
trans·
mission
RF
olF'
_,ID~~~er)
tC
....~
j
RB'
RF'
P.I.= Phase Inverter
Fig. 2. General approach to encoders-decoders.
.
RB
.
'V'M
1
.
.
g. l. Basic vectors for cutting matrixed disc.
Fo
•
LF'= LF+0.7l(RF+jLB)
----------------0
0.92(LF +iLB)+0.38(RF
•
LB'= LB+O. 7 l(RB-jLF)
+ jRB)
RB'=RB+0.7
0.92(RF-jRB)+0.38(LF-jLB)
l(LB+jRF)
---------------~
RF'= RF+0.7l(LF-jRB)
(Encoder)
(Decoder)
transmission
ig. 3. Block diagram of encoder.
e=.!l.
8
tane=0.414
cose=0.92
( sinB=0.38
2sin8cos8=cos
28=0. 71
1-0UT
~()o .:
o e
111111 ~ ~
-~
·ig. 4. Phase shifting circuit.
.riginal sound field, these equations
L = LFcos8
R - RFcos8
+ RFsin8 + (cosA
+ LFsin8 + (cosA
')
Four-channel encoder by Sansui.
can be derived:
- sinA)
- sinA)
(3)
These equations
show that out-of-phase
comionents in the left and right back channels cancel
.ach other out. The result is that the encoder output
;onsists only of in-phase sound components.
This loss of audio information and mislocalization
>f sound sources happens during the encoding proc.ss, This also shows that it is practically impossible
o encocle simultaneous four-channel signals of idenical phase and level with this technique;
they'll
.irnply cancel each other out.
The equations (2) show that the left and right
eack arc 180° out of phase with each other. Thus,
any sound sources in the back in a quad program
would sound very unnatural and unclear, and would
ave little directionality, even when the encoding is
properly handled. The same will happen with other
types of matrixing based on the vectors shown in
Fig. 1.
Most four-channel encoders have not been able
to convert true four-channel
information into two
channels and reconvert them to four because of this
phase cancellation during the encoding process. The
apparent conclusion is that a simple matrixing system for encoding and decoding quad stereo programs doesn't overcome this defect.
Phase-shifting
By
technique
introducing
a rear-channel
phase shift of
vector angles
(A) between each adjacent channel at 22.5º. these
phase cancellation problems can be solved.
This phase-shift
in the Sansui OS encoder-instead of using the usua] 180º phase inversion used
in other systems-produces
the desired phase rela-
± 90º, and by setting the disc-cutting
45
OCTOBER,
1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
tionship between the two rear channels. Some other
matrix systems introduce a phase shift at the rear
channels in playback-and
this artificial phase shift
changes
the
ambience
to produce
a sense
spaciousness that is not true quad stereo. In effect
the phase shift is introduced to make up for th:
system's shortcomings which may have resulte,
of
continued on page 6:
The Quadraphonic Sound at AES
The 43rd Audio Engineering Society Convention last
month marked a good point in time from which to
assess the fast moving and fluid quadraphonic industry. In an opening session John Eargle compared
4-2-4 matrix systems as to their design goals and
compatability-with
each other and with normal stereo
and mono requirements.
That afternoon J. James Gibson looked at the
problem of FM broadcasting 'panoramic' sounds and
proposed a 4-3-4 system. Later a panel of broadcasters, manufacturers, and matrix format designers
tried to take stock of where the quadraphonic broadcast industry is going.
And, if one wanted to substitute the real thing
for theory and expert opinion, one could hear live
demonstrations at the suites of CBS Labs, ElectroVoice, Victor Co. of Japan (JVC), and Sansui.
From all this, BM/E came away with the following
impressions:
• All of the demonstrations were extremely impressive. The psychoacoustic effect on us was that quadraphonic sound certainly adds more to stereo than
stereo added to mono.
• All 4-2-4 systems sounded good and directionality
was no problem at least for the selections played.
Unfortunately, we didn't hear Sansui's encoded records
played on CBS decoders and vice versa. E-V was
showing a "universal" decoder, but Eargle predicts
some losses.
• Discrete four channel discs are here, but it will
be a while before a new standard adapted to quad·
raphonic broadcasting will evolve and gain FCC approval. Broadcasting matrixed. records now is no
problem, but just what kind of a commitment should
be made to quadraphonics is not yet entirely clear.
The demonstrations offered convincing proof that
directionality and adequate separation flaws of the
past have been worked out. There is no confusion
over where sounds come from. Sansui's demo switched
between 4-4-4 discrete and 4-2-4 matrix; the compromises, if detectable, were minimal. Sansui, however, never had the directionality problem of others.
Whatever lack of directionality and sound-source re·
versal criticisms that could be leveled at early E-V
systems have been largely overcome.
Why this is so was explained by Eargle in his paper.
Today all competitive 4-2-4 matrix systems are of
the phaser type.", (all pass phase shift networks).
When this was not so, coefficients which were de·
termined by addition or subtraction combinations
made it impossible to reproduce a continuum of
sound panned around the speaker array. Out-of-phase
components occurred in some adjacent speaker arrays
causing cancellation or distortion. Because of the
inherent low separation of the system (3 dB), outof-phase could be easily disturbing. Decoder modifications have overcome this and the SQ system uses
logic circuits to attenuate the transferred signals to
greatly enhance front-back separation. CBS demon·
strated this separation at AES, by using a new tuner
amplifier from Lafayette, the LR 4000, which incorporates the logic extender. The simpler approach is
to use a 10 percent and 40 percent blend, respectively, in the decoded front and back channels. This
allows the decoder to retain a 20dB front channel
separation, and 8dB back channel separation, and
results in a 6dB gain between center-front and centerback separation. This approach is very similar to the
new E-V matrix.
The matrix approaches do not quite match some
of the performance of the JVC-CD-4 system which
gets discrete channels through FM modulation super·
imposed on a conventional 45-45 groove. But since
discrete four channel consumer equipment will be
coming along relatively slowly, 4-2-4 systems got all
the more attention from broadcasters. What does
relatively slowly mean? The CD-4 system did go on
the market in Japan in 1971 and it has been specified as the standard discrete disc by the Japan Record
Industry Association. More than 100 albums are
cataloged, and Panasonic will be making players in
addition to JVC. (Prices quoted at AES were reason·
able: decoder $99, pickup $69.) Furthermore, RCA
Victor plans more releases (some dozen are out now)
using the CD-4 format and will be marketing players
early in 1973.
But 4-2-4 systems have the lead in the marketplace and true discrete may never catch up. The
cutting system is complicated and the pick-up is
expected to be costly. Consequently, as far as tile
broadcasting industry is concerned, the system is of
academic interest until the FCC acts. One could un·
doubted.ly get an experimental license for discrete
four-channel transmitting, but the point is that few
listeners are prepared to receive such signals.
Speculation on what might evolve as the broad·
casting standard was rife at the AES, but this much
is certain-the EIA industry committee on quadraphonics (called the National Quadraphonics Record
Committee, NQRC), is meeting and will eventually
recommend a standard from among some seven pro·
posals now before it. Then the FCCwill have to come
out with a Rule Making. All of this may take two
years or longer. (By that time, as Emil Torrick of
CBS Labs says, 4-2-4 will be the "standard.")
The 4-3·4 solution by RCA is interesting. RCA
says three signals are sufficient to reproduce an
acoustic picture around the horizon with uniform
response and uniform angular resolution. One signal
conveys the monophonic information (below 19 kHz)
while the other two convey the directional information
(L-R, F-B)..One of these is the standard stereo channel,
the other a quadrature channel. A fourth channel
can be placed in the portion of the baseband above
53 kHz, but this is an inferior part of the spectrum
because of noise and intermodulation problems. If
only three are used, there can be simultaneous SCA
carriage. The arguments for the RCA approach are
compatability, fidelity, and economy, along with the
availability of baseband signals in the quality end of
the baseband spectrum. From what we heard at the
AES session, a Motorola proposal for quad broadcasting is similar to the RCAone.
All of the systems in use andi proposed are com·
patible with mono and stereo listening. But the
mutual compatability between the systems still leaves
something to be desired, Eargle discusses this in his
AES paper, "4-2-4 Matrix Systems, Standards, Practice and Interchangeability .." He uses a spherical nota·
tion system proposed by Peter Schreiber to analyze
the systems and the d.iagrams can't be readily con·
verted to words. A copy can be obtained by send"
ing $1.00 to Audio Engineering Society, Room 929,
60 East 42nd Street, New York 10017.
• Sansui uses a
article describes.
46
www.americanradiohistory.com
different
approach
as the
accompanying
The on-the-spot
spots.
Wilh film it's so simple to give local odvonscr s o b1~
boost. Just lake o cornero. o power pock. sorne lights, o
few rolls of film -and shoot o cornrncrool m the met chnnt's
local hobitot.
Viewers get to see the place, the p.oducts. ond lhe
personnel os they really ore. It's o lot more effective thnn
having o businessman come to o stucho whr-r r- he '>loncl..,
on o fake set or in front of o curtain
Another thing to consider Frlrn cqurprnc-nt I') fll('( ho111
col so any optical repair'> that might hove to be modo ore
normally inexpensive And Iher e\ 110need lor C'xpcn<,1v<'
tondby equipment os there 1swith lope
On location <hoonnq 1s ¡u<,t one odvonloqr- of film
Your Kodak Soles and Eng1nee11ngRcp1t",cntul1vc con lell
you about the others In no time at all you con
be helping local merchants star rn tl1e11own 30
or 60 second specials
(:I
/\II 1\1
Jlf\ I\ I I\"'"
312 1>',.1 ',J('Xl lli\111\, lrirol
ll•or•l•roq
EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY
llllli\(,(,,)
flod f'<'lll'r
H(){()W(X)J)
fphn\\\Hlt'ILIJ 4(>46131~llWY<ll<I
www.americanradiohistory.com
lldlll"ld..I
,¡
r ,
¡
/l•I
I' I l,',l!I
¡•,¡ 1//1
'/I'} ;1;;111n
Measure and analyze
video noise accurately
(0.5 dB)
1
Built-in
sag and tilt
compensation
Filter plug-in
for NTSC or other
standards (PAL)
19"
Rack mount
Video Noise Meter UPSF
40 Hz-10 MHz
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Features
Applications
Meets requirements of all U. S. black
and white and NTS color systems
Measures noise voltage in the presence of sync and blanking pulses
Can measuredown to -85 dB referred
to .714 Volts
True rms measurementusing
semiconductors - no thermocouple.
no thermistor; thus instantaneous
indication
Easyto read linear scale for both peak
to peak and rms modes of operation
Sameinstrument can be usedfor NTSC
or PALby chal'lging plug-in filter
Input impedance: 1 M.Qshunted by
30pF, or 75 .Q bridging
Completely solid state
High accuracy ( ::_
0.5 dB) and
repeatability
Measure video noise voltage on:
TV Cameras
Film Scanners
Video Tape Recorders
Radio Links
Coaxial Lines
TV Transmitters
TV Receivers
TV Transposers
BLANKING
COMPOSITE
VIDEO
fiOISE
SETUP
INTERVAL
SIGNAL
Í
I
SYNC
,,.,.- :
NOISE'.
JIGNA.L
rv:~
j
:
PULSEJfTLITTLI
I
I
CANCELLING
PU LS ES
NOISE
:
SIGNAL
WITH
BLANKING
~
-
I
:
:
:
I :
o
: I
: :
I
I
I
:
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'.
INTERVAL
COMPENSATION
'
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1
I
t,
r.!
l-1
SYNC
1POSITION
:
i
::
t
I
t
:
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t
The UPSFVideo Noise Meter is designed
to measurethe unweighted and weighted
noise voltages occurring in 525-line
or 625-line TV transmission systems.It
has the unique advantage of measuring
low level components in the presence
of high level horizontal or vertical sync
and blanking pulses (see line drawing).
The same instrument can be used for the
NTSC and other TV standards by changing the filter. These plug-in units
contain a bandstop filter as well as the
color subcarrier filter, preventing any
residual color subcarrier in the test signal
from being picked up. High and low
pass filters are selectable to assist in
analyzing the video noise.The UPSFcan
also be used as a true rms voltmeter
over its frequency range.
This improved solid state model is completely free from drift. Built-in sag and
tilt compensation eliminates error sources.
Built-in calibrator.
:
L, rJ
L.1
Principle of noise-voltage meas11re•
ment with H or V internal blanking
ROHDE &SCHWARZ
111Lexington Avenue, Passaic, N.J. 07055 · (201) 773-8010
Inquiries outside the U.S.A. should be directed to Rohde& Schwarz, Muehldorfstrasse15, 8 Muenchen 80, West Germany
See us at NAEB, Booth llA
48
Circle
115 on Reader Service Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
OCTOBER, 1972-BM/E
EQ
1
New Sync Pulse Generator, CLD1100 uses advanced digital circuitry
and achieves
long term stability.
Works as a master unit, a standard
sync generator,
or in pulse system
applications.
Stability is derived from
a timing circuit employing a single
servoloop in which the 3.58 MHz
color frequency is generated
from a
14.31818
MHz crystal
reference
assembled parts. provides both positive
strain relief and leakproof shielding
against RFI. ZIPPERTUBING Co.
276
source. Subcarrier
drift is less than
0.1 Hz per month. Horizontal and
vertical pulses are generated
from
the 3.58 MHz signal, thus virtually
lelirnlnating jitter between horizontal,
vertical, and color burst. A 15 Hz
Color Frame Indent Pulse assures
correct
color
subcarrier-to-sync
phase relationship.
To assure correct
color phase editing for network sync
lock application,
the new generator
also has a 100 nanosecond
"win·
dow" referenced to 3.58 MHz to al·
low for minor sync time instabilities.
Now in stock. Price $1,995.00.
CBS
LABORATORIES.
324
Vernier knob with planetary drive has
10: I reduction ratio. Model PD- IO
has a torque exceeding 30 oz/in with
self-contained limitations. $4.95. ALCO
ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS.
279
MATV broadband
amplifier includes
VHF, UHF, and FM bands. Model
TV3283 is intended to take the place
of seven VHF and three UHF singlechannel amplifiers, with high output of
60 dBmv, and 0.5% distortion, gain
of 50 dB, and self-contained
power
supply. RIKER COMMUNICATIONS, INC.
