Farm Machinery and Equipment

Farm Machinery and Equipment
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Many of the equipment items have a number at the end of their name. This number
represents the standardized code that is to be used in identifying equipment types in
survey questionnaires.
Plows
Chisel Plow (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coulter-plow (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deep Ripper (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disk Plow (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moldboard Plows (Regular, Two-way) (5 & 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stubble-mulch Plow (Noble Blade, Sweep, Hoeme McKeroy Plow) (7) . . . . . . . . .
Subsoil Plow, Subsoil Chisel, V-ripper (8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PAGE
H-1
H-1
H-1
H-1
H-1
H-1
H-2
Disk-chisels (Mulch-tiller) (9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Offset Disk, Light or Heavy Duty (10 & 11) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
One-way (Disk-tiller) (12) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Single Disk (13) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tandem-disk (Regular, Plowing or Heavy Duty) (14 & 15) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paraplow (16) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H-2
H-2
H-2
H-2
H-2
H-2
Disks
Cultivators
Field cultivator (regular digger, danish tined, swedish tined, s-tine
cultivator, vibra-shank harrow, lilliston tiller) (21) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Furrow-out Cultivator (22) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rotary Hoe (23) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Row Cultivator (Shank, Rolling, Lister, Disk) (24 & 25) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Field Cultivator, Heavy Duty (Duckfoot Cultivator) (26) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marker (27) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fallow Master (28) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H-3
H-3
H-3
H-3
H-3
H-3
H-3
Harrows (Drags)
Heavy harrow (30) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Field conditioner, seed bed conditioner, soil conditioner, scratcher (31) . . . . . . . . .
Finishing harrow (harrogator) (32) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flex-tine tooth (coil line, multi-weeder) (33 & 34) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rail, Pipe, Log, Plank, Etc. (35) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rod Weeder (36) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Roller Harrow (37) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spike Tooth Harrow (38) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spring Tooth Harrow (39) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Powered Spike Tooth Harrow (40) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H-4
H-4
H-4
H-4
H-4
H-4
H-4
H-4
H-4
H-5
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Bedder shapers
PAGE
Bedder-shaper (Crowder) (41) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 5
Bed-shaper, Bed Former (42) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 5
Disk (Hipper) (43) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 5
Disk (Row) (44) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 5
Float (45) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 5
Lister (Middle Buster or Breaker) (46) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 5
Rotovator-bedder (47) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 5
Seed Bed Roller, Flat Roller (48) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 5
Subsoil-bedder, Subsoiler (Ripper-hipper, Tiller, No-till Disk Bedder) (49) . . . . . . H - 5
Discovator (50) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 5
Packers
Culti-packer (Pulverizer) (51) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 6
Plow Packer (52) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 6
Roller Packer (Smooth & Flat) (53) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 6
Miscellaneous tillage
Landall, Do-all, Till-all, Mix-n-till (61) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mulch-treader, Picker-treader, Skew Treader (62) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Roto-tiller (Rotary Tiller) (63) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Roterra, Lely (64) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sand-fighter (65) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soil Finisher (Finishing Tool, Mulch Finisher, Tri-tiller, Task Master)
(66) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H-6
H-6
H-6
H-6
H-7
H-7
Fertilizer applicators
Aerial, Fixed or Rotary Wing (71) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attachment to Implement (72) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manure Spreader (73) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Self-propelled (74) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Truck Spreader (75) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H-7
H-7
H-7
H-7
H-7
Fertilizer applicators, tractor mounted
Anhydrous (76) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 7
Dry (77) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 8
Liquid (78) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 8
Fertilizer applicators, trailer mounted
Anhydrous (79) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 8
Dry (80) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 8
Liquid (81) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 8
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Chemical applicators
PAGE
Aerial (Fixed or Rotary Wing) (91) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 8
Attachment to Implement (92) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 8
Large Self-propelled or Truck (93) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 8
Motorcycle or Atv Sprayer (94) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 8
Small Self-propelled Sprayer (Spra-coupe, Hi-cycle) (95) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 9
Small Truck (Pick-up with Slide-in Unit, Skid Mounted) (96) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 9
Tractor Mounted (97) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 9
Trailer Mounted (98) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 9
Drills and seeders
Aerial Seeding (101) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 9
Broadcast Seeder (102) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 9
Drill-air Delivery (103) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 9
Grain Drill (Lister Disk) (104) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 9
No-till, Minimum-till Drill, Zero-conventional (105) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 9
Grain Drill (Plain) (106) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 9
Press Drill (Disk or Hoe) (107) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 10
Planters
Bedder-shaper (111) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lister-bedder Planter (112) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No-till, Minimum-till (113) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conventional, Row Crop Planter, All Crop Planter, (114) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Air Delivery (115) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Planter, Ridge till (116) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H - 10
H - 10
H - 10
H - 10
H - 10
H - 10
Harvesting equipment
Combine, All Types (121 - 125 & 128 - 132) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Windrower-swather (PTO & Self-propelled) (126, 127) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Corn Picker (133) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hand Harvest (134) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H - 10
H - 11
H - 11
H - 11
Mowers and balers
Amish Harvest (141) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bale Wagon (PTO & Self-propelled) (142, 143) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bale Loader (144) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Balers (PTO & Self-propelled) (145-148) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rotary Mower-cutter, Chopper, Bush Hog (149) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mower Conditioner PTO (150) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mower Conditioner, Self-propelled (151) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disk Mower (152) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H - 11
H - 11
H - 11
H - 11
H - 12
H - 12
H - 12
H - 12
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Drum Mower (152) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flail Mower Shredder (Rotary Chopper) (153) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sickle Mower (154) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dump-rake (155) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rake Side Delivery (156) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wheel-rake (157) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stacker Mover (158) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stacker Automatic (159) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Front End Loader (160) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Round Bale Mover (161) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PAGE
H - 12
H - 12
H - 12
H - 12
H - 12
H - 13
H - 13
H - 13
H - 13
H - 13
Land forming or shaping equipment
Backhoe (171) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disk Border Maker (172) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ditch Closer (173) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ditcher (Vee Rotary) (174) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Levee Plow Disk (175) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quarter Drain Machine (176) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear Mounted Blade (177) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Corrugator (178) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Land Plane Leveler (180) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Laser Planer (181) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H - 13
H - 13
H - 13
H - 13
H - 14
H - 14
H - 14
H - 14
H - 14
H - 14
Hauling equipment
General Purpose Wagon or Cart (194) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hay Wagon (195) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gravity Wagon (208) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grain Cart with Auger (209) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H - 14
H - 14
H - 14
H - 15
Other implements
Burn Buggy (191) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chaff/straw Saver (192) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electric-discharge Weed Killer (193) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Off-field Thresher (196) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rock Picker (197) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rock Windrower or Rock Rake (198) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rodent (Gopher) Killer (199) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Roller Groover (200) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rubber-wheeled Weed Puller (201) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shredder Flail (202) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shredder Rotary (203) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Silage Harvester (204) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H - 15
H - 15
