TimesTen Installation Guide
Oracle® TimesTen In-Memory Database
Installation Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2.2)
E21632-17
October 2015
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide, 11g Release 2 (11.2.2)
E21632-17
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Contents
Preface ................................................................................................................................................................. ix
Related documents......................................................................................................................................
Conventions .................................................................................................................................................
Documentation Accessibility .....................................................................................................................
ix
ix
x
What's New ........................................................................................................................................................ xi
New features in Release 11.2.2.3.0 ............................................................................................................
New features in Release 11.2.2.1.0 ............................................................................................................
xi
xi
1 TimesTen Installation
Installation instances ............................................................................................................................... 1-2
Instance naming ................................................................................................................................. 1-2
Instance port numbers....................................................................................................................... 1-2
Choosing the appropriate TimesTen components............................................................................. 1-2
Components available on UNIX ...................................................................................................... 1-3
Components available on Windows ............................................................................................... 1-3
Installation prerequisites........................................................................................................................ 1-4
General UNIX requirements............................................................................................................. 1-4
Veritas file system options......................................................................................................... 1-5
Semaphores (general UNIX)...................................................................................................... 1-5
Java................................................................................................................................................ 1-5
AIX prerequisites................................................................................................................................ 1-5
Large pages (AIX) ....................................................................................................................... 1-5
HP-UX prerequisites.......................................................................................................................... 1-6
Semaphores (HP-UX) ................................................................................................................. 1-6
Shared memory (HP-UX)........................................................................................................... 1-6
Large databases (HP-UX)........................................................................................................... 1-6
Replication (HP-UX)................................................................................................................... 1-7
Linux prerequisites ............................................................................................................................ 1-7
Shared memory (Linux) ............................................................................................................. 1-7
Large pages (Linux) .................................................................................................................... 1-8
Semaphores (Linux)................................................................................................................. 1-10
IPC Client/Server (Linux) ...................................................................................................... 1-11
Required library packages (Monta Vista)............................................................................. 1-11
Solaris prerequisites........................................................................................................................ 1-11
iii
File system options ..................................................................................................................
Create a project (Solaris) .........................................................................................................
Windows requirements ..................................................................................................................
Large pages: grant lock pages in memory (Windows).......................................................
Additional Windows requirements ......................................................................................
Default installation directories...........................................................................................................
Considerations for locations of database files and other user files ............................................
Pre-Install requirements for operating system group and file permissions..............................
TimesTen instance administrators and users groups ................................................................
Directory and file permissions ......................................................................................................
Permissions and instance registry prerequisites for TimesTen.........................................
Creating UNIX TimesTen instance administrators and users groups ....................................
Create the TimesTen users group..........................................................................................
Create the TimesTen instance registry and instance administrators group....................
Installing TimesTen on UNIX systems .............................................................................................
Installing TimesTen.........................................................................................................................
Informational messages on UNIX systems..................................................................................
Changing the daemon port number on UNIX............................................................................
Uninstalling TimesTen on UNIX systems ...................................................................................
Installing TimesTen on Windows systems ......................................................................................
Installing TimesTen.........................................................................................................................
Installing TimesTen in silent mode ..............................................................................................
Verifying installation ......................................................................................................................
Verifying TimesTen Client and Server installation....................................................................
Informational messages on Windows systems...........................................................................
Uninstalling TimesTen on Windows systems.............................................................................
Installing TimesTen Client on Mac OS X systems .........................................................................
Installing TimesTen Client.............................................................................................................
Uninstalling TimesTen Client on Mac OS X systems ................................................................
Installing TimesTen on Exalogic systems ........................................................................................
Installing Oracle Clusterware for use with TimesTen ...............................................................
ODBC installation.................................................................................................................................
Environment variables .........................................................................................................................
Setting environment variables for TimesTen ..............................................................................
Environment variable descriptions ..............................................................................................
PATH environment variable ..................................................................................................
ODBCINI environment variable............................................................................................
SYSODBCINI environment variable .....................................................................................
SYSTTCONNECTINI environment variable .......................................................................
TNS_ADMIN environment variable.....................................................................................
Shared library path environment variable ...........................................................................
Java environment variables ....................................................................................................
TimesTen Quick Start ..........................................................................................................................
Documentation installation.................................................................................................................
Installation problems ...........................................................................................................................
iv
1-11
1-11
1-13
1-13
1-14
1-14
1-14
1-15
1-15
1-15
1-16
1-16
1-16
1-17
1-18
1-18
1-22
1-22
1-22
1-23
1-23
1-26
1-26
1-27
1-28
1-28
1-29
1-29
1-31
1-31
1-32
1-33
1-33
1-35
1-35
1-35
1-36
1-36
1-36
1-36
1-37
1-37
1-39
1-40
1-40
2 Migration, Backup, and Restoration
Overview: copying, migrating, and restoring a database................................................................. 2-1
Backing up and restoring a database.................................................................................................... 2-3
TimesTen backup features ................................................................................................................ 2-3
Types of backup provided ................................................................................................................ 2-4
Migrating a database ............................................................................................................................... 2-5
Moving a database to a different computer (same platform) ...................................................... 2-5
Moving a database to a different platform..................................................................................... 2-6
Altering a database................................................................................................................................... 2-7
Moving a database to a different directory .................................................................................... 2-7
Reducing database size ..................................................................................................................... 2-8
Globalization support during migration............................................................................................. 2-8
Object migration and character sets ................................................................................................ 2-9
Migration and length semantics ................................................................................................... 2-10
Migrating linguistic indexes .......................................................................................................... 2-10
Migrating cache group tables ........................................................................................................ 2-10
3 TimesTen Upgrades
Preliminary considerations .................................................................................................................... 3-1
Data type considerations................................................................................................................... 3-1
Data type compatibility.............................................................................................................. 3-2
Data type considerations when upgrading from a TimesTen release before 7.0 .............. 3-2
Database character set considerations............................................................................................. 3-3
Database character set specification......................................................................................... 3-3
Character set restrictions when upgrading from a TimesTen release before 7.0 .............. 3-4
Database character set conversion............................................................................................ 3-4
Location of existing database files ................................................................................................... 3-5
Access control when upgrading from releases prior to 11.2.1..................................................... 3-6
Replication considerations................................................................................................................ 3-6
Upgrade modes ......................................................................................................................................... 3-6
In-place upgrades............................................................................................................................... 3-7
Offline upgrades................................................................................................................................. 3-7
Online upgrades with replication.................................................................................................... 3-8
Online upgrades with Client/Server .............................................................................................. 3-8
Performing an in-place upgrade............................................................................................................ 3-9
Unloading a database from memory............................................................................................... 3-9
Performing the upgrade................................................................................................................. 3-10
Reloading a database into memory .............................................................................................. 3-11
Performing an offline upgrade ........................................................................................................... 3-11
Moving to a different major release of TimesTen....................................................................... 3-12
Moving to a different minor or patch release of TimesTen (offline upgrade) ....................... 3-13
Performing an online upgrade with replication ............................................................................. 3-14
Procedural overview....................................................................................................................... 3-14
Limitations ....................................................................................................................................... 3-15
Requirements ................................................................................................................................... 3-15
Upgrade steps .................................................................................................................................. 3-16
v
Online upgrade example................................................................................................................
Performing an upgrade with active standby pair replication.......................................................
Online upgrades for an active standby pair with no cache groups.........................................
Online minor upgrade for standby master and subscriber ...............................................
Online minor upgrade for active master ..............................................................................
Online major upgrade for active standby pair ....................................................................
Online upgrades for an active standby pair with cache groups ..............................................
Online minor upgrade for standby master and subscriber (cache groups) ....................
Online minor upgrade for active master (cache groups) ...................................................
Online major upgrade for active standby pair (read-only cache groups) .......................
Offline upgrades for an active standby pair with cache groups ..............................................
Offline major upgrade for active standby pair (cache groups) .........................................
Performing an offline TimesTen upgrade when using Oracle Clusterware.............................
Performing an online TimesTen upgrade when using Oracle Clusterware..............................
Supported configurations ..............................................................................................................
Restrictions and assumptions........................................................................................................
Upgrade tasks for one active standby pair..................................................................................
Verify that the active standby pair is operating properly..................................................
Shut down the standby database...........................................................................................
Perform an in-place upgrade for the standby database .....................................................
Start the standby database......................................................................................................
Switch the roles of the active and standby databases.........................................................
Shut down the new standby database ..................................................................................
Perform an in-place upgrade of the new standby database ..............................................
Start the new standby database .............................................................................................
Upgrades for multiple active standby pairs on many pairs of hosts.......................................
Upgrades for multiple active standby pairs on a pair of hosts ................................................
Sample configuration files: multiple active standby pairs on one pair of hosts.............
Sample scripts: stopping and starting multiple standby processes on one host ............
Sample in-place upgrade ...............................................................................................................
Upgrades when using parallel replication .......................................................................................
Considerations regarding parallel replication ............................................................................
Scenarios that require an offline upgrade ...................................................................................
Record of upgrades with replication configured ............................................................................
Performing a Client/Server online upgrade.....................................................................................
Client/Server online upgrade .......................................................................................................
Client/Server online upgrade with continuous access to the database..................................
3-17
3-20
3-20
3-21
3-21
3-22
3-25
3-25
3-25
3-26
3-31
3-31
3-34
3-35
3-36
3-36
3-37
3-37
3-38
3-39
3-39
3-39
3-39
3-40
3-40
3-40
3-40
3-41
3-43
3-43
3-47
3-47
3-48
3-48
3-48
3-49
3-49
A Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database License Information
Licensing Options ...................................................................................................................................
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database .........................................................................................
Oracle TimesTen Application-Tier Database Cache ....................................................................
Oracle TimesTen Application-Tier Database Cache for Oracle Applications..........................
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database for Exalytics ..................................................................
Oracle TimesTen Product Components ..............................................................................................
TimesTen Base Functionality...........................................................................................................
TimesTen In-Memory Analytics .....................................................................................................
vi
A-1
A-1
A-1
A-1
A-2
A-2
A-2
A-2
TimesTen Replication ....................................................................................................................... A-2
TimesTen Caching from Oracle Database ..................................................................................... A-2
Index
vii
viii
Preface
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database (TimesTen) is a relational database that is
memory-optimized for fast response and throughput. The database resides entirely in
memory at runtime and is persisted to disk storage for the ability to recover and
restart. Replication features allow high availability. TimesTen supports standard
application interfaces JDBC, ODBC, and ODP.NET, in addition to Oracle interfaces
PL/SQL, OCI, and Pro*C/C++. TimesTen is available separately or as a cache for
Oracle Database.
For the latest release notes in your TimesTen distribution, refer to the readme.html file
in the installation directory. (The version in the documentation library may not be as
current.)
Related documents
TimesTen documentation is available on the product distribution media and on the
Oracle Technology Network:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/database-technologies/timesten/documentation/index.html
Conventions
TimesTen supports multiple platforms. Unless otherwise indicated, the information in
this guide applies to all supported platforms. The term Windows applies to all
supported Windows platforms. The term UNIX applies to all supported UNIX and
Linux platforms. Refer to the "Platforms" section in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory
Database Release Notes for specific platform versions supported by TimesTen.
In TimesTen documentation, the terms "data store" and
"database" are equivalent. Both terms refer to the TimesTen database.
Note:
This document uses the following text conventions:
Convention
Meaning
italic
Italic type indicates terms defined in text, book titles, or emphasis.
monospace
Monospace type indicates code, commands, URLs, function names,
attribute names, directory names, file names, text that appears on the
screen, or text that you enter.
ix
Convention
Meaning
italic monospace
Italic monospace type indicates a placeholder or a variable in a code
example for which you specify or use a particular value. For example:
Driver=install_dir/lib/libtten.sl
Replace install_dir with the path of your TimesTen installation
directory.
[]
Square brackets indicate that an item in a command line is optional.
{}
Curly braces indicated that you must choose one of the items separated
by a vertical bar ( | ) in a command line.
|
A vertical bar (or pipe) separates alternative arguments.
...
An ellipsis (. . .) after an argument indicates that you may use multiple
arguments on a single command line. An ellipsis in a code example
indicates that what is shown is only a partial example.
%
The percent sign indicates the UNIX shell prompt.
In addition, TimesTen documentation uses the following special conventions:
Convention
Meaning
install_dir
The path that represents the directory where TimesTen is installed.
TTinstance
The instance name for your specific installation of TimesTen. Each
installation of TimesTen must be identified at installation time with a
unique instance name. This name appears in the installation path.
bits or bb
Two digits, either 32 or 64, that represent either a 32-bit or 64-bit
operating system.
release or rr
The first three parts in a release number with or without dots. The first
three parts of a release number represent a major TimesTen release. For
example, 1122 or 11.2.2 represents TimesTen 11g Release 2 (11.2.2).
jdk_ver
One or two digits that represent the version number of a major JDK
release. For example, 14 is for JDK 1.4 and 5 is for JDK 5.0.
DSN
TimesTen data source name (for the TimesTen database).
Documentation Accessibility
For information about Oracle's commitment to accessibility, visit the Oracle
Accessibility Program website at
http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=docacc.
Access to Oracle Support
Oracle customers that have purchased support have access to electronic support
through My Oracle Support. For information, visit
http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=info or visit
http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=trs if you are hearing
impaired.
x
What's New
This section summarizes the new features of Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database
release 11.2.2 that are documented in this guide and provides links to more
information.
New features in Release 11.2.2.3.0
Windows 7 support
Windows 7 is certified for use with TimesTen. As of this release of the documentation,
where features or procedures differ from other Windows platforms, information
specific to Windows 7 has been added to this document.
Windows 32-bit client with 64-bit installer
Beginning with this release, the Windows 64-bit installer includes an option for a
32-bit client as well as a 64-bit client. You can install both (default), either, or neither.
See "Installing TimesTen" on page 1-23.
New features in Release 11.2.2.1.0
Exalogic Support
TimesTen is supported on Oracle Exalogic Elastic Cloud (Exalogic). The Exalogic
certification was performed using the TimesTen with a quarter-rack Exalogic release
1.0 server. For details on installing TimesTen on Exalogic, see "Installing TimesTen on
Exalogic systems" on page 1-31.
Migration
This guide includes a chapter on migrating TimesTen databases. In previous releases,
this information was found in the Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Operations
Guide. See Chapter 2, "Migration, Backup, and Restoration."
xi
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1
TimesTen Installation
1
This chapter contains configuration information that you should review before
installing TimesTen on your system, in the sections:
■
Installation instances
■
Choosing the appropriate TimesTen components
■
Installation prerequisites
■
Default installation directories
■
Considerations for locations of database files and other user files
■
Pre-Install requirements for operating system group and file permissions
You can find a description of the procedures to install, configure and uninstall
TimesTen:
■
Installing TimesTen on UNIX systems
■
Installing TimesTen on Windows systems
■
Installing TimesTen Client on Mac OS X systems
■
Installing TimesTen on Exalogic systems
This document does not discuss TimesTen installation on an
Exalytics system. Go to the following location for Exalytics
documentation:
Note:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/documentation/exalytics-do
c-1645656.html
This chapter also contains information to help you further configure TimesTen after
installation, work with the demo applications, migrate databases to this release, and
view the TimesTen documentation:
■
ODBC installation
■
Environment variables
■
TimesTen Quick Start
■
Documentation installation
This chapter contains information that helps you troubleshoot problems that may arise
during the installation process and a link to licensing information:
■
Installation problems
TimesTen Installation 1-1
Installation instances
Installation instances
On UNIX, you can install multiple instances of TimesTen, where an instance is
essentially the collection of files and processes related to a TimesTen installation. On
Windows, you can install only one instance of any major TimesTen release, where a
major release is indicated by the first three parts of the release number, such as 11.2.2.
For example, you can install both 11.2.1.9.0 and 11.2.2.5.0 on the same Windows
computer, but you cannot install both 11.2.2.0.0 and 11.2.2.5.0.
The TimesTen product can be installed onto local, private disk storage, such that each
computer has a private copy of the entire TimesTen installation. Installing a single
copy of the TimesTen software onto a shared storage location and then sharing this
copy among several computers will not work.
The following sections provide more information about the TimesTen installation
instance:
■
Instance naming
■
Instance port numbers
Instance naming
The instance name is the key used to access all necessary information about an
installation of TimesTen.
On UNIX systems, by default, the instance name for this release is tt1122_32 on 32-bit
installations and tt1122_64 on 64-bit installations. The instance name is
case-insensitive, at least one alphanumeric character and up to 255 characters. The
name can include underscores (_) or periods (.), but no other special characters.
To install a second instance of the same TimesTen release on UNIX, you must supply a
unique instance name and port number. The TimesTen installer can detect if an
instance of the particular release of TimesTen exists on the system and prompts you
for a new instance name and port number for the main TimesTen daemon.
The instance name on Windows is tt1122_32 on 32-bit installations and tt1122_64 on
64-bit installations. Only one instance of any major TimesTen release (such as 11.2.2)
can exist on a Windows system.
Instance port numbers
When you install multiple instances of TimesTen on the same computer, specify a
unique TCP/IP port number for each TimesTen daemon and each TimesTen server
during the installation.
If you will be using replication, however, be aware that if the
daemon ports are different for TimesTen databases that replicate to
each other, you must use static ports for replication and you must use
the ttRepAdmin utility -remoteDaemonPort option for duplicate
operations. You can use the ttVersion utility to verify the port
number of your installation of TimesTen.
Note:
Choosing the appropriate TimesTen components
The TimesTen installer enables you to select the components of TimesTen that you
want to install.
1-2 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Choosing the appropriate TimesTen components
■
Components available on UNIX
■
Components available on Windows
Components available on UNIX
On UNIX, you can install the following components. In addition, the installation script
prompts you to optionally install the TimesTen Quick Start sample programs, and the
TimesTen documentation (including Quick Start tutorial pages).
Type
Description
TimesTen Client
Installs the TimesTen Client only. No other TimesTen components are
installed. Use this installation to allow the TimesTen Client to access the
TimesTen Server from another installation.
TimesTen Data
Manager
Installs the TimesTen Data Manager only. Use this installation to run
the TimesTen Data Manager locally.
TimesTen Client,
Server and Data
Manager
Installs the TimesTen Data Manager, Client, and Server. Use this
installation to perform the following:
■
■
■
Allow a Client from another installation to access the TimesTen
Server.
Allow the TimesTen Client to access either this TimesTen Server
installation or another TimesTen Server installation.
Allow applications to access the TimesTen Data Manager locally.
If you have installed TimesTen and you would like to add or remove components, you
must run the installer and select the option "Upgrade an existing instance," and then
select the instance that you would like to change.
Components available on Windows
On Windows, you can specify the components to install by selecting or deselecting the
appropriate checkboxes during installation. By default, all components are installed
except the TimesTen Data Manager Debug Libraries.
Type
Description
TimesTen Data
Manager
Installs the TimesTen Data Manager. Use this installation to run the
TimesTen Data Manager locally.
TimesTen Data
Manager Debug
Libraries
Installs the TimesTen Data Manager debug libraries. Used particularly
during the development phase to allow you to debug problems that
may occur. By default, the debug libraries are not installed.
TimesTen Server
Installs the TimesTen Data Server and TimesTen Data Manager.
TimesTen Client
Installs the TimesTen Client, which you can use to access the TimesTen
Server on a remote computer.
Note: In the Windows 64-bit installer, there are options for the 64-bit
client and the 32-bit client. You can install both (default), either, or
neither.
TimesTen Quick Start Installs the TimesTen Quick Start sample programs.
TimesTen
Documentation
Installs the TimesTen Documentation Library and Quick Start tutorial
pages.
TimesTen Installation 1-3
Installation prerequisites
Installation prerequisites
Before installing TimesTen, ensure the appropriate requirements are met for your
operating system.
On both UNIX and Windows platforms where JDBC is supported you must have an
appropriate version of the JDK installed on your computer to use JDBC.
In addition, be aware that if you use automatic client failover, to accommodate a
firewall you must specify a UDP port or port range. (Also see "Configuring automatic
client failover" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Operations Guide.)
Do not install TimesTen as an operating system user
whose name matches any of the TimesTen predefined internal users:
GRID, PUBLIC, SYS, SYSTEM, or TTREP. If you install TimesTen as a user
with one of these names, attempts to create a database fail with a
unique constraint violation error.
Important:
This section also discusses the platform-specific prerequisites:
■
General UNIX requirements
■
AIX prerequisites
■
HP-UX prerequisites
■
Linux prerequisites
■
Solaris prerequisites
■
Windows requirements
General UNIX requirements
In general, on UNIX systems, you must configure the following:
■
The number of semaphores
■
Allowable shared memory
In addition, you may need to perform the following:
■
Ensure you have the latest operating system patches.
■
Configure your file system to allow large files.
■
Configure your Java environment.
■
Configure your Client/Server environment.
■
Configure network settings for replication.
The following sections outline some changes that may be required on any UNIX
system. In addition, some of these sections describe changes required for each specific
UNIX platform on which TimesTen is supported.
■
Veritas file system options
■
Semaphores (general UNIX)
■
Java
1-4 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Installation prerequisites
Veritas file system options
On the Veritas file system, if you plan to have TimesTen applications that use
DurableCommits=1, use the mincache=direct and convosync=direct options to ensure
durability.
Options that convert dsync into sync or fdatasync into sync or those that treat all
writes such that the file is opened with O_SYNC should be avoided.
On the Veritas file system you should also set the options discovered_direct_iosz
and max_direct_iosz to 3 MB.
The absence of these direct I/O settings could result in poor file system performance
for TimesTen operations.
To set these options, log in as root and use:
# /usr/sbin/vxtunefs -o discovered_direct_iosz=3145728
# /usr/sbin/vxtunefs -o max_direct_iosz=3145728
Semaphores (general UNIX)
TimesTen uses one semaphore set per active database.
In addition, where Client/Server is used with shared memory, there is one more
semaphore set for each ttcserver process used.
Each active database uses 155 semaphores plus one for each connection.
For platform-specific semaphore information, see "Semaphores (HP-UX)" on page 1-6,
"Semaphores (Linux)" on page 1-10, and "Create a project (Solaris)" on page 1-11. In
AIX, semaphores are configured dynamically by the kernel.
For related information about the TimesTen Connections attribute, which specifies the
maximum number of concurrent database connections, see "Connections" in Oracle
TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference.
Java
If you use JDBC, install the latest JDK and any vendor required patches. Refer to the
website of the JDK provider for the patches you may need.
To run 64-bit Java applications on all systems except AIX systems, if you are using the
64-bit JVM, you may need to pass the -d64 option on the java command line.
AIX prerequisites
This section covers AIX prerequisites:
■
Large pages (AIX)
Large pages (AIX)
On AIX systems with the required patch levels, TimesTen can use large pages. Using
large pages locks the shared segment into memory so it cannot be paged. Users must
have the CAP_BYPASS_RAC_VMM and CAP_PROPAGATE capabilities. The capabilities are
granted by a root user by editing the /etc/security/user file or for locally
authenticated users with:
# chuser capabilities=CAP_BYPASS_RAC_VMM,CAP_PROPAGATE user_id
The system default is to not have any memory allocated to the large page physical
memory pool. You can use the vmo command to configure the size of the large page
TimesTen Installation 1-5
Installation prerequisites
physical memory pool. The following example allocates 4 GB to the large page
physical memory pool.
# vmo -r -o lgpg_regions=256 -o lgpg_size=16777216
To use large pages for shared memory, you must enable the SHM_PIN shmget() system
call with the following command, which persists across system restarts:
# vmo -p -o v_pinshm=1
HP-UX prerequisites
On HP-UX, the following sections describe steps to perform before installation to
improve the performance of TimesTen:
■
Semaphores (HP-UX)
■
Shared memory (HP-UX)
■
Large databases (HP-UX)
■
Replication (HP-UX)
For HP-UX 11iv2, log in as root and use kctune to check or change kernel parameter
settings:
# /usr/sbin/kctune
Or, alternatively, you can use the HP System Administration Manager.
Semaphores (HP-UX)
On HP-UX systems, to connect to more than two databases simultaneously, you
typically must increase the value of the kernel parameter semmns. Use a value that
allows for the number of expected user connections plus 155, for each database. Refer
to "Semaphores (general UNIX)" on page 1-5 for related information.
For example, for two databases with 200 users each, use a setting of at least 2 x (200 +
155) = 710.
Shared memory (HP-UX)
On HP-UX systems, check the value of the parameter shmmax. HP-UX shared memory
must be configured so that the maximum size of a shared memory segment is large
enough to contain the TimesTen main shared memory segment. Calculate the size of
this segment as follows:
PermSize + TempSize + LogBufMB + 64 MB
These are TimesTen connection attributes that set the sizes of the TimesTen permanent
memory region, temporary memory region, and log buffer. (Refer to "Connection
Attributes" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference for information.) There is
also an allowance for 64 MB of overhead, including the database header.
Large databases (HP-UX)
On 64-bit HP-UX systems, if you expect to have databases that are larger than 2 GB,
you must enable large files. By default, HP-UX supports files that are no greater than 2
GB.
To enable large files, create the file systems using the newfs command with the -o
largefiles option or alter the file systems using the fsadm command with the -o
1-6 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Installation prerequisites
largefiles option. The following fsadm command alters the file system to enable
large files:
% /usr/sbin/fsadm -F fstype -o largefiles device_name
For example:
% /usr/sbin/fsadm -F hfs -o largefiles /dev/vg02/rlvol1
Replication (HP-UX)
For replication, TCP send and receive buffers should be increased to a minimum of 512
KB. You may need to embed the following commands into a script that can be run at
system boot time.
For HP-UX 11.23 (11iv2):
#
#
#
#
#
#
/usr/bin/ndd
/usr/bin/ndd
/usr/bin/ndd
/usr/bin/ndd
/usr/bin/ndd
/usr/bin/ndd
-set
-set
-set
-set
-set
-set
/dev/tcp
/dev/tcp
/dev/tcp
/dev/tcp
/dev/tcp
/dev/tcp
tcp_xmit_hiwater_lfp
tcp_recv_hiwater_lfp
tcp_xmit_hiwater_lnp
tcp_recv_hiwater_lnp
tcp_xmit_hiwater_max
tcp_recv_hiwater_max
524288
524288
524288
524288
524288
524288
Linux prerequisites
For Linux, TimesTen has been tested with releases of Oracle Linux, Asianux, Red Hat
Enterprise Linux, the MontaVista Linux Carrier Grade Edition, and SuSE LINUX
Enterprise Server. Consult Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Release Notes for details
about supported releases.
Because Oracle Database does not support MontaVista
Linux Carrier Grade Edition, there are significant restrictions to
TimesTen functionality on that platform. See Oracle TimesTen
In-Memory Database Release Notes for details.
Important:
The following sections describe steps to perform before installing TimesTen on Linux
systems:
■
Shared memory (Linux)
■
Large pages (Linux)
■
Semaphores (Linux)
■
IPC Client/Server (Linux)
■
Required library packages (Monta Vista)
Shared memory (Linux)
Linux shared memory must be configured so that the maximum size of a shared
memory segment is large enough to contain the TimesTen main shared memory
segment. Calculate the size of this segment as follows:
PermSize + TempSize + LogBufMB + 64 MB
These are TimesTen connection attributes that set the sizes of the TimesTen permanent
memory region, temporary memory region, and log buffer. (Refer to "Connection
Attributes" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference for information.) There is
also an allowance for 64 MB of overhead, including the database header.
TimesTen Installation 1-7
Installation prerequisites
To increase the maximum size of a shared memory segment, log in as root and edit
the /etc/sysctl.conf file to update the shmmax memory kernel parameter. This value
is in bytes. You may also need to increase the value of the shmall memory kernel
parameter, which sets the total size of shared memory segments systemwide. This
value is in pages, where the page size is typically 4 KB on Linux x86 and x8664
systems. As a minimum, where one memory segment is required, shmall should set a
size of at least shmmax/page_size (converting page_size to 4096 bytes).
Consider the following example, where the TimesTen database size (main shared
memory segment size) is 64 GB and no other shared memory segments are required.
kernel.shmmax=68719476736
kernel.shmall=16777216
(64 x 1024 x 1024 x 1024 = 68719476736 and 68719476736 / 4096 = 16777216.)
