АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
МИНИСТЕРСТВО СЕЛЬСКОГО ХОЗЯЙСТВА РФ
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ
ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«ОРЕНБУРГСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ АГРАРНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»
Кафедра иностранных языков
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЕ МЕЖЛИЧНОСТНОЕ
ОБЩЕНИЕ
Учебное пособие для студентов факультета
механизации сельского хозяйства, направление подготовки
110300 – Агроинженерия
Электронное издание
Оренбург
Издательский центр ОГАУ
2007
ББК 81.2 Англ
УДК 42
А 64
Рекомендовано к изданию редакционно-издательским советом Оренбургского государственного аграрного университета (председатель – профессор В.В. Каракулев).
Рассмотрено и одобрено на заседании кафедры иностранных языков 27 июня
2007 г. Протокол № 13.
Рассмотрено и рекомендовано к изданию методическим советом факультета механизации сельского хозяйства 6 сентября 2007 г. Протокол № 1.
Рецензент:
Л.С. Инякина – заведующая кафедрой иностранных языков ОГАУ, профессор,
кандидат филологических наук;
Н.Н. Ломакина – доцент, кандидат педагогических наук
А 64
Английский язык. Профессиональное межличностное общение:
учебное пособие для студентов факультета механизации сельского хозяйства,
направление подготовки 110300 – Агроинженерия [Электронный ресурс] 3,3
Мb / сост. З.Х. Галькиева. – Оренбург: Издательский центр ОГАУ, 2007. –
215 с. – Системн. требования; РС не ниже класса Pentium II; 512 Мb RAM;
Windows 98/XP/Vista; Adobe Acrobat Reader 7.0 и выше. – № свидетельства о
регистрации электронного учебного пособия 4092-э.
Учебное пособие содержит задания по лексике, чтению, переводу для развития навыков устной и письменной речи. Предназначено для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы.
ББК 81.2 Англ
УДК 42
_____________________________________________________________________________
Подписано к использованию 21.09.2007. Заказ № 4092-э.
Издательский центр ОГАУ. 460014, г. Оренбург, ул. Челюскинцев, 18.
Тел.: (3532) 77-61-43
© Галькиева З.Х., 2007
© Издательский центр ОГАУ, 2007
2
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Настоящее учебное пособие по английскому языку предназначено для
студентов неязыковых вузов направления «Агроинженерия». Пособие рассчитано на 100-140 часов аудиторных занятий на 1-2 курсах и состоит из 27
разделов, посвященных определенной теме. Пособие построено на материалах современной учебной и справочной литературы, а также публикаций в
периодической печати англоязычных стран. Некоторые оригинальные тексты
подвергнуты незначительному сокращению.
Каждый раздел включает лексические упражнения, тексты для чтения,
задания на развитие умения речевой деятельности, систему творческих, проблемных, поисковых и аналитических заданий и упражнений: ролевые игры,
проекты, технологии анализа ситуации для активного обучения, мозговая
атака, работа над кейс-стади, составление портфолио, также рекомендуется
параллельное использование учебников по практической грамматике английского языка. Лексические трудности снимаются обширным словарем, система упражнений направлена на усвоение и употребление слов, проверку понимания содержания текстов, раскрытие затрагиваемых в текстах проблем.
Пособие сочетает различные формы работы: индивидуальная, парная,
групповая, фронтальная и т.д.; что в конечном итоге гарантирует успешное
овладение английским языком.
При разработке учебного пособия мы исходили из того, что большинство студентов, поступающих в университет на неязыковые специальности,
обладает невысоким уровнем знаний по языку, слабо развитой мотивацией
учебной деятельности. Тексты и задания в зависимости от уровня языковой
подготовки могут выполняться полностью или выборочно, самостоятельно
или под руководством преподавателя, т.е. существует возможность дифференцированного подхода к овладению иностранным языком. Последние разделы пособия призваны расширить кругозор студента и обучить навыкам реферирования, аннотирования, сформировать умения профессионального
межкультурного общения, дифференцировать обучение в аудиторной и самостоятельной работе. Глоссарий основных терминов может быть использован для аудиторной и внеаудиторной работы в различных целях обучения.
Неизменным условием работы с данным пособием является атмосфера
доброжелательности, доверия, сотрудничества между преподавателем и студентами. Возможно творческое переосмысление данных и добавление новых
заданий в зависимости от методического опыта преподавателя и подготовленности группы.
3
Unit 1. Agricultural machinery
Agricultural machinery is machinery used in the operation of an agricultural area.
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон по теме «Сельскохозяйственные машины».
Vocabulary:
industrial - промышленный
complicated - сложный
leap - скачок
harvesting- сбор урожая
grain - зерно
seed - семя
provide - обеспечивать
speed – скорость
generation – поколение
equip - оборудовать
contribute - делать вклад
A German combine harvester
belt - пояс, цепь, ремень
Text A
History
The Industrial Revolution. With the coming of the Industrial Revolution
and the development of more complicated machines, farming methods took a great
leap forward. Instead of harvesting grain by hand with a sharp blade, wheeled machines cut a continuous swath. Instead of threshing the grain by beating it with
sticks, threshing machines separated the seeds from the heads and stalks.
Steam power. Power for agricultural machinery was originally supplied by
horses or other domesticated animals. With the invention of steam power came the
portable engine, and later the traction engine, a multipurpose, mobile energy
source that was the ground-crawling cousin to the steam locomotive. Agricultural
steam engines took over the heavy pulling work of horses, and were also equipped
with a pulley that could power stationary machines via the use of a long belt. The
steam-powered machines were low-powered by today's standards but, because of
their size and their low gear ratios, they could provide a large drawbar pull. Their
slow speed led farmers to comment that tractors had two speeds: "slow, and darn
slow."
Internal combustion engines. The internal combustion engine; first the petrol engine, and later diesel engines; became the main source of power for the next
generation of tractors. These engines also contributed to the development of the
4
self-propelled, combined harvester and thresher, or combine harvester (also shortened to 'combine'). Instead of cutting the grain stalks and transporting them to a
stationary threshing machine, these combines cut, threshed, and separated the grain
while moving continuously through the field.
1. Border the words, translate the sentences:
1)Theenginesalsocontributedtothedevelopmentofthecombinedharvesterandthresher.
2)Thencameportableengineandthetractionengineamultipurposemobileenergysource.
2. Find in the text the sentences with the following verbs translate them: became, took over, separated, led.
3. Find the answers to the questions in the text:
1. When did farming methods take a great leap forward?
2. Instead of threshing the grain by beating it with sticks, threshing machines separated the seeds from the heads and stalks didn't they?
3. What took over the heavy pulling work of horses, and were also equipped with
a pulley that could power stationary machines via the use of a long belt?
4. What led farmers to comment that tractors had two speeds: "slow, and darn
slow"?
5. Why could they provide a large drawbar pull?
4. Using Appendix 2 express your opinion on the problem of the text.
5. Prepare the report on the problem and listen to the other students, define
which message is the most laconic and exhaustive.
Text B
Types
A 1963 Ford 600 farm truck
5
Combines might have taken the harvesting job away from tractors, but tractors still do the majority of work on a modern farm. They are used to pull implements—machines that till the ground, plant seed, and perform other tasks. Tillage
implements prepare the soil for planting by loosening the soil and killing weeds or
competing plants. The best-known is the plough, the ancient implement that was
upgraded in 1838 by John Deere. Ploughs are now used less frequently in the U.S.
than formerly, with offset disks used instead to turn over the soil, and chisels used
to gain the depth needed to retain moisture. The most common type of seeder is
called a planter, and spaces seeds out equally in long rows, which are usually two
to three feet apart. Some crops are planted by drills, which put out much more seed
in rows less than a foot apart, blanketing the field with crops. Transplanters automate the task of transplanting seedlings to the field. With the widespread use of
plastic mulch, plastic mulch layers, transplanters, and seeders lay down long rows
of plastic, and plant through them automatically. After planting, other implements
can be used to cultivate weeds from between rows, or to spread fertilizer and pesticides. Hay balers can be used to tightly package grass or alfalfa into a storable
form for the winter months. Modern irrigation relies on machinery. Engines,
pumps and other specialized gear provide water quickly and in high volumes to
large areas of land. Similar types of equipment can be used to deliver fertilizers
and pesticides. Besides the tractor, other vehicles have been adapted for use in
farming, including trucks, airplanes, and helicopters, such as for transporting crops
and making equipment mobile, to aerial spraying and livestock herd management.
1. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
Pumps, engines and other specialized task of transplanting seedlings to the
gear provide
field.
other vehicles have been adapted for use was upgraded in 1838 by John Deere.
in farming,
Similar types of equipment can.
including trucks, airplanes, and helicopters.
Transplanters automate the
on machinery.
The plough, the ancient implement
water quickly and in high volumes to
large areas of land.
Irrigation relies
be used to deliver fertilizers and pesticides
2. Try to explain the following phrases in English: prepare the soil for planting,
are now used less frequently, have been adapted for use in farming, the most common type.
3. Fill in the necessary word from the vocabulary:
1. The best-known is the plough, the ancient implement that was upgraded in …
by…
2. Ploughs are now used less frequently in the … than formerly, with offset disks used
instead to turn over the …, and chisels used to gain the depth needed to retain …
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3. Some crops are planted by… which put out much more seed in rows less than a
foot apart, blanketing the field with crops.
4. With the widespread use of…, transplanters, and seeders lay down long rows of
plastic, and plant through them automatically.
5. Modern irrigation … machinery.
4. Say what you know about the types of agricultural machinery (use Appendix 2).
5. Formulate the problem with position of the group, which interests you
present.
Text C
New technology and the future
Though modern harvesters and planters will do a better job than their predecessors, the combine of today still cuts, threshes, and separates grain in essentially
the same way it has always been done. However, technology is changing the way
that humans operate the machines, as computer monitoring systems, GPS locators,
and self-steer programs allow the most advanced tractors and implements to be
more precise and less wasteful in the use of fuel, seed, or fertilizer. In the foreseeable future, some agricultural machines will be capable of driving themselves, using
GPS maps and electronic sensors. Even more esoteric are the new areas of nanotechnology and genetic engineering, where submicroscopic devices and biological
processes may be used as machines to perform agricultural tasks.
1. Find the following word-combinations in the text, translate the sentences
with them: меняет способ, новые сферы, даже более, сельскохозяйственные
машины, позволяют самым улучшенным.
2. Agree or disagree with the sentences, using Appendix 2:
1. Though modern harvesters and planters will do a better job than their predecessors, the combine of today still cuts, threshes, and separates grain in essentially the same way it has always been done.
2. However, technology is not changing the way that humans operate the
machines, as computer monitoring systems, GPS locators, and self-steer programs
allow the most advanced tractors and implements to be more precise and less
wasteful in the use of fuel, seed, or fertilizer.
3. In the foreseeable future, some agricultural machines will be unable of
driving themselves, using GPS maps and electronic sensors.
4. Even more esoteric are the new areas of nanotechnology and genetic engineering, where submicroscopic devices and biological processes may be used as
machines to perform industrial tasks.
3. Prepare the report about new technology of agricultural machinery
and listen to the other students, define which message is the most laconic and
exhaustive.
7
Unit 2. Tractor
Text A
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон по теме «Трактор».
Vocabulary:
vehicle транспортное средство
designed - разработанный
deliver поставить
torque вращающий момент
purpose - цель
hauling перевозка
plough плуг
occur произойти
familiar - знакомый
displacing- перемещение
describe distinctive implement towed mounted semi- trailer refer trailer truck -
описывает
отличительный
орудие
буксируемый
установленный
полуприцеп
отнестись
трейлер
грузовик
A Tractor
A tractor is a vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort
(or torque) at slow speeds, for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used
in agriculture or construction. Most commonly, the term is used to describe the distinctive farm vehicle: agricultural implements may be towed behind or mounted on
the tractor, and the tractor may also provide a source of power if the implement is
mechanized. Another common use of the term, "tractor unit", describes the power
unit of a semi-trailer truck (articulated lorry).
The word tractor was taken from Latin, being the agent noun of trahere "to
pull". The first recorded use of the word meaning "an engine or vehicle for pulling
wagons or ploughs" occurred in 1901, displacing the earlier term traction engine
(1859).
In Britain, Ireland, Australia, India, Spain, Argentina and Germany the word
"tractor" usually means "farm tractor", and the use of the word "tractor" to mean
other types of vehicles is familiar to the vehicle trade but unfamiliar to much of the
general public. In Canada and the US the word may also refer to the road tractor
portion of a tractor trailer truck.
1. Border the words, translate the sentences:
1) Thetermisusedtodescribethedistinctivefarmvehicleagriculturalimplementsmaybe
towedbehindormountedonthetractor.
2)Itisavehicledesignedtoeliverahightractiveeffortatslowspeedsforthepurposesofhaul
ingatrailerusedinagricultureorconstruction.
8
2. Find in the text the sentences with the following verbs translate them: displace, refer, was taken, design, use.
3. Find the answers to the questions in the text:
1. What is a vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort at
slow speeds?
2. The term is used to describe the distinctive farm vehicle isn't it?
3. What does another common use of the term "tractor unit" describe?
4. Was the word tractor taken from Latin or Greek?
5. When did the first recorded use of the word meaning "an engine or vehicle
for pulling wagons or ploughs" occur?
6. When may the word also refer to the road tractor portion of a tractor trailer
truck?
4. Prepare the report on the problem and listen to the other students, define
which message is the most laconic and exhaustive.
Text B
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон по теме «История».
Vocabulary:
portable
– портативный
wire cableпроводной кабель
engine двигатель
soil почва
steam engine - паровой двигатель permit разрешение
wheel колесо
remain остаться
drive двигать
reliable надежный
flexible гибкий
internal combustion двигатель внутренbelt пояс
engine него сгорания
develop развиться
в
gasoline-powered - приведенный
widely широко
действие бензином
adopt принять
проданный
sold
plough плуг
успешный
successful pair пара
ввести
introduce
haul трофей
изготовитель
manufacturer back and forth назад и вперед
возможный
affordable dispensed распределенный
History
The first powered farm implements in the early 1800s were portable engines
– steam engines on wheels that could be used to drive mechanical farm machinery
by way of a flexible belt. Around 1850, the first traction engines were developed
from these, and were widely adopted for agricultural use. The first tractors were
steam-powered ploughing engines. They were used in pairs either side of a field to
9
haul a plough back and forth between them using a wire cable. Where soil conditions permitted, like the US, steam tractors were used to direct-haul ploughs, but in
the UK and elsewhere, ploughing engines were used for cable-hauled ploughing
instead. Steam-powered agricultural engines remained in use well into the 20th
century, until reliable internal combustion engines had been developed. In 1892,
John Froelich built the first practical gasoline-powered tractor in Clayton County,
Iowa. Only two were sold, and it was not until 1911, when the Twin City Traction
Engine Company developed the design, that it became successful.
A 1920 International Harvester tractor, showing features inherited from earlier steam
tractor designs.
In Britain, the first recorded tractor sale was the oil-burning HornsbyAckroyd Patent Safety Oil Traction engine, in 1897. However, the first commercially successful design was Dan Albone's three-wheel Ivel tractor of 1902. In
1908, the Saunderson Tractor and Implement Co. of Bedford introduced a fourwheel design, and went on to become the largest tractor manufacturer outside the
USA at that time.
While unpopular at first, these gasoline-powered machines began to catch on
in the 1910s when they became smaller and more affordable. Henry Ford introduced the Fordson, the first mass-produced tractor in 1917. They were built in the
U.S., Ireland, England and Russia and by 1923; Fordson had 77% of the U.S. market. The Fordson dispensed with a frame, using the strength of the engine block to
hold the machine together. By the 1920s, tractors with a gasoline-powered internal
combustion engine had become the norm.
10
1. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
They were used in pairs either side of were used to direct-haul ploughs, but in the
UK and elsewhere, ploughing engines were
a field to haul
used for cable-hauled ploughing instead.
Steam-powered agricultural engines reliable internal combustion engines had
remained in use well into the 20th been developed.
century, until
Only two were sold, and it was not practical gasoline-powered tractor in Clayuntil 1911, when
ton County, Iowa.
Where soil conditions permitted, like a plough back and forth between them usthe US, steam tractors
ing a wire cable.
In 1892, John Froelich built the first of the engine block to hold the machine together.
The Fordson dispensed with a frame, the Twin City Traction Engine Company
using the strength
developed the design, that it became successful.
2. Try to explain the following phrases in English: the first recorded tractor sale,
the first commercially successful design, three-wheel tractor, the largest tractor
manufacturer, unpopular at first, began to catch on, smaller and more affordable.
3. Fill in the necessary word:
1. The first powered farm implements in the early 1800s were portable engines –
steam engines on …
2. Around 1850, the first traction engines were … from these, and were widely
adopted for agricultural use.
3. Where soil conditions …, like the US, steam tractors were used to direct-haul
ploughs, but in the UK and elsewhere, ploughing engines were used for cablehauled ploughing instead.
4. Only two were sold, and it was not until 1911, when the Twin City Traction Engine Company … the design, that it became...
5. While unpopular at first, these … machines began to catch on in the 1910s when
they became smaller and more affordable.
6. Henry Ford … the Fordson, the first mass-produced tractor in 1917.
7. By the 1920s, tractors with a gasoline-powered … had become the norm.
4. Speak about the history of the tractor in Russia (use Appendix 2).
Text С
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон по теме «Конфигурации
трактора».
11
Vocabulary:
generally articulated steering axle consequentlysteerable compartmentremain-
вообще
ясно сформул-нный
регулирование
ось
следовательно
управляемый
отделение
останьтесь
notably due to traction floatation clutch trailing pump recent -
особенно
из-за
тяга
плавание
сцепление
перемещение
насос
недавний
Tractor configurations
Tractors can be generally classified as two-wheel drive, two-wheel drive
with front wheel assist, four-wheel drive (often with articulated steering), or track
tractors (with either two or four powered rubber tracks). The classic farm tractor is
a simple open vehicle, with two very large driving wheels on an axle below and
slightly behind a single seat (the seat and steering wheel consequently are in the
center), and the engine in front of the driver, with two steerable wheels below the
engine compartment. This basic design has remained unchanged for a number of
years, but enclosed cabs are fitted on almost all modern models, for reasons of
operator safety and comfort.
A 1958 Series II Field Marshall--the classic standard tread farm tractor configuration
In some localities with heavy or wet soils, notably in the Central Valley of
California, the "Caterpillar" or "crawler" type of tracked tractor became popular in
the 1930s, due to superior traction and floatation. These were usually maneuvered
through the use of turning brake pedals and separate track clutches operated by
levers rather than a steering wheel.
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A modern 4-wheel drive farm tractor
Four-wheel drive tractors began to appear in the 1960s. Some four-wheel
drive tractors have the standard "two large, two small" configuration typical of
smaller tractors, while some have four large powered wheels. The larger tractors
are typically an articulated center-hinged design steered by hydraulic cylinders that
move the forward power unit while the trailing unit is not steered separately. In the
early 21st century, articulated or non-articulated, steerable multi-track "tractors"
have largely supplanted the "Caterpillar" type for farm use. Larger types of modern
farm tractors include articulated four wheel or eight wheel drive units with one or
two power units which are hinged in the middle and steered by hydraulic clutches
or pumps. A relatively recent development is the replacement of wheels or steel
crawler-type tracks with flexible steel-reinforced rubber tracks, usually powered by
hydrostatic or completely hydraulic driving mechanisms. The configuration of
these tractors bears little resemblance to the classic farm tractor design.
A modern steerable all-tracked power unit planting wheat in North Dakota
1. Write out from the text the sentences with the following phrases, translate
them in written form: some localities, maneuvered through, began to appear, an
articulated center-hinged design, modern farm tractors, a relatively recent
development, powered by hydrostatic or completely hydraulic driving
mechanisms.
13
2. Make up sentences, write them down: 1) two-wheel, can, classified, tractors,
two-wheel, assist, Tractors, be, generally, as, drive, drive, front, wheel, four-wheel,
drive, or, track, with. 2) vehicle, classic, The, open, farm, is, a, tractor, simple. 3)
unchanged, years, This, design, has, basic, for, remained. 4) drive, Larger, of, farm,
include, wheel, or, eight, four, tractors, wheel, types, units, modern, articulated.
3. Find the answers in the text:
1) Tractors can be generally classified as three-wheel drive, three -wheel drive with
front wheel assist four-wheel drive or track tractors, can't they?
2) What is the classic farm tractor?
3) What was usually maneuvered through the use of turning brake pedals and
separate track clutches operated by levers rather than a steering wheel?
4) What does the configuration of these tractors bear little resemblance to?
4. Comment on the photos. Formulate the problem with position of the group,
which interests you present.
5. Agree or disagree with the statements using Appendix 2:
1) Four-wheel drive tractors began to appear in the 1950s. 2) Some four-wheel
drive tractors have the standard "two large" configuration typical of smaller
tractors, while some have four large powered wheels. 3) In the early 21st century,
articulated or non-articulated, steerable multi-track "tractors" have largely
supplanted the "Caterpillar" type for farm use. 4) A relatively recent development
is the replacement of wheels or steel crawler-type tracks with unflexible steelreinforced rubber tracks, usually powered by hydrostatic or completely hydraulic
driving mechanisms.
6. Descend your position of the problem of the text.
Text D
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон по теме «Двигатель и топливо».
Vocabulary:
predecessorпредшественник
auxiliaryвспомогательный
choiceвыбор
tankрезервуар
predominantпреобладающий
convenientудобный
fuelтопливо
expensiveдорогой
alternativeальтернатива
rangeдиапазон
burnожог
лошадиная сила
horsepowertruckгрузовик
косить лужайку
lawn mowingvastобширный
озеленение
landscapingmaizeкукуруза
сад
orchardpressurizedгерметичный
14
Engine and fuels
The predecessors of modern tractors, traction engines, used steam engines
for power. Since the turn of the 20th century, internal combustion engines have
been the power source of choice. Between 1900 and 1960, gasoline was the
predominant fuel, with kerosene and ethanol being common alternatives. Generally
one engine could burn any of those, although cold starting was easiest on gasoline.
Often a small auxiliary fuel tank was available to hold gasoline for cold starting
and warm-up, while the main fuel tank held whatever fuel was most convenient or
least expensive for the particular farmer. Dieselisation gained momentum starting
in the 1960s, and modern farm tractors usually employ diesel engines, which range
in power output from 18 to 575 horsepower (15 to 480 kW). Size and output are
dependent on application, with smaller tractors for lawn mowing, landscaping,
orchard work, and truck farming, and larger tractors for vast fields of wheat, maize,
soy, and other bulk crops. Liquified petroleum gas (LPG) or propane also have
been used as tractor fuels, but require special pressurized fuel tanks and filling
equipment so are less prevalent in most markets.
1. Fill in the necessary word: 1. Between 1900 and 1960, gasoline was the
…fuel, with kerosene and ethanol being common alternatives. 2. Generally one
engine could burn any of those, although cold starting was easiest on …. 3. The …
of modern tractors, traction engines, used … for power. 4. Liquified petroleum gas
(LPG) or propane also have been used as …fuels. 5. Since the turn of the
…century, internal combustion engines have been the power source of ….6. Often
a small auxiliary fuel tank was available to hold … for cold starting and warm-up.
2. Try to explain the following phrases in English: the predecessors of
modern tractors, the power source of choice, the predominant fuel, cold starting
was easiest on gasoline, most convenient or least expensive, range in power output,
vast fields of wheat.
3. Agree or disagree with the sentences using Appendix 2: 1. The
predecessors of modern tractors, traction engines, used steam engines for power. 2.
Since the turn of the 18th century, internal combustion engines have been the
power source of choice. 3. Between 1900 and 1960, gasoline was the predominant
fuel, with kerosene and ethanol being common alternatives. 4. Often a small
auxiliary fuel tank was not available to hold gasoline for cold starting and warmup, while the main fuel tank held whatever fuel was most convenient or least
expensive for the particular farmer. 5. Dieselisation gained momentum starting in
the 1960s, and modern farm tractors usually employ diesel engines, which range in
power output from 22 to 575 horsepower (15 to 480 kW).
15
Text E
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон по теме «Передача».
Vocabulary:
manualtransmissiongearratiomultiplieddiscretecombinevarythrottlemiledegreecausequeuedelayannoyshirkfeasible-
ручной
передача
механизм
отношение
умноженный
дискретный
объединиться
измениться
дроссель
миля
степень
причина
очередь
задержка
раздражать
уклониться
выполнимый
inherently unsuitedcircumventiondouble clutchingshiftingtowoptionpursuevariableappropriatewhereasachieve solutionfleet turnoverscrap-
неотъемлемо
неподходящий
обман
двойной
зажим
перемена
буксировка
выбор
преследовать
переменная
соответствующий
тогда как
достигнуть
решение
флот
товарооборот
отходы
Transmission
Most older farm tractors use a manual transmission. They have several gear
ratios, typically 3 to 6, sometimes multiplied into 2 or 3 ranges. This arrangement
provides a set of discrete ratios that, combined with the varying of the throttle, allow final-drive speeds from less than one mile per hour up to about 25 miles per
hour (40 km/h), with the lower speeds used for working the land and the highest
speeds used on the road.
Slow, controllable speeds are necessary for most operations that are performed with a tractor. They help give the farmer a larger degree of control in certain situations, such as field work. However, when travelling on public roads, the
slow operating speeds can cause problems, such as long queues or tailbacks, which
can delay or annoy motorists in cars and trucks. These motorists are responsible for
being duly careful around farm tractors and sharing the road with them, but many
shirk this responsibility, so various ways to minimize the interaction or minimize
the speed differential are employed where feasible. Some countries (for example
the Netherlands) employ a road sign on some roads that means "no farm tractors".
Some modern tractors, such as the JCB Fastrac, are now capable of much higher
road speeds of around 50 mph (80 km/h).
16
Older tractors usually have unsynchronized transmission design, which often
requires that the operator stop the tractor in order to shift between gears. This mode
of use is inherently unsuited to some of the work that tractors do, and has been circumvented in various ways over the years. For existing unsynchronized tractors,
the methods of circumvention are double clutching or power-shifting, both of
which require the operator to rely on skill to speed-match the gears while shifting.
Both of these solutions are undesirable from a risk-mitigation standpoint because
of what can go wrong if the operator makes a mistake.
An older model European farm tractor. These types of tractors are still common in Eastern
Europe
Transmission damage is possible, and loss of vehicle control can occur if the
tractor is towing a heavy wagon either uphill or downhill, which is something that
tractors often do. Therefore, operator's manuals for most of these tractors state that
one must always stop the tractor before shifting, and they do not even mention the
alternatives. As already said, that mode of use is inherently unsuited to some of the
work that tractors do, so better
Cutaway of modern tractor
17
In these, unsynchronized transmission designs were replaced with
synchronization or with a continuously variable transmission (CVT). Either a
synchronized manual transmission with enough available gear ratios (often
achieved with dual ranges, high and low) or a CVT allow the engine speed to be
matched to the desired final-drive speed while keeping engine speed within the
appropriate rpm range for power generation (the working range) (whereas
throttling back to achieve the desired final-drive speed is a trade-off that leaves the
working range). The problems, solutions, and developments described here also
describe the history of transmission evolution in semi-trailer trucks. The biggest
difference is fleet turnover; whereas most of the old road tractors have long since
been scrapped, many of the old farm tractors are still in use. Therefore, old
transmission design and operation is primarily just of historical interest in trucking,
whereas in farming it still often affects daily life.
1. Border the words, translate the sentences:
a. Transmissiondamageispossibleandlossofvehiclecontrolcanoccurifthetr
actoris towingaheavywagon.
b. Theoperator'smanualsformostofthetractorsstatethatonemustalwaysstop
thetractorbeforeshifting.
c. Thatmodeofuseisinherentlyunsuitedtosomeoftheworkthattractorsdo.
2. Find in the text the sentences with the following verbs translate them:
achieve, replace, unsuit, stop, cause.
3. Find the answers to the questions in the text:
1. What uses a manual transmission?
2. They have several gear ratios, typically 7 to 8, sometimes multiplied into
4 or 5 ranges, haven't they?
3. What are slow, controllable speeds necessary for?
4. What these motorists are responsible for?
5. What requires that the operator stop the tractor in order to shift between
gears?
6. For existing unsynchronized tractors, the methods of circumvention are
not double clutching or power-shifting, both of which require the operator to rely
on skill to speed-match the gears while shifting, are they?
4. Discuss the alternatives of the problem's solving, their advantages and disadvantages.
5. Comment on the photos. Formulate the problem with position of the group,
which interests you present.
18
Unit 3. Hitches and power applications
Read the introduction and say what you think about its idea.
The power produced by the engine must be transmitted to the implement or
equipment in order to do the actual work intended for the equipment. This may be
accomplished via a drawbar or hitch system if the implement is to be towed or
otherwise pulled through the tractive power of the engine, or via a pulley or power
takeoff system if the implement is stationery, or a combination of the two.
Text A
Vocabulary:
plowtillageequipmentconnectproprietarysteelattachcastrearhitchimplementpinloop-
плуг
пашня
оборудование
соединиться
собственность
сталь
быть свойственным
бросок
задняя часть
помеха
орудие
булавка
петля
clevisremoveswingingpathnecessitatechiselharrow excessivelyslackjerkyappropriatehorse-drawnapparentlead-
скоба
удалить
покачивание
путь
требовать
долото
борона
чрезмерно
слабый
вяленое мясо
соответствующий
гужевой
очевидный
лидерство
Drawbars
Until the 1950s, plows and other tillage equipment usually were connected
to the tractor via a drawbar, or a proprietary connecting system. The classic
drawbar is simply a steel bar attached to the tractor (or in some cases, as in the
early Fordsons, cast as part of the rear transmission housing) to which the hitch of
the implement was attached with a pin or by a loop and clevis. The implement
could be readily attached and removed, allowing the tractor to be used for other
purposes on a daily basis. If the tractor was equipped with a swinging drawbar, the
drawbar could be set at the center or offset from center to allow the tractor to run
outside the path of the implement.
The drawbar system necessitated that the implement have its own running
gear (usually wheels) and in the case of a plow, chisel cultivator or harrow, some
sort of lift mechanism to raise it out of the ground at turns or for transport.
Drawbars necessarily posed a rollover risk depending on how the tractive torque
19
was applied. The Fordson tractors (of which more units were produced and placed
in service than any other farm tractor) was extremely prone to roll over backwards
due to an excessively short wheelbase. The linkage between the implement and the
tractor usually had some slack which could lead to jerky starts and greater wear
and tear on the tractor and the equipment.
A large modern John Deere model 9400 four wheel drive tractor with tripled wheels and a
drawbar-towed tool chain including one-pass tillage equipment, planter and fertilizer applicator
with tanks
Drawbars were appropriate to the dawn of mechanization, because they were
very simple in concept and because as the tractor replaced the horse, existing
horse-drawn implements usually already had running gear. As the history of
mechanization progressed, however, the advantages of other hitching systems
became apparent, leading to new developments. Depending on the function for
which a tractor is used, however, the drawbar is still one of the usual means of
attaching an implement to a tractor.
1. Fill in the necessary word:
1. The classic drawbar is simply a steel … attached to the tractor.
2. If the tractor was … with a swinging drawbar, the drawbar could be set at
the center or offset from center.
3. The … system necessitated that the implement have its own running gear.
4. The Fordson tractors was prone to roll over backwards due to an excessively
… wheelbase.
5. The linkage between the implement and the … usually had some slack.
20
2. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
Plows and other tillage equipment implement have its own running gear.
usually were connected
The classic drawbar is simply a steel bar the hitch of the implement was attached
attached to the tractor to which
with a pin or by a loop and clevis.
The implement could be readily the tractor to be used for other purposes
attached and removed, allowing
on a daily basis.
The drawbar system necessitated that to the tractor via a drawbar, or a
the
proprietary connecting system.
The Fordson tractors was extremely which could lead to jerky starts and
greater wear and tear on the tractor and
prone to roll
the equipment.
The linkage between the implement and over backwards due to an excessively
the tractor usually had some slack
short wheelbase.
3. Try to explain the following phrases in English: the dawn of mechanization,
tillage equipment, running gear, excessively short wheelbase, could be readily
attached and removed.
4. Comment on the photo in pairs.
Text B
Vocabulary:
mountmatchingbellymowerpermanent-
гора
boltболт
соответствие
impracticalнепрактичный
живот
installустановить
косилка
dedicateпосвятить
постоянный
appreciableзаметный
Fixed mounts
Some tractor manufacturers produced matching equipment that could be
directly mounted on the tractor. Examples included front-end loaders, belly
mowers, row crop cultivators, corn pickers and corn planters. In most cases, these
fixed mounts were proprietary and unique to each make of tractor, so that an
implement produced by John Deere, for example, could not be attached to a
Minneapolis Moline tractor. Another disadvantage was that mounting usually
required some time and labor, resulting in the implement being semi-permanently
attached with bolts or other mounting hardware. Usually it was impractical to
remove the implement and reinstall it on a day-to-day basis. As a result, the tractor
was unavailable for other uses and dedicated to a single use for an appreciable
period of time. An implement generally would be mounted at the beginning of its
season of use (such as tillage, planting or harvesting) and removed only when the
likely use season had ended.
21
1. Write out from the text the sentences with the following phrases, translate
them in written form: dedicated to a single use, at the beginning of its season of
use, remove the implement, matching equipment, required some time and labor.
2. Make up sentences, write them down: 1) loaders, Examples, front-end,
mowers, row, cultivators, crop, corn, belly, planters, included. 2) was, uses,
unavailable, for, The, other, tractor. 3) The, was, that, required, usually, some, and,
labor, mounting, time, disadvantage. 4) most, cases, these, to, mounts, proprietary,
and, make, unique, fixed, each, of, tractor, In, were.
3. Find the answers in the text:
1. What did some tractor manufacturers produce?
2. What did examples include?
3. The disadvantage was that mounting usually required some time and labor,
wasn’t it?
4. Was it practical to remove the implement and reinstall it on a day-to-day
basis?
5. Was the tractor available for other uses and dedicated to a single use for an
appreciable period of time?
6. An implement generally would be mounted at the beginning of its season of
use and removed only when the likely use season had ended wouldn’t it?
4. Prepare the report on the problem in the micro group and listen to the other students, define which message is the most laconic and exhaustive.
5. Descend your position of the problem, using Appendix 2.
Text C
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
virtuallyфактически
via через
exclusiveисключительный
enableпозволить
производная
three-point hitch- помеха с тремя пунк- derivativeтами
obstacleпрепятствие
полностью
dragбремя
completelysupportподдержка
Three-point hitches and quick hitches
The drawbar system was virtually the exclusive method of attaching
implements (other than direct attachment to the tractor) before Harry Ferguson
developed the three-point hitch. Equipment attached to the three-point hitch can be
raised or lowered hydraulically with a control lever. The equipment attached to the
three-point hitch is usually completely supported by the tractor. Another way to
22
attach an implement is via a Quick Hitch, which is attached to the three-point
hitch. This enables a single person to attach an implement quicker and put the
person in less danger when attaching the implement.
A modern three point hitch
Almost every tractor today features Ferguson's 3 point linkage or a
derivative of it. The three-point hitch allows for easy attachment and detachment of
implements while allowing the implement to function as a part of the tractor
almost as if it were attached by a fixed mount. Previously, when the implement hit
an obstacle the towing link would break or the tractor could flip over. Ferguson's
genius was to combine a connection via two lower and one upper lift arms that
were connected to a hydraulic lifting ram. The ram was in turn connected to the
upper of the 3 links so that increased drag (as when a plough hits a rock) caused
the hydraulics to lift the implement until the obstacle was passed.
Other manufacturers copied Ferguson's invention, or developed variations of
it. For example, International Harvestor's Farmall tractors had a two-point "quick
hitch" and John Deere had a power lift that was similar but not as flexible as the
Ferguson invention. Recently, Bobcat's patent on its front loader connection
(inspired by these earlier systems) has expired; and compact tractors are now being
outfitted with quick-connect attachments for their front-end loaders.
1. Fill in the necessary word:
1. Almost every tractor today features … point linkage or a derivative of it.
2. Previously, when the … hit an obstacle the towing link would break or the
tractor could flip over.
3. The ram was in turn … to the upper of the 3 links.
4. Other … copied Ferguson's invention, or developed variations of it.
5. For example, International Harvestor's Farmall tractors had a … "quick
hitch.
6. Compact tractors are now being outfitted with quick-connect … for their
front-end loaders.
2. Try to explain the following phrases in English: front loader connection,
attachment and detachment, three-point hitch, manufacturers copied Ferguson's
invention.
23
3. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
The drawbar system was virtually the be raised or lowered hydraulically with
exclusive method of attaching
a control lever.
The equipment attached to the three- allowing the implement to function as a
point hitch is
part of the tractor almost as if it were
attached by a fixed mount.
Equipment attached to the three-point caused the hydraulics to lift the
implement until the obstacle was passed.
hitch can
The three-point hitch allows for easy and one upper lift arms that were
attachment
and
detachment
of connected to a hydraulic lifting ram.
implements while
Ferguson's genius was to combine a usually completely supported by the
connection via two lower
tractor.
The ram was in turn connected to the implements before Harry Ferguson
upper of the 3 links so that increased developed the three-point hitch.
drag
4. Comment on the photos in pairs.
5. Define the main idea of the text.
Text D
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
hydraulicsbalermowersolelywrapflywheelpulley-
гидравлика
упаковочный пресс
косилка
исключительно
обертка
маховое колесо
молотящая
buzz silage stationarybalerremainshaftexternalfluid-
гул
силос
постоянный
упак. пресс
остаться
шахта
внешний
жидкость
Power take-off systems and hydraulics
In addition to towing an implement or supplying tractive power through the
wheels, most tractors have a means to transfer power to another machine such as a
baler, swather, or mower. Unless it functions solely by pulling it through or over
the ground, a towed implement needs its own power source (such as a baler or
combine with a separate engine) or else a means of transmitting power from the
tractor to the mechanical operations of the equipment.
24
Early tractors used belts or cables wrapped around the flywheel or a separate
belt pulley to power stationary equipment, such as a threshing machine, buzz saw,
silage blower, or stationary baler. In most cases, it was not practical for the tractor
and equipment to move with a flexible belt or cable between them, so this system
necessitated that the tractor remain in one location with the work brought to the
equipment, or that the tractor be relocated at each turn and the power set-up
reapplied (as in cable-drawn plowing systems used in early steam tractor
operations).
A PTO shaft connected to a tractor.
Modern tractors use a power take-off (PTO) shaft to provide rotary power to
machinery that may be stationary or pulled. The PTO shaft generally is at the rear
of the tractor, and can be connected to an implement that is either towed by a
drawbar or a three-point hitch. This eliminates the need for a separate implementmounted power source, which is almost never seen in modern farm equipment.
Virtually all modern tractors can also provide external hydraulic fluid and
electrical power to the equipment they are towing, either by hoses or wires.
1. Make up sentences, write them down: 1) for, power, This, the, a, implementmounted, separate, source, need, eliminates. 2) rotary, Tractors, to, a, power,
power, shaft, to, provide, use, take-off machinery. 3) not, move, It, was, for,
tractor, the, to, belt, with, a, practical, flexible. 4) at, the, the, The, generally, is,
rear, shaft, of, tractor, PTO 5) the, belts, tractors, Early, used, or, wrapped, cables,
around, flywheel.
2. Find the answers in the text: What do most tractors have to transfer power to
another machine? What used belts or cables wrapped around the flywheel? What
was not practical for the tractor and equipment? Modern tractors don’t use a power
take-off shaft to provide rotary power to machinery, do they? All modern tractors
can not provide external hydraulic fluid and electrical power to the equipment they
are towing, can they?
3. Discuss the alternatives of the problem's solving, their advantages and disadvantages.
25
4. What can you say about the mechanism on the photos?
Text E
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
switchlevermultitudeclutchdisengagebuttongear stickbrakeaugmentsplitmudpreventwheel slip-
выключатель
рычаг
множество
сцепление
расцепить
кнопка
механизм
палка
тормоз
увеличение
раскол
грязь
предотвратить
прин. промах колеса
reversemaneuvering crop rowwishhenceintroduceaddtotallyadjustingpotentiometerlower bound upper boundallowreplace -
перемена
маневрирование
ряд урожая
желание
следовательно
ввести
добавить
полностью
наладка
потенциометр
нижняя граница
верхняя граница
позволить
заменить
Operation
A lawn tractor towing a cargo cart
Modern tractors have many electrical switches and levers in the cab for controlling the multitude of different functions available on the tractor.
Pedals. Modern farm tractors usually have five foot-pedals for the operator on the
floor of the tractor. The pedal on the left is the clutch. The operator presses on this
pedal to disengage the transmission for either shifting gears or stopping the tractor.
Some modern tractors have (or as optional equipment) a button on the gear stick
for controlling the clutch, in addition to the standard pedal.
26
Two of the pedals on the right are the brakes. The left brake pedal stops the
left rear wheel and the right brake pedal does the same with the right side. This independent left and right wheel braking augments the steering of the tractor when
only the two rear wheels are driven. This is usually done when it is necessary to
make a sharp turn. The split brake pedal is also used in mud or soft dirt to control a
tire that spins due to loss of traction. The operator presses both pedals together to
stop the tractor. For tractors with additional front-wheel drive, this operation often
engages the 4-wheel locking differential to help stop the tractor when traveling at
road speeds.