H - 15
H - 15
H - 15
H - 15
H - 15
H - 15
H - 16
H - 16
H - 16
H - 16
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
PAGE
Stalk Shredder, Cutter (205) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 16
Swath Roller (206) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 16
Tractor or Truck - No Attachments (207) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 16
Cotton equipment
Chopper, Stalk Cutter (211) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Module Builder (212) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gleaner (213) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Picker, Mounted, or Self-Propelled (214, 215) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rood Machine (216) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stripper, Mounted, Pull Type, or Self-Propelled (217 - 219) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trailer (220) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H - 16
H - 16
H - 17
H - 17
H - 17
H - 17
H - 17
Tobacco equipment
Mechanical Harvester (Combine), Multi-pass (251) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mechanical Harvester (Combine), Last-over (252) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mechanical Harvester (Combine), Once-over (253) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primer, Field Box Filling (254) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primer, Field Racking (255) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primer, Field Looping on Sticks (256) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primer, Other (257) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trailer, Harvest (258) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transplanter, Regular (259) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transplant Digger, Mechanical (260) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tying Machine (261) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Topper, 2 Row (265) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Topper, 4 Row (266) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mechanical Harvester (PTO), Multi-pass (267) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mechanical Harvester (PTO), Last-over (268) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mechanical Harvester (PTO), Once-over (269) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transplanter, carousel (270) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H - 17
H - 17
H - 17
H - 17
H - 18
H - 18
H - 18
H - 18
H - 18
H - 18
H - 18
H - 18
H - 18
H - 19
H - 19
H - 19
H - 19
Peanut Equipment
Combine, PTO (281) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Digger-shaker (282) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shaker-inverter (283) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reshaker-conditioner (284) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vine Cutter (285) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wagon (286) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H - 19
H - 19
H - 19
H - 19
H - 19
H - 19
Sugarbeet Equipment
Beater (231) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 20
Harvester (regular or direct) (233) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H - 20
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Harvester (tank) (234) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Harvester (other) (235) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thinner (mechanical, electronic) (236) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thinner (mechanical, random) (237) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Planter (238) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Topper (topsaver) (239) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PAGE
H - 20
H - 20
H - 20
H - 20
H - 20
H - 20
Sprinkler Irrigation Systems
Hand-move Sprinkler System (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Solid-set Sprinkler Systems (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Permanent Sprinkler System - Use solid set sprinkler system (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Side-roll or Wheel-line Sprinkler Systems (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
End-tow Sprinkler System - Use side-roll system (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Carousel Sprinkler-traveler System - Use side-roll system (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Center Pivot or Linear Move with Sprinklers on Main Line (4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Center Pivot or Linear Move, with Sprinklers below the Main Line, but
More than 2 Feet above the Ground (5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Center Pivot or Linear Move, with Sprinklers less than 2 Feet above the
Ground (6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Big Gun (7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Self-propelled Gun Traveler - Use big gun system (7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reel-type Hose Pull - Use big gun system (7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reel-type Cable Pull - Use big gun system (7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Low-flow Irrigation System (Drip, Trickle, Micro Sprinkler) (8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H - 21
H - 21
H - 21
H - 21
H - 21
H - 21
H - 22
H - 22
H - 22
H - 23
H - 23
H - 23
H - 23
H - 23
Gravity-flow Irrigation Systems
Siphon-tube from Unlined Ditches (10) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Siphon-tube System from Lined Ditches (11) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Portal- or Ditch-gate System from Unlined Ditches (12) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Portal- or Ditch-gate System from Lined Ditches (13) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Poly Pipe System (14) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gated Pipe (Not Poly) (15) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Improved Gated Pipe System (Surge Flow or Cablegation, Not Poly) (16) . . . . . .
Sub-irrigation (17) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Open Discharge from Well or Pump System (18) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contour-levee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Corrugation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Graded-border . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Level-border (Basin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Level-furrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Graded-furrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contour-furrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contour-ditch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H - 24
H - 24
H - 24
H - 24
H - 24
H - 25
H - 25
H - 25
H - 25
H - 26
H - 26
H - 26
H - 26
H - 26
H - 26
H - 26
H - 27
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Plows
Chisel Plow (1)
A primary tillage machine either integral or trailing that consists of three or more ranks or bars upon
which either rigid or spring trip standards are attached. The shanks are usually spaced 12 inches
apart overall. A variety of ground engaging tools may be used ranging from narrow points or shovels
to 18 inch wide sweeps. Chisel plows may be used to a maximum depth of 10 inches.
Coulter-plow (2)
A multi-purpose machine with one or two ranks of plow coulters, usually smooth or notched rim,
followed by two or three ranks of chisel standards with a wide selection of ground engaging tools.
The main purpose of the coulters is to cut through the crop residue in order to reduce plugging of
the chisel standards. This is a primary tillage tool.
Deep Ripper (3)
Similar to v-ripper (code 8). For deep plowing or breaking.
Disk Plow (4)
A machine doing essentially the same work as a moldboard plow but which has from one to ten large
disks set at an angle to the direction of travel. The disks are mounted on individual beams or shanks.
It is used in hard ground and where a regular moldboard plow does not scour well.
Moldboard Plows (Regular, Two-way) (5 & 6)
A machine with one or more (up to 18) curved metal plates (bottoms or moldboards) that engage the soil to a
depth of up to 12 inches. The curvature of the moldboard causes the soil or furrow slice to be
completely inverted. This action pulverizes the soil and buries almost all of the crop residue or
stubble. Moldboard plows may be made with one set of moldboards or with two sets. The two-way
plow has two sets of moldboards, one left-handed and the other right. This allows the plow to be
rotated so that all of the soil can be turned in the same direction and eliminate dead furrows.
Moldboard plows are often used in irrigated areas to help maintain the level and slope of a field for
furrow or bench irrigation.
Stubble-mulch Plow (Noble Blade, Sweep, Hoeme McKeroy Plow) (7)
Usually a tool bar or trailing machine with one or more standards that can be fitted with sweeps of various
angles of penetration and several widths. A sweep does not turn the soil over, it slightly mixes soil
and stubble.
H-1
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Subsoil Plow, Subsoil Chisel, V-ripper (8)
A heavy tillage tool either toolbar mounted or trailing having from one to 13 heavy shanks often with a parabolic
curve. These shank standards usually are fitted with replacement chisel points and penetrates the soil
up to 22 inches. The standards can be fitted with various auxiliary tools such as knives or lister
bottoms. This allows the machine to deep-rip the soil and form beds at the same time.
Disks
Disk-chisels (Mulch-tiller) (9)
A multi-purpose machine; a single disk followed by two or more ranks of chisel shanks.
Offset Disk, Light or Heavy Duty (10 & 11)
A simple offset disk is the equivalent of one side of a tandem. All disks in each rank throw the soil in the same
direction. Offset disks may vary in size from five feet to 35 feet or larger. The larger offsets have
several disk units in each rank to gain flexibility. Disk blades may be cone-shaped or spherical and
have diameters as large as 30 inches for extra heavy duty conditions.
One-way (Disk-tiller) (12)
A machine used mainly in the plains and northwestern areas as a primary tillage tool. It consists of a series of
spherical disk blades, 20-60 inches in diameter, set on a single solid shaft that throws the soil in one
direction. Sizes range from ten to twenty feet with multiple hitches available. One-ways have been
replaced to some extent by chisel plows in many areas.
Single Disk (13)
Two sets of disk blades that throw the soil out from the center when angled. Size may vary from five to 40 or
more feet. Used primarily as a secondary tillage tool. Most single disks have been replaced by
tandems, offset or chisel plows.
Tandem-disk (Regular, Plowing or Heavy Duty) (14 & 15)
Two gangs of disk blades configured in tandem; the front set throws the soil outward and the rear set throws it
inward. The cut width may vary from 5 feet up to 35 or more feet. Spacing between blades may vary
widely with 7, 9, and 11 inch spacing most common. The diameter of each blade may range from 16
to 24 inches. Each blade may be either cone-shaped or spherical. The cone-shaped blades are used in
heavy soil conditions for primary tillage. They may be integral, 3 point hitch, trailing, double tandem
or other configurations.
Paraplow (16)
An implement with narrow shafts with flaps at the bottom which create a nearly undisturbed surface layer while
loosening and lifting a 20 inch subsurface furrow. It provides hardpan penetration like a moldboard
plow, while maintaining surface residue similar to no till.
