SuSE Linux Desktop/ Administration Guide (en)

SuSE Linux Desktop/ Administration Guide (en)
SuSE Linux Desktop
A DMINISTRATION G UIDE
1. edition 2003
Copyright ©
This publication is intellectual property of SuSE Linux AG.
Its contents can be duplicated, either in part or in whole, provided that a copyright label
is visibly located on each copy.
All information found in this book has been compiled with utmost attention to detail.
However, this does not guarantee complete accuracy. Neither SuSE Linux AG, the authors, nor the translators shall be held liable for possible errors or the consequences
thereof.
Many of the software and hardware descriptions cited in this book are registered trademarks. All trade names are subject to copyright restrictions and may be registered trade
marks. SuSE Linux AG essentially adheres to the manufacturer’s spelling. Names of
products and trademarks appearing in this book (with or without specific notation) are
likewise subject to trademark and trade protection laws and may thus fall under copyright restrictions.
Please direct suggestions and comments to [email protected]
Translators: Daniel Pisano, Tino Tanner
Editors:
Jörg Arndt, Karl Eichwalder, Antje Faber, Berthold Gunreben,
Roland Haidl, Jana Jaeger, Edith Parzefall, Ines Pozo, Peter Reinhart,
Thomas Rölz, Thomas Schraitle, Rebecca Walter
Layout:
Manuela Piotrowski, Thomas Schraitle
Setting:
LATEX, DocBook-XML
This book has been printed on 100 % chlorine-free bleached paper.
Contents
I
Installation
1
1 System Installation with YaST
1.1
3
Starting Your System from the CD-ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
Possible Problems When Starting from the CD/DVD . . . . . . . .
4
1.2
The Boot Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
1.3
YaST Takes Over
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
1.4
Selecting a Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
1.5
Installation Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
1.6
Installation Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
1.7
Installation Suggestions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
1.8
Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10
1.9
Keyboard Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
1.10 Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
1.11 Partitioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12
Partition Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12
Required Disk Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13
Partitioning with YaST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
Expert Partitioning with YaST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16
1.12 Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21
Preselection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
Other Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
1.13 Booting (Boot Loader Installation) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
1.14 Time Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
1.15 Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
1.16 Starting the Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25
1.17 Finishing the Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25
root Password
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25
Creating Local User Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25
1.18 Hardware Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27
1.19 Graphical Login . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28
2 YaST — Configuration
2.1
Starting YaST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32
2.2
The YaST Control Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32
2.3
Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32
Change Installation Source
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32
YaST Online Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33
Patch CD Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33
Install and Remove Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
34
System Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37
Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38
Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38
Display and Input Devices (SaX2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
42
Hardware Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
51
IDE DMA Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
51
Joystick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
52
Select Mouse Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
53
Scanners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
53
Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
54
Network/Basic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
56
Basic Information about Internet Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
56
Information about the Internet Dial-Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
58
Network Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
58
2.4
2.5
iv
31
Contents
2.6
2.7
Modems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
60
DSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
62
ISDN
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
62
E-Mail Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65
Starting or Stopping System Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
67
Network/Advanced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
67
Host Name and DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
67
NFS Client
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
68
Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
68
Security and Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
69
User Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
69
Group Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
70
Security Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
70
Firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
72
System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
73
Creating a System Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
73
Creating a Boot, Rescue, or Module Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
74
Boot Loader Configuration with YaST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
77
Partitioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
79
Profile Manager (SCPM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
80
Restoring the System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
80
Runlevel Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
80
Sysconfig Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
82
Time Zone Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
82
Language Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
82
Keyboard Layout Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
83
Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
83
Submitting a Support Request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
83
Boot Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
83
System Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
84
Loading a Vendor’s Driver CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
84
2.10 YaST in Text Mode (ncurses) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
84
Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
85
Restriction of Key Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
86
Module Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
86
Starting Individual Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
87
2.8
2.9
SuSE Linux Desktop – Administration Guide
v
3 CrossOver
3.1
3.2
89
CrossOver Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
90
Add/Remove . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
91
Associations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
94
Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
95
Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
95
Starting Windows Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
97
CrossOver Plug-in Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
97
Add/Remove . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
99
Netscape and Mozilla . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Konqueror
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Associations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Tips and Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
II Configuration and Administration
4 Printer Operation
4.1
107
109
Printing Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Important Standard Printer Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Processing Print Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Various Printing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
4.2
Preconditions for Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Finding the Right Printer Driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
The Issue with GDI Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
4.3
Configuring a Printer with YaST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Print Queues and Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Printer Configuration with YaST2: The Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Automatic Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Manual Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
4.4
vi
Configuring Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Contents
4.5
Manual Configuration of Local Printer Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Parallel Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
USB Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
The IrDA Printer Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Serial Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
4.6
Manual Configuration of the LPRng and lpdfilter Printing System
129
4.7
The LPRng Print Spooler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Printing from Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
4.8
Command-Line Tools for LPRng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Managing Local Queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Managing Remote Queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Using Command-Line Tools for LPRng Troubleshooting . . . . . . 135
4.9
The Print Filter of the LPRng and lpdfilter Printing System . . . . . 135
Configuration of lpdfilter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Customization of lpdfilter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Troubleshooting Hints for lpdfilter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
4.10 Custom Print Filters for the LPRng Spooler . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Basic Filtering Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
A Sample Custom Print Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
4.11 The CUPS Printing System
Naming Conventions
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
IPP and Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Configuration of a CUPS Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
Network Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Internal CUPS Print Job Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Tips and Tricks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
4.12 Printing from Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
4.13 Command-Line Tools for the CUPS Printing System . . . . . . . . 156
Managing Local Queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Managing Remote Queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Using Command-Line Tools for CUPS Troubleshooting . . . . . . . 159
4.14 Working with Ghostscript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
SuSE Linux Desktop – Administration Guide
vii
Sample Operations with Ghostscript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
4.15 Working with a2ps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Sample Operations with a2ps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
4.16 Reformatting PostScript with psutils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
psnup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
pstops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
psselect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Using Ghostscript to View the Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
4.17 ASCII Text Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
A Sample Text
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
4.18 Printing in a TCP/IP Network
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Quick Configuration of a Client Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
TCP/IP Network Printing Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Filtering for Network Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Remote Printer Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Print Servers Supporting Both LPD and IPP . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
5 Client Configuration with kiosk
189
5.1
The Possibilities of kiosk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
5.2
Introduction to the Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
5.3
Network-Wide Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
5.4
Advanced Configuration Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
KActions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Assigning Variables and Shell Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
URL Manipulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
6 The LAN Browser
viii
197
6.1
How Does the LAN Browser Work? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
6.2
Troubleshooting: What To Do If Things Don’t Work? . . . . . . . . 198
Contents
7 Configuring S/MIME for KMail
201
7.1
Preliminary Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
7.2
Generating a User Certificate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
7.3
Importing a Certificate Manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
A Short Overview of a Few Additional Applications
205
A.1 Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
A.2 Multimedia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
A.3 Network and Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
SuSE Linux Desktop – Administration Guide
ix
Part I
Installation
1
This chapter provides all necessary information about the installation of SuSE
Linux with YaST. Based on a suggestion screen containing the automatically detected installation settings for your system, modify the main properties of the
installed system manually according to your needs and preferences.
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13
1.14
1.15
1.16
1.17
1.18
1.19
Starting Your System from the CD-ROM
The Boot Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
YaST Takes Over . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting a Language . . . . . . . . . . .
Installation Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installation Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installation Suggestions . . . . . . . . .
Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keyboard Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Partitioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Booting (Boot Loader Installation) . . .
Time Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting the Installation . . . . . . . . .
Finishing the Installation . . . . . . . . .
Hardware Configuration . . . . . . . . .
Graphical Login . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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27
28
System Installation with YaST
System Installation with YaST
1.1 Starting Your System from the CD-ROM
Insert the first CD-ROM or the DVD of SuSE Linux in the drive and restart the
computer. The SuSE Linux system assistant YaST is loaded from the medium
and the installation begins.
Possible Problems When Starting from the CD/DVD
If your computer does not boot from CD, there may be several causes:
The CD-ROM drive is not able to read the boot image on the first CD.
In this case, use CD 2 to boot the system. CD 2 contains a conventional
2.88 MB boot image, which can be read even by older drives.
The boot sequence as set in the computer’s BIOS is not correct. Information about changing the BIOS settings are provided in the documentation
of your motherboard and in the following paragraphs.
The BIOS is a small set of software routines to activate the basic functions
of a computer. The BIOS is provided by motherboard manufacturers and
is specially made to work with the features of the board.
Normally, the BIOS setup can only be accessed at a specific time — when
the machine is booting. During this initialization phase, the machine performs a number of diagnostic hardware tests. One of them is a memory
check, recognizable from the memory counter. Try to catch this moment
when the counter appears and look for a line telling you about the key
that must be pressed to enter the BIOS setup. This line is usually below
the counter or somewhere at the bottom. Usually, the key to press is Del ,
F1
,
or
Esc
.
Press
this
key
until
the
BIOS
setup
screen
appears.
To change the boot sequence in an AWARD BIOS, look for the ‘BIOS FEATURES SETUP’ entry. Other manufacturers may have a different name
for this, such as ‘ADVANCED CMOS SETUP’. When you have found the
entry, select it and confirm with ↵ .
In the screen that has opened, look for a subentry called ‘BOOT SEQUENCE’. The boot sequence is often set to something like C,A or A,C.
In the former case, the machine first searches the hard disk (C) then the
floppy drive (A) to find a bootable medium. Change the settings by press Page ↑ or Page ↓ until the sequence is A,CDROM,C.
ing Leave the BIOS setup screen by pressing Esc . To save the changes, select
‘SAVE & EXIT SETUP’ or press F10 . To confirm that your settings should
Y
.
be saved, press 4
1.1. Starting Your System from the CD-ROM
Your CD-ROM drive may not be supported because it is an older model.
1.2
The Boot Screen
While the boot screen is displayed, SuSE Linux prepares the installation. The
boot screen offers several options for the further installation procedure. The option ‘Boot from Harddisk’ at the top boots the installed system. This option is
preselected, as the CD is often inserted after the installation for the purpose of
installing additional software. For a new installation, use the arrow keys to select the item ‘Installation’. YaST will be loaded and the installation will begin.
1
System Installation with YaST
If you have a SCSI CD-ROM drive, change the setup of the SCSI BIOS. In
the case of an Adaptec host adapter, for instance, open the setup by press ing Ctrl +
A
. After that, select ‘Disk Utilities’, which displays the connected hardware components. Make a note of the SCSI ID for your CD Esc then open the ‘Configure Adapter
ROM drive. Exit the menu with Settings’ screen. Under ‘Additional Options’, select ‘Boot Device Options’
and press ↵ . Enter the ID of the CD-ROM drive and press ↵ again.
Then press Esc twice to return to the start screen of the SCSI BIOS. Exit
this screen and confirm with ‘Yes’ to reboot.
Figure 1.1: The Boot Screen
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5
Problems during the installation are rare, but may occur with older hardware
or hardware that is not optimized for certain functions. Often such difficulties
are related to power management features or the DMA capability of the drives.
These problems occur occasionally with some hardware combinations and cannot be checked in advance. In the event that such a situation arises and you are
not able to complete the installation, restart the computer and select ‘Installation — Safe Settings’ from the boot screen. In this installation mode, some of the
more modern hardware functions are skipped, allowing the installation to be
performed correctly even for problematic hardware.
These are the individual options of the boot screen and the actions triggered by
them:
Boot from Hard disk: If a system is already installed on your machine,
this system will be started (the system that is normally booted when the
machine is powered on).
Installation: The “normal” installation mode in which all modern hardware functions are enabled.
Installation — ACPI Disabled: This may be needed for newer machines
with ACPI support (Advanced Configuration & Power Interface) if the
normal installation mode fails.
Installation — Safe Settings: The DMA mode (for CD-ROM drives) and
any unsafe power management functions are disabled. Additionally, experts can use the command line to specify or modify kernel parameters.
Manual Installation: If some drivers loaded automatically when the installation is started cause problems, you can perform the installation
“manually”, which means that the drivers will not be loaded automatically. However, this will not work if you use a USB keyboard on your
machine.
Rescue System: If you no longer have access to your installed Linux system, boot the computer from the DVD/CD1 and select this item. This
menu item starts a “rescue system”, a small Linux system without any
graphical user interface, which can be used by experts to scan hard disks
and repair any errors in the installed system.
Memory Test: This item tests the memory (RAM) of your machine by repeatedly writing and reading. The test continues in an endless loop, because memory errors usually show up very sporadically, so many read
and write cycles might be necessary to detect them. If you suspect your
6
1.2. The Boot Screen
A few seconds after starting the installation, SuSE Linux loads a minimal Linux
system, which takes control of the further installation process. Subsequently, a
number of messages and copyright notices are displayed on the screen. At the
end of the loading process, the YaST installation program is started. After a few
more seconds, the graphical interface that will guide you through the installation.
1.3
YaST Takes Over
Now YaST starts for the installation of SuSE Linux. The YaST screens have a common format. All buttons, entry fields, and lists can be accessed with the mouse.
If your mouse pointer does not move, the mouse has not been correctly detected. In this case, use the keyboard for navigation.
1.4
1
System Installation with YaST
RAM of being defective, run this test for several hours. If no errors are detected after an extended time period, safely assume that the memory is
intact. Terminate the text by rebooting the computer with Esc .
Selecting a Language
Select the language to use for SuSE Linux and YaST. English is the default setting
for the international distribution. If your mouse does not work, navigate with
the arrow keys until the desired language is selected. After this, press Tab until
‘Next’ is highlighted. Then press ↵ to confirm your language selection.
1.5
Installation Mode
If you already have another version of SuSE Linux installed on your computer,
select whether to perform a ‘New Installation’ or to ‘Update an existing system’.
There is also an option for booting an existing operating system. If you did not
install SuSE Linux before, only a new installation is possible. After selecting an
option, click ‘Ok’ to continue. See Figure 1.3 on page 9.
This section only describes the steps after selecting ‘New Installation’. Detailed
instructions for a system update are available in System Update on page 37.
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Figure 1.2: Selecting the Language
1.6 Installation Scope
In the next step, determine the environment in which to use SuSE Linux Desktop. For instance, it can be used as as a stand-alone machine or a machine in a
network that makes use of the services of a central server. Also select a desktop
environment. Depending on the environment, you will be offered a basic selection of software.
Select ‘Single PC or small to medium sized Office Network’ to use SuSE Linux
Desktop at home or as a normal, full-featured client host in a network comprising up to fifty workstations. With this item, all needed applications are installed
on the system.
‘Template for Enterprise Clients’: This item provides a reduced selection of basic
software for client hosts, which is optimized for productive deployment in large
networks. However, in contrast to the "Thin Client", all applications run on the
client machine itself. The selection includes an office package, e-mail program,
browser, and SAP client.
‘Template for Thin Client or Slower Computers’: Usually, thin clients are hosts
whose boot process or applications are partly or entirely run on a server. Therefore, the software selection on the client itself is greatly minimized, allowing
8
1.6. Installation Scope
1
System Installation with YaST
Figure 1.3: Selecting the Installation Mode
resource-friendly operations. The minimized software selection includes a lean,
resource-friendly graphical desktop environment.
Tip
Select ‘Template for Enterprise Client’ to install SuSE Linux Desktop on
a notebook. In the following suggestion dialog, select ‘Software’ ➝ ‘Detailed selection’ to start the package manager. Select the entire selection
‘Laptop packages’ or the individual packages needed.
Tip
In the frame below, select the graphical desktop environment for ‘Single PC or
small to medium sized Office Network’ and ‘Template for Enterprise Clients’.
‘KDE Desktop’ is the comfortable and intuitive standard desktop environment
for SuSE Linux.
‘KDE Desktop optimized for former Windows (TM) users’ is configured to provide a look and feel that closely resembles Windows, facilitating migration for
newcomers.
‘GNOME Desktop’ is an alternative graphical desktop environment with a different look and feel. GNOME is also easy and comfortable to use.
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Figure 1.4: Software Selection
1.7 Installation Suggestions
After the hardware detection, the suggestion window, like that shown in Figure 1.5 on the facing page, displays some information about the detected hardware and proposes a number of installation and partitioning options. When selecting any of these items and configuring them in the corresponding dialogs,
you are always returned to the suggestion window, which is updated accordingly. The individual settings are discussed in the following sections.
1.8 Mode
This offers the opportunity to change the installation mode selected previously.
If you already have a Linux system installed on your machine, you can use the
option to boot into that system. This is useful if the system is damaged for some
reason and cannot be booted from the hard disk.
10
1.7. Installation Suggestions
1
System Installation with YaST
Figure 1.5: Suggestion Window
1.9
Keyboard Layout
Select the keyboard layout. By default, the layout corresponds to the selected
language. After changing the layout, test Y, Z, and special characters to make
sure the selection is correct. When finished, select ‘Next’ to return to the suggestion window.
1.10
Mouse
If YaST did not detect your mouse automatically, press Tab in the suggestion
window several times until ‘Mouse’ is selected. Then use Space to open the
dialog in which to set the mouse type. This dialog is shown in Figure 1.6 on the
next page.
To select the mouse type, use and . Consult the mouse documentation for
↑
↓
information about the mouse type.
After a mouse type has been selected, use the key combination Alt +
T
to test
whether the device works correctly without selecting it permanently. If the
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Figure 1.6: Selecting the Mouse Type
mouse does not behave as expected, use the keyboard to select another type and
test again. Use Tab and ↵ to select a mouse type permanently.
1.11
Partitioning
In most cases, YaST proposes a reasonable partitioning scheme that can be accepted without change. If desired, modify this scheme to meet your needs or
create a new one. Proceed as is outlined in the following paragraphs.
Partition Types
Every hard disk has a partition table with space for four entries. Each entry in
the partition table can be a primary partition or an extended partition. Only one
extended partition entry is allowed, however.
Primary partitions consist of a continuous range of cylinders (physical disk areas) assigned to a particular operating system. Using primary partitions, only
four partitions can be created per hard disk. More do not fit in the partition table.
12
1.11. Partitioning
If you need more than four partitions, create an extended partition. This extended partition should span the entire remaining free cylinder range. Then
create multiple logical partitions within the extended partition. The maximum
number of logical partitions is fifteen on SCSI disks and 63 on (E)IDE disks.
It does not matter which type of partitions are used for Linux. Primary and logical partitions both work fine.
Required Disk Space
The amount of hard disk space needed depends on the intended use of the system. Less space limits what applications can be installed. The following hints
give some guidelines for space requirements:
1
System Installation with YaST
This is why extended partitions are used. Extended partitions are also continuous ranges of disk cylinders, but an extended partition may itself be subdivided
into logical partitions. Logical partitions do not require entries in the partition
table. In other words, an extended partition is a container for logical partitions.
‘Single PC or small to medium sized Office Network’: about 1.4 GB
‘Template for Enterprise Clients’: about 1.4 GB
‘Template for Thin Client or slower Computers’: about 500 MB
These guidelines can help develop a partitioning scheme for your system:
Under 500 MB:
A swap partition and a root partition (/).
Between 500 MB and 4 GB:
A small boot partition located at the beginning of the hard disk (/boot,
at least 8 MB or 1 cylinder) to hold the kernel and the boot loader. Also
create a swap partition of approximately 256 MB then use the rest for the
root partition (/).
For more than 4 GB:
Boot (/boot), swap, root (250 MB), home directories (/home) with about
200 MB for each user, and the rest for programs and data (/usr). You may
also reserve one extra partition for each of /opt and /var.
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Some commercial programs install their data in /opt. If necessary, create a
separate partition for /opt or make the root partition large enough. KDE and
GNOME are also installed in /opt.
Tip
Things should be fine if your partitioning setup is similar to that proposed by YaST. This is usually a small partition for /boot at the beginning of the hard disk (about 10 MB or 1 cylinder on a large hard disk), a
swap partition (between 128 and 256 MB), and the rest for /.
Tip
Partitioning with YaST
When you select the partitioning item in the suggestion window for the first
time, YaST displays a dialog listing the partition settings as currently proposed.
Accept these current settings without change or change them before continuing.
Alternatively, discard all the settings and start over from scratch.
Figure 1.7: Editing the Partitioning Setup
If you choose ‘Accept Suggested Partitioning’, the partitioning as proposed
by YaST is carried out without modifications of any kind.If you select ‘Change
14
1.11. Partitioning
1
System Installation with YaST
Suggested Partitioning Setup’, the ‘Expert Partitioner’ opens, allowing you to
specify very detailed settings (see Expert Partitioning with YaST on the following
page). The original setup as proposed by YaST is offered there as a starting point.
If you select ‘Custom partitioning setup’, a dialog for the hard disk selection
opens. See Figure 1.8. Select the hard disk on which to install SuSE Linux.
Figure 1.8: Selecting the Hard Disk
The next step is to determine whether the entire disk should be used (‘Use entire
hard disk’) or whether to use any existing partitions, if available, for the installation. If a Windows operating system was found on the disk or if there is some
other FAT file system, select whether to delete or resize the partition. Before doing so, read Resizing a Windows Partition on page 18. If desired, use the ‘Expert
Partitioner’ dialog to set up the partitions according to your preferences (see
Expert Partitioning with YaST on the next page).
Caution
If you choose ‘Use entire hard disk’, all data on that disk will be lost
when the actual partitioning starts.
Caution
YaST checks during the installation whether the disk space is sufficient for the
software selection made. If not, YaST automatically removes parts from the software selection as needed. The suggestion window then includes a notice about
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15
this. As long as there is sufficient disk space available, YaST simply accepts your
settings and partitions the hard disk accordingly.
Expert Partitioning with YaST
With the expert dialog, shown in Figure 1.9, manually modify the partitioning
of your hard disk. Partitions can be added, deleted, or edited.
Figure 1.9: The YaST Partitioner in Expert Mode
All existing or suggested partitions on all connected hard disks are displayed
in the list of the expert dialog. Entire hard disks are listed as devices without
numbers, such as /dev/hda or /dev/sda. Partitions are listed as parts of
these devices, such as /dev/hda1 or /dev/sda1. The size, type, file system,
and mount point of the hard disks and their partitions are also displayed. The
mount point describes where the partition is attached to the Linux file system
tree.
Any free hard disk space is also listed and automatically selected. To allocate additional storage space to Linux, free the needed space starting from the bottom
toward the top of the list (starting from the last partition of a hard disk toward
the first). For example, if you have three partitions, you cannot use the second
exclusively for Linux and retain the third and first for other operating systems.
16
1.11. Partitioning
1
Creating a Partition
2. Select the file system to use to format the partition and a mount point, if
necessary. YaST suggests a mount point for each partition created. Details
of the parameters are provided in the next section.
3. Select ‘OK’ to apply your changes.
The new partition is then listed in the partition table. If you click ‘Next’, the current values are adopted and you are returned to the suggestion screen.
System Installation with YaST
1. Select ‘New’. If several hard disks are connected, a selection dialog appears in which to select a hard disk for the new partition. Then, specify
the partition type (primary or extended). Create up to four primary partitions or up to three primary partitions and one extended partition. Within
the extended partition, you can create several logical partitions (see Partition Types on page 12).
Partitioning Parameters
If you create a new partition or modify an existing partition, set various parameters in the partitioning tool. For new partitions, suitable parameters are set by
YaST and usually do not require any modification. To perform manual settings,
proceed as follows:
1. Select the partition.
2. ‘Edit’ the partition and set the parameters:
File System ID
Even if you do not want to format the partition at this stage, specify
the file system ID to ensure the partition is registered correctly (e.g.,
‘Linux’, ‘Linux swap’).
File System
To format the partition immediately within the scope of the installation, specify one of the following file systems for the partition:
‘Swap’, ‘Ext2’, ‘Ext3’, ‘ReiserFS’, or ‘JFS’.
Swap is a special format that makes the partition usable as virtual
memory. Every system should have at least one swap partition of
at least 128 MB (see Partitioning Parameters on the following page).
ReiserFS is the default for Linux partitions. ReiserFS as well as JFS
and Ext3 are journaling file systems. These file systems are able to
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17
restore your system very quickly after a system crash, as write processes are logged during the operation. Furthermore, ReiserFS is
very fast in handling lots of small files. Ext2 is not a journaling file
system. It is “rock solid” and good for smaller partitions, as it does
not require too much disk space for management.
File System Options
Here, specify various parameters for the selected file system. Depending on the file system used, various options are offered. Only
make changes if you are absolutely sure what you are doing.
Encrypt File System
If you activate the encryption, all data is written to the hard disk in
encrypted form. This increases the security of sensitive data, but reduces the system speed, as the encryption takes some time.
fstab Options
Here, specify various parameters for the administration file of the
file systems (/etc/fstab). Depending on the file system used,
various options are offered. If necessary, these will be entered in
/etc/fstab.
Mount Point
This specifies the directory at which the partition should be mounted
in the file system tree. Various YaST suggestions can be expanded at
the respective entry field. If you accept these suggestions, the default
file system structure is implemented. However, you can also specify
any other names.
3. Select ‘Next’ to activate the partition.
Note
If you partition manually, create a swap partition. The swap partition is
used to free the main memory from data that is not used at the present
moment. This keeps the main memory free for the most frequently-used
important data.
Note
Resizing a Windows Partition
If your partition setup includes a hard disk that also has a Windows FAT partition, YaST offers either to delete or shrink it. Using this option allows you to
install SuSE Linux on a disk where the current setup does not provide enough
18
1.11. Partitioning
The following discussion is based on the assumption that your Windows system is installed on a FAT partition (FAT or FAT 32). If YaST sees that there is not
enough space on the selected hard disk, but that space could be made available
by deleting or shrinking a Windows partition, it presents a dialog in which to
choose one of these two options.
1
System Installation with YaST
space for another operating system. This is commonly the case on computers
with only one partition that covers the entire hard disk. This setup is sometimes
found on computers where Windows comes preinstalled.
Figure 1.10: Possible Options for Windows Partitions
If you select ‘Delete Windows completely’, the Windows partition is marked for
deletion to use the space for the installation of SuSE Linux.
Caution
If you delete Windows, all Windows data is lost beyond recovery as soon
as the formatting starts.
Caution
To shrink the Windows partition, interrupt the installation for now and boot
into Windows to prepare the partition. Although this step is not strictly required, it speeds up the resizing process and also makes it safer.
In Windows, first run scandisk to make sure the FAT partition is free of lost file
fragments and crosslinks, which are not that uncommon in Windows. After that,
run defrag to move files to the beginning of the partition. This accelerates the
resizing process in Linux.
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Note
If you have optimized virtual memory settings for Windows so a contiguous swap file is used with the same initial (minimum) and maximum size
limit, consider another step. With these Windows settings, the resizing
might split the swap file into many small parts scattered all over the FAT
partition. Also, the entire swap file would need to be moved during the
resizing, which makes the process rather slow. It is therefore advisable
to disable these Windows optimizations for the time being then reenable
them after the resizing has been completed.
Note
After you have completed these preparations and returned to the partitioning
setup, select ‘Shrink Windows Partition’. After a quick check of the partition,
YaST opens a new dialog with a suggestion for the resizing of the Windows partition.
Figure 1.11: Resizing the Windows Partition
The first bar graph shows how much disk space is currently occupied by Windows and how much space is still available. The second bar graph shows how
the space would be distributed after the resizing, according to YaST’s current
proposal. This is shown in Figure 1.11. Accept the proposed settings or use the
slider to change the partition sizing (within certain limits).
When you leave this dialog by selecting ‘Next’, the settings are stored and you
are returned to the previous dialog. The resizing takes place later — shortly before the disk formatting.
20
1.11. Partitioning
1
Note
Delete Windows entirely from the hard disk
Reinstall Windows on a smaller partition
If Windows came preinstalled on your computer and uses the NTFS file
system, the best option may be to reinstall Windows in a smaller partition
using the FAT 32 file system. Doing so will make it possible to resize the
Windows partition later, if the need arises.
Note
System Installation with YaST
By default, the Windows versions NT, 2000, and XP use the NTFS file
system. If this is the case, YaST cannot resize the Windows partition, so
there may not be enough space for the installation. To install SuSE Linux,
you have the following possibilities:
More Partitioning Tips
If the partitioning is performed by YaST and other partitions are detected on the
system, these partitions are also entered in the file /etc/fstab to enable easy
access to this data. This file contains all partitions in the system with their properties (parameters), such as the file system, mount point, and user permissions.
/dev/sda1
/dev/sda8
/data1
/data2
auto
auto
noauto,user 0 0
noauto,user 0 0
File 1: /etc/fstab: Partition Data
The partitions, regardless of whether they are Linux or FAT partitions, are specified with the options noauto and user. This allows any user to mount or unmount these partitions as needed. For security reasons, YaST does not automatically enter the exec option here, which is needed for executing programs from
the respective location. To run programs from there, enter this option manually.
This measure is necessary if you encounter system messages such as "bad interpreter" or "Permission denied".
1.12
Software
Here, select the software to install on your machine. Click ‘Software’ to access
the dialog for selecting the installation scope as explained in Figure 1.4 on
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page 10. When you have made your selection and click ‘Detailed selection’, the
software installation module starts.
Figure 1.12: Installing and Removing Software
Preselection
The module starts with the selection filter — ‘Filter:’ in the upper left is set to
‘Selection’ by default. Selections are entire groups of program packages that can
be marked for installation or removal as a group by clicking the respective check
box. Some of them are preselected because they belong to the default installation.
The right part of the window displays a table listing the individual packages
included in the current selection. The leftmost table column shows the current
status of each package. In the initial installation process, only two status settings
are normally used: “Selected for Installation” (the box in front of the package
name is checked) and “Do Not Install” (the box is empty). To select or deselect
individual software packages, simply go through the list and click in the boxes
until they are checked or empty as desired.
The other status options are not really relevant for the initial installation. A description of the status flags and detailed instructions for this module are provided in Install and Remove Software on page 34.
22
1.12. Software
1
Caution
Caution
Other Filters
Click the ‘Filter’ drop-down box to see a number of other filters that can be
used to arrange the package list in different ways. When starting this YaST module from within the installed system, the list is filtered according to ‘Package
Groups’ by default. This view is also useful during the installation. It lists the
software packages in the left part of the window in a tree structure, with the
branches representing different categories or topics. The more you unfold the
tree’s branches, the more fine-grained the selection becomes.
1.13
System Installation with YaST
The software preselected for installation is usually suitable for the respective utilization purpose. Normally nothing needs to be changed here. If
you decide to select additional packages and especially if you deselect
any packages, you should be aware of the effects your decisions might
have on the system. In particular, observe any warnings and avoid deselecting any parts of the Linux base system (mostly found in the package
group ‘System’).
Booting (Boot Loader Installation)
During the installation, YaST proposes a boot configuration for your system.
Normally, you should leave these settings unchanged. However, if you need a
custom setup, modify the proposal for your system.
One possibility is to configure the boot mechanism to rely on a special boot
floppy. Although this has the disadvantage of requiring the boot floppy in the
drive for boot, it leaves an existing boot mechanism untouched. This should
not normally be necessary, however, because YaST can configure the SuSE Linux
boot loader to boot coexisting operating systems as well. Another possibility
with the configuration is to change the location of the boot mechanism on hard
disk.
To change the boot configuration proposed by YaST, select ‘Booting’. A dialog
opens in which to change many details of the boot mechanism. Because the consequences of your changes could be severe, read Boot Loader Configuration with
YaST on page 77 before modifying boot loader settings.
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Note
The boot method should only be changed by experienced computer
users.
Note
1.14
Time Zone
In this dialog, shown in Figure 1.13, choose between Local Time and UTC under ‘Hardware clock set to’. The selection depends on how the hardware (BIOS)
clock is set on your machine. If it is set to UTC (GMT), SuSE Linux will automatically switch from standard time to daylight savings time and vice versa.
Figure 1.13: Selecting the Time Zone
1.15 Language
This item takes you to the language selection (see Selecting a Language on
page 7. If you want to change the system language you selected at the outset,
you can do this here.
24
1.14. Time Zone
1.16
1
Starting the Installation
1.17
Finishing the Installation
Following the installation of your system and selected software, make two important settings before you can work with SuSE Linux: specify a password for
the system administrator root and create a normal user for your daily work.
Then select your personal monitor settings and configure any peripherals. The
following sections show how this is done.
System Installation with YaST
If you are satisfied with the installation settings, click ‘Accept’ to begin the installation. If you confirm the green confirmation dialog with ‘Yes, Install’, the
installation begins under consideration of all selected settings. Depending on
the system performance and the software selection, the installation takes about
fifteen to thirty minutes.
root Password
root is the name of the "superuser", the system administrator. root is permitted to do everything normal users are not allowed to do, such as changing
the system configuration, installing programs, and setting up new hardware. If
users forget their passwords or have other problems with the system, root can
help. The root account should only be used for system administration, maintenance, and repair. Logging in as root for daily work is rather risky, as a mistake
could result in the permanent loss of system files.
For verification purposes, the password for root must be entered twice as
shown in Figure 1.14 on the next page). Do not forget the root password. It
cannot be retrieved later.
Caution
The user root has all the permissions needed to make changes to the
system. To carry out such tasks, the root password is required. You
cannot carry out any administrative tasks without this password.
Caution
Creating Local User Accounts
Linux is an operating system that allows several users to work on the same system at the same time. For each user, there needs to be a user account to log in to
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25
Figure 1.14: Setting the root Password
the system. By having user accounts, the system gains a lot in terms of security.
