DMRB VOLUME 10 SECTION 3 PART 2 - HA 108/04

DMRB VOLUME 10 SECTION 3 PART 2 - HA 108/04

November 2004

DESIGN MANUAL FOR ROADS AND BRIDGES

VOLUME 10 ENVIRONMENTAL

DESIGN AND

MANAGEMENT

SECTION 3 LANDSCAPE

MANAGEMENT

PART 2

HA 108/04

LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT

HANDBOOK

SUMMARY

Provides guidance on landscape management of highways, including decision making process, techniques, issues and Landscape Management Plans.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE

This is a new document to be inserted into the manual.

1.

Insert HA 108/04 into Volume 10, Section 3.

2.

Please archive this sheet as appropriate.

Note: A quarterly index with a full set of Volume

Contents Pages is available separately from The

Stationery Office Ltd.

DESIGN MANUAL FOR ROADS AND BRIDGES

THE HIGHWAYS AGENCY

SCOTTISH EXECUTIVE

WELSH ASSEMBLY GOVERNMENT

LLYWODRAETH CYNULLIAD CYMRU

THE DEPARTMENT FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

NORTHERN IRELAND

Landscape Management

Handbook

HA 108/04

Summary: Provides guidance on landscape management of highways, including decision making process, techniques, issues and Landscape Management Plans.

Volume 10 Section 3

Part 2 HA 108/04

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November 2004

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Volume 10 Section 3

Part 2 HA 108/04

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November 2004

November 2004

DESIGN MANUAL FOR ROADS AND BRIDGES

VOLUME 10 ENVIRONMENTAL

DESIGN AND

MANAGEMENT

SECTION 3 LANDSCAPE

MANAGEMENT

PART 2

HA 108/04

LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT

HANDBOOK

Contents

Chapter

1.

Introduction to the Landscape Management

Handbook

2.

Landscape Management of Highways

3.

The Highway Resource

4.

Decision Making

5.

Management Issues and Tables

6.

Techniques of Landscape Management

7.

Landscape Management Plans

8.

Abbreviations

9.

Glossary of Terms

10.

References

11.

Enquiries

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK

1.1

It is generally accepted by highways authorities that part of their purpose is to provide an environmentally acceptable road network. In seeking to fulfil this purpose, there is recognition that: z landscaping and tree planting can contribute to a visually interesting journey; z road corridors offer considerable areas of infrequently visited grass and scrub which support a range of flora and fauna, which contribute to the biodiversity bank of this country; z sympathetic treatment of the areas adjacent to the carriageway can help to fit the road back into its setting and help reduce the impacts of traffic on neighbours; z landscape management carried out on roadsides can contribute to wider initiatives.

1.2

This Advice Note aims to provide guidance on how environmental features associated with the highway can be managed to achieve medium and long-term design objectives.

Guidance on design is set out in the Good Roads Guide. Section 1 and 2 of Vol 10 DMRB and should be seen as a supplement to this Advice Note.

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1.8

The Handbook, which forms part of DMRB Volume 10, has been developed in relation to other documents and guidelines (refer to Table 8.1), including: z

Highways Agency Biodiversity Action Plan (HABAP); z Trunk Road Maintenance Manual (TRMM); z

Northern Ireland Roads Service Environmental Handbook; z

The Scottish Executive’s Cost Effective Landscapes; Learning from Nature (CEL; LfN); z

The Welsh Assembly Trunk Road Environment Biodiversity Action Plan (TREBAP).

1.9

The Handbook is generally concerned with managing landscapes after the initial establishment phase has been completed. The processes involved in making landscape management decisions are examined and some outline guidance is provided on how to implement those decisions through landscape management plans. The landscape manager is encouraged to take a holistic view of the management of the soft estate and to have in mind the long-term aim of creating sustainable highway landscapes.

1.3

This Advice Note will commonly be known as the ‘Landscape Management Handbook’.

It is aimed at those making decisions about highway landscape management whether they are landscape managers, ecologists, landscape architects, road maintenance staff or other landscape professionals. The single term ’landscape manager’ will be used in this document to cover various professions.

1.4

It is intended that this document will provide a useful reference to those concerned with making decisions on landscape management within the highway soft estate (ie the landscaped verges and areas outside the carriageway). It is ‘guidance’, not a ‘code of practice’, and as such will allow individual landscape managers to adopt their own approaches so that regional landscape character is developed and protected.

The prime purpose of roads is for transportation. Management of the vegetation must therefore allow two paramount highway maintenance requirements to be achieved: z the safety of road users and maintenance personnel; and z the ability to maintain (repair, replace, improve) all built elements of the highway.

The landscape manager must therefore manage to achieve the primary environmental functions in the correct balance and within the limitations of highway requirements.

1.5

It is recognised that a handbook alone cannot set out the right solution to every situation, rather it is based on the “making people think approach” and that by providing guidance on the issues to be addressed, will help landscape managers to make balanced decisions.

1.6

Equally, it is recognised that the Handbook approach cannot by itself describe all the messages and it is envisaged that many issues of good practice will be developed by other means, such as on-site training, workshops and through experience.

1.7

Equally, there are also many instances that will require very specific guidance, eg, for protected species. In such cases, the landscape manager will need to seek specialist advice, and this document directs the reader to better placed sources.

1.10

Within the UK there are four Overseeing Organisations for trunk road design and maintenance: z

Highways Agency (England); z

Scottish Executive; z Welsh Assembly Government; z Department for Regional Development Roads Service Northern Ireland.

All these organisations support the broad principles of the Landscape Management

Handbook (LMHB) and the use of best practice landscape and environmental management.

However, not all the advice contained in the advice note will be relevant to all Overseeing

Organisations.

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK

1.11

The Scottish Executive supports the advice and guidance contained in the DMRB.

However, with regard to landscape design and maintenance, the Scottish Executive has developed and published their own policy entitled ‘Cost Effective Landscape: Learning from

Nature’ (CEL: LfN). Since 1998 it has been compulsory that this policy be applied to all trunk road landscape design and management in Scotland. There are elements of the guidance contained within the LMHB that are not in accordance with the CEL: LfN policy, and which would not, as a consequence, be supported on Scottish trunk roads. With regard to application of the LMHB in Scotland, if there is a difference of approach between the LMHB and CEL; LfN then the latter shall take precedent.

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1.13

A comparison of relevant organisations, legislation, guidance, and management procedures used by UK government administrations is set out in Table 8.1.

1.12

The Welsh Assembly Government Transport Directorate and the Department for

Regional Development Roads Service Northern Ireland both support the production and issue of the Landscape Management Handbook but advise that whilst the broad principles are acceptable, differences exist in the method of management, recording and execution of maintenance of the soft estate and do not bind themselves to accept any of the techniques contained in this document.

They do bind themselves to ensuring the use of best practice, sustainability and the enhancement of biodiversity on their networks in respect of landscape and environmental management matters. Designers, design organisations and management organisations should satisfy themselves of the requirements of the Welsh Assembly Government Transport

Directorate and the Department for Regional Development Roads Service Northern Ireland to ensure that current standards applicable to Wales and Northern Ireland are met.

NOVEMBER 2004

1.14 The Handbook is structured as follows:

Chapter 1 Introduction to Landscape Management Handbook

States the aims and audience for the guidance document.

Chapter 2 Landscape Management of Highways

Defines landscape management in relation to the highway/road network and this document.

Chapter 3 The Highway Resource

Defines what is considered to be the highway resource and sets out an example of a clasification system.

Chapter 4 Decision Making

Considers how decisions on landscape management of the soft estate should be made.

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK

Chapter 5 Management Issues and Tables

Considers each landscape and environmental element in turn, and introduces issues to be aware of when making decisions on how to manage each element.

Chapter 6 Techniques

Describes the techniques to be used when managing roadside landscapes and specific points to be aware of when applying the techniques, as Technique Notes.

Chapter 7 Landscape Management Plans

Suggests how to prepare a landscape management plan for the highway soft estate.

Chapter 8 Abbreviations

Chapter 9 Glossary of Terms

Chapter 10 References

Chapter 11 Enquiries

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CHAPTER 2 LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT OF HIGHWAYS

2.1

Landscape management can be defined as a process that uses horticultural, forestry, arboricultural and ecological techniques to achieve certain planned outcomes for the wide range of features that make up our natural and man made landscape. Management of the roadside landscape can have a variety of aims: visual, safety and biodiversity; all underpinned by the principal of sustainability.

Increasingly as roads become more used it will be difficult to close road space for maintenance operations, therefore the process of landscape management should address how landscapes can be produced that require minimum intervention. The design process should seek to establish landscapes that are sustainable and management should aim to deliver these. However, it should be recognised that highway landscapes will never be totally self-sustaining, narrow corridors will always need varying degrees of intervention and the highway corridor has a multi-functional requirement in which sustainability is only one consideration in the management of the whole estate.

2.2

The Handbook recognises that landscape management of a highway corridor is of a specialised nature, where decisions are often made more difficult by the narrowness of the soft estate and its proximity to high-speed traffic. The safety and security of operators when working adjacent to the highway is of paramount concern when working on the soft estate.

Modern road design often results in large cuttings and embankment slopes that achieve the sweeping lines and contours of modern high-speed roads. This leads to challenges and opportunities. Challenges in terms of balancing competing issues and opportunities for demonstrating good practice in developing and managing highway landscapes that are highly visible.

2.3

Landscape management of the highway soft estate is a relatively new area of expertise. Guidance is necessary to ensure that good practice is followed and that this expertise is passed on to new staff.

Landscape management should not seek to compartmentalise and isolate the soft estate from the management of the whole road, but should manage in relation to the other aims and functions of the network.

2.4

The main drivers for landscape management of highways are safety and cost effectiveness, whilst respecting the environment.

2.5

Landscape managers will need to recognise that managing landscapes that result from

“widening within existing boundaries” schemes will require more much intervention than conventional landscapes due to the restricted widths and closer proximity to other constraints.

This does not, however, mean that the aim of sustainability can be forgotten.

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2.6

It should be recognised that highway landscapes will need to respond to changing requirements and will be looked after by successive generations. Hence there is a need to record as much management information as possible, preferably in a GIS database so that future managers will have access to this valuable ideas bank.

2.7

Landscape managers are part of the wider highway management team, with particular responsibilities for the ‘soft’ components and some of the ‘hard’ components of the highway estate. Their aim is to develop and achieve objectives that may be set out in Route Strategies or Landscape Management Plans for the road. They also need to review original design objectives that may be no longer relevant.

2.8

The process of landscape management in relation to highways comprises the following: z classifying the environmental resource to be managed (see Chapter 3); z

making decisions in relation to landscape management (see Chapter 4); z recognising management issues (see Chapter 5); z deciding methods or techniques available for undertaking management (see Chapter 6); and z delivery documents Landscape Management Plans (see Chapter 7).

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CHAPTER 3 THE HIGHWAY RESOURCE

3.1

THE HIGHWAY RESOURCE z

The road network comprises motorways, dual carriageways, improved single carriageways and unimproved roads in the UK, as well as bridges, tunnels and urban highways. The trunk road and motorway estate in England alone currently extends to over 30,000 hectares of verges, central reserves, interchanges and other land. The ‘soft’ areas within the highway boundary and adjacent areas support a diverse range of vegetation and features, such as woody and herbaceous vegetation, ponds, ditches and other wetland, boundary features, rock and scree, hard landscape features, protected species and other flora and fauna. These features make up the highway landscape resource.

z

In England, the Highways Agency Biodiversity Action Plan (May 2002) provides action plans for a selected range of habitats and species associated with the Trunk Road network. In Scotland, the

Trunk Roads Biodiversity Action Plan (2000), and in Wales, the Trunk Road Estate Biodiversity

Action Plan (2004), provide similar plans for habitats and species. In Northern Ireland the Roads

Service Environmental Handbook provides environmental guidance. These documents should be considered in identifying and targeting the biodiversity part of the resource.

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3.2

RECORDING AND CLASSIFYING THE HIGHWAY RESOURCE z

One of the first steps in the management of the resource is to record and classify the various features of the roadside landscape, in order to obtain a clear picture of what features occur on the highway and require management. At the same time, the functions for each feature should be assessed and recorded, so that features can be managed positively to achieve objectives and fulfil their functions. For new schemes passing into management this information is often identified in handover documents.

– One such system for classifying the resource is that set out in DMRB Volume 10, Section 0. This ascribes descriptors or Elements to the feature and sets Functions for these features.

– The Handbook considers the issues concerned with managing these landscape and environmental features and then looks at landscape management techniques that need to be applied to achieve their functions.

– It is the intention in England, to record the trunk road resource in the Environmental System

(previously known as the Environmental Database), that will in time, provide a record of the whole resource. The situation in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland is currently under review and readers should approach the Overseeing Organisations for information on this issue.

NOVEMBER 2004

Buzzard nest in roadside woodland - part of the resource Trees above have a visual screening function for houses

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CHAPTER 3 THE HIGHWAY RESOURCE

– An Element may have multiple functions with related objectives that can be applied, dependant upon the overall aims of the landscaping at a specific location. Equally there may be other objectives that are not listed that may be relevant in particular situations. The information in this chapter serves as a guide to making those management decisions.

3.3

ENVIRONMENTAL FUNCTIONS

When formulating management strategies for roadside vegetation, the setting of environmental functions is a key requirement. In order to design and manage the highway network, the purpose of the various features (elements) should be stated, ie why they are there and what they are intended to achieve.

z

The function of any element needs to provide enough information for inheritance planning purposes so that new landscape managers will not have to make assumptions. For example, a woodland may be to provide screening between 3 - 10ms from ground level, in particular, or it may be important that it does not reach any higher than 10ms. Equally, agreements may have been reached with neighbours about the function of various elements. This will need to be recorded so as to avoid future problems. This information should be set out within any Landscape Management Plans - see

Chapter 7.

z

Landscape Integration and Regional Landscape Character.

z

If not set out in any Landscape Route Strategies or Landscape Management Plans the landscape manager should usually try to ensure an overall function is integration is with local regional or subregional landscape types. These can cover urban as well as rural areas, and can involve replicating species, or vegetation structure, eg, pollarded willows across Cambridgeshire Fens.

z

The landscape manager should refer to scheme handover documentation to ascertain any existing objectives or constraints, such as Pubic Inquiry obligations.

z

The landscape manager must recognise that the objectives for the road may change, for example, if the road is widened or new traffic control technology is implemented. For this reason, the use of regularly reviewed Landscape Management/Action Plans is recommended (refer to Chapter 7). With any new scheme, such as road widening, an environmental assessment as part of the scheme should address the landscape impacts and mitigation.

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3.4

LANDSCAPE AND ENVIRONMENTAL ELEMENTS

The landscape and environmental elements are those features that help to mitigate the adverse impacts of the highway. They can be divided into broad classification types, eg hedges, which can then be subdivided again according to their detailed design or management needs, in conjunction with the stated function.

z

The full details of each element can be found by referring to Volume 10, Section 0, Part 3 of DMRB.

Also see Section 7.3 for additional notes on what to include for Landscape Management Plan purposes. Basically they need to describe what they are.

z

Some elements can be managed to achieve multiple functions without undue conflict or expense.

Functions may change over time and merit review and alternative management techniques.

However, the manager should decide on a primary function of management and devise maintenance regimes accordingly, other secondary functions being identified but of lower priority.

Examples of elements woodland

Species Rich Grassland injurious weeds

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CHAPTER 4 DECISION MAKING

4.1

DECISION MAKING

In order to make balanced and reasoned judgements, the landscape manager requires a range of baseline data on the resource to develop landscape objectives. There should then follow a consideration of the issues (budget, safety, priorities, regional or local variations etc) before making decisions on management programmes.

The process of decision making

Survey, Record & Classify data on Landscape +

Environmental Resource

Landscape + Environmental

Functions

Landscape + Environmental

Objectives to achieve

Functions

Programme

Timing

Budget Safety Priorities

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The following sections set out issues under broad headings which the landscape manager needs to consider in his descision making. Chapters and 5 and 6 consider these in more detail.

4.2

CONSTRAINTS z

Access

When designing work programmes, the question of access and the possibility of lane closures will have to be considered in estimating how much work can be achieved. Work in central reservations may require a lane closure on either side. It may be necessary to consider night working if road space cannot be made available during the day.

z

Safety

Work patterns and programmes must ensure the safety of highway personnel and road users when working next to high-speed traffic in restricted space.

z

Services

The location of existing underground services within the highway verge is a constraint that landscape managers should be familiar with. The installation of new services within the highway verge requires liaison between landscape managers and engineers to ensure minimum disturbance to the soft estate through correct working procedures and a coordinated approach.

z

Ecological

The presence of protected species and habitats will place restrictions on the timing and type of landscape management practices that can be carried out. The landscape manager should refer to available databases and Biodiversity Action Plans (refer to Table 8.1) and have an understanding of wildlife legislation.

The above constraints represent the main constraints when carrying out landscape management works on the highway, however, there may be others that will be specific to individual locations.

Landscape Management

Decisions

Contractual Orders

(Work Instructions)

Audit

Review

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CHAPTER 4 DECISION MAKING

4.3

LEGISLATION AND POLICY GUIDANCE z

Any management must comply with legislative requirements under UK and European law, which the landscape manager must be aware of. It is a legal responsibility to ensure that any Public Inquiry obligations are maintained. Policy guidance such as local development plans and other documents

(refer to Table 8.1) should also be referred to. Further reference to relevant legislation is made within

Chapters 5 and 6.

The majority of waste generated from landscaping works will be green waste but some are classified as pollutants, such as invasive species eg Japanese knotweed and ragwort. The majority of green waste from landscaping will be classified as “controlled waste”. Thus a waste management licence will apply to these wastes if they are:

– deposited;

– stored;

– treated (including recycling and using mobile plant); or

– disposed of controlled waste in or on any land or by means of a mobile plant, or if you ‘knowingly permit’ any of these activities.

Whether a licence or an exemption is needed will depend on the duration of storage, types and quantities of wastes that are being handled and the activity carried out on the site. (Refer to Waste

Management Licensing Regulations 1994 for specific advice).

4.4

FINANCIAL RESOURCES z

Financial allocations for maintenance are likely to vary from year to year. The success of landscape management relies on carefully planned, often phased, operations over a number of years that require long-term financial planning.

Capital phase

Thinning peaks

£

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z Landscape management decisions need to be robust and flexible enough to achieve results when allocations change. Hence the need to manage highway landscapes to be as self-sustaining as possible.

4.5

TECHNIQUES z

There are a variety of techniques that can be used to manage landscapes. Some techniques that can be used in non-highway situations cannot be used for the management of the soft estate because of specific highway constraints such as, proximity to speeding traffic, narrowness of soft estate, steepness of embankments and cuttings. The landscape manager will need to understand which techniques are safe and appropriate for the management of the highway soft estate.

4.6

CONSULTATION z It is impossible to satisfy everyone all of the time. Neighbours, as well as road users are seen as customers and should be considered in decision making. Early consultation and using techniques that minimise disruption to the public is advisable.

4.7

THIRD PARTY DECISIONS z Decisions are often taken by others that affect land outside the highway estate. Landscape managers should be aware of the need to review the integration of the highway within the wider landscape.

