Question: What is the internet? Answer

Question: What is the internet? Answer
Question: What is the internet?
Answer: The Internet is a LARGE worldwide network of computers.
Yes, it is a large network with the ability to send and receive files from one computer to another.
The three main defining characteristics of the internet are
1. interoperable
Interoperable means that the standards allow communication across networks.
This does not limit the access of information to a proprietary site, location,
machine or brand name.
2. packet switched
Connections are not FIXED from point to point for the duration of the
transmission. A telephone call is circuit switched - which means a dedicated path
is established to transmit your entire conversation. When data is sent packet
switched over the internet - it transmits a small part of the data, verifies it is
correct, then sends more information toward the destination. Packet switched
networks do not require all of the information to be delivered through the same
path. By not dedicating the path for the duration of the connection, this method
allows more connections to be sending information across the same space or
allows for sharing resources.
3. data network
A network that carries data information (digital - computer) instead of voice
information (analog - telephone). There are many instances where these
"definitions" of data and voice are starting to overlap. Computers connecting to
regular phone lines are technically carrying data over a voice line and in some
progressive parts of the country digital phone lines are starting to make
appearances.
TCP/IP is a standard of over 200 protocols that define the language of the internet. Some of the
most common elements of the internet include (but are not limited to):
• e-mail Send Brad some e-mail
E-mail is electronic mail. It is sent over the internet electronically instead of over
the roads via the US Postal Service. It delivers a message almost
instantaneously to anyone in the world. The messages go into electronic
mailboxes for users to read at their convenience
•
ftp shareware AOL
File Transfer Protocol (ftp) is a method of transferring files to or from another
computer. Whenever you hear of someone talking about downloading or
uploading they are talking about ftp.
•
www TRIO at USD home page
The world Wide Web (WWW or W3 or Web) has become a world wide
phenomena. Where other applications rely on your knowledge of Internet
addressing, hierarchial directory structures, and the application's own variations
of command elements, web applications let you navigate by clicking on words or
pictures. These hot links are established through hypertext. Often confused with
the internet - in reality, the WWW is only one of many parts of the internet.
•
gopher gopher://gopher.tc.umn.edu
Gopher was the first internet application that used a menu driven approach to
navigation. Gopher lacked the graphic and other media rich components of the
WWW that we enjoy today. Today, many sites that contain large bodies of text
are still available through this method.
•
usenet k12 ed life news group
Newsgroups (currently over 50,000) started when a few individuals at a few
campuses wanted to share information with postings that anyone could access
and read. "Legend has it that way back then (about 10 years ago) you could read
every message in every group over a (single) cup of coffee. Do be aware that if
you start reading and participating to these groups, anyone in the world has
access to messages that you post to a newsgroup.
•
telnet list of Free-Nets
Telnet is a program that allow you to remotely connect to and use a computer
somewhere else.
When did this all start? The main backbone of the network in the United States is the
National Research and Education Network (NREN), a product of the High Performance
Computing Act of 1991, pushed through congress by then-Senator Al Gore. It was
designed to help the K12 and college communities become part of the Internet more
easily.
Question:How many computers are hooked up to the internet today?
Answer: The number of hosts (or individual computers) is currently 45 million.
Source:MacMillian, January 1999
Question: Where is it all headed?
Answer: NUA, one of Europe's leading online consultants and developers,
estimates the number of Internet users world wide to be 100.5 million. By the
year 2000, analysts predict that number will jump to 200 million. Source: NUA,
January 1998 Several different analysts agree that the numbers will approach
200 million by the year 2000.
Question: Why is the internet such a big deal?
Answer: The internet is a powerful communications tool. In and of itself, it is no
more than a bunch of wires and computer, but it empowers its users with
instantanious access to data, toolsand the power to accomplish many different
tasks.
Question: What is a server?
Answer: A server is a computer and/or a software package that provides requested information to
clients.
A server takes requests and returns information. It is there to serve information. When you are
talking about a server, you could be referring to either the software or the hardware.
There are different kinds of servers. A single hardware server could have several different types
of server software packages running on it. Depending on the traffic, you could have a web server,
ftp server, e-mail server, or chat server (to name a few) running on a single hardware server. The
client that is requesting services must match the type of service that it is connecting to.
Question: Can a computer that is set up as a server be used for other tasks?
Answer: Yes, depending on the amount of activity that the server encounters, it is
possible. Most computers have personal web servers available as an option. Since you
probably wouldn't have thousands of people accessing a personal web server, it can be
running in the background with little affect on the performance of the computer.
Question: Are there different kinds of servers?
Answer: Yes, for both software and hardware.
Software - servers are available for web, e-mail, ftp, chat, irc, and many others.
Hardware - servers are available on many platforms UNIX, Mac, Windows 95/98,
Windows NT, LINUX to mention a few.
10639
Question: What is a cable modem?
Answer: A cable modem is a new type of modem that hooks up your computer to a local cable TV
line and provides internet access.
The cable modem takes the signal from the cable company and separates the signal into a
regular cable TV signal and also provides a constant connection to the internet.
A cable modem is more accurately described as a network interface card. Cable modems run
over coaxial cable which allows much faster data transfer rates than phone wiring. Cable modem
connections are digital - not analog.
Question: If I have a cable modem how do I connect to the Internet?
Answer: If you have a cable modem and everything is working, you are connected to the
Internet whenever your computer is on. Being connected doesn't mean that you are
sending or receiving information - it's just there waiting on you. This is one of the
advantages of cable over telephone access.
Question: How fast is a cable modem?
Answer: FAST! The actual bandwidth of a cable modem is up to 27 Mbps on the
receiving end and about 2.5 Mbps on uploads or interactive responses. There is a catch,
your speed will likely be around 1.5 Mpbs since your local cable company may not be
connected on a line faster than a T-1. This is still FAST compared to a regular phone
modem.
7
Question: What is a email?
Answer: Electronic mail (e-mail) is a message sent electronically over the internet.
E-mail usually arrives at its destination in a matter of seconds.
Everybody that uses the internet has a unique e-mail address. E-mail addresses always have an
ampersand (@) in them. This seperates the username from the location that their mail is stored.
E-mail addresses can be CaSe SeNsItIvE - so if someone reads you an e-mail address - ask
about the capitals.
Just like the postman must be able to read the address to hand deliver your regular mail, (snail
mail - it's referred to on the internet, because it take so long to get there) the e-mail address must
be exact in order for the computers to deliver it to your electronic mailbox.
username
@
mailserver
bwjames
@
usd.edu
Here are a few e-mail terms that you should be familiar with.
address book
list of personal contact with their e-mail addresses
forward
sends the origional message on to someone else
reply
sends a e-mail to the sender of the message you are currently reading (sort of
like someone sending you a self addressed stamped envelope) - this copies the senders e-mail
address as well as the text from the message, you type your additional comments if necessary
and send the message.
attachments
sends actual documents created with other programs along with (or attached to)
your e-mail
CC
carbon copy
sends the same message to several people (seperate their addresses with
commas)
BC
blind carbon copy
send message to several addresses without showing everyone all of the
addresses (this is a good way to avoid those annoying messages that are 2 lines but 4 pages of
addresses you really could care less about)
bounced
if a message has a invalid e-mail address it will be marked undeliverable and will bounce back to
your e-mail address (the sender)
Question: I've got a million e-mail messages on my hard drive. What should I do to avoid this?
Answer: Too often people keep everything they get. If it's garbage - DELETE IT! If it's
important - make a directory and organize the important stuff so that you will be able to
find it and retrieve it.
Question: What is a good e-mail program to use?
Answer: Eudora by Quailcom comes in both a freeware version and a more robust
commercial version. Both are excellent. Microsoft also offers a free e-mail program
Microsoft Outlook Express which is very good. These require a SMTP (simple mail
transfer protocol) server so they will not work with hotmail or many other free web based
mail services.
7594
Question: What is netiquette?
Answer: How you act while on the net or network etiquette.
Netiquette is a set of rules (mainly unwritten) to follow while your on-line. These rules have sort of
evolved and exist to make the internet a better place. While these are not carved in stone - you
may become unwelcomed if you deviate too far from them. Some places on the net have different
variations of what is considered acceptable.
Remember that no matter where you are (online or in real life) you are the only one that is
accountable for your actions.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
You should never do anything online that you wouldn't do in real life. Being online does
not hide your identity or turn you into anything less that you are.
Remember your audience. These are real people that you are communicating with. If you
wouldn't say something to their face - you should not say it over the internet. If you are
sending a message to a listserv remember that there could be lots of people that you
have never meet reading your comments.
Respect your audience. Good discussion should always be welcomed but don't waste
other peoples time with idle nonsense.
If you respond to a listserv and mean to send a private message to one person - you
have wasted a lot of peoples time and possibly shared information that was not intended
to be viewed by anyone else.
Before you participate in a newsgroup discussion - read the FAQ (frequently asked
questions).
Don't use all caps. Using all caps equates to yelling. DON'T DO IT!
NEVER send unsolicited junk mail. Don't forward junk-mail. Don't forward chain letters.
Don't forward the letter from Bill Gates saying that the first 1,000 people to forward this
letter will get money. It is not real. If it says "FORWARD" this to everyone you know DON'T.
Avoid getting into stupid arguments over stupid stuff. It really doesn't matter if it tastes
great or is less filling. It's a waste of bandwidth and internet resources to argue something
that has two equally valid arguments. It's an opinion. Say it (if you must) but don't argue
about it.
Always identify yourself. Don't hide your identity on newsgroups, e-mail or chats - or
should I say don't hide behind thinking that you are hiding your identity.
Don't try to gain access to places or resources that you don't have the proper permission.
Be forgiving - everyone was new at this stuff at one time. Don't argue. If you think
something happened that needs further attention - talk to your system administrator.
Question: Why care about net etiquette?
Answer: Some people will only know you from how you portray yourself over the internet.
6798
Question: What are newsgroups? -or- what is usenet?
Answer: Newsgroups are a place where people can share information about a certain topic that
interests them.
Usenet or Newsgroups are basically a very large number of gathering places for people to
discuss topics that they have in common. There are well over 50,000 newsgroups (the last time I
checked) that range from great topics with great discussion to stuff that shouldn't be on the
internet at all. It can be a good way to find out what other people are doing or thinking about a
certain topic. You need to search for a topic that interests you and then evaluate the group to
verify that the content is worth reading.
Practically any subject you can think of has its own newsgroup. The list below is just a small
(extremely small) list to show some of the variation in topics.
Newsgroup
Discussion Topic
alt.animals.dolphins
dolphins
alt.brother-jed
brothers named jed
alt.support.tall
support group for tall people
bionet.women-in-bio
women in biology
bit.listserv.ozone
ozone discussions
comp.fonts
computer fonts
k12.ed.math
Math in school k-12
misc.forsale.computers.mac
Mac computers for sale
rec.motorcycles
motorcycles
rec.arts.bonsai
Bonsai - tree shaping
rec.arts.wobegon
Wobegon
rec.food.veg.cooking
Vegetarian Cooking
sci.environment
The environment
and thousands of others, with more arriving every day.
There is no central authority that oversees the thousands of Newsgroups and millions of
participants. Acceptable content (or conventions) have evolved that vary from newsgroup to
newsgroup. It is suggested that you read a group for a while before you start participating in the
discussions so you get a good sense of the topic and background of people involved.