Regular users are not allowed to change or delete files needed for the system to
work properly — regardless of whether they really intended to do so in the first
place. Similarly, the personal data of a given user cannot be modified, viewed,
or tampered with by other users. Each user can set up his own working environment and will always find it unchanged when logging back in.
A user account can be created using the dialog shown in Figure 1.15 on the facing page. After entering the first name and last name, specify the user name (login). If you cannot think of a suitable user name, simply click ‘Suggestion’ for
the system to generate one automatically.
Finally, enter a password for the user. Reenter it for confirmation. The user name
tells the system who you are and the password is used to verify this identity.
Caution
Your user name and the password are needed each time you log in to the
system.
Caution
To provide effective security, a password should be between five and eight characters long. The maximum length for a password is 128 characters, but if no
26
1.17. Finishing the Installation
1
System Installation with YaST
Figure 1.15: Entering the User Name and Password
special security modules are loaded, only the first eight characters are used to
identify the password.
Linux distinguishes between lowercase and uppercase letters in the password.
Accented characters and umlauts are not allowed. Special characters (such as: * .
# ;) and the digits 0–9 may be used.
1.18
Hardware Configuration
In the final stage of the installation, YaST presents a dialog in which to configure
the graphics card, the network card, and other hardware devices, such as the
printer and the sound card. Click a component to start its configuration. For the
most part, YaST detects and configures the devices automatically.
You may skip any peripheral hardware devices and configure them later. However, you should configure the graphics card right away. Although the display
settings as autoconfigured by YaST should generally be acceptable, most users
have very strong preferences as far as resolution, color depth, and other graphics features are concerned. To change these settings, select ‘Graphics cards’. The
configuration is explained in Display and Input Devices (SaX2) on page 42. Finally, click ‘Finish Installation’ .
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Figure 1.16: Configuring the System Components
1.19
Graphical Login
SuSE Linux is now installed and ready for your first login. On your screen, you
should see the graphical login as shown in Figure 1.17 on the facing page. Enter
the user name created during installation then the respective password.
28
1.19. Graphical Login
1
System Installation with YaST
Figure 1.17: The Login Screen
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2
YaST — Configuration
YaST — Configuration
YaST, which you already used for the installation, is also the configuration tool
for SuSE Linux. This chapter covers the configuration of your system with
YaST2, which enables comfortable configuration of the main system components. This includes most of the hardware, the graphical user interface, Internet
access, security settings, user administration, installation of software, and system updates and information. This chapter also provides instructions for using
YaST in text mode.
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
Starting YaST . . . . . . . . .
The YaST Control Center . . .
Software . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hardware . . . . . . . . . . .
Network/Basic . . . . . . . .
Network/Advanced . . . . .
Security and Users . . . . . .
System . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . .
YaST in Text Mode (ncurses)
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2.1 Starting YaST
From the ‘SuSE’ menu (the icon to the left in your KDE panel), select ‘Applications’ ➝ ‘System’ ➝ ‘YaST Control Center (YaST)’. On start-up, a small dialog
is displayed, prompting you to enter the password for the user root (the system administrator). Then the window of the YaST Control Center appears. The
configuration must be performed with root privileges, as only the system administrator is entitled to change Linux system files.
To change the language of YaST and your entire system, select ‘System’ ➝ ‘Select
Language’ in the YaST Control Center. Choose a language, exit the YaST Control
Center, log out from your computer, then log in again and restart YaST to activate the new language setting.
2.2 The YaST Control Center
When you start YaST in the graphical mode, the YaST Control Center, as shown
in Figure 2.1 on the next page, opens first. In the left frame, see the categories
‘Software’, ‘Hardware’, ‘Network/Basic’, ‘Network/Advanced’, ‘Security and
Users’, ‘System’, and ‘Miscellaneous’. If you click one of the icons, the respective
contents are listed on the right-hand side. For example, if you select ‘Hardware’
then click ‘Sound’ to the right, a configuration dialog opens for the sound card.
The configuration of the individual items usually involves several steps. Press
‘Next’ to proceed to the following step.
The left frame displays a help text for the respective topic, explaining the entries
required. After the necessary specifications have been made, complete the procedure by pressing ‘Finish’ in the last configuration dialog. The configuration is
saved.
2.3
Software
Change Installation Source
The installation source is the medium containing the software to install. Install
from CD or DVD (the usual approach), from a network server, or from the hard
disk. Refer to the detailed YaST help text.
When you exit with ‘Save and Exit’, the settings are saved and applied to the
configuration modules ‘Install and Remove Software’, ‘System Update’, and
‘Boot and Kernel Configuration’. However, this module also offers the possibility to continue with ‘Install’ to install or remove packages.
32
2.1. Starting YaST
2
YaST — Configuration
Figure 2.1: The YaST Control Center
YaST Online Update
The YaST Online Update (YOU) enables the installation of important upgrades
and improvements. The patches are available for download on the SuSE servers.
The updated packages can be installed automatically. For a more controlled update, use ‘Manual Update’, which allows you to select the patches to install on
your SuSE Linux system.
Press ‘Next’. If ‘Manual Update’ is used, this downloads a list of all available
patches. The software installation module, described in Install and Remove
Software on the following page, starts, listing all downloaded patches. Select
the packages to install or simply accept the patches automatically marked for
installation. The packages are installed like normal packages.
Patch CD Update
In contrast to the online update, the patches are not downloaded from the
server. They are installed from a CD. Updating with the CD is much faster.
When you insert the patch CD, all patches available on the CD are displayed
in the dialog of this YaST module. Select packages for installation from the patch
list. If an alert is displayed about a missing CD, insert the CD and restart the
patch CD update.
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Figure 2.2: Change Installation Source
Install and Remove Software
Use this module to install, update, or remove software. To install from CD, insert the first CD in the drive.
The Selection Filter
Using the filter drop-down box to the top left of the main dialog, determine how
packages are displayed. The default setting is display according to ‘Selections’.
1. With the selection filter, predefined selections of specific application areas
can be installed or selected for installation by clicking the check boxes of
the selections. You can also uninstall an entire group. For each selection,
the packages of the selection and their current statuses are displayed to
the right. Select or deselect individual packages as desired.
2. Another option is to list according to package groups. These package
groups are displayed in a tree structure on the left-hand side. If you click
one of the main groups (for example, ‘Development’ or ‘Documentation’),
all program packages belonging to this main group are listed at the top
of the right frame. If you click one of the subgroups, the right frame only
displays the packages of the subgroup.
34
2.3. Software
2
YaST — Configuration
Figure 2.3: YaST Online Update
Caution
If desired, mark an installed package for deletion. Observe the
alerts and do not delete any packages of the Linux base system
(mostly located in the package group ‘System’).
Caution
3. The easiest way to find a specific package is to use the search function,
which can also be accessed here. Enter a search string and use the check
boxes to set the search method (only in the name, in the description, in the
package dependencies). For example, use this feature to determine which
packages use a specific library.
The Package Window
The package window to the right features the following information (from left
to right): status (see below), the package name, a short description, the size and
the version.
The package status is displayed by means of various icons that are shown in the
context menu reachable via the right mouse button.
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Figure 2.4: Installing and Removing Software
Change the status of a package by clicking the icons to the left of the package
name. Only relevant status settings are available. For example, a package that is
not installed cannot have the status"Uninstall". If you are not sure about what a
specific status indicates, do not select it or do not change it if set automatically.
Caution
You can mark installed packages for deletion. Observe the alerts and do
not delete any packages of the Linux base system, mostly located in the
package group ‘System’.
Caution
The Information Window
To the bottom right, a window with several tabs provides access to various
kinds of information about the selected package, such as a detailed description,
the technical data, a list of files installed with this package, packages additionally required by this package, and any conflicts with other installed packages or
packages marked for installation.
36
2.3. Software
2
Checking Dependencies
Consumption of Hard Disk Space
Monitor the space consumed on the hard disk partitions in the overview at the
bottom left. If you select too many packages, an alert is displayed.
YaST — Configuration
Under the information window, locate ‘Check Dependencies’ and ‘Auto check’.
If ‘Auto check’ is activated and you select a package for installation, other required programs are displayed automatically. If preferred, simply disable the
automatic check and use ‘Check Dependencies’ after selecting packages. If automatic checking is disabled and you do not check the dependencies manually, the
package dependencies are checked when you click ‘Accept’.
System Update
This module enables you to update your system. The process consists of several
steps. YaST checks which packages to update. If desired, decide individually for
each package whether to perform an update. This approach cannot be used for
the base system, which requires a boot from the installation medium, such as
from CD.
Note
The system update is a very complex procedure. For each program package, YaST2 must check which version is installed on the computer and
what needs to be done to replace the old version with the new version
correctly. YaST2 also tries to adopt any personal settings of the installed
packages. However, some configurations may cause problems after the
update if the old configuration is unable to handle the new program version as expected or if unexpected inconsistencies arise between various
configurations.
The older the existing version is and the more the configuration of the
packages to update diverges from the standard, the more problematic the
update is. Sometimes, the old configuration cannot be adopted correctly.
In this case, an entirely new configuration must be made. Before starting
the update, you should save the existing configuration.
Note
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Figure 2.5: System Update
2.4
Hardware
New hardware must first be installed or connected as specified by the vendor.
Switch on external devices, such as the printer or the modem, and start the respective YaST module. Most devices are automatically detected by YaST and the
technical data is displayed. If the automatic detection fails, YaST offers a list of
devices (model, vendor, etc.) from which to select the suitable device. Consult
the documentation enclosed with your hardware for information.
Note
Use caution with model designations. If your model is not included in
the device list, try a model with a similar designation. However, in some
cases the model must match exactly, as similar designations do not always indicate compatibility.
Note
Printer
For basic information about printing in Linux, refer to Printing Basics on
page 110. This section merely covers the printer configuration with YaST.
38
2.4. Hardware
Configuration with YaST
To set up a printer, open the YaST Control Center and select ‘Hardware’ ➝
‘Printer’. The main printer configuration window appears. In the upper window, see the detected printers. The lower window lists any configured queues.
If your printer was not autodetected, restart the detection process. If it fails
again, select ‘Configure’ to configure the printer manually. Not every printer can
be configured for both printing systems (CUPS and LPRng and lpdfilter). Certain configurations are only supported by either CUPS or LPRng and lpdfilter.
YaST informs you about this when configuring the printer.
2
YaST — Configuration
Regarding the printer configuration for applications, refer to Configuring
Applications on page 124 and Printing from Applications on page 156.
Note
In SuSE Linux, the default printing system is CUPS, but you can switch
from CUPS to LPRng and back at any time. To do so, select ‘Change’ ➝
‘Advanced’ in the YaST printer configuration module. Then select either
printing system and configure it.
Note
Automatic Configuration
YaST configures the printer automatically if these requirements are met:
1. The parallel or USB port can be set up automatically in the correct way
and the connected printer can be autodetected.
2. The ID string of the printer, as supplied to YaST during hardware autodetection, is included in the printer database. As this ID may be different
from the actual name of the model, you may need to select the model
manually.
3. The printer database contains at least one configuration for the respective model that is known to work without problems. Depending on the
printer, up to five queues are configured automatically.
To make sure everything works properly, each configuration should be checked
with the print test function of YaST. The YaST test page also provides important
information about the configuration selected.
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Manual Configuration
If one of the requirements for automatic configuration is not met or you want a
custom setup, configure the printer manually.
Depending on how successful the autodetection is and how much information
about the printer model is found in the database, YaST may be able to determine
the right settings automatically or at least make a reasonable preselection.
The following parameters must be configured:
Hardware Connection (Port)
The configuration of the hardware connection depends on whether YaST
has been able to find the printer during hardware autodetection.
If YaST is able to detect the printer model automatically, it can be assumed that the printer connection works on the hardware level and
no settings need to be changed in this respect.
If YaST is unable to autodetect the printer model, this may indicate
that the printer connection on the hardware level must be configured
manually. Refer to Printer Operation on page 109 for the further procedure.
Name of the Queue
The queue name is used when issuing print commands. The name should
be relatively short and consist of lowercase letters and possibly numbers
only.
Ghostscript Driver or Printer Language (Printer Model)
The Ghostscript driver and the printer language depend on your printer
model. YaST lets you select a predefined configuration suitable for the
model. Selecting a manufacturer and a model basically means selecting a
printer language and a Ghostscript driver suitable for this language with
some default settings for the driver. These settings may then be changed
in an additional dialog as needed.
For non-PostScript models, all printer-specific data is produced by the
Ghostscript driver. The driver configuration — both choosing the right
driver and the correct options for it — is the single most important factor
determining the output quality. The settings made at this point affect the
printout on a queue-by-queue basis.
If your printer was autodetected (using the printer database) or if the
model has been selected manually, YaST presents a choice of suitable
Ghostscript drivers, usually with a number of predefined configurations
for each of them, for instance:
40
2.4. Hardware
2
YaST — Configuration
Figure 2.6: Selecting the Printer
monochrome
color 300 dpi
photo 600 dpi
A predefined configuration includes a suitable Ghostscript driver and, if
available, a set of options for the driver related to output quality. Not all
selectable combinations of driver settings work with every printer model.
This is especially true for higher resolutions.
Always check whether your settings work as expected by printing the
test page. If the output is garbled, for example, with several almost empty
pages, stop the printer by first removing all paper then stopping the print
test from YaST. However, in some cases the printer will refuse to resume
work if you do so. It may then be better to stop the print test first and wait
for the printer to eject all pages by itself.
If the printer model is not listed in the printer database, YaST offers a selection of standard drivers for the standard printer languages.
Advanced Settings
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This dialog takes you to the hardware-dependent (driver-specific) and
hardware-independent settings. Here, specify special settings for the
queues and restrict the access to the printer. However, there is normally
no need to modify these settings.
Using the CUPS Printing System
Regarding printing with CUPS, refer to Printing from Applications on
page 156.
Display and Input Devices (SaX2)
The graphical user interface or X server handles the communication between
hardware and software. Desktops, like KDE and GNOME, and the wide variety
of window managers use the X server for interaction with the user.
The graphical user interface is initially configured during installation. To change
the settings afterwards, run this YaST module. In the configuration dialog,
choose between ‘Text mode only’ and the graphical user interface. The current
settings are saved and you can restore them anytime. The current values are displayed and offered for modification: the screen resolution, the color depth, the
refresh rate, and the vendor and type of your monitor, if it was autodetected. If
you have just installed a new graphics card that you want to initialize, a small
dialog appears asking whether to activate 3D acceleration for your graphics
card.
Click ‘Edit’. SaX2, the configuration tool for the input and display devices, starts
in a separate window. This window is shown in Figure 2.7 on the facing page.
SaX2 — Main Window
The navigation bar to the left features four main items: ‘Display’, ‘Input devices’, ‘Multihead’, and ‘AccessX’. Configure your monitor, graphics card, color
depth, resolution, and the position and size of the screen under ‘Display’. Configure the keyboard, mouse, touchscreen monitor, and graphics tablet under
‘Input devices’. Use the ‘Multihead’ menu to configure multiple screen operation (see Multihead on page 48 ). You can set the multihead display mode and
the layout of the screens on your desk. ‘AccessX’ is a useful tool for controlling
the mouse pointer with the number pad.You can modify the speed of the mouse
pointer operated with the number pad.
Select your monitor and your graphics card. Usually, these are automatically
detected by the system. In this case, you do not need to modify anything. If
your monitor is not autodetected, continue to the monitor selection dialog. Most
likely, you can find your monitor in the comprehensive vendor and device list.
42
2.4. Hardware
2
YaST — Configuration
Figure 2.7: The Main Window of the New SaX2
Alternatively, manually enter the values specified in the monitor documentation
or select one of the preconfigured VESA modes.
After clicking ‘Finish’ in the main window following the completion of the settings for your monitor and your graphics card, test your settings. Thus, ensure
that your configuration is suitable for your devices. If the image is not steady,
terminate the test immediately by pressing Esc and reduce the refresh rate or
the resolution and color depth. Regardless of whether you run a test, all modifications are only activated when you restart the X server.
Display
If you go to ‘Edit configuration’ ➝ ‘Properties’, a window with the tabs ‘Monitor’, ‘Frequencies’, and ‘Expert’ appears.
‘Monitor’ — In the left part of the window, select the vendor. In the right
part, select your model. If you have floppy disks with Linux drivers for
your monitor, install these by clicking ‘Driver disk’.
‘Frequencies’ — Here, enter the horizontal and vertical frequencies for
your screen. The vertical frequency is another designation for the image refresh rate. Normally, the acceptable value ranges are read from the
model and entered here. Usually, they do not need to be changed.
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Figure 2.8: SaX2: Monitor Selection
‘Expert’ — Here, enter some options for your screen. In the upper selection field, define the method to use for the calculation of the screen resolution and screen geometry. Do not change anything unless the monitor
is addressed incorrectly and the display is not stable. Furthermore, you
can change the size of the displayed image and activate the power saving
mode DPMS.
Graphics Cards
The graphics card dialog has two tabs: ‘General’ and ‘Expert’:
In ‘General’, select the vendor of your graphics card on the left side and
the model on the right.
‘Expert’ offers more advanced configuration options. On the right side,
turn your screen to the left or to a vertical position (useful for some turnable TFT screens). The entries for the BusID are only relevant if you operate several screens. Normally, nothing needs to be changed here. You
should not modify the card options unless you have experience in this
field and know what the options mean. If necessary, check the documentation of your graphics card.
44
2.4. Hardware
2
YaST — Configuration
Figure 2.9: Selecting the Graphics Cards
Note
The configuration of graphics cards exclusively supported by XFree86
3.3.6 is no longer included in the installation. This affects cards like older
S3 PCI cards. Instead, depending on the graphics card, YaST2 configures
the framebuffer without acceleration or the generic 16-color VGA driver
for these graphics cards. If your card is affected, repeat the configuration
with XFree86 3.3.6 using SaX1. For this purpose, enter the command sax
on the command line.
Note
Colors and Resolutions
Here, three tabs, ‘Colors’, ‘Resolution’, and ‘Expert’, are available.
‘Colors’ — Depending on the hardware used, select a color depth of 16,
256, 32768, 65536, or 16.7 million colors (4, 8, 15, 16, or 24 bit). For a reasonable display quality, set at least 256 colors.
‘Resolution’ — When the hardware is detected, the resolution is queried.
Therefore, the module usually only offers resolution and color depth combinations that your hardware can display correctly. This keeps the danger
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45
of damaging your hardware with wrong settings very low in SuSE Linux.
If you change the resolution manually, consult the documentation of your
hardware to make sure the value set can be displayed.
Figure 2.10: Configuring the Resolution
‘Expert’ — In addition to the resolutions offered in the previous tab, this
tab enables you to add your own resolutions, which will subsequently be
included for selection in the tab.
Virtual Resolution
Every desktop has a certain resolution that is displayed over the full screen of
the monitor. Additionally, it is possible to set the resolution larger than the visible area of the screen. If you move the mouse beyond the margins of the desktop, the virtual part of the desktop is displayed on screen. This increases the
available work space.
The virtual resolution can be set in two different ways:
‘By Drag&Drop’ — Move the mouse pointer over the monitor image
and the mouse pointer changes to crosshairs. Keep the left mouse button
pressed and move the mouse to enlarge the raster image, which corresponds with the virtual resolution. This method is best if you are not quite
sure how much virtual space you want on your desktop.
46
2.4. Hardware
2
YaST — Configuration
Figure 2.11: Configuring the Virtual Resolution
‘By selection from the pop-up menu’ — In the pop-up menu in the middle
of the raster image, the currently used virtual resolution is displayed. To
use one of the default virtual resolutions, select one from the menu.
3D Acceleration
Optionally, activate the 3D acceleration of your graphics card. A dialog is displayed in which to activate the 3D properties of your graphics card.
Image Position and Size
Under these two tabs, precisely adjust the size and the position of the image
with the arrows. See Figure 2.12 on the following page. If you have a multihead
environment (more than one screen), use ‘Next screen’ to switch to the other
monitors to adjust their size and position. Press ‘Save’ to save your settings.
Caution
There are safety mechanisms, but you should still be very careful when
manually changing the allowed frequencies. False values may destroy
your monitor. If in doubt, refer to the manual of the monitor.
Caution
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Figure 2.12: Adjusting the Image Geometry
Multihead
If you have installed more than one graphics card in your computer or a graphics card with multiple outputs, you can connect more than one screen to your
system. If you operate two screens, this is referred to as “dualhead”. More than
two is referred to as “multihead”. SaX2 automatically detects multiple graphics
cards in the system and prepares the configuration accordingly. Set the multihead mode and the arrangement of the screens in the multihead dialog. Three
modes are offered: ‘Traditional’ (default), ‘One screen (Xinerama)’, and ‘Clone
mode’.
‘Traditional multihead’ — Each monitor represents an individual unit.
The mouse pointer can switch between the screens.
‘Cloned multihead’ — In this mode, all monitors display the same contents. The mouse is only visible on the main screen.
‘Xinerama multihead’ — All screens combine to form a single large screen.
Program windows can be positioned freely on all screens or scaled to a
size that fills more than one monitor.
The layout of a multihead environment describes the arrangement of and the
relationship between the individual screens. By default, SaX2 configures a standard layout that follows the sequence of the detected graphics cards, arranging
all screens in a row from left to right. In the ‘Layout’ dialog of the multihead
tool, determine the way the monitors are arranged by using the mouse to move
the screen symbols in the grid.
48
2.4. Hardware
Linux currently does not offer 3D support for Xinerama multihead environments. In this case, SaX2 deactivates the 3D support.
Input Devices
Mouse
If the mouse already works, you do not need to do anything. However, if
the mouse does not work, control it with the number pad of the keyboard
as described in AccessX on the next page.
If the automatic detection fails, use this dialog to configure your mouse
manually. Refer to the documentation of your mouse for a description of
the model. Select your model from the list of supported mouse types and
confirm by pressing 5
on the number pad.
2
YaST — Configuration
After you have completed the layout dialog, verify the new configuration by
clicking ‘Test’.
Keyboard
Use the selection field at the top of this dialog to specify the kind of keyboard to use. Then select the language for the keyboard layout (the
country-specific position of the keys). Use the test field to check if special
characters are displayed correctly.
The status of the check box used for activating and deactivating the entry
of accented letters depends on the respective language and does not need
to be changed. Click ‘Finish’ to apply the new settings to your system.
Touchscreen
Currently, XFree86 only supports Microtouch and Elo TouchSystems
touchscreens. SaX2 can only autodetect the monitor, not the toucher. The
toucher is treated as an input device. Configure the toucher as follows:
1. Start SaX2 and select ‘Input devices’ ➝ ‘Touchscreens’.
2. Click ‘Add’ and add a touchscreen.
3. Save the configuration by clicking ‘Finish’. You do not need to test
the configuration.
Touchscreens feature a variety of options and usually must be calibrated
first. Unfortunately, there is no general tool for this purpose in Linux. The
standard configuration contains suitable default values for the dimensions
of the touchscreen. Normally, no additional configuration is required.
Graphics Tablet
Currently, XFree86 only supports a limited number of graphics tablets.
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SaX2 enables the configuration of graphics tablets connected to the USB
port or the serial port. From the configuration perspective, a graphics
tablet is just an input device, like a mouse. The following procedure is
recommended:
1. Start SaX2 and select ‘Input devices’ ➝ ‘Graphics tablet’.
2. Click ‘Add’, select the vendor from the following dialog, and add a
graphics tablet from the selection list.
3. Mark the check boxes to the right if you have connected a pen or
eraser.
4. If your tablet is connected to the serial port, verify the port. /dev/
ttyS0 refers to the first serial port. /dev/ttyS1 refers to the second. Additional ports use similar notation.
5. Save the configuration by clicking ‘Finish’.
AccessX
If you do not use a mouse on your computer, start SaX2 and activate AccessX.
The mouse pointer can now be controlled with the keys on the number pad as
follows:
Button 1 corresponds to the key %
. This key activates the left mouse button.
Button 2 corresponds to the key X
. This key activates the middle mouse
button.
Button 3 corresponds to the key -
. This key activates the right mouse
button.
Click corresponds to the key 5
. This key triggers a click of the previously
activated mouse button. Following the click, the activation of the respective key is reset to the default setting.
Double Click corresponds to the key +
. This key works like the key 5
,
except it triggers a double click.
Button Lock corresponds to the key 0
. This key works like the key 5
,
except it clicks the button and keeps it pressed.
Button Release corresponds to the key Del . This key releases a mouse
0
.
button pressed with 50
2.4. Hardware
Arrow Up corresponds to the key 8
. This key moves the mouse pointer
up in a straight line.
Arrow Up and Right corresponds to the key 9
. This key moves the
mouse pointer to the top right.
Arrow Left corresponds to the key 4
. This key moves the mouse pointer
to the left.
Arrow Right corresponds to the key 6
. This key moves the mouse
pointer to the right.
2
YaST — Configuration
On the screen: Arrow Up and Left corresponds to the key 7
. This key
moves the mouse pointer to the top left.
Arrow Down and Left corresponds to the key 1
. This key moves the
mouse pointer to the bottom left.
2
. This key moves the mouse
Arrow Down corresponds to the key pointer down in a straight line.
Arrow Down and Right corresponds to the key 3
. This key moves the
mouse pointer to the bottom right.
With the slider, set the speed of the mouse pointer movement when a key is
pressed.
Hardware Information
YaST performs a hardware detection for the configuration of hardware components. The detected technical data is displayed in this screen. This is especially
useful, for example, if you want to submit a support request for which you need
information about your hardware.
IDE DMA Mode
This module enables you to activate and deactivate the DMA mode for your
IDE hard disks and your IDE CD/DVD drives in the installed system. This
module does not have any function for SCSI devices. DMA modes can substantially increase the performance and data transfer speed in your system.
During the installation, the current SuSE Linux kernel automatically activates
DMA for hard disks but not for CD drives, because default DMA activation for
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Figure 2.13: Displaying Hardware Information
all drives often caused problems with CD drives. Use the DMA module to decide whether to activate DMA for your drives. If the drive supports the DMA
mode smoothly, the data transfer rate of your CD drive can be increased by activating DMA.
Note
DMA (Direct Memory Access) enables drives to transmit data directly to
the RAM without the detour through the processor control.
Note
Joystick
Use this module to configure your joystick by selecting the manufacturer and
the model from the displayed list. As joysticks are usually connected to the
sound card, you can also access this module from the sound card configuration
(see Sound on page 54).
52
2.4. Hardware
2
Select Mouse Model
Scanners
If your scanner is connected and switched on, it should be detected automatically when this YaST module is started. In this case, the dialog for the installation of the scanner appears. If no scanner is detected, the manual configuration
dialog appears. If you have already installed one or several scanners, a table listing existing scanners that can be modified or deleted appears. Press ‘Add’ to
configure a new device.
YaST — Configuration
Configure your mouse with this YaST module. For information, refer to Mouse
on page 11.
Next, an installation is performed with default settings. If the installation is successful, a corresponding message appears. Test your scanner by inserting a document and clicking ‘Test’.
Scanner Was Not Detected
Only supported scanners can be autodetected. Scanners connected to another
network host will not be detected. The manual configuration distinguishes three
types of scanners: USB scanners, SCSI scanners, and network scanners.
USB scanner: Specify the vendor and model. YaST attempts to load USB
modules. If your scanner is very new, the modules might not be loaded
automatically. In this case, continue to a dialog in which to load the USB
module manually. Refer to the YaST help text for more information.
SCSI scanner: Specify the device (such as /dev/sg0). SCSI scanners
should not be connected or disconnected when the system is running.
Shut the system down first.
Network scanner: Enter the IP address or the host name.
You can use a scanner that is connected to a host in your network and configured as a network scanner. To configure a network scanner, refer to the Support
Database article “Scanning in Linux” (http://sdb.suse.de/en/, keyword
“scanner”). When selecting a network scanner, enter the host name or the IP
address of the host to which the scanner is connected in the dialog.
If your scanner was not detected, probably the device is not supported. However, sometimes even supported scanners are not detected. If that is the case,
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proceed with the manual scanner selection. If you can identify your scanner in
the list of vendors and models, select it. If not, select ‘Cancel’. Information about
scanners that work with Linux is provided at http://cdb.suse.de/index.
php?LANG=en, http://sdb.suse.de/en/, and http://www.mostang.
com/sane.
Caution
Only assign the scanner manually if you are absolutely sure. An incorrect
selection could damage your hardware.
Caution
Troubleshooting
Your scanner may not have been detected for one of the following reasons:
Scanner is not supported
Your SCSI controller was not installed correctly.
There are termination problems with your SCSI port.
Your SCSI cable is too long.
Your scanner has a SCSI Light Controller that is not supported by Linux.
Your scanner is defective.
Caution
SCSI scanners should not be connected or disconnected when the the
system is running. Shut the system down first.
Caution
Sound
When the sound configuration tool is started, YaST tries to autodetect your
sound card. Configure one or multiple sound cards. To use multiple sound
cards, start by selecting one of the cards to configure. Press ‘Configure’ to enter the ‘Setup’ dialog. ‘Edit’ opens a dialog in which to edit sound cards already
configured. ‘Finish’ saves the current settings and completes the sound configuration. If YaST is unable to autodetect your sound card, press ‘Add Sound Card’
in ‘Sound Configuration’ to open a dialog in which to select a sound card and
module.
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2.4. Hardware
2
Setup
With ‘Normal Setup’, you can adjust the output volume and play a test sound.
With ‘Options’, manually customize the sound card options.
Set up your joystick by clicking the respective check box. Select the joystick type
in the following dialog and click ‘Next’. The same dialog appears when you
click ‘Joystick’ in the YaST2 Control Center.
Sound Card Volume
YaST — Configuration
With ‘Quick Automatic Setup’, you will not be required to go through any of the
further configuration steps and no sound test is performed. The sound card is
configured automatically.
Test your sound configuration in this test screen. Use the‘+’ and ‘-’ buttons toadjust the volume. Start at about ten percent to avoid damage to your speakers
or hearing. A test sound should be audible when you press ‘Test’. If youcannot
hear anything, increase the volume. Press ‘Continue’to complete the sound configuration. The volume setting will be saved.
Sound Configuration
Use ‘Delete’ to remove a sound card. Existing entries of configured sound cards
are deactivated in the file /etc/modules.conf. Click ‘Options’ to open a dialog in which to customize the sound module options manually. In ‘Volume’,
configure the individual settings for the input and output of each sound card.
‘Next’ saves the new values and ‘Back’ resets to the default configuration. Under ‘Add Sound Card...’, configure additional sound cards. If YaST autodetects
another sound card, continue to ‘Configure a Sound Card’. If YaST does not detect a sound card, you are directed to ‘Manual Sound Card Selection’ automatically.
If you use a Creative Soundblaster Live or AWE sound card, automatically copy
SF2 sound fonts to your hard disk from the original Soundblaster driver CDROM with ‘Install Sound Fonts’. The sound fonts are saved in the directory
/usr/share/sfbank/creative/.
With ‘Start ALSA’, enable or disable the start-up of ALSA when booting. For
playback of MIDI files, activate ‘Start Sequencer’. This way, the sound modules
required for sequencer support will be loaded along with the ALSA modules.
The volume and configuration of all installed sound cards installed is saved
when you click ‘Finish’. The mixer settings are saved to the file /etc/
asound.conf. The ALSA configuration data is appended at the end of
/etc/modules.conf.
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Configuring a Sound Card
If multiple sound cards were detected, select your preferred card under ‘List
of Automatically Recognized...’. Continue to ‘Setup’ with ‘Next’. If the sound
card was not autodetected, click ‘Select from List’ and, with ‘Next’, proceed to
‘Manual Sound Card Selection’.
Manual Sound Card Selection
If your sound card was not autodetected, a list of sound card drivers and models are shown from which to choose. With ‘All’, see the entire list of supported
cards.
Refer to your sound card documentation for the information required. A reference list of sound cards supported by ALSA with their corresponding sound
modules is available in /usr/share/doc/packages/alsa/cards.txt and
at http://www.alsa-project.org/\char126{}goemon/. After making
your selection, click ‘Next’ to return to ‘Setup’.
2.5 Network/Basic
Basic Information about Internet Access
This section explains a number of important terms in connection with Internet
access, briefly introducing their aim and function. All the machines connected
to the Internet form a large network in which various operating systems run
with different hardware. The Internet uses a standard communication protocol that can be understood regardless of the hardware or software used. This is
made possible by means of the Internet Protocol (IP) together with the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), and the
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). These protocols comprise the common “language” used by all machines on the Internet. The abbreviation for this
is TCP/IP.
Every machine on the Internet has an ID number — the IP address. It can only
be addressed by TCP/IP with this number. Normally, a machine also has a text
name. The Domain Name System (DNS) is responsible for converting the IP
address to a text name. This particular service is offered by name servers. A machine or an application offering a service is called a server (for example, DNS
server) and a machine or application making use of a service is called a client.
Under TCP/IP, there are various standardized protocols for forwarding the appropriate TCP/IP data transfers to the given transmission method. For network
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2.5. Network/Basic
To establish an Internet connection, the ethernet, PPP, or PPPoE connection between your host and a host of the Internet provider must be established first.
The TCP/IP connection is then established. On top of TCP/IP, there are various
standardized protocols for proper data transfer to the application.
The HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) transfers web sites in HyperText
Markup Language (HTML) format.
The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is responsible for sending emails to another machine. The Post Office Protocol (POP3) is used for
downloading e-mails from a mail server.
2
YaST — Configuration
connections via a network card, the ethernet protocol is used. For modem and
ISDN telephone connections, it is the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP). For ADSL
and T-DSL connections, the Point-to-Point over Ethernet Protocol (PPPoE) is
used.
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is used to transfer files.
For several applications, such as a web browser and an e-mail program, to use
the same Internet connection at the same time, separate TCP/IP connections
are used for each application. Large amounts of TCP/IP data are also divided
into small packets, so HTTP packets from the web browser can be sent over its
TCP/IP connection while alternating with SMTP or POP3 packet transfers from
the e-mail program via other TCP/IP connections.
Because several applications are using the same Internet connection, the IP
address, which only identifies the machine, is not sufficient. A port number is
needed to sort out which TCP/IP data belongs to which application. These standard services are usually provided on servers at the following port numbers:
DNS on port 53
HTTP on port 80
SMTP on port 25 and POP3 on port 110
FTP on ports 20 and 21
The client can only use services if it addresses the correct port number on the
server.
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Information about the Internet Dial-Up
If you activate ‘Dial on demand’ or ‘Automatic dial-up’ in the YaST modules,
the Internet connection is established automatically whenever necessary, for example, when an external URL is entered in the browser or when e-mail is sent
and retrieved. ‘Dial on demand’ or ‘automatic’ is only advisable if you have a
flat rate for Internet access. With ‘manual’, the computer only establishes a connection to the Internet when manually requested. Background processes, such
as retrieval of e-mail in regular intervals, frequently establish connections to the
Internet, which can be expensive.
Network Cards
When the YaST module is started, see an overview of the network configuration. The top part of the dialog lists all network cards that were autodetected or
manually configured. If your card was detected correctly when the system was
booted, the name of the card appears here. Devices that were not recognized
are listed as ‘Other (not detected)’. The lower part of the screen lists configured
devices including the network type and the address. You can configure new network cards or modify the configuration of a configured device.
Manual Configuration of the Network Card
Make the following basic settings to configure a network card that was not recognized:
Network interface
Specify the network type and the device number.
Support for Wireless Connections
If you are located in a wireless LAN and your network card supports this
connection type, activate ‘Wireless Device’. Press ‘Wireless settings’ to
enter the dialog in which to configure the operating mode, network name
(ESSID), network ID (NWID), encryption key, and nickname. Press ‘OK’
to finish the configuration of your card.
Kernel Module and Selection of the Network Card
If your network card is a PCMCIA or USB device, activate the respective
check boxes and exit the dialog with ‘Next’. If not, select the network card
model under ‘Select from list’. YaST automatically selects a suitable kernel
module. Exit this dialog with ‘Next’.
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2.5. Network/Basic
2
YaST — Configuration
Figure 2.14: Configuration of the Network Card
Configuration of the Network Address
Specify the address allocation method for your network card:
‘Automatic Address Setup (with DHCP)’
If there is a DHCP server within your network, automatically retrieve
the configuration data for your network card from it. Also activate the
address setup with DHCP if your DSL provider has not given you a static
IP address for your system.
‘Static Address Configuration’
Enter the IP address and the correct subnet mask for your network. The
preset value for the subnet mask should meet the requirements of a
typical home network.
Exit this dialog with ‘Next’ or configure the host name, name server, and routing (see Host Name and DNS on page 67 and Routing on page 68).
Cable Modems
In some countries (US, Austria), Internet access via cable modems has become
relatively widespread. The cable subscriber gets a modem-like device, which is
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connected to the TV cable network on one side and to the computer on the other
using a 10BaseT (twisted pair) cable and a network card. As far as the computer
is concerned, this is basically a permanent network link with a static IP address.
Following your provider’s specification, select either ‘Automatic Address Setup
(with DHCP)’ or ‘Static Address Configuration’ for the configuration of your
network card. Most providers today use DHCP. A static IP address is generally
included in the provider’s business package. In this case, the provider should
have assigned a static IP address.
Regarding the setup and configuration of cable modems, refer to the Support
Database article available online at http://sdb.suse.de/en/sdb/html/
cmodem8.html.
Modems
In the YaST Control Center, the modem configuration is available under ‘Network/Basic’. If the autodetection fails, select the manual configuration. In the
screen that opens, enter the port under ‘Device’.
Figure 2.15: Modem Configuration
If a PBX is interposed, you may need to enter an extra number to dial external
numbers (usually a zero, but you can find this in the operation instructions for
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2.5. Network/Basic
2
YaST — Configuration
your telephone system). Also decide between tone and pulse dialing, whether
the speaker should be switched on, and whether it should wait for the dial tone.
The last option should not be used if your modem is connected to a PBX.
The baud rate and the initialization string settings for the modem can be specified under ‘Details’. Only make changes if your modem was not automatically
recognized and special settings must be made for data transfer. This is primarily
the case for ISDN terminal adapters. Exit this dialog with ‘OK’.
Select the ISP (Internet Service Provider) in the following dialog. To select your
provider from a list of preconfigured providers in your country, activate ‘Countries’. Configure the ISP parameters manually by pressing ‘New’. In the dialog that opens, enter the name of the dial-up connection, the provider, and the
provider’s phone number. Furthermore, enter the user name and the password
assigned to you by the provider. Activate ‘Always ask for password’ if you want
to be prompted for the password every time a connection is established.
Enter the connection parameters in the final dialog:
‘Dial-on-demand’
Refer to Information about the Internet Dial-Up on page 58. Enter at least
one name server to use dial-on-demand.
‘Modify DNS when connected’
This check box is activated by default. Accordingly, the name server is
adjusted each time a dial-up connection is established. Deactivate this
setting and specify static name servers for ‘Automatic dial-up’.
‘Stupid mode’
This option is activated by default. Input prompts by the dial-up server
are ignored to facilitate the establishment of the connection.
‘Activate firewall’
Here, activate the SuSE Firewall to implement protection against intruders
when connected to the Internet.
‘Idle time (seconds)’
Here, specify the period after which the connection should be terminated
if there is no data transfer.
IP details
With this button, enter the address configuration dialog. If your provider
does use dynamic IP addresses, deactivate ‘Dynamic IP Address’ and
enter the local IP address of your host and the remote IP address. Contact
your provider for information about these settings. Leave the ‘Default
route’ setting active and exit the dialog with ‘OK’.
Press ‘Next’ to return to the overview. Finish the configuration with ‘Finish’.
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DSL
Your network card must be properly configured to configure ADSL access. With
YaST, you can only set up connections based on the Point-to-Point-over-Ethernet
protocol (PPPoE). The DHCP protocol is not used for the automatic assignment of IP addresses, so you should not use ‘Automatic address setup (with
DHCP)’. Instead, use a static “dummy IP address” like 192.168.22.1. In ‘Subnet mask’, enter 255.255.255.0. For a stand-alone system, do not make any
entries in the ‘Default gateway’ field. The values for the ‘IP address’ of your machine and ‘Subnet mask’ are only placeholders. They are only required for activating the network card.
In this screen, enter the user ID, the personal password, and the ethernet card
to which your modem is connected (usually eth0). The recommended ‘Idle
time’ is 300 seconds to terminate the connection automatically if no data transfer
has occurred. Click ‘Finish’ to finish the procedure. To use ‘Dial-on-demand’
(see Information about the Internet Dial-Up on page 58) if you have a stand-alone
system, you must enter a name server. Most providers today support dynamic
DNS assignment, so a current IP address is forwarded to the name server each
time the connection is set up. However, a suitable dummy name server IP must
be entered in this dialog, for example, 192.168.22.99. If you do not receive a
dynamic name server assignment, enter the IP addresses of the name servers of
your provider here.
Proceed for T-DSL (German Telecom) as you would for ADSL. To configure
your T-DSL, the following data is required: attachment identification, T-Online
number, shared user ID, and your personal password. This information can be
obtained from your T-DSL login sheet.
ISDN
If your ISDN card is successfully autodetected, a dialog appears in which to
make your ‘Selection of ISDN protocol’. ‘Euro-ISDN (EDSS1)’ is the standard
for this in Europe. ‘1TR6’ is a protocol used by older and larger phone systems.
‘NI1’ is the standard in the USA. If this automatic detection fails, choose the correct ISDN card and specify the ISDN protocol. Furthermore, enter area code and
country code of your location for the ISDN connection, such as +44 208. Enter
the prefix for external calls if necessary. Then confirm your settings with ‘OK’.
The interface is configured in the following dialog. Theoretically, you can configure several interfaces. However, this is usually not necessary for home users,
as several providers can be set up for one interface. The first configured interface is ippp0. The specification of the ‘Phone Number’ depends on which of the
following connection scenarios is used:
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2.5. Network/Basic
2
YaST — Configuration
Figure 2.16: ADSL Configuration
The ISDN card is connected directly to the socket
By default, ISDN offers three numbers (MSN — Multiple Subscriber
Number). On request, up to ten numbers can be made available for
your line. Here, assign one of the MSN numbers to your ISDN card. The
number is specified without the prefix. If you enter the wrong number,
your telecom provider automatically uses the first MSN assigned to your
ISDN line.
The ISDN card is connected to a PBX
Various specifications are required depending on the constellation.
For private use: Usually the Euro-ISDN/EDSS1 protocol is used for
the internal ports of small phone systems. These phone systems use
an internal S0 bus and use internal numbers for the connected devices.
Use one of the internal numbers to specify the MSN. One of the
MSNs of your phone system should work, provided external access
is possible with this MSN. As a final resort, a single zero might work.
For more information, refer to the documentation of your phone system.
For commercial use: Normally the 1TR6 protocol is used for the in-
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Figure 2.17: T-DSL Configuration in Germany
ternal ports of large phone systems. Here, the MSN is called EAZ
and is usually the extension. For the Linux configuration, the last
digit of the EAZ is normally sufficient. If this does not work, try the
digits 1 to 9.
Select the desired start mode. ‘OnBoot’ initializes the ISDN driver when the system is booted. With‘Manual’, the ISDN driver must be initialized manually by
with rcisdn start. The option ‘Hotplug’ loads the driver when the PCMCIA
card or the USB device is connected.
With ‘ChargeHUP’, determine whether existing connections should be terminated prior to the next charge increment. However, this does not yet work with
all providers. For ‘Channel bundling’ (multilink PPP), activate the respective
check box. For SuSEfirewall2 to be started, mark ‘Activate firewall’.
‘Details’ opens a dialog that enables the implementation of more complex connection scenarios. Normal home users do not need this dialog. Exit the dialog
with ‘Next’.
In the following dialog, specify the settings for the assignment of the IP address. If your provider has not assigned a static IP address, select ‘Dynamic IP
address’. If you have a static IP address, enter the local IP address of your host
and the remote IP address as specified by the provider in the respective fields. If
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2.5. Network/Basic
Specify your country and your provider in the following dialog. The listed
providers are call-by-call providers. To use a provider that is not listed here,
click ‘New’. The dialog ‘ISP parameters’ is then displayed, enabling you to enter
all settings for the desired provider. The default setting for ‘ISDN type’ is ‘ISDN
SyncPPP’. Under ‘Provider name ’, enter the name of the provider and, in the
next field, the phone number of the provider.
If a PBX is interposed, you may need to enter an extra number to dial external
numbers (usually zero). The entire phone number should not be separated by
commas or spaces. Furthermore, enter the user name and the password received
from your provider.
2
YaST — Configuration
the interface should be used as the standard route to the Internet, activate ‘Default Route’. Only one interface per system can be used as the default route. Exit
the dialog with ‘Next’.
Subsequently, select a dial mode. Read Information about the Internet Dial-Up on
page 58 for the dial mode ‘Automatic dial-up’. If you do not mark ‘Automatic
dial-up’, easily connect to the Internet using an application, such as kinternet.
This program allows you to switch between the configured providers. From the
console, dial with /usr/sbin/isdnctrl dial ippp0 and hang up with
/usr/sbin/isdnctrl hangup ippp0.
To use ‘Dial on demand’ (see Information about the Internet Dial-Up on page 58)
on a stand-alone system, configure DNS (name server). Most providers today
support dynamic DNS assignment, so a current IP address is forwarded to the
name server each time the connection is set up. However, a suitable dummy
name server IP must be entered in this dialog, for example, 192.168.22.99.
If you do not receive a dynamic name server assignment, enter the IP addresses
of the name servers of your provider here. Also set the time after which the connection should be terminated automatically if no data exchange has occurred.
Finally, confirm your settings with ‘Next’. You will be taken to an overview of
the configured interfaces. Activate your settings with ‘Finish’.
E-Mail Communication
This configuration module allows you to adapt your mail settings if you send
your mail with sendmail, postfix, or the SMTP server of your provider. Retrieve
mail via SMTP or the fetchmail program.Also enter the details of the POP3
server or IMAP server of your provider.
You can also use a mail program such as KMail to set your POP and SMTP access data (to receive mail with POP3 and send mail with SMTP). In this case,
you do not need this module.
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Figure 2.18: ISDN Configuration
Connection Type
To specify your mail settings with YaST, the desired type of connection to the
Internet must be specified in the first dialog of the e-mail configuration module.
Choose one of the following options:
Permanent
Select this option if you have a dedicated line to the Internet. Your machine will be online permanently, so no dial-up is required. If your system
is part of a local network with a central e-mail server for the e-mail
communication, select this option to ensure permanent access to your
e-mail messages.
Dial-up
This item is relevant for all users who have a computer at home, are not
located in a network, and establish dial-up connections with the Internet
occasionally via modem, DSL, or ISDN.
No connection
If you do not have access to the Internet and are not located in a network,
you cannot send or receive e-mail.
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2.5. Network/Basic
Starting or Stopping System Services
Use this tool to determine which network services (such as telnet, finger, talk,
and ftp) should start when SuSE Linux boots. These services enable external
hosts to connect to your computer. Also configure various parameters for each
service. By default, the master service that manages the individual services
(inetd) is not started.
2
YaST — Configuration
In the following dialogs, specify the outgoing mail server (usually the SMTP
server of your provider) and the parameters for incoming mail. If you use a dialup connection, you can specify diverse POP or IMAP servers for mail reception
by various users. By means of this dialog, also assign aliases, implement masquerading, or set up virtual domains. Click ‘Finish’ to exit the mail configuration.
The inetd daemon can be started with a standard selection of network services.
Alternatively, ‘Add’, ‘Delete’, or ‘Edit’ services for your own selection of services.
Caution
This is an expert tool. Only make modifications if you are familiar with
network services.
Caution
2.6
Network/Advanced
This group mainly contains tools for professionals and system administrators.
Note
The ‘NIS Client’ tool is not addressed here, as this is a genuine expert
tool that is usually only used in company networks. More information about this module is provided in the Reference Manual (PDF)
/usr/share/doc/packages/slec-admin-expert_*..
Note
Host Name and DNS
The host name and the domain name can be changed here. If the provider has
been configured correctly for DSL, modem, or ISDN access, the list of name
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servers contain entries made automatically as they were retrieved from the
provider data. If you are located in a local network, most likely you will receive
your host name via DHCP, in which case you should not modify the name.
NFS Client
You need this tool only if you are located in a network. In this case, you have
the possibility to operate a file server that can be accessed by members of your
network. On this file server, make programs, files, or storage space available for
users.
Subsequently, any user with the needed permissions can mount NFS directories
in his own file tree. The easiest way to do this is by means of the ‘NFS Client’
module, in which the user merely needs to enter the host name of the computer
acting as NFS server and the mount point on his computer. To do this, select
‘Add’ in the first dialog and enter the said data. See Figure 2.19.
Figure 2.19: Configuration of NFS Clients
Routing
This tool is only needed if you are located in a local network or if you are connected to the Internet by way of a network card, as is the case with DSL. As
indicated in DSL on page 62, for DSL the gateway data is only needed to configure the network card correctly. However, the entries are dummies that do not
have any function. The value is important only if you are located in a local network and use your own computer as gateway to the Internet.
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2.6. Network/Advanced
2.7
Security and Users
User Administration
Use the check boxes to decide whether to edit users or groups.
YaST offers an overview of all local users in the system. If you are part of an
extensive network, mark ‘Also view sytem users’ to display the system users
(e.g., root). To add new users, fill in the required blanks in the following screen.
Subsequently, the new user can log in to the host with the login name and password. Under ‘Edit’, the user profile can be fine-tuned with ‘Details’. The validity
of the password is configured in ‘Password settings’. To delete a user, select the
user from the list and click ‘Delete’.
YaST — Configuration
A basic aspect of Linux is its multiuser capability. Consequently, several users
can work independently on the same Linux system. Each user has a user account identified by a login name and a personal password for logging in to the
system. All users have their own home directories where personal files and configurations are stored.
2
Figure 2.20: User Administration
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Group Administration
When this module is started, you will see the screen ‘User and group administration’. Decide whether to edit users or groups. The user administration is
performed by means of the ‘User administration’ module and is described there.
YaST provides a list of all groups, which greatly facilitates the group administration. To delete a group, select it from the list (the line will be highlighted
dark blue) and click ‘Delete’. To ‘Add’ and ‘Edit’ users, enter the name, group
ID (gid), and members of the group in the respective YaST screen. You can set a
password for the change to this group.
Figure 2.21: Group Administration
Security Settings
In the start screen ‘Local security configuration’, which can be accessed under
‘Security&Users’, select one of the following four options:
Level 1 is for stand-alone computers (preconfigured). Level 2 is for workstations
with a network (preconfigured). Level 3 is for a server with a network (preconfigured). Use ‘Custom Settings’ for your own configuration.
The first three options incorporate one of the levels of preconfigured system
security options. To do this, simply click ‘Finish’. Under ‘Details’, access the in-
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2.7. Security and Users
‘Password settings’
For new passwords to be checked by the system before they are accepted,
mark ‘Checking new passwords’ and ‘Plausibility test for password’. Set
the minimum and maximum length of passwords for newly created users.
Moreover, define the period for which the password will be valid and
how many days in advance an expiration alert should be issued when the
user logs in to the text console.
‘Boot settings’
How should Ctrl be interpreted?
Alt Del 2
YaST — Configuration
dividual settings that can be modified. If you choose ‘Custom settings’, proceed
to the different dialogs with ‘Next’. Here, find the default installation values.
Usually, this combination, entered in the text console, causes the system to
reboot. Do not modify this setting unless your machine or server is publicly accessible and you are afraid someone could carry out this action
without authorization. If you select ‘Stop’, this key combination causes the
system to shut down. With ‘Ignore’, this key combination is ignored.
Who is allowed to shut down the system from KDM (KDE Display Manager — the graphical login)?
‘Only root’ (the system administrator), ‘All users’, ‘Nobody’, or ‘Local
users’. If ‘Nobody’ is selected, the system can only be shut down via the
text console.
‘Login settings’
Typically, following a failed login attempt, there is a waiting period lasting
a few seconds before another login is possible. The purpose of this is
to make it more difficult for “password sniffers”. In addition, you have
the option of activating ‘Record failed login attempts’ and ‘Record
successful login attempts’. If you suspect someone is trying to find out
your password, check the entries in the system log files in /var/log. If
‘Allow remote graphical login’ is activated, other users are granted access
to your graphical login screen via the network. However, as this access
possibility represents a potential security risk, it is inactive by default.
‘Add user settings’
Every user has a numerical and an alphabetical user ID. The correlation
between these is established via the file /etc/passwd and should be as
unique as possible.
Using the data in this screen, define the range of numbers assigned to the
numerical part of the user ID when a new user is added. A minimum of
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500 is suitable for users. Proceed in the same way with the group ID settings.
‘Miscellaneous settings’
For ‘Setting of file permissions’, there are three selection options: ‘Easy’,
‘Secure’, and ‘Paranoid’. The first one should be sufficient for most users.
The YaST help text provides information about the three security levels.
The setting ‘Paranoid’ is extremely restrictive and should serve as the basic level of operation for system administrator settings. If you select ‘Paranoid’, some programs might not work or not work correctly, because you
no longer have the permissions to access certain files. In this dialog, also
define which user should start the updatedb program. This program,
which automatically runs either on a daily basis or after booting, generates a database (locatedb) where the location of each file on your computer is stored (locatedb can be searched by running the locate command). If you select ‘Nobody’, any user can find only the paths in the
database that can be seen by any other (unprivileged) user. If root is selected, all local files are indexed, because the user root, as superuser, may
access all directories.
Finally, make sure the option ‘Current directory in root’s path’ is deactivated (default).
Press ‘Finish’ to complete your security configuration.
Firewall
Use this module to configure SuSEfirewall2 to protect your machine against attacks from the Internet. When the module is started, four dialogs appear consecutively. In the first dialog, select the interface to protect (see Figure 2.23 on
page 74). ‘External interface’ is the interface for the Internet. ‘Internal interface’ is only required if you are located in an internal network and intend to use
the firewall to protect your computer against internal attacks. In this case, your
computer would be in a “demilitarized zone” (DMZ). Normally, a configuration
with DMZ is only used for company networks.
After selecting your interface, activate the individual services on your computer
that should be accessible from the Internet (see Figure 2.24 on page 75). If you
do not offer any server services, but only use your computer for surfing the Internet and sending and receiving e-mail, skip this dialog without activating any
of the services.
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2.7. Security and Users
2
YaST — Configuration
Figure 2.22: Security Settings
If you are not familiar with the terms masquerading and traceroute, simply accept the third dialog without any modifications. You can also accept the final
dialog, as the default log options are usually sufficient.
When you click ‘Next’, a small window asks for confirmation. Then the new
configuration is saved to your hard disk. The next time your Internet connection
is started, your computer is protected effectively against attacks.
For more information about the SuSE Firewall, refer to the Reference Manual
(PDF) under Network Security ➝ Firewall.
2.8
System
Creating a System Backup
The YaST backup module enables you to create a backup of your system. The
backup created by the module does not contain the entire system. It only saves
information about changed packages and copies of critical storage areas and
configuration files.
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Figure 2.23: SuSE Firewall: Selecting the Interfaces to Protect
Define the kind of data to save in the backup. By default, the backup includes
information about any packages changed since the last installation run. In addition, it may include data that does not belong to packages themselves, such as
many of the configuration files in /etc or in the directories under /home. Apart
from that, the backup can include important storage areas on your hard disk
that may be crucial when trying to restore a system, such as the partition table
or the master boot record (MBR).
Creating a Boot, Rescue, or Module Disk
With this YaST module, easily create boot disks, rescue disks, and module disks.
These floppy disks are helpful if the boot configuration of your system is damaged. The rescue disk is especially necessary if the file system of the root partition is damaged. In this case, you might also need the module disk with various
drivers to be able to access the system (e.g., to access a RAID system).
‘Standard boot disk’
Use this option to create a standard boot disk with which to boot an installed system. This disk is also needed for starting the rescue system.
74
2.8. System
2
YaST — Configuration
Figure 2.24: SuSE Firewall: Externally Accessible Services
‘Rescue disk’
This disk contains a special environment that allows you to perform maintenance tasks in your installed system, such as checking and repairing file
system and updating the boot loader.
To start the rescue system, boot with the standard boot disk and select
‘Manual Installation’, ‘Start Installation/System’, and ‘Rescue System’.
You will then be prompted to insert the rescue disk. If your system was
configured to use special drivers (such as RAID or USB), you might need
to load the respective modules from a module disk.
‘Module disks’
Module disks contain additional system drivers. The standard kernel only
supports IDE drives. If the drives in your system are connected to special
controllers (such as SCSI), load the needed drivers from a module disk.
USB modules
This floppy disk contains the USB modules required if USB drives
are connected.
IDE, RAID, and SCSI modules
As the standard kernel only supports normal IDE drives, you need
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Figure 2.25: Creating a Boot, Rescue, or Module Disk
this module disk if you use special IDE controllers. Furthermore, all
RAID and SCSI modules are provided on this disk.
Network modules
If you need access to a network, load the suitable driver module for
your network card from this floppy disk.
PCMCIA, CDROM (non-ATAPI), FireWire, and file systems
This floppy disk contains all PCMCIA modules used especially for
laptop computers. Furthermore, the modules for FireWire and some
less common file systems are available here. Older CD-ROM drives
that do not comply with the ATAPI standard can also be operated
with drivers from this floppy disk.
To load drivers from a module disk to the rescue system, select ‘Kernel
modules (hardware drivers)’ and the desired module category (SCSI, ethernet, etc.). Insert the respective module disk and the contained modules
will be listed. Select the desired module. Watch the system messages carefully: ‘Loading module <modulename> failed!’ indicates that the hardware could not be recognized by the module. Some older drivers require
specific parameters to address the hardware correctly. In this case, refer to
the documentation of your hardware.
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2.8. System
Boot Loader Configuration with YaST
This YaST module greatly simplifies the configuration of the boot loader. However, you should not experiment with this module unless you understand the
concepts behind it. Read the relevant parts of the Reference manual before
changing the boot loader configuration. The following paragraphs cover GRUB,
the default boot loader of SuSE Linux.
Note
2
YaST — Configuration
To create one of the above-mentioned floppy disks, select the respective option
and click ‘Next’. Insert a floppy disk. If you click ‘Next’ again, the content will
be written to the floppy disk.
Only experienced users should change the boot loader in a running system.
Note
In the YaST Control Center, select ‘System’ ➝ ‘Boot Loader Configuration’. The
initial screen provides a summary of the current boot loader configuration of
your system. Various options for the further procedure are available under this
overview.
Save current configuration
To keep the configuration that is summarized above, activate this check
box and exit the boot loader configuration with ‘Finish’.
Modify current configuration
YaST guides you through the boot loader configuration in several steps.
Activate the respective check box and go to the next dialog by clicking
‘Next’. A step-by-step description of the further procedure is provided in
Modify Current Configuration on the following page.
Expert manual configuration
If you are an expert and want to change the boot loader configuration
directly, activate this check box and click ‘Next’. The further procedure is
described in Manual Configuration for Experts on the next page.
Restore original configuration
Return to the configuration originally suggested by the system during the
installation by activating this check box and clicking ‘Finish’.
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Manual Configuration for Experts
The ‘Expert configuration’ dialog provides two editing fields with which to edit
the files ‘/etc/grub/menu.lst’ and /etc/grub.conf.
In ‘Boot loader configuration’, modify the boot menu and specify kernel parameters.
Click ‘Edit /etc/grub.conf’ to access the second editing field, which contains the
settings required by GRUB to store the boot loader in the file system.
YaST does not check the expert configuration. It only reacts to GRUB errors.
Exit the ‘Expert configuration’ dialog and return to the main window of the boot
loader configuration by clicking ‘Next’. To apply the changes, save the current
configuration in this screen.
Modify Current Configuration
The boot loader configuration with YaST comprises the following steps:
Where should the boot loader be installed?
The boot loader consists of a small stand-alone system able to access file
systems and provides various means for booting operating systems.
The boot loader is the first part of an operating system started by the BIOS
or by another boot loader. Normally, the BIOS merely boots the Master Boot Record of the first hard disk or the floppy disk drive. To start
GRUB from the boot sector of a partition, another boot manager is usually needed.
Global Boot Loader Properties
The ‘Global Boot Loader Properties’ dialog enables you to change the boot
procedure substantially. Normally, this dialog contains suitable defaults.
The main options are as follows:
Show the boot prompt
For your system to be loaded without any intermediate step, deactivate ‘Show the boot prompt’. Access a boot prompt during the boot
process by keeping ⇑ Shift pressed.
Continue booting after a timeout
To force an input during the boot process, deactivate ‘Continue booting after a timeout’. You can also change the timeout here.
Protect booting with a password
If you set a password for the boot loader, the system can only be
booted if the password is entered. In this case, the BIOS should only
boot GRUB and a password should also be set for the BIOS.
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2.8. System
Sections
In the final stage of the configuration, the boot loader must be informed
about the installed system. A separate entry must be added for every
operating system and for all different boot methods in the ‘Sections’
dialog. Here, perform the following actions:
Add
To boot an installed system, at least one configuration is needed. You
can add Linux, DOS or Windows, and OS/2 sections for booting.
In the following dialog, specify a name for this entry. This name
appears when the system is booted. Depending on the operating
system to load, other information may be necessary. For instance,
for ‘Linux’, specify the path to the kernel. The root partition from
which the init process is started must also be specified. For ‘DOS and
Windows’ or ‘OS/2’, specify the partition in which the respective
operating system is installed.
2
YaST — Configuration
These settings can also be made manually in the ‘Expert settings’ menu.
See the documentation in the Reference manual.
Edit
With this, edit the marked boot section. The available options depend on the selected operating system type.
Delete
Delete this boot section.
Set as default
Set the section to boot if no other option is selected by the user during the boot process.
If you exit the dialog with ‘Next’, you will be taken to the dialog containing a summary of the boot loader configuration. Here, save the current
configuration and apply it to the system.
Partitioning
Although it is possible to modify the partitions in the installed system, this
should be handled by experts who know exactly what they are doing. Otherwise the risk of losing data is very high. If you decide to use this tool, refer to
the description in the installation part of this book in Partitioning on page 12
(the partitioning tool during the installation is the same as in the installed system).
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Profile Manager (SCPM)
The SCPM (System Configuration Profile Management) module offers the possibility to create, manage, and switch between entire individual system configurations. This is especially useful for mobile computers that are used in different locations (in different networks) and by different users. Nevertheless, this feature
is useful even for stationary machines, as it enables the use of various hardware
components or test configurations. Although the module with the accompanying help is easy to use, the configuration of profiles is a task that should be performed by experts or system administrators. For more information about SCPM
basics and handling, refer to the respective sections in the Reference Manual
(PDF).
Restoring the System
The restore module, shown in Figure 2.26 on the next page, enables you to restore your system from a backup archive. Follow the instructions in YaST. Press
‘Next’ to proceed to the individual dialogs. First, specify where the archives are
located (removable media, local hard disks, or network file systems). As you
continue, a description and the contents of the individual archives is displayed,
so you can decide what to restore from the archives.
Additionally, there are two dialogs for uninstalling packages that were added
since the last backup and for the reinstallation of packages that were deleted
since the last backup. These two steps enable restoration of the exact system
state at the time of the last backup.
Caution
As this module normally installs, replaces, or uninstalls many packages
and files, only use it if you have experience with backups, as otherwise
you may lose data.
Caution
Runlevel Editor
The Runlevels in SuSE Linux
SuSE Linux can be operated in several runlevels. By default, the system boots to
runlevel 5, which offers multiuser mode, network access, and the graphical user
interface (X Window System). The other runlevels offer multiuser mode with
network but without X (runlevel 3), multiuser mode without network (runlevel
80
2.8. System
2
YaST — Configuration
Figure 2.26: Start Window of the Restore Module
2), single-user mode (runlevel 1 and S), system halt (runlevel 0), and system
reboot (runlevel 6).
The various runlevels are useful if problems occur in connection with a particular service (X or network) in a higher runlevel. In this case, the system can be
booted to a lower runlevel to repair the service. Many servers should operate
without a graphical user interface and must be booted in a runlevel without X,
such as runlevel 3.
Usually home users only need the standard runlevel (5). However, if the graphical user interface freezes at any time, restart the X Window system by switching
to a text console with Ctrl +
Alt +
F1 , logging in as root, and switching to runlevel 3 with init 3. This shuts down your X Window system, leaving you with
a text console. To restart the graphical system, enter init 5.
Setting the Runlevel in YaST2
In a default installation, runlevel 5 is selected. To start a different runlevel when
the system is booted, change the default runlevel here. Use ‘Runlevel properties’
to determine which services are started in which runlevel.
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Caution
Incorrect settings for system services and runlevels can render your
system useless. To retain the operability of your system, consider the
possible consequences before modifying any of these settings.
Caution
For more information about the runlevels in SuSE Linux, refer to the Reference
Manual (PDF).
Sysconfig Editor
The directory /etc/sysconfig contains the files with the most important
settings for SuSE Linux (formerly centrally administered in the file /etc/rc.
config). The sysconfig editor displays all settings in a transparent form. The
values can be modified and saved to the individual configuration files. Generally, manual editing is not necessary, because the files are automatically adapted
when a package is installed or a service is configured.
Caution
Do not edit the files in /etc/sysconfig if you do not know exactly
what you are doing, as this could be very detrimental to the operability of
your system.
Caution
More information is provided in the Reference Manual (PDF) under The Boot
Concept.
Time Zone Selection
The time zone was already set during the installation, but you can make
changes here. Click your country or region in the list and select ‘Local time’ or
‘GMT’ (Greenwich Mean Time). ‘GMT’ is often used in Linux systems. Machines
with additional operating systems, such as Microsoft Windows, mostly use the
local time.
Language Selection
Here, select the language for your Linux system.
The language can be changed at any time. The language selected in YaST applies
to the entire system, including YaST and the KDE desktop environment.
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2.8. System
2
Keyboard Layout Selection
Only use this module if you work on a system without the X Window
System and a graphical user interface. If you use a graphical system
(such as KDE), set up the keyboard with the module ‘Display and Input
Devices’. See Display and Input Devices (SaX2) on page 42.
Note
The desired keyboard layout usually matches the selected language. Use the
test field to see if special characters, such as the pipe symbol ‘|’, are displayed
correctly.