275
Cable coupling provides 360-degree
lshield termination
at the backshell.
Model SHK coupling has four easily-
Power splitters for 75-ohm lines divide
input for 2, 3. 4. or 5 output ports.
The Series C splitters have low losses
and cover the band from 5 to 300
MHz. MPI COMPANY.
277
VHF amplifier has 20 watts output
with IO MHz bandwidth centered on
any frequency from 50 MHz to 22.5
MHz. Model LA-2041 has - 50 dB
third-order
intermodulation
products
at 15 watts output. Gain is ± I dB
over the whole pass band. $1500.
ACRODYNEINDUSTRIES.
278
Audio level meter reads from - 60 VU
to +40 VU, in 10 dB steps. Model 945
"Mini-VU"
is battery
powered.
is
within I dB from 30 Hz to 15 kHz,
has selection switch for bridging either
balanced or unbalanced audio circuits.
EDISON ELECTRONICS
DIVISION,
McGRAw-EmsoN.
280
"Hear-through"
stereo
headphones
allow listener to hear outside sounds
while listening.
Model HY-I weighs
nine ounces, has a high-velocity driver
for extended range. Koss CORPORATION.
281
"Sec-through" stereo headphones allow
the listeners' ears to be seen. Unit was
intended as a demonstrator
to show
p-c crossover
network
and inner
acoustic
chamber
with suspended
woofer, but customers wanted to order
the translucent model Pro-B VI which
has a frequency response approaching
that of electrostatic systems. SuPEREX
ELECTRONICS.
282
Calibration
and alignment tapes for
both cassette and open-reel are individually mastered by TEAC Corporation. Seventeen different test tapes are
currently available, among them speed
deviation,
operating
levels, azimuth
standards, e ro s st a l k checks, cte.
TASCAM CORPORATION.
283
Portable cable installer's probe, pocket-
clip style. can be used for identifying
house drops. locating cable shorts and
determining whether a cable is open.
Battery-powered indicator glows bright
with through current. dim for 75-ohm
de. and goes out for shorts. $6.50.
A MECO.
284
Sub-carrier converter provides up conversion from a microwave subcarrier
to selected FM or special VHF or subchannel frequencies; companion model
provides down conversion from signal
to multiplex carrier (5.2 to 8.2 MHz).
Both FMU-2100 converters are completely sol id-state and crystal controlled. CATEL, D1v1s10N OF USC. 285
Set-top converter has switching between standard 12-channel band and
additional hand of 12 channels. "Sup-
.I
)
crverter A" has maximum of I dB loss,
operating level of ±6 dBnw, noise
figure of I o dB. TELENG (ENGLAND).
286
Point-to-point
multiplexed microwave
system operates in the 960 MHz band.
COM-PAK takes lOV2 inches in standard 19-inch rack. combines Granger
microwave receivers with GTE Lenk urt :16A synchronized multiplex units.
Power consumption is 80 watts. transmitter uses direct FM modulation.
GRANGERASSOCIATES.
287
TV camera pan head has removable
handle that mounts for either left or
right hand operation.
Samson 720 I
Series has full range of motion in both
pan and tilt. $40. QUICK-SET INC. 288
Bi-directional
extender amplifier has
bandwidth of 50 to :100 MHz in the
forward direction, 5 to 32 MHz in reverse. Mark V CVT-SEAR is in a
single amplifier housing: with power
supply and forward push-pull arnplicontinued on page 50
49
OCTOBER,1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
Sonys award
presenting
microphone.*
·used at Academy Award and
Emmy Award T.V.
presentations 1972.
PRODUCTS
fier. Reverse filters and amplifier may
be added at any time. AEL CoM1UNICATJONS
CORP.
289
Sync generator is available for NTSC
color or for monochrome EIA RS-170
standards. Model 2700 has all digital
circuitry, pulse jitter of less than 3
nanoseconds in monochrome versions,
less than I nanosecond for color.
Mono model provides sync, blanking,
horizontal and vertical drive; color
model adds burst flag and subcarrier.
COliU ELECTRONICS.
290
The
Pick·Up
Pros.
Unit combining 3A-inch videocassette
player with monitor, called "videocassette communications
system",
plays cassettes automatically, or can be
Featuring a high-performance
condenser capsule of electret
design, the ECM-53 is specifically designed for broadcast,
recording studio, public address
and similar applications.
The cardioid capsule assembly
contains a permanently charged
condenser capsule and FET/IC
amplifier. A Cannon connector
houses the battery supply.
• Frequency Response: (Frontal
± 3 dB): 40 Hz to 16 kHz
• Output Impedance (at 1 kHz
± 20%): 50, 250, 600 ohms
Balanced
• Maximum SPL (1 kHz): 134 dB
Also Consider:
Tie-tack/lapel
condenser mic
ECM-50.
Telescopic (from ?3.,~" to 171/2'')
condenser míe ECM-51.
l-i•l§t•
SUPERSCOPE"
I
©1972 Superscope, Inc., 8215 Vineland Ave..
Sun Valley, Calif. 91352. Send for free literature.
operated manually with stops, rewind,
fast forward, etc. YIDEODETICSCORP.
291
Automatic cable transfer switch is designed to provide a normal signal
through path for a chosen section of
trunk cable. Model AS- I automatic-
ally switches to an alternate cable feed
when normal signal input is lost, or
falls below a preset revel. AEL COMMUNICATIONS
CORP.
293
FM monitor
Circle
11b on Reader
Service
receivers have ten-chan-
Card
WOR-FM, the country's leading
FM/ Stereo rock station, has been using
Stanton cartridges since its inception.
Program Director Sebastian Stone
likes the smooth, clean sound the Stanh
delivers; the way it is able to pick up
everything on the record so that the
station can assure high quality
transmission of every recording.
Eric Small, Chief Engineer for
WOR-FM, likes the way that Stanton
cartridges stand up under the wear and
tear of continuous use. "We standardize
on Stanton a couple of years back," Sma
said," and we haven't had a cartridge
failure since." Studio Supervisor Artie
Altro concurs.
Whether you're a professional or
simply a sincere music lover, the integri
of a Stanton 681 Series cartridge deliver
the quality of performance you want.
It affords excellent frequency
response, channel separation, complíanr
and low mass and tracking pressure. An
every Stanton cartridge is fitted with tht
exclusive "longhair" brush to keep
grooves clean and protect the stylus.
For complete information and
specifications on Stanton
cartridges, write Stanton
Magnetics, Inc., Terminal
Drive, Plainview, L.I., N.Y.
11803.
All Stanton cartridges are designed for
use with all two and four-channel matrix
derived compatible systems.
Circle
50
www.americanradiohistory.com
117 on Reader Service Card
OCTOBER, 1972-BM/E
Sound pressure
levels up
to137dB.
PRODUCTS
ncl scan or eight-channel switching in
any combination of pre-selectedchannels in LF. VHF or UHF bands. FR2500 Series have quadruple-tuned RF,
sensitivity of 0.3 microvolts for 20 dB
quieting. selectivity of 7.5 KHz at 6
dB.± 15 KHz at 70 dB. About $150
to $190. SONARRADIOCORP.
292
Variable-directivity
condenser studio
microphone provides
130 dB dynamic range.
Microwave antennas, for the 4. 6, and
I I GHz common carrier bands, arc
shrouded parabolics with radiation
,'¡.:,~
suppression greater than 76 dB below
the main beam at 180 degrees ± 90
degrees. and first sidelobc suppression
greater than 25 dB. The Ultra Directive seriesarc available with 8, 10, and
12-foot apertures, and arc matched to
a YSWR of 1.06: I or less.Sc1ENTIFICATLANTA.
294
Sony's new condenser microphones; ECM-64P (Uni) and
ECM-65P (Omni) handle sound
pressure levels up to 137 dB,
with less than 1% distortion.
Both microphones shield the
capsule with a unique double
windscreen to reduce pop susceptibility when close miking is
employed. In addition, they're
designed to filter out unwanted
extreme low frequencies, all but
eliminating the proximity effect
that can severely impair the performance of a hand-held microphone. Primarily designed for
Phantom power the ECM 64P/
65P operates equally well from a
self contained battery.
i§l•i§•••
SUPERSCOPE"
Programmer/projector
controls two
slide projectors, superimposing images
on single screen. "Infinity JI" provides
adjustable-length dissolves. laps, fades,
etc., coding the programming information onto 'l.i-inch magnetic tape in
cartridge form. Playback of the tape
is decoded by unit. BERGENExro
SYSTEMS.
295
Digital multimeter has four full digits
plus ''I" for 20% overranging. Model
81OOB has four ac and de voltage
=
Sony's variable-directivity
(Omni-Uni) C-37P· contains an
advanced
FET amplifier.
A
switchable attenuator is placed
between the capsule and amplifier to prevent distortion even at
extreme sound pressure levels.
The combination of proven excellence in sound quality, and
the very latest in semiconductor technology makes the Sony
C-37P indispensable in today's
quality-oriented recordingstudio.
Also Consider:
Studio standard condenser
microphone model C-500.'
l-iei§i!j
.1
©1972 Superscope, Inc .. 8215 Vineland Ave..
Sun Valley, Calif 91352. Send for free literature.
continued on page 52
Circle
Circle 118 on Reader
1· ~JOCTOBER.
1972-BM/E
SUPERSCOPE
'Must be powered by Sony AC 148A or equivalent power source.
I
©1972 Superscope, Inc .. 8215 Vineland Ave.,
Sun Valley, Calif. 91352. Send lar free literature.
Dynamic range (130 dB)
+ noise level (24 dB)
max. spl (154 dB)
I 19 on Reader
Service Card
51
Service Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
PRODUCTS
ranges to 1200 volts, ohms in five
ranges to 12 megohms. All switching
is push-button. $595. JoHN FLUKE Co'
29
Receiver/modulator
for NBS time.
broadcasts combines a crystal-con
trolled receiver and an FM modulator
for putting the time signals on a CATV1
or CCTV system. Model FMT-2000:
adds the NBS time service on the
band or any VHF TV aural frequency,
CATEL, DIVISIONOF USC.
297(
FM
Electronic-drive turntable has potentiometer control of speed at 33 V3 and'
45 rpm. Model GA212 has lighted
push-button controls, tone-arm cueing}
anti-skate adjustment, millisecond electronic correction of wow, flutter and
drift. NORELCO.
298
Compact
10,000-watt
studio lamp
permits use of smaller, lighter reflectors
than
earlier
globe-shaped
lamps.
"Quartzline" Model QI OM/T24/ 4CL
is tubular, 16 inches long, has a halogen regenerative cycle for constant
3200 Kelvin color temperature. Output
is 290,000 lumens, life rated 300 hours.
GENERALELECTRIC.
299
Video character generators
used with audio tape cartridge systerm
for off-line storage. Model 1500 has 15
rows of 32 characters each; Model
2400 has 8 rows of 16 characters, and 1'
has four separate internally-stored '
pages. Both provide EIA RS-170
waveforms, have crawl, flash modes,'
editing controls, line insert or delete.
BROADCAST
ELECTRONICS.
300
Cleaner/waxer
for movie film automatically cleans, waxes, and dries film.
It is available for 8/l 6mm or 16/
35mm, allows firms slitting from 35mm
to 8mm to remove extraneous edge
matter; also prepares film for cassette
use, protects new film. TREISE EN-·
GINEERING.
301
Low-power digital timing system shows
seconds, minutes, hours, and days.:
Model TS-250 also has BCD output,
IRIG "C" or "H" serial time code output, and a decade pulse output. Readout is on cold cathode indicator tubes.
SPRENGNETHERINSTRUMENTCo. 302
Multiport cardioid dynamic micro·
phone has dual system of rear-entry
ports to improve low-frequency response. Model TC 1O also is free of
normal proximity effect, has a front to
back ratio of - 26 dB and output level
of -55 dB (O= 1mw/10 microbars).
continued on page 54
Circle
120 on Reader
Service
Card
52
www.americanradiohistory.com
OCTOBER, 1972-BM/E
Further proof ...
.sound has never
been in beuershapél
RE55
OMNIDIRECTIONAL
DYNAMIC
MICROPHONE
8 There are plenty of good, functional reasons
We behind the new look of Electro-Voice profes-
1
sional microphones. Reasons dramatically proved by
the rapid success of the Model 635A and the REJ 5.
Now we've added the RE55 to this handsome group.
The RE55, like its predecessor the 655C, is an
extremely wide-range omnidirectional dynamic. And
in most electrical particulars it is not greatly different.
RE55 frequency response is a bit wider, and perhaps
a trifle flatter. An impressive achievement when you
consider that the 655C has been extensively used as
a secondary frequency response standard. Output
level is 2 db hotter, and the exclusive E-V Acoustalloy®
diaphragm of the RE55 can provide undistorted output in sound fields so intense as to cause ear damage.
The biggest changes in the RE55 are mechanical.
For the microphone is even more rugged than the
655 ... long known as one of the toughest in the business. There's a solid steel case and new, improved
internal shock mounting for the RE55. Plus a fawn
beige Micomatte finish that looks great on TV Jong after
most microphones have been scarred and scratched
almost beyond recognition.
For convenience we've made the
barrel of the RE55 just 3/4" in diameter.
It fits modern 3/4" accessories. It also
fits the hand (and its length makes the RE55
perfect for hand-held interviews). We also
provide XLR-3 Cannon-type connectors to help
you standardize your audio wiring. Detail
refinements that make the RE55 more dependable,
easier to use.
Finally, the RE55 has the exclusive Electro-Voice
2-ycar unconditional guarantee. No matter what happens, if an RE55 fails to perform during the first two
years - for any reason - we'll repair it at no charge.
Try the Electro-Voice RE55 today. The more you
listen, the better it looks!
ELECTRO·VOICE,INC., Dept. ID2LEM. 614 Cecil si., Buchanan, Michigiln ·19107
high fidelity systems and speakers> tuners, amplifiers, receivers• public address loudspeakers
-rnícrophcnes s phono cartridges and stylii •aerospace and defense electronics
www.americanradiohistory.com
PRODUCTS
Impedance is 150 ohms. TURNER DM.
SION OF CONRAC.
301
'•
I
Dual-channel
console has five inpu
mixing channels, each with two input
with pre-switching.