Newsgroups are run by the people using it and for the most part people choose to cooperate.
Newsgroups are free to those with Internet access. It was started as a computerized version of a
bulletin board for notices and news items, but is now used primarily for discussion groups.
Individual articles (or posts) are stored and managed by a news server. These articles are
accessable through a newsreader - which is built into Netscape and Internet Explorer.
Newsgroups usually post a FAQ periodically to answer basic questions of new users. These
FAQ's usually have some common questions and basic guidelines that have been established by
the group over time. It is strongly encouraged to read these FAQ's before posting to the
newsgroup. If you can not find a FAQ for a particular newsgroup, you could post a message
asking for the FAQ or request someone to email you a copy.
Question: I've heard the term Lurking. What is that?
Answer: Lurking refers to people that read newsgroups without contributing to the
discussions. There is nothing wrong with doing this and it is encouraged prior to
participating so that you will get a sense of the discussion and the participants.
Question: What does FAQ stand for?
Answer: Frequently Asked Questions.
Question: What is the WWW?
Answer: The World Wide Web - WWW - W3 - Web refers to the massive collection of multimedia
information available over the internet. Although the World Wide Web is often referred to as the
internet they are actually two different things.
The internet is the global collection of computers that transfer information and the wiring that
make all of this possible. The World Wide Web is a smaller part of the internet. The World Wide
Web refers to the documents and related multimedia rich information that uses a specific Internet
Protocol called HTTP. Since the WWW is a subset of the Internet it stands to reason that the Web
could not exist without the internet - however - the Internet would still be the Internet without the
Web (although not as nice).
Mosaic was the first client used to access the Web. Mosaic was created by the National Center
for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) and became available to the Internet community in the
first half of 1993.
The web talks to computers through the HTTP protocol. More specifically these pages are being
displayed through HTML, or the HyperText Markup Language, which tells the Web browser how
to display the information with it's pictures and text. One of the defining features of the Web is its
ability to connect pages to one another with hyperlinks. That's why you can click your way around
on the internet. (Or should I say web there?)
Other applications prior to the Mosaic type of browsing relied on a persons knowledge of Internet
addressing, hierarchical directory structures, and the application's own set of commands. The
browsers that we are familiar with today have simplified all this so we can just click on words - or
pictures - to get where we want to go.
This simplistic approach to navigating around the web has been a big factor in the success of the
internet. The web with all of its multimedia aspects has become a world wide phenomena. It
doesn't take long to show someone how to click on a link and they are off exploring interests of
their choice.
Question: What's new with the web?
Answer: HTML has been developed and expanded from its original set of commands.
There are many new exciting technologies that are changing the web as we know it
today. It is continuously changing.
Question: What is a Browser?
Answer: A browser (short for web browser) is a computer program (software) that accesses web
pages and displays them on your computer screen.
If you are reading this on a computer - you are probably using a browser! The browser is a client
program that is reading files from a web server. The browser sends a request to the server for a
specific web page - receives the information in small pieces of information - interprets special
commands that format the information and displays the web page. These commands are HTML
(Hyper Text Markup Language).
This page Internet Basics 101 - Browser is actually using 5 different files. The text that you see in
this section is from a plain text file. The bold, larger font sizes, pictures etc. are read and
interpreted by your browser. Each of the graphics are in a separate file.
It is the browsers job to interpret the HTML, find all the pictures (or other types of media), take all
of these pieces and display the information. Browsers are capable of accepting text, pictures,
sound, and movies. Browsers use "helper applications" to generate some of these special effects.
Quicktime is an example of this: Quicktime is a program and a plug-in that allows playing movies
through your browser. Plug-ins add a patch to the browser that looks for these helper
applications. Sometimes you must configure your browser to handle these different plug-ins.
Question: What are some browsers that are available?
Answer: The two main browsers available are Netscape and Internet Explorer.
Question: I've heard someone talk about Lynx as a web browser. What is Lynx?
Answer: Lynx is a text-based browser. Most people are not too interested in this format
because it lacks the graphical interface.
Question: Why does it have to be done this way?
Answer: Well, everything sent through the modem is sent in a text only format. That
means that the font size, font style, formatting, etc. have to be entered into a format that
everyone on the web can read. So, instead of drawing the page and sending all of that
information, it sends all of the information and lets the viewers computer interpret how to
display that information. By sending the information this way it reduces the transmission
time for both computer.
6600
Question: How do I use a search engine on the internet?
Answer: A search engine is a tool that searches web pages, indexes them, and identifies web
pages that are related to certain keywords and topics that you ask for. You essentially go to the
site that offers a search - type in some key words - get related web addresses to view. (Don't
Stop there! - Read on!)
There are several different search engines available on the internet. No search engine has a
complete directory of every web site and search engines have different algorithms and
techniques that they use - so it might pay off to use a combination of search engines available.
Below are three different types of search engines. AltaVista is a great search engine that allows
you to enter key words. AskJeeves is more of an "ask a question - and I'll find you an answer"
type of a search engine. Yahoo is more or less a huge list of bookmarks that allow you to walk
through categories until you get to what you are looking for. They all have their place on the
internet. They all work a little different - possibly with different results - so you need to explore a
little and find out which method of searching you like best.
Searching the internet can be frustrating. However, most users don't take the time to read the
instructions. Students don't think they have time to do read a couple of pages that do not directly
pertain to accomplishing the impending deadline. Actually, if you know how to use a search
engine it can greatly reduce the time and frustration in obtaining that key piece of needed
information. So make some time and learn how to use the search engine first.
Google is (in my opinion) one of the best search engines and it's free (as are most search
engines). As with any tool, if you learn how to utilize the different features it can become a better
tool. For example
Searching for
results in # hits
juggle
8750
juggling
36420
juggl*
55680
juggle ball
13410
+juggle +ball
992
+juggl* +"5 ball"
75
+juggle +"5 ball"
56
+juggle +"5 ball" +unicycle
11
+juggle +"5 ball" +unicycle -festival
6
juggle "5 ball" unicycle
8640
* is a wildcard - ie. juggle, juggling, juggler, etc.
+ means it has to be on that page
- means it can not be on that page
"this is a phrase" looks for the entire phrase inside of the quotes on a page
Searches are CaSe SeNsItIvE - you type Upper case it has to match - you type lower
case it'll look for either upper or lower - be careful
Above, I have shown actual data returned by AltaVista regarding searching for a specific topic.
Taking a few minutes to learn the techniques can save an enormous amount of time in the long
run - especially when working with good search engines.
AltaVista also has a few choices to help locate specific types of information. Below are brief
descriptions on how to locate pictures, pages with links to a page, and how to restrict the search
to a specific host of host type.
to find
add this
pictures image:filename
description
will look an image with the filename you choose
links
link:your.web.address will find pages with links to a web address you specify
host
host:.edu
only finds information that is hosted on an ".edu" site
REMEMBER - once a search turns up the possibilities - read the URL's before you click on them
and evaluate their potential.
Question: Do all search engines work the same?
Answer: NO - most have similar techniques different results - but read their instructions.
Question: What if I don't get any links to what I'm looking for?
Answer: Try to rephrase your key words or try different combinations. If you're using
quotes, try to break up any long phrases.
Question: So you are saying I can find how many people are linked to my web page?
Answer: Yes - Just type something like this link:your.web.host/your_site
Question: Where can I find free e-mail?
Answer: Many sites on the internet offer free e-mail accounts. Their services vary. Their
requirements vary. Below I have listed two that are free and accessible from the Web.
Connect to the Yahoo Mail server and get an e-mail account that will be easy to access from
anywhere in the world. All you need is a web browser and a connection to the internet.
• connect to the site Yahoo Mail
• accept the terms of the agreement
• select a unique username and password
• remember to record your username and password for this site
• your e-mail will be [email protected]
o free e-mail for anyone with access to the www
o free access to e-mail from anywhere in the world
o free convenient access while travel
Connect to the Hot Mail server and get an e-mail account that will be easy to access from
anywhere in the world. All you need is a web browser and a connection to the internet.
• connect to the site Hot Mail
• accept the terms of the agreement
• select a unique username and password
• remember to record your username and password for this site
• your e-mail will be [email protected]
o free e-mail for anyone with access to the www
o free access to e-mail from anywhere in the world
o free convenient access while travel
Question: If I can get free e-mail why am I paying $19.95 a month for mine?
Answer: Your $19.95 a month is paying for access to the internet. Most ISPs provide free
e-mail with that connection - so you're not paying for the e-mail but rather the connection
to the internet.
Question: Are there other providers of free e-mail?
Answer: Yes, several! These work and I'm not trying to make a complete list.
4950 Question: Where can I get a free web site?
Answer: If you are connecting through an ISP - they probably provide web space and e-mail as
part of their service.
Connect to the Xoom site and sign up for a free 11 meg of server space to serve your web pages.
• connect to the site Xoom
• select a username and password
• enter the required information
• remember to record your username and password for this site
• an existing e-mail account is necessary (don't have one - look here)
• after you agree to the terms and submit your request you will need to check your e-mail
and verify your existence in cyberspace
• once set up you can then upload your html pages using an ftp program
• pages are accessed at http://members.xoom.com/username
o free e-mail
o free web space for your web site
Question: Are there others?
Answer: Yes, I'm not trying to make a complete list. However - BE AWARE - some sites
INSERT advertisements into your pages or have annoying windows that open (all part of
the service they provide). Xoom didn't do this for a long time but lately I've seen a small
banner running across the top of pages displayed from their sites. Xoom is still less
annoying than many of the other free web services.
4308
Question: What is FTP?
Answer: The process of uploading or downloading (copying) files from one computer to another
over the internet. FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol.
Using a Browser to ftp ... (the shortest and least complicated way I can think of - to show you how
this works.)
If you would like to use a Netscape or IE to send files to your account, follow these steps:
1. You must be connected to the internet and have someplace to send files.
2. Open Netscape or IE.
3. In the location (where you usually type in a URL) type in the following:
ftp://[email protected]
4. When you request a connection to an FTP site you will be prompted for a password. A
window similar to the one below will appear.
5. Type in your password and click OK.
6. A listing of files in your directory should now be displayed. You should now be able to
send the file to your network drive by: finding the file on your hard drive, clicking and
holding on the file, and dragging it inside the open window.
Netscape/IE will ask you to make sure you really want to upload the file.
7. Click on OK, and the file will be saved to your network drive. The file still exists on your
local drive - it was COPIED to your network space.
That all there's to it.
If dragging a file to the open window did not work try this:
• Click on the File menu and choose the Upload option. A window similar to this will
appear.
• Find the file on your computer that you want to save to your network drive, and doubleclick on it. It then be uploaded to your network drive.
Question: How can I create a new directory using this method?
Answer: Create a new folder on your computer with the name that you want on your ftp
site. By copying that folder - a directory will be created.
Question: Where can I upload files to?
Answer: You need to have an account somewhere to upload files. Most anonymous ftp
sites do not have permissions set to accept guest uploads.
Question: Is this the best way to ftp files?
Answer: No - but it is the quickest and easiest way to explain. The best way is to use an
actual FTP program. There are several available. Again - Netscape/IE is already on most
people's hard drives.
Question: What do you recommend for a ftp program?