2.9
YaST — Configuration
Note
Miscellaneous
Submitting a Support Request
By purchasing SuSE Linux, you are entitled to free installation support. Information, such as the scope, address, and phone number is listed in the User
Guide.
YaST offers the possibility to directly send a support request by e-mail to the
SuSE team. Registration is required first. Start by entering the respective data —
your registration code is located on the back of the CD cover. Regarding your
query, select the problem category in the following window and provide a description of the problem. Refer to Figure 2.27 on the next page. Also read the
YaST help text, which explains how to best describe the problem so the support
team can help you.
Tip
If you need advanced support (such as for special problems), consider
using the SuSE Professional Services. Refer to http://www.suse.de/
en/support/ for details.
Tip
Boot Log
The start-up log contains the screen messages displayed when the computer is
started. It is logged to /var/log/boot.msg. Use this YaST module to view the
log, for example, to check if all services and functions were started as expected.
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Figure 2.27: Submitting a Support Request
System Log
The system log logs the operations of your computer to /var/log/
messsages. Kernel messages are recorded here, sorted according to date and
time.
Loading a Vendor’s Driver CD
With this module, automatically install device drivers from a Linux driver CD
that contains drivers for SuSE Linux.
When installing SuSE Linux from scratch, use this YaST module to load the required drivers from the vendor CD after the installation.
2.10
YaST in Text Mode (ncurses)
YaST can also be controlled by means of a text-based terminal. This is especially
useful if the administrator does not have access to the graphical user interface. It
is especially useful for server machines without X and for remote administration
over a network.
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2.10. YaST in Text Mode (ncurses)
2
Controls
YaST — Configuration
The usage may be unfamiliar, but is very simple. Basically, the entire program
can be controlled with Tab ,
Alt +
Tab ,
Space , the arrow keys (
and ), ↵ ,
↑
↓
and shortcuts. The YaST Control Center appears first. It is shown in Figure 2.28.
Figure 2.28: The Main Window of YaST ncurses
There are three areas here. The left frame, which is surrounded by a thick white
border, features the categories to which the various modules belong. The active category is indicated by a colored background. The right frame, which is
surrounded by a thin white border, provides an overview of the modules contained in the active category. The bottom frame contains the buttons for ‘Help’
and ‘Exit’.
When the YaST Control Center is started, the category ‘Software’ is selected au tomatically. Use and to change the category. To start a module from the
↓
↑ →
. The module selection then appears with a thick borselected category, press der. Use and to select the desired module. Keep the arrow keys pressed
↓
↑
to scroll through the list of available modules. When a module is selected, the
module title appears with a colored background and a brief description is displayed in the bottom frame.
Enter to start the desired module. Various buttons or selection fields in
Press the module contain a letter with a different color (yellow by default). Use Alt +
yellow
letter
to
select
a
button
directly
without
navigating
there
with
Tab
.
Exit the YaST Control Center by pressing ‘Exit’ or by selecting ‘Exit’ in the cate
Enter .
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Restriction of Key Combinations
If you have system-wide Alt key combinations when the X server is running,
the Alt combinations in YaST might not work. Additionally, keys like Alt or
might be occupied by the settings of the terminal.
⇑ Shift Replacing Alt with Esc :
Alt
shortcuts
can
be
executed with Esc instead of Alt . For example,
Esc
+
H
replaces
Alt
+
H
.
Replacement of backward and forward navigation by Ctrl +
F
and Ctrl +
B
:
combinations are occupied by the window manager
If the Alt and ⇑ Shift or the terminal, the combinations Ctrl +
F
(forward) and Ctrl +
B
(backward) can be used instead.
Restriction of function keys:
The F keys are also used for functions. Certain F keys might be occupied
by the terminal so might not be available for YaST. However, the Alt key
combinations and the F keys should always be fully available on a pure
text console.
The following paragraphs assume that the Alt key combinations are functional.
Module Operation
Navigating Buttons and Selection Lists
and Alt +
Tab navigate back and forth among buttons and frames.
Tab Navigating in Selection Lists
and always navigate among the single items within an activated
↓
↑ frame containing a selection list. These can, for instance, be the single
modules of a module group in the control center.
Checking Radio Buttons and Check Boxes
Buttons with empty square brackets (check box) or empty parentheses
(radio buttons) can be selected with Space or Enter . The buttons at the
bottom of the individual modules are selected with Enter when they are
selected (green background) or with the combination Alt +
yellowkey (see
Figure 2.29 on the next page).
The Function Keys
Various functions are mapped to the F keys (
F1 to F12 ). Which F keys are
actually mapped to functions depends on which YaST module is active,
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2.10. YaST in Text Mode (ncurses)
2
YaST — Configuration
as the different modules offer different buttons (such as details, info, add,
and delete). The buttons ‘OK’, ‘Next’, and ‘Finish’ are mapped to F10 . The
YaST help, which can be accessed with F1 , provides information about the
functions of the individual F keys.
Figure 2.29: The Software Installation Module
Starting Individual Modules
To save time, the individual YaST modules can also be started directly. To
start the modules, enter yast followed by the name of the module. The network module, for example, is started with the command yast lan. View a
list of the names of all modules available on your system with yast -l or
yast --list.
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3
CrossOver
CrossOver
With CrossOver, make your favorite Windows and Office applications available
under Linux. Office 97 and Office 2000 and various other applications, such as
plug-ins and fonts, are supported.
The installation of the application takes place with the help of the CrossOver
configuration wizard. The CrossOver setup program starts the installation of the
Windows application and integrates it in the Linux environment using the Wine
package, which provides an implementation of the Windows API under Unix.
Depending on the required application, two setup programs are available.
CrossOver Setup on the following page is used for setting up Windows programs,and CrossOver Plug-in Setup on page 97 is used for setting up Windows
plug-ins. Needed fonts can also be installed by means of these setup programs.
3.1
3.2
CrossOver Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CrossOver Plug-in Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
90
97
3.1 CrossOver Setup
First, configure CrossOver. In the main menu, select ‘Applications’ ➝
‘CrossOver’ ➝ ‘Setup CrossOver Office’. The welcome screen opens, displaying information about the started setup program.
Click ‘Next’ to open the ‘CrossOver Office Setup’ dialog. In this dialog, specify
an existing proxy server for downloading applications from the Internet, if necessary. See Figure 3.1. In most cases, these settings are not needed in an existing
network, so you can normally confirm with ‘Finish’.
Figure 3.1: Proxy Server Settings
Note
Following confirmation, the initialization starts. Depending on the performance of the computer, this process may take some time.
Note
The CrossOver setup window features various tabs and an overview with status
information about possible Windows programs. Several of the buttons below
are explained in detail later. ‘Ok’, ‘Cancel’, and ‘Apply’ are at the bottom right.
‘OK’ and ‘Cancel’ can be used to terminate the setup process at any time. If you
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3.1. CrossOver Setup
After you have installed all needed programs and fonts and specified your settings, exit the setup process with ‘Ok’. The following paragraphs provide some
information about the available tabs. Additional information can be viewed
with ‘Help’.
3
CrossOver
changed the configuration of CrossOver and click ‘Cancel’, confirm the following security dialog with ‘Yes’ or click ‘No’ to continue with the setup process.
Add/Remove
‘Add/Remove’ opens an area in which to add or remove Windows programs,
such as Microsoft Office or IBM Lotus Notes, or certain TrueType fonts to or
from the CrossOver environment.
Select ‘Install’ to get a list of Windows applications and fonts. Status information is available for every application, indicating if the respective application is
already installed on the host. To install a software package, mark the respective
entry in the list. If the desired package is not listed, use ‘Show all installation
options’ to display special versions of the offered packages.
To install a software package for which CrossOver is not prepared, select ‘Install
unsupported software’.
Caution
An existing Internet connection is required for download purposes during the installation of fonts and a number of Windows applications.
Caution
Then click ‘Next’ to launch the installation. See Figure 3.3 on page 93. Subsequently, a dialog is displayed for the installation of the desired application.
Specify the path to the setup file on the installation medium. If the setup file is
located:
in the root directory of the CD, select ‘CD-ROM /media/cdrom’
in the root directory of the DVD or a different CD-ROM, select ‘Alternate
CD-ROM location’ and specify the correct path.
in a different directory or on a different medium, activate ‘Other *.exe file’
and specify the path to the file or select the path with ‘Browse’.
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Figure 3.2: Adding Programs and Fonts
Note
To specify the path to a file, you may need to mount the medium. Follow the instructions of the Windows installation program during the
installation.
Note
Upon successful completion of the installation, CrossOver may simulate a reboot. The machine is not physically rebooted, but the start routines of Windows
are executed.
The setup program is restarted. The newly installed software is integrated in the
‘Installed Software’ menu, from which you can also remove or repair installed
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3.1. CrossOver Setup
3
CrossOver
Figure 3.3: Installation Window of the Application
software.
Use ‘Repair/Remove’ to remove installed programs in the list from your
host. Mark the respective application in the list and use the button to confirm your selection. Currently, a program package can only be repaired by
reinstalling the application after it has been removed.
If ‘Advanced’ is activated, which is only the case with a few listed programs, start the automatic download of the application by clicking ‘Add’.
Upon completion of the download, the system starts the loaded setup file.
However, if this download fails, because, for example, you are not currently connected to the Internet, the system automatically switches to
the ‘Advanced’ area. Select the corresponding URL to manually load the
setup file from the Internet. Alternatively, use ‘Download Installer’ for
automatic download.
If you already loaded the setup file or if it is available on another storage medium, go to ‘Installation file’ to enter the setup file path name then
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click ‘Install’. After completing the installation process, you can use ‘Remove Installation Files’ to remove this setup file from your computer.
Use ‘Close’ to close this dialog.
Associations
In this area, specify which file extensions should be associated with which Windows programs. The KDE and GNOME desktop environments are supported.
For example, set up your mail client so it associates Microsoft Office documents
received as e-mail attachments with the relevant application. The attachments
are then opened with that application.
Figure 3.4: File Extensions and Their Assignments
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3.1. CrossOver Setup
3
Menus
CrossOver
Under this tab, delete or restore CrossOver menu items. Normally, the respective configuration should be made during the installation of the Windows application.
Figure 3.5: Editing Menu Items
Configuration
This area provides an overview of the settings previously made for CrossOver.
Complete input fields for the following options by directly entering the path or
by selecting ‘. . . ’.See Figure 3.6 on the following page.
The input field for ‘My documents’ shows the current directory for your
personal documents. Also specify if Windows should display file extensions.
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Figure 3.6: File and Browser Settings
Enter the command for starting your preferred browser under ‘Specify
browser’. Thus, Internet pages visited are displayed in this browser. If
this field is empty or contains the value “auto”, an available browser is
selected automatically. This behavior can also be selected with ‘Automatically select a preferred browser’.
Select ‘Advanced’ to make additional settings for the fonts, proxy, and
security.
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3.1. CrossOver Setup
3
Starting Windows Programs
CrossOver
Within the CrossOver environment, all installed Windows programs are
installed in a virtual Windows environment. The name of the directory in
your home directory for this virtual Windows environment is ~/.office/
dotwine/fake_windows/. This directory contains various subdirectories
needed by Windows. Depending on which program you installed with ‘Install
unsupported software’, this program is located in one of the subdirectories.
Following the installation, create a new Office document by selecting ‘Windows
Applications’ ➝ ‘New Office Document’ from the main menu. Subsequently,
decide for which Office application to create the new document.
To start an installed Windows program, start the wine environment and the actual program from the console. Switch to the virtual Windows directory in your
home directory~/.cxoffice/dotwine/fake_windows/Windows and start
an application, such as the Windows editor Notepad, using one of the following options:
/opt/cxoffice/bin/wine notepad.exe
/opt/cxoffice/bin/wine ’C:\Windows\notepad.exe’
3.2
CrossOver Plug-in Setup
CrossOver Plugin makes your Windows plug-ins compatible with Linux. Supported plug-ins include QuickTime 5, Shockwave Director, the Microsoft Office document viewer, and several others. They are directly integrated in the
CrossOver environment, enabling you to view or even open your Microsoft Office documents with a suitable viewer in KDE or GNOME. The plug-ins do not
run at a delayed pace, but at full speed and are automatically integrated by the
specified browser.
Note
Prior to configuration, close all browser applications, such as Konqueror,
Netscape, or Mozilla.
Note
To start CrossOver Plugin Setup, go to the start menu and select ‘Applications’
➝ ‘CrossOver’ ➝ ‘Plugin Setup’
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A welcome screen is displayed, providing information about the started setup
program. Confirm with ‘Next’ to proceed to a selection window in which to select the available browsers. See Figure 3.7. To select your browser, activate the
box preceding the respective browser and enter the path to its plug-in directory
in the associated input field or select the directory with ‘. . . ’.
Figure 3.7: The Selection Window for Browsers
Caution
If you have special configuration requirements, you must have write
permission for the directory in which to install the plug-ins.
Caution
Click ‘Next’ to continue to the ‘HTTP Proxy Configuration’ dialog. In this dialog, specify a proxy server for downloading applications from the Internet, if
necessary. Refer to Figure 3.1 on page 90. In most cases, these settings are not
needed in an existing network, so you can normally confirm with ‘Next’.
Note
Depending on the system performance, the initialization may take some
time. This initialization is started whenever CrossOver Plugin Setup is
executed.
Note
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3.2. CrossOver Plug-in Setup
Use ‘Cancel’ to cancel the setup process at any time. Confirm the ensuing security dialog with ‘Yes’ or click ‘No’ to continue with the setup process.
After installing all needed programs and fonts and specifying your settings,
exit the setup process with ‘Finish’. The following paragraphs provide some
information about the available tabs. View additional information with ‘Help’.
3
CrossOver
The CrossOver Plugin Setup window features various tabs and an overview
with status information about available Windows plug-ins and fonts. Every entry has a note indicating whether the respective application is already installed
on the host.
Add/Remove
The ‘Add/Remove’ tab can be used to add Windows plug-ins and certain TrueType fonts to the CrossOver environment or remove them from it. See Figure
3.8. The names of the plug-ins are listed in the overview together with the ‘Status’ information.
Figure 3.8: List of Available Plug-ins and Fonts
This procedure is demonstrated with the installation of ‘Windows Media Player
6.4’. Select the plug-in from the list and enable the automatic download with
‘Add’. The ‘Description and Installation Notes’ window is displayed, providing
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a brief description and installation notes for the plug-in. Start the download
with ‘Proceed’ or terminate the procedure with ‘Cancel’.
Note
An Internet connection must be available to enable the automatic download.
Note
If you activated ‘Proceed’, the download process begins. A status bar provides
information about the progress of the download. As soon as this process is completed, the installation of Windows Media Player is initiated.
If you have already loaded the setup file of Windows Media Player or if it is
available on another storage medium, use ‘Advanced’ to perform the installation manually. To do this, enter the path to the setup file under ‘Installation file’
or use ‘. . . ’ to select the path. Next, click ‘Install’ to start the installation process.
See Figure 3.9.
Figure 3.9: List of Available Plug-ins and Fonts
Carefully read the license agreement. If you agree, click ‘Yes’ to confirm and
start the installation process or click ‘No’ to decline and cancel the process. Follow the program instructions during installation.
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3.2. CrossOver Plug-in Setup
3
CrossOver
Once the installation process is complete, some settings are selected automatically. The ‘Installation Report’, like that in Figure 3.10, is then shown. This
report contains a check box. Activate the check box to continue to ‘Remove
installer files’ and delete the Windows Media Player setup file or specify the
graphical user interfaces and file extensions that should be associated with Windows Media Player (see Section Associations on page 103). Confirm your settings with ‘OK’.
To start Windows Media Player, click the ‘Windows Media Player’ icon on your
desktop.
Figure 3.10: The Report Dialog of the Installation
In the Windows plug-in list, the status information for
Windows Media Player 6.4 has now changed to Installed.
To remove the Windows Media Player plug-in, select the plug-in in the list and
click ‘Remove’. The same procedure applies to all plug-ins and fonts.
Use the ‘Refresh’ to update the list ofinstalled plug-ins or fonts on the list are
up-to-date. Either update the “Status” field in the overview list or use ‘Online
update’ to download update information for installed applications from the Internet.
Use ‘Cancel’ to exit the update dialog box.
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Note
Depending on computing power, status information updates may take
some time.
Note
Netscape and Mozilla
This tab displays available Windows plug-ins for Netscape or Mozilla. Select the
Windows-based plug-in the CrossOver environment should use. The overview
lists the module name under ‘DLL name’ and the associated plug-in name under ‘Plugin name’. Under ‘Status’, the system shows whether CrossOver can
currently use the plug-in. See Figure 3.11.
Figure 3.11: Available Plug-ins for Netscape and Mozilla
You must activate a Windows plug-in to use it. Select the desired plug-in from
the list and press ‘Activate’. Press ‘Deactivate’ to deactivate it.
Special plug-ins consist of several modules that process different file types and
can be independently activated. Go to ‘Details’ to see which file type is supported for each module.
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3.2. CrossOver Plug-in Setup
3
Note
Note
Use ‘Advanced’ for the advanced configuration of the individual modules. This
function should be used only by experienced users.
CrossOver
Plug-in changes are only active after the browser is restarted.
Konqueror
Konqueror uses the same plug-ins as Netscape. To set up Konqueror, first go to
the ‘Netscape’ tab to activate the plug-ins to run in the CrossOver environment.
If you have previously set up all plug-ins for Netscape, just press ‘Launch’ to
make them available for Konqueror. In the dialog that opens, select ‘Scan for
New Plugins’ to add the Netscape plug-ins.
Associations
In this area, specify which file extensions should be associated with which Windows applications. Also specify for which user interfaces this association should
apply. See Figure 3.12 on the following page.
For example, set up your mail client so it associates Microsoft Office documents
received as e-mail attachments with the relevant application. The attachments
are then opened with that application.
General
This area provides an overview of existing settings of CrossOver and Plugin
Setup. Complete the input fields for the following options by directly entering
the path or using ‘. . . ’. See Figure 3.13 on page 105.
The ‘Main path’ entry field displays the current installation directory for
the CrossOver environment. All associated components are installed in
this directory.
Enter the associated respective plug-in directories in the entry fields under
‘Netscape plugins dir’ and ‘Mozilla plugins dir’.
Under ‘Preferred browser’, specify your preferred browser that the system
should activate to display requested Internet pages. If this field is empty
or contains “auto”, the system automatically selects an available browser.
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Figure 3.12: File Extensions and Their Assignments
The ‘Fonts’ area contains the entry ‘Use internal FreeType library’, whose
check box is activated by default. This prompts CrossOver to use its own
FreeType library. Some FreeType libraries included with various distributions still contain errors that may cause CrossOver to crash or make it
unusable.
Alternatively, use the entry field under ‘Windows fonts dir’ to enter the
directory where the original Windows TrueType fonts are located. This
makes sense if your X server supports the Xrender extension intended to
achieve the best possible results, especially with Word and Powerpoint
display programs. This is usually a folder located on an existing Windows
partition.
Use ‘Advanced’ to locate wine existing settings or modify them for running
Windows programs and proxy servers.
Caution
Only select ‘Advanced’ settings if you have the required expertise.
Caution
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3.2. CrossOver Plug-in Setup
3
CrossOver
Figure 3.13: The General Tab with the Installation Paths
Tips and Problems
To date, CrossOver Office is certainly the best method to overcome system
boundaries. It provides an unprecedented degree of compatibility between Windows and Linux. However, because providing a suitable “Windows environment” for installing Microsoft programs is very complex, minor problems do
occur occasionally. For example, MS Access is not supported yet and many Microsoft programs other than Office can be installed but do not work as desired.
Minor inconsistencies may be encountered even with officially supported Office
programs. For instance, Office programs might hang more often than in Windows or problems with other Office programs might be more frequent after a
system crash. The following section provides some tips and information about
how to deal with questions and problems.
An Office program hangs and cannot be closed.
Enter killall wine on a text console.
Following the crash of an Office program, problems arise with other Office
programs.
Reset your CrossOver Office by selecting ‘Applications’ ➝ ‘CrossOver’ ➝
‘Reset CrossOver’ in the start menu.
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I have installed a Windows program that is not officially supported. How can
I start it?
Normally, programs of this type are also integrated in ‘Windows Applications’ ➝ ‘Programs’. If this does not happen, start the program directly
with /opt/cxoffic/bin/wine <Program-name>. No support is
available if such a program does not work.
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3.2. CrossOver Plug-in Setup
Part II
Configuration and
Administration
4
Printer Operation
Printer Operation
This chapter provides some background information about the operation of
printers. Numerous examples show how the different parts of the printing system interact. This chapter should help in finding suitable solutions for possible
problems and in avoiding unsuitable solution attempts.
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16
4.17
4.18
Printing Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preconditions for Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring a Printer with YaST . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manual Configuration of Local Printer Ports . . . . .
Manual Configuration of the LPRng and lpdfilter
Printing System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The LPRng Print Spooler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Command-Line Tools for LPRng . . . . . . . . . . .
The Print Filter of the LPRng and lpdfilter Printing
System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Custom Print Filters for the LPRng Spooler . . . . .
The CUPS Printing System . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printing from Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Command-Line Tools for the CUPS Printing System
Working with Ghostscript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with a2ps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reformatting PostScript with psutils . . . . . . . . .
ASCII Text Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printing in a TCP/IP Network . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
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.
110
114
118
124
124
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129
130
131
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135
145
149
156
156
160
164
166
172
174
4.1 Printing Basics
On a Linux system, printers are managed via print queues. Before any data is
printed, it is sent to the print queue for temporary storage. From there, the print
spooler sends the data to the printer.
However, this data is predominantly not available in a form that can be processed by the printer. A graphical image, for example, first needs to be converted into a format the printer can understand. This conversion into a printer
language is achieved with a print filter, a program run by the print spooler to
translate data as needed so the printer can process it.
Important Standard Printer Languages
ASCII text
Most printers are at least able to print ASCII text. The few devices that
cannot print ASCII text directly should be able to understand one of the
other standard printer languages mentioned below.
PostScript
PostScript is the established printer language under Unix and Linux.
PostScript output can be printed directly by PostScript printers. However,
these printers are relatively expensive, because PostScript is a powerful
yet complex language that requires a lot of computing in the PostScript
printer before actually putting something on paper. Adding to the price of
PostScript printers are licensing costs.
PCL3, PCL4, PCL5e, PCL6, ESC/P, ESC/P2, and ESC/P raster
If a PostScript printer is not available, the print filter uses the program
Ghostscript to convert PostScript data into one of these other standard
languages. Ghostscript uses different drivers for different printers to
make use of specific features offered by the various models, such as color
settings.
Processing Print Jobs
1. A print job is started by the user either from the command line or from an
application.
2. The corresponding print data is temporarily stored in the print queue. It is
retrieved from there by the print spooler, which sends it to the print filter.
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4.1. Printing Basics
3. The print filter performs the following steps:
(b) Print data is converted into PostScript (if not in PostScript format
already). ASCII text, for instance, is converted into PostScript using
the filter program a2ps.
(c) The PostScript data is converted into another printer language, if
necessary.
If the printer is a PostScript model, the data is sent to it with no
further processing.
If the printer is not a PostScript printer, the program Ghostscript
is run and uses one of its drivers to convert data into the language of the printer model. This generates the data that is finally
sent to the printer.
Printer Operation
(a) The filter determines the format of print data.
4
4. As soon as all the data of the print job has been sent to the printer, the
print spooler deletes it from the print queue.
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Figure 4.1: The Printing Workflow
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4.1. Printing Basics
4
Various Printing Systems
LPRng and lpdfilter
This is a traditional printing system consisting of the print spooler LPRng
and the print filter lpdfilter. The configuration of this system must be
entirely defined by the system administrator. Normal users can only
choose between different print queues that have already been configured.
To allow users to choose between different options for a given printer,
a number of print queues should be defined beforehand — each for a
different printer configuration. For plain black-and-white printers, such
as most laser printers, it is sufficient to define just one configuration
(the standard queue). For modern color inkjet printers, define several
configurations, for example, one for black-and-white printing, one for
color printing, and maybe another one for high-resolution photograph
printing. Setting up the printer with predefined configurations has the
advantage that the system administrator has a lot of control over the way
in which the device is used. On the other hand, there is the disadvantage
that users cannot set up the printer according to the job at hand, so maybe
they will not be able to use the many options offered by modern printers
unless the administrator has defined the corresponding print queues
beforehand.
Printer Operation
SuSE Linux supports two different printing systems:
CUPS
CUPS allows users to set different options for each print job and does not
require the entire configuration of the print queue to be predefined by
the system administrator. With CUPS, printer options are stored in a PPD
(PostScript printer description) file for each queue. These can be made
available to users in printer configuration dialogs. By default, the PPD file
gives users control over all printer options, but the system administrator
may also limit printer functionality by editing the PPD file.
Under normal conditions, it is not possible to install these two printing systems
concurrently, as there are conflicts between them. However, YaST2 allows switching between them. See section Configuration with YaST on page 39.
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4.2 Preconditions for Printing
General Requirements
Your printer must be supported by SuSE Linux. To see whether this is the
case, consult the following sources:
SuSE Printer Database
http://cdb.suse.de or http://hardwaredb.suse.de/ (click
‘Englisch’ to get the English version).
The linuxprinting.org Printer Database
http://www.linuxprinting.org/ ➝‘The Database’
(http://www.linuxprinting.org/database.html) or
http://www.linuxprinting.org/printer_list.cgi
Ghostscript
http://www.cs.wisc.edu/\char126{}ghost/
The SuSE Linux Ghostscript Driver List
–/usr/share/doc/packages/ghostscript/catalog.
devices This file lists the Ghostscript drivers included with the
current version of SuSE Linux. This is an important detail because
sometimes web pages mention a Ghostscript driver not included
in SuSE Linux. For license reasons, SuSE Linux comes with GNU
Ghostscript. In most cases, GNU Ghostscript offers a suitable driver
for your printer.
The printer has been properly connected to the interface over which it will
communicate. For details, read Manual Configuration of Local Printer Ports
on page 124 and Manual Configuration on page 121.
You should be using one of the standard kernels included on CD, not a
custom kernel. If you have problems with your printer, install one of the
SuSE standard kernels first and reboot before looking further into the
problem.
The ‘Default System’ is installed to make sure all required packages are
available. As long as you have not uninstalled any of the packages of the
standard system, things should be ready. Otherwise, install the ‘Default
System’ with YaST2. None of the ‘Minimum System’ selections are sufficient for printing.
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4.2. Preconditions for Printing
Finding the Right Printer Driver
If you cannot find a specific Ghostscript driver for your printer, it may be possible to use another driver already available. Also, some manufacturers support Linux, so your manufacturer might be able to provide specific Ghostscript
driver information or drivers. If not, they may be able to provide other information to assist in selection:
Printer Operation
PostScript printers do not require a special printer driver (see Processing Print
Jobs on page 110). Other printer types need a Ghostscript driver to produce the
data. For non-PostScript devices, choosing the right Ghostscript driver and
the right options for it has a big influence on output quality. The Ghostscript
drivers available for specific models are listed in the sources mentioned in General Requirements on the facing page.
4
Find out whether your printer is compatible with a model supported by
Linux. You may then be able to use the driver for the compatible model.
For printers to be compatible, they should be able to work correctly using
the same binary control sequences. Both printers must understand the
same language on the hardware level without relying on additional driver
software to emulate it.
A similar model name does not always mean the hardware is really compatible. Printers that appear very similar on the outside sometimes do not
use the same printer language at all.
Check if your printer supports a standard printing language by asking
the manufacturer or checking the technical specifications in the printer
manual.
PCL5e or PCL6
Printers that understand the PCL5e or PCL6 language natively
should work with the ljet4 Ghostscript driver and produce output at
a resolution of 600x600 dpi. Often, PCL5e is mistaken for PCL5.
PCL4 or PCL5
Printers that understand the PCL4 or PCL5 language natively should
work with one of the following Ghostscript drivers: laserjet, ljetplus,
ljet2p, or ljet3. Output resolution is limited to 300x300 dpi, however.
PCL3
Printers that understand the PCL3 language natively should work
with one of these Ghostscript drivers: deskjet, hpdj, pcl3, cdjmono,
cdj500, or cdj550.
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ESC/P2, ESC/P, or ESC/P raster
Printers that understand ESC/P2, ESC/P, or ESC/P raster natively
should work with the stcolor Ghostscript driver or with the uniprint
driver in combination with a suitable *.upp parameter file (e. g.,
stcany.upp).
The Issue with GDI Printers
Given that most Linux printer drivers are not written by the maker of the hardware, it is crucial that the printer can be driven through one of the generally
known languages, such as PostScript, PCL, or ESC/P. Normal printers understand at least one of the common languages. In the case of a GDI printer, the
manufacturer has built a device that relies on its own special control sequences.
Such a printer only runs under the operating system versions for which the
manufacturer has included a driver. Because it cannot be operated through one
of the known languages, it must be considered nonstandard and cannot be used
with Linux or can only be used with difficulty.
GDI is a programming interface developed by Microsoft for graphical devices.
There is not much of a problem with the interface itself, but the fact that GDI
printers can only be controlled through the proprietary language they use is an
issue. A better name for them would be “proprietary-language-only printers.”
On the other hand, there are printers that can be operated both in GDI mode
and in a standard language mode, but they need to be switched accordingly. If
you use Linux together with another operating system, it may be possible that
the driver set the printer to GDI mode when you last used it. As a result, the
printer will not work under Linux. There are two solutions for this: switch the
printer back to standard mode under the other operating system before using
it under Linux or use only the standard mode, even under the other operating
system. In the latter case, it may turn out that printing functionality is limited,
such as to a lower resolution.
There are also some very special printers that implement a rudimentary set of
a standard printer language, for example, only commands needed for printing
raster images. Sometimes these printers can be used in a normal way, as many
Ghostscript drivers only use the printer as a raster image device anyway. On
the negative side, you may be unable to print ASCII text directly. This should
not be too much of a problem, however, as ASCII text is mostly printed through
Ghostscript and not directly. The only problem occurs when some of these printers need to be switched explicitlybefore they can print raster images. This requires sending a special control sequence to them — something that can only be
achieved with a special driver, but not through Ghostscript.
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4.2. Preconditions for Printing
In any case, the above is only true for GDI models. By contrast, printers that understand one of the standard languages do not depend on a particular operating
system nor do they require a particular Linux version. However, they often produce the highest quality of output when used with a vendor-made driver.
To sum all this up, SuSE Linux does support the GDI printers listed below.
They can be configured using the printer configuration module of YaST2. Be
aware that their use will always be rather problematic. Some models might
refuse to work at all or their functionality might be limited, for example, to lowresolution black-and-white printing. SuSE does not test GDI printers, so cannot
guarantee this list is correct.
4
Printer Operation
For some GDI printers, you may be able to obtain Linux drivers directly from
the manufacturer. There is no guarantee that such vendor-made drivers will
work with other or future Linux versions.
Brother HL 720/730/820/1020/1040, MFC 4650/6550MC/9050, and compatible models.
HP DeskJet 710/712/720/722/820/1000 and compatible models.
Lexmark 1000/1020/1100/2030/2050/2070/3200/5000/5700/7000/7200,
Z11/42/43/51/52, and compatible models.
Oki Okipage 4w/4w+/6w/8w/8wLite/8z/400w and compatible models.
Samsung ML-200/210/1000/1010/1020/1200/1210/1220/4500/5080/6040
and compatible models.
To our knowledge, the following GDI printers are not supported by SuSE Linux
(this list is not complete by any means):
Brother DCP-1000, MP-21C, WL-660
Canon BJC 5000/5100/8000/8500, LBP 460/600/660/800, MultiPASS
L6000
Epson AcuLaser C1000, EPL 5500W/5700L/5800L
HP LaserJet 1000/3100/3150
Lexmark Z12/22/23/31/32/33/82, Winwriter 100/150c/200
Minolta PagePro 6L/1100L/18L, Color PagePro L, Magicolor
6100DeskLaser, Magicolor 2 DeskLaser Plus/Duplex
Nec SuperScript 610plus/660/660plus
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Oki Okijet 2010
Samsung ML 85G/5050G, QL 85G
Sharp AJ 2100, AL 1000/800/840/F880/121
4.3 Configuring a Printer with YaST
Print Queues and Configurations
In most cases, you will want to set up more than one print queue for the following reasons:
If you have more than one printer, you need at least one queue for each of
them.
The print filter can be configured differently for each print queue. By having different queues for one printer, operate it with different configurations. This is not necessary in CUPS, as the user can specify the desired
settings. See Various Printing Systems on page 113. Various Printing Systems
on page 113
If your model is a plain black-and-white printer, such as most laser printers,
it will be sufficient to configure just one standard queue. Color inkjets, on the
other hand, require at least two different queues (configurations):
A standard lp configuration for quick and inexpensive black-and-white
printouts. The traditional name of the default queue is lp.
A color configuration or queue used for color printing.
Printer Configuration with YaST2: The Basics
Start the YaST2 printer configuration by selecting it from the YaST2 Control
Center or by entering yast2 printer in a command line as root. Enter
yast2 printer .nodetection to suppress printer autodetection. For more
details about autodetection, see Parallel Ports on page 124.