The preceding discussion and example do not consider the
PL/SQL shared memory segment in calculating the desired shmall
value. The size of the PL/SQL segment is determined by the PLSQL_
MEMORY_SIZE connection attribute and is 32 MB by default. Given this
relatively small size, there is usually enough unused overhead in the
main shared memory segment to allow the PL/SQL segment to fit
within the shmall systemwide limit when calculated as above.
Note:
To set these values without restarting the system:
% /sbin/sysctl -p
You can use the following command to view the values of max seg size and max
total shared memory:
% ipcs -lm
These values reflect the shmmax and shmall settings, respectively, but be aware that
both of these values are in KB.
Large pages (Linux)
It is advisable to configure large pages, referred to as HugePages in Linux, for more
efficient memory management if this is supported on your system. Use of HugePages
is required if the size of the TimesTen main shared memory segment is greater than
256 GB.
If there is support for HugePages, values shown by the following command will
include HugePages parameters such as HugePages_Total and HugePages_Free:
% cat /proc/meminfo
To configure HugePages, you must know or obtain the size of the TimesTen main
shared memory segment, the HugePages size on your system, and the group ID of the
user (typically the instance administrator) who is running the TimesTen main daemon
process:
■
■
See the preceding section, "Shared memory (Linux)" on page 1-7, for information
about the main shared memory segment.
HugePages size is typically 2 MB. Refer to Hugepagesize (expressed in KB) from
the meminfo output to confirm.
1-8 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Installation prerequisites
■
You can use the id -g command to obtain the group ID of the instance
administrator or other applicable user. For example, for the instance administrator
myadmin:
% id -g myadmin
Complete these steps to set up HugePages:
1.
The root user sets the following HugePages values in the /etc/sysctl.conf file:
■
vm.nr_hugepages: Number of HugePages required
Calculate this by dividing the TimesTen main shared memory segment size by
the HugePages size.
(Setting /proc/sys/vm/nr_hugepages is equivalent, but not persistent and
therefore not recommended.)
■
vm.hugetlb_shm_group: Group ID of the user
Consider an example where the TimesTen main shared memory segment size is 64
GB (65536 MB), the HugePages size is 2 MB, and the group ID of the instance
administrator is 900.
vm.nr_hugepages = 32768
vm.hugetlb_shm_group = 900
When you are done editing sysctl.conf, execute the following command to make
the changes dynamically and immediately. (Otherwise, edits to sysctl.conf do
not take effect until the system is restarted.)
% /sbin/sysctl -p
The preceding example would result in the following values from meminfo (2048
KB being equivalent to 2 MB):
HugePages_Total: 32768
HugePages_Free: 32768
Hugepagesize: 2048 kB
As TimesTen uses HugePages, the HugePages_Free value changes accordingly.
2.
The root user configures (or confirms) memlock entries in the
/etc/security/limits.conf file for the instance administrator or applicable user.
These entries, expressed in KB, control the amount of memory that the indicated
users can lock. Set both hard memlock and soft memlock. For a 64-GB main shared
memory segment and instance administrator myadmin:
myadmin soft
myadmin hard
memlock
memlock
67108864
67108864
(64 x 1024 x 1024 = 67108864.)
The user must log out and log in again for changes to take effect.
After installing TimesTen After you have installed TimesTen, enable HugePages in
TimesTen by setting -linuxLargePageAlignment Size_in_MB in the daemon options
file, install_dir/srv/info/ttendaemon.options. For a HugePages size of 2 MB:
-linuxLargePageAlignment 2
Run the ttStatus utility to confirm that TimesTen is using HugePages. The output
should include an entry such as the following.
TimesTen Installation 1-9
Installation prerequisites
Shared Memory KEY 0x1202031f ID 2457616 (LARGE PAGES, LOCKED)
If you change the HugePages configuration after installing and using TimesTen, you
must take the following steps for the new configuration to take effect:
1.
Unload the database from memory. See "Unloading a database from memory" on
page 3-9.
2.
Shut down the TimesTen daemon:
% ttDaemonAdmin -stop
Note:
3.
Or use ttDaemonAdmin -restart instead of -stop and -start.
Restart the daemon:
% ttDaemonAdmin -start
4.
Reload the database into memory. See "Reloading a database into memory" on
page 3-11.
Notes:
■
■
■
■
Because HugePages must be allocated in contiguous available
memory space, the requested allocation may not be granted, or
may be only partially granted, until after the system is restarted.
Check values from meminfo as shown above to confirm the
allocation. Restarting will grant you the full allocation, assuming
enough memory is available in the system.
If a TimesTen database less than or equal to 256 GB does not fit
into the available HugePages space, regular pages will be used
instead. If a database greater than 256 GB does not fit, there will
be an error.
The TimesTen PL/SQL shared memory segment typically uses
HugePages if the feature is configured and there is enough space
available, regardless of whether the database does. The PL/SQL
shared memory segment has a relatively small size, determined
by the PLSQL_MEMORY_SIZE connection attribute.
On Linux, the HugePages segment is automatically locked, so is
not a candidate to be swapped to disk. Therefore, no setting of the
TimesTen MemoryLock connection attribute is required.
Semaphores (Linux)
Also see "Semaphores (general UNIX)" on page 1-5.
On Linux, you can use the following formula as a guide for semaphores, although in
practice, SEMMNS can be much less than SEMMNI * SEMMSL.
SEMMNS = (SEMMNI * SEMMSL)
To view existing kernel parameter settings, log in as root and use:
# /sbin/sysctl -a
1-10 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Installation prerequisites
On Linux systems, the first parameter of kernel.sem must be a minimum of 128.
TimesTen uses 155 SEMMSL, plus one for each active connection. You must increase the
kernel parameter settings if you plan to use many connections.
For example, if you plan to use 200 connections, specify a kernel.sem setting such as
the following in the /etc/sysctl.conf file:
kernel.sem = 355 32000 100 128
(155 + 200 = 355.)
The first parameter, the maximum number of semaphores per array (SEMMSL), is the
most significant for this discussion. This value is related to the maximum number of
connections, with some allowance for TimesTen internal connections. The second
parameter is maximum semaphores systemwide (SEMMNS), the third parameter is
maximum operations per semop call (SEMOPM), and the fourth parameter is maximum
arrays (SEMNI).
Then restart the system or run the following command:
# /sbin/sysctl -p
IPC Client/Server (Linux)
On Linux systems, to enable a given number of ShmIpc Client/Server connections,
you must have an appropriate SEMMSL value in the kernel.sem setting in the
/etc/sysctl.conf file. For details, see the preceding section, "Semaphores (Linux)".
Then restart the system or run the following command.
# /sbin/sysctl -p
Required library packages (Monta Vista)
For TimesTen to work properly on MontaVista Linux, include the libaio and libelf
library packages.
Solaris prerequisites
On Solaris, before installation, the following sections enable you to improve the
performance of TimesTen on your system.
File system options
In addition to the file system options listed in the section "General UNIX
requirements" on page 1-4, on Solaris UFS file systems, if you plan to have TimesTen
applications that use DurableCommits=1, mount the file system with the
-forcedirectio option.
Create a project (Solaris)
For Solaris 10 and 11 systems, you must create a project to manage system resources,
such as shared memory, file descriptors and semaphores.
You can create a group project or a user project.
If you create a users group, the instance administrator must
run the newtask command each time the TimesTen daemons must be
restarted. If the TimesTen daemons start at system start time, add the
newtask command to the system startup scripts.
Note:
TimesTen Installation 1-11
Installation prerequisites
For example, to create a project timesten for the group g500, with 500 GB of shared
memory, 4096 semaphores and 65,535 file descriptors:
1.
Login as user root.
2.
Add the group project.
# projadd -G g500 timesten
3.
Modify the shared memory for the group to 500 GB.
# projmod -a -K "project.max-shm-memory=(priv,500GB,deny)" timesten
4.
Modify the maximum number of semaphores to 4096.
# projmod -a -K "process.max-sem-nsems=(priv,4096,deny)" timesten
For each active database, TimesTen consumes a minimum of
155 SEMMSL plus one SEMMSL for each connection. See related
discussion in "Semaphores (general UNIX)" on page 1-5 and
"Semaphores (Linux)" on page 1-10.
Note:
5.
Modify the maximum number of file descriptors to 65,535.
# projmod -a -K "process.max-file-descriptor=(priv,65535,deny)" timesten
6.
Run the newtask command before restarting the TimesTen daemons.
# newtask -p timesten -c $$
Or, for example, to create a user project for the user timesten, with 500 GB of shared
memory, 4096 semaphores and 65,535 file descriptors:
1.
Login as user root.
2.
Add the user project.
# projadd -U timesten user.timesten
3.
Modify the shared memory for the group to 500 GB.
# projmod -a -K "project.max-shm-memory=(priv,500GB,deny)" user.timesten
4.
Modify the maximum number of semaphores to 4096.
# projmod -a -K "process.max-sem-nsems=(priv,4096,deny)" user.timesten
For each active database, TimesTen consumes 155 SEMMSL, plus
one SEMMSL for each connection.
Note:
5.
Modify the maximum number of file descriptors to 65,535.
# projmod -a -K "process.max-file-descriptor=(priv,65535,deny)" user.timesten
Every user and every group are associated to a default project, which is the project
under which their processes are run. The project or process settings used by a user are
those that occur first in the /etc/project file. If you have not modified the project
file, the system default project settings occur first.
1-12 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Installation prerequisites
Note: Do not remove the default project settings from the project
file. Instead, place your project settings at the top of the project file
above the default settings.
For either the user project method or group project method, you can choose between
the following two options for associating your project settings with the specified user
or group.
■
■
Edit the /etc/project file to move the timesten project entry so that it precedes
the default entry.
Execute the following before restarting daemons. This is required if the project
was created with -G only.
# newtask -p timesten -c $$
Windows requirements
This section discusses Windows requirements:
■
Large pages: grant lock pages in memory (Windows)
■
Additional Windows requirements
Large pages: grant lock pages in memory (Windows)
To use large pages on Windows, you must grant SeLockMemoryPrivilege, the
privilege to lock pages in memory. On Windows 7, complete the following steps:
1.
Go to the Control Panel and choose Administrative Tools.
The Administrative Tools window opens.
2.
Choose Local Security Policy.
The Local Security Policy window opens (Local Security Settings window on
Windows XP).
3.
In the left pane of the Local Security Policy window, expand Local Policies and
select User Rights Assignment.
4.
In the right pane of the Local Security Policy window, choose: Lock pages in
memory (on Windows XP, also choose Action > Security...).
The Lock pages in memory Properties window opens (the Local Security Policy
dialog on Windows XP).
5.
Specify Add User or Group (Add on Windows XP).
The Select Users, Computers, Service Accounts, or Groups dialog opens (Select
Users or Groups dialog on Windows XP).
6.
Enter the instance administrator or applicable user name in the field: Enter the
object names to select. Then specify Check Names. (Select the applicable name
from the Name list and specify Add on Windows XP.)
If the name you entered is not recognized, resolve this in the resulting Name Not
Found dialog.
7.
Specify OK to close the Select Users, Computers, Service Accounts, or Groups
dialog box.
8.
Specify OK to close the Lock pages in memory Properties window.
TimesTen Installation 1-13
Default installation directories
Additional Windows requirements
Be aware of the following Windows requirements:
■
On more recent Windows versions, such as Vista, Windows 2008, and Windows 7,
you must have Administrator privileges to perform certain operations, such as
starting and stopping the TimesTen daemon.
To start a command prompt window with Windows Administrator privileges,
right-click the cmd.exe executable. (In Windows 7, for example, this executable is
located in the C:\Windows\System32 folder.) When the command window opens,
it indicates "Administrator" in the title bar.
■
The TimesTen debug libraries depend on Visual Studio 2005, 2008, or 2010. If you
intend to use the debug libraries, ensure that one of these versions is installed.
Default installation directories
The TimesTen default installation directories for release 11.2.2 are as follows:
■
On Windows, C:\TimesTen
■
On UNIX, $HOME/TimesTen
The temporary directory is operating system-dependent. Usually it is located
according to the following.
■
On Windows it is according to the %TMP% environment variable. This typically
points to a location such as the following, for example:
C:\Documents and Settings\username\Local Settings\Temp
Or the equivalent on Window 7, where C:\Users replaces C:\Documents and
Settings.
■
On Solaris and Linux: /tmp
■
On HP-UX and AIX: /var/tmp
You can change the location of your temporary directory by setting the TMP
environment variable on Windows. On UNIX, you can change the location of your
temporary directory by setting the TMPDIR environment variable.
TimesTen does not support file path names that contain
multibyte characters. Ensure that the installation path, database path,
transaction log path, and temporary file path do not contain any
multibyte characters. On Windows, the complete temporary directory
path must be less than 190 characters for the installation to complete
successfully.
Note:
Considerations for locations of database files and other user files
During installation, if you have elected to install the TimesTen Quick Start sample
programs, the installer prompts you for a location for the DemoDataStore directory. On
UNIX systems, by default, this is located under the info directory that is under the
TimesTen installation path. It is strongly recommended that you choose an alternate
location, outside of the TimesTen installation path, for this directory. (On Windows
systems, the default location is under the user’s application data folder.)
It is also strongly advised that you not store any database files (checkpoint and log
files) or any other user files anywhere under the TimesTen installation path. Any files
1-14 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Pre-Install requirements for operating system group and file permissions
under the installation path, including files not installed by TimesTen, may be removed
during upgrade or uninstallation operations.
Pre-Install requirements for operating system group and file permissions
The following sections describe creating the operating system groups and setting the
correct directory permissions for TimesTen:
■
TimesTen instance administrators and users groups
■
Directory and file permissions
■
Creating UNIX TimesTen instance administrators and users groups
TimesTen instance administrators and users groups
For security, access to the TimesTen installation is restricted to members of a single
operating system group, under which TimesTen is installed. This group is known as
the TimesTen users group. Only users that are members of the TimesTen users group are
allowed to perform direct driver connections to TimesTen and perform operations on
TimesTen databases. Any users connecting to a TimesTen database through a client
connection are not required to be members of the TimesTen users group.
The user that installs TimesTen is the instance administrator. The instance administrator
must be a member of the TimesTen instance administrators group, and must also be a
member of the TimesTen users group.
■
■
On Windows, which does not have the same concept of "instance administrators
group" as UNIX, the TimesTen users group is effectively equivalent. Therefore, the
instance administrator on a Windows installation must be a member of the
TimesTen users group to install TimesTen. In addition, all users who perform a
direct driver connection must be a member of the TimesTen users group.
On UNIX, the TimesTen instance administrators group and the TimesTen users
group can be the same or different operating system groups, as follows.
–
TimesTen instance administrators group. Any user installing TimesTen must
be a member of this group. This group must be granted read and write access
to /etc/TimesTen, which contains information about all TimesTen instances
installed on the system.
–
TimesTen users group. The instance administrator must also be a member of
this group to install TimesTen. After installation, only members of this
operating system group are allowed to make direct driver connections to
TimesTen and perform operations on TimesTen databases.
The details on how to create both operating system groups on UNIX are included
in "Creating UNIX TimesTen instance administrators and users groups" on
page 1-16.
Directory and file permissions
When installed, read and write permissions on TimesTen files and directories is
limited to members of the TimesTen users group, unless TimesTen was installed as
"world accessible".
The following sections describe directory and file permissions for Windows and UNIX
systems.
TimesTen Installation 1-15
Pre-Install requirements for operating system group and file permissions
Permissions and instance registry prerequisites for TimesTen
On Windows, TimesTen files and directories are accessible only to members of the
TimesTen users group.
If you choose to install TimesTen as world accessible, which is an option during the
installation, TimesTen files and directories are accessible to everyone. In this case,
anyone can perform any action on the TimesTen database files and shared memory
segments. This is not recommended. Enable this option only if all users on this
computer are trusted and you want to disable all operating system-level access control
for this installation.
For more information on operating system groups, see "TimesTen instance
administrators and users groups" on page 1-15.
On Windows, information about TimesTen is contained in the operating system
registry.
On UNIX, TimesTen maintains a registry of all TimesTen instances installed on a given
computer in /etc/TimesTen. The instance registry itself is not required for operation,
but it is essential for correct installation and uninstallation of TimesTen. Before
installing TimesTen, ensure that the user installing TimesTen is a member of the
instance administrators group and has read and write permissions on the
/etc/TimesTen directory.
The details on how to set the directory permissions for /etc/TimesTen to the instance
administrators group are included in the next section, "Creating UNIX TimesTen
instance administrators and users groups".
Checkpoint files and log files for databases should be installed
on separate devices. TimesTen writes a message to the support log if
the transaction log files and checkpoint files are on the same file
system.
Note:
Creating UNIX TimesTen instance administrators and users groups
The following details the pre-installation procedures to create the required operating
system groups and set the directory permissions for the UNIX TimesTen installation.
■
Create the TimesTen users group
■
Create the TimesTen instance registry and instance administrators group
Create the TimesTen users group
During installation, you must specify the TimesTen users group. By default, the
TimesTen users group for the instance is the primary operating system group of the
user installing TimesTen. If you want the TimesTen users group to be other than the
installer primary group, you must specify the name of the group during installation.
Alternatively, you can make the TimesTen instance world accessible. However, this is
not recommended.
The only way to change the TimesTen users group is to uninstall and reinstall the
TimesTen instance, providing the new group name during reinstallation.
If you do not have an operating system group for TimesTen users, the following
outlines certain procedures that must be performed once as user root before installing
TimesTen to create the TimesTen users group.
1-16 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Pre-Install requirements for operating system group and file permissions
1.
Create an operating system group under which the TimesTen instance can be
installed. The name timesten is suggested for this operating system group, but
you can choose any name that you prefer.
Throughout this manual, for our examples, timesten is the
name of the TimesTen users group.
Note:
2.
Add the user who is installing and any users who are using TimesTen to the
TimesTen users group that you just created.
3.
Provide the name of this group, if different from the default TimesTen users
group, during the installation at the appropriate time.
The directory and file permissions for the TimesTen installation have the group
specified as the group you defined during the installation. This sets the permissions to
restrict read and write access for most directories, files, checkpoint files, transaction
log files, shared memory segments, and semaphores to this defined group. There are
exceptions for certain resources as determined by TimesTen. See "Directory and file
permissions" on page 1-15 for more information on permissions.
On Solaris systems, you must be installed as root to use
MemoryLock with a setting of 1 or 2. Databases in a non-root instance
of TimesTen can use settings 3 and 4 for this attribute on Solaris
systems.
Note:
Create the TimesTen instance registry and instance administrators group
On UNIX platforms, the instance registry is located in the directory /etc/TimesTen.
Initial creation of the /etc/TimesTen directory may require root access. Creation of
this directory is a once per computer, pre-installation step.
If the user installing TimesTen does not have read and write access to the
/etc/TimesTen directory, the following outlines certain procedures that must be
performed once as user root before installing TimesTen.
1.
Create an operating system group for the TimesTen instance administrators
group. You can name this group as desired, but examples will use the name
ttadmin. For example, on Linux or Solaris:
# groupadd ttadmin
2.
If the directory /etc/TimesTen does not exist, create it.
# mkdir /etc/TimesTen
The disk space required for the files in this directory is at least 100 KB.
3.
Assign ownership and permissions on the /etc/TimesTen directory to the
TimesTen instance administrators group so that only the instance administrator
may access and execute. At installation time, the instance_info file is added to
the /etc/TimesTen directory. This file must be readable and writable by the
instance administrators group.
Before installing TimesTen, set the permission mode for /etc/TimesTen to 770,
and permissions for all files under /etc/TimesTen to 660.
TimesTen Installation 1-17
Installing TimesTen on UNIX systems
The following commands modify the group ownership of the TimesTen directory
to be the ttadmin group and changes the permissions for all files in this directory
to read and write for members of the ttadmin group:
# chgrp -R ttadmin /etc/TimesTen
# chmod 770 /etc/TimesTen/
# chmod 660 /etc/TimesTen/*
4.
You can now install TimesTen on UNIX systems. The installer verifies the
existence and permissions of /etc/TimesTen and fails if the permissions are not
correct.
Installing TimesTen on UNIX systems
The instance may be installed in any directory to which the TimesTen instance
administrator has sufficient permission.
Before beginning installation, ensure that the prerequisites
defined in "Installation prerequisites" on page 1-4 have been met.
Note:
The following sections provide instructions on installing TimesTen on UNIX systems.
■
Installing TimesTen
■
Informational messages on UNIX systems
■
Changing the daemon port number on UNIX
■
Uninstalling TimesTen on UNIX systems
Installing TimesTen
To install TimesTen on your UNIX system, use the following steps.
1.
Download the appropriate TimesTen ZIP/TAR file for the current release. File
names indicate the platform and release number.
2.
Log in as the TimesTen instance administrator.
3.
Extract the contents of the file.
4.
Change to the platform directory:
% cd platform
For example on a Linux system:
% cd linux8664
5.
Run the TimesTen setup script:
% ./setup.sh
1-18 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Installing TimesTen on UNIX systems
Note: If a user installs TimesTen as root, the installer gives the
following warning: "You are about to install TimesTen as root.
TimesTen daemon processes run with root privileges."
If you click OK to install as root, then the instance administrator is
root, and any actions or applications that must be performed by the
instance administrator must be run as root.
While no options are required to install TimesTen, the setup.sh script takes these
options:
Option
Description
-install
Installs TimesTen (enabled by default).
-uninstall
Uninstalls TimesTen.
Also see "Uninstalling TimesTen on UNIX systems" on page 1-22.
-batch filename
Allows installation or uninstallation without prompts. The batch file
filename is optional.
If filename is specified, the installation reads all installation prompts
from the file.
If filename is not specified or does not contain an instance name,
TimesTen installs a default instance, using tt1122_bits (_32 or _64) for
the instance name. If an instance with the same name exists on the
installation computer, the installation procedure fails.
It is recommended that you create the batch file and specifically
indicate the instance name of the installation.
-help
Displays the help message.
-installDoc
Installs the TimesTen documentation library and Quick Start tutorial
pages. (You can do a documentation-only installation.)
-quickstart
Installs the TimesTen Quick Start sample programs (to an existing
installation).
-record filename
Records responses to the installation questions into the file specified by
filename. The file can then be used as the parameter to the -batch
option.
-verbose
Displays extra installation information.
6.
Enter your response to the setup script prompts.
To install or uninstall TimesTen without having to respond to
prompts, use the -batch flag with the setup.sh script.
Note:
It is recommended that you re-create the response file using -record
each time changes are made. Because answers to new installation
questions may not be present in the original silent installation
response file, unexpected results can occur.
The setup script performs the following actions (unless your answers resulted in
termination of the installation process).
■
Prompts you to choose one of the following:
–
Install a new instance.
TimesTen Installation 1-19
Installing TimesTen on UNIX systems
–
Upgrade an existing instance (in-place upgrade). You can use this option to
upgrade to a new patch release within the same major release, such as from
11.2.2.4.0 to 11.2.2.5.0. (See "In-place upgrades" on page 3-7.)
Important: Before upgrading, ensure that you do not have any databases or
important files under the TimesTen installation directory. See "Considerations
for locations of database files and other user files" on page 1-14 for related
information.
■
–
Display information about an existing instance.
–
Quit the installation.
Prompts you to choose the default instance name or choose an instance name for
your TimesTen instance.
Each TimesTen installation is identified by a unique instance
name. The instance name must be a non-null alphanumeric string of
255 characters or less.
Note:
■
■
■
Prompts you to install one of the following components:
–
Client/Server and Data Manager
–
Data Manager only
–
Client only
Prompts you for the location of your TimesTen instance. By default, installs the
instance in a subdirectory under $HOME/TimesTen. The subdirectory is named
according to the TimesTen instance name. TimesTen documentation refers to this
installation directory as install_dir.
Prompts you for the location of the TimesTen daemon home directory. The default
location is install_dir/info.
The daemon home directory is the working directory for the TimesTen daemon
and related processes. Among other items, it contains files written and read by the
daemon, including the daemon options file (ttendaemon.options), process ID file
(timestend.pid), user and support log files, and DBI files. It also contains
TimesTen .ini files such as sys.odbc.ini, sys.ttconnect.ini, and
cluster.oracle.ini.
■
■
Prompts you for the location of TimesTen daemon log files. In this release,
separate support and error logs replace the daemon log. The default location is
install_dir/info.
Prompts you to specify the daemon port number. (The default port number, 53396
for 64-bit systems and 53392 for 32-bit systems, is shown unless already in use.)
1-20 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Installing TimesTen on UNIX systems
Notes:
■
■
■
■
When you install multiple instances of TimesTen on the same
computer, specify a unique TCP/IP port number for each
TimesTen daemon and each TimesTen server during the
installation.
If you will be using replication, however, be aware that if the
daemon ports are different for TimesTen databases that replicate
to each other, you must use static ports for replication and you
must use the ttRepAdmin utility -remoteDaemonPort option for
duplicate operations. You can use the ttVersion utility to verify
the port number of your installation of TimesTen.
Prompts you to set the TimesTen users group or choose world accessibility. For
more information on these options, see "Pre-Install requirements for operating
system group and file permissions" on page 1-15 for details on the TimesTen users
group and file permissions. You can do the following:
1.
Restrict access to group default group.
2.
Restrict access to a different group.
3.
Make the TimesTen instance world accessible (not recommended). Choose this
option only if all users on this computer are trusted and you want to disable
all operating system-level access control for this installation.
Prompts you to confirm whether PL/SQL should be installed for the instance. The
default answer is "yes". If you choose not to install PL/SQL, you can use the
TimesTen ttmodinstall utility to install it later. For more information, see
"ttmodinstall" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference.
Installing PL/SQL is encouraged, although it increases the size
of some TimesTen libraries. Some features depend on it.
Note:
■
Prompts you to set the TNS_ADMIN environment variable. The value is a directory
location where the tnsnames.ora file can be found.
You can skip this. If you do not specify the location at installation time, you can set
it later with the ttmodinstall utility. However, you must specify it before using
the TimesTen Application-Tier Database Cache (TimesTen Cache).
■
■
■
■
Prompts you to specify the server port number. (The default port number, 53397
for 64-bit systems and 53393 for 32-bit systems, is shown unless already in use.)
Prompts you to install Quick Start sample programs and the TimesTen
documentation. The TimesTen Quick Start programs can take up to 64 MB of disk
space. The default directory is install_dir/quickstart and install_dir/doc.
Prompts for a location for the demo databases. When you install the Quick Start
sample programs, this is where the TimesTen demo database files are installed.
The default location is the install_dir/info/DemoDataStore directory. See the
section "Considerations for locations of database files and other user files" on
page 1-14 for recommendations on choosing an alternative location.
Prompts you to indicate whether you want to install TimesTen replication with
Oracle Clusterware. Prompts you for the path into which to install the Oracle
TimesTen Installation 1-21
Installing TimesTen on UNIX systems
Clusterware installation on this computer and the port number for the TimesTen
Clusterware agent.
Be aware that TimesTen 11.2.2 supports Clusterware releases 11.2.0.2 and 11.2.0.3
only. (TimesTen 11.2.1 supports Clusterware releases 11.1.0.7, 11.2.0.2, and
11.2.0.3.)
■
■
■
■
The installer checks for any nodes where Oracle Clusterware is currently
configured and prompts you to specify a node list for TimesTen replication with
Oracle Clusterware. (Oracle Clusterware can be installed or configured after your
TimesTen installation, using the ttmodinstall utility.)
Removes any previous installation of this release of TimesTen if you are installing
an upgrade.
Installs the TimesTen components into the appropriate directories.
Starts the daemon. (See "Starting and stopping the TimesTen daemon" in Oracle
TimesTen In-Memory Database Operations Guide for related information.)
Informational messages on UNIX systems
As the TimesTen daemon operates, it generates error, warning, informational and
debug messages for TimesTen system administration and for debugging applications.
At installation time, you determine whether these messages go into a file, which is
typical, or to the syslog facility. Using the syslog facility is discouraged, but you can
refer to your operating system documentation if you are interested in doing so.
If messages are logged using syslog, the LOG_USER syslog facility is used by default.
To specify the syslog facility used to log TimesTen Daemon and subdaemon
messages, on a separate line of the ttendaemon.options file add:
-facility name
Possible name values are: auth, cron, daemon, local0-local7, lpr, mail, news, user, or
uucp.