H-2
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Cultivators
Field cultivator (regular digger, danish tined, swedish tined, s-tine cultivator, vibrashank harrow, lilliston tiller) (21)
An implement similar to the chisel plow except of lighter construction and with the shanks closer together, about
six inches overall. The shanks are usually of a spring steel, vibra-shank type. Ground engaging tools
may be points, shovels or sweeps. Size may range as wide as 70-80 feet. Used primarily as a
secondary tillage machine.
Furrow-out Cultivator (22)
A row cultivator of the shovel variety where a fairly large shovel is placed to operate between the rows and
open a furrow for irrigation. Thus, weeds are cultivated out and irrigation ditches are formed in one
pass.
Rotary Hoe (23)
A series of curved spider wheels attached either to a solid shaft or in segments of two to four wheels for
flexibility. Usually used to kill small weeds in summer fallow or row crops and sometimes as a wind
erosion stop-gap. Rotary hoes are usually pulled at speeds of 6 mph and above and may be hitched to
cover up to 50 feet or more.
Row Cultivator (Shank, Rolling, Lister, Disk) (24 & 25)
An implement with shanks arranged in such a manner that rows of crops can pass through without damage while
the weeds are removed. The shanks or standards may be fitted with shovels, disks or spider-wheels
set at an angle to the direction of travel. Size can vary from one to twenty-four rows. Most are rear
tool-bar or front mounted on tractors.
Field Cultivator, Heavy Duty (Duckfoot Cultivator) (26)
Same as regular field cultivator except heavier construction and may have "duckfoot" shanks.
Marker (27)
An implement similar to a light row cultivator, that makes a shallow furrow at the designated row width for a
planter to follow.
Fallow Master (28)
A sweep type implement with 20" shank spacing and 26" sweeps that vary in width, usually between 20' and 50'.
The equipment is similar to a field cultivator (21) and heavy duty field cultivator (26), but these
equipment have narrower shank spacing and sweep widths.
Harrows (Drags)
H-3
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Heavy harrow (30)
Field conditioner, seed bed conditioner, soil conditioner, scratcher (31)
A lightweight wheeled tillage tool, usually two or three bars or ranks of spring steel teeth spaced 12-18 inches
apart. Tine-tooth attachment available 30-60 feet wide.
Finishing harrow (harrogator) (32)
Spiral cutting blade reels followed by spike teeth or field cultivator shanks, (2 or more ranks) possibly another
rank of spiral knives and a smoothing board of wood or steel.
Flex-tine tooth (coil line, multi-weeder) (33 & 34)
Usually 5.5 to 6 foot sections of five bars or ranks with spring steel teeth usually 5/16 inches in diameter and
about 10 inches long. Teeth are formed in a spring coil and bolted to the bar, or set in rubber and
bolted to the bar. Usually 50 teeth per 6 foot section. At field speed, 3.5 - 5 mph, the tines vibrate in
a circular motion to break clods, smooth seedbeds and kill weeds.
Rail, Pipe, Log, Plank, Etc. (35)
Make shift device used alone or with another implement to smooth soil or crunch clods.
Rod Weeder (36)
A steel, reverse rotating rod usually square, 7/8 or 1 inch in diameter, on shanks. Power for rod rotation is either
ground driven or by hydraulics. Sections are normally 10 ft. wide and may range up to 80 ft. Used in
summer fallow areas and on relatively rock-free ground.
Roller Harrow (37)
Two ranks of packer rollers (smooth "vee", toothed "vee", crow foot, sprocket, birdfoot, or serrated type) with
two or more ranks of chisel- type teeth in between. Packer roller wheels turn independently of each
other. Ten to 16 feet in size.
Spike Tooth Harrow (38)
Usually 5-6 foot sections of five bars or ranks with 7-8 steel spikes or teeth per bar. Angle of spikes is
adjustable. Can be hitched up to 8 or 10 sections in one unit.
Spring Tooth Harrow (39)
Usually built in sections, 3-4 feet in width. Some wheeled models have a ten foot center section with extension
wings up to a 57 feet. Teeth are spaced 12 inches on 3 bar models and 18 inches on 4 bar models.
Spring steel teeth are about 1.75 inches wide with a single or double curve. The wheel-less, drag
models have metal skids for transport and depth control.
Powered Spike Tooth Harrow (40)
A harrow with spike tine teeth in two rows that move back and forth. Powered by PTO.
H-4
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Bedder shapers
Bedder-shaper (Crowder) (41)
A bedder with a forming device that flattens or shapes the bed in preparation for seeding. Shapers are sometimes
used as single toolbar implements.
Bed-shaper, Bed Former (42)
Similar to bedder-shaper (coded 41)
Disk (Hipper) (43)
An implement usually 2-8 rows used to make beds for seeding using disk blades. Can also be used to break or
bust the beds.
Disk (Row) (44)
Similar to disk (hipper) coded 43.
Float (45)
A device, usually homemade, used for minor rough leveling. Soil moving bars or blades may be made of wood
or metal.
Lister (Middle Buster or Breaker) (46)
Same as bedder but lister (plow type) bottoms. Different types of bottoms available (hard land, general purpose,
soft land and planter sweeps).
Rotovator-bedder (47)
Same as lister bedder except uses PTO powered knives to form beds.
Seed Bed Roller, Flat Roller (48)
Flat or concave rim wheel rollers. Packs soil in rows immediately before or after planting.
Subsoil-bedder, Subsoiler (Ripper-hipper, Tiller, No-till Disk Bedder) (49)
Any type bedder either attached to a subsoil shank or as a separate bedder attached behind a subsoiler shank.
Discovator (50)
A multi-tillage machine made up of disk blades, a drag, and a harrow.
H-5
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Packers
Culti-packer (Pulverizer) (51)
An implement with a series of heavy crowfoot, inverted v-rim or serrated rim wheels running independently on a
shaft. May be a single or tandem unit. Main uses of this implement are to firm the seed beds and
reduce the size of clods and lumps of soil.
Plow Packer (52)
A packer designed to be pulled behind a moldboard plow with or without a drill. Packer unit may be spiral rod,
crowfoot, inverted v, cogged or other.
Roller Packer (Smooth & Flat) (53)
Smooth roller or flat wheels on a shaft used to firm seed bed and crush clods.
Miscellaneous tillage
Landall, Do-all, Till-all, Mix-n-till (61)
Multi-tillage machine made of up to 2 to 4 ranks of shovels, disks, coulters, blades or basket rollers. Usually
disk blades, followed by shovels, and then reel and spikes or basket rollers.
Mulch-treader, Picker-treader, Skew Treader (62)
Implement with tined wheels on a gang shaft angled like a section of a tandem or single disk. Used as a separate
machine or an attachment behind a stubble mulch plow. Tined wheels resemble rotary hoe wheels.
Roto-tiller (Rotary Tiller) (63)
A series of bolo or slicer blades attached to a rotating shaft. Used as a primary or secondary tillage implement.
Can be used in tandem with planting equipment as a minimum-till system. Mounted motor or PTO
powered.
Roterra, Lely (64)
A machine with several sets of counter-rotating vertical tines that rotate with an overlapping action. It stirs the
soil without turning it over. With attachments, tillage, planting, pesticide application and
incorporation are possible in one trip.
H-6
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Sand-fighter (65)
An implement used as an aid in controlling wind erosion. Essentially a shaft or bar with a frame and bearings to
allow the shaft to rotate. Blades or teeth, about 10 inches long and 2-3 inches wide, are welded to the
shaft. The teeth enter the soil as the machine is pulled forward, roughening the soil. Sizes range up
to 24 rows.
Soil Finisher (Finishing Tool, Mulch Finisher, Tri-tiller, Task Master) (66)
A multi-tillage machine made up of disk blades, followed by field cultivator shanks, and ending with some type
of harrow or drag.