Not all printers are capable of being configured for both print systems. Some options are only supported by either CUPS or LPRng and lpdfilter. YaST provides
information about this whenever necessary.
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4.3. Configuring a Printer with YaST
The YaST printer configuration module offers the following printing system selections:
CUPS as a Server (default in standard installations)
If a printer is connected locally, CUPS must be runningin server mode. If
no local queue is configured with YaST2, the CUPS daemon cupsd is not
started automatically. If cupsd is already running, the ‘cups’ service must
be activated (for the runlevels 3 and 5). See Quick Configuration of a Client
Machine on page 175. The following packages are installed for this print
system:
4
Printer Operation
Easily switch back and forth between CUPS and LPRng using a submenu of the
YaST printer configuration.
package cups-libs
package cups-client
package cups
package cups-drivers
package cups-drivers-stp
CUPS in Client-Only Mode
If there is a CUPS network server in the local network (see Terminology
on page 174) and you exclusively want to print by way of its queues, it
is sufficient to run CUPS as client — see Quick Configuration of a Client
Machine on page 175. The following packages are sufficient for this mode:
package cups-libs
package cups-client
LPRng
Select this if you want to use the LPRng and lpdfilter print system or if the
network only has an LPD server (see Terminology on page 174) whose
queues you want to use for printing — see Quick Configuration of a Client
Machine on page 175. The following packages are required for this setup:
package lprng
package lpdfilter
The package cups-client and the package lprng are mutually exclusive —
they must not be installed at the same time. The package cups-libs must always be installed because several programs (such as Ghostscript, KDE, Samba,
Wine, and the YaST printer configuration) need the CUPS libraries.
The printing system as a whole requires a number of additional packages, although the ‘Default system’ should include them. The most important ones are:
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package ghostscript-library
package ghostscript-fonts-std
package ghostscript-x11
package libgimpprint
package a2ps
package file
The YaST printer configuration modules display all configurations that could be
created without errors.
As the configurations are not generated until the YaST printerconfiguration
module is terminated, you should restart the YaSTprinter configuration to make
sure everything is OK.
The YaST printer configuration also strictly distinguishes between queues created through YaST itself (YaST queues) and queues created through other means
(non-YaST queues). Non-YaST queues will never be touched by YaST. Conflicts
only arise if queues have identical names. When editing a queue, you can determine whether it should be managed by YaST2. If you turn a YaST queue into
a non-YaST queue, you can edit the configuration manually (without YaST) and
prevent these changes from being overwritten by YaST. Likewise, you can turn a
non-YaST queue into a YaST queue to overwrite an existing configuration deliberately with YaST.
Automatic Configuration
Depending on how much of your hardware can be autodetected and on
whether your printer model is included in the printer database, YaST will either autoconfigure your printer or offer a reasonable selection of settings that
then need to be adjusted manually. If this is not the case, the user must enter the
needed information in the dialogs. YaST can configure your printer automatically if the following conditions are fulfilled:
The parallel port or USB interface was set up automatically in the correct
way and the printer model connected to it was autodetected.
Your printer’s ID, as supplied to YaST during hardware autodetection,
is included in the printer database. As this ID may be different from the
actual model designation, you may need to select the model manually.
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4.3. Configuring a Printer with YaST
Furthermore, the YaST test page provides important information about the respective configuration.
Manual Configuration
If one of the conditions for automatic configuration is not fulfilled or if you want
your own customized setup, the configuration must be performed manually.
The following is an overview of the options to set during manual configuration:
4
Printer Operation
Each configuration should be tested with the print test function of YaST to see
whether it works as expected. In many cases, configuration data not explicitly
supported by the printer manufacturer must be used. For this reason, operability cannot be guaranteed for all settings.
Hardware Port (Interface)
If YaST was able to autodetect the printer model, you may safely assume that the printer connection works as far as the hardware is concerned. You may then leave this part untouched.
If YaST has not autodetected the printer model, there may have been
some problem on the hardware level. Some manual intervention is
needed to configure the physical connection. Manual configuration
requires specification of the port to which the printer is connected.
/dev/lp0 is the first parallel port. /dev/usb/lp0 is the port for a
USB printer. Always test this setting from within YaST to see whether
the printer is actually responding at the selected interface.
It is safest to connect a printer to the first parallel port. In this case,
the BIOS settings for this port should look like this:
.
.
.
.
IO address: 378 (hexadecimal)
Interrupt: (not relevant)
Mode: Normal, SPP, or Output-Only.
DMA: Disabled
If the printer does not respond at the first parallel port with these
settings, you may need to change the IO address to have the explicit
form of 0x378 under the BIOS menu item that lets you configure the
advanced settings for parallel ports. If your machine has two parallel
ports with IO addresses 378 and 278 (hexadecimal), change them to
read 0x378 and 0x278, respectively. For further details on the topic,
see Parallel Ports on page 124.
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Queue Name
The name of the queue is used frequently when issuing print commands.
The name should be rather short and consist of lowercase letters (and
maybe numbers) only.
The following additional options may be defined for the LPRng and
lpdfilter printing system:
Define a queue named raw to use for special cases where print data
should not be converted by a print filter, but sent to the printer in
raw form. Accordingly, when printing through the raw queue, print
data must already be available in a format (language) your printer
model can understand.
For each queue, define whether an explicit form feed is needed. If
enabled, the spooler sends a form feed command at the end of each
print job to eject the last page. Normally, the Ghostscript driver takes
care of this and you can leave this disabled.
Ghostscript Driver and Printer Language (Printer Model)
The Ghostscript driver and the printer language depend on the printer
model and are determined by selecting a predefined configuration
suitable for the printer model. It can be customized in a separate dialog, if
necessary. In other words, the selection of the manufacturer and the model
actually represents the selection of a printer language and a Ghostscript
driver with suitable driver settings for your printer.
For non-PostScript models, all printer-specific data is produced by the
Ghostscript driver. Therefore, the driver configuration (both choosing the
right driver and the correct options for it) is the single most important factor determining the output quality. Your settings affect the printer output
on a queue-by-queue basis.
If your printer was autodetected, which means the model is included
in the printer database, you will be presented with a choice of possible
Ghostscript drivers and with several output options such as:
black-and-white printing
color printing at 300 dpi
color printing at 600 dpi
Each default configuration includes a suitable Ghostscript driver and, if
available, a number of driver-specific settings related to the output quality.
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Not all combinations of driver options work with every printer model.
This is especially true for higher resolutions. Always check whether your
settings work as expected by printing the YaST test page. If the output is
garbled (for example, with several pages almost empty), you should be
able to stop the printer by first removing all sheets then stopping the test
print from within YaST. However, in some cases the printer will refuse to
resume work if you do so. It may be better to stop the test print first and
wait for the printer to eject all pages itself.
4
Printer Operation
Any driver-specific settings can be customized in a separate dialog. Click
the respective values to view and access any indented submenu entries.
If your model was not found in the printer database, you can select one of
the generic Ghostscript drivers for the standard printing languages. These
are listed under a generic “manufacturer”.
Other Special Settings
Unless you are sure about what these options mean, do not change the
default settings.
For the CUPS printing system, the following special settings are available:
Restricting printer use for certain users.
Queue status: whether the queue is started or stopped and whether
it is ready to accept new print jobs.
Banner page: whether to print out a banner (cover) page at the beginning of each print job and which one. Similarly, whether to add a
banner page at the end of each print job and which one.
For the LPRng and lpdfilter printing system, change the following
hardware-independent settings:
The page layout can be changed for ASCII text printouts (but not for
graphics or documents created with special application programs).
You can define an ascii print queue for special cases. The ascii
queue forces the print filter to produce ASCII text output, which may
be necessary for some text files that the print filter does not automatically recognize as such, for example, PostScript source code.
Country-specific settings can be changed to ensure the correct character encoding when sending ASCII text to the printer and when
printing plain text in HTML pages from Netscape.
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4.4 Configuring Applications
Applications use the existing queues for printing from the command line. In
applications, printer options are not configured directly, but rather through the
existing queues.
Applications can use the lpr -Plp filename command for printing; instead
of hfilenamei use the name of the file you want to print. To make this work from
applications, use the application’s printer configuration to select one of the existing queues (e. g., lp or color) or use the application’s print dialog to directly
enter the corresponding command (e. g., lpr -Plp or lpr -Pcolor).
4.5 Manual Configuration of Local Printer
Ports
Parallel Ports
For the most part, printers are connected to a Linux system through a parallel
port. Printers on parallel ports are handled by the parport subsystem of the
Linux kernel. The basics of parallel port configuration with YaST2 are described
in Manual Configuration on page 121. The paragraphs below provide more indepth information on the topic.
The parport subsystem manages parallel ports only through the corresponding architecture-specific kernel modules after these are loaded. Among other
things, this allows for several devices, such as a parallel port ZIP drive and a
printer, to be linked to one parallel port at the same time. Device files for parallel printers are counted beginning with /dev/lp0. With a SuSE Linux standard kernel, printing over the parallel port requires that the modules parport,
parport_pc, and lp are loaded. This is achieved by kmod (the kernel module loader). Normally, these modules are loaded automatically as soon as some
process requests access to the device file.
If the kernel module parport_pc is loaded without any parameters, it tries to
autodetect and autoconfigure all available parallel ports. This may not work in
some very rare cases and cause a system lock-up. If that happens, configure it
manually by explicitly providing the correct parameters for the parport_pc
module. This is also the reason why printer autodetection can be disabled for
YaST2 as described in Configuring a Printer with YaST on page 118.
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4.4. Configuring Applications
Manual Configuration of Parallel Ports
alias parport_lowlevel parport_pc
options parport_pc io=0x378 irq=none
File 2: /etc/modules.conf: First Parallel Port
Under io, enter the IO address of the parallel port. Under irq, keep the default none for polling mode. Otherwise, provide the IRQ number for the parallel port. Polling mode is less problematic than interrupt mode as it helps to
avoid interrupt conflicts. However, there are combinations of motherboards and
printers that only function well if this is set to interrupt mode. Apart from that,
interrupt mode ensures a continuous data flow to the printer even when the system is under very high load.
Printer Operation
The first parallel port (/dev/lp0) is configured with an entry in /etc/
modules.conf, as shown in File Manual Configuration of Parallel Ports on this
page.
4
To make the above configuration work, you may still need to change the parallel
port settings made available through your machine’s BIOS or firmware:
IO address: 378 (hexadecimal)
Interrupt: 7 (not relevant for polling mode)
Mode: Normal, SPP, or Output-Only (other modes will not always
work)
DMA: Disabled (should be disabled as long as the mode is set to
Normal)
If interrupt 7 is still free, enable in /etc/modules.conf as shown in
File Manual Configuration of Parallel Ports on the current page.
alias parport_lowlevel parport_pc
options parport_pc io=0x378 irq=7
File 3: /etc/modules.conf: Interrupt Mode for the First Parallel Port
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However, before enabling interrupt mode, enter the command
cat /proc/interrupts to see which interrupts are already in use on your
system. The output of this command will only list interrupts that are being used
at the given moment, something which may change according to the hardware
components active. In any case, the interrupt used for a parallel port must not
be occupied by any other device. It is probably best to use polling mode if you
are not sure about this.
Enabling and Testing a Parallel Port
After configuration, the parallel port is enabled when you reboot the machine.
If you do not want to reboot, run the following commands as root to update
the module dependency list and to unload all kernel modules related to parallel
ports.
depmod -a 2>/dev/null
rmmod lp
rmmod parport_pc
rmmod parport
After this, reload the modules with:
modprobe parport
modprobe parport_pc
modprobe lp
If the printer is capable of direct ASCII text printing, the following command as
root should print a single page with the word Hello on it:
echo -en "\rHello\r\f" >/dev/lp0
In the above command, the word Hello is enclosed in two \bslashr ASCII
characters to produce carriage returns. The closing ASCII character \f is included to produce a form feed. To test a second or third parallel port in the same
way, use /dev/lp1 or /dev/lp2, respectively.
USB Ports
First, make sure the interrupt is enabled for USB in your machine’s BIOS. In an
Award BIOS, for example, go to the menu ‘PNP AND PCI SETUP’ and set the
entry ‘USB IRQ’ to Enabled. The wording of these menus and entries may vary
depending on the BIOS type and version.
Test whether the USB printer is responding by entering the command (as root):
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4.5. Manual Configuration of Local Printer Ports
echo -en "\rHello\r\f" >/dev/usb/lp0
Some USB printers may need a special control sequence before accepting data
over a USB line. Further information can be found in the Support Database
http://sdb.suse.de/en/sdb/html. Enter the keywords “Epson” and
“usb”.
Printer Operation
If there is only one USB printer connected to the machine and this printer is
able to print ASCII text directly, this should print a single page with the word
Hello.
4
In most cases, you should be able to get information about the printer manufacturer and the product name by entering:
cat /proc/bus/usb/devices
If this does not display any information, it will usually be for one of these reasons:
The USB system has not detected the device (yet), maybe even because it
is disconnected from power, so there is no communication between the
system and the printer.
The USB system has detected the device, but neither the manufacturer or
the product name are known to it. Accordingly, nothing is displayed, but
the system can communicate with the printer.
Sometimes it may happen that the USB printer does not respond anymore, for
instance, after unplugging it in the middle of a print job. In such a case, the following commands should be sufficient to restart the USB system:
rchotplug stop
rchotplug start
If you are not successful with these commands, terminate all processes that
use /dev/usb/lp0. Use lsmod to check which USB modules are loaded
(usb-uhci, usb-ohci, or uhci) and how they depend on each other. For
instance, the following entry in the output of lsmod shows that the module
usbcore is being used by modules printer and usb-uhci:
usbcore ... [printer usb-uhci]
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Accordingly, modules printer and usb-uhci need to be unloaded before unloading usbcore. As root, enter the following commands (replace usb-uhci
with uhci or usb-ohci depending on your USB system):
fuser -k /dev/usb/lp0
rchotplug stop
rmmod printer
rmmod usb-uhci
umount usbdevfs
rmmod usbcore
modprobe usbcore
mount usbdevfs
modprobe usb-uhci
modprobe printer
rchotplug start
If you have more than one USB printer connected to the system, there is a special issue to consider: All connected devices are autodetected by the USB subsystem with the first USB printer being addressed as device /dev/usb/lp0
and the second one as /dev/usb/lp1. Depending on the model, USB printers
can be detected even when they are powerless. Some have the built-in capability
to be queried by the system even when powered off. Therefore, to avoid that the
system confuses different printers, switch on all printers before booting and try
to leave them connected to power all the time.
The IrDA Printer Interface
With IrDA, the system uses an infrared interface to emulate a parallel port. To
do so, the Linux drivers provide a simulated parallel port under the device
name of /dev/irlpt0. A printer connected through infrared is handled in the
same way as any other parallel printer except it is made available to the system
under the name of /dev/irlpt0 instead of /dev/lp0.
Test the connection to an IrDA printer by entering the command (as root):
echo -en "\rHello\r\f" >/dev/irlpt0
If the printer is able to print ASCII text directly, this should print a single page
with the word Hello on it.
Regardless of the outcome of the above test, the printer should appear in the
output of irdadump. If the irdadump command is not available, install the
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4.5. Manual Configuration of Local Printer Ports
rcirda start
rcirda stop
Serial Ports
4
Printer Operation
package irda. If irdadump does not display the printer, it is not possible to
address the printer. If nothing is displayed, most likely the IrDA system service has not been started, as it is not started automatically when the system is
booted. Enter the following commands to start and stop the IrDA systems service:
To use a printer connected to a serial port in combination with the LPRng
printing system, read the document /usr/share/doc/packages/lprng/
LPRng-HOWTO.html, in particular, the section file:/usr/share/doc/
packages/lprng/LPRng-HOWTO.html#SECSERIAL. More information can
be obtained from the man page for printcap (man printcap) as well as in
the support database by searching for the keyword “serial”.
4.6
Manual Configuration of the LPRng and
lpdfilter Printing System
Normally, the printing system is configured with YaST2 as described in Configuring a Printer with YaST on page 118. SuSE Linux also includes the program
lprsetup, which is a bare-bones command-line tool for the configuration of the
LPRng and lpdfilter printing system.
When setting up a printer with YaST2, it collects all necessary data then runs
lprsetup internally with all the necessary options to write the actual LPRng and
lpdfilter configuration.
lprsetup is intended as an expert tool. As such, it will not provide any help to
find the correct values for printer options. To see a brief list of the available
command line options for lprsetup, enter lprsetup -help or refer to the
man page for lprsetup (man lprsetup) and the man page for lpdfilter
(man lpdfilter) for further details.
For information regarding Ghostscript drivers and driver-specific options, read
Finding the Right Printer Driver on page 115 and Working with Ghostscript on
page 160.
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4.7 The LPRng Print Spooler
The print spooler used by the LPRng and lpdfilter printing system is LPRng
(package lprng).
The print spooler lpd, or line printer daemon, is usually started automatically
on boot. More specifically, the script /etc/init.d/lpd is run as part of the
boot procedure. After this, the print spooler runs as a in the background. Start
and stop it manually with these commands:
rclpd start
rclpd stop
These are the configuration files of LPRng:
/etc/printcap
definitions of the system’s print queues
/etc/lpd.conf
global print spooler configuration
/etc/lpd.perms
permission settings
According to the script /etc/init.d/lpd, the command rclpd start also
runs the command checkpc -f as a subprocess, which in turn creates spool
directories with the appropriate permissions in /var/spool/lpd according to
the queues defined in /etc/printcap.
When started, the print spooler first reads the entries in /etc/printcap to see
which print queues have been defined. The spooler’s task is then to manage any
jobs queued for printing. In particular, the spooler:
manages local queues by passing the print data of each job to a print filter
(if necessary) then sending it to the printer or to another queue
handles jobs in the order in which they have been queued
monitors the status of queues and printers and provides status information when requested
listens on port 515 to accept or reject print jobs from remote hosts destined
for local queues, depending on the configuration
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4.7. The LPRng Print Spooler
To learn more about the details of this mechanism, read the LPRng Howto
(file:/usr/share/doc/packages/lprng/LPRng-HOWTO.html) or consult the man page for printcap (man printcap) and the man page for lpd
(man lpd).
Printing from Applications
4
Printer Operation
forwards print jobs to remote print spoolers (listening on port 515 on
other hosts) for printing through remote queues.
Applications can use the lpr -Plp filename command for printing; instead
of hfilenamei use the name of the file you want to print. To make this work from
applications, use the application’s printer configuration to select one of the existing queues (e. g., lp or color) or use the application’s print dialog to directly
enter the corresponding command (e. g., lpr -Plp or lpr -Pcolor).
On the command line print use the lpr -Plp hfilenamei command for
printing; instead of hfilenamei use the name of the file you want to print.
4.8
Command-Line Tools for LPRng
This section only provides a short overview of the available tools. For details,
consult the LPRng Howto, in particular, section file:/usr/share/doc/
packages/lprng/LPRng-HOWTO.html#LPRNGCLIENTS.
Managing Local Queues
Printing Files
Details on how to use the lpr command can be found in the LPRng Howto
(file:/usr/share/doc/packages/lprng/LPRng-HOWTO.html#LPR).
The following only covers some basic operations.
To print a file, you normally must enter lpr -Phqueuenamei hfilenamei. If
you leave out the -Phqueuenamei parameter, the printing system defaults to
the value of the environment variable PRINTER. The same is true for the commands lpq and lprm. See the man page for lpr (man lpr), the man page for
lpq (man lpq), and the man page for lprm (man lprm) for more information.
The environment variable PRINTER is set automatically on login. Display its
current value with echo $PRINTER. Change it to expand to another queue by
entering export PRINTER=hqueuenamei.
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Checking the Status
By entering lpq -Phqueuenamei, check the status of print jobs handled by the
specified queue. If you specify all as the queue name, lpq displays information for all jobs in all queues.
With lpq -s -Phqueuenamei, tell lpq to display only a minimum of information. lpq -l -Phqueuenamei tells lpq to be more verbose.
With lpq -L -Phqueuenamei, lpq displays a detailed status report, which
will come in handy when trying to track down errors.
For further information, see the man page for lpq (man lpq), and section
file:/usr/share/doc/packages/lprng/LPRng-HOWTO.html#LPQ of
the LPRng Howto.
Removing Jobs from the Queue
The command lprm -Phqueuenamei hjobnumber iremoves the print job
with the specified number from the specified queue, if you own the job. A print
job is owned by the user who started it. Display the owner and the job number
of print jobs with lpq.
The command lprm -Pall all removes all print jobs from all queues for
which you have the required permissions. root may remove any jobs in any
queues regardless of permissions.
More information can be obtained in the man page for lprm (man lprm)
and in the LPRng Howto (file:/usr/share/doc/packages/lprng/
LPRng-HOWTO.html#LPRM).
Controlling the Queues
The command lpc option hqueuenamei displays the status of the specified
queue and allows changing it. The most important options are:
help
Display a short overview of the available options.
status hqueuenamei
Display status information.
disable hqueuenamei
Do not accept new jobs for the specified queue.
enable hqueuenamei
Accept new jobs for the specified queue.
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4.8. Command-Line Tools for LPRng
start hqueuenamei
Enable printing from the specified queue.
down hqueuenamei
Has the effect of disable and stop combined.
up hqueuenamei
Has the effect of enable and start combined.
4
Printer Operation
stop hqueuenamei
Stop printing from the specified queue. If a job is being printed, it will be
completed.
abort hqueuenamei
Has the effect of down, but aborts all current print jobs immediately.
Aborted jobs are preserved, however, and can be resumed after restarting
the queue with up.
root permissions are required to control printer queues with the above commands. Options can be supplied to lpc directly on the command line (as in
lpc status all). You can also run the program without any options, which
starts it in dialog mode — it opens the lpc> command prompt. Then enter the
options at the prompt. To leave the program, enter either quit or exit.
If you were to enter lpc status all, the output could look like this:
Printer
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
Printing Spooling Jobs Server Subserver
enabled enabled
2
123
456
disabled disabled
0
none
none
disabled enabled
8
none
none
This gives the following information: Queue lp is completely enabled and holds
two print jobs, one of which is being printed at the moment. Queue color, on
the other hand, is completely stopped. Finally, the laser queue does not print
at the moment, but jobs (there are currently eight of them) are still accepted for
the queue and are accumulating in the spooler.
Further information can be obtained from the man page for lpc (man lpc)
and the LPRng Howto (file:/usr/share/doc/packages/lprng/
LPRng-HOWTO.html#LPC).
Managing Remote Queues
For each of the commands explained below, replace hprintserver i with the
name or IP address of your print server. hqueuenamei must be a queue on the
print server.
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Printing Files
With the LPRng spooler, even remote queues can be addressed directly, using the lpr command with the syntax
lpr [email protected] i hfilei. This is only possible if
the print server is configured to accept remote print jobs on its queues. This is
enabled by default with LPRng.
Checking the Status
Check the status of a queue on a remote host by entering:
lpq
lpq
lpq
lpq
[email protected] i
-s [email protected] i
-l [email protected] i
-L [email protected] i
and
lpc status [email protected] i
lpc status [email protected] i
To list the names of and display status information on all queues
of a print server, use either lpq -s [email protected] i or
lpc status [email protected] i, provided that LPRng is used on the print
server.
If printing over a remote queue does not work, querying the status of the
queues helps determine the cause of the problem. If LPRng is installed on the
print server, enter lpq -L [email protected] i to get a detailed
status report for remote diagnosis.
Removing Jobs from the Queue
With the following command delete all print jobs in remote queues that have
been issued under your user name:
lprm [email protected] i hjobnumber i
lprm [email protected] i all
lprm [email protected] i all
root has no special privileges on remote queues. The parameter all only
works if LPRng is used on the print server host as well.
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4.8. Command-Line Tools for LPRng
Using Command-Line Tools for LPRng Troubleshooting
For example, it sometimes happens that the host-to-printer connection suffers
some kind of fault, after which the printer is unable to interpret data correctly.
This can cause it to spit out large amounts of paper with meaningless characters
on it.
Printer Operation
Print jobs are kept in the queue even if you shut down a machine during a printout so are still there after rebooting. To remove a faulty print job, use the commands described above. Rebooting will not remove them.
4
1. In the case of an inkjet model, remove all paper from the trays. Open the
paper tray if you have a laser model.
2. In most cases, the print job is still in the queue after that. Print jobs are
removed from the queue only after all data has been sent to the printer.
Check with lpq or lpc status to see which queue is printing then
delete the job in question with lprm.
3. The printer may produce some output even after deleting the job from
the queue. To stop this, use the commands fuser -k /dev/lp0 for a
printer on the first parallel port or fuser -k /dev/usb/lp0 for the
first USB printer to terminate all processes still using the printer device.
4. Do a complete reset of the printer by switching it off. Wait a few seconds
before putting the paper back into the trays and switching the device back
on.
4.9
The Print Filter of the LPRng and lpdfilter
Printing System
The print filter used in conjunction with LPRng is lpdfilter, which is installed
as a package with the same name. The following is a detailed description of
the steps involved in processing a print job. If you need to know about the
inner workings of the print filter, read the scripts powering it (in particular,
/usr/lib/lpdfilter/bin/if) and probably also follow the steps described
in Troubleshooting Hints for lpdfilter on page 144.
1. The print filter (/usr/lib/lpdfilter/bin/if) determines which options to use as passed to it by the print spooler and specified by the print
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job’s control file. Options for the queue to use are also gathered from
/etc/printcap and /etc/lpdfilter/hqueuenamei/conf (where
hqueuenamei is the name of the actual queue).
2. If the ascii queue has been specified, the print filter is forced to treat
the file as ASCII text. If a queue other than ascii has been specified, the
printer filter tries to autodetect the file type. The filter determines the file
type using the script /usr/lib/lpdfilter/bin/guess to run file
on each file in question. The output of file is used to determine the type
according to the entries in the file /etc/lpdfilter/types.
3. The file is converted into a printer-specific data stream according to the
file type and the type of queue to use:
If the raw queue has been specified, print data is usually sent
straight to the printer or forwarded to another queue. However, data
may also undergo a simple conversion through recode, if so specified in /etc/lpdfilter/hqueuenamei/conf. To have an “absolute” raw filter — one that bypasses lpdfilter entirely — remove the
line :if=/usr/lib/lpdfilter/bin/if: for the corresponding
queue in /etc/printcap.
If the queue specified is not a raw queue:
(a) If the data is not in PostScript format, it is first converted into
PostScript by running /usr/lib/lpdfilter/filter/
type2ps on it (where type is the actual file type determined
for the data in question). For example, ASCII text is converted into PostScript with /usr/lib/lpdfilter/filter/
ascii2ps, which in turn relies on a2ps to obtain the correct
character encoding defined for the queue. This ensures that
country-specific special characters are printed correctly in plain
text files. For details, see the man page for a2ps (man a2ps).
(b) If necessary, PostScript data can be converted again if a suitable
script is placed in /etc/lpdfilter/hqueuenamei/pre (where
hqueuenamei is the name of the actual queue to use).
(c) PostScript data is converted into another printer language, as
needed.
. If the printer is PostScript capable, the data is sent directly
to the printer (or forwarded to another queue). However,
data can be further processed using the Bash functions
“duplex” and “tray”, which are defined in /usr/lib/
lpdfilter/global/functions, to enable duplex printing and paper tray selection through PostScript commands
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4.9. The Print Filter of the LPRng and lpdfilter Printing System
4
Printer Operation
(which requires that the PostScript printer has this functionality).
. If the printer is not PostScript capable, Ghostscript uses a
driver suitable for the native printer language of the model
to produce the printer-specific data that is finally sent to the
printer (or forwarded to another queue).
Ghostscript-relevant parameters are stored either in
the cm line of /etc/printcap or in the file /etc/
lpdfilter/hqueuenamei/upp (where hqueuenamei is the
name of the actual queue to use).
If so desired, the Ghostscript output can be reformatted again, if a suitable script is placed in /etc/
lpdfilter/hqueuenamei/post (where hqueuenamei is the
name of the actual queue to use).
(d) The printer-specific data is transferred to the printer (or to another queue). Control sequences for a specific printer can be sent
to the printer both before and after the data stream. These must
be specified in /etc/lpdfilter/hqueuenamei/conf.
Configuration of lpdfilter
Normally, the printing system is configured with YaST2 (as described in Configuring a Printer with YaST on page 118), which includes the setup of lpdfilter.
Some of the more special settings, however, can only be changed by editing
the configuration files of the print filter by hand. For each queue, a dedicated
configuration file is written to /etc/lpdfilter/hqueuenamei/conf (where
hqueuenamei is the name of the actual queue to be used).
Customization of lpdfilter
1. By default, files not in PostScript format are converted into that format
with /usr/lib/lpdfilter/filter/type2ps (where type is the actual type of the file in question).
If a suitable script is placed in /etc/lpdfilter/hqueuenamei/type2ps,
it will be used for the PostScript conversion of the file. The script must be
able to accept data on stdin and to output data in PostScript format on
stdout.
2. If so desired, an additional step can be performed to reformat
PostScript data, which requires a suitable script be placed in /etc/
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lpdfilter/hqueuenamei/pre. This may be a script to add custom
PostScript preloads, for example. The script must be able to accept data
on stdin and to output data in PostScript format on stdout. Some programs to reformat PostScript are included in the package psutils. In
particular, the program pstops is capable of performing extensive transformations. See the man page for pstops (man pstops) for details.
3. Special Ghostscript parameters: When writing the configuration with YaST2, Ghostscript parameters are stored in /etc/
lpdfilter/hqueuenamei/upp (where hqueuenamei is the name of the actual queue to use), but custom Ghostscript parameters can also be added
to this file manually. For details on Ghostscript parameters, read Working
with Ghostscript on page 160.
4. If so desired, data can be reformatted again after conversion by
Ghostscript. This requires a suitable script be placed in /etc/
lpdfilter/hqueuenamei/post (where hqueuenamei is the name of the
actual queue to use). This script must be able to accept data on stdin and
to output a data stream suitable for the specific printer model on stdout.
A Hardware-Independent Example
For the purposes of this example, suppose there is a queue called testqueue,
which should be configured so ASCII text is printed with line numbers along
the left margin. Apart from that, all files should be printed with two pages
scaled to fit on one sheet. The scripts /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/
ascii2ps and /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/pre, as shown below, would
achieve that:
#!/bin/bash
cat -n - | a2ps -1 -{}-stdin=’ ’ -o File 4: /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/ascii2ps: ASCII to PostScript Conversion
#!/bin/bash
pstops -q ’2:[email protected](20cm,2cm)[email protected](20cm,15cm)’
File 5: /etc/lpdfilter/test/pre: PostScript Reformatting
These scripts need to be made executable for all users, which can be achieved
with the chmod command:
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4.9. The Print Filter of the LPRng and lpdfilter Printing System
Reformatting files with pstops only works with PostScript files created to allow such transformations, as is usually the case.
Using Custom PostScript Preloads
PostScript preloads are small files containing PostScript commands that preceed
the print data stream to initialize the printer or the Ghostscript program in the
desired way. PostScript preloads are mostly used to enable duplex printing on
PostScript printers or to activate a special paper tray. They can also be used for
margin and gamma adjustments.
4
Printer Operation
chmod -v a+rx /etc/lpdfilter/test/ascii2ps
chmod -v a+rx /etc/lpdfilter/test/pre
To use preloads, the PostScript printer or Ghostscript must be able to interpret
the special commands. Ghostscript, for instance, does not interpret commands
related to duplex printing or paper trays.
For this example, the queue testqueue is again used:
Duplex Printing
To enable or disable duplex printing, create the files /etc/lpdfilter/
testqueue/duplexon.ps and /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/
duplexoff.ps with the following contents:
%!PS
statusdict /setduplexmode known
{statusdict begin true setduplexmode end} if {} pop
File 6: /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/duplexon.ps: Enabling Duplex Printing
%!PS
statusdict /setduplexmode known
{statusdict begin false setduplexmode end} if {} pop
File 7: /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/duplexoff.ps: Disabling Duplex Printing
Paper Tray Selection
To enable the default paper tray 0 or tray number 2, create
the files /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/tray0.ps and
/etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/tray2.ps:
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%!PS
statusdict /setpapertray known
{statusdict begin 0 setpapertray end} if {} pop
File 8: /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/tray0.ps: Enabling Tray 0
%!PS
statusdict /setpapertray known
{statusdict begin 2 setpapertray end} if {} pop
File 9: /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/tray2.ps: Enabling Tray 2
Margin Settings
To adjust margin settings, create a file like /etc/lpdfilter/
testqueue/margin.ps.
%!PS
<<
/.HWMargins [left bottom right top]
/PageSize [width height]
/Margins [left-offset top-offset]
>>
setpagedevice
File 10: /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/margin.ps: Margin Adjustments
The margin settings left, bottom, right, and top and the paper
size measures width and height are specified in points (with one
point equaling 1/72 inches or about 0.35 mm). The margin offsets
left-offset and top-offset are specified in pixels, so depend on
the resolution of the output device.
To change only the position of the printed area, it is sufficient to create a
file like /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/offset.ps.
