IBM z/OS Communications Server IPv6 Support

IBM z/OS Communications Server IPv6 Support
IBM z/OS Communications Server
IPv6 Support
Linda Harrison
[email protected]
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Agenda
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IPv6 History, Address, Protocol
IPv6 Support in z/OS and Dual-Mode Stack (BPXPRMxx)
PROFILE.TCPIP
Routing
Resolver
FTP
Enterprise Extender
inetd
SMF
More Information
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IPv6 History, Address, and Protocol
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Total IP Addresses
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IPv4 Address example 100.114.165.211
• Started to be used in 1970s and 80s
➔ United States has the bulk of the IPv4 Addresses
• 32-bit address means around 4,200,000,000 nodes
• Network Address Translation (NAT) increases total nodes
• Huge routing tables on Internet Routers (backbone)
IPv6 Address example 2001:0DB8:0000:000:0206:2AFF:FE71:4400
• Started to be used in 1990s
•
128-bit address means around 340 (billion)4 addresses
• Routing Tables Manageable through CIDR
➔ Classless InterDomain Routing (CIDR) manages the routing,
reducing the size of the routing tables on the backbone. CIDR
aggregates sets of routes into a single route by using the common,
highest-level denominator for the sets of routes. CIDR is also
referred to as "supernetting."
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IPv4 vs. IPv6
IPv4
IPv6
Addressing
32 bits (4 bytes) 4,200,000,000
addresses
128 bits (16 bytes) 340 (billion4)
addresses
Communicating to all on subnet
Broadcast Addresses
Scoped Multicast Addresses
Fragmentation
Supported at originating and
intermediate nodes
Supported only at originating nodes
Checksum
Included in IP Header
Not included in IP Header
IPSec
Optional
Included as part of IPV6
Discovery of best default gateway
Optional (with ICMP Route Discovery)
Included – ICMPv6 Router Solicitation
and Router Advertisement
Resolving IP layer address to link layer
address
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)
Multicast Neighbor Solicitation Messages
Local Subnet Group Membership
Internet Group Management Protocol
(IGMP)
Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD)
Address Configuration
Manually or through DHCP
Automatically assigned via stateless
address configuration or DHCPv6 or
manually
DNS Configuration
“A” records for host name/address
mapping, “PTR” records in INADDR.ARPA domain address/name
mapping
“AAAA” or “A6” records for
name/address mapping, “PTR” records
in IP6.ARPA or IP6.INT domain for
address/name mapping
QoS Support
Differentiated and Integrated Services
Differentiated and Integrated Services,
also Flow Label for more granularity
Payload Identification for QoS
Not included in IP Header
Included in Flow Label
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This chart represents a summary of the information present in Table 1 of the IPv6 Network and Application Design Guide (SC27-3663).
DHCP and DHCPv6 are not supported on z/OS.
Additional differences...
IP Header Format
IPv4 -- Variable: Min of 20 Bytes + Options
IPv6 -- 40 Bytes
IP Options
IPv4 -- Part of IP Header
IPv6 -- Inserted as Extensions between IP Header and Payload
QoS, DHCPv6, and Mobility are not part of the Implementation of IPv6.
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) website includes the pointers to the most up-to-date information on IPv6:
www.iana.org
Some IPv6 RFCs from the IANA website:
RFC 3330 - Special-Use IPv4 Addresses
RFC 3177 - IAB/IESG Recommendations on IPv6 Address Allocations to Sites
RFC 2928 - Initial IPv6 Sub-TLA ID Assignments
RFC 2450 - Proposed TLA and NLA Assignment Rules
RFC 2373 - IP Version 6 Addressing Architecture
RFC 2050 - Internet Registry IP Allocation Guidelines
RFC 1918 - Address Allocation for Private Internets
RFC 1518 - An Architecture for IP Address Allocation with CIDR
IPv6 provides for both stateless and stateful autoconfiguration. Stateless autoconfiguration allows a node to be configured in the absence
of any configuration server. Stateless autoconfiguration further makes it possible for a node to configure its own globally routable
addresses in cooperation with a local IPv6 router by combining the 64-bit Interface ID (48-bit MAC address plus random number) of
the adapter with network prefixes that are learned from the neighboring router.
IPv6 allows the use of DHCPv6 for stateful autoconfiguration. DHCPv6 relies on a configuration server that maintains static tables to
determine the addresses that are assigned to newly connected nodes. z/OS CS does not support DHCPv6.
Manual configuration of addresses may be used in environments where complete local control is required (ie. VIPA or LOOPBACK).
5
IP Address Structure
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IPv4 Dotted Decimal
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Documented in RFC 1166
9.67.122.66
IPv4 Address/Subnet Mask:
9.67.122.66/8
IPv6 Colon-Hexadecimal
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Documented in RFC 3513
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0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001=::1
Can skip one sequence of zero words leaving two colons:
➔
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Supersedes RFC 2373
IPv6 Address:
2001:0DB8:0000:0000:0206:2AFF:FE71:4400
Can eliminate leading zeroes:
➔
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IPv4 Address:
9.67.122.66
2001:0DB8:0000:000:0206:2AFF:FE71:4400=2001:DB8::206:2AFF:FE71:4400
Can specify a prefix by "/length"
2001:0DB8::/64
04/13/14
IPv6 Address/Prefix-Length:
2001:0DB8:0000:0000:0206:2AFF:FE71:4400/64
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IPv4 addresses are represented in dotted-decimal format. The 32-bit address is divided along 8-bit boundaries. Each set of 8 bits is
converted to its decimal equivalent and separated by periods. Each IP address consist of an IP network id and an IP host id on that
IP network.
In contrast, IPv6 addresses are 128 bits divided along 16-bit boundaries. Therefore, IPv6 notation is eight 16 bit integers separated by
colons. Each 16-bit block is converted to a 4-digit hexadecimal number -- still separated by colons. One group of multiple zeroes can
be represented with a double colon. Leading zeroes within each individual field can be omitted. The resulting representation is called
colon-hexadecimal.
6
Types of IPv6 Addresses
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FF00::/8
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2001:0DB8::0206:2AFF:FE71:4400/64
Represented by :: (0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000)
Cannot be used as destination address ::
Must never be assigned to any node
Represented by ::1 (0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001)
Used by a node to send an IPv6 packet to itself
::1
Must never be assigned to any physical interface
IPv4-mapped IPv6 address:
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Global Scope unicast addresses are everything else
Will be passed by any router; can be routed anywhere
Loopback address
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FE80::99:1AC6:77:9/16
Link-Local Scope unicast addresses all begin with "FE80"
Will not be passed by any router (local to the LAN that it is attached to)
Unspecified address (similar to IPv4 inaddr_any)
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FF02::1
Anything else
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Multicast addresses all begin with "FF"
FE80::/16
Represented by ::FFFF:a.b.c.d (9.67.115.69 = ::FFFF:9.67.115.69)
or ::FFFF:<hex>:<hex> (9.67.115.69 = ::FFFF:0943:7345)
IPv6 address with IPv4 address embedded
Not sent onto the network by z/OS
IPv4-compatible IPv6 address: represented by ::a.b.c.d
•
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Not supported in z/OS
Such addresses typically used for tunneling IPv4 across IPv6 network
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::FFFF:9.67.115.69
::FFFF:0943:7345
::9.67.115.69
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IPv4 addresses are represented in dotted-decimal format. The 32-bit address is divided along 8-bit boundaries. Each set of 8 bits is
converted to its decimal equivalent and separated by periods. Each IP address consist of an IP network id and an IP host id.
In contrast, IPv6 addresses are 128 bits divided along 16-bit boundaries. Therefore, IPv6 notation is eight 16 bit integers separated by
colons. Each 16-bit block is converted to a 4-digit hexadecimal number. One group of multiple zeroes can be represented with a
double colon. Leading zeroes within each individual field can be omitted. The resulting representation is called colon-hexadecimal.
Unicast addresses identify a single interface. A packet sent to a unicast address is delivered to the interface identified by that address.
This is the same concept with which you are already familiar in IPv4.
Anycast addresses identify a set of interfaces (typically different nodes). A packet sent to an anycast address is delivered to one of the
interfaces identified by that address (the "nearest" one). Concept not used in IPv4. Not part of z/OS IPv6 support either.
Multicast addresses identify a set of interfaces (typically different nodes). A packet sent to a multicast address is delivered to all
interfaces identified by that address. This is the same concept as in IPv4. Routing protocols like RIP and OSPF use multicast
addresses, but so can other applications. All Multicast control information flows using ICMPv6 instead of IPv4 Internet Group
Management Protocol (IGMP).
There are no broadcast addresses in IPv6, their function is replaced by multicast addresses.
CS allows the customer to assign other LOOPBACK addresses for IPv6.
For IPv6, one interface can have multiple IP addresses. For IPv4 this is only supported for Loopback.
IPv4-mapped IPv6 addresses
- Only implementations that support Stateless IP/ICMP Translation Algorithm (SIIT), RFC 2765, should send outbound packets with IPv4mapped IPv6 addresses in the IP header. z/OS Communications Server does not support SIIT.
- That is, z/OS does not support sending IPv4-Mapped IPv6 addresses out onto an attached network.
- This address type is used to represent the addresses of IPv4 nodes as IPv6 addresses.
- It is used when an IPv6 application needs to communicate with an IPv4 peer
- Resolver can return IPv4-mapped IPv6 addresses.
IPv4-mapped addresses can be written in two ways. IPv4 address 9.67.115.69 can be written as an IPv4-mapped IPv6 address:
::FFFF:0943:7345 (this is the hexadecimal notation)
::FFFF:9.67.115.69 (this is the dotted-decimal notation)
IPv4-compatible IPv6 address (::<IPv4_address>)
- Used when IPv6 traffic is tunneled across existing IPv4 networks.
- Formed by placing 96 bits of zero in front of a valid 32-bit IPv4 address, such that address 1.2.3.4 becomes ::1.2.3.4
- IPv4-compatible IPv6 addresses are not included in the z/OS implementation.
Link-local address:
- Only used on the physical network that a host's interface is attached to. In IPv6 an interface can have multiple addresses.