Changing the daemon port number on UNIX
Though the instance registry enforces TCP/IP port uniqueness for TimesTen instances,
the possibility of the TimesTen main daemon port conflicting with ports used by
non-TimesTen applications always exists.
The ttmodinstall utility allows the instance administrator to change the port number
on which the main TimesTen daemon listens. If you have not stopped the TimesTen
daemon before using ttmodinstall, the utility stops the daemon before changing the
port number. After the port change, the daemon is automatically restarted. This
feature is useful if you install TimesTen and later find that the port is in use.
The utility is run from the command line and takes the -port option with the new port
number as an argument. For example:
% ttmodinstall -port 12345
See Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference for more details on ttmodinstall.
Uninstalling TimesTen on UNIX systems
To uninstall all TimesTen components, follow these steps:
1.
Log in as the TimesTen instance administrator.
1-22 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Installing TimesTen on Windows systems
2.
The TimesTen setup script is in the install_dir/bin directory. Run the script
with the -uninstall option in a directory outside of the installation directory, by
typing:
% install_dir/bin/setup.sh -uninstall
Uninstalling removes all TimesTen libraries and executables and also stops and
uninstalls the daemon and Server. You can execute ps to verify that all TimesTen
processes have terminated. To verify that TimesTen has been successfully uninstalled,
verify that the install_dir no longer exists.
Before uninstalling, ensure that you do not have any
databases or important files under the TimesTen installation directory.
See "Considerations for locations of database files and other user files"
on page 1-14 for related information.
Important:
Installing TimesTen on Windows systems
This section discusses installation and related issues for Windows systems. Before
beginning installation, ensure that the conditions defined in "Installation prerequisites"
on page 1-4 have been met.
Be aware of the following operational notes:
■
■
■
On a Windows system, you cannot have multiple instances of the same TimesTen
major release. For example, you cannot have both an 11.2.2.4.0 and an 11.2.2.5.0
installation. But you can have TimesTen instances from different major releases,
such as any 11.2.2.x.x installation along with any 11.2.1.x.x installation.
TimesTen provides separate installers for 32-bit and 64-bit installations. On
Windows 64-bit systems, you can do either a 64-bit installation (typical) or a 32-bit
installation. However, similarly to the previous restriction, you cannot do both a
64-bit installation and a 32-bit installation of the same release. You can only have a
32-bit installation and a 64-bit installation simultaneously if they are from different
major releases, such as a 64-bit installation of an 11.2.2.x.x release and a 32-bit
installation of an 11.2.1.x.x release.
The TimesTen 64-bit installation provides both a 64-bit client and a 32-bit client. It
is typical to use the 64-bit client, but you can install either or both.
The following sections provide instructions on installing TimesTen on Windows
systems.
■
Installing TimesTen
■
Installing TimesTen in silent mode
■
Verifying installation
■
Verifying TimesTen Client and Server installation
■
Informational messages on Windows systems
■
Uninstalling TimesTen on Windows systems
Installing TimesTen
To install TimesTen on your Windows system, follow these steps:
1.
Download the appropriate TimesTen ZIP file for the current release. File names
indicate the platform and release number.
TimesTen Installation 1-23
Installing TimesTen on Windows systems
2.
Extract the contents of the file.
3.
Run the setup.exe executable, which is located in the Win64 or Win32 directory
from the ZIP file.
Notes:
■
■
■
In Windows 7, you must right-click setup.exe and select "Run as
administrator" from the resulting dropdown list. (In earlier
Windows versions, you have the necessary administrative
privileges by default when you execute setup.exe.)
Each time you execute setup.exe, the installer checks for previous
TimesTen installations. On Windows, you can install only one
instance of any major TimesTen release, where a major release is
indicated by the first three parts of the release number, such as
11.2.2. If there is already an installation from the same TimesTen
major release line (such as an 11.2.2.4.0 installation if you are
trying to install 11.2.2.5.0), the installer returns an error message
asking you to uninstall the previous release.
TimesTen cannot be installed in a mapped network drive.
Attempting to do so results in an error.
The TimesTen installer performs the following actions.
■
■
Prompts you for the location of the installation. By default, TimesTen is installed
in a subdirectory under C:\TimesTen. The subdirectory is named according to the
TimesTen instance name, such as C:\TimesTen\tt1122_32 (32-bit installation) or
tt1122_64 (64-bit installation). TimesTen documentation refers to this installation
directory as install_dir.
Prompts you to select the components that you would like to install:
–
TimesTen Data Manager
–
TimesTen Data Manager Debug Libraries
–
TimesTen Server
–
TimesTen Client
In the 64-bit installation, there are options for both a 64-bit client and a 32-bit
client. You can choose both (default), either, or neither. If you install the 32-bit
client, it is installed in the tt1122_64\client32 directory.
–
Optional Components
*
TimesTen Quick Start sample programs
*
TimesTen Documentation (including Quick Start tutorial pages)
For more information, see "Components available on Windows" on page 1-3.
■
Prompts for the location to install the demo databases. When you install the
TimesTen Quick Start sample programs, the demo database files are installed in
the DemoDataStore directory that defaults to the following location:
%APPDATA%\TimesTen\DemoDataStore\
This is a location such as the following, for example:
C:\Documents and Settings\username\Application Data\TimesTen\DemoDataStore\
1-24 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Installing TimesTen on Windows systems
Or the equivalent on Window 7, where C:\Users replaces C:\Documents and
Settings. For example:
C:\Users\username\Application Data\TimesTen\DemoDataStore\
Note that Application Data may be a symbolic link (to AppData\Roaming on
Windows 7, for example). See the section "Considerations for locations of database
files and other user files" on page 1-14 for suggestions on selecting a location for
the demo database files.
■
Prompts you to set the TNS_ADMIN environment variable. The value is a directory
location where the tnsnames.ora file can be found.
You can leave this field blank. If you do not specify the location at installation
time, you can set it later with the ttmodinstall utility. However, you must specify
it before using the TimesTen Application-Tier Database Cache (TimesTen Cache).
■
■
■
Prompts you to select the Program Folder. Browse to choose the folder that you
want for this installation either from existing folders or a new folder. The default is
TimesTen 11.2.2 (32-bit) or TimesTen 11.2.2 (64-bit).
Asks if you want permissions on this installation to be readable and writable by
anyone who has access to the computer. This is not recommended. If disabled,
permissions are restricted to users who are members of the TimesTen users group.
See "Pre-Install requirements for operating system group and file permissions" on
page 1-15 for details on permissions and world accessibility. Choose this option
only if you want to disable all operating system-level access control for this
installation.
Prompts you to confirm whether PL/SQL should be installed for the instance. The
default answer is "yes". If you choose not to install PL/SQL, you can use the
TimesTen ttmodinstall utility to install it later. For more information, see
"ttmodinstall" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference.
Installing PL/SQL is encouraged, although it increases the size
of some TimesTen libraries. Some features and functionality depend
on it.
Note:
■
Prompts you to register environment variables. If selected, the installation
program adds TimesTen directories to the system environment variables PATH,
LIB, and INCLUDE and sets other appropriate variables. If you decide not to register
the environment variables at installation time, you can set the environment
variables at any time after installation on a per session basis by running the batch
file install_dir\bin\ttenv.bat. See "Setting environment variables for
TimesTen" on page 1-35 for information about ttenv.
This is not advisable if you are installing multiple releases of
TimesTen, in which case the path could cause unexpected behavior.
(Multiple releases must be from different major release lines. Multiple
patch releases within the same major release are not allowed on
Windows.)
Note:
■
Prompts you to select the JDK version, if any, to add to the CLASSPATH variable.
■
Displays your installation selections before continuing to install TimesTen.
TimesTen Installation 1-25
Installing TimesTen on Windows systems
■
Prompts you to display the release notes and launch the Quick Start. For
information on the Quick Start, see "TimesTen Quick Start" on page 1-39.
The Windows installer does not include an option for the
location of the daemon home directory. Its location is install_
dir\srv\info. This is the working directory for the TimesTen daemon
and related processes. Among other items, it contains files written and
read by the daemon, including the daemon options file
(ttendaemon.options), process ID file (timestend.pid), user and
support log files, and DBI files. It also contains TimesTen .ini files
such as sys.odbc.ini, sys.ttconnect.ini, and cluster.oracle.ini.
Note:
Installing TimesTen in silent mode
TimesTen enables you to save installation options to a batch file, referred to as a
response file, that you can later use to install TimesTen without having to answer each
option in a dialog box.
■
To create a response file in the default location, use the following command:
C:> setup.exe /r
With this command, TimesTen walks you through a normal setup operation and,
by default, saves your responses to the file C:\Windows\setup.iss.
■
To later do a silent installation using the options saved to the default response file,
use the following command:
C:> setup.exe /s
This acquires the installation options from the response file. No dialog boxes
appear. (Some information pop-up dialogs may still appear, however, such as the
one that informs you that the services are being started.)
Alternatively, you can use the f1 option to specify the name and location of the
response file.
■
To create the response file mysetup.iss in C:\Temp, use the following command:
C:> setup.exe /r /f1"C:\Temp\mysetup.iss"
■
To use this response file for a silent installation, use the following command.
C:> setup.exe /s /f1"C:\Temp\mysetup.iss"
Batch files from releases older than TimesTen Release 11.2.2
should not be used to install this release. All new prompts in the
installer for this release are assigned default answers and may
produce unexpected results when batch files from different releases
are used.
Note:
Verifying installation
To verify that TimesTen has been properly installed, check that the driver files are
available and that the services are running:
1.
Confirm that the TimesTen 11.2.2 shortcut—for example, "TimesTen 11.2.2
(64-bit)"—appears under All Programs.
1-26 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Installing TimesTen on Windows systems
2.
From Administrative Tools, select Data Sources (ODBC). This opens the ODBC
Data Source Administrator.
3.
Choose the Drivers tab. Check to see that the TimesTen Data Manager 11.2.2
driver is installed. (If you installed TimesTen Client, that driver should be listed as
well. See the next section, "Verifying TimesTen Client and Server installation".)
Click OK.
4.
From Administrative Tools, select Services and check that the TimesTen Data
Manager 11.2.2 service has status "Started". (See "Starting and stopping the
TimesTen daemon" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Operations Guide for
related information.)
Verifying TimesTen Client and Server installation
Perform the following steps to verify that the Client and Server have been properly
installed.
The instructions in this section are valid if you are installing
32-bit TimesTen on 32-bit Windows or 64-bit TimesTen on 64-bit
Windows. However, if you are installing 32-bit TimesTen on 64-bit
Windows, verify the TimesTen ODBC entries by executing the
following, which is the 32-bit version of the ODBC Data Source
Administrator:
Note:
%WINDIR%\SysWOW64\odbcad32.exe
1.
From Administrative Tools, select Data Sources (ODBC). This opens the ODBC
Data Source Administrator.
2.
Choose the Drivers tab. Check to see that the TimesTen Client 11.2.2 driver is
installed. (You should also see the TimesTen Data Manager 11.2.2 driver. See the
preceding section, "Verifying installation".) Click OK.
Note: If you install the 32-bit client in a 64-bit installation, you must use the 32-bit
ODBC Data Source Administrator, mentioned in the note above, to view its driver
entry.
3.
Choose the System DSN tab.
4.
Select the sampledbCS_1122 sample database and click Configure.
Notes:
■
■
This step assumes you installed TimesTen Quick Start sample
programs, including the sample databases.
The sampledb_1122 DSN is used for direct connections. The
sampledbCS_1122 DSN is used for client/server connections.
This opens the TimesTen Client Data Source Setup dialog.
5.
Click Test Oracle TimesTen Server Connection to attempt a connection to the
server.
The ODBC Administrator attempts to connect to the TimesTen Server and
displays a message to let you know if it was successful. When you click this
button, the TimesTen Client verifies that the following are true.
TimesTen Installation 1-27
Installing TimesTen on Windows systems
6.
■
ODBC, Windows sockets, and the TimesTen Client are installed on the system.
■
The TimesTen Server you have selected is defined.
■
The TimesTen Server is running.
Click Test Data Source Connection to attempt a connection to the data source on
the TimesTen Server.
The ODBC Data Source Administrator attempts to connect to the TimesTen data
source and displays a dialog to let you know if it was successful. When you click
Test Data Source Connection, the TimesTen Client verifies that:
■
The data source you have chosen is defined on the server.
■
The TimesTen Client can connect to the data source.
Informational messages on Windows systems
TimesTen writes error messages into the tterrors.log file. This file is located in
the install_dir\srv\info directory. You can use the ttDaemonLog utility to view
messages logged by the TimesTen Data Manager. For a description of the system
administration utilities, see "Utilities" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference.
Uninstalling TimesTen on Windows systems
You can uninstall TimesTen on Windows as you would any other program.
Before uninstalling, ensure that you do not have any
databases or important files under the TimesTen installation directory.
See "Considerations for locations of database files and other user files"
on page 1-14 for related information.
Important:
1.
Go to Add/Remove Programs (or Programs and Features in Windows 7).
2.
In the list of programs, select TimesTen. For example, select "Oracle TimesTen
In-Memory Database 11.2.2 (64-bit)".
3.
Click Remove (or Uninstall in Windows 7).
You will be asked whether you want to remove DSN definitions associated with
the installation. If you answer Yes, then all definitions are removed. This includes
user-defined DSNs as well as those created by the TimesTen installation process.
Important: If you are uninstalling as part of the equivalent of an in-place upgrade
(discussed in "Performing an in-place upgrade" on page 3-9), you must keep your
DSNs.
To verify that removal was successful, check the following:
■
TimesTen 11.2.2 has been removed from All Programs.
■
TimesTen Data Manager 11.2.2 has been removed from the Services list.
■
The TimesTen 11.2.2 drivers have been removed from the Drivers tab in the
ODBC Data Source Administrator.
See "Verifying installation" on page 1-26 for information about the Services list and
ODBC Data Source Administrator.
1-28 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Installing TimesTen Client on Mac OS X systems
Installing TimesTen Client on Mac OS X systems
The following sections provide instructions on installing the TimesTen Client on Mac
OS X systems.
■
Installing TimesTen Client
■
Uninstalling TimesTen Client on Mac OS X systems
Installing TimesTen Client
To install the TimesTen Client on your Mac OS X system, use the following steps.
1.
Download the appropriate TimesTen Client ZIP/TAR file for the current release.
File names indicate the platform and release number.
2.
Log in as the TimesTen instance administrator.
3.
Extract the contents of the file.
4.
Change to the platform directory:
% cd macos64
5.
Run the TimesTen setup script:
% ./setup.sh
While no options are required to install the TimesTen Client, the setup.sh script
takes these options:
Option
Description
-install
Installs TimesTen Client (enabled by default).
-uninstall
Uninstalls TimesTen Client.
Also see "Uninstalling TimesTen Client on Mac OS X systems" on
page 1-31.
-batch filename
Allows installation or uninstallation without prompts. The batch file
filename is optional.
If filename is specified, the installation reads all installation prompts
from the file.
If filename is not specified or does not contain an instance name,
TimesTen installs a default instance, using tt1122 for the instance
name. If an instance with the same name exists on the installation
computer, the installation procedure fails.
It is recommended that you create the batch file and specifically
indicate the instance name of the installation.
-record filename
Records responses to the installation questions into the file specified by
filename. The file can then be used as the parameter to the -batch
option.
-installDoc
Installs the TimesTen documentation library and Quick Start tutorial
pages. (You can do a documentation-only installation.)
-quickstart
Installs the TimesTen Quick Start sample programs (to an existing
installation).
-help
Displays the help message.
-verbose
Displays extra installation information.
6.
Enter your response to the setup script prompts.
TimesTen Installation 1-29
Installing TimesTen Client on Mac OS X systems
To install or uninstall TimesTen Client without having to
respond to prompts, use the -batch flag with the setup.sh script.
Note:
It is recommended that you re-create the response file using -record
each time changes are made. Because answers to new installation
questions may not be present in the original silent installation
response file, unexpected results can occur.
The setup script performs the following actions (unless your answers resulted in
termination of the installation process).
■
Prompts you to choose the default instance name or choose an instance name
for your TimesTen Client instance.
Each TimesTen Client installation is identified by a unique
instance name. The instance name must be a non-null alphanumeric
string of 255 characters or less.
Note:
■
Prompts you to choose the location for your TimesTen Client instance. Choose
one of the following:
[1]
[2]
[3]
[q]
$HOME
$PWD
Specify a location
Quit the installation
TimesTen installs the instance in a subdirectory under specified_
dir/TimesTen. The subdirectory is named according to the TimesTen Client
instance name. TimesTen documentation refers to this installation directory as
install_dir.
■
■
Prompts you to set the TimesTen users group or choose world accessibility.
For more information on these options, see "Pre-Install requirements for
operating system group and file permissions" on page 1-15 for details on the
TimesTen users groups and file permissions. You can do the following:
–
Restrict access to group default_group.
–
Restrict access to a different group.
–
Make the TimesTen instance world accessible (not recommended). Choose
this option only if all users on this computer are trusted and you want to
disable all operating system-level access control for this installation.
Prompts you to set TNS_ADMIN environment variable. The value is a directory
location where the tnsnames.ora file can be found.
You can skip this. If you do not specify the location at installation time, you
can set it later with the ttmodinstall utility. However, you must specify it
before using the TimesTen Application-Tier Database Cache.
■
Prompts you to install the Quick Start Sample Programs and the TimesTen
Documentation. The default directories for the Quick Start Sample Programs
and the TimesTen Documentation are install_dir/quickstart and install_
dir/doc, respectively.
The Quick Start Sample Programs can take up to 64 MB of disk space.
Alternatively, you can choose to install the TimesTen Documentation only.
1-30 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Installing TimesTen on Exalogic systems
■
Prompts you for the name of the host running the TimesTen server. The value
is the logical name, domain name, or IP address of the computer where the
TimesTen server is running. This value is set in all of the following locations:
–
The TTC_Server attribute value for all sample databases definitions found
in the odbc.ini file
–
The logical server name in the ttconnect.ini file
–
The Network_Address attribute value for the aforementioned logical server
name in the ttconnect.ini file
For more information, see "Defining a logical server name" in the Oracle
TimesTen In-Memory Database Operations Guide.
■
Prompts you for the TCP/IP port number of the TimesTen server. (The default
port number is shown.) This value is set as the TCP_Port attribute for the
aforementioned logical server name in the ttconnect.ini file.
For more information, see "TCP_Port" in the Oracle TimesTen In-Memory
Database Reference.
■
Installs the TimesTen Client components in the appropriate directories.
Uninstalling TimesTen Client on Mac OS X systems
To uninstall all TimesTen Client components, follow these steps:
1.
Log in as the TimesTen Client instance administrator.
2.
The TimesTen Client setup script is in the install_dir/bin directory. Run the
script with the -uninstall option in a directory outside of the installation
directory, by typing:
% ./install_dir/bin/setup.sh -uninstall
Uninstalling removes all TimesTen libraries and executables. To verify that the
TimesTen Client has been successfully uninstalled, verify that the install_dir no
longer exists.
Installing TimesTen on Exalogic systems
To install TimesTen on an Exalogic system, you follow the prompts in the TimesTen
installer as described in the procedures in "Installing TimesTen on UNIX systems" on
page 1-18. Also, ensure that you have met the prerequisites for Oracle Linux
installations. See "Linux prerequisites" on page 1-7
It is recommended that you install TimesTen on each of the compute nodes of an
Exalogic system.
Note: Installing TimesTen binaries on the shared disk for use on
multiple compute nodes is not supported.
Some considerations on the location of the TimesTen installation files are:
■
If the TimesTen checkpoint and transaction log files must reside on the ZFS shared
storage, you must add the -allowNetworkFiles option to the ttendaemon.options
file. See "Allowing database access over NFS-mounted systems" in Oracle TimesTen
In-Memory Database Operations Guide.
TimesTen Installation 1-31
Installing TimesTen on Exalogic systems
■
The database and log directory must reside outside the TimesTen Instance home
directory to enable simple rolling upgrades.
It is strongly recommended that the TimesTen installation, checkpoint and transaction
log files for each node be stored in the locations shown in Table 1–1.
Table 1–1
Installation, checkpoint file, and transaction log file locations
Component
Directory
Installation
/non-NFS_mounted_file_system_path/TimesTen/TTinstance
Database
/u01/machinename/general/path or
/u01/common/images/machinename/TTinstance
Log directory
/u01/machinename/general/username/TTinstance
Installing Oracle Clusterware for use with TimesTen
Install Oracle Clusterware according to instructions in Oracle Database
documentation:
1.
Go go http://www.oracle.com/pls/db112/homepage.
2.
Select the "Installing and Upgrading" link.
3.
Refer to the Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for your platform.
Also see "Overview of Installing Oracle Clusterware" in Oracle Clusterware
Administration and Deployment Guide.
Be aware that TimesTen 11.2.2 supports Clusterware releases 11.2.0.2 and 11.2.0.3 only.
(TimesTen 11.2.1 supports Clusterware releases 11.1.0.7, 11.2.0.2, and 11.2.0.3.)
Follow these recommendations:
■
■
Create an NFS share on the ZFS 7320 Storage Appliance to be used for both OCR
and the voting disk. Specific NFS parameters are required so that the NFS share
can be used as a voting disk, refer to "Managing Oracle Cluster Registry and
Voting Disks" in Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for more
details.
Install Clusterware on the ZFS 7320 Storage Appliance. The solid state disk (SSD)
file system may not have sufficient space.
Installing in a shared Oracle home is not recommended as it
does not allow rolling upgrades of Oracle Clusterware. Instead, each
compute node should have its own installation of Clusterware.
Note:
■
Install Clusterware on each compute node. The path to the Clusterware
installation must be the same on each compute node. Therefore, it is required to
set up a directory structure that allows each compute node to use the same path to
access its own Clusterware installation.
–
On the shared storage, a separate directory exists for each compute node:
*
For compute node 1, the directory is:
/export/compute_node_1/general
*
For compute node 2, the directory is:
/export/compute_node_2/general
1-32 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Environment variables
*
For compute node n, the directory is:
/export/compute_node_n/general
–
Use NFS mount to map the node specific directory to the same path on each
compute node:
*
On host 1, do as follows.
mkdir -p /opt/oracle
mount storage-server:/export/compute_node_1/general /opt/oracle
*
On host 2, do as follows.
mkdir -p /opt/oracle
mount storage-server:/export/compute_node_2/general /opt/oracle
*
On host n, do as follows.
mkdir -p /opt/oracle
mount storage-server:/export/compute_node_n/general /opt/oracle
*
On each host, install Oracle Clusterware in /opt/oracle/crs.
ODBC installation
The ODBC SDK redistributable components are installed in C:\Windows\System32 on
Windows systems. Microsoft only permits TimesTen to redistribute portions of the
ODBC SDK; those portions are installed automatically (if they are not present). Other
components—Microsoft sample programs, online help files, and C language header
files—are available separately from Microsoft as part of the Microsoft ODBC SDK,
which can be installed separately as required. Additionally, the ODBC C language
header files and ODBC online help are bundled as part of Microsoft Visual Studio
.NET 2003 or Microsoft Visual Studio 2005, 2008, or 2010. Most TimesTen developers
do not need to install the SDK separately.
On UNIX systems, no separate SDK installation is required.
Environment variables
This section describes various environment variables that may have to be set,
depending on the features of TimesTen that your application uses. The following table
summarizes, in alphabetical order, the environment variables detailed in this section
and other parts of this guide. Some of these environment variables are
platform-specific.
Environment
variable
LIB, LIBPATH, LD_
LIBRARY_PATH, LD_
LIBRARY_PATH_64,
DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH
Settings
Include the lib directory under the TimesTen
installation directory.
For additional
information, see:
"Shared library path
environment
variable" on page 1-37
TimesTen Installation 1-33
Environment variables
Environment
variable
Settings
For additional
information, see:
NLS_LANG
Set this to specify a character set for the
connection. The setting in the sys.odbc.ini or
user odbc.ini file is used by default if not
overridden by NLS_LANG. Setting the character
set explicitly is recommended. The default is
typically AMERICAN_AMERICA.US7ASCII.
"Character sets" in
Oracle TimesTen
In-Memory Database C
Developer's Guide. This
discussion is oriented
toward OCI but
includes more general
Notes:
information and a
link to Oracle
■
TimesTen uses NLS_LANG for the character
Database
set only, ignoring what precedes the dot
("."). You can specify just the character set as documentation for
further discussion.
follows (with the dot still required): NLS_
LANG=.WE8ISO8859P1
"Supported character
sets" in Oracle
■
On Windows, the NLS_LANG setting is
TimesTen In-Memory
searched for in the registry, HKEY_LOCAL_
MACHINE\SOFTWARE\ORACLE\NLS_LANG, if it is Database Reference.
not in the environment. If your program has
trouble connecting to TimesTen, confirm the
NLS_LANG setting is valid and indicates a
character set supported by TimesTen.
TimesTen uses the Oracle Instant Client to
make these connections.
ODBCINI
Include the location where the odbc.ini file
used by TimesTen databases is to be found.
"ODBCINI
environment
variable" on page 1-36
PATH
Include the bin directory under the TimesTen
installation directory. On Windows, also include
the path to the Oracle Database installation if
you are using the TimesTen Cache option.
"PATH environment
variable" on
page 1-35, "Shared
library path
environment
variable" on page 1-37
and "Installing
TimesTen on
Windows systems" on
page 1-23
SYSODBCINI
Set to the location where the sys.odbc.ini file
used by TimesTen system databases is to be
found. The default location is usually sufficient,
so this can usually be left unset.
"SYSODBCINI
environment
variable" on page 1-36
SYSTTCONNECTINI
Set to the location for the sys.ttconnect.ini file "SYSTTCONNECTIN
I environment
used by TimesTen Client applications to define
variable" on page 1-36
logical server names. The default location is
usually sufficient, so this can usually be left
unset.
TMP or TMPDIR
Set to the location of the temporary directory.
TimesTen uses this directory during recovery
and other operations.
"Default installation
directories" on
page 1-14
TNS_ADMIN
If using TimesTen Cache, you must set this to
the location of the tnsnames.ora file.
"TNS_ADMIN
environment
variable" on page 1-36
Java
For Java applications, there are certain
environment variables that must be set.
"Java environment
variables" on
page 1-37
The following sections describe environment variables in TimesTen and how to set
them.
1-34 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Environment variables
■
Setting environment variables for TimesTen
■
Environment variable descriptions
Setting environment variables for TimesTen
If, after installation, you want to set the environment variables to standard TimesTen
settings, source the ttenv script on UNIX or run the ttenv.bat batch file on Windows.
This includes setting the path and classpath (and library path on UNIX systems) so
that TimesTen utilities can be executed, among other things. You must invoke ttenv
before starting TimesTen in order for any of the changes to take effect.
For UNIX platforms, use the appropriate script in the install_dir/bin directory,
either ttenv.sh or ttenv.csh, depending on your shell. Following are examples,
assuming your local directory is the bin directory (otherwise specify the full path).
For a Bourne-type shell, such as sh, bash, zsh, or ksh:
./ttenv.sh
For a csh or tcsh shell:
source ttenv.csh
For a Windows platform, execute the install_dir\bin\ttenv.bat batch file.
On Windows, the path, classpath, and library path are already
set during installation if "Register environment variables" is enabled,
which is the case by default.
Note:
Environment variable descriptions
Key environment settings are accomplished through ttenv as noted in the preceding
section. In case further information is needed, the following sections provide more
details on environment variables and indicates which are set by ttenv.
The following environment variables are described:
■
PATH environment variable
■
ODBCINI environment variable
■
SYSODBCINI environment variable
■
SYSTTCONNECTINI environment variable
■
TNS_ADMIN environment variable
■
Shared library path environment variable
■
Java environment variables
PATH environment variable
TimesTen provides utilities for managing and debugging TimesTen applications. To
make these utilities available, include install_dir/bin in the PATH setting.
Note: This variable is set by ttenv or, on Windows, during
installation if environment variables are registered (default).
TimesTen Installation 1-35
Environment variables
ODBCINI environment variable
TimesTen applications use the odbc.ini file to define data sources and their
connection attributes. (For a description of connection attributes, see "Connection
Attributes" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference.) By default on UNIX
platforms, TimesTen first looks for the user odbc.ini file in the home directory of the
user running the TimesTen application. To override the name and location of this file
at run-time, set the ODBCINI environment variable to indicate a desired path and file
name before launching the TimesTen application.