Model B-503 hat
two output channels (not stereo) plug
in input modules to accommodate mi
crophones or high-level sources, nomi
nal -~·8 dBm, 600-ohm balanced ou
put, 4-watt monitor amplifier output
and cue facilities. $950.00. McMARTIN
30
another
brand
new
; I
~
Four-channel
intermodulation test se
provides four high-purity signals ano
the filters and amplifier to test broad
band RF amplifiers. Model FTS-4 ha.
high sensitivity to measure devices wit!
gain as low as O dB; can be used with
field-strength
meter or spectrum an
alyzer. $550. AEL COMMUNICATION~
CORP.
30'
High-output MATV amplifier provide.
signal for very large distribution sys
terns. Model THPM*S
has six-vol·
output, gain of 58.5 dB, front-pane
output setting from two to six volts:
accommodates
inputs from - 8 dBm'V
to + 37 dBm V. Input and outpu
match 75 ohms, selectivity is greater
than 26 dB at the next non-adjacent
channel edge. JERROLD.
308
1·~ I
j
Anñ-vibration mounts have steel tables
with natural frequency of 2 Hz. "Vi!
brostat" series has isolation efficiency r
of 90% at 7 Hz and above, comes Ín
three sizes. They are opaque to most
forms of shock. $395 to $550. MILC
COMPONENTS, INC.
309
... meet the AEL FM-2500 watt and
FM-1000 watt transmitters.
Here are the newest members
of the AEL Advanced Equipment
Line with the answer to efficient,
economic Class A operation
(up to 3kw ERP).
High transmitter power, low
antenna gain or low transmitter
power, high antenna gain (you
name it) AEL offers solid state
reliability, easy accessibility and
high quality standards of
production.
~
FEATURING:
O full 2500 or 1000 watt power output
O automatic recycling
O mid-cabinet metering
O circuit breaker protection
O remote control provisions
O single phase power supply
The FM-2.SKD and FM-1KD
Transmitters have the built-in
capabilities to give you true Sound
Fidelity for the Seventies.
.A.ovANCEDEQUIPMENT LINE
.A.MERICAN ELECTRONIC LABORATORIES, INC:
P. O. Box 552 • Lansdale, Pa. 19446 • (215) 822-2929
Circle
122 on Reader
Automatic
weather
forecaster
fol
CATV
systems
receives
National
Weather Service forecasts, stores each ·I
until it is updated. Model F-100 auto·
matically generates the characters for 1
video display of forecast.
Also in·
cl uded is an auxiliary keyboard character generator for adding messages
to the weather display. METRODATA
CORP.
310
Hybrid IC broadband
amplifiers for
UHF and VHF cover range from 40 to
890 MHz. A TF Series includes models
with gain from 16 dB to 26 dB, extremely flat-gain model, ± 0.5 dB
over range. Thin-film construction is
used; power required is standard 24
volts de. $5.00-$6.50. AMPEREX ELEC311
TRONIC.
Building-block
system for broadcast
consoles uses seven plug-in IC op-amp
modules. ICBM Series aJlows broad·
continued on page 56
Service Card
OCTOBER, 1972-BM/E
54
www.americanradiohistory.com
I
·Femseh will now sell, ship, and service
its TV cameras from all over America.
And you will like it.
lWe've combined the quality of Fernseh TV cameras and studio equipment with
1 an entirely new American
sales and service organization. It's now quite easy to get
the KCU-40. The 3-tube color TV camera that revolutionized European
production techniques. High light sensitivity. High signal-to-noise ratio. Tiltable
viewer. And one-quarter or one-half inch camera cables that make the KCU-40
an ideal lightweight camera for both studio and location use.
We're ready with a full team of specialists to give you all the service, parts and
· -technical help you'll need. Plus, a complete line of products including telecine
cameras, standards converters, special effects equipment, and video recording
., systems. So now, you can get the quality and dependability of Fernseh TV
.equinrnent from an American company with an office near you:
Chicago Headquarters (312) 681-5000
Houston (713) 681 -8461
Los Angeles (213) 398-0777
New York (516) 921 -9000
San Francisco (415) 583-9470
Robert Bosch Corporation
Circle
)CTOBER, 1972-BM/E
123 on Reader
~ Fernseh Division
Service Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
55
MAií'~ Video Delay Lines
Infinitely variable range of 10·165 ns. in 5
ns. steps, selectable by switches, with fine
trim of ± 4 ns. by screw adjustment.
Cascade with fixed delay boxes of 50, 200, 500
and 1.000 ns. 75 ~!-fully·equalized-inser·
tion loss .I dB. In service at all three net·
works, numerous stations.
Price $75.00 qty. 1-3. · Try one at no obligation.
Complete literature and prices on video de·
lays (boxed and PCB modules)-pulse
delays
-pulse
cleaners for under· and over-shootlow-pass video filters from
Bill Pegler
'phone (516) 628-8068
Television Equipment
BOX
Circle
1391
BAYVILLE,
N.
Associates
Y.
11?09
ask about our new
am I Im tv monitors
1
11~~~~
.... +o.o o + º·º (
1
••••• -·
~,
'
4:'°"~
lllli
Call or Write ARNO MEYER
BELAR ELECTRONICS
Lancaster
Ave. at Dorset,
LABORATORY,
Devon,
Pa. 19333
INC.
(215) 687·5550
Circle
125 on Reader Service Card
Twenty (20) days
of broadcasting* logged
on a single
10~" reel.
(•
•
··- •••
))
o
o
This Tape-Athon model 900 Logger can operate at 15/32 ips the
way most loggers run at 15/ 16
and 17,la. Imagine fidelity to 2500
Hz at 15/32 ips! That extra slow
speed
allows
409+ hours of
recording over 8 channels on V2
mil tape with a 1OV2" reel.
Twenty days of broadcasting on a
single reel. Doesn't that eliminate
a lot of problems-like
tape
changing, tape storage, and even
the cost of tape? Write now for
details.
"Based on a 20 hour broadcast day
502 S. Isis Ave., Inglewood, Calif. 90301
(213) 776-6333
Circle
cast studio to start with a few channel
and expand as needed. Included ar;
units for mike, medium-level, high
level and remote input, output, com
rnunications and monitoring. FAIR
CHILDSOUNDEQUIPMENT.
31:
"Problem-solvers kit" for aerosol main
tenance materials allows purchaser ti
choose six or more of any combinatioi
of products, rather than the larg.
quantity orders previously require
MILLER-STEPHENSON.
31:'
Linear attenuator uses MystR conduc
tive plastic resistance elements am
slip rings with precious metal wipers
LM8A has computer-controlled tape!
and tracking accuracy. Attenuatior
range is 0-90 dB, input impedano
600 ohms or I000 ohms, noise at leas
I 00 dB down, scale accuracy ± O.~
dB; 0-20 dB, ± I dB 20-50 dB
WATERSMANUFACTURING.
31'
124 on Reader Service Card
._,
PRODUCTS
126 on Reader Service Card
56
www.americanradiohistory.com
Portable
wide-band
bridge allow
measurement of cable return loss anc
VSWR on standard field strengtl
meter, without oscilloscope. "Porta·
Bridge" has white-noise generator anc
precision 75-ohm bridge, head shapec
to fit into close places, double male
adaptor connector. Distance to short!
and opens can be checked with graph!
supplied; unit can also check flatness
of field strength meter. $149.50
SADELCO.
31!
Broadband power amplifier kit pro·
duces unit covering range 0.5 MHz·
I 00 MHz. Kit MP-100 is rated at 2.~
w cw, will accept AM, SSB, pulse, 01
other complex waveforms.
Input ol
O. 15 volt produces full power output
LARKTONSCIENTIFIC.
3U
Low-cost waveform monitor and video
monitor combo is designed primarilí
for use on each camera output ir
studio, but can be connected anywhere
in video system. Unit takes 7 inch
of rack space, includes a tally light t
show camera status. ULTRA AUDIC
PRODUCTS.
31
1
Hand-held concrete breaker attaches ti
basic trencher unit with quick-coupl
hydraulic connectors. Noise is reduced!
by elimination of roaring compressor
and explosive release of air. The unit
takes the shock, reducing strain 011
operator. DITCH WITCH, DIVISIONOf
CHARLESMACHINEWORKS.
318i
Plastic material for filters on TV, the·
atre, and movie lights does not shed
fragments, will not tear. "Tough Spun''
is more durable than spun glass, pro
continued on page 5,
Do wonders
for your image
Whatever your CCTV requirement ... or
problem ... we think you should think of
Shibaden.
Shibaden offers a complete line of
professional quality video equipment. Tested,
proven and in use throughout the world.
Education. Training. Medical.
Industry. Security. Broadcasting.
Cablecasting. You name it ... there's a
Shibaden TV camera, video tape recorder,
monitor or receiver, and all the accessories
for it.
The video products pictured below are
only four of the 150 currently available to
those who won't compromise quality, yet
must consider economy.
Look into the camera line. From minisized security cameras, up thru the high-
SHIBADEN CDRPDRATION
quality, moderate-priced black and white
studio cameras (as the popular FP-1OOD
shown below), and on up to the Shibaden
FPC-1OOOsand the FP-1200, the professional
color camera.
Check out Shibaden VTRs.The 51OD
with electronic editing is shown below. Their
many features include (at no extra cost)
variable slow and stop motion, servo capstan,
internal sync and EIAJ-format specs.
And so on. Portable VTRs. Monitors from
5" to 23". Switcher/Faders. Special effects
generators. Lenses. If you need it, you name
it. Chances are Shibaden has it ... off the
shelf.
Write today for full specs and costs on
one or all of our products. We may be able to
do wonders for your image.
OF AMERICA
Exec. Off.: 58-25 Brooklyn-Queens Exp'y, Woodside, N.Y. 11377
21015-21023 S. Figueroa St., Carson, Calif. 90745
1725 No. 33rd Ave., Melrose Park, Ill. 60160
100 Martin Ross Ave., Downsview, Ontario, Canada
Circ:le
127 on Reade~ Service Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
PRODUCTS
duces
slightly
more
diffusion
than
standard
O.OIO spun glass. $40 for
roll 4 feet wide, 25 feet long. Rosco
LABORATORIES.
319
High-frequency
measurement
probe
covers range from
10 kHz to 800
MHz, volts from O.I to 25 rms. Model
2791 is designed primarily to extend
range of Model 2795 multimeter,
but
can he used with any voltmeter with a
I YDC-Mcgohm
range.
SIMPSON
ELECTRIC Co.
320
-
('"/
••·. ~\
.:-&. •\•
RUSSCO STUDIO-PRO
and CUE MASTER turn·
tables offer the ultimate
in rugged
long-wear
dependability
and ease of operation
...
only
3 moving
partsl Na-slip
starting
and reliable
Bodine synchronous
motor.
The finest
profes·
sionol engineering
with prices starting
at a
low $152.00
150 on Reader
Circle
Service
Card
151 on Reader
Service
TYPICAL SWITCHING
CROSSPOINT
/ "
, ,>
Card
,
/
,/ ,
,
, ,
'
-
You
gel
(+18
PRO"
amps.
needs,
the most "'headroom"
for the money
DBM)
with
RUSSCO's New "FIDELITY.
and
"FIDELITY -MASTER"
phone
pre·
8 models stereo or mono to fit your
self-powered
and featuring
a unique
"easy-service"
ing
with
cose. Years ahead
economical
prices
152 on Reader
Circle
in engineerstarting
at $92.00
Service
.
/
/
NEW CARTRIDGES
Advantage THREE
Shipment, from stock, of any standard size,
...
"prompt shipment" of CUSTOM SIZE Fide
pac precision manufactured NAB cartridges
FOUR-20
or more shipped
distributor
for
NORTRONIC
Phone or Write
JOA Cartridge Service
P.O. Box 3087, Phila., Penna. 19150
Area Code 215, 886 7993
•
•Bulk Tape
¿ROGRAMMING
PIN
Diode-holding
pins are available. $1.00
per crosspoint
in small
quantities,
$0.40 at 100 M. INFO-LITE CORP. 304
Multiple
connect
Advantage
Authorized
Degaussers
/
BULK TAPE ERASERS
assure
clean,
noiseless tape , .. on cartridges,
reels
or cassettes. Our new Model 300C is a
heavy-duty
table-top
unit with spindle
that even erases
10Y2"-dia.,
1"-wlde
cable subscriber tap has rapid
and disconnect,
plus a lock
Card
MASTER
amplifier
gives
you clean sound in a trim standard
19" rack
size ... Quick installation
& easy service with
plug-in
house!
P.C. boards.
only $210.00
Circle
A
153 on Reader
trouble-free
Service
200C/220C
video tape reels (and everything
small·
er). costs just $44.95. Model 200C is
hand-held,
pushbutton-operated
eraser,
$22.60. Similar
Model
220C for 230
VAC/50 Hz use is $24.60.
;..-
MONITOR
MINIMUM
RECONDITIONING
Advantage TWO-NO EXTRA CHARGEfor
(a) foam teflon-faced pressure pads
(b) replacement of minor parts
(c) visible splice
(d) pretesting under actual broadcast conditiom
(e) 48 hour processing
(f) Scotch heavy-duty lubricated tape
300C
RUSSCO's
ONE-NO
s
The perfect tone arm for the finest turntable!
The RUSSCO TA· l 2 all metal anti-skating
tone
arm only $59.00
Circle
navantag"
CARTRIDGE
Portable oscilloscnpcs w eigh 25 pounds
each, have 8 cm by 10 cm display, instant view of trigger waveform,
dual
traces, delayed and mixed sweep operation. Model 475 has 200 MHz bandwidth at 2 mY/cm,
sweep speed of l
nanosecond
with X I O mag. Model 465
has I 00 MHz bandwidth,
5 nanosecond
sweep with X I O mag. Both arc battery
operated.
Model 475, $2500; Model
465, 1725. TEKTRONIX.
321
Eight-level programming
matrix board
connects
four inputs to four outputs
with single pin insert. Unit handles I
MHz
switching
without
shielding.
-'
JOA CARTRIDGE SERVICE
OFFERS DISTINCT ADVANTAGES
YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT
Power-
HEAD DEMAGNETIZER
is indispensable
for proper tape head maintenance, maximum frequency response, low tape noise.
Pole piece will not damage head. Only
$8.00.