Aggregatable Global Unicast Address
- Assigned to ISPs by International "Internet Registry Services" (IRS)
ARIN Registry Services (American Registry for Internet Numbers)
www.arin.net/library/guidelines/ipv6_initial.html (North America and Sub-Sahara Africa)
RIPE-NCC Network Coordination Center in Europe (Reseau IP Europeans)
www.ripe.net/ripencc/mem-services/reistration/ipv6.html (Europe, Middle East, Central Asia, and African north of the equator)
APNIC Asia Pacific Network Information Center
www.apnic.nbet/faq/IPv6-FAQ.html (LACNIC Regional Latin-American and Caribbean Address Registry)
How to request Internet addresses in general? www.iana.org/ipaddress/ip-addresses.htm
How to discover what has already been allocated? : www.iana.org/ipaddress/ip-addresses.htm
How does a company or an end-user obtain an address? Consult with your ISP: AT&T, Verizon, etc.
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Required Addresses for a Host
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Its Link-Local Address for each interface
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FE80::99:1AC6:77:9/16
Addresses identifying an IPv6 host:
2001:0DB8::99:1AC6:77:9/64
z/OS CS only allows a single link-local address per interface.
::1
Assigned Unicast Addresses (autoconfigured OR manually defined)
FF02::1
Loopback Address (::1)
The All-Nodes Multicast Address (FF02::1)(Routers FF02::2)
Solicited Node Multicast Addresses for each of its assigned unicast and
anycast addresses (FF02::1:FF00:0 - FF02::1:FFFF:FFFF)
Multicast Addresses of all other groups to which the host belongs.
Addresses identifying an IPv4 host:
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9.67.122.66
Assigned Unicast Addresses
Loopback Address
127.0.0.1
Broadcast Address for each of its assigned unicast addresses
255.255.255.255
The All hosts Multicast Address
Multicast Addresses of all other groups to which the host belongs
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An IPv6 host is required to recognize a certain set of addresses as identifying itself.
An IPv4 host is required to recognize a different list of addresses as identifying itself.
There is no broadcast support in IPv6. It has been replaced with multicast for specific scopes.
The Global Unicast Address must be requested from the ISP that services your company or your site; the ISP itself must request IPv6
addresses from an Internet Registry Services.
Solicited Node Multicast Address
- This address is formed by taking the low-order 24 bits of the address (unicast or anycast) and appending those bits to the prefix
FF02:0:0:0:0:1:FF00::/104.
- Range of addresses is FF02:0:0:0:0:1:FF00:0000 to FF02:0:0:0:0:1:FFFF:FFFF
- A node is required to compute and join the associated Solicited Node multicast address for every unicast and anycast address it is
assigned. The solicited-node multicast address facilitates the efficient querying of network nodes during address resolution.
The following well-known multicast addresses are pre-defined. Use of these group IDs for any other scope values, with the T flag equal
to 0, is not allowed: FF01::, FF02::, FF03::, FF04::, FF05::, FF06::, FF07::, FF08::, FF09::, FF0A::, FF0B::, FF0C::, FF0D::, FF0E::,
and FF0F::.
Unicast:
- Assigned to one interface. Packets destined for a unicast address are sent to only one node.
- Can be link-local scope, or global scope
Multicast:
- Provides a means for a source to communicate with a group
Anycast - Special Type of Unicast - not used in CS for z/OS:
- Allows the source to communicate with the closest member of a group
Every IPv6 interface except VIPA and LOOPBACK will have an automatically generated link-local address.
A packet with a link-local source or destination address will not leave a LAN. A router receiving the packet will not forward it. Link-local
addresses are used for any kind of temporary network: Autoconfiguration, Neighbor discovery, Networks without routers.
VIPAs and LOOPBACKs use global addresses. Global addresses can either be manually configured or autoconfigured dynamically.
If a packet cannot be forwarded due to reaching a scope boundary, an ICMPv6 BEYOND SCOPE is returned.
8
ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery (NeD)
Router Advertisement
Link-Local address
Link-Layer (MAC) address
Default Router Yes/No
MTU Size
Hop Limit
Prefix Information for Routing and
Autoconfiguration
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Router Discovery
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Prefix Discovery
Parameter Discovery
Address Autoconfiguration
Address Resolution
Next-Hop Determination
Neighbor Reachability / Unreachability Detection
Duplicate Address Detection (DAD)
Redirect
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Neighbor Advertisement
Link-Local address
Link-Layer (MAC) address
IPv6 Host
IPv6 Host
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Neighbor Discovery replaces several IPv4 protocols: ARP, ICMP Router Discovery and ICMP Redirect.
Neighbor Discovery uses ICMPv6 rather than ARP. It enables a node to identify other hosts and routers on its links. It maintains routes,
MTU, retransmit times, reachability time, and prefix information based on information received from the routers. NeD uses Duplicate
Address Detection (DAD) to verify the host's home addresses are unique on the LAN. NeD uses Address Resolution to determine
the link-layer addresses for neighbors on the LAN and Reachability Detection to determine neighbor reachability.
Maintains information about neighbors in a local 'Neighbor Cache'.
Router Discovery defines how hosts can automatically locate routers that reside on an attached link. ICMPv6 Router Solicitations /
Advertisements are used to determine the best default gateway.
Router Advertisements are sent by routers to announce their availability. z/OS receives Router Advertisements but does not originate
them. Router Advertisements are the mechanism for plug and play.
Prefix Discovery specifies how hosts discover the set of prefixes that are defined as being on-link (IPv6 address prefixes that reside on
the shared link (ie.ethernet)), as well as those which are to be used when implementing Stateless Address Autoconfiguration.
Parameter Discovery allows a host to learn link parameters, such as the link MTU, and IP parameters, such as the hop limit to place in
outgoing packets.
IPv6 provides for both stateless and stateful autoconfiguration.
Stateless autoconfiguration allows a node to be configured in the absence of any configuration server. Stateless autoconfiguration further
makes it possible for a node to configure its own globally routable addresses in cooperation with a local IPv6 router, by combining
the 48- or 64-bit MAC address of the adapter with network prefixes that are learned from the neighboring router.
IPv6 allows the use of DHCPv6 for stateful autoconfiguration. DHCPv6 relies on a configuration server that maintains static tables to
determine the addresses that are assigned to newly connected nodes. z/OS does not support DHCPv6.
Address resolution in IPv6 is similar to ARP processing in IPv4, except ICMP neighbor solicitations, neighbor advertisements, router
redirects, and router advertisements are used to obtain the link-layer (MAC) address.
Next-hop determination specifies the algorithm for mapping the IP destination address into the IP address of the neighbor to which traffic
should be sent.
Architected neighbor reachability/unreachability replaces old dead gateway logic. Neighbor unreachability detection is used to verify that
two-way communication with a neighbor node exists. The host sends a neighbor solicitation to a node and waits for a solicited
neighbor advertisement.
Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) is used to verify that an IPv6 home address is unique on the LAN before assigning the address to a
physical interface. z/OS responds to other nodes doing DAD for IP addresses assigned to the interface. DAD is not done for VIPAs
or loopback addresses.
A node may receive a Redirect message from an on-link router if the router determines that the destination is on-link or if there is a better
first-hop router for the given destination. z/OS can be configured to ignore the IPv6 Redirects sent by routers by defining the
IGNOREREDIRECT keyword on the IPCONFIG6 statement. If processing of Redirect messages is enabled, z/OS will begin using
the new destination which is identified in the Redirect message.
9
IPv6 Support in z/OS and
Dual-Mode Stack (BPXPRMxx)
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z/OS IPv6 Enablement
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IP Stack is IPv6-enabled
Resolver
DLC – QDIO
Static Routing
Static VIPA Support
New IPv6 Socket APIs
TCP/IP Utility Applications
➔
FTP (ftpd), inetd, ftp, telnetd, USS rshd, USS rexec, USS
rexecd, ping, tracert, netstat
Service Tools
➔
Netstat long format, Packet Trace, Dump Formatters,
CTRACE, Data Trace
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Configurable default address selection algorithm
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Prefer a temporary or public source addr
Router advertisement enhancements
IPv6 address support for DNS address
z/OS V1R13
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Stateless Addr auto-configuration enhancements
z/OS V1R12
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FRCA
Resolver Enhancements
z/OS V1R11
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Scoped Address support
z/OS V1R10
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Network Management
CICS Sockets
Enterprise Extender (hostname)
DLC - XCF, Samehost, Ficon (MPCPTP)
OMPRoute RIPng
Applications
➔
TN3270, syslogd, sntp, tftpd, rexecd/rshd, sendmail
Policy Agent
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QoS (Differentiated Services)
NetAccess
SNMP MIBs
SMF records
Integrated filtering and IPSec
RPCBIND server
z/OS V1R9
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SNMP UDP MIBs
Advanced Socket APIs (RFC3542)
IPv6 Two Default Routers support
DLC – HiperSockets
z/OS V1R8
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Dynamic VIPA including Sysplex Distributor
OMPROUTE OSPFv3
SNMP MIB enhancements
z/OS V1R7
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z/OS V1R5
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z/OS V1R6
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BPXPRMxx Network AF_INET6
Socket calls support IPv4-mapped addrs
z/OS V1R4
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OS/390 V2R10
Intrusion Detection Services (IDS) IPV6 Attacks support
z/OS V2R1
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Enterprise Extender (IPv6 address)
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With z/OS the only configuration statement required to enable IPv6 is the AF_INET6 NETWORK statement in BPXPRMxx.
IPv6 applications communicating with IPv4 partners is functionally equivalent to IPv4 applications communicating with IPv4 partners.
11
z/OS IPv6 Enablement
Applications
AF_INET6 PFS
IPv6 Raw
Transport
AF_INET PFS
Common TCP and UDP Transport
IPv4 Raw
Transport
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IPv4
IPv6
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IP Address translation IPv6 to
IPv4 and vice versa occurs at
the Transport Layer
AF_INET6 Applications
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NeD
MLD
Stateless autoconfig
QoS
TRM
IDS
ARP
IGMP
ICMP
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Raw Applications
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ICMPv6
Firewall Functions
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Common DLC Functions
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IPv6 DLCs (QDIO)
IPv4 DLCs
Common TCP or UDP Transport
Layer selects IPv6 or IPv4 Layer
3 (Network Layer) to match
partner.
Application itself selects Layer 3
Both IPv6 and IPv4 remote
partners may connect to z/OS
IPv6 application.
Only IPv4 remote partner may
connect to z/OS IPv4 only
application.
OSA QDIO
IPv6 and IPv4 packets on the same LAN
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z/OS Comm Server can be an IPv4-only stack or a dual-mode stack. There is no support for an IPv6 only stack.
The dual-mode stack is also called the "dual stack." However, to avoid any ambiguity, it is probably best to call it a "dual-mode" stack,
since, in the past we have often talked about "dual stacks" when discussing the coexistence of multiple stacks in a single MVS
image.
