Imperial Hotel Tokyo, Japan Booklet available in English on Heft in deutscher Sprache erhältlich auf Livret disponible en français sur Folleto disponible en español en Folheto disponível em português em A füzet magyarul ezen a honlapon olvasható Libretto disponibile in italiano su: Architecture.LEGO.com © Ayuko Yonezu Contents Imperial Hotel ............................................................................................................. 5 Its place in the history of architecture ....................................................... 6 Design and construction process ................................................................ 7 About the architect ................................................................................................. 9 The building today ................................................................................................ 10 Facts about the Imperial Hotel ..................................................................... 12 A Word from the Artist ..................................................................................... 162 The ‘Scale Model’ line – LEGO Architecture in the 1960s ...... 163 References ............................................................................................................... 167 3 Courtesy of the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation Imperial Hotel When Frank Lloyd Wright’s legendary Imperial Hotel opened in 1923, it marked the emergence of Japan as a modern nation. The building quickly became the most famous landmark in Tokyo and it would go on to have a history as colorful and dramatic as the country itself. Eventually demolished in 1968, the iconic entrance and lobby wing was dismantled and rebuilt at the Meiji Mura Museum in Nagoya. © alamy.com 5 Its place in the history of architecture Looking for a western architect who could bridge the cultural divide between East and West, the hotel’s owners commissioned Frank Lloyd Wright to design and build the new Imperial Hotel. In many ways Wright was the perfect choice for the task. He had long been fascinated with Japanese culture, especially after his first visit to the country in 1905, and had become an avid collector of Japanese prints. Wright was glad to spend a great deal of time in Tokyo working on the project that consumed his attention, off and on, from 1916 to 1922. His goal from the outset was to design a building that would appeal to many and genuinely respect the Japanese culture. The 250 room hotel was designed roughly in the shape of its own logo, with the guest room wings forming the letter “H”, while the public rooms were in a smaller but taller central wing shaped like the letter “I” that cut through the middle of the “H”. The visual effect of the planned design would be both stunning and dramatic. 6 Top: Courtesy of the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation / Bottom: © Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation The original Imperial Hotel was a three-story, wooden Victorian-style structure built across the avenue from the Emperor’s palace. It opened in 1890 and was the only European-style hotel in the country at that time. By 1915 the hotel was no longer able to accommodate the growing numbers of visitors and it was decided to replace the out-dated building with a new, more modern hotel. The design & construction process Wright worked on the Imperial Hotel with 18 to 20 Japanese draftsmen, the only other foreigner apart from himself being Paul Mueller, an experienced builder from Chicago. One of the major concerns during the initial design and construction process was how to safeguard the building from the many earthquakes that occurred in the area. Wright had noted that Japanese architects, trained by centuries of natural disasters, always “built lightly on the ground.” With between 18m and 21m (60-70 ft.) of alluvial mud beneath the 2.4m (8 ft.) of surface soil, it would be impossible to obtain the rigidity needed for traditional foundations. Instead, his idea was to float the building upon the mud using shallow, broad footings. This would allow it—in Wright’s terms—“to balance like a tray on a waiter’s fingertips.” Other design features to combat the threat caused by earthquakes included cantilevered floors and balconies to provide extra support, seismic