Card
Order direct or write for delalts.
for security. "Key-Tees"
have modules
handling up to eight lines each, cover
band 5 MHz to 300 MHz, have isolation of 20 dB, have optional
2-way
capability.
ENTRON INC.
305
58
BROADCAST ELECTRONICS, INC.
----A
Fllmw•r•
Compen~
----
8810 Brookville
Rd., Silver Spring, Md. 20910
OCTOBER, 1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
Get the professional look
from helical-scan Ampex VPR-7950
It's that good!
A super-sharp
teleproducer
can sec
the superior quality of a VPR-7950
picture compared
to one from anv
other l" recorder.
What is a VPR-7950?
The world's highest performance
1" color/monochrome,
helical-scan
videotape recorder. It incorporates
the same advanced design features
of the Ampex VPR-7900 and the
TBC-790 time base corrector
in
a handsome,
highly
functional
console.
Video waveform
and picture
n monitor selector switches may be
, used together
or independently.
1 An eye-level
panel includes
both
monitors
as standard
equipment
and an optional
vector
display
scope.
The VPR-7950 is a complete
recorder/ reproducer which fea tu res:
O Very high carrier
mode (7-10
MHz) for exceptional
quality
in
color dubs even clown to 3rd and
4th generations;
5th, in black and
white.
O Precision, fast, total, electronic
insert and assemble
editing from
11 any signal source.
O Internal
digital reference
system that includes a horizontal lock
servo, frame lock and vertical interval switching.
O Three independent
tracks (single video - dual audio),
each of
which can be used, altered, edited
or replaced at any time.
O High efficiency
ferrite
video
head with 500 hour warranty
and
the fastest, simplest
replacement
system ever devised.
O Capstan controlled
high speed
tape cycling modes, velocity loop
tension servo, direct coupled drum
servo, minutes and seconds coun-
II
ter, monitor
amplifier
and cue
microphone.
In developing the time base corrector, Ampex engineers discarded
current technology and took a new
digital approach to time base correction that affords the most stable
video signal ever produced
by a
helical-scan
recorder.
It produces
clean facies, lap dissolves
and
special effects as well as dubs of
edited
material
of outstanding
quality to l" and 1/2" videotape recorders, quaclruplex recorders and
transfers to film.
Like the VPR-7950, the combination of the VPR-7900 and TBC-790
produces
recording
capabilities
that meet all standard
broadcast
requirements.
The TBC-790 may be
purchased
with the VPR-7900 you
may now own. The VPR-7900/TBC
combination
is portable
enough
for use as a mobile unit for location work. Tapes made on the VPR7900 are completely
interchangeable with those
made on the
VPR-7950.
Round out your teleprocluction
svs t crn with the Ampex CC-500
color camera system, which incorporates
professional
features,
is
simple to operate and low in price.
-
CC-500 C11111er11
Call your Ampex Dealer or write:
Audio-Video Sales, Ampex Corporation, 401 Br oa dwa v. Ro d woo d
City, CA 94603.
.
A111pex V PR-7900 recorder
I reproducer
with TBC-790
Circle
130 on Reader
I
AMPEX
I
Service Card
59
OCTOBER, 1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
NEW
LIT
Replace
Mercury
Vapor
Tubes
Directly
with
For copies of these literature offer·
ings, circle number for appropriate
items on Reader Service Card.
Data sheets cover two units for multiimage automation:
Tri-cut
control,
which controls up to six slide projectors on three screens, for automatic dissolves, zooms, mixes, etc.; and the
Media Mix Programmer, which uses
computer tape to control three sixchannel systems, plus nine auxiliary devices. Spindler and Sauppe.
200
Precision electronic test equipment is
subject of Short Form Catalog G-1,'
including power, sweep, noise, and
AM/FM-synthesized
and programmable generators; analyzers; fieldstrength meters; etc.
Rohde and:
Schwarz.
211;
Information
Kit provides basic engineering information on the proper
use of attenuators, in precision labo-i
ratorv measurements and in communication circuit power level settings.1
American Electronic Laboratories.
212
Comprehensive technical data sheets;
cover: Model 1710 RF Network An-I
Brochure and technical notes describe
uses of Mctrascopc, a multi-channel
bar graph display system using cathode-ray presentation of multiple data
so urecs: strain gauges. thermocouples,
ctc.: also with alarm at selectable set
points. Metra Instruments, Inc.
201
THE
Wü~~ü[email protected]~
Silicon Rectifier
Stacks!
Because ...
O
Only non-encapsulated WILKINSON Silicon Rectifiers can be repaired in seconds with low-cost
replacement diodes!
Three base-station broadband antennas
of the 6 dB omnidirectional gain type
arc covered in data sheet. Phelps
Dodge.
202
Catalog of switches gives engineering
drawings. specifications, covering more
than 200 types. Cherry Electrical
Products Corp.
203
O Exclusive "GO, NO GO" indicator
automatically warns when the reverse leakage of any diode is in
excess of 50 microamps.
0
Only WILKINSON Silicon Rectifiers are available in a complete
tube replacement range of from
866 to 8578.
0
WILKINSON Silicon Rectifiers
function in ambient temperatures
of from - 85 F to +158 F.
O
No more filament heat and consequent filament burnout ... lower
power cost and reduced hum, too.
O No warm up time is necessary ...
instantaneous operation!
0
Just plug in WILKINSON Silicon
Rectifiers ... no re-wiring
is
necessary.
0
Only WILKINSON Silicon Rectifiers are tully guaranteed and have
a safety margin well in excess of
tube rating.
For complete details write today to:
WILKINSON
-
'
'•
ELECTRONICS, INC.
1937 MACDADE BLVD.WOODLYN, PA. 19094
TELEPHONE
1215! 874-5236 874-5237
Circle
131 on Reader
Service
Video products, programmers, equalizers. amplifiers. etc .. are listed and described in Quick Reference Catalog.
Dynascicnccs
Corp.
204
Catalog covers instrument carriers and
multiple outlet strips. Waber Electronics. Inc.
205
"All-line"
I6-pagc catalog shows digital and meter V-O-Ms, portables, laboratory types, and accessories. Triplett
Corp.
206
CCTV color television camera system,
Model CC-500. is subject of four-page
brochure. Ampex.
207
Color film camera, Series 1500 is fully
described. with extensive comments
by users. in eight-page pamphlet. Cohu,
Inc.
208
T
"Qualitv-Service
aná Price/"
Yes, quality, service and price
on CATV systems are the reasons for Fort Worth Tower's position as the industry's
leading
supplier.
Experience
gained as
a pioneer supplier of CATV enables Fort Worth Tower to provide you with a quality product
at a price that is reasonable
and attractive.
Take advantage
of our experience. For assistance
in systems
planning, engi·needng and complete systems quotations
CAU OR WRIT'ETODAY
"CATV Pathrnakers," new pamphlet,
tells about services offered to CATV
system operators. GTE Sylvania. 209
?tnt 1(/d, 7°"'"
Engineering data sheet shows how to
choose console modules to make up
audio consoles for specific requiremerits.
Fairchild Sound Equipment.
210
P.O. Box 8597, F.ort Worth, Texas
(817) JE 6-5676
-Associated
CompaniesTommy Moore, Inc.
Big State Engineering, Inc.
Tower Construction Finance, Ine.
Card
COMPANY, INCORPORATED
Circle
132 on Reader
Service Card
OCTOBER, 1972--BMIE
60
www.americanradiohistory.com
a]yzer, for a wide range of measurements on broadband cable and cable
slectronic units; and 75-ohm precision
coaxial components, including adaptors, connectors,
attenuators,
etc.
General Radio.
213
WANT ACCESS TO TH E LATEST WORD ON
• CABLE TV
"Cartridge Talk" is a pamphlet in
news-item style covering broadcast
tape cartridge units and related equipment. Tapecaster.
214
•
INFORMATION
•
BROADBAND
Subscribe
SYSTEMS
COMMUNICATIONS
to BROADBAND
Covers systems planned or being
tions, and financing.
Twenty-four
Broadband
AM/FM self-supporting and guyed
towers are described in detail in illustrated leaflet. Stainless, Inc.
215
COMMUNICATIONS
REPORT!
built, local franchising,
slate and federal regulaissues a year for $48. Send for sample copy!
Information
Services
274 Madison Avenue, New York 10016
Circle
NETWORK?
Inc.
212-685-5320
170 on Reader Service Card
Price and ordering information on
single and dual cable bi-directional
electronic units is given in eight-page
listing. AEL Communications Corp.
216
EMii field intensity meters, RF current probes, antennas,
microwave
components, and related test instruments are covered in 16-page shortform catalog of complete line. Singer
Instrumentation.
217
CONSOLE YOURSELF!
Engineering bulletin describes use of
Vertical Interval Reference Signals in
·.,testing variations in color in TV proiugram material. Electronic Industries
Association.
218
"Zig Zag" antennas for UHF and
VHF are the subject of illustrated
data sheet. RF Systems, Inc.
219
Peak-reading storage voltmeter, which
holds peak readings until reset, is
covered in technical bulletin. Pioneer
Instrumentation.
220
Technical booklet gives details on
"Metro-Com",
new two-way broadband telecommunications system using
the 6-48 MHz band for distribution
on cable. Ameco.
221
Performance of a number of AML
multi-channel microwave links in actual use is covered in depth in 30page report. Theta-Corn,
222
Catalog supplement of 8 pages shows
.new RF directional wattmeters, load
resistors and attenuators.
Bird Electronic Corp.
223
Engine-driven electric generators are
described in brochure, with typical
applications and specifications. Onan.
224
¡
Coaxial connectors Series 990 for 5300 MHz, RFI-resistant
and antipull-out, are described in catalog
sheet. Magnavox CATV.
225
Model 5511
Stereo
'
SPOTMASTER
IS HERE ...
Model 5M11
Mono
with outstanding new audio consoles
from $775
Here are the audio consoles for stations whose standards are higher
than their budgets. Look what you get:
Model 5M11 Mono-11
Model 8M20 Mono-20
Model 5511 5tereo-11
Model 8514 5tereo-14
HI/LO inputs into 5 mixers
HI/LO inputs into 8 mixers
pairs of HI/LO inputs into 5 mixers
pairs of HI/LO inputs into 8 mixers
• Electronic switching of input
channels via FET's
• Low and high level preamps
for each channel
• Top quality ladder attenuators
(Daven or equiv.); carbon pots
optional at lower cost in mono
models
• Identical program and audition
output channels for dual console capability
Individual program. audition,
monitor, cue and headphone
amplifiers. plus mono mixdown
amps in stereo models
• Solid state construction throughout; modular. plug-in circuitry;
superb specs; complete with
self-contained power supply
• Beautiful as well as functional;
wood grain side panels
Write or call for details about the budget-pleasing prices:
BROADCAST ELECTRONICS, INC.
----------A
Filmways Company---8810 Brookville Road. Silver Spring, Maryland 20910 • (301) 588-4983
61
OCTOBER,1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
QUAD STEREO
continued from page 46
from rear-channel cancellation occurring in the encoding process.
The Sansui system, on the other hand, introduces
its ±90º phase shift at the encoder to eliminate
any problem with cancellation;
then reshifts the
rear-channel information back to its original phase
location in the decoder. The system thus recreates
the original sound field, not an imitation of it.
The basic encoding system is shown in the block
diagram in Fig. 3, while Fig. 4 shows how the phase
shifters arc wired into the circuit. The left-rear
channel is shifted by +90º and the right rear by
-90º.
Thus, the reverse-phase
relationship
between the back channels is converted into an inphase one. Now the encoder outputs will be:
L - (LF -l jLB)cosA
R - (RF - jRB)cos8
+ (RF_¡_ jRB)sinA
+ (LF -- jLB)sinA
(4)
Where j = ±90º, these equations show that there is
no loss of back-channel
information in the encoding process when j-phasc shifters arc used.
In any four-channel stereo system, the information in each channel must be treated equally. Vector
analysis shows that this is true only when the vector
angles among the four channels are identical-when
they are all 7T/8 (because 28 = 7r/4).
When recordings are made with this angle, ad
jaccnt crosstalk is uniformly 3 dB. Thus, the fou
channels are reproduced equally to provide a squan
sound field. Equal volume balance is maintainer
among the four channels, so distinct sound image
can be positioned in any location inside the sounc
field.
Programs encoded by this method can be decod
ed using a different vector other than 22.5° withou
losing much of the original four-channel effect. A
the same time, a decoder using a 22.5° vector car
decode programs encoded at other vector angle
without losing a significant amount of the qua
effect.
Discrete programs
In the early days of quad broadcast experiments
the only four-channel
material available was or
tape, and this was, by definition, discrete material
It required simulcasting by two FM stereo station!
(see BM I E, February
1970) and early experiments showed a great deal of promise. certainly the
demand was there for FM quadcasting, but using
two stations for a simulcast was just as impractical
as it had been in the early days of stereo.
Various methods of discrete broadcasting hav
been proposed, (Quadracast, G.E., and Radio Programming Management, see BM /E, page 6, June
1972) but none bas been approved by the FCC
Fidelioac gives you Phase control
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Circle 133 on Reader Service Card
62
OCTOBER, 1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
"'
except for experimental broadcasts. See page 66. Besides, any discrete quadcasts would require special
receiving equipment for full four-channel
reproduction.
While there continues to be a market for discrete
quad, most such taped material being sold today is
in eight-track cartridges aimed mainly at the high-
regular stereo again.
The encoded signal makes absolutely no extra
demands on the station's equipment or on its allocated channel space. The encoded program has no
additional sideband information impressed on it.
Proof of the pudding is in the numerous FM stereo
stations around the country that are now transmitting encoded music on a regular basis. The FCC has
made no move to interfere with or restrict this activity because the stations aren't sending anything that
goes outside their license limitations.
The promotional value of broadcasting quad stereo can be invaluable to an FM station. Just as it
paid off to go stereo in the mid-l 960's, it may now
pay to quadcast on a regular basis. This prospect is
especially inviting since there is no equipment investment or extra cost of any kind involved (except
perhaps to buy the records) when transmitting fourchannel stereo.