Physical File System (PFS) "AF_INET6." It can coexist with the AF_INET PFS that is available for IPv4. Both file systems are defined in
BPXPRMxx.
A dual-mode (or dual-stack) TCP/IP implementation supports both IPv4 and IPv6 interfaces; both old AF_INET and new AF_INET6
applications.
If address translation is necessary because the network is IPv6 when the connection partners are IPv4, or because the network is IPv4
when the connection partners are IPv6, the transport layer provides the mapping services.
For AF_INET6 applications, the common TCP or UDP transport layer determines per communication partner if the partner is an IPv4 or
an IPv6 partner - and chooses IPv4 or IPv6 networking layer component based on that.
Raw applications make the determination themselves when they choose IPv4 or IPv6 raw transport.
IPv4 and IPv6 applications can coexist on a single dual stack.
Unmodified applications continue to send data over the IPv4 network.
A single application can communicate using IPv4 and IPv6; requires application modification.
By default, IPv6 applications can communicate with both IPv4 and IPv6 peers. The socket option IPv6_V6ONLY makes an IPv6
application require all peers to be IPv6.
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z/OS IPv6 Enablement
IPv6 Enabled Applications
AF_INET6 PFS
IPv4 Only Applications
AF_INET PFS
Transport Layer
IPv4
IPv6
Common DLC Functions
IPv6 DLCs (QDIO)
IPv4 DLCs
OSA QDIO 9.67.115.5
2001:0DB8::9:67:115:5
2001:0DB8::9:67:115:17
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9.67.115.69
Application
IPv6
Source Address
2001:0DB8::9:67:115:17
Dest Address
2001:0DB8::9:67:115:5
Transport
IPv6
Source Address
2001:0DB8::9:67:115:17
Dest Address
2001:0DB8::9:67:115:5
IPv6 Packet
IPv6
Source Address
2001:0DB8::9:67:115:17
Dest Address
2001:0DB8::9:67:115:5
Application
IPv4
Source Address
::FFFF:9.67.115.69
Dest Address
::FFFF:9.67.115.5
Transport
IPv4
Source Address
9.67.115.69 --- ::FFFF:9.67.115.69
Dest Address
9.67.115.5 --- ::FFFF:9.67.115.5
IPV6 Packet
IPv4
Source Address
9.67.115.69
Dest Address
9.67.115.5
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An application that has bound to an IPv6 native address has to use some transition mechanism to be able to communicate with an IPv4
partner.
IPv4-mapping is defined as the function of mapping an IPv4 address into the IPv6 address field of an AF_INET6 addressing structure. It
is done at the transport protocol layer when the remote partner is an IPv4 partner.
An IPv6 application on a dual-mode stack can communicate with IPv4 and IPv6 partners as long as it doesn't bind to a native IPv6
address. If it bound to a native IPv6 address, then it cannot communicate with an IPv4 partner, since the native IPv6 address cannot
be converted to an IPv4 address.
A 32-bit AF_INET address can always fit into an AF_INET6 address field.
An IPV6 address cannot fit into an AF_INET address field.
If the partner is IPv6, all communication will use IPv6 packets.
If partner is IPv4 then both source/destination will be IPv4-mapped IPv6 addresses.
On inbound the transport protocol layer will map the IPv4 address to its corresponding IPv4-mapped IPv6 address before returning to
the application with AF_INET6 addresses.
On outbound the transport protocol layer will convert the IPv4-mapped addresses to native IPv4 addresses and send IPv4 packets.
13
Application / Transport Layer
Mapping
AF_INET6
Socket
AF_INET6
Socket
AF_INET6
Socket
AF_INET
Socket
AF_INET
Socket
IPv6 Specific
Address
in6addr_any
IPv4 Mapped
Address
IPv4 Specific
Address or
inaddr_any
??????
IPv6
partner
IPv4
IPv6
Mapped
partner
partner
IPv4
Mapped
partner
IPv4
partner
IPv6
partner
IPv6 Packet
IPv4 Packet
IPv6 Packet
IPv6 Routing
IPv4 Routing
IPv6 Routing
An AF_INET (IPv4) Server program on a Dual-Mode stack cannot communicate with
an IPv6-only partner because AF_INET cannot fit an IPv6 address into 32 bits.
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AF_INET Sockets
Only send using IPv4 packets
AF_INET6 Sockets
Bound to IPv4 mapped address
Send IPv4 packets only
Partner specified using an IPv4 mapped address
Bound to IPv6 native address
Send IPv6 packets only
Partner specified using IPv6 address
Bound to in6addr_any - (UDP - implicit Bind is done at send/connect time)
Send IPv4 or IPv6 packet depending on how partner address is specified (IPv4 mapped or IPv6 native)
Can receive IPv4 or IPv6 packets
A listening TCP socket can receive both IPv4 and IPv6 SYNs.
Note that when sending/receiving IPv4 packets, all existing V4 functions are supported - firewall, policy, sysplex etc.
14
BIND-Specific and PORT
PROFILE.TCPIP PORT Statement
PORT
2001
20
21
21
2020
2020
3001
3001
3001
3001
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
TCP
MYSERVER
* NOAUTOLOG 1
NM1AFTP1 BIND 12AB::2
FTPD3 BIND 9.67.2.1 2
CICS1 SHAREPORT
3
CICS2
MYIP6AP1 SHAREPORT
MYIP6AP2
4
MYIP4AP1
MYIP4AP2
1. Port reserved without regard to IPv4 and IPv6.
2. BIND forces server to listen only on a particular
IPv4 or IPv6 address.
● One job for IPv4 clients
● One job for IPv6 clients
3. Shareport provides load balancing by the
stack.
4. IPv4 clients are load-balanced to all IPv4 and
IPv6 servers.
NETSTAT PORTLIST
MVS TCP/IP NETSTAT CS...
Port# Prot User
Flags Range
----- ---- ------- ----- ----00020 TCP NM1AFTP1 D
00021 TCP NM1AFTP1 DAB
BindSpecific: 12AB::2
00021 TCP FTPD3
DAB
BindSpecific: 9.67.2.1
02001 TCP MYSERVER DA
02020 TCP CICS1
DAU
02020 TCP CICS2
DAU
03001 TCP MYIP6AP1 DAU
03001 TCP MYIP6AP2 DAU
03001 TCP MYIP4AP1 DAU
03001 TCP MYIP4AP2 DAU
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port 21
9.67.2.1
port 2020
IPv4 Clients
port 3001
port 21
12AB::2
IPv6 Clients
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port 3001
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FTPD3
CICS1
CICS2
MYIP4AP1
MYIP4AP2
NM1AFTP1
MYIP6AP1
MYIP6AP2
Page 15
The PORT statement reserves a port for the use of a particular server. It normally does not distinguish between IPv4 and IPv6; the port is
reserved regardless of which flavor of address the application uses.
The BIND keyword on the port statement allows you to force an INADDR_ANY listener to listen on a particular IP address. You may now
specify an IPv6 address on this keyword. INADDR_ANY listeners will be converted to an IPv4 address, but will ignore an IPv6
address on the BIND keyword. IN6ADDR_ANY listeners will be converted to either an IPv4 address (the v4-mapped form of that
address) or an IPv6 address, depending on what is specified with the BIND keyword.
By using the BIND keyword, a server listens on a particular IP address; i.e., it will be either IPv4 or IPv6. To have the same service serve
both IPv4 and IPv6 clients, you may need to start up two instances of it, one bound to an IPv4 address and one to an IPv6 address.
The example here illustrates two different FTP servers: one for IPv4 and one for IPv6.
FTP always opens AF_INET6 (if you are on a dual-mode stack).
SHAREPORT allows multiple listeners to bind to the same port. It causes incoming connections to be load-balanced between the
listeners. All IPv4 connection requests will be load-balanced between the set of IPv4 listeners (including AF_INET6 IN6ADDR_ANY
listeners), while all IPv6 connection requests will be load-balanced between the set of IPv6 listeners.
15
INET BPXPRMxx Definitions
Socket Applications
LFS
AF_INET PFS
●
IPv4-only BPXPRMxx Example for INET
FILESYSTYPE TYPE(INET) ENTRYPOINT(EZBPFINI)
NETWORK DOMAIN(AF_INET)
DOMAINNUMBER(2)
MAXSOCKETS(2000)
TYPE(INET)
TCP and UDP
Transport
QoS
TRM
IDS
ARP
IPv4 Raw
Transport
IGMP
ICMP
IPV4 DLCs
●
IPv4/IPv6 BPXPRMxx Example for INET (Dual-Mode)
FILESYSTYPE TYPE(INET) ENTRYPOINT(EZBPFINI)
NETWORK DOMAINNAME(AF_INET)
Socket Applications
DOMAINNUMBER(2)
LFS
MAXSOCKETS(2000)
TYPE(INET)
AF_INET PFS
AF_INET6 PFS
NETWORK DOMAINNAME(AF_INET6)
DOMAINNUMBER(19)
IPv6 Raw
IPv4 Raw
TCP and UDP Transport
MAXSOCKETS(3000)
Transport
Transport
TYPE(INET)
NeD
MLD
Stateless autoconfig
ICMPv6
IPv6 DLCs (QDIO)
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QoS
TRM
IDS
ARP
IGMP
ICMP
IPv4 DLCs
Page 16
Dual stack (IPv4/IPv6) is defined by using two NETWORK statements (AF_INET & AF_INET6) in BPXPRMxx.
When the INET is defined, only a single TCP/IP stack can be started. The single stack is IPv4/IPv6 capable.
With dual-mode stack IPv6 functions and protocols ICMPv6, NeD, MLD, and Autoconfig are automatically enabled.
ICMPv6 - The IP protocol concerns itself with moving data from one node to another. However, in order for IP to perform this task
successfully, there are many other functions that need to be carried out: error reporting, route discovery, and diagnostics, among
others. In IPv6 , all these tasks are carried out by the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6). In addition, ICMPv6 provides a
framework for Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) and Neighbor Discovery (NeD), which carry out the tasks of conveying multicast
group membership information ( the equivalent of the IGMP protocol in IPv4) and address resolution (performed by ARP in IPv4).
Neighbor discovery is an ICMPv6 function that enables a node to identify other hosts and routers on its links. It corresponds to a
combination of IPv4 protocols (ARP, ICMP Router Discovery, and ICMP Redirect). It maintains routes, MTU, retransmit times,
reachability time, and prefix information based on information received from the routers. NeD uses Duplicate Address Detection
(DAD) to verify the host's home addresses are unique on the LAN. NeD uses Address Resolution to determine the link-layer
addresses for neighbors on the LAN and Reachability Detection to determine neighbor reachability.
Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) is the protocol used by an IPv6 router to discover the presence of multicast listeners (that is, nodes
wishing to receive multicast packets) on its directly attached links, and to discover specifically which multicast addresses are of
interest to those listeners. This information is then provided to whichever multicast routing protocol is being used by the router, in
order to ensure that multicast packets are delivered to all links where there are interested receivers. MLD is derived from IGMPv2.
One important difference to note is that MLD uses ICMPv6 message types, rather than IGMP message types.
IPv6 provides for both stateless and stateful autoconfiguration. Stateless autoconfiguration allows a node to be configured in the
absence of any configuration server. Stateless autoconfiguration makes it possible for a node to configure its own globally routable
addresses in cooperation with a local IPv6 router, by combining the 48- or 64-bit MAC address of the adapter with network prefixes
that are learned from the neighboring router. IPv6 allows the use of DHCPv6 for stateful autoconfiguration. DHCPv6 relies on a
configuration server that maintains static tables to determine the addresses that are assigned to newly connected nodes. z/OS CS
does not support DHCPv6.
D OMVS,PFS
OMVS
000E ACTIVE
OMVS=(N3)
PFS CONFIGURATION INFORMATION
PFS TYPE DESCRIPTION
ENTRY
MAXSOCK OPNSOCK HIGHUSED
UDS
SOCKETS AF_UNIX
BPXTUINT
64
2
2
INET
SOCKETS AF_INET6
EZBPFINI
3000
1
1
SOCKETS AF_INET
2000
7
7
16
Multiple Stacks IPv4 CINET
Socket Applications
AF_INET PFS
TCP and UDP
Transport
QoS
TRM
IDS
IPv4 Raw
Transport
NM1ATCP
ARP
IGMP
IPv4 DLCs
ICMP
TCP and UDP
Transport
QoS
TRM
IDS
IPv4 Raw
Transport
NM1BTCP
ARP
IGMP
ICMP
TCP and UDP
Transport
QoS
TRM
IDS
IPv4 Raw
Transport
NM1CTCP
ARP
IPv4 DLCs
IGMP
ICMP
IPv4 DLCs
IPv4-only BPXPRMxx Example for CINET
FILESYSTYPE TYPE(CINET) ENTRYPOINT(BPXTCINT)
NETWORK DOMAINNAME(AF_INET)
DOMAINNUMBER(2)
MAXSOCKETS(2000)
TYPE(CINET)
INADDRANYPORT(20000)
INADDRANYCOUNT(100)
SUBFILESYSTYPE NAME(NM1ATCP)TYPE(CINET) ENTRYPOINT(EZBPFINI)
SUBFILESYSTYPE NAME(NM1BTCP)TYPE(CINET) ENTRYPOINT(EZBPFINI)
SUBFILESYSTYPE NAME(NM1CTCP)TYPE(CINET) ENTRYPOINT(EZBPFINI)
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A single MVS image can contain up to 8 TCP/IP stacks. Depicted here are three stacks running in MVS. This type of configuration is
called Common INET and is defined in the BPXPRMxx member of hlq.PARMLIB.
Multi-stack support is not new, but CINET support for IPv6 is. Up to 8 CS TCP/IP stacks can be active at one time whether they are
running single-mode or dual-mode.
Three IPv4 AF_INET stacks are depicted. These definitions are identical to what was used prior to IPv6 support.
Multiple TCP/IP stacks in one MVS image or LPAR are only supported by using Common INET (CINET).
Each TCP/IP stack is defined in the BPXPRMxx parmlib member using a SUBFILESYSTYPE statement.
D OMVS,PFS
BPXO046I 16.18.01 DISPLAY OMVS 023
OMVS
000D ACTIVE
OMVS=(Z4)
PFS CONFIGURATION INFORMATION
PFS TYPE DESCRIPTION
ENTRY
MAXSOCK OPNSOCK HIGHUSED
AUTOMNT
LOCAL FILE SYSTEM
BPXTAMD
TFS
LOCAL FILE SYSTEM
BPXTFS
CINET
SOCKETS AF_INET
BPXTCINT
10000
34
38
UDS
SOCKETS AF_UNIX
BPXTUINT
64
5
6
HFS
LOCAL FILE SYSTEM
GFUAINIT
BPXFTCLN CLEANUP DAEMON
BPXFTCLN
BPXFTSYN SYNC DAEMON
BPXFTSYN
BPXFPINT PIPES
BPXFPINT
BPXFCSIN CHARACTER SPECIAL
BPXFCSIN
PFS NAME
DESCRIPTION
ENTRY
STATUS FLAGS
NM1ATCP
SOCKETS
EZBPFINI
ACT
SC
NM1BTCP
SOCKETS
EZBPFINI
ACT
NM1CTCP
SOCKETS
EZBPFINI
ACT
PFS TYPE
PARAMETER INFORMATION
HFS
CURRENT VALUES: FIXED(0) VIRTUAL(249)
This command displays the Physical File Systems available to UNIX System Services.
This is a CINET (multi-stack) configuration for IPv4 only (Sockets AF_INET) with Entry type of BPXTCINT.
Each individual stack has an entrypoint of EZBPFINI.
17
Multipe Stacks IPv4/IPv6 CINET
Socket Applications
AF_INET6 PFS
IPv6 Raw
Transport
TCP and UDP
Transport
NeD
MLD
Stateless
autoconfig
ICMPv6
IPv6 DLCs
●
AF_INET PFS
IPv4 Raw
Transport
ARP
QoS
TRM
IDS
IGMP
ICMP
IPv4 DLCs
AF_INET6 PFS
IPv6 Raw
Transport
AF_INET PFS
TCP and UDP
Transport
NeD
MLD
Stateless
autoconfig
ICMPv6
IPv6 DLCs
IPv4 Raw
Transport
ARP
QoS
TRM
IDS
IGMP
ICMP
IPv4 DLCs
AF_INET6 PFS
IPv6 Raw
Transport
AF_INET PFS
TCP and UDP
Transport
NeD
MLD
Stateless
autoconfig
ICMPv6
IPv6 DLCs
IPv4 Raw
Transport
ARP
QoS
TRM
IDS
IGMP
ICMP
IPv4 DLCs
IPv4/IPv6 BPXPRMxx Example for CINET (Dual-Mode)
FILESYSTYPE TYPE(CINET) ENTRYPOINT(BPXTCINT)
NETWORK DOMAINNAME(AF_INET)
DOMAINNUMBER(2)
MAXSOCKETS(2000)
TYPE(CINET)
MAXSOCKETS is enforced independently for AF_INET and AF_INET6 sockets.
INADDRANYPORT(20000)
INADDRANYPORT, INADDRANYCOUNT values for NETWORK AF_INET6 from
INADDRANYCOUNT(100)
values specified on NETWORK AF_INET.
NETWORK DOMAINNAME(AF_INET6)
INADDRANYPORT, INADDRANYCOUNT values are ignored if specified on the
NETWORK statement for AF_INET6.
DOMAINNUMBER(19)
MAXSOCKETS(3000)
TYPE(CINET)
SUBFILESYSTYPE NAME(NM1ATCP) TYPE(CINET) ENTRYPOINT(EZBPFINI)
SUBFILESYSTYPE NAME(NM1BTCP) TYPE(CINET) ENTRYPOINT(EZBPFINI)
SUBFILESYSTYPE NAME(NM1CTCP) TYPE(CINET) ENTRYPOINT(EZBPFINI)
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Dual stack (IPv4/IPv6) is defined by using two NETWORK statements in BPXPRMxx: one for IPv4 and one for IPv6.
Each TCP/IP stack is defined in the BPXPRMxx parmlib member with SUBFILESYSTYPE. All CS TCP/IP stacks defined under the two
NETWORK statements will be IPv4/IPv6 stacks.
Stacks that are not IPv6-aware (like AnyNet Sockets over SNA) will continue to operate as IPv4-only stacks.
If MAXSOCKETS on AF_INET6 NETWORK is specified as 0, any TCP/IP stacks started will be v4-only stacks.
MAXSOCKETS is enforced independently for AF_INET and AF_INET6 sockets.
For TCP/IP Socket APIs (Macro, CALL, REXX, C and CICS) the maximum number of sockets allowed is 2000 regardless of socket type
and subject to the MAXSOCKETS limit. See z/OS Communication Server: IP Application Programming Interface Guide, SC31-8788,
for details or how to set the maximum socket limit for the TCP/IP Socket APIs.
For Unix sockets apps Maxsockets determines number of each type of socket that may be open at one time.
D OMVS,PFS
OMVS
000E ACTIVE
OMVS=(N3)
PFS CONFIGURATION INFORMATION
PFS TYPE DESCRIPTION
ENTRY
MAXSOCK OPNSOCK HIGHUSED
UDS
SOCKETS AF_UNIX
BPXTUINT
64
2
2
INET
SOCKETS AF_INET6
EZBPFINI
3000
1
1
SOCKETS AF_INET
2000
7
7
The information about whether the stack is IPv6 enabled or not is added to the Netstat UP/-u report.
Example from an IPv4 only stack
MVS TCP/IP NETSTAT CS V1R4 TCPIP Name: NM1ATCP 14:34:37
Tcpip started at 14:27:29 on 05/21/2003 with IPv6 disabled
Example from an IPv6 enabled stack
MVS TCP/IP NETSTAT CS V1R4 TCPIP Name: NM1ATCP 23:01:27
Tcpip started at 22:40:32 on 05/21/2003 with IPv6 enabled
Netstat HOME in an IPv6-enabled stack displays the LOOPBACK6 Interface -- whether or not you have made any changes whatsoever to
the current TCP/IP Profile.
INTFNAME:
LOOPBACK6
ADDRESS: ::1
TYPE:
LOOPBACK
FLAGS:
The LOOPBACK6 interface appears at the bottom of the HOMELIST, beneath the IPv4 LOOPBACK device.
18
PROFILE.TCPIP
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19
Format Long
●
IPCONFIG FORMAT SHORT and NETSTAT FORMAT SHORT
•
•
●
IPCONFIG default when stack not in Dual-Mode (not IPv6 enabled)
IPv4 only output
IPCONFIG FORMAT LONG and NETSTAT FORMAT LONG
•
•
Only option when stack in Dual-Mode (IPv6 enabled)
IPv6 and IPv4 output
NETSTAT HOME
MVS TCP/IP NETSTAT CS V1R4
TCPIP Name:...
Home address list:
NETSTAT HOME FORMAT LONG
Address
Link
Flg
MVS TCP/IP NETSTAT CS V1R4...