Answer: Fetch - for the Macintosh. WS_FTP for the Windows platform.
5414
Question: What is downloading and how do I do that?
Answer: Downloading is simply copying a file from a computer somewhere else to your computer
and we'll talk about the how below.
Downloading files is one of the pleasures of the internet. Finding that free card game or trying that
new adventure game that works great on the first 3 levels (then you have to purchase the CD to
find out how the adventure continues to unwind.) Whatever your interests are there are many
benefits to finishing reading and understanding this page.
First, you should make a new directory where you can download your new treasures. Too often
we start downloading something and because of interruptions or lack of time we can't finish
installing and trying out our newfound toys, utilities or whatever it happens to be.
Macintosh - Click on the desktop and select New Folder from the File menu
Change the name to downloads
Windows 95 - Right-click on the Windows desktop and select New Folder from the popup window.
Change the name to downloads
Second, you need a decompression utility. Take some time and download Aladdin Systems,
Inc.'s freeware Expander products allow users to decompress, decode, convert and access files
from all the popular compression archive formats. These include StuffIt, Zip, UUCode, BinHex,
MacBinary, Arc, Arj, gzip, Lha, Unix Compress, Tar, Compact Pro, Applelink package, and more.
It is available for Macintosh and Windows and DOS, and has become the universal
decompression tool. UnStuff, UnZip, etc - you only need one tool - It's the only expansion utility
you will ever need. -- This works great for your attachments also.
Third, find something you want to download. There are many different sites that have freeware
(software that is free), postcard-ware (send the author a postcard) and shareware (software that
is free to try - usually for thirty days - and then you send in a small fee to unlock the file so that it
will continue to work after the thirty days). And there is even some commercial software that you
can download if you want to purchase software over the internet.
www.download.com
www.shareware.com
www.davecentral.com
Forth, decompress the software that you downloaded and install it. The files are usually
compressed to reduce the time it takes to download. A file is typically 25% to 50% smaller when it
is compressed.
Mac files typically will end in:
1. .hqx the file has been binhexed
2. .cpt the file was compressed with Compact Pro
3. .bin the file is in Binary form
4. .sit the file was compressed with Stuffit Deluxe
5. .sea the file was compressed with Stuffit Deluxe and saved as a self-extracting
archive
6. .dd the file was compressed with Disk Doubler
Windows files typically will end in:
7.
8. .arj
9. .arc is an older DOS compression
10. .zip the file was compressed with zip
11. .exe is an executable file - no utilities needed - this is the way Stuffit Expander
comes.
Unix files typically will end in:
12. .Z Unix built-in compression program
13. .tar stands for tape archive
14. .z or .gz Gzip is the free GNU version of ZIP
15. .uue uuencode
ALADDIN Stuffit Expander will handle all of these for BOTH Mac and Windows. If you run
across some file on the opposite platform it will still uncompress the file. So if you
downloaded a document that has 5,000 jokes and it's compressed on a Mac your
Windows machine will still decompress it if you have Stuffit Expander and vise-versa.
Installing the software is usually pretty straight forward.
Macintosh - look for the read me file and follow the instructions. If the program needs to
be installed you will probably find a icon called install but there are many programs on the
Mac that will run find without installing them. The files are decompressed and do not
install any system resources so they are ready to run from the desktop.
Windows - look for the readme file and follow the instructions. There will probably be a
file labeled install.exe.
Fifth, get rid of the stuff you don't need after you install the software. The compressed file and any
other scraps of information that were created that you don't need. You do not need the
compressed file anymore - if you want to save it on a zip disk or something do that right away and
then get rid of the compressed file from your hard drive. It is taking up space and it is not needed
anymore. An example - when you download Adobe Acrobat Reader it is compressed - when you
decompress it - it creates an installer program - when you install the program all is fine but now
you have three things on your hard drive - 1) the compressed file (you don't need) 2) the installer
program (you don't need) 3) the installed program (you need this).
Sixth, you might want to check the new files for Viruses
If you get the file from one of the big companies - your probably all right - but they even let some
slip through from time to time. Read how and where to get a virus program here. You need to
download it - but hey, you've got that covered now!
Seventh, if you don't want to keep the program that you downloaded, be careful how you get it off
of your hard drive. If you just throw it away (Trash on Mac and Recycle-Bin on Windows), you
might be causing problems down the road. On the Mac - see if there are any extensions or
control panels that were installed into the System folder. Newer programs usually include an
installer log that tells what files were installed and where they are now located. On Windows look in the control panel and see if there is the option to remove the program (under Remove
Programs).
Eighth, ENJOY your new toys.
5374
Question: What is chatting?
Answer: Chatting is similar to a telephone conversation - except it's text over the internet. When
you chat with someone over a network you type into the computer instead of speaking into the
telephone.
Chatting is a method of talking to someone over a network in real time. Chatting is different than
e-mail in that the messages are synchronous or being sent at the same time. Remember e-mail is
sent and stored on a mail server to be read by the recipient at a later time - which could be a
minute, hour, day or even a week or more.
Chatting software usually splits your screen into two (one for you and the other for whoever you
are chatting with).
Lets say that I misplaced my information on a meeting tomorrow and I know that Bob is still on his
computer but he is also on his phone. I can't get him on the phone and it's time to go home. If I
can just catch him before he leaves the office I can find out what I need to know. Remember if
you ask someone a question in e-mail you may not get your answer in time. At least in a chat
session you know there is someone at the other end and their response will be immediate.
Question: I keep asking John Doe to chat but he never answers my requests, what's up?
Answer: If John Doe doesn't know you he probably figures he has better things to do with
his time. Remember, when you initiate a request to chat, your name is sent along with the
request. Another possibility is that even though the user appears to be online they may
have chat turned off.
Question: Who should I chat with?
Answer: If you wouldn't pick up the phone and call someone - you probably shouldn't chat
with them. Sometimes people think they can hide their identity behind the computer
screen but there are ways to tie that contact to a person.
4991
Question: What is telnet?
Answer: Telnet is a text-only protocol that allows you to connect to a remote computer and use
programs and data as if the computer were sitting in front of you. Kind-of-like using a computer
somewhere else - and having a really really really long keyboard cable and monitor cable.
Telnet was (at one time) one of the most popular ways to connect to a remote site (a computer
anywhere else). The popularity of telnet has greatly dropped because of the growth of the web
and simplicity that it introduced through point and click - no commands to remember - graphical
interface. Still, many universities have access to their mail server through telnet - does PINE ring
any bells. Access to a command-line prompt is calming to some guru-type-web-people.
MUDs, MUSHes, MUSEs, and MOOs are all variations of different adventure games played
through telnet connections. There are still many of these in existence for the simple reason that
text is fast. Some chat rooms are set up over these type of connections simply because you don't
have to be running other software to get to these. Telnet software is extremely small - some
smaller than 50k.
Most telnet sites require USERID and password for access.
A telnet URL looks something like this: telnet://address.to.connect:port-number
The port-number is usually omitted unless it is other than the default port of 23. From a unix shell
account where you can issue line commands - you can enter telnet address.to.connect:portnumber
Question: Are there some sites I can connect to see what telnet is like?
Answer: Sure! Here are a list of Free-Nets that have telnet services available to guest
log-in.
Question: How can I configure my browser to handle telnet?
Answer: Handle - yes - but it is using an external program. Using Netscape - go under the
EDIT menu - select preferences - choose Navigator/Applications - You will see a window
that shows the helper applications that are used for different file types. Description the
type of file you wish to define a method of dealing with and Handled By associates those
types of files with either an application or plug-in that takes care of the file.
Question: What is gopher?
Answer: Described as "the first Internet application that my mom and dad could use," by Project
Leader Mark MacCahill. Gopher is a program that is menu driven - simplifying access to remote
computers.
Many people steered away from the internet in the early days. Command-line codes to remember
- did i want to ftp here or telnet there - how do i search for something? For many people, it just
wasn't worth the time and effort it took to get familiar with the systems.
Gopher was the first simple Menu Based Interface that allowed you to search for information,
connect you to text files, download binary files, or go to another menu. Gopher also introduced
bookmarks - which offered a way to help you remember a new found site or marked locations on
the internet that you visit frequently. It was the first time people could look through remote
computers without having to know all of the intricacies of several different programs. It is very
much like the web we know today - minus the graphics and mouse interface.
It was a major landmark in the development of the World Wide Web.
From a Unix line prompt you can enter gopher gopher.tc.umn.edu - You don't see the nice blue
links to click but it was a treat to see a menu like this in its day. Gopher is still accessible these
days through most Web Browsers (though it might take you back a few years) by entering a url
something like: gopher://gopher.tc.umn.edu. Take a look - see for yourself. I've clipped a little of
what will happen in case you don't want to take the time.
Gopher -go fer- was first developed at the University of Minnesota in 1991. Can you guess what
their school mascot is?
Question: Are there some sites that I can see what gopher looks like?
Answer: Sure! Here is a list of some gopher sites available.
Question: I've heard something about Veronica on gopher systems - what is it?
Answer: Veronica is to gopher as archie is to FTP. What? Archie servers gather directory
listings from files on hundreds of anonymous FTP sites around the world - making a
search able database. Veronica gathers directory listings from files on hundreds of
gopher sites around the world - making a searchable database.
OK - simply put - it was the start of todays search engines.
4462
Question: What is a mirror site?
Answer: On the internet a mirror sit refers to an exact copy of another site. (ideally)
Many larger sites get so much traffic (requests for information) that they have a hard time
handling all of the requests. The administrator of the site makes arrangements with another site
(usually across the country) to mirror the same information. This reduces the bandwidth across
the entire internet. Ideally, if users are given a choice to get information from several different
mirror sites - they will choose the geographically closest location.
Mirroring makes the information more accessible to users of the Internet. Mirroring also allows for
a backup of information - in case the server crashes, is down for maintanence, or problem exists
anywhere along the path of the information.
Question: Are mirrors always exactly the same?
Answer: Depending on how the information is disseminated to the mirror sites - there
might be a short time where there is a discrepancy. Administrators of the site can run
programs to compare and update the mirror sites so that they contain an exact duplicate
of the original files.
Question: Why can I get information faster from a mirror in Australia than I can get the same
information from a local server?
Answer: Short answer - traffic. Most people are probably asleep in Australia when we (in
the US) are awake. Therefore, the server in Australia is not trying to fill as many requests.
Question: What is an IP Address?
Answer: An IP Address is a "computers" return address. This return address is needed so the
information you request will make it back to your computer.
Your IP (Internet Protocol) Address is a unique set of four numbers (0-255) that is always in the
form of 255.255.255.255. Each computer hooked up to the internet has to have these numbers so
that the requested information has a place to be delivered.
Some computers have a FIXED (static) number - in other words - ever time you turn on the
computer you have the same numbers.
Other computers allow the network server to assign their network configuration from a DHCP
(Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) Server automatically. Instead of manually assigning IP
numbers DHCP draws from a list of addresses and assigns them as needed. Ideally a DHCP
server meets the highest load most of the time. For example a university dorm may have 500
internet connections but the normal maximum load is 170 concurrent users. A DHCP server could
manage this and save resources for the university by not having to purchase right to all 500 IP
addresses. This also reduces the likelihood of configuration errors for the users - assuring that no
two IP numbers are the same.