A pedal just in front of the seat operates the rear differential lock (diff lock)
which prevents wheel slip. The differential allows the outside wheel to travel faster
than the inside one during a turn. However, in traction conditions on a soft surface
the same mechanism could allow one wheel to slip, thus preventing traction to the
other wheel. The diff lock overrides this, causing both wheels to supply equal traction. Care must be taken to unlock the differential, usually by hitting the pedal a
second time, before turning, since the tractor cannot perform a turn with the diff
lock engaged. In modern tractors this function is sometimes migrated from pedal to
electrical switch.
The pedal furthest to the right is the foot throttle. Unlike in automobiles, it
can also be controlled from a hand-operated lever ("hand throttle"). This helps provide a prevents wheel slip speed in field work. It also helps provide continuous
power for stationary tractors that are operating an implement by shaft or belt. The
foot throttle gives the operator more automobile-like control over the speed of the
tractor for road work. This is a feature of more recent tractors; older tractors often
did not have this feature. In the UK it is mandatory to use the foot pedal to control
engine speed while travelling on the road. Some tractors, especially those designed
for row-crop work, have a 'de-accelerator' pedal, which operates in the reverse fashion to an automobile throttle, in that the pedal is pushed down to slow the engine. This is to allow fine control over the speed of the tractor when maneuvering
at the end of crop rows in fields- the operating speed of the engine is set using the
hand throttle, and if the operator wishes to slow the tractor to turn, he simply has to
press the pedal, turn and release it once the turn is completed, rather than having to
alter the setting of the hand throttle twice during the maneuver.
Levers and switches. Many functions that were once controlled with a lever
have been replaced with some model of electrical switch with the rise of indirect
computer controlling of functions in modern tractors.
Until the beginning of the 60's tractors had a single register of gears, hence
one gear stick. Often 3-5 forwards and 1 reverse. Then group gears were introduced, hence another gear stick. Later on control of the reverse gear was moved to
a special stick that controls direction and adding a gear stick or a lever attached at
the side of the steering wheel. Nowadays with CVT or other clutch-free gear types
there are fewer sticks for controlling the transmission, some replaced with electrical switches or totally computer controlled.
27
The three-point hitch was controlled with a lever for adjusting the position,
or as with the earliest ones, just the function for raising or lowering the hitch. With
modern electrical systems it's often replaced with a potentiometer for lower bound
position and another one for the upper bound and a switch allowing automatic adjustment of the hitch between these settings.
The external hydraulics also originally had levers but nowadays often replaced with some form of electrical switch, the same goes for the power take-off
shaft.
1. Find in the text word-combinations with the following words: ножная педаль, помогает предоставлять, полностью контролируемый компьютером,
мягкая поверхность, многочисленность различных функций.
2. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
It just in front of the seat
usually by hitting the pedal a second time.
In traction conditions on a soft sur- from pedal to electrical switch.
face the same
Care must be taken to unlock the is the foot throttle.
differential,
In tractors this function is some- operates the rear differential lock .
times migrated
The pedal furthest to the right
mechanism could allow one wheel to slip.
Unlike in automobiles, it can also controlled from a hand-operated lever.
be
It helps provide a prevents
fashion to an automobile throttle.
The foot throttle gives the operator automobile-like control over the speed of the
more
tractor for road work.
This is a feature of more recent
pedal to control engine speed while travelling on the road.
In the UK it is mandatory to use the tractors; older tractors often did not have this
foot
feature.
A 'de-accelerator' pedal operates in wheel slip speed in field work.
the reverse
3. Complete the sentences, using the text:
1) Many functions that were once controlled with a lever have been replaced with …
2) Nowadays with CVT there are fewer sticks for controlling the ….
3) The three-point hitch was controlled with a lever for …
4) With modern electrical systems it's often replaced with a potentiometer
for lower bound position and another one for the upper …
5) The external hydraulics also originally had levers but nowadays often replaced with …
28
4. Prepare the report on the problem and listen to the other students, define
which message is the most laconic and exhaustive.
5. Comment on the photo.
6. Project work. Using the Internet and/ or newspapers and magazines, collect
some data on the modern tractors' operations and discuss the results in your group.
Text F
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
Hazardousопасный
Reduceуменьшить
Surpassedпревзойденный
likelihood вероятность
mining горная промыш-ность legislation законодательство
identified идентифицированный requireпотребовать
related относящийся
tricycleтрехколесный
account for счет
angled угловой
approximately приблизительно
крутой
steep fatality несчастье
наклоны
slopesoverturnопрокинуться
попытка
attemptroll over protection структура защиты при pivot центр
опрокидывании
авт-ля
structureзадняя часть
rear предотвратить
prevent ось
axleпростираться
extend сердитый
mean структура,
рама
frame поражение
defeatSafety
Farm tractor rear turnover
29
The classic Row Crop tractor (an Allis-Chalmers WD). Note the absence of any rollover
protection system.
Agriculture in the United States is one of the most hazardous industries, only
surpassed by mining and construction. No other farm machine is so identified with
the hazards of production agriculture as the tractor. Tractor related injuries account
for approximately 32% of the fatalities and 6% of the non-fatal injuries in
agriculture. Over 50% is attributed to tractor overturns.
The roll over protection structure (ROPS) and seat belt, when worn, are the
two most important safety devices to protect operators from death during tractor
overturns.
Modern tractors have rollover protection systems (ROPS) to prevent an
operator from being crushed if the tractor overturns. It is important to remember
that the ROPS does not prevent tractor overturns. Rather, it prevents the operator
from being crushed during an overturn. This is especially important in open-air
tractors, where the ROPS is a steel beam that extends above the operator's seat. For
tractors with operator cabs, the ROPS is part of the frame of the cab. A ROPS with
enclosed cab further reduces the likelihood of serious injury because the operator is
protected by the sides and windows of the cab.
ROPS were first required by legislation in Sweden in 1959. Before ROPS
were required, some farmers died when their tractors rolled on top of them. Rowcrop tractors, before ROPS, were particularly dangerous because of their 'tricycle'
design with the two front wheels spaced close together and angled inward toward
the ground. Some farmers were killed by rollovers while operating tractors along
steep slopes. Others have been killed while attempting to tow or pull an excessive
load from above axle height, or when cold weather caused the tires to freeze to the
ground, in both cases causing the tractor to pivot around the rear axle.
30
For the ROPS to work as designed, the operator must stay within the
protective frame of the ROPS. This means the operator must wear the seat belt.
Not wearing the seat belt may defeat the primary purpose of the ROPS.
1. Border the words, read and translate the sentences:
1. Tractorshaverolloverprotectionsystems.
2. Theoperatormustweartheseatbelt.
3. Somefarmerswerekilledbyrollovers.
4. Itreducesthelikelihoodofseriousinjury.
2. Try to explain the following phrases in English: particularly dangerous, the
frame of the cab, to prevent an operator from being crushed, an excessive load,
especially important in open-air tractors, is identified with the hazards.
3. Agree or disagree with the sentences using Appendix 2:
1. Agriculture in the United States is one of the most hazardous
industries, only surpassed by mining and construction.
2. Tractor related injuries account for approximately 62% of the fatalities
and 16% of the non-fatal injuries in agriculture.
3. Over 30% is attributed to tractor overturns.
4. A ROPS with enclosed cab further reduces the likelihood of serious
injury because the operator is protected by the sides and windows of
the cab.
5. ROPS were first required by legislation in the United States in 1959.
6. Some farmers were killed by rollovers while operating tractors along
steep slopes.
7. For the ROPS to work as designed, the operator must not stay within
the protective frame of the ROPS.
4. Descend your position of the problem.
5. Comment on the photos in pairs.
6. Discuss the alternatives of the problem's solving, their advantages and disadvantages.
31
Unit 4. Applications and variations
Text A
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон по теме к тексту.
Vocabulary:
vehiclepullingpushingtrailerplowingdiskingharrowing plantingvariety particular tread widthgravityclearanceradius -
транспортное средство
натяжение
подталкивание
трейлер
вспахивание
дискование
терзание
установка
разнообразие
особый
шаг
ширина
сила тяжести
разрешение
радиус
Gradinglandscape pallet fork suburban semi-rural gardeningexistvariety configurationhighwayblowtorchcylinderstrapped fitted tyres-
аттестация
пейзажный
поддон
вилка
житель пригорода
полусельский
озеленение
существовать
разнообразие
конфигурация
шоссе
паяльная лампа
цилиндр
связанный
подогнанный
шины
Farm tractor applications
A modern John Deere 8110 Farm Tractor
plowing a field using a chisel plow
A fairly recent farmtractor used to de-weed a
plot of land
32
The most common use of the term "tractor" is for the vehicles used on farms.
The farm tractor is used for pulling or pushing agricultural machinery or trailers,
for plowing, tilling, disking, harrowing, planting, and similar tasks.
A farm tractor used to power a pump for irrigating a plot of land
A variety of specialty farm tractors have been developed for particular uses.
These include "row crop" tractors with adjustable tread width to allow the tractor
to pass down rows of corn, tomatoes or other crops without crushing the plants,
"wheatland" or "standard" tractors with non-adjustable fixed wheels and a lower
center of gravity for plowing and other heavy field work for broadcast crops, and
"high crop" tractors with adjustable tread and increased ground clearance, often
used in the cultivation of cotton and other high-growing row crop plant operations,
and "utility tractors", typically smaller tractors with a low center of gravity and
short turning radius, used for general purposes around the farmstead. Many utility
tractors are used for non-farm grading, landscape maintenance and excavation
purposes, particularly with loaders, backhoes, pallet forks and similar devices.
Small garden or lawn tractors designed for suburban and semi-rural gardening and
landscape maintenance also exist in a variety of configurations.
Some farm-type tractors are found elsewhere than on farms: with large
universities' gardening departments, in public parks, or for highway workman use
with blowtorch cylinders strapped to its sides and a pneumatic drill air compressor
permanently fastened over its power take-off. These are often fitted with grass
(turf) tyres which are less damaging to soft surfaces than agricultural tires.
1. Write out from the text the sentences with the following phrases, translate
them in written form: fitted with grass, for pulling or pushing, semi-rural
gardening, a low center of gravity, non-farm grading.
2. Find the answers in the text:
1. What have a variety of specialty farm tractors been developed for
2. What do these include?
33
3. Many utility tractors are not used for non-farm grading, landscape
maintenance and excavation purposes, particularly with loaders,
backhoes, pallet forks and similar devices, are they?
4. Where is some farm-type tractors found?
3. Comment on the photos in pairs.
4. Descend your position of the problem.
Text B
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
space devicerobust installoptional precision technique-
пространство
устройство
здравый
установить
дополнительный
точность
техника
steered overlap fuel streak-
управляемый
наложение
топливо
полоса
Precision agriculture
Space technology has been incorporated into agriculture in the form of GPS
devices, and robust on-board computers installed as optional features on farm
tractors. These technologies are used in modern, precision farming techniques. The
spin-offs from the space race have actually facilitated automation in plowing and
the use of autosteer systems drone on tractors that are manned but only steered at
the end of a row, the idea being to neither overlap and use more fuel nor leave
streaks when performing jobs such as cultivating.
1. Agree or disagree with the sentences, using Appendix 2:
• Space technology has been incorporated into agriculture in the form
of GPS devices.
• These technologies are not used in modern, precision farming
techniques.
• The spin-offs from the space race have facilitated automation in
plowing and the use of autosteer systems drone on tractors that are
manned but only steered at the end of a row.
• The idea being to neither overlap and use more fuel nor leave streaks
when performing jobs such as cultivating.
34
2. Prepare the report on the problem and listen to the other students,
define which message is the most laconic and exhaustive.
3. Discuss the alternatives of the problem's solving, their advantages
and disadvantages.
Text C
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
Durabilityдлительность
scooping upвыкапывание
suitable подходящий
rock рок
toolинструмент
loose свободный
лезвие
tilting наклон
bladeведро
вилка поддона
bucketpallet forkмотыга
кипа
hoe bale превосходный
позволить
let ripper далее
крошечный
tinyfurtherразвиться
официально
officiallyevolve createсоздайте
confinedограниченный
Engineering tractors
A tractor factory in Chelyabinsk in the Soviet
Union circa 1930
Ebro farm tractor
The durability and engine power of tractors made them very suitable for engineering tasks. Tractors can be fitted with engineering tools such as dozer blade,
bucket, hoe, ripper, and so on. The most common attachments for the front of a
tractor are dozer blade or a bucket. When attached with engineering tools the tractor is called an engineering vehicle.
A bulldozer is a track-type tractor attached with blade in the front and a
rope-winch behind. Bulldozers are very powerful tractors and have excellent
ground-hold, as their main tasks are to push or drag things.
35
Bulldozers have been further modified over time to evolve into new machines
which are capable of working in ways that the original bulldozer can not. One example is that loader tractors were created by removing the blade and substituting a
large volume bucket and hydraulic arms which can raise and lower the bucket, thus
making it useful for scooping up earth, rock and similar loose material to load it
into trucks.
A front-loader or loader is a tractor with an engineering tool which consists
of two hydraulic powered arms on either side of the front engine compartment and
a tilting implement. This is usually a wide open box called a bucket but other
common attachments are a pallet fork and a bale grappler.
Other modifications to the original bulldozer include making the machine smaller
to let it operate in small work areas where movement is limited. There are also tiny
wheeled loaders, officially called Skid-steer loaders but nicknamed "Bobcat" after
the original manufacturer, which are particularly suited for small excavation
projects in confined areas.
1. Border the words, translate the sentences:
• Abulldozerisatrack-typetractor.
• Bulldozersareverypowerfu tractors.
• Itisatractorwithanengineeringtoolwhichconsistsoftwohydraulicpoweredarms.
• Awideopenboxiscalledabucket.
2. Find in the text the sentences with the following verbs translate them: suit,
call, consistt, create, push, fit.
3. Prepare the report on the problem and listen to the other students, define
which message is the most laconic and exhaustive.
Text D
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
hoeмотыга
removable сменный
implyподразумевать
demolitionразрушение
assemblyсобрание
retractableвыдвигающийся
particularlyособенно
bottomоснование
regards отношения
scratchingцарапина
steel сталь
mountгора
grill гриль
preciseточный
permanentlyнадолго
городской
urban versatilityмногосторонность
36
Backhoe loader
A common backhoe-loader. The backhoe is on the left, the bucket/blade on the right.
The most common variation of the classic farm tractor is the hoe, also called
a hoe-loader. As the name implies, it has a loader assembly on the front and a
backhoe on the back. Backhoes attach to a 3 point hitch on farm or industrial tractors. The most common variation of the classic farm tractor particularly with regards to the use of steel grill for protection from rocks and the use of construction
tires. When the backhoe is permanently attached, the machine usually has a seat
that can swivel to the rear to face the hoe controls. Removable backhoe attachments almost always have a separate seat on the attachment.
Backhoe-loaders are very common and can be used for a wide variety of
tasks: construction, small demolitions, light transportation of building materials,
powering building equipment, digging holes, loading trucks, breaking asphalt and
paving roads. Some buckets have a retractable bottom, enabling them to empty
their load more quickly and efficiently. Buckets with retractable bottoms are also
often used for grading and scratching off sand. The front assembly may be a removable attachment or permanently mounted. Often the bucket can be replaced
with other devices or tools.
Their relatively small frame and precise control make backhoe-loaders very
useful and common in urban engineering projects such as construction and repairs
in areas too small for larger equipment. Their versatility and compact size makes
them one of the most popular urban construction vehicles.
In the UK, the word "JCB" is sometimes used colloquially as a genericized
trademark for any such type of engineering vehicle. The term JCB now appears in
the Oxford English Dictionary, although it is still legally a trademark of J. C. Bamford Ltd.
1. Find the answers in the text:
1. What is the most common variation of the classic farm tractor?
2. What have removable backhoe attachments?
3. What is also often used for grading and scratching off sand?
37
4. Their relatively small frame and precise control make backhoe-loaders very
useful and common in urban engineering projects, don’t they?
5. What makes them one of the most popular urban construction vehicles?
2. Comment on the photos in pairs.
3. Formulate the problem with position of the group, which interests you
present.
4. Prepare the report on the problem and listen to the other students, define
which message is the most laconic and exhaustive.
Text E
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
landscaping озеленение
glide-shift изме-е скольж-ния
estate состояние
mandate мандат
scaleмасштаб
brandбренд
range диапазон
utilityполезность
equip оборудовать
лезвие
blade blower трубач
пейзажные
landscape rotary ротация
грабли
rakebroom метла
post hole – почтовая землеройdual двойной
ная машина
diggerhydraulically гидравлически
ротационный резак
rototiller correctly правильно
распылитель
sprayer assistпомочь
разрез
slitsynchronizeсинхронизировать
Compact Utility Tractor
In the middle is a 24 hp (18 kW) diesel CUT illustrating the size difference between a small farm
tractor and a garden tractor
38
A Compact Utility Tractor, also called a CUT is a smaller version of an
agricultural tractor but designed primarily for landscaping and estate management
type tasks rather than for planting and harvesting on a commercial scale. Typical
CUTs range in from 20 to 50 horsepower (15-37 kW) with available power take
off (PTO) horsepower ranging from 15 to 45 hp (11-34 kW). CUTs are often
equipped with both a mid-mounted PTO and a standard rear PTO, especially those
below 40 horsepower (30 kW). The mid-mount PTO shaft typically rotates at/near
2000 rpms and is typically used to power such implements as mid-mount finish
mower, a front mounted snow blower or front mounted rotary broom. The rear
PTO is standardized at 540 rpms for the North American markets, but in some
parts of the world a dual 540/1000 rpm PTO is standard and implements are
available for either standard in those markets.
Howse brand modular Subsoiler mounted to a
tractor
Broadcast seeder mounted to a Kubota
Compact Utility Tractor
One of the most common attachments for a Compact Utility Tractor is the
front end loader or FEL. Like the larger agricultural tractors, a CUT will have an
adjustable three-point hitch that is hydraulically controlled. Typically a CUT will
have four wheel drive, or more correctly 4 wheels assist. Modern Compact Utility
Tractors often feature a Hydrostatic transmission, but many variants of gear drive
transmissions are also offered from low priced simple gear transmissions to
synchronized transmissions to advanced glide-shift transmissions. All modern
CUTs feature a government mandated roll over protection structure (ROPS) just
like agricultural tractors. The most well known brands in North America include
Kubota, John Deere Tractor, New Holland Ag, Case-Farmall and MasseyFerguson. Although less common, compact backhoes are often attached to compact
utility tractors.
39
JD 71 Flexi Planter for tractors 20 to 35 horsepower
Compact Utility Tractors require special smaller implements than full size
agricultural tractors. Very common implements include the box blade, the grader
blade, the landscape rake, the post hole digger (or post hole auger), the rotary
cutter (also called a slasher or a brush hog), a mid or rear mount finish mower,
broadcast seeder, subsoiler and the rototiller (also rotary tiller). In northern
climates, a rear mounted snow blower is very common, on smaller CUTs some
models are available with front mounted snow blowers that are powered by a midPTO shaft. There are many more implement brands than there are tractor brands
offering CUT owners a wide selection of choice.
For small scale farming or large scale gardening, there are some planting and
harvesting implements sized for CUTs. One and two row planting units are
commonly available as are cultivators, sprayers and different types of seeders (slit,
rotary and drop).
1. Write out from the text the sentences with the following phrases, translate
them in written form: row planting unit, common implement, variants of gear
drive transmissions, commercial scale, well known brands.
2. Find the answers in the text:
1. What is designed primarily for landscaping and estate management type
tasks?
2. The rear PTO is standardized at 540 rpms for the North American markets,
isnt it?
3. Compact backhoes are attached to compact utility tractors, aren't they?
4. Where is a rear mounted snow blower very common?
40
3. Using Appendix 1, express your opinion on the problem of the text:
Text F
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
deckdistinctionride-on lawnmowersturdily-
палуба
различие
поездка
газонокосилка
прочно
sweeperstransaxle-typegearboxesdurability dedicated-
щетки
тип трансоси
коробки передач
длительность
посвященный
Garden Tractors
Garden Tractors (also called Mini Tractors) are small, light and simple tractors designed for use in domestic gardens. Garden Tractors are usually designed
primarily for cutting grass, being fitted with horizontal rotary cutting decks. The
distinction between a garden tractor and a ride-on lawnmower is often hard to
make- generally. Garden Tractors are more sturdily built, with stronger frames,
axles and transmissions. Garden Tractors are generally capable of mounting other
implements such as harrows, cultivators/rotavators, sweepers, rollers and dozerblades. Like ride-on mowers, Garden Tractors generally have a horizontallymounted engine with a belt-drive to a transaxle-type transmission (usually of 4- or
5-speeds, although some my also have two-speed reduction gearboxes or hydraulic
gearboxes). However, Wheel Horse (now part of Toro) garden tractors have vertically-mounted engines with belt-drive, whilst Allen/Gutbrod tractors had an automotive-type clutch and gearbox. The engines are generally 1- or 2-cylinder petrol
(gasoline) engine, although diesel engine models are also available, especially in
Europe.
In the U.S., the term riding lawn mower today refers to mid or rear engined
machines. Front-engined tractor layout machines designed primarily for cutting
grass and light towing are called lawn tractors, and heavy duty lawn tractors, often
shaft driven, are garden tractors. The primary difference between a lawn tractor
and a garden tractor are the frame durability, the rear wheels (garden tractors almost always have multiple mounting bolts, while most lawn tractors have a single
bolt or clip on the hub.), and the ability to use ground engaging equipment such as
plows or disk-harrows. Craftsman, MTD, Snapper and other major mowing
equipment manufacturers use these terms.
As well as dedicated manufacturers, many makers of agricultural tractors
have made (or continue to make) ranges of garden tractors, such as Case, MasseyFerguson, International Harvester and John Deere.
41
1. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
The primary difference between a cutting grass and light towing are called lawn
tractors.
lawn tractor and a garden tractor
many makers of agricultural trac- engines with belt-drive.
tors have
Front-engined tractor layout ma- a ride-on lawnmower is often hard to makechines designed primarily for
generally.
Garden Tractors are small, light with a belt-drive to a transaxle-type transand simple
mission.
Garden Tractors are more sturdily with stronger frames, axles and transmisbuilt,
sions.
Wheel Horse garden tractors have tractors designed for use in domestic
vertically-mounted
gardens.
Garden Tractors generally have a made ranges of garden tractors.
horizontally-mounted engine
The distinction between a garden are the frame durability, the rear wheels and
tractor and
the ability to use ground engaging equipment.
2. Agree or disagree with the sentences, using the phrases of agreement and
disagreement:
1. Garden Tractors are usually designed primarily for cutting grass.
2. Garden Tractors are not capable of mounting other implements such as harrows, cultivators/rotavators, sweepers, rollers and dozer-blades.
3. In the U.S., the term riding lawn mower today refers to mid or rear engined
machines.
4. Many makers of agricultural tractors have not made ranges of garden tractors.
3. Using Appendix 1 express your opinion on the problem of the text.
Text G
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
ingenuitycoupledblacksmithamateur tinkering kittruck -
изобретательность
двойной
кузнец
любитель
лужение
комплект
грузовик
signify lackinglorry gearboxrow dissimilar remain-
42
имеет значение
недостаток
грузовик
коробка передач
ряд
несходный
остаться
curiosity recreational shortagechain discount-
любопытство
развлекательный
нехватка
цепь
скидка
driver's license own loopholeinflateprice-
водительские права
собственный
лазейка
раздуть
цена
Automobile conversion tractors, "Hoover Wagons" and "EPA Tractors"
The ingenuity of farm mechanics, coupled in some cases with manufacturer
assistance, resulted in the conversion of automobiles for use as farm tractors at
various times. In the United States, this began early in the development of vehicles
powered by internal combustion engine, with blacksmiths and amateur mechanics
tinkering in their shops. During the Great Depression, several manufacturers and
others, including Montgomery Ward, marketed after-market kits for converting
Model T Fords for use as tractors (known as "Hoover Wagons"). Henry Ford even
considered producing an "official" optional kit. Many Model A Fords also were
converted for this purpose. In later years, some farm mechanics are known to
convert more modern trucks or cars for use as tractors, usually as curiosities or for
recreational purposes.
A Ford rebuilt to an EPA tractor
An "A tractor" based on Volvo 760. Notice
the slow vehicle triangle and the longer boot
During World War II, a shortage of tractors in Sweden led to the
development of the so-called EPA tractor (EPA was a chain of discount stores and
it was often used to signify something lacking in quality). An EPA tractor was
simply an automobile, truck or lorry, with the passenger space cut off behind the
43
front seats, equipped with two gearboxes in a row. When done to an older car with
a ladder frame, the result was not dissimilar to a tractor and could be used as one.
A Volvo Duett rebuilt to an EPA tractor
Obviously the intended use is no longer as a farm vehicle
After the war it remained popular, now not as a farm vehicle, but as a way
for young people without a driver's license to use something similar to a car. Since
it was legally seen as a tractor it could be driven from 16 years of age and only required a tractor license. Eventually the legal loophole was closed and no new EPA
tractors were allowed to be made, but the remaining were still legal, something that
led to inflated prices and many protests from people that preferred EPA tractors to
ordinary cars.
During World War II, a shortage of tractors in Sweden led to Sweden, the A
tractor [from arbetstraktor (work tractor)]. The main difference is that an A tractor
has a top speed of 30 km/h. This is usually done by fitting two gearboxes in a row
and not using one of them. Volvo Duett was for a long time the primary choice for
conversion to an EPA or A tractor, but, since supplies have dried up, other cars
have been used, in most cases a Volvo.
1. Border the words, translate the sentences:
1. ThelegalloopholewasclosedandnonewEPAtractorswereallowedtobemade.
2. Fordconsideredproducinganofficialoptionalkit.
3. Thisisdonbyfittingtwogearboxesinarow.
4. VolvoDuettwasforalongtimetheprimarychoice.
2. Find in the text the sentences with the following verbs translate them: to
supply, to close, to cut, to use, to couple, to convert.
44
3. Complete the sentences, using the text:
1) The main difference is that an A tractor has...
2) An EPA tractor was simply an automobile, truck or lorry, with the passenger
space...
3) In the United States, this began early in the development of vehicles powered by
are...
4) During World War II, a shortage of tractors in Sweden led to...
5) During the Great Depression, several manufacturers...
6) In the United States, this began early in the development of vehicles powered
by...
4. Comment on the photos in pairs.
5. Prepare the report on the problem and listen to the other students, define
which message is the most laconic and exhaustive.
Text H
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
semi-trailer truckmajorityballasthaul amalgamationartilleryvaryweight-
грузовик полуприцепа
большинство
щебень
трофей
объединение
артиллерия
измениться
вес
boosterhangarrare caseconvey advance holemeasurement logging-
Alternative machine types 'called' tractors
45
ракета-носитель
ангар
редкий
случай
передать
прогресс
отверстие
измерение
заготовка леса
Road tractor pulling a flatbed trailer
The term tractor (US & Canada) or tractor unit (UK) is also applied to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Road tractors, tractor units or traction heads, familiar as the front end of an
articulated lorry / semi-trailer truck. They are heavy-duty vehicles with large
engines and several axles.
o The majority of these tractors are designed to pull long semi-trailers,
most often to transport freight of some kind over a significant
distance, and is connected to the trailer with a fifth wheel coupling
well holes for measurement and data logging purposes. A minority is
the ballast tractor, whose load is hauled from a drawbar.
Pushback tractors are used on airports to move aircraft on the ground, most
commonly pushing aircraft away from their parking stands.
Locomotive tractors (engines) or Rail car movers
o The amalgamation of machines, electrical generators, controls and
devices that comprise the traction component of railway vehicles
Artillery tractors
o Vehicles used to tow artillery pieces of varying weights.
NASA and other space agencies use very large tractors to ferry launch
vehicles such as booster rockets and space shuttles from their hangars to
(and, in rare cases, from) the launchpad.
A well-tractor is a device used for conveying advanced instruments into well
holes for measurement and data logging purposes.
1. Try to explain the following phrases in English: space agencies, significant
distance, parking stands, transport freight.
2. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
The majority of these tractors are
and data logging purposes.
A well-tractor is a device used for
conveying advanced instruments into
NASA and other space agencies use
very large tractors to ferry launch
Pushback tractors are used on airports to
move aircraft on the ground, most
A minority is the ballast tractor, whose
vehicles such as booster rockets and
space shuttles
commonly pushing aircraft away from
their parking stands.
pieces of varying weights
well holes for measurement
large engines and several axles.
They are heavy-duty vehicles with
load is hauled from a drawbar.
Vehicles are used to tow artillery
well holes for measurement and data
logging purposes.
designed to pull long semi-trailers
46
3. Comment on the gallery in the micro groups:
Diesel-electric locomotive at work
Komsomolets Soviet artillery tractor
A Trackmobile 4150
Aircraft Pushback tractor
An unusual application - road
Russian peasants gather to
roller powered by a tractor-drive
watch their village's first
tractor - drawing by Vladimir Krikhatsky
47
A single tractor in Brazil.
Unit 5. Tracked vehicle
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
instead ofonce surfaceexertpertraversed-
вместо
однажды
поверхность
проявить
за
пересеченное
frictionunevenmodes snapped derailedtrack-
трение
неравный
способы
сфотографированный
пущенный под откос
след
A tracked Sisu NA-110 rescue vehicle in Helsinki, Finland
Text A
Tracked vehicle
A tracked vehicle (also called: track-type tractor, tractor crawler, or tracklaying vehicle) is a vehicle that runs on continuous tracks instead of wheels.
Typically used as part of an Engineering vehicle once additional attachments have
been added. The principal design advantages of tracked over wheeled vehicles are
that they are in contact with a larger surface area than would generally be the case
with a wheeled vehicle, and as a result exert a much lower force per unit area on
the ground being traversed than a conventional wheeled vehicle of the same
weight. This makes them suitable for use on soft, low friction and uneven ground
such as mud, ice and snow. The principal disadvantage is that tracks are a more
complex mechanism than a wheel, and relatively prone to failure modes such as
snapped or derailed tracks.
48
1. Write out from the text the sentences with the following phrases, translate
them in written form: principal disadvantage, a larger surface area, uneven
ground, continuous tracks, per unit area.
2. Find the answers in the text:
1. What runs on continuous tracks instead of wheels?
2. What are the principal design advantages of tracked over wheeled vehicles?
3. What makes them suitable for use on soft, low friction and uneven ground
such as mud, ice and snow?
4. The principal disadvantage is that tracks are a more complex mechanism
than a wheel, isn't it?
3. Descend your position of the problem.
Text B
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
resemblecaterpillar-tractorexibitioninventdescriptionissuesled steeragelogentirelyhaulerlengthemploymentproprietorship-
напомнить
трактор гусен.
выставка
изобрести
описание
проблема
сани
рулевое устройство
регистрация
полностью
откатчик
длина
занятость
собственность
picturesque wooden bridgedeparting relocating improvedcontourlag tread halftrack approximately payload terrain embracedpaved-
живописный
деревянный
мост
отъезд
перемещение
улучшенный
контур
задержка
шаг
полуслед
приблизительно
полезный груз
ландшафт
охваченный
проложенный
History
A long line of patents disputes who the "originator" was of this concept.
There were a large number of designs that attempted to achieve a track laying mechanism, although these designs do not generally resemble modern tracked vehicles.
Blinov. In 1878 Russian Fyodor Abramovich Blinov created tracked vehicle
called "wagon moved on endless rails". He got a patent for his "wagon" the same
49
year. Later, in 1888 he created steam-powered caterpillar-tractor. His selfpropelled crawler was successfully tested and showed at farmer's exibition in 1896.
Dinsmoor. According to Scientific American it was Charles Dinsmoor of
Warren, Pennsylvania that invented a "vehicle" that was of endless tracks. The article gives a detailed description of the endless tracks and the illustration looks
much like today's tracked vehicles. The invention has been patented as No.
351,749 on November 2, 1886.
Lombard
Restored Lombard Steam Log Hauler
Alvin O. Lombard of Waterville, Maine was issued a patent in 1901 for the Lombard Steam Log Hauler that resembles a regular railroad steam locomotive with
sled steerage on front and crawlers in rear for hauling logs in the Northeastern
United States and Canada. The haulers allowed pulp to be taken to rivers in the
winter. Prior to then, horses could be used only until snow depths made hauling
impossible. Lombard began commercial production which lasted until around 1917
when focus switched entirely to gasoline powered machines. A gasoline powered
hauler is on display at the Maine State Museum in Augusta, Maine.
Hornsby/Holt/Phoenix. After Lombard began operations, Hornsby in England manufactured at least two full length "track steer" machines, and their patent
was later purchased by Holt in 1913, allowing Holt to be popularly known as the
"inventor" of crawler tractors. Since the "tank" was a British concept it is more
likely the Hornsby, which had been built and unsuccessfully pitched to their military, was the inspiration. In a patent dispute involving rival crawler builder Best,
testimony was brought in from people including Lombard, that Holt had inspected
a Lombard log hauler shipped out to a western state by people who would later
build the Phoenix log hauler in Eau Claire, WI, under license from Lombard. The
Phoenix Centipeed typically had a fancier wood cab, steering wheel tipped forward
at a 45 degree angle and vertical instead of horizontal cylinders.
Linn. In the meantime a gasoline powered motor home was built by Lombard for Holman Harry (Flannery) Linn of Old Town, Maine to pull the equipment
wagon of his dog & pony show, resembling a trolley car only with wheels in front
and Lombard crawlers in rear. Linn had experimented with gasoline and steam
50
powered vehicles and six wheel drive before this, and at some point entered Lombard's employment as a demonstrator, mechanic and sales agent. This resulted in a
question of proprietorship of patent rights after a single rear tracked gasoline powered road engine of tricycle arrangement was built to replace the larger motor
home in 1909 on account of problems with the old picturesque wooden bridges.
This dispute resulted in Linn departing Maine and relocating to Morris, NY, to
build an improved, contour following flexible lag tread or crawler with independent suspension of halftrack type, gasoline and later diesel powered. Although several were delivered for military use between 1917 and 1946, Linn never received
any large military orders. Most of the production between 1917 and 1952, approximately 2500 units, was sold directly to highway departments and contractors.
Steel tracks and payload capacity allowed these machines to work in terrain that
would typically cause the poorer quality rubber tires that existed before the mid
1930's to spin uselessly, or shred completely. Linn was a pioneer in snow removal
before the practice was embraced in rural areas, with a nine foot steel v-plow and
sixteen foot adjustable leveling wings on either side. Once the highway system became paved, snowplowing could be done by four wheel drive trucks equipped by
improving tire designs, and the Linn became an off highway vehicle, for logging,
mining, dam construction, arctic exploration, etc.
Sloan. Once steel cleats became unpopular on paved roads, in 1938 a limited
experiment began to bridge the gap between truck and tractor, a "convertible vehicle" patented by Phillip Sloan, the C5 Catruk, suffered design flaws and limited
production before it was finally abandoned.
Fate of pioneer companies. Lombard gasoline production was more limited
as they never managed to diversify use away from log hauling; it is believed a diesel built in 1934 was their last unit. Phoenix, of Eau Claire, Wisconsin, appears to
have built at least one gasoline powered machine before fading into history. Holt
and Best ended up merging. Holt had registered the trademark Caterpillar. The
merged company produced a version of the Best 60 tractor, which later became the
Caterpillar 60. The new corporation took the name Caterpillar Inc. in approximately 1925, and remains in business today.
1. Agree or disagree with the sentences, using Appendix 2:
1. Alvin O. Lombard of Waterville, Maine was issued a patent in 1904.
2. A gasoline powered hauler is on display at the Maine State Museum in Augusta, Maine.
3. Since the "tank" was a British concept it is more likely the Hornsby, which
had been built and successfully pitched to their military, was the inspiration.
4. A gasoline powered motor home was built by Lombard for Holman Harry
Linn of Old Town, Maine to pull the equipment wagon of his cat & pony
show.
5. Although several were delivered for military use between 1917 and 1946,
Linn received any large military orders.
51
6. Most of the production between 1917 and 1952, approximately 2500 units
was sold directly to highway departments and contractors.
7. Linn was a pioneer in snow removal.
8. Lombard gasoline production was not limited.
9. Phoenix, of Eau Claire, Wisconsin, appears to have built at least one gasoline powered machine before fading into history.
10.The merged company produced a version of the Best 60 tractor, which later
became the Caterpillar 60.
2. Prepare the report on the problem and listen to the other students, define
which message is the most laconic and exhaustive.
Text C
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
basis shovel blade bulldozer-
основание
совок
лезвие
бульдозер
earthmovingIntermittentlylaunch
bagger
excavator
земляные работы
периодически
запуск
мешконасыпатель
землекоп
Examples
• The crawler tractor was the basis of the first designs of tank.
• Crawlers equipped with a shovel like blade are called bulldozers, and used
for construction and earthmoving projects.
• Crawler design has been intermittently popular for farm use. (Track
Marshall)
• The space shuttle is transported to its launch site by a large CrawlerTransporter.
• One of the largest crawlers in the world is the German bagger 288 excavator.
1. Try to explain the following phrases in English: intermittently popular, space
shuttle a shovel like blade, earthmoving projects.
2. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
The crawler tractor was the basis of the shovel like blade are called bulldozers.
first designs of tank.
Crawler design has been intermittently
site by a large Crawler-Transporter.
The space shuttle is transported to its is the German bagger 288 excavator.
launch
Crawlers equipped with a
popular for farm use.
One of the largest crawlers in the world first designs of tank.
3. Define the main idea of the text.
52
Unit 6. Cultivator
Text A
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
cultivator культиватор
crop урожай
stirring побуждение
residue остаток
pulverizing распыление
mix соединение
planting установка
ensure убедиться
сорняк
nutrientпитательное
weedпроветрить
shank вещество
aerate ослабиться
mount гора
loosen пошевелиться
underside -нижняя сторона
stir глубина
narrow depth узкий
борона
rods harrow пруты
удобрение
rear задняя часть
manure удобрение
smooth гладкий
fertilizerглыба
surface поверхность
lumpпашня
establish установить
arableгряда
raise поднять
seedbed завод
lowerниже
plantbury похоронить
gaugeмера
A cultivator
A cultivator is a farm implement for stirring and pulverizing the soil, either
before planting or to remove weeds and to aerate and loosen the soil after the crop
has begun to grow. It is powered by a tractor and stirs the soil, usually to a greater
depth than does the harrow (which is usually unpowered). Similar but much
smaller machines are used for gardening.
Cultivator
Historical Cultivator at the
Saskatchewan Western Development Museum
53
Garden cultivators. Small cultivators are used for gardening, powered by
small motors, and controlled by an operator walking behind. Garden cultivators
can be used to mix soils with manures and fertilizers in preparation for planting.
They till the soil and convert soil lumps to a tilth. Different attachments can be
used to plough the soil or cut vegetation.
A small tiller
Farm cultivators. Cultivators are pulled by tractors and can vary greatly in
size and shape, from 10 feet (3 m) to 80 feet (24 m) wide. Many are equipped with
hydraulic wings that fold up to make road travel easier and safer. Different types
are used for preparation of fields before planting, and for the control of weeds
between row crops.
A tractor-mounted tiller
Field cultivator. Field cultivators are used to complete tillage operations in
many types of arable crop fields. The main function of the field cultivator is to
prepare a proper seedbed for the crop to be planted into, to bury crop residue in the
54
soil (helping to warm the soil before planting), to control weeds, and to mix and
incorporate the soil to ensure the growing crop has enough water and nutrients to
grow well during the growing season. The implement has many shanks mounted
on the underside of a metal frame, and small narrow rods at the rear of the machine
that smooth out the soil surface for easier travel later when planting. In most field
cultivators, one-to-many hydraulic cylinders raise and lower the implement and
control its depth.
Row crop cultivator. The main function of the row crop cultivator is weed
control between the rows of an established crop. Row crop cultivators are usually
raised and lowered by a three-point hitch and the depth is controlled by gauge
wheels.
1. Write out from the text the sentences with the following phrases, translate
them in written form: an established crop, to control weeds, travel easier and
safer, can vary greatly, cut vegetation.
2. Find the answers in the text:
1. What is a farm implement for stirring and pulverizing the soil?
2. Cultivators can vary greatly in size and shape, from 8 feet to 60 feet wide,
can't they?
3. What is the main function of the field cultivator?
4. What is main function of the row crop cultivator?
5. How is the depth controlled?
3. Formulate the problem with position of the group, which interests you
present.
4. Comment on the photos in pairs.
55
Unit 7. Cultipacker
Text A
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
piece crush dirt clods remove pocketpresseforming smoothfirm-
часть
давка
грязь
комья
удалить
карман
пресса
формирование
гладкий
устойчивый
roller gently firmshallow excellent contactsection valley apply-
ролик
мягко
твердый
мелкий
превосходный
контакт
секция
долина
обратиться
A cultipacker
A cultipacker roller
A cultipacker is a piece of agricultural equipment that crushes dirt clods,
removes air pockets, and presses down small stones, forming a smooth, firm
seedbed. Where seed has been broadcast, the roller gently firms the soil around the
seeds, ensuring shallow seed placement and excellent seed-to-soil contact. The
cultipacker differs from the roller in that it is made up of many sections that form
peaks and valleys in the soil where packer has been used. The term cultipacker is
almost exclusively applied to ridged packers, while the term roller may refer to
either a smooth or a ridged packer.
