XF55-AVL Hardware description Preliminary
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XF55-AVL
Hardware description
Preliminary
Version 0.01
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
Index of contents
0
INTRODUCTION ..............................................................6
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
GENERAL ........................................................................................................................................ 6
CIRCUIT CONCEPT........................................................................................................................... 7
USED ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................................................... 9
RELATED DOCUMENTS.................................................................................................................. 11
1
SECURITY .......................................................................12
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13
GENERAL INFORMATION ............................................................................................................... 12
EXPOSURE TO RF ENERGY ............................................................................................................ 12
EFFICIENT MODEM OPERATION ..................................................................................................... 12
ANTENNA CARE AND REPLACEMENT ............................................................................................ 13
DRIVING ....................................................................................................................................... 13
ELECTRONIC DEVICES................................................................................................................... 13
VEHICLE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT ............................................................................................... 13
MEDICAL ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT .............................................................................................. 13
AIRCRAFT ..................................................................................................................................... 13
CHILDREN .................................................................................................................................... 14
BLASTING AREAS .......................................................................................................................... 14
POTENTIALLY EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES ..................................................................................... 14
NON-IONIZING RADIATION............................................................................................................ 14
2
SAFETY STANDARDS ...................................................15
3
TECHNICAL DATA........................................................16
3.1
3.1.1
3.2
3.3
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS OF MODULE XF55-AVL ..................................................................... 16
Power consumption ..................................................................................................................... 16
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF GSM/GPRS ENGINE................................................................... 18
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF GPS RECEIVER ........................................................................... 20
4
GSM/GPRS APPLICATION INTERFACE..................23
4.1
4.1.1
DESCRIPTION OF OPERATING MODES ............................................................................................ 23
Normal mode operation ............................................................................................................... 23
4.1.1.1
4.1.1.2
4.1.1.3
4.1.1.4
4.1.1.5
GSM/GPRS SLEEP ...................................................................................................................................... 23
GSM IDLE.................................................................................................................................................... 23
GSM TALK................................................................................................................................................... 23
GPRS IDLE .................................................................................................................................................. 23
GPRS DATA ................................................................................................................................................. 24
4.1.2
4.1.3
4.1.4
4.1.5
4.2
4.3
4.3.1
Power down ................................................................................................................................. 24
Alarm mode ................................................................................................................................. 24
Charge-only mode ....................................................................................................................... 24
Charge mode during normal operation ........................................................................................ 24
DESCRIPTION OF THE 80-PIN DOUBLE-ROW CONNECTOR .............................................................. 24
DESCRIPTION OF THE 50-PIN DOUBLE-ROW CONNECTOR .............................................................. 28
Special pin description................................................................................................................. 32
4.3.1.1
4.3.1.2
4.3.1.3
4.3.1.4
Power supply................................................................................................................................................ 32
Power supply pins (41…50, 53, and 54) on the board-to-board connectors................................................ 32
Minimizing power losses .............................................................................................................................. 33
Monitoring power supply ............................................................................................................................. 34
4.3.2
Power up/down scenarios ............................................................................................................ 34
4.3.2.1
4.3.2.2
4.3.2.3
4.3.2.4
4.3.2.5
Turn on the GSM/GPRS part of XF55-AVL ................................................................................................. 34
Turn on the GSM/GPRS part of XF55-AVL using the ignition line GSM_IGT (Power on).......................... 34
Timing of the ignition process ...................................................................................................................... 35
Turn on the GSM/GPRS part of XF55-AVL using the GSM_POWER signal ............................................... 36
Turn on the GSM/GPRS part of XF55-AVL using the RTC (Alarm mode)................................................... 36
4.3.3
Turn off the GSM/GPRS part of XF55-AVL .............................................................................. 37
4.3.3.1
Turn off GSM/GPRS part of the XF55-AVL module using AT command ..................................................... 38
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
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4.3.3.2
4.3.3.3
Maximum number of turn-on/turn-off cycles................................................................................................ 38
Emergency shutdown using GSM_EMERGOFF pin.................................................................................... 38
4.3.4
Automatic shutdown.................................................................................................................... 39
4.3.4.1
4.3.4.2
4.3.4.3
4.3.4.4
4.3.4.5
Temperature dependent shutdown................................................................................................................ 40
Temperature control during emergency call ................................................................................................ 41
Under voltage shutdown if battery NTC is present....................................................................................... 41
Under voltage shutdown if no battery NTC is present.................................................................................. 41
Over voltage shutdown................................................................................................................................. 41
4.4
4.5
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3
AUTOMATIC GPRS MULTISLOT CLASS CHANGE .......................................................................... 42
GSM CHARGING CONTROL ........................................................................................................... 42
Battery pack characteristics ......................................................................................................... 43
Recommended battery pack specification ................................................................................... 45
Implemented charging technique................................................................................................. 45
4.5.3.1
4.5.3.2
Trickle charging ........................................................................................................................................... 45
Fast charging ............................................................................................................................................... 46
4.5.4
Operating modes during charging................................................................................................ 47
4.5.4.1
Comparison Charge-only and Charge mode................................................................................................ 47
4.5.5
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4
4.6.5
4.6.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.10.1
4.10.2
4.10.3
4.10.4
Charger requirements................................................................................................................... 48
POWER SAVING ............................................................................................................................. 49
No power saving (AT+CFUN=1) ................................................................................................ 49
NON-CYCLIC SLEEP mode (AT+CFUN=0) ............................................................................ 49
CYCLIC SLEEP mode (AT+CFUN=5, 6, 7, 8) .......................................................................... 49
CYCLIC SLEEP mode AT+CFUN=9......................................................................................... 50
Timing of the GSM_CTS signal in CYCLIC SLEEP modes ...................................................... 50
Wake up XF55-AVL from SLEEP mode .................................................................................... 52
SUMMARY OF STATE TRANSITIONS (EXCEPT SLEEP MODE)......................................................... 53
RTC BACKUP FOR GSM/GPRS PART OF XF55-AVL................................................................... 54
FEATURES SUPPORTED ON THE SERIAL INTERFACE OF GSM/GPRS PART ..................................... 55
AUDIO INTERFACES ...................................................................................................................... 56
Microphone circuit....................................................................................................................... 57
Speech processing........................................................................................................................ 58
DAI timing................................................................................................................................... 58
SIM interface ............................................................................................................................... 60
4.10.4.1 Requirements for using the GSM_CCIN pin ................................................................................................ 60
4.10.4.2 Design considerations for SIM card holder ................................................................................................. 61
4.11
4.11.1
4.11.2
CONTROL SIGNALS ....................................................................................................................... 63
Inputs ........................................................................................................................................... 63
Outputs ........................................................................................................................................ 63
4.11.2.1 Synchronization signal ................................................................................................................................. 63
4.11.2.2 Using the GSM_SYNC pin to control a status LED...................................................................................... 64
4.11.2.3 Behaviour of the GSM_RING0 line (ASC0 interface only)........................................................................... 65
5
GPS APPLICATION INTERFACE ...............................67
5.1
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.3
5.4
5.4.1
5.5
5.6
5.6.1
5.6.2
5.6.3
5.6.4
SIGNAL PROCESSING OPERATION OF GPS RECEIVER.................................................................... 67
DESCRIPTION OF OPERATING MODES ............................................................................................ 68
Normal Operation ........................................................................................................................ 68
Trickle Power Operation.............................................................................................................. 68
Push-to-Fix Mode ........................................................................................................................ 70
NMEA INPUT MESSAGE FOR TRICKLE POWER MODE................................................................... 70
INTEGRATED GPS RECEIVER ARCHITECTURE .............................................................................. 72
Description of GPS receiving signals .......................................................................................... 73
GPS INPUT SIGNALS ..................................................................................................................... 73
CONFIGURATION AND TIMING SIGNALS ........................................................................................ 74
Serial communication signals ...................................................................................................... 75
General purpose input/output....................................................................................................... 76
General purpose input.................................................................................................................. 76
General purpose Output............................................................................................................... 77
6
HARDWARE INTERFACES .........................................78
6.1
6.2
DETERMINING THE EXTERNAL EQUIPMENT TYPE ......................................................................... 78
INTERFACES OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................ 79
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
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6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
Interface A (80-pin board to board connector) ............................................................................ 80
Interface B (50-pin board to board connector)............................................................................. 80
Interface C (GSM antenna installation) ....................................................................................... 81
6.2.3.1
GSM antenna connector............................................................................................................................... 81
6.2.4
6.2.5
Interface D (GPS antenna interface) ............................................................................................ 81
Interface E (Mounting holes)....................................................................................................... 82
7
ELECTRICAL, RELIABILITY AND RADIO
CHARACTERISTICS .....................................................84
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.3.1
7.3.2
7.3.3
7.3.4
7.3.5
7.4
7.5
7.6
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS .................................................................................................... 84
OPERATING TEMPERATURES ......................................................................................................... 84
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VOICE BAND PART .......................................................... 85
Setting audio parameters by AT commands ................................................................................ 85
Audio programming model.......................................................................................................... 85
Characteristics of audio modes .................................................................................................... 86
Voice band receive path............................................................................................................... 87
Voice band transmit path ............................................................................................................. 88
AIR INTERFACE OF THE XF55-AVL GSM/GPRS PART ................................................................ 88
ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE ........................................................................................................ 89
RELIABILITY CHARACTERISTICS ................................................................................................... 90
8
HOUSING .........................................................................91
9
REFERENCE EQUIPMENT FOR TEST .....................92
10
LIST OF PARTS AND ACCESSORIES........................93
11
APPENDIX .......................................................................95
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.5.1
80-PIN BOARD-TO-BOARD CONNECTOR......................................................................................... 95
50-PIN BOARD-TO-BOARD CONNECTOR......................................................................................... 96
GSM AND GPS ANTENNA CONNECTORS ...................................................................................... 97
GSM ANTENNA PAD ..................................................................................................................... 98
FIRMWARE INTERFACE ................................................................................................................. 98
XTrac firmware description......................................................................................................... 98
11.5.1.1 SiRFXTrac2 firmware default settings ......................................................................................................... 99
11.5.1.2 Advanced Power Management (AMP) ......................................................................................................... 99
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
Version history:
Version number
0.00
Author
Fadil Beqiri
0.01
Fadil Beqiri
Changes
Initial version
Chapter 5.6.4 corrected.
Chapter “Type approval” removed
Power consumption (Table 2)
updated.
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
Cautions
Information furnished herein by FALCOM are accurate and reliable.
However, no responsibility is assumed for its use.
Please read carefully the safety precautions.
If you have any technical questions regarding this document or the
product described in it, please contact your vendor.
General information about FALCOM and its range of products is
available at the following Internet address: http://www.falcom.de/.
Trademarks
Some mentioned products are registered trademarks of their respective
companies.
Copyright
This manual is copyrighted by FALCOM GmbH with all rights reserved.
No part of this user’s guide may be produced in any form without the
prior written permission of FALCOM GmbH.
FALCOM GmbH.
No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of the information
contained herein.
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
0 Introduction
0.1 General
This description is focused on the GSM/GPRS and GPS module XF55-AVL
from FALCOM GmbH. It contains short information about purpose and use of
the XF55-AVL concept. This guide completes information needed to prepare
and build applications incorporating the XF55-AVL module.
In order quickly to start and immediately and comprehensive to use all
functions and to avoid any mistakes of XF55-AVL module on your utilization,
we recommend to read the following references and suggestions for using your
new XF55-AVL module.
The XF55-AVL is designed to be used on any GSM network. This single and
very small (35 x 53 x 5 mm) compact device is Tri-band GSM/GPRS engine
that works on the three frequencies GSM 900MHz, GSM 1800 MHz and GSM
1900 MHz, it supports also state-of-art GPS technology for satellite navigation.
XF55-AVL features GPRS multislot class 10 and supports the GPRS coding
schemes CS-1, CS-2, CS-3 and CS-4. The XF55-AVL is combined
GSM/GPRS and GPS device. Figure 1 shows the front and backside of the
XF55-AVL module.
a) top view
b) bottom view
Figure 1: Top and bottom view of XF55-AVL module
The compact design of the XF55-AVL module makes it easy to integrate
GSM/GPRS and GPS as an all-in-one solution. The XF55-AVL is designed for
application that prefers to use board-to-board connection to the main PCB
application platform. Due to its summit form factor it offers a highperformance combination between small form factor and improved flexibility
for smaller and medium-sized projects. The combination of these two
technologies in such a small form-factor device will make many new asset
tracking applications possible, particularly in the fields of transportation,
logistics and security. This combination concept builds perfect basis for the
design tracking solutions for applications such as fleet management, vehicle
tracking, navigation, emergency calling, location-based services and others. It
saves significantly both time and cost for integration of additional hardware
components.
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
The integrated GPS module provides more then enough precise location
information using satellite signals to enable users to determine where they are
anywhere in the world. The XF55-AVL module has also an integrated TCXO
that allows the support for high sensitivity SiRFXTrac2 software.
An integrated Combo-Memory into the XF55-AVL module of GPS part,
combination Flash and SRAM is high-performance memory solution that
significantly improves the system performance. It saves the XF55-AVL
software in its flash memory section and static RAM section provides the
additional storage capacity.
A compact “stacked FLASH/SRAM” device stores the XF55-AVL software in
the flash memory section of GSM/GPRS part, and static RAM section provides
the additional storage capacity required by GPRS connectivity.
The physical interface to the module application is made through board-toboard connector. This is required for controlling the unit, receiving GPS
location data, transferring data and audio signals and providing power supply
lines. XF55-AVL provides two serial GSM interfaces (ASC0-provided on the
80-pin connector and ASC1 provided on the 50-pin connector) and two serial
GPS interfaces (Serial data 1 and Serial data 2) giving you maximum flexibility
for easy integration with the Man-Machine Interface (MMI). For battery
powered applications, XF55-AVL features a charging control which can be
used to charge a Li-Ion battery. The charging circuit must be implemented
external the module on your application platform.
0.2 Circuit concept
The XF55-AVL architecture includes the following major functional components
(see figure 2):
Architecture integrates:
high-performance Tri Band GSM/GPRS core (operating at 26MHz)
12 parallel channel low-power GPS core (operating at L1 1575.42
MHz and C/A code 1,023 MHz chip rate)
ARM7TDMI Processor (at speed 25MHz) that controls all
functions of the system
Power Control circuitry
2 x Audio channels
Interface circuitry
Combo-Memory (2MB - 512KB) for loading software.
Physical interfaces:
80-pin board-to-board connector (Type Hirose DF12C) serves as
physical interface to the host application.
50-pin board-to-board connector (Type Hirose DF12C) serves as
physical interface for GSM/GPRS part to the host application.
provided pins for an external SIM card reader.
an ultra-miniature SMT GSM/GPRS antenna connector (Type
U.FL-R-SMT) supplied from Hirose Ltd.
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
an ultra-miniature SMT GPS antenna connector (Type U.FL-RSMT) supplied from Hirose Ltd.
Figure 2: Architecture of the XF55-AVL module
Please note that the GPS part of XF55-AVL operates with SiRF GSW2,
version 2.32. There is no AVL software included in the delivery pack.
Figure 3: Architecture of the XF55-AVL module operating with AVL or TCP/IP
software application (optional)
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
0.3 Used abbreviations
Abbreviation
AD
ADC
AFC
AGC
AMP
ANSI
ARFCN
ARP
ASC0/ASC1
ASIC
B
B2B
BER
BTS
CB or CBM
CE
CHAP
CPU
CS
CSD
CTS
DAC
DAI
dBW
dBm0
DCE
DCS 1800
DGPS
DOP
DRX
DSP
DSR
DTE
DTR
DTX
EFR
EGSM
EMC
ESD
ETS
FCC
FDMA
Description
Analog/Digita
Analog-to-Digital Converter
Automatic Frequency Control
Automatic Gain Control
Advanced Power Management
American National Standards Institute
Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number
Antenna Reference Point
Asynchronous Controller. Abbreviations used for first and second
serial interface of XF55-AVL
Application Specific Integrated Circuit
Thermistor Constant
Board-to-board connector
Bit Error Rate
Base Transceiver Station
Cell Broadcast Message
Conformité Européene (European Conformity)
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
Central Processing Unit
Coding Scheme
Circuit Switched Data
Clear to Send
Digital-to-Analog Converter
Digital Audio Interface
Decibel per Watt
Digital level, 3.14 dBm0 corresponds to full scale, see ITU G.711,
A-law
Data Communication Equipment (typically modems, e.g. XF55AVL GSM engine)
Digital Cellular System, also referred to as PCN
Differential GPS
Dilution of Precision
Discontinuous Reception
Digital Signal Processor
Data Set Ready
Data Terminal Equipment (typically computer, terminal, printer or,
for example, GSM application)
Data Terminal Ready
Discontinuous Transmission
Enhanced Full Rate
Enhanced GSM
Electromagnetic Compatibility
Electrostatic Discharge
European Telecommunication Standard
Federal Communications Commission (U.S.)
Frequency Division Multiple Access
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
Abbreviation
FR
GGA
GMSK
GPRS
GPS
GSM
HiZ
HR
I/O
IC
IF
IMEI
ISO
ITU
kbps
LED
Li-Ion
LNA
Mbps
MMI
MO
MS
MSISDN
MSK
MT
NTC
NMEA
OEM
PA
PAP
PBCCH
PCB
PCL
PCM
PCN
PCS
PDU
PLL
PPP
PRN
PSU
R&TTE
RAM
RF
RMS
ROM
RP
RTC
VERSION 0.01
Description
Full Rate
GPS Fixed Data
Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying
General Packet Radio Service
Global Positioning System
Global Standard for Mobile Communications
High Impedance
Half Rate
Input/Output
Integrated Circuit
Intermediate Frequency
International Mobile Equipment Identity
International Standards Organization
International Telecommunications Union
kbits per second
Light Emitting Diode
Lithium-Ion
Low Noise Amplifier
Mbits per second
Man Machine Interface
Mobile Originated
Mobile Station (GSM engine), also referred to as TE
Mobile Station International ISDN number
Minimum Shift Key
Mobile Terminated
Negative Temperature Coefficient
National Maritime Electronics Association
Original Equipment Manufacturer
Power Amplifier
Password Authentication Protocol
Packet Switched Broadcast Control Channel
Printed Circuit Board
Power Control Level
Pulse Code Modulation
Personal Communications Network, also referred to as DCS 1800
Personal Communication System, also referred to as GSM 1900
Protocol Data Unit
Phase Locked Loop
Point-to-point protocol
Pseudo-Random Noise Number. The identity of GPS satellites
Power Supply Unit
Radio and Telecommunication Terminal Equipment
Random Access Memory
Radio Frequency
Root Mean Square (value)
Read-only Memory
Receive Protocol
Real Time Clock
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
Abbreviation
RTCM
Rx
SA
SAR
SELV
SIM
SMS
SRAM
TA
TDMA
TE
Tx
UART
URC
USSD
VSWR
WAAS
FD
LD
MC
ME
ON
RC
SM
Table 1:
VERSION 0.01
Description
Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services
Receive Direction
Selective Availability
Specific Absorption Rate
Safety Extra Low Voltage
Subscriber Identification Module
Short Message Service
Static Random Access Memory
Terminal adapter (e.g. GSM engine)
Time Division Multiple Access
Terminal Equipment, also referred to as DTE
Transmit Direction
Universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter
Unsolicited Result Code
Unstructured Supplementary Service Data
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio
Wide Area Augmentation System
SIM fix dialing phonebook
SIM last dialing phonebook (list of numbers most recently dialed)
Mobile Equipment list of unanswered MT calls (missed calls)
Mobile Equipment phonebook
Own numbers (MSISDNs) stored on SIM or ME
Mobile Equipment list of received calls
SIM phonebook
Used abbreviations
0.4 Related documents
1. ETSI GSM 07.05: “Use of Data Terminal Equipment–Data Circuit
terminating Equipment interface for Short Message Service and Cell
Broadcast Service”
2. ETSI GSM 07.07 “AT command set for GSM Mobile Equipment”
3. ITU-T V.25ter “Serial asynchronous automatic dialling and control”
4. xf55_at_command_set.pdf
5. gprs_startup_user_guide.pdf
6. SiRF binary and NMEA protocol specification;
www.falcom.de/download/manuals/SiRF
7. xf55-avl_using_stepp_II_1.6.2_sw.pdf
8. xf55_avl_tcp_ip_software_manual.pdf
9. Multiplexer User's Guide (in preparation)
10. Application Note 14: Audio and Battery Parameter Download (in
preparation)
11. Application Note 02: Audio Interface Design (in preparation)
12. falcom_eCos_SDK_user_guide.pdf
13. universal_evaluation_board_manual.pdf
14. xf55_avl_getting_started.pdf
15. xf55_avl_using_V2.0RC1_sw.pdf
16. Application Note 01: Interrupt control
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
1 Security
IMPORTANT FOR THE EFFICIENT AND SAFE OPERATION OF YOUR
GSM-MODEM, READ THIS INFORMATION BEFORE USE!
Your cellular engine XF55-AVL is one of the most exciting and innovative
electronic products ever developed. With it you can stay in contact with your
office, your home, emergency services and others, wherever service is
provided.
This chapter contains important information for the safe and reliable use of the
XF55-AVL module. Please read this chapter carefully before starting to use the
cellular engine XF55-AVL.
1.1 General information
Your XF55-AVL device utilize the GSM/GPS standard for cellular technology.
GSM is a newer radio frequency („RF“) technology than the current FM
technology that has been used for radio communications for decades. The GSM
standard has been established for use in the European community and
elsewhere. Your XF55-AVL is actually a low power radio transmitter and
receiver. It sends out and receives radio frequency energy. When you use your
modem, the cellular system handling your calls controls both the radio
frequency and the power level of your cellular modem.
1.2 Exposure to RF energy
There has been some public concern about possible health effects of using
GSM modem. Although research on health effects from RF energy has focused
for many years on the current RF technology, scientists have begun research
regarding newer radio technologies, such as GSM. After existing research had
been reviewed, and after compliance to all applicable safety standards had been
tested, it has been concluded that the product is fit for use.