Your Internet Service Provider (ISP) probably has your IP Address associated to a Domain Name
also. The Domain Name is not the IP Address but they are related. Take a look at the following
information.
IP Address
DNS entry
207.46.131.15
www.microsoft.com
Now you see why they have both - the number for the computers and the name for us. (It is
easier for us to remember.)
Your networks numbers are assigned by your Internet Service Providers (ISPs) under authority of
the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) who in turn gets the numbering scheme from
InterNic. (NO, you don't need to remember any of that.)
right now your IP Address is ---- 202.174.149.8
you have an assigned DNS name of ---- 202.174.149.8
you are currently using ---- Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 5.01; Windows 98)
There is a lot of information that you are sending out with your requests. There has to be enough
information for the server to know where to return your requests and there is also enough
information for someone to find out exactly where your machine is located geographically. I'm not
telling you to scare you - but so that you are aware.
There are four different 32 bit address formats for a network depending on the size.
Class A addresses are for a large network
1 bit as 0 - 7 bits network - 24 bits local = 1 + 7 + 24 = 32
network.local.local.local
Class B addresses are for a medium network
2 bits as 10 - 14 bit network - 16 bits local = 2 + 14 + 16 = 32
network.network.local.local
Class C addresses are for smaller networks
3 bits as 110 - 21 bits network - 8 bits local = 3 + 21 + 8 = 32
network.network.network.local
Class D addresses are for multicast addresses
4 bits as 1110 - 28 bits multicasting = 4 + 28 = 32
multicasting is basically sending a single copy of something to multiple
computers - reducing bandwidth
(ie a classroom where a movie should be sent to all 50 computers)
multicasting IP addresses are currently in the range of 224.0.0.0 through
239.255.255.255
IP Addresses are sometimes referred to as dot addresses. The computer actually reads these as
a set of 4 hexadecimal numbers (0-F). Since we live in a base 10 world, we convert these
hexadecimal numbers to decimals and separating them by dots (.) helps us identify the 4
numbers. Without the dots it's hard to know if 1922435242 is 192.24.35.242 or 192.243.5.242 or
even some other combination.
Hexidecimal- C0 F3 05 52 base 10- 192 243 5 242 dot address- 192.243.5.242
Question: What if I don't want to send out my IP Address?
Answer: Don't use the internet. Really, there is no way to get information back without the
IP Address being sent out. Some sites have been set up as a retrieving station but your
IP Address has to be sent there so it's really kind-of pointless. If you use the internet your
IP Address is public information. The header of your e-mail also contains the IP Address
of the computer that sent the document.
Question: How does a firewall affect my IP Address?
Answer: A firewall acts as a screening device for all of your requests. If you request a
web page, the request is sent from your computer to the server through the firewall. The
IP Address that the server sees requesting the document is your firewall - the server
sends the information to the firewall and the firewall forwards the information to you.
Under these circumstances, your IP Address is not seen by the server. (But your system
administrator could help locate where the information was sent if necessary.)
Question: How can they find out where my computer is?
Answer: By tracing the route to the IP Address that the data is being transferred, you can
pinpoint the location of that IP Address. Below is a sample I ran from an e-mail I received.
1 c7500.usd.edu
(192.55.228.252 ): 146ms 156ms 139ms
2 c7000.usd.edu
(192.55.228.243 ): 144ms 141ms 150ms
3 sd-sf-hub-s1.sd.net
(198.180.188.129): 137ms 154ms 138ms
4 sxf0-s46.cp.verio.net
(199.240.75.81 ): 159ms 129ms 133ms
5 oma1-h010.cp.verio.net
(128.242.8.113 ): 198ms 173ms 280ms
6 oma0-fa000.cp.verio.net
(128.242.8.81 ):
184ms 179ms 171ms
7 lnk-s000.cp.verio.net
(128.242.8.70 ):
176ms 176ms 178ms
8 sl-gw4-kc-10-0.sprintlink.net
(144.232.131.1 ): 255ms 228ms 219ms
9 sl-bb11-kc-0-3.sprintlink.net
(144.232.2.57 ):
241ms 214ms 196ms
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
sl-bb11-fw-3-1.sprintlink.net
sl-bb11-fw-8-0.sprintlink.net
sl-bb10-sea-0-0.sprintlink.net
sl-gw3-sea-0-0-0.sprintlink.net
sl-nwnet-1-0-1.sprintlink.net
uwbr1-fe4-0-0.cac.washington.edu
iron-v50.cac.washington.edu
jason03.u.washington.edu
(144.232.8.77 ):
(144.232.11.5 ):
(144.232.8.54 ):
(144.232.6.42 ):
(144.228.96.26 ):
(198.32.170.12 ):
(140.142.155.68 ):
(140.142.77.10 ):
204ms
194ms
290ms
321ms
252ms
282ms
267ms
264ms
*
189ms
278ms
260ms
294ms
282ms
246ms
268ms
274ms
197ms
300ms
247ms
258ms
237ms
270ms
286ms
A call to the university of washington could actually pinpoint the room where this machine
was physically located. and you can even throw a map up on the screen with the
beginning and destination points.
and can even put up the following information
Host Name
IP Address
Response Time
Location
Lat/Long
jason03.u.washington.edu
140.142.77.10
284(ms)
united states:washington:seattle
47.61/-122.33
Question: Where can I look to find ou the general location of an IP address?
Answer: NetGeo provides a web based interface to get the general information for an IP
address. It searches its database for the IP address - which may or may not have the IP
address that you are inquiring about.
Another one - ARIN's Whois.
Question: What is a domain name?
Answer: A domain name is the computers name that is registered on the internet.
The domain name is a unique name that identifies a device on the internet. Domain names
always have 2 or more parts separated by dots - the first part is the specific machine and subnetwork and the part on the right is the server and type of server.
domain name
specific
server
type
www.usd.edu
www
usd
edu
mail.usd.edu
mail
usd
edu
hab.sss.usd.edu
hab.sss
usd
edu
that last example has the specific information split into
a computer name and a subnetwork name
hab computer name sss sub-network
This is actually an old approach to naming. The new approach has added a 2 letter abbreviation
of the country to the end of the url. For now there is no plan to re-assign all of the domain names
that did not include this country code.
domain name
specific
server
type
country
www.wow.com.jp
www
wow
com
jp (japan)
It is possible for a single computer to have more than one domain name. This allows for serving
several web sites - making each appear to be running on an individual machine.
Usually all of the computers, printer, and other devices on a given network have the same righthand portion of their domain names. This helps the network administrator keep track of the
machines and helps trace problems. Here at USD each department has a sub-network name.
Question: What keeps track of the domain name?
Answer: There is a program called a Domain Name Server (DNS) that runs on your ISP's
computer. Each IP address on the network should have a DNS entry. This is basically a
database that associates a name (DNS entry) to an IP address.
Question: How can I change my domain name?
Answer: Your domain name is assigned by your ISP. The right part of the domain name
is registered and it's not free. If you are on a network that has static (fixed) IP addresses,
you may be able to request a change the left part of your domain name through your
system administrator.
Question: What does the .com mean?
Answer: Just a way to differentiate between different types of sites. Below is a list of
some of the more common types of addresses.
abbreviation
%
stands for
abbreviation
%
stands for
.com
28
commercial
.gov
2
government
.edu
12
educational
.mil
4
military
.net
19
network provider
.org
2
organization
Question: What are some of the country codes?
Answer: Here is a short javascript code that generates country codes and also some
common extensions like edu.
Question: I just looked up .to and it says Tonga - why is that starting to appear so much? There
aren't that many sites in Tonga are there?
Answer: Well after someone came up with the country code - someone thought it would
be cool to have a site called jump.to or surf.to etc. Tonga, being a relatively small place,
thought they could sell a few rights to their domain name.
Question: What is a client?
Answer: A client is a software program that contacts to a server and requests information.
A client asks or requests information from the server. When it sends a request - it sends it to the
server with its own (client) address so that the information will be returned to the correct location.
Client software has to match up to a specific kind of server software and each server requires a
specific kind of client software.
If you are looking for a web page - you would use a web client to access a web server.
If you are want to get your e-mail - you would use a e-mail client.
Netscape and Internet Explorer have several different clients built into them. They can actually
act as clients for web, gopher, ftp and e-mail to name a few.
Question: Does it matter what kind of computer I have?
Answer: The computer doesn't matter as long as it is capable of running a client that will
connect to the type of server you want to connect to. One of the goals of the internet was
that the content was interoperable.
Question: What is a modem?
Answer: A modem is a piece of hardware that allows your computer to talk to other devices over
a regular phone line.
A modem converts digital signals from your computer into audible tones that can be transmitted
over regular analog phone lines. This conversion process is called MOdulation. The modem on
the other end then transfers those same audible tones back (or DEModulates) into their original
digital signals.
MOdulation and DEModulation is where the name MODEM comes from.
There are basically two different types of modems (internal-inside of the computer and externaloutside of the computer). Either type of modem works technically the same way. One computer
sends the information digitally and then . . .
. . . the modem translates the digital signals into an analog signal. The analog signal is transfers
over the phone wires. The modem at the other end translates the analog signal back into the
original digital signal and sends that information to the computer.
There are actually signals going back and forth from the two computers to verify that all of the
information is correct. Kind-of-like repeating everything to make sure that it is all heard correctly.
The computers use a system of checksums to repeat the information to save time.
Question: What is an analog signal?
Answer: Analog refers to adding signals to carrier waves, usually represented as sine
waves. These signals are not simply on or off. It is similar to a dimmer on a light switch not just on or off but many positions inbetween.
Question:What is a digital signals?
Answer: Digital signals are either ON or OFF and no in between - JUST like a (regular)
light switch for your room.
Question: What is a checksum?
Answer: Checksums are kind-of-like me giving you 100 numbers and you telling me the
total. If the total is correct, I assume that you heard all of the information correctly. It is a
little more complicated than that - but that is basically how it works. It saves a
considerable amount of time to verify information this way rather than repeating
everything.
7663
Question: What is Ethernet?
Answer: Ethernet is a type of wiring that connects computers in a local area network together.
Ethernet connections keep the information in the digital format (unlike modems which convert the
data to an analog signal) . Ethernet is much faster than a regular modem. To connect to an
Ethernet network - you need to have an Ethernet card in your computer and an Ethernet cable
(and of course an Ethernet connection to plug in the other end of the cable).
Question: What are the different kind of Ethernet cards that I can get?
Answer: Currently the most widely used cards are either 10Base-T or 100Base-T. You
need to make sure what speed the network is that you are connecting to. Most 100 BaseT cards also connect to 10 Base-T networks. 100 Base-T networks are 10 times faster
than 10 Base-T networks.
Question: Can I have an Ethernet connection at home?
Answer: Yes, If you want to set up a network in your house. But you still need a wire
running to the internet. Most home users find the cost prohibitive to run this wire from
their house to a server. The main connections to the internet are still a modem or in
larger cities cable modem (see cable modem.)
Question: I thought I heard someone talk about an Ethernet modem?
Answer:Yes, back a few years an Ethernet modem allowed anyone on a network (one at
a time) to use the modem. This is not used a lot these days because the modem is a
bottleneck (lowest common denominator) in your transmission time.
7665
Question: What is a domain name?
Answer: A domain name is the computers name that is registered on the internet.