Fertilizer applicators
Aerial, Fixed or Rotary Wing (71)
Airplanes or helicopters with fertilizer distribution attachments. Commonly used in rice production, but also
used for other crops where field sizes and the surrounding area permits.
Attachment to Implement (72)
Usually drop dry-type attached to a drill or planter but may be liquid or gas type that is injected into the soil.
Manure Spreader (73)
Any type; apron with rear beater, flail or liquid spreader with pump spreader.
Self-propelled (74)
A self-powered implement; may spread dry or liquid fertilizer, usually dry.
Truck Spreader (75)
Any applicator mounted on a truck. These usually are dry broadcast-type spreaders.
Fertilizer applicators, tractor mounted
Anhydrous (76)
Supply tank with chisel shanks and injectors on tool bar. Not commonly used.
Dry (77)
(Includes lime/gypsum applicators) three point hitch mounted: single or dual spinners with supply tank.
Pneumatic: air delivery system through hoses to soil surface or below surface with hollow hoe
shanks. The supply and distribution system is mounted on a tool bar. Drill-type: drill type hopper
with agitator and metering device to drop material on the surface of the soil.
H-7
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Liquid (78)
Usually spray nozzles or injector units on a tool bar.
Fertilizer applicators, trailer mounted
Anhydrous (79)
Usually a 2 or 4 wheel supply trailer feeding a chisel plow with injector tubes on each shank. Can be high or
low pressure type.
Dry (80)
(Includes lime/gypsum applicators) - distributes the material by revolving spinner, or a pneumatic system
through tubes to soil surface or below; also the agitator metered bottom drop drill-type.
Liquid (81)
Various configurations of two or four wheel trailers. Most use a boom with spray nozzles to surface or foliage
apply the material. PTO or mounted engine powered.
Chemical applicators
Aerial (Fixed or Rotary Wing) (91)
Airplane or helicopter with tanks and a spray boom to apply pesticides at very low altitudes.
Attachment to Implement (92)
Granular or liquid spray unit attached to a tillage, cultivating or seeding implement.
Large Self-propelled or Truck (93)
Large converted truck or specially built machine to spray liquid or apply dry chemicals.
Motorcycle or Atv Sprayer (94)
A small spray unit mounted on a 3-wheel motor vehicle. Spray with a boom, with hand held guns or wiper type.
Mostly used for spot spraying.
Small Self-propelled Sprayer (Spra-coupe, Hi-cycle) (95)
Light weight self-propelled implement, (spra-coupe) used on field crops such as wheat or barley.
Small Truck (Pick-up with Slide-in Unit, Skid Mounted) (96)
Spraying mechanisms with boom, wiper, recirculating, micro-spray/dry spinner or tube delivery.
Tractor Mounted (97)
H-8
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Supply tanks and spreading mechanism mounted on a tractor. Material may be spread by boom, recirculating
sprayers, rope or wick wipers, row type nozzles or air blast. Facilitates spraying while cultivating.
Trailer Mounted (98)
Supply tanks and spreading mechanism mounted on a trailer pulled by tractor or other power vehicle. All types
of spreading mechanisms.
Drills and seeders
Aerial Seeding (101)
Seeding by either fixed or rotary wing aircraft. Seeding often in rice areas and occasionally with other crops.
Broadcast Seeder (102)
Spinner type seeder, either tractor mounted (PTO or electric) or trailer mounted (wheel driven).
Drill-air Delivery (103)
Same as conventional drill except seed is taken from a supply box through a manifold and blown by air
through tubes to the seeding points.
Grain Drill (Lister Disk) (104)
Uses lister bottoms, shovels, or hoes to prepare soil for seeds.
No-till, Minimum-till Drill, Zero-conventional (105)
Usually fluted or ripped coulters that open up narrow prepared soil areas for the single or double disk drill shoes
to deposit the seed in otherwise untilled soil. Herbicide attachments are available. Modified chisel
plows with coulters are also used.
Grain Drill (Plain) (106)
Seeder with seed box, metered seed feed through tubes to single or double disk openers. Tubes spaced 7", 9" or
10". May have fertilizer attachment.
Press Drill (Disk or Hoe) (107)
Drill with disks or lister bottoms with press wheels to firm soil around seed.
Planters
Bedder-shaper (111)
Plants upon a bed formed by disks or lister bottoms and shaped by a metal smoothing form into a flat bed. Used
mostly in the south for cotton, peanuts and sorghums.
H-9
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Lister-bedder Planter (112)
Planter mechanism either plate type or plateless, air or otherwise actuated. Seed is deposited in furrows made by
lister bottoms either hard land or soft land type (may be equipped with fertilizer, insecticide, and/or
herbicide attachments).
No-till, Minimum-till (113)
Fluted, rippled, or smooth coulters and/or subsoil shanks used to disturb the untilled soil in a narrow band for the
planter units to deposit seeds. Usually used in conjunction with fertilizers, herbicides and
insecticides.
Conventional, Row Crop Planter, All Crop Planter, (114)
Plate or plateless metering devices that drop seed through a boot or shank in a seed furrow or bed opened by a
shoe or disk. Seed is covered by a press wheel. Planters may be trail type - wheel carried or tool bar
mounted. Widths range from two to twenty-four rows.
Air Delivery (115)
Same as conventional planter except seed is taken from a supply box through a manifold and blown by air
through tubes to the seeding points.
Planter, Ridge till (116)
Same as no-till planter except with sweeps or disk blades for cutting the top of preformed ridges and depositing
the residue between the rows.
Harvesting equipment
Combine, All Types (121 - 125 & 128 - 132)
Self-propelled or PTO implement for harvesting standing crops or gather crops from windrows or swaths. It
separates the crop from the straw, stalks, cobs and husks, cleans and elevates it into a holding tank for
immediate or eventual delivery into a truck, wagon or grain cart. Self-propelled units may have 2
wheels, 4 wheels or track drives and can be set up for rice, barley, peanuts, beans, all small grains,
and soybeans. They may have rigid or flexible cutter bars, bat or pick-up reels or windrow pickups,
and may be fitted as hillside, sidehill or level land machines. Special barley and other row crop heads
are available.
Windrower-swather (PTO & Self-propelled) (126, 127)
A machine, either self-propelled or PTO, that cuts the standing hay or ripened grain with a reciprocating sickle
aided by a revolving reel of four or more bats or sails. Cut material is deposited on a platform, either
draper or auger type. The auger or drapers move the cut material either to the end or the center of the
platform where it is discharged onto the ground in a "windrow" or "swath". The swather may have
metal and/or rubber rollers for the hay to pass through. This "conditions" or "crimps" the hay to
allow more rapid and uniform curing.
H - 10
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Corn Picker (133)
A corn harvesting machine, usually PTO powered, that removes the ears from the corn stalk.
Hand harvest (134)
Picked by hand, no machines.
Mowers and balers
Amish Harvest (141)
Non-motorized device for harvesting hay.
Bale Wagon (PTO & Self-propelled) (142, 143)
A wide range of wagons or trailers from the simple, wide flat bed used to haul bales to a sophisticated, selfpropelled (or PTO) unit that collects and stacks bales. This stacking ability allows the baler to be
unloaded by power to form a compact stack of bales. Some units also can pick up stacked bales for
transport.
Bale Loader (144)
A device, either ground or engine driven, that picks up the bales from the ground and deposits the bales onto the
truck or trailer as it moves down the windrow of bales. Largely used for small rectangular bales but
models for the large round bales are available.
Balers (PTO & Self-propelled) (145-148)
Balers pick the hay or straw up from a windrow and compact it into either round or square bales which may be
small (40 - 125 pounds) or large (1000 to 2000 pounds). Balers may be motor mounted, PTO or selfpropelled.