If you are concerned about exposure to RF energy there are things you can do
to minimize exposure. Obviously, limiting the duration of your calls will
reduce your exposure to RF energy. In addition, you can reduce RF exposure
by operating your cellular modem efficiently by following the guidelines
below.
1.3 Efficient modem operation
In order to operate your modem at the lowest power level, consistent with
satisfactory call quality please take note of the following hints.
If your modem has an extendible antenna, extend it fully. Some models
allow you to place a call with the antenna retracted. However, your modem
operates more efficiently with the antenna fully extended.
Do not hold the antenna when the modem is „IN USE“. Holding the
antenna affects call quality and may cause the modem to operate at a
higher power level than needed.
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
1.4 Antenna care and replacement
Do not use the modem with a damaged antenna. If a damaged antenna comes
into contact with the skin, a minor burn may result. Replace a damaged antenna
immediately. Consult your manual to see if you may change the antenna
yourself. If so, use only a manufacturer antenna. Otherwise, have your antenna
repaired by a qualified technician.
Use only the supplied (if there is one) or approved antenna. Unauthorized
antennas, modifications or attachments could damage the modem and may
contravene local RF emission regulations.
1.5 Driving
Check the laws and regulations on the use of cellular devices in the area where
you drive. Always obey them. Also, when using your modem while driving,
please pay full attention to driving, pull off the road and park before making or
answering a call if driving conditions so require. When applications are
prepared for mobile use they should fulfil road-safety instructions of the
current law!
1.6 Electronic devices
Most electronic equipment, for example in hospitals and motor vehicles is
shielded from RF energy. However, RF energy may affect some
malfunctioning or improperly shielded electronic equipment.
1.7 Vehicle electronic equipment
Check your vehicle manufacturer’s representative to determine if any on board
electronic equipment is adequately shielded from RF energy.
1.8 Medical electronic equipment
Consult the manufacturer of any personal medical devices (such as
pacemakers, hearing aids, etc.) to determine if they are adequately shielded
from external RF energy.
Turn your XF55-AVL device OFF in health care facilities when any
regulations posted in the area instruct you to do so. Hospitals or health care
facilities may be using RF monitoring equipment.
1.9 Aircraft
Turn your XF55-AVL OFF before boarding any aircraft.
Use it on the ground only with crew permission.
Do not use it in the air.
To prevent possible interference with aircraft systems, Federal Aviation
Administration (FAA) regulations require you to have permission from a crew
member to use your modem while the plane is on the ground. To prevent
interference with cellular systems, local RF regulations prohibit using your
modem whilst airborne.
This confidential document is a property of FALCOM GmbH and may not be copied or circulated without previous permission.
Page 13
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
1.10 Children
Do not allow children to play with your XF55-AVL device. It is not a toy.
Children could hurt themselves or others (by poking themselves or others in the
eye with the antenna, for example). Children could damage the modem or
make calls that increase your modem bills.
1.11 Blasting areas
To avoid interfering with blasting operations, turn your unit OFF when in a
“blasting area” or in areas posted: „turn off two-way radio“. Construction crew
often uses remote control RF devices to set off explosives.
1.12 Potentially explosive atmospheres
Turn your XF55-AVL device OFF when in any area with a potentially
explosive atmosphere. It is rare, but your modems or their accessories could
generate sparks. Sparks in such areas could cause an explosion or fire resulting
in bodily injury or even death.
Areas with a potentially explosive atmosphere are often, but not always, clearly
marked. They include fuelling areas such as petrol stations; below decks on
boats; fuel or chemical transfer or storage facilities; and areas where the air
contains chemicals or particles, such as grain, dust or metal powders.
Do not transport or store flammable gas, liquid or explosives, in the
compartment of your vehicle which contains your modem or accessories.
Before using your modem in a vehicle powered by liquefied petroleum gas
(such as propane or butane) ensure that the vehicle complies with the relevant
fire and safety regulations of the country in which the vehicle is to be used.
1.13 Non-ionizing radiation
As with other mobile radio transmitting equipment users are advised that for
satisfactory operation and for the safety of personnel, it is recommended that
no part of the human body be allowed to come too close to the antenna during
operation of the equipment.
The radio equipment shall be connected to the antenna via a non-radiating 50
Ohm coaxial cable.
The antenna shall be mounted in such a position that no part of the human body
will normally rest close to any part of the antenna. It is also recommended to
use the equipment not close to medical devices as for example hearing aids and
pacemakers.
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Page 14
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
2 Safety standards
Your GSM/GPS module complies with all applicable RF safety standards.
The embedded GMS/GPS module meet the safety standards for RF receivers
and the standards and recommendations for the protection of public exposure
to RF electromagnetic energy established by government bodies and
professional organizations, such as directives of the European Community,
Directorate General V in matters of radio frequency electromagnetic energy.
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Page 15
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
3 Technical data
3.1 General specifications of module XF55-AVL
Power supply:
Supply voltage 3.3 V...4.8 V for the GSM/GPRS
module
Separate power supply source: 3.3 V ± 5 % for
the GPS device
Power saving (GSM):
Minimizes power consumption in SLEEP mode
to 3 mA
Power saving (GPS)
TricklePower mode reduces power to <60 mW
Charging
Supports charging control for Li-Ion battery for
the GSM/GPRS part of the module
Temperature range:
Normal operation: -20 °C to +55 °C (see chapter
7.2 for further details)
Evaluation kit
The XF55-AVL Evaluation Kit is designed to
tests and types approve the FALCOM devices
and provide a sample configuration for
application engineering.
Physical characteristics:
Size: 35.0 ± 0.15 mm x 53.0 ± 0.15 mm x 5.1 ±
0.15 mm
Weight: 12 g
Firmware upgrade
XF55-AVL firmware upgradeable over serial
interface
3.1.1
Power consumption
Supply voltage
POWER CONSUMPTION
Min Typ Max Unit Description
GSM/GPRS engine
Voltage must stay within the min/max
3.3 4.5 4.8
V
values, including voltage drop, ripple and
spikes.
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Page 16
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
50
3
15
15
260
180
15
15
300
230
450
320
GSM
GPRS
Peak supply
current.
Supply voltage
1.6
3.14 3.3
Antenna
voltage
3
60
2.32 firmware
0.65 13
VERSION 0.01
Average supply current
100
µA
POWER DOWN mode
mA SLEEP mode @ DRX = 6
MODE
BAND
mA IDLE mode
EGSM 900
GSM 1800/1900
EGSM 900*)
mA TALK mode
GSM 1800/1900**)
EGSM 900
mA IDLE GPRS
GSM 1800/1900
DATA mode GPRS, EGSM 900*)
mA
(4 Rx, 1 Tx)
GSM 1800/1900**)
DATA mode GPRS, EGSM 900*)
mA
(3 Rx, 2 Tx)
GSM 1800/1900**)
*)
Power control level
A
During transmission slot every 4.6 ms.
GPS engine
Voltage must stay within the min/max
3.46
V values, including voltage drop, ripple, and
spikes.
GPS_VCC_RF pin connected to
GPS_VANT pin. The current
V
consumption of connected active GPS is 3
mA.
Power mode description
During signal receiving in continuous
74
mode (GPS fix is already obtained)
During signal receiving in TricklePower
mode (GPS fix is obtained)
TricklePower Mode settings:
mA Total period
69
= 2000 ms
Tracking State
CPU mode
Trickle State
0.65
69
71
84
XTrac firmware
mA
68
88
= 240 ms
= 630 ms
= 1130 ms
During signal receiving in Push-To-Fix
mode (GPS fix is already obtained)
During signal receiving in continuous
mode (GPS fix is already obtained)
During signal receiving in APM mode
APM Mode settings:
AMP enable
Num AMP cycle before sleep
Time between fixes
Power Duty cycle
Timing priority preference
Accuracy Priority preference
= True
=0
= 30 sec
= 50 %
= Tbf***)
= no preference
Table 2: Power consumption of GSM/GPRS and GPS parts
________________________________________________
*)
in transmit/receive mode at maximum power level (5)
**)
in transmit/receive mode at maximum power level (0)
***)
Time between fixes
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Page 17
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
3.2 Technical specifications of GSM/GPRS engine
Frequency bands:
Tri band: EGSM 900, GSM 1800, GSM 1900
Compliant to GSM Phase 2/2+
GSM class:
Small MS
Transmit power:
Class 4 (2 W) at EGSM900
Class 1 (1 W) at GSM1800 and GSM 1900
GPRS connectivity:
GPRS multi-slot class 10
GPRS mobile station class B
DATA:
GPRS ⇒
GPRS data downlink transfer: max. 85.6 kbps
(see table 3).
GPRS data uplink transfer: max. 42.8 kbps (see
table 3).
Coding scheme: CS-1, CS-2, CS-3 and CS-4.
XF55-AVL supports two protocols PAP
(Password Authentication Protocol) and CHAP
(Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol)
commonly used for PPP connections.
Supports of Packet Switched Broadcast Control
Channel (PBCCH) allows you to benefit from
enhanced GPRS performance when offered by
the network operators.
CSD ⇒
CSD transmission rates: 2.4, 4.8, 9.6, 14.4 kbps,
non-transparent, V.110.
Unstructured Supplementary Services Data
(USSD) support.
WAP ⇒
WAP compliant.
SMS:
MT, MO, CB, Text and PDU mode
SMS storage: SIM card plus 25 SMS locations in
the mobile equipment
Transmission of SMS alternatively over CSD or
GPRS. Preferred mode can be user-defined.
MMS:
MMS compliant
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
FAX:
Group 3: class 1, class 2
SIM interface:
Supported SIM card: 3 V
External SIM card reader has to be connected
via interface connector (note that card reader is
not part of module XF55-AVL)
Casing:
Fully shield
Temperature control
and auto switch-off:
Constant temperature control prevents damage to
module XF55-AVL when the specified
temperature is exceeded. When an emergency
call is in progress the automatic temperature
shutdown functionality is deactivated. (see
chapter 7.2 for further details)
External antenna:
Connected via 50 Ohm antenna connector or
antenna pad.
Audio interfaces:
Two analogue audio interfaces, one digital audio
interface (DAI)
Audio features:
Speech codec modes:
Half Rate (ETS 06.20)
Full Rate (ETS 06.10)
Enhanced Full Rate (ETS 06.50/06.60/06.80)
Adaptive Multi Rate (AMR)
Handsfree operation
Echo cancellation
Noise reduction
Two serial interfaces (ASC0, ASC1):
2.65V level, bi-directional bus for AT
commands and data
ASC0↔full-featured 8-wire serial interface.
Supports RTS0/CTS0 hardware handshake and
software XON/XOFF flow control. Multiplex
ability according to GSM 07.10 Multiplexer
Protocol.
ASC1↔4-wire serial interface. Supports
RTS1/CTS1 hardware handshake and software
XON/XOFF flow control.
Baud rate: 300 bps ... 230 kbps on ASC0 and
ASC1
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Page 19
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
Autobauding (on ASC0 only) detects 1200,
2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200,
230400 bps
Phonebook management:
Supported phonebook types: SM, FD, LD, MC,
RC, ON, ME
SIM Application Toolkit:
Supports SAT class 3, GSM 11.14 Release 98
Ringing tones:
Offers a choice of 7 different ringing
tones/melodies, easily selectable with AT
command
Real time clock:
Implemented
Timer function:
Programmable via AT command
Internal memory:
Stacked Flash/SRAM
Support of TTY/CTM:
To benefit from TTY communication via GSM,
CTM equipment can be connected to one of the
three audio interfaces.
Coding scheme
CS-1:
CS-2:
CS-3:
CS-4:
1 Timeslot
9.05 kbps
13.4 kbps
15.6 kbps
21.4 kbps
2 Timeslots
18.1 kbps
26.8 kbps
31.2 kbps
42.8 kbps
4 Timeslots
36.2 kbps
53.6 kbps
62.4 kbps
85.6 kbps
Table 3: Coding schemes and maximum net data rates over air interface
Please note that the values listed above are the maximum ratings which, in practice, are
influenced by a great variety of factors, primarily, for example, traffic variations and network
coverage.
3.3 Technical specifications of GPS receiver
GPS features:
OEM single board 12 channel GPS receiver, L1
1575.42 MHz, C/A code 1,023 MHz chip rate.
GPS receiver with SiRFstarIIe/LP chip set
Processor type ARM7/TDMI
SiRF GSW2, version 2.32
Accuracy:
Position 10 meters CEP without SA.
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
Velocity 0.1 meters/second, without SA
Time 1 microsecond synchronized to GPS time
DGPS Accuracy:
Position 1 to 5 meters, typical.
Velocity 0.05 meters/second, typical
Datum:
WGS-84.
Sensitivity*:
•
Tracking 16 dBHz.
Hot Start 23 dBHz
Warm Start 28 dBHz
Cold Start 32 dBHz
The sensitivity value is specified at the correlator. On a GPS Evaluation Receiver
using SiRFXTrac2 firmware with the supplied antenna, 32 dBHz is equivalent to
-142 dBm or -172 dBW. Other board and antenna characteristics will vary.
Acquisition Rate:
Cold start <45 sec, average
Dynamic Conditions:
Altitude 18,000 meters (60,000 feet) max.
Velocity <515 meters/second (1000 knots) max.
Acceleration 4 g, max.
Jerk 20 meters/second³, max.
Backup battery power:
Supply +3 V DC ±5 %.
Casing:
Fully shield
Time – 1 PPS Pulse:
Level
Pulse duration
Time reference
Measurements
CMOS.
100 ms
At the pulse positive edge
Aligned to GPS second, ± µs
Supported protocols:
NMEA Msg.: GLL, GGA, RMC, VTG, GSV,
GSA
SiRF binary: position, velocity, altitude, status
and control.
RTCM SC-104
Serial Interface Settings (SD1, SD2):
Two full duplex serial communication, CMOS
level
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Page 21
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
Baud rate: 4800 bps on the GPS_SD1 port, 9600
bps on the GPS_SD2 port (see chapter 11.5.1.1
for SiRFXTrac2 software settings).
8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit
Crystal oscillator (TCXO) specification:
Typical phase noise density
Typical phase noise density
Typical phase noise density
Typical phase noise density
Typical phase noise density
Load sensitivity
Long term stability
1 Hz offset
10 Hz offset
100 Hz offset
1 kHz offset
10 kHz offset
± 10 % load change
Frequency drift over 1 year
-57.0 dBc/Hz
-88.0 dBc/Hz
-112.0 dBc/Hz
-130.0 dBc/Hz
-140.0 dBc/Hz
0.2 ± ppm
0.5 to 2.0 ± ppm
External antenna:
Separate GPS antenna connector. See figure 37
for details
Memory:
Combo-Memory (2 MB Flash–512 KB SRAM)
Additional software options (can be obtained separately):
AVL: The integration of AVL software into the
on-board Memory allows the module XF55AVL a wide range of tracking solutions in
applications that can locally and remotely be
configured. The concept of the device is based
on a simple implementation for a wide range of
applications with low costs and high flexibility
(see related documents [7 and 15])
TCP/IP: The integration of TCP/IP stack into the
XF55-AVL converts it to a stand-alone client
that can be connected to the internet through any
GSM 900/1800/1900 network. The module can
also send and receive data by GSM and GPRS
network using TCP/IP stack. It supports SMS,
DATA and FAX calls. The XF55-AVL using
module TCP/IP can be easily controlled by using
AT or IP commands (see related document [8])
SiRFXTrac2 (high sensitivity stand alone
software) see section 11.5.1
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Page 22
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
4 GSM/GPRS application interface
4.1 Description of operating modes
The chapter below briefly summarizes the various operating modes referred to
in the following chapters. GPS operating modes are also described in chapter
5.2.
Definition of the GPRS class B mode of operation:
The definition of GPRS class B mode is, the MS can be attached to both
GPRS and other GSM services, but the MS can only operate one set of
services at a time. Class B enables making or receiving a voice call, or
sending/receiving an SMS during a GPRS connection. During voice calls or
SMS, GPRS services are suspended and then resumed automatically after the
call or SMS session has ended.
4.1.1
Normal mode operation
4.1.1.1 GSM/GPRS SLEEP
Various power save modes set with AT+CFUN command. Software is active to
minimum extent. If the module was registered to the GSM network in IDLE
mode, it is registered and paging with the BTS in SLEEP mode, too. Power
saving can be chosen at different levels: The NON-CYCLIC SLEEP mode
(AT+CFUN=0) disables the AT interface. The CYCLIC SLEEP modes
AT+CFUN=5,6,7,8 and 9 alternatively activate and deactivate the AT
interfaces to allow permanent access to all AT commands.
4.1.1.2 GSM IDLE
Software is active. Once registered to the GSM network, paging with BTS is
carried out. The module is ready to send and receive.
4.1.1.3 GSM TALK
Connection between two subscribers is in progress. Power consumption
depends on network coverage individual settings, such as DTX off/on,
FR/EFR/HR, hopping sequences, antenna.
4.1.1.4 GPRS IDLE
Module is ready for GPRS data transfer, but no data is currently sent or
received. Power consumption depends on network settings and GPRS
configuration (e.g. multislot settings).
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Page 23
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
4.1.1.5 GPRS DATA
GPRS data transfer in progress. Power consumption depends on network
settings (e.g. power control level), uplink/downlink data rates and GPRS
configuration (e.g. used multislot settings).
4.1.2
Power down
Normal shutdown after sending the AT^SMSO command. The Power Supply
ASIC (PSU-ASIC) disconnects the supply voltage from the base band part of
the circuit. Only a voltage regulator in the PSU-ASIC is active for powering
the RTC. Software is not active. The serial interfaces are not accessible.
Operating voltage (connected to GSM_BATT+) remains applied.
4.1.3
Alarm mode
Alarm mode restricted operation launched by RTC alert function while the
module is in POWER DOWN mode. Module will not be registered to GSM
network. Limited number of AT commands is accessible.
4.1.4
Charge-only mode
Limited operation for battery powered applications. Enables charging while
module is detached from GSM network. Limited number of AT commands is
accessible. There are several ways to launch Charge-only mode:
From POWER DOWN mode: Connect charger to the charger input
pin of the external charging circuit and the GSM_POWER pin of
module when XF55-AVL was powered down by AT^SMSO.
From Normal mode: Connect charger to the charger input pin of the
external charging circuit and the GSM_POWER pin of module, then
enter AT^SMSO.
4.1.5
Charge mode during normal operation
Normal operation (SLEEP, IDLE, TALK, GPRS IDLE, and GPRS DATA) and
charging are running in parallel. Charge mode changes to Charge-only mode
when the module is powered down before charging has been completed.
4.2 Description of the 80-pin double-row connector
Please note that the reference voltages listed in table 4 are the values measured
directly on the XF55-AVL module. They do not apply to the accessories
connected. If an input pin is specified for VIHmax = 3.3V, be sure never to
exceed the stated voltage. The value 3.3 V is an absolute maximum rating. The
Hirose DF12C board-to-board connector on XF55-AVL is a 80-pin double-row
receptacle. The names and the position of the pins can be seen from figure 4
below which shows the top view of XF55-AVL.
Please note that, both application interfaces (80- and 50-pin connectors) of the
XF55-AVL module could not concurrently be used. The second application
interface (ASC1) is not included on the 80-pin connector, it is available on the
50-pin connector for user applications.
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Page 24
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
Figure 4: Pin assignment on the 80-pin connector (bottom view on XF55-AVL)
PIN NAME
I/O DISCRIPTION
1
GPS_VANT
I
2
GPS_VCC_RF
O
3
4
5
6
7
8
GPS_VCC
GPS_VCC
GSM_RXDDAI
GSM_TFSDAI
GSM_SCLK
GSM_TXDDAI
9
GSM_RFSDAI
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
GPS_OUT_A1
GPS_OUT_A2
GPS_OUT_A3
GPS_OUT_A4
GPS_OUT_A5
GPS_OUT_A6
GPS_OUT_A7
GPS_OUT_A8
GPS_IN_1
GPS_IN_2
GPS_IN_3
GPS_IN_4
GPS_IN_5
GPS_IN_6
GPS_IN_7
GPS_IN_8
GPS_GPIO15
GPS_GPIO10
GPS_GPIO7
GPS_GPIO6
GPS_GPIO5
GPS_GPIO1
GPS_GPIO0
33
GPS_SDI1
34
GPS_SDO1
35
GPS_TMARK
I
I
O
I
O
Power supply for an active
antenna. See chapter 5.5
Supply voltage of RF
section. See chapter 5.5
Main power supply. See
chapter 5.5
Digital audio interface
If not used leave all pins
open.
I
LEVEL
Up to +12 V DC/max. 25 mA
+ 3.0 V DC/max. 25 mA
+ 3.3 V DC ±5 %/max: 100 mA
VOLmax = 0.2 V at I = 1 mA
VOHmin = 2.35 V at I = -1 mA
VOHmax = 2.73 V
VILmax = 0.5 V
VIHmin = 1.95 V, VIHmax = 3.3 V
IImax = 330 µA at VIN = 3.3 V
General propose outputs
O
Output 3.3 V DC/50 mA
See chapter 5.6.4
I
General propose inputs
See chapter 5.6.3
Are configured as active low level
I/O
See chapter 5.6.2
CMOS 3.3 V DC
I
Serial Data Input A (first
receive line). See chapter
5.6.1
Serial Data Output A (first
transmit line). See chapter
5.6.1
1 PPS Time Mark Output.
See chapter 5.6
CMOS 3.3V DC level
O
O
CMOS 3.3V DC level
CMOS 3.3 V DC
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Page 25
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
I
36
GPS_BOOTSEL
37
GPS_RFPC1
O
38
GPS_M-RST
I
39
GSM_VDD
O
Boots in update mode, if
high. See chapter 5.6
Control output for TricklePower Mode.