Local promotional tie-ins with stereo dealers and
national co-op deals with manufacturers of quad
equipment is also in the cards. Some stations have
started special weekly programs to discuss and
demonstrate the latest quad recordings and often
include semi-technical discussions of the equipment
and how it works. It all adds up to larger and more
interested audiences. So why not start broadcasting
quad stereo now? It's the cheapest program upgrading you'll ever make.
BM/E
way listener. But more and more record companies
are experimenting with encoded discs. The split is
fairly even with about half the major labels opting
, for Columbia/Sony (now partially combined with
I the Electro-Voice system) and the rest using Sansui
> encoding. No matter which of the two encoding
systems is used, the other system's decoder will
provide satisfactory quad playback.
The important feature of quad matrixing is that
an encoded record can be played on the air with no
11 modification to any of the station's equipment. The
same phono pickup, the same turntable, modulator,
1 and transmitter
are used. In all respects, the matrix
disc is treated like an ordinary stereo recording. The
listener who has a quad decoder gets a full fourchannel program; those listening with ordinary stereo get a balanced stereo program.
If a broadcaster wants to transmit from discrete
J sources, such as a tape or a live concert, an encoder
must be used between the four-channel source material and the broadcast console. But the encoder's
output is an ordinary two channels, so we're back to
1
1
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e
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105 East69th Avenue
Vancouver 15, British Columbia, Canada
Phone: .(604) 327-9446 Telex: 04-508605
Circle
134 on Reader
Service Card
63
OCTOBER, 1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
FCC RULES
CR 6210
BROADCAST
COLOR
MONITOR
Now with Pulse-Cross
avai Iable
as a no charge option, World Video
nables the discriminating
engineer
to purchase the first truly multipurpose color monitor.
The CR6210
has the high professional
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ss en t ia I for ta pe , r emo te a n d a I I
critical applications,
however,
it
is modestly priced for use in any
monitoring
function where cost previously dictated the use of uti I ity
monitors, monochrome
monitors or
even receiver~nonitors.
WORLD VIDEO, INC.
Box 117
BOYERTOWN,PA. 111!512
Circle
136
on Reader
(2115) 387-801515
Service Card
Increase Head Life with ISOLAIR
New Clean Air Unit by LIBERTY
This unit provides a laminar down
flow of the cleanest possible air
at the critical video head area.
Excessive wear and damage by
airborne contaminants
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extending head
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su ring better overall VTR perform·
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additional floor space. It is easily
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and
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An additional positive effect is the
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--~
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Call or write.
LIBERTY INDUSTRIES,
LIBERTY
INC.
598 Deming Road, Berlin, Conn. 06037
Telephone (203) 828-6361
Circle
137
on Reader Service
continued from page 16
policy to Presidential broadcasts),
it, predictably,
could heed its own message, stated therein, and
forswear applying a mechanical formula to an area·
which calls for discretion by cable operators. This is
not to say that the principles of the Fairness Doc,
trine would not apply to the many cable channels.
Rather, the mechanism that has worked well for
broadcast stations would most probably not work'
when applied to all of the many channels of a
CA TV system, if the Commission's intention is to
achieve the diversity of access and program contrail
which appears to be socially desirable.
1
The instant "fairness" ruling, important to brcad-]
casters and cablecasters in and of itself, also sug-;
gests a Commission
trend in treating controversialissue programming
problems. Salient Commission
observations on the Fairness Doctrine, emanating
from both I) its Memorandum Opinion and Orden
(FCC 70-881), and 2) the instant decision, may be
summarized as follows:
I ) The Fairness Doctrine is viewed as the single!
most important requirement
of operation in the
public interest.
2) The Commission will not substitute its judgment·
for that of the broadcaster-as
to precisely: what is
fair; who should be the spokesmen; what should be
the format of the program; how long or how often
such programming should be carried; whether or·
not it should be paid-time or free-time.
3) However, if there is a clear imbalance of presen-.
tation of one side of a controversial issue, the Com-t
mission (without specifying the precise method,
length of time, etc., to obtain a balanced presenta-í
tion) will direct the licensee to provide programming on the other side(s) of that issue.
4) Further, if the licensee has been unreasonable or
has shown bad faith in presenting imbalanced public-issue fare, the Commission will find the licensee
"arbitrary"
and may impose
fine, forfeiture,
renewal hearing, or other form of censure.
5) There is NO mathematical formula to determine
fairness. That is, the Fairness
Doctrine
does
NOT guarantee "equal" time, time-segment, caliber
of spokesman, or format; "equal opportunities ... is
not the thrust of the fairness doctrine ... "
6) Presidential addresses are subject to the Fairness
Doctrine, but do not necessarily require directlyresponsive programming on the other side to satisfy
fairness requirements.
7) Fairness will be determined by review of all the
programming that has been presented on the issue.
8) The Fairness Doctrine is a "term of art" and
does not guarantee balanced programs in terms certain.
Conclusion
The Fairness Doctrine has been a source of programming
uncertainty
and confusion
to many
broadcasters and cable operators. The Commission,
equally concerned with the problems created, has
launched a broad-ranging inquiry into the efficacy of
the Doctrine. The above "Presidential address" de·
cision appears to cast the first shaft of light on
Commission treatment of problem areas. Many
more rulings should soon follow and bring clarity to
the present confusion. Throughout this period, it is
the wise licensee or operator who keeps close con·
tact with his communications
counsel.
BM/E
Card
64
OCTOBER, 1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
)ECAM/60
continued from page 36
mt having a precise reference to go by leads to the
'urther possibility that even a properly recorded tape
nay be erroneously reproduced.
Last. but certainly
10t least, is that the display of simultaneous
NTSC
iictures on a group of monitors in the same class'oorn will require very precise adjustment for color
miformity. It is not unusual that color monitor
natching becomes a daily event because of the
iumber of interdependent
variables in NTSC. In
iarticular, with the use of low-cost helical recorders
or NTSC color, it is often necessary te adjust the
.olor phase-lock control prior to adjusting the phase
:ontrol (hue) on the monitor without knowing for
rertain which of the two is rendering final phase
NEW
LIP-SYNC
SECRET
tccuracy.
The SECAM/60
system eliminates many of the
:ritical adjustments common te an NTSC color telc/ision system. It yields the following advantages:
.) The elimination of hue adjustment
on the disilay /receiver,
~) A limited-range
saturation
control which nornally requires no change over long periods of time,
I) Minimum visibility of the subcarrier in the Standrrd L format, because of its high frequency.
l) Satisfactory distribution
over monochrome
sysems including
distribution
amplifiers.
processing
,, umplifiers, microwave, and cable systems. The only
nodification required is the unblanking of part of
he vertical interval to allow SECAM/60
identificaion pulses through.
i) Recording
and reproduction
by virtually
all
2uadraplex VTR's in either highband or lowband
.olor. These recorders require no time-hase correeors or velocity error compensators
to reproduce ex.ellent SECAM/60
color.
i) Virtually all one-inch monochrome
helical re:orders can be used to record and play back SE:AM/60
signals with little or no modification.
:ompatibility for the interchange of one-inch mono:hrome tapes is all that is necessary to guarantee
tood SECAM/60
reproduction,
') Helical-to-helical
dubs in one-inch format may
- ie made with full color accuracy in the duplicate
ape. There is only a small loss in signal-to-noise
atio, dependent upon other conditions.
:) Half-inch helical recorders have been made to
vork on Standard L SECAM/60
with minor modfications. The results, however, have not been coníidered fully acceptable from a signal-to-noise viewioinr even though subjective picture quality looked
.ood. SECAM/60
Standard M has been successful" y used with half-inch recorders of several makes
md has been distributed
over ITFS monochrome
stems without any shift in image colorimetry.
1) Transcoding in either direction to or from a SE·:AM/60 format has proven to be practical as long
is the original signals are of good quality.
In view of the great advantages that SECAM/60
irovides,
it is proposed
that
this frequencynodulated color encoding technique be used for
:1' nolor programs on closed-circuit television.
BM/E
BE 450 SYNCHRONIZER
The secret is the all new wide range electronic
synchronizer. Within a 30 second capture range it
automatically
brings any two mag tapes - quad,
slant track, sprocketed or unsprocketed audio - into
exact sync.
The new BE450 compares identical SMPTE Edit
Codes on the two tapes and adjusts the speed of one
of the recorders until the tapes are in frame to frame
lock. It keeps the tapes in sync, or in manually adjusted offset, regardless of normal tape stretch or
slippage.
In the audio-sweetening example above, the SMPTE
Edit Code on the quad master has been recorded both
on the slant track dub and the multi-channel audio
tape. The Synchronizer then keeps every production
step in exact timing keyed to final audio recording
on quad master.
The BE450 capabilities are too good to keep secret
from anyone with audio sweetening problems or any
other audio/video sync requirements. Send now for
descriptive Iiterature.
ELECTRONIC
ENGINEERING
COMPANY OF CALIFORNIA
1441 East Chestnut Avenue• Santa Ana, California 92701
Phone: (714) 547-5651 TWX:910-595-1550 Telex: 67-8420
Circle
135 on Reader
Service Card
65
ICTOBER,1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
NEWS continued
from page 10
Las Vegas. November
2: Boston,
November 9; San Antonio. November
I.+: St. l.ouiv, November 16: and Atlanta, November 21.
Discrete Quad Requires
Authorization, Says FCC
Fl\l broadcavtcrs may not put on
discrete quad broadcavts without specific FCC authorization. the Commission ruled in Augu-,r. The ruling was
in answer to a rcqucvt from KIOI,
1Hbu>d~
San Francisco,
which had earlier been
given temporary
experimental
authority to field-test the Darren system. The
management
of KJOJ contended that
adjacent channel stations must be r
viewed before the Darren
could come into general use.
use of the Darren system could be
continued without specific authority
since its was compatible with the rules
governing two-channel stereo transnussion.
The FCC disagreed, pointing out
that Section 73.312(C) of the rules
allows only a single sine subcarrier,
while the Darren system adds a cosine
subcarrier. The FCC also said that the
Darren system might exceed present
limits on modulation, so that existing
protection ratios for ro-channel and
Renewal Notice Must Speclt
60 Days for Public Comme
POR TA-PA.TT
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• designed for self-standing or mounting on a standard
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Notice Due Public If Candidate Supplies Recording
lightweight aluminum extrusion chart holder.
each chart framed and recessedto assure protection
from abrasion and water damage.
• set contains one each standard resolution, linearity,
registration, and logrithmic reflectance chart.
• Munsell chips with black nonreflective cloth mounted
on chip chart.
• replacement and specializedcharts always available.
Price $180.00 f.o.b. Hollywood
GRENIER BROTHERS INCORPORATEDel114 N. Vine St.• Hollywood. Co. 90038 • (fü) 464-6111
Circle
139 on Reader
Service
Card
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Circle
METRON
INSTRUMENT~IN~
1051 South Platte River Drive
Denver, Colo. 80223
(303) 744-1791 • TELEX 04-5729
140 on Reader
When a broadcast licensee gives publt
notice, as required by the rules, th
he will apply for a renewal of hi
license, the notice must specify th
the public has 60 days to comment e
station performance after the renew~
application deadline, the FCC ruled ¡,
August. The earlier rule set 30 days 1¡
the period specified in the notice fo
public comment, but the FCC a
knowledged that this was inconsiste
with the 60-day period, established i
1969, for petitions to deny renew;
applications. The new rule chang
is in response to a request from Blac
Efforts for Soul Television (BEST).
Service
Card
66
www.americanradiohistory.com
The Complaints and Compliance Div:
sion of the Commission ruled that
broadcaster must notify the audienc
when any materials or services in con
nection with a program are furnishe
by a candidate for office, or politics
party, that such materials have beet
so furnished, even though the canda
elate or party furnished only technica
equipment for the broadcast and th
station controls the editorial content
The ruling came in response to a re
quest from a news service which occa
sionally uses the audio feed service o
the Republican Congressional Com
mittee to record interviews with Con
gressmen.
FCCBriefs
A proposed rule is the restriction o.
broadcast of the stereo pilot subcarri
er to periods when stereo broadcastin¡
is under way. The Commission sai«
that transmission of the subcarrie
during monophonic broadcasting i
"contrary to the intent of the rule fl
and serves no useful purpose" . .
Western
Connecticut
Broadcastiní
Co., licensee of radio stations wsre
and WSTC-FM in Stamford, Connectií
cut, will pay a fine of $10,000 fol
censoring political broadcasts in 1
1969 Stamford mayorality election, i:
the initi.al decision of an FCC hearinj
examiner stands; the stations were ac • ~
cusecl of requiring Democratic anc 11 ~
Fusion candidates to submit scripts fo1
review (illegal) while giving the Re·
publican candidate a free rein.
The Price Commission, in response
to an FCC inquiry, ruled that if 2
station based its program rates on the
size of audience, a rise in rates to
continued on page 68
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With this "Delta Trio", you can either "spot check",
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DELTA ELECTRONICS
OCTOBER, 1972-BM/
155 on Reader
E
g
Exporter: DELTA ELECTRONICS, INC.
International Division. 154 E Boston Post RD
Mamaroneck, N. Y. 10543, Telex 1 37327, Art Rocke
Circle
Circle
tor optimum
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01 your
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system
DELTA ELECTRONICS, INC., 5534 Port Royal
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I~
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TIME
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THE
DELTA
TRIO
Service Card
I5b on Reader
Service Card
67
www.americanradiohistory.com
revenues of $8,446,311 and earnings of
$837.910
for the first six months of
1972, up from $4,766,668
and $263,457 for first-ha lf 1971 ...
Systems
Wire and Cable, Inc. announced
earnings of $166.006
for the nine months
ended June 30, I 972; sales were up 44
NEWS
match an increase in the audience
would not be in violation of price regulation'> ... Prime lime. for purposes
of' the acccvs rule. ha'> been redefined
by the FCC or the mountain zone as
(J to 10 p.rn. local time, effective Oct obcr I. I 972: the former limits were
7 to I I p.m.
Sansui Flcctrouics Corp. moved into
a nC\\' enlarged headquarters
and
Eastern distribution center at 55-1 I
Queen> Boulevard. Woodside, N.Y ....
Tcleconuuunicatious,
Inc. reported
percent over the same 1971 period.