If TimesTen cannot locate a user DSN file, TimesTen looks for the sys.odbc.ini file in
install_dir/info. (Also see the next section about the SYSODBCINI environment
variable.) For more information, see "Overview of user and system DSNs" in Oracle
TimesTen In-Memory Database Operations Guide.
SYSODBCINI environment variable
TimesTen applications use the sys.odbc.ini file to define system data sources and
their connection attributes. Any user can use a system data source. On Windows,
system DSNs are defined from the System DSN tab of the ODBC Data Source
Administrator. On UNIX, system DSNs are defined in the file install_
dir/info/sys.odbc.ini. To override the name and location of this file at run-time, set
the SYSODBCINI environment variable to the path name of a sys.odbc.ini file before
launching the TimesTen application.
TimesTen first looks for a DSN in the user odbc.ini file. (Also see the previous section
about the ODBCINI environment variable.) If it is not found there, TimesTen looks in
the sys.odbc.ini file.
SYSTTCONNECTINI environment variable
TimesTen client applications use the sys.ttconnect.ini file to define logical server
names. For a description of logical server names, see "Working with the TimesTen
Client and Server" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Operations Guide. By default
on UNIX platforms, TimesTen looks in install_dir/info/sys.ttconnect.ini. To
override the name and location of this file at run-time, set the SYSTTCONNECTINI
environment variable before launching the TimesTen Client application.
On Windows systems, you can configure logical server names using the ODBC Data
Source Administrator.
TNS_ADMIN environment variable
On platforms where TimesTen Cache is supported, to work with Oracle Database data
you must set the TNS_ADMIN environment variable to indicate the directory of the
tnsnames.ora file.
Note: On UNIX systems, this variable is set if you source ttenv. On
Windows, you can optionally set it during installation when
prompted.
The ttmodinstall utility with the -tns_admin option enables you to set a value for
this environment variable after installation. See Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database
Reference for more details on ttmodinstall.
1-36 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Environment variables
Shared library path environment variable
On Linux systems, add install_dir/lib to the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment
variable.
On Solaris systems, add install_dir/lib to the LD_LIBRARY_PATH or LD_LIBRARY_
PATH_64 environment variable, as appropriate.
On AIX systems, add install_dir/lib to the LIBPATH environment variable.
On Windows systems, add install_dir\lib to the LIB environment variable.
On Mac OS X systems, add install_dir/lib:install_dir/ttoracle_
home/instantclient_11_2 to the DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable.
On UNIX systems, the applicable variable is set if you source
ttenv. On Windows, LIB is set during installation if environment
variables are registered (default).
Note:
Java environment variables
The following sections provide more detail about the environment variables that affect
the environment for TimesTen Java applications.
■
Set the CLASSPATH variable
■
Set the shared library path variable
■
Set the THREADS_FLAG variable (UNIX only)
■
Set the PATH variable
Set the CLASSPATH variable Java classes and class libraries are found on CLASSPATH.
Before executing a Java program that loads any of the TimesTen JDBC drivers, the
CLASSPATH environment variable must contain the class library file:
install_dir/lib/ttjdbcjdk_ver.jar
Where jdk_ver indicates the version of the JDK that you are using. For example, for
JDK 5.0, jdk_ver is 5 and the file name would be ttjdbc5.jar. For JDK 6, jdk_ver is 6
and the file name would be ttjdbc6.jar.
Notes:
■
■
This variable is set by ttenv or, on Windows, during installation if
environment variables are registered (default).
If multiple JAR files are listed in the CLASSPATH, ensure the
TimesTen JAR file is listed first.
On UNIX, CLASSPATH elements are separated by colon. For example (sh type shell):
CLASSPATH=.:install_dir/lib/ttjdbc6.jar
export CLASSPATH
Or (csh type shell):
setenv CLASSPATH .:install_dir/lib/ttjdbc6.jar
On Windows, CLASSPATH elements are separated by semicolons.
TimesTen Installation 1-37
Environment variables
Also, on Windows, do not use quotes when setting the CLASSPATH environment
variable even if a directory path name contains spaces.
For example, this is correct:
set CLASSPATH=.;install_dir\lib\ttjdbc6.jar
This is incorrect:
set CLASSPATH=.;"install_dir\lib\ttjdbc6.jar"
If in doubt about the JDK version you have installed on your system, enter:
> java -version
If you are going to use the JMS/XLA interface, then you also must add the following
to your CLASSPATH:
install_dir/lib/timestenjmsxla.jar
install_dir/3rdparty/jms1.1/lib/jms.jar
install_dir/lib/orai18n.jar
For example, your CLASSPATH would look like the following example (replacing
install_dir as appropriate):
.:install_dir/lib/ttjdbc6.jar:install_dir/lib/timestenjmsxla.jar
:install_dir/3rdparty/jms1.1/lib/jms.jar:install_dir/lib/orai18n.jar
By default, JMS/XLA looks for a configuration file called jmsxla.xml in the current
working directory. To use another name or location for the file, you must specify it as
part of the environment variable in the InitialContext class and add the location to
the CLASSPATH setting. See Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Java Developer's Guide
for more information about the jmsxla.xml configuration file.
Set the shared library path variable Before running a Java program that loads the
TimesTen JDBC driver, the shared library path for your system environment variable
must be set to include the TimesTen install_dir/lib directory. The name of the
variable used for the shared library path depends on the system used.
System
Name of Variable
Linux
LD_LIBRARY_PATH
Solaris
LD_LIBRARY_PATH
AIX
LIBPATH
Windows
PATH
Mac OS X
DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH
Set the THREADS_FLAG variable (UNIX only) The TimesTen JDBC driver uses native
threads. Green threads are not supported.
On some UNIX platforms, to use the native threads package, you must set the
THREADS_FLAG environment variable to native. How you set the flag depends on your
shell.
In csh, the syntax is:
setenv THREADS_FLAG native
In sh, the syntax is as follows.
1-38 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
TimesTen Quick Start
THREADS_FLAG=native
export THREADS_FLAG
Set the PATH variable Ensure the javac and java executables are both on your
executable search path.
TimesTen Quick Start
During installation, you have options to install TimesTen documentation, which
includes Quick Start tutorial pages, and TimesTen Quick Start sample programs.
Quick Start materials are installed by default under the directory install_
dir/quickstart. On UNIX you have the option of specifying an alternative location.
Regardless of where you install Quick Start, the home page for further information is
install_dir/quickstart.html.
Quick Start provides tutorials, sample programs, and sample code for administration,
access control, application development, replication, and caching, including the
following areas.
Configuration and setup:
■
Creating, loading, and unloading a TimesTen database
■
Setting up user accounts and privileges
■
Using TimesTen utilities and built-in procedures for system operations
■
Setting up TimesTen Application-Tier Database Cache to cache an Oracle database
■
Setting up replication using active standby pairs and Oracle Clusterware
■
Configuring a Java EE or J2EE application server to work with TimesTen
■
Using Oracle SQL Developer with TimesTen
■
Using Oracle Enterprise Manager with TimesTen
Application development:
■
C applications using ODBC and XLA
■
C applications using Oracle Call Interface (OCI) or the Pro*C/C++ Precompiler
■
C++ applications using TimesTen TTClasses and XLA
■
Java applications using JDBC and JTA
■
PL/SQL applications
Performance and best practices:
■
Response time sample program
■
Programming tips
■
Database schema setup tips
■
Hardware configuration tips
■
Operating system configuration tips
Through the Quick Start home page, you can find information to set up and run the
sample programs if you also installed them.
■
Sample program schema and setup: The build_sampledb script creates a sample
database and demo schema. You must run this before you start using the sample
programs.
TimesTen Installation 1-39
Documentation installation
■
■
Sample program environment and setup: The ttquickstartenv script, a superset
of the ttenv script generally used for TimesTen setup, sets up the demo
environment. You must run this each time you enter a session where you want to
compile and run any of the sample programs.
Sample programs and setup: Quick Start sample programs are in subdirectories
under the quickstart/sample_code directory. For instructions on compiling and
running the programs, see the README files in the subdirectories. Also see
"Getting Started" and the various API links under "Sample Programs" on the
Quick Start home page.
Documentation installation
TimesTen documentation, including Quick Start tutorial pages, is installed along with
the TimesTen product unless you choose not to install the documentation. (Quick Start
sample programs are installed as a separate option.) Documents are provided in
HTML and PDF format. The HTML can be viewed in your browser. The PDF can be
viewed with the Adobe Acrobat Reader. If you do not have the Acrobat Reader, it is
available from the Adobe Systems website: http://www.adobe.com
Documentation is installed in the install_dir/doc directory.
TimesTen documentation is also available through the Oracle Technology Network at
the following location:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/database-technologies/timesten/documentation/index.html
This documentation library may be more current than the library installed with
TimesTen.
Installation problems
To avoid problems during installation, ensure you have met all prerequisites. Using
information in this installation guide and Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Release
Notes, confirm the following.
■
You have installed all required operating system patches.
■
You are running a supported version of the operating system.
■
You have made all required kernel configuration changes.
■
You have sufficient disk space.
■
■
On UNIX, you are a member of the TimesTen administrators group. See
"TimesTen instance administrators and users groups" on page 1-15.
On Windows, you are installing as a member of the local Administrators group.
1-40 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
2
Migration, Backup, and Restoration
2
This chapter describes migration, backup and restoration for the TimesTen database,
covering the following topics:
■
Overview: copying, migrating, and restoring a database
■
Backing up and restoring a database
■
Migrating a database
■
Altering a database
■
Globalization support during migration
Overview: copying, migrating, and restoring a database
TimesTen utilities for copying, restoring, and migrating a database enable you to
perform a variety of migration and upgrade tasks. Relevant utilities include the
following:
■
The ttBackup utility: Creates an image copy of the database that is compatible
only within the same major release line and on the same platform. This is a general
backup utility, but you can also use it to back up data for minor upgrades (for
example, from 11.2.2.x.x to 11.2.2.y.y) or for migrations that do not require any
changes to the size or structure of the database.
This utility saves one checkpoint file and a copy of the log files to create the image.
■
■
The ttRestore utility: Restores a database that was backed up using ttBackup.
The ttMigrate utility: Exports a database to a binary file or imports a database
from a binary file created by ttMigrate. (For those familiar with Oracle Database,
this is similar in nature to the Oracle Database export and import features.) This
utility exports the database in a release-neutral but platform-specific format. You
can use it for major upgrades (for example, from 11.2.1.x.x to 11.2.2.y.y).
To move between platforms, use the ttMigrateCS -c client/server version to
export a remote database into a file on your target system, in order to ensure the
appropriate format for the target system. Then use ttMigrate -r to restore the
contents of the file into the database.
Note: The ttMigrateCS version of ttMigrate is UNIX-only. On
Windows systems, you can do the equivalent by using ttMigrate to
connect to the source system from the target system through a defined
TimesTen client DSN.
Migration, Backup, and Restoration 2-1
Overview: copying, migrating, and restoring a database
■
■
■
The ttBulkCp utility: Writes a database table to an ASCII file, or restores a table to
a database from an ASCII file created by ttBulkCp.
The ttSchema utility: Outputs the SQL DDL statements used to create the schema
of a database or selected objects (such as tables, views, or sequences) of a database.
This is useful in conjunction with ttBulkCp, to give you the SQL statement to
create a table before restoring its data from ttBulkCp.
The ttDestroy utility: If the database will be in a new location, you can optionally
use this to destroy the old database once the new one is confirmed to be
functioning properly.
See "Utilities" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference for details about these
utilities.
You can alternatively use corresponding C functions for
ttBackup and ttRestore. See "TimesTen Utility API" in Oracle
TimesTen In-Memory Database C Developer's Guide.
Note:
Typical tasks may include the following.
TimesTen upgrades:
■
For a TimesTen minor or patch upgrade: Move to a TimesTen release in the same
major release line, without changing the size or structure of the database. You can
do an offline upgrade using ttBackup and ttRestore. "Moving to a different
minor or patch release of TimesTen (offline upgrade)" on page 3-13.
You can also, more typically, perform an in-place upgrade of the TimesTen
installation. See "In-place upgrades" on page 3-7.
■
For a TimesTen major upgrade: Move to a new major release of TimesTen.
–
You can do an offline upgrade using ttMigrate -c from the old release to
export the data, and ttMigrate -r from the new release to import the data.
See "Moving to a different major release of TimesTen" on page 3-12.
–
You can do an online upgrade with replication (as applicable for your
situation), using ttMigrate. See "Online upgrades with replication" on
page 3-8.
Database migrations:
■
■
Move to a different system of the same platform type using the same major
TimesTen release line. Use ttBackup and ttRestore. See "Moving a database to a
different computer (same platform)" on page 2-5.
Move to a different hardware or software platform, or from a 32-bit system to a
64-bit system. Use ttMigrateCS and ttMigrate. See "Moving a database to a
different platform" on page 2-6.
Database alterations:
■
■
Move to a different directory on the same system. Use ttBackup and ttRestore.
See "Moving a database to a different directory" on page 2-7.
Reduce database size. Use ttMigrate. See "Reducing database size" on page 2-8.
You can also use this procedure to compact the database in
order to reduce fragmentation.
Note:
2-2 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Backing up and restoring a database
Other tasks:
■
■
■
Take a snapshot of a database and then restore the database in the same state. Use
ttBackup and ttRestore.
Move selected tables of a database to a new location or platform. You can use
ttMigrate if the target is the same platform. You can use ttMigrate with
ttMigrateCS if the target is a different platform. (Alternatively, you can use
ttBulkCp with ttSchema to move to a different platform, but ttMigrate with
ttMigrateCS is generally easier and faster.)
Change the metadata (for example, change a column name). Use ttBulkCp and
ttSchema.
Reset connection attributes to reflect the changes you made,
such as DataStore when you move the database to a different
directory or PermSize when you reduce database size.
Note:
See "Connection Attributes" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database
Reference for details about these connection attributes.
Backing up and restoring a database
The TimesTen backup and restore facility enables you to create a backup of any
TimesTen database to restore it at a later time. The primary use for the backup and
restore facility is to allow the restoration of a recent state of a database that has been
lost. For details about using the TimesTen backup and restore facility, see "ttBackup"
and "ttRestore" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference.
Note:
You cannot use these utilities in a client-only installation.
TimesTen backup features
Every database backup contains the information needed to restore the database as it
existed at the backup point, which is the time the backup began. Restoration of a
database from a given backup restores the modifications of all transactions that
committed before the backup point.
A backup operation is atomic: If it completes successfully, it produces a backup you
can use to restore a database to the state of its backup point. If it fails for any reason, it
leaves the files of any existing backup intact and its backup point unchanged.
TimesTen writes a database backup to a location specified by a backup path, which
consists of a directory name and an optional basename. You must specify the backup
directory and basename when the backup is created. The basename defaults to the
basename of the database itself if you do not specify a basename.
Migration, Backup, and Restoration 2-3
Backing up and restoring a database
Important:
■
■
Do not manually change the contents of the backup directory. The
addition, removal, or modification of any file in the backup
directory, except for modifications made by ttBackup and
ttRestore themselves, may compromise the integrity of the
backup. In this event, restoration of the database from the backup
may not be possible.
Databases containing cache groups can be backed up with the
ttBackup utility; however, when restoring such a backup, special
consideration is required. The restored data within the cache
groups may be out of date or out of sync with the data in the
back-end Oracle database. To restore a database that contains
cache groups, see "Backing up and restoring a database with cache
groups" in Oracle TimesTen Application-Tier Database Cache User's
Guide.
Types of backup provided
TimesTen supports both full and incremental backups. TimesTen also allows stream
backups.
■
■
■
Stream: A stream backup writes the database backup file to stdout.
Full: A full backup saves the entire database. For full backups, you must have
enough disk space available to hold both the existing backup and the new backup,
until the new backup succeeds.
Incremental: An incremental backup augments an existing incremental-enabled
backup of the same database. An incremental backup moves the backup point of
an existing backup forward in time by augmenting the backup with all of the
transaction log records created since its last backup point.
An incremental backup typically completes much faster than a full backup, as it
has less data to copy. The performance gain of incremental backups over full
backups comes at the cost of increased disk usage and longer restoration times.
Use incremental backups in concert with full backups to achieve a balance
between backup time, disk usage, and restoration time.
Before you can perform an incremental backup, you must first enable your backup
to allow for incremental backups by executing the ttBackup utility command with
the -fileFullEnable or the -fileIncrOrFull options. In either case, if your
backup was not previously enabled for incremental, a full file backup is performed
before the backup is enabled for subsequent incremental backups. TimesTen
supports the creation of up to eight incremental-enabled backup instances for each
database. If you attempt to start a ninth incremental backup, TimesTen returns an
error.
If you restore a database from a backup, regardless of whether the backup was
enabled or disabled for incremental, the restored database is disabled for
incremental backups. Thus, if you want incremental backups, you must again
execute the ttBackup utility command with the -fileFullEnable or the
-fileIncrOrFull option to enable incremental backups.
A set of files containing backup information for a given database, residing at a given
backup path, is known as a backup instance. A given backup instance must be explicitly
enabled for incremental backups.
2-4 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Migrating a database
The files of the existing backup may be modified by a failed full or incremental
backup, but not in a way that compromises the ability to restore from them.
The total list of backup types supported by TimesTen are as follows:
Backup type
File or stream
Full or incremental
Incremental-enabled
Comment
fileFull
File
Full
No
This is the default.
fileFullEnable
File
Full
Yes
fileIncremental
File
Incremental
Yes
Fails if incremental
backup is not
possible.
fileIncrOrFull
File
Either
Yes
Performs
fileIncremental if
possible, or
fileFullEnable
otherwise.
streamFull
Stream
Full
No
incrementalStop
None
None
No
Takes no backup;
just disables existing
incremental-enabled
backup.
Migrating a database
This section discusses migration of TimesTen databases to a new location, covering the
following scenarios:
■
Moving a database to a different computer (same platform)
■
Moving a database to a different platform
These procedures are for standalone TimesTen databases. Replication and TimesTen
Cache scenarios are not considered here.
As discussed in appropriate subsections following, when a
database is moved between platforms or bit levels, ttMigrateCS (the
client/server version of ttMigrate) or Windows equivalent is
required. This is to remotely access the database to be saved, in order
to have the data file created on the local target system, assuring
proper format for the target system. The Windows equivalent is using
ttMigrate to connect to the source system from the target system
through a defined TimesTen client DSN.
Note:
Moving a database to a different computer (same platform)
You can use the ttBackup and ttRestore utilities to move a database between two
computers that have the same major release of TimesTen, the same CPU architecture,
and the same operating system.
To copy a database from one system to another with the same CPU architecture and
operating system:
1.
Disconnect applications from the database.
2.
Back up the database on the original system using ttBackup. For example:
ttBackup -dir /tmp/dump -fname salesdata SalesData
Migration, Backup, and Restoration 2-5
Migrating a database
3.
Move the backup to the new system.
4.
Create a DSN for the database on the new system. See "Creating a Data Manager
DSN on UNIX" or "Creating a Data Manager DSN on Windows" in Oracle
TimesTen In-Memory Database Operations Guide.
5.
Confirm the DataStore connection attribute is set correctly for the location on the
new system.
6.
Restore the backup on the new system using ttRestore. For example:
ttRestore -dir /tmp/dump -fname salesdata NewSalesData
7.
As desired, once the database is operational on the new system, use the ttDestroy
utility to destroy the database on the old system, and delete the old DSN.
Moving a database to a different platform
The internal format of a TimesTen database differs between platforms. You can use
this procedure to move a database from one platform to another, such as from Solaris
to Linux or from a 32-bit platform to a 64-bit platform, and reformat it for the target
platform.
1.
Disconnect applications from the database.
2.
From the target system, use ttMigrateCS (or Windows equivalent) to connect in
client/server mode to the database on the originating system and use the -c
option to create a data file for the database on the target system. For example:
ttMigrateCS -c salesdata1 salesdata.dat
3.
On the target system, create a DSN for the database. See "Creating a Data Manager
DSN on UNIX" or "Creating a Data Manager DSN on Windows" in Oracle
TimesTen In-Memory Database Operations Guide.
4.
Recreate the database using AutoCreate=1, such as in the following example:
ttIsql -connstr "dsn=salesdata2;AutoCreate=1" -e "quit"
The database will be empty at this point.
5.
Confirm the DataStore connection attribute is set correctly for the location on the
new system.
6.
On the target system, import the file created by ttMigrateCS into the new
database using the ttMigrate utility with the -r option and the -relaxedUpgrade
option. For example:
ttMigrate -r -relaxedUpgrade salesdata2 salesdata.dat
7.
As desired, once the database is operational on the new system, use the ttDestroy
utility to destroy the database on the old system, and delete the old DSN.
Notes: Be aware of the following when moving between 32-bit and
64-bit platforms.
■
■
When changing bit levels, the database cannot be involved in a
replication scheme.
TimesTen does not support replication between a 32-bit database
and a 64-bit database.
2-6 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Altering a database
Altering a database
This section discusses scenarios where the database remains on the same system,
covering the following topics:
■
Moving a database to a different directory
■
Reducing database size
These procedures are for standalone TimesTen databases. Replication and TimesTen
Cache scenarios are not considered here.
As discussed in appropriate subsections following, when a
database is moved between platforms or bit levels, ttMigrateCS (the
client/server version of ttMigrate) or Windows equivalent is
required. This is to remotely access the database to be saved, in order
to have the data file created on the local target system, assuring
proper format for the target system. The Windows equivalent is using
ttMigrate to connect to the source system from the target system
through a defined TimesTen client DSN.
Note:
Moving a database to a different directory
The TimesTen daemon identifies a database by the full path name of the database
checkpoint files. To move a TimesTen database to a different directory, back up the
database using the ttBackup utility, create a new DSN definition that specifies the new
database path name, then restore the database into its new location using the
ttRestore utility.
Examples in the following procedure move a database from /old/SalesData/sales
with a database name SalesData to /new/SalesData/sales with database name
NewSalesData, using the /tmp/dump directory for temporary storage. (The examples
are for a UNIX system. Do the equivalent on a Windows system.)
1.
Create a temporary directory. For example:
mkdir /tmp/dump
2.
Disconnect applications from the database.
3.
Back up the database to the temporary directory using ttBackup. For example:
ttBackup -dir /tmp/dump -fname salesdata SalesData
4.
Unload the database from memory. For more information, see "Unloading a
database from memory" on page 3-9.
5.
Create a DSN definition for the new location and specify the new database path.
For example: /new/SalesData/sales/NewSalesData.
6.
Confirm the DataStore connection attribute is set correctly for the new location.
7.
Restore the backup in the new location. For example:
ttRestore -dir /tmp/dump -fname salesdata NewSalesData
8.
Remove the temporary directory. For example:
rm -r /tmp/dump
9.
After you confirm the database is operational in the new location, optionally use
the ttDestroy utility to destroy it in the old location, and delete the old DSN.
Migration, Backup, and Restoration 2-7
Globalization support during migration
Reducing database size
Once a database has been defined with a particular size for the permanent region
(indicated by the PermSize DSN attribute), it cannot be loaded at a smaller size, even if
tables or rows are deleted. A copy of the database made with ttBackup also has the
permanent region size of the database embedded in it.
To reduce the allocated size of the permanent region of a database, you must save a
copy using the ttMigrate utility then re-create the database with a smaller permanent
region size and restore the data.
Perform these steps to reduce the permanent region size of a database:
1.
Disconnect applications from the database.
2.
Use the ttMigrate -c option to create a data file for the database. For example:
ttMigrate -c salesdata /tmp/salesbackup
3.
Unload the database from memory. For more information, see "Unloading a
database from memory" on page 3-9.
4.
To modify the original DSN rather than create a new one, you must destroy the
original database files using the ttDestroy utility before restoring from the
backup.
5.
Create a new DSN definition for the new copy of the database with a smaller
PermSize value.
6.
Recreate the database using AutoCreate=1, such as in the following example:
ttIsql -connstr "dsn=salesdata;AutoCreate=1" -e "quit"
The database will be empty at this point.
7.
Restore the backup, using the ttMigrate -r and -relaxedUpgrade options. For
example:
ttMigrate -r -relaxedUpgrade salesdata /tmp/salesbackup
Notes:
■
■
The permanent region size of a database cannot be reduced below
the size that is required by the data currently stored in the
database. This value can be determined by querying the perm_in_
use_size column of the system table sys.monitor.
You can also use this procedure to compact the database in order
to reduce fragmentation caused by partially full table pages or
fragmentation of the heap buffers that store index nodes and
out-of-line values.
Globalization support during migration
The ttMigrate utility saves one or more migration objects from a TimesTen database
into a binary data file or restores the objects from the binary data files into a TimesTen
database. Migration objects include tables, cache group definitions, views, and
sequences.
The following topics describe what occurs with globalization issues during migration:
■
Object migration and character sets
2-8 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Globalization support during migration
■
Migration and length semantics
■
Migrating linguistic indexes
■
Migrating cache group tables
Also see the description of ttMigrate in the Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database
Reference.
Object migration and character sets
The ttMigrate utility tags each object it saves with the object's character set. By
default, ttMigrate stores object data in the database character set; however, you can
select a different character set by using the -saveAsCharset option. You can specify
this option in create mode (-c) or append mode (-a).
When you use ttMigrate to restore an object, the data is implicitly converted to the
database character set of the target database, if necessary. Character set conversion
may result in data loss if the database character set of the target database cannot
represent all of the data that it receives.
Notes:
■
■
■
If you use the -saveAsCharset option when saving an object, you
cannot use ttMigrate -r -exactUpgrade to restore it.
The ttMigrate utility issues a warning whenever there is an
implicit or explicit character set conversion while saving or
restoring data.
If character set conversion is requested when migrating databases,
performance may be slower than if character set conversion is not
requested.
If you know that the data is encoded in the database character set of the target
database, use the -noCharsetConversion option when restoring (-r). When using this
option, ttMigrate assumes that the data uses the same database character set of the
target database.
When you restore untagged character data from a database that was created before
release 7.0 into a database from release 7.0 and later, ttMigrate treats the data as if it is
in the database character set of the target database. All TimesTen databases from
release 7.0 and earlier use the TIMESTEN8 character set.
If you are migrating from a TimesTen database that uses TIMESTEN8 to a TimesTen
database that uses a different character set, the following may occur:
■
The query result may differ in the new TimesTen database with the new character
set. The user application may work on a multibyte character set and use the
TIMESTEN8 character set to store the character string as it is. When querying the
data using the LIKE predicate (or any scalar functions) to match a substring, the
query engine may match a binary pattern that does not begin or end at a character
boundary under TIMESTEN8 character set, since it is a single byte character set.
Every byte is treated as a character even it is actually in the middle of a multibyte
character.
Another possible issue arises if the user partitions a long character string and
stores it in separate rows. The string may be reconstructed later by concatenating
the values from multiple rows. This may work with the TIMESTEN8 character set.
Migration, Backup, and Restoration 2-9
Globalization support during migration
However, when using a multibyte character set, if the partition is not on the
character boundary, the string value can be changed. In this case, ensure that the
string is partitioned on the character boundary.
■
Performance may be slower with queries that use predicates or scalar functions on
character strings in databases with a character set other than TIMESTEN8.
Migration and length semantics
The ttMigrate utility saves length semantic information about CHAR and VARCHAR2
columns. It restores the length semantic information when restoring objects into
databases created in TimesTen release 7.0 or later.
When objects are migrated back into a TimesTen release before 7.0, columns with
character semantics are converted to byte semantics and the column length is adjusted
to match the byte length of the original columns.
When objects are migrated from a release before 7.0 to release 7.0 and later, byte
semantics is used.
Migrating linguistic indexes
The ttMigrate utility supports migration of linguistic indexes into TimesTen releases
that support them. When migrating back to a TimesTen release before 7.0, ttMigrate
issues a warning indicating that the linguistic indexes cannot be restored. Migration of
the table proceeds without the linguistic indexes.
Migrating cache group tables
You cannot restore cache group tables containing NCHAR/NVARCHAR2 columns to a
release before 7.0. Releases before 7.0 do not allow these data types in cache group
tables.