4.8

OPPORTUNITIES z

It should be recognised that management of highway landscapes can provide many opportunities, such as:

– demonstrating good environmental practice to the many people travelling on the road network;

demonstrating partnership through helping others to achieve their own objectives, eg, Community

Forests, LBAPs, environmental agencies’ water quality objectives and Statutory Nature

Conservation Objectives for designated sites. Many initiatives can be progressed via the partnering process with other like-minded organisations.

4.9

TEAM APPROACH z The team approach is often suited to landscape management of highways, as decision makers are faced with complex decisions requiring inputs from a team of specialists. The landscape managers should not make decisions in isolation. The process should involve working with a range of other disciplines, including ecologists, archaeologists, planners, engineers, project managers, water, structural and geotechnical specialists to develop co-ordinated solutions.

Grassland, arboriculture & noxious weed control spend years

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CHAPTER 4 DECISION MAKING

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Highway boundary

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CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.1

INTRODUCTION z

This chapter looks at the issues to be considered in the decision making process. For example, in the management of amenity grass to achieve landscape integration there is a need to be aware of changes in the surrounding areas into which integration is taking place. It is recognised that it will not be possible to cover every issue relevant to each element but the section gives examples of the main issues that the landscape manager should be considering during the decision-making process.

z

A management table for each environmental element details the elements, primary and secondary functions and the objectives of landscape management to achieve the function. The table also lists the techniques to be employed in the management of the element to fulfil its possible objectives.

These techniques are identified as ‘main’ or ‘optional’. Main techniques will always apply and optional techniques will apply in certain situations. The techniques are described in Chapter 6.

z

For example, a primary environmental function of woodland may be integration. Therefore the objective to achieve integration, is to manage the plot to have a similar species composition to the woodland in the surrounding area. Some of the main techniques to be employed to achieve this function are cleaning, coppicing, pruning, thinning, felling, with optional techniques of regeneration control, enrichment, replanting and aftercare.

z

The management tables only give examples of Primary Functions that can apply for each element.

Protected Species issues

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Resource identification

Traffic management issues

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CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.2

AMENITY GRASS AREAS

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

Higher standard of tidiness is required in amenity grassland in semi/urban areas.

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z Type of machinery may be important to allow close cutting to trees without damaging the stems,e.g., plastic bladed strimmers rather than metal clearing saws.

z

Where appropriate consider reducing cutting regime to allow longer grass areas alongside close mown areas for biodiversity benefits.

z

In England, cross-reference with TRMM on grass cutting operations. Litter may be an issue, especially in urban areas. Litter may need to be picked before grass cutting commences as some forms of litter may damage cutting equipment or litter may simply be chopped up and spread around.

z

Treatment of arisings can be an issue in urban areas depending on people’s expectations of tidiness. Generally, for amenity grassland the aim should be to leave arisings in situ, in accordance with standard practices (see picture below). Careful consideration needs to be given, as arisings can cause problems with blocking drains and footways. This can be a problem when cutting is infrequent and the thatch builds up.

Close mown amenity grass provides better integration in urban areas

z

Especially applicable in urban or semi-urban situations.

z

Sustainability is still an issue to be considered, so that whilst the costs of maintaining amenity grass is higher, landscape managers should still try to minimise whole life costs by careful consideration of methods and frequency of management.

z

Be aware of future land-use changes in surrounding areas and townscape.

z

Even if grassed areas do not require traffic management, but the public have access to the area being worked then consider temporary exclusion from work site for the health and safety of the public.

z Consider replacing grass with groundcover or hard surfacing to reduce grass cutting maintenance where cutting is difficult.

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CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.2.1

Management Table

Environmental Functions

Integration

Visual Amenity

Enhancing the Built Environment

Heritage

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Objectives Techniques

GC WC CT Ren RC

operate cutting regimes in sympathy with surrounding areas

provide a grass sward in composition, texture and density to blend with surrounding/adjoining amenity grass

cutting regime to maintain grass to a uniform height, cover and colour with neat edging and no scrub invasion

maintained grass to provide setting, balance, contrast and to reflect character of buildings, hard structures and local townscape

◊ provide setting for heritage sites

™

™

™

™

™

™

™ ™ ™

™ ™ ™

Key to symbols

Primary EF

◊ Secondary EF

Main technique

™

Optional technique

GC Grass Cutting

CT Chemical treatments

RC Regeneration control

WC Weed control

Ren Renovation

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CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.3

GRASSLAND WITH BULBS

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

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z If the overall design effect is for bulbs to be maintained over a long period of time the bulbs may need to be replaced periodically. Monitor bulbs and replant as necessary.

z

Where native bulbs are wanted, the first approach should be to achieve the right conditions for any native stock on site to increase. The importation of native bulbs needs to be treated with caution as a significant proportion of commercially available bulbs has a questionable provenance and can pollute the genetics of true native stock.

Ornamental bulb planting can often be used as a

‘gateway’ feature on entrance to urban areas

No bulbs planted in visibility splay

z Generally applies to spring bulbs in urban and semi-urban situations and gateway features. Bulb planting in rural areas away from large settlement is not normally inappropriate. Where native bulbs are used source and provenance are most important.

z

Grass cutting regimes will need to take into account the flowering times and the need for plants to build food reserves in the bulb/corm. Cutting should not remove leaves immediately after flowering.

Bulbs can be spring, summer, autumn and winter flowering.

z

Include monitoring of bulb regeneration, as bulbs can spread where they may be unwanted.

Ornamental bulbs can result in the loss of native species through direct damage and competition for feeding regimes.

z

Bulbs should be controlled where they may affect visibility splays.

z Control of non-native bulb species that can hybridise with native species in adjacent habitats should be considered in rural areas (e.g. Spanish bluebells can hybridise with native bluebells as above).

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CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.3.1

Management Table

Environmental Functions

Visual Amenity

Enhancing the Built Environment

Landscape Integration

Nature Conservation and

Biodiversity

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Objectives

maintain balance of bulbs within grassland to provide visual interest, variety, colour and seasonal effects

maximise flowering potential with delayed cutting regimes

maintain bulbs to provide interest and contrast

encourage bulbs in ground layer of woody plots to link with adjacent plots where bulbs have colonised

encourage a variety of native bulbs to increase diversity

™

Techniques

GC WC CT RC

♦ ♦

™ ™

E

™

Ren

™

™

™

™

™

™

™

™

™

™

™

Key to symbols

Primary EF

Secondary EF

Main technique

™

Optional technique

GC Grass Cutting

CT Chemical treatments

E Enrichment

WC Weed control

RC Regeneration control

Ren Renovation

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CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.4

SPECIES RICH GRASSLAND

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

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z Species rich grassland areas require regular monitoring to ensure that their wildlife value is being maintained or increased under the prescribed management regime. This will require ecological expertise and the maintenance of adequate records.

z

If cuttings and embankments are to be managed as species rich grassland, involving cutting and removal of arisings, then traffic management is likely to be required. Consider disposal of arisings on site, e.g., rake up and spread in tree plantations.

z South facing cuttings often require less cutting and removal as grass growth tends to be less vigorous.

Summer flowering grassland

NOVEMBER 2004

Spring flowering grassland cowslips

z

Refer to the Wildflower Handbook (DMRB Volume 10, Section 3, Part 1) for additional information on design, establishment and management of species rich grassland.

z

Grassland may be species rich due to incidental factors, e.g., rabbit grazing, climate and shallow topsoil. Landscape managers should consider whether actual intervention, i.e., grass cutting and raking is warranted.

z

It is unlikely that the landscape manager will desire to, or have sufficient resources to, achieve species rich grassland throughout the network – so focusing resources on selected areas, especially

BAP priority habitats, should be considered.

z All management records should be stored for future decision makers to access.

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CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.4.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions

Nature Conservation and

Biodiversity

Visual Amenity

Landscape Integration

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Objectives

allow a diversity of grasses and wildflower species that are appropriate to the site, to develop and create greater biodiversity

maintain a variety of wildflower species to provide colour, form, texture, scale and variety

manage in sympathy with adjoining species rich habitats

Techniques

GC TA WC CT RC

• • •

™

E

™

™

™

™

™

Ren MPS

™

™

™

™

™

Key to symbols

Primary EF

◊ Secondary EF

GC Grass cutting

WC Weed control

RC Regeneration control

Ren Renovation

TA

CT

Treatment of arisings

Chemical treatments

E Enrichment

MPS Management of protected and biodiversity action plan species

Main technique

™

Optional technique

Photo above shows ant-hill, which has been attacked by woodpeckers. Ant hills are often a sign of species rich grassland and cutting techniques should aim to leave these undamaged

NOVEMBER 2004

5/7

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.5

ROCK AND SCREE

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

Vegetation has periodically been removed and the whole face pinned and bolted for stability.

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z Management plans need to be based around regular site reviews and measures, to encourage suitable species and minimise safety problems.

z

Sites may be RIGS or even designated as Geological SSSIs/ASSIs – management may need to be agreed with the statutory nature conservation organisation (SNCO). This type of habitat is recognised within the UKBAP as ‘Inland Rock’ and in particular regions will be recognised at a local or regional level.

z Rock and Scree sites are likely to hold reptile species and some form of environmental assessment may be needed to inform timing and techniques. E.g. If clearance of vegetation is required, the timing of the work may be important.

z

The maintenance of exposed rock cuttings on the network can provide visual interest and where this is the case, it is important that they are not obscured by vegetation.

Rock and scree vegetation provides interest and character along the roadside and provides potential reptile habitat. Any work on this cutting is likely to require traffic management due to the narrowness of the verge z

Safety issues with unstable scree are very important and artificial erosion control may be required.

In friable strata, vegetation with deep woody roots can cause the rock face to spoil off, so control of the woody vegetation may be needed.

z Rock pins and bolting can be visually intrusive but vegetation on the rock face can mitigate this.

z There may be limited scope for regular maintenance of rock faces and scree due to difficulties of access. However, opportunities may arise for work to be carried out in conjunction with engineering maintenance and remedial stability works.

NOVEMBER 2004

5/8

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.5.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions Objectives

Integration

Visual Amenity

Nature Conservation and

Biodiversity

Heritage

maintain in sympathy with local surrounding landform

reduce regeneration of scrub

encourage local plant species but discourage succession, leaving exposed rock as a landmark feature

retain diversity of habitat and encourage appropriate habitat species

encourage formation of habitat ledges

◊ retain balance of vegetation within landform, to provide a feature contributing to the character of the local landscape

Key to symbols

Primary EF

Secondary EF

Main technique

™

Optional technique

RC Regeneration control CT Chemical treatments

TA Treatment of arisings E Enrichment

MPS Management of protected and biodiversity action plan species

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

RC CT

Techniques

TA E MPS

™

™ ™

™

™

™

™

™

™

Vegetation which makes its home in joints in rock cuttings can be both a problem, if roots widen the cracks or a benefit in softening the appearance of the cutting. The landscape manager will need to recognise which vegetation is beneficial and which will need to be removed

NOVEMBER 2004

5/9

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.6

HEATH AND MOORLAND

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

Competing gorse has been removed to allow heather to flourish

Gorse if not controlled can dominate heathland community and become a fire hazard

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Moorland vegetation both within and outside the highway boundary.

A light fence has been used to demarcate the boundary to enhance the idea of a seamless landscape

z

Landscape Managers should be aware of the need to agree management of statutory designated sites with SNCOs and other legislation for agreeing management adjacent to designated sites.

z

Management of heathland should aim to maintain a mosaic of heather age structures.

z

Reptile species are likely to be encountered on heathland verges so environmental assessments may be necessary prior to the start of works.

z

Assessment of likely environmental impacts and reference to any database prior to work should be made. Issues such as timing and techniques can be important.

z

Management regimes must take into account engineering and safety needs such as erosion control, wind blown material, fire and drainage.

NOVEMBER 2004

In the picture above the area of the right has been periodically cut as part of a visibility splay, which keeps the heath low and rejuvenated

5/10

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.6.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions

Integration

Nature Conservation and

Biodiversity

Visual Amenity

Heritage

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Objectives

keep management regimes and species enhancement in tune with local conditions

control succession of inappropriate woody vegetation

minimise visual impact of boundary fencing to allow open views to surrounding vegetation.

encourage use of regeneration techniques to extend adjacent habitats for flora and fauna

manipulate vegetation to provide and conserve habitat opportunities where fauna is to be encouraged

encourage heathland and moorland species to provide colour, texture and scale of vegetation

awareness of the distinctive landscape character of heath and moorland and compliance with conditions relating to its maintenance and rejuvenation

GC CT

™

Techniques

TA RC

♦ ♦

E

™

Ren MPS

™ ™

™

™

™

™

™

™

Key to symbols

Primary EF

Secondary EF

GC Grass cutting CT Chemical treatments

TA

E

Treatment of Arisings

Enrichment

RC

Ren

Regeneration control

Renovation

MPS Management of protected and biodiversity action plan species

Main technique

™

Optional technique

It should not be forgotten the presence of reptiles especially adders provides health and safety issues for operatives and working methods

NOVEMBER 2004

5/11

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.7

OPEN GRASSLAND

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

z

Generally the habitat which makes up the majority of the roadside soft estate, it does not tend to be floristically as diverse as other grassland but still holds considerable biodiversity value for small mammals and hence raptor species.

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z General grass areas may need to be maintained for safety reasons; to ensure adequate visibility; to allow access for maintenance; or in certain situations where dead grass growth and scrub invasion may be considered to be a fire hazard.

z

The visual acceptability of grassed areas depends largely on their context, a minimum maintenance approach may be appropriate in many rural areas, but not where a road passes through a village or approaches a built up area. Similarly, a specific maintenance regime may help integrate a road into the surrounding landscape.

z

Grassland management programmes should recognise that to maintain open grassland, it may only be necessary to carry out periodic scrub control; grass cutting may not be necessary.

z

In England, reference should be made to TRMM for minimum mowing requirements.

z

Timing and the method of maintenance are important, as open grassland is valuable for butterflies, small mammals, reptiles, raptors and many invertebrates.

Grassland usually MG1A NVC which has periodically been mown to keep brambles and scrub from dominating

When cutting open grassland, an autumn/early winter cut may have more lasting impression and value, as its effect will last throughout the winter. Cutting this late will not however help with weed control.

NOVEMBER 2004

Open grassland which integrates well with adjoining pasture

5/12

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.7.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions

Integration

Nature Conservation and

Biodiversity

Visual Amenity

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Objectives

control scrub and noxious weeds to retain an open grassland sward

implement a cutting regime in sympathy with adjacent field areas

reduce fertility of the soil and encourage species diversity

allow areas of longer grass to provide habitat for small mammals

◊ manipulate cutting regime to vary number of cuts as appropriate in rural and urban areas

reduce visual intrusion of large embankments by cutting grass and dead flowering heads where next to managed grassland

Techniques

GC CT WC RC Ren MPS

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

™ ™

™

♦ ♦

™

♦ ♦ ♦

™

™

Key to symbols

Primary EF

Secondary EF

Main technique

™

Optional technique

GC Grass cutting

WC Weed control

Ren Renovation

CT Chemcial treatment

RC Regeneration control

MPS Management of protected and biodiversity action plan species

NOVEMBER 2004

5/13

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.8

GRASS REINFORCED WALLS

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

z

These earthworks are built in areas of limited land take or where carriageway widening has taken place. They allow steepened side slopes to be constructed and vegetated.

z

They allow the slopes to be integrated with the surrounding verge area and provide visual amenity to the highway user.

z There are two common forms of earthwork; the metal framework and the plastic wrap around netting. They will have been seeded with a grass seed mix appropriate to their location and environmental function.

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z Their location directly beside the running lane, their angle of slope and aspect present particular problems to the Landscape Manager. These include high salt concentrations during the winter months, dry soil conditions and heat, both directly and reflected, during the summer months.

z

Where local rabbit infestation is a problem the slopes can provide an opportunity for the rabbits to burrow. They will chew through the plastic membrane and burrow into the constructed material.

z

Earth walls require assessment to determine their location, aspect and vegetative content. Barriers generally protect the walls making it difficult to use conventional means of vegetative management.

Their aspect is important, as south facing walls dry out faster and vegetation grows very sparsely or slowly compared to those on north facing walls. Tall invasive weeds and scrub should be avoided to maintain integration and provide visual amenity.

NOVEMBER 2004 5/14

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.8.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions Objectives

Integration

Visual Amenity

Key to symbols

Optional technique

provide a grass sward in sympathy with surrounding areas

cutting regime to maintain grass to a uniform height without invasive weeds and scrub

GC Grass cutting

CT Chemcial treatment

RC Regeneration control

WC Weed control

Ren Renovation

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Techniques

GC WC CT Ren RC

* * * ♦

♦ * * *

NOVEMBER 2004

5/15

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.9

WOODLAND

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z Screening for headlight glare or highway lighting at night may be the desired function of the plot, and so the height of the screening will be important. Screens may have to be maintained between certain heights to achieve this.

Work on central reserve woodland may need two sets of traffic management on both carriageways

Woodland managed within highway boundary to form extension to adjoining mature multi-layered woodland

z

Roadside woodlands can provide for many functions, due to their linear nature, connectivity is one of their big benefits and so management programmes should consider their wider value i.e., if the woodland provides a connection between two adjacent dormice habitats then any management of the connecting roadside woodland which is detrimental to dormice will have a much more significant impact than just the dormice that may live on the soft estate.

z

Consider the sequence of management techniques so that the primary functions of woodland are maintained. For example, cyclical operations of thinning and coppicing and phased management within plots to keep the plot dense and avoid the loss of screen. Thinning little and often in sensitive locations will often be better than drastic intervention.

z

Monitor changes in land use of the surrounding countryside when planning management programmes. For example, new screens may be needed to replace off-site screen planting removed by others; new housing estates may require new screens.

z Where the function is screening year round screening should be the desired outcome, so enrichment of deciduous screens with evergreen species maybe necessary.

z

Consider leaving deadwood standing where it is safe to do so. Smaller areas can be thinned by girdling/ring barking and left to stand. Consider leaving trunk to rot down naturally in an upright position rather than cut the trunk down to the ground. This provides habitat for wood boring insects, woodpeckers and nesting sites for tree creepers.

NOVEMBER 2004 5/16

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES z Consider treatment of arisings e.g. chip, windrow (refer to section 6.8.4), or log piles. This will depend on issues such as urban/rural location, safety, slope angle and biodiversity value of dead wood. It is preferable to retain dead wood on site for biodiversity and cost reasons whenever possible.

Woodland which is helping to provide screening for housing behind

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z Before undertaking works, consider the impact on protected species and the bird-nesting season.

Timing and disturbance may be an issue. Some activities may require licences, e.g. working close to badger setts. Picture below shows a rookery, an early nesting species.

Dense woodland on a wide cutting. The width of the woodland means that when thinning is carried out, it will have less impact than if thinning a narrow plot

z

Maintain vegetation clear of ditches, fences, overhead power cables & signs and structures. Be aware of effects on underground services/neighbouring foundations and overhead furniture.

z Woodland works in central reserves will usually require traffic management to be set up, possibly on both carriageways if the works affects them. Therefore to keep disruption to travelling public to a minimum consider working off peak or carrying out more than the minimum to minimise the need to go in again so soon.

z

Consider safety of the road user and necessary traffic management when treating edge plots near to the carriageway.

z In urban areas or approach roads, the visual experience for the road user and adjacent population may be as relevant as the screen for neighbours.

z

As woodlands gain maturity, the potential for bat roosts increases. Woodland should be surveyed for bats prior to any works being carried out.

z As woodlands mature, safety becomes more of an issue and it will be important to carry out arboricultural inspections regularly and deal with defects promptly. Refer to TRMM or equivalent documentation for specific advice on the frequency of inspections.

z

Historically, many roadside woodlands are even aged/sized, with low species diversity. Increasing spatial/vertical structure and species composition can increase their biodiversity value.

z

The shrub, herb and bulb layer are very important. Management focussing on these species can improve biodiversity, driver interest and integration.

z

Prior to work, assessment of likely environmental impacts and reference to any databases should be made. Issues such as timing and techniques can be important.