1. Agree or disagree with the sentences using Appendix 2:
1. A cultipacker is a piece of industrial equipment that crushes dirt clods, removes air pockets, and presses down small stones, forming a smooth, firm
seedbed.
56
2. The roller gently firms the soil around the seeds, ensuring shallow seed
placement and excellent seed-to-soil contact.
3. The cultipacker differs from the roller in that it is made up of many sections.
4. The term cultipacker is almost exclusively applied to ridged packers, while
the term roller may refer to either a smooth or a ridged packer.
2. Prepare the report on the problem and listen to the other students, define
which message is the most laconic and exhaustive.
3. Comment on the photos in pairs.
57
Unit 8. Plough
The traditional way: a farmer works the land
with horses and plough
A plough in action in South Africa. This
plough has five non-reversible mouldboards.
The fifth, empty furrow on the left will be filled
by the first furrow of the next pass.
Text A
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
plough плуг
layer слой
spelling правописание
fresh новый
pronounce- высказаться
nutrientпитательное
инструмент
вещ-во
tool первоначальный
burying захоронение
initial moisture влажность
cultivation - культивирование
свинья
волы
sow oxen отчет
постепенно
recordgradually представить
десятилетие
representdecadeпрогресс
повреждение
advancedamage основной
более мелкий
primary shallower агрессивный
invasive tillageпашня
A plough
The plough (American spelling: plow; both pronounced /ˈplaʊ/) is a tool
used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or
planting. It has been a basic instrument for most of recorded history, and represents
one of the major advances in agriculture. The primary purpose of ploughing is to
58
turn over the upper layer of the soil, bringing fresh nutrients to the surface, while
burying weeds and the remains of previous crops, allowing them to break down. It
also aerates the soil, and allows it to hold moisture better. In modern use, a
ploughed field is typically left to dry out, and is then harrowed before planting.
Ploughs were initially pulled by oxen, and later in many areas by horses. In
industrialised countries, the first mechanical means of pulling a plough used steampower (ploughing engines or steam tractors), but these were gradually superseded
by internal-combustion-powered tractors. In the past two decades plough use has
reduced in some areas (where soil damage and erosion are problems), in favour of
shallower ploughing and other less invasive tillage techniques. Ploughs are even
used under the sea, for the laying of cables, as well as preparing the earth for sidescan sonar in a process used in oil exploration.
Ancient Egyptian plough,
circa 1200 B.C.
'A Champion ploughman', from
Australia, circa 1900
Ploughing with buffalo in
Hubei, China
1. Write out from the text the sentences with the following phrases, translate
them in written form: initial cultivation of soil, bringing fresh nutrients, in some
areas, primary purpose of ploughing, initially pulled by oxen.
2. Make up sentences, write them down: 1) turn, purpose, of, is, to, over, layer,
of, the, soil, the, The, upper, ploughing. 2) moisture, to, It, hold, allows, better. 3)
A, out field, is, to, ploughed, dry, left. 4) were, Ploughs, initially, by, pulled, oxen.
5) are, under, even, the, sea, Ploughs, used.
3. Find the answers in the text:
1. What represents one of the major advances in agriculture?
2. What is the primary purpose of ploughing?
3. It also aerates the soil, and allows it to hold moisture better, doesn’t it?
4. Whom were ploughs initially pulled by?
5. When has plough use reduced?
59
4. Comment on the photos in pairs.
Text B
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
hoeingмотыжение
bankберег
digging рытье
annual ежегодный
hoesмотыги
flood наводнение
fertileплодородный
rejuvenateомолодиться
Hoeing
When agriculture was first developed, simple hand-held digging sticks or
hoes would have been used in highly fertile areas, such as the banks of the Nile
where the annual flood rejuvenates the soil, to create furrows wherein seeds could
be sown. In order to regularly grow crops in less fertile areas, the soil must be
turned to bring nutrients to the surface.
1. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
The soil must be turned
rejuvenates the soil.
The annual flood
to bring nutrients to the surface.
Simple hand-held digging sticks or hoes are used in highly fertile areas.
2. Formulate the problem with position of the group, which interests you
present.
Text C
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
domestication приручение
throughчерез
contemporary современный
topsoil верхн. слой почвы
perhaps возможно
strip полоса
millennium тысячелетие
path путь
mankind человечество
undisturbed- безмятежный
pulling натяжение
tend склоняться
plough плуг
squarishпочти квадратный
Scratch plough
The domestication of oxen in Mesopotamia and by its contemporary Indus
valley civilization, perhaps as early as the 6th millennium BCE, provided mankind
with the pulling power necessary to develop the plough. The very earliest plough
was the simple scratch-plough, or ard, which consists of a frame holding a vertical
wooden stick that was dragged through the topsoil (still used in many parts of the
world). It breaks up a strip of land directly along the ploughed path, which can
60
then be planted. Because this form of plough leaves a strip of undisturbed earth
between the rows, fields are often cross-ploughed at right angles, and this tends to
lead to squarish fields. In the archeology of northern Europe, such squarish fields
are referred to as "Celtic fields".
1. Find the answers in the text:
2. What provided mankind with the pulling power necessary to develop the
plough?
3. What was the simple scratch-plough?
4. How does it break up a strip of land?
5. Why are fields often cross-ploughed at right angles?
6. What tends to lead to squarish fields?
7. In the archeology of northern Europe, such squarish fields are referred to as
"Anglos fields", aren't they?
2. Refer the text.
Text D
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
crookкрюк
melted таяло
apparently очевидно
forged подделанный
major главный
weaponоружие
advance прогресс
presumably по-видимому
angled угловой
origin происхождение
forward отправить
expressionвыражение
leading продвижение
Bible Библия
bronze бронза
beat удар
iron железо
sword меч
Crooked ploughs
The Greeks apparently introduced the next major advance in plough design;
the crooked plough, which angled the cutting surface forward, leading to the name.
The cutting surface was often faced with bronze or (later) iron. Metal was
expensive, so in times of war it was melted down or forged to make weapons – or
the reverse in more peaceful times. This is presumably the origin of the expression
found in the Bible "beat your swords to ploughshares".
1. Complete the sentences, using the text:
1) The cutting surface was often faced with …
2) Metal was expensive, so in times of war ….
3) This is presumably the origin of the expression…
61
Text E
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском языке, а
потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
aideпомощник
amount количество
wedge-shaped - формы клина
consequence последствие
coulter Коултер
allowпозволить
furrow борозда
pattern образец
release выпуск
drainистощить
rectangularпрямоугольный
share отправить
strip полоса
extendingраспространение
sodдерн
weight вес
gap промежуток
scratchцарапина
restотдых
lie лгать
layer слой
Mouldboard plough
Ploughing with oxen. A miniature from an early-sixteenth-century
manuscript of the Middle English poem God Spede ye Plough, held at the British
Museum.
A reconstruction of a mould
board plough.
Chinese iron plough with
curved mouldboard, 1637.
Horse-drawn, two-furrow
plough.
A major advance in plough design was the mouldboard plough (American
spelling: moldboard plow), which aided the cutting blade. The coulter, knife or
skeith cuts vertically into the ground just ahead of the share (or frog) a wedgeshaped surface to the front and bottom of the mouldboard with the landside of the
frame supporting the below-ground components. The upper parts of the frame
carries (from the front) the coupling for the motive power (horses), the coulter and
the landside frame. Depending on the size of the implement, and the number of
furrows it is designed to plough at one time, there is a wheel or wheels positioned
to support the frame. In the case of a single-furrow plough there is only one wheel
62
at the front and handles at the rear for the ploughman to steer and manoeuvre it.
When dragged through a field the coulter cuts down into the soil and the share cuts
horizontally from the previous furrow to the vertical cut. This releases a
rectangular strip of sod that is then lifted by the share and carried by the
mouldboard up and over, so that the strip of sod (slice of the topsoil) that is being
cut lifts and rolls over as the plough moves forward, dropping back to the ground
upside down into the furrow and onto the turned soil from the previous run down
the field. Each gap in the ground where the soil has been lifted and moved across
(usually to the right) is called a furrow. The sod that has been lifted from it rests at
about a 45 degree angle in the next-door furrow and lies up the back of the sod
from the previous run. In this way, a series of ploughing runs down a field
(paddock) leaves a row of sods that lie partly in the furrows and partly on the
ground lifted earlier. Visually, across the rows, there is the land (unploughed part)
on the left, a furrow (half the width of the removed strip of soil) and the removed
strip almost upside-down lying on about half of the previous strip of inverted soil,
and so on across the field. Each layer of soil and the gutter it came from forms the
classic furrow. The mouldboard plough greatly reduced the amount of time needed
to prepare a field, and as a consequence, allowed a farmer to work a larger area of
land. In addition, the resulting pattern of low (under the mouldboard) and high
(beside it) ridges in the soil forms water channels, allowing the soil to drain. In
areas where snow buildup is an issue, this allows the soil to be planted earlier as
the snow runoff is drained away more quickly.
Parts of a mouldboard plough: There are 5 major parts of a mouldboard
plough
Mouldboard
Share
Landside
Frog
Tailpiece
A runner extending from behind the share to the rear of the plough controls
the direction of the plough, because it is held against the bottom land-side corner
of the new furrow being formed. The holding force is the weight of the sod, as it is
raised and rotated, on the curved surface of the mouldboard. Because of this
runner, the mouldboard plough is harder to turn around than the scratch plough,
and its introduction brought about a change in the shape of fields—from mostly
square fields into longer rectangular "strips" (hence the introduction of the
furlong). An advance on the basic design was the iron ploughshare, a replaceable
horizontal cutting surface mounted on the tip of the share. Introduced by the Celts
in Britain around 400 BC (without the replaceable feature), early mouldboards
were basically wedges that sat inside the cut formed by the coulter, turning over
the soil to the side. The ploughshare spread the cut horizontally below the surface,
so when the mouldboard lifted it, a wider area of soil was turned over.
Mouldboards are known in Britain from the late 6th century on.
63
1. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
The holding force is
it came from forms the classic furrow.
The mouldboard plough is harder to turn allowed a farmer to work a larger area
of land.
The iron ploughshare is a replaceable is called a furrow.
horizontal cutting
Mouldboards are known in Britain from the weight of the sod.
The mouldboard plough
and leaves a row of sods.
Each layer of soil and the gutter
wheels positioned to support the frame.
A major advance in plough design was surface mounted on the tip of the share.
the mouldboard
There is a wheel or
the late 6th century on.
Each gap in the ground
around than the scratch plough.
A series of ploughing runs down a field plough which aided the cutting blade.
2. Agree or disagree with the sentences, using Appendix 2:
• The ploughshare spread the cut vertically below the surface, so when the
mouldboard lifted it, a wider area of soil was turned over.
• In areas where snow buildup is an issue, this allows the soil to be planted
earlier as the snow runoff is drained away more quickly.
• A runner extending from behind the share to the rear of the plough can not
control the direction of the plough.
• The coulter, knife or skeith cuts horizontally into the ground ahead of the
share a wedge-shaped surface to the front and bottom of the mouldboard
with the landside of the frame supporting the below-ground components.
• The holding force is the size of the sod, as it is raised and rotated, on the
curved surface of the mouldboard.
• There are major parts of a mouldboard plough: mouldboard, share, landside,
and tailpiece.
3. Comment on the photos in pairs.
4. Prepare the report on the problem and listen to the other students, define
which message is the most laconic and exhaustive.
Text F
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
heavy тяжелый
appearance появления
depthглубина
connectсоединиться
lift лифт
appear появиться
fairly справедливо
suggesting предложение
64
fragile eventually significant increase solid available despite innovationsachieve -
хрупкий
в конечном счете
существенный
увеличение
тело
доступный
несмотря на
новшества
достигнуть
possible adoptionappearaccompanied leading productivityresearch medieval existence-
возможный
принятие
появиться
сопровождаемый
продвижение
производительность
исследование
средневековый
существование
Heavy ploughs
In the basic mouldboard plough the depth of the cut is adjusted by lifting
against the runner in the furrow, which limited the weight of the plough to what the
ploughman could easily lift. This limited the construction to a small amount of
wood (although metal edges were possible). These ploughs were fairly fragile, and
were unsuitable for breaking up the heavier soils of northern Europe. The
introduction of wheels to replace the runner allowed the weight of the plough to
increase, and in turn allowed the use of a much larger mouldboard faced in metal.
These heavy ploughs led to greater food production and eventually a significant
population increase around 600 AD. Heavy Iron ploughs, in the form either of iron
laid over wood, or of solid iron became available by the sixth century BC in China.
These were the first iron ploughs in the world. Despite a number of innovations,
the Romans never achieved the heavy wheeled mouldboard plough. The first
indisputable appearance after the Roman period is from 643, in a northern Italian
document. Old words in connected with the heavy plough and its use appear in
Slavic, suggesting possible early use in this region. The general adoption of the
mouldboard plough in Europe appears to have accompanied the adoption of the
three-field system in the later eighth and early ninth centuries, leading to an
improvement of the agricultural productivity per unit of land in northern Europe.
Research by the French historian Marc Bloch in medieval French agricultural
history showed the existence of names for two different ploughs, "the araire was
wheel-less and had to be dragged across the fields, while the charrue was mounted
on wheels".
1. Write out from the text the sentences with the following phrases, translate
them in written form: the adoption of the three-field system, never achieved,
small amount, existence of names, were fairly fragile.
2. Find the answers in the text:
1. What limited the weight of the plough to what the ploughman could easily
lift?
2. What allowed the weight of the plough to increase, and in turn allowed the
use of a much larger mouldboard faced in metal.
65
3. Heavy Iron ploughs, in the form either of iron laid over wood, or of solid
iron became available by the fifth century BC in China, didn’t they?
4. Did the Romans ever achieve the heavy wheeled mouldboard plough?
5. Where is the first indisputable appearance after the Roman period from 643?
6. What appears to have accompanied the adoption of the three-field system in
the later eighth and early ninth centuries?
7. Whose Research showed the existence of names for two different ploughs?
3. Refer the text.
Text G
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
improveулучшиться
arriveприбывать
designдизайн
cast бросок
millennium тысячелетие
blacksmith- кузнец
rapid быстрый
unsuitable - неподходящий
sailor моряк
следовать
followhireнаем
рассмотреть
considerdrain истощить
metallurgy- металлургия
fenболото
сталь
steel Dutch Нидерландский
отправить
shareefficient эффективный
мягкий
soft shape форма
предотвратить
prevent coverпокрытие
breakage - поломка
further далее
холод
chillexperiment эксперимент
eventually в конечном счете
dispenseраспределить
Improved designs
The basic plough with coulter, ploughshare and mouldboard remained in use
for a millennium. Major changes in design did not become common until the Age
of Enlightenment, when there was rapid progress in design. Chinese ploughs, with
mouldboard, were brought to Holland in the seventeenth century by Dutch sailors.
And because Dutchmen were hired by the English to drain the East Anglian fens
and Somerset moors at that time, they brought with them their Chinese ploughs.
The English called these Chinese ploughs the 'bastard Dutch ploughs' instead of
'Chinese ploughs'. Thus, the Dutch and the English were the first to enjoy the
efficient Chinese ploughs for the first time in Europe. The Chinese-style ploughs
were spread to Scotland from England, and from Holland to America and France.
66
A pair of metal wheels from a plough on a farm near Dordrecht, Eastern Cape.
James Small further improved the design. Using mathematical methods he
experimented with various designs until he arrived at a shape cast from a single
piece of iron, the Scots plough. A single-piece cast iron plough was also developed
and patented by Charles Newbold in the United States. This was again improved
on by Jethro Wood, a blacksmith of Scipio, New York, who made a three-part
Scots Plough that allowed a broken piece to be replaced. In 1837 John Deere introduced the first steel plough; it was much stronger than iron designs that it was able
to work the soil in areas of the US that had earlier been considered unsuitable for
farming. Improvements on this followed developments in metallurgy; steel coulters
and shares with softer iron mouldboards to prevent breakage, the chilled plough
which is an early example of surface-hardened steel, and eventually the face of the
mouldboard grew strong enough to dispense with the coulter.
1. Border the words, translate the sentences:
1. Asingle-piececastironploughwasdevelopedintheUnitedStates.
2. TheDutchandtheEnglishwerethefirsttoenjoytheefficientChineseploughs.
3. ChineseploughswerebroughttoHolland.
2. Find in the text the sentences with the following verbs translate them: prevent, develop, introduce, arrive, consist, hire.
3. Agree or disagree with the sentences, using Appendix 2:
1. Joseph Foljambe in Rotherham, England, in 1830 used these new shapes as
the basis for the Rotherham plough.
2. Like the heavy plough, the Rotherham plough consisted entirely of the coulter, mouldboard and handles.
3. It was much lighter than conventional designs and became very popular in
England.
4. James Small further improved the design.
67
5. Using mathematical methods Joseph Foljambe experimented with various
designs until he arrived at a shape cast from a single piece of iron, the Scots
plough.
6. A single-piece cast iron plough was also developed and patented by Charles
Newbold in England.
7. This was again improved on by Jethro Wood, a blacksmith of Scipio, New
York, who made a three-part Scots Plough that allowed a broken piece to be
replaced.
8. In 1737 John Deere introduced the first steel plough.
4. Prepare the report on the problem and listen to the other students, define
which message is the most laconic and exhaustive.
5. Project work. Using the Internet and/ or newspapers and magazines, collect
some data on the improved designs and discuss the results in your group.
Text H
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
conventionallyтрадиционно
chain цепь
clockwise по часовой стрелке acre акр
length длина
gradually постепенно
strip полоса
moved перемещенный
rest отдых
ridge горный хребет
width ширина
topography топография
conveniently -удобно
ancientдревний
furlong фарлонг
fieldобласть
Single-sided ploughing
Single-sided ploughing in a ploughing match.
The first mouldboard ploughs could only turn the soil over in one direction
(conventionally always to the right), as dictated by the shape of the mouldboard,
and so the field had to be ploughed in long strips, or lands. The plough was usually
worked clockwise around each land, ploughing the long sides and being dragged
68
across the short sides without ploughing. The length of the strip was limited by the
distance oxen (or later horses) could comfortably work without a rest, and their
width by the distance the plough could conveniently be dragged. These distances
determined the traditional size of the strips: a furlong, (or "furrow's length",
220 yards (200 m)) by a chain (22 yards (20 m)) – an area of one acre (about 0.4
hectares); this is the origin of the acre. The one-sided action gradually moved soil
from the sides to the centre line of the strip. If the strip was in the same place each
year, the soil built up into a ridge, creating the ridge and furrow topography still
seen in some ancient fields.
1. Border the words, translate the sentences:
1. Thesoilbuiltupintoaridgecreatingtheridgeandfurrow.
2. Theydeterminedthetraditionalsizeofthestrips.
3. Thelengthofthestripwaslimitedbythedistanceoxencouldwork.
2. Find in the text the sentences with the following verbs translate them: to limit, to see, to turn, to move.
3. Complete the sentences, using the text:
1. The first mouldboard ploughs could only turn the soil over in one
direction …
2. The plough was usually worked clockwise around each land,
ploughing the long sides and being dragged across the short sides …
3. The length of the strip was limited by the distance oxen (or later
horses) could comfortably work without …
4. These distances determined the traditional size …
5. The one-sided action gradually moved soil from the sides to …
6. If the strip was in the same place each year, the soil …
Text I
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
turnwrestсменный
proceed продолжается
removableнеподвижный
continuously - непрерывно
fixed смежный
thus таким образом
opposite напротив
avoid избежать
directionруководство
ridge горный хребет
furrowборозда
Turnwrest plough
The turnwrest plough allows ploughing to be done to either side. The
mouldboard is removable, turning to the right for one furrow, and then being
69
moved to the other side of the plough to turn to the left (the coulter and
ploughshare are fixed). In this way adjacent furrows can be ploughed in opposite
directions, allowing ploughing to proceed continuously along the field and thus
avoiding the ridge and furrow topography.
1. Write out from the text the sentences with the following phrases, translate
them in written form: in opposite directions, for one furrow, the turnwrest
plough.
2. Find the answers in the text:
1. What allows ploughing to be done to either side?
2. Is the mouldboard removable?
3. What allows ploughing to proceed continuously along the field?
4. How can it avoid the ridge and furrow topography?
3. Prepare the report on the problem and listen to the other students, define
which message is the most laconic and exhaustive.
Text J
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
reversible обратимый
rowряд
back-to-backспина к спине
pairedсоединенный
rightправо
turned overперевернутый
leftлевый
so так
while в то время как
use использовать
carryнести
return вернуть
upside-down вверх тормашками consistentпоследовательный
air воздушный
directionруководство
Reversible plough
A four-furrow reversible plough.
70
The reversible plough has two mouldboard ploughs mounted back-to-back,
one turning to the right, the other to the left. While one is working the land, the
other is carried upside-down in the air. At the end of each row, the paired ploughs
are turned over, so the other can be used. This returns along the next furrow, again
working the field in a consistent direction.
1.
•
•
•
•
•
Complete the sentences, using the text:
The reversible plough has two…
Mouldboard ploughs are mounted back-to-back, one turning …, the other ...
While one is working the land, the other is…
The paired ploughs are turned over, so the other ….
It returns along the next furrow, again working the field in a …
2. Comment on the photos in pairs.
3. Project work. Using the Internet and/ or newspapers and magazines, collect
some data on the reversible plough and discuss the results in your group.
Text K
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
riding
поездка
heavy
тяжелый
multiple-furrow
многократная борозда volcanic
вулканический
prior
предшествующий
loam
суглинок
react
реагировать
paddock
загон
root
корень
harness
ремень безоп-сти
clod
ком
strength
сила
consequently
следовательно
endurance
выносливость
appeared
казавшийся
uneconomic неэкономный
draught
набросок
Amish
Аманиты
team
команда
team
команда
lever
рычаг
mule
мул
performance
работа
change
изменение
loose
свободный
noon
полдень
tread
шаг
light
свет
Riding and multiple-furrow ploughs
Early steel ploughs, like those for thousands of years prior, were walking
ploughs, directed by the ploughman holding onto handles on either side of the
plough. The steel ploughs were so much easier to draw through the soil that the
constant adjustments of the blade to react to roots or clods was no longer
necessary, as the plough could easily cut through them. Consequently it was not
long after that the first riding ploughs appeared. On these, wheels kept the plough
at an adjustable level above the ground, while the ploughman sat on a seat where
71
he would have earlier walked. Direction was now controlled mostly through the
draught team, with levers allowing fine adjustments. This led very quickly to
riding ploughs with multiple mouldboards, dramatically increasing ploughing
performance. A single draught horse can normally pull a single-furrow plough in
clean light soil, but in heavier soils two horses are needed, one walking on the land
and one in the furrow. For ploughs with two or more furrows more than two horses
are needed and, usually, one or more horses have to walk on the loose ploughed
sod—and that makes hard going for them, and the horse treads the newly ploughed
land down. It is usual to rest such horses every half hour for about ten minutes.
Heavy volcanic loam soils, such as are found in New Zealand, require the use of
four heavy draught horses to pull a double-furrow plough. Where paddocks are
more square than long-rectangular it is more economical to have horses four wide
in harness than two-by-two ahead, thus one horse is always on the ploughed land
(the sod). The limits of strength and endurance of horses made greater than twofurrow ploughs uneconomic to use on one farm. Amish farmers tend to use a team
of about seven horses or mules when spring ploughing and as Amish farmers often
help each other plough, teams are sometimes changed at noon. Using this method
about 10 acres (40,000 m2) can be ploughed per day in light soils and about 2 acres
(8,100 m2) in heavy soils.
1. Write out from the text the sentences with the following phrases, translate
them in written form: a double-furrow plough, at an adjustable level, sometimes
changed at noon, more than two horses, mostly through the draught team.
2. Find the answers in the text:
1. Early steel ploughs were walking ploughs, directed by the ploughman holding onto handles on either side of the plough, weren't they?
2. How was direction controlled?
3. What led to riding ploughs with multiple mouldboards?
4. How many horses are needed in heavier soils?
5. What requires the use of four heavy draught horses?
6. Where is it more economical to have horses four wide in harness than twoby-two ahead?
7. Who tends to use a team of about seven horses or mules?
3. Formulate the problem with position of the group, which interests you
present.
Text L
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
advent
появление
trailing
перемещение
mobile
мобильный
lower
ниже
72
steam
allow
soil
condition
soft
support
instead
counterbalanced
opposite
edge
set
пар
позволить
почва
условие
мягкий
поддержка
вместо этого
уравновешенный
напротив
край
набор
tension
reach
inventor
gang
regiment
ruggedness
compare
reducing
complete
напряженность
достигнуть
изобретатель
бригада
полк
прочность
сравниться
сокращение
полный
Steam ploughing
A German balance plough. The left-turning set
of shares have just completed a pass, and the
right-turning shares are about to enter the
ground to return across the field.
Ploughing engine Heumar, made by the
Ottomayer company (Germany), used in pairs
with a balance plough.Built 1929, 220 PS, 21
tons.
The advent of the mobile steam engine allowed steam power to be applied to
ploughing from about 1850. In Europe, soil conditions were often too soft to
support the weight of heavy traction engines. Instead, counterbalanced, wheeled
ploughs, known as balance ploughs, were drawn by cables across the fields by
pairs of ploughing engines which worked along opposite field edges. The balance
plough had two sets of ploughs facing each other, arranged so when one was in the
ground, the other set was lifted into the air. When pulled in one direction the
trailing ploughs were lowered onto the ground by the tension on the cable. When
the plough reached the edge of the field, the opposite cable was pulled by the other
engine, and the plough tilted (balanced), putting the other set of shares into the
ground, and the plough worked back across the field. One set of ploughs was righthanded, and the other left-handed, allowing continuous ploughing along the field,
as with the turnwrest and reversible ploughs. The man credited with the invention
73
of the ploughing engine and the associated balance plough, in the mid nineteenth
century, was John Fowler, an English agricultural engineer and inventor. In
America the firm soil of the Plains allowed direct pulling with steam tractors, such
as the big Case, Reeves or Sawyer Massey breaking engines. Gang ploughs of up
to fourteen bottoms were used. Often these big ploughs were used in regiments of
engines, so that in a single field there might be ten steam tractors each drawing a
plough. In this way hundreds of acres could be turned over in a day. Only steam
engines had the power to draw the big units. When internal combustion engines
appeared, they had neither the strength nor the ruggedness compared to the big
steam tractors. Only by reducing the number of shares could the work be
completed.
1. Try to explain the following phrases in English: steam tractors, agricultural
engineer and inventor, opposite field edges, direct pulling with steam tractors, two
sets of ploughs facing each other
2. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
In Europe, soil conditions were often onto the ground by the tension on the
too soft
cable.
When pulled in one direction the trailing of ploughs facing each other.
ploughs were lowered
One set of ploughs was right-handed,
the opposite cable was pulled by the
other engine.
It had two sets
direct pulling with steam tractors,
In America the firm soil of the Plains to support the weight of heavy traction
allowed
engines.
Often these big ploughs
were used in regiments of engines.
When the plough reached the edge of and the other left-handed.
the field,
3. Comment on the photos in pairs.
4. Prepare the report on the problem and listen to the other students, define
which message is the most laconic and exhaustive.
Text M
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
cope
покров
upwards
вверх
with
с
clear
ясный
contain
содержать
avoid
избежать
stump
пень
pass
проход
expensive
дорогой
concave
вогнутый
74
remove
moveable
weight
obstruction
encountered
удалить
подвижный
вес
преграда
столкнутый
angle
strike
circumference
surface
rotating
угол
удар
окружность
поверхность
вращение
Stump-jump plough
'Disc Ploughs' in Australia, circa 1900
The Stump-jump plough was an Australian invention of the 1870s, designed
to cope with the breaking up of new farming land that contains many tree stumps
and rocks that would be very expensive to remove. The plough uses a moveable
weight to hold the ploughshare in position. When a tree stump or other obstruction
such as a rock is encountered, the ploughshare is thrown upwards, clear of the
obstacle, to avoid breaking the plough's harness or linkage; ploughing can be
continued when the weight is returned to the earth after the obstacle is passed. A
simpler system, developed later, uses a concave disc (or a pair of them) set at a
large angle to the direction of progress that uses the concave shape to hold the disc
into the soil – unless something hard strikes the circumference of the disk, causing
it to roll up and over the obstruction. As the arrangement is dragged forward, the
sharp edge of the disc cuts the soil, and the concave surface of the rotating disc lifts
and throws the soil to the side. It doesn't make as good a job as the mouldboard
plough (but this is not considered a disadvantage, because it helps fight the wind
erosion), but it does lift and break up the soil.
75
1. Complete the sentences, using the text:
1. The Stump-jump plough was an Australian invention of the 1870s, designed…
2. The plough uses a moveable weight to ….
3. A simpler system, developed later, uses a concave disc set at a large …
4. As the arrangement is dragged forward, the sharp edge of the disc cuts …
5. It doesn't make as good a job as the mouldboard plough …
2. Comment on the photos in pairs.
3. Project work. Using the Internet and/ or newspapers and magazines, collect
some data on the stump-jump plough and discuss the results in your group.
Text N
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
multiple
многократный
draught
набросок
reversible
обратимый
complement
дополнение
supplement
дополнение
rear
задняя часть
width
ширина
equip
оборудовать
depth
глубина
Modern ploughs
Modern ploughs are usually multiple reversible ploughs, mounted on a
tractor via a three-point linkage. These commonly have between two and as many
as seven mouldboards – and semi-mounted ploughs (the lifting of which is
supplemented by a wheel about half-way along their length) can have as many as
eighteen mouldboards. The hydraulic system of the tractor is used to lift and
reverse the implement, as well as to adjust furrow width and depth. The
ploughman still has to set the draughting linkage from the tractor so that the plough
is carried at the proper angle in the soil. This angle and depth can be controlled
automatically by modern tractors. As a complement to the rear plough a two or
three mouldboards-plough can be mounted on the front of the tractor if it is
equipped with front three-point linkage.
1. Find the answers in the text:
1. Are modern ploughs multiple reversible ploughs, mounted on a tractor
via a two-point linkage?
2. How many mouldboards have they?
3. What is the hydraulic system of the tractor used for?
4. Has the ploughman still to set the draughting linkage from the tractor
so that the plough is carried at the proper angle in the soil?
5. How can this angle and depth be controlled?
6. Where can a two or three mouldboards-plough be mounted?
76
2. Prepare the report on the problem and listen to the other students, define
which message is the most laconic and exhaustive.
Text O
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
chisel
долото
limestone
известняк
disruption
разрушение
oxygen
кислород
aerate
проветрить
nitrogen
азот
residue
остаток
volatilization
улетучивание
уплотнение
accelerate
ускориться
compaction
обратный свод
mineralization
минерализация
invert
дополнение
eras
addition
эры
попытка
rut
attempt
колея
предотв-ние эро- perennial
erosion-prevention
постоянный
зии
weed
benefit
сорняк
выгода
evaporation
attribute
испарение
признак
quantity
sustainable
количество
жизнеспособный
facilitate
inch
облегчить
дюйм
crop
shank
урожай
нога
slug
encounter
слизняк
столкновение
crane
significant
подъем. кран
существенный
seed
consequently
семя
следовательно
flies
sufficient
мухи
достаточный
borers
mind
бурильные
ум
increase
ridging
молотки
ridging
earthworm
scallion
увеличение
зеленый лук
endogea
земляной
split
раскол
detrimental
червь
ridge
горный хребет
vertical-dwelling вертик. посел
harvest
урожай
disadvantage
неудобство
mole
мол
slice
часть
plough
плуг
through
через
deep
глубокий
hardened
укрепленный
impermeable
непроницаемый
improper
неподходящий
impede
препятствовать
plow
плуг
drainage
дренаж
utilization
использование
torpedo-shaped
в форме торпеды
possible
возможный
wedge-shaped
в форме клина
mitigate
смягчить
narrow
узкий
slope
наклон
blade
лезвие
elevation
возвышение
channel
канал
lines
линии
bury
pipe
похоронить
alternative
альтернатива
77
permanent
advantage
труба
постоянный
преимущества
damage
pesticide
herbicide
insect
weed
повреждение
пестицид
гербицид
насекомое
сорняк
Specialist ploughs
A modern John Deere 8110 Farm Tractor using a chisel plough.
Chisel plough. The chisel plough is a common tool to get deep tillage (prepared land) with limited soil disruption. The main function of this plough is to loosen and aerate the soils while leaving crop residue at the top of the soil. This
plough can be used to reduce the effects of compaction and to help break up
ploughpan and hardpan. Unlike many other ploughs the chisel will not invert or
turn the soil. This characteristic has made it a useful addition to no-till and limitedtillage farming practices which attempt to maximise the erosion-prevention benefits of keeping organic matter and farming residues present on the soil surface
through the year. Because of these attributes, the use of a chisel plough is considered by some to be more sustainable than other types of plough, such as the
mouldboard plough. The chisel plough is typically set to run up to a depth of eight
to twelve inches (200 to 300 mm). However some models may run much deeper.
Each of the individual ploughs, or shanks, are typically set from nine inches
(229 mm) to twelve inches (305 mm) apart. Such a plough can encounter significant soil drag, consequently a tractor of sufficient power and good traction is required. When planning to plough with a chisel plough it is important to bear in
mind that 10 to 15 horsepower (7 to 11 kW) per shank will be required.
Ridging plough. A ridging plough is used for crops, such as potatoes or scallions, which are grown buried in ridges of soil using a technique called ridging or
hilling. A ridging plough has two mouldboards facing away from each other, cutting a deep furrow on each pass, with high ridges either side. The same plough
may be used to split the ridges to harvest the crop.
78
Mole plough. The mole plough or subsoiler allows underdrainage to be installed without trenches, or it breaks up deep impermeable soil layers which impede drainage. It is a very deep plough, with a torpedo-shaped or wedge-shaped
tip, and a narrow blade connecting this to the body. When dragged through the
ground, it leaves a channel deep under the ground, and this acts as a drain. Modern
mole ploughs may also bury a flexible perforated plastic drain pipe as they go,
making a more permanent drain – or they may be used to lay pipes for water
supply or other purposes.
Advantages of the mouldboard plough. Mouldboard ploughing, in cold and
temperate climates, no deeper than 20 cm, aerates the soil by loosening it. It incorporates crop residues, solid manures, limestone and commercial fertilizers along
with some oxygen. By doing so, it reduces nitrogen losses by volatilization, accelerates mineralization and increases short-term nitrogen availability for transformation of organic matter into humus. It erases wheel tracks and ruts caused by harvesting equipment. It controls many perennial weeds and pushes back the growth
of other weeds until the following spring. It accelerates soil warming and water
evaporation in spring because of the lesser quantity of residues on the soil surface.
It facilitates seeding with a lighter seeder. It controls many enemies of crops (slugs,
crane flies, seedcorn maggots-bean seed flies, borers ). It increases the number of
"soil-eating" earthworms (endogea) but is detrimental to vertical-dwelling earthworms (anecic).
Disadvantages of the mouldboard plough. Over-ploughing can lead to the
formation of hardpan. Typically farmers break up hardpan up with a subsoiler,
which acts as a long, sharp knife to slice through the hardened layer of soil deep
below the surface. Soil erosion due to improper land and plow utilization is possible. Contour plowing mitigates soil erosion by plowing across a slope, along elevation lines. Alternatives to ploughing, such as the no till method, have the potential
to limit damage while still allowing farming, but require the use of pesticides and
herbicides to control insects and weeds.
1. Agree or disagree with the sentences, using Appendix 2:
1. The chisel plough is a common tool to get deep tillage with unlimited soil disruption.
2. This plough can be used to reduce the effects of compaction and to help break
up ploughpan and hardpan.
3. The use of a chisel plough isn't considered to be more sustainable than other
types of plough.
4. Such a plough can encounter significant soil drag; consequently, a tractor of
sufficient power and good traction is required.
5. A ridging plough is used for crops, such as potatoes or scallions, which are
grown buried in ridges of soil using a technique called ridging or hilling.
6. The same plough may not be used to split the ridges to harvest the crop.
79
7. When dragged through the ground, it leaves a channel deep under the ground,
and this acts as a drain.
8. It erases wheel tracks and ruts caused by harvesting equipment.
9. It cannot control many perennial weeds and pushes back the growth of other
weeds until the following spring.
10. Typically, farmers break up hardpan up with a subsoiler, which acts as a long,
sharp knife to slice through the hardened layer of soil deep below the surface.
11. Soil erosion due to improper land and plow utilization isn't possible.
12. Contour plowing mitigates soil erosion by plowing across a slope, along elevation lines.
13. Alternatives to ploughing have the potential to unlimit damage while still allowing farming.
2. Discuss the alternatives of the problem's solving, their advantages and disadvantages.
80
Unit 9. Harrow (tool)
Clydesdale horses pulling spike harrows, Murrurundi, NSW
Text A
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
harrow
борона
sowing
сеяние
surface
поверхность
plural
множественный
clod
ком
nominally
номинально
lump
глыба
tine
зубец
suitable
подходящий
chain
цепь
coarser
более грубое
originally
первоначально
Harrows
In agriculture, a set of harrows is an implement for cultivating the surface
of the soil. In this way, it is distinct in its effect from the plough, which is used for
deeper cultivation. Harrowing is often carried out on fields to follow the rough
finish left by ploughing operations. The purpose of this harrowing is generally to
break up clods and lumps of soil and to provide a finer finish, a good tilth or soil
structure that is suitable for seeding and planting operations. Such coarser
harrowing may also be used to remove weeds and to cover seed after sowing.
Tools for harrowing are commonly called harrows (plural) as they are used as a set.
There are nominally three types of harrows; disc (disk), tine and chain. Harrows
were originally horse-drawn. In modern practice, they are almost always tractormounted implements, drawn after the tractor, either trailed or mounted on the
three-point linkage.
1. Fill in the necessary word:
1. Such coarser harrowing may also be used to remove … and to cover … after
sowing.
2. There are nominally three types of harrows; …, … and …
81
3. A set of … is an implement for cultivating the surface of the …
4. Harrowing is often carried out on … to follow the rough finish left by …
operations.
5. It is distinct in its effect from the …, which is used for deeper cultivation.
6. Tools for harrowing are commonly called …
2. Try to explain the following phrases in English: cultivating the surface of the
soil, horse-drawn, planting operations, break up clods and lumps of soil.
3. Formulate the problem with position of the group, which interests you
present.
Text B
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
cool
прохладный
roll
рулон
lighter
легче
clump
глыба
levelling
выравнивание
prevent
предотвратить
covering
покрытие
interference
вмешательство
heavy
тяжелый
germination
прорастание
depending
завися
variety
разнообразие
refine
очиститься
intended
предназначенный
loosen
ослабиться
hemisphere
полушарие
soak
замачивание
giant
гигант
pasture
пастбище
scalloped-edged
с зубчатым краем
spread out
распространиться
concrete
бетон
dung
экскременты
penetration
проникновение
smooth out
разгладить
edge
край
immediately
немедленно
Types
In cooler climates the most common types are the disc harrow, the chain harrow, the tine harrow or spike harrow and the spring tine harrow. Chain harrows are
often used for lighter work such as levelling the tilth or covering seed, while disc
harrows are typically used for heavy work, such as following ploughing to break
up the sod. In addition, there are various types of power harrow, in which the cultivators are power-driven from the tractor rather than depending on its forward motion.
Tine harrows are used to refine seed-bed condition before planting, to remove small weeds in growing crops and to loosen the inter-row soils to allow for
water to soak into the subsoil.
Chain harrowing may be used on pasture land to spread out dung, and to
break up dead material (thatch) in the sward, and similarly in sports-ground maintenance a light chain harrowing is often used to level off the ground after heavy
82
use, to remove and smooth out boot marks and indentations. When used on tilled
land in combination with the other two types, chain harrowing rolls the remaining
larger clumps of soil to the surface where the weather will break them down and
prevent interference with seed germination.
All three harrow types can be used in one pass to prepare the soil for seeding. It is also common to use any combination of two harrows for a variety of tilling processes. Where harrowing provides a very fine tilth, or the soil is very light
so that it might easily be wind-blown, a roller is often added as the last of the set.
Harrows may be of several types and weights, depending on the intended
purpose. They almost always consist of a rigid frame to which are attached discs,
teeth, linked chains or other means of cultivation, but tine and chain harrows are
often only supported by a rigid towing-bar at the front of the set.
In the southern hemisphere the so-called giant discs are a specialised kind of
disc harrows that can stand in for a plough in very rough country where a mouldboard plough will not handle the tree-stumps and rocks, and a disc-plough is too
slow (because of its limited number of discs). Giant discs are scalloped-edged
discs operated in a set, or frame, that is often weighted with concrete or steel
blocks to improve penetration of the cutting edges. This sort of cultivation is normally immediately followed by broadcast fertilisation and seeding, rather than
drilled or row seeding.