2-10 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
3
TimesTen Upgrades
3
This chapter describes the process of upgrading from one release of TimesTen to a
newer release of TimesTen. It includes the following topics:
■
Preliminary considerations
■
Upgrade modes
■
Performing an in-place upgrade
■
Performing an offline upgrade
■
Performing an online upgrade with replication
■
Performing an upgrade with active standby pair replication
■
Performing an offline TimesTen upgrade when using Oracle Clusterware
■
Performing an online TimesTen upgrade when using Oracle Clusterware
■
Upgrades when using parallel replication
■
Performing a Client/Server online upgrade
■
Record of upgrades with replication configured
For general information about TimesTen utilities to use during
upgrades, refer to "Overview: copying, migrating, and restoring a
database" on page 2-1.
Note:
Preliminary considerations
This section covers some areas to consider before upgrading TimesTen:
■
Data type considerations
■
Database character set considerations
■
Location of existing database files
■
Access control when upgrading from releases prior to 11.2.1
■
Replication considerations
Data type considerations
This section covers data type considerations, particularly those that are relevant if you
are upgrading from a release of TimesTen earlier than 7.0. It discusses the following
topics.
TimesTen Upgrades
3-1
Preliminary considerations
■
Data type compatibility
■
Data type considerations when upgrading from a TimesTen release before 7.0
Data type compatibility
TimesTen supports a selection of Oracle Database data types in addition to the original
TimesTen data types that are maintained for backward compatibility. For details on all
data types, see "Type specifications" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database SQL
Reference. Because some Oracle Database data types have the same names as the
backward-compatible TimesTen data types, a set of aliases exists for addressing the
data types. Which data types the aliases refer to depends on the TypeMode setting for
the database. See "TypeMode" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference for
more information.
TimesTen backward-compatible data types are replication-compatible with the data
types in releases of TimesTen before 7.0. However, TimesTen backward-compatible
data types are not compatible with TimesTen Cache. Use only Oracle Database data
types with TimesTen Cache. To use TimesTen Cache, you must convert any original
TimesTen data types to the Oracle Database data types when performing a database
migration with ttMigrate, described in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference.
See "Converting TimesTen data types to Oracle Database data types", following
shortly, for details.
Oracle Database data types are not replication-compatible with releases of TimesTen
before 7.0. To perform an upgrade that requires replication with a release of TimesTen
from before 7.0, you must upgrade the original data types as TimesTen data types. See
"Preserving TimesTen data types" on page 3-3 for more information.
Data type considerations when upgrading from a TimesTen release before 7.0
When performing an upgrade from a release before TimesTen 7.0, you must choose
whether to preserve the data types in your database as TimesTen data types, or
convert them to Oracle Database data types. Your planned use for the database and
your preferred upgrade method have an impact on this decision.
The following subsections cover each approach:
■
Converting TimesTen data types to Oracle Database data types
■
Preserving TimesTen data types
Converting TimesTen data types to Oracle Database data types If you intend to use your
database with TimesTen Cache, you must convert your TimesTen data types to Oracle
Database data types.
To convert the data types from a release before TimesTen 7.0 to Oracle Database data
types, you must use the -convertTypesToOra option for ttMigrate (described in
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference) when you restore your database as part
of your upgrade procedure. For example, if you restore the database salesdata as part
of an upgrade procedure, you may use the following to upgrade the data types to
Oracle Database data types:
ttMigrate -r -convertTypesToOra salesdata salesdata.mig
See "TimesTen to Oracle Database data type conversions" in Oracle TimesTen
In-Memory Database Reference for more information.
3-2 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Preliminary considerations
Notes:
■
■
You cannot perform an online upgrade using replication if you
are converting from TimesTen to Oracle Database data types, as
data types may only replicate to like data types. (This replication
restriction is not an issue when upgrading from TimesTen 7.0 or
later and data types have been converted to Oracle Database data
types.)
Because the Oracle Database and TimesTen versions of some data
types behave slightly differently, you should thoroughly test any
applications written for releases of TimesTen before 7.0 with the
Oracle Database data types before deploying them with the new
release of TimesTen.
Preserving TimesTen data types If you intend to perform an online upgrade using
replication, you must preserve your data types as TimesTen data types. See "Online
upgrades with replication" on page 3-8 for more information.
If you choose to preserve the data types in a database from a release before TimesTen
7.0 as TimesTen data types, you are not required to use any special options when
restoring the database with ttMigrate. The data types from a release before TimesTen
7.0 are automatically restored as TimesTen data types.
Note: The default TypeMode setting is 0, for Oracle type mode. In this
mode, a data type such as CHAR has the semantics of the Oracle
Database CHAR data type rather than the TimesTen CHAR data type. To
guarantee compatibility with applications written for TimesTen
releases before 7.0, you should configure the DSN for your database
with a TypeMode setting of 1 before restoring the database with
ttMigrate (described in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference)
as part of the upgrade procedure.
See "TypeMode" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference for
additional information.
Database character set considerations
This section covers database character set considerations, including those that are
relevant if you are upgrading from a release of TimesTen earlier than 7.0. It discusses
the following topics:
■
Database character set specification
■
Character set restrictions when upgrading from a TimesTen release before 7.0
■
Database character set conversion
Database character set specification
TimesTen requires a database to be configured to support a specific character set when
it is created. The character set for the database is specified using the database attribute
DatabaseCharacterSet, described in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference.
The value of this attribute determines which characters may be input to and output
from character fields, and how character data is stored and sorted. See "Choosing a
database character set" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Operations Guide and
TimesTen Upgrades
3-3
Preliminary considerations
"Supported character sets" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference for more
information.
Be aware of the following points.
■
■
If you plan to use the database with TimesTen Cache, or you plan to use the
ttLoadFromOracle built-in procedure to populate TimesTen tables from an Oracle
database, you must specify a value for DatabaseCharacterSet that is the same as
the character set specified for the Oracle database to which the TimesTen database
connects.
Replication is not possible between databases with different character sets.
Character set restrictions when upgrading from a TimesTen release before 7.0
If you perform an upgrade from a release before TimesTen 7.0, consider the following
important restrictions.
■
■
Because databases created with releases of TimesTen before 7.0 do not have a
database character set specified, a special database character set, TIMESTEN8, was
created, which allows replication compatibility between databases created by the
current release of TimesTen and those created by earlier releases. If you plan to
perform the TimesTen upgrade as an online upgrade with replication (see
"Performing an online upgrade with replication" on page 3-14), then you must
specify a DatabaseCharacterSet of TIMESTEN8 in your DSN.
If you use TimesTen Client/Server and intend to connect to a database in an
upgraded TimesTen instance with an application linked to a Client ODBC library
from a release before TimesTen 7.0, you must specify a DatabaseCharacterSet of
TIMESTEN8 in your DSN to ensure compatibility. See "Performing a Client/Server
online upgrade" on page 3-48.
The TIMESTEN8 database character set is intended for use only
when transitioning from a release of TimesTen before 7.0. When you
no longer need your database to replicate to a pre-7.0 release of
TimesTen, or to connect to a pre-7.0 client application, you should use
ttMigrate, described in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference,
to convert your database to a database character set other than
TIMESTEN8. See the next section, "Database character set conversion",
for details.
Note:
Database character set conversion
In some cases, you may need to change the configured database character set as part of
the upgrade process. There are two particular cases in which a database character set
change is required:
■
■
You must change your database character set from the one that you originally
specified to a new one that fits your requirements more closely.
You have specified the database character set as TIMESTEN8 to upgrade from a
release of TimesTen before 7.0 using online upgrade with replication or
Client/Server. After the upgrade is complete for all databases and client
applications, you should convert each database from this special transitional
character set to the national character set you prefer to use for your region.
You can use ttMigrate to convert a database from any character set to any other
character set by completing the following steps.
3-4 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Preliminary considerations
1.
Save the database to a file using ttMigrate. For example, to save the database
salesdata to the file salesdata.mig, use the command.
ttMigrate -c salesdata salesdata.mig
2.
Destroy the database, using ttDestroy.
ttDestroy salesdata
3.
Change the value of the DSN attribute DatabaseCharacterSet for your database
to the value specifying the new character set. For example, if you want your
database to use the WE8ISO8859P1 character set, use the following line in your
ODBCINI file.
DatabaseCharacterSet=WE8ISO8859P1
4.
Load the database from the file using ttMigrate. TimesTen automatically converts
the character data from the character set the file was saved with to the character
set specified in the DSN.
ttMigrate -r salesdata salesdata.mig
Notes:
■
■
It is possible that character data is lost in the conversion process if
no mapping exists from one character set to the other for a given
character.
If you are upgrading from a release earlier than TimesTen 7.0 and
converting from the TIMESTEN8 character set, use the ttMigrate
-noCharsetConversion option. This ensures that no character
values are changed when the data is loaded into the DSN using
the new character set. For example:
ttMigrate -r -noCharsetConversion salesdata salesdata.mig
Location of existing database files
As noted in "Considerations for locations of database files and other user files" on
page 1-14, it is strongly recommended that you not store any database files or user
files under the TimesTen installation path, where they may be removed during
upgrade or uninstallation operations.
If, however, you do have databases under the installation directory, you can use the
following general steps to move each database elsewhere:
1.
Use the ttBackup utility to back up the database.
2.
Use the ttDestroy utility to destroy the database.
3.
Update the DSN definition for the database so that the DataStore and LogDir
connection attributes reference a location outside of the installation path.
4.
Use the ttRestore utility to restore the database to the new location.
For more information about these utilities and attributes, see "Utilities" and
"Connection Attributes" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference.
Also see "Moving a database to a different directory" on page 2-7.
TimesTen Upgrades
3-5
Upgrade modes
Access control when upgrading from releases prior to 11.2.1
Access control is mandatory in TimesTen beginning with release 11.2.1. If you have
been using earlier releases of TimesTen without access control and you do not want to
initially secure your database objects after upgrading to the current release, you can
grant the ADMIN system privilege to PUBLIC using the following SQL command:
GRANT ADMIN TO PUBLIC;
If you grant the ADMIN privilege to PUBLIC, all users have unrestricted access to all
database objects and are able to perform all administrative tasks, except for those tasks
that must be performed as the instance administrator. Granting the ADMIN privilege to
PUBLIC should be viewed as a temporary workaround, for upgrade purposes only.
This is never recommended as a long-term approach, as it
results in an inherently insecure system.
Note:
Replication considerations
When using the ttMigrate utility to upgrade a database that is part of a replication
scheme, you must restore the replication scheme (using ttMigrate -r) to the same
database from which it was originally created (using ttMigrate -c). Attempting to
restore the migration file to a different database results in an error, and the replication
scheme will not be restored.
Upgrade modes
The type of upgrade you can perform—in-place, online, or offline—depends on the
level of upgrade—major or minor—among other factors. A major upgrade is one
between different major releases of TimesTen, such as from 11.2.1.x.x to 11.2.2.x.x. By
contrast, TimesTen databases from different patch releases of the same major release
are structurally equivalent or identical, so upgrading to a new patch release, such as
from 11.2.2.6.0 to 11.2.2.7.0, is considered a minor upgrade.
The following subsections describe the types of upgrades:
■
In-place upgrades
■
Offline upgrades
■
Online upgrades with replication
■
Online upgrades with Client/Server
For a minor upgrade, you are generally not required to migrate your existing
databases and can perform an in-place upgrade (on UNIX systems only).
For a major upgrade, you can usually perform an online upgrade, depending on your
situation.
Situations that require offline upgrades are noted in that section.
3-6 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Upgrade modes
Important:
There are steps you should take before performing any
upgrade:
■
■
While preparing for the upgrade, ensure that all databases are
unloaded from memory before upgrading TimesTen. For a
description of the procedures for unloading a database from
memory, see "Unloading a database from memory" on page 3-9.
During the installation of any new release, you should disconnect
your application. The TimesTen daemon process from the prior
release is stopped during uninstallation, effectively disconnecting
all applications that were still connected to any databases in the
instance.
In-place upgrades
In-place upgrades are available on UNIX systems for moving to a new patch release of
TimesTen, such as from release 11.2.2.6.0 to release 11.2.2.7.0. There are also equivalent
uninstallation and installation steps you can perform on Windows systems.
To perform an in-place upgrade, use the UNIX installer option to upgrade an existing
instance. The uninstallation of the old release and installation of the new release take
place in a single operation. New software libraries and binaries are installed in the
same location as before. If you choose default responses, existing databases will be
preserved (assuming they were not located under the install_dir directory) without
the necessity of using the TimesTen backup and migration utilities.
During the in-place upgrade, all applications must disconnect from databases in the
TimesTen instance being upgraded.
On Windows systems, you can perform equivalent steps to move between patch
releases by first uninstalling TimesTen, keeping your DSNs when prompted, then
installing the new release. As with an in-place upgrade on UNIX, this does not require
use of the backup and migration utilities.
See "Performing an in-place upgrade" on page 3-9.
Before upgrading, ensure that you do not have any
databases or important files under the TimesTen installation directory.
See "Considerations for locations of database files and other user files"
on page 1-14 and "Location of existing database files" on page 3-5 for
related information.
Important:
Offline upgrades
While an offline upgrade is in progress, databases are not available to applications.
Offline upgrades usually require enough disk space for two copies of each database in
the TimesTen instance being upgraded.
You can use offline upgrades to do the following:
■
■
Move to a new major release of TimesTen, using ttMigrate.
Move to a new minor or patch release of TimesTen, using ttBackup and
ttRestore.
TimesTen Upgrades
3-7
Upgrade modes
For a minor or patch upgrade, it is more typical to use an
in-place upgrade or Windows equivalent, as discussed in the
preceding section, "In-place upgrades".
Note:
Offline upgrades require all applications to disconnect from TimesTen during the
upgrade procedure. Databases must also be unloaded from shared memory. Offline
upgrades require you to use the TimesTen ttMigrate utility (for a major upgrade) or
ttBackup utility. (See "ttMigrate" and "ttBackup" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory
Database Reference.)
See "Performing an offline upgrade" on page 3-11.
Online upgrades with replication
When upgrading to a new major release of TimesTen, you may have a mission-critical
database that must remain continuously available to your applications. You can use
TimesTen replication to keep two copies of a database synchronized, even when the
databases are from different releases of TimesTen, allowing your applications to stay
connected to one copy of the database while the TimesTen instance for the other
database is being upgraded. When the upgrade is finished, any updates that have been
made on the active database are transmitted immediately to the database in the
upgraded TimesTen instance, and your applications can then be switched with no data
loss and no downtime. For more information, see "Performing an online upgrade with
replication" on page 3-14.
The online upgrade process supports only updates to user tables during the upgrade.
Data definition changes such as CREATE TABLE or CREATE INDEX are not replicated. In
addition, all tables to be replicated must have a PRIMARY KEY or a unique index on
non-nullable columns.
Because two copies of the database (or two copies of each database, if there are more
than one) are required during the upgrade, you must have available twice the memory
and disk space normally required, if performing the upgrade on a single system.
Notes:
■
■
■
Online major upgrades for active standby pairs with cache groups
are only supported for read-only cache groups.
Online major upgrades for active standby pairs that are managed
by Oracle Clusterware are not supported.
Replication is not supported between 32-bit and 64-bit databases.
Tables migrated using the ttMigrate -inline command should
not be replicated with tables that do not have inline columns, as
inline columns cannot be replicated with not inline columns.
Online upgrades with Client/Server
If you are upgrading a TimesTen Client/Server installation to a new major release,
you can minimize downtime by performing a Client/Server online upgrade. During
this process, TimesTen clients from the previous release are able to continue to
communicate with a database in a TimesTen instance that has been upgraded to the
new release. See "Performing a Client/Server online upgrade" on page 3-48.
3-8 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Performing an in-place upgrade
The Client/Server online upgrade process minimizes, but does not eliminate, the
interruption of client application access to the database in the TimesTen instance being
upgraded. To maintain nearly continuous availability of a database to all clients, you
may use the approach discussed in the preceding section, "Online upgrades with
replication". This procedure keeps an identical copy of the database available to the
old release of TimesTen Server, while you perform the upgrade. Once the original
database is available to the new release of TimesTen Server, you may stop the old
release and start the new release, listening on the same port. The only interruption in
availability using this method is the very brief period after the old server is stopped
and before the new server is started.
Performing an in-place upgrade
You can perform an in-place upgrade of a TimesTen instance on a UNIX system if you
are moving between patch releases (staying within the same major TimesTen release),
such as upgrading from one 11.2.2.x.x release to a higher 11.2.2.x.x release. This does
not require migrating the databases.
On Windows systems, there is no installer option for such an upgrade. Instead, even
when just moving between patch releases, you must perform a separate uninstallation
and installation of TimesTen. As with an in-place upgrade on UNIX, migrating the
databases is not required.
Before the upgrade, for each database in the instance, all applications must disconnect
from the database and the database must be unloaded from shared memory.
The following subsections discuss the process for performing an in-place upgrade or
Windows equivalent:
■
Unloading a database from memory
■
Performing the upgrade
■
Reloading a database into memory
Unloading a database from memory
A TimesTen database remains loaded in shared memory if any applications or
TimesTen agents, such as the cache agent or replication agent, are connected to it. A
database may also be kept in shared memory for particular RAM policy configurations
set using the ttAdmin utility, even when no applications or agents are connected. (See
"ttAdmin" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference.)
Use the following steps to unload a database from memory in a TimesTen instance
being upgraded. All steps must be completed for each database in the TimesTen
instance.
1.
Disconnect all applications from the database.
2.
If the replication agent is running on the database, set the replication state to pause
and stop the replication agent. This example references an active standby pair,
activedb and standbydb, where activedb belongs to the TimesTen instance being
upgraded. The example sets the replication state from activedb to standbydb to
pause, then stops the replication agent on activedb. Assume standbydb does not
belong to the TimesTen instance being upgraded.
ttRepAdmin -receiver -name activedb -state pause standbydb
ttAdmin -repStop activedb
TimesTen Upgrades
3-9
Performing an in-place upgrade
3.
If the cache agent is running on the database, stop the cache agent. This example
references a database cachedb that uses TimesTen Cache and belongs to the
TimesTen instance being upgraded. (The example does not consider replication. If
the cache agent is running, this step must be performed regardless of whether the
database is configured for replication.)
ttAdmin -cacheStop cachedb
4.
Unload the database from memory using ttAdmin. The first example assumes
RAM policy is set to manual and references a database upgradedb that belongs to
the TimesTen instance being upgraded. (The example does not consider
replication or cache. This step must be performed regardless of whether the
database is configured for replication or cache.)
ttAdmin -ramUnload upgradedb
Or, if the RAM policy is set to always, change it to manual, then unload the
database from memory. For example:
ttAdmin -ramPolicy manual -ramUnload upgradedb
Or, if the RAM policy is inUse and a grace period is set, set the grace period to 0 or
wait for the grace period to elapse. This results in the database being unloaded.
For example:
ttAdmin -ramGrace 0 upgradedb
5.
Use the ttStatus utility to verify that the database has been unloaded from
memory. The utility will indicate "There are no connections to the data store."
(When a database is loaded into memory, there are automatic subdaemon
connections.)
See "ttStatus" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference.
6.
Optionally stop the TimesTen daemon. (During an in-place upgrade, the daemon
is automatically stopped.)
ttDaemonAdmin -stop
Also see "Reloading a database into memory", following shortly.
Note: The activedb, cachedb and upgradedb databases, for example,
can be the same database. A TimesTen database can have both
replication and cache configured, and a RAM policy other than
manual.
Performing the upgrade
To perform an in-place upgrade on a UNIX system, use the TimesTen installer option
to upgrade an existing instance (not install a new instance). UNIX installer options are
covered in "Installing TimesTen" on page 1-18.
The uninstallation of the old release and installation of the new release take place in a
single process. New software libraries and binaries are installed in the same location as
before. You are prompted whether to remove files in install_dir/info and install_
dir/network/admin/samples. Presuming you choose the default "no" responses,
existing databases will be preserved (assuming they were not located under the
install_dir directory) and their configurations will be preserved (in the info
directory) without the databases having to be migrated.
3-10 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Performing an offline upgrade
On Windows systems, there is no installer option for such an upgrade. Instead, when
moving between patch releases (staying within the same major TimesTen release), you
must perform an uninstallation of TimesTen followed by an installation of the new
release. Uninstallation on Windows is covered in "Uninstalling TimesTen on Windows
systems" on page 1-28. Presuming you choose to save your DSNs while uninstalling,
existing databases will be preserved (assuming they were not located under the
install_dir directory) and their configurations will be preserved without the
databases having to be migrated. Installation on Windows is covered in "Installing
TimesTen" on page 1-23.
Before upgrading, ensure that you do not have any
databases or important files under the TimesTen installation directory.
See "Considerations for locations of database files and other user files"
on page 1-14 and "Location of existing database files" on page 3-5 for
related information.
Important:
Reloading a database into memory
After unloading the databases from memory (as shown in "Unloading a database from
memory" on page 3-9) and upgrading the TimesTen instance, use commands such as
the following to reload a database into memory. (These examples are independent of
each other.) Such steps must be performed, as applicable, for each database in the
instance that was upgraded.
1.
Confirm the TimesTen daemon has started. (During an in-place upgrade, the
daemon should start automatically.) If necessary:
ttDaemonAdmin -start
2.
Use ttAdmin to reload the database into memory. If the RAM policy was manual
for the database upgradedb before the upgrade:
ttAdmin -ramLoad upgradedb
Or, if the RAM policy was always before the upgrade, change it back to always.
This results in the database being reloaded. For example:
ttAdmin -ramPolicy always upgradedb
Or, if the RAM policy is inUse and you changed the grace period to 0, change it
back to its original setting. For example:
ttAdmin -ramPolicy inUse -ramGrace 300 upgradedb
3.
To restart replication (assuming activedb of an active standby pair was in the
TimesTen instance being upgraded):
ttRepAdmin -receiver -name activedb -state start standbydb
ttAdmin -repStart activedb
4.
To restart TimesTen Cache (assuming cachedb uses cache and was in the
TimesTen instance being upgraded):
ttAdmin -cacheStart cachedb
Performing an offline upgrade
You can do an offline upgrade by exporting any database into an external file and then
importing the database with the desired changes. These upgrade procedures require
TimesTen Upgrades 3-11
Performing an offline upgrade
that all applications be disconnected from the database and that the database be
unloaded from shared memory. For applications that require continuous availability,
see "Performing an online upgrade with replication" on page 3-14.
This section covers the following topics:
■
Moving to a different major release of TimesTen
■
Moving to a different minor or patch release of TimesTen (offline upgrade)
These procedures are for standalone TimesTen databases. Replication and TimesTen
Cache scenarios are not considered here.
Moving to a different major release of TimesTen
You can have multiple TimesTen major releases installed on a system at the same time.
However, TimesTen databases created by one major release cannot be accessed
directly by applications of a different major release. To migrate data between
TimesTen major releases, for example from TimesTen 11.2.1 to 11.2.2, you must export
the data using the ttMigrate utility from the old release and import it using the
ttMigrate utility from the new release.
For additional information about particular scenarios where
an offline upgrade is required for a major TimesTen upgrade, see
"Offline upgrades for an active standby pair with cache groups" on
page 3-31 and "Performing an offline TimesTen upgrade when using
Oracle Clusterware" on page 3-34.
Note:
The general steps in an offline upgrade include the following. This procedure assumes
you will install the new release while the old release is still installed, which is
generally advisable until you are sure databases are correctly configured and fully
operational on the new release.
On the old release, for each database:
1.
Disconnect all applications from the database.
2.
Use ttMigrate with the -c option to save a copy of the database contents. For
example:
ttMigrateCS -c salesdata salesdata.dat
3.
Unload the database from memory. For more information, see "Unloading a
database from memory" on page 3-9. For an offline upgrade, stop the TimesTen
daemon (ttDaemonAdmin -stop) after unloading the database from memory.
4.
As necessary, use the ttDestroy utility to destroy the old database. This step is
required if the new database will be in the same location as the old database.
Important: It is advisable to first use ttBackup to back up the database, as a
precaution. The backup can be deleted once the database is fully operational on
the new release.
Once the preceding steps have been completed for each database, install the new
release of TimesTen. For more information, see Chapter 1, "TimesTen Installation".
Then confirm that the PATH and LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variables on your
system are set appropriately to point to the new TimesTen release.
On the new release, do the following for each database.
3-12 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Performing an offline upgrade
1.
Confirm the DataStore connection attribute is set correctly after the upgrade.
2.
Recreate the database using AutoCreate=1, such as in the following example:
ttIsql -connstr "dsn=salesdata;AutoCreate=1" -e "quit"
The database will be empty at this point.
3.
Use ttMigrate with the -r and (typically) -relaxedUpgrade options to restore the
backed up database to the new TimesTen release. For example:
ttMigrate -r -relaxedUpgrade salesdata salesdata.dat
Once databases are correctly configured and fully operational on the new release,
optionally uninstall the old release. Uninstallation is also covered in Chapter 1,
"TimesTen Installation".
Moving to a different minor or patch release of TimesTen (offline upgrade)
You can use the ttBackup and ttRestore utilities to move to a new minor or patch
release within the same major release line.
Notes:
■
■
For a minor or patch upgrade, it is more typical to use an in-place
upgrade or Windows equivalent, as discussed in "Performing an
in-place upgrade" on page 3-9.
On Windows, you cannot have two different releases from the
same major release (such as 11.2.2.6.0 and 11.2.2.7.0) installed
simultaneously on the same system.
The general steps in an offline upgrade to a new minor or patch release include the
following.
On the old release, for each database:
1.
Disconnect all applications from the database.
2.
Back up the database on the original system using ttBackup. For example:
ttBackup -dir /tmp/dump -fname salesdata SalesData
3.
Unload the database from memory. For more information, see "Unloading a
database from memory" on page 3-9. For an offline upgrade, stop the TimesTen
daemon (ttDaemonAdmin -stop) after unloading the database from memory.
4.
As necessary, use the ttDestroy utility to destroy the old database. This step is
required if the new database will be in the same location as the old database.
Once the preceding steps have been completed for each database, uninstall the old
release and install the new release of TimesTen. For more information, see Chapter 1,
"TimesTen Installation".
Then confirm that the PATH and LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variables on your
system are set appropriately to point to the new TimesTen release.
On the new release, for each database:
1.
Confirm the DataStore connection attribute is set correctly after the upgrade.
TimesTen Upgrades 3-13
Performing an online upgrade with replication
2.
Restore the backup on the new system using ttRestore, such as in the following
example.
ttRestore -dir /tmp/dump -fname salesdata SalesData
Performing an online upgrade with replication
"Performing an offline upgrade" on page 3-11 discussed how to perform various
maintenance operations on TimesTen databases that require that all applications be
stopped. This section describes how to use the TimesTen replication feature to perform
online upgrades for applications that require continuous data availability.
Typically, applications that require high availability of their data use TimesTen
replication to keep at least one extra copy of their databases up to date. An online
upgrade works by keeping one of these two copies available to the application while
the other is being upgraded. The procedures described in this section assume that you
have a bidirectional replication scheme configured and running for two databases, as
described in "Unidirectional or bidirectional replication" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory
Database Replication Guide.
Be aware of the following:
■
■
■
Replication functions across releases only if the database of the more recent release
of TimesTen was upgraded from a database of the older release of TimesTen. A
database created in the more recent release of TimesTen is not guaranteed to
replicate correctly with the older release. For example, replication between a
database created in a 7.0.6.x.x release of TimesTen and a database created in an
11.2.2.x.x release of TimesTen is not supported. However, if one database was
created in the 7.0.6.x.x release, and the peer database was also created in the
7.0.6.x.x release and then migrated to a TimesTen 11.2.2.x.x release, replication
between them is supported.
For active standby pairs, as applicable, see "Online upgrades for an active standby
pair with no cache groups" on page 3-20 and "Online upgrades for an active
standby pair with cache groups" on page 3-25. Online major upgrades for active
standby pairs with cache groups are only supported for read-only cache groups.
Instead see "Offline upgrades for an active standby pair with cache groups" on
page 3-31.
For use of Oracle Clusterware, as applicable, see "Performing an online TimesTen
upgrade when using Oracle Clusterware" on page 3-35. Online major upgrades are
not supported for active standby pairs managed by Oracle Clusterware. Instead
see "Performing an online TimesTen upgrade when using Oracle Clusterware" on
page 3-35.
The following sections describe how to perform an online upgrade with replication.