NOVEMBER 2004

5/17

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.9.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions

Screening

Integration

Nature Conservation

Visual Amenity

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Objectives

width of planting to achieve layered structure

dense planting

evergreen plants in mix

manage in sympathy with management of adjacent and nearby woodlands

mix of species to reflect local landscape character

diversity of habitats

native species

variety of form, colour and texture

variety of edge treatments; scallops and open areas

bulbs and ground flora

Cl

C

Pr

T

RC

F

Techniques

CT AW TA

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

E

RP MPS AC

♦ ♦ ♦

™

♦ ♦

™

♦ ♦

™

™

™ ™

™

™

♦ ♦

Key to symbols

Primary E

Secondary EF

♦ Main technique

™

Optional technique

Cl Cleaning C Coppice

T Thinning

CT Chemical treatments

RC Regeneration control

AW Arboricultural works

E Enrichment RP Replanting

MPS Management of protected and biodiversity action plan species

AC After care

Pr

F

TA

Pruning

Felling

Treatment of arisings

Picture opposite shows safety barrier damaged by third party tree limb blown down in summer storm. This limb affected hard shoulder and lane 1 of motorway and shows third party trees must be subject to safety inspections. The neighbouring landowner has since removed these trees

NOVEMBER 2004

5/18

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.10 WOODLAND EDGE

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Woodland edge, demonstrating strong autumn colour. The planting in the highway verge blends well with the woodland beyond, although the line of field maple could be broken up to achieve a more sympathetic tie in

Woodland edge type planting, with species capable of forming screening up to 4 metres high

z

In woodland edge plots on wide verges consider creating scallops in the edge especially on south facing slopes, to create warm sunny microclimates for insects and reptiles.

z

Woodland edges need smaller species, so successive thinning will need to remove taller forest type trees. The smaller trees will, in addition, provide a lower screen along the roadside.

The art of good landscape management is to be able to look ahead. In the picture above vegetation will obscure the sign completely in two or these years. It will be easier, cheaper and safer to remove it now

NOVEMBER 2004

5/19

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES z Where there is little room in the verge, access to the woodland edge plot from the roadside should be carefully planned and comply with safety procedures. Traffic management will often be required for woodland edge works.

z

A dense edge can pose problems for access to the woodland beyond, access routes should be planned as part of the management works.

z

Management works in woodland edge plots should be planned and carried out with consideration to the works in the adjacent woodland so that the Environmental Functions are maintained.

z Often woodland edge provides the only low to medium level screening. Thinning this as well as the woodland behind needs to be carefully considered where screening is important.

z Height may be an important issue for woodland edge plots. For example, a woodland edge plot may need to be less than 6 metres high for low to medium level screening. This would affect decisions on which species to favour when thinning.

z

Prior to works, effects on protected species should be assessed and any database queried.

z

For woodland edge plots particularly, the wrong choice of cutting machine can leave highly visible scars sending the wrong message. Inappropriate use of the flail can rip and tear. Decision-making should aim to avoid flailing mature tree and shrub plots.

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z See Chapters 5.8 and 5.13 for additional issues that have the same application to woodland edge.

z Woodland edge plants are often frequented by nesting passerines so avoid work during bird nesting season.

z Woodland edge plots generally have more light, so flowering and fruiting of species is generally increased. This can be visually beneficial and increase feeding opportunities for many bird species and other fauna.

Pictures above show before and after shots of clearances being reinstated. This will be a particular issue with woodland edge plots. Note the extent of clearances will allow for several years before a repeat treatment is necessary

NOVEMBER 2004 5/20

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.10.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions

Screening

Integration

Nature Conservation

Visual Amenity

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Objectives

dense planting in conjunction with woodland

evergreen plants in mix

shrub and woodland edge trees to form low and middle level screen

re-creation of edge to woodland adjoining the highway

mix of species to reflect local landscape character

creation of shrub layer and edge habitat

native species

open parts of the canopy

develop ground flora

variety of form, colour and texture, seasonal interest

variety of edge treatments; scallops, mass planting and open areas, coppice. Retain low tree branches

bulbs and ground flora

Cl MPS C

♦ ♦ ♦

Pr

T

Techniques

RC F

♦ ♦ ♦

CT

TA

E

AC

™

™ ™

™

™ ™

™

♦ ♦

Key to symbols

Primary EF

Secondary EF

♦ Main technique

™

Optional technique

Cl

Pr

F

E

Cleaning

Pruning

Felling

Enrichment

MPS Management of protected and

T biodiversity action plan species

Thinning

CT Chemical treatments

AC After care

C Coppice

RC Regeneration control

TA Treatment of arisings

NOVEMBER 2004 5/21

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.11 HIGH FOREST

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z The health and stability of tall trees next to the highway will require regular inspections and monitoring for safety.

z

Individual high forest trees can have a high centre of gravity. Wind throw may be more of an issue for these woodlands. Thinning needs to be carefully thought about in these situations. Direction of prevailing wind will be important.

z

High forest may be designed to allow views though to interesting ground flora. Crown lifting and brashing may be necessary to achieve this.

High Forest provides a dramatic setting for the road. Young trees have been planted to integrate the road into the surrounding plantations. The mature trees have suffered wind throw from the exposure created by the road cutting; planting will reduce this exposure

NOVEMBER 2004

High forest managed to provide view to herb layer below – by removing lateral side branches

z

The greatest biodiversity value of high forest is often at canopy level, particularly for birds.

Assessment prior to commencement of works is required to determine any affects on protected species and reference made to any database.

z

The landscape manager should consider whether arisings could safely be left on site for dead wood value (refer to Section 5.8).

z Picture opposite shows willow which has suffered wind throw after thinning has taken place for underplanting.

5/22

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.11.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions

Screening

Integration

Nature Conservation

Visual Amenity

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Objectives

retain dense plantation

rotational felling and replanting to form middle and lower screens

choose balance of species and design to reflect the surrounding forests

retain tall trees for nesting sites

retain standing dead wood where feasible

maximise the uniformity of high forest trees to create a strong visual statement and character in the roadside environment

MPS Cl

♦ ♦

T

F

Techniques

TA CT AW

♦ ♦ ♦

E

™

RP AC

♦ ♦

♦ ♦

™

™

™

™

™

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

Key to symbols

Primary EF

Secondary EF

♦ Main technique

™

Optional technique

MPS Management of protected and

F biodiversity action plan species

Felling

AW Arboricultural works

AC Aftercare

Cl

TA

E

Cleaning

Treatment of arisings

Enrichment

T Thinning

CT Chemical treatments

RP Replanting

Extracting timber by helicopter, this unusual solution was driven by the need to keep the road open as much as possible. Long road closures were not possible. Landscape managers should try to think ahead when considering methods

High forest on the top of a deep cutting. Tree stability will become of greater importance as the trees increase in size. It may be prudent to manage this to produce a more stable vegetation type

NOVEMBER 2004 5/23

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.12 LINEAR BELTS OF TREES AND SHRUBS

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z Linear belts are planted in areas where there is little room for more planting; there is often an access problem in carrying out work in already tight verges. Managing linear belts in central reserves can require traffic management on both carriageways to access the plots safely.

z

Assessment prior to commencement of works is required to determine any effects on protected species and reference made to any database.

z

Particularly for highway vegetation, landscape managers should consider the three dimensional space in which the vegetation sits. Planting, which will ultimately be too big for this space, will require frequent works to keep it within bounds. Vegetation, which on achieving its end height will comfortably sit within its three dimensional space, will cost considerably less to maintain in the long term.

z

Landscape managers should recognise that if thinning is left too long there is a likelihood of toppling or wind throw due to increased exposure. The ‘little and often’ approach to thinning may be of most value for these plots.

z

The maintenance of sight lines is an issue with linear plots.

○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○○○○○○○

○○○○○○○ ○

○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○○○○○○○○

Linear belts of trees and shrubs planted in the highway verge maximize the limited opportunity for planting; reflecting the pattern of the existing mature vegetation and integrating the road into the landscape

More sustainable vegetation in long term

More costly to maintain within

3 dimensional space

NOVEMBER 2004 5/24

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.12.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions

Screening

Integration

Nature Conservation

Visual Amenity

Key to symbols

Primary EF

Secondary EF

Main technique

™

Optional technique

AC After care

T

C

Thinning

Coppice

TA Treatment of arisings

AW Arboricultural works

RP Replanting

Cl Cleaning

F

Pr

Felling

Pruning

CT Chemical treatments

E Enrichment

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Objectives

retain dense planting with evergreen content

maintain shrub layer for low level screening

keep balance of species, form and alignment of planting to reflect adjoining linear features

retain as continuous features to provide wildlife corridors to other woody plots on and off site

◊ provide seasonal colour and variety of plant form

AC

Cl

T

♦ ♦

F

C

Techniques

PR TA

♦ ♦ ♦

CT AW

™

E

RP

♦ ♦

™

™

♦ ♦

♦ ♦

™ ™

♦ ♦

♦ ♦

™

NOVEMBER 2004 5/25

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.13 SHRUBS WITH INTERMITTENT TREES

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z Operations may need to be on a smaller scale to achieve the desired shape, especially with trees.

Arboricultural works may be required, where a particular shape is required.

z

Assessment prior to commencement of works is required to determine effects on protected species and reference made to any database.

z

Areas dominated by shrubs can often be impenetrable, which makes an assessment of likely environmental impacts before operations start difficult but even more necessary. Impenetrable scrub could hold dormice, nesting birds and badgers.

A young plot of shrubs with intermittent trees will provide landscape integration as the plants mature and visual interest due to the variety of species in the mix

NOVEMBER 2004 z Shrubs with some trees will provide nesting opportunities and song perches for birds, and management will need to be tailored to maintain this balance of structure.

z This type of plot can be used for “glimpse” views between trees to views outside the road, when the trees will frame the view.

z

Picture opposite is of a dormouse nest in bramble , note if during scrub clearance this is encountered work should stop and specialist advice sought from an ecologist.

5/26

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.13.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions

Integration

Visual Amenity

Visual Screening

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Objectives

Cl

manage plots so that species reflect local vegetation characteristics ♦

maintain a variety of shrub species, form and colour in bold blocks ♦

retain dense planting of shrubs for low-level screening

allow trees to grow to a height and form to provide some intermittent high-level screening

™

encourage native species, using fruiting and flowering plants

™ ™

™

™

T

C

PR TA

Techniques

CT AW

™

™

E

AC MPS MPD

™

™

™

♦ ♦

™ ™ ™ ™ ™

♦ ♦

Nature Conservation

Key to symbols

Primary EF

◊ Secondary EF

Main technique

™

Optional technique

Cl

C

Cleaning

Coppice

TA Treatment of arisings

AW Arboricultural works

AC Aftercare

MPD Management of pests and diseases

T

Pr

Thinning

Pruning

CT

E

Chemical treatments

Enrichment

MPS Management of protected and biodiversity action plan species

NOVEMBER 2004 5/27

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.14 SHRUBS

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z Consider the needs of protected and BAP species and monitor for likely environmental impacts and the effects of management. Reference to any database will be required.

z

Maintenance of clearances will be important. Work should always avoid leaving the poorly flailed hedge look. Consider a change to species that are slower growing or do not spread as rapidly, also consider cutting back shrubs more severely at the time of planned cutting operations, removing the front row altogether or using other cutting techniques, e.g., reciprocating saw.

z Shrubs can make access for surveying difficult and so consider removing them at an early stage or manage to keep them young and small.

z

As shrub species do not tend to get too tall there may not be a need to thin them for stability reasons, although they may need to be thinned for other reasons, such as providing different age structures or preventing encroachment onto grassland. Be aware that suckering species, such as blackthorn or dogwood, will soon grow back after coppicing.

Shrubs such as hazel and goat willow used in central reservation as they do not grow too tall or spread too far thereby minimising thinning, work to reinstate clearances and traffic management

z

Shrubs often flower and fruit heavily, attracting wildlife. This may not be desirable where there are safety conflicts. Refer to HA advice notes ‘Birds and Roads’ and ‘Badgers’ for consideration of issues.

z

Landscape Managers should be aware that shrub areas are often used for low-level screening where it is necessary to keep the height of the vegetation below a certain height. Management may need to be focused on removing taller species.

NOVEMBER 2004

Shrubs have been used here to screen cutting from the road but allow views from residents over the top. Tree species have been periodically taken out as they are too tall

5/28

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.14.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions

Integration

Visual Amenity

Visual Screening

Nature Conservation

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Objectives

Cl

maintain structure and composition of shrub blocks as an edge to adjacent ♦ woodlands and to link with vegetation off site

maintain a variety of shrub species, plant form and colour in bold blocks

retain dense planting of shrubs with evergreen content for low level screening to soften long distance views and reduce impact of junctions

encourage native species, using fruiting and flowering plant

keep dense coverage for low foraging birds and mammals

™

™ ™

™

T

C

Techniques

PR TA CT RP

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

E

AC MPS

™

™

™

™ ™ ™ ™

™

™

™

Key to symbols

Primary EF

Secondary EF

Main technique

™

Optional technique

Cl Cleaning

C

TA

Coppice

Treatment of arisings

RP Replant

AC Aftercare

T Thinning

PR Pruning

CT Chemical treatments

E Enrichment

MPS Management of protected and biodiversity action plan species

NOVEMBER 2004 5/29

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.15 SCATTERED TREES

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z As trees get older their biodiversity value increases. Hole dwellers such as bats and jackdaws are an issue to be taken account of. Landscape managers need to be aware of the legislation regarding protected species and the need for inspections by qualified personnel. Scattered trees can function as ‘stepping stones‘ of suitable habitat.

z Signs such as staining below holes can indicate the presence of bats. The picture below is of a noctule bat roost in an oak tree.

These trees will eventually grow to three times their present height and therefore be capable of reaching the hard shoulder if they blow over. As they get older and bigger there will be a need for frequent arboricultural inspections

z Scattered trees can be used to replicate a form of hedgerow or a parkland form of trees. Formative pruning operations may be required to achieve this.

z

Safety inspections will be critical as the trees get older. Refer to TRMM for inspection regime.

z

Assessments of likely environmental impacts and reference to any database prior to work should be made. Issues such as timing and techniques can be important.

z Trees as they get older will require more arboricultural works to keep them safe and this should be recognised in financial profiling.

NOVEMBER 2004 5/30

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.15.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions

Visual Amenity

Nature Conservation

Landscape Integration

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Objectives

encourage trees with distinct colour, form and size

maintain groups to break up scale of large areas of open grassland

retain tree canopy as habitat for birds and other species

use dead wood in habitat piles

maintain position of scattered trees to allow glimpsed and framed views across to the wider landscapes and to link to landscapes where scattered trees exist

maintain health and form of trees to allow to grow to maturity in the same way as adjoining trees

MPS AW

♦ ♦

Cl

PR

Techniques

TA CT

♦ ♦ ♦

F

™

RP AC MPD

♦ ♦

™

™

Key to symbols

Primary EF

Secondary EF

♦ Main technique

™

Optional technique

MPS Management of protected and biodiversity action plan species

PR Pruning

CT Chemical treatments

RP Replant

MPD Management of pests and diseases

AW Arboricultural works

Cl

TA

Cleaning

Treatment of arisings

F Felling

AC Aftercare

Pollarding of individual trees can contribute markedly to a sense of place at river crossings and in other riparian situations. This willow has been pollarded for the first time at year 20, but could have been done earlier. However the tree needs some stem strength before pollarding can be effective

NOVEMBER 2004 5/31

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.16 SCRUB

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z Scrub can hold undesirable species, e.g., rabbits. Where this is a problem and control is needed, the landscape manager should give consideration to removing the cover.

z

Scrub, especially gorse, can become a fire risk especially as it matures. If it is appropriate to keep gorse to achieve the Function, the landscape manager should consider a programme to manage it and minimise this risk, rather than total removal. The risk of fire near to traffic means gorse can be viewed as a high priority for removal close to the road.

Self-sown scrub in grassland, which is at an appropriate level of cover for this landscape

z

Scrub species can be bramble, gorse and hawthorn and are usually pioneer species.

z Scrub can spread rapidly, replacing valuable grassland habitats, especially after it has been disturbed and when no mowing takes place.

z

Scrub should be controlled in grassland areas to achieve the desired Function. However, it may be desirable for an area to change into scrub, as this will reduce maintenance in the longer term (if this fits in with the overall Landscape Management Plan).

z

Scrub can be a valuable habitat in its own right for nesting birds, reptiles, dormice and invertebrates.

Assessments of likely environmental impacts and reference to any database prior to work starting should be made.

z

Gorse regeneration can establish under certain conditions, particularly without grassland management.

z

If control is practised from when the new road is constructed, then costs of control will be much cheaper in the long run. This is because scrub exploits bare ground well, once the grass sward has closed, the seeds find it more difficult to enter the soil and germinate. So to get the most return out of scrub control expenditure it must be carried out early.

z

English Nature’s Scrub Management Handbook also contains useful information (see Reference section).

NOVEMBER 2004 5/32

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.16.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions Objectives

Landscape Integration

encourage growth of desirable scrub species employing techniques for establishing new planting where appropriate

apply control measures to contain growth

enrich scrub to allow conversion into structured planting

prevent succession where desirable to retain scrub as habitat

Nature Conservation and

Biodiversity

Key to symbols

Primary EF

◊ Secondary EF

Main technique

™

Optional technique

C Coppice

CT Chemical treatments

RP Replant

E Enrichment

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

C

RC

CT

Techniques

TA RP AC

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

E MPS

™

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

™

RC Regeneration control

TA Treatment of arisings

AC Aftercare

MPS Management of protected and biodiversity action plan species

Bramble scrub opposite is invading open grassland due to lack of management, with the exception of the 1 metre swathe cut at the edge of the carriageway. Eventually open grassland will close over and be lost if the bramble is not controlled. Control could be by periodicaly flailing or by cutting and chemical treatment

NOVEMBER 2004 5/33

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.17 AMENITY TREE AND SHRUB PLANTING

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z The edges of towns and the urban fringe are increasingly under pressure from the installation of services in the highway verge that may have an impact on the planting on the soft estate. Smaller areas will be available for vegetation and those that do remain will have to be more intensively managed.

z Litter trapped in areas of tree and shrub planting is a visual problem. This is especially evident during the winter months when litter is exposed amongst deciduous shrubs. Consider more frequent litter collection in the winter months.

Limited trees and shrubs create visual interest and screening.