Crumbler roller, commonly used to compact soil after it has been loosened by a harrow
1. Fill in the necessary word:
1. Tine harrows are used to refine …condition before planting.
2. Chain … may be used on pastureland.
3. When used on tilled land in combination with the other two types,
chain harrowing rolls the remaining larger clumps of soil to the sur83
4.
5.
6.
7.
face where the weather will break them down and prevent … with
seed germination.
All three-harrow types can be used in one pass to prepare the soil for...
Where harrowing provides a very fine tilth … is often added as the
last of the set.
Harrows may be of several types and weights … on the intended purpose.
They almost always consist of a rigid … to which are attached discs.
2. Try to explain the following phrases in English: used for lighter work, other
means of cultivation, supported by a rigid towing-bar, to soak into the subsoil, used
for heavy work, supported by a rigid towing-bar at the front of the set.
3. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
Chain harrowing may be used
easily be wind-blown, a roller is often
added as the last of the set.
This sort of cultivation is normally im- as levelling the tilth or covering seed.
mediately
Where harrowing provides a very fine on pasture land to spread out dung.
tilth, or the soil is very light so that it
might
In the southern hemisphere the so-called kind of disc harrows that can stand in
giant discs are a specialised
for a plough in very rough country.
All three harrow types can be used
followed by broadcast fertilisation.
Chain harrows are often used for lighter harrow, the chain harrow, the tine harrow or spike harrow and the spring tine
work such
harrow.
In cooler climates the most common in one pass to prepare the soil for seeding.
types are the disc
4. Project work. Using the Internet and/ or newspapers and magazines, collect
some data on the harrow types and discuss the results in your group.
Text C
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
drag
бремя
levers
рычаги
smooth
гладкий
stiff-toothed с жестким зубом
упакованный
efficient
эффективный
packed
устроенный
proven
доказанный
arranged
демонтировать
functionality функциональность dismount
поднятый
unclog
прочистить
raised
manual
ручной
84
Drag harrow
A 4-foot drag harrow
A drag harrow is a largely outdated type of soil cultivation implement that is
used to smooth the ground as well as loosen it after it has been plowed and packed.
It uses many flexible iron teeth usually arranged into three rows. It has no
hydraulic functionality and has to be raised/adjusted with one or multiple manual
levers. It is a largely outdated piece of farm equipment, having been replaced by
more modern disc harrows and deeper, stiff-toothed rippers. A drag harrow is used
to loosen and even out soil after it has been plowed and packed. The drag harrow
also kills some weeds that may be present, but it is not very efficient in doing so,
and it is not one of its primary functions. The drag harrow is not often used in
modern farming as other harrows have proven to be more suitable, such as the disc
harrow. Another reason they are not often used is because they cannot be
controlled hydraulically, meaning that the operator is required to dismount from
the tractor to adjust it or unclog it.
1. Fill in the necessary word:
1. A drag harrow is a largely outdated type of soil cultivation implement.
2. It uses many flexible iron teeth.
3. It is a largely outdated piece of farm equipment, having been replaced by
more modern disc harrows.
4. A drag harrow is used to loosen and even out soil.
5. The drag harrow is not often used in modern farming.
6. Another reason they are not often used is because they cannot be controlled
hydraulically.
2. Try to explain the following phrases in English: outdated type of soil
cultivation implement, many flexible iron teeth, has no hydraulic functionality,
replaced by more modern disc harrows, dismount from the tractor.
85
3.Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
It is a largely outdated piece of farm efficient in doing so, and it is not one of
equipment, having been
its primary functions.
The drag harrow also kills some weeds proven to be more suitable, such as the
disc harrow.
that may be present, but it is not very
The drag harrow is not often used in cultivation implement that is used to
modern farming as other harrows have smooth the ground.
It has no hydraulic functionality and has replaced by more modern disc harrows
to be raised
and deeper, stiff-toothed rippers.
A drag harrow is a largely outdated type with one or multiple manual levers.
of soil
4. Comment on the photos in pairs.
5. Prepare the report on the problem and listen to the other students, define
which message is the most laconic and exhaustive.
Text D
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
chop up
slight
concavity
flattened
offset
parallel
нарубите
небольшой
вогнутость
сглаженный
погашение
параллель
pickup
ripping up
storage
eliminate
clump
Disc harrow
An International Harvester and disk harrow
86
погрузка
разрыв
хранение
устранить
глыба
A disc harrow is a farm implement that is used to cultivate the soil where
crops are to be planted. It is also used to chop up unwanted weeds or crop
remainders. It consists of many iron or steel discs which have slight concavity and
are arranged into two or four sections. When viewed from above, the four sections
would appear to form an "X" which has been flattened to be wider than it is tall.
The discs are also offset so that they are not parallel with the overall direction of
the implement. This is so they slice the ground they cut over a little bit to optimize
the result. The concavity of the discs as well as their being offset causes them to
loosen and pickup the soil they cut. In the olden days, disc harrows usually only
consisted of two sections and which were horse-drawn and had no hydraulic
functionality. These harrows were often adjustable so that the discs angle would
not be offset so that they could be transported without ripping up the ground as
much and so they did not pull as hard. Modern disc harrows are tractor-driven and
are raised hydraulically. Some large ones even have side sections which raise up
vertically to allow easier road transport or better storage configurations. Disc
harrows are primarily used to chop up soil that has been recently plowed to
eliminate clumps and loosen the soil if it has been packed. They are also used to
chop up old crops, such as cornstalks, to make the land easier to plow and to
eliminate clogging in the plowing process.
1. Fill in the necessary word:
1. A disc harrow is a farm implement that is used to cultivate … where crops
are to be planted.
2. It is also used to chop up unwanted … or crop remainders.
3. The discs are also offset so that they are not … with the overall direction of
the implement.
4. This is so they slice the ground they cut over a little bit to … the result.
5. The concavity of the discs as well as their being offset causes them to …and
… the soil they cut.
6. These harrows were often adjustable so that the discs angle would not be
offset so that they could be … without ripping up the ground as much and so
they did not pull as hard.
7. They are also used to chop up old crops, such as cornstalks, to make the land
easier to … and to eliminate clogging in the plowing process.
2. Try to explain the following phrases in English: raised hydraulically, the four
sections would appear to form an "X", in the olden day, consisted of two sections,
better storage configurations.
87
3. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
This is so they slice the ground they cut which were horse-drawn and had no
hydraulic functionality.
over a little bit to optimize the result.
Some large ones even have side sections to make the land easier to plow and to
which raise up vertically to allow
eliminate clogging in the plowing
process.
In the olden days, disc harrows usually eliminate clumps and loosen the soil if it
has been packed.
only consisted of two sections and
Disc harrows are primarily used to chop easier road transport or better storage
up soil that has been recently plowed to configurations.
These harrows were often adjustable so that the discs angle would not be offset
They are also used to chop up old crops, easier to plow and to eliminate clogging
such as cornstalks,
in the plowing process.
4. Comment on the photos in pairs.
5. Define the main idea of the text.
88
Unit 10. Rotary tiller
F210 Honda tiller
Tines close-up
Text A
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
rotary
tiller
rotary hoe
rotary plough
tine
blade
ротация
фермер
ротационная мотыга
ротационный плуг
зубец
лезвие
attachment
rigidly
fix
encompass
rigid
term
refer
solely
primary
приложение
твердо
положение
охватить
твердый
термин
отнестись
исключительно
основной
A rotary tiller
A rotary tiller, also known as a rototiller, rotavator, rotary hoe, power tiller,
or rotary plough (in US: plow), is a motorised cultivator that works the soil by
means of rotating tines or blades. Rotary tillers are either self-propelled or drawn
as an attachment behind either a two-wheel tractor or four-wheel tractor. For twowheel tractors, they are rigidly fixed and powered via couplings to the tractors'
transmission. For four-wheel tractors, they are attached by means of a three-point
89
hitch and driven by a Power Take-Off (PTO). In some parts of the world, the term
"power tiller" can encompass the larger and similar appearing two-wheeled tractor,
a machine which does however operate different attachements; in most Englishspeaking regions this difference is considered more rigid, as the term power tiller
(and this article) refers solely to devices with soil cultivation as their primary and
often only function.
1. Border the words, translate the sentences:
1. Rotarytillersareeitherself-propelledordrawn.
2. Fortwowheeltractorstheyarerigidlyfixed.
3. Forfourwheeltractorstheyareattachedbymeansofathreepointhitch.
2. Find in the text the sentences with the following verbs translate them:
operate, refer, know, fix.
3. Find the answers to the questions in the text:
1. What is a motorised cultivator that works the soil by means of rotating tines
or blades?
2. How does a rototiller work the soil?
3. Rotary tillers are self-propelled or drawn as an attachment behind either a
three-wheel tractor or four-wheel tractor, aren't they?
4. How are they fixed and powered for two-wheel tractors
5. How are they attached and driven?
6. What can you say about the term "power tiller?"
4. Comment on the photos in pairs.
5. Prepare the report on the problem and listen to the other students, define
which message is the most laconic and exhaustive.
Text B
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
invent
initially
occurring
sideway
apprentice
изобрести
первоначально
появление
боком
ученик
established
interrupt
suburb
demand
subsequently
acquired
90
установлен
перерыв
пригород
требование
впоследствии
приобретенный
Origin
The powered rotary hoe was invented by Arthur Clifford Howard who, in
1912, began experimenting with rotary tillage on his father's farm at Gilgandra,
New South Wales, Australia. Initially using his father's steam tractor engine as a
power source, he found that ground could be mechanically tilled without soilpacking occurring, as was the case with normal ploughing. His earliest designs
threw the tilled soil sideways, until he improved his invention by designing an Lshaped blade mounted on widely spaced flanges fixed to a small-diameter rotor.
With fellow apprentice Everard McCleary, he established a company to make his
machine, but plans were interrupted by World War I. In 1919 Howard returned to
Australia and resumed his design work, patenting a design with 5 rotary hoe
cultivator blades and an internal combustion engine, in 1920. In March 1922
Howard formed the company Austral Auto Cultivators Pty Ltd, which later became
known as Howard Auto Cultivators. It was based in Northmead, a suburb of
Sydney, from 1927. Finding it increasingly difficult to meet a growing worldwide
demand, Howard travelled to the United Kingdom, founding the company Rotary
Hoes Ltd in East Horndon, Essex, in July 1938. Branches of this new company
subsequently opened in the United States of America, South Africa, Germany,
France, Italy, Spain, Brazil, Malaysia, Australia and New Zealand. It later became
the holding company for Howard Rotavator Co. Ltd. The Howard Group of
companies was acquired by the Danish Thrige Agro Group in 1985, and in
December 2000 the Howard Group became a member of Kongskilde Industries of
Soroe, Denmark.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Border the words, translate the sentences:
HowardformedthecompanyAustralAutoCultivators.
ItwasbasedinNorthmeadasuburbofSydney.
BranchesofthisnewcompanywereopenedinAmerica.
2. Find in the text the sentences with the following verbs translate them: open,
become, return, fix, invent.
3. Find the answers to the questions in the text:
Who invented the powered rotary hoe?
What did he find?
How did he improve his invention?
What interrupted his plans?
When did Howard form the company Austral Auto Cultivators Pty Ltd?
When was the company Rotary Hoes Ltd in East Horndon, Essex founded?
4. Project work. Using the Internet and/ or newspapers and magazines, collect
some data on the rotary hoe's origin and discuss the results in your group.
91
Text C
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
rent
application
friction
brake
slowing
pulverize
stumble
аренда
заявление
трение
тормоз
замедление
распылить
задержка
manual
notoriously
exhaust
bury
garbage
abruptly
violently
ручной
печально известно
выхлоп
похоронить
мусор
резко
яростно
The Rototiller
Rotary tillers are popular with home gardeners who want large vegetable
gardens. The garden may be tilled a few times before planting each crop. Rotary
tillers may be rented from tool rental centers for single-use applications, such as
when planting grass. The small rototiller is typically propelled forward (via 1 - 5
horsepower petrol engine or 0.8 - 3.5 kilowatts) by the rotating tines and do not
have powered wheels, though they may have small transport/level control
wheel(s). To keep the machine from moving forward too fast, an adjustable tine is
usually fixed just behind the blades so that through friction with deeper un-tilled
soil, it acts as a brake, slowing the machine and allowing it to pulverize the soils.
The slower a rototiller moves forward, the more soil tilth can be obtained. The
operator can control the amount of friction/braking action by raising and lowering
the handlebars of the tiller. Rototillers do not have a reverse as such backwards
movement towards the operator could cause serious injury. While operating the
rototiller can be pulled backwards to go over areas that were not pulverized
enough, but care must be taken to ensure that the operator does not stumble and
pull the rototiller on top of himself. Rototilling is much faster than manual tilling,
but notoriously difficult to handle and exhausting work, especially in the heavier
and higher horse power models. If the rototiller's blades catch on unseen subsurface objects, such as tree roots and buried garbage, it can cause the rototiller to
abruptly and violently move in any direction.
1. Border the words, translate the sentences:
1. Theslowerarototillermovesforwardthemoresoiltilthcanbeobtained.
2. Rototillingismuchfasterthanmanualtilling.
3. Theoperatorcancontroltheamountoffrictionaction.
2. Find in the text the sentences with the following verbs translate them: cause,
have, control, till, keep, catch on.
92
3. Find the answers to the questions in the text:
1. Are rotary tillers popular with home gardeners who want large vegetable
gardens?
2. Where may rotary tillers be rented from?
3. Do the small rototillers have powered wheels?
4. The slower a rototiller moves forward, the less soil tilth can be obtained,
doesn’t it?
5. How can the operator control the amount of friction action?
6. What must be taken to ensure that the operator does not stumble?
7. Is rototilling much faster than manual tilling?
4. Define the main idea of the text.
Text D
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
unlike
в отличие от этого
engaged
нанятый
gearbox
коробка передач
reduce
уменьшить
constant
постоянный
compare
сравниться
enable
позволить
duty
обязанность
extent
степень
палиндром
palindrome
The Rotavator
Unlike the Rototiller, the self propelled Howard Rotavator is equipped with
a gearbox and driven forward, or held back, by its wheels. The gearbox enables the
forward speed to be adjusted while the rotational speed of the tines remains
constant which enables the operator to easily regulate the extent to which soil is
engaged. For a two-wheel tractor rotavator this greatly reduces the workload of the
operator as compared to a rototiller. These rotavators are generally more heavy
duty, come in higher power (4-18 horsepower or 3-13 kilowatts) with either petrol
or diesel engines and can cover much more area per hour. The trademarked word
"Rotavator" is one of the longest single-word palindromes in the English language.
1. Border the words, translate the sentences:
1. Thegearboxenablestheforwardspeed.
2. HowardRotavatorisequippedwithagearbox.
3. Foratwowheeltractorrotavatorthisgreatlyreducestheworkload.
2. Find in the text the sentences with the following verbs translate them: cover,
equip, enable, reduce.
93
3. Find the answers to the questions in the text:
1. What is equipped with a gearbox and driven forward, or held back, by its
wheels?
2. What enables the operator to regulate the extent to which soil is engaged?
3. These rotavators are generally more heavy duty, come in higher power with
either petrol or diesel engines and can cover much more area per hour, aren't
they?
4. What is one of the longest single-word palindromes in the English language?
4. Prepare the report on the problem and listen to the other students, define
which message is the most laconic and exhaustive.
Text E
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
category
категория generally
вообще
rice
рис
inter-cultivation
межкультивирование
inexpensive недорогой row
ряд
vine
виноградная лоза
Agricultural rotary tillers
A rotary tiller for agriculture
A tractor-mounted tiller
Two-wheel tractor. The higher power "riding" rotavators cross out of the
home garden category into farming category especially in Asia, Africa and South
America, capable of preparing 1 hectare of land in 8 – 10 hours. These are also
known as power tillers, walking tractors or two-wheel tractors. Years ago they
were considered only useful for rice growing areas, where they were fitted with
steel cage-wheels for traction, but now the same are being used in both wetland
and dryland farming all over the world. Compact, powerful and most importantly
94
inexpensive, these agricultural rotary tillers are providing alternatives to fourwheel tractors and in the small farmers fields in developing countries are more
economical than four-wheel tractors.
Four-wheel tractor. Four-wheel tractor-drawn rotary tillers are attached to a
three point linkage and are driven by a power take off shaft. Generally considered a
secondary tillage implement they can, and are commonly used for, primary tillage.
They also can also be used for inter-cultivation between and for cultivation between rows of vines, etc.
1. Border the words, translate the sentences:
Powerfulandinexpensivetheyareprovidingalternativestofour-wheeltractors.
Theyareknownaspowertillerswalkingtractorsortwowheeltractors.
Theycanbeusedforintercultivation.
2. Find in the text the sentences with the following verbs translate them: cross,
use, fit, considere, attach.
3. Find the answers to the questions in the text:
1. Where do the higher power "riding" rotavators cross out of the home garden
category into farming category?
2. What is also known as power tillers, walking tractors or two-wheel tractors?
3. These agricultural rotary tillers are providing alternatives to four-wheel tractors and in the small farmers fields in developing countries are more economical than four-wheel tractors, aren’t they?
4. What are four-wheel tractor-drawn rotary tillers attached to?
5. Are they commonly used for primary tillage?
4. Comment on the photos in pairs.
5. Refer the text.
Text F
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
road-making дорожное строительство supplant
вытеснять
modified
измененный
entire
цельный
exterior
внешность
length
длина
oilfield
месторождение нефти
wire
провод
pipe
труба
brush
щетка
ultimately
в конечном счете
palindrome
палиндром
Other uses
•
Rotary tillers can also be used for road-making.
95
•
Beginning in the 1970s or 1980s, hand operated rototillers were modified to
clean the exterior of oilfield pipes. These pipes, either new or used, and in
sizes that are just over 2 inches (51 mm) in diameter to 30 inches (760 mm)
or larger, were used in the exploration, drilling and production of oil wells.
These modified tools replaced cleaning using hand tools, and were
ultimately supplanted by machinery that cleaned entire pipe lengths within a
few years.The modification replaced the tines with wire brushes. The tool
was used by a man walking the length of a pipe (typically 30 or 40 feet),
which was rotated.
•
"Rotavator" is considered to be one of the longest palindromes in the English
language.
1. Find in the text the sentences with the following verbs translate them: use,
operate, replace, are.
2. Find the answers to the questions in the text:
1. Can rotary tillers be used for road making?
2. When were hand operated rototillers modified to clean the exterior of oilfield pipes?
3. What was supplanted by machinery that cleaned entire pipe lengths within a
few years?
4. What replaced the tines with wire brushes?
5. "Rotavator" is not considered to be one of the longest palindromes in the
English language, is it?
3. Project work. Using the Internet and/ or newspapers and magazines, collect
some data on the rototillers' uses and discuss the results in your group.
96
Unit 11. Subsoiler
Text A
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
depth
глубина
nutrient
питательное вещество
twice
дважды
shattered
разрушенный
reach
достигнуть
area
область
sharpen
обостриться
shank
нога
tip
наконечник
indicate
указать
claim
требование
wide
широкий
penetrate
проникнуть через tow
буксировка
lay
лежать
A subsoiler
Howse brand modular Subsoiler mounted to a
tractor
Modular subsoiler unit, unmounted with accessories
A subsoiler or mole plough is a tractor mounted implement used to loosen
and break up soil at depths below the level of a traditional disk harrow or rototiller.
Most tractor mounted cultivation tools will break up and turn over surface soil to a
depth of 6" to 8" while a subsoiler will break up and loosen soil to twice those
depths. Typically a subsoiler mounted to a Compact Utility Tractor will reach
depths of about 12" and typically have only one thin blade with a sharpened tip.
The subsoiler is a tillage tool which will improve growth in all crops where soil
compaction is a problem. The design provides deep tillage, loosening soil deeper
than a tiller or plough is capable of reaching. Agricultural subsoilers, according to
the Unverferth Company, can disrupt hardpan ground down to 24" depths. Various
manufacturer's brochures claim that crops perform well during hot and dry seasons
because roots penetrate soil layers deeper to reach moisture and nutrients.
Brochures further claim that in wet conditions, the water passes easier through the
shattered areas, reducing the possibility of crops drowning. Agricultural tractors
will have multiple deeper reaching blades; each blade is called a scarifier or shank.
97
Purdue University's Dept. of Agriculture indicates that common subsoilers for
agricultural use are available with 3, 5 or 7 shanks. These units can be up to 15'
wide, some models are towed behind tractors, others are tractor mounted to the 3pt
hitch. A form of this implement (with a single blade) is used to lay buried pipes
either for drainage or to provide a water supply. A flexible plastic pipe is led down
a guide behind the blade, and is left buried behind the plough, without the need to
dig a deep trench and re-fill it.
1. Fill in the necessary word:
Most tractor mounted cultivation tools will break up and turn over surface
soil to a depth of … to …
A subsoiler mounted to a Compact Utility Tractor will reach depths of about
…
The design provides deep tillage, loosening soil deeper than a …
Agricultural subsoilers can disrupt hardpan ground down to … depths.
They claim that crops perform well during … and … seasons.
Brochures claim that in … conditions, the … passes easier through the
shattered areas.
These units can be up to … wide, some models are towed behind tractors,
others are tractor mounted to the … hitch.
A flexible plastic … is led down a guide behind the blade.
2. Try to explain the following phrases in English: deep tillage, a tillage tool,
wet conditions, the water pass, flexible plastic pipe, cultivation tools.
3. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
Tractor mounted cultivation tools will that crops perform well during hot and
dry seasons.
break up
A subsoiler or mole
guide behind the blade.
A flexible plastic pipe is led down a
and turn over surface soil to a depth of
6" to 8"
Agricultural tractors will have
in all crops where soil compaction is a
problem.
A subsoiler mounted to a Compact plough is a tractor mounted implement.
Utility Tractor
A subsoiler is a tillage tool which will will reach depths of about 12".
improve growth
Various manufacturer's brochures claim multiple deeper reaching blades.
3. Comment on the photos in pairs.
4. Define the main idea of the text.
98
Unit 12. Two-wheel tractor
Text A
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
generic
single-axle
mistakenly
household
родовой
единственная ось
по ошибке
домашний
distinction
disparate
specialize
concern
различие
несоизмеримый
специализироваться
беспокойство
Two-wheel tractor
Two-wheel tractor in Italy
(2008)
Two-wheel tractor with trailer
in Thailand (2004)
Two-wheel tractor with trailer
(2007)
Two-wheel tractor or walking tractor are generic terms understood in the
USA and in parts of Europe to represent a single-axle farm implement, usually
self-powered and propelled. Similar terms are mistakenly applied to the household
rotary tiller or power tiller that may be wheeled and/or self-propelled but normally
is not. A further distinction is seen in the two-wheeled tractor's ability to operate
disparate types of agricultural equipment, while rotary tillers are smaller and
specialize in soil cultivation. This article concerns two-wheeled tractors.
1. Fill in the necessary word:
•
The distinction is seen in the two-wheeled tractor's ability to …disparate
types of agricultural equipment, while rotary tillers are smaller and specialize in soil cultivation.
99
•
•
•
Two-wheel tractor or walking tractor are generic terms understood in the
USA and in parts of Europe to represent a … farm implement, usually selfpowered and propelled.
This article … two-wheeled tractors.
Similar terms are mistakenly applied to the household rotary tiller or power
tiller that may be wheeled and/or self-propelled but … is not.
•
2. Try to explain the following phrases in English: similar terms, a further
distinction, generic terms, agricultural equipment.
3. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
A further distinction is seen in the two- the household rotary tiller.
wheeled tractor's
Two-wheel tractor or walking tractor two-wheeled tractors.
are generic terms understood in the
This article concerns
ability to operate disparate types of
agricultural equipment.
Similar terms are mistakenly applied to USA and in parts of Europe to represent
a single-axle farm implement.
4. Discuss the alternatives of the problem's solving, their advantages and disadvantages.
5. Comment on the photos in pairs.
Text B
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
hobby
rubber
luxury
tax
lawn
orchard
nomenclature
confusion
sprayer
mower
хобби
резина
роскошь
налог
лужайка
сад
спецификация
беспорядок
распылитель
косилка
100
reaper
harvester
cargoes
available
database
gauge
ignore
assume
yet
Жнец
комбайн
грузы
доступный
база данных
мера
проигнорировать
принять
все же
Confusion over definition
"Power tiller" can be understood as a garden tiller/rototiller of the small (3–7
hp or 2–5 kW) petrol/gasoline/electric powered, hobby gardener variety; they are
often sold as a rotary tiller, though the technical argicultural use of that term refers
solely to an attachment to a larger tractor. Alternatively the terms power tiller or
rotary tiller in Asia and elsewhere, are always understood to be rubber or iron
wheeled, self-propelled machines of 5–18 hp (4–13 kW) and usually powered by
heavy duty have become available (many Asian countries historically have had a
high luxury tax on petrol/gasoline). Some people do not realize the importance that
large horsepower 2-wheel farm tractors played in their own nations' agriculture
mechanization process. They simply categorize two-wheel tractors as lawn and
garden equipment, although they are still in wide use as farm and orchard tractors
in southern and Eastern Europe. Adding to the nomenclature confusion,
agricultural engineers like to classify them as single axle tractors. These traditional
or technical names are confusing, technically inaccurate and unwieldy. Therefore,
the remaining part of the article will refer to the self-propelled, single axle, multiattachment operable equipment as two-wheel tractors.
For production agriculture, past and present, two-wheel tractors are offered
with wide range attachments such as rotovators, moldboard, disc-plow and spiketooth harrows, seeders, transplanters, and planters. Even zero till/no-till planters
and seeders have become available. In plant protection, two-wheel tractor
attachments consist of various inter-cultivators and sprayers. For harvesting
mowers, reaper/grain harvesters, reaper-binders, and even combine harvesters are
available for them. For transport, trailers with capacities from 0.5 to 2 plus ton
cargoes are available. All the chores done by larger 4-wheel tractors. This
confusion or misunderstanding runs deep even at research and institutional levels.
The United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organization's own statistical database,
FAO Stat gauges levels of mechanization by numbers of 4-wheel tractors and
ignores completely the fact that 2-wheel tractors perform exactly the same work
that 4-wheeler tractors do. By using FAO's statistics, international donors and
agricultural research and development centers assume that since Bangladesh and
Sri Lanka have very few 4-wheel tractors, that they are completely unmechanized,
as compared to India, who besides having 100,000 two-wheel tractors also has a
large population of 4-wheel tractors. Yet, when two-wheel tractors are included,
Bangladesh and Sri Lanka are the most highly mechanized countries in south Asia,
in terms of area under mechanized tillage operations.
1. Fill in the necessary word:
• "Power tiller" can be understood as a …rototiller.
• the terms power tiller or rotary tiller in Asia are always understood to be
rubber or iron wheeled, … machines.
101
•
•
•
•
•
•
Some people do not realize the importance that large horsepower 2-wheel
farm tractors played in their own nations' agriculture … process.
They … two-wheel tractors as lawn and garden equipment, Adding to the
nomenclature confusion, agricultural engineers like to classify them as
single axle tractors.
These traditional or technical names are …, technically inaccurate and
unwieldy.
For production …, two-wheel tractors are offered with wide range
attachments such as rotovators, moldboard, disc-plow and spike-tooth
harrows, seeders, transplanters, and planters.
Even … tilll planters and seeders have become available.
In plant protection, two-wheel tractor attachments consist of … intercultivators and sprayers.
2. Try to explain the following phrases in English: highly mechanized countries,
have become available, have become available, names are confusing, technical
argicultural use.
3. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
For production agriculture, past and deep even at research and institutional
levels.
present,
Bangladesh and Sri Lanka are the most plus ton cargoes are available.
highly
This confusion or misunderstanding two-wheel tractors are offered with wide
runs
range attachments.
For transport, trailers with capacities of various inter-cultivators and sprayers.
from 0.5 to 2
Even zero till
planters and seeders have become
available.
In plant protection, two-wheel tractor mechanized countries in south Asia.
attachments consist
4. Prepare the report on the problem and listen to the other students, define
which message is the most laconic and exhaustive.
Text C
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
own
recently
expand
собственный
недавно
расшириться
sell
nearly
joint venture
102
продаватье
почти
совм. предприятие
centimeter
reaper
currently
сантиметр
жнец
в настоящее время
single
double
единственный
двойной
Current two-wheel tractor manufacturers in Asia
Changzhou Dongfeng Agricultural Machinery Group Co. Located in
Changzhou, Jiangsu Provence near Shanghai Changzhou Dongfeng Agricultural
Machinery Group Co. claims to be the only manufacturer in China that owns the
Dong Feng brand name. Manufacturing more than 150,000 two-wheel tractors a
year in 8, 12, 14 and 15 hp (11 kW) ranges, it has recently expanded into the 4wheel tractor market manufacturing over 30,000 tractors in the 20–90 hp (15–70
kW) range, under the brand name CHANGTUO.
Kerala Agricultural Machinery Corporation (KAMCO) Located in Kerala
in southern India, KAMCO in cooperation with Kubota, Japan, manufacturers
12 hp (8.9 kW) two-wheel tractor with a range of attachments, a two-wheel tractor
walk behind 3.5 hp 120 centimeter reaper and a small 5 hp (3.7 kW). It currently
sells nearly 6500 of its 2-wheel tractors per year.
The Siam Kubota Industry Co.,Ltd. Located in Bangkok, Thailand, Siam
Kubota Industry Co.,Ltd. is a joint venture between The Siam Cement Pcl., Kubota
Corporation, Marubeni Corporation, and Min Sen Machinery Co.,Ltd. than began
operations in 1978. They make a range of havesters, 4-wheel tractors and 2-wheel
tractors. They offer four models of walk behind (with out sulky seat) and with single and double (steering) clutches.
VST Tiller Tractors Ltd. Located in Bangalore, VST Tiller Tractors Ltd,
part of the VST Group in 1965, in association and joint venture with the Mitsubishi Group, Japan, began production production of single cylinder diesel engines
and two-wheel tractors. Currently they offer three versions of its VST Shakti brand
two-wheel tractors with rotary tillers. The 13 hp (9.7 kW) VST Shakti
130DI/CT85, the 9 hp (6.7 kW) Mitsubishi Shakti VWH 120/ CT85, and 8 hp
(6.0 kW) Mitsubishi Shakti AD 8V/CT85. In 2003 they also began importing Siafeng type 2-wheel tractors from China and marketing them under their Shakti
Brand.
1. Fill in the necessary word:
1. Changzhou Dongfeng Agricultural Machinery Group Co. claims to be the
only … in China.
2. Kerala Agricultural Machinery Corporation (KAMCO) sells … of its 2wheel tractors per year.
3. The Siam Kubota Industry Co.,Ltd. began operations in …
4. VST Tiller Tractors Ltd. began production of … and two-wheel tractors.
2. Try to explain the following phrases in English: a range of havesters, a joint
venture, the only manufacturer, recently expanded, began importing.
103
3. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
Changzhou Dongfeng Agricultural Ma- claims to be the only manufacturer in
China.
chinery Group Co.
In 2003 they also began importing Sia- tractors from China and marketing them
feng type 2-wheel
under their Shakti Brand.
Currently they offer three versions of its a year in 8, 12, 14 and 15 hp ranges, it
VST
has recently expanded into the 4-wheel
tractor market.
Manufacturing more than 150,000 two- Shakti brand two-wheel tractors with
wheel tractors
rotary tillers.
They make a range of havesters,
and joint venture with the Mitsubishi
Group, Japan, began production production of single cylinder diesel engines and
two-wheel tractors.
VST Tiller Tractors Ltd. Located in 4-wheel tractors and 2-wheel tractors.
Bangalore, VST Tiller Tractors Ltd, part
of the VST Group in 1965, in association
They offer four models of walk behind
of its 2-wheel tractors per year.
It currently sells nearly 6500
and with single and double clutches.
4. Project work. Using the Internet and/ or newspapers and magazines, collect
some data on the current two-wheel tractor manufacturers in Asia and discuss the
results in your group.
Text D
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
pedestrian
appear
grass cutter
vein
subsequently
comprehensive
available
пешеход
появиться
резак травы
вена
впоследствии
всесторонний
доступный
latterly
site
established
cost
approximately
wholly
subsidiary
недавно
место
установленный
стоимость
приблизительно
полностью
филиал
Current two-wheel tractor manufacturers in the west
United Kingdom. Mayfield Tractors. Mayfield pedestrian tractors appeared
on the market sometime about 1949 and were principally designed as a grass cutter
in much the same vein as the Allen Scythe. Subsequently a comprehensive range
104
of attachments were available to turn the tractor into a useful tool for the smallholder and market gardener. Assembly was carried out at the Balfour works of S R
Wood & Co in Croydon but latterly moved to a site in Redhill, Surrey.
United States. Gravely Tractors. Established in 1916, Gravely Tractors began production of two-wheel tractor with moldboard plows costing approximately
170 USD and slowly grew to become one of the most recognized commercial lawn
and garden manufacturers in the US. In 1986 Gravely became a wholly owned
subsidiary of the Ariens Company.
1. Fill in the necessary word:
1. Mayfield pedestrian tractors appeared on the market sometime about …
2. … were principally designed as a grass cutter.
3. A comprehensive range of … were available to turn the tractor into a useful
tool for the smallholder and market gardener.
4. Established in …, Gravely Tractors began production of two-wheel tractor
with moldboard plows.
5. Gravely Tractors cost … and slowly grew to become one of the most recognized commercial lawn and garden manufacturers in the US.
6. In 1986 … became a wholly owned subsidiary of the Ariens Company.
2. Try to explain the following phrases in English: to turn the tractor into a useful tool, two-wheel tractor with moldboard plows, were principally designed as a
grass cutter.
3. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
A comprehensive range of attachments of two-wheel tractor with moldboard
plows.
were available to turn the tractor into a
Established in 1916, Gravely Tractors sometime about 1949 and were princibegan production
pally designed as a grass cutter.
Mayfield pedestrian tractors appeared useful tool for the smallholder and maron the market
ket gardener.
In 1986 Gravely became a wholly subsidiary of the Ariens Company.
owned
4. Project work. Using the Internet and/ or newspapers and magazines, collect
some data on the current two-wheel tractor manufacturers in the west and discuss
the results in your group.
105
Unit 13. Stone Picker
Text A
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
stone picker
separate
topsoil
landscaping
prevent
damage
reciprocating
instead of
каменный сборщик
отдельный
верхний слой почвы
озеленение
предотвратить
повреждение
оплата
вместо
sieve
screen
stone
rock
bin
hopper
periodic
dumping
решето
экран
камень
рок
мус.ведро
бункер
периодический
демпинг
A stone picker
A stone picker (rock picker) is an implement to remove the top layer of soil
to separate rocks and soil debris from good topsoil. It is usually tractor-pulled. A
stone picker is similar in appearance and function to a rock rake; a stone picker
generally digs to greater depths to remove stones and rocks.
Stone pickers are used in farming and landscaping, where stones need to be
removed from the soil and ground surface to prevent damage to other farm machinery (such as hay bailers, combines, and mowers), improve the soil for crop production, or improve the appearance of the ground surface in preparation for a lawn
or a golf course. Surface stones and large rocks often left from plowing can damage a hay bailer, the header or reciprocating knives on a combine, and blades on a
Rotary mower. Land with rock instead of fine soil are often less useful for crops.
A stone picker has digging teeth, a conveyor system, a sieve or screen, and a
stone bin. The digging teeth are at the leading edge of the stone picker and removes soil, which is placed on the conveyor system. If the sieve is not combined
with the conveyor system, the conveyor system transports the stones and large
rocks to a bin or hopper for periodic dumping. Some stone pickers use a large tractor, generally over 100 horsepower, equipped with hydraulics and Power take-off
driven mechanisms. PTO punp driven equipment can use 60 horsepower tractors.
The tractor's hydraulics control the depth to which the stone picker digs to excavate soil material; whereas, the PTO controls the movement of the conveyor and
picking system.
1. Fill in the necessary word:
1. A stone picker is … in appearance and function to a rock rake.
2. Stone pickers are used in … and landscaping,
106
3. Large rocks often left from plowing can …a hay bailer Land with rock instead of fine soil are often less useful for crops.
4. A stone picker has digging …, a conveyor system, a sieve or screen, and a
stone bin.
5. The digging teeth are at the … edge of the stone picker and removes soil.
6. Some stone pickers use a large tractor, generally over … horsepower.
2. Try to explain the following phrases in English: leading edge of the stone
picker, control the movement of the conveyor, for periodic dumping, the top layer
of soil.
3. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
Stone pickers are used
picker digs to excavate soil material.
The tractor's hydraulics control the in farming and landscaping.
depth to which the stone
Land with rock instead of fine
often left from plowing can damage a
hay bailer.
The digging teeth are at the leading soil are often less useful for crops.
edge of the stone picker
Surface stones and large rocks
generally over 100 horsepower.
Some stone pickers use a large tractor,
and removes soil, which is placed on the
conveyor system.
4. Using Appendix 1, express your opinion on the problem of the text:
107
Unit 14. Planting
Text A
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
seed
семя
appropriately соответственно
lime
известь
hopper
бункер
fertilizer
удобрение
pendulum
маятник
roughly
примерно
galvanize
гальванизировать
divide
разделиться
fin
плавник
utility
полезность
spin
вращение
property
собственность
crank
заводная рукоятка
maintenance
предоставление
gear
механизм
visible
видимый
dispersing
рассеивание
A broadcast seeder
A broadcast seeder, alternately called a broadcast spreader, is a tractor
implement commonly used for spreading seed, lime, fertilizer.
Rear View of a broadcast seeder attached to a
Kubota B2910 compact tractor
Herd M96 seeder/spreader, side view showing
3pt hitch and PTO shaft
Broadcast seeders/spreaders can be roughly divided into three groups. The
smallest of the broadcast seeders/spreaders can be carried or pushed while spreading seed or fertilizer. The next size up is designed to be towed behind a garden
tractor or ATV. Very similar in size to the tow behind units are broadcast seeders
that mount to the 3pt hitch of a compact utility tractor, these are ideal for landscape
and small property maintenance. The largest size units are commercial broadcast
seeders/spreaders designed and sized appropriately for agricultural tractors and
mount to the tractor's 3pt hitch. The broadcast seeders that are mounted to a 3pt
hitch are powered by a power take off (P.T.O.) shaft from the tractor.
The basic operating concept of broadcast spreads is simple. A large material
hopper is positioned over a horizontal spinning disk; the disk has a series of 3 or 4
fins attached to it which throw the dropped materials from the hopper out and away
108
from the seeder/spreader. Alternately, a pendulum spreading mechanism may be
employed; this method is more common in large commercial spreaders. The photos clearly show the material hopper, these hoppers are commonly made of plastic,
painted steel or galvanized steel. Some seeders/spreaders have directional fins to
control the direction of the material that is thrown from the spreader.
All broadcast spreaders require some form of power to spin the disk. On
hand carried units, a hand crank spins gears to turn the disk. On tow behind units,
the wheels spin a shaft that turns gears which, in turn, spin the disk. As is partially
visible in one of the photos, with tractor mounted units, a mechanical P.T.O. shaft
connected to the tractor and controlled by the tractor operator, spins the disk. There
are some seeder/spreaders made for garden size tractors that use a 12 volt motor to
spin the dispersing disk.
1. Fill in the necessary word:
1. Broadcast seeders can be … into three groups.
2. The … of the broadcast seeders can be carried or pushed while spreading
seed or fertilizer.
3. The largest size units are commercial broadcast seeders/spreaders designed
and sized … for agricultural tractors.
4. The broadcast seeders that are mounted to a … hitch are powered by a power take off shaft from the tractor.
5. A pendulum spreading … may be employed.
6. The photos clearly show the material hopper, these hoppers are commonly
made of …, painted steel or galvanized steel.
7. There are some seeders made for .. size tractors that use a 12 volt motor to
spin the dispersing disk.
2. Try to explain the following phrases in English: require some form of power,
basic operating concept, commonly used for spreading seed, a pendulum spreading
mechanism, very similar in size
3. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
Very similar in size to the tow behind can be carried or pushed while spreadunits are broadcast seeders that mount to ing seed or fertilizer.
The smallest of the broadcast seed- are powered by a power take off shaft
ers/spreaders
from the tractor.
The broadcast seeders that are mounted appropriately for agricultural tractors
to a 3pt hitch
and mount to the tractor's 3pt hitch.
The largest size units are commercial the 3pt hitch of a compact utility tractor,
broadcast seeders/spreaders designed these are ideal for landscape and small
property maintenance.
and sized
4. Comment on the photos in pairs.
109
5. Define the main idea of the text.
Text B
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
planter
плантатор
lay
лежать
towed
буксируемый
precise
точный
сеяние
row
ряд
sowing
урожай
distribute
распределить
crop
через
spaced
расположенный
through
vary
измениться
Planter (farm implement)
A two row planter featuring John Deere "71 Flexi" row units
A planter is an agricultural farm implement towed behind a tractor, used for
sowing crops through a field. It is connected to the tractor with a draw-bar, or a
three-point hitch. Planters lay the seed down in precise manner along rows. Seeds
are distributed through devices called row units. The row units are spaced evenly
along the planter. Planters vary greatly in size, from 2 rows to 48. The space
between the row units also vary greatly.
1. Fill in the necessary word:
1. A planter is an … farm implement towed behind a tractor, used for sowing
crops through a field.