■
Procedural overview
■
Limitations
■
Requirements
■
Upgrade steps
■
Online upgrade example
Procedural overview
Upgrading a database from an older TimesTen release to a newer release is performed
by disconnecting all applications from one of two replicated copies of a database,
3-14 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Performing an online upgrade with replication
making a backup of the database with the ttMigrate utility from the older release,
loading the backup into a newer release database using the ttMigrate utility from the
newer release, and then reconnecting all applications to the database in the upgraded
TimesTen instance.
The general steps in an online upgrade include the following.
1.
Disconnect all applications from the database in the TimesTen instance being
upgraded.
2.
Shut down replication in the TimesTen instance being upgraded.
3.
Back up the database residing in the TimesTen instance being upgraded using the
older release's ttMigrate with the -c option.
4.
Install the newer release of TimesTen on the system being upgraded.
5.
Restore the replicated database in the upgraded TimesTen instance using the
newer release's ttMigrate with the -r option.
6.
Restart replication on the upgraded TimesTen instance.
7.
Reconnect all applications to the database in the upgraded TimesTen instance.
After ttMigrate has been used, all autorefresh cache groups in
post-upgrade database that is not part of an active standby pair have
AUTOREFRESH STATE set to OFF, no matter how it was set on the
database before the upgrade. Reset AUTOREFRESH STATE to ON by using
the ALTER CACHE GROUP statement.
Note:
To maintain continuous availability, applications continue to run on one copy of the
database while the upgrade is performed on the TimesTen instance of the
disconnected copy of the database. TimesTen replication retains updates made to the
active copy of the database during the upgrade period, and then transfers and applies
the updates to the post-upgrade database when replication is restarted. When the
replicated updates have been completely applied, the applications may be reconnected
to the post-upgrade database.
Limitations
Online upgrades can be performed only with databases for which all the user tables
meet the replication requirements. All the user tables must contain either a PRIMARY
KEY declaration or have a unique index declared over non-nullable columns.
Requirements
To perform online upgrades with replication, replication must be configured to use
static ports. See "Port assignments" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Replication
Guide.
If you are performing an online upgrade on a single system where a bidirectional
replication configuration does not exist, you must ensure that enough memory and
disk space are available to support two copies of the database where the upgrade is
being performed. Both the original database and its copy remain active for the
duration of the upgrade. To maintain the performance of your production
applications, you may want to create the copy of the database on a second system.
Additional disk space must be allocated to hold a backup copy of the database made
by the ttMigrate utility. The size of the backup copy is typically about the same as the
TimesTen Upgrades 3-15
Performing an online upgrade with replication
in-use size of the database. This size may be determined by querying the sys.monitor
table, using ttIsql as follows.
Command> SELECT perm_in_use_size FROM sys.monitor;
Upgrade steps
The following timeline illustrates the steps for performing an online upgrade while
replication is running. The upgrade system is the system on which the database
upgrade is being performed, and the active system is the system containing the
database to which the application remains connected.
The following steps are for a standard upgrade. Upgrading
from a database in TimesTen 11.2.1 that has the connection attribute
ReplicationApplyOrdering set to 0, or from a database in TimesTen
11.2.1 or TimesTen 11.2.2 that has ReplicationParallelism set to <2,
requires that you re-create the database, even if the releases are from
the same major release line.
Note:
Step
Upgrade system
Active system
1.
Configure replication to replicate to the
active system using static ports.
Configure replication to replicate to the
upgrade system using static ports.
2.
3.
Connect all applications to the active
database, if they are not connected.
Disconnect all applications from the
upgrade database.
4.
Set replication to the upgrade system to
the PAUSE state.
5.
Wait for updates to propagate to the active
system.
6.
Stop replication.
7.
Back up the database with ttMigrate -c.
8.
Stop the TimesTen daemon for the old
release of TimesTen.
9.
Install the new release of TimesTen.
10.
Create a DSN for the post-upgrade
database for the new TimesTen release,
using the ODBC Data Source
Administrator on Windows or the
.odbc.ini file on UNIX. Adjust
parallelism options for the DSN.
11.
Restore the database from the backup with
ttMigrate -r.
12.
Clear the replication bookmark and logs
using ttRepAdmin -receiver -reset and
by setting replication to the active system
to the stop and then the start state.
13.
Start replication.
3-16 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Performing an online upgrade with replication
Step
Upgrade system
Active system
14.
Set replication to the upgrade system to
the start state, ensuring that the
accumulated updates propagate once
replication is restarted.
15.
Start replication.
16.
Wait for all of the updates to propagate to
the upgrade system.
17.
Reconnect all applications to the
post-upgrade database.
After the above procedures are carried out on the upgrade system, the active system
can be upgraded using the same steps.
Online upgrade example
This section describes how to perform an online upgrade in a scenario with two
bidirectionally replicated TimesTen databases, using a specific example.
TimesTen 11.2.1 introduced the cache grid feature. By default,
this feature is enabled, and requires additional configuration before
cache groups may be created on a database. If you are upgrading an
environment containing cache groups from a release preceding 11.2.1,
you should set the CacheGridEnable attribute to 0 in each DSN
definition before beginning. For more information, see "Create a cache
grid" in Oracle TimesTen Application-Tier Database Cache User's Guide.
Note:
In the following discussion, the two TimesTen systems are referred to as the upgrade
system, on which the TimesTen instance (with its databases) is being upgraded, and
the active system, which remains operational and connected to the application for the
duration of the upgrade. After the procedure is completed, the same steps can be
followed to upgrade the active system. However, you may prefer to delay conversion
of the active system to first test the upgraded TimesTen instance.
The upgrade system in this example consists of the database upgrade on the server
upgradehost. The active system consists of the database active on the server
activehost.
Follow the steps listed here in the order they are presented. The online upgrade
procedures are as follows.
Step
Upgrade system
Active system
1.
Use ttIsql to alter the replication scheme
repscheme, setting static replication port
numbers so that the databases can
communicate across releases:
Use ttIsql to alter the replication scheme
repscheme, setting static replication port
numbers so that the databases can
communicate across releases:
Command> call ttRepStop;
Command> call ttRepStop;
Command> ALTER REPLICATION repscheme
ALTER STORE upgrade ON upgradehost
SET PORT 40000 ALTER STORE active ON
activehost SET PORT 40001;
Command> ALTER REPLICATION repscheme
ALTER STORE upgrade ON upgradehost
SET PORT 40000 ALTER STORE active ON
activehost SET PORT 40001;
Command> call ttRepStart;
Command> call ttRepStart;
TimesTen Upgrades 3-17
Performing an online upgrade with replication
Step
Upgrade system
Active system
2.
Disconnect all production applications
Use the ttRepAdmin utility to pause
connected to the database. Any workload replication from the database active to the
being run on the upgrade system must
database upgrade:
start running on the active system instead.
ttRepAdmin -receiver -name upgrade
-state pause active
This command temporarily stops the
replication of updates from the database
active to the database upgrade, but it
retains any updates made to active in the
database transaction log files. The updates
made to active during the upgrade
procedure are applied later, when upgrade
is brought back up. For details on setting
the replication state, see "Setting the
replication state of subscribers" in Oracle
TimesTen In-Memory Database Replication
Guide.
3.
Wait for all replication updates to be sent
to the database active. You can verify that
all updates have been sent by applying a
recognizable update to a table reserved for
that purpose on the database upgrade.
When the update appears in the database
active, you know that all previous
updates have been sent.
4.
Stop the replication agent with ttAdmin:
Stop the replication agent with ttAdmin:
ttAdmin -repStop upgrade
ttAdmin -repStop active
From this point on, no updates are sent to
the database active.
From this point on, no updates are sent to
the database upgrade.
For details on starting and stopping
replication agents, see "Starting and
stopping the replication agents" in Oracle
TimesTen In-Memory Database Replication
Guide.
5.
Use ttRepAdmin to stop replication from
the database upgrade to the database
active:
ttRepAdmin -receiver -name active
-state stop upgrade
This step prevents active from
accumulating updates to send to upgrade
and resets some replication bookmarks.
6.
Use ttMigrate to back up the database
upgrade. If the database is very large, this
step could take a significant amount of
time. If sufficient disk space is free on the
/backup file system, use the following
ttMigrate command:
ttMigrate -c upgrade
/backup/upgrade.dat
3-18 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Performing an online upgrade with replication
Step
Upgrade system
Active system
7.
If the ttMigrate command is successful,
destroy the database upgrade.
Restart the replication agent on the
database active:
To destroy a permanent database
(Temporary=0), use ttDestroy:
ttAdmin -repStart active
ttDestroy upgrade
To destroy a temporary database
(Temporary=1), use ttAdmin:
ttAdmin -ramUnload upgrade
8.
Install the new release of TimesTen.
Resume replication from active to
upgrade by setting the replication state to
start:
ttRepAdmin -receiver -name upgrade
-start start active
9.
Use ttMigrate to load the backup created
in step 6. into the database upgrade for the
new release of TimesTen:
ttMigrate -r upgrade
/backup/upgrade.dat
If the database is temporary
(Temporary=1), first use ttAdmin
-ramLoad:
ttAdmin -ramLoad upgrade
Note: In this step, you must use the
ttMigrate utility supplied with the new
release of TimesTen to which you are
upgrading.
10.
Use ttRepAdmin to clear the replication
bookmark and logs by resetting the
receiver state for the database active and
then setting replication to the stop state
and then the start state:
ttRepAdmin -receiver -name active
-reset upgrade
ttRepAdmin -receiver -name active
-state stop upgrade
sleep 10
ttRepAdmin -receiver -name active
-state start upgrade
sleep 10
Note: The sleep command is to ensure
that each state takes effect, as the state
change can take up to 10 seconds
depending on the resources and operating
system of the computer.
11.
Use ttAdmin to start the replication agent
on the new database upgrade and to begin
sending updates to the database active:
ttAdmin -repStart upgrade
TimesTen Upgrades 3-19
Performing an upgrade with active standby pair replication
Step
Upgrade system
Active system
12.
Verify that the database upgrade is
receiving updates from the database
active. You can verify that updates are
sent by applying a recognizable update to
a table reserved for that purpose in the
database active. When the update
appears in upgrade, you know that
replication is operational.
If the applications are still running on the
database active, let them continue until
the database upgrade has been successfully
migrated and you have verified that the
updates are being replicated correctly
from active to upgrade.
13.
Once you are sure that updates are
replicated correctly, you can disconnect all
of the applications from the database
active and reconnect them to the database
upgrade. After verifying that the last of the
updates from active are replicated to
upgrade, the TimesTen instance with
active is ready to be upgraded.
Note: You may choose to delay upgrading
the TimesTen instance with active to the
new TimesTen release until sufficient
testing has been performed with the
database upgrade in the new TimesTen
release.
Performing an upgrade with active standby pair replication
Active standby pair replication provides high availability of your data to your
applications. With active standby pairs, unless you want to perform an upgrade to a
new major release of TimesTen in a configuration that also uses asynchronous
writethrough cache groups, you can perform an online upgrade to maintain
continuous availability of your data during an upgrade of TimesTen. This section
describes the following procedures:
■
Online upgrades for an active standby pair with no cache groups
■
Online upgrades for an active standby pair with cache groups
■
Offline upgrades for an active standby pair with cache groups
Only asynchronous writethrough or read-only cache groups
are supported with active standby pairs.
Note:
Online upgrades for an active standby pair with no cache groups
This section includes the following topics for online upgrades in a scenario with active
standby pairs and no cache groups:
■
Online minor upgrade for standby master and subscriber
■
Online minor upgrade for active master
■
Online major upgrade for active standby pair
Also see "Performing an online upgrade with replication" on page 3-14 for an
overview, limitations, and requirements.
3-20 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Performing an upgrade with active standby pair replication
Online minor upgrade for standby master and subscriber
To perform an online minor upgrade to a new TimesTen patch release for the standby
master database and subscriber databases, complete the following tasks on each
database. For this procedure, assume there are no cache groups.
1.
Stop the replication agent on the database using the ttRepStop built-in procedure
or the ttAdmin utility. For example, to stop the replication agent for standby
database master2, you may use:
ttAdmin -repStop master2
2.
Install the new TimesTen patch release. See "Performing an in-place upgrade" on
page 3-9.
3.
Restart the replication agent using the ttRepStart built-in procedure or the
ttAdmin utility:
ttAdmin -repStart master2
Online minor upgrade for active master
To perform an online minor upgrade to a new TimesTen patch release for the active
master database, you must first reverse the roles of the active and standby master
databases, then perform an in-place upgrade. For this procedure, assume there are no
cache groups.
1.
Pause any applications that are generating updates on the active master database.
2.
Execute the ttRepSubscriberWait built-in procedure on the active master
database, using the DSN and host of the standby master database. For example, to
ensure that all transactions are replicated to the standby master master2 on the
host master2host:
call ttRepSubscriberWait( null, null, 'master2', 'master2host', 120 );
3.
Stop the replication agent on the current active master database using the
ttRepStop built-in procedure or the ttAdmin utility. For example, to stop the
replication agent for the active master database master1:
ttAdmin -repStop master1
4.
Execute the ttRepDeactivate build-in procedure on the current active master
database. This puts the database in the IDLE state:
call ttRepDeactivate;
5.
On the standby master database, set the database to the ACTIVE state using the
ttRepStateSet built-in procedure. This database becomes the active master in the
active standby pair:
call ttRepStateSet( 'ACTIVE' );
6.
Resume any applications that were paused in step 1, connecting them to the
database that is now acting as the active master (in this example, database
master2).
At this point, replication will not yet occur from the new active
database to subscriber databases. Replication will resume after the
host for the new standby database has been upgraded and the
replication agent of the new standby database is running.
Note:
TimesTen Upgrades 3-21
Performing an upgrade with active standby pair replication
7.
Upgrade the TimesTen instance of the former active master database, which is
now the standby master database. See "Performing an in-place upgrade" on
page 3-9.
8.
Restart replication on the database in the upgraded TimesTen instance, using the
ttRepStart built-in procedure or the ttAdmin utility:
ttAdmin -repStart master2
9.
To make the database in the newly upgraded TimesTen instance the active master
database again, see "Reversing the roles of the active and standby databases" in
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Replication Guide.
Online major upgrade for active standby pair
When you perform an online upgrade for an active standby pair to a new major
release of TimesTen, you must explicitly specify the TCP/IP port for each database. If
your active standby pair replication scheme is not configured with a PORT attribute for
each database, you must use the following steps to prepare for the upgrade. For this
procedure, assume there are no cache groups. (Online major upgrades for active
standby pairs with cache groups are only supported for read-only cache groups.)
1.
Stop the replication agent on every database using the call ttRepStop built-in
procedure or the ttAdmin utility. For example, to stop the replication agent on the
database master1:
ttAdmin -repStop master1
2.
On the active master database, use the ALTER ACTIVE STANDBY PAIR statement to
specify a PORT attribute for every database in the active standby pair. For example,
to set a PORT attribute for the databases master1 on the host master1host, master2
on the host master2host, and subscriber1 on the host subscriber1host:
ALTER ACTIVE
ALTER STORE
ALTER STORE
ALTER STORE
3.
STANDBY PAIR
master1 ON "master1host" SET PORT 30000
master2 ON "master2host" SET PORT 30001
subscriber1 ON "subscriber1host" SET PORT 30002;
Destroy the standby master database and all of the subscribers using the
ttDestroy utility. For example, to destroy the database subscriber1:
ttDestroy subscriber1
4.
Follow the normal procedure to start an active standby pair and duplicate the
standby and subscriber databases from the active master. See "Setting up an active
standby pair with no cache groups" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database
Replication Guide.
To upgrade the TimesTen instances of the active standby pair, first upgrade the
instance of the standby master. While this node is being upgraded, there is no standby
master database, so updates on the active master database are propagated directly to
the subscriber databases. Following the upgrade of the standby node, the active and
standby roles are switched and the new standby node is created from the new active
node. Finally, the subscriber nodes are upgraded.
1.
Instruct the active master database to stop replicating updates to the standby
master by executing the ttRepStateSave built-in procedure on the active master
database. For example, to stop replication to the standby master database master2
on host master2host:
call ttRepStateSave( 'FAILED', 'master2', 'master2host' );
3-22 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Performing an upgrade with active standby pair replication
2.
Stop the replication agent on the standby master database using the ttRepStop
built-in procedure or the ttAdmin utility. The following example stops the
replication agent for the standby master database master2.
ttAdmin -repStop master2
3.
Use the ttMigrate utility to back up the standby master database to a binary file.
ttMigrate -c master2 master2.bak
For information about ttMigrate, refer to Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database
Reference
4.
Destroy the standby master database, using the ttDestroy utility.
ttDestroy master2
5.
Uninstall the old release and install the new release of TimesTen on the standby
master host, master2host. See "Installing TimesTen on UNIX systems" on
page 1-18 or "Installing TimesTen on Windows systems" on page 1-23.
6.
In the new TimesTen instance on master2host, use ttMigrate to restore the
standby master database from the binary file created earlier. (This example
performs a checkpoint operation after every 20 megabytes of data has been
restored.)
ttMigrate -r -C 20 master2 master2.bak
7.
Start the replication agent on the standby master database using the ttRepStart
built-in procedure or the ttAdmin utility.
ttAdmin -repStart master2
When the standby master database in the upgraded TimesTen instance has
become synchronized with the active master database, this standby master
database moves from the RECOVERING state to the STANDBY state. The standby
master database also starts sending updates to the subscribers. You can determine
when the standby master database is in the STANDBY state by calling the
ttRepStateGet built-in procedure.
call ttRepStateGet;
8.
Pause any applications that are generating updates on the active master database.
9.
Execute the ttRepSubscriberWait built-in procedure on the active master
database, using the DSN and host of the standby master database. For example, to
ensure that all transactions are replicated to the standby master master2 on the
host master2host:
call ttRepSubscriberWait( null, null, 'master2', 'master2host', 120 );
10. Stop the replication agent on the active master database using the ttRepStop
built-in procedure or the ttAdmin utility. For example, to stop the replication agent
for the active master database master1:
ttAdmin -repStop master1
11. On the standby master database, set the database to the ACTIVE state using the
ttRepStateSet built-in procedure. This database becomes the active master in the
active standby pair.
call ttRepStateSet( 'ACTIVE' );
TimesTen Upgrades 3-23
Performing an upgrade with active standby pair replication
12. Instruct the new active master database (master2, in our example) to stop
replicating updates to what is now the standby master (master1) by executing the
ttRepStateSave built-in procedure on the active master database. For example, to
stop replication to the standby master database master1 on host master1host:
call ttRepStateSave( 'FAILED', 'master1', 'master1host' );
13. Destroy the former active master database, using the ttDestroy utility.
ttDestroy master1
14. Uninstall the old release and install the new release of TimesTen on master1host.
15. If you are upgrading from a TimesTen release earlier than 11.2.1, when access
control was introduced, you must create a user with ADMIN privileges on the new
active master database to duplicate that database. (If you are upgrading from
11.2.1 or higher, you can presumably use an ADMIN user that was migrated over by
ttMigrate.) For example, to create the user pat with the password patpwd on the
standby master database:
CREATE USER pat IDENTIFIED BY patpwd;
GRANT ADMIN TO pat;
16. Create a new standby master database by duplicating the new active master
database, using the ttRepAdmin utility. For example, to duplicate the database
master2 on the host master2host to the database master1, use the following on the
host containing the database master1:
ttRepAdmin -duplicate -from master2 -host master2host -uid pat -pwd patpwd
-setMasterRepStart master1
17. Start the replication agent on the new standby master database using the
ttRepStart built-in procedure or the ttAdmin utility.
ttAdmin -repStart master1
18. Stop the replication agent on the first subscriber database using the ttRepStop
built-in procedure or the ttAdmin utility. For example, to stop the replication agent
for the subscriber database subscriber1:
ttAdmin -repStop subscriber1
19. Destroy the subscriber database using the ttDestroy utility.
ttDestroy subscriber1
20. Uninstall the old release and install the new release of TimesTen on the subscriber
host.
21. Create the subscriber database by duplicating the new standby master database,
using the ttRepAdmin utility, as follows.
ttRepAdmin -duplicate -from master1 -host master1host -uid pat -pwd patpwd
-setMasterRepStart subscriber1
22. Start the replication agent for the duplicated subscriber database using the
ttRepStart built-in procedure or the ttAdmin utility.
ttAdmin -repStart subscriber1
23. Repeat step 18 through step 22 for each other subscriber database.
3-24 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Performing an upgrade with active standby pair replication
Online upgrades for an active standby pair with cache groups
This section includes the following topics for online minor upgrades in a scenario with
active standby pairs and cache groups:
■
Online minor upgrade for standby master and subscriber (cache groups)
■
Online minor upgrade for active master (cache groups)
■
Online major upgrade for active standby pair (read-only cache groups)
Also see "Performing an online upgrade with replication" on page 3-14 for an
overview, limitations, and requirements.
Online minor upgrade for standby master and subscriber (cache groups)
To perform an online minor upgrade to a new TimesTen patch release for the standby
master database and subscriber databases, in a configuration with cache groups,
complete the following tasks on each database (with exceptions noted).
1.
Stop the replication agent on the database using the ttRepStop built-in procedure
or the ttAdmin utility. For example, to stop the replication agent for standby
database master2:
ttAdmin -repStop master2
2.
Stop the cache agent on the standby database using the ttCacheStop built-in
procedure or the ttAdmin utility:
ttAdmin -cacheStop master2
3.
Install the TimesTen patch. See "Performing an in-place upgrade" on page 3-9.
4.
Restart the cache agent on the standby database using the ttCacheStart built-in
procedure or the ttAdmin utility:
ttAdmin -cacheStart master2
5.
Restart the replication agent using the ttRepStart built-in procedure or the
ttAdmin utility:
ttAdmin -repStart master2
Steps 2 and 4, stopping and restarting the cache agent, are not
applicable for subscriber databases.
Note:
Online minor upgrade for active master (cache groups)
To perform an online minor upgrade to a new TimesTen patch release for the active
master database, in a configuration with cache groups, perform the following steps.
You must first reverse the roles of the active and standby master databases, then
perform an in-place upgrade.
1.
Pause any applications that are generating updates on the active master database.
2.
Execute the ttRepSubscriberWait built-in procedure on the active master
database, using the DSN and host of the standby master database. For example, to
ensure that all transactions are replicated to the standby master master2 on the
host master2host:
call ttRepSubscriberWait( null, null, 'master2', 'master2host', 120 );
TimesTen Upgrades 3-25
Performing an upgrade with active standby pair replication
3.
Stop the replication agent on the current active master database using the
ttRepStop built-in procedure or the ttAdmin utility. For example, to stop the
replication agent for the active master database master1:
ttAdmin -repStop master1
4.
Stop the cache agent on the current active master database using the ttCacheStop
built-in procedure or the ttAdmin utility:
ttAdmin -cacheStop master1
5.
Execute the ttRepDeactivate build-in procedure on the current active master
database. This puts the database in the IDLE state:
call ttRepDeactivate;
6.
On the standby master database, set the database to the ACTIVE state using the
ttRepStateSet built-in procedure. This database becomes the active master in the
active standby pair:
call ttRepStateSet( 'ACTIVE' );
7.
Resume any applications that were paused in step 1, connecting them to the
database that is now acting as the active master (in this example, database
master2).
8.
Upgrade the TimesTen instance for the former active master database, which is
now the standby master database. See "Performing an in-place upgrade" on
page 3-9.
9.
Restart the cache agent on the post-upgrade database using the ttCacheStart
built-in procedure or the ttAdmin utility:
ttAdmin -cacheStart master1
10. Restart replication on the post-upgrade database using the ttRepStart built-in
procedure or the ttAdmin utility:
ttAdmin -repStart master1
11. To make the post-upgrade database the active master database again, see
"Reversing the roles of the active and standby databases" in Oracle TimesTen
In-Memory Database Replication Guide.
Online major upgrade for active standby pair (read-only cache groups)
Complete the following steps to perform a TimesTen major upgrade from an 11.2.1.x.x
release to an 11.2.2.x.x release in a scenario with an active standby pair with read-only
cache groups.
These steps assume an active master database master1 on host master1host and a
standby master database master2 on host master2host.
For more information on the built-in procedures and utilities
discussed here, see "Built-in Procedures" and "Utilities" in the Oracle
TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference.
Note:
1.
On the active master host, run the ttAdmin utility to stop the replication agent for
the active master database.
3-26 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Performing an upgrade with active standby pair replication
ttAdmin -repStop master1
2.
On the active master database, use the DROP ACTIVE STANDBY PAIR statement to
drop the active standby pair. For example, from the ttIsql utility:
Command> DROP ACTIVE STANDBY PAIR;
3.
On the active master database, use the CREATE ACTIVE STANDBY PAIR statement to
create a new active standby pair with the cache groups excluded. Ensure that you
explicitly specify the TCP/IP port for each database.
Command> CREATE ACTIVE STANDBY PAIR master1 ON "master1host",
master2 ON "master2host"
STORE master1 ON "master1host" PORT 20000
STORE master2 ON "master2host" PORT 20010
EXCLUDE CACHE GROUP cacheuser.readcache;
You can use the cachegroups command within the ttIsql
utility to identify all the cache groups defined in the database. In this
example, readcache is a read-only cache group owned by the
cacheuser user.
Note:
4.
On the active master database, call the ttRepStateSet built-in procedure to set the
replication state for the active master database to ACTIVE.
Command> call ttRepStateSet(’ACTIVE’);
To verify that the replication state for the active master database is set to ACTIVE,
call the ttRepStateGet built-in procedure.
Command> call ttRepStateGet();
< ACTIVE, NO GRID >
1 row found.
5.
On the active master database, call the ttRepStart built-in procedure to start the
replication agent.
Command> call ttRepStart();
6.
On the standby master host, run the ttAdmin utility to stop the replication agent
for the standby master database.
ttAdmin -repStop master2
7.
On the standby master host, run the ttAdmin utility to stop the cache agent for the
standby master database.
ttAdmin -cacheStop master2
8.
On the standby master host, run the ttDestroy utility to destroy the standby
master database. You must either add the -force option or first drop all cache
groups.
ttDestroy -force master2
9.
Create a new standby master database by duplicating the active master database
with the ttRepAdmin utility. For example, to duplicate the master1 database on the
master1host host of the master2 database, run the following on the host
containing the master2 database.
TimesTen Upgrades 3-27
Performing an upgrade with active standby pair replication
ttRepAdmin -duplicate -from master1 -host master1host -UID pat -PWD patpwd
-keepCG -cacheUid cacheuser -cachePwd cachepwd master2
Note: You need a user with ADMIN privileges defined in the active
master database for it to be duplicated. In this example, the pat user
identified by the patpwd password has ADMIN privileges.
To keep the cache group tables, you need a cache administration user
while adding the -keepCG option. In this example, the cacheuser user
identified by the cachepwd password is a cache administration user.
10. On the new standby master database, use the DROP CACHE GROUP statement to drop
all the cache groups.
Command> DROP CACHE GROUP cacheuser.readcache;
11. On the standby master host, run the ttMigrate utility to back up the standby
master database to a binary file.
ttMigrate -c master2 master2.bak
12. On the standby master host, run the ttDestroy utility to destroy the standby
master database.
ttDestroy master2
13. Uninstall the old release and install the new release of TimesTen on the standby
master host. See "Installing TimesTen on UNIX systems" on page 1-18 or
"Installing TimesTen on Windows systems" on page 1-23.
14. In the new TimesTen instance on the standby master host, run the ttMigrate
utility to restore the standby master database from the binary file created earlier.
ttMigrate -r -C 20 master2 master2.bak
This example performs a checkpoint operation after every 20
MB of data has been restored.
Note:
15. On the standby master database, use the CREATE USER statement to create a new
cache administration user.
Command> CREATE USER cacheuser2 IDENTIFIED BY cachepwd;
Command> GRANT CREATE SESSION, CACHE_MANAGER, CREATE ANY TABLE, DROP ANY TABLE
TO cacheuser2;
You must create the new cache administration user in the
Oracle database and grant the user the minimum set of privileges
required to perform cache grid and cache group operations. See
"Create users in the Oracle database" in the Oracle TimesTen
Application-Tier Database Cache User's Guide.