They integrate the road into the edge of town area, where there is often little scope for mass woodland planting

z

Amenity tree and shrub planting is often in semi-urban or urban areas so clearance from overhead services , electricity and telephone tends to be an issue with these plots, and liaison with statutory undertakers is essential.

z Planted trees are vulnerable to damage from vandalism and road salt, especially in urban areas, so protection and sighting are issues to be considered.

z

Urban and semi urban planting will generally require more frequent management than that in rural areas. Consultation with adjacent occupiers is often advisable before thinning or removal operations take place. Safety is also often an issue here.

z

Amenity tree and shrub planting is often related to footways. Control of encroachment and maintaining access for personal safety may be important.

z

Assessments of likely environmental impacts and reference to any database prior to work should be made. Issues such as timing and techniques can be important.

NOVEMBER 2004 5/34

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.17.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions Objectives

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Landscape Integration

Visual Amenity

Enhancing the Built Environment

Visual Screening

Nature Conservation and

Biodiversity

in rural/urban interface provide amenity planting to reflect the adjacent vegetation in species and scale

encourage a mix of non-native and native plants to thrive, providing interest in colour, form, texture and design

retain and develop plants to enhance the built environment, providing settings and character

keep planting dense and high

retain evergreen planting

◊ manage to enhance fruiting and flowering species where appropriate

form variety of structures/habitats

Key to symbols

Primary EF

Secondary EF

♦ Main technique

™

Optional technique

WC Weed control

T Thinning

RP Replant

AC Aftercare

MPD Management of pests and diseases

PR Pruning

CT Chemical treatments

E Enrichment

Picture opposite shows narrow belts of vegetation in urban areas which are often crucial to residents but difficult and costly to maintain. These are often sensitive areas to maintain and discussion with the local community may be useful prior to works starting.

The footway obviously needs to be kept clear of vegetation

WC PR

♦ ♦

T

Techniques

CT RP

♦ ♦

E

AC MPD

™

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

™

♦ ♦

♦ ♦

♦ ♦

™ ™

™ ™ ™ ™

™

™

™

NOVEMBER 2004 5/35

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.18 ORNAMENTAL SHRUBS

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z Entrapment of litter may be a problem in some urban areas and is often most noticeable in the winter months when it will be exposed around deciduous shrubs.

z

Maintenance of clearances will be an issue for this type of planting particularly adjacent to footways.

z Treatment of arisings from thinning and pruning will need to be considered in terms of public safety, appearance and nuisance. Arisings will normally need to be taken off site.

z

Assessments of likely environmental impacts and reference to any database prior to work should be made. Issues such as timing and techniques can be important.

z

Ornamental planting is likely to require more frequent pruning than native planting.

z Often amenity planting will have smaller and smaller three-dimensional spaces in which to exist as increasing amounts of high street furniture are erected. Management will need to balance increasing harsh pruning requirements against removal.

Ornamental shrub planting provides visual interest at the entrance to a commercial development

z

This type of planting is usually found in semi-urban or urban areas and or used for “gateway” features.

z Urban dwellers expect higher standards of maintenance. A tidy appearance is often more desirable here but this could mean that biodiversity value is reduced.

z Ornamental planting tends to be in larger, single species blocks for visual impact, in keeping with the scale of the road and speed of traffic, with accent or contrast plantings. This type of planting is at greater risk of losses due to pest and disease infestation. Monitoring will be required more frequently and periodic localised replanting may be necessary.

NOVEMBER 2004

In the picture above it will be important to keep the grass from spilling over and obscuring the cheverons

5/36

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.18.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions Objectives

Visual Amenity

Enhancing the Built Environment

Landscape Integration

Visual Screening

provide visual variety and impact

provision of all the year round interest using flower, berry and stem effect

creation of landmark features or special entrances

addition of colour and/or contrast in hard surroundings

substitute for grass in areas with poor access or where grades are too steep for economic cutting and grass looks unsightly

visual integration with the urban or outer urban setting

soften the appearance of the road and related structures

◊ screen or visually separate the road from adjoining activities and uses

both physically and visually separate carriageways

Key to symbols

Primary EF

Secondary EF

♦ Main technique

™

Optional technique

WC Weed control

T Thinning

CT Chemical treatments

AC Aftercare

PR Pruning

TA Treatment of arising

RP Replant

MPD Management of pests and diseases

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

WC PR

♦ ♦

T

Techniques

TA CT RP AC MPD

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

™

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

™

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

♦ ♦

™ ™

♦ ♦

™

™

NOVEMBER 2004 5/37

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.19 GROUNDCOVER

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z Refer to issues in Section 5.17, which also apply to groundcover.

z Groundcover has a tendency to spread out of its planting block into other shrubs or onto hard surfacing. Cutting back operations should plan for additional visits or over pruning to extend the time between visits.

z

The use of mulches whilst helping to preserve moisture and reduce the need for watering, must be considered carefully. Mulch cannot be allowed to spread onto foot or roadways. Generally mulches made up of lighter smaller particles should be avoided, as they are easily blown or washed away.

Ornamental planting showing use of groundcover, which at present is contained off the highway. Monitoring will be required and action taken to cut back any planting that overspills

Even in established ground cover the odd weed can spoil the whole effect

NOVEMBER 2004 5/38

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.19.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions

Visual Amenity

Enhancing the Built Environment

Landscape Integration

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Objectives

provide visual variety and impact

provision of all the year round interest using evergreen, colour and en masse planting

addition of colour and/or contrast in hard surroundings

substitute for grass in areas with poor access or where grades are too steep for economic cutting and grass looks unsightly

visual integration of areas with limited maintenance access into the wider landscape context

soften the appearance of the road and related structures

Techniques

WC PR CT RP AC

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

Key to symbols

Primary EF

◊ Secondary EF

Main technique

™

Optional technique

WC Weed control

CT Chemical treatments

AC Aftercare

PR Pruning

RP Replant

NOVEMBER 2004 5/39

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.20 CLIMBERS AND TRAILERS

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

Trailers planted at top of wall have cascaded over. However, as they are unanchored they may be moved by vehicle turbulence

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z Many climbers and trailers require support which will need inspection and repairs.

z Climbers can spread rapidly, often up walls and fences where they are unwanted and regular inspections should be made. Liaison should be undertaken with engineers in dealing with issues relating to structures.

z

Unanchored trailers, i.e., not self-clinging can blow around in vehicle slipstreams and may provide a safety hazard. Consider use of self-clinging species or provide support.

z

Climbers have potential to provide refuge for species such as bats and birds.

z

Climbing plants on structures such as bridges and retaining walls can make structural inspections difficult.

z

Consider using evergreen climbers where deciduous climbers will cause substantial leaf fall onto the carriageway below.

NOVEMBER 2004

Any vehicles parked here will require traffic management

Note deciduous climbers will cause leaf fall often directly onto the carriageway

5/40

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.20.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions Objectives

Visual Screening

Enhancing the Built Environment

Landscape Integration

Visual Amenity

Key to symbols

Primary EF

Secondary EF

♦ Main technique

™

Optional technique

in association with structures and boundaries to soften and screen the road

addition of interest, colour and/or contrast in hard surroundings

disguise the divide between hard and soft landscape

climbers provide interest and features through scale, colour and form

WC Weed control

CT Chemical treatments

AC Aftercare

PR Pruning

RP Replant

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Techniques

WC PR CT RP AC

NOVEMBER 2004 5/41

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.21 ORNAMENTAL SPECIES HEDGES

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z Species for replacement should be carefully chosen for tolerance to salt and pollution. This applies particularly to evergreen species.

z

Ornamental hedges will need to be trimmed in urban situations often at high frequency, depending on the species.

z

Fast growing species such as Lleyland cypress hedges should be avoided as they shade out other plants, have little wildlife value and present future maintenance liabilities. Landscape managers should be aware of the current legislation.

z Arisings will often have to be taken away in urban situations, for cleanliness and tidiness.

z

Clearance distances from footways will need to be maintained.

z

The points for sections 5.16 – 5.19 also apply here.

Ornamental species hedges provide visual amenity and enhance the built environment. Cypress hedge above will need trimming five to eight times a year to maintain a tight clipped look

z

Note there is a need to keep the hedge from obstructing the footway.

z Thorny hedges are often not advisable in urban areas due to the difficulty of removing litter from plant beds and the hazard to passing public.

NOVEMBER 2004

Laurel hedge above will only require cutting two or three times a year to maintain this appearance

5/42

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.21.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions Objectives

Visual Amenity and Enhance the Built Environment

Visual Screening

Landscape Integration

Key to symbols

Primary EF

Secondary EF

Main technique

™

Optional technique

by the use of colour and form of species to provide interest

to retain formal nature and to define spaces by regular cutting

retain evergreen species with height and density

maintaining continuous linear features without gaps will link and reinforce linear urban features

HC/L Hedge cut/lay

WC Weed control

RP Replant

Cl Cleaning

TA Treatment of arisings

AC Aftercare

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Techniques

HC/L Cl WC TA RP AC

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

NOVEMBER 2004 5/43

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.22 NATIVE SPECIES HEDGE (TRIMMED)

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z In non-motorway situations, hedges are rarely the responsibility of the highway authority and should be maintained on both sides by the landowner. However, the highway authority has the power to intervene if the hedge becomes a hazard.

z

Assessment of likely environmental impacts should be carried out before work is carried out and reference made to any database. Hedges have importance as a BAP habitat.

z

The effectiveness of hedges to form stock proof barriers requires the encouragement of dense growth early in the hedges establishment period.

z Timing of operations needs careful consideration, e.g., hedge laying in winter to avoid nesting birds and winter trimming to avoid loss of invertebrate larva, e.g., brown hairstreak butterfly.

z Cutting is best in late winter after berries have been eaten by wildlife. Routine annual hedge trimming suppresses berries and other fruit.

z

It is difficult to replant small gaps in a hedge it may be better filled, laying existing plants, by laying short sections to fill a gap, or layering by pegging stems into the ground to create new plants.

z

The treatment of arisings needs to be carefully considered in a roadside situation and may dictate the type of technique, flail to be used.

z

When considering laying hedges adopting local styles can help regional identity.

z

Hedgerow height may be important in views to and from the road and so will dictate the choice of species and management. Refer to Section 5.22.3.

Trimmed native species hedge close to the roadside provides integration, but needs annual or biannual trimming to keep vegetation off carriageway.

Maintenance of this hedge is likely to be the responsibility of the landowner. The highway authority can intervene if the hedge becomes a hazard

NOVEMBER 2004

Roadside hedges which are for visual screening may require annual trimming to make sure they retain their density. This is especially so for taller hedges as they tend to lose their density at the top

5/44

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.22.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions

Landscape Integration

Nature Conservation and

Biodiversity

Visual Amenity

Heritage

Key to symbols

Primary EF

Secondary EF

♦ Main technique

™

Optional technique

HC/L Hedge cut/lay

RP Replant

TA Treatment of arisings

Cl Cleaning

E Enrichment

MPS Management of protected and biodiversity action plan species

WC Weed control

AC Aftercare

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Objectives

link land uses, woodland, individual trees and other countryside features

reinforces highway boundary and stock proof fencing associated with agricultural land

dense continuous linear features with native species diversity to form wildlife corridors, refuges and food sources

variety of species colour with flowering and berries

rejuvenation to maintain historical landscape character

HC/L Cl

♦ ♦

Techniques

WC RP E AC

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

TA MPS

♦ ♦

™

™

™

™

™

™

™

NOVEMBER 2004 5/45

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.23 NATIVE SPECIES HEDGEROWS

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z In England roadside hedges on trunk roads are not the responsibility of the highway authority. The landowners should maintain the hedge. Occasionally agreements have been reached with landowners for the highway authority to maintain a hedge where, for example an overgrown, unmaintained hedge would cause a safety hazard to road users. Motorway hedges are nearly always the responsibility of the highway authority. Ownership of hedges should be checked whilst planning landscape management work.

Native species hedgerows providing good landscape integration, tying in with adjacent hedgerows. These will also provide linking corridors for wildlife

z

Reference to any database and an assessment of likely environmental impacts should be completed before work is carried out.

z Timing of operations needs careful consideration, e.g., hedge laying in winter to avoid nesting birds.

z

Hedgerows are often vital wildlife corridors and management should aim to retain this connectivity.

This hedgerow has been cut by the farmer on the field side and top but uncut on the highway side. It is far enough from the carriageway not to cause a problem but may restrict access to the cut off drain at the top of the batter

z

It is difficult to replant small gaps in a hedge, or introduce new woody species and usually better to manipulate the existing plants, if necessary laying short sections to fill a gap, or layering by pegging stems into the ground to create new plants.

z

Where the hedgerow has a screening function more frequent cyclical operations or phased maintenance may be needed to sustain the screening function.

z

Hedgerow height may be a critical point in views to and from the road and so will dictate the choice of species.

NOVEMBER 2004 5/46

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.23.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions

Visual Screening

Landscape Integration

Nature Conservation and

Biodiversity

Visual Amenity

Key to symbols

Primary EF

Secondary EF

♦ Main technique

™

Optional technique

HC/L Hedge cut/lay

RP Replant

TA Treatment of arisings

Cl Cleaning

E Enrichment

MPS Management of protected and biodiversity action plan species

WC Weed control

AC Aftercare

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Objectives

dense, tall hedges with evergreen content to screen views to and from the carriageway

using local, indigenous species use same form of hedgerow management to link to the adjacent landscape

to provide links between habitats

to protect adjacent fragile habitats

plant species provide rich seasonal variety of colours

HC/L Cl

Techniques

WC RP E AC

TA MPS

™

™

™

™

™

™

™

Cutting too early will stop late summer flowering shrubs such as honeysuckle from flowering.

Honeysuckle is valuable as a food source for dormice in hedgerows

NOVEMBER 2004 5/47

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.24 NATIVE HEDGEROWS WITH TREES

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z Formative pruning may be required to trees to replicate the hedgerow form of tree.

z Arboricultural issues for trees include safety inspections and assessments for tree-dwelling species.

z

Other issues relevant to Native Hedgerows with trees are detailed in Section 5.22.

z

Reference to any database and an assessment of likely environmental impacts should be completed before work is carried out.

NOVEMBER 2004

Hedgerow trees canopy can extend over the carriageway and safety and arboricultural inspections will need to identify and deal with dead and dying branches and have them made safe

Due to proximity to traffic trees overhanging the carriageway or close to will need frequent arboricultural inspections even though they may be third party trees. Refer to TRMM or equivalent for advice

5/48

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.24.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions

Visual Screening

Landscape Integration

Nature Conservation and

Biodiversity

Visual Amenity

Key to symbols

Primary EF

◊ Secondary EF

Main technique

™

Optional technique

AW Arboricultural works

HC/L Hedge cut/lay

WC Weed control

E Enrichment

TA Treatment of arisings

PR Pruning

Cl Cleaning

RP Replant

AC Aftercare

MPS Management of protected and biodiversity action plan species

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Objectives

AW PR HC/L Cl

dense, tall hedges with evergreen content to screen views to and from the ♦ carriageway

trees allowed to grow to full height provide intermittent screens

using local, indigenous species use same form of hedgerow management

♦ to provide links to adjacent landscapes

to provide links between habitats

to protect adjacent fragile habitats

plant species provide rich seasonal variety of colours and added structure with trees

™

™

™

™

Techniques

WC RP

♦ ♦

™

™

E

AC

TA MPS

♦ ♦

NOVEMBER 2004 5/49

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.25 INDIVIDUAL TREES

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z Veteran trees are ancient trees of great landscape and wildlife value because of their form/structure and decaying/dead wood. Safety on the highway is paramount but veteran trees should be maintained where possible and managed to ensure their long-term survival and value.

z

Good liaison and coordination between engineering and landscape managers, public utilities and local authorities is a key factor in successful tree management. Consultation should take place well in advance of any intended action to or within the vicinity of street trees.

z The public, especially local residents, should also be informed of major tree works including pruning, removal and replacement that are likely to affect them.

z

As trees get older, inspections and specialist management become more necessary and frequent.

Refer to TRMM or equivalent for inspection regime.

z

Older trees can provide holes and crevices for protected species. Assessments of likely environmental impacts should be made prior to works. In addition consult any database for information. Early nesting species such as rooks can dictate earlier work times. Picture below is of a jackdaw nest.

NOVEMBER 2004

Established trees provide visual interest and a sense of maturity in this lowland landscape

z Individual trees can be focal points to where the eye is drawn. Therefore good shape and health will be paramount for this type of tree.

z Below ground works should be undertaken with care, consider hand digging in the root zone.

5/50

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.25.1 Management Table

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Environmental Functions Objectives

Landscape Integration

Enhancing the Built Environment and Visual Amenity

Nature Conservation and

Biodiversity

Heritage

Key to symbols

Primary EF

Secondary EF

Main technique

™

Optional technique

tree species and form to provide continuity and identity in urban settings, separating the road from adjacent land uses and softening the built environment

seasonal interest

to reflect the features in the surrounding landscape

native trees, especially fruiting trees, support wildlife

trees act as song posts for birds, bat roosts and perches for some predatory species

retain avenues planted during interwar years which provide distinctive character

AW Arboricultural works

RP Replant

AC Aftercare

F Felling

CT Chemical treatments

MPS Management of protected and biodiversity action plan species

AW

Techniques

F RP CT AC MPS

™

™ ™

™ ™

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

Picture opposite shows a branch that has been pulled off by a digger bucket excavating a trench for communication cable. Ultimately this may lead to a weakness and structural failure. Branch should have been removed by saw to avoid this

NOVEMBER 2004 5/51

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.26 WATERBODIES AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z Waterbodies often have high biodiversity interest. Specialist assessments may need to be undertaken prior to maintenance. Some waterbodies may be connected to statutory main rivers or

IDB drains; consultation with EA/local drainage boards (and other national equivalents) may be necessary.

z Alien plant species such as Giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzanium), Japanese knotweed

(Fallopia japonica var japonica), Himalayan balsam (Impatiens glandulifera), Australian swamp stonecrop (Crassula helmsii), Parrot’s feather (Myriophyllum aquaticum) and Floating pennywort

(Hydrocotyle ranunculoides) can be very invasive, affecting native species and causing loss of function of waterbodies. The landscape manager should, where necessary, liaise with the appropriate environment agency in the control of invasive weeds. Further information and advice on specific control can be obtained from the Centre for Aquatic Plant Management at Rothamstead

Research Station.

z

Trees close to the south side of waterbodies will impede light and it may be necessary to remove or control these.

z

Riparian vegetation can also provide valuable breeding habitat as well as connectivity along the watercourse. The impact on protected and/or BAP species should always be assessed.

z

Access to waterbodies requires careful planning and often permission from adjacent landowners.

z

Uses of herbicides along waterbodies needs care, thought and, where necessary, consultation with the relevant environmental agency.

z

Reference to any database and an assessment of likely environmental impacts should be completed prior to work.

z Cyclical cleaning out of waterbodies may be required to stop silting up and succession.

Riparian vegetation can provide valuable breeding habitat and connectivity along a watercourse. Management should take account of impact on flora and fauna

Waterbodies constructed as part of the highway network may have overriding water balancing and/or water treatment functions (refer to Section 5.31). Management must aim to maintain these functions and not compromise them. The landscape manager should refer to DMRB advice note Volume 4, Section 2, Part 1, ‘Vegetative Treatment Systems for Highway Runoff’, particularly Chapter 6.

NOVEMBER 2004 5/52

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES z Waterbodies can provide a hazard for motorists and often require safety fencing, which in turn will need to be maintained free of vegetation.

z

Waterbodies can have water treatment or storage as primary functions, so liaison with water specialists will be necessary to ensure nature conservation interests do not compromise these main purposes.