separation joints every 20m (65.6 ft.) along the building, tapered walls that were thicker on the lower floors, plus the consistent use of smooth curves which were more resistant to fracture. elaborate ornamental carving and decoration. Wright was particularly impressed by the craftsmanship of the Japanese stonemasons. So much so he modified many of his original decorative concepts to make the most of their talents. Furnishings were exquisite. Furniture was designed for specific seating areas and the restaurants. Oya stone carvings in the shape of peacocks and other intricate patterns adorned the walls; ceilings were hand painted or embellished in gold leaf on both interior and exterior wall surfaces. Over a hundred specially designed abstract, geometric, patterned rugs and carpets were created by Wright so they could be easily woven in China. The new Imperial Hotel opened on September 1st 1923. The same day a massive earthquake would rock Tokyo and the surrounding area. Wright was in Los Angeles at the time and it would be ten long days of conflicting reports before it was confirmed that hotel still stood. Indeed, thanks to Wright’s unique design features, it would be one of the few buildings to survive the quake. The main building materials used were reinforced poured concrete and brick, while the choice of soft volcanic Oya stone enabled the extensive carving of Courtesy of the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation 7 Courtesy of the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation About the architect Arguably America’s greatest architect and among the world’s most gifted, Frank Lloyd Wright was also a man of boundless energy. In a career that spanned over 74 years, he designed more than 900 works – including houses, offices, churches, schools, libraries, bridges, museums and many other building types. Of that total, over 500 resulted in completed works. Today, over 400 of these buildings still remain. OBMA ® F. L. Wright Foundationn Wright’s creative mind was not only confined to architecture. He also designed furniture, fabrics, art glass, lamps, dinnerware, silver, linens and graphic arts. In addition, he was a prolific writer, an educator and a philosopher. He authored twenty books and countless articles, lectured throughout the United States and in Europe. Wright was recognized as a brilliant architect by his peers and continues to be revered today. No other architecture took greater advantage of setting and environment. No other architect glorified the sense of “shelter” as did Frank Lloyd Wright. As he famously stated: “a building is not just a place to be. It is a way to be.” Wright was born in 1867, in the rural farming town of Richland Center, Wisconsin, just two years after the American Civil War ended and passed away at the age of 91 in 1959. While there is evidence of Wright attending both high school and the University of WisconsinMadison, there is no record of him graduating from either. In 1887 Wright moved to Chicago and by the early 1890s he was already head draftsman at the architectural firm of Adler & Sullivan. As an architect and artist, Wright was both intrigued and inspired by the Far East, and especially Japan. He would eventually design and complete six buildings in the country, the most famous being the Imperial Hotel. 9 The building today By 1968, the Wright designed Imperial Hotel had survived several earthquakes, a growing Japanese population, and increased pollution which had deteriorated some of the intricate Oya stone carvings and other decorative details of this masterpiece. Thousands of hotel guests had stayed, visited, or attended grand events held at the hotel. 10 Current management made a most difficult and controversial decision to demolish this iconic Japanese landmark to make way for a newer and larger multistory structure. However, the main entrance and lobby wing were carefully dismantled and rebuilt at the Meiji Mura Museum and can be seen in Nogoya, Japan. © Christophe Richard Facts about the Imperial Hotel Location:.......................... Architect: ......................... Date: .................................. Construction type: .... ................................................ Materials:......................... Original Cost: ............... Surface area: ................ Originally Tokyo, Japan Frank Lloyd Wright 1916-1923 Hotel: 250 rooms, 5 ballrooms, 10 banquet rooms Reinforced Concrete and Brick Approximately 6 million yen 34.765m2 (114 058.399 sq. ft.) © Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation 12 13 1x 2x 1 14 2x 2x 2x 2 15 1x 1x 3 16 5x 2x 2x 2x 1x 2x 4 17 1x 1x 5 18 2x 2x 2x 2x 2x 2x 4x 6 19 2x 7 20 2x 2x 8 21 2x 2x 2x 8x 9 22 2x 2x 2x 2x 10 23 2x 11 24 2x 2x 2x 2x Wright expected the shallow foundations of the hotel would allow the foundations to “balance like a tray on a waiter’s ﬁngertips”. © Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation 12 25 2x 2x 2x 13 26 2x 2x 14 27 2x 15 28 2x 2x 2x 4x 2x 16 29 4x 17 30 2x 2x 18 31 2x 1x 19 32 1x 4x 2x 2x 2x 1x 2x 20 33 2x 21 34 2x 4x 2x 3x 2x 22 35 2x 2x 23 36 2x 2x 2x 4x 2x 2x 2x 2x 24 37 2x 25 38 2x 6x 2x 2x 2x 26 39 2x 27 40 4x 2x 2x 2x 28 41 2x 4x 29 42 2x 2x 2x 2x 3x 2x 2x 30 43 2x 31 44 2x 2x 4x 2x 2x 32 45 4x 2x 33 46 1x 4x 34 6x 1 2 3 2x 47 10x 35 48 1 2 2x 2x 2x 2x 36 49 2x 37 50 2x 2x 2x 38 2x 2x 2x 51 1 8x 39 52 2 2x 2x 2x 2x Wright designed a shallow pool outside the lobby that could provide a source of water for fighting the fire-storms that occurred after an earthquake. © Ayuko Yonezu 40 53 2x 41 54 2x 2x 2x 2x 3x 42 55 2x 5x 5x 5x 10x 1 1 2 3 5x 56 2 5x 2x 3 1x 1x 1x 1x 1x 4 57 43 58 2x 2 5x 5x 5x 10x 5x 1 1 2 3 5x 59 2x 3 60 1x 1x 1x 4 1x 1x 44 61 2x 45 62 2x 2x 1x 1x 1 2 3 46 63 2x 47 64 1x 1x 1 2 3 2x 4x 48 2x 4x 1 2 3 2x 65 66 2x 49 67 4x 50 68 2x 2x 2x 2x 2x 51 69 2x 52 70 2x 9x 2x 4x 2x 53 71 1 4x 54 72 4x 2x 4x 2 3 4 2x 2x 4x 55 2x 2x 1 2 2x 73 2x 56 74 1x 1x 1 2 2x 1x 2 1 2 1x 1 75 4x 1x 3 76 1x 4 2x 2x 5 2x 6 77 6x 7 78 1x 8 1x 1x 2x 2x 2x 9 10 2x 79 57 80 2x 3x 2x The copper rain gutters atop the perimeter of the building ensured rainwater would drain through elaborately patterned grills. Courtesy of the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation 58 81 2x 59 82 2x 2x 4x 2x 60 83 2x 61 84 1x 2x 2x 2x 62 85 2x 63 86 2x 2x 4x 2x 64 87 4x 65 4x 4x 4x 2x 2x 4x 1 3 1 2 2 4 2x 88 89 1x 66 90 2x 2x 4x 2x 2x 67 4x 2x 2x 91 1 2x 68 92 4x 2 4x 2x 1x 2x 69 93 2x 70 94 2x 2x 3x 71 1x 1x 4x 1 3 2 4 5 95 96 3x 72 1x 1x 3x 1 3 2 4 5 97 98 2x 2x 2x 73 99 2x 74 100 2x 2x 2x 2x 2x 2x 75 101 18x 76 102 18x 6x 4x 2x 77 103 1x 2x 78 104 2x 1x 3x 2x 5x 8x 79 1 3 2 4 105 106 2x 2x 2x 80 107 1x 3x 1 1x 4x 81 2 3 108 © Wikipedia.org The Great Kanto earthquake of September 1st 1923 was most powerful one ever recorded at that time. It measured 7.9 on the magnitude scale. 109 2x 2x 82 110 3x 2x 1x 1x 1x 1x 1x 1x 3 3x 1 2x 2 4 111 1x 2x 5 1x 112 1x 7 3x 6 1x 1x 8 2x 2x 2x 9 11 1x 10 1x 1x 1x 12 2x 113 83 114 2x 1x 1x 1x 1x 1x 1x 3 3x 1 2x 2 4 115 1x 2x 5 1x 116 1x 7 3x 6 1x 1x 8 2x 2x 2x 9 11 1x 10 1x 1x 1x 12 2x 117 84 118 3x 1x 1x 1x 1x 1x 1x 3 1 4 2x 2 1x 2x 5 119 2x 3x 6 8 1x 7 120 1x 1x 1x 9 85 121 3x 1x 1x 1x 1x 1x 1x 3 1 4 2x 2 1x 5 122 2x 2x 3x 6 8 1x 7 1x 1x 1x 9 123 86 124 3x 1x 1x 1x 1x 1x 1x 3 1 4 2x 2 1x 2x 5 125 2x 3x 6 8 1x 7 126 1x 1x 1x 9 87 127 3x 1x 1x 1x 1x 1x 1x 3 1 4 2x 2 1x 5 128 2x 2x 3x 6 8 1x 7 1x 1x 1x 9 129 88 130 10x 89 3x 131 6x 4x 2x 2x 90 2x 132 1x 2x 1x 3x 3x 2 3x 1x Instead of traditional heavy roof tiles that always caused dangerous debris during earthquakes, Wright opted for a lightweight copper roof. © Ayuko Yonezu 1 133 1x 3 134 1x 1x 2x 4 1x 1x 5 10x 1x 1x 1x 6 135 3x 7 136 1x 2x 8 2x 1x 1x 9 1x 2x 5x 1x 10 137 1x 3x 11 138 12 2x 91 139 1x 2x 2 3x 1 140 1x 1x 3x 3x 1x 3 1x 1x 2x 1x 4 141 1x 5 142 10x 1x 6 1x 1x 3x 7 1x 2x 2x 8 143 1x 1x 9 144 1x 1x 10 2x 5x 1x 3x 11 2x 12 145 92 146 2x 1x 93 147 2x 1x 1x 1x 94 148 2x 14x 95 149 1x 96 150 2x 1x 2x 5x 1x 1x 9x 97 1 3 2 4 4x 151 152 5x 1x 1x 9x 98 1 3 2 4 4x 153 154 2x 2x 99 155 2x 2x 100 156 2x 2x 2x 5x Approx. 