Note:
16. Connect to the standby master database as the cache administration user, and call
the ttCacheUidPwdSet built-in procedure to set the new cache administration user
name and password. Ensure you specify the cache administration user password
for the Oracle database in the OraclePWD connection attribute within the
connection string.
3-28 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Performing an upgrade with active standby pair replication
ttIsql "DSN=master2;UID=cacheuser2;PWD=cachepwd;OraclePWD=oracle"
Command> call ttCacheUidPwdSet(’cacheuser2’,’oracle’);
17. On the standby master database, call the ttCacheStart built-in procedure to start
the cache agent.
Command> call ttCacheStart();
18. On the standby master database, call the ttRepStart built-in procedure to start the
replication agent.
Command> call ttRepStart();
The replication state will automatically be set to STANDBY. You can call the
ttRepStateGet built-in procedure to confirm this. (This occurs asynchronously
and may take a little time.)
Command> call ttRepStateGet();
< STANDBY, NO GRID >
1 row found.
19. On the standby master database, use the CREATE READONLY CACHE GROUP statement
to create all the read-only cache groups.
Command> CREATE READONLY CACHE GROUP cacheuser2.readcache
AUTOREFRESH INTERVAL 10 SECONDS
FROM oratt.readtbl
(keyval NUMBER NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY, str VARCHAR(32));
Note: Ensure that the cache administration user has SELECT
privileges on the cache group tables in the Oracle database. In this
example, the cacheuser2 user has SELECT privileges on the readtbl
table owned by the oratt user in the Oracle database. For more
information, see "Create the Oracle Database tables to be cached" in
the Oracle TimesTen Application-Tier Database Cache User's Guide.
20. On the standby master database, use the LOAD CACHE GROUP statement to load the
data from the Oracle database tables into the TimesTen cache groups.
Command> LOAD CACHE GROUP cacheuser2.readcache
COMMIT EVERY 200 ROWS;
21. Pause any applications that are generating updates on the active master database.
22. On the active master database, call the ttRepSubscriberWait built-in procedure
using the DSN and host of the standby master database. For example, to ensure
that all transactions are replicated to the master2 database on the master2host
host:
Command> call ttRepSubscriberWait(NULL,NULL,’master2’,’master2host’,120);
23. On the active master database, call the ttRepStop built-in procedure to stop the
replication agent.
Command> call ttRepStop();
24. On the active master database, call the ttRepDeactivate built-in procedure to set
the replication state for the active master database to IDLE.
Command> call ttRepDeactivate();
TimesTen Upgrades 3-29
Performing an upgrade with active standby pair replication
25. On the standby master database, call the ttRepStateSet built-in procedure to set
the replication state for the standby master database to ACTIVE. This database and
its host become the active master in the active standby pair replication scheme.
Command> call ttRepStateSet(’ACTIVE’);
Note: In this example, the master2 database on the master2host host
just became the active master in the active standby pair replication
scheme. Likewise, the master1 database on the master1host host is
henceforth considered the standby master in the active standby pair
replication scheme.
26. On the new active master database, call the ttRepStop built-in procedure to stop
the replication agent.
Command> call ttRepStop();
27. On the active master database, use the ALTER CACHE GROUP statement to set the
AUTOREFRESH mode of all cache groups to PAUSED.
Command> ALTER CACHE GROUP cacheuser2.readcache
SET AUTOREFRESH STATE PAUSED;
28. On the active master database, use the DROP ACTIVE STANDBY PAIR statement to
drop the active standby pair.
Command> DROP ACTIVE STANDBY PAIR;
29. On the active master database, use the CREATE ACTIVE STANDBY PAIR statement to
create a new active standby pair with the cache groups included. Ensure you
explicitly specify the TCP/IP port for each database.
Command> CREATE ACTIVE STANDBY PAIR master1 ON "master1host",
master2 ON "master2host"
STORE master1 ON "master1host" PORT 20000
STORE master2 ON "master2host" PORT 20010;
30. On the active master database, call the ttRepStateSet built-in procedure to set the
replication state for the active master database to ACTIVE.
Command> call ttRepStateSet(’ACTIVE’);
31. On the active master database, call the ttRepStart built-in procedure to start the
replication agent.
Command> call ttRepStart();
32. Resume any applications that were paused in step 21, connecting them to the new
active master database.
33. On the new standby master host, run the ttDestroy utility to destroy the new
standby master database.
ttDestroy master1
34. Uninstall the old release and install the new release of TimesTen on the standby
master host.
35. Create a new standby master database by duplicating the active master database
with the ttRepAdmin utility. For example, to duplicate the master2 database on the
3-30 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Performing an upgrade with active standby pair replication
master2host host to the master1 database, run the following on the host
containing the master1 database:
ttRepAdmin -duplicate -from master2 -host master2host -UID pat -PWD patpwd
-keepCG -cacheUid cacheuser2 -cachePwd cachepwd master1
36. On the standby master host, run the ttAdmin utility to start the cache agent for the
standby master database.
ttAdmin -cacheStart master1
37. On the standby master host, run the ttAdmin utility to start the cache agent for the
standby master database.
ttAdmin -repStart master1
Offline upgrades for an active standby pair with cache groups
Performing a TimesTen major upgrade in a scenario with an active standby pair with
asynchronous writethrough cache groups requires an offline upgrade. This is
discussed in the subsection that follows.
Offline major upgrade for active standby pair (cache groups)
Complete the following steps to perform a TimesTen major upgrade from an 11.2.1.x.x
release to an 11.2.2.x.x release in a scenario with an active standby pair with cache
groups. You must perform this upgrade offline.
Note: This procedure is not supported for upgrading from a 7.0.x or
earlier release of TimesTen. For that case, an alternative is to exclude
cache groups from your replication scheme before the upgrade, use
the procedure for upgrading without cache groups, then include the
previously excluded cache groups into the replication scheme after the
upgrade. For an upgrade without cache groups, see "Online major
upgrade for active standby pair" on page 3-22.
These steps assume an active master database master1 on host master1host and a
standby master database master2 on host master2host. (For information about the
built-in procedures and utilities discussed here, refer to "Built-In Procedures" and
"Utilities" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference.)
1.
Stop any updates to the active database before you upgrade.
2.
From master1, call the ttRepSubscriberWait built-in procedure to ensure that all
data updates have been applied to the standby database, where numsec is the
desired wait time.
call ttRepSubscriberWait(null, null, 'master2', ’master2host’, numsec);
3.
From master2, call ttRepSubscriberWait to ensure that all data updates have
been applied to the Oracle database.
call ttRepSubscriberWait(null, null, '_ORACLE', null, numsec);
4.
On master1host, use the ttAdmin utility to stop the replication agent for the active
database.
ttAdmin -repStop master1
TimesTen Upgrades 3-31
Performing an upgrade with active standby pair replication
5.
On master2host, use ttAdmin to stop the replication agent for the standby
database.
ttAdmin -repStop master2
6.
On master1host, call the ttCacheStop built-in procedure or use ttAdmin to stop
the cache agent for the active database.
ttAdmin -cacheStop master1
7.
On master2host, call ttCacheStop or use ttAdmin to stop the cache agent for the
standby database.
ttAdmin -cacheStop master2
8.
On master1host, use the ttMigrate utility to back up the active database to a
binary file.
ttMigrate -c master1 master1.bak
9.
On master1host, use the ttDestroy utility to destroy the active database. You
must either use the -force option or first drop all cache groups. If you use -force,
run the script cacheCleanup.sql afterward.
ttDestroy -force /data_store_path/master1
The cacheCleanup.sql script is a SQL*Plus script, located in the TimesTen_
install_dir/oraclescripts directory, that you run after connecting to the Oracle
database as the cache user. It takes as parameters the TimesTen host name and the
TimesTen database name (with full path). For information, refer to "Dropping
Oracle Database objects used by autorefresh cache groups" in Oracle TimesTen
Application-Tier Database Cache User's Guide.
10. Uninstall the old and install the new TimesTen major release on master1host. For
details, see "Installing TimesTen on UNIX systems" on page 1-18 or "Installing
TimesTen on Windows systems" on page 1-23.
11. Create a new database in 11.2.2.x.x using ttIsql with DSN connection attribute
setting AutoCreate=1. In this new database, create a cache user. The following
example is a sequence of commands to execute in ttIsql to create this cache user
and give it appropriate access privileges.
The cache user requires ADMIN privilege to execute the next step, ttMigrate –r.
Once migration is complete, you can revoke the ADMIN privilege from this user.
Command> CREATE USER cacheuser IDENTIFIED BY cachepassword;
Command> GRANT CREATE SESSION, CACHE_MANAGER, CREATE ANY TABLE, DROP ANY TABLE
TO cacheuser;
Command> GRANT ADMIN TO cacheuser;
12. In the new TimesTen instance on master1host, use the ttMigrate utility as the
cache user to restore master1 from the binary file created earlier. (This example
performs a checkpoint operation after every 20 MB of data has been restored, and
assumes the password is the same in the Oracle database as in TimesTen.)
ttMigrate -r -cacheuid cacheuser -cachepwd cachepassword -C 20 -connstr
"DSN=master1;uid=cacheuser;pwd=cachepassword;oraclepwd=cachepassword"
master1.bak
13. On master1host, use ttAdmin to start the replication agent.
ttAdmin -repStart master1
3-32 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Performing an upgrade with active standby pair replication
This step also sets the database to the active state. You can
then call the ttRepStateGet built-in procedure (which takes no
parameters) to confirm the state.
Note:
14. On master1host, call the ttCacheStart built-in procedure or use ttAdmin to start
the cache agent.
ttAdmin -cacheStart master1
Then you can use the ttStatus utility to confirm the replication and cache agents
have started.
15. Put each automatic refresh cache group into the AUTOREFRESH PAUSED state. This
example uses ttIsql:
Command> ALTER CACHE GROUP mycachegroup SET AUTOREFRESH STATE paused;
16. From master1, reload each cache group, specifying the name of the cache group
and how often to commit during the operation. This example uses ttIsql:
Command> LOAD CACHE GROUP cachegroupname COMMIT EVERY n ROWS;
You can optionally specify parallel loading as well. For information about the LOAD
CACHE GROUP SQL statement, refer to Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database SQL
Reference.
17. On master2host, use ttDestroy to destroy the standby database. You must either
use the -force option or first drop all cache groups. If you use -force, run the
script cacheCleanup.sql afterward (as discussed earlier).
ttDestroy -force /data_store_path/master2
18. Uninstall the old and install the new TimesTen major release on master2host.
19. In the new TimesTen instance on master2host, use the ttRepAdmin utility with the
-duplicate option to create a duplicate of active database master1 to use as
standby database master2. Specify the appropriate administrative user on
master1, the cache manager user and password, and to keep cache groups.
ttRepAdmin -duplicate -from master1 -host master1host -uid pat -pwd patpwd
-cacheUid orcluser -cachePwd orclpwd -keepCG master2
20. On master2host, use ttAdmin to start the replication agent. (You could optionally
have used the ttRepAdmin option -setMasterRepStart in the previous step
instead.)
ttAdmin -repStart master2
21. On master2, the replication state will automatically be set to STANDBY. You can call
the ttRepStateGet built-in procedure to confirm this. (This occurs asynchronously
and may take a little time.)
call ttRepStateGet();
22. On master2host, call the ttCacheStart built-in procedure or use ttAdmin to start
the cache agent.
ttAdmin -cacheStart master2
After this, you can use the ttStatus utility to confirm the replication and cache
agents have started.
TimesTen Upgrades 3-33
Performing an offline TimesTen upgrade when using Oracle Clusterware
If you want to create read-only subscriber databases, on each subscriber host you can
create the subscriber by using the ttRepAdmin utility -duplicate option to duplicate
the standby database. The following example creates subscriber1, using the same
ADMIN user as above and the -nokeepCG option to convert the cache tables to normal
TimesTen tables, as appropriate for a read-only subscriber.
ttRepAdmin -duplicate -from master2 -host master2host -nokeepCG
-uid pat -pwd patpwd subscriber1
For related information, refer to "Rolling out a disaster recovery subscriber" in Oracle
TimesTen In-Memory Database Replication Guide.
Performing an offline TimesTen upgrade when using Oracle Clusterware
This section discusses the steps for an offline upgrade of TimesTen when using
TimesTen with Oracle Clusterware. You have the option of also upgrading Oracle
Clusterware, independently, while upgrading TimesTen. (For an online upgrade, see
"Performing an online TimesTen upgrade when using Oracle Clusterware" on
page 3-35.)
Notes:
■
■
■
These instructions apply for either a TimesTen minor upgrade
(11.2.2.x.x to higher 11.2.2.x.x) or a TimesTen major upgrade
(11.2.1.x.x to 11.2.2.x.x).
TimesTen 11.2.2 supports Clusterware releases 11.2.0.2 and
11.2.0.3 only. (TimesTen 11.2.1 supports Clusterware releases
11.1.0.7, 11.2.0.2, and 11.2.0.3.)
TimesTen does not support Clusterware on Windows platforms.
For this procedure, except where noted, you can execute the ttCWAdmin commands
from any host in the cluster. Each command affects all hosts.
1.
Stop the replication agents on the databases in the active standby pair:
ttCWAdmin -stop -dsn advancedDSN
2.
Drop the active standby pair:
ttCWAdmin -drop -dsn advancedDSN
3.
Stop the TimesTen cluster agent. This removes the hosts from the cluster and stops
the TimesTen daemon:
ttCWAdmin -shutdown
4.
Upgrade TimesTen on the desired hosts.
■
■
5.
To perform a TimesTen minor upgrade, each node in the cluster must have
TimesTen from the same major release line (such as all 11.2.2.x.x releases). You
can do an in-place upgrade as discussed in "Performing an in-place upgrade"
on page 3-9.
To perform a TimesTen major upgrade, you must use ttMigrate as discussed
in "Performing an offline upgrade" on page 3-11.
Upgrade Oracle Clusterware if desired, according to instructions in Oracle
Database documentation, which you can access as follows.
3-34 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Performing an online TimesTen upgrade when using Oracle Clusterware
a.
Go go http://www.oracle.com/pls/db112/homepage.
b.
Select the "Installing and Upgrading" link.
c.
Refer to the Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for your platform.
Also see "Overview of Upgrading Oracle Clusterware" in Oracle Clusterware
Administration and Deployment Guide.
For use with TimesTen, you can upgrade from Clusterware release 11.1.0.7 to
11.2.0.3 or from 11.2.0.2 to 11.2.0.3, but not from 11.1.0.7 to 11.2.0.2.
6.
If you have upgraded Oracle Clusterware, use the ttmodinstall utility
(documented in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference) to configure
TimesTen with Oracle Clusterware. On each host, enter:
ttmodinstall -crs
When ttmodinstall asks permission to overwrite the ttcrsagent.options file,
choose yes (the default).
See "Install TimesTen on each host" and "Start the TimesTen cluster agent" in
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Replication Guide for information related to
ttcrsagent.options.
7.
Start the TimesTen cluster agent. This includes the hosts defined in the cluster as
specified in ttcrsagent.options. This also starts the TimesTen daemon.
ttCWAdmin -init
8.
Create the active standby pair replication scheme:
ttCWAdmin -create -dsn advancedDSN
Important: The host from which you run this command must have access to the
cluster.oracle.ini file. (See "Configuring Oracle Clusterware management with
the cluster.oracle.ini file" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Replication Guide
for information about this file.)
9.
Start the active standby pair replication scheme:
ttCWAdmin -start -dsn advancedDSN
Performing an online TimesTen upgrade when using Oracle Clusterware
This section discusses how to perform an online rolling in-place minor upgrade for
TimesTen, from one TimesTen 11.2.2.x.x release to a higher 11.2.2.x.x release, in a
configuration where Oracle Clusterware manages active standby pairs. (For an offline
upgrade, see "Performing an offline TimesTen upgrade when using Oracle
Clusterware" on page 3-34.)
The following topics are covered:
■
Supported configurations
■
Restrictions and assumptions
■
Upgrade tasks for one active standby pair
■
Upgrades for multiple active standby pairs on many pairs of hosts
■
Upgrades for multiple active standby pairs on a pair of hosts
■
Sample in-place upgrade
TimesTen Upgrades 3-35
Performing an online TimesTen upgrade when using Oracle Clusterware
Notes:
■
■
TimesTen 11.2.2 supports Clusterware releases 11.2.0.2 and
11.2.0.3 only. (TimesTen 11.2.1 supports Clusterware releases
11.1.0.7, 11.2.0.2, and 11.2.0.3.)
TimesTen does not support Clusterware on Windows platforms.
Supported configurations
The following basic configurations are supported for online rolling in-place upgrades
for TimesTen. In all cases, Oracle Clusterware manages the hosts.
■
One active standby pair on two hosts.
■
Multiple active standby pairs with one TimesTen database on each host.
■
Multiple active standby pairs with one or more TimesTen database on each host.
(Other scenarios, such as with additional spare systems, are effectively equivalent to
one of these scenarios.)
Restrictions and assumptions
Note the following assumptions for upgrading TimesTen when using Oracle
Clusterware:
■
■
■
■
The existing active standby pairs are configured and operating properly.
Oracle Clusterware commands are used correctly to stop and start the standby
database.
The in-place upgrade does not change the TimesTen environment for the active
and standby databases.
The in-place upgrade is from a TimesTen 11.2.2.x.x release to a later TimesTen
11.2.2.x.x release. These instructions are for TimesTen minor upgrades only.
Online major upgrades are not currently supported in configurations where
Oracle Clusterware manages active standby pairs.
■
Oracle Clusterware is release 11.2.0.2 or 11.2.0.3.
■
The in-place upgrade applies to one TimesTen installation on each host.
■
There are at least two hosts managed by Oracle Clusterware.
Multiple active or standby databases managed by Oracle Clusterware can exist on
a host only if there are at least two hosts in the cluster.
3-36 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Performing an online TimesTen upgrade when using Oracle Clusterware
Important:
■
Upgrade Oracle Clusterware if desired, but not concurrently with
an online TimesTen upgrade. When performing an online
TimesTen minor upgrade in configurations where Oracle
Clusterware manages active standby pairs, you must perform the
Clusterware upgrade independently and separately, either before
or after the TimesTen upgrade.
Be aware that for use with TimesTen, you can upgrade from
Clusterware release 11.1.0.7 to 11.2.0.3 or from 11.2.0.2 to 11.2.0.3,
but not from 11.1.0.7 to 11.2.0.2.
■
For upgrading TimesTen when using Oracle Clusterware, online
rolling in-place upgrades are not supported when global cache
groups are replicated by the active standby pairs.
Note: Refer to Oracle Database documentation for information about
upgrading Oracle Clusterware:
1.
Go go http://www.oracle.com/pls/db112/homepage.
2.
Select the "Installing and Upgrading" link.
3.
Refer to the Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for your platform.
Also see "Overview of Upgrading Oracle Clusterware" in Oracle
Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide.
Upgrade tasks for one active standby pair
This section describes the following tasks:
■
Verify that the active standby pair is operating properly
■
Shut down the standby database
■
Perform an in-place upgrade for the standby database
■
Start the standby database
■
Switch the roles of the active and standby databases
■
Shut down the new standby database
■
Perform an in-place upgrade of the new standby database
■
Start the new standby database
In examples in the following subsections, the host name is
host2, the DSN is myDSN, the TimesTen instance name is upgrade2,
and the instance administrator is terry.
Note:
Verify that the active standby pair is operating properly
Complete these steps to confirm that the active standby pair is operating properly.
1.
Verify the following.
■
The active and the standby databases run a TimesTen 11.2.2.x.x release.
TimesTen Upgrades 3-37
Performing an online TimesTen upgrade when using Oracle Clusterware
■
■
■
2.
3.
Replication is working.
If the active standby pair replication scheme includes cache groups, the
following are true:
–
AWT and SWT writes from the standby TimesTen database to the Oracle
database are working.
–
Refreshes from the Oracle database to the active TimesTen database are
working.
Enter the ttCWAdmin -status -dsn yourDSN command to verify the following.
■
The active database is on a different host than the standby database.
■
The state of the active database is 'ACTIVE' and the status is 'AVAILABLE'.
■
The state of the standby database is 'STANDBY' and the status is 'AVAILABLE'.
Enter the ttStatus command on the active database to verify the following.
■
The ttCRSactiveservice and ttCRSmaster processes are running.
■
The subdaemon and the replication agents are running.
■
4.
The active and standby databases are on separate hosts managed by Oracle
Clusterware.
If the active standby pair replication scheme includes cache groups, the cache
agent is running.
Enter the ttStatus command on the standby database to verify the following.
■
The ttCRSsubservice and ttCRSmaster processes are running.
■
The subdaemon and the replication agents are running.
■
If the active standby pair replication scheme includes cache groups, the cache
agent is running.
Shut down the standby database
Complete these steps to shut down the standby database.
1.
Enter an Oracle Clusterware command similar to the following to obtain the
names of the Oracle Clusterware Master, Daemon, and Agent processes on the
host of the standby database. It is suggested to filter the output through grep TT:
crsctl status resource -n standbyHostName | grep TT
2.
Use Oracle Clusterware commands to shut down the standby database. The
Oracle Clusterware commands stop the Master processes for the standby
database, the Daemon process for the TimesTen installation, and the Agent
process for the TimesTen installation.
crsctl stop resource TT_Master_upgrade2_terry_myDSN_1
crsctl stop resource TT_Daemon_upgrade2_terry_host2
crsctl stop resource TT_Agent_upgrade2_terry_host2
3.
Stop the TimesTen main daemon.
ttDaemonAdmin -stop
If the ttDaemonAdmin -stop command gives error 10028, retry the command.
3-38 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Performing an online TimesTen upgrade when using Oracle Clusterware
Perform an in-place upgrade for the standby database
Complete these steps for an in-place upgrade of the TimesTen instance for the standby
database.
1.
Use the setup.sh script from the installation media of your current TimesTen
release to do the in-place upgrade. The in-place upgrade uninstalls the previous
11.2.2.x.x installation for the standby database. The new installation for the current
release must be installed into the same directory structure.
The in-place upgrade must keep the following files on the standby database:
■
Standby database files (such as checkpoint files, transaction log files, and so
on)
■
sys.odbc.ini
■
ttendaemon.options
■
cluster.oracle.ini
See "Configuring Oracle Clusterware management with the cluster.oracle.ini
file" in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Replication Guide for information
about this file.
■
ttcrsagent.options
See "Install TimesTen on each host" and "Start the TimesTen cluster agent" in
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Replication Guide for information related to
this file.
■
tnsnames.ora
See "Sample in-place upgrade" on page 3-43.
2.
Configure the new installation for Oracle Clusterware.
Start the standby database
Complete these steps to start the standby database.
1.
Enter the following ttCWAdmin command to start the TimesTen main daemon, the
TimesTen Oracle Clusterware agent process and the TimesTen Oracle Clusterware
Daemon process:
ttCWAdmin -init -hosts localhost
2.
Start the Oracle Clusterware Master process for the standby database.
crsctl start resource TT_Master_upgrade2_terry_MYDSN_1
Switch the roles of the active and standby databases
Use the ttCWAdmin -switch command to switch the roles of the active and standby
databases to enable the in-place upgrade on the other master database.
ttCWAdmin -switch -dsn myDSN
Use the ttCWAdmin -status command to verify that the switch operation has
completed before starting the next task.
Shut down the new standby database
Use the Oracle Clusterware crsctl status resource command to obtain the names
of the Master, Daemon, and Agent processes on the host of the new standby database.
The following example assumes the host host1 and filters the output through grep TT.
TimesTen Upgrades 3-39
Performing an online TimesTen upgrade when using Oracle Clusterware
crsctl status resource -n host1 | grep TT
Enter commands such as those in "Shut down the standby database" on page 3-38. Use
the appropriate instance name, instance administrator, DSN, and host name. For
example:
crsctl stop resource TT_Master_upgrade2_terry_MYDSN_0
crsctl stop resource TT_Daemon_upgrade2_terry_host1
crsctl stop resource TT_Agent_upgrade2_terry_host1
ttDaemonAdmin -stop
Perform an in-place upgrade of the new standby database
Enter commands such as those in "Perform an in-place upgrade for the standby
database" on page 3-39.
Start the new standby database
See "Start the standby database" on page 3-39, but use the Master process name
obtained by the crsctl status resource command from "Shut down the new
standby database", above.
ttCWAdmin -init -hosts localhost
crsctl start resource TT_Master_upgrade2_terry_MYDSN_0
Upgrades for multiple active standby pairs on many pairs of hosts
The process to upgrade the TimesTen instances for multiple active standby pairs on
multiple pairs of hosts is essentially the same as the process to upgrade the instances
for a single active standby pair on two hosts, discussed in the preceding section,
"Upgrade tasks for one active standby pair" on page 3-37. The best practice is to
perform the upgrades for the active standby pairs one at a time.
Use the ttCWAdmin -status command to determine the state of the databases
managed by Oracle Clusterware.
Upgrades for multiple active standby pairs on a pair of hosts
Multiple active standby pairs can be on multiple pairs of hosts, as discussed in the
preceding section, "Upgrades for multiple active standby pairs on many pairs of
hosts". Alternatively, multiple active standby pairs can be on a single pair of hosts.
One scenario is for all the active databases to be on one host and all the standby
databases to be on the other. A more typical scenario, to better balance the workload,
is for each host to have some active databases and some standby databases.
Figure 3–1 shows two active standby pairs on two hosts managed by Oracle
Clusterware. The active database called active1 on host1 replicates to standby1 on
host2. The active database called active2 on host2 replicates to standby2 on host1.
AWT updates from both standby databases are propagated to the Oracle database.
Read-only updates from the Oracle database are propagated to the active databases.
3-40 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Performing an online TimesTen upgrade when using Oracle Clusterware
Figure 3–1 Multiple active standby pairs on two hosts
host2
host1
active2
active1
TimesTen
Replication
TimesTen
standby1
standby2
TimesTen
TimesTen
AWT updates
AWT updates
Oracle Database
Read-only updates
Read-only updates
This configuration can result in greater write throughput for cache groups and more
balanced resource usage. See the next section, "Sample configuration files: multiple
active standby pairs on one pair of hosts", for sample sys.odbc.ini entries and a
sample cluster.oracle.ini file for this kind of configuration. (See "Configuring
Oracle Clusterware management with the cluster.oracle.ini file" in Oracle TimesTen
In-Memory Database Replication Guide for information about that file.)
The in-place rolling upgrade process for multiple active standby pairs on a single pair
of hosts is similar in nature to the process of upgrading multiple active standby pairs
on multiple pairs of hosts, discussed in "Upgrades for multiple active standby pairs on
many pairs of hosts" on page 3-40.
First, however, if the active and standby databases are mixed between the two hosts,
switch all standby databases to one host and all active databases to the other host. Use
the ttCWAdmin -switch -dsn DSN command to switch active and standby databases
between hosts. Once all the active databases are on one host and all the standby
databases are on the other host, follow the steps below to perform the upgrade for the
entire "standby" host.
Be aware that in-place upgrades affect the entire TimesTen installation and associated
databases on one host.
1.
Verify that the standby databases run on the desired host. Use the ttCWAdmin
-status -dsn DSN command and the ttCWAdmin -status command.
2.
Modify the Oracle Clusterware stop commands to stop all Master processes on the
host where all the standby databases reside.
3.
Modify the Oracle Clusterware start commands to start all Master processes on
the host where all the standby databases reside.
The following subsections contain related samples.
■
Sample configuration files: multiple active standby pairs on one pair of hosts
■
Sample scripts: stopping and starting multiple standby processes on one host
Sample configuration files: multiple active standby pairs on one pair of hosts
The following are sample sys.odbc.ini entries:
[databasea]
Driver=/scratch/terry/TimesTen/upgrade2/lib/libtten.so
TimesTen Upgrades 3-41
Performing an online TimesTen upgrade when using Oracle Clusterware
DataStore=/scratch/terry/ds/databasea
PermSize=40
TempSize=32
PLSQL=1
DatabaseCharacterSet=WE8MSWIN1252
OracleNetServiceName=ORCL
[databaseb]
Driver=/scratch/terry/TimesTen/upgrade2/lib/libtten.so
DataStore=/scratch/terry/ds/databaseb
PermSize=40
TempSize=32
PLSQL=1
DatabaseCharacterSet=WE8MSWIN1252
OracleNetServiceName=ORCL
[databasec]
Driver=/scratch/terry/TimesTen/upgrade2/lib/libtten.so
DataStore=/scratch/terry/ds/databasec
PermSize=40
TempSize=32
PLSQL=1
DatabaseCharacterSet=WE8MSWIN1252
OracleNetServiceName=ORCL
[databased]
Driver=/scratch/terry/TimesTen/upgrade2/lib/libtten.so
DataStore=/scratch/terry/ds/databased
PermSize=40
TempSize=32
PLSQL=1
DatabaseCharacterSet=WE8MSWIN1252
OracleNetServiceName=ORCL
The following is a sample cluster.oracle.ini file:
[databasea]
MasterHosts=host1,host2
CacheConnect=Y
[databaseb]
MasterHosts=host2,host1
CacheConnect=Y
[databasec]
MasterHosts=host2,host1
CacheConnect=Y
[databased]
MasterHosts=host1,host2
CacheConnect=Y
The cluster.oracle.ini file places one active database and one standby database on
each host. This is accomplished by reversing the order of the host names specified for
the MasterHost attribute.