See chapter 5.6
Reset the unit if Active
Low. See chapter 5.6
Supply voltage, e.g. for an
external LED or level
shifter. The external digital
logic must not cause any
spikes or glitches on voltage
VDD. Not available in
POWER DOWN mode.
VDD signalizes the “ON”
state of the module.
If unused keep it open.
VERSION 0.01
CMOS 3.3 V DC
+ 2.85 V DC / max. 25 mA
CMOS
VDDmin = 2.84 V, VDDmax = 2.96 V
Imax = -10 mA
CLmax = 1 µF
RI =1 kΩ
VOmax 4.0 V (output)
VImin = 2.2 V, VImax = 5.5 V (input)
IItyp = 10 µA at BATT+ = 0 V
Mobile in POWER DOWN mode:
VImin = 1.2V
40
GSM_VDDLP
I/O
Supplies the RTC with
power via an external
capacitor or buffer battery
if no VBATT+ is applied.
If not used leave it open.
41
42
43
44
45
GSM_GND
GSM_GND
GSM_GND
GSM_GND
GSM_GND
-
Negative operating voltage
(grounds).
0V
46
GSM_VBATT
47
GSM_VBATT
48
GSM_VBATT
I
VI = 3.3 V to 4.8 V
VInorm = 4.1 V
Imax < 2 A (during Tx burst)
1 x Tx, peak current 577 µs every
4.616 ms
2 x Tx, peak current 1154 µs every
4.616 ms
49
GSM_VBATT
50
GSM_VBATT
Power supply input. 5
BATT+ pins to be
connected in parallel. 5
GND pins to be connected
in parallel. The power
supply must be able to meet
the requirements of current
consumption in a Tx burst
(up to 3 A). Sending with
two timeslots doubles the
duration of current pulses
to 1154 µs (every 4.616 ms)!
These pins are also linked
to the GPS part, which
power the RTC and SRAM
of GPS receiver.
51
GSM_SYNC
O
52
GSM_BATT_
TEMP
I
Indicates increased current
consumption during uplink
transmission burst. Note
that timing is different
during handover.
Alternatively used to
control status LED (see
chapter 4.11.2.2).
If not used leave it open.
Input to measure the
battery temperature over
NTC resistor. NTC should
be installed inside or near
battery pack to enable the
charging algorithm and
deliver temperature values.
VOLmax = 0.2 V at I = 1 mA
VOHmin = 2.35 V at I = -1 mA
VOHmax = 2.73 V
1 Tx, 877 µs impulse each 4.616 ms
and
2 Tx, 1454 µs impulse each
4.616 ms, with 300 µs forward time.
Connect NTC with RNTC ≈ 10 kΩ @
25 °C to ground.
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Page 26
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
53
GSM_POWER
I
54
GSM_CHARGE
O
55
GPS_SDO2
56
GPS_SDI2
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
GSM_RXDO
GSM_TXDO
GSM_DSRO
GSM_RINGO
GSM_RTSO
GSM_DTRO
GSM_CTSO
O
I
O
O
I
I
O
64
GSM_DCDO
O
O
I
65
GSM_EMERG
OFF
I
66
GSM_IGT
I
67
GSM_CCGND
-
68
GSM_CCIN
I
69
GSM_CCRST
O
If not used leave it open.
This line signals to the
processor that the charger
is connected.
If not used leave it open
This line is a current source
for the charge FET with a
10 kΩ resistance between
gate and source.
If not used leave it open.
Serial Data Output B
(second transmit line). See
chapter 5.6.1
Serial Data Input B (second
receive line). See chapter
5.6.1
First serial interface
(ASC0) for AT commands
or data stream.
To avoid floating if output
pins are high-impedance,
use pull-up resistors tied to
GSM_VDD or pull-down
resistors tied to GND. See
chapter 4.3.3.1.
If not used leave it open.
This line must be driven by
an Open Drain or Open
Collector driver.
Emergency shutdown
deactivates the power
supply to the module. The
module can be reset if /IGT
is activated after emergency
shutdown. To switch the
mobile off use the
AT^SMSO command.
To avoid floating if pin is
high impedance, use pulldown resistor tied to GND.
See chapter 4.3.3.1.
/EMERGOFF also indicates
the internal watchdog
function.
If not used leave it open.
Input to switch the mobile
ON. The line must be
driven low by an Open
Drain or Open Collector
driver.
SIM interface
VERSION 0.01
VImin = 3.0 V
VImax = 15 V
IGSM_CHARGE = -300 µA ... –600 µA
@ 3 V < VGSM_CHARGE < VLOAD
CMOS 3.3 V DC level
CMOS 3.3 V DC level
VOLmax = 0.2 V at I = 1 mA
VOHmin = 2.35 V at I = -1 mA
VOHmax = 2.73 V
VILmax = 0.5 V
VIHmin = 1.95 V, VIHmax=3.3 V
GSM_DTR0, GSM_RTS0: Imax =
-90 µA at VIN = 0 V
GSM_TXD0: Imax = -30 µA at
VIN = 0 V
RI 22 kΩ
VILmax = 0.5 V at Imax = -100 µA
VOpenmax = 2.73 V
Signal ~~~|______|~~~ Active Low ≥
3.2 s
Watchdog:
VOLmax = 0.35 V at I = 10 µA
VOHmin= 2.25 V at I = -10 µA
fOmin = 0.16 Hz
fOmax = 1.55 Hz
RI ≈ 100 kΩ, CI ≈1 nF
VILmax = 0.5 V at Imax = -20 µA
VOpenmax = 2.3 V
ON ~~~|____|~~~ Active Low ≥100 ms
0 V (Ground)
RI ≈ 100 kΩ
GSM_CCIN = high, SIM
VILmax = 0.5 V
card holder closed (no card VIHmin = 2.15 V at I = 20 µA,
recognition) Maximum
VIHmax = 3.3 V at I = 30 µA
cable length 200 mm to SIM RO ≈ 47 Ω
card holder.
VOLmax = 0.25 V at I = 1 mA
All signals of SIM interface VOHmin = 2.3 V at I = -1 mA
are protected against ESD
VOHmax = 2.73 V
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Page 27
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
with a special diode array.
Usage of GSM_CCGND is
mandatory.
70
GSM_CCDATA
I/O
71
GSM_CCCLK
O
72
GSM_CCVCC
O
73
GSM_MICN1
74
GSM_MICP1
75
GSM_MICP2
76
GSM_MICN2
77
GSM_EPN1
78
GSM_EPP1
79
GSM_EPP2
80
GSM_EPN2
Balanced microphone
I(-) input. To be decoupled with
2 capacitors (CK = 100 nF),
if connected to a
microphone or another
I(+) device.
If not used leave both pins
open.
Balanced microphone
input. Can be used to
I(+)
directly feed an active
microphone.
If used for another signal
source, e.g. op amp, to be
I(-) decoupled with capacitors.
If not used leave both pins
open.
O(-) Analog audio interfaces.
Balanced audio output. Can
be used to directly operate
O(+) an earpiece.
If not used leave both pins
open.
Analog audio interfaces.
O(+) The audio output is
balanced and can directly
operate an earpiece.
O(-) If not used leave both pins
open.
VERSION 0.01
RI ≈ 10 kΩ
VILmax = 0.5 V
VIHmin = 1.95 V, VIHmax = 3.3 V
RO ≈ 220 Ω
VOLmax = 0.4 V at I = 1 mA
VOHmin = 2.15 V at I = -1 mA
VOHmin = 2.55 V at I = -20 µA
VOHmax = 2.96 V
RO ≈ 220 Ω
VOLmax = 0.4 V at I = 1 mA
VOHmin = 2.15 V at I = -1 mA
VOHmax = 2.73 V
ROmax = 5 Ω
GSM_CCVCCmin = 2.84 V,
GSM_CCVCCmax = 2.96 V
Imax = -20 mA
RI ≈ 50k Ω differential
VImax = 1.03 Vpp
See also Table 30.
RI = 2 kΩ differential
VImax = 1.03 Vpp
See also Table 30.
VOmax = 3.7 Vpp
See also Table 29.
VOmax = 3.7 Vpp
See also Table 29.
Table 4: Pin description of 80-pin board-to-board connector (primary application interface)
______________________________________________________
CMOS 3.3 V level:
Input High = 2.0 - 3.3 V DC; I_leakage = 2 µA
Input Low = 0 - 0.8 V DC, I_leakage = 2 µA
Output High = min. 2.4 V DC, Ioh = 2 mA
Output Low = max 0.4 V DC, Ioh = 2 mA
4.3 Description of the 50-pin double-row connector
The Hirose DF12C board-to-board connector on XF55-AVL is a 50-pin
double-row receptacle. The names and the positions of the pins can be seen
from figure 5 below which shows the top view of XF55-AVL.
This confidential document is a property of FALCOM GmbH and may not be copied or circulated without previous permission.
Page 28
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
Please note that, both interfaces (80- and 50-pin connectors) could not
concurrently be used. The second application interface (ASC1) included on this
interface is not provided on the 80-pin connector. So, it is always usable for
controlling the GSM/GPRS applications. In order to use it connect
corresponded lines to the host interface.
Figure 5: Pin assignment (top view on XF55-AVL)
PIN NAME
I/O DISCRIPTION
1
GSM_CCCLK
O
2
GSM_CCVCC
O
3
GSM_CCDATA
I/O
4
GSM_CCRST
O
5
GSM_CCIN
I
6
7
8
9
10
GSM_CCGND
GSM_RXDDAI
GSM_TFSDAI
GSM_SCLK
GSM_TXDDAI
I
O
I
O
11
GSM_RFSDAI
I
12
GSM_BATT_
TEMP
I
LEVEL
RO ≈ 220 Ω
VOLmax = 0.4 V at I = 1 mA
VOHmin = 2.15 V at I = -1 mA
VOHmax = 2.73 V
ROmax = 5 Ω
GSM_CCVCCmin = 2.84 V,
GSM_CCVCCmax = 2.96 V
SIM interface
Imax = -20 mA
RI ≈10 kΩ
GSM_CCIN = high, SIM
VILmax = 0.5 V
card holder closed (no card
VIHmin = 1.95 V, VIHmax=3.3 V
recognition) Maximum
RO ≈ 220 Ω
cable length 200 mm to SIM
VOLmax = 0.4 V at I = 1 mA
card holder.
VOHmin = 2.15 V at I = -1 mA
All signals of SIM interface
VOHmin = 2.55 V at I = -20 µA
are protected against ESD
VOHmax = 2.96 V
with a special diode array.
RO ≈ 47 Ω
Usage of GSM_CCGND is
VOLmax = 0.25 V at I = 1 mA
mandatory.
VOHmin = 2.3 V at I = -1 mA
VOHmax = 2.73 V
RI ≈ 100 kΩ
VILmax = 0.5 V
VIHmin = 2.15 V at I = 20 µA,
VIHmax = 3.3 V at I = 30 µA
0 V (Ground)
VOLmax = 0.2 V at I = 1 mA
Digital audio interface
VOHmin = 2.35 V at I = -1 mA
VOHmax = 2.73 V
If unused keep all pins
VILmax = 0.5 V
open.
VIHmin = 1.95 V, VIHmax=3.3 V
IImax = 330 µA at VIN = 3.3 V
Input to measure the
battery temperature over
NTC resistor. NTC should
be installed inside or near
battery pack to enable the
Connect NTC with RNTC≈ 10 kΩ @
25 °C to ground.
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Page 29
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
13
GSM_SYNC
O
15
17
59
32
34
35
37
GSM_RXDO
GSM_TXDO
GSM_DSRO
GSM_RINGO
GSM_RTSO
GSM_DTRO
GSM_CTSO
O
I
O
O
I
I
O
39
GSM_DCDO
O
14
GSM_RXD1
O
16
GSM_TXD1
I
36
GSM_RTS1
I
38
GSM_CTS1
O
18
GSM_VDDLP
I/O
19
GSM_POWER
I
20
GSM_CHARGE
O
21
22
23
24
25
42
GSM_GND
GSM_GND
GSM_GND
GSM_GND
GSM_GND
GSM_GND
-
26
GSM_VBATT
I
27
GSM_VBATT
charging algorithm and
deliver temperature values.
If not used leave it open.
Indicates increased current
consumption during uplink
transmission burst. Note
that timing is different
during handover.
Alternatively used to
control status LED (see
chapter 4.11.2.2).
If not used leave it open.
First serial interface
(ASC0) for AT commands
or data stream.
To avoid floating if output
pins are high-impedance,
use pull-up resistors tied to
GSM_VDD or pull-down
resistors tied to GND. See
chapter 4.3.2.2.
If not used leave it open.
Second serial interface for
AT commands. To avoid
floating if output pins are
high-impedance, use pullup resistors tied to
GSM_VDD or pull-down
resistors tied to GND. See
chapter 4.3.2.2.
If not used leave it open.
Supplies the RTC with
power via an external
capacitor or buffer battery
if no VBATT+ is applied.
If not used leave it open.
This line signals to the
processor that the charger
is connected.
If not used leave it open
This line is a current source
for the charge FET with a
10 kΩ resistance between
gate and source.
If not used leave it open.
Negative operating voltage
(grounds).
Power supply input.
5 BATT+ pins to be
connected in parallel.
5 GND pins to be connected
in parallel.
Th
l
tb
VERSION 0.01
VOLmax = 0.2 V at I = 1 mA
VOHmin = 2.35 V at I = -1 mA
VOHmax = 2.73 V
1 Tx, 877 µs impulse each 4.616 ms
and
2 Tx, 1454 µs impulse each
4.616 ms, with 300 µs forward time.
VOLmax = 0.2 V at I = 1 mA
VOHmin = 2.35 V at I = -1 mA
VOHmax = 2.73 V
VILmax = 0.5 V
VIHmin = 1.95 V, VIHmax = 3.3 V
GSM_DTR0, GSM_RTS0: Imax =
-90µA at VIN = 0 V
GSM_TXD0: Imax = -30 µA at VIN
=0V
VOLmax = 0.2 V at I = 1 mA
VOHmin = 2.35 V at I = -1 mA
VOHmax = 2.73 V
VILmax = 0.5 V
VIHmin = 1.95 V, VIHmax = 3.3 V
Imax = -90 µA at VIN = 0 V
RI = 1 kΩ
VOmax = 4.0 V (output)
VImin = 2.2V, VImax = 5.5 V
(input)
IItyp = 10 µA at BATT+ = 0 V
Mobile in POWER DOWN mode:
VImin = 1.2 V
VImin = 3.0 V
VImax = 15 V
IGSM_CHARGE = -300 µA ... –600 µA
@ 3V < VGSM_CHARGE < VLOAD
0V
VI = 3.3 V to 4.8 V
VInorm = 4.1V
Imax < 2 A (during Tx burst)
1 x Tx, peak current 577 µs every
4.616 ms
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Page 30
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
28
GSM_VBATT
29
GSM_VBATT
30
GSM_VBATT
31
GSM_VDD
40
GSM_EMERG
OFF
O
I
41
GSM_IGT
I
43
GSM_MICN1
I(-)
44
GSM_MICP1
I(+)
45
GSM_MICP2
I(+)
46
GSM_MICN2
I(-)
The power supply must be
able to meet the
requirements of current
consumption in a Tx burst
(up to 3 A).
Sending with two timeslots
doubles the duration of
current pulses to 1154 µs
(every 4.616 ms)!
Supply voltage, e.g. for an
external LED or level
shifter. The external digital
logic must not cause any
spikes or glitches on voltage
VDD. Not available in
POWER DOWN mode.
VDD signalizes the “ON”
state of the module.
If unused VDD keep pin
open.
This line must be driven by
an Open Drain or Open
Collector driver.
Emergency shutdown
deactivates the power
supply to the module. The
module can be reset if /IGT
is activated after emergency
shutdown. To switch the
mobile off use the
AT^SMSO command.
To avoid floating if pin is
high impedance, use pulldown resistor tied to GND.
See chapter 4.3.3.1.
/EMERGOFF also indicates
the internal watchdog
function.
If not used leave it open.
Input to switch the mobile
ON. The line must be
driven low by an Open
Drain or Open Collector
driver.
Balanced microphone
input. To be decoupled with
2 capacitors (CK = 100 nF),
if connected to a
microphone or another
device.
If not used leave both pins
open.
Balanced microphone
input. Can be used to
directly feed an active
microphone.
If used for another signal
source, e.g. op amp, to be
decoupled with capacitors.
If not used leave both pins
open.
VERSION 0.01
2 x Tx, peak current 1154 µs every
4.616 ms
VDDmin = 2.84 V, VDDmax = 2.96 V
Imax = -10 mA
CLmax = 1 µF
RI = 22 kΩ
VILmax = 0.5 V at Imax = -100 µA
VOpenmax = 2.73 V
Signal ~~~|______|~~~ Active Low ≥
3.2 s
Watchdog:
VOLmax = 0.35 V at I = 10 µA
VOHmin = 2.25 V at I = -10 µA
fOmin = 0.16 Hz
fOmax = 1.55 Hz
RI ≈ 100 kΩ, CI ≈ 1 nF
VILmax = 0.5 V at Imax = -20 µA
VOpenmax = 2.3 V
ON ~~~|____|~~~ Active Low ≥ 100ms
RI ≈ 50 kΩ differential
VImax = 1.03 Vpp
See also Table 30.
RI = 2 kΩ differential
VImax = 1.03 Vpp
See also Table 30.
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Page 31
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
47
GSM_EPN1
48
GSM_EPP1
49
GSM_EPP2
50
GSM_EPN2
Analog audio interfaces
Balanced audio output. Can
be used to directly operate
O(+) an earpiece.
If not used leave both pins
open.
Analog audio interfaces.
O(+) The audio output is
balanced and can directly
operate an earpiece.
O(-) If not used leave both pins
open.
VERSION 0.01
O(-)
VOmax = 3.7 Vpp
See also Table 29.
VOmax = 3.7 Vpp
See also Table 29.
Table 5: Pin description of 50-pin board-to-board connector (second application interface)
4.3.1
Special pin description
4.3.1.1 Power supply
The power supply for the GSM/GPRS part of the XF55-AVL module has to be
a single voltage source of VGSM_BATT+ = 3.3 V...4.8 V. It must be able to
provide sufficient current in a transmit burst which typically rises to 1.6 A.
All the key functions for supplying power to the device are handled by an
ASIC power supply. The ASIC provides the following features:
Stabilizes the supply voltages for the GSM base band using low drop
linear voltage regulators.
Controls the module’s power up and power down procedures.
A watchdog logic implemented in the base band processor periodically
sends signals to the ASIC, allowing it to maintain the supply voltage for
all digital XF55-AVL components. Whenever the watchdog pulses fail to
arrive constantly, the module is turned off.
Delivers, across the GSM_VDD pin, a regulated voltage of 2.9 V. The
output voltage GSM_VDD may be used to supply, for example, an
external LED or a level shifter. However, the external circuitry must not
cause any spikes or glitches on voltage GSM_VDD. This voltage is not
available in POWER DOWN mode. Therefore, the GSM_VDD pin can
be used to indicate whether or not GSM/GPRS part of the XF55-AVL
module is in POWER DOWN mode.
Provides power to the SIM interface.
The RF power amplifier is driven directly from GSM_BATT+.
4.3.1.2 Power supply pins (41…50, 53, and 54) on the board-to-board connectors
Five GSM_BATT+ pins of the board-to-board connector are dedicated to
connect the supply voltage, five GND pins are recommended for grounding.
The values stated below must be measured directly at the reference points on
the XF55-AVL board (TP GSM_BATT+ and TP GND illustrated in Figure 43).
The GSM_POWER and GSM_CHARGE pins serve as control signals for
charging a Li-Ion battery. GSM_VDDLP can be used to back up the RTC.
Signal name
GSM_BATT+
I/O Parameter
I/O 3.3 V...4.8 V, Ityp ≤ 1.6 A during
transmit burst. The minimum
Description
Positive operating
voltage Reference
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Page 32
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
GND
GSM_POWER
I
operating voltage must not fall
below 3.3 V, not even in case of
voltage drop.
0V
GSM_CHARGE O
GSM_VDDLP
I/O
UOUT,max < VGSM_BATT+
UIN = 2.0 V...5.5 V
Ri = 1 kΩ Iin,max = 30 µA
VERSION 0.01
points are the test
points.
Ground
This line signals to the
processor that the
charger is connected
Control signal for
external charging
transistor
Can be used to back
up the RTC when
VGSM_BATT+ is not
applied. See chapter
4.8
Table 6: Pin description of 50-pin board-to-board connector (secondary application
interface)
4.3.1.3 Minimizing power losses
When designing the power supply for your application please pay specific
attention to power losses. Ensure that the input voltage VGSM_BATT+ never drops
below 3.3 V on the GSM/GPRS part of the XF55-AVL board, not even in a
transmit burst where current consumption can rise to typical peaks of 1.6 A. It
should be noted that the GSM/GPRS part of the XF55-AVL module switches
off when exceeding these limits. Any voltage drops that may occur in a
transmit burst should not exceed 400 mV. For further details see Table 2. The
best approach to reducing voltage drops is to use a board-to-board connection
as recommended, and a low impedance power source. The resistance of the
power supply lines on the host board and of a battery pack should also be
considered.
Note:
If the application design requires an adapter cable between both
board-to-board connectors, use a cable as short as possible in order
to minimize power losses.
Example: If the length of the cable reaches the maximum length of 200 mm,
this connection may cause, for example, a resistance of 50 mΩ in the
GSM_BATT+ line and 50 mΩ in the GND line. As a result, a 1.6 A
transmit burst would add up to a total voltage drop of 160mV. Plus,
if a battery packs is involved, further losses may occur due to the
resistance across the battery lines and the internal resistance of the
battery including its protective circuit.
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Page 33
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
Figure 6: Power supply limits during transmit burst
The input voltage VGSM_BATT+ must be measured directly at the test points on
the XF55-AVL board (TP GSM_BATT+ and TP GND illustrated in Figure 43).