-----------Home address list:
9.82.5.120
VLINK1
LinkName:
VLINK1
9.82.5.121
VLINK2
Address: 9.82.5.120
10.1.1.1
LOOPBACK
Flags:
9.82.4.168
OSATRB10
P
...
172.18.2.168
CTCC128
LinkName:
LOOPBACK
FORMAT
192.168.11.168
TRLSM92A
Address: 10.1.1.1
192.168.31.168
TRLSM93A
FORMAT
SHORT
Flags:
192.168.51.168
TRLSM94A
LONG
LinkName:
OSATRB10
192.168.5.168
EZASAMEMVS
Address:
9.82.4.168
192.168.5.168
EZAXCFM2
Flags: Primary
9.82.5.122
VIPL0952057A
...
127.0.0.1
LOOPBACK
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FORMAT - The FORMAT keyword is optional.
The FORMAT keyword is only meaningful for stacks that are not enabled for IPv6. It controls the format of the command output. If
FORMAT SHORT is specified and the stack is enabled for IPv6, then an error message will be displayed. If the stack is not enabled
for IPv6 and the user specified LONG format, the command output is displayed as if it could contain IPv6 addresses. If the stack is
not enabled for IPv6 and the user specified SHORT format or did not specify the FORMAT keyword, then the command output is
displayed as if it could contain only IPv4 addresses and not the longer IPv6 addresses.
If the stack is enabled for IPv6, then specifying the FORMAT keyword does not make any difference to the command output format.
The FORMAT LONG display above is done on a stack that does not have IPv6 enabled.
Most Netstat Output
Format output keyword
LONG or SHORT
FORMAT LONG to support longer IPv6 addresses
LONG FORMAT always used when IPv6 is enabled
No message identifiers in FORMAT LONG output
FORMAT SHORT same as pre-V1R4
FORMAT defaults to SHORT when IPv6 is not enabled
FORMAT SHORT is not supported when IPv6 is enabled
FORMAT can be defined in IPCONFIG
No Message Identifiers in the Output when FORMAT LONG is used.
If you have developed REXX programs that issue Netstat commands under TSO and parse the output lines based on message
identifiers, you may need to change those REXX programs to use some other token in the output lines to decide the format of the
line you are trying to parse.
Implement IPCONFIG FORMAT LONG now to prepare for an eventual IPV6 implementation.
Since messages routinely change when the z/OS release changes it is recommended to implement IPCONFIG FORMAT LONG when
z/OS is upgraded. Automation that relies on the message output will be checked after upgrade anyway and a separate check for
FORMAT LONG will be avoided.
20
IPv6 Interface Statement
●
Combines the definitions of DEVICE, LINK and HOME
•
•
•
•
•
●
LOOPBACK6 defines loopback addresses
IPAQENET6 configures OSA-Express adapter (Ethernet QDIO)
MPCPTP6 defines IUTSAMEH, XCF, or ESCON/FICON link
VIRTUAL6 defines IPv6 VIPA
IPAQIDIO6 defines HiperSockets LAN
Some of the Keywords
•
DEFINE/DELETE (not for LOOPBACK6)
•
ADDADDR/DEPRADDR/DELADDR
➔
➔
•
➔
➔
statically defines IPv6 address
without IPADDR indicates autoconfiguration
SOURCEVIPAINTERFACE (IPAQENET6 and MPCPTP6)
➔
•
optionally statically defines 64-bit interface ID (predictable link-local address)
IPADDR (not for LOOPBACK6)
➔
•
equals TRLE portname or cpname (XCF) or IUTSAMEH
equals device name for physical device to support both IPv4 and IPv6
INTFID (IPAQENET6 and MPCPTP6)
➔
•
adds, deletes, or deprecates IPv6 home address(es)
PORTNAME (IPAQENET6)/TRLENAME (MPCPTP6)
➔
•
defines or deletes the IPv6 device
indicates the static VIPA to be used
DUPADDRDET (IPAQENET6)
➔
indicates number of times to attempt duplicate address detection
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INTERFACE and IPCONFIG6 are statements in z/OS CS to support IPv6.
The stack must be enabled for IPv6 to use these statements.
Multiple IPv6 addresses may be configured on an INTERFACE statement.
Start or Stop an interface via:
START or STOP statement in profile
VARY TCPIP,,START or VARY TCPIP,,STOP command
The Interface statement allows the definition or deletion of IPv6 interfaces as well as the addition, deletion or deprecation of IPv6
addresses for these interfaces.
IPv6 provides the capability of autoconfiguring addresses for an interface by using information provided by IPv6 routers. Descriptions of
this function can be found in RFC 2461 and RFC 2462. The term autoconfigured IP address is used to mean an IP address that is
created as a result of information received from a router advertisement. z/OS TCP/IP allows autoconfiguration if no IP addresses are
defined on the profile INTERFACE statement using the IPADDR keyword. If the INTERFACE statement contains IPADDR definitions,
this indicates that the installation is defining its own IP addresses and autoconfiguration is not desired. Manually configured
addresses describes the addresses that are defined using the IPADDR keyword.
TCP creates an autoconfigured IP address for an interface if all three of the following conditions are met:
The interface is active.
A valid router advertisement containing prefix info with the autonomous flag on is received over the interface.
No manually configured home addrs are defined for the interface at the time the router advert is received.
The IP address that is created by autoconfiguration is formed by appending the interface ID to the prefix supplied by the router
advertisement. Autoconfigured addresses can be identified in the netstat home report by the 'Autoconfigured' flag.
PRI/SEC/NONROUTER function works the same way for IPv6 as for IPv4. There are separate primary router attributes for IPv4 and IPv6
packets, so one stack sharing the OSA may be primary router for IPv4 while a different stack may be primary router for IPv6.
Configure IPv4 PRIROUTER/SECROUTER attribute on DEVICE statement
Configure IPv6 PRIROUTER/SECROUTER attribute on INTERFACE statement
NETSTAT DEVLINKS/-d displays the PRI/SEC/NONROUTER attributes.
Virtual MAC is preferred over PRIROUTER parameter.
Each stack registers each non-loopback IP address in its home list to OSA.
To add/delete an IPv4 home addr you need to use Obeyfile with a new HOME which replaces the IPv4 home.
For IPv6 you can use ADDADDR and DELADDR on the INTERFACE statement to add/delete individual IP addrs.
To delete the last or only IPv6 address for a VIRTUAL6, use INTERFACE DELETE similar to IPv4 DELETE LINK and DELETE DEVICE.
21
Loopback Interface Statement
::1
●
INTERFACE LOOPBACK6 Statement for IPv6:
INTERFACE LOOPBACK6 ADDADDR 2001:0DB8::14:0
•
•
There is only one LOOPBACK6 interface generated automatically.
➔ Default address ::1
➔ Cannot be deleted
Additional IP addresses may be defined/deleted/deprecated.
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There is only one LOOPBACK6 interface.
The default LOOPBACK6 address ::1 is generated automatically and cannot be deleted. Therefore, you cannot DEFINE or DELETE the
LOOPBACK6 interface.
You can add additional IP addresses for LOOPBACK6 in the initial profile or in an obeyfile. Additionally, you can delete and deprecate one
or more of these additional IP addresses in a vary obeyfile.
22
OSA QDIO Interface Statement
●
●
Single OSA adapter can support both IPv4 and IPv6 concurrently.
TRLE Required:
OSAQDIO TRLE LNCTL=MPC,READ=(0E28),WRITE=(0E29),
DATAPATH=(0E2A,0E2B),MPCLEVEL=QDIO,
PORTNAME=(OSAQDIO2,0)
●
INTERFACE IPAQENET6 Statement for IPv6:
INTERFACE OSAQDIO26 DEFINE IPAQENET6 PORTNAME OSAQDIO2
IPADDR 2001:0DB8:1:0:50C9:C2D4:0:1
●
INTERFACE IPAQENET Statement for IPv4:
INTERFACE OSAD2INT DEFINE IPAQENET PORTNAME OSAQDIO2
IPADDR 10.15.43.38/24
●
DEVICE MPCIPA and LINK IPAQENET Statement for IPv4:
DEVICE OSAQDIO2 MPCIPA
LINK LINK2 IPAQENET OSAQDIO2
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TCP/IP can be configured to use the OSA for IPv4-only, for IPv6-only, or both.
To use an OSA for both specify the same PORTNAME on both IPV6 and IPV4 INTERFACEs or the IPV6 Interface and the devicename
on the IPV4 DEVICE.
IPv6 OSA QDIO - Configured using INTERFACE IPAQENET6. Requires TRLE definition, same as IPv4. Optional IPADDR to manually
configure IP address(es) - Full IPv6 address or 64 bit prefix (TCP/IP appends interface ID).
Separate start and stop statements and separate Netstat Devlinks interface counters for IPv4 and IPv6.
For IPv4, ARP is offloaded to and performed by OSA. For IPv6, TCP/IP Neighbor Discovery performs Address resolution for OSA.
Two device addresses defined in Datapath in the Example on this page:
Required for two stacks in same LPAR sharing OSA.
Optional Backup - If two device addrs are defined for only one stack and the first path fails the second is used.
23
Interface ID and MTU from OSA
●
OSA returns MAC address and unique instance value during START interface.
INTERFACE ID (64 BITS)
24 bits
16 bits
MAC ADDR (BYTES 1-3) INSTANCE VALUE
24 bits
MAC ADDR (BYTES 4-6)
LINK_LOCAL ADDRESS (128 BITS)
64 bits
64 bits
LINK_LOCAL PREFIX
INTERFACE ID
●
TCP/IP uses the lower of the configured MTU and the MTU value
returned by the OSA
•
•
8992 for Gigabit Ethernet
1492 for Fast Ethernet
INTERFACE OSAQDIO26 DEFINE IPAQENET6 PORTNAME OSAQDIO2 PRIROUTER MTU 4000
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Multiple stacks which share an OSA get unique interface IDs
TCP/IP constructs interface ID and link-local address
Interface ID remains the same across restart of interface (with rare exceptions)
Interface ID will change after recycle of TCP/IP
RFC2373 describes an algorithm to build an EUI-64 interface ID from a MAC address by inserting xFFFE into the middle of MAC
address. However this algorithm does not consider the case where an adapter is shared by multiple stacks as each would derive the
same interface ID and therefore get the same link-local address. To allow an OSA to be shared by multiple stacks, OSA returns a
unique instance value during activation.
TCP/IP ensures that universal/local bit is off in the interface ID (seventh bit of interface ID).