2. It is connected to the … with a drawbar, or a three-point hitch.
3. Planters lay the seed down in ... manner along rows.
4. Seeds are distributed through devices called ….
5. The row units are spaced evenly along ….
6. Planters vary greatly in …, from two rows to 48.
7. The space between the row units also …greatly.
110
2. Try to explain the following phrases in English: row units, towed behind a
tractor, vary greatly in size, connected to the tractor.
3. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
The space between the row
from 2 rows to 48.
It is connected to the tractor with a
through devices called row units.
Seeds are distributed
draw-bar, or a three-point hitch.
Planters vary greatly in size,
units also vary greatly.
4. Comment on the photos in pairs.
5. Refer the text.
Text C
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
wasteful
расточительный
germinate
прорастать
imprecise
неточный
rate
уровень
poor
бедный
germination
прорастание
distribution
распределение
consideration
соображение
productivity
производительность
weed
сорняк
определенный
selective
отборный
specific
труба
гербицид
herbicide
tube
создать
предоставить
afford
create
отверстие
трудоемкий
laborious
hole
предшествующий
сеяние
sowing
prior
изобретение
канал
invention
channel
back-tracking
возвращение
Seed drill
A sowing machine which uses the seed drill concept
A seed drill is a sowing device. Before the introduction of the seed drill, the
common practice was to "broadcast" seeds by hand. Besides being wasteful,
broadcasting was very imprecise and led to a poor distribution of seeds, leading to
low productivity. The seed drill allows farmers to sow seeds in well-spaced rows at
111
specific depths at a specific seed rate; each tube creates a hole of a specific depth,
drops in a seed, and covers it over. Prior to this farmers simply cast seeds on the
ground, by hand, for them to grow where they landed (broadcasting). This
invention gave farmers much greater control over the depth that the seed was
planted and the ability to cover the seeds without back-tracking. This greater
control meant that seeds germinated consistently and in good soil. The result was
an increased rate of germination, and a much-improved crop yield (up to eight
times). A further important consideration was weed control: in the days before
selective herbicide, drilling afforded the ability to hoe the crop during the course of
the growing season. Weeding by hand is laborious and poor weeding limits yield.
"Drilling" is the term used for the mechanized sowing of an agricultural
crop. The seed from the hopper of a seed drill is distributed by a seed metering mechanism into a set of tubes arranged to provide a suitable distance between each
other to allow optimum growth of the resulting plants. The seed falls into "drills",
or channels made by a coulter.
1. Fill in the necessary word:
1. The seed drill allows … to sow seeds in well-spaced rows.
2. … to this farmers simply cast seeds on the ground, by hand, for them to grow
where they landed.
3. This invention gave farmers much greater … over the depth that the seed was
planted.
4. This greater control meant that seeds germinated consistently and in …soil.
5. The result was an increased rate of …, and a much-improved crop yield.
6. Weeding by hand is laborious and poor weeding …yield.
2. Try to explain the following phrases in English: without back-tracking,
weeding by hand, mechanized sowing of an agricultural crop, being wasteful,
allows farmers to sow seeds in well-spaced rows.
3. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
Prior to this farmers simply cast
increased rate of germination.
The seed from the hopper of a seed drill by a seed metering mechanism into a set
is distributed
of tubes.
A further important
in well-spaced rows at specific depths at
a specific seed rate.
The result was an
consideration was weed control.
The seed drill allows farmers to sow seeds on the ground, by hand.
seeds
Weeding by hand is laborious and
over the depth that the seed was planted.
The invention gave farmers much poor weeding limits yield.
greater control
4. Comment on the photos in pairs.
112
5. Define the main idea of the text.
Text D
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
rice
рис
pickup
погрузка
transplanter
трансплантатор
fork
вилка
mainly
главным образом
mat
циновка
prefer
предпочесть
earth
земля
fuss-free
без суеты
finger
палец
expense
расход
considerably
значительно
reduce
уменьшить
approximate
приблизительный
comprise
включить
area
область
tray
поднос
cost
стоимость
carriage
вагон
whereas
тогда как
attempt
попытка
Rice transplanter
Rice transplanter in Japan
A rice transplanter is a specialized transplanter fitted to transplant rice
seedlings onto paddy field. Although rice is grown in areas other than Asia, rice
transplanters are used mainly in East, Southeast, and South Asia. This is because
rice can be grown without transplanting, by simply sowing seeds on field, and
farmers outside Asia prefer this fuss-free way at the expense of reduced yield.
A common rice transplanter comprises:
•
•
•
a seedling tray like a shed roof on which mat type rice nursery is set;
a seedling tray shifter that shifts the seedling tray like a carriage of
typewriters; and
plural pickup forks that pick up a seedling from mat type nursery on the
seedling tray and put the seedling into the earth, as if the seedling were taken
between human fingers.
Machine transplanting using rice transplanters requires considerably less time
and labor than manual transplanting. It increases the approximate area that a person
113
can plant from 700 to 10,000 square metres per day. However, rice transplanters
are considerably expensive for almost all Asian small-hold farmers. Rice
transplanters are popular in industrialized countries where labor cost is high, for
example in South Korea. Rice transplanters were first developed in Japan in 1960s,
whereas the earliest attempt to mechanize rice transplanting dates back to late 19th
century. In Japan, development and spread of rice transplanters progressed rapidly
during 1970s and 1980s.
1. Fill in the necessary word:
1. It increases the approximate area that a person can plant from 700 to 10,000
square metres per day.
2. Rice transplanters were first developed in Japan in 1960s, whereas the earliest attempt to mechanize rice transplanting dates back to late 19th century.
3. Machine transplanting using rice transplanters requires considerably less
time and labor than manual transplanting.
4. Rice transplanters are popular in where labor cost is high, for example in
South Korea.
5. However, rice transplanters are considerably expensive for almost all Asian
small-hold farmers.
6. In Japan, development and spread of rice transplanters progressed rapidly
during 1970s and 1980s.
2. Try to explain the following phrases in English: first developed, dates back
to, industrialized countries, considerably expensive, can be grown without
transplanting.
3. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
It requires considerably less time
almost all Asian small-hold farmers.
It increases the approximate area that a by simply sowing seeds on field.
person can
Rice transplanters are considerably mainly in East, Southeast, and South
expensive for
Asia.
Rice
can
be
grown
without and labor than manual transplanting.
transplanting,
Rice transplanters are used
plant from 700 to 10,000 square metres
per day.
4. Using Appendix 1, express your opinion on the problem of the text:
5. Comment on the photos in pairs.
6. Project work. Using the Internet and/ or newspapers and magazines, collect
some data on the rice transplanter and discuss the results in your group.
114
Unit 15. Fertilizing & Pest Control
Text A
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
manure
удобрение
application
заявление
spreader
распорка
removable
сменный
muck
навоз
attachable
присоединяемый
honey
мед
extension
расширение
wagon
фургон
tailgate
задняя дверь
удобрение
hauling
перевозка
fertilizer
трейлер
chop
отбивная
trailer
буксировка
forage
фураж
tow
грузовик
cereal
хлебный злак
truck
гора
grain
зерно
mount
недавний
credit
кредит
recent
предложение
successful
успешный
offer
variable
переменный
mechanical
механический
Manure spreader
A manure spreader
A manure spreader or muck spreader or honey wagon is an agricultural
machine used to distribute manure over a field as a fertilizer. A typical (modern)
manure spreader consists of a trailer towed behind a tractor with a rotating
mechanism driven by the tractor's power take off (PTO). Truck mounted manure
spreaders are also common in North America. Manure spreaders began as grounddriven units which could be pulled by a horse or team of horses. Many of these
ground-driven spreaders are still produced today, mostly in the form of small units
that can be pulled behind a larger garden tractor or an all terrain vehicle (ATV). In
recent years Hydraulic and PTO driven units have been developed to offer variable
application rates. Several models are also designed with removable rotating
115
mechanisms, attachable side extensions, and tailgates for hauling chopped forages,
cereal grains, and other crops. Joseph Oppenheim and Henry Synck of Ohio are
credited with the first successful mechanical manure spreader in 1891.
1. Write out from the text the sentences with the following phrases, translate
them in written form: began, design, mount, tow, use.
2. Find the answers in the text:
1. What is an agricultural machine used to distribute manure over a field as a
fertilizer?
2. What does a typical manure spreader consist of?
3. Are truck mounted manure spreaders common in North America?
4. Did manure spreaders begin as ground-driven units?
5. Are many of these ground-driven spreaders still produced today?
6. When have Hydraulic and PTO driven units been developed?
3. Comment on the photos in pairs.
4. Define the main idea of the text.
Text B
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
spray
брызги
man-portable
портативный
liquid
жидкость
unit
единица
piece
часть
рюкзак
backpack
herbicide
гербицид
бум
boom
pesticide
пестицид
длина
length
fertilizer
удобрение
стремя
stirrup
Sprayer
Large Self-Propelled 'Floater' Sprayer
Self-Propelled Row-crop Sprayer
116
A sprayer is a device used to spray a liquid. In agriculture, a sprayer is a
piece of equipment that applies herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizers to agricultural
crops. Sprayers range in size from man-portable units (typically backpacks with
spray guns) to self-propelled units similar to tractors, with boom mounts of 60-151
feet in length.
Types:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Backpack/knapsack
Foot
Garden
Hand compression
Power
Stirrup
1. Write out from the text the sentences with the following phrases, translate
them in written form: range, use.
2. Find the answers in the text:
1. What is used to spray a liquid?
2. Does a sprayer apply herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizers to agricultural
crops?
3. How do sprayers range in size?
4. What are their types?
3. Using Appendix 1, express your opinion on the problem of the text:
117
Unit 16. Irrigation
Text A
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
irrigation
ирригация
include
включать
artificial
искусственный
protecting
защита
application
заявление
plant
завод
assist
помочь
frost
мороз
dry
сухой
suppressing
подавление
areas
области
preventing
предотвращение
inadequate
несоответствующий
soil consolida- почва консолиrainfall
ливень
tion
дация
additionally
дополнительно
drainage
дренаж
flushing
смывание
Irrigation
Irrigation is an artificial application of water to the soil. It is usually used to
assist in growing crops in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall.
Additionally, irrigation also has a few other uses in crop production, which include
protecting plants against frost suppressing weed growing in rice fields and helping
in preventing soil consolidation. In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct
rainfall is referred to as rain-fed farming. Irrigation is often studied together with
drainage, which is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water
from a given area. Irrigation is also a term used in medical/dental fields to refer to
flushing and washing out anything with water or another liquid.
Irrigation in a field in New Jersey, United States.
An Irrigation sprinkler watering a lawn.
1. Border the words, translate the sentences:
1. Irrigationhasafewotherusesincropproduction.
2. Agriculturethatreliesonlyondirectrainfallisreferredtoarainfedfarming.
3. Irrigationisalsoatermusedinmedicalfields.
2. Make up sentences, write them down:
1. application, an, Irrigation, soil, artificial, water, is, of, to, the.
118
2. is, with, Irrigation, drainage, together, studied.
3. in, is, used, in, growing, assist, usually, crops, dry, Irrigation, to, areas.
3. Agree or disagree with the statements, using Appendix 2:
• Irrigation is an artificial application of water to the soil.
• It is usually used to assist in growing crops in wet areas and during
periods of adequate rainfall.
• Agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed
farming.
• Irrigation is studied separetely from drainage.
4. Comment on the photos in pairs.
Text B
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
archaeological
археологический
tunnel
туннель
investigation
исследование
cliff
утес
доказательства
steep
крутой
evidence
ячмень
tap
сигнал
barley
след
clay
глина
trace
проницательный
pot
горшок
sophisticate
хранение
rim
оправа
storage
резервуар
valve
клапан
reservoir
приблизительно
superiority
превосходство
circa
обширный
exist
существовать
extensive
сеть
undamage
неповреждение
network
фараон
enormous
огромный
pharaoh
раздутый
quarter
четверть
swelled
ежегодно
gauge
мера
annually
включить
comprise
хорошо
well
sloping
скошенный
History
Animal-powered irrigation,
Upper Egypt, ca. 1840
An example of irrigation
system common in Indian
subcontinent
119
Inside a karez tunnel at
Turpan, China.
Archaeological investigation has identified evidence of irrigation in Mesopotamia and Egypt as far back as the 6th millennium BCE, where barley was
grown in areas where the natural rainfall was insufficient to support such a crop.
In the Zana Valley of the Andes Mountains in Peru, archaeologists found remains
of three irrigation canals radiocarbon dated from the 4th millennium BCE, the 3rd
millennium BCE and the 9th century CE. These canals are the earliest record of
irrigation in the New World. Traces of a canal possibly dating from the 5th millennium BCE were found under the 4th millennium canal. Sophisticated irrigation and
storage systems were developed by the Indus Valley Civilization in Pakistan and
North India, including the reservoirs at Girnar in 3000 BCE and an early canal irrigation system from circa 2600 BCE. Large scale agriculture was practiced and an
extensive network of canals was used for the purpose of irrigation.
There is evidence of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh Amenemhet III in the twelfth
dynasty (about 1800 BCE) using the natural lake of the Faiyum Oasis as a reservoir to store surpluses of water for use during the dry seasons, as the lake swelled
annually as caused by the annual flooding of the Nile.
The Qanats, developed in ancient Persia in about 800 BCE, are among the
oldest known irrigation methods still in use today. They are now found in Asia, the
middle east and north Africa. The system comprises a network of vertical wells
and gently sloping tunnels driven into the sides of cliffs and steep hills to tap
groundwater. The noria, a water wheel with clay pots around the rim powered by
the flow of the stream (or by animals where the water source was still), was first
brought into use at about this time, by Roman settlers in North Africa. By 150
BCE the pots were fitted with valves to allow smoother filling as they were forced
into the water.
The irrigation works of ancient Sri Lanka, the earliest dating from about 300
BCE, in the reign of King Pandukabhaya and under continuous development for
the next thousand years, were one of the most complex irrigation systems of the
ancient world. In addition to underground canals, the Sinhalese were the first to
build completely artificial reservoirs to store water. Due to their engineering superiority in this sector, they were often called 'masters of irrigation'. Most of these
irrigation systems still exist undamaged up to now, in Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa, because of the advanced and precise engineering. The system was extensively restored and further extended during the reign of King Parakrama Bahu (1153 –
1186 CE).
The oldest known hydraulic engineers of China were Sunshu Ao (6th century BCE) of the Spring and Autumn Period and Ximen Bao (5th century BCE) of
the Warring States period, both of whom worked on large irrigation projects. In the
Szechwan region belonging to the State of Qin of ancient China, the Dujiangyan
Irrigation System was built in 256 BCE to irrigate an enormous area of farmland
that today still supplies water. By the 2nd century AD, during the Han Dynasty, the
Chinese also used chain pumps that lifted water from lower elevation to higher
elevation. These were powered by manual foot pedal, hydraulic waterwheels, or
120
rotating mechanical wheels pulled by oxen. The water was used for public works
of providing water for urban residential quarters and palace gardens, but mostly for
irrigation of farmland canals and channels in the fields.
In fifteenth century Korea the world's first water gauge, uryanggye
(Korean:), was discovered in 1441 CE. The inventor was Jang Yeong-sil, a Korean
engineer of the Joseon Dynasty, under the active direction of the king, Sejong the
Great. It was installed in irrigation tanks as part of a nationwide system to measure
and collect rainfall for agricultural applications. With this instrument, planners and
farmers could make better use of the information gathered in the survey.
1. Agree or disagree with the statements, using Appendix 2:
1. In the Zana Valley of the Andes Mountains in Peru, archaeologists found
remains of tho irrigation canals radiocarbon dated from the 4th millennium
BCE, the 3rd millennium BCE and the 9th century CE.
2. Sophisticated irrigation and storage systems were developed by the Indus
Valley Civilization in Pakistan and North India, including the reservoirs at
Girnar in 3000 BCE and an early canal irrigation system from circa 2600
BCE.
3. There is evidence of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh Amenemhet III in the
twelfth dynasty (about 1800 BCE) using the natural lake of the Faiyum Oasis as a reservoir to store surpluses of water for use during the dry seasons,
as the lake swelled annually as caused by the annual flooding of the Nile.
4. The noria, a water wheel with clay pots around the rim powered by the flow
of the stream was first brought into use at about this time, by Roman settlers
in North America.
5. The irrigation works of ancient Sri Lanka, the earliest dating from about 300
BCE, in the reign of King Pandukabhaya and under continuous development
for the next thousand years, were one of the most complex irrigation systems
of the ancient world. In addition to underground canals, the Sinhalese were
the first to build completely artificial reservoirs to store water.
6. The oldest known hydraulic engineers of China were Sunshu Ao (4th century BCE) of the Spring and Autumn Period and Ximen Bao (7th century
BCE) of the Warring States period, both of whom worked on large irrigation
projects.
7. In fifteenth century Korea the world's first water gauge, uryanggye was discovered in 1431 CE.
2. Prepare the report on the problem and listen to the other students, define
which message is the most laconic and exhaustive.
3. Comment on the photos in pairs.
Text C
121
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
advent
появление
quality
качество
diesel
дизель
subsidence
понижение
aquifers
водоносные слои
scale
масштаб
recharged
перезаряжаемый
infrastructure
инфраструктура
decreased
уменьшенное
contiguous
смежный
density
плотность
Present extent
In the middle of the 20th century, the advent of diesel and electric motors led
for the first time to systems that could pump groundwater out of major aquifers
faster than it was recharged. This can lead to permanent loss of aquifer capacity,
decreased water quality, ground subsidence, and other problems. The future of
food production in such areas as the North China Plain, the Punjab, and the Great
Plains of the US is threatened. At the global scale 2,788,000 km² (689 million
acres) of agricultural land was equipped with irrigation infrastructure around the
year 2000. About 68% of the area equipped for irrigation is located in Asia, 17% in
America, 9% in Europe, 5% in Africa and 1% in Oceania. The largest contiguous
areas of high irrigation density are found in North India and Pakistan along the
rivers Ganges and Indus, in the Hai He, Huang He and Yangtze basins in China,
along the Nile River in Egypt and Sudan, in the Mississippi-Missouri river basin
and in parts of California. Smaller irrigation areas are spread across almost all
populated parts of the world.
1. Border the words, translate the sentences:
1. Thefutureoffoodproductionisthreatened.
2. 2,788,000 km²ofagriculturallandwasequippedwithirrigationinfrastructure.
3. ThelargestcontiguousareasofhighirrigationdensityarefoundinNorthIndiaandPakist
an.
2. Agree or disagree with the statements, using Appendix 2:
1. This can lead to permanent loss of aquifer capacity, decreased water quality,
ground subsidence, and other problems.
2. The future of food production in such areas as the North China Plain, the Punjab,
and the Great Plains of the US is unthreatened.
3. At the global scale 2,788,000 km² (689 million acres) of agricultural land was
equipped with irrigation infrastructure around the year 2004.
4. About 68% of the area equipped for irrigation is located in Africa.
5. The smallest contiguous areas of high irrigation density are found in North India
and Pakistan.
122
3. Using Appendix 2, express your opinion on the problem of the text:
Text D
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
goal
цель
bucket
ведро
surface
поверхность
aesthetically
эстетически
gravity
сила тяжести
pleasing
приятный
infiltrate
инфильтрат
exposed
выставленный
subdivide
подразделить
impact
воздействие
furrow
борозда
circle
круг
basin
бассейн
gun
оружие
permit,
разрешение
suppression
подавление
plugged
включенный
заготовка леса
logging
pumped
накачанный
кладбище
cemetery
localized
ограниченный
без присмотра
unattended
pressure
давление
сегмент
segment
through
через
соединение
join
pre-determined
предопределенный
связки
trusses
pattern
образец
ландшафт
terrain
discharge
разгрузка
плоскость
flat
bubbler
фонтанчик для питья deposit
депозит
trickle
струйка
соответствовать
conform
evaporation
испарение
feature
особенность
percolation
просачивание
strobe
строб
duration
продолжительность
lateral
боковой
delivery
поставка
affixed
прикрепленный
rate
уровень
carry
нести
exception
исключение
utilize
использовать
pivot system
система центра
subirrigation
подырригация
containing
содержа
плотина
weir
species
разновидности
ворота
gate
slope
наклон
канава
ditch
compensating
компенсация
таким образом
thereby
solution
решение
вверх
upward
involve
вовлечь
избыток
excess
precisely
точно
рециркуляция
recycling
calibrate
калибровать
сложный
sophisticated
emitter
эмитент
дорогой
expensive
filtration
фильтрация
обслуживание
maintenance
algae
морские водоросли
руководство
manual
полиэтилен
может
can
polyethylene
from
от
rope
веревка
123
degradation
due to
porous
clay
vessel
sunk
hose
деградация
из-за
пористый
глина
судно
погруженный
шланг
plain
environment
condensation
vineyard
terracing
intent
patch
равнина
окр. среда
уплотнение
виноградник
террасирование
намерение
участок
Types of irrigation
Various types of irrigation techniques differ in how the water obtained from
the source is distributed within the field. In general, the goal is to supply the entire
field uniformly with water, so that each plant has the amount of water it needs, neither too much nor too little.
Surface irrigation. In surface irrigation systems water moves over and
across the land by simple gravity flow in order to wet it and to infiltrate into the
soil. Surface irrigation can be subdivided into furrow, borderstrip or basin irrigation. It is often called flood irrigation when the irrigation results in flooding or near
flooding of the cultivated land. Historically, this has been the most common method of irrigating agricultural land. Where water levels from the irrigation source
permit, the levels are controlled by dikes, usually plugged by soil. This is often
seen in terraced rice fields (rice paddies), where the method is used to flood or control the level of water in each distinct field. In some cases, the water is pumped, or
lifted by human or animal power to the level of the land.
Localized irrigation
Spray Head
124
Localized irrigation is a system where water is distributed under low pressure through a piped network, in a pre-determined pattern, and applied as a small
discharge to each plant or adjacent to it. Drip irrigation, spray or micro-sprinkler
irrigation and bubbler irrigation belong to this category of irrigation methods.
Drip Irrigation
Drip Irrigation - A dripper in action
Grapes in Petrolina, just possible in this semi
arid area due to drip irrigation.
Drip irrigation, also known as trickle irrigation, functions as its name suggests. Water is delivered at or near the root zone of plants, drop by drop. This method can be the most water-efficient method of irrigation, if managed properly,
since evaporation and runoff are minimized. In modern agriculture, drip irrigation
is often combined with plastic mulch, further reducing evaporation, and is also the
means of delivery of fertilizer. The process is known as fertigation.
Drip Irrigation Layout and its parts
Deep percolation, where water moves below the root zone, can occur if a
drip system is operated for too long of a duration or if the delivery rate is too high.
Drip irrigation methods range from very high-tech and computerized to low-tech
and labor-intensive. Lower water pressures are usually needed than for most other
125
types of systems, with the exception of low energy center pivot systems and surface irrigation systems, and the system can be designed for uniformity throughout
a field or for precise water delivery to individual plants in a landscape containing a
mix of plant species. Although it is difficult to regulate pressure on steep slopes,
pressure compensating emitters are available, so the field does not have to be level.
High-tech solutions involve precisely calibrated emitters located along lines of tubing that extend from a computerized set of valves. Both pressure regulation and filtration to remove particles are important. The tubes are usually black (or buried
under soil or mulch) to prevent the growth of algae and to protect the polyethylene
from degradation due to ultraviolet light. But drip irrigation can also be as low-tech
as a porous clay vessel sunk into the soil and occasionally filled from a hose or
bucket. Subsurface drip irrigation has been used successfully on lawns, but it is
more expensive than a more traditional sprinkler system. Surface drip systems are
not cost-effective (or aesthetically pleasing) for lawns and golf courses. In the past
one of the main disadvantages of the subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) systems,
when used for turf, was the fact of having to install the plastic lines very close to
each other in the ground, therefore disrupting the turfgrass area. Recent technology
developments on drip installers like the drip installer at New Mexico State University Arrow Head Center, places the line underground and covers the slit leaving no
soil exposed.
Sprinkler irrigation
Sprinkler irrigation of blueberries
i
n Plainville, New York, United States.
In sprinkler or overhead irrigation, water is piped to one or more central locations within the field and distributed by overhead high-pressure sprinklers or
guns. A system utilizing sprinklers, sprays, or guns mounted overhead on permanently installed risers is often referred to as a solid-set irrigation system. Higher
pressure sprinklers that rotate are called rotors and are driven by a ball drive, gear
drive, or impact mechanism. Rotors can be designed to rotate in a full or partial
126
circle. Guns are similar to rotors, except that they generally operate at very high
pressures of 40 to 130 lbf/in² (275 to 900 kPa) and flows of 50 to 1200 US gal/min
(3 to 76 L/s), usually with nozzle diameters in the range of 0.5 to 1.9 inches (10 to
50 mm). Guns are used not only for irrigation, but also for industrial applications
such as dust suppression and logging.
A traveling sprinkler at Millets Farm Centre, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom.
Sprinklers may also be mounted on moving platforms connected to the water
source by a hose. Automatically moving wheeled systems known as traveling
sprinklers may irrigate areas such as small farms, sports fields, parks, pastures, and
cemeteries unattended. Most of these utilize a length of polyethylene tubing wound
on a steel drum. As the tubing is wound on the drum powered by the irrigation water or a small gas engine, the sprinkler is pulled across the field. When the sprinkler
arrives back at the reel the system shuts off. This type of system is known to most
people as a "waterreel" traveling irrigation sprinkler and they are used extensively
for dust suppression, irrigation, and land application of waste water. Other travelers use a flat rubber hose that is dragged along behind while the sprinkler platform
is pulled by a cable. These cable-type travelers are definitely old technology and
their use is limited in today's modern irrigation projects.
Center pivot irrigation
The hub of a centerpivot irrigation system.
Center pivot with drop sprin- Wheel line irrigation system in
klers. Photo by Gene Alexander, Idaho. 2001. Photo by Joel McNee,
USDA Natural Resources Con- USDA Natural Resources Conserservation Service.
vation Service.
Center pivot irrigation is a form of sprinkler irrigation consisting of several
segments of pipe (usually galvanized steel or aluminum) joined together and sup127
ported by trusses, mounted on wheeled towers with sprinklers positioned along its
length. The system moves in a circular pattern and is fed with water from the pivot
point at the center of the arc. These systems are common in parts of the United
States where terrain is flat. Newer irrigations have drops as shown in the image
that follows. Most center pivot systems now have drops hanging from a u-shaped
pipe called a gooseneck attached at the top of the pipe with sprinkler heads that are
positioned a few feet (at most) above the crop, thus limiting evaporative losses.
Drops can also be used with drag hoses or bubblers that deposit the water directly
on the ground between crops. The crops are planted in a circle to conform to the
center pivot. This type of system is known as LEPA (Low Energy Precision Application). Originally, most center pivots were water powered. These were replaced
by hydraulic systems (T-L Irrigation) and electric motor driven systems (T-L,
Reinke, Valley, Zimmatic). Most sprinklers features GPS devices. Reinkes usually
have strobe lights and are red. Valleys have a blue label, while Zimmatics' lights
are high with either a red or white Zimmatic label.
Lateral move (side roll, wheel line) irrigation. A series of pipes, each with a
wheel of about 1.5 m diameter permanently affixed to its midpoint and sprinklers
along its length, are coupled together at one edge of a field. Water is supplied at
one end using a large hose. After sufficient water has been applied, the hose is removed and the remaining assembly rotated either by hand or with a purpose-built
mechanism, so that the sprinklers move 10 m across the field. The hose is reconnected. The process is repeated until the opposite edge of the field is reached. This
system is less expensive to install than a center pivot, but much more labor intensive to operate, and it is limited in the amount of water it can carry. Most systems
utilize 4 or 5-inch (130 mm) diameter aluminum pipe. One feature of a lateral
move system is that it consists of sections that can be easily disconnected. They are
most often used for small or oddly-shaped fields, such as those found in hilly or
mountainous regions, or in regions where labor is inexpensive.
Sub-irrigation. Subirrigation also sometimes called seepage irrigation has
been used for many years in field crops in areas with high water tables. It is a method of artificially raising the water table to allow the soil to be moistened from below the plants' root zone. Often those systems are located on permanent grasslands
in lowlands or river valleys and combined with drainage infrastructure. A system
of pumping stations, canals, weirs and gates allows it to increase or decrease the
water level in a network of ditches and thereby control the water table. Subirrigation is also used in commercial greenhouse production, usually for potted
plants. Water is delivered from below, absorbed upwards, and the excess collected
for recycling. Typically, a solution of water and nutrients floods a container or
flows through a trough for a short period of time, 10–20 minutes, and is then
pumped back into a holding tank for reuse. Sub-irrigation in greenhouses requires
fairly sophisticated, expensive equipment and management. Advantages are water
and nutrient conservation, and labor-saving through lowered system maintenance
and automation. It is similar in principle and action to subsurface drip irrigation.
128
Manual irrigation using buckets or watering cans. These systems have low
requirements for infrastructure and technical equipment but need high labor inputs.
Irrigation using watering cans is to be found for example in peri-urban agriculture
around large cities in some African countries.
Automatic, non-electric irrigation using buckets and ropes. Besides the
common manual watering by bucket, an automated, natural version of this also exist. Using plain polyester ropes combined with a prepared ground mixture can be
used to water plants from a vessel filled with water. The ground mixture would
need to be made depending on the plant itself, yet would mostly consist of black
potting soil, vermiculite and perlite. This system would (with certain crops) allow
you to save expenses as it does not consume any electricity and only little water
(unlike sprinklers, water timers, ...). However, it may only be used with certain
crops (probably mostly larger crops that do not need a humid environment; perhaps
e.g. paprika's).
Irrigation using stones to catch water from humid air. In countries where
at night, humid air sweeps the countryside, stones are used to catch water from the
humid air by condensation. This is for example practiced in the vineyards at Lanzarote.
Dry terraces for irrigation and water distribution. In subtropical countries
as Mali and Senegal, a special type of terracing (without flood irrigation or intent
to flatten farming ground) is used. Here, a 'stairs' is made through the use of
ground level differences which helps to decrease water evaporation and also distributes the water to all patches.
1. Find the answers in the text:
1. How do various types of irrigation techniques differ?
2. How can surface irrigation be subdivided?
3. What is often called flood irrigation?
4. What has been the most common method of irrigating agricultural land?
5. Localized irrigation is a system where water is distributed under low pressure through a piped network, isn't it?
6. When can deep percolation occur?
7. What do high-tech solutions involve precisely?
8. Where has subsurface drip irrigation been used successfully?
9. Where is water piped to one or more central locations within the field and
distributed by overhead high-pressure sprinklers or guns?
10.May sprinklers also be mounted on moving platforms connected to the water
source by a hose?
11.Why is the sprinkler pulled across the field?
12.What is a form of sprinkler irrigation consisting of several segments of pipe
joined together and supported by trusses, mounted on wheeled towers with
sprinklers positioned along its length?
129
13.Is the system moves in a circular pattern and fed with water from the pivot
point at the center of the arc?
14.What is coupled together at one edge of a field?
15.What is supplied at one end using a large hose?
16.What is called seepage irrigation?
17.What systems have low requirements for infrastructure and technical equipment but need high labor inputs?
18.Where is Irrigation using watering cans to be found?
19.What can you say about automatic, non-electric irrigation using buckets and
ropes?
20.What can be used to water plants from a vessel filled with water?
21.Where is a special type of terracing used?
2. Comment on the photos in pairs.
3. Refer the text.
Text E
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
residential
жилой
contaminating загрязнение
valve
клапан
entire
цельный
hidden
скрытый
wire
провод
drawback
недостаток
response
ответ
buried
похороненный
ultimately
в конечном счете
tap
сигнал
inlet
входное отверстие
pond
водоем
flush
поток
lateral
боковой
pressurize
герметизировать
installation
инсталляция
pop up
всплывать
How an in-ground irrigation system works
Most commercial and residential irrigation systems are "in ground" systems,
which means that everything is buried in the ground. With the pipes, sprinklers,
and irrigation valves being hidden, it makes for a cleaner, more presentable landscape without garden hoses or other items having to be moved around manually.
This does, however, create some drawbacks in the maintenance of a completely
buried system.
Water source and piping. The beginning of a sprinkler system is the water
source. This is usually a tap into an existing (city) water line or a pump that pulls
water out of a well or a pond. The water travels through pipes from the water
source through the valves to the sprinklers. The pipes from the water source up to
the irrigation valves are called "mainlines", and the lines from the valves to the
sprinklers are called "lateral lines". Most piping used in irrigation systems today
130
are HDPE and MDPE or PVC or PEX plastic pressure pipes due to their ease of
installation and resistance to corrosion. After the water source, the water usually
travels through a check valve. This prevents water in the irrigation lines from being
pulled back into and contaminating the clean water supply.
Controllers, zones, and valves. Most Irrigation systems are divided into
zones. A zone is a single Irrigation Valve and one or a group of sprinklers that are
connected by pipes. Irrigation Systems are divided into zones because there is
usually not enough pressure and available flow to run sprinklers for an entire yard
or sports field at once. Each zone has a solenoid valve on it that is controlled via
wire by an Irrigation Controller. The Irrigation Controller is either a mechanical or
electrical device that signals a zone to turn on at a specific time and keeps it on for
a specified amount of time. "Smart Controller" is a recent term used to describe a
controller that is capable of adjusting the watering time by itself in response to current environmental conditions. The smart controller determines current conditions
by means of historic weather data for the local area, a soil moisture sensors (water
potential or water content), weather station, or a combination of these.
Sprinklers. When a zone comes on, the water flows through the lateral lines
and ultimately ends up at the irrigation Sprinkler heads. Most sprinklers have pipe
thread inlets on the bottom of them which allows a fitting and the pipe to be attached to them. The sprinklers are usually installed with the top of the head flush
with the ground surface. When the water is pressurized, the head will pop up out of
the ground and water the desired area until the valve closes and shuts off that zone.
Once there is no more water pressure in the lateral line, the sprinkler head will retract back into the ground.
1. Agree or disagree with the statements, Appendix 2:
1. With the pipes, sprinklers, and irrigation valves being hidden, it makes for a
cleaner, more presentable landscape without garden hoses or other items having to be moved around manually.
2. The beginning of a sprinkler system is the water source.
3. This is usually a tap into an existing water line or a pump that pulls water out of
the sea.
4. After the water source, the water usually travels through a check valve.
5. Most irrigation systems are not divided into zones.
6. A zone is a single Irrigation Valve and one or a group of sprinklers that are connected by pipes.
7. Irrigation Systems are divided into zones because there is usually not enough
water and available flow to run sprinklers for an entire yard or sports field at
once.
8. When a zone comes on, the water flows through the lateral lines and ultimately
ends up at the irrigation Sprinkler heads.
9. Most sprinklers have pipe thread inlets on the bottom of them which does not
allow a fitting and the pipe to be attached to them.
131
2. Refer the text.
Text F
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
competition
соревнование
consequent
последовательный
depletion
истощение
leaching
выщелачивание
subsidence
понижение
remove
удалить
overirrigation сверхирригация
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Problems in irrigation
Competition for surface water rights.
Depletion of underground aquifers.
Ground subsidence (e.g. New Orleans, Louisiana)
Underirrigation gives poor soil salinity control which leads to increased soil
salinity with consequent build up of toxic salts on soil surface in areas with
high evaporation. This requires either leaching to remove these salts and a
method of drainage to carry the salts away.
Overirrigation because of poor distribution uniformity or management
wastes water, chemicals, and may lead to water pollution.
Deep drainage (from over-irrigation) may result in rising water tables which
in some instances will lead to problems of irrigation salinity.
Irrigation with saline or high-sodium water may damage soil structure.
1. Border the words, translate the sentences:
• Itrequiresleachingtoremovesalts.
• Irrigationwithhigh-sodiumwaterdamagessoilstructure.
• Underirrigationgivespoorsoilsalinitycontrol.
2. Agree or disagree with the statements, using Appendix 2:
• Underirrigation gives poor soil salinity control which leads to decreased soil
salinity with consequent build up of toxic salts on soil surface in areas with
high evaporation.
• This requires either leaching to remove these salts and a method of drainage
to carry the salts away.
• Overirrigation because of poor distribution uniformity or management
wastes water, chemicals, and may lead to water pollution.
• Deep drainage may not result in rising water tables.
• Irrigation with saline or high-sodium water may damage soil structure.
Project work. Using the Internet and/ or newspapers and magazines, collect some
data on the problems in irrigation in Russia and discuss the results in your group.
132
Unit 17. Harvesting / post-harvest
Text A
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
bean harvester
бобовый комбайн
bin
ведро
threshing
молотьба
spreader
распорка
урожай
rear
задняя часть
harvest
погрузка
грабли
pickup
rake
шейкер
пояс
shaker
belt
поклонники
венчик
fans
beater
лифты
существенный
elevators
significant
conveyor belt
ленточный конвейер
A bean harvester
A bean harvester, also known as a bean thresher or bean combine, is a
threshing machine which is used to harvest beans. It mainly consists of a pickup,
several beaters, shakers, one or several fans, elevators, conveyor belts, a storage
bin, and usually a spreader at the rear. Until recently, the only practical
manufacturer of bean harvesters was The Bidwell Bean Thresher Company. The
pickup lifts the beans, which are arranged into windrows by rakes and pullers, off
the ground and onto the main conveyor belt which feeds them into the first beater,
which has many metal teeth, turns high RPMs, and does a significant portion of the
threshing. From there the process varies from machine to machine. Basically the
beans go through a series of more beaters and shakers.
1. Fill in the necessary word:
1. A …is a threshing machine which is used to harvest beans.
2. It … of a pickup, several beaters, shakers, one or several fans, elevators,
conveyor belts, a storage bin, and usually a spreader at the rear.
3. Until recently, the only practical … of bean harvesters was The Bidwell
Bean Thresher Company.
4. The pickup lifts the beans, which are … into windrows by rakes and pullers.
5. Basically the beans … through a series of more beaters and shakers.
2. Using Appendix 2, express your opinion on the problem of the text.
Text B
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
trailer
трейлер
road
дорога
auger
сверло
permit
разрешение
capacity
способность
continually
непрерывно
133
grain
cover
зерно
покрытие
unload
amounts
though
usage
increasing
разгрузиться
количество
хотя
использование
увеличение
A chaser bin
A large chaser bin and augers.
Tractor and chaser bin.
A chaser bin is a trailer towed by a tractor with a built-in auger system,
usually with a large capacity (around 15 tonnes (33,000 lb) is average). The bin is
used to transport grain over fields from combine harvester to lorry or further
tractors which are used to cover larger distances over roads. The use of a chaser
bin permits the harvester to operate continually, without the need for stopping to
unload. These bins are designed to hold large amounts. They are pulled by tractors.
These bins usually require tractors with large power outputs and are popular on the
large open fields of the United States and Australia, though usage in Europe is
increasing.
1. Try to explain the following phrases in English: a trailer towed by a tractor,
are pulled by tractors, large amounts, large open fields.
2. Comment on the photos in pairs.
3. Define the main idea of the text.
Text C
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
combine harvester
комбайн
maize
кукуруза
previously
ранее
soybean
соя
reaping
жатва
flax
лен
134
binding
threshing
wheat
oat
rye
barley
закрепление
молотьба
пшеница
овсяное зерно
рожь
ячмень
linseed
straw
stem
chop
baled
livestock
льняное семя
солома
основа
отбивная
в тюках
домашний скот
Combine harvester
An open-cab combine.
The combine harvester, or simply combine, is a machine that harvests
grain crops. It combined into a single operation what previously had taken three
separate operations (reaping, binding, and threshing). Among the crops harvested
with a combine are wheat, oats, rye, barley, corn (maize), soybeans, and flax
(linseed). The waste straw left behind on the field is the remaining dried stems and
leaves of the crop with limited nutrients which is either chopped and spread on the
field or baled for feed and bedding for livestock.
1. Fill in the necessary word:
1. The … is a machine that harvests grain crops.
2. It combined into a single operation what … had taken three separate operations.
3. … the crops harvested with a combine are wheat, oats, rye, barley, corn.
4. The waste straw left behind on the … is the remaining dried stems and
leaves of the crop with limited nutrients.
2. Comment on the photos in pairs.
135
Unit 18. Belt conveyor
Text A
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
pulley
шкив
specified
определен
loop
петля
partitions
разделение
moving
перемещение
steep
крутой
idler
бездельник
inclines
наклонные
grain
зерно
эскалаторы
escalators
coal
уголь
manufacturing производство
ores
руды
assembly lines конвейеры
applications
приложения
касса
check-out
передача
grocery stores продуктовые магазины conveying
слой
машины
machines
layer
резина
доступный
available
rubber
линейный
screw
con- конвейеры винlinear
сила
та
veyors
strength
корпус
vibrating con- вибрирующий
carcass
покрытие
конвейер
veyor
cover
хлопок
пневматический
pneumatic
cotton
пластмасса
конвейер
conveyor
plastic
сеть
оплата
reciprocating
web
петля
планки
slats
mesh
состав
груз
cargo
compound
поддоны
pallets
A belt conveyor
A belt conveyor consists of two or more pulleys, with a continuous loop of
material - the conveyor belt - that rotates about them. One or both of the pulleys
are powered, moving the belt and the material on the belt forward. The powered
pulley is called the drive pulley while the unpowered pulley is called the idler.