Himalayan Balsam infesting and blocking culvert

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Outfall needs to be kept clear of vegetation

z Submergent or floating vegetation can block filters, sluices and other controlled devices if not managed.

NOVEMBER 2004

Vegetation from nearby thinning has found its way into the watercourse and may cause flooding if not removed

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CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.26.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions Objectives

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Nature Conservation and

Biodiversity

Visual Amenity and Landscape

Integration

Key to symbols

Primary EF

Secondary EF

♦ Main technique

™

Optional technique

-

to maintain a balance of open water to associated vegetation to provide habitat and nature conservation interests to retain open waterbodies to provide attractive feature within the wider landscape

CWB Cleaning of waterbodies

RP Replant

MPS Management of protected and biodiversity action plan species

TA

E

Treatment of arisings

Enrichment

CWB TA

Techniques

RP E MPS

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

NOVEMBER 2004 5/54

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.27 BANKS AND DITCHES

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z Chemical control of weeds is sometimes employed along drains as part of routine maintenance of the whole route. The relevant environmental agency should be consulted if using herbicides near watercourses.

z

Management of banks should consider aspect. Certain flora, butterflies and reptiles favour south facing slopes.

z

‘Swales’ are shallow vegetated ditches designed to ‘filter’ and slow the flow of runoff to watercourses to improve water quality and flood alleviation. In order to properly function, swales require a height of vegetation, usually grass, of between 100 and 200mm. Arisings will need to be removed when cut

(refer to DMRB Volume 4, Section 2, Part 1).

Floristically rich banks and ditches can provide nature conservation interest. Ditch maintenance programmes should be timed and organised to minimise disruption to the habitat

Landscape Managers should recognise a balance will need to be struck between maintenance regimes which allow banks and ditches to retain their engineering/drainage functions whilst developing vegetation with a nature conservation/biodiversity interest.

z Ditch maintenance requires an integrated approach by all resource managers to achieve the most environmentally sound form of management. Ditches may hold water vole populations or other protected species, whilst banks may contain reptiles. Reference to any database and assessments will need to be made before cleaning commences.

z Water quality is affected by run off and spillage of herbicides and needs to be considered in management operations close to ditches.

z Management of ditches should aim to maintain and enhance biodiversity, whilst allowing water passage.

Ditch which has been cleaned, arisings deposited adjacent which is better for wildlife to recolonise but ditch profile is not ideal for wildlife being too steep, However ditch designed for drainage primarily

NOVEMBER 2004

Ash growing in ditch will in time block ditch and should have been removed. Note restricted

use of chemicals to treat stump near watercourses

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CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.27.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions Objectives

to maintain capacity of feature to hold and transport water and to protect the road from flooding

to allow vegetation on ditch and bank sides to provide conservation value

Water Quality

Nature Conservation and

Biodiversity

Key to symbols

Primary EF

Secondary EF

♦ Main technique

™

Optional technique

CWB Cleaning of waterbodies

RP Replant

MPS Management of protected and biodiversity action plan species

TA

E

Treatment of arisings

Enrichment

Roadside ditch in late summer. This ditch was cleaned In the preceding winter showing how quickly riparian vegetation can recolonise the banks

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

CWB TA

Techniques

RP E MPS

♦ ♦

™ ™ ™

™ ™

♦ ♦ ♦

NOVEMBER 2004 5/56

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.28 REED BEDS

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z Reed beds can provide breeding areas for birds; control of the reeds needs to take account of this.

Before carrying out works, an assessment of likely environmental impacts including reference to any database should be carried out.

z

Reed beds may have primary water treatment functions, so liaison with water specialists or engineers may be necessary (refer to Section 5.31).

z

Reed beds may require regular cutting to prevent a build up of litter and succession to scrub.

z

Reed beds can be provided for treatment of run off either from road drainage or toilet blocks. In this situation refer to DMRB Vol 4 Section 2 Part 1.

Reed bed starting to develop this will keep expanding until it covers the water surface. Management will be periodically needed to control its expansion

z Reed beds provide nature conservation interest, visual amenity and integration, however their main purpose is generally water treatment.

z

Reed beds can spread rapidly under favourable conditions and open water conditions can soon be lost. It may be necessary to manage this and contain where necessary.

z

Willow carr above is gradually invading reed bed. Management will need to address not just removing willow but also water levels to reverse this.

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CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.28.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions Objectives

Landscape Integration

Nature Conservation and

Biodiversity

Visual Amenity

Key to symbols

Primary EF

Secondary EF

♦ Main technique

™

Optional technique

to maintain reed beds to integrate into surrounding areas where reed beds occur

to provide a valuable wetland habitat

to retain and contain reeds to provide interest and variety and character to the highway verge

CWB Cleaning of waterbodies

RP Replant

TA Treatment of arisings

MPS Management of protected and biodiversity action plan species

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Techniques

CWB TA RP MPS

♦ ♦ ♦

™

™ ™ ™

♦ ♦ ♦

™

NOVEMBER 2004 5/58

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.29 MARSH AND WET GRASSLAND

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z When controlling vegetation, take care to avoid impact on protected species. Consult any database and undertake environmental assessment prior to work. To reduce impact on nesting birds, vegetation removal should be left until late summer or autumn.

z

The maintenance of an appropriate water table is important. The landscape manager should be aware of any changes that may result from wider engineering activities.

z

Marsh and wet grassland can quickly become willow or alder carr if not controlled.

z

Timing of management can be difficult. Ground may be flooded in winter and not accessible by machinery.

Ragged robin and indicator of wet grassland growing on a road verge

z

Marsh and wet grassland can provide integration, nature conservation and visual amenity.

z

Marsh and wet grassland can contain a variety of habitat types and support protected species.

Landscape Management Plans should reflect local conditions and requirements.

NOVEMBER 2004

Meadowsweet is another indicator of wet grassland

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CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.29.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions Objectives

Landscape Integration

Nature Conservation and

Biodiversity

Visual Amenity

Key to symbols

Primary EF

Secondary EF

♦ Main technique

™

Optional technique

maintenance of marsh and wet grassland habitat to reflect that of adjoining habitat

manage the variety of habitats that may occur (open water, damp grassland and scrub) to increase diversity

retain to provide interest and variety and character to the highway verge

CWB Cleaning of waterbodies

RP Replant

TA Treatment of arisings

MPS Management of protected and biodiversity action plan species

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Techniques

CWB TA RP MPS

™

™

™

♦ ♦ ♦

™

NOVEMBER 2004 5/60

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.30 HARD LANDSCAPE FEATURES

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

Vegetation to be kept clear of walkway

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z Planting associated with hard features, e.g., crib walling and raised beds, will often require management. Liaison with engineers over maintenance of these features will always be required.

z

Vegetation can sometimes damage the function of a hard feature. When this is the case, consideration should be given to removing the vegetation from the feature.

Vegetation may require occasional cleaning off.

Pedestrian area shows hard landscape features that form part of the roadside environment

z

Reptiles are often found in dry-stone walls and hedgebanks, assessments may be necessary in advance of any work.

Stone walls provide landscape integration and visual amenity

z

Some hard features are less than visually attractive and so opportunities may exist to use vegetation to obscure or take the eye away from such detractors.

NOVEMBER 2004

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CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.30.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions Objectives

Screening

Landscape Integration

Visual Amenity

Key to symbols

Primary EF

Secondary EF

Main technique

™

Optional technique

)

) retain in good state of repair and intact

)

HFM Hard feature maintenance

It will be important in picture opposite to prevent vegetation from obsuring footpath, but also to prevent vegetation from blocking light cone from street light above

NOVEMBER 2004

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Techniques

HFM

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CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.31 NOISE BARRIERS – BUILT ELEMENTS

NOISE REDUCING EARTHWORKS

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z Planting established on cutting slopes and earth bunds is often perceived by the general public as contributing to noise mitigation. Thus thinning vegetation on these may be seen as unacceptable by the public and careful explanation may be necessary and will need to be dealt with sensitively.

z

Vegetation that may hinder the performance of a noise barrier should be removed. Liaison with structural engineers may be necessary. If this is not the case then retention of vegetation may be considered to improve the appearance of the noise barrier.

A noise bund between road and housing. As the planting matures it will provide secondary functions of visual screening and amenity

Noise barrier to provide auditory amenity vegetation can help to soften its appearance, but must not be allowed to compromise its function

NOVEMBER 2004

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CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.31.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions Objectives

Auditory Amenity

Visual Screening

Visual Amenity

Key to symbols

Primary EF

◊ Secondary EF

Main technique

™

Optional technique

maintain intact to reduce the impact of noise on the surrounding areas

barriers and earthworks if maintained will provide screening of the road and traffic

earthworks which are planted and maintained will provide visual amenity for residents

RC Regeneration control

WC Weed control

GC Grass cutting

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Techniques

RC GC WC

NOVEMBER 2004 5/64

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.32 WATER POLLUTION CONTROL MEASURES SURFACE WATER

OUTFALLS SOAKAWAYS

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z An environmental assessment and reference to any database should be part of the routine process of management. This should consider vegetation removal, silt deposition and the presence of protected species.

z

Refer to management advice set out in DMRB Volume 4, Section 2, Part 1 Vegetative Treatment

Systems for Highway Runoff.

z

Management and maintenance of these systems must not interfere or degrade the primary hydraulic and pollution treatment function. For systems using vegetative control measures, a management plan should be prepared, setting out the system’s objectives and an annual programme of maintenance.

z

For certain pesticides with a watercourse buffer zone requirement, which are applied via a ground crop or hand held sprayer, there is a legal obligation to carry out and record the results of a Local

Environmental Risk Assessment For Pesticides (LERAP). By carrying out and complying with that

LERAP, users may be able to reduce the size of buffer zone required.

z

Consideration should be made to the potential pollution of ground waters when using herbicides in the vicinity of soakaways (refer to Section 6.3.3).

z Liaison with water specialists and relevant environmental agency may be necessary in planning works.

Balancing pond, performing the primary function of water quality, but also providing valuable habitat for wetland flora and fauna

z

Landscape managers need to be aware of the need for periodic cleaning, dredging, and cutting back of vegetation. The timing of any operations and any licensing requirements will need to be carefully considered.

z

Landscape managers should ensure that access to these features is maintained.

z

When dry, soakaways and balancing ponds may not be obvious features, but need to be kept clear of shrubs and trees so that access to any drainage systems is always available.

Pollution containment ditch to which access must be maintained

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CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.32.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions Objectives

Water Quality

Visual Amenity

Nature Conservation and

Biodiversity

Key to symbols

Primary EF

Secondary EF

Main technique

™

Optional technique

maintain hydraulic and/or pollution treatment function to protect surface watercourses and groundwaters

balancing ponds can provide interest and conservation value

to manage the variety of habitats that may develop to increase wildlife interest

CWB Cleaning of waterbodies TA Treatment of arisings

MPS Management of protected and biodiversity action plan species

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Techniques

CWB TA MPS

™

NOVEMBER 2004 5/66

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.33 PROTECTED SPECIES ECOLOGICAL PROTECTION MEASURES

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

Badger gates require inspection and maintenance to ensure they are still functioning.

The gate in this photograph is missing

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z Landscape Managers need to be aware that protected species may occur anywhere in the soft estate. Maintenance and improvement schemes may affect species or their habitats and the highways authority has a legal obligation to protect them. In addition BAP species or habitats could also be present. Reference to any database and an environmental assessment should be undertaken before work is started. Licences or other permissions may need to be obtained.

z

Refer to Advice Notes in DMRB Vol 10 for specific species advice.

z Refer to relevant BAPs (refer to Table 8.1) for overall focus and biodiversity targets.

z Refer to any database for presence of species as part of desk studies.

z

Local Biological Record Centres may hold information for nearby records.

z

Landscape Managers should consider post implementation works, such as monitoring.

z When wildlife reflectors are used, vegetation needs to be controlled so that they are not obscured.

Bird boxes can provide nesting opportunities in young woodland

Otter ledge under bridge with adjacent fencing to guide animals to the ledge.

Ledge only used in times of high flow

NOVEMBER 2004

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CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.33.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions Objectives

manage habitats to maximise species potential and keep protection operational Nature Conservation and

Biodiversity

Key to symbols

Primary EF

◊ Secondary EF

Main technique

™

Optional technique

Cl Cleaning

MPS Management of protected and biodiversity action plan species

TA Treatment of arisings

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Cl

Techniques

TA MPS

♦ ♦ ♦

Badger fence erected to protect animals from crossing onto a motorway

NOVEMBER 2004 5/68

CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

5.34 INJURIOUS WEEDS

LEGISLATED PESTS

MANAGEMENT ISSUES

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z Cutting can be a useful management tool where a quick response is needed.

z Disposal of ragwort/knotweed must be to a licensed waste disposal site.

z

Consider the impact of chemicals on non-target species, e.g., selective weed killer used on ragwort may affect wildflower species.

z

Refer to TRMM, WTRMM or other national equivalent for guidance over standards.

z

In England DEFRA have published the Control of Ragwort Act 2003. Refer to this where appropriate.

z

Below the application of chemicals to Japanese Knotweed adjacent to the footpath may need the public to be excluded during application and possibly afterwards as well.

Recognising the probkem can be an issue. In the pricture above common ragwort in the rear and tansey at the front can often be confused with each other

z

An integrated approach by highway managers should be applied to the control of noxious weeds so that operations are not carried out in isolation. Those carried out in conjunction with neighbouring landowners are most cost effective.

z

Use of chemicals to control weeds or pests may be cost effective but publicly unacceptable. In making decisions about the method of control, the landscape manager needs to recognise any conflicting views.

NOVEMBER 2004

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CHAPTER 5 MANAGEMENT ISSUES AND TABLES

Table 5.34.1 Management Table

Environmental Functions Objectives

enforce control measures

management of vegetation for cover and habitat

Nature Conservation and

Biodiversity

Key to symbols

Primary EF

◊ Secondary EF

Main technique

™

Optional technique

WC Weed control MPD Management of pests and diseases

Japanese knotweed that was growing in the central reservation obscuring visibility at a cross over. Initially this had been cut down but this allowed the plant to continue so it was then sprayed before it got above the height of the barrier

NOVEMBER 2004

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Techniques

WC MPD

♦ ♦

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CHAPTER 6 TECHNIQUES

6.1

INTRODUCTION z

Chapter 6 considers the techniques of landscape management listed in the tables in Chapter 5.

z Each section begins with an introduction to a particular technique and its application to highway management and then considers how that technique may be applied in practice. Each section concludes with a list of issues that the manager should consider whilst applying the technique within the highway network. The list of issues are made up of those which have been found to be relevant in the highway situation, but it is not exclusive and there may be other matters that will need to be taken into account in specific situations. It is intended to provide “things to think about” when considering choice of technique.

z

As an example, Section 5.8 refers to woodland, which requires the application of thinning. Thinning is described in Section 6.9. One of the considerations for landscape management in applying the technique of thinning is the timing of the thinning work to minimise effects on wildlife found within the soft estate.

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z

The choice of technique will be determined by the impact of the result. The impact could be influenced by timing needs, cost, availability of plant and men, road space availability, effect on flora and fauna, effect on neighbours and visual appearance. The landscape manager will need to consider what result is needed and then choose the technique best suited to achieve this. See chapter 4 Decision Making.

NOVEMBER 2004

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CHAPTER 6 TECHNIQUES

6.2

GRASS CUTTING

6.2.1 INTRODUCTION z

Grass cutting is generally carried out within the 1 – 3m wide swathe at the carriageway edge and visibility splays to meet operational and safety requirements. The minimum requirements for the maintenance of these areas for England are set out in TRMM part 1.10 (refer to Table 8.1 for other administrations’ requirements). Other types of grassland requiring site specific specifications are:

– Amenity grass areas

– Grassland with bulbs

– Species rich grassland

– Open grassland

– Grass reinforced earth walls.

z

The techniques for grass cutting which follow can equally apply to TRMM cutting.

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z In general, arisings can be left in situ, although they should be removed where grass cutting will detract visually or where decomposing cuttings on footpaths pose a slip hazard or cuttings affect working of drainage.

Amenity grassland being cut once on a port of entry location

z Cutting grass can leave a messy aftermath as litter is exposed – this will be a temporary phenomenon as the grass will regrow and hide the litter.

Swathe cut has been widened around signs to increase visibility

6.2.2 AMENITY GRASS AREAS z

Require a flexible mowing regime to maintain the grass between the required heights. The final number of cuts will be specific to the location and landscape function.

z

Local variations requiring an even higher frequency of cuts may be considered necessary in a high profile location such as ports of entry.

NOVEMBER 2004 6/2

CHAPTER 6 TECHNIQUES

6.2.3 GRASSLAND WITH BULBS z For spring flowering bulbs occurring in amenity grassland, cut the grass 6 weeks after flowering, when flower and bulb leaves have died down. In general, the grass-cutting regime will begin in May.

z

For late flowering autumn bulbs, the grass should be close mown before the emergence of bulb flowers and leaves. Grass cutting should be suspended whilst the bulb flowers, with grass cutting resuming 6 weeks after flowering. Generally a grass cut will be required in October.

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z Grass cutting must be timed to allow the species within the sward to flower and set seed. The timing of the cut, which is related to the species in the sward, is usually carried out once per year, in July

(for spring meadow species) or September (for summer meadow species). The cuttings are raked off and removed (refer to Section 5.4).

z For some areas where there is much dead growth remaining, a first cut can be carried out in March before the wildflowers begin to grow, with the cuttings raked off and removed, with a further cut in

September. Where individual species are important, adapt the cutting regime to suit their needs.

Grass covering the bulbs has been left uncut to allow the bulbs to build next years food store. However as the leaves die down the area will begin to look visually untidy until they are removed

6.2.4 SPECIES RICH GRASSLAND z Reference should be made to The Wildflower Handbook in Volume 10 Section 3 Part 1 of the

DMRB, for specific guidance on design and management of wildflower areas.

NOVEMBER 2004

Removal of arisings can be labour intensive and traffic management may be needed so areas need to be cost effective, ie mainly large areas

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CHAPTER 6 TECHNIQUES

6.2.5 OPEN GRASSLAND z Grassland areas that visually intrude, such as large embankments or cuttings with uncut rough grass adjacent to grazed pasture, can be cut in late summer to remove the flowering heads. This will prevent the white/brown effect, which will otherwise last until the following spring.

z

Grassland that has a specific weed problem or undesirable species occurring in the sward can benefit from a mowing regime at a specific time relevant to the flowering of the weed infestation.

This can help eradicate problem species.

z The selection of grass cutting equipment is dependant on many factors, including safety, site accessibility, topography, the intended frequency of use, quality of the finish and the size of the area to be cut. Contractors will normally be responsible for the choice of appropriate machinery but the following general points can be made.

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Cylinder mowers provide a fine cutting edge to achieve a high quality finish. They are suitable for use on large, level amenity grass areas. They cannot cope with very irregular ground and are less robust when hitting obstacles and cannot cut grass that is too long or which contains any woody vegetation.

z

Rotary mowers tend to tear the grass when they cut and macerate the cuttings effectively. They are suitable for most general-purpose swards and can handle tougher cutting jobs and irregular ground.