The domain name is a unique name that identifies a device on the internet. Domain names
always have 2 or more parts separated by dots - the first part is the specific machine and subnetwork and the part on the right is the server and type of server.
domain name
specific
server
type
www.usd.edu
www
usd
edu
mail.usd.edu
mail
usd
edu
hab.sss.usd.edu
hab.sss
usd
edu
that last example has the specific information split into
a computer name and a subnetwork name
hab computer name sss sub-network
This is actually an old approach to naming. The new approach has added a 2 letter abbreviation
of the country to the end of the url. For now there is no plan to re-assign all of the domain names
that did not include this country code.
domain name
specific
server
type
country
www.wow.com.jp
www
wow
com
jp (japan)
It is possible for a single computer to have more than one domain name. This allows for serving
several web sites - making each appear to be running on an individual machine.
Usually all of the computers, printer, and other devices on a given network have the same righthand portion of their domain names. This helps the network administrator keep track of the
machines and helps trace problems. Here at USD each department has a sub-network name.
Question: What keeps track of the domain name?
Answer: There is a program called a Domain Name Server (DNS) that runs on your ISP's
computer. Each IP address on the network should have a DNS entry. This is basically a
database that associates a name (DNS entry) to an IP address.
Question: How can I change my domain name?
Answer: Your domain name is assigned by your ISP. The right part of the domain name
is registered and it's not free. If you are on a network that has static (fixed) IP addresses,
you may be able to request a change the left part of your domain name through your
system administrator.
Question: What does the .com mean?
Answer: Just a way to differentiate between different types of sites. Below is a list of
some of the more common types of addresses.
abbreviation
%
stands for
abbreviation
%
stands for
.com
28
commercial
.gov
2
government
.edu
12
educational
.mil
4
military
.net
19
network provider
.org
2
organization
There are nearly 300 country codes assigned by the ISO (International Standards
Organization)
Question: I just looked up .to and it says Tonga - why is that starting to appear so much? There
aren't that many sites in Tonga are there?
Answer: Well after someone came up with the country code - someone thought it would
be cool to have a site called jump.to or surf.to etc. Tonga, being a relatively small place,
thought they could sell a few rights to their domain name.
Question: I overheard someone talking about pinging a host - what does that mean?
Answer: Ping is a utility that is used to verify the existence of a host or network gateway.
Ping refers to a command which sends out an ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packet to any network
addressable host. If the host is there it will echo back - verifying the existence of the host. It can
be useful for determining whether a host is on the internet and running.
Ping is typically used in troubleshooting networks. By pinging different parts of the network it is
possible to isolate the trouble spot/spots. In the example below, you could ping the larger
connections working your way down until it is determined which host fails.
Ping can also be used to analyze speeds and percentage of dropped packets. If you are
connecting to a BUSY host, it is not uncommon to get 40-50% dropped packets. Dropped packets
have to be requested again and re-transmitted which contributes to a slow network.
If you get 100% packet loss - the host you pinged is a valid domain name, but a reliable
connection could not be established. The host could be down, your machine could have gone off
the network or possibly a router is down.
Question: Why would you want to ping from Netscape?
Answer: The only reason I can think of is for some kind of tutorial.
Question: What is a listserv?
Answer: A listserv is the Ed McMann of e-mail! BULK MAILING - but it's not always a bad thing.
A listserv is a small program that automatically send the same message to all of the names on a
specific mailing list. This mailing list is created by people signing up or subscribing to the service
because they are interested in a certain topic or have some common bond. Users can subscribe
to the service by sending an e-mail with the message of "subscribe [email protected]".
The program adds you to their list and you will start receiving messages from the listserv.
There are literally thousands of different listservs.
There are two main types of listservs - moderated and un-moderated. On un-moderated listserv
all messages are automatically broadcast to all subscribers to the service. On a moderated
listserv, the owner or administrators of the listserv reads all of the messages and determines
which messages are appropriate.
Requests to subscribe and un-subscribe are usually sent to a special address so that everyone
on the list doesn't get the message. If you want to un-subscribe, don't send a message to the
listserv - look up the correct address.
some basic tips
•
•
save the first message you receive from the listserv - it contains information on how to
un-subscribe and other features available
read messages frequently
•
•
do not reply to the listserv (unless you intent to send it to the entire list)
delete messages that you do not WANT to keep - list serve messages can accumulate
fast and take up valuable drive space.
Question: I never signed up for a listserv but now I started getting a weekly mailing from
someone/somewhere.
Answer: Many surveys and request for information off of the web have a little box that is
usually checked by default. This little box asks if you would like to receive updates, news
breaking info, tips, etc. By submitting that form you are requesting to sign up to their
listserv - unless you don't check that little box. Don't worry - I'm not gonna sign you up for
anything.
Question: Why do I get personal messages to someone else on my listserv?
Answer: Someone replied to a message that come to them from the listserv.
To avoid this ALWAYS look to see where you are replying to. If you want it to go to the
whole listserv - that's fine. If you just want to reply privately to a message that came to a
listserv - LOOK at the address and change it to the PERSON that you want to send the
message to. It can be pretty embarrassing sometimes if you send a message to everyone
that was intended for just one person.
Question: I'm on a listserv that is too time consuming and I just don't have time to go through all
of those messages.
Answer: Some listserv's have an option of receiving a single e-mail (digest version sometimes they even contain a table of contents) at the end of the day that has all of the
posts from the day. If that's reduces your time great - if not, you might want to unsubscribe from the list.
Question: How do I un-subscribe from a listserv that I do not wish to be a part of anymore?
Answer: When you subscribe to a listserv, they usually send out an e-mail to YOU that
has a list of options. You should always save this message or print it out so that when the
day arrives that you want to be removed from the listserv you can see how they accept
the un-subscribe command.
Question: How do I find a good listserv?
Answer: Read your professional magazines, ask co-workers and search on the internet
for topics of interest. Make sure that you really want to subscribe before you sign-on.
Some listservs are full of garbage and a waste of time.
Question: What is a signature file?
Answer: A signature file is a personalized - customizable - text file that is automatically appended
to your e-mail messages that you send.
A signature is a way to identify yourself and a signature file is a way to identify yourself in
cyberspace.
Signature files should be brief and to the point. The signature could include your name,
organization, e-mail and web address (including the http:// part of the e-mail).
Don't make it too long - 4 to 8 lines is recommended for the entire signature file. Don't make it too
wide - no more than 70 characters wide. If you want to add some ascii art (letters) to set it off or
dress it up, ok- but don't go overboard. Sometimes people attach a short one-line quote or
thought after the personalized info.
My signature file for our TRIO e-mail account looks something like this:
_/_/_/_/_/_/_/_/_/_/_/_/_/_/_/_/_/_/_/_/_/_/_/_/_/_/_/_/
And my personal e-mail account looks something like this:
________________________________________________________________
_________
There are three kinds of people: those who can count and those who can't.
============
[email protected]
http://www.usd.edu/~bwjames
brad james
Question: Why should I put the http:// part of the web page in the signature file? Isn't that a given
these days?
Answer: To people yes - to computers not always. Most e-mail clients will make this a link
from your e-mail if you include the http:// in with the web address.
Question: Why should I put my e-mail in a signature file? Isn't it sent along with the e-mail?
Answer: Yes - it is sent along with the e-mail -- BUT -- if someone forwards your e-mail, it
may not have your e-mail address attached to it any longer. Sure they could delete it
anyway but this will usually help keep your e-mail address with your e-mail.
Question: I formatted my signature file - added some ascii art and it looked great - but when I saw
it on else's computer it wasn't aligned anymore. Do you have any idea why this would happen?
Answer: The other computer's e-mail program probably wasn't using a monospaced
(equal widths for all letters) to display the text. In a monospaced font each letter (whether
an i or a w) takes up the same amount of space. If it is view using a proportional spaced
font it will not look the same. The only sure way to avoid messed-up ascii art is to do
something like the lines on my personal signature file above. The TRIO signature file will
probably not look perfect on most e-mail clients.
Why does it look ok on this web page? Because I have made it a monospace font in the
html.
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Question: What is a smilie? (or emotikons?)
Answer: : )
clockwise).
A smilie is a text representation of a smilie face (rotated 90 degrees counter-
Since text messages (e-mail and chat sessions) don't allow for voice inflections it is hard to tell
when people are joking around or being sarcastic. Smilies were created out of necessity to input
that little bit of personality into an otherwise drab text message.
Consider the following example - see how they differ in interpretation?
That was a stupid thing to do.
or
That was a stupid thing to do ;-)
There are probably hundreds of variations - I'm not going to try to list all or even most of them but below is a short list of some of the most basic smilies.
smilie
:-)
:-(
;-)
(-:
:-o
|-I
:-D
stands for
standard smilie
frowning
winking
user is left handed
surprised
user is asleep
laughing
Another thing that started was the acronyms that came from having to type all that stuff on the
keyboard. Many of these have been around long before cyberspace - but the list is growing fast.
abbreviation
stands for
fyi
for your information
asap
as soon as possible
btw
by the way
imho
in my humble opinion
fwiw
for what it's worth
ttyl
talk to ya later
lol
laughing out loud
rofl
rolling on the floor laughing
<g>
grin
Question: You say this stuff adds personality to text messages?
Answer: IMHO - - - - yep ;)
Question: What is a URL?
Answer: A URL is the address for a specific site. You should get into the habit of looking at the
URL of every HyperLink before you click on it (hover over the link, and look in the feedback area
in the lower left corner of the window). LOOK before you CLICK.
The Uniform Resource Locator (URL) contains unique information about the server
and
the path on the server to find and retrieve the information that you are requesting.
The address (or URL) for this page contains the following information:
look up at the top of your monitor - under the icons - see Location: on the left side? (or netsite or
something similar, they are always changing something)
http://www.usd.edu/trio/tut/start/url.html
http://
www.usd.edu/
protocol - http is a HTML or web document
server name - computer.domain.name
trio/tut/start/
url.html
pathname to the directory you are requesting
filename you are requesting
It is important to read the URL's of the pages that you are visiting. When you look at the URL you
can often speculate on the validity of the source.
Lets say that you were looking for the latest servicepack for NT and you can't find it. You quick
searched the web for it and these two URL's came up after you entered your search criteria.
Again, if you were looking for an upgrade to fix a bug in NT - which would you download. Of the
following two (madeup) links - which would you tend to trust as the actual site for the patch.
http://www.microsoft.com/NT/updates/servicepack1.exe
http://www.hacker_patch.com/virus/office/goodone/destroy/servicepack1.exe
You should also know that a tilde ( ~ ) in a url refers to a users account. A users account usually
is less strict regarding the content.
Other protocols include the following:
protocol
defines which internet protocol is used to get to the server
http://
Hypertext Transfer Protocol - server is supporting the web
protocol
https://
Secure WEB page - server is supporting the web protocol but is secure
ftp://
File Transfer Protocol - server is set up to send and receive
files
news:
News Server - used to access a usenet newsgroup
mailto:
Mail Server - access to e-mail server
telnet://
Telnet - access to a terminal emulation session
Question: I asked someone for a web address (URL) and they kept saying slash and dot all the
time
Answer: Slash just means the / character right beside the shift on the right side of the
keyboard.