Continenlal Electronics, Dallas, has
a contract to supply four 50 kw AM
broadcast
transmitters and supporting
equipment to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation for use at the two
CBC Toronto
stations, CBL and
CJ BC' ... RCA will enlarge its Scranton, Pa., picture-tube plant with a 34,-
í
4TRAtJSLAJORS
DESIGNERS AND MANUFACTURERS
OF VHF, UHF, FM~
ALSO REPAIR PARTS AND UP DATING KITS FOR
ALL ADLER AND LITTON TRANSLATORS
FOR FULL INFORMATION:
/Jelev!s1,"on/Jechnology Corporaúon
9150-B
Brookville Road, Silver Spring, Md. 20910
(301) 588-8836
Circle
142 on Reader
Service
Card
MEET THE LITTLE SISTER
OFOUR WP-11...the compact WV-063
waveform & picture
monitor combo for
less than what
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Request Bulletin
Box 921
No.
IBM
Beverly Hills
Circle
Audio
Products
10-121
California
143 on Reader
90213
•
(213) 849-1433
000-square-foot addition ...
Metro.
media, Inc. bought from Chris Craft
Industries the latter's WTCN-TV in
Minneapolis-St. Paul.
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New.
York. used videotape recorders and a',
CCTV system, with SECAM/60 color (see page 34, this issue) to present
viewers at a sculpt ure show with the life
of the artist and his comments on the]
works shown ... American Television
& Communications
Corp. had revenues of $14,798,173 and earnings of
$1.452,239 in the year ended June 30,
I972, both record highs for the corn-l
pany . . . Marconi Communications
Systems of England has sold to RadioTelevisione Italiana ten of the new
Model B7 l 03 modular VHF television·
transmitters.
CableData
announced
contracts
with CATV systems in Marion, Indi-t
ana; Rancho Bernardo and San Diego,
California-all
owned by Time-Life
-to
supply computerized information service ...
Cablecom General, I
Inc. reported revenue of $8,895,507
and net income of $294,256 for
six months ended May 31, 1972 ...
RCA delivered to the U. S. Marine
Corps a mobile TV studio, for use in
producing color training programs ...
Vantage Broadcasting Co. has bought
radio station WINT, Winter Haven,
Florida, from Norman Protsman.
Mike Stocklin, talk-show moderator
of KCFW-TV,Kalispell, Montana, put
on a very special one-time program
when he was married to Carol Neufeld
on the air ... HEW announced that
more than $4 million in Federal
grants have been made during the
current fiscal year to help establish or
improve 33 non-commercial radio and
television stations in 26 states . . .
Fairchild Sound Equipment Corp. appointed M. K. Widdekind Co. north·
western reps, and Adams and Associates, southwestern reps.
C-Cor Electronics has received a
$600,000 line of credit for working
capital to expand its business . . .
Metromedia Inc. reported first half
1972 revenues at $82,984,066 and net
income at $4,271,339, up from $73,574, I 51 and $2, 787 ,904 in first half
1971 . . . Oak Security, Inc. bas
bought the assets of Security Associates, Inc., operator of central stations
for burglar and fire alarm systems.
Institution of Radio and Electronics
Engineers of Australia featured equip·
ment and systems for PAL-B standard ~
color TV at their convention August ·
30-September 3; Australian broadcasters are currently planning for the
changeover to color ... Viewer Spon·
sored Television Foundation, a non·
profit organization in Los Angeles, got
a construction permit for a television
Service Card
68
www.americanradiohistory.com
OCTOBER, 1972-BM/E
station
to operate
on Channel
68.
The Society of Cable Television Engineers, Central Atlantic Chapter,
an' nounced a meeting at the Holiday Inn,
Iersey City, N.J., on September
30,
1972, beginning
at noon, to discuss
two-way cable operation.
People
Frank A. Spexarth is the new general sales manager of Cerro CATV
:::able Products, responsible for a na:ional sales program ...
W. Wallace
Warren was appointed audio marketng analyst for RCA Broadcast Sysr terns ... Tom Adams, of w100, Miami, won the annual award by Billi .ooard Magazine
for the nation's top
.1 ~radio air
personality, sharing first
olace with "Laugh-In's" Garry Owens
r und Bob Raleigh of San Francisco ...
lohn R. Gehron Jr. became program
:lirector of WCBS/FM, New York
Robert M. Jones has joined
~Jtvlalarkey, Taylor and Associates as a
1L Inancial analyst ...
Walter L. Roberts, vice president of research and
engineering for Superior Continental
:::orporation, died when his small
rolane, in which he was alone, crashed
near Sherrills Ford, North Carolina
\' . . . William G. Poole was named man1 1 .ifacturing engineer for Systems Wire
111dCable, Inc. responsible for cost
'.l. .ontrol, efficiency, and long-range
ilanning ... The National Association
í if FM Broadcasters elected ten new
;J: Iirectors-at-large, bringing the total to
l5: Phil Sheridan, WNCI, Columbus;
'ames Gabbert, KIOI, San Francisco;
Roy Elsner, KQIP, Odessa, Texas;
111,]eorge Kravis, KRAY, Tulsa; Thomas
.lli¡dolter, WLVE, Poynette, Wisc.; Jeff
)1:..acaze, WJBO, Baton Rouge; Thurnan Worthington,
WTAR,
Norfolk;
Raymond Fritsch, KSL, Salt Lake
t• -::ity; Alex Smallens,
American FM
hdio
Network;
and Jack Baker,
:BS-FM Spot Sales.
James B. Emerson was appointed
roting director of advertising and sales
iromotion for the Magnavox CATV
/Division ...
Kenneth W. Heady be·,r carne vice president and general maniger of Meredith Corporation's KCMO
udio/Video
Systems
in Kansas
::ity, Mo.; Bill McReynolds succeeded
aim as general manager of KPHO-TV,
?hoenix; and Lynn Higbee became
:eneral
manager
of KCMO
and
CFMU-FM, Kansas City.
Eric K. Maxon is the new manager,
videocartridge recorder engineering;
awrence M. Martin is manager, tele.,. 1{ision systems planning; and Willard
J>. Stickney is manager, television sysems engineering, all of International
1
Video Corporation . . . Thomas G.
>" .,~forrisey became vice president and
corporate director of engineering for
Daniels and Associates. Denver ...
Douglas C. Williamson is the new national sales manager for Sacieleo, Ine.,
Weehawken, N .J.
Cliff Fields has joined Communications Carriers. Inc. as a cable industry
specialist ... Sheila Mahony, former
New York City assistant corporation
counsel. became a field representative;
Stanley Gerendasy became director of
applications. and Victor Nicholson became senior engineer, all for the Cable Television Information
Center,
Washington. D.C.
Chester A. Higgins, veteran journal-
The
ist who most recently was a senior
editor of Jet magazine, was named
special assistant to new FCC Commissioner Benjamin L. Hooks.
Don Rappaport
was appointed
sales representative
for California
of Cole-Flex, makers of insulation
products ... The new general manager of WKLM, Wilmington, North
Carolina, is Jack A. Carpenter, who
has 15 years of radio and TV experience in Arkansas and elsewhere
... C-Cor Electronics named Richard L. Gray as manager of the order
services department, responsible for
processing all orders received.
•1:1111§[]
incompar~~~
Here is the bold new standard in cartridge tape performance, versatility and ruggedness-the equipment that has everything! Five models
of the magnificent Ten/70 are offered to meet every recording and
playback application. All have identical dimensions. Any combination
of two will fit in our sleek 19-inch roll-out rack panel, just 7 inches high.
Control features and options include manual high-speed advance,
exclusive Auto-Cue with automatic fast-forward, automatic self-cancelling record pre-set, front panel test of cue and bias levels, built in
mike and line level mixer, color-coded design for easiest possible
operation.
Inside is a massive U.S.-made hysteresis synchronous "Direct Drive"
motor, solid state logic switching, modular construction and premium
components throughout, separate heads for A-B monitoring, full bias
cue recording, transformer input and output,
flip-top access to heads and capstan.
THE CLASSIC 500 C SERIES. Long the industry
standard, SPOTMASTER'S 500 C series is still
offered. Performance and specifications are
second only to the Ten/70.
For complete details about SPOTMASTER cartridge units (stereo, delayed programming and
multiple cartridge models, too), write or call today. Remember, Broad-
•
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cast Electronics is the No. 1 designer! producer of broadcast quality
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BROADCAST ELECTRONICS, INC.
---------A
Filmways Company--------·
8810 Brookville Road, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910 • (301) 588-4983
69
lCTOBER, 1972-BMIE
www.americanradiohistory.com
canr.our
o
o
the picture has cleared.
fm
The CA TV industry, sparked by new rules issued
by the Federal Communications
Commission, is
now off to a steady and sustained growth rate
of 18-22% annually, reaching revenues of $3.3
billion by 1982.
antenna
do this ...
Complex decisions about CATV investment,
equipment,
programming,
system design and
construction
are being made now.
Determine
what your growth and profits can be in this
rapidly growing industry through the new
in-depth Samson Science report
·l)Jl))))))
"Cable
Television, Takeoff
Sustained Growth."
Into
For further information
about this report, call
or write Ernest Donadio, Samson Research
Market Manager, {212} 986-441 O.
and this ..
QUANTUM
SCI ENCE CORPORATION
245 Park Avenue
New York, New York
if not,
lets
trade.
LO
10017
ffi7
(THIS IS NO BOOK FOR AMATEURS.)
Trade in your weak signal for one
that reaches into those difficult
fringe areas, car receivers, small
portables. "Irade-in" your old PULSE
and ARBratings for better ones.
It's crammed with
pictures, poop, and
prices. Features top
grade electronics
from around the
world. Strictly for
professional audio,
broadcast, television,
recording and motion
picture moguls. We
specialize in fast,
off-the-shelf delivery
on recorders.
Duplicators. Microphones. Turntables. Reverbs. Amplifiers.
Attenuators. Equalizers. Compressors.
Speakers. Broadcast and recording consoles.
Write for your free copy of our catalog today.
Tradeyour old antennafor our "Penetrator." It's the only patented circularized FM antenna.The "Penetrator" features will meet your exact
horizontal-to-vertical ratio requirements and save you money,too!
Built to last with marine brass and
thick-wall copper, the "Penetrator"
features low wind resistance, lightweight, high power capabilities, and
wide VSWRband widths of 1.08to 1
+200 KC.
Your antennadoes havetrade-in values. Write us today for prices, catalog and trade-in details.
Circle 144 on Reader Service Card
G
70
AUDIO DISTRIBUTORS, INC.
2342 S. Division Avenue
Grand Rapids, Michigan 49507
Circle 146 on Reader Service Card
OCTOBER, 1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
BM/E CLASSIFIED MARl(ETPLACE
CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING
RATES
DISPLAY CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING: $22.50
per inch lx; $22.00
per inch 3x; $21.00
per inch 6x; $20.00
per inch 12x. ALL OTHER CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 25¢ per word; minimum
$3.00. BLIND BOX NUMBER;
No extra
charge.
Replies
sent to address
beiow will be forwarded to you. PAYABLE IN ADVANCE; send
check v1ith order. CLOSING DATE: 5th of 2nd month preceding issue date.
BM/E, Monterey and Pinola Avenues, Blue Ridge Summit, Pa. 17214
HELP WANTED
Equal Op portunit y Employer
A11
POSITIONS
WANTED
DJ third
phone
looking
for first break
broadcasting.
tight
board,
good
news,
commercials.
Ready
now.
Larry
Fertitta,
Lawrence
Circle, Middletown,
N.J. 07748.
into
and
12
FIELD
STRENGTH
METER.
540 KHz
to
SMHz, Ten microvolts
to 10 volts per meter.
New solid state design, long battery life. Stable
accurate
calibration.
Free literature.
Solar Electronics,
901 No. Highland
Ave.,
Hollywood,
Cal. 90038.
AMERICA'S
LARGEST
STOCK
AND CONSIGNMENT
LISTING
of new and used broad·
cast and recording
equipment.
We trade-sell
and
buy.
THE MAZE CORPORATION,
P.O. Box
6636.
Birmingham,
Ala. 35210.
Mica and vacuum capacitors.
Price lists on request.
Surcom
Associates.
1147 Venice Blvd.,
Los Angeles,
Ca. 90015, (213) 362-6985.
4-650
ft. towers $6500.00 each.
Many more.
Ground
wire 85¢ per xx. lb. Bill Angle, Box
55, Greenville,
N.C. 27834. Tel. 919-752-3040.
IMMEDIATE DELIVERY
electro·mech
EQUIPMENT FOR SALE
SEC CUSTOM
AUDIO
CONSOLES
at prices
comparable
to other
manufacturers'
standard
units. Modern styling with vertical slide potentio' meters and "soft"
audio switching.
Completely
assembled
or save even more on console
kit.
Call or write for custom
quotation.
Also plugin audiomodules;
distribution
amplifiers,
preamplifi.ers,
active combining
networks,
monitor
amplifiers.
Write
or
call
for
brochure.
SYSTEMS
ENGINEERING
COMPANY.
P. O.
"' Box 49224, Atlanta,
Georgia
30329, 404 6313586.
'h
SPECIAL OFFER NEW!
INCH EIAJ STANDARD VIDEO RECORDERS
WHILE THEY LAST $500.00
CALL TOLL FREE 800-424-8536
LOGICOMP
Surplus
Audio Patch Panels
figurations.
Gulf Telephone
6235 Beverly Hill, Houston.
SCULLY
TAPE
RECORDERS:
Mono, 2, 4. 8,
12, & 16 track models plus 270 automatic
players. Sorne models in stock now. W.A.L custom
audio
control
console
& console
modules.
Solid state 120 Watt power Amps.
We buy and
rebuild Scully lathes. WIEGAND
AUDIO
LABORATORIES.
INC.
R.O. 3, Middleburg,
Pa.
17842, 717-837-1444.
MOTORS
FOR SPOTMASTERS
NEW Papst hysteresis
synchronous
motor
20.50-4-4700
as used in series 400 and 500
chines.
Price $39.00 each prepaid
while
Inst.
90 day
warranty.
Terms
check
order only, no COD"s.
Not recommended
Tupccnsicr series 600 or 700.
TAPECASTER
TCM, INC., Box 662
Rockville,
Maryland
20851
HSZ
mathey
with
for
INSTRUCTIONS
ATTENTION
VETERANS!