They are more versatile on banks and slopes and more tolerant of wet conditions.

z

Flail mowers and mowers that use a reciprocating cutting edge are suitable for cutting long grass, essential for species rich grasslands and rural roadside edges cut once or twice per year.

z

Pedestrian operated mowers can be used for small areas (cutting width 30-60 cm) and cannot be used on slopes greater than 1 in 4 in the interest of operator safety.

z

Ride–on mowers can drive from 2 – 4 cutting heads. Triple mowers are most common and they can cut over 2 metres in width. These can be used on flat wide verges without obstructions.

z

Tractor powered gang mowers will drive 5 – 7 mowing heads and are best used in large accessible areas. They cannot work safely on slopes steeper than 1 in 5.

z Strimmers, shears and scythes are important ancillary equipment where the grass contains many edges and obstacles.

z Rotary mowers and strimmers especially metal bladed clearing saws may throw stones into traffic.

6.2.6 GRASS REINFORCED EARTH WALLS z Maintain a short grass sward to prevent vegetation “drooping” onto other plants on the wall and inhibiting healthy growth. Failure to do so creates a patchwork of short lived vigorous weed growth rather than long term grass.

z

Strimming is the favoured method of vegetation cutting. This does not damage the plastic or metal membranes that face the walls. Ensure a cutting height of at least 50mm.

z

When carrying out re-seeding or renovation consider using innovative and bespoke grass seed mixtures more suited to salt and dry conditions rather than standard off-the-shelf mixtures.

Open grassland being cut to control scrub regeneration. All grassland needs to be cut otherwise it will be lost to scrub and trees through succession.

The frequency of cutting on open grassland may be between once a year to every five years

NOVEMBER 2004 6/4

CHAPTER 6 TECHNIQUES

6.2.7 NOTES z The number and timing of cuts required in a growing season should make allowance for:

– the typical growth pattern during the year; with the main peak of growth in spring, a decline during summer, and a second minor peak in autumn. This will result in a programme of mowing at irregular intervals, i.e., more frequent mowing in spring and less frequent mowing during summer;

– the relaxation of close mowing during periods of drought; and

– the variation in growth, even within quite small areas, due to differences in soil type, water table etc.

z

In species rich grassland, factors to consider when deciding the timing and frequency of the cutting regime include:

– the cost effectiveness of tailoring cutting regimes to coincide with verge and general grass maintenance;

– timing cuts to minimise and control the spread of undesirable ‘weed’ species, which may cause nuisance to adjacent landowners.

Unsustainable grass in central reservation has been recently replaced with hard surfacing

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

z Sites should not be managed in isolation, but in the context of nearby habitats and their potential wildlife value. This relates particularly to birds, insects, reptiles, small mammals and amphibians that may live in hedges, plants or ponds adjacent to the highway and feed on or over the roadside.

z

Cutting around obstacles, for example against walls, fences, bollards, posts, trees etc. is best carried out each time mowing takes place. Any moveable obstructions such as seats and litterbins should be removed to ease cutting. The grass should be cut to the same height as specified for the surrounding grassed areas. Great care needs to be exercised when mowing near to trees so that the tree stem is not damaged. Strimmers can be used to trim edges against obstacles that are inaccessible to mowing.

z

Mowing margins should be built into the edges of grassed areas where they abut safety barriers, pedestrian guardrails etc. Wherever possible, mowing margins at corners should be designed to accommodate the turning radii of the main mowing machines. However, it is often beneficial to leave unmown margins around ecotones (e.g. next to hedgerows for wildlife).

z

Consideration may be given to extending a swathe cut to the full width of the verge, where a hedgerow, fence or footpath behind the verge would lead to a narrow unmown margin if tidiness were a required objective.

In amenity areas, although increasing costs, consider extending the 1 metre swathe cut up to the boundary hedge. Leaving margins unmown can look unsightly, but offers conservation potential if managed

NOVEMBER 2004

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CHAPTER 6 TECHNIQUES

6.3

CHEMICAL TREATMENTS

6.3.1 INTRODUCTION z

Chemical treatments can be used to manipulate the establishment and growth of amenity planting in a range of areas.

z

Pesticides can be used to reduce competition from other plants, treat disease and counter pest problems. The term pesticide covers herbicides, fungicides and insecticides.

z Fertilisers are available in various forms to address soil nutrient deficiencies.

z

Chemical growth retardants can be used to reduce maintenance inputs in areas that are difficult to access (refer to section 6.3.7).

6.3.2 PESTICIDES z The use of pesticides is strictly controlled through various Acts, Regulations and European

Directives. UK legislation includes the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH)

Regulations (2002), the Food and Environment Protection Act (FEPA) (1995) and the related Control of Pesticides Regulations (CoPR) (1986).

z The Pesticide Safety Directorate (PSD), an executive agency of the Department for Environment,

Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA), is responsible for the registration of agricultural, horticultural, forestry and home garden pesticides in England as well as advising the Government on pesticides policy.

The Environmental Policy Branch of the Department of Agriculture & Rural Development (DARD) has the same responsibility in Northern Ireland.

z

As pesticide approvals are constantly changing, the PSD now maintains an electronic version of

‘The Blue Book’ on its website - www.pesticides.gov.uk. This allows users to confirm the status of pesticides in the UK. The website also provides a comprehensive listing of relevant legislation and guidance, along with links to other organisations such as the Health and Safety Executive (HSE).

z

Refer to the Code of practice for the safe use of pesticides on farms and holdings, otherwise known as the “Green Code”, jointly prepared by MAFF, the Health and Safety Commission, and the

Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions; and the Code of practice for suppliers of pesticides to agriculture, horticulture and forestry, known as the “Yellow Code”.

z Wherever possible, measures that do not require the use of chemicals should be used in preference to pesticide applications. In the case of weed control, however, herbicides may offer the only realistic option to managers due to the relatively high cost of manual weeding.

z

It is important to keep records as a management and auditing tool for pesticide use.

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

6.3.3 HERBICIDES z Use of herbicides for weed control is discussed in more detail in Section 6.4. Herbicides can be applied to kill all plant growth (total weed control) or to target weed species selectively. The method of application can also be chosen to ensure non-target species are unaffected, e.g., spot treatment.

Only approved herbicides should be used.

z In addition to eliminating annual and perennial weed species, herbicides can also be used to prevent regrowth of woody plants that have been felled. This may be useful following thinning operations or to prevent regrowth of woody plants that are damaging or interfering with highway infrastructure. In these cases, the herbicide is applied directly to the cut surface of the stump.

Triclopyr being sprayed onto woody regrowth with knapsack sprayer.

Note use of coloured dye used for monitoring purposes

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Chemicals have been sprayed onto regrowth whilst small and the dead stems will be removed after roots are dead

Tree planting treated by

Herbicide

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6.3.4 FUNGICIDES z Fungicides are chemicals used to control diseases caused by pathogenic fungi. They interrupt the cycle of fungal spore development, spore germination, infection or fungal growth within the plant tissues.

z

Fungicides either prevent infection or are used to kill a pathogen after infection has taken place. Due to the scale and nature of highway planting it is unlikely that fungicides would be employed within amenity areas.

z If symptoms of infection are noticed, it is likely that the disease will be so far advanced that the only option available is removal.

6.3.5 INSECTICIDES z

Unless an extreme infestation is encountered or a problem arises in a sensitive location, insecticides are unlikely to be used in the highway estate. Specialist advice should be sought if problems arise.

6.3.6 FERTILISERS z

A wide range of fertilisers is available for use in amenity horticulture. The need for fertiliser can be established through soil nutrient testing. The specific type of fertiliser required will depend on the nutrient deficiencies identified. Slow release fertilizer can be used for tree and shrub establishment but is not normally necessary.

z

The pollution problems caused by extensive use of agricultural nitrate fertilisers is well documented and fertilisers should therefore be applied sparingly and in forms that minimise the risk of leaching, e.g., slow-release tablets.

z

Fertiliser application should be considered in amenity grass where the grass is showing signs of stress or where nutrient levels are exceptionally low.

z

The removal of clippings from the sward removes some of the nutrients, especially when the grass is closely mown, and may necessitate the application of fertiliser. As clippings are returned on verges there is generally little need for additional fertiliser applications.

z Where necessary, fertiliser should be applied at the beginning of the growing season. The specification for the fertiliser should be decided upon in relation to the grass area to be treated.

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CHAPTER 6 TECHNIQUES z Large standards and semi-mature specimen trees most often used in urban situations may also benefit from fertiliser treatment. Specialist techniques enable nutrients and soil conditioners to be injected into the soil. This system can also help to reduce compaction and associated drainage problems.

z Lack of nutrients and trace elements can lead to mature trees becoming stressed and therefore more susceptible to infection. Specialist advice should be sought on the techniques that are available, such as microinjection, to address this situation.

6.3.7 GROWTH RETARDANTS z

Growth retardants that reduce or modify the speed at which a plant grows are available for all types of plants but have primarily been aimed at high value grass areas that require intensive maintenance. Growth retardants can be used very effectively and have been used effectively to reduce grass cutting in central reserves. The chemicals available include maleic hydrazide, mefluidide and paclobutrazol. Growth retardants can however reduce floral species diversity.

z Maleic hydrazide can produce noticeable variations in the colour of the sward. It also requires a continued dry spell as it is slowly absorbed and washed away by rainfall. Mefluidide, however, is more rapidly absorbed and less likely to cause discoloration.

z

Growth retardants have not been extensively used in the UK and are not used on Scottish trunk roads. Specialist advice should be sought when considering their use.

6.3.8 NOTES z Only herbicides approved for use in amenity horticulture applications (not agricultural applications) should be used in landscape situations.

z

Staff that are applying pesticides need to be fully trained and operate under the guidance of a holder of the relevant recognised Certificates of Competence in the Safe Use of Pesticides. The certificates that are needed are listed below:

– PA1, Safe use of pesticides; PA3, Broadcast or Boom sprayer, (horizontal or vertical plane), mounted or trailed; and PA6, Hand held applicators requiring minimal calibration.

– PA1 and PA6 cover the handling, mixing and storage of pesticides and the cleaning, calibration and use of hand-held and knapsack spraying equipment.

z

Risk assessments should be prepared before pesticide operations commence. This should include a desk based assessment of surface and ground waters, in order to avoid pollution.

z

Care must be taken when using pesticides near water, including surface waters and ground water aquifers. Glyphosate is approved for use on banks or ditches in close proximity to watercourses by

EA, however consultation with the relevant environmental agency is still required.

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6.4

WEED CONTROL

6.4.1 INTRODUCTION z

Weed control is an important issue in a number of landscape management situations. Within new planting, effective weed control around the base of trees and shrubs is essential in order to eliminate competition for water and nutrients.

z

Control of aggressive broad-leaved weeds can be a problem within newly established grass areas.

Selective herbicides can be used as spot treatment for broad-leaved species (refer to Section 6.4).

z

Total weed control is also important on paved areas and hard surfaces. Weed species not only make an area look untidy but they can also cause physical damage to surfacing.

z

The method of weed control selected will depend on the specific circumstances and the management objectives for the site, e.g., chemical controls may not be appropriate to deal with weeds within ornamental planting.

z Weed control techniques include:

– use of herbicides;

– hand-weeding;

– organic mulches;

– weed control mats/membranes;

– frequent cutting; and

– burning.

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6.4.2 HERBICIDES

(Also refer to Section 6.3) z Chemical weed control in established shrub beds will generally be restricted to the use of:

– contact or translocated herbicides (usually by spraying around the base of the cultivated plants).

3 – 4 applications per season are likely to be required in order to control weed growth;

– selective herbicides which will specifically control weeds in grassland (applied during a period of active growth) and;

– the limited use of residual soil acting herbicides in areas where the soil is exposed. Applied in a granular form to amenity planting before germination, i.e., January/February. This is generally only an option in plots that have been established for a number of years.

z

Within grass areas there may be a need to control invasive broad-leaved weeds such as dock and thistle. Selective herbicides that only affect broad-leaved species are available for use in this situation. Alternatively, weed species can be spot treated with a non-selective translocated herbicide such as glyphosate.

z

Herbicides can be applied using a range of methods, depending on specific circumstances.

– Within new planting, conventional knapsack spraying equipment is most commonly used. The use of spray hoods limits drift and reduces the risk of damage to trees and shrubs.

– Spraying should be carried out in low wind conditions with the consideration of early morning applications when wind is light, to minimise wind drift.

– Controlled droplet application (CDA) is a more recent development that requires lower volumes of water than conventional spraying. It is also claimed that drift is minimised and, in the case of foliar-acting translocated herbicides, less active ingredient is required. These attributes make it a more efficient technique than conventional spraying. CDA is a useful technique for treating weeds in paved areas.

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Hand pulling of ragwort

z

Various applicators are available for spot treatment of weeds that allow weed species to be treated without harming the planting to be retained. Herbicides can be applied to weeds directly using weed wipes. The use of weed wipes is under review due to the damage caused by the dipping of herbicides on to desirable vegetation in the process of applying the chemicals to the wipe. Refer to Section 6.3 for further guidance.

z

Refer also to English Nature’s Herbicide Management Handbook (see Reference section).

6.4.3 HAND-WEEDING z

Where weeds are present in ornamental planting, such as groundcover on roundabouts or noxious weeds in species rich grasslands, hand weeding may be the only realistic option for weed control.

Hand weeding is expensive in labour costs in comparison to other forms of weed control.

z It may be possible to combine hand weeding with the use of herbicides to treat species such as

Bindweed (Convolvulus spp) that are not eliminated by hand-weeding alone.

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6.4.4 ORGANIC MULCHES z The use of a mulch layer not only prevents weed establishment but also helps to retain soil moisture during periods of dry weather.

z

Bark and woodchip are generally used for mulching. Bark is used in association with ornamental planting and woodchip in more naturalistic situations. The relatively high cost of bark means that bark mulch is usually only a viable option for smaller areas of planting. Although woodchip is significantly cheaper than bark and may be available from nearby thinning operations, the cost of placing mulch may limit its use on large-scale schemes (the cost of herbicide is comparatively low).

z

Mulch needs to be applied at sufficient depth in order to provide an adequate barrier to weed growth after allowing for settlement (a depth of 75mm after settlement is usually adequate). Additional mulch may be needed in following years to ensure the mulch layer is effective in preventing weed growth.

z

If woodchips are used they should be well composted, otherwise nitrogen levels can become depleted and plants stressed. Alternatively a nitrate-rich fertiliser could be applied with the mulch to aid breakdown.

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6.4.5 WEED CONTROL MEMBRANES AND MULCH MATS z Various proprietary weed control systems are available for landscape planting. Like mulch, these systems not only prevent weed competition but also retain soil moisture in dry periods.

z

Membranes can be used throughout plots to provide total weed control. Over time, membranes can become damaged or disturbed (by wind or pedestrian traffic) and therefore become ineffective and untidy or a traffic safety hazard. When used on large-scale schemes, the membranes can have a significant visual impact. This should be considered when selecting membrane materials and colours. A further disadvantage of membranes is that they do not allow understorey vegetation to develop.

z Individual mulch mats (each secured by a number of pegs) can be used in association with native tree and shrub planting. Mulch mats are relatively expensive compared to a programme of herbicide applications but reduce the ongoing maintenance commitment (annual checks still need to be made to ensure mats are secure and effective). Like membranes, the mats can become dislodged by high winds, creating a traffic safety hazard. Particularly in exposed locations or on slopes they should be anchored securely.

Mats may also provide cover for invertebrate herbivores, leading to higher plant losses from predation.

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6.4.6 CUTTING z

Frequent cutting of aggressive weed species to a height of 50 – 75mm before flowering can be used to help prevent the establishment of problem weeds, especially when combined with herbicide treatment.

6.4.7 BURNING z

Flame-guns have been used for weed control of paved areas in locations such as the central reserve. As burning is non-selective, it has limited use as a method of weed control and does not kill the roots of perennial weeds.

6.4.8 NOTES z Refer to Section 6.3 for considerations for landscape management related to chemical treatments.

z

The Environment Agency, Welsh Development Agency and others have carried out extensive research into the most effective methods of control for species such as Japanese knotweed and giant hogweed. These involve an ongoing programme of cutting and herbicide application. Specific details are available from these organisations.

z

A weed-free circle of a minimum diameter of 1.0m should be maintained around individual establishing trees and shrubs in order to maximise growth for a period of 3 – 5 years from planting.

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6.5

REINSTATEMENT/RENOVATION

6.5.1 INTRODUCTION z

Reinstatement or renovation involves repairing plots by establishing vegetation to the same specification as the vegetation that previously existed. Reinstatement is carried out to grassland and planting plots where failures occur either due to damage (for example from vehicles) or poor establishment.

z

Reinstatement is particularly important in grassland elements. Full cover of grassland will help to prevent the establishment of scrub species.

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6.5.2 TECHNIQUES OF REINSTATEMENT z At the appropriate time (normally in Spring or early Autumn), grassland reinstatement areas should be levelled, cultivated and reseeded or turfed.

z

Refer to handover documents with specifications where they are available. Reference should also be made to the Good Roads Guide and the Wildflower Handbook in DMRB, Vol 10, Section 3 for establishment techniques.

z

Where bulbs fail to colonise, a programme of replanting should take place in October.

z

Newly sown grassland that is vulnerable to pedestrians or vehicles should be protected and excluded from the cutting programme until the grass has established.

z

Reinstatement of planting plots should normally be carried out to the original design and specification as per the planting plan and contract. However the process of reinstatement can provide opportunities to change the composition or design of the plot in order to allow the plot to establish in the long-term or where there are problems with the original works.

6.5.3 NOTES z

Where damage to grassland (and woody planting plots) is caused by the installation of underground services or by road traffic accidents, the reinstatement works should aim to reinstate to previous condition.

z

Before embarking on a reinstatement scheme, consider the reasons for failure. It may be that there is some physical or design reason that is hindering establishment. A change to the ground conditions or species may be required. Equally, a change to another surface treatment may be appropriate or more permanent protection required, for example where vehicles overrun kerbs. Seed mixes need to be chosen carefully. ‘Off the shelf’ products may not be suitable especially where local integration is important.

Poor grass area, with water-logging and grass death. Determine the cause of compaction, consider improved drainage, if overrun by vehicles consider deterrent measures such as bollards or provide grass-crete as hard standing if this is a regular problem

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6.6

ENRICHMENT

6.6.1 INTRODUCTION z

Enrichment is secondary planting or regeneration, usually after establishment and often after thinning, to improve species diversity, screening, visual amenity, nature conservation etc.

6.6.2 WOODY PLANTS z Plots can be underplanted, either from pot grown or as bare root stock, to help form a shrub or lower tree layer for ecological benefits and or screening reasons. Enrichment planting on the edges of plots with appropriately chosen species can be carried out to increase visual amenity through colour, form and variations in the shape of plot edges. For planting design information refer to the Good

Roads Guide in DMRB, Volume 10, Sections 1 and 2.

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Planting wildflower plugs to enrich open grassland, having cut and raked the area beforehand and growth retardant applied to cut areas prior to planting

6.6.4 BULB PLANTING z

Bulb planting can be used:

– To enrich existing grassland or woodland for biodiversity reasons.

– To provide enhanced visual appeal as gateway features.

z For spring flowering bulbs planting should be in autumn.

Underplanting of tree only plot with shrubs some evergreen to improve screening at lower level. Note unless heavy thinning takes place these plants will not have enough light to survive

6.6.3 PLUG PLANTING z Enrichment of wildflower areas can be achieved by the planting of wildflowers grown in plugs and larger containers. Plugs consist of young, small plants contained in a growing medium that can be planted directly into a sward.

z

This is a useful technique where there is established grass cover, which requires enrichment with specific species in deliberate locations without disturbing the existing plants. Weed control may be needed around plug plants to help establishment.