Rotary Mower-cutter, Chopper, Bush Hog (149)
A machine used largely to cut weeds and roadsides but may be used to harvest a crop for hay or to shred crop
residue. Sizes range from 4 to 20 or more feet of cut when hitched in multiple units. Available in
integral, semi-mounted and pull-type. Mostly PTO powered. Cuts by means of a rapidly rotating
blade either rigid or flexible.
Mower Conditioner PTO (150)
Consists of a cutterbar, a reel, a pair of full width conditioning rolls, and a deflector. Width ranges from 7 to 12
feet.
Mower Conditioner, Self-propelled (151)
Self-propelled machine, similar to mower conditioner (code 150).
Disk Mower (152)
H - 11
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
A mower with a number of cutting blades on rotating disks mounted on a bar. The disks are driven from the
bottom by a series of flat gears.
Drum Mower (152)
A series of rotary drums or cylinders with blades attached. The drums are driven by an enclosed gear or chain
train from the top. PTO powered.
Flail Mower Shredder (Rotary Chopper) (153)
A machine that mows, cuts or shreds crops by means of steel blades or knives on a horizontal rotating shaft or
drum. The high speed of the drum (about 1850-2000 rpm) cause the hinged knives to cut or shred the
crop. Can be used to harvest hay or to shred crop residue. Ranges in size from 5 to 15 feet or more.
Sickle Mower (154)
A machine with a reciprocating sickle running in a cutter bar with guards and ledger plates. Mowers may be 3
point mounted, semi-mounted, belly mounted or trail type. Usual sizes are 7 to 9 foot sickle or cutter
bars but some heavy cutters are only 5 foot.
Dump-rake (155)
A series of large "c" shaped teeth attached a bar or frame. This frame can be raised or lowered alternately to
pick up the hay and "dump" it into windrows. Either ground or PTO powered. Sizes range from 8 to
32 or more feet.
Rake Side Delivery (156)
A rake with a four or five bar reel and set at an angle to the direction of travel. The reel rotates, either PTO or
ground driven, in the opposite direction of the carrier or tractor wheels. This motion along with the
angle sweeps the crop into a windrow on the left or the right. Raking swath is 7 to 9 feet.
Wheel-rake (157)
A series of overlapping wheels, four to five feet in diameter with spring teeth on the rim of the wheels. The
wheels are mounted on a bar or frame at 10 to 60 degree angles to the direction of travel. The
wheels are turned by contact with the crop and the ground. The 5 wheel rake covers about 16 3/4 feet
and the 7 wheel about 20 feet.
Stacker Mover (158)
A forklift-like device for moving hay stacks.
Stacker Automatic (159)
A device for compacting hay.
Front End Loader (160)
Small bulldozer with scoop or bucket in front.
Round Bale Mover (161)
H - 12
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
A prong-like attachment to a tractor or other equipment used to move round hay bales. The tractor normally
backs the prong into the bale, lifts the bale off of the ground using hydraulic or PTO assist, and
moves the bale.
Land forming or shaping equipment
Backhoe (171)
Large shovel or scoop operated with a mechanical arm. Often used for ditch digging.
Disk Border Maker (172)
Set of two single disks or two sets of 3 or more disks used to make borders for irrigation. Can be reversed to tear
down borders. Usually mounted on a tool bar.
Ditch Closer (173)
A machine usually mounted on a 3-point hitch or on wheels pulled behind a tractor that pulls dirt together to fill
in an irrigation or drainage ditch.
Ditcher (Vee Rotary) (174)
A machine either with a vee shaped blade or a rotary auger or fan that is used to cut field irrigation or drainage
ditches. Either 3-point or trail mounted.
Levee Plow Disk (175)
A machine used to throw up levees or ridges between rice fields. Most machines have two sets of disks, each
with one to three disk blades that throw the soil up into a levee. Most disks are tool-bar mounted.
Disk sets can be reversed to tear down the levees.
Quarter Drain Machine (176)
A machine mounted on a tractor that is used to clean out the quarter drains in the field. This operation is
performed several times a year to keep open the drains leaving the field.
Rear Mounted Blade (177)
A curved blade, 5 to 8 feet long and 15 to 24 inches deep, attached to the 3-point hitch of a tractor. Most can be
angled sideways and up and down from ground level either manually or hydraulically. Used for
ditching, back filling, scraping and rough leveling.
Corrugator (178)
A device that produces vee shaped indentions in the soil to aid in the distribution of irrigation water. The units
may be mounted on a row cultivator or on a tool-bar.
Land Plane Leveler (180)
H - 13
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
A machine used primarily to level land for irrigation or to improve drainage. This machine usually has two or
more sets of wheels on a long wheel-base supporting one or more bowls, blades or baskets that are
intended to carry soil from high points to low areas in a field.
Laser Planer (181)
Similar to land plane leveler (coded 180) which uses a laser beam for precise leveling.
Hauling equipment
General Purpose Wagon or Cart (194)
Wagon with or without sides used for many purposes such as hauling grain, sugarbeets, vegetables, and fruit,
among other commodities.
Hay Wagon (195)
Flat-bed wagon used to haul hay.
Gravity Wagon (208)
Wagon with sloping sides that direct grain to an opening at the bottom.
Grain Cart with Auger (209)
Cart with sloping sides that direct grain to an auger at the bottom. Often used to collect grain from a harvester in
the field and load the grain in a truck.
Other implements
Burn Buggy (191)
Homemade device used to burn after-harvest residue in rice production.
Chaff/straw Saver (192)
Attachment pulled behind a combine that bunches or stacks chaff and/or straw as it comes from the combine.
The small stacks are left in the field for later retrieval.
Electric-discharge Weed Killer (193)
A machine that produces an electric charge which uses the weed plant to complete an electrical circuit to the
ground. Current causes plant cells to rupture, killing the plant. Weeds must be taller than the plants
for the method to be feasible. Utilizes a 50 kw generator powered by a 1000 rpm - PTO on a
minimum 120 hp tractor.
H - 14
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Off-field Thresher (196)
Stationary threshing machine.
Rock Picker (197)
Heavy duty machine with pick-up teeth or heavy duty rotating reels that deposits rocks and stones from one inch
diameter to 500 pound boulders into a tank or bucket for removal from a field. Some rock pickers are
equipped with elevators that deposit the rocks directly into a truck or trailer.
Rock Windrower or Rock Rake (198)
A heavy side-delivery or wheel-type rake that moves stones into windrows in order to speed up the process of
rock picking.
Rodent (Gopher) Killer (199)
Machine with a sub-soil shank that allows poisoned bait to be injected into soil at the same depth as gopher
burrows or runways. Fields are usually covered in a criss-cross pattern.
Roller Groover (200)
Pull-type device that forms ditches in the soil. Used in preparing rice acreage for seeding.
H - 15
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Rubber-wheeled Weed Puller (201)
A series of paired rubber-tired wheels set touching one another and rotating in opposite directions. As the
machine moves forward at a level above the crop but below the weed tops, the weeds are caught by
the spinning wheels and are pulled out
Shredder Flail (202)
Same as flail mower. See 153.
Shredder Rotary (203)
Same as a rotary mower. See 149.
Silage Harvester (204)
Similar to forage harvester for chopping fodder.
Stalk Shredder, Cutter (205)
A rotobeater with hard metal rods or cutting blades attached to a revolving horizontal shaft.
Swath Roller (206)
Packing attachment about 8 ft. wide; hitches back to swather.
Tractor or Truck - No Attachments (207)
Tractor - a self propelled vehicle with a gasoline or diesel engine used to supply power to other machines in one
of four ways (1) pulling at the drawbar; (2) rotary power from the power-take-off; (3) hydraulic
power; and (4) electric power (direct current from a generator).
Truck - a sturdy, motorized vehicle primarily used for hauling.