%!PS
<< /Margins [left-offset top-offset] >> setpagedevice
File 11: /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/offset.ps:
Changing the Position of the Printed Area
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4.9. The Print Filter of the LPRng and lpdfilter Printing System
4
%!PS
{cyan exp} {magenta exp} {yellow exp} {black exp} \
setcolortransfer
File 12: /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/cmyk.ps: CMYK Gamma Correction
Printer Operation
Gamma Correction
To adjust the gamma distribution between colors, use a file like
/etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/cmyk.ps or /etc/lpdfilter/
testqueue/rgb.ps:
%!PS
{red exp} {green exp} {blue exp} currenttransfer \
setcolortransfer
File 13: /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/rgb.ps: RGB Gamma Correction
You need to know which color model is used by your printer (either
CMYK or RGB) to make this work. The values to use for cyan, magenta,
yellow, and black or for red, green, and blue should be determined
through testing. Normally, these should be in the range between 0.001
and 9.999.
To get a rough idea of the effect of the above filtering actions on the output, display them on screen. To see how a sample file looks without
gamma correction, enter:
gs -r60 \
/usr/share/doc/packages/ghostscript/examples/colorcir.ps
To see how it looks with gamma correction according to the above sample
filters:
gs -r60 /etc/lpdfilter/test/cmyk.ps \
/usr/share/doc/packages/ghostscript/examples/colorcir.ps
gs -r60 /etc/lpdfilter/test/rgb.ps \
/usr/share/doc/packages/ghostscript/examples/colorcir.ps
The above commands must be entered as a single line without the backslash (‘\’).
Ctrl +
C
.
End the test by pressing SuSE Linux Desktop – Administration Guide
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Resetting the Printer
To reset the printer to its original state each time, use a file like
/etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/reset.ps:
%!PS
serverdict begin 0 exitserver
File 14: /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/reset.ps: Printer Reset
To activate one of the above PostScript preloads, create a file similar to /etc/
lpdfilter/testqueue/pre:
#!/bin/bash
cat /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/preload.ps File 15: /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/pre: Activating a PostScript Preload
In this file, replace preload.ps with the name of your custom preload file. In
addition, make this script executable and readable for all users, which can be
achieved with chmod in the following way:
chmod -v a+rx /etc/lpdfilter/test/pre
chmod -v a+r /etc/lpdfilter/test/preload.ps
Use the mechanism described above to insert PostScript commands not only
before the print data, but also after it. For instance, with a script like /etc/
lpdfilter/testqueue/pre, reset the printer to its original state after each
print job is finished:
#!/bin/bash
cat /etc/lpdfilter/test/preload.ps - \
/etc/lpdfilter/test/reset.ps
File 16: /etc/lpdfilter/testqueue/pre: Inserting a PostScript Preload and a PostScript Reset
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4.9. The Print Filter of the LPRng and lpdfilter Printing System
A Sample GDI Printer Configuration
Printer Operation
This section provides an example for the customized configuration of a gdi
print queue. As explained in The Issue with GDI Printers on page 116, it is often nearly impossible to make such printers run under Linux. However, special driver programs are available for some GDI models. In most cases, they
are designed to run as Ghostscript add-ons with the driver reformatting the
Ghostscript output into the printer’s own language. Often these drivers make
limited use of the printer’s functionality, however, allowing only black-andwhite printing, for example. If such a driver is available, Ghostscript can
be used with it in the following way (also see Working with Ghostscript on
page 160):
4
1. Ghostscript converts the PostScript data into a raster of pixel dots then
uses one of its drivers to convert the rasterized image into a format appropriate for the GDI driver at a suitable resolution. Data is then passed to
the GDI driver.
2. The rasterized image is converted by the GDI driver into a data format
suitable for the printer model.
For the steps described below, it is assumed that a GDI printer driver suitable
for SuSE Linux 8.1 is already installed or can be downloaded from the Internet.
It is also assumed that the driver works in the way described above. In some
cases, you may need some familiarity with the way source code is handled under Unix or how to handle these installations (from .zip or .tar.gz archives
or maybe from .rpm packages).
After unpacking such an archive, you will often find the latest installation instructions included in some of the files, typically in README or INSTALL, or
even in a doc subdirectory. If you have downloaded a .tar.gz archive, you
usually need to compile and install the driver yourself.
For the purposes of the example explained below, the following setup is assumed:
The driver program has been installed as /usr/local/bin/
printerdriver.
The required Ghostscript driver is pbmraw with an output resolution of
600 dpi.
The printer is connected to the first parallel port — /dev/lp0.
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The Ghostscript driver and the resolution may be different for your printer.
Read the documentation included with the driver to find out about these.
First, create the gdi queue. To do so, log in as root and run lprsetup, as follows:
lprsetup -add gdi -lprng -device /dev/lp0 \
-driver pbmraw -dpi 600 -size a4dj -auto -sf
The above commands must be entered as a single line without the backslash
(‘\’).
Now, create the script /etc/lpdfilter/gdi/post:
#!/bin/bash
/usr/local/bin/printerdriver hgdi_driver_parametersi
File 17: /etc/lpdfilter/gdi/post: Running the GDI Printer Driver
Read the documentation of the driver program to find out what options exist
for it. Specify them under hgdi_driver_parametersi as needed. Make the script
executable for all users and restart the print spooler:
chmod -v a+rx /etc/lpdfilter/gdi/post
rclpd stop
rclpd start
From now on, users should be able to print with this command:
lpr -Pgdi hdateii
Troubleshooting Hints for lpdfilter
Enable different debug levels for lpdfilter by uncommenting (removing the
‘#’ sign in front of) the corresponding line of the main filter script /usr/lib/
lpdfilter/bin/if.
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4.9. The Print Filter of the LPRng and lpdfilter Printing System
4
DEBUG="off"
DEBUG="low"
DEBUG="medium"
DEBUG="high"
File 18: /usr/lib/lpdfilter/bin/if: Debug Levels
With DEBUG="low" enabled, the program logs its stderr output to the file
/tmp/lpdfilter.if-$$.XXXXXX (where $$ is the process ID and XXXXXX a
unique random string).
With DEBUG="medium" enabled, the program logs, in addition to its own error
output, the stderr output of the scripts in /usr/lib/lpdfilter/filter
if these scripts are run by /usr/lib/lpdfilter/bin/if. The debugging
output is written to /tmp/lpdfilter.name-$$.XXXXXX (where name is the
name of the script run and $$.XXXXXX a string composed in the way described
above).
Printer Operation
#
#
#
#
With DEBUG="high" enabled, all error output is logged as above. Additionally, all output normally destined to the printer is redirected to a log file named
/tmp/lpdfilter.out-$$.XXXXXX (where $$.XXXXXX is a string composed
in the way described above).
To avoid losing control over the logging activity, you may want to remove the
log files with rm -v /tmp/lpdfilter* before each new test run.
4.10
Custom Print Filters for the LPRng
Spooler
The aim of this section is not to show you how to build an alternative to
lpdfilter, but rather to lay out the inner workings of the Linux printing engine.
We do this by demonstrating how to write a custom printer filter. The example
explained below has been kept simple to show just the basic mechanism. This is
also the reason why no provisions are made in the filter scripts to do any error
checking. The following example is based on the assumption that the printer is
connected to the first parallel port (/dev/lp0).
Any print filter must accept data from the print spooler on standard input. The
filter must then convert the data into the printer-specific format and issue it on
standard output. Now the print spooler takes care of the data again and makes
sure it is transferred from the filter’s standard output to the /dev/lp0 printer
device. This is where the Linux kernel comes in: it transfers all data arriving at
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the printer device to the corresponding IO address (e. g., 0x378). The printer
receives this data over the parallel line and interprets it to print accordingly.
On most systems, normal users do not have direct access to the printer device,
therefore root permissions are needed for the commands below. Also, in any
commands like cat ascii-file >/dev/lp0, replace hascii-filei with the
name of an existing ASCII file.
Basic Filtering Operations
You can print with the simple command echo -en "\rHello\r\f"
>/dev/lp0. This, however, does not activate the print spooler nor does it use
any filter. It writes to the printer device /dev/lp0 directly. The command sends
the ASCII signs ‘\r’, ‘H’, ‘e’, ‘l’, ‘l’, ‘o’, ‘\r’, and ‘\f’ directly to the
printer device. The ASCII character for carriage return, ‘\r’, causes the carriage (printer head) to return to its start position. The ASCII form feed character,
‘\f’, causes the printer to eject the page.
The commands cat ascii-file >/dev/lp0 and echo -en "\f"
>/dev/lp0 still do not activate the spooler or a print filter, but again send characters directly to the printer device /dev/lp0. The first command sends the
characters of the ASCII file to the printer. The second one adds a form feed character to eject the page.
Under Linux, ASCII text lines are separated only by a line feed character. By
contrast, line breaks under DOS and Windows consist of a line feed ASCII character and a carriage return ASCII character. Enter the following commands to
send the ASCII file /etc/hosts directly to the printer:
cat /etc/hosts >/dev/lp0
echo -en "\f" >/dev/lp0
the output will probably appear as follows:
first line
second line ...
The reason is that the printer only performs a line feed but no carriage return
(since there is actually no carriage return character between the two lines).
However, it is possible to tell printers to perform both a line feed and a carriage return whenever a line feed character is sent. With the escape sequence
\033\&k2G, all printers that understand the PCL3 language can be reconfigured to perform both a line feed and a carriage return upon receiving an ASCII
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4.10. Custom Print Filters for the LPRng Spooler
Another problem may arise when trying to print country-specific characters,
such as umlauts. DOS and Windows use an encoding for these that is different
from that used by Linux. Printers are mostly preconfigured for the DOS and
Windows environment. As a remedy, enter
cp ascii-file ascii-file.ibmpc
recode lat1..ibmpc ascii-file.ibmpc
4
Printer Operation
line feed character. Send the escape sequence to the printer with echo -en
"\033\&k2G" >/dev/lp0 after which it should interpret line breaks in the
expected way when printing an ASCII file.
to copy ascii-file to ascii-file.ibmpc then recode ascii-file.
ibmpc according to the DOS and Windows standard.
cat ascii-file.ibmpc >/dev/lp0 echo -en "\f" >/dev/lp0
The preceding commands should print both the umlauts and the line breaks in
the correct way. The special escape sequence to correct the line break behavior is
no longer needed, because ascii-file.ibmpc has been recoded to have DOS
and Windows line breaks and umlauts.
cp ascii-file ascii-file.ibmpc
recode lat1..ibmpc ascii-file.ibmpc
cat ascii-file.ibmpc >/dev/lp0
echo -en "\f" >/dev/lp0
These commands should correctly print an ASCII file on any printer that accepts
ASCII directly and is preconfigured for the DOS and Windows character encoding. Automate this by creating a print filter that reformats ASCII text for your
printer according to the above steps.
A Sample Custom Print Filter
First, become root and create a subdirectory for the custom filter then change
into that subdirectory:
mkdir /usr/local/myprinterfilter
cd /usr/local/myprinterfilter
Create a Bash script (basically a text file) named asciifilter with the contents shown in File A Sample Custom Print Filter on this page.
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#!/bin/bash
# make a temporary file
INPUT="$(mktemp /tmp/asciifilter.$$.XXXXXX)"
# First store everything from stdin in $INPUT
# to have the input as a regular file
cat >$INPUT
# Recode the INPUT
recode lat1..ibmpc $INPUT
# Add a FormFeed at the end of $INPUT
# to get the last page out of the printer
echo -en "\f" >>$INPUT
# Send $INPUT to stdout
cat $INPUT
# Remove the INPUT file
rm $INPUT
File 19: /usr/local/myprinterfilter/asciifilter
Make this script executable for all users by entering
chmod -v a+x /usr/local/myprinterfilter/
chmod -v a+rx /usr/local/myprinterfilter/asciifilter
Now use lprsetup to create a new print queue (enter lprsetup --help to
see what the options do). The queue name used in our example is af, for “ascii
filter.”
lprsetup -add af -lprng -device /dev/lp0 -raw -sf
In the af entry of /etc/printcap, look for the if
line and replace /usr/lib/lpdfilter/bin/if with
/usr/local/myprinterfilter/asciifilter such that the complete af entry looks similar to File A Sample Custom Print Filter on the current
page.
af:\
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4.10. Custom Print Filters for the LPRng Spooler
File 20: /etc/printcap: Custom Filter Entry
4
Printer Operation
:cm=lpdfilter drv= method=raw color=no:\
:lp=/dev/lp0:\
:sd=/var/spool/lpd/af:\
:lf=/var/spool/lpd/af/log:\
:af=/var/spool/lpd/af/acct:\
:if=/usr/local/myprinterfilter/asciifilter:\
:[email protected]:mx\#0:\
:tr=:cl:sh:
Finally, stop then restart the print spooler with rclpd stop and
rclpd start. From now on, every user should be able to print through the
new af queue with the command lpr -Paf ascii-file.
4.11
The CUPS Printing System
Naming Conventions
Client or client program refers to a program that sends print jobs to a print daemon. A print daemon is a local service that accepts print jobs either to forward
them or to process them locally. Server refers to a daemon able to deliver print
data to one or more printers. Each server functions as a daemon at the same
time. In most cases, however, there is no special distinction to make between
a server and a daemon, neither from the developer or from the user standpoint.
IPP and Server
Print jobs are sent to servers by CUPS-based programs, such as lpr, kprinter,
or xpp, and with the help of the Internet Printing Protocol, IPP. IPP is defined in
RFC-2910 and RFC-2911 (see http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc.html).
IPP is somewhat similar to HTTP with identical headers but different content
data. It also uses its own dedicated communication port 631, which has been
registered with IANA (the Internet Authority for Number Allocation).
Print data is transferred to a CUPS daemon, which is also acting as a local server
in most cases. Other daemons can be addressed using the environment variable
CUPS_SERVER.
With the help of the broadcast function of the CUPS daemon, locally managed
printers can be made available elsewhere in the network (using UDP port 631).
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They then appear as print queues on all other daemons configured to accept and
use these broadcast packets. This makes it possible to “see” printers on other
hosts after booting without configuring them locally, something that may be
quite useful in corporate networks. On the other hand, this feature may pose
a security risk if the host is connected to the Internet. When enabling printer
broadcasting, make sure the daemon broadcasts into the local network only, access is limited to clients on the LAN, and the public IP address (the one used for
the Internet connection) is not within the local IP range. Otherwise, remote users
relying on the same ISP would be able to “see” and use the broadcast printers
as well. In addition to that, such broadcasts mean more network traffic so may
increase connection costs. Prevent a local printer from broadcasting IPP packets
into the Internet by configuring the SuSEfirewall accordingly. No extra configuration is needed to receive broadcast IPP packets. A broadcast address must
only be specified for outgoing print jobs. This may be configured with YaST2, for
example.
IPP is used for the communication between a local and a remote CUPS daemon
or server. More recent network printers also have built-in support for this protocol (there are a number of models from different makers). Find more information about this on the web pages of manufacturers or in your printer’s manual.
IPP is also supported by Windows 2000 and newer Microsoft systems, although
originally the implementation was somewhat flawed. These problems may have
disappeared or it may be necessary to install a Service Pack to repair them.
Configuration of a CUPS Server
There are many ways to set up a printer with CUPS and to configure the daemon: with command-line tools, with YaST2, with the KDE Control Center, or
even through a web browser interface. The following sections are limited to the
command-line tools and YaST2.
Caution
When using the web browser interface for CUPS configuration, be aware
that there is a risk of compromising the root password. The password
will be transmitted as plain text if the URL specified includes the real host
name. Therefore, you should always use http://localhost:631/ as
the host address.
Caution
For the above reason, the CUPS daemon can only be accessed for administration
if addressed as localhost (which is identical to the IP address 127.0.0.1) by
default. Entering a different address returns an error message, even if it is valid.
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4.11. The CUPS Printing System
PPD (PostScript Printer Description) files contain options for printer models in
the form of a standard set of PostScript commands. They are required for printer
installation under CUPS. SuSE Linux comes with precompiled PPD files for
many printers from a number of manufacturers. Manufacturers may also offer
PPD files for their PostScript printers on web sites and installation CDs (often in
an area called something like “Windows NT Installation”).
4
Printer Operation
To configure a locally connected printer, first set up a CUPS daemon on
the local host. To do so, install package cups together with the PPD files
provided by SuSE as included in package cups-drivers and package
cups-drivers-stp. After that, start the server as root with the command
/etc/rc.d/cups restart. If you configure it with YaST2, the above steps
are already covered by selecting CUPS as the printing system and installing a
printer.
The local daemon can also b started so printers of all broadcasting servers are
available locally, although there is no local printer. This facilitates the use of
these printers from within KDE applications and OpenOffice.org, for example.
Broadcasting can be enabled either with YaST2. Alternatively, enable it by setting the Browsing directive to On (the default) and the BrowseAddress directive to a sensible value, like 192.168.255.255, in the file /etc/cups/
cupsd.conf. After that, tell the CUPS daemon explicitly to grant access to incoming packets, either under <Location /printers> or, preferably, under
<Location />, where you would have to include a line like Allow From
some-host.mydomain (see file:/usr/share/doc/packages/cups/
sam.html). When finished editing the file, tell the daemon to reread its configuration by entering the command /etc/rc.d/cups reload as root.
Network Printers
Network printers are printers that have a built-in print server interface (such
as the JetDirect interface in some HP printers) or printers connected to a print
server box or a router box enabled as a print server. Windows machines offering printer shares are not print servers in the strict sense (although CUPS can
handle them easily in a way similar to print servers).
In most cases, a network printer supports the LPD protocol, which uses port 515
for communication. Check lpd availability with the command:
netcat -z hostname.domain 515 && echo ok || echo failed
If such a server is available, CUPS can be configured to access it under a device
URI, an address in the form lpd://server/queue. Read about the concept of
device URIs in file:/usr/share/doc/packages/cups/sam.html.
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However, you should probably not use the LPD protocol for a network printer,
but rather the printer’s built-in port 9100 if available (HP, Kyocera, and many
others) or port 35 (QMS). In this case, the device URI must have the form
socket://server:port/.
To use printers made available through Windows, install package
samba-client first and configure this package — enable the correct work
group and make other settings. A device URI for Windows printers may be
specified in several ways, but the most frequent one has the syntax smb:
//user:[email protected]/printer. For other configurations, see file:
/usr/share/doc/packages/cups/sam.html and the man page for
smbspool (man smbspool).
If you have a small network consisting of several (Linux) machines and have set
up a print server for it, avoid configuring the printer for each and every client
host by enabling the broadcast function of the daemon (see above). Thus, when
you modify the configuration (for instance, to use the new standard paper size
Letter), it is sufficient to do this once on the server side (also see Specifying
Options for Queues on page 158). Although the configuration is saved locally on
the server side, it is propagated to all clients in the network with the help of the
CUPS tools and the IPP protocol.
Internal CUPS Print Job Processing
Conversion into PostScript
Basically the CUPS daemon should be able to handle any file type, although
PostScript is always the safest bet. CUPS processes non-PostScript files by identifying the file type according to /etc/cups/mime.types first then converting the file into PostScript by calling the appropriate conversion tool for it as
defined in /etc/cups/mime.convs. With CUPS, files are converted into
PostScript on the server side rather than on the client side. This feature was introduced to ensure that special conversion operations necessary for a particular
printer model are only performed on the corresponding server machine.
Accounting
After conversion into PostScript, CUPS calculates the number of pages for each
print job. This is done with the help of pstops (an internal version of the program located at /usr/lib/cups/filter/pstops). The accounting data for
print jobs are written to /var/log/cups/page_log. Each line in this file contains the following information:
printer name (for example, lp)
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4.11. The CUPS Printing System
user name (for example, root)
date and time (in square brackets)
current page number
number of copies
Other Filtering Programs
Printer Operation
job number
4
CUPS can also use other, special filters, if the corresponding printing options
have been enabled. These are the most important ones:
psselect
Allows limiting the printout to certain pages of a document.
ps-n-up
Allows printing several pages on one sheet.
Read file:/usr/share/doc/packages/cups/sum.html for information
about how to enable the various options.
Conversion into the Printer-Specific Language
The next step is the launch of the filter needed for generating printer-specific
data. These filters are located in /usr/lib/cups/filter/. The suitable filter
is determined in the PPD file in the *cupsFilter entry. If this entry does not
exist, the print system assumes that the printer is a PostScript model. All devicespecific printing options, such as the resolution and paper size, are processed in
this filter.
Writing a custom printer-specific filter script is not a trivial task. It is therefore
best left to a specialist.
Transferring Data to the Printer
As the final step, CUPS calls one of its back-ends. A back-end is a special filter
that transfers print data to a device or to a network printer (see file:/usr/
share/doc/packages/cups/overview.html). The back-end maintains
the communication with the device or network printer (as specified through a
device URI during configuration). If the back-end is usb, for example, CUPS
runs /usr/lib/cups/backend/usb, which in turn opens (and locks) the corresponding USB device file, initializes it, and passes the data coming from the
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print filter. When the job is finished, the back-end closes the device and unlocks
it.
The following back-ends are currently available: parallel, serial, usb,
ipp, lpd, http, socket (included in package cups). Also available are
canon and epson, included in cups-drivers-stp, and smb, included in
samba-client.
Filterless Printing
To print files without any filtering, use the lpr command with -l or use the
lp command with the -oraw option. Usually, the printout will not work, as no
printer-specific conversion is performed or other important filters are omitted.
The options are similar for other CUPS tools.
Tips and Tricks
OpenOffice.org
When printing from OpenOffice.org applications, CUPS is supported such that
a running CUPS daemon is autodetected and queried for available printers and
options (this is different from StarOffice 5.2, where it was still necessary to perform a setup for each printer). An extra CUPS setup from within OpenOffice.org
should not be necessary.
Printing to or from Windows
Printers connected to a Windows machine can be addressed through a device
URI, such as smb://server/printer. To print from a Windows machine to a
CUPS server, set the entries printing = CUPS and printcap name = CUPS
in the Samba configuration file /etc/samba/smb.conf (this is preset in SuSE
Linux). Following modifications in /etc/samba/smb.conf, the Samba server
must be restarted. See file:/usr/share/doc/packages/cups/sam.html
for details.
Setting up a Raw Printer
A raw printer can be set up by leaving out the PPD file during configuration,
which effectively removes all filtering and accounting features from CUPS. For
this purpose, the data must be sent in the printer-specific data format.
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4.11. The CUPS Printing System
4
Custom Printer Options
Compatibility with LPR
Printer Operation
The configuration options, such as a different default resolution, can be
modified and saved for each user. The configuration is saved in the file ~/
.lpoptions. If such a reconfigured printer is removed on the server side, it
will still be visible in various tools, such as kprinter and xpp. You can still select it even if it no longer exists, which causes problems. Experienced users can
easily remove the superfluous lines from ~/.lpoptions with an editor. Refer
to the Support Database article Print Settings with CUPS.
CUPS can be configured to accept print jobs from LPR-type printing systems.
Either use YaST2 to make the necessary changes to /etc/inetd.conf or use
some other means to remove the comment signs from the beginning of the
printer line in /etc/inetd.conf. To switch back to LPRng, reinsert the
comment sign.
Troubleshooting in CUPS
By default, the configuration file /etc/cups/cupsd.conf contains the following section:
# LogLevel: controls the number of messages
# logged to the ErrorLog file
# and can be one of the following:
#
#
debug2
Log everything.
#
debug
Log almost everything.
#
info
Log all requests and state changes.
#
warn
Log errors and warnings.
#
error
Log only errors.
#
none
Log nothing.
#
LogLevel info
To detect errors in CUPS, set LogLevel debug and use rccups reload to
have cupsd use the modified configuration file. Subsequently, /var/log/
cups/error_log will contain detailed messages that assist in detecting the
cause of problems.
With the following command print a label before starting to run the test:
echo "LABEL $(date)" | tee -a /var/log/cups/error_log
This label will be entered in /var/log/cups/error_log. This makes it easier
to find the messages after the test.
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4.12
Printing from Applications
Applications use the existing queues for printing from the command line. In
applications, printer options are not configured directly, but rather through the
existing queues.
Because package cups-client includes some command-line tools to print
with CUPS, such as lpr command, applications can use the lpr command for
printing (e. g., lpr -Plp or lpr -Pcolor). However, to be able to enter print
commands, the print dialog in KDE has to be set to ‘Print through an external
program’. See Quick Configuration of a Client Machine on page 175.
In addition, there are several graphical tools for CUPS, such as xpp or the KDE
program kprinter, which allow you to choose among queues and to change
both CUPS standard options and printer-specific options as made available
through the PPD file. To use kprinter as the uniform print dialog for various applications, enter the print command kprinter or kprinter -stdin in the
print dialog of the applications. The selection of the print command depends
on the application. By doing this, the kprinter dialog will be displayed after the
print dialog of the application, allowing you to specify the queue and other options. When using this approach, make sure there is no conflict between the settings in the print dialog of the application and those in kprinter. If possible, the
settings should only be specified in kprinter.
4.13 Command-Line Tools for the CUPS
Printing System
The command-line tools of the CUPS printing system and their manual pages
are included in package cups-client. Further documentation is provided
by the package cups and installed in /usr/share/doc/packages/cups,
in particular the CUPS Software Users Manual, found at /usr/share/doc/
packages/cups/sum.html and the CUPS Software Administrators Manual
at /usr/share/doc/packages/cups/sam.html. If a CUPS daemon runs
locally on your host, you should also be able to access the documentation at
http://localhost:631/documentation.html.
As a general rule, it is useful to remember that CUPS command-line tools sometimes require options be supplied in a certain order. Consult the corresponding
manual pages if you are unsure about specific options.
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4.12. Printing from Applications
Managing Local Queues
To print a file, enter the “System V style” print command
lp -d hqueuenamei hfilei or a “Berkeley style” command like
lpr -Phqueuenamei hfilei.
Additional information can be obtained with the man page for lpr
(man lpr) and the man page for lp (man lp), as well as in the section “Using the Printing System” of the CUPS Software Users Manual
(file:/usr/share/doc/packages/cups/sum.html#USING_SYSTEM).
Printer Operation
Printing Files
4
The -o parameter allows specification of a number of important options, some
of which directly influence the type of printout. More information is available
in the man page for lpr (man lpr) and the man page for lp (man lp) as well
as in the section “Standard Printer Options” of the CUPS Software Users Manual
(file:/usr/share/doc/packages/cups/sum.html#STANDARD_OPTIONS).
Checking the Status
To check the status of a queue, enter the “System V style” command
lpstat -o hqueuenamei -p hqueuenamei or the “Berkeley style” command lpq -Phqueuenamei.
If you do not specify a queue name, the commands will display information on
all queues. With lpstat -o, the output will show all active print jobs in the
form of a hqueuenamei-hjobnumberi listing.
With lpstat -l -o hqueuenamei -p hqueuenamei, the output is more
verbose. lpstat -t or lpstat -l -t displays the maximum amount of
available information.
For additional information, consult the man page for lpq (man lpq),
the man page for lpstat (man lpstat), and the section “Using the Printing System” of the CUPS Software Users Manual
(file:/usr/share/doc/packages/cups/sum.html#USING_SYSTEM).
Removing Jobs from the Queue
Enter the “System V style” command cancel hqueuenamei-hqueuenamei
or the “Berkeley style” command lprm -Phqueuenamei hqueuenamei
to remove the job with the specified number from the specified
queue. For additional information, consult the man page for lprm
(man lprm), the man page for cancel (man cancel), and the section “Using the Printing System” of the CUPS Software Users Manual
(file:/usr/share/doc/packages/cups/sum.html#USING_SYSTEM).
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Specifying Options for Queues
To see how to specify hardware-independent options
that affect the type of printout, read the section “Standard Printer Options” in the CUPS Software Users Manual
(file:/usr/share/doc/packages/cups/sum.html#STANDARD_OPTIONS).
The section “Saving Printer Options and Defaults”, which is found at
file:/usr/share/doc/packages/cups/sum.html#SAVING_OPTIONS, explains
how to save option settings.
Printer-specific options affecting the type of printout are stored in the
PPD file for the queue in question. They can be listed with the command
lpoptions -p hqueuenamei -l. The output has the following form:
option/text: value value value ...
The currently active setting is marked with an asterisk (‘*’) to the left, for example:
PageSize/Page Size: A3 *A4 A5 Legal Letter
Resolution/Resolution: 150 *300 600
According to the above output, the PageSize is set to A4 and the Resolution
to 300 dpi.
The command lpoptions -p hqueuenamei -o option=value changes
the value for the given option.
With the above sample settings in mind, use the command
lpoptions -p hqueuenamei -o PageSize=Letter to set the paper
size for the specified queue to .
If the above lpoptions command is entered by a normal user, the new settings
are stored for that user only in the file ~/.lpoptions.
By contrast, if the lpoptions command is entered by root, the settings specified are stored in /etc/cups/lpoptions and become the default for all local
users of the queue. The PPD file is not touched by this, however.
If (and only if) you change the contents of a PPD file for a given queue, the new
settings apply to all users in the local network who print through this queue.
The system administrator can change the defaults of a PPD file with a command
like:
lpadmin -p hqueuenamei -o PageSize=Letter
For more information, refer to the Support knowledgebase article Print Settings
with CUPS.
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4.13. Command-Line Tools for the CUPS Printing System
Managing Remote Queues
This section merely covers the basic commands. Additional options and information sources are referred to in Managing Local Queues on page 157.
Printing Files
You can use the “System V style” command
lp -d hqueuenamei -h hprintserver i hfilei to generate a print
job for the specified queue on the specified print server This is only possible if
the print server was configured to accept remote print jobs on its queues. This is
not enabled by default in CUPS, but can easily be configured in the CUPS server
settings in a submenu of the YaST2 printer configuration module.
Printer Operation
For each of the commands explained below, replace hprintserveri with the name
or IP address of your print server. hqueuenamei must be a queue on the print
server.
4
Checking the Status
Check the status of a queue on the print server with the “System V style” command lpstat -h hprintserver i -o hqueuenamei -p hqueuenamei.
Removing Jobs from the Queue
The “System V style” command
cancel -h hprintserver i hqueuenamei-hjobnumber i removes the
print job with the specified job number from the specified queue on the print
server.
Using Command-Line Tools for CUPS Troubleshooting
In the case of a broken print job, the troubleshooting procedure is basically the same as the one described in Using Command-Line Tools for LPRng
Troubleshooting on page 135, with the difference that CUPS requires different
commands for the second step:
1. Remove all paper from the printer so the printer stops working.
2. Check which queue is currently printing by entering lpstat -o
(or lpstat -h hprintserver i -o) then remove the problematic print job with cancel hqueuenamei-hjobnumber i (or with
cancel -h hprintserver i hqueuenamei-hjobnumber i).
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3. If necessary, use the fuser command to kill leftover programs.
4. Do a complete reset of the printer.
4.14
Working with Ghostscript
Ghostscript is a program that accepts PostScript and PDF files as input then converts them into several other formats. Ghostscript includes a number of drivers
to achieve this. These are sometimes also referred to as “devices.”
Ghostscript converts files in two steps:
1. PostScript data is rasterized — the graphical image is broken into a finegrained raster of pixel dots. This step is performed independently from
the Ghostscript driver used later. The finer the raster (the higher the resolution), the higher the output quality. On the other hand, doubling the
resolution both horizontally and vertically (for example) means that the
number of pixels must quadruple. Accordingly, the computer needs four
times the CPU time and amount of memory to double the resolution.
2. The dot matrix that makes up the image is converted into the desired
format (a printer language, for example) with the help of a Ghostscript
driver.
Ghostscript can also process PostScript files to display them on screen or convert them into PDF documents. To display PostScript files on screen, you should
probably use the program gv (rather than relying on bare Ghostscript commands), which gives a more convenient graphical interface.
Ghostscript is a very big program package and has a number of commandline options. Apart from the information available with the the man page
for gs (man gs), the most important part of the documentation is the list of
Ghostscript drivers, which is found in:
/usr/share/doc/packages/ghostscript/catalog.devices
and the files:
file:/usr/share/doc/packages/ghostscript/doc/index.html
file:/usr/share/doc/packages/ghostscript/doc/Use.htm
file:/usr/share/doc/packages/ghostscript/doc/Devices.htm
file:/usr/share/doc/packages/ghostscript/doc/hpdj/gs-hpdj.txt
file:/usr/share/doc/packages/ghostscript/doc/hpijs/hpijs_readme.html
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4.14. Working with Ghostscript
file:/usr/share/doc/packages/ghostscript/doc/stp/README
If you enter gs -h, Ghostscript displays its most important options and lists
the available drivers. This listing, however, only includes generic driver names,
even for drivers that support many different models, such as uniprint or stp.
The parameter files for uniprint and the models supported by stp are explicitly named in file:/usr/share/doc/packages/ghostscript/catalog.devices.
Sample Operations with Ghostscript
Printer Operation
When executed from the command line, Ghostscript processes any options then
presents its own GS> prompt. Exit from this dialog mode by entering quit.
4
Find a number of PostScript examples in the directory file:/usr/share/
doc/packages/ghostscript/examples. The color circle in file:/usr/
share/doc/packages/ghostscript/examples/colorcir.ps is well
suited for test printouts.
Displaying PostScript under X
Under X, the graphical environment, use gs to view a PostScript file on screen.
To do so, enter the following command as a single line, omitting the backslash
(‘\’):
gs -r60
/usr/share/doc/packages/ghostscript/examples/colorcir.ps
In the above command, the -r option specifies the resolution, which must be
appropriate for the output device (printer or screen). Test the effect of this option by specifying a different value, for example, -r30. To close the PostScript
window, press Ctrl +
C
in the terminal window from which gs was started.