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6.6.5 SLOT SEEDING z Slot seeding involves the placing of woody vegetation seeds directly into the ground in a small trench or where a flap of turf is opened to allow the seed to slot.

z

Trees grown from seed can, in some circumstances, greatly outperform transplants as their root system can develop its depth and spread to match precisely the site conditions, balancing the top growth. This technique is particularly appropriate where site topography makes normal tree planting techniques difficult.

z Unlike litter/seed described below, slot seeding allows the positioning of plants in deliberate places to achieve a desired effect. However, the results are not predictable, it is only suitable for a small number of species and weed control can be difficult.

6.6.6 LEAF LITTER/SEED z Collection of leaf litter from beneath existing plant and grassland plots and spreading on bare earth is an effective way of enriching plots where a local or a specific vegetation type is to be established.

The leaf litter contains a large number of viable seeds, which will germinate upon exposure to the right environmental conditions.

z

Consultation with the appropriate owner/authority from the ‘donor ‘site should be undertaken and agreement and consents given to the seed collection. Expert advice should be sought in creating the correct ground conditions in the receiver site.

6.6.7 TOPSOIL STRIPPING z

Stripping of topsoil in grassland areas serves to reduce the fertility of the ground and provide the low fertility conditions required for wildflower establishment. This technique can only be considered as enrichment when in association with seeding.

z Topsoil stripping is best carried out at the initial implementation phase of a planting scheme where machinery is available to allow it to be carried out on a large scale with minimal disturbance to surrounding areas.

z

It can be used as an enrichment technique on a small scale where a change in the landscape element is required and where disturbance is contained or can be accommodated.

6.6.8 NATURAL REGENERATION z Natural regeneration is a valuable enrichment technique that should be encouraged.

z

Selected individual trees should be identified as a seed source and the ground around the tree disturbed and scarified to allow seeds to fall into bare ground for potential germination. Protection of the area from rabbits and trampling will often be necessary.

z

Selective felling and extraction of surrounding trees may be necessary to allow light for adequate germination and growth.

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6.6.9 TURF TRANSLOCATION z Grassland areas can be enriched by translocating existing species rich grass from a donor site to the new receiver site. The donor grass should be cut into suitable sized turfs with adequate soil and transferred to a prepared receiver site, which has been stripped of the existing grass.

The work should be carried out in the autumn or winter. Storage and stacking should be kept to a minimum and the turfs kept free from wear until established.

Heather translocation using turves

6.6.10 GROUND MODELLING z

Changes in the profile of the ground allow differing microhabitats to form, which in turn allow different plants to colonise. The formation of crevices and ledges where soil develops on rock and scree allows the growth of plants to enrich the plot.

6.6.11 CUTTING BACK z

Where plants have not been managed and have become poorly formed or leggy in appearance with a loss of vigour, simply cutting back the vegetation will enrich the plot allowing new young growth with strong colour to form. This is particularly effective in heathland where many of the other enrichment techniques may not be appropriate.

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6.6.12 NOTES z Enrichment will require maintenance to ensure vegetation establishment. For woody vegetation this should concentrate on weed control and protection from rabbits. Grassland enrichment will require protection from trampling, control of invasive weed species and watering where necessary. After establishment, all enrichment planting should be included in the annual maintenance programmes.

z Trees grown from litter/seed do not provide the option of fine control over density, layout and the final composition of the species mix. The technique is best suited to creating woodland from new, but even then, some thinning, selection and beating-up may be necessary to produce the desired densities.

z Enrichment into established woodland will need to consider light requirement through the canopy.

Consider using shade tolerant species for under planting or the need to open up the existing canopy beforehand by thinning as below.

Gap in canopy is needed to allow enough light to reach under planting

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Enrichment under planting of shrubs and herbaceous plants

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6.7

REGENERATION CONTROL

6.7.1 INTRODUCTION z

Regeneration control involves the control of vegetation that regenerates from nearby existing plants into a landscape plot where it is undesirable.

z

Regeneration control is carried out when the regenerating plants alter the landscape function of a plot. This is of particular relevance to grassland where, if regeneration is not actively managed, the grass will revert to scrub. It can also happen with invasive species in areas of rock and scree, in woodland plots and in areas of bulbs.

6.7.2 GRASS CUTTING z

Grass cutting (refer to Section 6.2) will remove the vegetative growth of regenerating undesirable species. This may be sufficient as a control measure where regular high frequency cutting is carried out. The invading species is not allowed to grow and should eventually die off.

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6.7.3 HAND PULLING z Invasive species are most effectively treated as seedlings when they can be hand pulled. This is labour intensive and is only practical for small areas or where existing vegetation is of a sensitive nature and other methods of control could be detrimental. When hand pulling, it is essential to remove all the active root of the plant.

6.7.4 REMOVAL AND STUMP TREATMENT z

This is applicable to established scrub and to control plants that are acting as donor plants for regeneration. The plant can be cut down to between 50 and 100mm above ground level, for stumps with sufficient diameter, the stump and bark can be furrowed and a herbicide applied. An approved dye should be used to indicate which stumps have been treated.

6.7.5 REMOVAL AND TREATMENT OF REGROWTH z

This technique is appropriate for treating established scrub and large areas of regenerating plants.

Cut the plants down to 50 mm above ground level and allow the plants to regrow. When young regrowth forms, apply a translocated herbicide during active regrowth in the first year after initial cutting.

6.7.6 REMOVAL ONLY z

Where encroachment of plants onto the highway or structures is the primary reason for regeneration control, plants can be treated with herbicide to avoid regrowth.

6.7.7 GRUBBING OUT PLANTS z

The removal of the whole plant, including the roots, by digging out the vegetative and root growth is an effective method of controlling scrub species such as bramble, which spreads by underground means and is difficult to control.

6.7.8 REMOVING BULBS z

Where bulbs spread into unsuitable areas, e.g., visibility splays or areas where they are deemed unsuitable for either visual, maintenance or safety reasons, they should be contained and removed or prevented from spreading. Digging out and/or spot treatment should be carried out as an annual operation in the growing season.

Flailing off gorse and bramble regeneration as part of a 5 year grassland management rolling programme

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6.7.9 HERBICIDE TREATMENT z Where the regenerating invasive species are at a young stage, a translocated herbicide can be applied to the vegetative growth, causing the plants to die back. This is effective where there is a large area of invading species that is not possible to hand-pull or spot treat within sensitive plots.

Refer to Section 6.3 for further information on chemical treatments. This technique is only used in very difficult situations where it is acceptable to lose diversity.

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6.7.11 CONTROL OF SEED SOURCE z To limit the amount of regeneration in adjacent grassland of hawthorn, ash and cherry for example, consider removing prolific seed source trees from the edges of woodlands when thinning.

6.7.10 RING BARKING z This involves the removal of a ring of bark from the trunk of a tree in order to kill the tree. This is appropriate in woodland situations where the dying trees will not prove a visual distraction or Health and Safety risk. As the trees die they can be removed or allowed to decompose as a dead wood habitat.

Bramble regeneration has invaded a grassland plot; cutting the swathe will contain the bramble from encroaching onto the highway, but will not prevent the bramble from taking over the rest of the grassland

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Regeneration control

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➤ woodland

Odd groups of volunteer scrub will, if left to grow, coalesce to obliterate grassland and blur landscape design. Consider periodically removing

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6.7.11 NOTES z The most cost effective control of regeneration will often involve a combination of techniques, e.g., applying chemical control to cause die back of vegetative growth followed by grubbing out roots to control the source of the regeneration donor if required, eg, in urban areas. Another example would be cutting down volunteer growth but then making sure either chemical stump treatment is used soon after, or regrowth is chemically treated the following spring.

z

Scrub can spread rapidly, especially after it has been cut. It should be monitored at least every 2 years for regrowth.

z

Consider removing all arisings from gorse, broom and bramble cutting off site or, if not possible, finely chopping and spreading on site to a maximum depth of 70 mm.

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Scrub on highway embankment providing the function of integration and requiring regeneration control.

An ‘Abie’ controlling regeneration , the opposite cutting has been similarly treated

z Bramble and gorse can contain protected species such as snakes and reptiles, dormice or badgers.

On-site checks should be made before work begins. See Reptile Advice Note in DMRB, Vol. 10,

Section 4.

z

All work to control regeneration should take place out of the bird-nesting season.

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Picture above shows rock face which has had regenerating tree and shrubs removed and stump treated, but ivy and other climbers are re-colonising. Work was difficult and labour intensive so its not cost effective to repeat this too often.

So work should always be followed by chemical regrowth treatment

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6.8

TREATMENT OF ARISINGS

6.8.1 INTRODUCTION z

Treatment of arisings is the method used to deal with vegetation removed from plants in the process of carrying out landscape management works.

6.8.2 IN SITU z Where visually acceptable, grass cuttings in amenity grassland, grassland with bulbs and open grasslands should be left in situ. The cuttings should be finely chopped and dispersed evenly over the sward.

z

In some areas of high visual amenity it may be appropriate to cut and remove the arisings to a disposal site off the highway estate, however with frequent cutting this should be unnecessary.

z

Grass cutting on banks and in ditches should be dispersed evenly to avoid blocking drains or ditches.

z

Vegetation removed from in and around waterbodies should be raked up.

z

Where vegetation is being cleared from waterbodies with wildlife interest, the vegetation should be temporarily placed on the bank or at the side of the waterbody to allow any aquatic fauna to return to the waterbody.

z Refer to Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994 (see Section 4.2).

6.8.3 REMOVAL z All grass cuttings from species rich grassland should be raked and removed from site to avoid smothering the sward and nutrient enrichment where its not possible to leave elsewhere on site. The cuttings should be taken to a licensed waste disposal site. Refer to the Wildflower Handbook,

DMRB, Volume 10, Section 3. In some instances the cuttings can be spread onto tree and shrub plots, which is more cost effective and sustainable. Refer to Sections 6.2.4 and 5.4.

z

Where bulbs are present, their foliage should be allowed to die back six weeks after flowering and the arisings raked up and removed off site as above. Refer to Section 6.2.

z

All grass cuttings from heath, moorland, rock and scree should be removed from site.

z Where noxious weeds are to be controlled by hand pulling or cutting, the arisings should be disposed at a licensed disposal site. Where the weeds have been chemically treated and die back is slow, the weeds can be removed by hand or by cutting and raking up then disposed of as above.

Certain weeds, such as Japanese knotweed, have specific requirements for their disposal. This includes removal in a secure container to a licensed tip.

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6.8.4 CHIPPING z Chipping involves the use of a specialist wood chipper machine, to reduce tree waste and softer prunings, such as gorse and bramble, to small chips for distribution on site or removal for composting. The chipper should produce chippings in the size range 0 – 75mm.The chipper machine should be placed to blow chippings away from the carriageway.

z Safe and adequate access to the plot is required for the machine to stand. The chipped arisings can either be left as piles on site or spread evenly across a plot or chipped directly into a lorry for removal off site.

z

Where the chippings are to be retained on site, the chippings should be returned to within the boundary of the area in which the retained plants are left. As a guideline, chippings can be spread over up to 20% of a plot to a maximum depth of 50 mm or in piles to a maximum height of 600mm to minimise wind blow.

z

The wood chip piles will be noticeable at first, but will rot down over time.

Chipper used to treat arisings in a thinned woodland

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6.8.5 WINDROWING z Windrowing involves the stacking of woody arisings in piled rows within woody plots. It can be used for felled timber, coppice arisings and thinnings. The windrows should be constructed within the boundary of the area in which the work has taken place. They should be placed towards the back of the area and stacked to a height and width of between 0.5 and 1.5m.

.

Corded wood using live trees to prevent it rolling down cutting

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6.8.6 NOTES z The cutting of long grass areas will produce a thatch of cut grass over the cut area. This may be unacceptable visually and ecologically. Equally, thatch can blow onto the road and pose a fire hazard in certain situations. The landscape manager may instruct collection of the cuttings and disposal off site.

z Where patches of bramble are present in open grassland, and are controlled by cutting, these will regrow and respread quickly if the regrowth is not chemically treated. Simply cutting bramble is not a very cost effective method of control unless the bramble is required to be ever-present, then periodic cutting will create different age structures.

z Access to slopes may influence collection methods and the decision on the treatment of arisings.

z

Wood, chippings and grass cuttings can be used to create habitat piles when placed back from the road.

Windrowing at right angles to the slope

z

Off site disposal of timber and woody arisings will be required where the techniques of chipping and windrowing are not appropriate, desirable or safe.

z Thinnings running at right angles to the slope have used cut stumps to anchor the windrows and prevent them from rolling down onto the carriageway.

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6.9

THINNING

6.9.1 INTRODUCTION z

Thinning is carried out in order to produce a sustainable woodland type in terms of species composition and structural diversity as well as tree stability.

6.9.2 THINNING z The thinning process starts with the removal of nurse species if present. Nurse species are rapidly growing trees/shrubs that are planted within woodland to form a microenvironment that allows the slower growing climax trees to develop. Nurse species may include alder, birch and willow, and some conifer, however, this depends on the location as in some cases these species may be appropriate for climax species. Climax species are planted amongst the nurse species so that the desired structure is obtained once the nurse species are removed. z

As the planting plot matures, the nurse species should be thinned to allow room for the climax vegetation to grow.

Thinning of birch nurse species close to the carriageway. This should have been carried out earlier to allow room for climax species. Note the access requirements and traffic management needed whilst working in a dense plot

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z Five to seven years after the first thin, the plot should be assessed for a second stage of nurse species thinning. This again should remove 10 – 20% of species between years 10 – 15 after planting.

z

Depending on growth rates, subsequent thinning may be required at 5-year intervals until the desired state is achieved.

z

It may be desirable in some situations to retain some examples of the nurse species to provide greater variety in the woodland.

Chipping’s spread on site in low mounds to reduce wind blow

Linear belt of trees and shrubs selectively thinned to pull back vegetation from the carriageway, leaving well-formed trees. Chippings should be spread further back in the plot, not on the grassland at the front where soil enrichment will occur

z

The art of good thinning is being able to look ahead and decide which stems are wanted 20/30/40 years time and then working backwards from this. In some critical areas landscape managers may wish to mark these “climax” trees for retention at all stages. Picture below shows road embankment thinned to create high forest approximately 40% of stems were removed at second thin. The plot is

25 years old.

z

Generally it is not desirable to look for tall straight trees on the side of road with knot free timber, so forestry type approaches to management is not appropriate. Generally a more squat wide growing form of tree is required as this is more stable by having a lower centre of gravity.

z

The plot should first be assessed for thinning requirements at the thicket stage of planting; generally

5 years after planting. Depending on the growth-rate, a first initial selective thin of 30% – 50% of species should be carried out between years 7 – 10 after planting.

z

If plots have been badly neglected to retrieve the situation first thinning may have to consider taking as much as 70% of stems out. However, thinning must not lead to subsequent wind throw. Equally plot functions of screening may need to be retained throughout.

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z Frequency of thinning will depend on the desired density, species of trees and the function of the woodland, and will need to be set on a site-by-site basis.

Plot thinned to give crown freedom to retained trees

Picture above shows thinning to relieve light for neighbouring property

NOVEMBER 2004

Picture above shows Italian alder being removed from a plot as the alder was orginally planted as a ‘nurse’ species. Plot is 22 years old

z When considering the percentage thinning needed it may be critical to consider the direction of the prevailing wind and stability of the tree stock. Opening the canopy up too much too late can lead to wind-blow of the remainder.

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Before

Light thinning to retain landscape function of screening

After

z

When thinning a woodland plot with the function of integration, changes to adjacent vegetation need to be monitored and, where appropriate, the management of the on-site plot needs to be altered to suit. Consider both short-term integration and longer-term development of the plots.

z Where screening is a primary function of a woodland plot, more frequent light thinning, or phased thinning operations will be required to avoid temporary loss of the screen. When thinning trees in screen woodland, managers should consider the retention of the shrub layer as an intermediate level screen.

z In woodland plots, where the objective is visual amenity, thinning should favour those tree species that will improve visual amenity and seasonal variation. The thinned spacing should be varied within plots, so that glades are created, allowing light through to the herb layer and relieving the single canopy appearance.

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6.9.3 NOTES z Thinnings can be left within plots to provide additional nature conservation interest as habitat piles.

z The timing of thinning operations should be carefully considered so that disturbance to wildlife is minimised, e.g., outside the bird-nesting season.

z Over-thinning can cause irreparable harm and prejudice the long-term functions and viability of the plot. The landscape manager should consider pre-marking trees for removal, or approving a sample area, or marking final dominant trees.

z

Letting too much light to ground level after thinning encourages nettles and bramble at the expense of woodland herbaceous plants such as primroses and bluebells.

z

When thinning, operatives should be thinking about which are to be the climax trees and work around these. For sustainability, these will usually be trees in the middle of plots.

NOVEMBER 2004

Removing Italian alder which are not required to achieve functional of integration with adjacent deciduous woodland

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6.10 ARBORICULTURAL WORKS

6.10.1 INTRODUCTION z

Arboricultural works are operations carried out to establishing and established trees to ensure their health, form and safety.

z

Arboricultural works are applied to semi–mature and mature trees occurring in both the urban and rural environment along roads, occurring individually, in-groups, in hedgerows and within planting plots.

z

An arboriculturalist will be required to advise on the arboricultural works required. The landscape manager should be aware of the following techniques that can be applied to trees so that they know when to call in an arboriculturalist.

6.10.2 ARBORICULTURAL WORKS z In the TRMM, highway trees are defined as those trees growing within the highway boundary or those within falling distance of the highway. TRMM identifies the minimum requirements for tree inspections, at time of press, to be carried out at one year intervals for all highway trees with an inspection by an arboriculturalist every five years.

z The highway authority has a duty of care under Section 3 of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and Occupiers Liability Act to those using the highway. Statute law requires the highway authority “to take reasonable care” of their trees”.

z

In England, the Network operator operating on behalf of the Highway Authority has right of access to examine trees growing on private property that are within falling distance of the highway. The

Authority can require the owner of the land to fell or prune any tree that represents a danger or causes obstruction under Section 154 of the Highways Act, 1980.

z

Trees within the highway (on trunk roads and motorways) are exempt from requirements relating to

TPOs, Conservation Areas and felling licences.

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z Works to trees might include:

– Pruning, to remove dead, dying, diseased or broken branches and snags and specific branch removal.

– Regulative pruning to remove branches that overhang the highway or footpath causing a danger or nuisance to the public (refer to Section 6.14).

– Removal of feathered side branches and epicormic growth from trunks to maintain a clear stem.

– Pollarding - removal of all crown growth down to the main stem on a cyclical period

– Crown lifting - removal of lower branches to provide a clearance of 2.5m above the footway and

5.2m above the carriageway.

– Crown reduction/reshaping. To reduce the size and weight of potentially dangerous limbs or prevent a tree obstructing or damaging buildings and overhead lines.

– Crown thinning. Removal of a percentage of secondary and small live branch growth throughout the crown of the tree. This will produce an even density of foliage around a spread and balanced branch structure, to allow more light to pass through the canopy and to balance the growth of the crown with the root system.

– Restoring or restructuring previously lopped or pollarded trees.