Cotton equipment
Chopper, Stalk Cutter (211)
A machine with a ground driver reel with cutting blades, either angled or spiral, used to chop or cut cotton or
other heavy stalks. Also does minor soil preparation.
Module Builder (212)
A four sided form having an openable rear door. It has a traversing, mechanical compactor and compressor for
placing cotton into high density stacks.
H - 16
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Gleaner (213)
A cotton harvesting machine, usually ground driven or PTO, pulled by a tractor that gleans or picks up loose
cotton left after picking or stripping or perhaps before harvest began.
Picker, Mounted, or Self-Propelled (214, 215)
A 2 or 4 row implement usually tractor mounted or self-propelled for picking mature cotton from bolls through
an intricate arrangement of spindles and doffers. It deposits the cotton by means of an air stream into
a holding basket. When full, the basket is emptied into a trailer or cart for delivery to a gin or module
builder. Several trips may be made over a ripening field.
Rood Machine (216)
Cotton harvester which retrieves cotton from the ground through such means as air suction.
Stripper, Mounted, Pull Type, or Self-Propelled (217 - 219)
Made as self-propelled, PTO, pulled, or tractor mounted machines that pull or strip all of the bolls from the plant
at one time over. Stripping is accomplished by rotating brushed and rubber flaps. Strippers may be 2 6 rows or a platform type in some instances.
Trailer (220)
Used for transporting seed cotton from the picker or stripper to the gin.
Tobacco equipment
Mechanical Harvester (Combine), Multi-pass (251)
A self-propelled or tractor drawn machine that is used more than 1 trip through a field and mechanically removes
4 to 6 leaves per plant per trip across the field.
Mechanical Harvester (Combine), Last-over (252)
An automatic harvester that is designed to mechanically remove the remaining leaves in a last pass through the
field.
Mechanical Harvester (Combine), Once-over (253)
An automatic harvester that is designed to mechanically remove all the leaves from the stalk in one pass through
the field. This machine is sometimes referred to as a stripper.
Primer, Field Box Filling (254)
Any of several different types of self-propelled or tractor drawn machines that allow workers to sit and prime
tobacco. Workers in the field place tobacco leaves in big boxes used for curing.
H - 17
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Primer, Field Racking (255)
Any of several different types of self-propelled or tractor drawn machines that allow workers to sit and prime
tobacco. Workers in the field place tobacco leaves in bulk racks used for curing.
Primer, Field Looping on Sticks (256)
Any of several types of self-propelled or tractor drawn machines that allow workers to sit and prime tobacco.
Field workers take small bunches of tobacco and place the butt ends at both sides of tobacco sticks
and then wrap twine around the bunches of tobacco until the sticks are filled.
Primer, Other (257)
Any of several different types of self-propelled or tractor drawn machines that allow workers to sit down and
prime tobacco. Workers in the field or at the barns place tobacco for curing in other than machines
254, 255 and 256 above.
Trailer, Harvest (258)
A tractor or truck drawn trailer used to carry tobacco from the field to the barn.
Transplanter, Regular (259)
A power drawn transplanting machine is operated by a driver and carries 2, 4 or 8 persons on "setters". The
persons on setters alternate in placing or guiding the plants into the mechanism which spaces them at
the proper intervals in the row. The machine opens the furrow, dumps a measured quantity of water,
sets the plant and draws the soil about the roots of the plants.
Transplant Digger, Mechanical (260)
A power drawn machine pulled across the plantbed that will dig transplants, shake off loose soil from their roots
and stack them neatly in a box so that they can be fed into mechanical transplanters.
Tying Machine (261)
A machine that loops tobacco with an automatic tying or sewing machine. The tobacco leaves and sticks are
placed on a moving conveyor belt which passes them under a sewing head. The leaves are attached to
the stick by stitches at the butt end.
Topper, 2 Row (265)
A machine which removes the blossoms and sometimes the top leaves of the burley tobacco plant from two rows
in one pass.
Topper, 4 Row (266)
A machine which removes the blossoms and sometimes the top leaves of the burley tobacco plant from four
rows in one pass.
H - 18
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Mechanical Harvester (PTO), Multi-pass (267)
A tractor drawn and powered machine used for more than one trip through a field and will mechanically remove
4 to 6 leaves per plant per trip across the field.
Mechanical harvester (PTO), last-over (268)
A tractor drawn and powered machine used for more than one trip through a field and will mechanically remove
the remaining leaves in a last past through the field.
Mechanical Harvester (PTO), Once-over (269)
A tractor drawn and powered harvester designed to mechanically remove all the leaves from the stalk in one
pass through the field. This machine is sometimes referred to as a stripper.
Transplanter, carousel (270)
A flue-cured tobacco transplanter which has a carousel or circular attachment to assist workers in handling the
transplants.
Peanut Equipment
Combine, PTO (281)
A peanut harvesting machine that picks up the windrow of peanuts left by the digger-shaker and separates the
peanuts from the vines. The peanuts go into a holding tank. Only PTO models are available. Peanut
combines are used only on peanuts.
Digger-shaker (282)
A machine, usually 2 or 4 row, that lifts the peanuts, vine and all, by means of long angled knives, from the soil.
The soil is shaken from the vines with reel or chain type shakers and vines are deposited in a
windrow.
Shaker-inverter (283)
Same as a digger-shaker except vines in windrow are inverted so the peanuts lay on the vines.
Reshaker-conditioner (284)
A machine used to fluff-up the windrows to enhance drying or conditioning.
Vine Cutter (285)
A device for cutting peanut vines from roots.
Wagon (286)
A wagon for hauling peanuts; can be used for drying peanuts.
H - 19
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Sugarbeet Equipment
Beater (231)
An implement used to remove the beet leaves before harvesting. Some models also chop the beet leaves for
quicker decomposition. This implement is not used to save tops, however, a scalper, which uses
knives or rotating disc to remove the crown core and bud from the top of the beet, may or may not be
attached to the beater.
Harvester (regular or direct) (233)
An implement that digs and lifts beets from the ground, directly loading them into a cart of trailer in the field.
Harvester (tank) (234)
An implement that digs and lifts beets from the ground, directly loading them into a large storage tank attached
to the machine. When full, the tank is emptied onto carts or trailers.
Harvester (other) (235)
Any other implement that digs and lifts beets from the ground excluding a regular, direct, or tank harvester.
Thinner (mechanical, electronic) (236)
An implement that use flexible toothed or knife weeders that are electronically activated to thin beets. This is
done after the beets have grown to a stand - after the plants have developed from 8 to 10 leaves.
Thinner (mechanical, random) (237)
An implement that cultivates and skips measured distances to thin beets. This is done after the beets have grown
to a stand - after the plants have developed from 8 to 10 leaves.
Planter (238)
An implement that uses seed plate metering devices (mechanical or air activated) to drop beet seed through a
boot or shank into a seed bed opened by a shoe or disc.
Topper (topsaver) (239)
An implement that uses knives or rotating disc to remove tops, crown, core, and bud from the top of the beet.
This implement is used to save tops and may not include a windrower attached, where the tops are
windrowed for pick-up later or loaded by conveyer belt into a truck.
Sprinkler Irrigation Systems
H - 20
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Hand-move Sprinkler System (1)
Portable pipe system, usually aluminum pipe, which must be moved by hand one or more times per day during
irrigation periods. Irrigation requirements of the field are met by successive moves of the system to
water one strip of the field at a time (an irrigation set). The system’s sprinklers can use a variety of
orifice sizes and configurations. The system may be adapted to most soil types, topography, field
size and shapes; however, it is not suited for all crops since tall crops, such as corn, hinder pipe
movement. The sprinkler line(s) are served water by mainlines of aluminum or PVC that may be
buried or above ground.