Not to be confused with the backslash (\)
Dot just means . (period)
Question: How can I find information on a certain company?
Answer: Most companies have purchased rights for a site that contains their name.
For instance:
•
•
•
Microsoft's Web site is http://www.microsoft.com
Adobe's Web site is http://www.adobe.com
Apple's Web site is http://www.apple.com
•
McDonalds Web site is http://www.mcdonalds.com
Sometimes companies were a little late registering their name and get stuck with some
derivative of their name. ATI makes great video cards but ATI was already taken by
Announcement Technologies, Inc. so ATI's web address is really http://www.atitech.com.
(I think ATI recently purchased the ATI domain name.)
Question: What does the .com mean?
Answer: Just a way to differentiate between different types of sites.
• .com - - - commercial
• .edu - - - educational
• .org - - - organization
• .mil - - - military
• .net - - - network provider
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Question: What is a home page?
Answer: Originally - a home page was the web page that your browser opened when it started up.
More common today - a home page refers to the main page for a web site.
A web page consists of different types of files (text, graphics, sound, video, etc.) that contain
information and probably links to other resources to the internet. The term "home page" is
generally referring to the starting page of a web site.
Most sites start with a file called index.html. From that starting point or "home page" you should
have a general idea about what the site offers.
Another careless use of home page refers to any web page as a homepage.
Remember to look at the URL and identify the owner of the page. The TILDE ~ usually
represents a user's account on a service.
If you have a home page - make sure it has the following:
•
•
•
•
title
index of information available
e-mail address (contact)
statement - so people know what the site is about
If you have a home page - look at it - see if it has value - find something you "know about" - and
share something valuable - there are already enough pictures of cats on the internet.
Question: Are you saying you don't like cats?
Answer: NO - I'm saying there are enough really bad web pages out there and you
should find some worth while information to share. If you do that - then you can put up
some pictures of your cat. It was just an example
Question: After that - why would I make a web page?
Answer: Because, EVERYONE has something worth sharing. If everyone put up some
good information - the internet would be better than it is now. There are too many things
that we are letting slide and will eventually be gone. If you are an expert on something publish the information.
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Question: What is a portal?
Answer: A portal is a starting point that offers quick links to other places on the internet.
Portal is a fairly new term for the World Wide Web. Portals are intended to be a starting point for
people when they are using the Web. Most of the time a portal will have a collection of web site
and a search engine. Yahoo is a great starting point for many people. Yahoo started with two
guys taking lots of bookmarks and organized them into different major categories and even
subcategories. The newer portals take this a step further and offer e-mail and other services
directly from a page that you can personalize to be your personal portal.
This newer style of the personalized portal has gained much attention and use from the typical
internet user. Personally I use Excite as a portal (pictured on the right). They were among the first
to offered users this ability to create a personalized site. They allow customization of:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
news
sports
weather information
e-mail
favoite links
stock quotes (personalized even)
quick links to specific search utilities
local tv listings
chat
horoscope
lots of other stuff
It even allows you to turn on or off different categories and arrange the display.
Question:What is the benefit of a portal over my bookmarks on my computer?
Answer: Bookmarks are stored on your computer. Your portal is not a part of your
computer but is a service that you sign-on to. Portals store information on their server
and therefore it is available anytime and anywhere you can access the internet.
Question: If I sign-up for a portal and also get an e-mail account what does that do to my other email account(s)?
Answer: You have two (or more) e-mail accounts. Just remember to check them as
needed. Many of the portals also have a way to check your other e-mail from their e-mail
service. This is a great service to some people that have trouble gaining access to their
e-mail while away from the office.
Question: If it is accessable anywhere, how secure is it?
Answer: You have to enter your user name and password. Probably as secure as any email system. Don't read too much between the lines - but if it's national security you're
probably not sending it by e-mail anyway.
Question: Where can I find a portal?
Answer: There are many different portal services that are available.
• Excite offers a personalized portal at www.excite.com
•
•
•
•
Yahoo offers a personalized portal at my.yahoo.com
Netscape offers a personalized portal at my.netscape.com
Microsoft offers a personalized portal at home.microsoft.com
and I'm sure there are many more ;)
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Question: What is icq?
Answer: ICQ is an Internet tool that tells you when someone on "your list" is online. It allow you to
communicate with them in several different ways. You can chat, send instant messages that pop
up on their screen, send URL's, send e-mail, and even transfer files.
ICQ is a program that runs in the background. When you have ICQ running it tells other people
that have you in their "list" that you are on-line. You can also have people on your "list."
When ICQ is running it can display your list of friends, family, or other people you've selected.
The people that are currently on-line show up as being Online and the people that are not
currently on the internet show up as being Offline as shown on the picture at the left.
To send a message - just double click on their name, type your message, and send it. It beeps on
their computer and the message is there. Simple - Quick - and you know they got it instantly unlike e-mail which you have no way of knowing when they will check their e-mail.
Similarly to send a file - just click on the arrow beside their name and select file. A window pops
up asking which file you would like to send. You simply choose the file (or files) to transfer and
type a description and send the file. No attachment, no encoding, no decoding, no hassle. It's
quick and simple.
ICQ also allows you to establish a chat session. You can even have several people logged into
your session.
Question: Where can I get ICQ?
Answer: ICQ is free to download at www.icq.com
Question: What else do I do after I have it downloaded?
Answer: Basically - install it, register so you have a user id, and tell your friends.
Question: What is Internet Relay Chat (irc)?
Answer: IRC is an environment on the internet that allows people to meet in real time and carry
on conversations via the computer with one or more people.
IRC is a multi-user chat system. It allows people to gather in channels and communicate in real
time. While I was writing this I quick connected to a IRC client and found over 9000 different
channels. I jumped into the channel labeled CyberChat which had about 137 people talking and
reading. I didn't know anyone there and the conversations seemed pretty pointless - but then I
wasn't really "in" on the conversations. I've included a little information that I captured during my
escapade.
Pretty cool? - - I'll let you decide. I would suggest looking for a channel that pertains to a subject
that has interest to you. Watching conversations like this one was about watching the last 30
seconds of the Waltons stretched out for hours. -- night Johnboy
Question: Why do people use IRC?
Answer: I really don't know. If anyone knows a good channel to surf - send me the info
and maybe I'll be able to answer this a little better. I suppose if you have a lot of time it
might be something to look into.
Question: I want to chat with one person and I really don't want to go through all that stuff. What
can you suggest?
Answer: You probably want to use just a chat program. ICQ is a free program that allows
you to set up chat's with individuals you know. AOL's instant messenger is another
personalized chat service.
3319
HTML Tutorial with side by side code and examples
Dynamic HTML IndexWhat is Dynamic HTML?
WebSpinners WorkShop Everything you need to develop your own web site.
WebReference - The Webmaster's Reference Library
Sizzling HTML Jalfrezi a comprehensive guide to writing web sites
Creating Killer Websites Online
Intro to HTML
Question: What is a gateway?
Answer: A gateway is an entrance to another network.
If you are connected to the internet, you have to enter through a gateway. Your machine is
connected to a small network and there is a gateway that connects your smaller network to the
internet. A gateway passes information from one network to another network as your information
travels across the internet.
Most of the internet communications is done over TCP/IP, but if a network is communicating over
some other protocal the gateway translates this information and passes it along.
As your information travels along the internet, it may pass through several gateways.
Question: What is TCP/IP?
Answer: TCP/IP is a set of protocals that handles data transmitted across the internet.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) works much like a piece of
registered mail. You pack your valuable information - take it to the Post Office - they find
the most effecient way to deliver it - send the package - get a signature stating that the
item was received - return a message so that you are assured that the package arrived
intact.
TCP/IP protocols break up the data into small segments called packets (this help with the
transportation over the internet) , sends the address of where the information is to be
sent, send the information, verify the receipt of the information and reconstruct the data
on the other end.
The Internet is managed by the rules of sending and receiving information over TCP/IP.
Question: Do I have to have a gateway?
Answer: Yes, to access the internet, you must have a gateway (not to be confused with a
Gateway computer). The gateway's IP address is entered into your networking set-up.
Question: Is the gateway always a dedicated server?
Answer: No, there are some software programs that allow you to set up a gateway to
another network. If there is not a lot of traffic, this will probably work ok.
Question: I've heard people talk about routers and bridges. How do these work?
Answer:
Repeater boosts the signals so it can travel further distances.
Bridge connects two pieces of land together offering a path from one to another.
Networks also can have bridges - they connect two networks making each accessable to
the other. Bridges can be used to connect two differenty types of networks but are usually
used to seperate one large network into two smaller networks for performance purposes.
A bridge knows all of the addresses on each side of the bridge and can send information
accordingly.
Router is an intellegent bridge for large networks. A router can listen to the traffic on the
entire network and determine the least congested route to its destination. Gateway
gateway is used to connect different types or the same types of networks together. They
can translate the different formats.
Many times these terms (bridge, gateway, router) are used interchangably - although
they do have slightly different meanings.
Question: What is a firewall?
Answer: A firewall looks at the information passing through the gateway and determines whether
to allow the information to continue on to its destination.
A firewall is used to control traffic in and out of a secure network. It basically filters all of the
packets of information and determines if it meets acceptable criteria. A firewall can give the
system administrator the ability to limit access to internal resources and also define acceptable
types of traffic for connections to the outside.
One of the simpler ways that a firewall works is to only accept information from certain IP
addresses or domain names. If you request information and you don't come from a certain
predefined allowed connection - you don't have access. For more flexible access, it might be
necessary to set up a login and password to allow authorized users access while at different
sites.
Firewalls give the system administrator the ability to limit access to their network. But it can also
limit traffic to other specific sites (or enforce security policies.)
It has its pros and cons.
Cons
•
•
Pros
•
•
•
•
Many users feel that their access to the outside world is being restricted and their privacy
invaded.
It can be expensive for the equipment and for proper administration.
Keeps people from the internet out of your internal network.
Allows the network administrator access to who has access to which information they
want publicly broadcast.
Prevents and reports policy violations and unauthorized attempts to gain access.
Logs violations and usage
Question: Do firewalls help protect against viruses?
Answer: No, not directly. You should still have a virus protection program if you are
behind a firewall.
Question: If I do have a firewall what does that mean?
Answer: Basically, if your ISP want to restrict where you go, they can. If they don't restrict
where you go they can still tell exactly where you go. All of the information that you
receive on your computer has to pass through the firewall and if they want to log any of
that information it is just the push of a button.
8548
Question: What is a packet?
Answer: Packets are small blocks of information that are transported across the internet.
The data as a whole is broken down into smaller parts before it is sent across the internet.
Transmission is more effecient by sending these smaller blocks of information and verifying that
they each arrive. It takes less time to re-send one small block of information that didn't show up or
got mixed up in route than re-sending the entire set of data
Going out on a limb here - but - if you think about someone transcribing information. The process
is similar to listening to small pieces of information - verifying to yourself that it is accurate entering the data - rewinding when necessary - ending up with an exact copy somewhere else.
Packets on the internet contain:
•
router information - to help point the way to their destination
•
•
•
header information - IP addresses of origin and destination
tcp/ip information - method of breaking down - placing header info - determining size of
packets - sending packets - ensuring arrival - re-sending bad packets - verifying data
the actual data - of course, this is why it is being sent
Question: Why doesn't it just send the whole thing at once?