600 craftsmen were employed continuously for four of the seven years of the construction process. Courtesy of the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation 101 157 2x 1x 102 158 1x 2x 2x 1x 103 159 4x 2x 4x 2x 2x 2x 2x 4x 2x 104 1 3 2 4 2x 160 161 A Word from the Artist ‘‘As a LEGO architect, I set myself a triple challenge while designing this model: to faithfully capture Frank Lloyd Wright’s genius, to respect and accent the Japanese nature of the building and to create an intriguing model, that would be placed alongside existing Frank Lloyd Wright’s sets in the LEGO Architect series. The task began with choosing what to actually represent in LEGO; the whole of the hotel, or only the entrance lobby that was dismantled and reassembled at the Meiji Mura open-air architectural museum. This part of the building showed great potential for fulfilling my aspirations. This entrance lobby is (relatively) small-scaled but richly decorated; so the next challenge was how to translate as many of the architectural elements of the original as possible, while keeping the overall size of the LEGO model small. The starting point became the demanding cross section with many different levels, coupled together with the side-wing elevation with its windows. At the end, the harmonious whole of the model was achieved with a variety of LEGO techniques, including offsetting, sideways construction and SNOT (Studs Not On Top) techniques, as well as the use of LEGO holder plates together with light saber blades as the horizontal accent. ‘‘ 162 The Imperial Hotel model was created in close collaboration with the LEGO design team. They look at the model from a LEGO building point of view and ensure the construction process is simple and logical, and a positive experience for the user. The ‘Scale Model’ line – LEGO Architecture in the 1960s The history of the current LEGO Architecture series can be traced back to the beginning of the 1960s when the LEGO brick’s popularity was steadily increasing. Godtfred Kirk Christiansen, the then owner of the company, began looking for ways to further expand the LEGO system, and asked his designers to come up with a set of new components that would add a new dimension to LEGO building. coloured LEGO boxes, and also included ‘An Architectural Book’ for inspiration. Though the five elements remain an integral part of the LEGO building system today, ‘Scale Model’ line was phased out in 1965. It would be over 40 years before its principles would be revived in the LEGO Architecture series we know today. Their answer was as simple as it was revolutionary: five elements that matched the existing bricks, but were only one third the height. These new building ‘plates’ made it possible to construct more detailed models than before. This greater LEGO flexibility seemed to match the spirit of the age; where modernist architects were redefining how houses looked, and people were taking an active interest in the design of their dream home. It was from these trends that the LEGO ‘Scale Model’ line was born in early 1962. The name itself was a direct link to the way architects and engineers worked and it was hoped that they and others would build their projects ‘to scale’ in LEGO elements. As with LEGO Architecture today, the original sets were designed to be different from the normal brightly 163 Architect series 164 Landmark series 165 2x 611101 10x 300501 1x 4181134 44x 4160483 8x 4114026 20x 4118790 12x 4113233 11x 4159774 1x 4166138 12x 4124067 2x 4213568 2x 4205107 6x 4124455 6x 4162465 10x 4113916 52x 4159553 4x 4114319 166 1x 306926 4x 4558170 2x 243126 2x 4113988 11x 4143409 6x 4121921 10x 4598531 2x 6029891 6x 4598532 10x 4616578 2x 301026 2x 6015344 58x 4211399 1x 6030988 2x 4162443 1x 244526 5x 302826 1x 4509897 6x 303026 56x 4211451 8x 4211353 10x 4211396 4x 4211445 12x 416226 2x 447726 1x 6030980 32x 4529685 40x 6030982 18x 4114324 8x 4114077 10x 4114084 1x 4654448 2x 307026 47x 4155708 16x 4113917 107x 6001197 16x 4211398 2x 300226 2x 4113993 4x 4114306 10x 300426 2x 362226 14x 4579260 6x 4114064 28x 4161734 2x 4114309 12x 4113915 22x 4109995 8x 4124456 6x 4112982 8x 302401 17x 302301 28x 6029889 6x 302726 13x 4211525 22x 4560183 2x 4211395 15x 4211549 5x 4211438 2x 4211425 2x 4243797 9x 4211481 6x 4211837 10x 4211628 49x 4211415 2x 4211515 29x 4211414 1x 4211769 4x 4210997 14x 4211063 6x 4211413 2x 4211133 8x 4558169 3x 4251149 21x 4211356 2x 4211360 2x 4215513 2x 4221745 10x 4211044 2x 4211000 4x 4211053 16x 4560184 7x 4211008 4x 4210848 6x 4211052 6x 4211055 References: http://www.franklloydwright.org http://designmuseum.org http://wikipedia.org Customer Service Kundenservice Service Consommateurs Servicio Al Consumidor www.lego.com/service or dial 00800 5346 5555 : 1-800-422-5346 : 167 LEGO and the LEGO logo are trademarks of the LEGO Group. ©2013 The LEGO Group. 6037642

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