Solid-set Sprinkler Systems (2)
A portable pipe system which is placed in the field at the start of the irrigation season and left in place to the
season end. Requires no labor to move the system to a new location once established for the
irrigation season. Adapted to most crops, soil types, topography, field sizes and shapes.
Permanent Sprinkler System-Use solid set sprinkler system (2)
Buried pipe system with only the risers and sprinklers above ground. This system has the same characteristics as
the solid-set sprinkler system, except that the labor requirements are lower.
Side-roll or Wheel-line Sprinkler Systems (3)
A wheel-move, lateral-line system which moves as a unit in fixed increments (irrigation sets) across the field.
The system is powered by a small gasoline engine that is manually operated. The system is stationary
while irrigation is taking place. Some variations of the system may have tow lines trailing the main
lateral line with additional sprinklers on each tow line. Tow line systems irrigate a wider strip at each
set, up to 180 feet compared to the 60-foot strip of standard side-roll systems. Wheels are generally
spaced 40 feet apart and are 5-7 foot in diameter, with the main system pipe serving as an axle in the
middle of the wheel. The system is designed for reasonably flat, rectangular or square fields and is
suited to crops less than 4 feet in height. The sprinkler may use flexible hose, aluminum pipe, or
PVC pipe to connect to mainlines (above or below ground) or on-site pressurization pumps.
End-tow Sprinkler System - Use side-roll system (3)
Wheel or skid, lateral-line system which is end-towed via tractor to new locations in the field. The system is
stationary while irrigation is taking place. System is designed for reasonably flat or slightly rolling,
rectangular or square fields with an alley through the center of the field. Designed for hay and
pasture irrigation, the system may be used on some row crops and orchards.
Carousel Sprinkler-traveler System - Use side-roll system (3)
Wheel-mounted system with a rotating boom that sprinkles or sprays water. The system may be self-propelled
with a mounted engine, or towed via pick-up or tractor to the next field location (irrigation set).
Water is supplied to the system by hose or supply ditch.
H - 21
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Center Pivot or Linear Move with Sprinklers on Main Line (4)
Self-propelled, continuous-move sprinkler system that either travels in a circle (center pivot) or laterally (linear
move) across a field. Sprinklers are located directly on the system’s main water-supply pipe, which
is supported by A-frame towers. Some circle systems have features that provide coverage of most of
the corners on a square field. Some systems may be towed to adjacent fields to increase system use
by irrigating a different crop with different timing of water needs. Water is delivered to a fixed
center point for center-pivot systems and by hose or supply ditch for lateral move systems. Centerpivot systems have been developed for areas from 40 to 240 acres, but most systems irrigate 128-132
acres of a square 160 acre field. Lateral moves require a square or rectangular field of 40 to 240
acres. These systems may be adapted to most crops, soil types, and level to gently-rolling
topography. Systems with sprinklers directly on the main water-supply line will tend to be medium
to higher pressure (above 30 psi) and use impact sprinklers.
Center Pivot or Linear Move, with Sprinklers below the Main Line, but More than 2
Feet above the Ground (5)
Self-propelled, continuous-move sprinkler system that either travels in a circle (center pivot) or laterally (linear
move) across a field. Sprinklers or sprayers are located on drop-tubes or booms suspended below the
system’s main water-supply pipe, but more than 2 feet above the ground. This includes most
standard drop-tube sprinkler systems. Some circle systems have features that provide coverage of
most of the corners on a square field. Some systems may be towed to adjacent fields to increase
system use by irrigating a different crop with different timing of water needs. Water is delivered to a
fixed center point for center-pivot systems and by hose or supply ditch for lateral move systems.
Center-pivot systems have been developed for areas from 40 to 240 acres, but most systems irrigate
128-132 acres of a square 160 acre field. Lateral moves require a square or rectangular field of 40 to
240 acres. These systems may be adapted to most crops, soil types, and level to gently-rolling
topography. Systems with sprinklers below the main water-supply line will tend to be lower
pressure (below 30 psi), with spray nozzles rather than impact sprinklers.
Center Pivot or Linear Move, with Sprinklers less than 2 Feet above the Ground (6)
Self-propelled, continuous-move sprinkler system that either travels in a circle (center pivot) or laterally (linear
move) across a field. Sprinklers or sprayers are located on drop-tubes suspended below the system’s
main water-supply pipe and are located less than 2 feet above the ground. This includes low pressure
precision application systems (LEPA) and other below-the-crop-canopy systems. Some circle
systems have features that provide coverage of most of the corners on a square field. Some systems
may be towed to adjacent fields to increase system use by irrigating a different crop with different
timing of water needs. Water is delivered to a fixed center point for center-pivot systems and by hose
or supply ditch for lateral move. Center-pivot systems have been developed for areas from 40 to 240
acres, but most systems irrigate 128-132 acres of a square 160 acre field. Lateral moves require a
square or rectangular field of 40 to 240 acres. These systems may be adapted to most crops, soil
types, and level to gently-rolling topography. Systems with sprinklers suspended to within 2 feet of
the ground tend to be very low pressure (below 15 psi) and use spray nozzles and bubblers. Some
units may run water directly on the ground using a cloth-like extension attached to the drop tube.
Big Gun (7)
H - 22
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
A single, large gun-type sprinkler mounted on a trailer, carriage, or skid. Water is supplied to the sprinkler
through a flexible hose. The mounted gun sprinkler is either pulled across a field or moved across a
field using a self-propelled drive system for each irrigation set. An irrigation set is the area of the
field that is irrigated by the gun sprinkler as it moves across the field. When an irrigation set is
completed, the entire system is moved and the process repeated. The system is designed for straight
rows, flat topography, and medium to high infiltration soils. It is best suited for crops that can
withstand heavy bursts of water. Systems are high pressure, greater than 60 psi. Three specialty-type
big-gun systems are defined below, including a self-propelled gun traveler system, a reel-type hose
pull system, and a reel-type cable pull system.
Self-propelled Gun Traveler - Use big gun system (7)
Single, large gun on a four-wheel trailer. Self propelled by a separate engine or a hydraulic continuous move.
Water is supplied through a flexible hose. Systems are high pressure, greater than 60 psi.
Reel-type Hose Pull - Use big gun system (7)
Single, large gun-type sprinkler on a carriage. A flexible, but noncollapsible hose is attached to a large reel at
one end of the field. The carriage and sprinkler is attached to the unrolled hose and stationed at the
other end of the field. Water movement through the hose activates a drive system that rolls the hose
on the reel, drawing the sprinkler and carriage across the field. When an irrigation set is completed,
the reel, sprinkler, and carriage may be moved and the process repeated. Systems are high pressure,
greater than 60 psi.
Reel-type Cable Pull - Use big gun system (7)
Similar to hose-pull system, except a cable is used to reel the gun-type sprinkler and carriage across the field.
This enables a flexible, collapsible hose to be pulled behind the carriage. When an irrigation set is
completed, the cable reel, hose, sprinkler, and carriage may be moved and the process repeated. The
system often requires a grass strip to operate on since the hose is pulled behind the unit. Systems are
high pressure, greater than 60 psi.
Low-flow Irrigation System (Drip, Trickle, Micro Sprinkler) (8)
Low-pressure systems designed for frequent water applications using small-diameter tubing and low-volume
emitters to distribute water directly to the crop root zone. Tubing and emitters can be installed below
ground, under plastic or mulch, or above ground, and alternatively, tubing may be installed below
ground with emitters on risers above ground. While used primarily on trees, vines, and vegetable
crops, these systems are only in limited use on field crops due to the high initial capital costs. Drip
and trickle systems have been adapted to all crop types; micro-sprinklers are generally used on
perennial crops where a larger wetted area is needed to encourage root development. These systems
are adaptable to most soils and may be used on topography where slope prevents irrigation from other
system types.