To help provide fault tolerance, TCP/IP requests that OSA return the same interface ID when an interface is restarted.
One reason the interface ID could change on a restart of interface is if the customer changes the MAC address of the OSA.
MTU
Configure MTU on INTERFACE statement (<= size supported by router)
The minimum MTU for IPv6 is 1280.
The stack sends certain IPv6 packets to the link local address of a router using the interface MTU. For OSA Gigabit Ethernet jumbo
frame is supported, this MTU is 8992.
NETSTAT DEV/-d displays both the configured MTU (if configured) and the actual MTU (if interface is active).
24
MPC Interface Statement
●
●
Single MPC adapter can support both IPv4 and IPv6 concurrently.
TRLE Required:
OSAQDIO TRLE LNCTL=MPC,READ=(0C28),WRITE=(0C29),
DATAPATH=(0C2A,0C2B),MPCLEVEL=HPDT,
PORTNAME=(ESCONP1,0)
●
INTERFACE MPCPTP6 Statement for IPv6:
INTERFACE ESCONI1 DEFINE MPCPTP6 PORTNAME ESCONP1
IPADDR 2001:44:5:4:1000:C200:0:1
●
DEVICE MPCPTP and LINK MPCPTP Statement for IPv4:
DEVICE ESCONP1 MPCPTP
LINK ESCONL1 MPCPTP ESCONP1
●
Static XCF
•
●
TRLENAME is VTAM CPname
Same Host
•
TRLENAME is reserved name IUTSAMEH
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TCP/IP can be configured to use the OSA for IPv4-only, for IPv6-only, or both.
To use an OSA for both by specifing the same PORTNAME on the INTERFACE and the devicename on the DEVICE.
IPv6 OSA QDIO - Configured using INTERFACE IPAQENET6. Requires TRLE definition, same as IPv4. Optional IPADDR to manually
configure IP address(es) - Full IPv6 address or 64 bit prefix (TCP/IP appends interface ID).
Separate start and stop statements and separate Netstat Devlinks interface counters for IPv4 and IPv6.
For IPv4, ARP is offloaded to and performed by OSA. For IPv6, TCP/IP Neighbor Discovery performs Address resolution for OSA.
Two device addresses defined in Datapath in the Example on this page:
Required for two stacks in same LPAR sharing OSA.
Optional Backup - If two device addrs are defined for only one stack and the first path fails the second is used.
25
VIPA Interface Statement
●
IPv6 VIPA and SourceVIPA
•
IPv6 Source VIPA is enabled in IPCONFIG6 Statement:
IPCONFIG6 SOURCEVIPA
•
INTERFACE VIRTUAL6 Statement for IPv6:
INTERFACE VIPAV61 DEFINE VIRTUAL6
IPADDR 2001:0DB8:0:A:9:67:115:5
INTERFACE VIPAV62 DEFINE VIRTUAL6
IPADDR 2001:0DB8:0:A:9:67:115:6
•
IPv6 Source VIPA is specified on OSA interface Statement:
INTERFACE OSAQDIO16 DEFINE IPAQENET6 PORTNAME OSAQDIO1
SOURCEVIPAINTerface VIPAV61
INTERFACE OSAQDIO26 DEFINE IPAQENET6 PORTNAME OSAQDIO2
SOURCEVIPAINTerface VIPAV62
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All static VIPA must be manually configured. IPv6 Static VIPA are configured using INTERFACE VIRTUAL6.
Link-local VIPAs are disallowed since link-local are for use only on the associated LAN and there is no VIPA LAN.
SourceVIPA for IPv6 is controlled via the IPCONFIG6 SOURCEVIPA and INTERFACE SOURCEVIPAINTERFACE.
When multiple addresses are configured for a SOURCEVIPA interface, the default source address selection algorithm will select the
correct source address for each outbound packet based upon its destination address.
Use different prefixes for IPv6 static VIPAs and for the IPv6 addresses assigned to real interfaces.
To allow other hosts that share a LAN with the z/OS TCP/IP stack to access the IPv6 VIPAs without the need for manual route
configuration, a router on each LAN should include the VIPA prefix in its router advertisements. The router advertisements should
define the prefix as being on-link and should indicate that the prefix not be used for autoconfiguration. No duplicate address check is
done for VIPA addresses.
When the application or upper-layer protocol has not selected a source address for an outbound IPv6 packet (using bind or ipv6_pktinfo),
the default source address selection algorithm will select one:
The goal of default source address selection is to select the address that is most likely to allow the packet to reach its destination and to
support site renumbering. The group of candidate addresses consists of the addresses assigned to the outbound interface (both
configured and/or dynamically generated) or the addresses configured for the outbound interface's SOURCEVIPA interface.
The default source address selection algorithm is explained in detail in the IPv6 Network and Application Design Guide, SC31-8885.
Transparent fault tolerance - redundant IPv6 connectivity onto a LAN
Define and start multiple IPAQENET6 interfaces onto the same LAN
If one interface becomes inactive for any reason then another interface performs Interface Takeover
Gratuitous Neighbor Advertisements with new MAC address are sent
IPv6 traffic targeting original IP address(es) will continue to flow over another interface
Similar to existing IPv4 ARP takeover function for LCS and MPCIPA QDIO except: IPv6 support only sends gratuitous advertisements
for VIPAs the stack previously received a Neighbor Solicitation for on that LAN.
26
Dynamic VIPA (DVIPA)
●
IPv6 Dynamic VIPA Support (VIPADYNAMIC)
VIPADYNAMIC VIPADEFINE dvipav61
2001:0DB8:0:A:9:67:115:7 ENDVIPADYNAMIC
VIPADYNAMIC VIPABACKUP dvipav62
2001:0DB8:0:A:9:67:115:8 ENDVIPADYNAMIC
VIPADYNAMIC VIPADELETE dvipav63 ENDVIPADYNAMIC
VIPADYNAMIC VIPARANGE dvipav64
2001:0DB8:0:A/64 ENDVIPADYNAMIC
VIPADYNAMIC VIPADISTRIBUTE DEFINE dvipav61 PORT 23
DESTIP ALL ENDVIPADYNAMIC
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See the detailed VIPA presentation out on the TecDocs web site:
http://www.ibm.com/support/techdocs/atsmastr.nsf/WebIndex/PRS789
27
IPCONFIG6 Statement
●
IPCONFIG6 options similar to IPCONFIG
•
•
•
•
•
•
DATAGRAMFWD/NODATAGRAMFWD enables/disables the transfer of data
between networks interfaces.
FWDMULTIPATH PERPACKET/NOFWDMULTIPATH enables/disables
interface to interface packet routing on an approximate round-robin basis.
IGNOREREDIRECT causes TCP/IP to ignore ICMP Redirect packets.
SOURCEVIPA/NOSOURCEVIPA enables/disables use of a VIPA assigned to
the SOURCEVIPAINT interface as the source address for outbound
datagrams that do not have an explicit source address.
MULTIPATH/NOMULTIPATH enables/disables multipath routing.
DYNAMICXCF configures IPv6 Dynamic XCF (and IUTSAMEH).
➔
➔
➔
●
INTFID optionally statically defines 64-bit interface ID
XCF interface name is EZ6XCFnn where nn is the sysclone value
IUTSAMEH interface name is EZ6SAMEMVS
IPCONFIG6 options with no IPCONFIG equivalent
•
•
•
HOPLIMIT limits number of hops a packet can travel enroute.
IGNOREROUTERHOPLIMIT/NOIGNOREROUTERHOPLIMIT
enables/disables the configured global hop limit value being overridden by a
router advertisement value.
ICMPERRORLIMIT controls the rate at which ICMP error messages can be
sent to a particular IPv6 destination address.
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If the stack is not configured for IPv6 and IPCONFIG6 is specified TCP/IP starts up with EZZ0695I IPCONFIG6 NOT VALID -IPv6
SUPPORT IS NOT ENABLED.
NODATAGRAMFWD -Stops transfer of data between networks by disabling IP routing between different network interfaces.
DATAGRAMFWD - Enables the routing of data between interfaces.
NOFWDMULTIPATH - If multiple equal-cost paths to a destination the first active route is used. The default.
FWDMULTIPATH PERPACKET - A route on a round-robin basis is selected.
IGNOREREDIRECT - Causes TCP/IP to ignore ICMP Redirect packets.
NOSOURCEVIPA - Specifies TCP/IP does not request to use VIPA address as source IP address for outbound datagrams. The default.
SOURCEVIPA - TCP/IP uses VIPA assigned to SOURCEVIPAINT interface as the source addr for outbound datagrams that do not have
an explicit source addr. If multiple addrs are assigned to SOURCEVIPAINT interface, the source addr will be selected from the addrs
according to default source address selection algorithm.
NOMULTIPATH - Disables multipath routing selection algorithm for outbound traffic. If there are multiple equal-cost routes to a destination
and NOMULTIPATH is specified, TCP/IP uses the first active route. The default.
MULTIPATH - Enables the multipath routing selection algorithm for outbound IP traffic. If MULTIPATH is specified without any
subparameters, the default is PERCONNECTION.
PERCONNECTION - A route on a round-robin basis is selected for each destination. Connection or connectionless oriented IP packets
using the same association always use the same route.
PERPACKET - A route on an approximate round-robin basis is selected for each packet. All IP packets for a given association with a
destination host are spread across the multiple equal-cost routes.
HOPLIMIT - Number of hops a packet can travel enroute to the destination. If the destination is more hops away, the packet will never
reach the destination. The valid range is between 1 and 255. The default is 255.
IGNOREROUTERHOPLIMIT - Your configuredHOPLIMIT value is always used. Any router advertisement from a router with a different
hop limit value is ignored.
NOIGNOREROUTERHOPLIMIT - Causes TCP/IP to Not ignore a Router Advertisement from a router with a different hop limit value. This
results in the configured global hop limit value being overridden by the router advertisement value for all routes using the interface
the router advertisement was received on. This is the default.
ICMPERRORLIMIT - This parameter controls rate at which ICMP error messages can be sent to an IPv6 destination address. The
number specified is messages per second. The default is 3 messages per second, and the valid range is 1-20 messages per
second.
DYNAMICXCF - creates XCF and IUTSAMEH link.
Dynamic XCF must be either static or dynamic; either static IPv4 XCF and static IPv6 XCF, or dynamic IPv4 XCF and dynamic IPv6
XCF.
Once the IPv6 dynamic XCF address has been established/enabled, it cannot be changed without recycling the TCP stack.