First class license
in five weeks with complete
theory and R.C.A.equipped
laboratory
training.
Approved
for
veterans
Tuition
$333.00.
Housing
cost $16.00
per week.
American
Institute
of Radio, 2622
Old Lebanon
Road,
Nashville,
Tenn.
37214.
615-889-0469.
PROFESSIONAL
COHEN
CONSULTING
All Standard
Con& Electronics,
Inc.
Texas 77._0_2_7_.
__
FOR
SALE-SCHAFER
800 AUTOMATION
SYSTEMS-Five
Stereo systems.
complete
with
automatic
network
switching,
seven
Ampex
program
decks.
TRU-8
generators.
and subsequencers.
Some systems with 2 or 3 Spotters.
some with Spotter
and Carousel
combination.
All in excellent
condition.
For further
details
telephone
(2121 LTl-7777,
Mr. Winston
Loyd.
CARTRIDGE
TAPE
EQUIPMENT-Rebuilt.
New paint, heads, flywheel, pressure
roller, bells
etc. Spotlessly
clean and thoroughly
tested. 30
day money-back
guarantee,
90 day warranty.
Also contact
us for possible
discounts
on new
equipment
and accessories.
AUTODYNE,
Box 1004,
Rockville,
Maryland
20850
(30 I /762- 7626).
EQUIPMENT WANTED
TRANSCRIPTION
DISCS
of old radio
and
music.
Any size, speed. Send full details
and
price 10 KINER,
Box 1274. Bellevue.
Wash.
98009.
Evangel Temple
Assembly
of God needs your
used broadcast
studio equipment!
All gifts arc
tax deductible.
We have some equipment
for
trade. Write:
P.O. Drawer
14468. Albuquerque.
N.M. 87111.
TECHNICAL SERVICES
VIR JAMES
CONSULTING
RADIO ENGINEERS
Applications
and Field Engineering
Computerized
Frequency
Surveys
345 Colorado
Blvd.-80206
(303) 333-5562
DENVER, COLORADO
Member AFCCE
-One stop
for nil your
quirements.
Bottom line
er. Box 8057, Pensacola,
-
professional
audio
reoriented.
F.T.C. BrewFla. 32505.
& BAILEY
JANSKY
TeleCommunications
Department
CATV
Consulting
& CCTV
Phone
703/354-2400
Shirley
Hwy. at Edsall Rd.
Alexandria,
Virginia
22314
Atlantic
Research
Corporation
USEBM/E's CLASSIFIED
MARKETPLACE TO
REACH OVER 26,000
BROADCASTERS!
Please run my ad in BM/E's
MARKETPLACE in your next:
O 12 issues
O 3 issues
Name
Station
CARTRIDGE
RELOADING
and reFidelipac
replacement
parts
and
Write us today for prices. PROFESAUDIO
SERVICES,
BOX 1953. Fr.
TEX. 76101.
DIPPELL
ENGINEERS
Member AFCCE
General
Electric
Camera
Equipment-A
large
stock of boards.
hardware.
sub-assemblies
including
encoders.
processors,
camera
heads.
and update
kits for General
Electric
PE 240.
PE 250 and PE 350 camera chains in new and
like-new
condit ion. Also
will consider
trade
for microwave
equipment.
Contact
J. Devine,
315/797-5220.
Raytheon
transmitter
parts
for RA-250.
RAIOOOA. and RA-SA AM transmitters.
Raytheon
transf'orrner
repair service available.
Write for
prices
and information.
CA Service,
Springfield, Vt. 05156.
&
CARDS
Formerly
GEO.
C. DAVIS
527 Munsey Bldg.
( 2021 783·0111
Washington,
D. C. 20004
Modified
Federal T&R transmitter
#191-A.
Not
FCC type approved.
May be suitable
for instruction
or broadcast
outside
of U.S.A.
Includes
two 504R tubes in excellent
condition.
$500. KORJ, Orange. Calif. 714/997-0_7_00_.__
CUSTOM
furbishing.
cartridges.
SIONAL
WORTH.
deeold
Box
FCC FIRST CLASS RADIOTELEPHONE
LICENSE
IN SIX WEEKS.
Classes in El Paso,
Dallas.
Atlanta,
Chicago.
Cincinnati,
Denver,
Ft. Worth. Hartford.
Houston.
Memphis,
Miami
Beach, Milwaukee,
Minneapolis,
Nashville.
New
Orleans,
Oklahoma
City,
St.
Louis.
San
Antonio,
San Francisco,
and Seattle. For infermation
contact
Elkins
Institute.
2727 Inwood
Rd, Dallas,
Tex. 75235 214/357-4001.
ELECTRONICS
INCORPORATED
P. O. Box 37 H, Scarsdale, N. Y. 10583
PHONE: (914) SC 3-3334
SPECIAL OFFER
AMPEX VR6000 1 INCH VTR
WHILE THEY LAST $450.00
CALL TOLL FREE 800·424-8536
Solid-stute audio modules-console
kits,
power
amplifier
kits, power supplies.
Octal plug-insmic, eq, line, disc, tape play, tape record,
amplifiers.
Audio & tape bias oscillators.
Over 50
audio products.
Send for free catalog
and applicators.
Oparnp
Labs.
Inc.,
172 So. Alta
Vista Blvd., Los Angeles,
Calif. 90036. (213)
934-3566.
"Free"
Catalog
. . . Everything
for the
jay' Comedy,
books, airchecks,
wild tracks.
radio shows, and more! Write:
Command,
26348-A, San Francisco
94126.
First phone
through
tape recorded
lessons at
home
plus one week personal
instruction
in
Washington,
D.C.,
Atlanta,
Boston,
Detroit,
New
Orleans,
Minneapolis,
Seattle,
Denver,
Portland,
Los Angeles. Proven results.
Our 17th
year teaching FCC license courses. Bob Johnson
Broadcast
License
Training,
10600
Duncan.
Manhattan
Beach, Calif. 90266. 213-379-4461.
Especially suited for Broadcast
equipment. SPST to SPOT-Indicator
lightsFast engraving service-Solenoid
holddown-PD
series interchangeable
with
Clare Pendar-2
or 4 light split lenses.
VIDEO ENGINEERING CO., INC.
RIGGS RD. AT lST PL. N.E.
WASHINGTON, D. C. 20011
CAPSTAN
IDLERS
for AMPEX
300, 35 440.
Series. self aligning
with replaceable
ball bearings, $22.50 net. VIF INTERNATIONAL,
Box
1555, Mtn. View. Ca. 94040.
,:
LIGHTED PUSHBUTTON
SWITCHES
BROADCAST
TAPE
CARTRIDGES.
New
Empties:
load yourself
and save! Sold in lots
of c5 only. 25/Sl.20
each; 50 or 75/$1.10 each:
I 00/S 1.00 each.
Enclose
payment
with order,
shipping
collect. Redding Radio, Box 344, Fairfield, Conn. 06430.
VIDEO ENGINEERING CO., INC.
RIGGS RD. AT lST PL. N.E.
WASH!NGTON, D. C. 20011
,.J
PROGRAM SERVICES
EQUIPMENT FOR SALE (cont'd)
T.V. ENGINEER
Mídwcst eru Urriversitv with expnndiua
Educat ioun l xredtn
Depnt tment
requircs
exnertenccd
person to assume onerut lon
and
ruamt enanr-e
responslbilities
for new color t elevlstou uroduction rusu+uutto» srstcm. Fire or more vears of
conunercln l T. Y. experience
includíuc
switchtnc. projection and onernt ion and ruaiuteuauce
of color svstcms nreferred. Frin~es include ttrc.
dlsnlnllt y. health
iusuranr-e
and fully rested
rctírcmeut
program
Send
resume
iuclnduur
snlu rv history to Stuü' Personnel Office. Unirer.~it:r of Xorthcrn
Iowa. Cedar Falls.
Iowa.
50Gl:J.
Phone 717 /794/2191
Address
City
CLASSIFIED
O 6 issues
O 1 issue
.•.••.•....•.....•.••.••••••
or
Co.
·
.
.
........................•..
State
.
BM/E. Classified Advertising
Depart·
ment, Blue Ridge Summit, Pa. 17214.
717 /794·2191.
(Enclose check.)
71
OCTOBER,
1972-BM/E
www.americanradiohistory.com
ADVERTISERS' INDEX
Designing & Maintaining the CATV&
Small TV Studio - By Kenneth B. Knecht
A simplified, yet detailed guide on the installation and maintenance
of production facilities for CATV, CCTV, ITV, and small broadcast
stations.
1
Here at last is an all-in-one handbook written specifically to
help those who need expert, in-depth guidance on setting up a
small to medium size TV studio. The level of presentation can be
easily understood, yet provides the technical details needed by
those who have a knowledge of electronics. Moreover, the information provided is sufficient to serve the needs of CATV
systems and educational or industrial closed-circuit systems, as
well as TV broadcast stations.
Everything is included-pulse
distribution and switching
systems. carnera. film and video tape equipment: special effects.
such as supers. dissolves. wipes. keys, etc. The author fully
discusses carneras and lighting. together with color TV equipment. monitoring. and studio and control area signal distribution.
Also covered are video distribution amplifiers. video test
generators. processing amplifiers. patching networks. etc. Due
consideration is also given to audio equipment-mixing
consoles.
audio sources. recorders. turntables.
microphones. audio
distribution and monitoring. test generators. tally lights. and
intercom systems. Plenty of information is provided on total
studio design construction practices and equipment lists, and an
entire Chapter is devoted to maintenance and test equipment. The
lin al Chapter fully describes three system examples-a small
studio. a larger studio. and a studio with complete color facilities.
2S6pps.. over JOO illus. Hardbound.
PREPUBPLICATION
PRICE Only S9.9S
e Publisher's List
e
e
•
•
Price
S12.9S
256 fact-Ii lled
pages
Handsome hardbound
volume
Literally an
aII-in-one handbook
Only 59.95 if you
order now
This book is published to sell at
CUNTl·:NT~ Studio Pulse System Sw11ch111g
System> and Special EfIects Camera' & Lrghung Equipment 'Ilic Film Cham-The Video S12.9S, but if you order now, you
Hecurder In' and Video Monitors
Video Terminal Equipment-The
can save SJ.00. Prepublication
Audio ~hx111gConsole Audio Program Sources=-Peripheral Audio and
price prevails through DecemOther l·:qu1pmc111
Color The Mamrenunce Shop-Distribution Systemsber 31. 1972.
l'ut1111gIt All Together- Designing Three Systems Index.
You're On the Air! - By Sam Ewing
A practical do.it-yourself
beginning broadcaster.
This brand-new book tells the beginning broadcaster how
to find the shortcuts. The author reveals the many courses of
action open to the delermined man or woman ...what's required to
fill openings in the many phases of broadcasting and how you can
get your career moving in the direct ion of your chosen niche.
If your interests lie in radio. you'll read about the many job
categories both on and off the air-in the sound medium. Or. if
TV is more appealing to you. the author describes in detail the
many skills needed in front of the carnera as well as the countless
behind-the-scenes opportunities available-not
only in broadcastmg but cable TV as well. Whether you're a student or
someonewho has succeeded in getting his foot in the door. or even
a practicing broadcaster who's career seems stalled. this book
will give you the inspiration you need to succeed' t92 pps. Hardbound
COl\TI·:NTS !lo\\ Jo Prepare Yourself How to Succeedin Your First JobHow 10 Sell Yourself Opportunities & Rcsponsibiliues rn Broadcasting
Index
Order either or both books today at our risk for FREE examination.
SEND NO MONEY! Simply fill in and mail the handy NO-RISK
coupon to receive your own copies of these helpful volumes.
Put the
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books
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_
B-102
----------------------------------
Circle
. . . . . 72 I
.
56 I
. . . . . 11
CM/E·7 1
56
33
68
65
.
10
. ....
. 68
Cover 4
. .......•... .....
63
Inc. . . . . . . . . . .
. .....
,. ......
60
64
SALES OFFICES
Broadband Information Services, Inc.
274 Madison Avenue
New York, New York 10016
EASTERN STATES
274 Madison Avenue
New York, New York 10016
212-685-5320
Charles C. Horner
MIDWESTERN STATES
New York Office
WESTERN STATES
1111 Hearst Building
San Francisco, California
415-362-854 7
William J. Healey
94130
16400 Ventura Blvd.
Encino, California 91316
213-981-4721
Art Mandell
several
cost, return
we'll
Video Inc.
Wilkinson
Electronics,
World Video Inc.
Please send me
copies of "Designing & Maintaining the
CATV & Small TV Studio" at lhe Special Prepublicalion price of only
S9.95( 10º~addit rone! discount on 3 or more copies).
10 days.
don't
Ultra Audio Products Inc. . .
Universal Media Corp. . . . . .
~U·l;Ui:Cít•i*l:Z•UM·\t11W«·1·f;t
~
TAB BOOKS, Blue Ridge Summit, Pa.
work
I
TAB Books
, ....•...
_. .
Tape-Athon Corp •...
_....•....
_.
Tektronix
TeleMation
Television Equipment Associates
Television Microtime Inc. . . . .
Television Technology Corp. . . .
Time & Frequency Technology Inc.
Tracor, Inc.
............
guide to a career in radio and TV for the
PU BLISH E R'S
GUARANTEE
Aerodyne Industries Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
American Electronic Laboratories Inc. . . 54
Ampex Corporation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Anixter Pruzan
CM/E·9,
Audio Distributors,
Inc. . . . .
. . . . 70 I
Avantek,
Inc.
....... ..
. CM/E·15 1
Belar Electronics Laboratory Inc.
56
Bogner Broadcast Equipment Corp. . . . 15
Bosch Corp., Robert, Fernseh Div, . . . . 551
Broadcast Electronics, Inc •.......
58, 61, 69
Broadcast Products Co., Inc.
. . . . . . . 37
CBS Laboratories, A Division of Columbia
Broadcasting
System Inc •.........
12, 13
CCA Electronics Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
52 I
Danscoll Ltd. .
CM/E·ll
Delta Electronics, Inc •...
, . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Dynair Electronics, Inc ....
_, . . . . . . . . .
3
Dynasciences Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
Eastman Kodak Co. . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 47 I
EECO-Electronic
Engineering
Corp. of
¡·
California
. ......
.... .....