4.3.1.4 Monitoring power supply
To help you monitor the supply voltage you can use the AT^SBV command
which returns the voltage measured at TP GSM_BATT+ and GND.
The voltage is continuously measured at intervals depending on the operating
mode on the RF interface. The duration of measuring ranges from 0.5 s in
TALK/DATA mode up to 50 s when the GSM/GPRS part of the XF55-AVL is
in IDLE mode or Limited Service (deregistered).
The displayed voltage (in mV) is averaged over the last measuring period
before the AT^SBV command was executed. For details please refer to [4].
4.3.2
Power up/down scenarios
In general, be sure not to turn on GSM/GPRS part of the XF55-AVL module
while it is out of the operating range of voltage and temperature stated in
chapters 4.2, 4.3 and 7.2. The GSM/GPRS part of the XF55-AVL would
immediately switch off after having started and detected these inappropriate
conditions.
4.3.2.1 Turn on the GSM/GPRS part of XF55-AVL
The GSM/GPRS part of the XF55-AVL can be activated in a variety of ways,
which are described in the following chapters:
via ignition line GSM_IGT: starts normal operating state (see chapters
4.3.2.2 and 4.3.2.3)
via GSM_POWER line: starts charging algorithm (see chapters 4.5.4 and
4.3.2.4)
via RTC interrupt: starts Alarm mode (see chapter 4.3.2.5)
4.3.2.2 Turn on the GSM/GPRS part of XF55-AVL using the ignition line
GSM_IGT (Power on)
To switch on the XF55-AVL GSM/GPRS part the GSM_IGT (Ignition) signal
needs to be driven to ground level for at least 100 ms and not earlier than
10 ms after the last falling edge of GSM_VDD. This can be accomplished
using an open drain/collector driver in order to avoid current flowing into this
pin.
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Page 34
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
Figure 7: Power-on by ignition signal
If the module is configured to a fix baud rate, the GSM/GPRS part of the
XF55-AVL will send the result code ^SYSSTART to indicate that it is ready to
operate. This result code does not appear when autobauding is active. See
chapter AT+IPR in [4].
In a battery operated XF55-AVL application, the duration of the GSM_IGT
signal must be 1 s minimum when the charger is connected and you may want
to go from Charge only mode to Normal mode. For details please see the next
chapter.
4.3.2.3 Timing of the ignition process
When designing your application platform take into account that powering up
the GSM/GPRS part of the XF55-AVL module requires the following steps.
The ignition line cannot be operated until VGSM_BATT+ passes the level of
3.0 V.
The ignition line shall not be operated earlier than 10 ms after the last
falling edge of GSM_VDD.
10 ms after VGSM_BATT+ has reached 3.0 V the ignition line can be
switched low. The duration of the falling edge must not exceed 1 ms.
Another 100 ms are required to power up the module.
Ensure that VGSM_BATT+ does not fall below 3.0 V while the ignition line
is driven. Otherwise the module cannot be activated.
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Page 35
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
If the GSM_VDDLP line is fed from an external power supply as
explained in chapter 4.8, the GSM_IGT line is HiZ before the rising edge
of GSM_BATT+.
Figure 8: Timing of power-on process if GSM_VDDLP is not used
Figure 9: Timing of power-on process if GSM_VDDLP is fed from external source
4.3.2.4 Turn on the GSM/GPRS part of XF55-AVL using the GSM_POWER
signal
As detailed in chapter 4.5.4, the charging adapter can be connected regardless
of the module’s operating mode (except for Alarm mode).
If the charger is connected to the charger input of the external charging circuit
and the module’s GSM_POWER pin while XF55-AVL is off, processor
controlled fast charging starts (see chapter 4.5.3). The GSM/GPRS part of
XF55-AVL enters a restricted mode, referred to as Charge-only mode where
only the charging algorithm will be launched. During the Charge-only mode
XF55-AVL is neither logged on to the GSM network nor are the serial
interfaces fully accessible. To switch to normal operation and log on to the
GSM network, the GSM_IGT line needs to be activated.
4.3.2.5 Turn on the GSM/GPRS part of XF55-AVL using the RTC (Alarm mode)
Another power-on approach is to use the RTC, which is constantly supplied
with power from a separate voltage regulator in the power supply ASIC. The
RTC provides an alert function, which allows the GSM/GPRS part of the
XF55-AVL to wake up whilst the internal voltage regulators are off. To
prevent the engine from unintentionally logging into the GSM network, this
procedure only enables restricted operation, referred to as Alarm mode. It must
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Page 36
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
not be confused with a wake-up or alarm call that can be activated by using the
same AT command, but without switching off power.
Use the AT+CALA command to set the alarm time. The RTC retains the alarm
time if the GSM/GPRS part of XF55-AVL was powered down by AT^SMSO.
Once the alarm is timed out and executed, XF55-AVL enters the Alarm mode.
This is indicated by an Unsolicited Result Code (URC) which reads:
^SYSSTART ALARM MODE
Note that this URC is the only indication of the Alarm mode and will not
appear when autobauding was activated (due to the missing synchronization
between DTE and DCE upon start-up). Therefore, it is recommended to select
a fixed baud rate before using the Alarm mode. In Alarm mode only a limited
number of AT commands is available. For further instructions refer to the AT
Command Set.
AT command
AT+CALA
AT+CCLK
AT^SBC
AT^SCTM
AT^SMSO
Function
Set alarm time
Set date and time of RTC
In Alarm mode, you can only query the present current
consumption and check whether or not a charger is connected.
The battery capacity is returned as 0, regardless of the actual
voltage (since the values measured directly on the cell are not
delivered to the module).
Query temperature range, enable/disable URCs to report
critical temperature ranges
Power down GSM engine
Table 7: AT commands available in Alarm mode
For the GSM engine to change from the Alarm mode to full operation (normal
operating mode) it is necessary to drive the ignition line to ground. This must
be implemented in your host application as described in chapter 4.3.2.2.
If the charger is connected to the GSM_POWER line when GSM/GPRS part of
the XF55-AVL is in ALARM mode charging will start, while XF55-AVL stays
in ALARM mode. See also chapter 4.7 which summarizes the various options
of changing the mode of operation.
If your host application uses the GSM_SYNC pin to control a status LED as
described in chapter 4.11.2.2, please note that the LED is off while the GSM
engine is in Alarm mode.
4.3.3
Turn off the GSM/GPRS part of XF55-AVL
To switch the module off the following procedures may be used:
Normal shutdown procedure: Software controlled by sending the
AT^SMSO command over the serial application interface. See chapter
4.3.3.1.
Emergency shutdown: Hardware driven by switching the
GSM_EMERGOFF line of the board-to-board-connector to ground =
immediate shutdown of supply voltages, only applicable if the software
controlled procedure fails! See chapter 4.3.4.3.
Automatic shutdown: See chapter 4.3.4
a) Takes effect if under voltage is detected.
b) Takes effect if XF55-AVL board temperature exceeds critical limit.
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4.3.3.1 Turn off GSM/GPRS part of the XF55-AVL module using AT command
The best and safest approach to powering down the XF55-AVL GSM/GPRS
part is to issue the AT^SMSO command. This procedure lets GSM engine log
off from the network and allows the software to enter into a secure state and
safe data before disconnecting the power supply. The mode is referred to as
POWER DOWN mode. In this mode, only the RTC stays active.
Before switching off the device sends the following response:
^SMSO: MS OFF
OK
^SHUTDOWN
After sending AT^SMSO do not enter any other AT commands. There are two
ways to verify when the module turns off:
Wait for the URC “SHUTDOWN”. It indicates that data have been
stored non-volatile and the module turns off in less than 1 second.
Also, you can monitor the GSM_VDD pin. The low state of GSM_VDD
definitely indicates that the module is switched off.
Be sure not to disconnect the operating voltage VGSM_BATT+ before the URC
“SHUTDOWN” has been issued and the GSM_VDD signal has gone low.
Otherwise you run the risk of losing data.
While the GSM engine is in POWER DOWN mode the application interface is
switched off and must not be fed from any other source. Therefore, your
application must be designed to avoid any current flow into any digital pins of
the application interface.
Note: In POWER DOWN mode, the GSM_EMERGOFF pin, the output pins
of the ASC0 interface GSM_RXD0, GSM_CTS0, GSM_DCD0,
GSM_DSR0, GSM_RING0 and the output pins of the ASC1 interface
GSM_RXD1 and GSM_CTS1 are switched to high impedance state.
If this causes the associated input pins of your application to float, you
are advised to integrate an additional resistor (100 kΩ, 1 MΩ) at each
line. In the case of the GSM_EMERGOFF pin use a pull-down resistor
tied to GND. In the case of the serial interface pins you can either
connect pull-up resistors to the GSM_VDD line, or pull down resistors
to GND.
4.3.3.2 Maximum number of turn-on/turn-off cycles
Each time the module is shut down, data will be written from volatile memory
to flash memory. The guaranteed maximum number of write cycles is limited
to 100.000.
4.3.3.3 Emergency shutdown using GSM_EMERGOFF pin
!!!Caution: Use the GSM_EMERGOFF pin only when, due to serious
problems, the software is not responding for more than 5 seconds.
Pulling the GSM_EMERGOFF pin causes the loss of all
information stored in the volatile memory since power is cut off
immediately. Therefore, this procedure is intended only for use in
case of emergency, e.g. if XF55-AVL fails to shut down properly.
The GSM_EMERGOFF signal is available on the board-to-board connectors.
To control the GSM_EMERGOFF line it is recommended to use an open
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drain/collector driver. To turn the GSM engine off, the GSM_EMERGOFF line
has to be driven to ground for ≥ 3.2 s.
4.3.3.3.1 How does it work?
a) Voltage VGSM_BATT+ is permanently applied to the module.
b) The module is active while the internal reset signal is kept at high level.
During operation of XF55-AVL the base band controller generates
watchdog pulses at regular intervals. Once the GSM_EMERGOFF pin is
grounded these watchdog pulses are cut off from the power supply ASIC.
The power supply ASIC shuts down the internal supply voltages of
XF55-AVL after max. 3.2 s and the module turns off. Consequently, the
output voltage at GSM_VDD is switched off.
Figure 10: Deactivating GSM engine by GSM_EMERGOFF signal
4.3.4
Automatic shutdown
Automatic shutdown takes effect if
the XF55-AVL board is exceeding the critical limits of over temperature
or under temperature.
the battery is exceeding the critical limits of over temperature or under
temperature.
under voltage is detected.
The automatic shutdown procedure is equivalent to the power-down initiated
with the AT^SMSO command, i.e. XF55-AVL logs off from the network and
the software enters a secure state avoiding loss of data.
NOTE: This does not apply if over voltage conditions or unrecoverable
hardware or software errors occur (see below for details).
Alert messages transmitted before the device switches off are implemented as
Unsolicited Result Codes (URCs). The presentation of these URCs can be
enabled or disabled with the two AT commands AT^SBC and AT^SCTM. The
URC presentation mode varies with the condition, please see chapters 4.3.4.1
to 4.3.4.3 for details. For further instructions on AT commands refer to [4].
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4.3.4.1 Temperature dependent shutdown
The board temperature is constantly monitored by an internal NTC resistor
located on the PCB. The NTC that detects the battery temperature must be part
of the battery pack circuit as described in chapter 4.5. The values detected by
either NTC resistor are measured directly on the board or the battery and
therefore, are not fully identical with the ambient temperature.
Each time the board or battery temperature goes out of range or back to
normal, XF55-AVL instantly displays an alert (if enabled).
URCs indicating the level "1" or "-1" allow the user to take appropriate
precautions, such as protecting the module from exposure to extreme
conditions. The presentation of the URCs depends on the settings selected
with the AT^SCTM write command:
AT^SCTM=1:
Presentation of URCs is always enabled.
AT^SCTM=0 (default): Presentation of URCs is enabled for 15 seconds
time after start-up of C55. After 15 seconds
operation, the presentation will be disabled, i.e.
no alert messages can be generated.
URCs indicating the level "2" or "-2" are instantly followed by an orderly
shutdown. The presentation of these URCs is always enabled, i.e. they
will be output even though the factory setting AT^SCTM=0 was never
changed.
The maximum temperature ratings are stated in chapter 7.2. Refer to tables 8
and 9 below for the associated URCs. All statements are based on test
conditions according to IEC 60068-2-2 (still air).
Sending temperature alert (15 s after start-up, otherwise only if URC
presentation enabled).
^SCTM_A: 1
Caution: Tamb of battery close to over temperature limit.
^SCTM_B: 1
Caution: Tamb of board close to over temperature limit.
^SCTM_A: -1
Caution: Tamb of battery close to under temperature limit.
^SCTM_B: -1
Caution: Tamb of board close to under temperature limit.
^SCTM_A: 0
Battery back to uncritical temperature range.
^SCTM_B: 0
Board back to uncritical temperature range.
Table 8: Temperature dependent behaviour
Automatic shutdown (URC appears no matter whether or not presentation was
enabled).
^SCTM_A: 2
Alert: Tamb of battery equal or beyond over temperature limit. XF55AVL switches off.
^SCTM_B: 2
Alert: Tamb of board equal or beyond over temperature limit. XF55AVL switches off.
^SCTM_A: -2
Alert: Tamb of battery equal or below under temperature limit. XF55AVL s itches off
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
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AVL switches off.
^SCTM_B: -2
Alert: Tamb of board equal or below under temperature limit. XF55AVL switches off.
Table 9: Automatic shutdown
4.3.4.2 Temperature control during emergency call
If the temperature limit is exceeded while an emergency call is in progress the
engine continues to measure the temperature, but deactivates the shutdown
functionality. If the temperature is still out of range when the call ends, the
module switches off immediately (without another alert message).
4.3.4.3 Under voltage shutdown if battery NTC is present
In applications where the charging technique of module is used and an NTC is
connected to the BATT_TEMP terminal, the software constantly monitors the
applied voltage. If the measured battery voltage is no more sufficient to set up
a call the following URC will be presented:
^SBC: Under voltage.
The message will be reported, for example, when you attempt to make a call
while the voltage is close to the critical limit and further power loss is caused
during the transmit burst. To remind you that the battery needs to be charged
soon, the URC appears several times before the module switches off. To enable
or disable the URC use the AT^SBC command. The URC will be enabled
when you enter the write command and specify the power consumption of your
GSM application. Step by step instructions are provided in [4].
4.3.4.4 Under voltage shutdown if no battery NTC is present
The under voltage protection is also effective in applications, where no NTC
connects to the BATT_TEMP terminal. Thus, you can take advantage of this
feature even though the application handles the charging process or XF55-AVL
is fed by a fixed supply voltage. All you need to do is executing the write
command AT^SBC=<current> which automatically enables the
presentation of URCs. You do not need to specify <current>.
Whenever the supply voltage falls below the specified value (see Table 2) the
URC
^SBC: Under voltage
appears several times before the module switches off.
4.3.4.5 Over voltage shutdown
For over voltage conditions, no software controlled shutdown is implemented.
If the supply voltage exceeds the maximum value specified in Table 2, loss of
data and even unrecoverable hardware damage can occur.
Keep in mind that several XF55-AVL components are directly linked to
GSM_VBATT+ and, therefore, the supply voltage remains applied at major
parts of XF55-AVL. Especially the power amplifier is very sensitive to high
voltage and might even be destroyed.
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4.4 Automatic GPRS Multislot Class change
Temperature control is also effective for operation in GPRS Multislot class 10.
If the board temperature increases to the limit specified for restricted operation
(see 7.2 for temperature limits known as restricted operating) while data are
transmitted over GPRS, the module automatically reverts from GPRS Multislot
class 10 (3 RX x 2 TX) to class 8 (4 RX x 1 TX). This reduces the power
consumption and, consequently, causes the temperature of board to decrease.
Once the temperature drops to a value of 5 degrees below the limit of restricted
operation, XF55-AVL returns to the higher Multislot class. If the temperature
stays at the critical level or even continues to rise, XF55-AVL will not switch
back to the higher class. After a transition from Multislot class 10 to Multislot
class 8 a possible switchback to Multislot class 10 is blocked for one minute.
Please note that there is not one single cause of switching over to a lower
GPRS Multislot class. Rather it is the result of an interaction of several factors,
such as the board temperature that depends largely on the ambient temperature,
the operating mode and the transmit power. Furthermore, take into account that
there is a delay until the network proceeds to a lower or, accordingly, higher
Multislot class. The delay time is network dependent. In extreme cases, if it
takes too much time for the network and the temperature cannot drop due to
this delay, the module may even switch off as described in chapter 4.3.4.1.
4.5 GSM charging control
The GSM/GPRS part of the XF55-AVL module integrates a charging
management for Li-Ion batteries. You can skip this chapter if charging is not
your concern, or if you are not using the implemented charging algorithm.
XF55-AVL has no on-board charging circuit. To benefit from the implemented
charging management you are required to install a charging circuit within your
application. In this case, XF55-AVL needs to be powered from a Li-Ion battery
pack, e.g. as specified in chapter 4.5.2.
Note: The charging control described in this chapter is optimized for the
GSM/GPRS part of XF55-AVL only and does not cover the GPS part.
To include the GPS part you need to change components illustrated in
figure 11 below , especially those of the trickle charging path (470R,
4V3, 1SS355).
The module only delivers, via its POWER line and CHARGE line, the control
signals needed to start and stop the charging process. The charging circuit
should include a transistor and should be designed as illustrated in figure 11. A
list of parts recommended for the external circuit is given in table 10 below.
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Figure 11: Schematic of approved charging transistor, trickle charging and ESD
protection
Part
SI3441DV
Description
p-chan 2.5 V (G-S)
MOSFET (TSOP-6)
First supplier
VISHAY:
SI3441DV-T1
1SS355
100 mA Si-diode
(UMD2)
1 A Schottky diode
ROHM:
1SS355TE-18
Toshiba:
CRS04
Philips:
PDZ4.3B
CRS04
4V3
ESDA6V15W6
470R, 3k3,
10k
100nF
PCB spark
gap
250 mW; 200 mA;
4.3 V Z-Diode
(SOD323)
ESD protection
TRANSIL. array
Resistor, e.g. 0805
or 0603
Ceramic capacitor
50 V
0.2 mm spark gap
on PCB
STM:
ESDA6V15W6
--
Second supplier
NEC:
UPA1911TET1
Toshiba:
1SS352TPH3
-ROHM:
UDZS4.3B
UDZ4.3B
---
--
--
--
--
Table 10: A list of parts recommended for the external circuit
4.5.1
Battery pack characteristics
The charging algorithm has been optimized for a Li-Ion battery pack that meets
the characteristics listed below. It is recommended that the battery pack you
want to integrate into your XF55-AVL application is compliant with these
specifications. This ensures reliable operation, proper charging and,
particularly, allows you to monitor the battery capacity using the AT^SBC
command (see [4] for details). Failure to comply with these specifications
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
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might cause AT^SBC to deliver incorrect battery capacity values. A battery
pack especially designed to operate with XF55-AVL module is specified in
chapter 4.5.2.
Li-Ion battery pack specified for a maximum charging voltage of 4.2 V
and a capacity of 800 mAh. Battery packs with a capacity down to 600
mAh or more than 800 mAh are allowed, too.
Since charging and discharging largely depend on the battery
temperature, the battery pack should include an NTC resistor. If the NTC
is not inside the battery it must be in thermal contact with the battery.
The NTC resistor must be connected between BATT_TEMP and GND.
Required NTC characteristics are: 10 kΩ + 5 % @ 25 °C, B25/85 =
3435 K + 3 % (alternatively acceptable: 10 kΩ + 2 % @ 25 °C, B25/50 =
3370 K + 3 %).
Please note that the NTC is indispensable for proper charging, i.e. the
charging process will not start if no NTC is present.
Ensure that the pack incorporates a protection circuit capable of detecting
over voltage (protection against overcharging), under voltage (protection
against deep discharging) and over current. The circuit must be
insensitive to pulsed current.
On the XF55-AVL module, a built-in measuring circuit constantly
monitors the supply voltage. In the event of under voltage, it causes
XF55-AVL to power down. Under voltage thresholds are specific to the
battery pack and must be evaluated for the intended model. When you
evaluate under voltage thresholds, consider both the current consumption
of XF55-AVL and of the application circuit.
The internal resistance of the battery and the protection should be as low
as possible. It is recommended not to exceed 150 mΩ, even in extreme
conditions at low temperature. The battery cell must be insensitive to
rupture, fire and gassing under extreme conditions of temperature and
charging (voltage, current).
The battery pack must be protected from reverse pole connection. For
example, the casing should be designed to prevent the user from
mounting the battery in reverse orientation.
The battery pack must be approved to satisfy the requirements of CE
conformity.
Figure 12 below shows the circuit diagram of a typical battery pack design that
includes the protection elements described above.
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
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Figure 12: Battery pack circuit diagram
4.5.2
Recommended battery pack specification
Nominal voltage
Capacity
NTC
Overcharge detection voltage
Overcharge release voltage
Over discharge detection voltage
Over discharge release voltage
Over correct detection
Nominal working current
Current of low voltage detection
Over current detection delay time
Short detection delay time
Over discharge detection delay time
Overcharge detection delay time
Internal resistance
3.6 V
800 mAh
10 kΩ ± 5 % @ 25 °C, B (25/85) = 3435K
±3%
4.325 ± 0.025 V
4.075 ± 0.025 V
2.5 ± 0.05 V
2.9 ± 0.5 V
3 ± 0.5 A
<5 µA
0.5 µA
8 ~ 16 ms
50 µs
31 ~ 125 ms
1s
<130 mΩ
Table 11: Battery pack specifications
4.5.3
Implemented charging technique
If the external charging circuit follows the recommendation of Figure 11, the
charging process consists of trickle charging and processor controlled fast
charging. For this solution, the fast charging current provided by the charger or
any other external source must be limited to 500 mA.
4.5.3.1 Trickle charging
Trickle charging starts when the charger is connected to the charger input
of the external charging circuit and the module’s POWER pin. The
charging current depends on the voltage difference between the charger
input of the external charging circuit and GSM_VBATT+ of the module.