Answer: If just one bit of data got lost, mixed up or jumbled, the whole thing would have
to be re-sent. By sending smaller packets - when something has to be re-sent it's just a
small part and not the whole thing.
4612
Question: What does connection speed refer to?
Answer: Connection speed is talking about how fast your computer is able to talk to other
computers or how fast a computer can send and receive information.
Depending on how you are connected to the internet it will take a certain amount of time for
information to be transferred to your computer. The following table summarizes the most common
types of connections to the internet.
Modem
T1
28,000 bps
baseline for comparison
33,600 bps
1.2 times faster
56,000 bps
2 times faster
T3
44.736 mbps
1.544 mbps
55 times faster
1500 times faster
than 28,800 modem
30 times faster than a t1
For web page design, a good rule of thumb is to try to design web pages that take no longer than
15 seconds for someone using a 28,800 bps modem to download.
Question: What is bps, kbps, mbps?
Answer: BPS stands for Bits Per Second. A Bit is a single ZERO (off) or ONE (on). So
BPS refers to the number of bits (zeros and ones) that can be sent over the modem in a
second. KBPS k=thousand bits per second. MBPS m=million bits per second.
Question: So I'm on a T3 connection, why are some pages really slow?
Answer: Anytime you are on the internet you are limited by the slowest connection
between where you are and the information you are requesting. If I trace the route
between me and another site, the internet may direct me through 20, 30, or even more
different connections until I get connected to the destination. Through all of this - the
slowest link is always the restricting limit. I might have even been connecting to a web
page that was running on someones home computer being served on a 14,000 bps
modem (it happens.)
Question: I've heard that 56k modems don't work?
Answer: Well you have to have a 56k modem or larger at the other end also. If you dial
into a network connection that has a 28,800 modem, then you are going to be restricted
to the lowest connection speed. There is also the limitation of the phone lines - current
limits on the phone line actually restrict the modems to around 53k and in some rural
areas that is not even possible.
Question: What are the speeds of the different type of wiring?
Answer: The following table summarizes the different types of cabling common on the
internet today.
type of wiring minimum speed maximum speed
Twisted Wire
300bps
10 mbps
microwave
256kbps
100 mbps
satellite
256kbps
100 mbps
coaxial cable
56 kbps
200 mbps
fiber optic
500 kbps
10 gbps
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Question: How do I get connected to the Internet?
Answer: You need to contact a local Internet Service Provider (ISP). An ISP usually offers an email account and host web pages along with their access to the internet.
There are probably several choices for your area - check your yellow pages, ask your local phone
company, ask your long distance carrier, check with your friends that are connected - see what is
available and consider the options. I can't say which would be best for your situation - so explore
the options and see what is available. Some things to consider would be
•
•
•
•
•
•
price
accessibility - access to e-mail fro outside local isp area
options - e-mail, web space, other services
performance - speed of connection
reliability - percentage of connecting on the first try (no busy signal)
satisfaction of customers
Usually you will have several options for standard modem service over a phone line. Check your
yellow pages for different ISP's that may be listed. Also check with your local telephone company
and your long distance provider.
If you're lucky enough to be located in a state of the art town (at least the cable company has to
be on the ball) you might be able to get a cable modem connection.
and there is always the standbys... (make sure it's not a long distance call)
AOL - America On Line - coming to your mailbox daily.
MSN - MicroSoft Network - coming to your mailbox weekly.
Question: Which should I get standard phone modem or cable modem?
Answer: It really depends on your usage and circumstances and of course the price of
the two services. The cable modem also won't tie up your phone line. Talk to someone in
your community that is connected to the internet - ask them which ISP they use and how
they like it. Find someone that has a cable modem (if available in your area) and ask
them about the pros and cons.
Question: I signed up and still can't get the darn thing to work. What do I do now?
Answer: Well for a plane ticket (round trip-probably) lodging and per diem - I'm sure you
could persuade me to fix it - however - it'd probably be cheaper to ask someone local.
Your ISP should have detailed instructions - read them - read them - read them. Many
larger ISP's even have someone come to your house and get you connected as part of a
setup fee (good option for many people). AND your ISP should have a tech-support
number if you get in a bind.
Question: So how do i hook up a modem?
Answer: Look in your manual for installation instructions.
I will point out that modems (almost always - both external and internal) have 2 phone jacks. One
is to connect the modem to the telephone company by way of a wall jack. The other connection is
for a regular phone. Don't get them backwards.
Question: I can dial - but I can't get connected.
Answer: There could be many things contributing to this. I've talked to many people that
had the cords switched and this is exactly what happened - so - check the cables again.
The wall goes into the line plug on the modem. The phone plug has the cable that goes
to the phone you can talk on. Check it again.
Question: I keep getting disconnected when I'm online.
Answer: If you have call waiting you should check to make sure you are disablng this
feature. Your computer should have a disable call waiting feature. Most places - if you
dial *70 prior to your call it will disable call waiting for that call (again - your software
should have a way to do this).
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Question: How do I hook up an Ethernet card to access the internet?
Answer: Install the Ethernet card into your computer and set up your TCP/IP protocol. You need
to talk to the system administrator to get a SPECIFIC IP number and a GOOD set of instructions.
Get a set of instructions from your ISP. Follow these instructions carefully. Write down notes
when actual events differ from the instructions. If you can't figure the problems out, call the help
number (telephone) of your ISP.
Ethernet is a type of wiring that connects computers in a local area network together. When you
connect those wires to the computer there are some specific numbers that MUST be entered into
the networking setup.
You probably have a person that is in charge of your network and that person has a range of
numbers that are allocated to them. From this list they will ASSIGN you an IP address.
Remember IP addresses are UNIQUE. You need to enter the numbers that are assigned for your
computer by your system administrator.
Question: What happens if I have the same IP number as someone else?
Answer: The first one on the network works fine. It could interrupt services for one or
both computers once the duplicate IP address shows up. If this happens you should get a
message on the screen that says, "There is another device on the network with duplicate
IP address". Write down the message ( specifically the set of numbers and letters) and
call or email your system administrator.
Question: What is a attachment?
Answer: An attachment is a document that is sent along with an e-mail. Attachments are created
with OTHER computer programs. E-mail is like sending a letter and an attachment is like sending
a package by UPS. Both are delivered to your address -- you just might need a little help opening
those packages.
E-mail is primarily a text based system. However there are times it is essential to receive or send
other types of information (e.g. programs, pictures, word documents, spreadsheets, and
databases). In order for these "binary" files to be sent via e-mail, they must first be converted
into a text equivalent. Remember e-mail is a text based system. This conversion is called
"encoding" and is required for sending an "e-mail attachment".
Sounds easy enough - however - there are many potential pitfalls that can be major stumbling
blocks for the receiver of these files.
If you send an attachment please follow these rules:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
My Rules ie: it's not the law but I wish it was.
Indicate what program you used to create the document.
Indicate how the document was compressed (if it was).
Indicate what the file name is.
First - You need to make sure the file you're sending is in a format that can be read by
the person on the other end. If you wrote it in Word 97 - does the person have Word 97
or should it be saved as a text file (for example).
Second - you need to make sure that the method of encoding is something that the
person at the other end is capable of handling. That means finding out what kind of
"decoding" system is available on the other end.
Third - If it's a large file, you may need to compress it - which makes it smaller (taking
less time to download) but also brings up the another issue of format.
Fourth - finally (hopefully) - not all online services can handle attachments - so it is
important to know your service's limits before you try to send a file. Some services only
allow attachments less than 100k for instance.
There are several different encoding standards in widespread use. The most common are:•
MIME:- This is a newer standard. You should choose MIME where you have the choice.
What is MIME? MIME, the Multi-purpose Internet Mail Extensions, is a freely available
•
•
•
•
specification that offers a way to interchange text in languages with different character
sets, and multimedia e-mail among many different computer systems that use Internet
mail standards. If you were bored with plain text e-mail messages, thanks to MIME you
now can create and read e-mail messages containing these things: character sets other
than ASCII enriched text images sounds other messages (reliably encapsulated) tar files
PostScript FTPable file pointers other stuff MIME supports not only several pre-defined
types of non-textual message contents, such as 8-bit 8000Hz-sampled mu-LAW audio,
GIF image files, and PostScript programs, but also permits you to define your own types
of message parts. Before MIME became widespread, you might have been able to create
a message containing, say, a PostScript document and audio annotations, but more often
then not, the message was encoded in a proprietary, non-transportable format. That
meant that you couldn't easily handle the same message on another vendor's
workstation, or even get it intact through a mail gateway in the first place. Now,
depending on the completeness of your MIME-capable mail system, there's a good
chance that it'll "just work." (See section 1.2 of the original source FAQ for some
warnings on this subject). One of the best things about MIME is that it's a "four-wheel
drive protocol", (to borrow a description applied originally to PhoneNet by Einar
Stefferud). MIME was carefully designed to survive many of the most bizarre variations of
SMTP, UUCP, and other Procrustean mail transport protocols, such as BITNET and
MMDF, that like to slice, dice, and stretch the headers and bodies of e-mail mess
UUENCODING:- Is another popular format that originated on the UNIX system.
BINHEX:- .hqx This is the standard encoding used on Macintosh systems. What is
BinHex, and how can I decode it? BinHex is short for "binary-to-hexadecimal". It is the
most common Mac OS file conversion process, combining the data and resource forks of
a file and converting it from its binary form to an ASCII text file. BinHex conversion allows
you to send word processing, spreadsheet and application files via e-mail or FTP.
BinHexed files take up more space than the original files but are far less likely to be
corrupted in transit. Recognizing BinHex files A BinHex file can usually be identified by
the .hqx extension at the end of its name. Looking at the contents of a BinHex file, you
will notice that it has a message on the first line identifying it as BinHexed, followed by
many 64-character lines made up of seemingly random letters, numbers, and punctuation
marks.
MAC BINARY: -.bin MacBinary II (often, just MacBinary) is a file conversion process that
combines the data and resource forks of a Mac OS file, protecting its integrity when
transferred to non-Mac OS computers. Compared to BinHex, a MacBinary file is
somewhat more susceptible to corruption, but because it is not converted into ASCII, also
takes up less disk space.
Base64 Another MIME format is "octet-stream" or "base64". This format is used for binary
files (i.e., files in which little, if any, of the text is printable). A base64 encoded message
will include lines similar to the following (not necessarily in the header): Content-Type:
application/octet-stream; name="filename" Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64 The
binary data will look something like this:
ICAgIOwgIFoGRCDxUVVBRENBU0UgTTtBO0oNClsxXSAgICCmQ29udmVydHMgdGhlI
GNhc2Ug
b2YgcXVhZCBuYW1lcyBpbiBhcnJheSAXDQpbMl0gICAgpiBDb252ZXJ0cyBuYW1lcyB0
byB1
cHBlcmNhc2UgaWYgRD0xLCB0byBsb3dlcmNhc2UgaWYgRD39MQ0KWzNdICAgIKYg
SWYgRD0w
LCBjb252ZXJ0cyBuYW1lcyB0byB0aGUgcHJpbWFyeSBhbHBoYWJldCAo8UFMUEhTW
zE7XSkN
If you have Stuffit Expander (free download) win - mac - dos , you should have little problems
decoding these.