Conversion into PCL5e
The conversion of a PostScript file into the printer-specific format of a PCL5e or
PCL6 printer can be achieved with a command like
gs -q -dNOPAUSE -dSAFER -sOutputFile=/tmp/out.prn \
-sDEVICE=ljet4 -r300x300 \
/usr/share/doc/packages/ghostscript/examples/colorcir.ps \
quit.ps
Again, the command must be entered as a single line and without any backslash
(‘\’). With this command, it is assumed that the file /tmp/out.prn does not
exist yet.
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Conversion into PCL3
To convert a PostScript file into the printer-specific format of a PCL3 printer,
enter one of the following commands:
gs -q -dNOPAUSE -dSAFER -sOutputFile=/tmp/out.prn \
-sDEVICE=deskjet -r300x300 \
/usr/share/doc/packages/ghostscript/examples/colorcir.ps \
quit.ps
gs -q -dNOPAUSE -dSAFER -sOutputFile=/tmp/out.prn \
-sDEVICE=hpdj -r300x300 \
-sModel=500 -sColorMode=mono -dCompressionMethod=0 \
/usr/share/doc/packages/ghostscript/examples/colorcir.ps \
quit.ps
gs -q -dNOPAUSE -dSAFER -sOutputFile=/tmp/out.prn \
-sDEVICE=cdjmono -r300x300 \
/usr/share/doc/packages/ghostscript/examples/colorcir.ps \
quit.ps
gs -q -dNOPAUSE -dSAFER -sOutputFile=/tmp/out.prn \
-sDEVICE=cdj500 -r300x300 \
/usr/share/doc/packages/ghostscript/examples/colorcir.ps \
quit.ps
gs -q -dNOPAUSE -dSAFER -sOutputFile=/tmp/out.prn \
-sDEVICE=cdj550 -r300x300 \
/usr/share/doc/packages/ghostscript/examples/colorcir.ps \
quit.ps
Again, each of the above commands must be entered as a single line, without
the backslashes.
Conversion into ESC/P, ESC/P2, or ESC/P Raster
These are some sample commands to convert a PostScript file into the printerspecific format of an ESC/P2, ESC/P, or ESC/P raster printer.
gs -q -dNOPAUSE -dSAFER -sOutputFile=/tmp/out.prn \
@stcany.upp \
/usr/share/doc/packages/ghostscript/examples/colorcir.ps \
quit.ps
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4.14. Working with Ghostscript
The above commands also show that the uniprint Ghostscript driver, which
is called through a parameter file (stcany.upp in our example), requires a different command syntax than “regular” Ghostscript drivers. Because all driver
options are stored in the uniprint parameter file, they do not have to be specified on the Ghostscript command line itself.
4
Printer Operation
gs -q -dNOPAUSE -dSAFER -sOutputFile=/tmp/out.prn \
-sDEVICE=stcolor -r360x360 \
-dBitsPerPixel=1 -sDithering=gsmono -dnoWeave \
-sOutputCode=plain \
/usr/share/doc/packages/ghostscript/examples/colorcir.ps \
quit.ps
Sending the Output Directly to the Printer
With each of the above commands, the output is written in the corresponding
printer language and stored in the file /tmp/out.prn. This file can be sent directly to the printer by root without the use of a print spooler or any filtering.
For a printer connected to the first parallel port, this can be achieved with the
command cat /tmp/out.prn >/dev/lp0.
Processing PostScript and PDF Files
Ghostscript can generate PostScript and PDF files, convert both formats to each
other, and even merge PostScript and PDF files in mixed order.
Conversion from PostScript to PDF:
gs -q -dNOPAUSE -dSAFER \
-sOutputFile=/tmp/colorcir.pdf -sDEVICE=pdfwrite \
/usr/share/doc/packages/ghostscript/examples/colorcir.ps \
quit.ps
Conversion of the generated PDF file /tmp/colorcir.pdf to PostScript:
gs -q -dNOPAUSE -dSAFER \
-sOutputFile=/tmp/colorcir.ps -sDEVICE=pswrite \
/tmp/colorcir.pdf quit.ps
Following the reconversion from PDF to PostScript, the file /tmp/colorcir.
ps does not match the original file /usr/share/doc/packages/
ghostscript/examples/colorcir.ps. However, there should be no visible difference in the printout.
Merging PostScript and PDF files into a PostScript file:
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gs -q -dNOPAUSE -dSAFER -sOutputFile=/tmp/out.ps \
-sDEVICE=pswrite \
/usr/share/doc/packages/ghostscript/examples/escher.ps \
/tmp/colorcir.pdf quit.ps
Merging PostScript and PDF files into a PDF file:
gs -q -dNOPAUSE -dSAFER -sOutputFile=/tmp/out.pdf \
-sDEVICE=pdfwrite /tmp/out.ps \
/usr/share/doc/packages/ghostscript/examples/golfer.ps \
/tmp/colorcir.pdf quit.ps
Depending on the files you use, it may not be possible to merge some PostScript
and PDF files.
4.15
Working with a2ps
Before an ASCII file can be printed through Ghostscript, it needs to be converted
into PostScript, because this is the input format that Ghostscript expects. This
conversion can be achieved with a2ps (package a2ps package). As package
a2ps is not installed by default, you will normally have to install it yourself.
The a2ps program is a powerful, versatile tool that lets you convert simple text
files into high-quality PostScript output. It has a large number of command-line
options. Learn about these in the man page for a2ps (man a2ps) or read the
full documentation of a2ps as an info page.
Sample Operations with a2ps
Using a2ps to Prepare a Text File for Printing
As a first example, a2ps can be used to convert a text file into PostScript, with
two pages scaled down so they fit on one sheet. This can be achieved with the
command:
a2ps -2 --medium=A4dj --output=/tmp/out.ps textfile
The output of a2ps can then be displayed under X with
gs -r60 /tmp/out.ps
to get a preview of the printout. If the printout is more than one sheet, hit ↵ in the terminal window from which gs was started to scroll down to the next
Ctrl +
C
.
page. To exit gs, enter 164
4.15. Working with a2ps
Take the output of a2ps and convert it into your printer’s language by entering:
In the above command, specify your own driver parameters under
hdriverparametersi as described in the previous section.
As root, you can send the output of Ghostscript directly to the printer without
relying on a spooler or any further filtering with the command
cat /tmp/out.prn >/dev/lp0
Printer Operation
gs -q -dNOPAUSE -dSAFER -sOutputFile=/tmp/out.prn
hdriverparameter i /tmp/out.ps quit.ps
4
It is assumed here that the printer is connected to the first parallel port (/dev/
lp0).
Printing Business Cards
To demonstrate the possibilities of a2ps, this section shows how to use the program to make and print a stack of simple business cards. First, create a plain text
file called card that contains the necessary data as shown in File Printing Business Cards on this page.
Title FirstName LastName
Street
PostalCode City
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: AreaCode-Number-Extension
File 21: card: Business Card Data File
Append a form feed character () to this to ensure that a2ps treats each card as
an individual page.
echo -en "\f" >>card
Now, multiply the contents of the file to have a set of ten cards in one cards
file:
for i in $(seq 1 10) ; do cat card >>cards ; done
Find out how many characters the longest line of cards contains.
wc -L cards
Now do the actual PostScript conversion. We want ten cards per sheet printed
in two columns with five cards each with a box or frame around them. We also
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want to use the maximum font size as allowed by the longest line and no additional header or footer lines. All this can be done with the command:
a2ps -i -j -R --medium=a4dj --columns=2 --rows=5 \
--no-header --chars-per-line=hnumber i \
--output=cards.ps cards
This command must be entered on a single line without the backslash (‘\’). For
number, fill in the number of characters in the longest line as determined above,
increased by one.
Finally, preview the printout with gs -r60 cards.ps then send the output
to the printer as described in the previous section. Alternatively, print the file in
the normal way with lpr card.ps.
4.16
Reformatting PostScript with psutils
To use one of the reformatting programs described below, generate a PostScript
input file by printing to a file, such as /tmp/in.ps, from within an application.
Check with file /tmp/in.ps to see whether the generated file is really in
PostScript format.
The package psutils includes a number of programs to reformat PostScript
documents. The program pstops, in particular, allows you to perform extensive transformations. Details can be obtained in the man page for pstops
(man pstops). The package psutils is not included in the standard setup of
SuSE Linux, so you may need to install it.
The following commands only work if the application program has created a
PostScript file appropriate for such reformatting operations. This should mostly
be the case, but there are some applications that cannot generate PostScript files
in the required way.
psnup
The command psnup -2 /tmp/in.ps /tmp/out.ps takes /tmp/in.ps as
its input and transforms it into the output file /tmp/out.ps in such a way that
two pages are printed side by side on one sheet. However, with the contents of
two pages being included on one, the complexity of the resulting document is
much higher and some PostScript printers may fail to print it, especially if they
are equipped with only a small amount of standard memory.
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4.16. Reformatting PostScript with psutils
4
pstops
pstops ’1:[email protected](2cm,3cm)’ /tmp/in.ps /tmp/out.ps
This command scales the document by a factor of 0.8, which effectively scales
down an A4 page from about 21x30 cm to about 17x24 cm. This, in turn, leaves
an additional margin of about 4 cm on the right and 6 cm on the top. Therefore,
the document is also shifted by 2 cm towards the right and 3 cm towards the top
to get roughly the same margins everywhere.
Printer Operation
The program pstops allows you to change the size and positioning of
PostScript documents:
This pstops command shrinks the page by quite an amount and also provides
for relatively wide margins, so it should generate a page that is almost always
printable — even with those applications that are far too optimistic about the
limits set by your printer. You can use a command like the above for those cases
where the application’s printer output in /etc/in.ps is too large for the printable area.
As another example:
pstops ’1:[email protected](2cm,3cm)’ /tmp/in.ps /tmp/out1.ps psnup -2
/tmp/out1.ps /tmp/out.ps
These commands place two heavily scaled-down pages on one sheet, leaving
quite a lot of space between them. To improve this, include instructions to position each of the pages individually:
pstops ’2:[email protected](20cm,2cm)[email protected](20cm,15cm)’
/tmp/out.ps
/tmp/in.ps
The above command must be entered as a single line without the ‘\’.
The following is a step-by-step explanation of the page specifications as expressed by pstops ’2:[email protected](20cm,2cm)[email protected](20cm,15cm)’:
2:0 ... +1
Two pages are merged into one and pages are counted modulo 2, which
means that the pages modulo 2 are alternately counted as page 0 (modulo
2) and page 1 (modulo 2).
[email protected](20cm,2cm)
Pages with the logical number 0 are turned to the left by 90 degrees and
scaled down by a factor of 0.6. They are then shifted to the right by 20 cm
and to the top by 2 cm.
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[email protected](20cm,15cm)
To match the above reformatting, pages with the logical number 1 are
turned to the left by 90 degrees, and scaled down by a factor of 0.6. They
are then shifted to the right by 20 cm and to the top by 15 cm.
Visualization of the pstops Example
In the case of PostScript files, the origin of coordinates is located in the bottom
left corner of a page in normal position, as indicated by the ‘+’.
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4.16. Reformatting PostScript with psutils
This is a page with the logical number 0, which has three lines of text:
4
Printer Operation
After turning it to the left by 90 degrees, it looks like:
Now, scale it by a factor of 0.6:
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Finally, move it to the right by 20 cm and up by 2 cm:
This is merged with the page that has the logical number 1, with two lines of
text on it:
Now page 1 ist turned by 90 degrees to the left:
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4.16. Reformatting PostScript with psutils
After scaling by faktor 0.6, it looks like this:
4
Printer Operation
To finish up, page 1 is moved 20 cm to the right and 15 cm on the top:
psselect
psselect enables the selection of individual pages. With
psselect -p2-5 /tmp/in.ps /tmp/out.ps, pages 2, 3, 4, and 5 are
selected from /tmp/in.ps and written to /tmp/out.ps. The command
psselect -p-3 /tmp/in.ps /tmp/out.ps selects all pages up to page 3.
The command psselect -r -p4- /tmp/in.ps /tmp/out.ps selects the
pages from page 4 to the last page and prints them in reverse order.
Using Ghostscript to View the Output
On a graphical display, the PostScript file /tmp/out.ps can be viewed with
in the termigs -r60 /tmp/out.ps. Scroll through the pages by pressing ↵ nal window from which you started Ghostscript. Terminate with Ctrl +
C
.
As a graphical front-end for Ghostscript, use gv. To view the above-mentioned
output file, for example, enter gv /tmp/out.ps. The program is especially
useful whenever there is a need to zoom in or out on a document or to view it
in landscape orientation (although this has no effect on the file contents). It can
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also be used to select individual pages, which can then be printed directly from
within gv.
4.17 ASCII Text Encoding
In plain text files, each character is represented as a certain numeric code. Characters and their matching codes are defined in code tables. Depending on the
code tables used by an application and by the print filter, the same code may be
represented as one character on the screen and as another one when printed.
Standard character sets only comprise the range from code 0 to code 255. Of
these, codes 0 through 127 represent the pure ASCII set, which is identical for
every encoding. It comprises all “normal” letters as well as digits and some special characters, but none of the country-specific special characters. Codes 128
through 255 of the ASCII set are reserved for country-specific special characters,
such as umlauts.
However, the number of special characters in different languages is much larger
than 128. Therefore, codes 128 to 255 are not the same for each country. Rather,
the same code may represent different country-specific characters, depending
on the language used.
The codes for Western European languages are defined by ISO-8859-1 (also
called Latin 1). The ISO-8859-2 encoding (Latin 2) defines the character sets for
Central and Eastern European languages. Code 241 (octal), for example, is defined as the (Spanish) inverted exclamation mark in ISO-8859-1, but the same
code 241 is defined as an uppercase A with an ogonek in ISO-8859-2. The ISO8859-15 encoding is basically the same as ISO-8859-1, but, among other things, it
includes the Euro currency sign, defined as code 244 (octal).
A Sample Text
The commands below must be entered as a single line without any of the backslashes (‘\’) at the end of displayed lines.
Create a sample text file with:
echo -en "\rCode 241(octal): " \
"\241\r\nCode 244(octal): \244\r\f" >example
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4.17. ASCII Text Encoding
Visualizing the Sample with Different Encodings
xterm -fn -*-*-*-*-*-*-14-*-*-*-*-*-iso8859-1 -title iso8859-1 \&
xterm -fn -*-*-*-*-*-*-14-*-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15 -title iso8859-15 \&
xterm -fn -*-*-*-*-*-*-14-*-*-*-*-*-iso8859-2 -title iso8859-2 \&
Use the terminals to display the sample file in each of them with cat example.
The “iso8859-1” terminal should display code 241 as the inverted (Spanish) exclamation mark and code 244 as the general currency symbol.
The “iso8859-15” terminal should display code 241 as the inverted (Spanish)
exclamation mark and code 244 as the Euro symbol.
The “iso8859-2” terminal should display code 241 as an uppercase A with an
ogonek and code 244 as the general currency symbol.
Due to the fact that character encodings are defined as fixed sets, it is not possible to combine all the different country-specific characters with each other in an
arbitrary way. For example, the A with an ogonek cannot be used together with
the Euro symbol in the same text file.
To obtain more information (including a correct representation of each character), consult the corresponding man page in each terminal — the man page for
iso_8859-1 (man iso_8859-1) in the “iso8859-1” terminal, the man page for
iso_8859-15 (man iso_8859-15) in the “iso8859-15” terminal, and the man
page for iso_8859-2 (man iso_8859-2) in the “iso8859-2” terminal.
Printer Operation
Under X, enter these commands to open three terminals:
4
Printing the Sample with Different Encodings
When printed, ASCII text files, such as the example file, are treated in a similar
way according to the encoding set for the print queue used. However, word
processor documents should not be affected by this, because their print output
is in PostScript format (not ASCII).
Consequently, when printing the above example file, characters are represented
according to the encoding set for ASCII files in your printing system. You can
also convert the text file into PostScript beforehand to change the character encoding as needed. The following a2ps commands achieve this for the example
file:
a2ps -1 -X ISO-8859-1 -o example-ISO-8859-1.ps example
a2ps -1 -X ISO-8859-15 -o example-ISO-8859-15.ps example
a2ps -1 -X ISO-8859-2 -o example-ISO-8859-2.ps example
When printing the files example-ISO-8859-1.ps,
example-ISO-8859-15.ps, and example-ISO-8859-2.ps, the files
are printed with the encoding determined with a2ps.
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4.18
Printing in a TCP/IP Network
Find extensive documentation about the LPRng printing system in the LPRngHowto in /usr/share/doc/packages/lprng/LPRng-HOWTO.html and on
the CUPS printing system in the CUPS Software Administrators Manual in /usr/
share/doc/packages/cups/sam.html.
Terminology
print server
Print server refers to a complete, dedicated printing host with the required
CPU power, memory, and hard disk space.
Print server box or network printer
Print server box refers to a computer with relatively limited resources,
which is equipped with both a TCP/IP network link and a local
printer port. This includes “router boxes” with a built-in printer port.
A network printer is a printer device with its own TCP/IP port. Basically, it is a printer with an integrated print server box. Network
printers and print server boxes are handled in essentially the same
way.
There is an important distinction to be made between a network printer
or a print server box on the one hand and a true print server on the other.
As a somewhat special case, there are large printer devices that have a
complete print server included with them to make them network-capable.
These are treated like print servers because clients will talk to the printer
only through the server and not directly.
LPD server
An LPD server is a print server that is addressed with the LPD protocol.
This is the case if the print server runs the LPRng and lpdfilter print
system (lpd, to be precise) or the CUPS print system configured in a way
that the machine can be addressed with the LPD protocol.
IPP server or CUPS server
An “IPP server” or CUPS server is a print server that is addressed with
the IPP protocol. This is the case if the print server runs the CUPS print
system (cupsd, to be precise).
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4.18. Printing in a TCP/IP Network
Quick Configuration of a Client Machine
Usually, client machines in a network do not have any locally connected printers. Rather, the client sends print jobs to a print server. If you have a print server
and an additional local printer is connected to the client, you need a client configuration as well as a configuration for the local printer. The print system on
the client machine should be selected in accordance with the print system on the
print server.
4
Printer Operation
CUPS network server
The term “CUPS network server” refers to a CUPS server that was specifically configured to share its queues with other network hosts via UDP
broadcast (using UDP port 631).
Configuration for an LPD Server
If there is no CUPS network server in the network, but only an LPD server, use
the LPRng and lpdfilter print system on the client. In this case, the client machine does not require any further configuration, as even remote queues can be
addressed directly when using the LPRng spooler. See Command-Line Tools for
LPRng on page 131.
However, this is only possible if the LPD server was configured to allow the
client to print to its queues. To print from applications, enter
lpr [email protected] i
in the application. This corresponds to the procedure described in Managing
Remote Queues on page 133. However, no file name is specified.
Some applications are preconfigured to use CUPS and must be switched to
LPRng. Especially KDE and the KDE printing program kprinter must be set to
‘Print through an external program’. If this is not done, it will not be possible to
enter the print command.
Configuration for a CUPS Network Server
If the print server is a CUPS network server, start the YaST2 printer configuration module, click ‘Change’ then ‘Advanced’ and select one of the following
options:
CUPS as a server (default in standard installations)
If no printer is connected locally, no local queue was configured with
YaST2. In this case, cupsd is not started automatically, Activate the ‘cups’
service to start cupsd (normally for the runlevels 3 and 5).
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The client machine does not require any further configuration, as a CUPS
network server broadcasts its queues to all network hosts at regular intervals. Therefore, the queues of the network server will automatically be
available on the client machine after a short time.
However, this is only possible if the broadcasting function is enabled on
the CUPS network server, the broadcast address used is suitable for the
client machine, and the client machine is permitted to print to the queues
of the CUPS network server.
CUPS in client-only mode
If you merely want to print via the queues of the CUPS network server,
CUPS can be run in client-only mode. In the YaST2 client-only printer
configuration, specify the name of the CUPS network server.
In this mode, the client machine does not run cupsd and the file /etc/
printcap does not exist. However, applications that cannot be configured to use CUPS will only offer the queues listed in the local /etc/
printcap. In this case, it is advisable to run CUPS in server mode, as the
local cupsd will automatically generate an /etc/printcap containing
the queue names of the CUPS network server.
TCP/IP Network Printing Protocols
The following lists the different methods that can be used to implement printing on a TCP/IP network. The decision of which one to use does not so much
depend on the hardware, but more on the possibilities offered by each protocol.
Accordingly, the YaST2 printer configuration asks you to select a protocol and
not a hardware device when setting up network printing.
Printing over the LPD protocol
Print jobs are forwarded to a remote queue over the LPD protocol. To
allow this, the protocol must be supported both on the client and the
server side.
Client side
LPRng
The lpd of LPRng supports the LPD protocol. For remote printing, a local queue must be set up through which the local lpd
can forward the print job to a remote queue, using the LPD
protocol.
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4.18. Printing in a TCP/IP Network
Server side
4
Printer Operation
LPRng also allows network printing without a local lpd running. With this method, the lpr included in package lprng
uses the protocol to directly forward a print job to the remote
queue.
CUPS
CUPS has support for the LPD protocol, but only through the
CUPS daemon cupsd. To enable this, a local queue must be
set up through which the print job can be relayed by the local
cupsd to the remote queue using the LPD protocol.
print server
The printer must be connected locally to the print server and the
print server itself must support the LPD protocol.
Network printer or print server box
The print server box or network printer must support the LPD
protocol, which should normally be the case.
Printing over the IPP protocol
Print jobs are forwarded to a remote queue over the IPP protocol. To allow
this, the protocol must be supported both on the client and the server side.
Client side
LPRng
LPRng does not yet support the IPP protocol.
CUPS
CUPS supports the IPP protocol through cupsd. For this
method, a local queue must be set up, which can be used by the
local cupsd to forward print jobs to a remote queue using the
IPP protocol.
CUPS also allows network printing without a local cupsd running. With this method, the program lp included in package
cups-client or the programs xpp or kprinter use the IPP
protocol to directly forward a print job to a remote queue.
Server side
print server
The printer must be connected locally to the print server and the
print server itself must support the IPP protocol.
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Network printer or print server box
The print server box or network printer must support the IPP
protocol, which is only the case with some recent devices.
Direct remote printing through TCP sockets
With this method, there is no print job that gets relayed to a remote queue.
No protocol capable of handling print jobs and queues is involved in the
process (neither LPD nor IPP). Rather, printer-specific data is transferred
to a remote TCP port via TCP sockets, which must be supported both on
the client and on the server side.
Client side
LPRng and lpdfilter
The lpd of the LPRng printing system supports streaming data
directly via TCP sockets. To enable this, there must be a local
queue that can be used by the local lpd to convert the data of
each print job into the printer-specific format (with the help of
lpdfilter) and to transfer them to the remote TCP port via TCP
sockets after conversion.
With LPRng, it is also possible to implement this method without a local lpd. This requires that lpr (included in package
lprng) is called with the -Y option to transfer data directly to
the remote TCP port via TCP sockets. For details on this, see the
man page for lpr (man lpr). However, there is no print filter
involved at all, which means print data must be in the printerspecific format from the beginning.
CUPS
CUPS supports the direct transfer of print data via TCP sockets,
but only if cupsd is running. To enable this method, there must
be a local queue that can be used by the local cupsd to convert
the data of each print job into the printer-specific format and
to stream data to the remote TCP port via TCP sockets after
conversion.
Server side
Network printer or print server box
Print server boxes and network printers normally keep a TCP
port open to transfer a data stream in the printer-specific format
directly to the printer.
HP network printers, in particular, HP JetDirect print server
boxes, use port 9100 as the default for this kind of data stream.
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4.18. Printing in a TCP/IP Network
4
Printer Operation
JetDirect print server boxes with two or three local printer ports
listen on TCP ports 9100, 9101, and 9102. The same ports are
used by many other print server boxes. If you are not sure
about this, ask the manufacturer or consult the printer manual to find out which port is used by your device for raw socket
printing. Additional information about this can be found in the
LPRng-Howto (file:/usr/share/doc/packages/lprng/
LPRng-HOWTO.html), especially file:/usr/share/doc/
packages/lprng/LPRng-HOWTO.html#SECNETWORK,
file:/usr/share/doc/packages/lprng/LPRng-HOWTO.
html#SOCKETAPI, and file:/usr/share/doc/packages/
lprng/LPRng-HOWTO.html#AEN4858.
Printing over the SMB protocol
With this method, print jobs are converted into the printer-specific format
first then transferred via the SMB protocol to a remote share that represents a remote printer. Both the client and the server side must support
the SMB protocol. Although neither LPRng and lpdfilter or CUPS have
direct support for the SMB protocol, they can support it indirectly with
the help of smbclient and smbspool, respectively. Both programs are
included in package samba-client.
Client side
LPRng and lpdfilter
LPRng needs lpdfilter to support the SMB protocol. There must
be a local queue through which the local lpd can convert
the print job into the printer-specific format with the help of
lpdfilter. The latter then forwards the data with the help of
smbclient to the remote share, using the SMB protocol.
CUPS
There must be a local queue that can be used by the local cupsd
to convert data into the printer-specific format. After that, data
is transferred to the remote share by smbspool using the SMB
protocol.
Server side
SMB print server
The printer must be connected to an SMB print server. The latter
is usually a DOS or Windows machine, although it could also be
a Samba server powered by Linux.
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The SMB print server must support the SMB protocol and access to the printer (to the corresponding share) must have been
enabled on the server side.
Filtering for Network Printers
This section describes the possible ways to implement filtering for network
printers. Independent of the filtering method used, there should be exactly one
point in the entire process chain where the input file is converted into the final
format — the one your printer requires to put the data on paper (PostScript,
PCL, ESC/P).
The conversion must be accomplished somehow somewhere by a print filter. It
should run on a machine with sufficient CPU power and disk space to handle
the task. This is especially true when using Ghostscript to convert data for highresolution color and photo printouts on non-PostScript devices. Network printers and print server boxes usually do not have any built-in filtering capabilities,
so they mostly require a print server.
If your printer is a PostScript model, you may be able to do without a print
server. Also, PostScript printers are often able to autodetect whether their input is in ASCII or PostScript format and switch accordingly. To print ASCII texts
containing country-specific characters, it may be necessary to set the printer
to the respective character encoding or to use a2ps to convert the ASCII text
into a PostScript file with the respective encoding. See ASCII Text Encoding on
page 172. However, as long as the printing volume is not too high, a PostScript
printer does not usually require a dedicated print server as most applications
are able to produce ASCII or PostScript output.
Network printers and print server boxes, on the other hand, often do not have
the resources to handle higher printing volumes on their own. You will then
need a dedicated print server with sufficient disk space to store all the print jobs
queued temporarily.
Prerequisites
The printer model must be supported by SuSE Linux, because print data must
be converted into the printer-specific language by a filter, as described for local printers (see Manual Configuration of Local Printer Ports on page 124 and the
subsequent sections).
Terminology
A client is the host on which the print job is issued.
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4.18. Printing in a TCP/IP Network
Print server refers to a central, dedicated host that handles all print jobs
from all the network’s clients. A print server can either send data to a
locally connected printer or transfer it to print server boxes through a
TCP/IP network.
Forwarding (queue) refers to a queue that forwards or relays print jobs to
remote queues, but does not do any filtering.
Filter (queue) refers to a queue that filters (converts) print jobs.
4
Printer Operation
Print server box also refers to network printers (and not only print server
boxes in the narrower sense), because both are treated the same way.
A prefilter (queue) is a queue that filters print jobs then transfers the resulting data to a forwarding queue on the same host.
A forwarding filter (queue) is a queue that filters print jobs and forwards the
resulting data to a remote queue.
Streaming filter (queue) refers to a queue that filters print jobs then streams
the resulting data to a remote TCP port.
The above terms may be combined with LPD(-based), IPP(-based), or SMB(based) to indicate the protocol used in conjunction with the method.
Possible Filtering Methods for Network Printing
Print server box with filtering by client
The filtering is performed on the client side. A complete printing system
must run on the client — either the LPRng and lpdfilter system or the
complete CUPS printing system.
Client using the LPD protocol (LPRng or CUPS)
Prefilter followed by forwarding (LPRng only)
This is the classic remote printing solution involving two queues
on the client side, one for filtering and one for forwarding.
1. Client: The prefilter queue converts the print job into the
printer format then transfers the data to the forwarding
queue as a new print job.
2. Client: The forwarding queue relays the print data to the
print server box (LPD-based forwarding).
3. LPD print server box: The print data is transferred to the
printer.
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Forwarding filter (LPRng or CUPS)
With this method, filtering and forwarding is performed by one
queue. If used with the LPRng printing system, the method is
also called “lpr bounce” or “lpd bounce.”
1. Client: The print job is converted into the printer format and
forwarded to the print server box (LPD-based forwarding
filter).
2. LPD print server box: The print data is transferred to the
printer.
Client using the IPP protocol (CUPS only)
Forwarding filter (CUPS only)
1. Client: The print job is converted into the printer format and
forwarded to the print server box (IPP-based forwarding
filter).
2. IPP print server box: The print data is transferred to the
printer.
Client using TCP socket (LPRng or CUPS)
Streaming filter (LPRng or CUPS)
1. Client: The print job is converted into the printer format and
streamed to the print server box (streaming filter).
2. Print server box: The print data is transferred to the printer.
Print server box with filtering by print server
Because the filtering is performed on the print server, the latter must run a
complete printing system (including the corresponding daemon), either
LPRng and lpdfilter or CUPS.
On the other hand, running a complete printing system on the client side
is not strictly required (because the server does all the filtering), provided
the client issues print jobs with the lpr command (in the case of LPRng)
or with lp, xpp, or kprinter (in the case of CUPS) and jobs are directly
sent to the print server. In either case, the print server must support the
protocol used by the client (either LPD or IPP).
When the print server receives a print job, it processes it in the same way
as described above for a client. The client may use one protocol to send
print jobs to the print server and the latter another protocol to send data to
the print server box.
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4.18. Printing in a TCP/IP Network
Client using the LPD protocol (LPRng only)
1. Client: Sends the print job directly to the print server with
the lpr command.
2. LPD print server: Converts the print job into the printer format and sends the data to the print server box.
Forwarding (LPRng only)
Printer Operation
Direct print command (LPRng only)
4
1. Client: Forwards the print job to the print server (LPD-based
forwarding).
2. LPD print server: Converts the print job into the printer format and sends the data to the print server box.
Client using the IPP protocol (CUPS only)
Direct print command (CUPS only)
1. Client: Sends the print job directly to the print server using
the lp command or the programs xpp or kprinter.
2. IPP print server: Converts the print job into the printer format and sends the data to the print server box.
Printer connected to a print server with filtering by the print server
If the print server has a local printer connected to it, the procedure is the
same as described under Print server box with filtering by print server, with
the difference that it sends the data to the printer.
Printer connected to a print server with filtering by the client
This is probably not such a good idea, regardless of whether you have an
LPD or an IPP print server. To implement this, you would need to install
and configure a complete printing system on each client host. As a better
solution, consider a printer connected to a print server with filtering by
the print server.
SMB print server with filtering by client
Filtering cannot be easily implemented on an SMB print server. In that
sense, an SMB print server is treated in the same way as a print server
box.
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Client using the SMB protocol (LPRng or CUPS)
SMB-based forwarding filter (LPRng or CUPS)
1. Client: Converts the print job into the printer format and
forwards the data to the SMB print server (SMB-based forwarding filter).
2. SMB print server: Sends the data to the printer.
Remote Printer Troubleshooting
Checking the TCP/IP network
First, make sure everything is in order with the TCP/IP network in general, including name resolution.
Checking the filter configuration
Connect the printer to the first parallel port of your computer. To test the
connection, initially set it up as a local printer to exclude any networkrelated problems. If the printer works locally, you have found the correct
Ghostscript driver and other configuration options.
Testing a remote lpd
The following command tests whether lpd can be reached via TCP on
port of hhosti:
netcat -z hhosti 515 && echo ok || echo failed
If lpd cannot be reached in this way, it is either not running at all or there
is some basic network problem.
This way you can get a (possibly very long) status report about the queue
on the host, if lpd is running and the host is reachable. As root, enter
the following command:
echo -e "\004hqueuei
| netcat -w 2 -p 722 hhosti 515
If the daemon does not respond, it is either not running at all or there is
a basic network problem. If lpd does respond, the output should give an
idea why printing through the queue on host does not work. These are
some examples:
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4.18. Printing in a TCP/IP Network
4
Output 1: lpd Status Messages
If you get messages like the ones above, the problem lies with the remote
lpd.