Trickle charging stops when the battery voltage reaches 3.6 V.
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4.5.3.2 Fast charging
After trickle charging has raised the battery voltage to 3.2 V within 60
minutes ±10 % from connecting the charger, the power ASIC turns on
and wakes up the base band processor. Now, processor controlled fast
charging begins. If the battery voltage was already above 3.2 V,
processor controlled fast charging starts just after the charger was
connected to the charger input of the external charging circuit and the
POWER pin of module. If the GSM/GPRS part of the XF55-AVL was in
POWER DOWN mode, it turns on and enters the Charge-only mode
along with fast charging (see also chapter 4.3.2.4).
Fast charging delivers a constant current until the battery voltage reaches
4.2 V and then proceeds with varying charge pulses. As shown in Figure
7, the pulse duty cycle is reduced to adjust the charging procedure and
prevent the voltage from overshooting beyond 4.2 V. Once the pulse
width reaches the minimum of 100 ms and the duty cycle does not
change for 2 minutes, fast charging is completed.
Fast charging can only be accomplished in a temperature range from 0 °C
to +45 °C.
Figure 13: Charging process
Note:
Do not connect the charger to the VC+ lines. Only the charger input
of the external charging circuit is intended as input for charging
current! The POWER pin of XF55-AVL is the input only for
indicating a connected charger! The battery manufacturer must
guarantee that the battery complies with the described charging
technique.
What to do if software controlled charging does not start up?
If trickle charging fails to raise the battery voltage to 3.2 V within 60 minutes
+10 %, processor controlled charging does not begin. To start fast charging you
can do one of the following:
Once the voltage has risen above its minimum of 3 V, you can try to start
software controlled charging by pulling the SOFT_ON line to HIGH.
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If the voltage is still below 3 V, driving the SOFT_ON line to HIGH
switches the timer off.
Without the timer running, the GSM/GPRS part of the XF55-AVL
module will not proceed to software controlled charging. To restart the
timer you are required to shortly disconnect and reconnect the charger.
4.5.4
Operating modes during charging
Of course, the battery can be charged regardless of the engine’s operating
mode. When the GSM engine is in Normal mode (SLEEP, IDLE, TALK,
GPRS IDLE or GPRS DATA mode), it remains operational while charging is
in progress (provided that sufficient voltage is applied). The charging process
during the Normal mode is referred to as Charge mode. If the charger is
connected to the charger input of the external charging circuit and the POWER
pin of module while GSM/GPRS part of XF55-AVL is in POWER DOWN
mode, the GSM/GPRS part of the XF55-AVL goes into Charge-only mode.
4.5.4.1 Comparison Charge-only and Charge mode
4.5.4.1.1 Charge mode
In order to activate the charge mode, connect charger to charger input of
external charging circuit and the POWER pin of module while the GSM/GPRS
part of the XF55-AVL is in the following modes:
operating, e.g. in IDLE or TALK mode
in SLEEP mode
The features while the charge mode is:
Battery can be charged while GSM engine remains operational and
registered to the GSM network.
In IDLE and TALK mode, the serial interfaces are accessible. AT
command set can be used to full extent.
In the NON-CYCLIC SLEEP mode, the serial interfaces are not
accessible at all. During the CYCLIC SLEEP mode they can be used as
described in chapter 4.6.3.
4.5.4.1.2 Charge-only mode
In order to activate the charge-only mode, connect charger to charger input of
external charging circuit and the POWER pin of module while the GSM/GPRS
part of the XF55-AVL is:
in POWER DOWN mode
in Normal mode: Connect charger to the POWER pin, then enter
AT^SMSO.
IMPORTANT: While trickle charging is in progress, be sure that the
application is switched off. If the application is fed from the
trickle charge current the module might be prevented from
proceeding to software controlled charging since the current
would not be sufficient.
The features while the charge-only mode is:
Battery can be charged while GSM engine is deregistered from GSM
network.
Charging runs smoothly due to constant current consumption.
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The AT interface is accessible and allows to use the commands listed
below.
Features of Charge-only mode
Once the GSM engine enters the Charge-only mode, the AT command
interface presents an Unsolicited Result Code (URC) which reads:
^SYSSTART CHARGE-ONLY MODE
Note that this URC will not appear when autobauding was activated (due to the
missing synchronization between DTE and DCE upon start-up). Therefore, it is
recommended to select a fixed baud rate before using the Charge-only mode.
While the Charge-only mode is in progress, you can only use the AT
commands listed in table 12 below. For further instructions refer to the AT
Command Set supplied with your GSM engine.
AT command
AT+CALA
AT+CCLK
AT^SBC
AT^SCTM
AT^SMSO
Function
Set alarm time
Set date and time of RTC
Monitor charging process
Note: While charging is in progress, no battery capacity
value is available. To query the battery capacity
disconnects the charger. If the charger connects
externally to the host device no charging parameters
are transferred to the module. In this case, the
command cannot be used.
Query temperature range, enable/disable URCs to report
critical temperature ranges
Power down GSM engine
Table 12: AT commands for charge-only
To proceed from Charge-only mode to normal operation, it is necessary to
drive the ignition line to ground. This must be implemented in your host
application as described in chapter 4.3.2.4. See also chapter 4.7 which
summarizes the various options of changing the mode of operation.
If your host application uses the SYNC pin to control a status LED as
described in chapter 4.11.2.2, please note that the LED is off while the GSM
engine is in Charge-only mode.
4.5.5
Charger requirements
If you are using the implemented charging technique and the charging circuit
recommended in Figure 11, the charger must be designed to meet the following
requirements:
a) Simple transformer power plug
Output voltage: 5.5 V...8 V (under load)
The charge current must be limited to 500 mA.
Voltage spikes that may occur while you connect or disconnect the
charger must be limited.
There must not be any capacitor on the secondary side of the power
plug (avoidance of current spikes at the beginning of charging).
b) Supplementary requirements for a) to ensure a regulated power supply
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When current is switched off a voltage peak of 10 V is allowed for a
maximum 1 ms.
When current is switched on a spike of 1.6.A for 1.ms is allowed.
4.6 Power saving
SLEEP mode reduces the functionality of the GSM/GPRS part of the XF55AVL module to a minimum and, thus, minimizes the current consumption to
the lowest level. Settings can be made using the AT+CFUN command. For
details see below and [4]. SLEEP mode falls into two categories:
NON-CYCLIC SLEEP mode AT+CFUN=0
CYCLIC SLEEP modes, selectable with AT+CFUN=5,6,7,8 or 9.
IMPORTANT: Please keep in mind that power saving works properly only
when PIN authentication has been done. If you attempt to activate power
saving while the SIM card is not inserted or the PIN not correctly entered, the
selected <fun> level will be set, though power saving does not take effect. For
the same reason, power saving cannot be used if the GSM/GPRS part of the
XF55-AVL operates in Alarm mode.
To check whether power saving is on, you can query the status of AT+CFUN if
you have chosen CYCLIC SLEEP mode. If available, you can take advantage
of the status LED controlled by the SYNC pin (see chapter 4.11.2.2). The LED
stops flashing once the module starts power saving. The wake-up procedures
are quite different depending on the selected SLEEP mode. Table 13 compares
the wake-up events that can occur in NON-CYCLIC and CYCLIC SLEEP
modes.
4.6.1 No power saving (AT+CFUN=1)
The functionality level <fun>=1 is where power saving is switched off. This is
the default after start-up.
4.6.2 NON-CYCLIC SLEEP mode (AT+CFUN=0)
If level 0 has been selected (AT+CFUN=0), the serial interface is blocked. The
module shortly deactivates power saving to listen to a paging message sent
from the base station and then immediately resumes power saving. Level 0 is
called NON-CYCLIC SLEEP mode, since the serial interface is not
alternatingly made accessible as in CYCLIC SLEEP mode.
The first wake-up event fully activates the module, enables the serial interface
and terminates the power saving mode. In short, it takes the GSM/GPRS part
of the XF55-AVL back to the highest level of functionality <fun>=1.
GSM_RTS0 or GSM_RTS1 are not used for flow control, but to wake up the
module.
4.6.3 CYCLIC SLEEP mode (AT+CFUN=5, 6, 7, 8)
The major benefit over the NON-CYCLIC SLEEP mode is that the serial
interface is not permanently blocked and that packet switched calls may go on
without terminating the selected CYCLIC SLEEP mode. This allows the
GSM/GPRS part of the XF55-AVL to become active, for example to perform a
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GPRS data transfer, and to resume power saving after the GPRS data transfer is
completed.
The CYCLIC SLEEP modes give you greater flexibility regarding the wake-up
procedures:
For example, in all CYCLIC SLEEP modes, you can enter AT+CFUN=1 to
permanently wake up the module. In modes CFUN=7 and 8, the GSM/GPRS
part of the XF55-AVL automatically resumes power saving, after you have
sent or received a short message or made a call. CFUN=5 and 6 do not offer
this feature, and therefore, are only supported for compatibility with earlier
releases. Please refer to Table 13 for a summary of all modes.
The CYCLIC SLEEP mode is a dynamic process which alternatingly enables
and disables the serial interface. By setting/resetting the CTS_0 signal, the
module indicates to the application whether or not the UART is active. The
timing of CTS_0 is described below.
Both the application and the module must be configured to use hardware flow
control (RTS/CTS handshake). The default setting of the GSM/GPRS part of
the XF55-AVL is AT\Q0 (no flow control) which must be altered to AT\Q3.
See [4] for details.
Note: If both serial interfaces ASC0 and ASC1 are connected, both are
synchronized. This means that SLEEP mode takes effect on both, no
matter on which interface the AT command was issued. Although not
explicitly stated, all explanations given in this chapter refer equally to
ASC0 and ASC1, and accordingly to GSM_CTS0 and GSM_CTS1.
4.6.4 CYCLIC SLEEP mode AT+CFUN=9
Mode AT+CFUN=9 is similar to AT+CFUN=7 or 8, but provides two
additional features:
GSM_RTS0 and GSM_RTS1 are not intended for flow control (as in
modes AT+CFUN=5,6,7 or 8), but can be used to temporarily wake up
the module. This way, the module can quickly wake up and resume
power saving, regardless of the GSM_CTS timing controlled by the
paging cycle.
The time the module stays active after GSM_RTS was asserted or after
the last character was sent or received, can be configured individually
using the command AT^SCFG. Default setting is 2 seconds like in
AT+CFUN=7. The entire range is from 0.5 seconds to 1 hour, selectable
in tenths of seconds. For details see [4].
4.6.5 Timing of the GSM_CTS signal in CYCLIC SLEEP modes
The GSM_CTS signal is enabled in synchrony with the paging cycle of
module. It goes active low each time when the module starts listening to a
paging message block from the base station. The timing of the paging cycle
varies with the base station. The duration of a paging interval can be calculated
from the following formula:
4.615 ms (TDMA frame duration) * 51 (number of frames) * DRX value.
DRX (Discontinuous Reception) is a value from 2 to 9, resulting in paging
intervals from 0.47 to 2.12 seconds. The DRX value of the base station is
assigned by the network operator. Each listening period causes the GSM_CTS
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
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signal to go active low: If DRX is 2, the GSM_CTS signal is activated every
0.47 seconds, if DRX is 3, the GSM_CTS signal is activated every 0.71
seconds and if DRX is 9, the GSM_CTS signal is activated every 2.1 seconds.
The GSM_CTS signal is active low for 4.6 ms. This is followed by another 4.6
ms UART activity. If the start bit of a received character is detected within
these 9.2 ms, GSM_CTS will be activated and the proper reception of the
character will be guaranteed.
GSM_CTS will also be activated if any character is to be sent.
After the last character was sent or received the interface will remain active
for:
another 2 seconds, if AT+CFUN=5 or 7,
another 10 minutes, if AT+CFUN=6 or 8,
or for an individual time defined with AT^SCFG, if AT+CFUN=9.
Assertion of GSM_RTS has the same effect.
In the pauses between listening to paging messages, while GSM_CTS is high,
the module resumes power saving and the AT interface is not accessible. See
figure 14 and figure 15.
Figure 14: Timing of CTS signal (example for a 2.12 s paging cycle)
Figure 15 illustrates the CFUN=5 and CFUN=7 modes, which reset the
GSM_CTS signal 2 seconds after the last character was sent or received.
Figure 15: Beginning of power saving if CFUN=5 or 7
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4.6.6 Wake up XF55-AVL from SLEEP mode
A wake-up event is any event that causes the module to draw current.
Depending on the selected mode the wake-up event either switches SLEEP
mode off and takes XF55-AVL back to AT+CFUN=1, or activates XF55-AVL
temporarily without leaving the current SLEEP mode.
Definitions of the state transitions described in table 13 below:
Quit =
XF55-AVL exits SLEEP mode and returns to AT+CFUN=1.
Temporary =
XF55-AVL becomes active temporarily for the duration of
the event and the mode-specific follow-up time after the last
character was sent or received on the serial interface.
No effect: =
Event is not relevant in the selected SLEEP mode. XF55AVL does not wake up.
Event
Selected
mode
AT+CFUN=0
Selected mode
Selected mode
AT+CFUN=5 or
AT+CFUN=7,8,9
Ignition line
GSM_RTS0 or
GSM_RTS11) (falling
edge)
No effect
Quit
No effect
No effect
(GSM_RTS is only
used for flow
control)
Unsolicited Result Code
(URC)
Incoming voice or data
call
Any AT command (incl.
outgoing voice or data
call, outgoing SMS)
Incoming SMS
depending on mode
selected by AT+CNMI:
AT+CNMI=0,0 (=
default, no indication of
received SMS)
AT+CNMI=1,1 (=
displays URC upon
receipt of SMS)
GPRS data transfer
Quit
Quit
No effect
Mode 7 and 8: No
effect (GSM_RTS is
only used for flow
control)
Mode 9: Temporary
Temporary
Quit
Quit
Temporary
Not possible
(UART
disabled)
Temporary
Temporary
No effect
No effect
No effect
Quit
Quit
Temporary
Not possible
(UART
disabled)
Quit
Not possible
(UART
disabled)
Temporary
Temporary
Quit
Quit
Temporary
Quit
RTC alarm2)
AT+CFUN=1
6
Table 13: Wake-up events in NON-CYCLIC and CYCLIC SLEEP modes
1)
During the CYCLIC SLEEP modes 5, 6, 7, and 8, GSM_RTS0 and
GSM_RTS1 are conventionally used for flow control: The assertion of
GSM_RTS0 or GSM_RTS1 signals that the application is ready to receive
data - without waking up the module. If the module is in CFUN=0 mode the
assertion of GSM_RTS0 and GSM_RTS1 serves as a wake-up event, giving
the application the possibility to intentionally terminate power saving. If the
module is in CFUN=9 mode, the assertion of GSM_RTS0 or GSM_RTS1
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
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can be used to temporarily wake up XF55-AVL for the time specified with
the AT^SCFG command (default = 2 s).
Recommendation: In NON-CYCLIC SLEEP mode, you can set an RTC
alarm to wake up XF55-AVL and return to full functionality. This is a
useful approach because, in this mode, the AT interface is not accessible.
4.7 Summary of state transitions (except SLEEP mode)
Further
mode
Present
mode
POWER
DOWN
Normal
mode**)
Charge-only
mode*)
Charging
in normal
mode*)**)
Alarm mode
POWER
DOWN
mode
without
charger
--
GSM_IGT
>100 ms at
low level
No direct
transition,
but via
“Chargeonly mode”
or “Normal
mode”
Wake-up from
POWER
DOWN mode
(if activated
with
AT+CALA)
POWER
DOWN
mode with
charger
(high level
at
GSM_PO
WER pin
of XF55AVL )
Normal
mode**)
--
GSM_IGT
>1 s at low
level, if
battery is
fully
charged
Connect
charger to input
of ext. charging
circuit and
GSM_POWER
pin (high level
at
GSM_POWER)
100 ms <
GSM_IGT <
500 ms at low
level
GSM_IGT
>1 s at low
level
Wake-up from
POWER
DOWN mode
(if activated
with
AT+CALA)
AT^SMSO or
exceptionally
GSM_EMER
GOFF pin >
3.2 s at low
level
--
No automatic
transition, but
via “POWER
DOWN”
Charge-only
mode *)
Disconnect
charger
(XF55-AVL
GSM_POWE
R pin at low
level) or
AT^SMSO or
exceptionally
GSM_EMER
GOFF pin
>3.2 s at low
level
AT^SMSO
“Charge-only
mode”, again
AT^SMSO or
exceptionally
GSM_EMER
GOFF pin
>3.2 s at low
level
Alarm mode
AT^SMSO or
exceptionally
No
automatic
transition,
but via
“Charge
in Normal
Mode”
---
Connect
charger to
GSM_POW
ER pin at
XF55-AVL
(high level at
GSM_POW
ER)
GSM_IGT
>1 s at low
level
AT+CALA
followed by
AT^SMSO.
XF55-AVL
enters Alarm
mode when
specified time
is reached
AT+CALA
followed by
AT^SMSO.
XF55-AVL
enters Alarm
mode when
specified time
is reached and
VGSM_BATT+>3.
2V
Disconnect
charger
from input
of ext.
charging
circuit and
module’s
GSM_PO
WER pin
GSM_IGT
>100 ms at
low level
AT^SMSO
--
No direct
transition
AT^SMSO if
charger is
connected
GSM_IGT
>100 ms at
low level
--
Chargeonly
mode*)
Charging
in normal
mode*)**)
Alarm
mode
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GSM_EMER
GOFF pin
>3.2 s at low
level
Table 14: Summary of state transitions
*) See chapter 4.5.4 for details on the charging mode
**) Normal mode covers TALK, DATA, GPRS, IDLE and SLEEP modes
4.8 RTC backup for GSM/GPRS part of XF55-AVL
The internal Real Time Clock of the XF55-AVL GSM/GPRS part is supplied
from a separate voltage regulator in the power supply ASIC which is also
active when the GSM/GPRS part of the XF55-AVL is in POWER DOWN
status. An alarm function is provided that allows to wake up XF55-AVL
without logging on to the GSM network.
In addition, you can use the GSM_VDDLP pin on the board-to-board
connector to backup the RTC from an external capacitor or a battery
(rechargeable or non-chargeable). The capacitor is charged by the
GSM_BATT+ line of XF55-AVL. If the voltage supply at GSM_BATT+ is
disconnected the RTC can be powered by the capacitor. The size of the
capacitor determines the duration of buffering when no voltage is applied to the
GSM/GPRS part of the XF55-AVL, i.e. the greater capacitor the longer the
GSM/GPRS part of the XF55-AVL will save the date and time.
The following figures show various sample configurations. The voltage applied
at GSM_VDDLP can be in the range from 2 to 5.5 V. Please refer to Table 4
and Table 5 for the parameters required.
Figure 16: RTC supply from capacitor
Figure 17: RTC supply from rechargeable battery
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Figure 18: RTC supply from non-chargeable battery
4.9 Features supported on the serial interface of GSM/GPRS part
The GSM/GPRS part of the XF55-AVL module offers two unbalanced,
asynchronous serial interfaces conforming to ITU-T V.24 protocol DCE
signaling. The electrical characteristics do not comply with ITU-T V.28. The
significant levels are 0 V (for low data bit or ON condition) and 2.65 V (for
high data bit or OFF condition). For electrical characteristics please refer to
Table 3 and Table 3. See chapter 6.1 to determinate the DTE-DCE connection.
ASC0:
↔ 8-wire serial interface
↔ Includes the data lines GSM_TXD0 and GSM_RXD0, the status lines
GSM_RTS0 and GSM_CTS0 and, in addition, the modem control lines
GSM_DTR0, GSM_DSR0, GSM_DCD0 and GSM_RING0.
↔ It is primarily designed for voice calls, CSD calls, fax calls and GPRS
services and for controlling the GSM engine with AT commands. Full
Multiplex capability allows the interface to be partitioned into three
virtual channels, yet with CSD and fax services only available on the first
logical channel. Please note that when the ASC0 interface runs in
Multiplex mode, ASC1 cannot be used. For more detailed characteristics
see [9].
↔ The GSM_DTR0 signal will only be polled once per second from the
internal firmware of XF55-AVL.
↔ The GSM_RING0 signal serves to indicate incoming calls and other
types of URCs (Unsolicited Result Code). It can also be used to send
pulses to the host application, for example to wake up the application
from power saving state. For further details see chapter 4.11.2.3.
↔ Autobauding is only selectable on ASC0 and supports the following bit
rates: 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200, 230400
bps.
↔ Autobauding is not compatible with multiplex mode, see [9].
↔ ASC0 interface is intended for firmware upgrade of the GSM/GPRS part.
ASC1:
↔ 4-wire serial interface
↔ Includes only the data lines GSM_TXD1 and GSM_RXD1 plus
GSM_RTS1 and GSM_CTS1 for hardware handshake. This interface is
intended for voice calls, GPRS services and for controlling the GSM
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engine with AT commands. It is not suited for CSD calls, fax calls and
Multiplex mode.
↔ On ASC1 no GSM_RING line is available. The indication of URCs on
the second interface depends on the settings made with the AT^SCFG
command. For details refer to [4].
ASC0 and ASC1 configuration:
Both interfaces are configured for 8 data bits, no parity and 1 stop bit,
and can be operated at bit rates from 300 bps to 230400 bps.
XON/XOFF software flow control can be used on both interfaces (except
if power saving is active).
4.10 Audio interfaces
XF55-AVL comprises three audio interfaces available on the board-to-board
connector:
Two analog audio interfaces, each with a balanced analog microphone
input and a balanced analog earpiece output. The second analog interface
provides a supply circuit to feed an active microphone.
Serial digital audio interface (DAI) using PCM (Pulse Code Modulation)
to encode analog voice signals into digital bit streams.
This means you can connect up to three audio devices in any combination,
although analog and digital audio cannot be operated at the same time. Using
the AT^SAIC command you can easily switch back and forth.