There are two main industrial classes of belt conveyors; those in general material
handling such as those moving boxes along inside a factory and bulk material handling such as those used to transport industrial and agricultural materials, such as
grain, coal, ores, etc. generally in outdoor locations. Generally companies providing general material handling type belt conveyors do not provide the conveyors for
bulk material handling. In addition there are a number of commercial applications
of belt conveyors such as those in grocery stores.
The belt consists of one or more layers of material they can be made out of
rubber. Many belts in general material handling have two layers. An under layer of
136
material to provide linear strength and shape called a carcass and an over layer
called the cover. The carcass is often a cotton or plastic web or mesh. The cover is
often various rubber or plastic compounds specified by use of the belt. Covers can
be made from more exotic materials for unusual applications such as silicone for
heat or gum rubber when traction is essential.
Material flowing over the belt may be weighed in transit using a
beltweigher. Belts with regularly spaced partitions, known as elevator belts, are
used for transporting loose materials up steep inclines. Belt Conveyors are used in
self-unloading bulk freighters and in live bottom trucks.
Conveyor technology is also used in conveyor transport such as moving sidewalks or escalators, as well as on many manufacturing assembly lines. Stores often have conveyor belts at the check-out counter to move shopping items. Ski areas
also use conveyor belts to transport skiers up the hill. A wide variety of related
conveying machines are available, different as regards principle of operation,
means and direction of conveyance, including screw conveyors, vibrating conveyors, pneumatic conveyors, the moving floor system, which uses reciprocating
slats to move cargo, and roller conveyor system, which uses a series of powered
rollers to convey boxes or pallets.
1. Try to explain the following phrases in English: bulk material handling,
check-out counter, pneumatic conveyors, unpowered pulley, commercial applications.
2. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
companies providing general material self-unloading bulk freighters and in
handling type belt
live bottom trucks.
Conveyor technology is also used in handling have two layers.
conveyor transport such as
Belt Conveyors are used in
such as silicone for heat or gum rubber
when traction is essential.
Covers can be made from more exotic transporting loose materials up steep inmaterials for unusual applications
clines.
Many belts in general material
conveyors do not provide the conveyors
for bulk material handling.
Elevator belts are used for
moving sidewalks or escalators, as well
as on many manufacturing assembly
lines.
3. Using Appendix 2, express your opinion on the problem of the text.
Text B
Vocabulary:
137
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
component
warehousing
retail
wholesale
manufacturing
distribution
rapidly
convey
item
irregular
компонент
складирование
розничная продажа
оптовая торговля
производство
распределение
быстро
передать
пункт
нерегулярный
curved
tapered
versatile
shaped
successfully
premium
tension
straight
static
accumulation
кривой
клиновидный
универсальный
имеющий форму
успешно
премия
напряженность
прямо
статичный
накопление
Belt conveyor systems
Conveyors are used as components in automated distribution and warehousing. In combination with computer controlled pallet handling equipment this allows for more efficient retail, wholesale, and manufacturing distribution. It is considered a labor saving system that allows large volumes to move rapidly through a
process, allowing companies to ship or receive higher volumes with smaller storage space and with less labor expense.
Rubber Conveyor Belts are commonly used to convey items with irregular
bottom surfaces, small items that would fall in between rollers (e.g. a sushi conveyor bar), or bags of product that would sag between rollers. Belt conveyors are
generally fairly similar in construction consisting of a metal frame with rollers at
either end of a flat metal bed. The belt is looped around each of the rollers and
when one of the rollers is powered (by an electrical motor) the belting slides across
the solid metal frame bed, moving the product. In heavy use applications the beds
which the belting is pulled over are replaced with rollers. The rollers allow weight
to be conveyed as they reduce the amount of friction generated from the heavier
loading on the belting. Belt conveyors can now be manufactured with curved sections which use tapered rollers and curved belting to convey products around a
corner. These conveyor systems are commonly used in postal sorting offices and
airport baggage handling systems.
Belt conveyors are the most commonly used powered conveyors because
they are the most versatile and the least expensive. Product is conveyed directly on
the belt so both regular and irregular shaped objects, large or small, light and
heavy, can be transported successfully. These conveyors should use only the highest quality premium belting products, which reduces belt stretch and results in less
maintenance for tension adjustments. Belt conveyors can be used to transport
product in a straight line or through changes in elevation or direction. In certain
applications they can also be used for static accumulation or cartons.
138
Handling Belt Conveyor systems
1. Try to explain the following phrases in English: labor saving system, manufactured with curved sections, premium belting products, used in postal sorting offices, static accumulation.
2. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
In heavy use applications the beds distribution and warehousing.
which the
Belt conveyors can be used to transport sorting offices and airport baggage hanproduct in
dling systems.
Conveyors are used as components in items with irregular bottom surfaces.
automated
Rubber Conveyor Belts are commonly generated from the heavier loading on
used to convey
the belting.
Conveyor systems are commonly used belting is pulled over are replaced with
in postal
rollers.
Rollers allow weight to be conveyed as a straight line or through changes in elethey reduce the amount of friction
vation or direction.
3. Comment on the photos in pairs.
Text C
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
sandwich
бутерброд
achievable
достижимый
belt
пояс
grant
грант
gently
мягко
rocks
скалы
firmly
твердо
aggregate
совокупность
contain
содержать
coal
уголь
product
продукт
feasible
выполнимый
carried
несший
steep-angle
крутой угол
139
hence
steep
incline
vertical-lift
следовательно
крутой
наклонная поверхность
approach
sensitive
friable
scraper
подход
чувствительный
рыхлый
скребок
Snake sandwich belt conveyor
A sandwich belt conveyor uses two conveyor belts, face-to-face, to gently
but firmly contain the product being carried, hence making steep incline and even
vertical-lift runs easily achievable. The Snake Sandwich Belt Conveyor was
created in 1979. The study was conceived by Joseph A. Dos Santos, P.E., President
of Dos Santos International, with the help of a grant from the U.S. Bureau of
Mines. The study was to develop a means of moving and elevating large quantities
of bulk materials, including coarse products such as rocks, aggregate, coal, etc. at
the steepest possible inclines. The intent was to use only existing and generally
available hardware in order to achieve the most economically feasible and easily
maintained steep-angle conveyor design. Snake Conveyors are available in widely
ranging profiles of C and S Shape. In any case, a long bottom belt approach is
possible to the sandwich entrance, and discharge may be on the high incline or may
be after the extension of the carrying belt beyond the mouth of the sandwich.
Snake Sandwich conveyors offer several advantages. First unlimited conveying
capacity, a system suitable for the most rugged mine applications and gentle on
sensitive and friable materials, high availability and low operating and
maintenance costs, smooth surfaced belts allowing continuous belt cleaning by
scrapers and plows. This also facilitates intermediate material discharge by belt
plows, as appropriate, before and/or beyond the sandwiched part of the Snake
profile. All conventional conveyor hardware insures economy and fast delivery of
replacement parts.
1. Try to explain the following phrases in English: insures economy, high
availability, available in widely ranging profiles, offer several advantages, with the
help of a grant.
2. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
The intent was to use only existing
and fast delivery of replacement parts.
Conventional
conveyor
hardware as appropriate, before and/or beyond the
insures economy
sandwiched part of the Snake profile.
Snake Conveyors are available
It facilitates intermediate material and generally available hardware.
discharge by belt plows,
A sandwich belt conveyor uses two in widely ranging profiles of C and S
conveyor belts, face-to-face,
Shape.
The Snake Sandwich Belt Conveyor to gently but firmly contain the product
was created in 1979.
being carried.
140
3. Using Appendix 2, express your opinion on the problem of the text.
Text D
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
phosphate
mines
baggage
commission
tray
actuate
фосфат
шахты
багаж
комиссия
поднос
приводить в действие
unique
accommodate
curve
height
flood
monsoon
уникальный
приспособить
кривая
высота
наводнение
муссон
Long belt conveyors
The longest belt conveyor system in the world is in Western Sahara. It is 100
km long, from the phosphate mines of Bu Craa to the coast south of El-Aaiun. The
longest conveyor system in an Airport is the Dubai International Airport baggage
handling system at 92km. It was installed by Siemens and commissioned in 2008,
and has a combination of traditional belt conveyors and tray conveyors. The
longest single belt conveyor runs from Meghalaya in India to Sylhet in
Bangladesh. It is about 17 km long and conveys limestone and shale at 960 tons/hr,
from the quarry in India to a cement factory in Bangladesh (7 km long in India and
10 km long in Bangladesh). The conveyor was engineered by AUMUND France
and Larsen & Toubro. The conveyor is actuated by 3 synchronized drive units for a
total power of about 1.8 MW (2 drives at the head end in Bangladesh and 1 drive at
the tail end in India). The conveyor belt was manufactured in 300-meter lengths on
the Indian side and 500-meter lengths on the Bangladesh side, and was installed
onsite by NILOS India. The idlers, or rollers, of the system are unique in that they
are designed to accommodate both horizontal and vertical curves along the terrain.
Dedicated vehicles were designed for the maintenance of the conveyor, which is
always at a minimum height of 5 meters above the ground to avoid being flooded
during monsoon periods.
1. Try to explain the following phrases in English: conveys limestone,
horizontal and vertical curves, tray conveyors, synchronized drive
units, avoid being flooded.
141
2. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
The longest belt conveyor system
in the world is in Western Sahara.
The conveyor was engineered by side and 500-meter lengths on the
AUMUND
Bangladesh side,
Dedicated vehicles were designed for accommodate both horizontal and
vertical curves along the terrain.
the maintenance of the conveyor,
The conveyor belt was manufactured in and commissioned in 2008.
300-meter lengths on the Indian
The rollers of the system are unique which is always at a minimum height of
they are designed to
5 meters above the ground.
It was installed by Siemens
France and Larsen & Toubro.
3. Prepare the report on the problem and listen to the other students, define
which message is the most laconic and exhaustive.
142
Unit 19. Corn harvester
Text A
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
corn harvester
stripping
stalk
shooting
header
комбайн
демонтаж
стебель
стрельба
заголовок
stripe
intake
duct
ride
bucket
полоса
потребление
трубочка
поездка
ведро
A corn harvester
A corn harvester is a machine used on farms to harvest corn stripping the
stalks about one foot from the ground shooting the stalks through the header to the
ground. The corn is striped from its stalk and then moves through the header to the
intake conveyor belt. From there it goes up the conveying system through a fan
system, separating the remaining stalks from the ears. The stalks blow out the fan
duct into the field while the ears drop onto another conveyor belt. The ears ride the
belt and drop into a large moving bucket. This method is done with both Fresh
Corn and Seed corn.
1. Fill in the necessary word:
1. … is a machine used on farms to harvest corn.
2. The corn is striped from its stalk and then moves through the … to the
intake conveyor belt.
3. It goes up the conveying system through a … system, separating the
remaining stalks from the ears.
4. The stalks blow out the fan duct into the field while the ears drop onto
another ….
5. The ears ride the belt and drop into a large …bucket.
2. Try to explain the following phrases in English: separating the remaining
stalks, corn is striped from its stalk, to harvest corn.
3. Refer the text.
143
Unit 20. Cotton picker
The mechanical cotton picker is a machine that automates cotton harvesting
in a way that reduces harvest time and maximizes efficiency.
Cotton picker at work
Cotton picker machine
Picking cotton
Text A
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
attempt
cotton
picker
попытка
хлопок
сборщик
create
purchase
immediately
создавать
покупать
незамедлительно
History
In 1850, Taylure and Paige made the first attempt to develop a mechanical
cotton picker with the intent on replacing manual labor. Mechanical cotton pickers
had no further inventions until the founder of Price Campbell Cotton Picker
Corporation created one in 1889. Very little progress was made from then until
1924, when the Price-Campbell patents were purchased by International Harvester.
Many experimental machines that were greatly improved from Price-Campbell's
inventions were brought out during the period from 1924 until 1939. The idea of
mechanical cotton picking began to be practical in 1943, when International
Harvester produced the first dozen of their successful commercial cotton pickers.
Although there were many attempts to invent successful cotton pickers, their use
was not made practical until the 1950s, and even then, it was not immediately
implemented on most farms.
144
1. Fill in the necessary word:
1. Little progress was made from then until 1924, when the Price-Campbell …
were purchased by International Harvester.
2. Mechanical cotton pickers had no further … until the founder of Price
Campbell Cotton Picker Corporation created one in 1889.
3. Their use was not made practical until the 1950s, and even then, it was not
immediately …on most farms.
4. Experimental machines that were greatly … from Price-Campbell's inventions were brought out during the period from 1924 until 1939.
2. Try to explain the following phrases in English: experimental machines,
successful commercial cotton pickers, immediately implemented.
3. Project work. Using the Internet and/ or newspapers and magazines, collect
some data on the mechanical cotton picker's history and discuss the results in your
group.
Text B
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
capable
row
current
lint
stripper
primarily
spindle
doffer
способный
ряд
поток
линт
стриппер
прежде всего
шпиндель
съемщик
create
brick
weighing
approximately
bale
store
roughly
создать
кирпич
взвешивание
приблизительно
кипа
магазин
примерно
Conventional Picker
The first pickers were only capable of harvesting one row of cotton at a time,
but were still able to replace up to forty hand laborers. The current cotton picker is
a self-propelled machine that removes cotton lint and seed (seed-cotton) from the
plant at up to six rows at a time. There are two types of pickers in use today. One is
the "stripper" picker, primarily found in use in Texas. It removes not only the lint
from the plant, but a fair deal of the plant matter as well (such as unopened bolls).
Later, the plant matter is separated from the lint through a process dropping
heavier matter before the lint makes it to the basket at the rear of the picker. The
other type of picker is the "spindle" picker. It uses rows of barbed spindles that
rotate at high speed and remove the seed-cotton from the plant. The seed-cotton is
145
then removed from the spindles by a counter-rotating doffer and is then blown up
into the basket. Once the basket is full the picker dumps the seed-cotton into a
"module builder". The module builder creates a compact "brick" of seed-cotton,
weighing in at approximately 21,000 lb (16 un-ginned bales), which can be stored
in the field or in the "gin yard" until it is ginned. Each ginned bale weighs roughly
480 lb (218.2 kg).
Case IH Module Express 625 picks cotton and simultaneously builds cotton modules.
In c.2008 the Case IH Module Express 625 was designed in collaboration
with ginners and growers to provide a cotton picker with the ability to build
modules while harvesting the crop. A similar system was offered by John Deere in
2007.
1. Fill in the necessary word:
1. The first pickers were only capable of harvesting … row of cotton at a time,
but were still able to replace up to forty hand laborers.
2. The current cotton picker is a self-propelled machine that removes cotton
lint and seed from the plant at up to …rows at a time.
3. The plant matter is … from the lint through a process dropping heavier matter before the lint makes it to the basket at the rear of the picker.
4. It uses rows of barbed spindles that rotate at .. speed and remove the seedcotton from the plant.
5. Once the basket is … the picker dumps the seed-cotton into a "module
builder".
6. The module builder creates a compact … of seed-cotton.
2. Try to explain the following phrases in English: creates a compact brick, fair
deal, plant matter, self-propelled machine, rear of the picker, ginned bale, weighs
roughly.
146
3. Using Appendix 2, express your opinion on the problem of the text.
Text C
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
prefer
refer
regardderogatory
reference
предпочесть
отнестись
отношение
ссылка
consider
offensive
slave
force
perform
plantation
рассматривает
наступление
раб
сила
выступить
плантация
Alternate Meanings
Some people prefer the term cotton harvester to cotton picker when
referring to the machine because cotton picker is also regarded as racial slur, a
highly derogatory reference for black people, especially African Americans. It is
considered very offensive because it makes a direct reference to the days when
most African Americans were held as slaves, many of whom were forced to
perform manual labor on cotton plantations.
1. Fill in the necessary word:
1. People prefer the term … to cotton picker.
2. Cotton picker is also regarded as racial slur, a highly derogatory reference
for black people, especially ….
3. It is … very offensive.
4. Most African Americans were held as ...
5. Many of them were forced to perform … on cotton plantations.
2. Try to explain the following phrases in English: direct reference, were held as
slaves, forced to perform manual labor, highly derogatory reference.
3. Refer the text.
147
Unit 21. Forage harvest
A self propelled John Deere 5730 Forage
Harvester.
320x240 200kbps video of a PTO-driven towed
New Holland forage harvester, John Deere
4020 tractor, and Gehl forage wagon.
Text A
Vocabulary:
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
forage
grass
storage silo
silage bunker
ferment
feed
livestock
drum
flywheel
chute
paddle
wilt
swathe
силосоуборочный комбайн
трава
бункер хранения
бункер силоса
фермент
подача
домашний скот
барабан
маховое колесо
скат
весло
слабеть
обмотать
148
processor
excess
canola
oat
wheat
additive
enzymes
mold
inhibitor
preservative
fermentation
process
sorghum
процессор
избыток
канола
овсяное зерно
пшеница
добавка
ферменты
почва
ингибитор
консервант
брожение
процесс
сорго
A forage harvester
A forage harvester (also known as a silage harvester, forager or chopper) is a
farm implement that harvests forage plants to make silage. Silage is grass, corn or
other plant that has been chopped into small pieces, and compacted together in a
storage silo, silage bunker, or in silage bags. The silage is then fermented to provide feed for livestock. Haylage is a similar process to silage but using grass which
has dried.
Forage harvesters can be implements attached to a tractor, or they can be
self-propelled units. In either configuration, they have either a drum (cutterhead) or
a flywheel with a number of knives fixed to it that chops and blows the silage out a
chute of the harvester into a wagon that is either connected to the harvester or to
another vehicle driving alongside. Some larger machines also have paddle accelerators to increase material speed and improve unloading characteristics. Once a
wagon is filled up, the wagon can be detached and taken back to a silo for unloading, and another wagon can be attached. Because corn and grass require different
types of cutting equipment, there are different heads for each type of silage, and
these heads can be connected and disconnected from the harvester. Grass silage is
usually cut prior to harvesting to allow it to wilt, before being harvested from
swathes with a collection header (windrow pickup). Maize and wholecrop silage
are cut directly by the header, using reciprocating knives, disc mowers or large
saw-like blades. Kernel processors (KP), a module consisting of two mill rolls with
teeth pressed together by powerful springs, are frequently used when harvesting
cereal crops like corn and sorghum to crack the kernels of these plant heads. Kernel processors are installed between the cutterhead and accelerator. In most forage
harvesters, the KP can be quickly removed and replaced with a grass chute for
chopping non-cereal crops.
While towed harvesters continue to be used by small family farms, the large
factory-farm way of silage making is with a self-propelled machine with a tractor
or lorry running along with the forager. Today's largest machines have multiple
engines producing in excess of 1000 horsepower, are fitted with headers able to cut
up to a 9 Meter swath of maize/corn in a single pass, and an output exceeding 2000
tons of silage per day. Silage made from grass, canola, oats or wheat are chopped
in pieces 6 to 30 millimeters and treated with additives including bacterias, enzymes, mold inhibitors, and preservatives to accelerate the fermentation process.
When silage is made of corn or sorghum additives are not necessary because of the
high sugar level in the plant. Additives however are frequently added to corn and
sorghum to augment their fermentation.
1. Find the answers in the text:
1. What is a farm implement that harvests forage plants to make silage?
2. What is silage?
3. What is a similar process to silage but using grass which has dried?
149
4. Can forage harvesters be implements attached to a tractor, or selfpropelled units?
5. What have some larger machines to increase material speed and improve unloading characteristics?
6. Why are there different heads for each type of silage?
7. How are maize and wholecrop silage cut?
8. What have today's largest machines?
2. Comment on the gallery:
A tractor with a trailer
A tractor drawn forunning beside a self
rage
harvester with
propelled forager.(Photo
trailer
provided by Hotvoor)
A parked Serigstad tracA head for chopping tor drawn grass forage
harvester in Jæren, Norcorn
way
150
Unit 22. Gleaner Manufacturing Company
Allis-Chalmers GLEANER L2
Text A
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
unique
уникальный
economically
экономично
bright
яркий
profitable
прибыльный
оранжевый
harvest
урожай
orange
paint
красить
Gleaner Manufacturing Company
Gleaner Manufacturing Company was the name of a company which made
the first self-propelled combine harvesters. They are best known for their
production while part of Allis Chalmers Manufacturing Company. Gleaners were
silver in color, unlike the Allis Chalmers field tractors, which were unique for their
bright orange paint. Gleaners were unique for being the first to use galvanised
sheet metal. Gleaning itself is the act of collecting leftover crops from farmers'
fields after they have been commercially harvested or on fields where it is not
economically profitable to harvest.
1. Complete the sentences, using the text:
1. Gleaner Manufacturing Company was the name of a company which made
the first self-propelled … harvesters.
2. They are … known for their production while part of Allis Chalmers Manufacturing Company.
3. Gleaners were … in color, unlike the Allis Chalmers field tractors, which
were unique for their bright orange paint.
4. Gleaners were unique for being the first to use … sheet metal.
5. Gleaning itself is the act of collecting leftover … from farmers' fields after
they have been commercially harvested or on fields where it is not economically profitable to harvest.
151
2. Prepare the report on the problem and listen to the other students, define
which message is the most laconic and exhaustive.
Text B
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
date back
датироваться
threshing
молотьба
radically
радикально
cylinder
цилиндр
redesign
модернизация
spike-tooth
зуб шипа
жатва
arrangement
договоренность
reaping
закрепление
cylinder
цилиндр
binding
молотьба
trademark
торговая марка
threshing
банкротство
acquired
приобретенный
bankruptcy
продажа
launch
запуск
sale
резко упавший
numerous
многочисленный
plummeted
приемник
technology
receiver
технология
интегрированный consequently
integrated
следовательно
sold
propulsion
проданный
толчок
actually
purchased
фактически
купленный
facility
released
средство
выпущенный
centralize
major
централизовать
главный
many
innovation
многие
новшество
mile
auger
миля
сверло
leaner
canvas
более скудный
холст
originate
draper
произойти
драпировщик
rasp
терка
History
Gleaner combines date back to 1923, when the Baldwin Brothers of Kansas,
inspired by Jean Francois Millet's famous 1857 painting, The Gleaners decided to
use the term as the name for their radically redesigned self-propelled harvesting
machine. The Baldwin Brother's Gleaner incorporated reaping, binding and threshing all into one machine. Gleaner Baldwin Combines of Independence, MO fell into bankruptcy in the 1930s as sales plummeted. William James Brace became the
receiver and with his son-in-law, George Reuland and others brought the company
back. During WWII, they also produced war related machinery parts. They were
among the pioneers in the "self-propelled" machines, that is combines which had
integrated propulsion and were not pulled by tractors. These machines were often
considered the "Cadillac" of the industry. Allis-Chalmers purchased Gleaner in
1955 and continued to build the Gleaner machines in Independence, MO. When
Allis-Chalmers folded, it became part of Deutz-Allis and in 1991, AGCO (Allis
Gleaner Company)was created. The Independence plant was moved to Hesston,
KS in 2000, near its roots where the Baldwin brothers started. In 1979, Gleaner released another major innovation, the rotary combine. The N6 was the first such
152
combine produced by Gleaner, followed by the N5 and the N7, the largest combine
of its time, with grain heads as big as 30 feet.
Firsts. Some of the firsts introduced by the Gleaner are: an auger that replaced canvas drapers, a rasp bar threshing cylinder instead of a spike-tooth arrangement, and a down-front cylinder that put threshing closer to the crop. It also
introduced the use of galvanised sheet metal and the name “GLEANER” – two
trademarks that have remained unchanged for over three-quarters of a century.
Allis Chalmers. In 1955, Allis Chalmers Manufacturing Company acquired
Gleaner. This was what launched Gleaner into success and the production of numerous new models, as well as a wealth of new technology. Allis Chalmers is the
name under which Gleaners are most well known. These combines superseded the
All-Crop Harvesters for Allis-Chalmers. In 1985, Allis Chalmers became DeutzAllis, and Gleaners were produced under that name.
AGCO Allis. In 1991, Deutz Allis became AGCO Allis, and Gleaners were
consequently sold under AGCO, which actually stands for Allis Gleaner Company.
In 2000, AGCO moved the Gleaner manufacturing facility to its AGCO facility in
order to have a more modern facility and to centralize many engineering and production functions at one location. This facility is located in Kansas, just a few
miles away from where Gleaner originated.
Today. Even though Allis Chalmers aren't here today, Gleaners are still in
production today under AGCO, which actually stands for Allis Gleaner Company.
1. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
It launched Gleaner into success and the to its AGCO facility in order to have a
production of numerous
more modern facility.
The Baldwin Brother's Gleaner incorpo- which had integrated propulsion and
rated reaping,
were not pulled by tractors.
AGCO moved the Gleaner manufactur- produced war related machinery parts.
ing facility
During WWII, they also
a rasp bar threshing cylinder instead of a
spike-tooth arrangement, and a downfront cylinder that put threshing closer
to the crop.
Some of the firsts introduced by the new models, as well as a wealth of new
Gleaner are: an auger that replaced can- technology.
vas drapers,
They were among the pioneers in the which actually stands for Allis Gleaner
"self-propelled" machines, that is com- Company.
bines
Gleaners are still in production today binding and threshing all into one maunder AGCO,
chine.
2. Project work. Using the Internet and/ or newspapers and magazines, collect
some data on the Gleaner combines history and discuss the results in your group.
153
Unit 23. Gravity wagon
A "Little Giant" slant wagon
Text A
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
angle
hopper
wagon
utilize
gravity
purpose
holding
crop
fertilizer
comparison
уклон
угол
фургон
использовать
сила тяжести
цель
проведение
урожай
удобрение
сравнение
railroad
unloading
bottom
side
cause
content
funnel
effort
forth
lever
turning
chassis
железная дорога
разгрузка
основание
сторона
причина
содержание
труба
усилие
дальше
рычаг
превращение
шасси
A gravity wagon
The Gravity wagon, or Slant wagon, is an angled hopper style wagon that
utilizes gravity to make the unloading process easier. It is primarily used for on
farms for agricultural purposes, such as for holding crops or fertilizer. For easy
comparison, it is similar to a railroad hopper car, only with one door which is
located on the bottom side rather than on the bottom center. A gravity wagon has
three sides which are angled at about 45 degrees and one side that is vertical. An
unloading door is located at the bottom of the vertical side where the three angled
sides come together. This design causes the contents of the wagon to funnel
towards the door so that no effort has to be put forth to unload the contents other
than opening the door, which opens upwards by the action of a lever or turning of a
154
wheel. The chassis used for gravity wagons is sometimes the same as the chassis
used for hay wagons.
1. Find the answers in the text:
1. What is an angled hopper style wagon that utilizes gravity to make the unloading process easier?
2. What is it primarily used for?
3. Is it similar to a railroad hopper car?
4. Where is an unloading door?
5. What does this design cause?
6. Is the chassis used for gravity wagons the same as the chassis used for hay
wagons?
2. Prepare the report on the problem and listen to the other students, define
which message is the most laconic and exhaustive.
155
Unit 24. Huller
An old-type mechanical huller,
driven by a gasoline engine
An electric rotary huller
Text A
Vocabulary:
removing
chaff
outer
husk
rice
grain
удаление
мякина
внешний
шелуха
рис
зерно
throughout
numerous
hull
widely
particularly
sieve
swing
повсюду
многочисленный
корпус
широко
особенно
решето
колебание
A huller
A huller (or sometimes called a rice husker) is an agricultural machine
used to automate the process of removing the chaff and the outer husks of rice
grain. Throughout history, there have been numerous techniques to hull rice, but in
modern times a huller or rice huller is the most widely used method, particularly in
Asia.
156
Types of Hullers:
•
Rotary huller. This type of the machine gets the brown rice in good quality
by a cylindrical sieve set inside the body.
•
Swing huller. By swinging a set of sieves, it separates the brown rice.
•
Mangoku-shiki (万石式) huller. "Mangoku", sometimes called "ElecHuller", was first developed during the Edo period of Japan and is still the
most efficient way of grading harvested rice.
Most modern hullers are driven by a motor, usually gasoline or electric, and are
fully automated, computer controlled food processing systems.
1. Complete the sentences, using the text:
1. A huller is an agricultural machine used to … the process of removing the
chaff and the outer husks of rice grain.
2. There have been numerous … to hull rice, but in modern times a huller or
rice huller is the most widely used method.
3. Rotary huller. gets the brown rice in good quality by a cylindrical sieve set
inside the body.
4. Swing huller. By swinging a set of sieves separates the brown rice.
5. Mangoku-shiki huller is the most … way of grading harvested rice.
2.Using Appendix 2, express your opinion on the problem of the text.
157
Unit 25. Swather
Swather
Text A
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
cut
hay
windrow
sickle
bar
reel
neatly
сокращение
сено
ряд сена
серп
бар
шатание
аккуратно
canvas
oriented
binder
curing
reduce
growing
predominantly
mascot
холст
ориентируемый
переплет
лечение
уменьшить
рост
преобладающе
талисман
A swather
A swather is a farm implement that cuts hay or small grain crops and forms
them into a windrow. A swather (also called a "windrower") may be self propelled
via an internal combustion engine, or may be drawn by a tractor and powered
through a power take-off shaft. A swather uses a sickle bar (see mower) to cut the
stems of the crop. A reel helps the cut crop fall neatly onto a canvas or auger
conveyor which moves it and deposits it into a windrow, with all stems oriented in
the same direction. As combines replaced threshing machines, the swather was
needed to replace the binder. Swathing (windrowing) is more common in the
northern United States and Canada. This is because the curing time for grain crops
is reduced by cutting the plant stems. In regions with longer growing seasons,
158
grain crops are usually left standing and harvested directly by combines. "Swather"
is predominantly the North American term for these machines. In Australia and
other parts of the world, they are called "windrowers". The Swather is the mascot
of sports teams at Hesston High School in Hesston, Kansas.
1. Find the answers in the text:
1. What is a farm implement that cuts hay or small grain crops and forms them
into a windrow?
2. May a swather be self propelled via an internal combustion engine, or drawn
by a tractor?
3. What does a swather use to cut the stems of the crop?
4. Why was the swather needed to replace the binder?
5. Where is windrowing more common?
6. Where are grain crops usually left standing and harvested directly by combines?
7. How are they called in Australia and other parts of the world?
2. Comment on the photos in pairs.
3. Refer the text.
159
Unit 26. Hay making
Text A
A Hay rake
A hay rake is an agricultural rake used to collect cut hay into windrows for
later collection (e.g. by a baler). It is also designed to fluff up the hay and turn it
over so that it may dry. A hay rake may be mechanized, drawn by a tractor or draft
animals, or it may be a hand tool.
A modern hay rake
A common older type hay rake A 19th-century hand-tool hay rake
Text B
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
baler
упаковочный пресс cylindrical
цилиндрический
compress
компресс
bound
связанный
rake
грабли
бечевка
twine
сено
провод
wire
hay
солома
сетка
netting
straw
кипа
картон
bale
cardboard
rectangular
прямоугольный
transport
транспорт
A baler
A round baler
160
A baler is a piece of farm machinery used to compress a cut and raked crop
(such as hay, silage or straw) into compact bales that are easy to handle, transport
and store. Several different types of balers are commonly used, each producing a
different type of bales – rectangular or cylindrical, of various sizes, bound with
twine, wire or netting. Balers are also used in material recycling facilities,
primarily for baling plastic, paper or cardboard for transport.
1. Fill in the necessary word:
1. A baler is a piece of farm machinery used to compress a cut and raked crop
into compact bales
2. Compact bales are easy to handle, transport and store.
3. Several different types of balers are commonly used.
4. Each type produces a different type of bales – rectangular or cylindrical, of
various sizes, bound with twine, wire or netting.
5. They are also used in material recycling facilities, primarily for baling plastic, paper or cardboard for transport.
2. Try to explain the following phrases in English: a piece of farm machinery, a
cut and raked crop, easy to handle, commonly used, material recycling facilities.
3. Comment on the photos in pairs.
4. Define the main idea of the text.
Text C
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
frequently часто
rubberize прорезинить
belts
пояса
reach
достигнуть
wrap
обертка
around
вокруг
straw
солома
fully-dried полностью высушенный
airtight
convert
damp
weigh
material
dampness
discontinued
supply
161
воздухонепроницаемый
новообращённый
влажность
весить
материал
сырость
прекращенный
поставка
Round baler
Allis Chalmers Rotobaler
The most frequently used type of baler in industrialized countries is the large
round baler. It produces cylindrically shaped "round" or "rolled" bales. The hay is
rolled-up inside the baler using rubberized belts, fixed rollers, or a combination of
rollers and belts. When the bale reaches a determined size, two or three layers of
fine plastic netting are wrapped around it to hold it. The back of the baler opens
and the bale is discharged. Straw or fully-dried hay bales are complete at this stage,
but bales may also be wrapped in airtight plastic sheeting by a bale wrapper, either
to keep hay dry when stored outside, or to convert damp grass into silage.
Variable-chamber balers typically produce bales from 48 to 72 inches (1.2 to
1.8 m) in diameter and up to 60 inches (1.5 m) in width. The bales weigh from
1,100 to 2,200 pounds (500 to 1,000 kg), depending upon size, material and
dampness. Early round balers were sold by Allis Chalmers as the Rotobaler. These
bales were roughly 16 inches (0.41 m) in diameter and 48 inches (1.2 m) wide. The
concept was first pioneered by Ummo Luebbens as early as 1910. Introduced in
1947 and discontinued in 1960, Allis Chalmers was a pioneer in supplying
machinery that would form cylindrical bales during a period where rectangular
bales were most common. The modern round baler was designed in 1972 by the
Vermeer Company, which as of 2007 continues to produce them.
1. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
The back of the baler
the Vermeer Company, which as of
2007 continues to produce them.
When the bale reaches a determined from 48 to 72 inches in diameter and up
size, two
to 60 inches in width.
Allis Chalmers was a pioneer in in industrialized countries is the large
supplying machinery that would form
round baler.
The modern round baler was designed opens and the bale is discharged.
in 1972 by
The most frequently used type of baler
cylindrical bales during a period where
rectangular bales were most common.
Variable-chamber
balers
typically or three layers of fine plastic netting are
produce bales
wrapped around it to hold it.
162
2. Comment on the photos in pairs.
3. Prepare the report on the problem and listen to the other students, define
which message is the most laconic and exhaustive.
Text D
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
weigh
весить
clamps
зажимы
scale
масштаб
approach
подход
dairy
маслодельня
underneath
внизу
slope
наклон
clamped
зажатый
moving
перемещение
flip
щелчок
equipment
оборудование
round
вокруг
копье
bale
кипа
spear
шип
challenge
проблема
spike
установленный
curves
кривые
mounted
вставленный
saddle
седло
inserted
приблизительный
closelyблизко располоapproximate
буксируемый
spaced
женный
hauled
предназначение
saddles
седла
destination
запечатанный
peeled off
очищенный
sealed
воздухонепроницаемый outer
внешний
air-tightness
perimeter
периметр
Round bale handling and transport
A round bale
Round bales can weigh a ton or more, and are well-suited for modern large
scale farming operations such as a dairy with 200 or more cows. However, due to
the ability for a round bale to roll away on a slope, they require special transport
and moving equipment. The most important tool for round bale handling is the bale
163
spear or spike, which is usually mounted on the back of a tractor or the front of a
skid-steer. It is inserted into the approximate center of the round bale, and then
lifted up and the bale is hauled away. Once at the destination, the round bale is set
down, and the spear pulled out. Careful placement of the spear in the center is
needed or the round bale can spin around and touch the ground while in transport,
causing a loss of control. When used for wrapped bales that are to be stored further, the spear makes a hole in the wrapping that must be sealed with plastic tape to
maintain air-tightness.
Alternatively, a grapple fork may be used to lift and transport round bales.
The grapple fork is a hydraulically driven implement attached to the end of a tractor's bucket loader. When the hydraulic cylinder is extended the fork clamps
downwards towards the bucket, much like a closing hand. To move a round bale
the tractor approaches the bale from the side and places the bucket underneath the
bale. The fork is then clamped down across the top of the bale, and the bucket
lifted with the bale in tow.
It is difficult to flip a round bale so that the flat surface is facing down and
later flip it back up on edge, so transporting many round bales a long distance is a
challenge. Flat-bed transport is difficult since the bales could roll off the truck bed
going around curves and up hills. To prevent this, the flat-bed trailer is equipped
with rounded guard-rails at either end, which prevent bales from rolling either forward or backward. Another solution for this is the saddle wagon, which has closely-spaced rounded saddles or support posts for round bales to sit in. The tall sides
of each saddle, or the bale settling down in between posts, prevent the bales from
rolling around while on the wagon.
Round bales can be directly used for feeding animals by placing it in a feeding area, tipping it over, removing the bale wrap, and placing a protective ring (a
ring feeder) around the outside so that animals don't walk on hay that has been
peeled off the outer perimeter of the bale. The baler's forming and compaction
process can assist in unrolling a round bale, as it is often possible to unroll a round
bale in a continuous flat strip for feeding in the open, or through a feeding barrier.
1. Fill in the necessary word:
1. Due to the ability for a round bale to roll away on a slope, they require special …and moving equipment.
2. The bale spear or spike is … mounted on the … of a tractor.
3. Careful placement of the spear in the … is needed.
4. A grapple fork may be used to … and transport round bales.
5. To move a round bale the tractor approaches the bale from the side and places the … underneath the bale.
6. The bucket lifted with the … in tow.
7. Flat-bed …is difficult since the bales could roll off the truck bed going
around curves and up hills
164
2. Comment on the photos in pairs.
3. Define the main idea of the text.
Text E
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
Silage
moisture
ferment
spear
stabbed
core
stretch
Силос
влажность
фермент
копье
нанесенный удар
ядро
протяжение
цепляется
внешность
ось
гладкий
печать
воздухонепроницаемый
шип
проколы
cling
exterior
axis
smooth
seal
airtight
spike
punctures
Silage / Haylage large bales
Picking up and applying plastic cling wrap to
a round bale.
Sealing the wrapped bales together.
A recent innovation in hay storage has been the development of the silage or
haylage bale, which is a high-moisture wrapped round bale. These are baled much
wetter than hay bales, and are usually smaller than hay bales because the greater
moisture content makes them heavier and harder to handle. These bales begin to
165
ferment almost immediately, and the metal bale spear stabbed into the core becomes very warm to the touch from the fermentation process.
They are placed on a rotating bale spear mounted on the rear of a tractor. As
the bale spins, a layer of plastic cling film is applied to the exterior of the bale.
This roll of plastic is mounted in a sliding shuttle on a steel arm and can move parallel to the bale axis, so that the operator does not need to hold up the heavy roll
of plastic themselves. The plastic layer extends over the ends of the bale to form a
ring of plastic approximately 12 inches (30 cm) wide on the ends, with hay exposed in the center.
In order to stretch the cling-wrap plastic tightly over the bale, the tension is
actively adjusted with a knob on the end of the roll which squeezes the ends of the
roll in the shuttle. In this example wrapping video, the operator is attempting to use
high tension to get a flat, smooth seal on the right end. However the tension increases too much and the plastic tears off. The operator recovers by quickly loosening the tension and allows the plastic to feed out halfway around the bale before
reapplying the tension to the sheeting.
These bales are placed in a long continuous row, with each wrapped bale
pressed firmly up against all the other bales in the row before being set down onto
the ground. The plastic wrap on the ends of each bale sticks together to seal out air
and moisture, protecting the hay from the elements. The end-bales are hand-sealed
with strips of cling plastic across the hay opening.
The airtight seal between each bale permits the row of round bales to ferment as if they were in a silo bag, but they are easier to handle than a silo bag, as
they are more robust and compact. The plastic usage is relatively high and there is
no way to reuse the hay-contaminated plastic sheeting, although it can be recycled
or used as a fuel source via incineration. The wrapping cost is approximately US$5
per bale.
An alternative form of wrapping places the same type of bale on a pair of
rollers on a turntable mounted on the three-point linkage of a tractor. It is then spun
about two axes while being wrapped in several layers of cling-wrap plastic film.
This covers the ends and sides of the bale in one operation, thus sealing it separately from other bales. The bales are then moved or stacked using a special pincer attachment on the front loader of a tractor, which does not damage the film seal.
They can also be moved using a standard bale spike, but this punctures the airtight
seal, and the hole in the film must be repaired after each move.
Plastic-wrapped bales must be unwrapped before being fed to livestock to
prevent accidental ingestion of the plastic. Like round hay bales, silage bales are
usually fed using a ring feeder.
1. Agree or disagree with the statements, using Appendix 2:
1. A recent innovation in hay storage has been the development of the silage or haylage bale, which is a high-moisture wrapped round bale.
166
2. These bales begin to ferment almost immediately, and the metal bale
spear stabbed into the core becomes very cold to the touch from the
fermentation process.
3. This roll of plastic is mounted in a sliding shuttle on a steel arm and
can move parallel to the bale axis, so that the operator does not need
to hold up the heavy roll of plastic themselves.
4. The operator recovers by slowly loosening the tension and allows the
plastic to feed out halfway around the bale before reapplying the tension to the sheeting.
5. The plastic wrap on the ends of each bale sticks together to seal out air
and moisture, protecting the hay from the elements.