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FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Gravity-flow Irrigation Systems
Siphon-tube from Unlined Ditches (10)
System uses short curved tubes, usually aluminum or plastic, to siphon water onto a field from an unlined ditch
across the head of the field. Siphon tubes are curved to fit over the ditch bank and most range from 1
to 3 inches in diameter and from 3 to 5 feet in length. Water, once on the field, may flow down
furrows, between borders or dikes, or in corrugations. The unlined ditch is formed with mechanical
operations using only the soil on the field. The ditch may be reformed each year or reused with
maintenance.
Siphon-tube System from Lined Ditches (11)
System uses short curved tubes, usually aluminum or plastic, to siphon water onto a field from a lined ditch
across the head of the field. Siphon tubes are curved to fit over the ditch bank and most range from 1
to 3 inches in diameter and from 3 to 5 feet in length. Water, once on the field, may flow down
furrows, between borders or dikes, or in corrugations. The ditch may be lined with concrete, plastic,
clay, or other nonporous material. The ditch is permanent and is reused each year.
Portal- or Ditch-gate System from Unlined Ditches (12)
System uses openings in the ditch bank, either portals with covers or tubular openings closed with a gate, to
discharge water onto a field from an unlined ditch across the head of the field. Portals in the ditch
bank can be of any diameter and are covered with a metal, plastic, or wood cover to regulate water
flow onto the field. Ditch openings can be any size, including openings for the entire flow of the
ditch, and water-flow control gates can be made of wood, metal, plastic, or canvas. Water, once on
the field, may flow down furrows, between borders or dikes, or in corrugations. The unlined ditch is
formed with mechanical operations using only the soil on the field. The ditch may be reformed each
year or reused with maintenance.
Portal- or Ditch-gate System from Lined Ditches (13)
System uses openings in the ditch bank, either portals with covers or tubular openings closed with a gate, to
discharge water onto a field from a lined ditch across the head of the field. Portals in the ditch bank
can be of any diameter and covered with a metal, plastic, or wood cover to regulate water flow onto
the field. Ditch openings can be any size, including openings for the entire flow of the ditch, and
water-flow control gates can be made of wood, metal, plastic, or canvas. Water, once on the field,
may flow down furrows, between borders or dikes, or in corrugations. The ditch may be lined with
concrete, plastic, clay, or other nonporous material. The ditch is permanent and is reused each year.
Poly Pipe System (14)
A system using a flexible, collapsible, plastic (polyethylene) tube up to 18 inches in diameter. The poly-tubing
is unrolled along the head of the field and holes punched or closeable gates installed to match furrow,
border, or dike width. A well or supply canal provides water to the tube. The tube is installed at the
H - 24
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
beginning of the irrigation season, and since it lays flat when not in use, can remain in the field the
entire season. The tubing may be reused for more than one year, but single season use is most
common.
Gated Pipe (Not Poly) (15)
A system using rigid PVC plastic or aluminum pipe with manually-operated closeable gates at regular intervals.
The pipe is installed at the head of the field, but may need to be removed for cultural operations or
moved to new field locations through the season. The gates usually match row widths so water can
flow directly into rows. Gated-pipe systems may also be used on flood or corrugation water-control
systems. The pipe is reused for many years.
Improved Gated Pipe System (Surge Flow or Cablegation, Not Poly) (16)
A system using rigid PVC plastic or aluminum pipe with manually-operated closeable gates at regular intervals,
but with an automated water-control system. Automated water control is achieved by (1) using a
surge valve to alternate pipe sets receiving water, (2) using a moveable plug inside the gated pipe,
controlled by a cable, to adjust the water flow from open gates, or (3) other automated methods using
gated pipe to control water flow and improve the uniformity of water applications, such as
pneumatically controlled bladders to regulate water flow on individual gates. Gated pipe is installed
across the head of the field, but may need to be removed for cultural operations or moved to new field
locations through the season. The gates usually match row widths so water can flow directly into
rows. Improved gated pipe is very unlikely to be used for flood irrigation. It would defeat the
purpose of the improved system. The pipe is reused for many years.
Sub-irrigation (17)
Maintenance of a water table at a predetermined depth below the field surface by using ditches or sub-surface
drains and water-control structures. Water is added or removed as needed to maintain the water level
of the water table at a specific depth using the ditches or drains. Lateral movement of water through
the soil provides water to the crop root zone. Conditions for use of this system are limited. Land
must be flat and suitable for rapid lateral water movement. The irrigation system may also be used as
a drainage system.
Open Discharge from Well or Pump System (18)
Open discharge from well of pump occurs when there is only one point of discharge into the field. This system
is often used in conjunction with levees or dikes to maintain an even water depth throughout the field.
The water remains on the soil until irrigation needs are met, at which time the water is drained,
allowed to infiltrate, or evaporates. Land forming is often required with this system. As a gravity
irrigation system it can be used to irrigate a single contour/bay field or discharge water into the
topmost multiple contour/levee/bay field. Do not use this system when discharging water into each
bay of a multiple bay field.
H - 25
FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Contour-levee - Use the code for the type of system used to apply the water
Completely flooded areas bounded by small contour levees and cross levees. Application rate is considerably
larger than intake rate. Water remains on soil until irrigation needs are met with the excess drained
away. Used for crops tolerant of flooding up to 12 hours such as rice, cotton, corn, soybeans, small
grains, and grasses. Land forming is required and adequate surface drainage is essential. Irrigation
water must be of good to excellent quality. Enter as flood application.
Corrugation - Use the code for the type of system used to apply the water
Partial surface flooding method. Water is applied in small evenly spaced channels. Initial streams are greater
than soil intake rate. Must be cut back when water reaches lower unit to prevent runoff or having a
tail water recovery system. Best suited to close growing, non-cultivated crops such as legumes,
grasses, and small grains. Enter as flood application.
Graded-border - Use the code for the type of system used to apply the water
Type of controlled surface flooding. Field is divided into strips by parallel dikes. Strips should have little crossslope. Best suited to soils with moderately low to moderately high intake rates. Used to irrigate
legumes, grasses, small grains, orchards and vineyards. Enter as flood application.
Level-border (Basin) - Use the code for the type of system used to apply the water
Rapid application of water to level or nearly level area enclosed by dikes to retain water at uniform depth until it
infiltrates the soil. Best suited to soils with moderate to slow intake rate and a moderate to high
available water holding capacity. Can irrigate a number of crops without changing the basic layout or
rate of application. Accurate land leveling is required. No irrigation water is lost by runoff. Enter as
flood application.
Level-furrow - Use the code for the type of system used to apply the water
uses small channels without grade to irrigate crops planted in or between the furrows. A large stream of water is
required and water remains at a uniform depth throughout the furrow until it infiltrates the soil. Best
suited to soils having moderate to slow infiltration rate and moderate to high available moisture
holding capacity. Best suited to row crops, but can be used for grass crops. Enter as flood
application.
Graded-furrow
Application of water in small channels having continuous slope in direction of water movement to irrigate row
crops. Best suited to sites where furrow grade does not exceed 1%. Fields must be well graded and
tail water facilities should be installed. Not designed for light irrigation. Water is applied to furrows
by gated pipe or from ditches by siphon tubes. Use the code for the type of system used to apply the
water.
Contour-furrow
Similar to graded furrow, but furrows are laid on the contour to reduce slope. Can be used on all soils except
light sandy soils and soils that crack. Use the code for the type of system used to apply the water.
Contour-ditch
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FARM MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
Form of controlled surface flooding. Water is distributed from ditches running along the contour. Water is
discharged through openings in ditch bank, by siphon tubes or a uniformly graded lower lip of ditch.
Water flows in unconfined sheet down slope from one contour ditch to the next and collected in next
ditch for reuse. Suited to noncultivated crops such as legumes, grasses, and small grains. Use the
code for the type of system used to apply the water.
H - 27
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