65
Electro-Voice,
Inc, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
EMCEE Broadcast Products, A Division of
Electronics,
Missiles
& Communications Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15 ,
Fidelipac, A division of TelePro
Industries,
Inc.
..
.. ...
62
Fort Worth Tower Co., Inc. , . . . . . . . . . . 60
Grass Valley Group, Inc., The . . . . . . . .
5
Grenier Brothers, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . .
66 I
Heller-Oak Cable Finance Co. . ... CM/E·14
JOA Cartridge
Service
... .
58
Jampro Antenna Company
. . . . . 70
Jerrold
. .......... ..... .......
. CM/E·2
Liberty
Industries,
Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 I
McMartin
Industries
Inc. . . . . . . . . . .
10 I
Metron Instruments,
Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Mincom Div., 3 M Company
. Cover 3
Norelco,
Philips. Broadcast
Equipment
Corp.
....
. . 30, 31, CM/E-16
Oak Industries Inc., CATV Division .. CM/E-5
Quantum Science Corp.
70
RCA
38, 39
Roh Corp.
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Rohde & Schwarz
.... .
. . . . . 48 ~
Russco Electronics, Inc. . . . . . . .
58 I
Sansui Electronics Corp.
.17, 18, 19
Scientific-Atlanta
Cover 2
Shibaden Corporation of America
. . . . . 57
Sony Corp. of America
CM/ E-12, 13
Standard Electric Time Division of
Johnson Service Company . . . . . . . . . 67 1
Stanton Magnetics, Inc.
.....
. . 50 I
Superscope Inc.
.. .......
. 50, 51
JAPAN
Nippon Keisoku Inc.
P.O. Box 410
Central Tokyo, Japan
536-6614
Yoshi Yamamoto
147 on Reader Service Card
OCTOBER, 1972-BM/E
72
www.americanradiohistory.com
YOUR BEST
COMBINATION
FOR UHF-TV
COVERAGE
Send this postcard for more
information
CCA RF INDUSTRIES INC.
P. O. Box 315
Westfield, Mass. 01085
A Subsidiary of CCA Industries
REK-0-KUT
YOUR BEST
COMBINATION
FOR TURNTABLE
PERFORMANCE
S-320 Tone Arm
The Standard
of Comparison
Send this postcard for more
information
Want to know more about the
industry's most popular tone
arm?
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tH~',~~~t '"~/~'··~~·
---
\j
QRK/REK-0-KUT
1568 North Sierra Vista
Fresno, California 93703
A Subsidiary of CCA Industries
CCA UHF·TV transmitters have
been in service for over 1 O
years in more than 40 locations. From 15 kw to 110 kw.
No other company can match
our reliability.
QRK
Instant Start Turntable
• World's Largest Selling
Broadcast Turntable
• Originator of Instant Start
Technique
• 25,000 Satisfied Users
• Unsurpassed Quality and
Factory Service
• Immediate Avartaburty: East
& West Coast Plants
• Realistically Priced for 25
Years
• Instant Warranty Service
YOUR BESTBUY
FOR STUDIO
CONSOLES
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information
The CCA Futura 6 & 10 Audio
Consoles are available in both
mono and stereo versions. In·
corporates modern slide fad·
ers, optimum
capacity and
performance specs.
<u••
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50 KW AM
with conventional high level
modulation and air cooling
CCA ELECTRONICS
CORPORATION
716 Jersey Avenue
Gloucester City, New Jersey
08030
(609) 456-1716
CCA AM/FM
TRANSMITTERS
ARE WITHOUT
COMPARISON
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information
CCA ELECTRONICS
CORPORATION
716 Jersey Avenue
You are cordially invited to
Gloucester City, New Jersey
visit our plant and watch the
08030
AM 50,000 go through its
(609) 456-1716
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CCA Futura pr ewrre d systems
permit broadcasters to install
complete system 1n a matter
of minutes. Contains recepta·
eles for all normal studio lune·
trons Available rn mono and
stereo.
25 KW FM
air cooled transmitter with in·
dependent 3 KW driver and
one power amplifier tube.
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Gloucester City, New Jersey 08030
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NO POSTAGE NECESSARY IF MAILED IN THE U. S.
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Gloucester City, New Jersey 08030
www.americanradiohistory.com
If
,
t,.,
Schafer Electronics ... providing broadcast automation systems for all
kinds and sizes of radio stations.
If you didn't see the excumq new
900 Senes when u was unveiled at
the 1972 NAB show. simply send
.•.
this card for descriptive literature
or a demonstration at your stanon
O Send me literature on the 900
Senes System
O Send me literature on the computer-controlled PCC 8000
System
O Have a Schafer representative
call me for an appointment
O Schedule the Schafer mobile
demonstration unit to visrt my
station
O Send me data on your extensive
music library
NAME & ~füJIQN
Slt\.TIQN
ZIP
THE SPOTMASTER SUPERMARKET
Outstanding new values 111 cartridge tape equipment
audio consoles
and other broadcast products and accessories Just check the boxes
and send us this card We'll speed complete rntorrnanon by return mall
Single-Cartridge Equipment
Record-play & playback
models. compact & rackmounted. mono & stereo
O
Economical Five• Spot &
ten- Spot
O
610BX Automatic Audio System
O
O
O
The incomparable Ten 170
Audio Consoles
O
Delayed programming
models
O
Telephone answering
systems
The classic 500C
The economical 400
(from $440)
Multi·Cartridge
O
Equipment
New Mini-Series models
(3 to 15 decks)
O
New 5 & 8 channel mono &
stereo models (from $775)
Reel-to·Reel Decks
O
New Spotmaster Revox A77
Mk. ill·B stereo recorders
(101/2" reels)
Programming Accessories
:::::J AD! B audio distribution
amplifier
O CLA·20·40 compressorlimiter amplifier
Cartridge Tape Accessories
lJ Tape cartridge winder
O Remote controllers
O Cartridge racks (wall.
floor. table top)
'--' Degaussers
[' Head brackets & replacement
heads (including new PHASELOK stereo head bracket)
C
Bulk tape (lubricated. heavy
duty)
lJ
r.ceucac & Audropa« cartridges
(all sizes. any length tape, or
empty cartridges). no minimum
order. lowest prices
IMPORTANT: COMPLETE OTHER SIDE
Record Playing Equipment
O
O
O
BROADCAST ELECTRONICS, INC.
Professional turntables
BE·402 tonearm
--------A
TT-22 turntable preamp
8810 Brookville Rd.. Silver Spring . Md 20910
Filmways
Company-------(30 n 588-4983
, AM STATIONS, ATTENTION!
Comply with new FCC ruling on monitoring 125% positive peaks) and
( simultaneously measuring 100% negative peak)-.-Return this card or call Belar Electronics, (215) 687-5550 tor full informa·
tion on our AMM·l AM frequency and modulation monitor. In addition,
t send information
on FM D. TV O. monitors. Or skip the AM; just send
' us information on FM O TV O monitors.
·• Belar Electronics Laboratory lnc., Post Office Box 826, Devon, Pa. 19333
M
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,.....
MONITOR
Type
Approval
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Permit
No. 161
Goleta,
Calif.
93017
BUSINESS REPLY CARD
No Postage Necessary 11Mailed in the United States
Postage will be paid by
schojer
Schafer Electronics Corp.
Santa Barbara Research Park
75 Castilian Drive
Goleta. Calif. 93017
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PERl.111 NO
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SILVlR
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BROADCAST ELECTRONICS,
....
SPRING
l~D
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INC.
8810 Brookville Road
o
Silver Spring
Maryland 20910
BUSINESS
NO
POSTAGE
STAMP
FIRST CLASS
PERMIT NO. 70
DEVON, PA.
REPLY
IF
NECESSARY
POSTAGE
WILL
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MA I l
MAILED
BE
IN
PAID
Laboratory
UNITED
STATES
BY
Inc.
Post Office Box 826
Devon, Pa. 19333
IAME
FIRST CLASS
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Holyoke, Mass.
TATION
TREET
:1TY
BUSINESS REPLY MAIL
IP
No Postage Stamp Necessary if mailed in the U.S.
IL.
ALSO FROM MICRO-TRAK
303-306
206
>400-6401
;ERIES l
TONE ARMS
TONE ARM
PRE-AMPS
STUDIO FURNITURE
MICRD-TRAK
620 RACE STREET
HOLYOKE.
MASSACHUSETTS
01040
www.americanradiohistory.com
BM/E READER SERVICE CARD/October,
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1972 Issue
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100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 Ill 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129
136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165
172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199
200 201
208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237
244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273
280
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352
388
424
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425
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428
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430
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431
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324
360
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432
289
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433
290
326
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291
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292
328
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436
293
329
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401
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294
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438
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403
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417
130 131 132 133 134 13~
166 167 168 169 170 171
202 203 204
238 239 240
274
275 276
310 311 312
346 347 348
382 383 384
418 419 420
205 206 20;
241 242 24:
277
313
349
385
421
278
314
350
386
422
27~
31~
351
38i
42~
BM/E READER SERVICE CARD/ October, 1972 Issue
Use this FREE post-paid card for more
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NAM
n:u us WHAT YOU
TITLE
LIKE OR DISLIKE ABOUT THIS ISSUE·
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ORCOMPANY·-------------------------
WHAT ARTICLES WOULD YOU LIKE TO SEE?
ADDRESS/CITY
~
STAT
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I 200-274: LITI 275-440:
USEUNTILDECEMBER
31, 1972
EDITORIAL
100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 Ill 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129
136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165
172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199
200 201
208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237
244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273
280
316
352
388
424
281
317
353
389
425
282
318
354
390
426
283
319
355
391
427
284
320
356
392
428
285
321
357
393
429
286
322
358
394
430
287
323
359
395
431
288
324
360
396
432
289
325
361
397
433
290
326
362
398
434
291
327
363
399
435
292
328
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400
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440
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406
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130 131 132 133 134 135
166 167 168 169 170 171
202 203 204
238 239 240
274
275 276
310 311 312
346 347 348
382 383 384
418 419 420
205 206 207
241 242 243
277
313
349
385
421
278
314
350
386
422
279
315
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Permit No. 665
Duluth, Minnesota
I
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BM/E
!
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ClmE
CABLE MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING
Broadband Information Services, Inc.
P.O. BOX 6058
Duluth, Minnesota 55806
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BM/E
·¡_
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CABLE MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING
j~
Broadband Information Services, Inc.
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P.O. BOX 6058
Duluth, Minnesota 55806
BUSINESS
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FIRST CLASS
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Look at the Difference
Unretouched photographs ot 21"
••
studio monitor.
Photographic data
Rcltertte a C·3. CPS color negeuve film -
ASA 100, 1/15 second at f/5 6
.after 3M Color Dropout Compensation
Here's what 3M's Color Dropout Compensator
reproduction:
does for your VTH
servo stability arc improved to such a degree that it is possible
to play thi-, tape in full intcrsyne or pixloc mode.
Look at this unretouched composite photograph of a studio
monitor. It shows, at the left, a videotape playback with 13 electronically recorded-in dropouts. These dropouts were created by
a special test generator which attenuates the Hf level to the
record driver. On the right, these dropouts have been completely
restored by the DOC.
In the compensated half of the photo, compare the replacement
material with the original signal two scan lines above the dropout
due to a complete frame being photographed. Try to find the 13
switching transients.
The black dropouts shown on the left are followed by a complete loss of color-lock in the direct color recovery equipment.
Since these dropouts include horizontal sync and color burst, they
cause transient color flashing not ordinarily attributed to the dropouts themselves. Even shallow dropouts can create a similar
problem due to loss of side-band information.
I I I
Only the 3M Color DOC corrects all these effects.
, I I I
mmccm Division
Circle
I
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I
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I
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ICOLORf
The 3M Color Dropout Compensator is the only system available that can pro' iclc proper color and Ium manee rcpl.rcemcnt.
for details write for the booklet, "Compcnsat ing for Dropout- in
Color Television Recording"
After compensation, note the precise color match and complete
freedom from switching transients. Also, the dropout disturbance
to the time correction unit has been eliminated. Proc amp and
300 SOUTH LEWIS ROAD
e
CAMARILLO CALIFORNIA 3010
148 on Reader
Service Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
Studio quality color monitors
for less than a grand!
UNI MEDIA SMT-DUAL 9 $1295.
UNIMEDIA SMT-15 $89.5:,
..
I
·a,·.·------~
UNI MEDIA SMT-9 $745.
.•..•..v ,
All monitors rackmount in standard 19" racks, and th~
9-inch model is available in two configurations - a1
dual 9 and a single 9 with frame for mounting a half/J
rack-style waveform monitor.
A 24 volt talley lamp is provided, and a built-in audio
speaker/amplifier may be included.
1
Three professional features are included in an option
package for an additional $125.These provide front
panel switch control of underscan, A-B selection of
two separate inputs, and pulse cross. The pulse cross
mode permits shifting the picture either horizontally or
vertically, or both together, to display sync, burst,
blanking, vertical interval test and reference signals.
. SMT monitors are NTSC units, but SECAM 60 and
'.PAL-M versions are available on special order.
¡1;:·•.~·<:~"-~
[;··
~
-------------
UNIMEDIA SMT-~.:~'°'5~:
',.~I
,.I
Not just one model, but the ~hole family of rackmount
studio color monitors in fou(different sizes and five
different models.
Unimedia's SMT series of color monitors are specifically engineered for quality broacast, closed-circuit,
cable and teleproduction applications.
The heart of each SMT monitor is the remarkable
Sony Corporation Trinitron® picture tube. The inherent
simplicity of the single-gun Trinitron eliminates convergence problems and moire.
It produces a brighter, truer picture, with excellent colorimetry and stability. Solid-state circuitry throughout
assures continuing high-quality video display reliability.
Each SMT chassis is constructed of heavy gauge aluminum and control panels may be custom-colored to
match existing equipment or to provide color-coding
of equipment functions.
UNIMEDIA SMT-12 $795.
SMT studio quality color monitors are just some of : 1
Unimedia's imaginative ideas, systems and products
for the world of audiovisual communications.
UNIVERSAL MEDIA CORPORATION 29115 MISSION BLVD., HAYWARD, CA 94544, (415) 537-2483
Circle
149 on Reader
Service
Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
unimEDia
unimEDia
unimeoia
unimEDia
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