6. The plastic usage is relatively low and there is no way to reuse the
hay-contaminated plastic sheeting, although it can be recycled or used
as a fuel source via incineration.
7. This covers the ends and sides of the bale in one operation, thus sealing it separately from other bales.
2. Comment on the photos in pairs.
3. Refer the text.
Text F
Large rectangular baler
Large rectangular baler
Another type of baler in common use produces large rectangular bales, each
bound with a half dozen or so strings of twine which are then knotted. Such bales
are highly compacted and generally weigh somewhat more than round bales. In the
prairies of Canada they are called prairie raptors.
1. Try to explain the following phrases in English: common use, highly
compacted, generally weigh.
167
2. Comment on the photos in pairs.
Text H
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
flatbed
solid
slab
stacked
планшет
тело
плита
сложенный
нормированный
сжать
власть
rationed
squeeze
grip
Rectangular bale handling and transport
Rectangular bales are easier to transport than round bales since there is little
risk of the bale rolling off the back of a flatbed trailer. The rectangular shape also
saves space and allows a complete solid slab of hay to be stacked up for transport
and storage. They are well-suited for large scale livestock feedlot operations where
many tons of feed are rationed every hour. Due to the huge rectangular shape, large
spear forks, or squeeze grips are mounted to heavy lifting machinery, such as: large
fork lifts, tractors equipped with front end loaders, telehandlers, hay squeezes or
wheel loaders to lift these bales.
1. Fill in the necessary word:
1. … bales are easier to transport than round bales.
2. There is little … of the bale rolling off the back of a flatbed trailer.
3. The rectangular shape saves space and allows a complete solid slab of hay to
be stacked up for … and storage.
4. They are well-suited for large scale …feedlot operations.
5. Due to the huge rectangular shape, large spear forks, or squeeze grips are
mounted to heavy lifting …
2. Refer the text.
Text I
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
prevalent
exclusion
twine
knotted
baled
распространенный
исключение
бечевка
затруднительный
в тюках
knife
trigger
insulation
convenience
confined
168
нож
спусковой механизм
изоляция
удобство
ограниченный
Small rectangular baler
A small square baler
A type of baler which is less common today in some places but which is still
prevalent in many countries such as New Zealand and Australia to the exclusion of
large bales produces small rectangular (often called "square") bales. Each bale is
about 15 in x 18 in x 40 in (40 x 45 x 100 cm). The bales are wrapped with two,
three, or sometimes four strands of twine and knotted. The bales are light enough
for one person to handle, about 45 to 60 inches (1.1 to 1.5 m).
To form the bale, the material to be baled, (which is often hay or straw) in
the windrow is lifted by tines in the baler's pickup. This material is then dragged or
augered into a chamber that runs the length of one side of the baler. A combination
plunger and knife moves back and forth in the front end of this chamber. The knife,
positioned just ahead of the plunger, cuts off the material at the spot where it enters
the chamber from the pickup. The plunger rams the material rearwards, compressing it into the bales. A measuring device measures the amount of material that is
being compressed and, at the appropriate length it triggers the mechanism (the
knotter) that wraps the twine around the bale and ties it off. As the next bale is
formed the tied one is driven out of the rear of the baling chamber onto the ground
or onto a special wagon hooked to the rear of the baler. This process continues as
long as there is material to be baled, and twine to tie it with.
This form of bale is no longer much used in large-scale commercial agriculture because of the costs involved in handling many small bales. However, it enjoys some popularity in small-scale, low-mechanization agriculture and horsekeeping. Besides using simpler machinery and being easy to handle, these small
bales can also be used for insulation and building materials in straw-bale construction. Square bales will also generally weather better than round bales because a
more much dense stack can be put up. Convenience is also a major factor in farmers deciding to continue putting up square bales, as they make feeding and bedding in confined areas (stables, barns, etc.) much easier.
Many of these older balers are still to be found on farms today, particularly in dry
areas where bales can be left outside for long periods.
169
The automatic-baler for small square bales took on most of its present form
in 1940. It was first manufactured by the New Holland Ag and it used a small petrol engine to provide operating power. It is based on a 1937 invention for a twinetie baler with automatic pickup.
1. Match two parts of the sentences, using the text:
The bales are wrapped with two, three, material rearwards, compressing it into
or sometimes four
the bales.
Convenience is also a major factor in New Holland Ag and it used a small petrol engine to provide operating power.
farmers
The plunger rams the
It was first manufactured by the
As the next bale is formed the tied one
is driven out of
This process continues as long as there
is material to be
baled, and twine to tie it with.
strands of twine and knotted.
deciding to continue putting up square
bales.
the rear of the baling chamber onto the
ground .
2. Using Appendix 2, express your opinion on the problem of the text.
Text J
Дополните в коллективной работе группы сначала на русском
языке, а потом на английском языке лексикон к тексту.
Vocabulary:
stationary
change
through
instead of
постоянный
изменение
через
вместо
ordered
twine
tie
Wire balers
Stationary baler
170
заказаннsq
бечевка
связать
Bales prior to 1937 were manually wire-tied with two baling wires. Even
earlier, the baler was a stationary implement, driven by power take-off (PTO) and
belt, with the hay being brought to the baler and fed in by hand. The biggest
change to this type of baler since 1940 is being powered by the tractor through its
PTO, instead of by a built-in internal combustion engine. In present day
production, small square balers can be ordered with twine knotters or wire tie
knotters.
1. Try to explain the following phrases in English: manually wire-tied,
stationary implement, the biggest change, is being powered by the tractor.
2. Comment on the photos in pairs.
171
Unit 27. Loading
Text A
A Backhoe
Rear view of a JCB 3CX showing the backhoe being employed to remove a tree stump.
Note the stabilisers deployed to avoid the vehicle tipping sideways when the arm is extended.
A backhoe, also called a rear actor or back actor, is a piece of excavating
equipment or digger consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two-part
articulated arm. They are typically mounted on the back of a tractor or front loader.
The section of the arm closest to the vehicle is known as the boom, and the section
which carries the bucket is known as the dipper or dipperstick (the terms 'boom'
and 'dipper' having been used previously on steam shovels). The boom is attached
to the vehicle through a pivot known as the kingpost, which allows the arm to slew
left and right, usually through a total of around 200 degrees. Modern backhoes are
powered by hydraulics.
A skid loader with its bucket replaced by backhoe attachment
172
Most backhoes are at their strongest curling the bucket, with the dipperstick
next most powerful, and boom movements the least powerful.
Similar attachments for skid loaders are still called backhoes even though
they are mounted on the front. This is because the name refers to the action of the
shovel, not its location on the vehicle: a backhoe digs by drawing earth backwards,
rather than lifting it with a forward motion like a bulldozer or a man shoveling.
A backhoe loader is a tractor-like vehicle with an arm and bucket mounted
on the back and a front loader mounted on the front. This type of vehicle is often
known colloquially as a JCB in Europe and simply a Backhoe or a Tractor Loader
Backhoe, or TLB, in North America. In North American terms, a Backhoe includes
both a front bucket and a rear hoe, on a chassis originally derived from farm tractors. A dedicated hoe on its own chassis is more properly referred to as an excavator.
Backhoes can be designed and manufactured from the start as such, or can
be the result of a farm tractor equipped with a Front End Loader (FEL) and rear
hoe. Though similar looking, the designed backhoes are much stronger, with the
farm variation more suitable for light work.
With the advent of hydraulic powered attachments such as a tiltrotator,
breaker, a grapple or an auger, the backhoe is frequently used in many applications
other than excavation and with the tiltrotator attachment, serves as an effective tool
carrier. Many backhoes feature quick-attach mounting systems for simplified attachment mounting, dramatically increasing the machine's utilization on the job
site. Backhoes are usually employed together with loaders and bulldozers. Excavators that use a backhoe are sometimes called "trackhoes" by people who do not
realize the name is due to the action of the bucket, not its location on a backhoe
loader.
Backhoes are general purpose tools, and are being displaced to some extent
by multiple specialist tools like the excavator and the speciality Front End Loader,
especially with the rise of the mini-excavator. On many jobsites which would have
previously seen a backhoe used, a skidsteer (colloquially often called a Bobcat after the most well known manufacturer and inventor of the category) and a mini excavator will be used in conjunction to fill the backhoes role. However, backhoes
still are in general use.
Sometimes a backhoe's scoop can be mounted the "wrong" way round, to
work in "face shovel" mode. However, this mode of use is extremely dangerous
and should not be attempted without approved modifications from the manufacturer or a certified P.E.[citation needed]
Origins. The British company JCB developed the early hoes. Their first tractor equipped with both a hoe and a front-mounted loading bucket was completed in
1953 and set the standard pattern for future designs of backhoe loader. Because of
the long-time predominance of this marque in the United Kingdom and Ireland, it
has become a genericized trademark there, and all backhoe-equipped diggers are
commonly called JCBs, while the term "hoe" is almost unknown to the general
173
public in this context. The founder of the JCB company, Joseph Cyril Bamford,
holds the honour of being the only non-American in the US construction industry's
Hall of fame.
The American company Hy-Dynamic, a division of Bucyrus-Erie, introduced the first purpose-built American-made backhoe loader in 1959, the Dynahoe
Model A. It offered a 14,000lb. operating weight, 14 foot dig depth, and was powered by either a 65hp Continental flat-head "Red Seal" 6 cylinder gasoline engine, or starting in 1961, a Detroit Diesel 353 diesel engine. The gasoline engine
was phased out in 1964, with only diesel powered units produced from that point
on. The company marketed the Dynahoe as the only purpose-built backhoe-loader,
previously all american backhoes were merely farm tractors fitted with front loader
and rear backhoe attachments. The Dynahoe was built very robust from the ground
up with heavy excavation in mind. Production of the Dynahoe continued into the
early 1990's culminating in the model Dynahoe 200-4, with a 36,000lb. operating
weight, 4 wheel drive, and a 20 foot dig depth. Production ceased with demand
wavering in favor of more modern and versatile excavator type machines becoming more cost effective, and productive. Many of the original Dynahoe Model A's
are still in use to this day. The second, and much more popular Case Corporation
introduced their backhoes in 1967. The design of the Case backhoes, from the
straight arm boom assembly, to the "Extendahoe" design, which can extend the
dipper from four to eight feet longer, are all registered with the U.S. Patent Office,
along with the chassis design.
Backhoe fade. Backhoe fade or JCB fade is a humorous term coined by the
telecommunications industry, referring to the accidental severing of a cable by a
backhoe or similar construction activity. The term comes from the sudden and initially inexplicable loss of signal ("fading") experienced when a cable is accidentally dug up and damaged. Depending on the particular cable destroyed, service may
be interrupted to just a few customers or, for a large fiber optic cable, millions of
customers across an entire continent.
Backhoe manufacturers:
• Gazar Loader
• Ammann-Yanmar
• Case CE
• Caterpillar Inc.
• Deere & Company
• Ford Motor Company
• Hidromek
• Hitachi Construction Machinery (Europe)
• Hy-Dynamic (Bucyrus-Erie)
• Hydrema
• JCB
• Komatsu
174
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Kubota
KPX
Massey Ferguson
Takeuchi
Terex
Terramite
Volvo Construction Equipment
Gruppo Mattaroccia
1. Agree or disagree with the statements, using Appendix 2:
1. A backhoe loader is a tractor-like vehicle with an arm and bucket
mounted on the back and a front loader mounted on the front.
2. A dedicated hoe on its own chassis is more properly referred to as a
tractor.
3. The designed backhoes are much stronger, with the farm variation
more suitable for light work.
4. Backhoes are usually employed together with loaders and bulldozers.
5. Excavators that use a backhoe are sometimes called "trackhoes" by
people who realize the name.
6. Backhoes are general purpose tools, and are being displaced to some
extent by multiple specialist tools like the excavator and the speciality
Front End Loader, especially with the rise of the mini-excavator.
7. Because of the long-time predominance of this marque in the United
States and Ireland, it has become a genericized trademark there.
8. The founder of the JCB company, Joseph Cyril Bamford, holds the
honour of being the only American in the US construction industry's
Hall of fame.
9. The gasoline engine was phased out in 1954, with only diesel powered units produced from that point on.
10.The company marketed the Dynahoe as the only purpose-built backhoe-loader, previously all American backhoes were merely farm tractors fitted with front loader and rear backhoe attachments.
11.The second, and much more popular Case Corporation introduced
their backhoes in 1957.
12.The design of the Case backhoes, from the straight arm boom assembly, to the "Extendahoe" design, which can extend the dipper from
four to eight feet longer, are all registered with the U.S. Patent Office,
along with the chassis design.
2. Comment on the photos in pairs.
175
3. Project work. Using the Internet and/ or newspapers and magazines, collect
some data on the backhoe and discuss the results in your group.
Text B
Loader (equipment)
Volvo L120E front loader
Caterpillar 988 adapted for log handling
A track loader
Close-up of articulated steering apparatus
A loader is a heavy equipment machine (often used in construction) that is
primarily used to "load" material (asphalt, demolition debris, dirt, feed, gravel,
logs, raw minerals, recycled material, rock, sand, wood chips, etc.) into or onto
another type of machinery (dump truck, conveyor belt, feed-hopper, rail-car, etc.).
1. Heavy equipment front loaders
A loader (also known as: bucket loader, front loader, front end loader, payloader, scoop loader, shovel, skip loader, and/or wheel loader) is a type of tractor,
usually wheeled, sometimes on tracks, that has a front mounted square wide bucket
176
connected to the end of two booms (arms) to scoop up loose material from the
ground, such as dirt, sand or gravel, and move it from one place to another without
pushing the material across the ground. A loader is commonly used to move a
stockpiled material from ground level and deposit it into an awaiting dump truck or
into an open trench excavation.
The loader assembly may be a removable attachment or permanently
mounted. Often the bucket can be replaced with other devices or tools--for example, many can mount forks to lift heavy pallets or shipping containers, and a hydraulically-opening "clamshell" bucket allows a loader to act as a light dozer or
scraper. The bucket can also be augmented with devices like a bale grappler for
handling large bales of hay or straw.
Large loaders, such as the Kawasaki 95ZV-2, John Deere 844K, Caterpillar
950H, Volvo L120E, Case 921E, or Hitachi ZW310 usually have only a front
bucket and are called Front Loaders, whereas small loader tractors are often also
equipped with a small backhoe and are called backhoe loaders or loader backhoes
or JCBs, after the company that first invented them.
The largest loader in the world is LeTourneau L-2350. Currently these large
loaders are in production in the Longview, Texas facility. The L-2350 uses a diesel
electric propulsion system similar to that used in a locomotive. Each rubber tired
wheel is driven by its own independent electric motor.
Loaders are used mainly for uploading materials into trucks, laying pipe,
clearing rubble, and digging. A loader is not the most efficient machine for digging
as it cannot dig very deep below the level of its wheels, like a backhoe can. Their
deep bucket can usually store about 3-6 cubic meters (exact number varies with the
model) of earth. The front loader's bucket capacity is much bigger than a bucket
capacity of a backhoe loader. Loaders are not classified as earthmoving machinery,
as their primary purpose is other than earthmoving.
Unlike most bulldozers, most loaders are wheeled and not tracked, although
track loaders are common. They are successful where sharp edged materials in
construction debris would damage rubber wheels, or where the ground is soft and
muddy. Wheels provide better mobility and speed and do not damage paved roads
as much as tracks, but provide less traction.
In construction areas loaders are also used to transport building materials such as bricks, pipe, metal bars, and digging tools - over short distances.
Loaders are also used for snow removal, using their bucket or a snowbasket, but
usually using a snowplow attachment. They clear snow from streets, highways and
parking lots. They sometimes load snow into dump trucks for transport.
High-tip buckets are suitable for light materials such as chip, peat and light gravel
and when the bucket is emptied from a height.
Unlike backhoes or standard tractors fitted with a front bucket, many large
loaders do not use automotive steering mechanisms. Instead, they steer by a hydraulically actuated pivot point set exactly between the front and rear axles. This is
referred to as "articulated steering" and allows the front axle to be solid, allowing it
177
to carry greater weight. Articulated steering provides better maneuverability for a
given wheelbase. Since the front wheels and attachment rotate on the same axis,
the operator is able to "steer" his load in an arc after positioning the machine,
which can be useful. The tradeoff is that when the machine is "twisted" to one side
and a heavy load is lifted high, it has a greater risk of turning over to the "wide"
side.
Front loaders gained popularity during the last two decades, especially in urban engineering projects and small earthmoving works. Many heavy equipment
manufacturers offer a wide range of loaders, the most notable are those of John
Deere, Caterpillar, Case, Volvo, Komatsu, Liebherr, JCB and Kawasaki, being the
longest, on-going manufacturer of articulated wheel loaders in the world.
The term "loader" is also used in the debris removal field to describe the boom on
a grapple truck.
In Pakistan first tractor loader was manufactured by JIC JIC
2. Tractor front loaders
These loaders are a popular addition to tractors from 50 to 200hp. It's current
'drive-in' form was originally designed and developed in 1958 by a company called
Quicke A history of Quicke loader development.They were developed to perform a
multitude of farming tasks, and are popular due to their relatively low cost (compared to Telehandler) and high versatility. Tractor loaders can be fitted with many
attachments such as hydraulic grabs and spikes to assist with bale and silage handling, forks for pallet work, and buckets for more general farm activities.
3. Compact front end loaders
Semi-curved Compact Loader on a John Deere
compact utility tractor
Visibility comparison of different designs of
Loaders
Popular additions to compact utility tractors and farm tractors are Front End
Loaders, also referred to as a FEL. Compact utility tractors, also called CUTs are
small tractors, typically with 18 to 50 horsepower (37 kW) and used primarily for
178
grounds maintenance and landscape chores. There are 2 primary designs of compact tractor FELs, the traditional dogleg designed style and the curved arm style.
John Deere Tractor manufactures a semi-curved loader design that does not
feature the one piece curved arm, but also is not of the traditional two piece design.
New Holland Ag introduced a compact loader with a one piece curved arm on its
compact utility tractors, similar one piece curved arm loaders are now available on
compact tractors on many brands including Case/Farmall, and some Montana and
Kioti tractors. Kubota markets traditional loader designs on most of its compact
tractors but now features a semi-curved loader design similar to the John Deere
loader design on several of its small tractors.
While the Front End Loaders on CUT size tractors are capable of many
tasks, given their relatively small size and low capacities when compared to commercial loaders, the compact loaders can be made more useful with some simple
options. A Toothbar is commonly added to the front edge of a loader bucket to aid
with digging. Some loaders are equipped with a Quick Attach (QA) system, the
QA system allows the bucket to be removed easily and other tools to be added in
its place. Common additions would include a set of Pallet Forks for lifting pallets
of goods or a Bale Spear for lifting hay bales.
Compact Utility Tractor with a Front Loader showing 2 different measurement points for loader
capacities
4. Skid loaders & track loaders
A skid loader is a small loader utilizing four wheels with hydraulic drive that
directs power to either, or both, sides of the vehicle. Very similar in appearance
and design is the track loader, which utilizes a continuous track on either side of
the vehicle instead of the wheels. Since the expiration of Bobcat's patent on its
quick-connect system, newer tractor models are standardizing on that popular format for front end attachments.
1. Comment on the photos in pairs.
179
2. Prepare the report on the problem and listen to the other students, define
which message is the most laconic and exhaustive.
3. Project work. Using the Internet and/ or newspapers and magazines, collect
some data on the backhoe and discuss the results in your group.
4. Comment on the gallery:
A Hanomag loader
DK45 with and without a toothbar on the bucket
A relatively small front loader
A loader with a specialized claw used to move logs
at a sawmill
A Caterpillar 930G fitted with a loader
rake on a residential construction site in
South Florida
The front of a Caterpillar 930G fitted with loader
rake
180
READER
Square/wire bale history
Pickup and handling methods
In the 1940s most farmers would bale hay in the field with a small tractor
with 20 or less horsepower, and the tied bales would be dropped onto the ground as
the baler moved through the field. Another team of workers with horses and a
flatbed wagon with would come by and use a sharp metal hook to grab the bale and
throw it up onto the wagon while an assistant stacks the bale, for transport to the
barn.
A later time-saving innovation was to tow the flatbed wagon directly behind
the baler, and the bale would be pushed up a ramp to a waiting attendant on the
wagon. The attendant hooks the bale off the ramp and stacks it on the wagon,
while waiting for the next bale to be produced.
Eventually as tractor horsepower increased, the thrower-baler became possible, which eliminates the need for someone to stand on the wagon and pick up the
finished bales. The first thrower mechanism used two fast-moving friction belts to
grab finished bales and throws them at an angle up in the air onto the bale wagon.
The bale wagon was modified from a flatbed into a 3-sided skeleton frame open at
the front, to act as a catcher's net for the thrown bales.
The next innovation of the thrower-baler as tractor horsepower further increased was the hydraulic tossing baler. This employs a flat pan behind the bale
knotter. As bales advance out the back of the baler, they are pushed onto the pan
one at a time. When the bale has moved fully onto the pan, the pan suddenly pops
up, pushed by a large hydraulic cylinder, and tosses the bale up into the wagon like
a catapult.
The pan-thrower method puts much less stress on the bales compared to the
belt-thrower. The friction belts of the belt-thrower stress the twine and knots as
they grip the bale, and would occasionally cause bales to break apart in the thrower
or when the bales landed in the wagon.
New Holland has invented a machine named the "Stackcruiser", or a stacker.
Small "square" bales are dropped by the baler with the strings facing outward, the
stacker will drive up to the bales and it will pick it up and set it on a three-balewide table (the strings are now facing upwards). once three bales are on the table,
the table lifts up and back causing the three bales to face strings to the side again,
this happens 3 more times until there are 16 bales on the main table. this table will
lift like the smaller one and the bales will be up against a vertical table. The machine will hold 160 bales (ten tiers), usually there will be cross-tiers near the center
to keep the stack from swaying or colasping if any weight is applied to the top of
the stack. The full load will be transported to a barn, the whole rear of the stacker
will tilt upwards until it is vertical. there will be two pushers that will extend
181
through the machine and hold the bottom of the stack from being pulled out from
the stacker while it is driven out of the barn
In Britain (if small square bales are still to be used) they are usually collected as they fall out of the baler in a bale sledge dragged behind the baler. This
has four channels, controlled by automatic mechanical balances, catches and
springs, which sort each bale into its place in a square eight. When the sledge is
full, a catch is tripped automatically, and a door at the rear opens to leave the eight
lying neatly together on the ground. These may be picked up individually and
loaded by hand, or they may be picked up all eight together by a bale grab on a
tractor, a special front loader consisting of many hydraulically-powered downward-pointing curved spikes. The square eight will then be stacked, either on a trailer for transport, or in a roughly cubic field stack eight or ten layers high. This cube
may then be transported by a large machine attached to the three-point hitch behind
a tractor, which clamps the sides of the cube and lifts it bodily.
A simple method of handling large and small round bales can be seen in the
article Hay Delivery. This is a simple do-it-yourself modification to the tractor
bucket. Two hooks are welded to the outside top of a tractor front loader bucket
and a 14-foot (4.3 m) logging chain which allows the user to stay on the tractor,
grab bales, transport them, stack them and place them out for animals to eat. The
advantage of this simple system is that it uses no fancy expensive equipment which
must be swapped back and forth on the tractor. This allows a small farmer to avoid
the costs of extra equipment and not have a separate tractor just for that one function. With a little practice one can be as quick as the specialized hydraulic bale
grabs. This method developed by Walter Jeffries of Sugar Mountain Farm also has
less maintenance involved and is safer than bale spears and clamps.
Storage methods
Before electrification occurred in rural parts of the United States in the 1940s,
some small dairy farms would have tractors but not electric power. Often just one
neighbor who could afford a tractor would do all the baling for surrounding farmers still using horses.
To get the bales up into the hayloft, a pulley system ran on a track along the
peak of the barn's hayloft. This track also stuck a few feet out the end of the loft,
with a large access door under the track. On the bottom of the pulley system was a
bale spear, which is pointed on the end and has retractable retention spikes.
A flatbed wagon would pull up next to the barn underneath the end of the
track, the spear lowered down to the wagon, and speared into a single bale. The
pulley rope would be used to manually lift the bale high up into the air until it
could enter the mow through the door, then moved along the track into the barn
and finally released for manual stacking in tight rows across the floor of the loft.
As the stack filled the loft, the bales would be lifted higher and higher with the pulleys until the hay was stacked all the way up to the peak.
182
When electricity finally arrived, the bale spear, pulley and track system disappeared, replaced by long motorized bale conveyors known as hay elevators. A
typical elevator is an open skeletal frame, with a chain that has dull 3-inch
(76 mm) spikes every few feet along the chain to grab bales and drag them along.
One elevator replaced the spear track and ran the entire length of the peak of the
barn. A second elevator was either installed at a 30-degree slope on the side of the
barn to lift bales up to the peak elevator, or used dual front-back chains surrounding the bale to lift bales straight up the side of the barn to the peak elevator.
A bale wagon pulls up next to the lifting elevator, and a farm worker places
bales one at a time onto the angled track. Once bales arrive at the peak elevator,
there are adjustable tipping gates along the length of the peak elevator. By pulling
a cable from the floor of the hayloft, tipping gates can be opened and closed, so
that bales will tip off the elevator and drop down to the floor in different areas of
the loft. This permits a single elevator to transport hay to one part of a loft and
straw to another part.
This complete hay elevator lifting, transport, and dropping system reduced
bale storage down to a single person, who simply pulls up with a wagon, turns on
the elevators and starts placing bales on it, occasionally checking to make sure that
bales are falling in the right locations in the loft.
The neat stacking of bales in the loft is often sacrificed for the speed of just
letting them fall and roll down the growing pile in the loft, and changing the elevator gates to fill in open areas around the loose pile. But if desired, the loose bale
pile dropped by the elevator could be rearranged into orderly rows between wagon
loads.
Usage once in the barn
The process of retrieving bales from a hayloft has stayed relatively unchanged from the beginning of baling. Typically workers were sent up into the loft,
to climb up onto the bale stack, pull bales off the stack, and throw or roll them
down the stack to the open floor of the loft. Once the bale is down on the floor,
workers climb down the stack, open a cover over a bale chute in the floor of the
loft, and push the bales down the chute to the livestock area of the barn.
Most barns were equipped with several chutes along the sides and in the center of the loft floor. This permitted bales to be dropped into the area where they
were to be used. Hay bales would be dropped through side chutes, to be broken up
and fed to the cattle. Straw bales would be dropped down the center chute, to be
distributed as bedding in the livestock standing/resting areas.
Traditionally multiple bales were dropped down to the livestock floor and
the twine removed by hand. After drying and being stored under tons of pressure in
the haystack, most bales are tightly compacted and need to be torn apart and
fluffed up for use.
One recent method of speeding up all this manual bale handling is the bale
shredder, which is a large vertical drum with rotary cutting/ripping teeth at the base
of the drum. The shredder is placed under the chute and several bales dropped in.
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A worker then pushes the shredder along the barn aisle as it rips up a bale and
spews it out in a continuous fluffy stream of material.
Mower types
The cutting mechanism in a mower may be one of several different designs:
Sickle mower. Sickle mowers, also called reciprocating mowers, bar mowers, or finger-bar mowers, have a long (typically six to seven and a half feet) bar on
which is mounted fingers with stationary guardplates. In a channel on the bar there
is a reciprocating sickle with very sharp sickle sections (triangular blades). The
sickle bar is driven back and forth along the channel. The grass, or other plant matter, is cut between the sharp edges of the sickle sections and the finger-plates (this
action can be likened to an electric hair clipper). The bar rides on the ground, supported on a skid at the inner end, and it can be tilted to adjust the height of the cut.
A springloaded board at the outer end of the bar guides the cut hay away from the
uncut hay. The so-formed channel, between cut and uncut material, allows the
mower skid to ride in the channel and cut only uncut grass cleanly on the next
swath. These were the first successful horse-drawn mowers on farms and the general principles still guide the design of modern mowers.
Rotary mower
Rotary cutters mounted on the Windrower shown above.
Rotary mowers, also called drum mowers, have a rapidly rotating bar, or
disks mounted on a bar, with sharpened edges that cut the crop. When these mowers are tractor-mounted they are easily capable of mowing grass at up to 20 miles
per hour (32 km/h) in good conditions. Some models are designed to be mounted
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in double and triple sets on a tractor, one in the front and one at each side, thus able
to cut up to 20 foot (6 metre) swaths. In rough cutting conditions the blades attached to the disks are swivelled to absorb blows from obstructions. Mostly these
are rear-mounted units and in some countries are called scrub cutters. Self-powered
mowers of this type are used for rougher grass in gardening and other land maintenance.
Reel mower. Reel mowers, also called cylinder mowers (familiar as the
hand-pushed or self-powered cylinder lawn mower), have a horizontally rotating
cylindrical reel composed of helical blades, each of which in turn runs past a horizontal cutter-bar, producing a continuous scissor action. The bar is held at an adjustable level just above the ground and the reel runs at a speed dependent on the
forward movement speed of the machine, driven by wheels running on the ground
(or in self-powered applications by a motor). The cut grass may be gathered in a
collection bin. This type of mower is used to produce consistently short and even
grass on bowling greens, lawns, parks and sports grounds. When pulled by a tractor (or formerly by a horse), these mowers are often ganged into sets of three, five
or more, to form a gang mower. A well-designed reel mower can cut quite tangled
and thick tall grass, but this type works best on fairly short, upright vegetation, as
taller vegetation tends to be rolled flat rather than cut.
Flail mower. Flail mowers have a number of small blades on the end of
chains attached to a horizontal axis. The cutting is carried out by the ax-like heads
striking the grass at speed. These types are used on rough ground, where the blades
may frequently be fouled by other objects, or on tougher vegetation than grass,
such as brush (scrub). Due to the length of the chains and the higher weight of the
blades, they are better at cutting thick brush than other mowers, because of the relatively high inertia of the blades. In some types the cut material may be gathered in
a collection bin. As a boom mower (see above), a flail mower may be used in an
upright position for trimming the sides of hedges, when it is often called a hedgecutter.
A Conditioner (farming)
A hay conditioner is a machine that crimps and crushes newly cut hay to
promote faster and more even drying. Drying the hay efficiently is most important
for first crop hay, which consists of coarse stalks that take a longer period of time
to draw out moisture than finer textured hays, such as second crop cuttings.
A conditioner is made up of two grooves rollers which the hay is forced
through causing the stalks to split, thus giving more surface area for moisture to
escape. The stand-alone conditioner is now an obsolete piece of machinery since it
has been incorporated into both haybines and mower-conditioners.
Mower-conditioners, MoCo's in casual conversation, are a staple of largescale haying. Mower-conditioners are defined by the mechanisms that accomplish
mowing and conditioning. There are two types of mowers, swathers and disc
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mowers. Swathers use sickles mounted to a series of rotating bars to cut. Disc
mowers have a number of hubs across the cutting width, each hub has two small
knives that spin at high speeds. Disc mowers can cut at much higher ground speeds
than swathers. Swathers main advantage over disc mower is the reduced horsepower requirements. Only very large swathers, from 14'-25' cutting width, are still
produced and can be very efficient in high acreage fields. Conditioners come in
three main types; rubber-roller conditioners, steel-roller, and flail. The roller conditioners consist of two opposing rolls that have a raised, interlocking chevron pattern. The rollers either have a rubber or steel chevron pattern and a steel main
shaft. The crop is crimped between the rollers, decreasing the drying time. The flail
conditioner is an arrangement of steel V's on a main shaft that beat the crop against
the top of the mower-conditioner. The flail conditioner reduces drying time by removing the waxy coating on the crop.
Haybine is the brand name of the first mower-conditioner. It combined the
sickle bar mower and the hay conditioner to promote faster drying hay all in one
process. The current versions produced by New Holland are branded the Discbine,
since they now feature faster disc mowers.
A Tedder (machine)
A retired hay tedder.
A tedder (also called hay tedder) is a machine used in haying. It is used after
cutting and before windrowing, and uses moving forks to stir or scatter cut hay in
the field. The use of a tedder allows the hay to dry ("cure") better, which results in
improved aroma and color. The tedder came into use in the second half of the nineteenth century. While Charles Wendel claims in his Encyclopedia of American
farm implements & antiques that the machine wasn't introduced to the United
States until the 1880s, there are enough indications that the tedder was in use in the
1860s--The New York Times reports on its efficacy in 1868, and in that same year
the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture in Maine comments on the
American-made Hubbard's hay tedder, which had been on the market since 1863;
according to the Maine report, in 1859 the machine was "an implement lately imported from England."
An hay tedder similar to a standard American model of the early 20th century. The original tedder is a farm tool on two wheels pulled by a horse; the rota186
tion of the axle drives a gear which operates a "number of arms with wire tines or
fingers at the lower ends." The tines pick up the hay and disperse it; usually, the
height at which the tines pick up the hay can be adjusted. In an early, simple hay
tedder described in 1852 and manufactured in Edinburgh by the company of Mr.
Slight, the two wheels, via a spur wheel and a pinion, drive a set of light wheels,
the "rake wheels"; on these two rake wheels are mounted eight rakes, which pick
up and disperse the hay. A later "English hay-tedder" uses two separate cylinders
with rotating forks that can be reversed to lay the hay down lightly for improved
exposure to air. American machines, such as those made by Garfield, by Mudgett,
and by Bullard (Ezekiel W. Bullard of Barre, Massachusetts, is credited in one
source with the invention of the machine, nicknamed "the grasshopper"), typically
used a system with a revolving crank in the middle of the arm and a lever at the
upper end, or a system whereby rotating wheels moved the forks up and down. The
first tedder widely available on the American market was the already mentioned
Bullard's Hay Tedder, which had forks moving up and down on a compound crank,
working in a motion described as "the energetic scratching of a hen." The American Hay Tedder, made by the Ames Plow Company of Boston and described in
1869 as a "new machine, remarkable for its simplicity and perfection of working,
was more like the British machine in its rotational operation.
Its development was of great importance to agriculture, since it saved labor
and thus money: using a tedder, a man and a horse could do as much work as fifteen laborers. It also resulted in greater economy, since cut grass could be turned
into hay the same day, even if it had become wet or been trampled by horses. Especially in humid areas (such as the Eastern United States), the invention of the
tedder added greatly to improved hay production from such crops as alfalfa and
clover, and allowed for haying while the grass was still green which produced hay
of much higher value.
Mower
A self propelled Case-IH Windrower.
A mower is a machine for cutting crops or plants that grow on the ground. A
smaller mower used for lawns and sports grounds (playing fields) is called a lawn
mower or grounds mower, which is often self-powered, or may also be small
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enough to be pushed by the operator. Grounds mowers have rotary or reel cutters.
Larger mowers are used to cut hay or other crops and place the cut material into
rows, which are referred to as windrows. Often, such mowers are called windrowers or mower-conditioners. Swathers are also used to cut hay and grain crops. Prior
to the invention and adoption of mechanized mowers, (and today in places where
use of a mower is impractical or uneconomical), hay and grain was cut by hand using scythe or sickle. Larger mowers are usually ganged (equipped with a number
or gang of similar cutting units), so they can adapt individually to ground contours.
They may be powered and drawn by a tractor or draft animals. The cutting units
can be mounted underneath the tractor between the front and rear wheels, mounted
on the back with a three-point hitch or pulled behind the
Skid loader
A Gehl skid loader
A skid loader or skid steer loader is a small rigid frame, engine-powered machine with lift arms used to attach a wide variety of labor-saving tools or attachments. Though sometimes they are equipped with tracks, skid-steer loaders are
typically four-wheel drive vehicles with the left-side drive wheels independent of
the right-side drive wheels. By having each side independent of the other, wheel
speed and direction of rotation of the wheels determine the direction the loader will
turn.
Skid steer loaders are capable of zero-radius, "pirouette" turning, which
makes them extremely maneuverable and valuable for applications that require a
compact, agile loader.
Unlike in a conventional front loader, the lift arms in these machines are
alongside the driver with the pivot points behind the driver's shoulders. Because of
the operator's proximity to moving booms, early skid loaders were not as safe as
conventional front loaders, particularly during entry and exit of the operator. Modern skid loaders have fully-enclosed cabs and other features to protect the operator.
Like other front loaders, it can push material from one location to another, carry
material in its bucket or load material into a truck or trailer.
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A John Deere 280 skid loader moving mulch
Operation. A Skid Steer loader can sometimes be used in place of a large
excavator by digging a hole from the inside. The skid loader first digs a ramp leading to the edge of the desired excavation. It then uses the ramp to carry material out
of the hole. The skid loader reshapes the ramp making it steeper and longer as the
excavation deepens. This method is particularly useful for digging under a structure where overhead clearance does not allow for the boom of a large excavator,
such as digging a basement under an existing house.
The conventional bucket of many skid loaders can be replaced with a variety
of specialized buckets or attachments, many powered by the loader's hydraulic system. These include backhoe, hydraulic breaker, pallet forks, angle broom, sweeper,
auger, mower, snow blower, stump grinder, tree spade, trencher, dumping hopper,
ripper, tillers, grapple, tilt, roller, snow blade, wheel saw, cement mixer, and wood
chipper machine.
Bobcat skid loader clearing snow with snowblower attachment
History. The first three-wheeled, front-end loader was invented by brothers
Cyril and Louis Keller (manufacturer) in Rothsay, Minnesota, in 1957. The Kellers
built the loader to help a farmer mechanize the process of cleaning turkey manure
from his barn. The light and compact machine, with its rear caster wheel, was able
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to turn around within its own length, while performing the same tasks as a conventional front-end loader.
The Melroe brothers, of Melroe Manufacturing Company in Gwinner, N.D.,
purchased the rights to the Keller loader in 1958 and hired the Kellers to continue
refining their invention. As a result of this partnership, the M-200 Melroe selfpropelled loader was introduced at the end of 1958. It featured two independent
front-drive wheels and a rear caster wheel, a 12.9-hp engine and a 750-lb. lift capacity. Two years later they replaced the caster wheel with a rear axle and introduced the M-400, the first four-wheel, skid-steer loader. It quickly became the Melroe Bobcat. The term "Bobcat" is sometimes used as a generic term for skid-steer
loaders. The M-440 was powered by a 15.5-hp engine and had an 1100-lb. rated
operating capacity. Skid-steer development continued into the mid-1960s with the
M600 loader.
Many manufacturers have their own versions of the skidloader (often referred to as a Skidsteer in the Construction Industry), including: John Deere, Case,
JLG, JCB, New Holland, Gehl Company, Mustang, ASV, Caterpillar, Bobcat and
more.
History
The first combine was invented in 1838 by Hiran Moore. In 1882, Hugh
Victor McKay had a similar idea and developed the first commercial combine
harvester in 1885, the Sunshine Harvester.
Old Style Harvester found in the Henty, Australia region.
Combines, some of them quite large, were drawn by mule or horse teams
and used a bull wheel to provide power. Later, steam power was used, and George
Stockton Berry integrated the combine with a steam engine using straw to heat the
boiler. Tractor-drawn, PTO-powered combines were then used for a time. These
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combines used a shaker to separate the grain from the chaff and straw-walkers
(grates with small teeth on an eccentric shaft) to eject the straw while retaining the
grain. Tractor drawn combines evolved to have separate gas or diesel engines to
power the grain separation. CLAAS, a European manufacturer, developed the first
self-propelled combine harvester in 1953, named 'Herkules', which could harvest
up to 5 tons of wheat a day. This newer kind of combine is still in use and is
powered by diesel or gasoline engines. Until the self-cleaning rotary screen was
invented in the mid 1960's combine engines suffered from overheating as the chaff
spewed out when harvesting small grains would clog radiators, blocking the
airflow needed for cooling. A significant advance in the design of combines was
the rotary design. The grain is initially stripped from the stalk by passing along a
helical rotor instead of passing between rasp bars on the outside of a cylinder and a
concave. Rotary combines were first introduced by Sperry-New Holland in 1975.
In about the 1980s on-board electronics were introduced to measure threshing
efficiency. This new instrumentation allowed operators to get better grain yields by
optimizing ground speed and other operating parameters.
Combine Heads
A John Deere 9410 Combine set to harvest Oats.
Combines are equipped with removable heads that are designed for
particular crops. The standard header, sometimes called a grain platform, is
equipped with a reciprocating knife cutter bar, and features a revolving reel with
metal or plastic teeth to cause the cut crop to fall into the auger once it is cut. A
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variation of the platform, a "flex" platform is similar but has a cutter bar that can
flex over contours and ridges to cut soybeans that have pods close to the ground. A
flex head can cut soybeans as well as cereal crops, while a rigid platform is
generally used only in cereal grains. Some wheat headers, called "draper" headers,
use a fabric or rubber apron instead of a cross auger. Draper headers allow faster
feeding than cross augers, leading to higher throughputs due to lower power
requirements. On many farms, platform headers are used to cut wheat, instead of
separate wheat headers, so as to reduce overall costs. Dummy heads or pick-up
headers feature spring-tined pickups, usually attached to a heavy rubber belt. They
are used for crops that have already been cut and placed in windrows or swaths.
This is particularly useful in northern climates such as western Canada where
swathing kills weeds resulting in a faster dry down.