Figure 19: Audio block diagram
XF55-AVL offers six audio modes which can be selected with the AT^SNFS
command, no matter which of the three interfaces is currently active. The
electrical characteristics of the voice band part vary with the audio mode. For
example, sending and receiving amplification, side tone paths, noise
suppression etc. depend on the selected mode and can be altered with AT
commands (except for mode 1).
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On each audio interface you can use all audio AT commands specified in [4] to
alter parameters. The only exception are the DAC and ADC gain amplifier
attenuation <outBbcGain> and <inBbcGain> which cannot be modified when
the digital audio interface is used, since in this case the DAC and ADC are
switched off. Please refer to chapter 4.10 for specifications of the audio
interface and an overview of the audio parameters. Detailed instructions on
using AT commands are presented in [4]. Table 28 summarizes the
characteristics of the various audio modes and shows what parameters are
supported in each mode.
When shipped from factory, all audio parameters of XF55-AVL are set to
interface 1 and audio mode 1. Audio mode 1 has fix parameters which cannot
be modified. In transmit direction, all audio modes contain internal scaling
factors (digital amplification) that are not accessible by the user. To avoid
saturation with a full scale digital input signal on the DAI, and to obtain a oneto-one digital access to the speech coder in audio mode 5 and 6, it is
recommended to set the parameter <inCalibrate> of the selected audio mode as
follows:
Audio mode 1 and 4: 23196
Audio mode 2:
17396
Audio mode 3:
21901
Audio mode 5 and 6: 21402
4.10.1 Microphone circuit
Interface 1
This interface has no microphone supply circuit and therefore, has an
impedance of 50 kΩ. When connecting a microphone or another signal
source to interface 1 you are required to add two 100 nF capacitors, one to
each line.
Interface 2
This interface comes with a microphone supply circuit and can be used to
feed an active microphone. It has an impedance of 2 kΩ. If you do not use it
or if you want to connect another type of signal source, for example, an op
amp or a dynamic microphone, it needs to be decoupled with capacitors.
The power supply can be switched off and on by using the command
AT^SNFM. For details see [4].
Figure 20 shows the microphone inputs at both analog interfaces of XF55AVL.
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Figure 20: Schematic of microphone inputs
4.10.2 Speech processing
The speech samples from the ADC or DAI are handled by the DSP of the base
band controller to calculate e.g. amplifications, side tone, echo cancellation or
noise suppression depending on the configuration of the active audio mode.
These processed samples are passed to the speech encoder. Received samples
from the speech decoder are passed to the DAC or DAI after post processing
(frequency response correction, adding side tone etc.).
Full rate, half rate, enhanced full rate, adaptive multi rate (AMR), speech and
channel encoding including voice activity detection (VAD) and discontinuous
transmission (DTX) and digital GMSK modulation are also performed on the
GSM base band processor.
4.10.3 DAI timing
To support the DAI function, XF55-AVL integrates a simple five-line serial
interface with one input data clock line (GSM_SCLK) and input/output data
and frame lines (GSM_TXDDAI, GSM_TFSDAI, GSM_RXDDAI,
GSM_RFSDAI). The serial interface is always active if the external input data
clock GSM_SLCK is present, i.e. the serial interface is not clocked by the DSP
of the XF55-AVL base band processor. GSM_SLCK must be supplied from
the application and can be in a frequency range between 0.2 and 10 MHz.
Serial transfer of 16-bit words is done in both directions. Data transfer to the
application is initiated by the module via a short pulse of GSM_TFSDAI. The
duration of the GSM_TFSDAI pulse is one GSM_SCLK period, starting at the
rising edge of SLCK. During the following 16 SLCK cycles, the 16-bit sample
will be transferred on the GSM_TXDDAI line. The next outgoing sample will
be transferred after the next GSM_TFSDAI pulse which occurs every 125 µs.
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The GSM_TFSDAI pulse is the master clock of the sample transfer. From the
rising edge of the GSM_TFSDAI pulse, the application has 100 µs to transfer
the 16-bit input sample on the GSM_RXDDAI line. The rising edge of the
GSM_RFSDAI pulse (supplied by the application) may coincide with the
falling edge of GSM_TFSDAI or occur slightly later - it is only significant that,
in any case, the transfer of the LSB input sample will be completed within the
specified duration of 100 µs.
Audio samples are transferred from the module to the application in an average
of 125 µs.
This is determined by the 8 kHz sampling rate, which is derived from and
synchronized to the GSM network. As SLCK is independent of the GSM
network, the distance between two succeeding sample transfers may vary about
+ 1 SLCK period.
The application is required to adapt its sampling rate to the GSM_TFSDAI
rate. Failure to synchronize the timing between the module and the application
may cause audible pops and clicks in a conversation. The timing characteristics
of both data transfer directions are shown in figure 21 and figure 22 below.
Figure 21: DAI timing on transmit path
Figure 22: DAI timing on receive path
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4.10.4 SIM interface
The base band processor has an integrated SIM interface compatible with the
ISO 7816 IC card standard. This is wired to the host interface (board-to-board
connector) in order to be connected to an external SIM card holder. Six pins on
the board-to-board connector are reserved for the SIM interface. The
GSM_CCIN pin serves to detect whether a tray (with SIM card) is present in
the card holder. Using the GSM_CCIN pin is mandatory for compliance with
the GSM 11.11 recommendation if the mechanical design of the host
application allows the user to remove the SIM card during operation. See
chapter 4.10.4.1 for details. It is recommended that the total cable length
between the board-to-board connector pins on XF55-AVL and the pins of the
SIM card holder does not exceed 200 mm in order to meet the specifications of
3GPP TS 51.010-1 and to satisfy the requirements of EMC compliance.
Signal
GSM_CCGND
GSM_CCCLK
GSM_CCVCC
GSM_CCIO
GSM_CCRST
GSM_CCIN
Description
Separate ground connection for SIM card to improve EMC
Chip card clock, various clock rates can be set in the base
band processor
SIM supply voltage from PSU-ASIC
Serial data line, input and output
Chip card reset, provided by base band processor
Input on the base band processor for detecting a SIM card
tray in the holder. The GSM_CCIN pin is mandatory for
applications that allow the user to remove the SIM card
during operation. The GSM_CCIN pin is solely intended
for use with a SIM card. It must not be used for any other
purposes.
Table 15: Signals of the SIM interface (board-to-board connector).
4.10.4.1 Requirements for using the GSM_CCIN pin
According to ISO/IEC 7816-3 the SIM interface must be immediately shut
down once the SIM card is removed during operation. Therefore, the signal at
the GSM_CCIN pin must go low before the SIM card contacts are
mechanically detached from the SIM interface contacts. This shut-down
procedure is particularly required to protect the SIM card as well as the SIM
interface of XF55-AVL from damage. An appropriate SIM card detect switch
is required on the card holder. For example, this is true for the model supplied
by Molex, which has been tested to operate with XF55-AVL. Molex ordering
number is 91228-0001.
The start-up procedure of module involves a SIM card initialization performed
within 1 second after getting started. An important issue is whether the
initialization procedure ends up with a high or low level of the GSM_CCIN
signal:
a) If, during start-up of XF55-AVL, the GSM_CCIN signal on the SIM
interface is high, then the status of the SIM card holder can be recognized
each time the card is inserted or ejected. A low level of GSM_CCIN
indicates that no SIM card tray is inserted into the holder. In this case, the
module keeps searching, at regular intervals, for the SIM card. Once the
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SIM card tray with a SIM card is inserted, GSM_CCIN is taken high
again.
b) If, during start-up of XF55-AVL, the GSM_CCIN signal is low, the
module will also attempt to initialize the SIM card. In this case, the
initialization will only be successful when the card is present. If the SIM
card initialization has been done, but the card is no more operational or
removed, then the module will never search again for a SIM card and
only emergency calls can be made. Removing and inserting the SIM card
during operation requires the software to be reinitialized. Therefore, after
reinserting the SIM card it is necessary to restart XF55-AVL. It is
strongly recommended to connect the contacts of the SIM card detect
switch to the GSM_CCIN input and to the GSM_CCVCC output of the
module as illustrated in the sample diagram in figure 23 below.
Note: No guarantee can be given, nor any liability accepted, if loss of data
is encountered after removing the SIM card during operation. Also, no
guarantee can be given for properly initializing any SIM card that the
user inserts after having removed a SIM card during operation. In this
case, the application must restart XF55-AVL.
4.10.4.2 Design considerations for SIM card holder
The schematic below is a sample configuration that illustrates the Molex SIM
card holder located on the evaluation kit used for test of the XF55-AVL
reference setup. X503 is the designation used for the SIM card holder.
Figure 23: SIM card holder
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Signal name
CCVCC
CCRST
CCCLK
CCGND
CCVPP
CCIO
CCDET1
CCDET2
I/O
I
I
I
I/O
-
Function
Supply voltage for SIM card, generated by the GSM engine
Chip card reset, prompted by the GSM engine
Chip card clock
Individual ground line for the SIM card to improve EMC
Not connected
Serial data line, bi-directional
Connect to GSM_CCVCC
Connects to the GSM_CCIN input of the GSM engine.
Serves to recognize whether a SIM card is in the holder.
Table 16: Pin assignment of Molex SIM card holder
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Pins 1 through 8 (except for 5) are the minimum requirement according to the
GSM recommendations, where pins 7 and 8 are needed for SIM card tray
detection through the GSM_CCIN pin. Place
the capacitors C1205 and C1206 (or instead
one capacitor of 200 nF) as close as possible to
the pins 1 (CCVCC) and 4 (GND) of the card
holder. Connect the capacitors to the pins via
low resistance tracks.
Figure 23: Pin numbers of Molex SIM card holder
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4.11 Control signals
4.11.1 Inputs
Signal
Pin
Ignition
GSM_IGT
Emergency GSM_
shutdown EMERG
Pin
status
Falling
edge
Left open
or HiZ
Function
Remarks
Power up
XF55-AVL
No operation
Low
Power down
XF55-AVL
Left
open
or HiZ
No operation
Active low ≥ 100 ms (Open
drain/collector driver to GND
required in cellular device
application).
Note: If a charger and a battery is
connected to the customer
application the GSM_IGT signal
must be 1 s minimum.
Active low ≥ 3.2 s (Open
drain/collector driver required in
cellular device application). At
the signal the watchdog signal of
the GSM engine can be traced
(see description in Table 4 or
Table 5).
OFF
Table 17: Input control signals of the GSM/GPRS part of the XF55-AVL module
_____________________
(HiZ = high impedance)
4.11.2 Outputs
4.11.2.1 Synchronization signal
The synchronization signal serves to indicate growing power consumption
during the transmit burst. The signal is generated by the GSM_SYNC pin.
Please note that this pin can adopt two different operating modes which you
can select by using the AT^SSYNC command (mode 0 and 1). For details refer
to the following chapter and to [4]. To generate the synchronization signal the
pin needs to be configured to mode 0 (= default). This setting is recommended
if you want your application to use the synchronization signal for better power
supply control. Your platform design must be such that the incoming signal
accommodates sufficient power supply to the XF55-AVL module if required.
This can be achieved by lowering the current drawn from other components
installed in your application. The timing of the synchronization signal is shown
below. High level of the GSM_SYNC pin indicates increased power
consumption during transmission.
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Figure 24: GSM_SYNC signal during transmit burst
*) The duration of the GSM_SYNC signal is always equal, no matter whether the traffic or
the access burst are active.
4.11.2.2 Using the GSM_SYNC pin to control a status LED
As an alternative to generating the synchronization signal, the GSM_SYNC pin
can be used to control a status LED on your application platform.
To avail of this feature you need to set the GSM_SYNC pin to mode 1 by using
the AT^SSYNC command. For details see [4].
When controlled from the GSM_SYNC pin the LED can display the functions
listed in table 18 below.
LED mode
Off
600 ms On/
600ms
75 ms On/3 s
75 ms on/75 ms
Off/75 ms On/3 s
Off
Flashing
On
Operating status
XF55-AVL is off or run in SLEEP, Alarm or Charge-only
mode
Off No SIM card inserted or no PIN entered, or network
search in progress, or ongoing user authentication, or network
login in progress.
Off Logged to network (monitoring control channels and user
interactions). No call in progress.
One or more GPRS contexts activated.
Indicates GPRS data transfer: When a GPRS transfer is in
progress, the LED goes on within 1 second after data packets
were exchanged. Flash duration is approximately 0.5 s.
Depending on type of call:
Voice call: Connected to remote party.
Data call: Connected to remote party or exchange of
parameters while setting up or disconnecting a call
Table 18: Coding of the status LED
_____________________________
LED Off = GSM_SYNC pin low.
LED On = GSM_SYNC pin high (if LED is connected as illustrated in figure 25)
To operate the LED a buffer, e.g. a transistor or gate, must be included in your
application. A sample configuration can be gathered from figure 25. Power
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consumption in the LED mode is the same as for the synchronization signal
mode. For details see Table 4 or Table 5, GSM_SYNC pin.
VCC
D1
LED
R2
330
GSM_SYNC
GPIO 1
R1
Q1
NPN
47K
Figure 25: LED Circuit (Example)
4.11.2.3 Behaviour of the GSM_RING0 line (ASC0 interface only)
The GSM_RING0 line is available on the first serial interface (ASC0). The
signal serves to indicate incoming calls and other types of URCs (Unsolicited
Result Code). Although not mandatory for use in a host application, it is
strongly suggested that you connect the GSM_RING0 line to an interrupt line
of your application. In this case, the application can be designed to receive an
interrupt when a falling edge on GSM_RING0 occurs. This solution is most
effective, particularly, for waking up an application from power saving. Note
that if the GSM_RING0 line is not wired, the application would be required to
permanently poll the data and status lines of the serial interface at the expense
of a higher current consumption. Therefore, utilizing the GSM_RING0 line
provides an option to significantly reduce the overall current consumption of
your application.
The behaviour of the GSM_RING0 line varies with the type of event:
When a voice call comes in the GSM_RING0 line goes low for 1 s and
high for another 4 s. Every 5 seconds the ring string is generated and sent
over the GSM_RXD0 line. If there is a call in progress and call waiting is
activated for a connected handset or handsfree device, the GSM_RING0
line switches to ground in order to generate acoustic signals that indicate
the waiting call.
Figure 26: Incoming voice call
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Likewise, when a fax or data call is received, GSM_RING0 goes low.
However, in contrast to voice calls, the line remains low. Every 5
seconds the ring string is generated and sent over the GSM_RXD0 line.
Figure 27: Incoming data call
All types of Unsolicited Result Codes (URCs) also cause the
GSM_RING0 line to go low, however for 1 second only. For example,
XF55-AVL may be configured to output a URC upon the receipt of an
SMS. As a result, if this URC type was activated with AT+CNMI=1,1,
each incoming SMS causes the GSM_RING0 line to go low. See [4] for
detailed information on URCs.
Figure 28: URC transmission
Function
Ring
indication
Pin
GSM_RING0
Status
0
1
Description
SLEEP mode CFUN=0 or CYCLIC
SLEEP mode CFUN=5 or 6, the
module is caused to wake up to full
functionality. If CFUN=7 or 8, power
saving is resumed after URC
transmission or end of call.
No operation
Table 19: ASC0 ring signal
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5 GPS application interface
The XF55-AVL module integrates a GPS receiver which offers the full
performance of GPS technology. If the GPS receiver is fully powered it
continuously tracks all satellites in view, thus providing accurate satellite
position data. The computed data solution is sent on a serial port for high level
applications to use or process it locally. Integrated GPS receiver offers also
applications for highly visible LEDs (the LED circuit must be implemented
external the module on your application platform) which provide immediate
indication of the receiver operation, while two configurable serial ports allow
operation in either SiRF Binary or NMEA protocols. The embedded GPS
receiver is an independent part on the XF55-AVL module. All required
interfaces have to be connected to this part in order to make it works.
Additionally, the GPS part can also be used even if the XF55-AVL module is
deregistered from the GSM network.
5.1 Signal Processing Operation of GPS receiver
The GPS receiver is designed to use L1 Frequency (C/A Code). The module is
separated into four major parts: (1) RF frequency down-converter, (2) digital
base band demodulation, (3) embedded ARM microprocessor and (4)
internal GPS software stored on-board (2 MB - 512 K) Combo-Memory. The
RF frequency conversion and the base band demodulation are executed by
hardware while the embedded ARM processor computes the GPS position,
velocity and time solution employing the internal GPS software.
Figure 29: Signal processing of GPS receiver
The signal processing is described as follow:
♦ The purpose of the RF circuitry is to reinforce the very weak (-130 dBm
nominal) GPS signal, filters it and down-converts it to an Intermediate
Frequency (IF) of 9.45 MHz for digital processing. The GPS receiver
architecture relies on the high level of integration in the RF part to
significantly reduce part count and circuit complexity. The IF filter is
built-in as well.
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♦ The digital base band demodulator takes the quantified GPS signal and
detects the individual satellites serial data bit stream, along with the
associated pseudo range. This action consists of removing spread
spectrum and Doppler frequency components of the signal to obtain the
serial data messages.
♦ The embedded ARM processor monitors channel allocation, extracts the
raw satellite tracking data, computes the position and time solution and
sends it on a serial port for high level applications to use or process it
locally. Support functions for the microprocessor include real-time clock
and reset pulse generator circuits.
♦ The internal GPS software monitors and allocate channels, computes the
position, velocity and time using the pseudo-range of the satellites and
reformat the data to be output at the serial interface or used locally. The
internal GPS software is a tasking based architecture driven by the
100 ms interrupt generated by GSP2e internal hardware.
5.2 Description of operating modes
There are three basic operating in which the GPS receiver operates during use.
Each mode is used to accomplish a different task during the process of
acquiring and maintaining the GPS information. The integrated GPS receiver
designs include all the functionality necessary to implement the three different
modes of operation. The default mode of GPS receiver is normal mode
(continuous mode). Three different operating modes are described below.
Additionally, two of them are designed as low-power modes consumption such
as the Trickle Power mode and Push-To-Fix mode. In order to allow the
integrated GPS receiver to perform internally the warm and hot start it is
advisable to use an external backup battery (refer to Table 4, pins 46..50. See
also section 4.5). The lines which power the RTC and SRAM of the GPS part
are linked directly to GSM power supply pins.
5.2.1
Normal Operation
In this default implementation of normal mode the GPS receiver is fully
powered and performs the function of signal search, acquisition, measurement
and satellite tracking. The amount of time spent in the initial full power is
dependent on the start condition that applies the number of satellites for which
the ephemeris must be collected and the time to calibrate the RTC as well as
the location of the GPS antenna (which it must have an unobstructed view to
the sky in order to receive the satellite radio transmissions). When the GPS
receiver has been locked-on to at least four satellites, the receiver is able to
calculate its current positions. In this mode the GPS receiver is fully powered
and satellite searching, initial acquisition, initial position calculation and
tracking measurements functions are always performed.
5.2.2
Trickle Power Operation
Please note that the integrated GPS receiver does not support this mode when it
operates with SiRFXTrac2 software, see section 11.5.1. In the Trickle Power
mode, power is still applied to the GPS receiver, but the GPS engine is shut off
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and RF circuits are powered down. The Trickle Power mode provides a method
of operating the GPS receiver in a user programmable duty cycle, consisting of
a receiver measurement on time tracking and an interval of position update,
thereby reducing the average power consumption over a period of time. The
transition into the Trickle Power mode of GPS receiver can be implemented
and configured by using the SiRFdemo software. Between two on time
tracking periods the GPS receiver sets itself in the sleep phase in other word
into the low power consumption. The transition from sleep mode of GPS
receiver back to the on time tracking is generated through the internal RTC
which transmits a wakeup signal to the GPS engine to switch it on as well the
RF circuit is powered on. The GPS receiver is waked up and begins to acquire
the on view satellites. If the receiver fails to acquire satellites within a given
period of time (approx. 150 sec), the receiver sets itself into the sleep phase.
The duration of this sleep phase is approx. 30 sec. After that, the receiver
wakes up, reset itself and tries to acquire satellites which are in view. This
procedure repeats itself until the initial position computation of GPS receiver is
completed. For further details refer to related manuals.[6]
As above, the GPS receiver can be set into the Trickle Power Mode via input
command message (for more details refer to the chapter 5.3). Please note that,
the Trickle Power Mode is not supported on the integrated GPS receiver
operating with SiRFXTrac2 software. The SiRFXTrac2 software supports socalled AMP-mode. See chapter 11.5.1.2 for more details.
The GPS receiver enters the trickle power mode corresponding to figure 30
(800 ms OFF Time and 200 ms ON Time) as soon as valid GPS data are available.
As a result the average power consumption is reduced by approximately 80 %
(approximately 150 mW). The settings for the trickle power mode can be
modified by using the SiRFstar demo software. For example if the GPS
receiver is configured to enter the OnTime mode each 10 s for a duration of
200 ms the average power consumption can be reduced up to approx. 95 %
(approx. 15 mW, ca. 4,8 mA at Vcc=3.3 V).
Figure 30: Example for the trickle power mode of GPS receiver
Hint:
After initial turn on or system reset, the GPS receiver will remain in
the full power tracking until a series of Kalman filter navigation
solution is obtained, all ephemeris data is collected and the RTC is
calibrated prior to transitioning to the low power duty cycle mode.
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5.2.3
VERSION 0.01
Push-to-Fix Mode
Please note that the integrated GPS receiver does not support this mode when it
operates with SiRFXTrac2 software, see section 11.5.1. The Push-to-Fix mode
puts the GPS receiver into a background duty cycle which provides a periodic
refresh of position, receiver time, ephemeris data and RTC calibration every 30
minutes. The Push-to-Fix mode is similar but executive from Trickle Power
mode, meaning that only one mode can be set at a time. In this mode the
receiver sets itself into the sleep phase for 29.5 minutes and a full tracking
phase for 30 seconds. During the tracking phase the GPS receiver acquires
satellites, computes position and updates ephemeris data as well the RTC is
being calibrated.