28
IPv6 Source IP Address
●
IPCONFIG and IPCONFIG6 SOURCEVIPA
•
•
•
●
IPCONFIG and IPCONFIG6 TCPSTACKSOURCEVIPA
•
•
•
●
Allows outbound connections and datagrams to use a static VIPA as source IP address
Independence from physical adapter failure
SOURCEVIPA is different for each stack
Provides Sysplex source VIPA when used with Sysplex Distributor
Supports DVIPAs
Ephemeral Port assignment coordinated among stacks when SYSPLEXPORTS is
specified
SRCIP/ENDSRCIP
•
•
•
•
•
TCPSTACKSOURCEVIPA applies to all outbound TCP connections
SRCIP allows each job to have its own IP address
TCPSTACKSOURCEVIPA only works if no bind() is issued before connect()
SRCIP works for applications that issue an explicit bind() to inaddr_any (unspecified
address)
Example
SRCIP is the preferred method for
SRCIP
JOBNAME USER15 9.43.242.5
Source IP Address Specification.
JOBNAME
JOBNAME
JOBNAME
JOBNAME
ENDSRCIP
04/13/14
USER*
USER15
JOB*
*
9.43.242.4
2EC0::092B:F203
ETHER1
9.43.242.3
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Problem Statement: Sysplex as a Single System
1) TCPSTACKSOURCEVIPA applies to all outbound TCP connections
Same address for all connections if enabled
2) TCPSTACKSOURCEVIPA only works if no bind() is issued before the connect()
Even if the bind() is to inaddr_any
3) SHARE Requirement
Single Sysplex IP address, inbound and outbound
TCPSTACKSOURCEVIPA
Single IP address for an application
Job-Specific Source IP Address
29
Routing
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30
Static Routing
●
IPv6 BEGINROUTES
; BEGINRoutes Defines static routes to the IP route table
BEGINRoutes
; Direct Routes
; Destination Subnet Mask First Hop Link/Int Packet Size
ROUTE 130.50.75.0 255.255.255.0 = TR1
MTU 2000
ROUTE 193.5.2.0/24
= ETH1 MTU 1500
ROUTE 9.67.43.0
255.255.255.0 = FDDI1 MTU 4000
ROUTE 193.7.2.2
HOST
= SNA1 MTU 2000
ROUTE 2001:0CD8:1/128
= OSAQDIO26 MTU 2000
ROUTE 2001:0CD8:1/128
= OSAQDIO28 MTU 2000
; Indirect Routes
; Destination Subnet Mask First Hop Link/Int Packet Size
ROUTE 193.12.2.0 255.255.255.0 130.50.75.10 TR1 MTU 2000
ROUTE 10.5.6.4
HOST
193.5.2.10
ETH1 MTU 1500
; Default Route
; Destination First Hop Link/Int Packet Size
ROUTE DEFAULT 9.67.43.99 FDDI1 MTU DEFAULTSIZE
ROUTE DEFAULT6 2001:0CD8:1::5160 OSAQDIO26 MTU DEFAULTSIZE
ROUTE DEFAULT6 2001:0CD8:1::5180 OSAQDIO28 MTU DEFAULTSIZE
ENDRoutes
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Use the BEGINROUTES statement to add static routes to the IP route table. The GATEWAY statement is not enhanced to support IPv6
routes.
The IP address can be an IPv4 or IPv6 address and does not need to be a fully qualified address. The first hop gateway IP address can
also support either IPv4 or IPv6 addresses, but must be a fully qualified address.
dest_ipaddr/dest_ipv6addr - The destination IPv4 or IPv6 address. An IPv4 address must be fully qualified.
prefixLength: Valid range 1-128.
First hop portion of the ROUTE statement may contain either an IPv4 first hop address. It must be either a fully qualified address or an
equal sign (=).
link_name or interface name is the link or interface through which packets are sent to the specified destination.
MTU mtu_size - The maximum transmission unit (MTU) in bytes for the destination. This value can be up to 65535. The keyword
DEFAULTSIZE in this field requests that TCP/IP supply a default value of 576 for IPv4 routes and 1280 for IPv6 routes. You cannot
specify an MTU smaller than the default MTU size. For IPv4 the default MTU is 576 and for IPv6 it is 1280.
Opts - Options are unchanged: NOREPLaceable | REPLaceable, MAXImumretransmittime 120.00 | MAXImumretransmittime seconds,
MINImumretransmittime 0.50 | MINImumretransmittime seconds, ROUNDTRIPGain 0.125 | ROUNDTRIPGain value,
VARIANCEGain 0.25 | VARIANCEGain value, VARIANCEMultiplier 2.00 |VARIANCEMultiplier value, DELAYAcks | NODELAYAcks
IPv6 Standards require a minimum of 2 default routers so when the last default route is deleted a default route is added back into the
routing table.
31
Dynamic Routing
●
IPv6 Learns some Routing
•
Some routes can be dynamically learned without OMPROUTE
➔
➔
➔
●
Default routes
Direct prefix routes
ICMP redirects
OMPROUTE
•
IPv6 RIPng (RIP next generation)
➔
➔
➔
➔
➔
➔
➔
•
Like IPv4 RIP
Based upon the Distance Vector Algorithm
Max metric is 15
Advertise full routing table every 30 seconds
Routes time out if not refreshed in 3 minutes
Extensive filters
Changes primarily to accommodate IPv6 addressing - bigger addresses, address
prefixes, and link local addresses.
IPv6 OSPF (OSPFv3)
➔
➔
➔
➔
➔
Like IPv4 OSPF (OSPFv2)
Default hello interval is 10, dead router is 40, database exchange is 40
Default interface cost is 1, designated router priority is 1
etc.
Router ID defaults to IPv4 OSPF Router ID if running or it must be specified
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Unlike IPv4, IPv6 dynamically learns some routing information without dynamic routing protocols OSPF or RIP.
32
Resolver
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33
VTAM
OMVS
BPXPRMxx
TCP/IP
●
Global
IPNODES
IPv4 only
Whether the common local host file search order is to be used for:
➔
➔
•
MVS and UNIX environments
IPv4 and IPv6 queries
COMMONSEARCH is the recommended setting
ETC.IPNODES is a local host file with IPv4 and/or IPv6 addresses
•
•
•
●
Default
IPNODES
PROCLIB
COMMONSEARCH/NOCOMMONSEARCH
•
●
Resolver
Default
TCPIPDATA
Resolver Setup File
COMMONSEARCH
HOSTS.SITEINFO, HOSTS.ADDRINFO files and /etc/hosts file
•
●
Global
TCPIPDATA
Resolver
z/OS
Setup statements to identify the first and final search location for the
ETC.IPNODES local host file.
GLOBALIPNODES
DEFAULTIPNODES
Resolver retrieves IPv4 and/or IPv6 addresses from DNS
•
Resolver communication with DNS supports IPv6 DNS address starting z/OS
V2R1
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HOSTS.SITEINFO and .ADDRINFO files continue to be generated from HOSTS.LOCAL file via MAKESITE utility.
ETC.IPNODES may contain both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. IPv6 addresses can only be defined in ETC.IPNODES.
For GLOBALIPNODES and DEFAULTIPNODES, the syntax and format of the specified file names is the following:
Fully qualified MVS dataset name. The beginning and end quotes are required. The dataset name is not case sensitive. The dataset
characteristics must be Fixed (F) or Fixed Block (FB), with LRECL between 56 and 256, inclusive. Sequential file or PDS member
are both allowed. HFS file absolute pathname. Beginning slash is required. The HFS pathname is case sensitive. The maximum line
length is 256 characters.
IPv6 ETC.IPNODES search order:
GLOBALIPNODES
RESOLVER_IPNODES environment variable (Unix only)
userid/jobname.ETC.IPNODES
hlq.ETC.IPNODES
DEFAULTIPNODES
/etc/ipnodes
IPv4 HOSTS.LOCAL search order:
MVS Environment
userid/jobname.HOSTS.xxxxINFO
hlq.HOSTS.xxxxINFO
Unix Environment
X_SITE and X_ADDR environment variables
/etc/hosts
userid.HOSTS.xxxxINFO
hlq.HOSTS.xxxxINFO
Specifying the new Resolver COMMONSEARCH setup statement is recommended as the way to simplify the search order choices:
IPv6 search order will be used for IPv4 searches as well
MVS and UNIX environments would utilize the same search order for IPv4 searches as well as IPv6 searches
All local resources can be defined in a single local host file (ETC.IPNODES) rather than spread across multiple files (ETC.IPNODES
and HOSTS.LOCAL)
Applicable to both new and old Resolver APIs
34
FTP
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35
IPv4 FTP
●
•
•
•
●
FTP.DATA FWFRIENDLY FALSE (default)
ftp ipv4_addr1
put file_name
ipv4_addr2
port_num2
•
•
FTP.DATA FWFRIENDLY TRUE
ftp ipv4_addr1
put file_name
IPv4 FTP Client Proxy Mode
•
•
•
•
Data Connection
PORT ipv4_addr2 at port_num2
200 Port Request OK
connect ipv4_addr2 at port_num2
STOR file_name
ipv4_addr1
Control
port_num1
Data port used
to send connect
Control Connection
connect ipv4_addr1 port_num1
z/OS
FTP
Client
FTP.DATA FWFRIENDLY TRUE
ftp ipv4_addr1
proxy open ipv4_addr2
Control Connection
proxy put file_name
connect ipv4_addr1 port_num1
Connection
z/OS connectControl
ipv4_addr2 port_num2
FTP
Data Connection
PASV
Client
227 Entering Passive Mode
ipv4_addr1 port_num3
PORT ipv4_addr1 port_num3
200 PORT request OK
Data Connection
PASV
227 Entering Passive Mode ipv4_addr1 port_num2
connect ipv4_addr1 port_num2
STOR file_name
z/OS
FTP
Server
ipv4_addr1
Control
port_num1
Data
port_num3
These packets do not
actually pass through
the left FTP Server
connect ipv4_addr1 port_num3
STOR file_name
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z/OS
FTP
Server
Control Connection
connect ipv4_addr1 port_num1
IPv4 FTP Client Passive Mode
•
●
z/OS
FTP
Client
IPv4 FTP Client Active Mode
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z/OS
FTP
Server
ipv4_addr1
Control
port_num1
Data
port_num2
z/OS
FTP
Server
ipv4_addr2
Control
port_num2
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For the client you may specify an IPv4 address, a hostname, an IPv4-mapped IPv6 address, or an IPv6 address.
userid.NETRC support:
The NETRC data set provides you with an alternative to specifying the user_id and password as REXEC values or FTP batch client
values.