Testing a remote cupsd
The following command can be used to check if there is a CUPS network
server in the network:
Printer Operation
lpd: your host does not have line printer access
lpd: queue does not exist printer: spooling disabled
printer: printing disabled
netcat -u -l -p 631 && PID=$! ; sleep 40 ; kill $PID
By default, CUPS network servers broadcasts its queues via port 631 at
thirty-second intervals. After waiting for forty seconds, the output should
appear as follows if a broadcasting CUPS network server exists:
... ipp://ServerName.Domain:631/printers/queuename
Output 2: CUPS Network Server Broadcast
The following command tests whether cupsd can be reached via TCP on
port 631 of hhosti:
netcat -z hhosti 631 && echo ok || echo failed
If cupsd cannot be reached in this way, it is either not running at all or
there is some basic network problem.
lpstat -h hhosti -l -t
With this command you can get a (possibly very long) status report about
all queues on hhosti, provided cupsd is running and the host is reachable.
echo -en "\r" | lp -d hqueuei -h hhosti
This command sends a print job consisting of a single carriage return
character to test if the hqueuei on hhosti accepts any print jobs. This test
command should not print out anything or only cause the printer to eject
an empty page.
Testing a remote SMB server
To test the basic operability of an SMB server, enter:
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echo -en "\r" \
| smbclient ’/hHOST i/hSHARE i’ \
’hPASSWORD i’ \
-c ’print -’ -N -U ’hUSERi’ \
&& echo ok || echo failed
This command must be entered as a single line without the backslash (‘\’). For hHOSTi, enter the host name of the Samba server. For
hSHAREi, enter the name of the remote queue. For hPASSWORDi, enter
the password string. Replace hUSERi with the user name. This test command should not print out anything or only cause the printer to eject an
empty page.
The following command displays any shares on the hhosti that are currently available. Details on this can be obtained from the man page for
smbclient (man smbclient).
smbclient -N -L hhosti
Troubleshooting an unreliable network printer or print server box
Spoolers on print server boxes often become unreliable when having to
deal with relatively high printing volumes. As the cause of this lies
with the server side spooler, there is mostly no way to fix this. As a
workaround, however, circumvent the spooler on the print server box by
using TCP sockets to directly stream data to the printer connected to the
host.
This turns the print server box into a mere data converter between the
two different data streams (TCP/IP network and local printer line), which
effectively makes the printer behave like a local printer although it is connected to the print server box. Without the spooler acting as an intermediary, this method also gives much more direct control over the printer device in general. To use this method, you need to know the corresponding
TCP port on the print server box. If the printer is switched on and properly connected, you should be able to determine the TCP port a minute or
so after booting the print server box with the program nmap.
Running nmap on the print server box may return an output similar to
this:
Port
23/tcp
80/tcp
515/tcp
186
State
open
open
open
Service
telnet
http
printer
4.18. Printing in a TCP/IP Network
open
open
cups
jetdirect
This output means:
You can log in on the above print server box with telnet to look for
important information or to change basic configuration options.
The above print server runs an HTTP daemon, which can provide
detailed server information or allow you to set specific printing options.
4
Printer Operation
631/tcp
9100/tcp
The print spooler running on the print server box can be reached
over the LPD protocol on port 515.
The print spooler running on the print server box can also be
reached over the IPP protocol on port 631.
The printer connected to the print server box can be accessed directly
via TCP sockets on port 9100.
Print Servers Supporting Both LPD and IPP
LPD, IPP and CUPS
By default, the CUPS daemon only supports the IPP protocol. However, the
program /usr/lib/cups/daemon/cups-lpd from the package cups
makes it possible for a CUPS daemon to accept print jobs arriving via the
LPD protocol on port 515. This requires that the corresponding service is enabled for inetd — either with YaST2 or by enabling the corresponding line in
/etc/inetd.conf manually.
Supporting Both Protocols by Using LPRng and lpdfilter with CUPS
There may be situations where you want to run both LPRng and lpdfilter and
CUPS on one system, maybe because you want to enhance the functionality of
LPD with some CUPS features or because you need the LPRng and lpdfilter
system as an add-on for certain special cases.
Running the two systems together on the same system will lead to a number
of problems, however. Below, we list the most important of these and briefly
explain the limitations resulting from them. The topic is too complex to describe
them in any greater detail here. There are several ways to solve these issues,
depending on the individual case.
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You should not rely on YaST2 for configuration if you install both printing
systems. The printer configuration module of YaST2 has not been written
with this case in mind.
There is a conflict between package lprng and package cups-client,
because they contain a number of files with identical names, such as
/usr/bin/lpr and /usr/bin/lp. You should, therefore, not install
package cups-client. This, however, means that no CUPS-based
command-line tools are available, but only those included with LPRng.
You are still able to print through CUPS print queues from the X Window
System with xpp or kprinter, however, as well as from all application
programs with built-in support for CUPS.
By default, cupsd creates the /etc/printcap file when started and
writes the names of CUPS queues to it. This is done to maintain compatibility with applications that expect queue names in /etc/printcap to
offer them in their print dialogs. With both printing systems installed, disable this cupsd feature to reserve /etc/printcap for exclusive use by
the LPRng and lpdfilter printing system. As a result, applications that get
queue names only from /etc/printcap can use only these local queues,
but not the remote queues made available by CUPS through the network.
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4.18. Printing in a TCP/IP Network
5
To facilitate the work of the system administrator, it may be advantageous to
limit the functions provided to users of a computer system to the needed scope.
As well as a lean installation, this includes limitation of the configuration options of the desktop environment. In KDE, this is made possible by the kiosk
project.
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
The Possibilities of kiosk . . . . .
Introduction to the Configuration
Network-Wide Configuration . .
Advanced Configuration Options
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193
Client Configuration with kiosk
Client Configuration with kiosk
5.1 The Possibilities of kiosk
The central configuration of KDE is located in the directory /etc/opt/kde3/
share. To create a configuration, configure the desktop for a dummy user, such
as tux, with the help of the KDE Control Center. The configuration is stored in
the directory ~tux/.kde/share.
To make this configuration available for all users on the machine, the configuration files must be copied to /etc/opt/kde3/share:
cp -R ~tux/.kde/share/ /etc/opt/kde3
Compared to earlier KDE versions, KDE 3 features two improvements that facilitate the provision of a standard installation for all users:
1. Instead of storing the entire KDE configuration in the user’s home directory, only the variations from the template are stored. Changes to the
system-wide configuration are usually applied immediately.
2. The system administrator can make a configuration unchangable, so the
user’s local configuration is ignored. The option [$i] marks a configuration as such. It can be used in three different ways:
(a) For individual options:
[my group] ExampleOption[$i]=42
(b) For entire groups. This renders all entries in the group immutable:
[my group][$i] ExampleOption=42
(c) For entire configuration files. In this case, the configuration files
must start with the option [$i]:
[$i] [my group] ExampleOption=42
Making configuration files of entire directories immutable is in the planning
stage, but has not been implemented yet. If KDE does not have any write access
to the configuration files of the user, the configurations they contain are considered immutable. However, this property cannot be used for the system-wide
configuration, as such files can always be moved and recreated by the user.
5.2 Introduction to the Configuration
Apart from the configuration files for individual applications, kiosk uses the file
kdeglobals for the configuration. Normally, this file is located in the directory
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5.1. The Possibilities of kiosk
shell_access
Defines whether the user is granted access to a shell. It is also suitable for
excluding shell commands from the "Run Command" option (
Alt +
F2 ).
Also see run_desktop_files.
custom_config
Defines whether to take notice of the --config parameter for applications. The parameter can be used to circumvent configuration files
customized by the user.
logout
Defines whether the user is permitted to log out from the system.
lock_screen
Prevents the use of screen locks.
5
Client Configuration with kiosk
/etc/opt/kde3/share/config and is split in several KDE groups. In this
context, the group [KDE Action Restrictions] is of special interest. The
following paragraphs cover the options of this group as defined by kiosk. The
options can be assigned the values true or false.
run_command
Defines whether use of the "Run Command" (
Alt +
F2 ) option is permitted.
movable_toolbars
Defines whether the user is permitted to move the toolbar. Also see
action/options_show_toolbar.
editable_desktop_icons
Defines whether desktop icons can be moved, renamed, deleted, or
added. In addition to this option, the path to the desktop directory
(default \$HOME/Desktop) should be set to a "read-only" directory.
run_desktop_files
Defines whether a user is permitted to execute files that are not located
on the default desktop, cannot be accessed from the KDE menu, or
are not registered as services. The default desktop consists of the files
located in \$KDEDIR/share/kdesktop/Desktop. Files available in
\$HOME/Desktop are not part of the default desktop. The KDE menu
comprises the files located in \$KDEDIR/share/applnk. Registered
services are defined in \$KDEDIR/share/services.
To make sure users cannot execute any .desktop files, set the following
options: appdata_kdesktop (restricts the default desktop), applnk (restricts the KDE menu), services (restricts the services that can be used).
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191
To provide a uniform appearance of the desktop for all users, configure the
desktop by means of a system-wide directory. Proceed in the same way as for
the KDE configuration. Configure a dummy user according to your preferences
and copy it to /etc/opt/kde3/Desktop as root:
cp -R ~dummyuser/Desktop /etc/opt/kde3
Subsequently, inform KDE about the location of this desktop by means of an
entry in the file kdeglobals. Under the group [Paths], add the variable
Desktop:
[Paths]
Desktop=/etc/opt/kde3/Desktop/
Note
To make changes in the configuration effective for all users, create an
empty file called \$KDEDIR/share/services/update\_ksycoca. In
a default installation, this can be done with the following commands:
mkdir -p /etc/opt/kde3/share/services touch
/etc/opt/kde3/share/services/update_ksycoca
Note
5.3 Network-Wide Configuration
To avoid having to configure individual machines, make the directory /etc/
opt/kde3 available via NFS or as a Windows share. Check the manual of your
server operating system for information about setting up shares. On the client
side, import this directory. In NFS, this can be done easily with the YaST module
‘NFS Client’. To import a Windows share, create the directory /etc/opt/kde3
and enter the share in the file /etc/fstab. See the manual page of smbmount
(man 8 smbmount) and the manual page of fstab (man fstab). Useful information can also be found in the manual page of nfs (man 5 nfs).
Restrictions
The features of kiosk enable the system-wide configuration of the look and feel
of the desktop. However, the effectivenessof the various parameters should
192
5.3. Network-Wide Configuration
5.4
Advanced Configuration Options
KActions
To administer a system like kiosk, various options are required to control the
functionality and appearance of the individual applications.
A number of default actions were defined for kiosk for use with numerous
KDE applications. These actions can be deactivated individually in the file
kdeglobals in the above-mentioned group [KDE Action Restrictions].
For example:
5
Client Configuration with kiosk
not be overestimated. Be careful especially with shell_access=false in the
kdeglobals file:
This option effectively prevents the direct start of shells. However, it cannot do
anything if individual applications (especially non-KDE applications) allow a
shell escape. Therefore, apart from restricting the desktop with kiosk, be sure to
implement the common security measures for Linux environments.
kiosk is not intended as a utility that increases system security. Its purpose is
to facilitate the work of an administrator by preventing unintentional system
reconfiguration and similar accidents.
[KDE Action Restrictions][\$i]
action/file\_new=false
Disables ‘File’ ➝ ‘New’ in various KDE applications.
Apart from the global actions, KDE applications may also define individual actions that can be disabled here. To check an application for such functions, use
dcop. Executed without any parameters, dcop produces the dcop IDs of all
running KDE programs. For example, the output could appear as follows:
[email protected]:\tld{}> dcop konqueror-2422 kwin kicker konsole-1519
konqueror-7659 konqueror-22636 konqueror-8462 kwrited kded
knotify
To get all additional actions of Konqueror, run dcop with the following syntax:
dcop hdcopid i qt objects
Accordingly, the command would appear as follows for our example:
dcop konqueror-2422 qt objects
As only the last path entries of the entries with KActionCollection/ are rele-
SuSE Linux Desktop – Administration Guide
193
vant, the following command can be used:
dcop konqueror-2422 qt objects | grep KActionCollection/ | cut -d
’/’ -f 3
One of the many options listed here is duplicate_window. To disable this
Konqueror function, enter the following in the file kdeglobals under the
group [KDE Action Restrictions]:
action/duplicate_window=false
Assigning Variables and Shell Variables
Sometimes, you may want to be able to access the environment variables of the
current user in the KDE configuration files. A mechanism is provided for this
purpose, too. For example, to provide a user-dependent desktop, enter the following in the file kdeglobals:
[Paths] Desktop[$e]=/etc/opt/kde3/$USER/
By means of this command, the user tux gets his desktop from the directory
/etc/opt/kde3/tux. This is useful if, for example, you want to configure special desktops for various user groups and assign them to the individual users
by means of symbolic links. If the user of /etc/opt/kde3/tux in the above
example wants his desktop environment and the desktop is located in the directory /etc/opt/kde3/group\_a, link the user tux to the group\_a configuration using the following command:
ln -s /etc/opt/kde3/group_a /etc/opt/kde3/tux
The option [$e], which enables the assignment of shell variables, can also be
made immutable. This can be done with the following option:
Name[$ei]=$NAME
In some cases, you may want to assign the output of a shell command to a variable. In this way, it is possible to prepare a configuration during runtime. To
activate this function, the flag [$e] must be activated (like with shell variables).
Thus,
Hostname[$e]=$(hostname)
can be used to assign the name of the host to the variable hHostnamei.
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5.4. Advanced Configuration Options
5
URL Manipulations
rule_count=hN i rule_1=hactioni,hreferingURL_protocoli,hreferingURL_hosti,
hreferingURL_pathi,hURL_protocoli,hURL_hosti, hURL_pathi,henabled i
... rule_N=hactioni,hreferingURL_protocoli,hreferingURL_hosti,
hreferingURL_pathi,hURL_protocoli,hURL_hosti, hURL_pathi,henabled i
The parameters redirect, link, list, and open are available as actions.
These functions have the following meanings:
redirect
HTML pages available on the Internet can be redirected to a local file. This
function is normally disabled, but it can also be adjusted for special hosts.
Example:
Client Configuration with kiosk
kiosk provides extensive possibilities for configuring the use of URLs. The entries for handling URLs are stored in the file kdeglobals under the special
group [KDE URL Restrictions]. The following syntax is used:
rule_1=redirect,http,www.example.com„file„,true
link
HTML pages from the Internet can contain links to local files. Normally, a
security query is performed before such a file is accessed. However, this
security query can be disabled for individual hosts, permitting unlimited
access.
Example:
rule_2=link,http,www.example.org„file„,true
list
The directories that can be listed in KDE can be limited. If a user should
only be able to view the files in his own home directory, this can be
configured with this parameter.
Example:
rule_3=list„„file„,false rule_4=list„„file„$HOME,true
The first rule (rule_3) blocks the listing of directory trees entirely. The
second rule permits the listing of the user’s home directory ($HOME).
open
This action defines which files can be opened from a KDE application. The
following rules can be used to limit the access of a user to the files in his
home directory:
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195
Example:
rule_5=open„„file„,false rule_6=open„„file„$HOME,true
Note
Further information can be found in our support database, see http:
//sdb.suse.de.
Note
196
5.4. Advanced Configuration Options
6
The LAN Browser
The LAN Browser
Users of SuSE Linux Desktop can easily and transparently access services in
their local network with the LAN browser. For example, a few clicks are all
that is needed to set up and manage Samba shares or locate and query FTP and
HTTP servers in the local network. The LAN browser of KDE is implemented
by means of the LISa daemon (LAN Information Server). This chapter provides
"first aid" for problems with LISa.
6.1
6.2
How Does the LAN Browser Work? . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting: What To Do If Things Don’t Work? .
198
198
6.1 How Does the LAN Browser Work?
By default, the LISa daemon that provides the functionality of the LAN browser
runs as a background process on every newly installed SuSE Linux Desktop.
The LISa daemon scans other network hosts for services they offer. To limit the
network load generated when the LISa daemons running on several networked
hosts scan the entire network at the same time, the daemons on the individual
hosts communicate with each other. Konqueror queries the daemon running on
the local system for information on the local network and displays them graphically if lan:/ is entered in the input field of Konqueror or if the ‘Local Network’ icon on the desktop is clicked.
6.2 Troubleshooting: What To Do If Things
Don’t Work?
Although all services needed for the LAN browser should have been started after the installation, the query of local network information may not work from a
user’s system and a remote system may not be accessible via the LAN browser.
If that is the case, check the following items in the indicated sequence:
Is the network configured correctly?
Check if the host has a connection to the network by sending a ping to
the respective system or a ping from the system to a remote host. If this
does not work, check the netmask, routing, and other network settings. If
the ping is successful, search for the cause on the other network hosts.
Does a firewall on one of the other hosts block external access?
If a host in the local network cannot be accessed with the LAN browser,
this may be due to a firewall running on the respective host. The firewall
may block certain access types.
Does the remote host really provide the expected services?
If the remote host is connected correctly to the network and no firewall
blocks the access, the reason why LISa queries fail may be that the services
supported by LISa (Samba, FTP, HTTP, and SSH) are not running on this
system. Check the status of the respective programs by logging in to the
respective system as root and executing the suitable init script with the
status parameter. For example, enter the following to check if a web
server is running on the system:
198
6.1. How Does the LAN Browser Work?
earth:\tld{}\#/etc/init.d/apache status
Alternatively, check the availability of a service on a remote host by entering hname of the servicei://hhost namei in the input field of Konqueror.
For instance, to locate a running Samba service, enter smb://hostname.
Apart from using the init scripts (see above), you can also view the log
files of the remote host to check the status of the services.
The LAN Browser
If this command produces a message like command not found, the respective service is not installed. If it returns unused, the respective program is installed but not active. In this case, execute the init script with the
start parameter.
6
After excluding any external cause for the malfunctioning of the LAN browser,
check the configuration of the LISa daemon on the local system:
Is the LISa daemon running?
When you click the ‘Local Network’ icon, Konqueror issues an error message indicating that the LISa daemon is not active and the respective
package must be installed and activated by the system administrator. As
the LISa daemon is included in the standard software scope of SuSE Linux
Desktop, just check the status and the configuration of the LISa daemon.
To query the status of the LISa daemon, enter the command
rclisa status on the command line as root. If the daemon is running, the message running is displayed. If you get the message unused,
start the daemon manually by entering rclisa start. Restart the LAN
browser. Everything should work now.
The LAN browser does not work even though the LISa daemon is running.
Open the file /etc/sysconfig/lisa as root. Look for a line beginning
with USE_LISA=. Make sure the following entry exists:
USE_LISA="server"
This parameter ensures that the local LISa daemon can communicate
with others in the local network and forward information about your
system. If necessary, modify the existing entry accordingly and execute
SuSEconfig --module lisa as root to apply the modified configuration. Restart the LISa daemon with rclisa restart or restart the LAN
browser by clicking the ‘Local Network’ icon.
Is the ‘Local Network’ icon missing on your desktop?
If the LISa daemon was configured as described above and the daemon
is running, check if the variable hUSE_LAN_SERVERi in the file
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199
/etc/sysconfig/lan is assigned the value localhost. If this is
not the case, modify the entry as root and activate the changes with
SuSEconfig --module kdenetwork-lan. Now the icon and the
LAN browser should work properly.
Are some hosts in your local network missing in the overview of the LAN
browser even though they offer the needed services and are configured correctly?
The LISa daemon directs its queries to all hosts in the network specified
in the file /etc/lisarc. If the entries used for the netmask are too
restrictive, the hosts in other subnets are not included. To check and edit
these values, start the KDE Control Center (‘Settings’ ➝ ‘Control Center’)
and select the module ‘Internet & Network’ ➝ ‘Local Network-Browser’.
Under the ‘LISa Daemon’ tab, check the entries ‘To these IP addresses’,
‘Broadcast network address’, and ‘Trusted IP addresses’ and expand
them if necessary. To apply your changes, enter the root password when
the system prompts for it. The next time the LAN browser is started, all
desired hosts should be listed in the overview.
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6.2. Troubleshooting: What To Do If Things Don’t Work?
7
S/MIME is a signature and encryption procedure based on X.509 certificates.
The existence of a CA (Certificate Authority) is a precondition. This CA must
provide the user certificate, the CA certificate, and the CRLs (Certificate Revocation List) via LDAP. The following paragraphs describe the configuration of
S/MIME for KMail.
7.1
7.2
7.3
Preliminary Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Generating a User Certificate . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing a Certificate Manually . . . . . . . . . . . .
202
203
203
Configuring S/MIME for KMail
Configuring S/MIME for KMail
7.1 Preliminary Steps
First, set up gpg properly. Simply enter the command
gpg --list-keys
in a terminal. gpg creates the directory .gnupg in your home directory. The
configuration file gpg.conf is located in this directory.
Because the S/MIME certificates are retrieved and checked via LDAP, set up
a configuration file called dirmngr_ldapservers.conf in the directory
.gnupg. The format of this configuration file is as follows:
hldap-server-namei:hldap-server-porti:huser i:hpasswd i:hbasedni
If anonymous access (no login) is possible for the certificates, CA, and CRL,
huseri and hpasswdi can simply be omitted. Accordingly, an typical entry could
appear as follows:
ldap.mydomain.com:389:::dc=my domain,dc=com
The next configuration file required is .gnupg/gpgsm.conf. In this file, enter
the following:
agent-program /usr/bin/gpg-agent
dirmngr-program /usr/bin/dirmngr
# disable-crl-checks
disable-policy-checks
Now, log out then log in again. The gpg-agent used for querying passwords is
started.
Now, start KMail and configure other settings under ‘Settings’ ➝ ‘Configure
KMail’ ➝ ‘Security’ ➝ ‘Crypto Plugins’.
To use S/MIME, you should activate this module. Select the module from the
list and click ‘Activate’. An asterisk should appear in the ‘Active’ column.
Click ‘Configure’ to access a dialog in which to specify the default settings for
signatures and encryption. The options are the same as in the GPG module. Refer to the Chapter KMail — The KDE Mail Application in the User Guide.
202
7.1. Preliminary Steps
7.2
7
Generating a User Certificate
Finally, send the request to the certificate authority directly by e-mail or save the
request in a file and send to the certification authority in a different way.
The certificate authority generates a certificate from the request.
To use your certificate, import it together with the CA certificate. The easiest
way to do this is to search for the CA and your certificate in the certificate manager.
To do this, enter a search string in the respective field and select ‘in external certificates’ in the selection box to the right. Then click the adjacent ‘Find’ icon. The
certificates found are displayed in the list below.
Configuring S/MIME for KMail
Use the certificate manager to generate a secret key and a certificate request. In
KMail, go to ‘Settings’ ➝ ‘Configure KMail’ ➝ ‘Security’ ➝ ‘Crypto Plugins’,
select the S/MIME module, and click ‘Configure’. In the following dialog, click
‘Start Certificate Manager’. In the ‘Certificates’ menu, select ‘New Certificate’.
All needed information is then queried by a wizard.
To import such a certificate, double-click the respective line. A window containing the data of the certificate opens. Now click ‘Local import’ to include the
certificate in your local keyring.
Note
You must import the CA before you can import a certificate.
Note
7.3
Importing a Certificate Manually
If you do not generate the request with the certificate manager for any reason,
import the secret key and your certificate together with the CA manually.
For example, the CA certificate may be in a file in PEM format and your certificate with your secret key may be in a file in PKCS12.
First, import the CA gpgsm --import cacert.pem Next, import the secret key
gpgsm --call-protect-tool --p12-import --store usercert.p12
Then convert the user certificate to the PEM format
openssl pkcs12 -in usercert.p12 -out user_cert.pem -nodes -nokeys
Now, import the user certificate. gpgsm --import user_cert.pem
SuSE Linux Desktop – Administration Guide
203
A
The following list offers an overview of a few selected programs from various
categories that you can install and run on your system.
A.1
Office
The GIMP
The GIMP is the GNU Image Manipulation Program. It is a quite powerful
application. The GIMP can be extended with add-ons and plug-ins. More
information can be found at http://www.gimp.org/
GnomeMeeting
GnomeMeeting is an H.323-compatible video and VOIP/IP (Voice
over IP) telephony application, which allows users to hold audio or video conversations with remote users. For information, see
http://www.gnomemeeting.org/.
KOffice
KOffice is an office suite tailored for KDE. It offers a word processor, a
spreadsheet, an illustrator, and a database. See http://www.koffice.org/.
MrProject
MrProject is a project management application
(http://mrproject.codefactory.de/) useful for calculating the cost,
resource requirements, and time consumption of a project. The application
offers various different visualizations of the project, like Gantt diagrams.
MrProject is still in the beta stage of development.
Short Overview of a Few Additional Applications
Short Overview of a Few
Additional Applications
A.2
Multimedia
MPlayer
MPlayer is an application for playing animated and video files (MPEG,
VOB, AVI, VIVO, ASF/WMV, QT/MOV and FLI) in Linux. You can watch
VideoCDs, SVCDs, DVDs, 3ivx, and even DivX movies.
Due to legal reasons, not all of MPlayer’s technical abilities are used. See
http://www.suse.de/en/private/products/suse_linux/i386/multimedia.html/.
Xine
Xine is a player application for video files supporting a wide range of
formats (for example, VCD and MPEG2). A few of the technical features
of Xine have been disabled in this version due to legal restrictions. See
http://www.suse.de/en/private/products/suse_linux/i386/multimedia.html/.
A.3 Network and Web
The following list is interesting to administrators who need to connect to various different machines (servers) across the network.
rfb
The rfb package (Remote Framebuffer Protocol) contains a
collection of rfb-enabled tools and applications for the remote
control of an X Window System. Information can be found at
http://www.hexonet.de/software/rfb/.
tn5250
A 5250 telnet emulator for connecting Linux to IBM AS/400 machines. See
http://tn5250.sourceforge.net/.
tsclient
Terminal Server Client (tsclient) is a front-end for rdesktop (remote desktop). It supports most arguments of rdesktop 1.1/1.2. It is possible to read
.rdp files in Microsoft Unicode format and to write rdp files in ASCII
format. A GNOME applet for quickstarting existing .rdp files is also
included.
x3270
x3270 (http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Peaks/
7814/) is an IBM 3270 terminal emulator for the X Window System.
x 3270 connects to the host over a telnet connection (with or without
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A.2. Multimedia
SuSE Linux Desktop – Administration Guide
A
Short Overview of a Few Additional Applications
TN3270E) and emulates an IBM 3279 (color) or 3278 (monochrome)
terminal. It supports APL2 characters, IND$FILE file transfers, and
NVT mode. It features a pop-up dialog with the special 3270 keys and
alternative keymaps and supports 3278 printing. It has a scrollbar and
extensive debugging and scripting abilities.
207
Index
symbols
YaST
- installing with . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
A
ASCII
- encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
automatic dial-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
B
backups
- creating with YaST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
- recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
boot disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
boot log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
booting
- CD, from . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
- YaST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Booting
- configuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
C
cable modems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
cards
- graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
- ISDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
- network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
- sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
CDs
- booting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
configuration files
- .lpoptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155, 158
- asound.conf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
- CUPS
· lpoptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
- cupsd.conf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
- fstab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
- inetd.conf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155, 187
- lpd.conf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
- lpd.perms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
- lpdfilter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136, 137
- modules.conf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55, 125
- printcap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130, 136
- rc.config . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
- smb.conf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
- sysconfig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
configuring
- Control Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
- graphics cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
- hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
- joysticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
- network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56–68
- printing . . hyperpage118, 38 − −123
- security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69–73
- software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32–37
- system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31–84
- time zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
- X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Control Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
CrossOver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
- Office setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
- plug-in setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
CrossOver Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90–97
- adding and removing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
- associating files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
- associations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
- configuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
- creating an Office document . . . . . . . . 97
- installing software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
- menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
- removing plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
- removing programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
- starting programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
CrossOver Plugin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97–104
- add/remove . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
- adding a plug-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
- adding plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
- associations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
- general . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
- Konqueror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
- Mozilla . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
- Netscape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
- removing a plug-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
D
daemons
- LISa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
- lpd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
dial on demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
DNS
- configuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
driver CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
E
e-mail
- configuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
environment variables
- CUPS_SERVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
- PRINTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
error messages
- bad interpreter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
- permission denied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
J
joysticks
- configuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
K
kernel
- module
· parport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
keyboard
- configuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
kiosk
- actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
- advanced configuration . . . . . . . . . . . 193
- configuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
- Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
- network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
- overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
- shell commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
- shell variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
- URL restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
L
F
files
- printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131, 134, 157, 159
firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
G
Ghostscript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160–164
- drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
graphical user interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
group administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
gs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see Ghostscript
H
hard disks
- DMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
hardware
- information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
host names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
I
inetd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
210
installing
- YaST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3–28
Internet
- access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
- ADSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
- connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
- ISDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
- TDSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
IP addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Index
LAN browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see LISa
LAN Information Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . see LISa
language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
LISa
- troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
log files
- boot.msg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
- log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
- messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
logging
- login attempts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
lprsetup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
M
modems
- YaST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
module disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
monitor settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
mouse
- configuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
60
74
42
53
N
network
- configuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56–68
- LAN browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
- printing in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
- routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Network
- printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
network cards
- YaST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
NFS
- client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
O
OpenOffice.org
- printing
· Cups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
P
package
- a2ps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120, 164
- cups . . . . . . . . . . . 119, 151, 154, 156, 187
- cups-client . . . . . . 119, 156, 177, 188
- cups-drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119, 151
- cups-drivers-stp . . . . 119, 151, 154
- cups-libs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
- file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
- ghostscript-fonts-std . . . . . . 120
- ghostscript-library . . . . . . . . . 120
- ghostscript-x11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
- irda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
- libgimpprint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
- lpdfilter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
- lprng . . . . . . . . . . 119, 130, 177, 178, 188
- psutils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138, 166
- samba-client . . . . . . . . . 152, 154, 179
partitioning
- fstab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
- manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
partitions
- creating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
- types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
PBX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
PostScript
- reformatting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166–172
printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38–109
- a2ps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
- applications, from . . . . . . . . . . . . 124, 156
- banner (cover) page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
- command line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
- command line, from the . . . . . . . . . . . 156
- configuration
· Lprng and lpdfilter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
· ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124–129
- Configuration
· CUPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150–151
- configuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
· YaST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
- configuring in YaST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
- connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
- CUPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42, 119, 149–155
· OpenOffice.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
· trouble shooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
· troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
- CUPS network server . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
- CUPS server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
- drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115–118
- duplex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
- files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131, 134, 157, 159
- filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
· configuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
· custom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145–149
· customizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137–138
· example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
· lpdfilter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135–145
· troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . 144–145
- GDI printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116–118
· Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
· supported . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
- Ghostscript
· drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114–116
- Ghostscript drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
- IPP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
- IPP server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
- jobs
· processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
- kprinter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
- languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
- lpc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132–133
- LPD server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
- lpq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
- lpr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131, 134
- LPRng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
· commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
- lprsetup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
- network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
· troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
- network printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
- port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
- PPD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
- print jobs
· deleting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157, 159
· status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
- Print jobs
· removing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132, 134
· status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132, 134
SuSE Linux Desktop – Administration Guide
211
- print queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118, 122
· lp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
- print server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
- print server box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
- printer drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
- processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
- protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
- queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40, 110
· controlling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132–134
· managing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157–160
· options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
· raw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136, 154
· remote . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133–134
· removing jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132, 134
· status . . . . . . . . . . . . 132, 134, 157, 159
· Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131–135
· within the net . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
- Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
- spooler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
· lpd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130–131
- supported printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
- switching printing systems . . . . . . . . . 39
- troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
· CUPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155, 159
· network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
- xpp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Printing
- Ghostscript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
- printer languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
· ASCII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
· ESC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
· PCL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
· PostScript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
- Printing Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110–113
printing a test page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
printing system . . . . . . . . . . see spooling system
profile manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
protocols
- IPP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
T
TCP/IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
- ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
time zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
U
R
rescue disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
runlevels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80–82
- default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
- switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
212
SCPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
script
- lpdfilter
· guess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
scripts
- lpdfilter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
· guess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
security
- configuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69–73
- firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
serial ports
- IrDA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
- parallel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124–126
- serial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
- USB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126–128
software
- deleting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34–37
- installing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34–37
sound
- YaST configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
sound fonts
- YaST installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Spooling system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
support request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
sysconfig editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
system
- configuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31–84
- language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
- security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
- updating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
system log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
system services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
updating
- online . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
- patch CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
users
- administering with YaST . . . . . . . . . . . 69
S
V
SaX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
SaX2
- multihead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
scanners
- configuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Variable
- CUPS_SERVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
- PRINTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
virtual consoles
- switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Index
X
X
- 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
- configuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
- multihead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Y
YaST
- ADSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
- backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
- boot disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
- boot method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
- cable modems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
- configuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31–84
- Control Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
- DMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
- e-mail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
- firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
- graphical user interface . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
- graphics cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42–44
- group administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
- hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
- hardware information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
- host name and DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
- installation source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
- installing with . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
- Internet access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
- ISDN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
- joysticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
- keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
- keyboard layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
- language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
- modems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
- monitor settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
- mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
- ncurses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
- network cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
- network configuration . . . . . . . . . . 56–68
- NFS client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
- online update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
- partitioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
- patch CD update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
- printing . . hyperpage118, 38 − −118
- profile manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
- rc.config . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
- routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
- runlevels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
- scanners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
- SCPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
- security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69–73
- sendmail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
- software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32–37
- sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
- sound cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
- starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
- support request . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
- sysconfig editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
- system security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
- T-DSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
- text mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
- time zone selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
- updating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
- user administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
- vendors driver CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
- YOU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
YaST2
- printing
· suppressing autodetection . . . . . 118
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