The transition into the Push-to-Fix mode of GPS receiver can be implemented
and configured by using the SiRFdemo software. During the subsequent
background cycles or when a user requests a position update (the GPS_M-RST
has to be used) a reset is generated and a hot start will be typically performed
which may take up to a maximum of 8 seconds. The receiver wakes up,
computes its position fix and goes back to the previous sleep phase again.
5.3 NMEA input message for Trickle Power Mode
The input command message below sets the GPS receiver into the Trickle
Power Mode or Push-To-Fix Mode. Details to configure Trickle Power Mode
and Push-To-Fix Modes are described below.
The receiver accepts the input message with following format:
$PSRF107,<parameter>, <parameter> ,<parameter><* Checksum><CR> <LF>.
COMAND
SYNTAX
$PSRF10
7,
ptf,
dc,
msot
*XX
<CR><LF>
DESCRIPTION
Parameters description:
ptf // numeric, performs the receiver in one of two pre-defined modes
Possible values:
0: Set the receiver in Trickle Power mode
1: Set the receiver in Push-To-Fix mode
dc
// numeric, Duty Cycle in percent (%)
Possible value:
max 1000: Set the time which will be spent for tracking (dc% / 10)
msot // numeric, the on Time in milliseconds
Possible value
200.. 900: Set the time duration of each tracking period
*XX // Checksum has to be calculated in hexadecimal.
Example:
$PSRF107,0,200,200*3D
The receiver will be set in Trickle Power mode where 20% of time it will spend
for tracking and the tracking period will takes 200 msec.
Table 20: Example of Trickle Power Mode Control
Note:
If the receiver is set into the Trickle Power Mode, the high data rate transmission
is recommend as suitable.
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Computation of Duty Cycle and On Time
The Duty Cycle is the desired time, which will be spent for tracking. The On
Time is the duration of each tracking period (range is 200 - 900 msec). To
calculate the Trickle Power update rate as a function of Duty Cycle and On
Time, use the following formula:
On Time – (Duty Cycle * On Time)
Off Time = --------------------------------------------Duty Cycle
Update rate = Off Time + On Time
Hint:
It is not possible to enter an On Time > 900 msec
Following are some examples of selections:
On Time
(msec)
1000
200
200
300
500
Mode
Continuous
Trickle Power
Trickle Power
Trickle Power
Trickle Power
Update Rate
(1/Hz)
1
1
2
3
10
Duty Cycle (%)
100
20
10
10
5
Table 21: Example of Selections for Trickle Power Mode of Operation
Update Rates (seconds)
On
Time
(msec)
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
Table 22: Trickle Power supported Modes
Push-To-Fix
In this mode the receiver will turn on every 30 minutes to perform a system
update consisting of a RTC calibration and satellite ephemeris data collection if
required (i.e., a new satellite has become visible) as well as all software tasks
to support SnapStart in the event of an NMEA. Ephemeris collection time in
general takes 18 to 30 seconds. If ephemeris data is not required then the
system will re-calibrate and shut down. In either case, the amount of time the
receiver remains off will be in proportion to how long it stayed on:
On Period * (1-Duty Cycle)
Off period = --------------------------------------------Duty Cycle
The off period has a possible range between 10 and 7200 seconds. The default
is 1800 seconds.
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Comparison
A comparison of the Trickle Power and Push-to-Fix modes is shown in figure
31 below. This diagram shows that for position update intervals less than
approximately 600 seconds (i.e. rates faster than one fix per 10 minutes), the
Trickle Power mode at an update interval of 10 seconds offers a lower power
solution. The user would then be required to filter the output position data to
use only the data points corresponding to the desired update interval. For
example, if the desired position output is at 60 second intervals, then the user
would only need one out of every six position outputs at a 10 second Trickle
Power update interval. Alternatively, the user could perform smoothing or
averaging of the position data and provide an output at the desired rate.
Figure 31: comparison of the Trickle Power and Push-to-Fix modes
5.4 Integrated GPS Receiver Architecture
The GPS receiver OEM GPS receiver from FALCOM is new OEM GPS
receiver product that features the SiRFstarII-Low Power chipset. This
completes 12 channel, WAAS-enabled GPS receiver provides a vastly superior
position accuracy performance in a much smaller package. The SiRFstarII
architecture builds on the high-performance SiRFstarI core, adding an
acquisition accelerator, differential GPS processor, multipath mitigation
hardware and satellite-tracking engine. The GPS receiver delivers major
advancements in GPS performance, accuracy, integration, computing power
and flexibility. Figure 31 above shows the block diagram of the GPS receiver
architecture.
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
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Figure 32: Architecture of the integrated GPS receiver as stand alone part of XF55AVL
As shown in the figure above the integrated GPS receiver into XF55-AVL
module demonstrate a device concept which builds perfect basis for the design
in sufficient application fields of high-sensitive, low-power, compact and cost
efficient state-of-the-art GPS enabled system solutions like hand-held devices,
navigation, tracking and security systems and many others.
5.4.1
Description of GPS receiving signals
When the GPS receiver is initially turned on, it begins to determinate its
current positions, velocity and time. In order to perform a successful start it
must have a current almanac, a reasonable expectation of its current location
and a reasonable idea of the current time. When the Ephemeris data are
completely collected, then satellite signals are tracked continuously and the
position is calculated from time to time.
While the receiver trying to obtain a position fix, it needs to be locked-on to at
least four satellites. The receiver uses the satellite signals to calculate its exact
current location by calculating the receiver distance from the satellites. The
position data within the receiver is then converted into latitude and longitude
coordinates, which are usually provided in the geodetic datum on which the
GPS is based (WGS84).
5.5 GPS input signals
GPS_VCC
The input power is very important as far as the minimum and maximum
voltage is concerned. The power supply of GPS part has to be a single
voltage source of GPS_VCC at 3.3 V DC, typically. The power supply has
to be able to provide a sufficient current which typically rises to 200 mA.
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Please, connect GND pins to ground, and connect the line which supply the
GPS_VCC pin to +3.3 V, properly. If they are correctly connected, the
board is full powered and the unit begins obtaining its position fix.
GPS_VANT
This pin is an input and reserved for an external DC power supply for an
active antenna.
The antenna bias for an external active antenna can be provided in two way
to pin V_ANT. In order to use a 5 V active GPS antenna, the GPS_VANT
has to be externally connected to +5 V power supply.
Other possibility is supported when you connect the GPS_VCC_RF output
(which provides +3.0 V) to GPS_VANT, so that an active GPS antenna
with +3.0 V supply voltage can be used.
Hint: The input voltage on the GPS_VANT should be chosen in according
to the antenna to be used.
Note: The current of connected active GPS antenna must not exceed
25 mA.
GPS_VCC_RF
This pin is an output which provides +2.85 V DC, and can be connected to
the GPS_VANT, to supply the connected GPS antenna. In Trickle
Operation and Push-To-Fix operation, GPS_VCC_RF is switched off when
the receiver sets itself into the sleep mode. When the receiver wakes up the
GPS_VCC_RF is switched on.
5.6 Configuration and timing signals
GPS_M-RST
This pin provides an active-low reset input to the board. It causes the board
to reset and to start searching for satellites. By pulling down M-RST for at
least 1 µs, the integrated GPS receiver can externally be reset. The M-RST
signal is also needed in Push-to-Fix mode to wake up the module from sleep
mode, when a position is needed. If not used, it may be left open.
GPS_TMARK
This pin provides 1 pulse per second output from the board, which is
synchronized to within 1 microsecond of GPS time. The output is a CMOS
level signal. Please note that the SiRFXTrac2 software does not support this
output.
GPS_BOOTSEL
Set this Pin to high (+3.3 V DC) for reprogramming the flash of the GPS
receiver (for instance updating a new firmware for the GPS receiver).
GPS_RFPC1
GPS_RFPC1 pin is also provided on the GPS receiver signal lines which is
available on the 80-pin board-to-board connector. This pin is a control
output for the Trickle-Power Mode. A possible external circuit is shown in
figure 33 below. If the LED lights permanently the GPS receiver is
searching satellites. Is the GPS receiver in Trickle-Power Mode, the LED
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flashes in rhythm, i.e. the GPS receiver receives valid positions data (see
also figure 6).
Note: By switched off Trickle power the LED will flash permanently.
The reception of satellites data can be checked by using the TMark, however, can not be evaluated.
Figure 33: The control output for Trickle-Power Mode.
5.6.1
Serial communication signals
The physical interface to the integrated GPS receiver is performed through
available lines on the 80-pin board-to-board connector. The GPS part supports
two full duplex serial channels. Each interface is provided with two-wire the
SDI1, SDO1 supports line and ground for the first serial interface (port A) and
SDI2, SDO2 supports line and ground for the second serial interface (port B).
These pins are 3.3 V CMOS level. In order to use different voltage levels, a
appropriate level shifters has to be used.
E.g. in order to provide RS232 compatible levels use the 3 V compatible
MAX3232 transceiver from Maxim or others based on the required levels. If a
RS232 compatible serial level is obtained, then you can directly communicate
with a host device serial port. The GPS data will be transmitted through port A
(first serial port) to the host interface, if an active antenna is connected, which
has to be located in a place with a good view to sky (no obstacle).
Figure 34: Using a RS-232 level shifter for GPS application
For increasing the accuracy, the GPS receiver is DGPS ready - being able to
use DGPS corrections data in the RTCM SC-104 format. The port B (second
serial port) can be used to feed in DGPS correction data. Connect pull-up
resistor (by 100 kΩ) to the unused SDI inputs.
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All supported variable baud rates can be controlled from the appropriate
screens in SiRFdemo software. The GPS part has to be supplied by using
externally +3.3 V DC at the GPS_VCC lines and GND’s.
GPS_SDI1
This is the main receiving channel and is used to receive software
commands to the board from SiRFdemo software or from user written
software.
GPS_SDI2
This is the auxiliary receiving channel and is used to input differential
corrections to the board to enable DGPS navigation.
GPS_SDO1
This is the main transmitting channel and is used to output navigation and
measurement data to SiRFdemo or user written software.
GPS_SDO2
For user’s application.
5.6.2
General purpose input/output
Several I/O’s (GPIO0, GPIO1, GPIO5, GPIO6, GPIO7, GPIO10, GPIO15) of
the CPU are connected to the hardware interface 80-pin connector of the XF55AVL. They are reserved for customer specific applications.
For example:
− for realization a SPI-Bus
− for realization an Antenna-indication
These pins are not supported by the current GPS firmware.
5.6.3
General purpose input
All inputs provided on the 80-pin board-to-board connector can be used for
user application. However, note that all inputs are not supported by using the
standard (current) software. Their functionality is supported only by using
AVL software which is an option of delivery or by writing your own developed
software which has to be updated into the combo-memory device. These inputs
can be used to trigger an alarm or sending an SMS to the control centre. All
inputs reserved for customer specific applications can be configured as shown
below:
Figure 35: The possible schematic for input configuration.
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
5.6.4
VERSION 0.01
General purpose Output
All outputs provided on the 80-pin board-to-board connector can be used for
user proposed application. However, note that all outputs are not supported by
using the standard (current) software. Their functionality is supported only by
using AVL software which is an option of delivery or they can be supported by
writing your own software. The outputs can be used to switch on/off something
from remote. All outputs reserved for customer specific applications can be
configured as shown below:
Figure 36: The possible schematic for output configuration
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
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6 Hardware Interfaces
6.1 Determining the External Equipment Type
Before you connect one of provided serial ports on the XF55-AVL board to
board connectors to external host application, you need to determine if its
external hardware serial ports are configured as DTE or DCE.
The terms DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) and DCE (Data Communications
Equipment) are typically used to describe serial ports on devices. Computers
(PCs) generally use DTE connectors and communication devices such as
modems and DSU/CSU devices generally use DCE connectors. As a general
rule, DTE ports connect to DCE ports via straight through pinned cables. In
other words, a DTE port never connects directly to another DTE port. In a
similar manner, a DCE port never connects directly to another DCE port. The
signalling definitions were written from the perspective of the DTE device;
therefore, a Receive Data signal becomes an input to DTE but an output from
DCE.
The Falcom XF55-AVL is designed for use as a DCE. Based on the
aforementioned conventions for DCE-DTE connections it communicates with
the customer application (DTE) using the following signals:
XF55-AVL (DCE)
to
Application (DTE)
GSM_TXD0(1)
◄-----------------------
TXD
GSM_RXD0(1)
-----------------------►
RXD
GSM_RTS0(1)
◄-----------------------
RTS
GSM_CTS0(1)
-----------------------►
CTS
GSM_DTR0
◄-----------------------
DTR
GSM_DSR0
-----------------------►
DSR
GSM_DCD0
-----------------------►
DCD
GSM_RING0
-----------------------►
RING
Table 23: Definitions between DTE and DCE ports
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
6.2 Interfaces overview
This chapter describes several interfaces incorporated into the XF55-AVL
module:
• Application interface (80-pin board-to-board connector)
• Application interface (50-pin board-to-board connector, GSM/GPRS
applications, only)
• RF interface
• Electrical and mechanical characteristics
• Mounting holes
Interface specifications
Interface A
80-pin board-to-board connector (GSM/GPRS and GPS signals)
Interface B
50-pin board-to-board connector (GSM/GPRS signals, only)
Interface C
GSM RF Connector
Interface D
GPS RF connector
Interface E
Mounting holes
Table 24: Interface specifications
Figure 37: Interface of XF55-AVL module
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
6.2.1
VERSION 0.01
Interface A (80-pin board to board connector)
The primary physical interface to the GSM/GPRS and GPS applications is
through the 80-pin board-to-board connector. The receptacle assembled on the
XF55-AVL is type Hirose DF12C. This connector offers one serial GSM
interface (ASC0) and two serial GPS interfaces as well as all control pins
which giving you maximum flexibility for easy integration with the ManMachine Interface (MMI). The positions of the pins can be seen from figure
below which shows the bottom view of XF55-AVL. Mating headers can be
chosen from the Hirose DF12C series.
Figure 38: View of the 80-pin board-to-board connector
6.2.2
Interface B (50-pin board to board connector)
The secondary physical interface to the GSM/GPRS applications is through the
50-pin board-to-board connector. The receptacle assembled on the XF55-AVL
is also type Hirose DF12C. This connector offers two serial GSM interface
(ASC0 and ASC1) as well as all control pins which giving you maximum
flexibility for easy integration with the Man-Machine Interface (MMI). The
positions of the pins can be seen from figure below which shows the top view
of XF55-AVL. Mating headers can be chosen from the Hirose DF12C series.
Figure 39:
View of the 50-pin board-to-board connector
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Page 80
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
6.2.3
VERSION 0.01
Interface C (GSM antenna installation)
The RF interface has an impedance of 50Ω. XF55-AVL is capable of
sustaining a total mismatch at the antenna connector or pad without any
damage, even when transmitting at maximum RF power.
The external antenna must be matched properly to achieve
best
performance regarding radiated power, DC-power consumption and
harmonic suppression. Matching networks are not included on the XF55AVL PCB and should be placed in the host application.
Regarding the return loss XF55-AVL provides the following values:
State of module
Return loss of module
Recommended return loss of application
Receive
Transmit
Idle
> 8dB
not applicable
< 5dB
> 12dB
> 12dB
not applicable
The connection of the antenna or other equipment must be decoupled from
DC voltage.
6.2.3.1 GSM antenna connector
The XF55-AVL uses two ultra-miniature SMT antenna connector supplied
from Hirose Ltd. One of them see attached image below, is provided for GSM
RF connection. The GSM RF connector has impedance 50 Ω. A GSM antenna
can be directly connected to this connector. Figure below show the position of
GPS antenna connector as well as its general mechanical dimensions. Mating
plugs and cables can be chosen from the Hirose U.FL series. (see chapter
appendix, too).
Figure 40:
View of the GSM antenna connector
The XF55-AVL module offers another possibility for connecting a GSM
antenna to the XF55-AVL. On the bottom side of module is placed an antenna
pad and grounding plane for user application. Refer to the Figure 43 for a view
of antenna pads.
6.2.4
Interface D (GPS antenna interface)
The XF55-AVL uses two ultra-miniature SMT antenna connector supplied
from Hirose Ltd. The GPS RF connector see attached image below has
impedance 50 Ω. The SMT connector is provided for a GPS active antenna
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Page 81
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
connection. Active antennas have an integrated low-noise amplifier. They can
be directly connected to this connector. If an active antenna is connected to this
connector, the integrated low-noise amplifier of the antenna needs to be
supplied with the correct voltage through pin GPS_VANT (see chapter 5.5).
Figure below show the position of GPS antenna connector as well as its general
mechanical dimensions. Mating plugs and cables can be chosen from the
Hirose U.FL series. (see chapter Appendix 11.3, too).
Figure 41:
View of the GSM antenna connector
Caution: Do not connect or disconnect the antenna when the XF55-AVL is
running.
Caution: The RF connector is always fed from the input voltage on the
GPS_VANT pin. Do not use any input voltage on this connector.
6.2.5
Interface E (Mounting holes)
The XF55-AVL compact device provides also 3 holes for attaching into a host
device. As a reference for mounting holes use figure 42 attached below on this
section.
An efficient approach is to mount the XF55-AVL PCB to a frame, plate, rack
or chassis. In order to avoid any damage during mounting the module is
required to choose properly the attachment screws. Fasteners can be M1.6 or
M1.8 screws plus suitable washers, circuit board spacers, or customized
screws, clamps, or brackets. Screws must be inserted with the screw head on
the bottom of the XF55-AVL PCB. If the bottom of XF55-AVL faces the
holding device, only use the ground pads for the connection. To avoid short
circuits ensure that the remaining sections of the XF55-AVL PCB do not come
into contact with the host device since there are a number of test points. The
largest ground pad in the middle of the board can also be used to attach cooling
elements, e.g. a heat sink or thermally conductive tape.
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
Figure 42:View of the mounting holes
Figure below shows the bottom view of XF55-AVL and marks the test points
and pads for GSM antenna connection. See also chapter 11.4
Figure 43: XF55-AVL bottom view
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
7 Electrical, reliability and radio characteristics
7.1 Absolute maximum ratings
Absolute maximum ratings for supply voltage and voltages on digital and
analog pins of XF55-AVL are listed in table 24. Exceeding these values will
cause permanent damage to XF55-AVL .
Parameter
Voltage GSM_BATT+
Voltage at digital pins
Voltage at analog pins
Voltage at digital/analog pins in POWER DOWN
mode
Voltage at GSM_POWER pin
Voltage at GSM_CHARGE pin
Differential load resistance between EPNx and
EPPx
Min
-0.3
-0.3
-0.3
-0.25
Max
4.8
3.3
3.0
+0.25
V
-15
-15
Unit
V
V
V
Max
3.64
25
Unit
V
mA
Max
50
Unit
°C
-25 to 20
55 to
70
°C
-29°C
-18°C
0°C
>70**)
>60
+45
°C
15
V
V
Ω
Table 24: Absolute maximum ratings (GSM/GPRS part)
Parameter
Voltage at GPS_VCC
Current at GPS_VCC_RF
Min
3.14
Table 25: Absolute maximum rating (GPS part)
7.2 Operating temperatures
Parameter
Ambient temperature (according to GSM
11.10)
Restricted operation *)
Automatic shutdown
XF55-AVL board temperature
Battery temperature
Charging
temperature
(software
controlled fast charging)
Min
-20
Typ
25
°C
Table 26: Operating temperature
*) XF55-AVL works, but deviations from the GSM specification may occur.
**) Consider the ratio of output power, supply voltage and operating temperature: To
achieve Tamb max = 70 °C and, for example, GSM 900 PCL5 the supply voltage must
not be higher than 4.0 V.
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
7.3 Electrical characteristics of the voice band part
7.3.1
Setting audio parameters by AT commands
The audio modes 2 to 6 can be adjusted according to the parameters listed
below. Each audio mode is assigned a separate set of parameters.
Parameter
inBbcGain
inCalibrate
Influence to
MICP/MICN analogue
amplifier gain of base
band controller before
ADC
Range
Gain range
Calculation
0...7
0...42 dB
6d B steps
digital attenuation of input
signal after ADC
0...327
67
-∞...0 dB
20 * log
(inCalibrate/
32768)
0...3
0...-18 dB
6 dB steps
-∞...+6 dB
20 * log (2 *
outCalibrate[
n]/
32768)
-∞...0dB
20 * log
(sideTone/
32768)
EPP/EPN analog output
gain of base band
controller after DAC
digital attenuation of
output signal after speech
outCalibrate[n] decoder, before
n = 0...4
summation of sidetone and
DAC present for each
volume step [n]
digital attenuation of
sidetone is corrected
internally by outBbcGain
sideTone
to obtain a constant
sidetone independent of
output volume
outBbcGain
0...327
67
0...327
67
Table 27: Setting audio parameters by AT commands
Note: The parameters <inCalibrate>, <outCalibrate> and <sideTone> accept
also values from 32768 to 65535. These values are internally truncated
to 32767.
7.3.2
Audio programming model
The audio programming model shows how the signal path can be influenced by
varying the AT command parameters. The model is the same for all three
interfaces, except for the parameters <outBbcGain> and <inBbcGain> which
cannot be modified if the digital audio interface is being used, since in this case
the DAC is switched off.
The parameters inBbcGain and inCalibrate can be set with AT^SNFI. All the
other parameters are adjusted with AT^SNFO.
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
Figure 44: AT audio programming model
7.3.3
Characteristics of audio modes
The electrical characteristics of the voice band part depend on the current audio
mode set with the AT^SNFS command.
Audio mode no.