A John Deere combine harvesting corn
While a grain platform can be used for corn, a specialized corn head is
ordinarily used instead. The corn head is equipped with snap rolls that strip the
stalk and leaf away from the ear, so that only the ear (and husk) enter the throat.
This improves efficiency dramatically since so much less material must go through
the cylinder. The corn head can be recognized by the presence of points between
each row. Occasionally rowcrop heads are seen that function like a grain platform,
but have points between rows like a corn head. These are used to reduce the
amount of weed seed picked up when harvesting small grains. Self propelled
Gleaner combines could be fitted with special tracks instead of tires or tires with
tread measuring almost 10in deep to assist in harvesting rice. Some combines,
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particularly pull type, have tires with a diamond tread which prevents sinking in
mud. These tracks can fit other combines by having adapter plates made.
Conventional combine
The cut crop is carried up the feeder throat (commonly called the
"feederhouse") by a chain and flight elevator, then fed into the threshing
mechanism of the combine, consisting of a rotating threshing drum(commonly
called the "cylinder"), to which grooved steel bars (rasp bars) are bolted. The rasp
bars thresh or separate the grains and chaff from the straw through the action of the
cylinder against the concave, a shaped "half drum", also fitted with steel bars and a
meshed grill, through which grain, chaff and smaller debris may fall, whereas the
straw, being too long, is carried through onto the straw walkers. This action is also
allowed due to the fact that the grain is heavier than the straw, which causes it to
fall rather than "float" across from the cylinder/concave to the walkers. The drum
speed is variably adjustable on most machines, whilst the distance between the
drum and concave is finely adjustable fore, aft and together, to achieve optimum
separation and output. Manually engaged disawning plates are usually fitted to the
concave. These provide extra friction to remove the awns from barley crops. After
the primary separation at the cylinder, the clean grain falls through the concave and
to the shoe, which contains the chaffer and sieves. The shoe is common to both
conventional combines and rotary combines.
Sidehill levelling
An interesting technology is in use in the Palouse region of the Pacific
Northwest of the United States in which the combine is retrofitted with a hydraulic
sidehill levelling system. This allows the combine to harvest the steep but fertile
soil in the region. Hillsides can be as steep as a 50% slope. Gleaner, IH and Case
IH, John Deere, and others all have made combines with this sidehill levelling
system, and local machine shops have fabricated them as an aftermarket add-on.
Linked pictures below show the technology. The first levelling technology was
developed by Holt Co., a California firm, in 1891. Modern levelling came into
being with the invention and patent of a level sensitive mercury switch system
invented by Raymond Alvah Hanson in 1946. Raymond's son, Raymond, Jr.,
produced leveling systems exclusively for John Deere combines until 1995 as R.
A. Hanson Company, Inc. In 1995, his son, Richard, purchased the company from
his father and renamed it RAHCO International, Inc. In April, 2007, the company
was renamed The Factory Company International, Inc. Production continues to this
day. Sidehill levelling has several advantages. Primary among them is an increased
threshing efficiency on sidehills. Without levelling, grain and chaff slide to one
side of separator and come through the machine in a large ball rather than being
separated, dumping large amounts of grain on the ground. By keeping the
machinery level, the straw-walker is able to operate more efficiently, making for
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more efficient threshing. IH produced the 453 combine which leveled both side-toside and front-to-back, enabling efficient threshing whether on a sidehill or
climbing a hill head on. Secondarily, levelling changes a combine's center of
gravity relative to the hill and allows the combine to harvest along the contour of a
hill without tipping, a very real danger on the steeper slopes of the region; it is not
uncommon for combines to roll on extremely steep hills. Newer leveling systems
do not have as much tilt as the older ones. A John Deere 9600 combine equipped
with a Rahco hillside conversion kit will level over to 44%, while the newer STS
combines will only go to 35%. These modern combines use the rotary grain
separator which makes leveling less critical. Most combines on the Palouse have
dual drive wheels on each side to stabilize them. Sidehill levelling system in
Europe was developed by Italian combines' manifacturer Laverda that still today
produces those systems as a leader.
Maintaining threshing speed
Allis-Chalmers GLEANER L2
Another technology that is sometimes used on combines is a continuously
variable transmission. This allows the ground speed of the machine to be varied
while maintaining a constant engine and threshing speed. It is desirable to keep the
threshing speed constant since the machine will typically have been adjusted to
operate best at a certain speed. Self-propelled combines started with standard
manual transmissions that provided one speed based on input rpm. Deficiencies
were noted and in the early 1950s combines were equipped with what John Deere
called the "Variable Speed Drive". This was simply a variable width sheave
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controlled by spring and hydraulic pressures. This sheave was attached to the input
shaft of the transmission. A standard 4 speed manual transmission was still used in
this drive system. The operator would select a gear, typically 3rd. An extra control
was provided to the operator to allow him to speed up and slow down the machine
within the limits provided by the variable speed drive system. By decreasing the
width of the sheave on the input shaft of the transmission, the belt would ride
higher in the groove. This slowed the rotating speed on the input shaft of the
transmission, thus slowing the ground speed for that gear. A clutch was still
provided to allow the operator to stop the machine and change transmission gears.
Later, as hydraulic technology improved, hydrostatic transmissions were
introduced by Versatile Mfg for use on swathers but later this technology was
applied to combines as well. This drive retained the 4 speed manual transmission
as before, but this time used a system of hydraulic pumps and motors to drive the
input shaft of the transmission. This system is called a Hydrostatic drive system.
The engine turns the hydraulic pump capable of high flow rates at up to 4000 psi.
This pressure is then directed to the hydraulic motor that is connected to the input
shaft of the transmission. The operator is provided with a lever in the cab that
allows for the control of the hydraulic motor's ability to use the energy provided by
the pump. By adjusting the swash plate in the motor, the stroke of its pistons are
changed. If the swash plate is set to neutral, the pistons do not move in their bores
and no rotation is allowed, thus the machine does not move. By moving the lever,
the swash plate moves its attached pistons forward, thus allowing them to move
within the bore and causing the motor to turn. This provides an infinitely variable
speed control from 0 ground speed to what ever the maximum speed is allowed by
the gear selection of the transmission. The standard clutch was removed from this
drive system as it was no longer needed. Most if not all modern combines are
equipped with hydrostatic drives. These are larger versions of the same system
used in consumer and commercial lawn mowers that most are familiar with today.
In fact, it was the downsizing of the combine drive system that placed these drive
systems into mowers and other machines.
The threshing process
Despite great advances mechanically and in computer control, the basic
operation of the combine harvester has remained unchanged almost since it was
invented. First, the header, described above, cuts the crop and feeds it into the
threshing cylinder. This consists of a series of horizontal rasp bars fixed across the
path of the crop and in the shape of a quarter cylinder. Moving rasp bars or rub
bars pull the crop through concaved grates that separate the grain and chaff from
the straw. The grain heads fall through the fixed concaves. What happens next is
dependent on the type of combine in question. In most modern combines, the grain
is transported to the shoe by a set of 2, 3, or 4 (possibly more on the largest
machines) augers, set parallel or semi-parallel to the rotor on axial mounted rotors
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and perpendicular to the cylinder on conventionals (or perpendicular to the cross
mounted rotor of Gleaner brand "Natural Flow" combines.) In older Gleaner
machines, these augers were not present. These combines are unique in that the
cylinder and concave is set inside feederhouse instead of in the machine directly
behind the feederhouse. Consequently, the material was moved by a "raddle chain"
from underneath the concave to the walkers. The clean grain fell between the
raddle and the walkers onto the shoe, while the straw, being longer and lighter,
floated across onto the walkers to be expelled. On most other older machines, the
cylinder was placed higher and farther back in the machine, and the grain moved to
the shoe by falling down a "clean grain pan", and the straw "floated" across the
concaves to the back of the walkers. Since the Sperry-New Holland TR70 TwinRotor Combine came out in 1975, most manufacturers have combines with rotors
in place of conventional cylinders. However, makers have now returned to the
market with conventional models along side their rotary line-up. A rotor is a long,
longitudinally mounted rotating cylinder with plates similar to rub bars (except for
in the above mentioned Gleaner rotaries). There are usually two sieves, one above
the other. The sieves and basically a metal frame that has many rows of "fingers"
set reasonably close together. The angle of the fingers is adjustable as to change
the clearance and control the size of material passing through. The top is set with
more clearance than the bottom as to allow a gradual cleaning action. Setting the
concave clearance, fan speed, and sieve size is critical to ensure that the crop is
threshed properly, the grain is clean of debris, and that all of the grain entering the
machine reaches the grain tank. (Observe, for example, that when travelling uphill
the fan speed must be reduced to account for the shallower gradient of the sieves.)
Heavy material, e.g., unthreshed heads, fall off the front of the sieves and are
returned to the concave for re-threshing. The straw walkers are located above the
sieves, and also have holes in them. Any grain remaining attached to the straw is
shaken off and falls onto the top sieve. When the straw reaches the end of the
walkers it falls out the rear of the combine. It can then be baled for cattle bedding
or spread by two rotating straw spreaders with rubber arms. Most modern
combines are equipped with a straw spreader.
Rotary vs. Conventional Design
For some time, combine harvesters used the conventional design, which
used a rotating cylinder at the front-end which knocked the seeds out of the heads,
and then used the rest of the machine to separate the straw from the chaff, and the
chaff from the grain. The TR70 from Sperry-New Holland was brought out in 1975
as the first rotary combine. Other manufacturers soon followed, IH with their
'Axial Flow' in 1977 and Gleaner with their N6 in 1979.
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IH McCormick 141 Combine ca. 1954-57
In the decades before the widespread adoption of the rotary combine in the
late seventies, several inventors had pioneered designs which relied more on
centrifugal force for grain separation and less on gravity alone. By the early
eighties, most major manufacturers had settled on a "walkerless" design with much
larger threshing cylinders to do most of the work. Advantages were faster grain
harvesting and gentler treatment of fragile seeds, which were often cracked by the
faster rotational speeds of conventional combine threshing cylinders. It was the
disadvantages of the rotary combine (increased power requirements and overpulverization of the straw by-product) which prompted a resurgence of
conventional combines in the late nineties. Perhaps overlooked but nonetheless
true, when the large engines that powered the rotary machines were employed in
conventional machines, the two types of machines delivered similar production
capacities. Also, research was beginning to show that incorporating above-ground
crop residue (straw) into the soil is less useful for rebuilding soil fertility than
previously believed. This meant that working pulverized straw into the soil became
more of a hindrance than a benefit. An increase in feedlot beef production also
created a higher demand for straw as fodder. Conventional combines, which use
straw walkers, preserve the quality of straw and allow it to be baled and removed
from the field.
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APPENDIX 1
ANNOTATION AND REFERRING
Указания к работе над рефератом
1. Приступая к реферированию материала, необходимо, прежде всего,
прочесть весь материал и детально понять его содержание. Если что-то осталось непонятным, нужно пополнить свои знания по данному вопросу чтением дополнительной литературы на иностранном или русском языках.
2. После уяснения материала необходимо составить его подробный
план и назвать каждый пункт плана назывным предложением. Часто эта задача облегчается наличием глав или разделов в реферируемом материале.
Названия разделов плана нужно давать только назывными предложениями,
так как лишь они затем наиболее легко могут быть преобразованы в повествовательные предложения реферата, способные наиболее сжато изложить
основное содержание раздела.
3. Разбив весь материал по пунктам, необходимо в каждом разделе выделить главную мысль и доказательства одним или двумя предложениями.
4. Обработав таким образом весь материал, нужно сформулировать
главную мысль текста, ели она не сформулирована самим автором в конце
статьи.
5. Текст реферата после его формальной части (тема, выходные данные
и пр.) начинается изложением основного положения всего источника. Затем
записываются все главные мысли и доказательства всех пунктов составленного плана, затем кратко излагаются выводы автора по материалу в целом
(если они есть).
6. Реферат завершается кратким комментарием референта по такой
схеме:
а) актуальность материала;
б) на кого материал рассчитан;
в) степень прогрессивности материала;
г) какой круг читателей он может заинтересовать.
7. После составления всего реферата следует снова его прочесть весь и
связать его отдельные пункты в общий текст, чтобы чтение реферата не вызывало ощущения отрывочности материала. Необходимо добиться плавного
и логического развития единой для всего материала мысли.
8. Работа завершается повторным чтением источника и немедленно
вслед за этим чтением реферата. Проводится окончательная шлифовка, его
стилистическая отделка, выявляется его полноценность.
Выходные данные при оформлении реферата приводятся, так же как и
при оформлении аннотации.
Аннотация — это краткая первичная характеристика печатного произведения без глубокого проникновения в содержание. Описательная аннотация называет лишь изложенные в источнике вопросы, не раскрывая их со198
держания. Реферативная аннотация излагает в предельно сжатом виде, кроме
того, основное резюмирующее содержание материала в целом и его разделов
без доказательств, ссылок. Всякая аннотация строится по следующим пунктам:
1. Предметная рубрика. В ней указывается область или раздел знания, к
которым относится аннотируемый источник.
2. Тема. Обычно вытекает из наименования источника.
3. Выходные данные (автор, заглавие, место и время издания, № журнала или газеты, для газеты — название, число, месяц, год). Выходные данные приводятся на языке источника, а ниже дается их перевод.
4. Сжатая характеристика материала. Перечисляются все изложенные в
источнике вопросы. Обычно эти вопросы бывают названы в оглавлении или
подзаголовках и промежуточных заголовках статьи реферативной аннотации,
кроме того, излагается резюмирующий вывод автора материала по основным
вопросам или по источнику в целом.
Вводные фразы для написания эссе
Начало эссе (фактически - сочинения на заданную тему) - постановка
проблемы. В первом абзаце необходимо перефразировать тему, дополнить,
показав, что вы её осмыслили.
Many people think … but others do not agree.
Let us consider what the advantages and disadvantages of … are.
Let’s consider some pros and cons of it.
Let us start by considering the facts.
Let us start by considering pros and cons of it.
It is generally agreed today that …
Следующие фразы можно использовать, если требуется рассмотреть
аргументы "за" и "против". Не забывайте использовать слова-связки.
To begin with, …
You can …
Firstly,.../ Secondly,.../ Finally,...
One argument in support of...
The first thing that needs to be said is...
first and foremost
It is... true that.../ clear that.../ noticeable that...
One should note here that...
Another good thing about … is that …
The second reason for...
It is often said that...
It is undeniable that...
It is a well-known fact that...
For the great majority of people...
199
We live in a world in which...
A number of key issues arise from the statement. For one...
One of the most striking features of this problem is...
First of all, let us try to understand...
The public in general tend to believe that...
What is more …
Besides, … because it is …
Doubtless,...
One cannot deny that...
It is (very) clear from these observations that...
On the other hand, we can observe that...
The other side of the coin is, however, that...
Another way of looking at this question is to...
One should, nevertheless, consider the problem from another angle.
One should, however, not forget that...
If on the one hand it can be said that... the same is not true for...
On the other hand, …
Although …
Besides, …
Moreover,
Furthermore, one should not forget that...
In addition to...
Nevertheless, one should accept that...
However, we also agree that...
Подкрепить свою мысль можно мнением (неких абстрактных) экспертов
Experts...
... believe that
... say that
... suggest that
... are convinced that
... point out that
... emphasise that
According to some experts...
Perhaps we should also point out the fact that...
It would be unfair not to mention that fact that...
One must admit that...
We cannot ignore the fact that...
One cannot possibly accept the fact that...
From these facts, one may conclude that...
Which seems to confirm the idea that...
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Thus,.../ Therefore,...
The most common argument against this is that...
В заключении делаете вывод.
In conclusion, I can say that although … , …
To draw the conclusion, one can say that …
So it’s up to everybody to decide whether … or not.
The arguments we have presented... suggest that.../ prove that.../ would indicate
that...
From these arguments one must.../ could.../ might... conclude that...
Характерные черты эссе с аргу- Рекомендуемые вводные фразы
ментацией «за» и «против»
1. Введение: начните с общего представления темы (In today’s world… it
is important) и предложения, выражающего её двойственный характер
(It can be regarded as… but not without
its problems).
1. Введение: The problem / issue /
phenomenon of… is / has always
been…, People always say / have always thought / agreed /said / believed…, It is a controversial / burning /
hot question…, There is no agreement…
2. Основная часть: представьте аргументы «за» (In its favour) и затем
аргументы «против» (However, critics
are quick to point out). Как показано в
образце, вы можете представить аргументы «за» и «против» в отдельных
абзацах. Старайтесь, представлять их
симметрично (например, социальные,
образовательные и психологические
аспекты проблемы). Помните, что эссе такого типа требует сбалансированной аргументации.
2. Основная часть:
Типичные союзы и союзные обороты: on the one hand… on the other
hand; Firstly, To begin with, Secondly,
Finally; In addition, Besides, Moreover,
What is more, Furthermore; However,
Despite this, In spite of this; In fact, As
a matter of fact; As a result, Consequently
Другие выражения: One major advantage is…, As advocates of…claim /
argue, As critics point out / claim…,
There are a number of disadvantages /
weaknesses / drawbacks / downsides
3. Заключение: четко подведите итог
сказанному (All in all) и снова напишите предложение, отражающее противоречивость темы, но в то же время, выражающее надежду на нахождение компромисса (One can hope …
minimizing the danger and talking full
advantage of benefits).
3. Заключение: All in all, To sum up,
In conclusion, In summary, In general;
it seems important to add/point
out/remind that…, the issue / debate is
far from...
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Структура эссе.
1. Титульный лист;
2. Введение - суть и обоснование выбора данной темы, состоит из ряда компонентов, связанных логически и стилистически; На этом этапе очень
важно правильно сформулировать вопрос, на который вы собираетесь
найти ответ в ходе своего исследования. При работе над введением могут помочь ответы на следующие вопросы: «Надо ли давать определения
терминам, прозвучавшим в теме эссе?», «Почему тема, которую я раскрываю, является важной в настоящий момент?», «Какие понятия будут вовлечены в мои рассуждения по теме?», « Могу ли я разделить тему на несколько более мелких подтем?».
3. Основная часть - теоретические основы выбранной проблемы и изложение основного вопроса. Данная часть предполагает развитие аргументации
и анализа, а также обоснование их, исходя из имеющихся данных, других
аргументов и позиций по этому вопросу. В этом заключается основное содержание эссе и это представляет собой главную трудность. Поэтому
важное значение имеют подзаголовки, на основе которых осуществляется
структурирование аргументации; именно здесь необходимо обосновать
(логически, используя данные или строгие рассуждения) предлагаемую
аргументацию/анализ. Там, где это необходимо, в качестве аналитического инструмента можно использовать графики, диаграммы.
В зависимости от поставленного вопроса анализ проводится на основе
следующих категорий:
Причина – следствие, общее – особенное, форма – содержание, часть – целое, постоянство – изменчивость.
В процессе построения эссе необходимо помнить, что один параграф
должен содержать только одно утверждение и соответствующее доказательство, подкрепленное графическим и иллюстративным материалом.
Следовательно, наполняя содержанием разделы аргументацией (соответствующей подзаголовкам), необходимо в пределах параграфа ограничить
себя рассмотрением одной главной мысли. Хорошо проверенный (и для
большинства – совершено необходимый) способ построения любого эссе
– использование подзаголовков для обозначения ключевых моментов аргументированного изложения: это помогает посмотреть на то, что предполагается сделать (и ответить на вопрос, хорош ли замысел). Такой подход
поможет следовать точно определенной цели в данном исследовании.
Эффективное использование подзаголовков - не только обозначение основных пунктов, которые необходимо осветить. Их последовательность
может также свидетельствовать о наличии или отсутствии логичности в
освещении темы.
4. Заключение - обобщения и аргументированные выводы по теме с указанием области ее применения и т.д. Подытоживает эссе или еще раз вносит
пояснения, подкрепляет смысл и значение изложенного в основной части.
202
Методы, рекомендуемые для составления заключения: повторение, иллюстрация, цитата, впечатляющее утверждение. Заключение может содержать такой очень важный, дополняющий эссе элемент, как указание на
применение (импликацию) исследования, не исключая взаимосвязи с другими проблемами.
203
APPENDIX 2
PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION
Публичное выступление
Начало лекции, выступления, сообщения, рассказа
In my paper I want to high light
В своем докладе я хочу осветить ТеThe subject of my lecture (talk) is
ма моей лекции (моего выступления)
Я собираюсь рассказать (поговорить)
I’m going to be talking about
Позвольте мне начать с..
Let me begin with
Мое вступление будет очень кратким.
My introduction is going to be very
little.
Я изложу его вам в одном- двух
I’ll give you one or two sentences.
предложениях.
Подчеркавание важного, привлечение внимания аудитории
It should be said that ...
Следует сказать, что
It is interesting (= of interest) to note
Интересно отметить, что
that...
That’s one thing I’d like to stress
На одну вещь мне хотелось бы
very heavily ...
обратить особое внимание
I want to reinforce the following...
(Я) хочу подчеркнуть следующее...
The following is terribly informable
Следующее представляется
(terribly well! badly needed).
необычайно важным
(информативно полезным
необходимым,).
I want to call (to draw ! to invite)
Хочу привлечь (обратить /
your attention to ...
направить) ваше внимание к (на)
It should be kept in mind that ...
Следует помнить, что (не следует
забывать, что)
First(ly) ... / Second(ly) ...
Во-первых, / Во-вторых,
Third(ly) ... / Fourth(ly) ...
В-третьих, / В-четвертых,
Переход от одной мысли к другой
Now I come to ...
Теперь я перехожу к…
I’m coming on now to speak about.. А теперь я перехожу к рассказу о…
Now we may pass to the next item
Теперь мы можем перейти
(on the agenda).
следующему пункту (в повестке дня).
Here we can say ...
Тут мы можем сказать...
We may pass these details.
Мы можем опустить эти детали.
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Выражение личного мнения о высказываемом
I (don’t) believe ...
Я (не) думаю
Я (не) считаю..
In my opinion ...
По моему мнению..
In my view ...
На мой взгзяд
What I say (am saying) is that ...
I dare say ...
I am far from thinking (asserting)
that ...
It’s no exaggeration to say that
Как я считаю (по- моему)…
Осмелюсь утверждать, что…
Я далек от того, чтобы думать
(утверждать), что…
Не будет преувеличением сказать, что...
Сообщение об известных истинах и фактах
They say that / It’s said that ...
Говорят, что…
It is generally said that ...
Обычно утверждают, что…
It goes without saying that ...
Само собой, разумеется, что…
Осуществление обритной связи с аудиторией
Any other points?
Будут другие мнения?
Is that clear?
Это ясно (понятно)?
Have I made my point clear?
Я выразился (достаточно) ясно?
If there’s anything you don’t
Если вам что-то неясно,
understand, please ask me.
пожалуйста, спрашивайте.
Как избежать категоричности в своих высказываниях
As far as I know ...
Насколько мне нзвестно…
If I am not mistaken ...
Если я не ошибаюсь…
If my memory serves me well
Если мне не изменяет память...
(doesn’t fail me)
As far as I remember ...
Насколько я помню…
Пояснение и дополнение к сказанному
I mean to say that ...
Этим я хочу сказать, что…
In other words ...
Другими (иными) словами…
That is to say ...
Иначе говоря…
To all this must be added that ...
Ко всему этому следует добавить,
что…
As I have already mentioned ...
Как я уже упомянул…
I have forgotten to say that ...
Я забыл (а) сказать, что…
The following (fact) speaks for
Следующее говорит само за себя
itself.
(не требует комментариев).
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Завершение выступления и выводы из сказанного
We’ve told a lot today.
Мы сегодня достаточно много обсудили (говорили).
In conclusion ...
В заключение
I close with the words ...
Я заканчиваю словами
The last part of my talk will be
Последняя часть, моего общения
devoted to...
будет посвящена..
Now I’m going to sum up what has
А теперь я собираюсь резюмировать
been said.
сказанное.
Summing up all that has been said..
Суммируя все, что было сказано…
Hence, it follows that ...
Из этого следует, что..
This brings us to the conclusion that.. Это позволяет нам сделать вывод о
том, что
I hope you’ll do some questions.
Надеюсь, что вы зададите вопросы.
I thank the audience for your kind
Благодарю присутствующих за
attention.
любезное внимание.
Диалог, беседа, разговор.
Как начать разговор е незнакомым человеком
Please tell me (something / a little)
Пожалуйста, расскажите
about ...
(что-нибудь / немного) о ...
Would you (please) tell me about
(Пожалуйста) не могли бы вы
рассказать мне о ... Would you mind telling me about
Вы не возражаете (не против)
рассказать мне о
Как согласиться на разговор, если вас попросили об этом
With (great) pleasure.
С (большим) удовольствием.
Willingly. / Happily.
Охотно. /С радостью.
Certainly. / Sure.
Конечно. /Разумеется.
Как начать разговор со знакомым человеком
Can you tell
Можешь ты (можете вы)…
me anything about ...
рассказать мне что-нибудь о…
What do you know about ...
Что ты знаешь (Вы знаете) о…
Как выразить неуверенность и попросить собеседника отреагировать
Am I right in thinking that ...
Я правильно думаю, что ... (А это верно, что...)
206
Как выразить согласие со сказанным
Yes (indeed).
Да (в самом деле).
Yes, you are right.
Да, вы правы (ты прав/а).
I think you’re right.
Я думаю, вы правы.
I think so too.
Я тоже так думаю.
That’s my opinion too.
И я того же мнения.
Certainly. / Sure.
Конечно. / Несомненно.
I (certainly / quite) agree (with you).н Я (конечно / вполне) согласен (с
вами / с тобой).
I have nothing to say to this. I have Мне нечего на это возразить. У
меня на этот счет свои
my doubts about that.
сомнения.
А ты (вы) уверен (ы)?
Are you sure?
Как частично согласиться со сказанным
That may be true, but ...
Возможно это и так, но…
I can share your view only up to a
Я могу разделить вашу точку
certain point.
зрения лишь частично.
I agree with you in a sense, but ...
Я согласен с вами в некотором
смысле, но…
Как выразить сомнение по поводу сказанного
(Is it) really?
Разве это так? (Это правда?)
I doubt it.
Я сомневаюсь в этом.
I don’t think so.
Я так не думаю.
Как не согласиться со сказанньнм, т.е. возразить
I think you’re mistaken.
Я думаю, что вы ошибаетесь.
I don’t think you’re right.
Я думаю, вы не правы.
I’m afraid I don’t agree.
Боюсь, что я не согласен.
I disagree.
Я не согласен.
I don’t agree (with you).
Я не согласен с вами (тобой).
You’re wrong.
Вы не правы.
It (That) can’t be true.
Этого не может быть.
I really can’t believe you / that.
Я просто не могу вам (в это) поверить.
I find that hard to believe.
Я считаю, что в это трудно
поверить.
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Как отреагировать на непонятое
Sorry, what did you say?
Простите, что вы сказали?
Would you mind saying that again?
Вы не возражаете (не против)
повторить это?
(Would you please) say that again?
(Пожалуйста) повторите еще раз.
1 didn’t (quite) catch what you said.
Я не (совсем) уловил то, что вы
сказали.
Could you say that again (please)?
(Пожалуйста) не могли бы вы сказать
это снова?
Собеседник усомнился в том, что вы сказали, но вы уверены в своей
правоте и пытаетесь убедить собеседника
There’s no doubt about it.
В этом нет сомнения.
I’m absolutely positive (quite certain / Я абсолютно (совершенно) уверен
(а) /убежден (а) в этом.
quite sure / convinced) about this.
Что говорить, когда вы не можете подыскать ответ на
вопрос собеседника
Well! Urn ... I’m glad you asked me
Ну! М-м ... Вы так ((обрадовали))
that
меня своим вопросом.
What do you think?
А что вы думаете?
I can’t help you (there).
Не могу вам помочь (в этом).
I must confess I don’t know.
Должен признаться, что я не знаю.
I’ve no idea.
Понятия не имею.
I would like (want) to know
Хотелось бы узнать что-нибудь о…
something about ...
Как предложить собеседнику обсуждать или делать
что-либо вместе
Let’s (discuss I design, etc.) ...
Давай (т е) (обсудим / спроектируем
и тд.)...
Ваше согласие на предложение собеседника
Let’s. / I don’t mind.
Давай. /Я не против.
O.K. / Good! / Excellent!
Ладно. /Хорошо! / Отлично!
(It’s) a (very) good idea.
Хорошая мысль.
I think that’s wise.
Я думаю, что это разумно.
Agreed.
Согласен.
Вам очень хочется узнать у собеседника о чем-либо
It would be interesting to know
Было бы интересно узнать что
about ...
еще-нибудь о…
208
Как изменить тему разговора, если предлагаемая тема вас не
устраивает
It would be better to discuss ...
Было бы лучше обсудить…
I would rather (1 would prefer to)
Я бы предпочел обсудить... (такую
discuss ... (this problem, that is ...)
проблему, как...)
Рассматривая проект, рисунок и т.п., вы обнаружили непонятные вещи.
Ваш вопрос коллеге
What kind of... is this (are these)?
Что это за...?
What (is) ..., I wonder?
Интересно, что это...?
Что говорить, если ваше объяснение не удовлетворило собеседника
What is this, then?
Что же это тогда?
What do you think it is?
Как вы думаете, что же это такое?
Вам хочется сообщить собеседнику о чем-либо
I’m going to talk (to tell you) about...
Я собираюсь говорить (рассказать
тебе о...
Just a few words about ...
Только пара слов о
Here are a few words about ...
Вот немного информации о
Вы вспомнили что-то важное, что было упущено в
разговоре, и пытаетесь направить беседу именно на это
Oh, we (you / I) haven’t mentioned
О! Мы (вы /я) упустили
You (We / I) haven’t discussed ...
Вы (мы / я) не сказали о (не
обсудили)
Как поблагодарить собеседника за то, что он вам сообщил
I see, thank you (very much).
Понятно, (большое) спасибо.
That was very kind of you.
Это было очень мило с вашей
How (very) kind of you.
стороны.
Thank you very much indeed.
Вы так любезны!
209
APPENDIX 3
ENGINEER JOKES
Parking in Dublin
Before going to London, an Engineer drove his Rolls Royce to a Dublin city bank
and went in to ask for a loan of ˆ1,000. The loan officer, taken aback, requested
collateral. “Well, then, here are the keys to my Rolls Royce”, the Engineer said.
The loan officer promptly had the car driven into the bank’s car park for safe keeping, and gave him ˆ1,000. Two weeks later, the Engineer walked through the
bank’s doors and asked to settle his loan and get his car back. ‘That will be ˆ1,000
in principal and ˆ4.25 in interest’, the loan officer said. The engineer wrote a cheque and started to walk away. “Wait Sir”, the loan officer said, “While you were
gone, I found out that you are a millionaire. Why in the world would you need to
borrow ˆ1,000”? The Engineer smiled and said, “Where else could I safely park my
Rolls Royce in Dublin for two weeks and only pay 4.25!
***
There was an Engineer who entered a local paper’s pun contest. He sent in ten different puns in the hope that at least one of the puns would win. Unfortunately, no
pun in ten did!
***
An Engineer, Doc Faraday, made it his regular habit to stop off at a bar for a hazelnut daiquiri on his way home. The bartender knew of his habit and would always have the drink waiting at precisely 5.15 p.m. One afternoon as the end of the
workday approached, the bartender was dismayed to find that he was out of hazelnut extract. Thinking quickly, he threw together a daiquiri made with hickory nuts
and set it on the bar. The Doe came in at his regular time, took one sip of the drink
and exclaimed, “This isn’t a hazelnut daiquiri”. No, I’m sorry”, replied the bartender, “It’s a hickory daiquiri, Doc”
***
A hungry lion was roaming through the jungle looking for something to eat. He
came across two engineers. One was sitting under a tree and reading a book; the
other was typing away on his computer. The lion quickly pounced on the engineer
reading the book and devoured him. Even the king of the jungle knows that readers
digest and writers cramp!
210
***
Three engineers and three accountants are traveling .by train to a conference. At
the station, the three accountants each buy tickets and watch as the three engineers
buy only a single ticket. “How are three people going to travel on only one ticket”
asks the accountant. “Watch and you’ll see”, answers an engineer. They all board
the train. The accountants take their respective seats, but all three engineers cram
into a rest room and close the door behind them. Shortly after the train has departed, the conductor comes around collecting tickets. He knocks on the restroom
door and says, “Ticket, please”. The door opens just a crack and a single arm
emerges with a ticket in hand. The conductor takes it and moves on. The accountants saw this and agreed that it was a very clever idea. So, after the conference the
accountants decide to copy the engineers on the return trip and save money (being
clever with money and all that!). When they get to the station, they buy a single
ticket for their return trip. To their astonishment, the engineers don’t buy a ticket at
all. “How are you going to travel without a ticket” says one perplexed accountant.
“Watch and you’ll see”, answers an engineer. When they board the train, the three
accountants cram into a rest room and the three engineers cram into another one
nearby. The train departs. Shortly afterwards, one of the engineers leaves his rest
room and walks to the rest room where the accountants are hiding. He knocks O
the door and says, «Ticket, please»!
***
An Architect and an Engineer were asked to measure the height of a flag pole. The
Architect takes his measure tape and begins to shinny up the pole. After some slipping and sliding, he gives up. The Engineer being very intefligent as all Engineers
are, walks over to the pole, turns the crank and the flag pole tilts over until it lies
on the ground. The Engineer stretches out his tape measure, cranks the pole back
up and says to the Architect, “It’s 15 metres”. The Architect scratches his head and
says, “A typical engineer, he’s asked for the height and he gives you the length”!
***
A Doctor, a Minister and an Engineer were playing golf. They are continually held
up by the group ahead of them. In frustration they turn to the Club Pro. He tells
them that the group playing so slowly are blind firemen. They saved the Club
House from total destruction in a horrendous fire, and lost their eye sight. The Club
felt such a debt of gratitude that it allows them to play whenever they want. The
Doctor says, “I think that perhaps I could find an eye surgeon who could restore
their sight. That would speed up play”. The Minister says, “I’ll pray to God for a
miracle to restore their sight so play can speed up”. The Engineer says, “Why don’t
you have them play at night?»
211
***
One day a farmer called up a Mathematician, a Physicist, and an Engineer and
asked them to fence off the largest possible area with the least amount of fence.
The Mathematician made the fence in a circle and proclaimed that he had the most
efficient design. The Physicist made a long straight line and proclaimed “We can
assume that the length is infinite and pointed out that fencing off half of the earth
was certainly a more efficient way to do it. The Engineer just laughed at them. He
built a tiny fence around himself and said, «I declare myself to be on the outside»!
***
Five surgeons were taking a coffee break and were discussing their work. The first
said, “I think accountants are the easiest to operate on. You open them up and everything inside is numbered.” The second said, “1 think librarians are the easiest to
operate on. You open them up and everything inside is in alphabetical order.” The
Third said, “I like to operate on electricians. You open them up and everything inside is color-coded.” The fourth one said, I like to operate on lawyers. They’re
heartless, spineless, gutless, and their heads and their butts are interchangeable.”
Fifth surgeon said, “I like Engineers...they always understand when you have a few
parts left over at the end...”
***
An engineer and a lawyer were recently fishing in the Caribbean. The fishing was
outstanding and they got to talking about their vacations. The lawyer said, “I’m
here because my house burned down, and everything I owned was destroyed by the
blazing fire. The insurance company paid for everything.” That’s quite a coincidence,” said the engineer. “I’m here because my house and all my belongings were
destroyed by a raging flood, and my insurance company also paid for everything.”
The puzzled lawyer asked, ‘How DO you start a flood?”
***
Question: What is the difference between Mechanical Engineers and Civil Engineers?
Answer: Mechanical Engineers design weapons, Civil Engineers design targets.
212
IRREGULAR VERBS
to be
was/were
been
быть
to buy
bought
bought
покупать
to come
came
come
приходить
to do
did
done
делать
t drive
drove
driven
водить машину, ехать
to get
got
got
получать
to give
gave
given
давать
to go
went
gone
идти
to have
had
had
иметь
to hear
heard
heard
слышать
to know
knew
known
знать
to learn
learnt
learnt
учиться
to leave
left
left
покидать
to make
made
made
делать
to pay
paid
paid
платить
to put
put
put
положить
to read
read
read
читать
to say
said
said
говорить, сказать
to see
saw
seen
видеть, смотреть
to take
took
taken
брать, взять
to teach
taught
taught
преподавать
to tell
told
told
говорить, беседовать
to think
though
thought
думать
to wake
woke
woken
будить
to write
wrote
written
писать
213
LITERATURE
1. Kathirvel K., Thiyagarajan R., Ramesh D., Manohar Jesudas D. Ergonomic Intervention in Sugarcane Detrashing.
2. Singh K.P., Saha S., Mishra H.N. Optimization of Barnyard Millet Dehulling Process
Using RSM.
3. Chimbombi E.M. Minimum Tractor Power Requirement for Arable Crop Production
Using the Simplex Method: A Case of Barolong Agricultural District of Botswana.
4. Yadav R., Pund S., Gite L.P. Ergonomic Evaluation of Male and Female Operators
during Weeding Operation.
5. Wan Ismail W.I., Abdul Rahman K. Development of Automatic Chemical Sprayer.
6. Pannu C.J.S., Shukla L.N. Tractor Front-Mounted Cross-Conveyor Paddy Straw
Thrower.
7. Arude V.G., Shukla S.K., Makawan D.N., Manojkumar T.S., Nath J.M. Modernization of Indian Roller Gins and the Effect on Cotton Fibre Quality.
8. Shahare P.U., Thakre S.K., Mathur S.M., Bhatt Y.C. Sleeve Boom Sprayer. Pt 1.
Design and Development of Tractor Mounted Sleeve Boom Sprayer for Cotton
9. Mangaraj S., Varshney A.C., Singh K.K., Reddy B.S. Development and Evaluation of
a Prospective Grader for Spherical Fruits.
10.Radhey Shyam Singh Technological Impact on Energy Requirements for Wheat
Cultivation in North India.
11.Garg S.K., U.C.Lohani P.Pandey Grinding Characteristics of Dried Water Chestnut
Kernel in Batch Processing.
12.Gupta R.K., Joshi H.C. Man-Power Utilization in Some Unit Operations of Dairy
Farm.
13.Kisaalita W.S., Bibens B., Lane E., Young Y., Kinsey V.R., Some S. Design and
Testing of an Avian Hatchery Solar Energy Incubator for Smallholder Poultry Farmers from the Sudano-Sahelian Belt.
14.Yoshisukc Kishida Editorial.
15.Dixit J. Field Performance and Evaluation of Manual Paddy Transplanter in Kashmir
Valley.
16.Khan A.A., Arshad M., Yasin M., Rafiq-ur-Rehman M. Development and Evaluation
of a Mobile Sprinkler System for Orchards.
17.Kumar Verma A. Modeling for Mechanization Strategies of Rice Cultivation in
Chhattisgarh, India.
18.William S. Kisaalita, Meghan Shealy, Max J. Neu, Philip Jones, Jonathan Dunn Argan
Nut Cracker for Southwestern Moroccan Women.
19.Kathirvel K., Thambidurai S., Ramesh D., Manohar Jesudas D. Vibration Characteristics of Self Propelled Power Weeders.
20.Benjaphragairat J., Sakurai H., Ito N. Study of the Mechanics of a 5 HP Power Tiller
Attached to a 10-Row Garlic Planter.
214
CONTENTS
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ...................................................................................................... 3
Unit 1 Agricultural machinery……………………………………… ...................... 4
Unit 2 Tractor ............................................................................................................ 8
Unit 3 Hitches and power applications ................................................................... 19
Unit 4 Applications and variations .......................................................................... 32
Unit 5 Tracked vehicle ............................................................................................ 48
Unit 6 Cultivator ...................................................................................................... 52
Unit 7 Cultipacker ................................................................................................... 56
Unit 8 Plough........................................................................................................... 58
Unit 9 Harrow .......................................................................................................... 81
Unit 10 Rotary tiller................................................................................................. 89
Unit 11 Subsoiler ..................................................................................................... 97
Unit 12 Two-wheel tractor ...................................................................................... 99
Unit 13 Stone Picker.............................................................................................. 106
Unit 14 Planting ..................................................................................................... 108
Unit 15 Fertilizing & Pest Control ........................................................................ 115
Unit 16 Irrigation ................................................................................................... 118
Unit 17 Harvesting / post-harvest.......................................................................... 133
Unit 18 Belt conveyor ........................................................................................... 136
Unit 19 Corn harvester .......................................................................................... 143
Unit 20 Cotton picker ............................................................................................ 144
Unit 21 Forage harvest .......................................................................................... 148
Unit 22 Gleaner Manufacturing Company ............................................................ 151
Unit 23 Gravity wagon .......................................................................................... 154
Unit24 Huller ......................................................................................................... 156
Unit 25 Swather ..................................................................................................... 158
Unit 26 Hay making .............................................................................................. 160
Unit 27 Loading ..................................................................................................... 172
READER ............................................................................................................... 179
APPENDIX 1 (ANNOTATION AND REFERRING) ......................................... 198
APPENDIX 2 (PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION) ................................... 204
APPENDIX 3 (ENGINEER JOKES) ................................................................... 210
IRREGULAR VERBS .......................................................................................... 213
LITERATURE ...................................................................................................... 214
215
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