An IPv6 address may be specified in the NETRC data set.
DNS names that resolve to IPv6 addresses can be specified.
FTP.DATA statements supported for IPv4 Addresses / Connections Only:
SECURE_MECHANISM GSSAPI (KERBEROS)
SOCKSCONFIGFILE
For IPv4 SOCKS Servers only.
If SOCKS server defined as a DNS name, the FTP client resolves name to IPv4 addresses only.
FWFRIENDLY
Irrelevant / Ignored with IPv6 partner
RFC 2428 specification: EPSV is used for data transfer to/from IPv6 FTP partner
EPRT reserved for proxy transfer.
There are no FTP.DATA statements for IPv6 enablement.
GSSAPI authentication (KERBEROS) is supported only for IPv4 connections. The client will fail the negotiation when the connection is
IPv6.
Kerberos channel-bindings have not yet been defined for IPv6 connections
SSL/TLS security is fully supported for IPv6 connections.
GSSAPI authentication (KERBEROS) is supported only for IPv4 connections. The client will fail the negotiation when the connection is
IPv6.
The SOCKSCONFIGFILE is referenced only for IPv4 connections. in the SOCKSCONFIGFILE itself, only IPv4 addresses are supported.
If you define a SOCKS server as a DNS name, the FTP client will resolve that name to IPv4 addresses only.
The FWFRIENDLY FTP.DATA statement applies to IPv4 connections only. As specified by RFC 2428, when connected to an IPv6 FTP
server, EPSV is used to start a data transfer. EPRT is reserved for proxy transfer.
FWFRIENDLY statement applies to IPv4 connections only.
36
IPv6 FTP
●
●
●
IPv6 FTP Server enabled automatically when stack is Dual-Mode
All IPv6 FTP Client connections are in Passive Mode (no Active Mode
Support)
z/OS
IPv6 FTP Client
Control Connection
FTP
•
•
•
connect ipv6_addr1 port_num1
IPFWFRIENDLY Ignored
ftp ipv6_addr1
put file_name
z/OS
FTP
Client
Data Connection
EPSV
229 Entering Extended Passive Mode port_num2
connect ipv6_addr1 port_num2
STOR file_name
●
IPv6 FTP Client Proxy Mode
•
•
•
ftp ipv6_address1
proxy open ipv6_address2
proxy put file_name
z/OS
FTP
Client
Control Connection
connect ipv6_addr1 port_num1
Control Connection
connect ipv6_addr2 port_num2
Data Connection
EPSV
229 Entering Passive Mode
port_num3
EPRT ipv6_addr1 port_num3
200 EPRT request OK
z/OS
FTP
Server
ipv6_addr1
Control
port_num1
Data
port_num3
These packets do not
actually pass through
the left FTP Server
connect ipv6_addr1 port_num3
STOR file_name
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Server
ipv6_addr1
Control
port_num1
Data
port_num2
z/OS
FTP
Server
ipv6_addr2
Control
port_num2
Page 37
FTP client and daemon test the LPAR as soon as they are started to determine whether it is IPv4 only or dual-mode. It does this by
opening an AF_INET6 socket. If the socket() call fails with errno EINVAL and errnoJr = EAFNOTSUPPORTED, FTP knows it must
be executing on an IPv4-only LPAR (one or more IPv4-only stacks). FTP records the result to avoid issuing extended socket API
calls (IPv6 socket calls) on the IPv4-only LPAR
A sockaddr is an API programming structure that includes port number and IP address of the endpoint.
FTP daemon (server)
On the IPv4 only stack, the sockaddrs are always AF_INET.
On the dual stack, the sockaddrs are always AF_INET6.
FTP client
On the IPv4 only stack, the sockaddrs are always AF_INET.
On the dual-mode LPAR, the FTP Client opens an AF_INET socket to connect to servers with IPv4 addresses; it opens an AF_INET6
socket to connect to servers with IPv6 addresses.
The server needs to know whether its session is IPv4 or IPv6 when it is establishing a data connection. The z/OS server has always
used the same local interface (IP address) for the data connection that is used for the control connection. It ensures the stack will
use the same interface by binding the data socket to the server's control connection local IP address. If the client logs in with an
IPv4 address, that server local control connection IP address will be IPv4. On the dual stack, the control connection local sockaddr
will be AF_INET6, but the IP address may be in the mapped format (::ffff:a.b.c.d). If the client logs in with an IPv6 address, the
server's local control connection IP address will be IPv6. Once a socket is bound to an IP address, it can only be connected to IP
addresses of the same protocol. The z/OS FTP server forces the data connection to be the same protocol as the control
connection.
This is more restrictive than the RFCs 959 and 2428 state. In theory, an OEM server could have one protocol for the control connection
and the other for the data connection. But the z/OS server cannot allow mixing.
z/OS FTP implements RFC 2428, which amounts to simply using other FTP commands in place of PORT and PASV commands when
exchanging IP addresses. The z/OS FTP implements IPv6 via the commands EPRT (extended PORT) and EPSV (extended PASV)
defined in this RFC.
EPRT and EPSV can be used with either IPv4 addresses or IPv6 addresses. In theory, RFC 2428 allows any address family whose
address family number is defined in RFC 1700, but the RFC is explicit (and therefore implementable) only for IPv4 and IPv6
addressing.
There is an oddity surrounding EPRT in RFC 2428:
EPRT is used only for proxy data transfers -- not for standard data transfers between client and server.
For all data transfers, RFC 2428 specifies that EPSV will be used.
37
Enterprise Extender
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Enterprise Extender (EE)
x.com
public
DNS
EBN
hostx=1.1.1.2
EBNx=1.1.1.1
Hosty=2.2.2.2
EBNy=2.2.2.1
y.com
public
DNS
EBN
EBNx.x.com
EBNy.y.com
NNx
NNy
IPNodes
IPNodes
hostx=10.2.1.1
EBNx=10.1.1.1
ENx
Hosty=192.168.2.1
EBNy=192.168.1.1
dest=2.2.2.2,src=10.2.1.1
dest=2.2.2.2,src=1.1.1.2
dest=192.168.2.1,src=1.1.1.2
dest=10.2.1.1,src=2.2.2.2
dest=1.1.1.2,src=2.2.2.2
dest=1.1.1.2,src=192.168.2.1
hostx.x.com
Company x.com intranet
●
ENy
hosty.y.com
FW
intranet
Public
Public
intranet
10.1.1.1
1.1.1.1
2.2.2.1
192.168.1.1
10.2.1.1
1.1.1.2
2.2.2.2
192.168.2.1
FW
Company y.com intranet
HOSTNAME and IPv6 address Support for IPv6 and Connection Network/NAT
•
•
IPv4 non-Connection Network EE already worked with NAT
HOSTNAME keyword (1R5) (start option, GROUP, path definition) or IPv6 addr (V2R1)
(start option, path def in sw major node) to represent local and remote IPV6 VIPA
➔
➔
•
Recommended for IPv4 also since it provides solution for Connection Network/NAT
HOSTNAME overrides IPADDR
PORT IPRESOLV on PATH statement
➔
Specifies the number of seconds VTAM waits for IP address resolution
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EE architecture has been updated to allow the EE connection network control vectors to carry the ip address and hostname
corresponding to the EE VIPA.
Administrative requirement of coordinating NAT tables and public DNS entries is a known administrative procedure to installations that
use NAT.
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inetd
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inetd
●
inetd (internet daemon server)
•
•
•
remote execution (orexec) client and remote execution (orexecd) server
remote shell (orshd) server
telnet server (otelnetd)
/etc/inetd.conf file:
#===============================================================================
# service | socket | proto-| wait/ | user
| server
| server program
# name
| type
| col
| nowait|
| program
|
arguments
...
shell
stream tcp
nowait OMVSKERN /usr/sbin/orshd
orshd -k KRB5
exec
stream tcp
nowait OMVSKERN /usr/sbin/orexecd orexecd -dLV
otelnet
stream tcp6
nowait bpxroot /usr/sbin/otelnetd otelnetd
Protocol Field: tcp, udp, tcp6, udp6
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The inetd server applications have been updated with IPv6 support.
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SMF
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SMF
●
SMF Record Types
•
•
●
SMF118 - IPv4 addresses only.
SMF119 - Records have room for IPv6 addresses.
Three Different Places to Request SMF Records
•
PROFILE.TCPIP SMFCONFIG parameters
➔
➔
➔
➔
➔
➔
➔
➔
•
PROFILE.TCPIP TELNETPARMS parameters
➔
•
TCP/IP Statistics records
TCP Connection Initiation and Termination records
FTP Client Transfer Complete records
TN3270 Client Initiation and Termination records
Interface Link Utilization Statistics records
Reserved Port Utilization Statistics records
TCP/IP Stack Start and Stop records
UDP Socket Termination records
TN3270 Server SNA Session Initiation and Termination records
FTP.DATA statements for FTP Server records
➔
➔
➔
➔
➔
FTP Transfer Complete records
APPEND
DELETE
JES
Login Failure
04/13/14
➔
➔
➔
➔
➔
RENAME
RETRIEVE
SQ
STORE
UNIQUE STORE
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Type 118 FTP client and server transfer completion records are generated for IPv6 connections, but leave the IP address field empty. All
other type 118 SMF records are not generated for IPv6 connections.
SMF Recording must be enabled:
SYS1.PARMLIB(SMFPRMxx)
SYS(TYPE(119))
INTVAL(x)
SYNCVAL(x)
NETSTAT CONFIG/-f output shows SMF specifications in SMFCONFIG statement.
IPCS Command TCPIPCS displays all PROFILE.TCPIP configuration settings.
Display TCPIP,,Telnet,PROFile displays telnet initialization and termination settings.
SNMP applications can communicate over an IPv6 connection:
osnmp command
SNMP agent (OSNMPD)
Trap Forwarder daemon
MVS TCPIP subagents
DPI 2.0 enabled for AF_INET6
pwtokey and pwchange commands
Accept IPv6 addresses
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More Information
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Web Sites and Documents
●
●
●
IBM Technical Documents
http://www.ibm.com/support/techdocs
IBM Redbooks
http://www.redbooks.ibm.com
z/OS Home Page
http://www.ibm.com/systems/z/os/zos/
●
IPv6 Information Pages
http://www.ipv6forum.com
http://arin.net
http://www.internet2.edu
http://www.ipv6.org
●
z/OS Manuals
•
•
•
IP Configuration Guide, SC27­3650
IP Configuration Reference, SC27­3651
IPv6 Network and Application Design Guide, SC27­3663
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The End
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