Aladdin Systems, Inc.'s freeware Expander products allow users to decompress, decode, convert
and access files from all the popular compression archive formats. These include StuffIt, Zip,
UUCode, BinHex, MacBinary, Arc, Arj, gzip, Lha, Unix Compress, Tar, Compact Pro, Applelink
package, and more. It is available for Macintosh and Windows and DOS, and has become the
universal decompression tool. UnStuff, UnZip, etc - you only need one tool - It's the only
expansion utility you will ever need.
To: [email protected]
From: brad
Subject: Here is the file you wanted - MIME encoded
X-Attachments: C:\UPLOADS\Telnet.EXE;
Hey Bob,
Here is that great file you wanted. It is MIME encoded.
Attachment Converted: C:\INBOX\Telnet.EXE
Note that by default all email attachments will go into the Eudora directory. We would suggest
that users should reserve a directory on their hard disk specifically for files that they download.
You may wish to create another directory and call it "inbox", "incoming" or something similar.
To specify this directory, go to the "Special" menu, select "Settings", select the "Attachments"
category, and click on the "Attachments directory" button. In the resulting dialog box, select your
special directory and click on "Use directory". From now on, email attachments will be saved into
that directory.
Special Note: Be careful with the files you receive as email attachments. Executable programs
(ending in .exe and .com) could contain computer viruses, which would only be released when
you execute them. If you see unknown or unrequested executable files in your attachment
directory, you might wish to delete them.
Eudora and Uuncoded Files
If you receive a uuencoded file and remember Stuffit Expander.
You can tell if the file is uuencoded because it will look something like the following. There will be
lots of apparent garbage characters, and the file may be split over more than one message.
Question: I've heard people talking about filtering their e-mail. What is a filter?
Answer: Filtering e-mail refers to a set of rules that watch for specific patterns or key words in
certain parts of an e-mail message and then take a specific action to each e-mail that matches a
specific filter rule.
You should understand that - filtering is not available on all e-mail programs.
Your e-mail server is ON 24/7 (or 24 hours a day 7 days a week). It is always there waiting for
incoming e-mail messages. Your e-mail client "checks your mail" on preassigned intervals or
when you tell it to get your new messages. You may have no new messages or hundreds of new
messages when you check your e-mail.
Filtering allows you to set up rules to sort and prioritize your e-mail. You may a receive message
from someone where it is vital that you see and respond in a timely manner. For instance, you
can flag messages from [email protected] so that you realize that it is there - read it - and
reply promptly.
On the other hand, if you are signed up to a list serve you may notice that all e-mail delivered
from that listserv has an e-mail address of "[email protected]". Any e-mail from the
listserv can be transferred to a folder that is set up to store messages from that listserv. These
are usually not as high a priority (to me anyway).
What to do.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
look at your current list of e-mail and decide how you need to categorize them
look for large volumes from listservs or individual users
create directories or folders to house these messages
read the instructions for your particular e-mail client and establish rules
remember to test your filter rules to verify they work the way you anticipate
Remember to check your folders that you have messages automatically transferred to (these
usually have some kind of flag that indicates that there are new and unread messages).
Messages that do not fit into any of your filters will remain in your inbox. Read these and see if
there is a reason to establish more filtering rules.
Question: What if I my e-mail program doesn't have a filter option?
Answer: Not much choice here other than to find a different e-mail client.
Question: I use HotMail (or some other services) that does not provide filtering options. What
can I do?
Answer: Not too many options here either. Many web based mail clients do not provide
filters. If you get too many messages to manage without using filters you might want to
consider getting a different type of e-mail server.
Question: What is spam? - and - What is a flame?
Answer: Spam is unsolicited e-mail or junk e-mail sent lots of places lots of times.
A flame is an attack to a viewpoint over e-mail or to a newsgroup.
Basically these two of the main things that waste space, bandwidth, time and resources on the
internet.
If I want to know something about a product, I could ask to receive it. If I didn't ask to receive
information about a product - Do NOT send me information I did NOT request. DO NOT SEND
SPAM.
And the flame's are just as bad. There are countless newsgroups on the internet that could be of
value to it's readers. But many of these get sidetracked on stupid stuff like - "which is better,
mac's or pc's". My opinion on this is mac's are better (don't flame me) but I know how to use both
platforms and think that they each have their strongpoints. They are both capable of producing
basically the same results. I get irritated by people that have never used a mac bashing
something they don't understand. It's an argument that can't be won through e-mail. This is just
one example.
Something else that might get a flame is a statement that was made in bad taste. You need to
know where your messages are being sent and who has access to them. You might not tell
certain jokes in mixed company - and you shouldn't post certain comments somewhere they may
be offensive.
Question: I got a SPAM - what can I do?
Answer: The quickest thing to do is this. Click on this SpamCop Logo and follow the
instructions. You basically paste an entire e-mail into a form and send it to SpamCop and
they take care of the rest. I sent them one the other day and I got an e-mail back (in less
than 6 hours) saying that the users account had been closed.
Question: I got flamed - what should I do?
Answer: Look at the reason. You might owe someone an apology. Sometimes we make
mistakes. If you did confess - own up to your mistake and move on. If you feel you got
flamed without reason - either drop it or try to explain, but you might be starting an
ongoing battle.
One method of responding to a flame (that I've heard works well) is to simply send a
message that says, "you just might be correct." This usually confuses people that are
argumentative.
3909
Question: What are bookmarks? Or better yet how do I manage them?
Answer: Bookmarks are shortcuts to sites that you have marked for quick access.
Bookmarks can either be your friend or your enemy. I have seen some individuals bookmark list
that would almost rival a small search engine. Without having them organized it's about as
useless as a huge stack of papers scattered all over room.
You can open your bookmark file (that is stored on your hard drive) and organize it. You should
create folders to classify or sort your bookmarks into general topics. You will always be adding
new bookmarks - these will be added to the bottom of the list. Once a week (or as needed) just
click and drag these into an existing folder or if necessary create a new folder.
It takes a few seconds a week to keep your bookmarks organized OR it takes a few minutes
every time you need to find something in your unorganized montage of bookmarks.
Once a month (or so) you should open your bookmarks and save them to a separate file. This will
save to an html file that you could upload to your website. You know how frustrating it is when
you are somewhere else and you are looking for a particular site you know is bookmarked on
your computer - here is an obvious solution. If the file is saved to your personal website you can
access it from anywhere. If you don't want other people to have easy access to it just don't link to
it from your website. It's still there - you just need to know the full pathname.
Question: I just updated to a newer version of Netscape and all my bookmarks are gone? Where
are they?
Answer: Probably gone. BEFORE you update to a newer version of Netscape or Internet
Explorer you should always save a copy of your bookmarks and move the original file to
a safe place. Then remove the old version - install the new version - and finally move
your original bookmark file back into it's proper location. If you have someone update
your browser - REMIND them that you would like to keep your bookmarks and address
book information. This is a very common thing for people (even people that know better)
to forget.
Question: I have too many bookmarks to organize - it's just not worth the time to go through
them all.
Answer: Two options here. Start from scratch or make the time. If you decide to make
the time and organize them - do it a little at a time. If you spend 5 minutes a day - you will
knock off the task in a few days. I guarantee that the time spend will be well worth the
effort.
Question: I have looked at my bookmarks in a text editor and I want to know how the dates are
referenced?
Answer: This is actually the number of seconds since Jan 1, 1970. Want to check out a
date -- run it through this little program
Question: What is a cookie?
Answer: The concept behind cookies is to find out what you want to do at a certain site and
record information on your computer so that when you return to the site they look at your cookie
and know how to better serve you. Much like going to your favorite restaurant and saying, "I'll
have the usual."
By the way cb, you've been here 1 time(s). Last time was Sun, Aug 8 2 at 0:51:.
Hit reload and see this number change ;)
Cookies contain information that is sent from a web server to a web browser. That information is
stored on your hard drive. Some web sites record information that you have entered while at their
site and send out cookies (text files) that are stored on your computer. This cookie is storing the
name, count and last date entered on your hard drive. If you are using netscape there should
be a file on your hard drive named magiccookie and it contains the following information. Internet
Explorer has something similar.
# Netscape HTTP Cookie File
# http://www.netscape.com/newsref/std/cookie_spec.html
# This is a generated file! Do not edit.
www.usd.edu FALSE /trio/tut/start FALSE 951332053 VisitorName brad ---- (your name)
www.usd.edu FALSE /trio/tut/start FALSE 951332400 WWHCount 5 ---- (your count)
www.usd.edu FALSE /trio/tut/start FALSE 951332400 WWhenH
919796400358
Cookies DO NOT have access to your hard drive other that the original cookie file with the
information that was sent. This file is then retrieved and updated by the server when you return to
their site.
Cookies are usually set to expire after a certain amount of time. If everything is working right on
this one - it shouldn't expire unless you don't come back for a year.
One day (long ago) I visited a web site and there was a free drawing. Good, I thought. I quickly
filled out the information and submitted it and never won anything. HOWEVER, every time I return
to their web site, on the opening screen I see this message "Hello Brad." (seen that anywhere
lately?) They were really gathering information for their cookie - tying a name to a number.
If you asked about the weather forecast for your home town and submitted the information, the
next time you go to the same site it may display the forecast for your home town on their opening
screen. It has stored information regarding what you wanted the last time you were there and
retrieved that information when you returned.
Some sites actually record your IP Address - what you did while at their site and store that
information on their computers. This information helps them to analyse their site so they can find
a way to improve their service. The information can also be used to monitor repeat visitors and
frequency patterns.
With or without cookies there is a lot of information that you are sending out with your requests.
right now your IP Address is ---202.174.149.8
you have an assigned DNS name of ---- 202.174.149.8
you are currently using ---Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 5.01; Windows 98)
The three pieces of information were obtained without using cookies but rather with server side
includes. If I wanted to, I could have recorded the same information and more using cgi scripting
so I could tell how many people were using Windows or Mac, Netscape or Internet Explorer and if
there are more .edu, .org, .com or other visitors.
Question: Do I have to accept cookies?
Answer: Under your browser preferences you have the following choices: (options from
Netscape)
• accept all cookies
• accept only cookies that get sent back to the originating server
• do not accept cookies
• warn me before accepting a cookie
I recommend leaving them on. These days the advantages are greater than the
disadvantages.
Question: What is a server side include?
Answer: Server side includes read the information that you are broadcasting while
requesting information. I printed your IP address above using the following code:
<!--#echo var="REMOTE_ADDR"-->
Question: What is a CGI script?
Answer: CGI (Common Gateway Interface) scripts are programs that run on the servers.
The programs can vary in their complexity and design. CGI scripts are one way to
maintain statistics on everything that happens on your web site. You have to be able to
create a cgi-bin directory on your web site and have to have permissions required to
execute these programs.
Question: What is a plug-in?
Answer: A plug-in is a link to an external application that handles embedded information in a web
page.
QuickTime (from Apple Computer) is a plug-in that allows embedding movies into a web page.
This interactive Quicktime game was written with LiveStudio.
Question: Why do all the sites that require plugins so slow?
Answer: Usually a plugin reads a file that is not text! The files are usually larger
multimedia rich files that can be great - but there is a trade off with speed. My kids usually
abandon www.zoogdisney.com way before it loads because many of the pages can take
several minutes to download and run.
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