3-42 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Performing an online TimesTen upgrade when using Oracle Clusterware
Sample scripts: stopping and starting multiple standby processes on one host
Enter an Oracle Clusterware command similar to the following to obtain the names of
the Oracle Clusterware Master, Daemon and Agent processes on the host of the
standby database. It is suggested to filter the output through grep TT:
crsctl status resource -n standbyHostName | grep TT
The following script is an example of a "stop standby" script for multiple databases on
the same host that Oracle Clusterware manages. The TimesTen instance name is
upgrade2. The instance administrator is terry. The host is host2. There are two
standby databases: databasea and databaseb.
crsctl stop resource
crsctl stop resource
crsctl stop resource
crsctl stop resource
ttDaemonAdmin -stop
TT_Master_upgrade2_terry_DATABASEA_0
TT_Master_upgrade2_terry_DATABASEB_1
TT_Daemon_upgrade2_terry_HOST2
TT_Agent_upgrade2_terry_HOST2
The following script is an example of a "start standby" script for the same
configuration.
ttCWAdmin -init -hosts localhost
crs start resource TT_Master_upgrade2_terry_DATABASEA_0
crs start resource TT_Master_upgrade2_terry_DATABASEB_1
Sample in-place upgrade
This section provides a sample in-place upgrade.
% ./setup.sh
There is 1 TimesTen instance installed locally :
1) sb1122 (TimesTen11.2.2.4)
Of the following options :
[1]
[2]
[3]
[q]
Install a new instance
Upgrade an existing instance
Display information about an existing instance
Quit the installation
Which would you like to perform? [ 1 ] 2
NOTE: There is only one instance which can be upgraded.
Instance Name
Product Installed
Installation Directory
BitLevel
Component Installed
Daemon Port
:
:
:
:
:
:
sb1122
TimesTen11.2.2.4
/scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122
64
Client/Server and DataManager
33333
NOTE: Upgrading will remove the selected instance (and any directories or files
under its path) and then re-install into the same directory. You will
have the option to retain configuration files in :
/scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122/info
Would you like to upgrade this instance? [ yes ]
NOTE: <install_dir>/info contains information related to the data
TimesTen Upgrades 3-43
Performing an online TimesTen upgrade when using Oracle Clusterware
stores that have been created with this release. If you remove
/scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122/info
you will no longer be able to access your data stores,
nor would you be able to restore nor migrate your data.
Would you also like to remove all files in <install_dir>/info? [ no ]
Would you like to remove the DemoDataStore directory in
/scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122/info/DemoDataStore? [ yes ] no
Would you also like to remove all files in <install_dir>/network/admin/samples?
[ no ]
/scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122 Removed (retained <install_dir>/info)
TimesTen uninstall completed.
Of the three components:
[1] Client/Server and Data Manager
[2] Data Manager Only
[3] Client Only
Which would you like to install? [ 1 ]
Upgrading installation in /scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122
Where would you like to create the daemon home directory?
[ /scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122/info ]
The daemon logs will be located in /scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122/info
Would you like to specify a different location for the daemon logs? [ no ]
Installing into /scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122 ...
Uncompressing ...
NOTE: For security, we recommend that you restrict access to the
TimesTen installation to members of a single OS group. Only members of
that OS group will be allowed to perform direct mode connections to
TimesTen, and only members of that OS group will be allowed to perform
operations that access TimesTen data stores, TimesTen files and shared
memory. The OS group defaults to the primary group of the instance
administrator. You can default to this group, choose another OS group
or you can make this instance world-accessible. If you choose to make
this instance world-accessible, all database files and shared memory
are readable and writable by all users.
Restrict access to the TimesTen installation to the group 'g900'? [ yes ]
NOTE: Enabling PL/SQL will increase the size of some TimesTen libraries.
Would you like to enable PL/SQL for this instance? [ yes ]
Do you want to replace the ttendaemon.options file in
/scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122/info? [ yes ] no
NOTE: The existing daemon options file has been retained. The default options
file was written as
/scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122/info/ttendaemon.options.sb1122.
In order to use the 'TimesTen Cache' feature in any databases
created within this installation, you must set a value for the TNS_ADMIN
environment variable. It can be left blank, and a value can be supplied later
using <install_dir>/bin/ttModInstall.
A value for TNS_ADMIN (/scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122/network/admin/samples) was
found in the previous daemon options file.
3-44 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Performing an online TimesTen upgrade when using Oracle Clusterware
Please enter a value for TNS_ADMIN (s=skip)?
[ /scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122/network/admin/samples ] s
Installing server components ...
What is the TCP/IP port number that you want the TimesTen Server to listen on?
[ 33334 ]
Do you want to install QuickStart and the TimesTen Documentation? [ no ]
Would you like to install the documentation (without QuickStart)? [ yes ] no
An existing cluster.oracle.ini file has been detected in
/scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122/info.
Would you like to replace the existing cluster.oracle.ini file? [ no ]
The existing cluster.oracle.ini file will be used.
The sample cluster.oracle.ini file will be saved as
'/scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122/info/cluster.oracle.ini.tt1122'.
An existing sys.odbc.ini file has been detected in
/scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122/info.
NOTE: You may not be able to successfully run the demos if you keep your
existing sys.odbc.ini file. If you choose to replace the existing
file, a backup will be made automatically.
Would you like to replace the existing
/scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122/info/sys.odbc.ini file ? [ no ]
The existing sys.odbc.ini file will be used.
The sample sys.odbc.ini file will be saved as
'/scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122/info/sys.odbc.ini.sb1122'.
An existing tnsnames.ora file has been detected in
/scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122/network/admin/samples.
Would you like to replace the existing
/scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122/network/admin/samples/tnsnames.ora file ? [ no ]
The existing tnsnames.ora file will be used.
The sample tnsnames.ora file will be saved as
'/scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122/network/admin/samples/tnsnames.ora.tt1122'.
Installing client components ...
An existing sys.ttconnect.ini file has been detected in
/scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122/info.
NOTE: You may not be able to successfully run the Client/Server demos if you keep
your existing sys.ttconnect.ini file. If you choose to replace the existing
file, a backup will be made automatically.
Would you like to replace the existing
/scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122/info/sys.ttconnect.ini file ? [ no ]
The existing sys.ttconnect.ini file will be used.
The sample sys.ttconnect.ini file will be saved as
'/scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122/info/sys.ttconnect.ini.sb1122'.
Would you like to use TimesTen Replication with Oracle Clusterware? [ no ] yes
TimesTen Upgrades 3-45
Performing an online TimesTen upgrade when using Oracle Clusterware
A Clusterware installation was detected in /scratch/oracle/crs/app/11.2.0/grid
Please provide the path to the Oracle Clusterware installation on this machine
(s=skip)? [ /scratch/oracle/crs/app/11.2.0/grid ]
NOTE: The TimesTen Clusterware agent port must be the same on all nodes
of the cluster. Please refer to the TimesTen documentation for
additional information.
Please enter a port number for the TimesTen Clusterware agent? [ 33339 ]
Executing '/scratch/oracle/crs/app/11.2.0/grid/bin/olsnodes' ...
Oracle Clusterware is currently configured on the following nodes :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
host1
host2
host3
host4
host5
NOTE: By default, all of the nodes listed above will be added to the TimesTen
Replication with Oracle Clusterware configuration. You can also
specify your own list of nodes based on the list above.
Would you like to specify a node list for TimesTen Replication with Oracle
Clusterware? [ no ] yes
From the nodes above, please provide a list of nodes that you would like to add
(ex: 1,2 or skip)? [ ] 4,5
TimesTen Replication with Oracle Clusterware will be configured for the following
nodes :
host4
host5
Are you sure? [ yes ]
Overwrite the existing TimesTen Clusterware options file? [ no ]
The new TimesTen Clusterware options file will be located here :
/scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122/info/ttcrsagent.options.tt1122.
NOTE: The TimesTen daemon startup/shutdown scripts have not been installed.
Run the 'setuproot' script :
cd /scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122/bin
./setuproot -install
This will move the TimesTen startup script into its appropriate location.
The startup script is currently located here :
'/scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122/startup/tt_sb1122'.
The documentation was not installed.
To manually install the documentation, run the command 'setup.sh -installDoc'
The 11.2.2.6 Release Notes are located here :
'/scratch/sboand/TimesTen/sb1122/README.html'
Starting the daemon ...
TimesTen Daemon startup OK.
End of TimesTen installation.
3-46 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Upgrades when using parallel replication
Upgrades when using parallel replication
Automatic parallel replication is enabled by default beginning in TimesTen release
11.2.2.2.0. In previous releases of 11.2.2 and in releases of 11.2.1, user-specified
replication was available, but automatic parallel replication was not available.
Automatic parallel replication with disabled commit dependencies is available in
TimesTen release 11.2.2.8.0.
The values for the ReplicationApplyOrdering attribute,
documented in Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Reference, have
changed. Beginning in release 11.2.2.2.0, a value of 0 enables
automatic parallel replication. Before release 11.2.2.2.0, a value of 0
disabled user-specified parallel replication. Beginning in release
11.2.2.8.0, a value of 2 enables automatic parallel replication with
disabled commit dependencies.
Note:
You can perform an online or offline upgrade from a database that has not enabled
parallel replication to a database of this release that has enabled parallel replication
(with or without disabled commit dependencies).
The rest of this section discusses additional considerations along with scenarios where
an offline upgrade is required.
Considerations regarding parallel replication
Be aware of the following considerations when upgrading systems that use parallel
replication:
■
■
Consider an active standby pair without parallel replication enabled. To upgrade
the TimesTen instances to release 11.2.2.3.0 or higher and use automatic parallel
replication (default value of 0 for the ReplicationApplyOrdering attribute),
simply use the appropriate procedure for an active standby pair upgrade. See
"Performing an upgrade with active standby pair replication" on page 3-20.
Consider an active standby pair with no cache groups and automatic parallel
replication enabled (value of 0 for the ReplicationApplyOrdering attribute). To
upgrade the TimesTen instances to release 11.2.2.8.0 or higher to use automatic
parallel replication with disabled commit dependencies (value of 2 for the
ReplicationApplyOrdering attribute), use the procedure for an active standby
pair online major upgrade. See "Online major upgrade for active standby pair" on
page 3-22. The value for the ReplicationApplyOrdering attribute must be
changed from 0 to 2 before restoring any of the databases. For example:
ttMigrate -r "DSN=master2;ReplicationApplyOrdering=2;ReplicationParallelism=2;
LogBufParallelism=4" master2.bak
You may upgrade a TimesTen database with a replication
scheme with ReplicationApplyOrdering=2 to a database with
ReplicationApplyOrdering=0 by using the same active standby pair
online major upgrade procedure.
Note:
Automatic parallel replication with disabled commit dependencies
supports only asynchronous active standby pairs with no cache
groups. For more information, see "Configuring parallel replication"
in the Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Replication Guide.
TimesTen Upgrades 3-47
Record of upgrades with replication configured
■
You cannot replicate between databases that have the ReplicationParallelism
attribute set to greater than 1 but have different values for the
ReplicationApplyOrdering attribute.
Scenarios that require an offline upgrade
You must use an offline upgrade for these scenarios:
■
■
■
■
Moving from user-specified parallel replication to automatic parallel replication.
For example, from a release preceding 11.2.2.3.0 to release 11.2.2.3.0 or higher with
the ReplicationApplyOrdering attribute set to the default value (0).
Moving from an automatic parallel replication environment to another automatic
parallel replication environment with a different number of tracks, as indicated by
the value of the ReplicationParallelism attribute.
Moving between major releases (such as from 11.2.1.x.x to 11.2.2.x.x) and using
asynchronous writethrough cache groups.
Moving from regular replication with asynchronous writethrough in 11.2.1.x.x to
automatic parallel replication with asynchronous writethrough in 11.2.2.x.x.
For offline upgrades, you can use the procedure described in "Performing an offline
upgrade" on page 3-11. Alternatively, you can upgrade one side and use the
ttRepAdmin -duplicate -recreate command to create the new database.
Record of upgrades with replication configured
If replication is configured on a database, a new set of tables with the prefix ttrep_
schema_version- is created each time the ttMigrate -r command is used. These
tables provide a history of the replication scheme from release to release.
These tables do not take up much space and are helpful when debugging upgrade
problems. However, you can drop these tables if you do not experience problems with
replication after running ttMigrate.
For example, after two migrations, the database might contain tables like this:
TTREP_SCHEMA_VERSION_004.REPELEMENTS
TTREP_SCHEMA_VERSION_004.REPLICATIONS
TTREP_SCHEMA_VERSION_004.REPPEERS
TTREP_SCHEMA_VERSION_004.REPSTORES
TTREP_SCHEMA_VERSION_004.REPSUBSCRIPTIONS
TTREP_SCHEMA_VERSION_004.REPTABLES
TTREP_SCHEMA_VERSION_004.TTSTORES
TTREP_SCHEMA_VERSION_005.REPELEMENTS
TTREP_SCHEMA_VERSION_005.REPLICATIONS
TTREP_SCHEMA_VERSION_005.REPPEERS
TTREP_SCHEMA_VERSION_005.REPSTORES
TTREP_SCHEMA_VERSION_005.REPSUBSCRIPTIONS
TTREP_SCHEMA_VERSION_005.REPTABLES
TTREP_SCHEMA_VERSION_005.TTSTORES
Performing a Client/Server online upgrade
TimesTen Server can talk directly to all user applications linked with TimesTen Client
ODBC driver release 6.0 or higher. There are at least the following possible ways to
upgrade a TimesTen Client/Server installation, depending on your requirements for
client access to the database.
3-48 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Performing a Client/Server online upgrade
■
■
If you do not need the database in the TimesTen instance being upgraded to be
available continuously to your client applications, you may simply stop the old
server, perform the migration of the database using ttMigrate, and then start the
new release of the server, which should be configured to listen on the same server
port.
If it is critical that the database be continuously available to the client applications,
you may use the procedure outlined in "Performing an online upgrade with
replication" on page 3-14 to keep a second copy of the database available during
the migration of the first copy.
Client/Server online upgrade
To perform an online upgrade of a TimesTen Client/Server system to a new major
release (such as from 11.2.1.x.x to 11.2.2.x.x) with minimal reconfiguration, perform the
following steps:
1.
Stop the TimesTen Server on the old release of TimesTen. From this point until the
TimesTen Server for the new release is started, your client applications do not
have access to the database. Any attempted updates to the database by the clients
fail, and you should stop user applications if necessary.
2.
Install the new release of TimesTen. At installation time, configure the server to
listen on the same port as the old release of TimesTen.
3.
Use ttMigrate to migrate the database from the old release to the new release. See
"Moving to a different major release of TimesTen" on page 3-12 for an example of
this procedure.
4.
Start the new release of TimesTen Server. The client applications now have access
to the post-upgrade databases.
Since both releases of TimesTen Server have been configured
to listen on the same port in this procedure, to restart the server for
the old release you must first configure it to listen on a different port.
Note:
Client/Server online upgrade with continuous access to the database
The migration of a database using ttMigrate can be a long process if your databases
are very large. If it is critical that your client applications have nearly continuous
access to the database during the Client/Server online upgrade procedure, you may
incorporate the procedure for performing an online upgrade with replication by
following these steps:
1.
Install the new release of TimesTen, making sure to configure TimesTen Server to
listen on the same port as the old release. The installation script asks whether you
would like to start the new server. You must answer "no".
2.
Follow the steps in "Performing an online upgrade with replication" on page 3-14
to upgrade the TimesTen instance for one copy of the database. The client
applications remain connected to the other, non-upgraded copy of the database.
3.
Disconnect all clients from the old release of the database.
4.
Stop the old release of TimesTen Server.
5.
Wait for all updates to finish replicating from the old release of the database to the
new release.
TimesTen Upgrades 3-49
Performing a Client/Server online upgrade
6.
Start the new release of TimesTen Server. It begins listening on the same port as
the old release, and client applications may now connect to the new release of the
database with no change to their configurations.
3-50 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
A
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database License
Information
A
This appendix contains licensing information for the Oracle TimesTen In-Memory
Database. It contains the following topics:
■
Licensing Options
■
Oracle TimesTen Product Components
Licensing Options
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database is available in four licensing options,
referencing the TimesTen product components described later in this document:
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database
The Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database license includes the features provided by the
following product components:
■
TimesTen Base Functionality
■
TimesTen In-Memory Analytics
■
TimesTen Replication
Oracle TimesTen Application-Tier Database Cache
The Oracle TimesTen Application-Tier Database Cache license includes the features
provided by the following product components:
■
TimesTen Base Functionality
■
TimesTen Caching from Oracle Database
■
TimesTen Replication
This license requires an Oracle Database Enterprise Edition license for the source
database.
Oracle TimesTen Application-Tier Database Cache for Oracle Applications
The TimesTen Application-Tier Database Cache for Oracle Applications license provides the
same set of functionality as that offered by the TimesTen Application-Tier Database
Cache product.
This license is available for use only with the Oracle Billing and Revenue Management
(BRM) server product.
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database License Information A-1
Oracle TimesTen Product Components
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database for Exalytics
The TimesTen In-Memory Database for Exalytics license includes the features provided
by the following product components:
■
TimesTen Base Functionality
■
TimesTen In-Memory Analytics
■
Integration with Oracle Business Intelligence (OBI) server for in-memory reporting
and analysis running on Oracle Exalytics In-Memory Machine
Oracle TimesTen Product Components
TimesTen Base Functionality
■
Relational in-memory database with persistence on disk and flash storage
■
SQL query processing and transaction processing with ACID properties
■
Utilities and built-in procedures for database operations and administration
■
Application programming interfaces including JDBC, ODBC, OCI (Oracle Call
Interface), ODP.NET, and PL/SQL supporting direct-linked and client/server
connections
■
SQL Developer support for TimesTen database application development
■
TimesTen Plug-in for Oracle Enterprise Manager
■
All other functionality not explicitly defined in the sections below
TimesTen In-Memory Analytics
■
In-Memory Columnar Compression
■
OLAP Group Operators including Cube, Grouping Set, Rollup
■
Star-Join query performance optimizations
TimesTen Replication
■
■
■
Real-time transactional replication between TimesTen databases
All replication topologies including Classic Active-Standby, Active-Standby Pair,
and Active-Standby Pair with Read-only Subscribers
Automated failover management of TimesTen databases, processes and
applications using Oracle Clusterware.
The use of Oracle Clusterware to manage Active-Standby Pair replication is available
without additional licensing cost, provided that the customer has an active Oracle
Support agreement for any of the TimesTen product licenses.
TimesTen Caching from Oracle Database
■
■
Caching Oracle Database tables into a TimesTen database with automatic data
synchronization between the TimesTen database and the Oracle Database
Cache Group features and functionality
A-2 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Oracle TimesTen Product Components
■
■
Read/write and read-only access with automatic data synchronization for cache
tables
Multi-node Cache Grid features and functionality
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database License Information A-3
Oracle TimesTen Product Components
A-4 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database Installation Guide
Index
A
access control
upgrade, 3-6
active standby pair
offline major upgrade (with cache groups), 3-31
online major upgrade (no cache groups), 3-22
online major upgrade (with read-only cache
groups), 3-26
online minor upgrade of active (no cache
groups), 3-21
online minor upgrade of active (with cache
groups), 3-25
online minor upgrade of standby and subscribers
(no cache groups), 3-21
online minor upgrade of standby and subscribers
(with cache groups), 3-25
upgrade, 3-20
altering a database
fragmentation, reducing, 2-8
introduction, 2-1
moving to different directory, 2-7
reducing database size, 2-8
automatic client failover, UDP prerequisite, 1-4
B
backup
database, 2-3
full, 2-4
incremental, 2-4
stream, 2-4
types, 2-4
C
character set, 3-3
migration issues, 2-9
TIMESTEN8, 2-9
CLASSPATH variable
Java, 1-37
Client
UNIX, 1-3
Client/Server
upgrade, 3-48
Client/Server online upgrade, 3-8
compatibility, 3-2
components, 1-2
TimesTen, 1-24
UNIX, 1-3
Windows, 1-3
copying a database, 2-1
D
daemon
home directory (UNIX), 1-20
home directory (Windows), 1-26
informational messages, 1-22
port number, 1-2
port number, change, 1-22
Data Manager
UNIX, 1-3
data type
compatibility, 3-2
conversion, 3-2
convert to Oracle Database data types (upgrades
from pre-7.0), 3-2
preserving TimesTen types (upgrades from
pre-7.0), 3-3
database
altering, 2-1
backup, 2-3
character set, 3-3
copying, 2-1
migrating, 2-1
moving, 2-7
size, reducing, 2-8
status, 3-10
unload, 3-9
upgrade, 3-1
major release, 3-12
minor release (offline), 3-13
DatabaseCharacterSet attribute, 3-3, 3-5
defragmenting database, 2-8
demo applications
install, 1-39
directories
default, 1-14
temporary, 1-14
configuration, 1-14
directory permissions, 1-15
Index-1
documentation
viewing, 1-40
DSN
definition, 1-36
DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH variable,
1-37
E
environment
DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH variable, 1-37
LD_LIBRARY_PATH variable, 1-37
LIB variable, 1-37
LIBPATH variable, 1-37
ODBCINI variable, 1-36
PATH variable, 1-35, 1-39
SYSODBCINI variable, 1-36
SYSTTCONNECTINI variable, 1-36
THREADS_FLAG variable, 1-38
TNS_ADMIN variable, 1-21, 1-25, 1-30, 1-36
variables, 1-33
environment variables
modifying, 1-35
G
green threads, 1-38
group
operating system, 1-15
create, 1-16
H
HP-UX
large database requirements, 1-6
replication requirements, 1-7
requirements, 1-6
semaphore requirements, 1-6
shared memory requirements, 1-6
HugePages, Linux, 1-8
I
informational messages, 1-28
in-place upgrade, 3-7, 3-9
install, 1-1
default directories, 1-14
demo applications, 1-39
Mac OS X, 1-29
prerequisites, 1-4
temporary directories, 1-14
change, 1-14
TimesTen instances, 1-2
troubleshooting, 1-40
UNIX, 1-18, 1-29, 1-31
verification, 1-26
Windows, 1-23
Index-2
J
Java
CLASSPATH variable, 1-37
environment, 1-37
PATH variable, 1-39
shared library path, 1-38
JDBC
green threads, 1-38
JDK requirements, 1-4
native threads, 1-38
JDK
requirements, 1-4
jmsxla.xml configuration file, 1-38
L
F
file permissions, 1-15
fragmentation of database, reducing,
instance
install multiple, 1-2
name, 1-2
port number, 1-2
instances
multiple, 1-23
2-8
large pages
Linux, 1-8
Windows, 1-13
LD_LIBRARY_PATH variable, 1-37
LIB variable, 1-37
LIBPATH variable, 1-37
Linux
Client/Server requirements, 1-11
large pages requirements, 1-5, 1-8
requirements, 1-7
semaphore requirements, 1-10
shared memory requirements, 1-7
LOG_USER syslog facility, 1-22
M
Mac OS X
install, 1-29
uninstall, 1-31
major upgrade, 3-6
messages
informational, 1-28
view, 1-28
migrating a database
introduction, 2-1
moving to different computer (same
platform), 2-5
moving to different platform, 2-6
minor upgrade, 3-6
moving a database, 2-7
N
name
instance, 1-2
native threads, 1-38
O
ODBCINI variable, 1-36
offline upgrade, 3-7, 3-11
online
upgrade
limitations, 3-15
online upgrade
replication, 3-14
online upgrade with replication, 3-8
operating system group, 1-15
create
UNIX, 1-16
Oracle Clusterware
offline upgrade of TimesTen with
Clusterware, 3-34
online minor version upgrade of TimesTen with
Clusterware, 3-35
create a project, 1-11
file system requirements, 1-11
requirements, 1-11
semaphore requirements, 1-11
syslog facility, 1-22
sys.odbc.ini file, 1-36
SYSODBCINI variable, 1-36
System DSN, 1-36
sys.ttconnect.ini file, 1-36
SYSTTCONNECTINI variable, 1-36
T
-remoteDaemonPort option, 1-2
replication
active standby pair upgrade, 3-20
online upgrade, 3-8, 3-14
port number, 1-2
root
installation warning, 1-19
TCP/IP port number, 1-2
THREADS_FLAG variable, 1-38
TimesTen
components, 1-2, 1-24
UNIX, 1-3
Windows, 1-3
Data Manager
UNIX, 1-3
TimesTen Client
Mac OS X, 1-29
UNIX, 1-3
TimesTen daemon, 1-2
port number, 1-2
TNS_ADMIN variable, 1-21, 1-25, 1-30, 1-36
troubleshooting
install, 1-40
ttAdmin utility, 3-9, 3-25
ttBackup utility, 2-1, 3-8
ttBulkCp utility, 2-1
ttDaemonLog utility, 1-28
ttDestroy utility, 2-1, 3-5
ttendaemon.options file, 1-22
ttenv script, 1-35
tterrors.log file, 1-28
ttMigrate utility, 2-1, 3-3, 3-8, 3-11, 3-14
ttmodinstall utility, 1-22, 1-36
ttRepAdmin utility, 3-9
ttRestore utility, 2-1
ttSchema utility, 2-1
ttStatus utility, 3-10
ttVersion utility
verify port number, 1-2
TypeMode attribute, 3-3
S
U
semaphores
Linux, 1-10
Solaris, 1-11
UNIX, general, 1-5
setup script, 1-22, 1-29, 1-31
setup.exe, 1-24
setup.sh script, 1-18, 1-29
shared library path
Java, 1-38
size of database, reducing, 2-8
Solaris
UDP prerequisite for automatic client failover, 1-4
uninstall
Mac OS X, 1-31
UNIX, 1-22
Windows, 1-28
UNIX
daemon port number, change, 1-22
default directories, 1-14
filesystem options, 1-5
informational messages, 1-22
install, 1-18, 1-31
P
parallel replication
upgrade, 3-47
PATH variable, 1-35, 1-39
permissions
directory, 1-15
file, 1-15
PermSize attribute, 2-8
port number
daemon, change, 1-22
instance, 1-2
replication, 1-2
prerequisites, 1-4
Q
Quick Start demos,
1-39
R
Index-3
Java environment, 1-37
Java requirements, 1-5
multiple instances, 1-2
operating system group
create, 1-16
requirements, 1-4
semaphore requirements, 1-5
TimesTen components, 1-3
uninstall TimesTen, 1-22
unload
database, 3-9
upgrade, 3-1
access control, 3-6
active standby pair, 3-20
Client/Server, 3-8, 3-48
debugging, 3-48
in-place, 3-7, 3-9
major release, 3-12
major upgrade, 3-6
minor release (upgrade), 3-13
minor upgrade, 3-6
offline, 3-7, 3-11
online
limitations, 3-15
replication, 3-14
online with replication, 3-8
parallel replication, 3-47
TimesTen minor version upgrade when using
Oracle Clusterware (online), 3-35
TimesTen when using Oracle Clusterware
(offline), 3-34
W
Windows
default directories, 1-14
grant lock pages in memory, 1-13
informational messages, 1-28
install, 1-23
verification, 1-26
Java environment, 1-37
large pages, 1-13
multiple instances, 1-2, 1-23
requirements, 1-14
TimesTen components, 1-3
uninstall, 1-28
Index-4
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