1 (Default
settings, not
adjustable)
Default
Handset
Fix
4 (24 dB)
1 (-6 dB)
2
3
4
5
6
Basic
Handsfree
Adjustable
2 (12 dB)
1 (-6 dB)
Headset
Adjustable
5 (30 dB)
2 (-12 dB)
User
Handset
Adjustable
4 (24 dB)
1 (-6 dB)
1
2
2
1
Plain
Codec 1
Adjustabl
e
0 (0 dB)
0 (0 dB)
1
Plain
Codec 2
Adjustabl
e
0 (0 dB)
0 (0 dB)
24)
ON(2.65 V)
ON(2.65 V)
ON(2.65 V)
ON(2.65 V)
OFF(GND)
OFF(GND)
ON
---
Adjustable
Adjustable
Volume control
OFF
Adjustable
Adjustable
Adjustable
Limiter (receive)
Compressor
(receive)
AGC (send)
Echo control (send)
ON
---
ON
OFF1)
ON
---
ON
---
Adjustabl
e
Adjustabl
e
-----
Adjustabl
e
Adjustabl
e
-----
--Suppression
ON
---
--Suppression
-----
-----
Noise suppression2)
MIC input signal for
--23 mV
--Cancellatio
n+
suppression
up to 10dB
58 mV
10dB
7.5 mV @
--23 mV
--315 mV
--315 mV
AT^SNFS=
Name
Gain setting via AT
command. Defaults:
inBbcGain
outBbcGain
Default audio
interface
Power supply
Sidetone
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Page 86
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
0dBm0 @ 1024 Hz
(default gain)
EP output signal in
mV rms. @ 0dBm0,
1024 Hz, no load
(default gain); @ 3.14
dBm0
Side tone gain at
default settings
284 mV
120 mV
default @
max volume
22.8 dB
-∞ dB
VERSION 0.01
-3dBm0 due
to AGC
300 mV
default @
max volume
Affected by
AGC, 13 dB
@ 7.5 mV
(MIC)
284 mV
default @
max volume
895 mV
3.7 Vpp
895 mV
3.7 Vpp
22.8 dB
-2.5 dB @
sideTone
= 81923)
-2.5 dB @
sideTone
= 81923)
Table 28: Voice-band characteristics (typical)
1)
Adaptive, receive volume increases with higher ambient noise level. The
compressor can be activated by loading an application specific audio
parameter set (see [10]).
2)
In audio modes with noise reduction, the microphone input signal for
0dBm0 shall be measured with a sine burst signal for a tone duration of 5
seconds and a pause of 2 sec. The sine signal appears as noise and, after
approx. 12 sec, is attenuated by the noise reduction by up to 10 dB.
3)
See AT^SNFO command in [4].
4)
Audio mode 5 and 6 are identical. With AT^SAIC, you can easily switch
mode 5 to the second interface.
Note: With regard to acoustic shock, the cellular application must be designed
to avoid sending false AT commands that might increase amplification,
e.g. for a high sensitive earpiece. A protection circuit should be
implemented in the cellular application.
7.3.4
Voice band receive path
Test conditions:
The values specified below were tested to 1 kHz and 0 dB gain stage,
unless otherwise stated.
Parameter setup: gs = 0 dB means audio mode = 5 for GSM_EPP1 to
GSM_EPN1 and 6 for GSM_EPP2 to GSM_EPN2, inBbcGain= 0,
inCalibrate = 32767, outBbcGain = 0, OutCalibrate = 16384, sideTone =
0.
Parameter
Differential output voltage
(peak to peak)
Differential output gain
settings (gs) at 6 dB stages
(outBbcGain)
Fine scaling by DSP
(outCalibrate)
Output differential DC offset
Differential output resistance
Differential load capacitance
Absolute gain accuracy
Min
3.33
Max
4.07
Unit
V
-18
0
dB
Test condition / remark
from GSM_EPPx to GSM_EPNx gs
= 0 dB @ 3.14 dBm0 no load
Set with AT^SNFO
-∞
0
dB
Set with AT^SNFO
100
1000
0.8
mV
Ω
pF
dB
1
dB
gs = 0dB, outBbcGain = 0 and –6 dB
from GSM_EPPx to GSM_EPNx
from GSM_EPPx to GSM_EPNx
Variation due to change in
temperature and life time
for 300...3900Hz, @ GSM_EPPx/
GSM_EPNx (333Hz) / @
GSM_EPPx/ GSM_EPNx (3.66kHz)
for f > 4kHz with in-band test
[email protected] 1 kHz and 1 kHz RBW
2
Attenuation distortion
Out-of-band discrimination
Typ
3.7
60
dB
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
Table 29: Voice band receive path
__________________
gs = gain setting
7.3.5
Voice band transmit path
Test conditions:
The values specified below were tested to 1 kHz and 0 dB gain stage,
unless otherwise stated.
Parameter setup: Audio mode = 5 for GSM_MICP1 to GSM_MICN1 and
6 for GSM_MICP2 to GSM_MICN2, inBbcGain= 0, inCalibrate =
32767, outBbcGain = 0, OutCalibrate = 16384, sideTone = 0
Parameter
Input voltage (peak to peak)
GSM_MICP1 to GSM_MICN1,
GSM_MICP2 to GSM_MICN2
Input amplifier gain in 6 dB
steps (inBbcGain)
Fine scaling by DSP
(inCalibrate)
Input impedance GSM_MIC1
Input impedance GSM_MIC2
Microphone supply voltage ON
Ri = 4 kΩ (GSM_MIC2 only)
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
1.03
V
0
42
dB
Set with AT^SNFI
-∞
0
dB
Set with AT^SNFI
50
2.0
2.57
2.17
1.77
Microphone supply voltage
OFF; Ri = 4 kΩ (GSM_MIC2
only)
Microphone supply in POWER
DOWN mode
2.65
2.25
1.85
0
Test
condition/remark
kΩ
kΩ
2.73
2.33
1.93
V
V
V
V
no supply current
@ 100 µA
@ 200 µA
See figure 20
Table 30: Voice band transmit path
7.4 Air interface of the XF55-AVL GSM/GPRS part
Test conditions:
All measurements have been performed at Tamb= 25 °C, VGSM_BATT+ nom =
4.1 V. The reference points used on XF55-AVL are the GSM_BATT+ and
GND contacts (test points are shown in figure 52).
Parameter
Frequency range
Uplink (MS → BTS)
Frequency range
Downlink (BTS → MS)
E-GSM
900
GSM 900
GSM
1800
E-GSM
1900
GSM
1800
Min
880
Typ
Max
915
Unit
MHz
1710
1850
1785
1910
MHz
MHz
925
960
MHz
1805
1880
MHz
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Page 88
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
RF power @ ARP with
50 Ω load
Duplex spacing
Carrier spacing
Multiplex, Duplex
Time slots per TDMA frame
Frame duration
Time slot duration
Modulation
Receiver input sensitivity
@ ARP
BER Class II < 2.4 %
GSM
1900
E-GSM
900
GSM
1800
GSM
1900
E-GSM
900
GSM
1800
GSM
1900
E-GSM
900
GSM
1800
GSM
1900
E-GSM
900
GSM
1800
GSM
1900
VERSION 0.01
1930
1990
MHz
31
33
35
dBm
28
30
32
dBm
28
30
32
dBm
174
374
299
dBm
45
MHz
95
MHz
80
MHz
200
TDMA/FTDMA, FDD
8
4.615
577
GMSK
-102
-107
kHz
-102
-106
dBm
-102
-106
dBm
ms
µs
dBm
Table 31: Air Interface
7.5 Electrostatic discharge
The GSM engine is not protected against Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) in
general. Consequently, it is subject to ESD handling precautions that typically
apply to ESD sensitive components. Proper ESD handling and packaging
procedures must be applied throughout the processing, handling and operation
of any application that incorporates a XF55-AVL module.
Special ESD protection provided on XF55-AVL:
Antenna interface: one spark discharge line (spark gap)
SIM interface: clamp diodes for protection against over voltage.
The remaining ports of XF55-AVL are not accessible to the user of the final
product (since they are installed within the device) and therefore, are only
protected according to the “Human Body Model” requirements.
XF55-AVL has been tested according to the EN 61000-4-2 standard. The
measured values can be gathered from the following table.
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Page 89
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
Specification/Requirements
Contact discharge
ETSI EN 301 489-7
ESD at SIM port (GSM)
± 4 kV
ESD at GSM antenna port
± 4 kV
Indirect ESD to GSM/GPRS part
± 4 kV
Indirect ESD to GPS part
± 4 kV
Human Body Model (Test conditions: 1.5 kΩ, 100 pF)
ESD at GPS antenna port
± 1 kV
ESD at all other ports
± 1 kV
VERSION 0.01
Air discharge
± 8 kV
± 8 kV
-
Please note that the values may vary with the individual application design. For example, it
matters whether or not the application platform is grounded over external devices like a
computer or other equipment, such as the Falcom reference application described in chapter 9.
Table 32: Measured electrostatic values
7.6 Reliability characteristics
The test conditions stated below are an extract of the complete test
specifications.
Type of test
Vibration
Shock half-sinus
Dry heat
Temperature
change (shock)
Damp heat cyclic
Cold (constant
exposure)
Conditions
Frequency range: 10-20 Hz; acceleration:
3.1 mm amplitude
Frequency range: 20-500 Hz; acceleration:
5g
Duration: 2h per axis = 10 cycles; 3 axes
Acceleration: 500 g
Shock duration: 1 msec
1 shock per axis
6 positions (± x, y and z)
Temperature: +70 ±2 °C
Test duration: 16 h
Humidity in the test chamber: < 50 %
Low temperature: -40 °C ±2 °C
High temperature: +85 °C ±2 °C
Changeover time: < 30 s (dual chamber
system)
Test duration: 1 h
Number of repetitions: 100
High temperature: +55 °C ±2 °C
Low temperature: +25 °C ±2 °C
Humidity: 93 % ±3 %
Number of repetitions: 6
Test duration: 12 h + 12 h
Temperature: -40 ±2°C
Test duration: 16 h
Standard
DIN IEC 68-2-6
DIN IEC 68-2-27
EN 60068-2-2 Bb
ETS 300019-2-7
DIN IEC 68-2-14
Na
ETS 300019-2-7
DIN IEC 68-2-30
Db
ETS 300019-2-5
DIN IEC 68-2-1
Table 33: Summary of reliability test conditions
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
8 Housing
Figure 45: Housing of the XF55-AVL
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
9 Reference equipment for test
The Falcom reference set-up to test XF55-AVL consists of the following
components:
Falcom XF55-AVL cellular engine
Evaluation Board
Flex cable (160 mm) from Hirose DF12C receptacle on XF55-AVL to
Hirose DF12 connector on Evaluation Board. Please note that this cable
is not included in the scope of delivery of Evaluation Board.
SIM card reader integrated on Evaluation Board
Handset
PC as MMI
Figure 46: Reference equipment for test
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
10 List of parts and accessories
Description
Supplier
Ordering information
XF55-AVL module
Falcom
Falcom ordering number: XF55-AVL
GSM/GPS combined
Falcom
antenna with FME and
SMA connectors (for
XF55-AVL module)
Falcom ordering number: FAL-ANT-2
GSM antenna (for
XF55-AVL module)
Falcom ordering number: ANT-001
Falcom
GPS antenna (for XF55- Falcom
AVL module)
Falcom ordering number: FAL-ANT-3 or FAL-ANT-4
GSM antenna cable
Falcom
(U.FL FME) (for XF55AVL module)
Falcom ordering number: KA17
GPS antenna cable
Falcom
(U.FL SMA) (for XF55AVL module)
Falcom ordering number: KA16
XF55-AVL Evaluation
Kit
Votronic Handset
Falcom
Falcom ordering number: XF55-EVALKIT
VOTRONIC
Votronic HH-SI-30.3/V1.1/0
VOTRONIC Entwicklungs- und Produktionsgesellschaft
fur elektronische Geräte GmbH
Saarbrücker Str. 8
66386 St. Ingbert
Germany
Phone: +49-(0)6 89 4 / 92 55-0
Fax:
+49-(0)6 89 4 / 92 55-88
e-mail: [email protected]
SIM card holder incl.
Molex
push button ejector and
slide-in tray
DF12C board-to-board Hirose
connector
U.FL-R-SMT antenna
connector
Hirose
Ordering numbers: 91228 91236
Sales contacts are listed in Table 35.
See Appendix for details on receptacle on XF55-AVL and
mating headers.
Sales contacts are listed in Table 36.
See Appendix for details on U.FL-R-SMT
connector, mating plugs and cables.
Sales contacts are listed in Table 36.
Table 34: List of parts and accessories
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Page 93
XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
Molex
For further information
please click:
http://www.molex.com/
Molex China Distributors
Molex Singapore Pte. Ltd.
Beijing,
Room 1319, Tower B,
COFCO Plaza
No. 8, Jian Guo Men Nei
Street, 100005
Beijing
P.R. China
Phone: +86-10-6526-9628
Phone: +86-10-6526-9728
Phone: +86-10-6526-9731
Fax:
+86-10-6526-9730
Molex Deutschland GmbH
Felix-Wankel-Str. 11
4078 Heilbronn-Biberach
Germany
Phone: +49-7066-9555 0
Fax:
+49-7066-9555 29
Email: [email protected]
Molex Japan Co. Ltd.
Jurong, Singapore
Phone: +65-268-6868
Fax:
+65-265-6044
VERSION 0.01
American Headquarters
Lisle, Illinois 60532
U.S.A.
Phone: +1-800-78MOLEX
Fax:
+1-630-969-1352
Yamato, Kanagawa, Japan
Phone: +81-462-65-2324
Fax:
+81-462-65-2366
Table 35: Molex sales contacts (subject to change)
Hirose Ltd.
For further information
please clickU.S.A.
http://www.hirose.com
Fax:
+1-805-522-3217
Fax
+49-711-4560-729 Email [email protected]e
Hirose Electric UK, Ltd
Crownhill Business Centre
5-23, Osaki 5 Chome,
22 Vincent Avenue,
Crownhill
Milton Keynes, MK8 OAB
Japan
Great Britain
Phone:+44-1908-305400
Fax:
+81-03-3493-2933
Hirose Electric (U.S.A.) Inc
2688 Westhills Court
Simi Valley CA 93065
Kemnat4
Phone: +1-805-522-7958
Phone: +49-711-4560-021
Hirose Electric GmbH
Zeppelinstrasse 42
73760 Ostfildern
Germany
Hirose Electric Co., Ltd.
European Branch
Shinagawa-Ku
Tokyo 141
1119PV Schiphol-Rijk
Phone: +81-03-3491-9741
Phone: +31-20-6557-460
Hirose Electric Co., Ltd.
First class Building 4F
Beechavenue 46
Netherlands
Table 36: Hirose sales contacts (subject to change)
This confidential document is a property of FALCOM GmbH and may not be copied or circulated without previous permission.
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
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11 Appendix
11.1 80-pin board-to-board connector
This chapter provides specifications for the 80-pin board-to-board connector
which serves as physical interface to the host application. The receptacle
assembled on the XF55-AVL is type Hirose DF12C, Part number: DF12C(3.0)80DS-0.5V(81). Mating headers from Hirose are available in different stacking
heights:
Parts numbers of 80-pin headers by Hirose Ltd: DF12D(3.0)-80DP-0.5V(81)
DF12E(3.0)-80DP-0.5V(81)
Figure 47.a: Hirose DF12C receptacle on XF55-AVL Figure 47.b: Header Hirose DF12C
Figure below shows the mechanical dimensions of Hirose DF12C 80-pin board
to board receptacle on XF55-AVL.
Figure 48: Mechanical dimensions of Hirose DF12C 80-pin receptacle
Parameter
Number of contacts
Voltage
Rated current
Resistance
Dielectric withstanding
voltage
Specification (80 pin board-to-board connector)
80
50 V
0.3 A max per contact
0.05 Ohm per contact
500 V RMS min
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
Operating temperature
Contact material
Insulator material
Stacking height
Insertion force
Withdrawal force 1st
Withdrawal force 50th
Maximum connection cycles
VERSION 0.01
-45 °C...+125 °C
phosphor bronze (surface: gold plated)
PA, beige natural
3.0 mm
21.8 N
10 N
10 N
50
Table 37: Electrical and mechanical characteristics of the Hirose DF12C 80-pin
connector
11.2 50-pin board-to-board connector
This chapter provides specifications for the 50-pin board-to-board connector
which serves as physical interface to the host application. The receptacle
assembled on the XF55-AVL is type Hirose DF12C, Part number: DF12C(3.0)50DS-0.5V(81). Mating headers from Hirose are available in different stacking
heights.
Parts numbers of 50-pin headers by Hirose Ltd: DF12D(3.0)-80DP-0.5V(81)
DF12E(3.0)-80DP-0.5V(81)
Figure 49.a: Hirose DF12C receptacle on XF55-AVL Figure 49.b: Header Hirose DF12C
Figure below shows the mechanical dimensions of Hirose DF12C 50-pin board
to board receptacle on XF55-AVL.
Figure 50: Mechanical dimensions of Hirose DF12C 50-pin receptacle
This confidential document is a property of FALCOM GmbH and may not be copied or circulated without previous permission.
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
Parameter
Number of contacts
Voltage
Rated current
Resistance
Dielectric withstanding
voltage
Operating temperature
Contact material
Insulator material
Stacking height
Insertion force
Withdrawal force 1st
Withdrawal force 50th
Maximum connection cycles
VERSION 0.01
Specification (50 pin board-to-board connector)
50
50 V
0.3 A max per contact
0.05 Ohm per contact
500 V RMS min
-45 °C...+125 °C
phosphor bronze (surface: gold plated)
PA, beige natural
3.0 mm; 3.5 mm; 4.0 mm; 5.0 mm
21.8 N
10 N
10 N
50
Table 38: Electrical and mechanical characteristics of the Hirose DF12C 50-pin
connector
11.3 GSM and GPS antenna connectors
The XF55-AVL uses an ultra-miniature SMT antenna connector supplied from
Hirose Ltd.
Mating plugs and cables can be chosen from the Hirose U.FL series. Examples
are shown in figure below. For latest product information please contact your
Hirose dealer or visit the Hirose home page, for example
http://www.hirose.com.
Figure 51: Mechanical dimensions of U.FL-R-SMT connector with U.FL-LP-040 plug
Item
Nominal impedance
Rated frequency
Female contact holding force
Repetitive operation
Vibration
Shock
Humidity resistance
Specification
50 Ω
DC to 6 GHz
0.15 N min
Contact resistance:
Centre 25 mΩ
Outside 15 mΩ
No momentary disconnections of 1 µs;
No damage, cracks and looseness of parts
No momentary disconnections of 1 µs.
No damage, cracks and looseness of parts.
No damage, cracks and looseness of parts.
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
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Insulation resistance:
100 MΩ min. at high humidity
500 MΩ min when dry
No damage, cracks and looseness of parts.
Contact resistance:
Centre 25 mΩ
Outside 15 mΩ
No excessive corrosion
Temperature cycle
Salt spray test
Table 39: Electrical and mechanical characteristics of the Hirose U.FL-R-SMT
connector
11.4 GSM antenna pad
The antenna can be soldered to the pad, or attached via contact springs. To help
you ground the antenna, XF55-AVL comes with a grounding plane located
close to the antenna pad. The positions of both pads can be seen from figure
43.
When you decide to use the antenna pad take into account that the pad has not
been intended as antenna reference point (ARP) for the Falcom XF55-AVL
test. The antenna pad is provided only as an alternative option which can be
used, for example, if the recommended Hirose connection does not fit into your
antenna design.
To prevent damage to the module and to obtain long-term solder joint
properties you are advised to maintain the standards of good engineering
practice for soldering.
XF55-AVL material properties:
XF55-AVL PCB: FR4
Antenna pad: Gold plated pad
Suitable cable types:
For direct solder attachment, we suggest to use the following cable types:
RG316/U 50 Ohm coaxial cable
1671A 50 Ohm coaxial cable
11.5 Firmware Interface
The table below shows supported SiRF firmware versions into the XF55-AVL
device.
Device Name
XF55-AVL
Supported SiRF internal firmware version
2.20
2.32
SiRFXTrac2
eCos SDK
X
X
X
X
Table 40: Supported SiRF firmware on the XF55-AVL integrated GPS receiver.
11.5.1 XTrac firmware description
The XF55-AVL using SiRFXTrac2 software offers high position accuracy and
fast Time-To-First-Fix (TTFF) than is currently possible with other
autonomous GPS solution. This means that the XF55-AVL will continue to
determinate its positions or obtain an initial fix in places where previously not
possible. When the GPS receiver loaded with SiRFXTrac2 is initially turned
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XF55-AVL HARDWARE DESCRIPTION
VERSION 0.01
on, it begins to determinate its current positions, velocity and time which will
be calculated from tracking the GPS signals an extremely small level by
16 dBHz. While trying to calculate a position fix, the receiver needs to be
locked-on to at least four satellites. Your position can be extremely quick fixed
within 4 seconds instead of within 8 seconds using other GPS software from a
"hot-start" state, and within 45 seconds from a "cold-start" state.
As a general note, the SiRFdemo v3.61 supports the additional functionality
and configuration of SiRFXTrac2.
This software is now available on the FALCOM’s Website for free download:
www.falcom.de/downloads/manual/SiRF/SiRFdemo3.61.zip
11.5.1.1 SiRFXTrac2 firmware default settings
The XF55-AVL which use the SiRFXTrac2 firmware version has following
settings on GPS serial interfaces (GPS_SD1):
GPS_SDI1/GPS_SDO1 (first serial port):
NMEA 38400 baud, Msg.: GLL, GGA, RMC, VTG, GSV, GSA
8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit
GPS_SDI2/GPS_SDO2 (second serial port):
RTCM, 38400 baud
11.5.1.2 Advanced Power Management (AMP)
APM is a software-based power management solution that provides the ability
to decrease the overall power consumption of the receiver. Fundamentally, the
receiver will power down all unnecessary systems and then power up long
enough to obtain a fix and then power down again. The on and off times are
dependant on the chosen operating modes – either time-between-fix priority, or
duty cycle priority, and the operating environment. The AMP is available on
the GPS receiver with SiRFXTrac2 software, only.
This confidential document is a property of FALCOM GmbH and may not be copied or circulated without previous permission.
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