– Root pruning and installation of root barriers where roots are causing severe displacement to the surface of footways or causing damage to properties.

– Treatment of major bark wounds and cavities as soon as they are noted to avoid the risk of disease.

These are mainly applicable to urban street trees and trees close to the carriageway. Detailed tree works are rarely needed to plantation trees in rural areas where there is no obvious public safety implication.

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Crown lifting Crown reduction: to reduce the overall size of a tree without spoiling its shape

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Before

Crown thinning

After

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6.10.3 ARBORICULTURAL INSPECTIONS z An inspection system should provide a robust regime of tree management. This should include a risk management plan, an inventory, a recording system, staff resources, a frequency of inspections and level of inspections. Further detailed recommendations for such a system are given in

Appendix 6/1 (see page 6/48).

z TRMM specifies tree inspections be carried out at one year intervals for all highway trees with an inspection by an arboriculturalist every five years.

z Tree inspections are best staggered throughout the year on a continuous cycle to highlight certain defects, such as honey fungus in the autumn, deadwood in the summer or bud burst in the spring.

A qualified arboriculturalist should carry out the inspection.

z

The inspection should recommend any works that are considered necessary and advise on the timing of the works and any subsequent inspection requirement. The Highway Authority should inform private owners of the work and protection measures required to their trees.

z

Records of all examinations and work carried out should be kept and stored in a database.

z

Tree removal and replacement should be considered when their long term sustainability cannot be maintained because:

– trees require repeated crown reduction to control their overall size;

– trees require severe root pruning which would undermine their stability;

– a tree requires bracing to overcome structural defects;

– a tree has wounds around much of the circumference of its trunk;

– tree roots have been severely damaged comprising their stability; and

– trees have reached senility and begin to die back with a gradual increase in dead limbs. However the retention of dead wood for invertebrates and holes for bats should be considered where appropriate without causing a safety hazard;

– trees are leaning, in danger of falling; and

– trees are diseased, e.g., Dutch elm.

6.10.3 NOTES

Mature trees outside highway boundary but within falling distance and tree work on highway side

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CHAPTER 6 TECHNIQUES z All work should be carried out to BS 3998 (1989) ‘Recommendations for Tree Work’.

z Tree work should only be carried out by qualified personnel with a recognised arboricultural qualification or who have been approved by the Arboricultural Association.

z Tree work should not be carried out in periods of extreme weather, except in an emergency situation. Tree works are best carried out in the winter to avoid breeding birds and whilst the tree is dormant, however the appropriate time for works for particular species should be checked with an arboriculturalist.

z Traffic management on highly trafficked routes road space may only be available at night.

z

Good liaison and co-ordination between engineers and landscape managers, public utilities and local authorities is a key factor in successful tree management. Consultation should take place well in advance of any intended action to or within the vicinity of street trees. The public, especially local residents, should also be informed of major tree works including pruning, removal and replacement.

z

Crown lifting/thinning and reduction are techniques only to be considered where trees are growing close to the road, properties or other structures z

Trees are more likely to die of damage to their root system than damage to the bark or canopy.

Hand working is preferable when working close to tree roots.

z The landscape manager should specify tree protection measures when construction works are planned near to trees. These may include:

– placing services below the roots of the tree, preferably in ducts;

– erecting protective fencing around the tree and root system;

– placing boards, in conjunction with gravel, over a geotextile membrane to protect roots from heavy loads if working space is essential under the canopy;

– wrapping the trunk with hessian or similar material to avoid damage to the bark;

– lifting the canopy or pruning branches for clearance to operate plant;

– ensuring oil, bitumen, cement, etc. are not stacked or discharged near to the tree or spread of the tree roots;

– providing interception to ensure that damaging materials such as concrete washings or oil cannot run towards the tree or contaminate the ground.

Refer to British Standard 5837: 1991 - Guide for Trees in Relation to Construction

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Service trench or ditch dug close to tree removes anchorage roots, causing die back in tree or tree root disease leading to possible future instability. Consider anchoring or removal of tree

Street trees such as these will be severely constrained by space for works and time of the day when works may be undertaken

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Tree roots and services Tree protection during construction

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6.11 REPLANTING/RESTOCKING

6.11.1 INTRODUCTION z

Landscapes are constantly evolving and therefore need to be monitored on an ongoing basis in order to identify maintenance requirements and opportunities for enhancement.

z

As the landscape develops, managers should identify planting that needs to be replaced and the species most suitable for specific locations.

z There may be other reasons why additional planting is required, including reinstatement following planned disturbance, such as highway improvements, or unplanned events, such as road traffic accidents. Other reasons include changes outside the highway boundary, which may mean plot functions need to change. For example, a woodland’s original function of integration may need to change to visual screening because of recent housing development, and so require enrichment.

Motorway widening has cut further into an existing embankment with removal of the front edge of planting, which has been replanted. The different age of the planting will need to be accounted for in the management plan

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6.11.2 REPLANTING z Managers should consider enhancement opportunities for the various Environmental Functions.

These may include diversification of the existing planting for increased nature conservation interest or changes to landscape structure for improved visual amenity (refer to Advice Note HA 63/92,

Improving Existing Roads, Improving Techniques).

z Detailed information regarding planting techniques for new planting and subsequent maintenance is included in Series 3000, Landscape and Ecology, Volume 1 of the Specification for Highway Works,

Manual of Contract Documents for Highway Works and the associated Guidance Notes.

6.11.3 NOTES z

The character of the existing landscape should be considered when identifying opportunities for additional planting. Refer to any Landscape Management Plan held by road operators for records on the existing landscape.

z

Gapping-up hedgerows where plants have failed is an important maintenance operation, as hedgerows act as wildlife corridors, and significant gaps discourage wildlife movement. Where possible, managers should seek to reconnect isolated landscape elements so that the network available to wildlife is increased.

z Replacement plants will require further establishment maintenance.

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6.12 COPPICING

6.12.1 INTRODUCTION z

Coppicing involves the periodic cutting back of particular tree and shrub species to ground level, causing them to send up multiple stems from the cut ‘stools’. These stools can live for hundreds of years, the regular removal of stems effectively lengthening the life of the stool.

z

On the Highway, coppicing is carried out for several reasons:

– to enhance the wildlife value of woody plots by providing a gradually changing mosaic of structurally diverse vegetation;

– to provide screening at low and intermediate levels; and

– to create visual amenity with the dynamic changes in colour of young vegetation and the multi stemmed form of the coppice, especially when carried out in blocks of planting of the same species.

z Space may be limited and only large enough for smaller coppiced plants. During all coppice works the ground should be dry to avoid damage to the soil structure and ground flora. Coppicing is also a useful technique for controlling scrub and for reinstatement of clearances.

z

Coppicing is commonly applied to the following species on the highway; willow, hazel, birch, ash, dogwood, sweet chestnut, field maple, hawthorn and blackthorn.

z

Coppice management of mature or derelict coppice requires the selection of old stools to be cut back. The stools chosen for coppicing should be healthy plants where the structure of the coppice would benefit visually and ecologically from opening up of the canopy. If the plot is an established plantation, aged over 10 years, coppicing of plants can begin straight away. Young plants should be allowed to grow for 6 – 9 years before beginning their coppice cycle.

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z The overall function of the plot should guide the consideration of the timing, area and percentage of the plot to be coppiced. In a large woodland plot, the area for coppice may be split into coupes depending on access requirements, and the need to retain screening.

Boundary planting coppiced with occasional standards left to retain screening function

Screen on embankment. Phased coppice will require a 5-year rotation to retain a dense screen

z

The length of coppice rotation will depend on the function of the plot and the species. A 7 – 15 year rotation is recommended for wildlife. Woodland herbs tend to do best in the second and third spring after coppicing. After ten years, coppice is at its best for nesting birds, while after 20 years, its value as a nesting habitat begins to decline as the closed canopy shades out shrubs beneath.

z

A 5 – 10-year coppice rotation is usual for visual amenity and screening.

z

November to February is the best time to coppice. There is less sap in the stems during this period and the wood is easier to cut. The undergrowth will have died back, so visibility is improved, and disturbance to wildlife is minimised.

z The coppice work should cut the stems to between 50 – 100mm above ground level if the plant is being coppiced for the first time. If coppiced previously, the Contractor should cut back to just above the previous point of coppicing, defined by a branch collar. The final wound surface should be smooth and angled to allow water to run off.

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CHAPTER 6 TECHNIQUES z Coppice arisings may be disposed of by windrowing or chipping on or off site (refer to Section 6.8).

z More complex forms of coppicing include mixed species coppicing, where different species in the same stand are managed on different rotations, and selection coppicing, where only a proportion of shoots are cut at any one time from each stool. These techniques may be useful in areas of high visual amenity.

z

In a coppice with standards plot, individual trees are allowed to grow to standards within the coppice plot. This is applicable to plots of shrubs with intermittent trees and some woodland where standard trees are selected to remain in a coppice plot.

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6.12.2 NOTES z The layout of coppice plots need to be arranged so that, when plots are cut at the end of their growth cycle, the timber can be removed easily and without damage to other plots where young shoots may be growing up.

z

The coppice rotation should be planned so that wildlife can easily move from one plot to another nearby plot with similar habitat conditions.

z

Hazel coppice is favoured by dormice. Therefore an assessment should be made prior to coppice work starting.

Hazel coppice stool left has been cut to rejuvenate stool to enhance dormice habitate. It is critical to ensure enough light reaches the stool. Consider opening up the canopy overhead

Willow stool has been cut to introduce additional layers into tree only plot

NOVEMBER 2004

Note in both instances height of resultant stumps are high enough for lots of side buds to develop. Stools cut too close to ground will develop less side shoots

Same stool in following summer with

1.5-2ms regrowth

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6.13 CLEANING

6.13.1 INTRODUCTION z

Within the first ten years after establishment it is likely that work will be needed to clean out the plot of any plant establishment materials (guards, stakes, etc.) and any unwanted vegetation that has become established.

z

Operations should include the collection of accumulated litter and the disposal of larger items that have been fly-tipped, on an annual basis or several times a year as required. In addition to the removal of plants, pruning and cutting back may be needed within planting areas themselves.

z

Cleaning operations are an essential component of landscape management as they can improve plant growth and lead to an increase in the perceived quality of landscape.

z Cleaning is defined here as both cleaning of litter, rubbish and removal of other vegetation which may hinder the growth of the target vegetation. This latter point is usually understood by the forestry term cleaning.

z

In England litter clearance on motorways is the responsibility of the Highways Agency. On trunk roads it is the responsibility of the local authority (refer to Table 8.1 for the responsibilities of the other administrations).

z If litter is not removed before grass cutting operations, it is shredded and spread over a wider area, reducing the visual appearance of the landscape. Larger items of rubbish can damage grass cutting equipment, and should be removed before starting this operation.

z

Special arrangements may need to be made for the removal of fly-tipped rubbish. In areas where fly-tipping is a major problem, it may be necessary to introduce vehicle control measures at strategic locations.

z Gates, fencing, dragon’s teeth and rocks or bollards can be used to prevent access to secluded tipping areas. Trespass onto open ground can be addressed using boundary ditches. Alterations to planting that allow surveillance of tipping areas can also be considered, e.g., lowering planting alongside lay-bys.

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z Areas that are difficult to reach, such as waterbodies and steep slopes, will require health and safety risk assessments before operations commence.

Above area next to lay-by has been cleaned of bramble resulting in exposure of litter

z Tree shelters, stakes and mulch mats should be removed 3 – 7 years after installation. Rabbit fencing and vegetation alongside can trap significant amounts of litter. Once planting is established, fencing is likely to be redundant and removal should be considered.

z

Control unwelcome woody weeds such as bramble, rhododendron or aggressive climbers such as clematis. Such weeds are not likely to be suppressed by the growing tree canopy.

z

Remove dead shrubs and trees to remove the threat of rot and disease. However, dead wood provides valuable habitat for invertebrates, and in rural areas dead wood should be left as a matter of course unless there is a safety or disease implication.

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6.13.2 NOTES z The risks involved with carrying out litter collection need to be assessed. As well as the obvious dangers associated with working next to the highway there are potential health risks associated with waste materials encountered.

z

Waste must be removed to a licensed waste facility.

z

Cleaning operations can often be co-ordinated with the first thinning operation.

z

It may be desirable to have some dead wood in a woodland plot, and the degree of cleaning and removal of vegetation should be assessed on an individual plot basis.

This plot has been cleaned, leaving healthy, well-formed trees and a few scattered shrubs. The area has been prepared for replanting due to gaps being created due to lack of cleaning in the past

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6.14 PRUNING

6.14.1 INTRODUCTION z

Pruning will be carried out as the last resort as usually it means that the vegetation is not capable of surviving in its three dimensional space without some form of cutting. It equally means that if pruning is carried out then a commitment to future pruning will be needed. It is worth considering total removing of the plant as a more sustainable option if this is possible. Often vegetation that remains or is planted within a widening scheme will have to be regularly pruned and this will be implicit in the design.

z

Pruning is mainly applied to plants on the edge of the highway, where they are obstructing signs, encroaching into visibility splays and onto the highway, overgrowing the plot and altering the function of the plot (refer to Section 6.10). Forms of pruning include;

– Formative pruning of trees and shrubs to encourage growth patterns and regenerate plants that have become overgrown and leggy.

– Removing dead heads from ornamental plants to achieve a better floral display.

– Removal of diseased and damaged branches, or dangerous limbs on trees.

– Coppicing to gain effects of coloured stems and or rejuvenation.

– Regeneration of tender plants damaged by frost, e.g., fuchsia and senecio species.

– Some shrubs only require pruning to trim back the flowering heads, but not cut into the old wood, immediately after flowering.

z

Pruning of ornamental planting should involve removal of all growth that extends over the footway or carriageway to a point not more than 150mm behind the hard edge. All shrubs that are encroaching on, or obscuring visibility of adjacent signs, structures, electrical equipment, gates or visibility splays should be pruned to remove the obstruction. Suckers from rootstocks should be removed and species encroaching onto other species, altering the design of the plot, should also be pruned.

z

Pruning cuts should be made in accordance with the guidance in BS 7370 Part 4.

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There is an Advanced

Directional Sign behind these trees. Prune vegetation back from sign. Be aware of future growth overhanging carriage way

z Generally the best time to prune plants is in November to March, to remove dead growth that has occurred over the winter months .A pruning schedule should be drawn up for pruning of amenity and ornamental planting to ensure the correct procedures are undertaken at the right time of year to achieve the desired foliage results.

z Climbers and trailers require minimal pruning apart from; trimming back growth away from the wall or fence; cutting vigorous species, which become tangled and full of dead wood, down to the base to rejuvenate them. This could be carried out on a rotational basis to every second or third plant.

z

Arisings from pruning can either be chipped or spread on site or removed off site (refer to Section

6.8).

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Tree pruned back from sign. Will need doing every year

Nearest tree removed.

will give clearance for some years

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6.14.2 NOTES z When plants are pruned to limit shape and size, the growing habit of the plant should be retained.

z Summer pruning can serve to reduce the vigour of the summer regrowth, whereas winter pruning usually makes spring regrowth more vigorous.

z Where plants continually require pruning to prevent encroachment onto the highway, consider removal of the plant and or replacement with a more suitable non-vigorous species.

Cutting back shrubs promotes bushiness

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Gravel margin to allow for eventual expansion of low planting in pedestrian subway

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6.15 FELLING

6.15.1 INTRODUCTION z

Felling will be carried out when the tree has outlived its function and cannot be prolonged by some other form of management, coppicing, pollarding, and thinning.

z

Felling trees on the sides of roads is a difficult business and invariably mean some form of traffic management is required, either static lane closures or mobile closures. As roadside trees mature more and more of this will be necessary and if traffic flows increase then it will be more difficult in the future to carry out this type of operation. Therefore thought should be given to felling trees while they are smaller and earlier to avoid problems for successors.

z Felling is carried out as part of highway landscape management for the following reasons:

– public safety from dangerous trees, e.g., senile or damaged trees, that could cause harm to the public need to be removed;

– diseased trees that could infect other trees or are at risk of structural damage may require removal;

– as a result of planned works on the highway, trees that are in the construction area may need to be removed;

– where high forest occurs within the soft estate, a planned program of forestry management will be required;

– diversification of a woodland plot, to open up the canopy and make space for climax and new trees, create glades etc.; and

– to remove problem or unwanted species in a woody plot.

z

As the trees grow, they may become unstable. To prevent them falling, they should be felled at a prescribed time/height. High forest trees are particularly prone to instability as they are planted at uniform spacing, designed to maximise stem production and to minimise branch growth. Felling of high forest trees should be carried out in blocks on a rotational basis. The design and phasing of the felling blocks should retain screening where it is a function of the plot.

z Clear felling consists of felling trees as a whole normally to within 100mm of ground level. Larger stems/boles may be left for natural decay.

z Sectional felling/dismantling consists of removing the tree in sections that are safe to be lowered using ropes. This may be the favoured technique to keep traffic management to a minimum.

z

Timber should be retained on-site and used to create wildlife habitat where possible. Otherwise it should be disposed off site (refer to Section 6.8).

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Beech stump after removal of dangerous tree next to layby using sectional felling to minimise carriageway closure

z

Stump treatment can include one of the following:

– leave stump in situ, cut smoothly as close to the ground as possible (in urban areas to avoid trip hazard), treat with herbicide by ‘furrowing’ (drilling into the cambium zone of the cut stump). Refer to Section 6.3;

– stump grinding with a mechanical grinding machine to a depth of 300mm. Fill the void with topsoil to match existing ground levels; or

– stump grubbing to remove the complete stump and roots by means of excavation and or winching and backfilling with topsoil to make up levels.

z

Where possible leave as much of the trunk/stem, as safety allows, for habitat. Stump grinding and grubbing on the highway estate are usually restricted to situations where amenity values are high, in urban areas or where stumps will present a hazard.

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6.15.2 NOTES z Tree felling poses many dangers for the operators and the general public. All work should be carried out in accordance with BS 3998 (1989) ‘Recommendations for Tree Work’.

z

Ground reinstatement after stump works should be carried out in the same day, leaving the site in a safe condition, free from trip hazards.

z

Access requirements are a major factor in the planning of felling works.

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Opposite, above and below. Sectional felling has been needed here due to the closeness of the road and involves tree climbing and lowering cut branches by rope. Operatives will need harnesses and special training to undertake this type of specialised felling. Below sectional felling carried out from platform

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6.16 HEDGE MANAGEMENT

6.16.1 INTRODUCTION z

Hedge management includes, hedge cutting, hedge laying and replanting.

6.16.2 HEDGE LAYING z

Hedge laying is a traditional technique used to rejuvenate an ageing hedgerow and improve its structural strength so that it forms a stock-proof barrier. Laying is carried out during the winter months when hedgerow plants are dormant and the fabric of the hedge is clearly visible.

Hedge laying involves partially cutting the upright stems (known as pleachers) and laying them at an angle on top of each other. Stakes are then driven down through the pleachers (at set distances) along the line of the hedge in order to provide additional strength. Many styles use a flexible whip material (often hazel) that is woven around the top of the stakes as binders.

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Hedge laid in a Midland style.

The hedge is stacked vertically down the centre line and bound along the top with binding or

‘heathering’

z Where possible, styles that are common to a particular area should be used in order to reinforce local landscape character. These include the following commonly found styles:

– Midland

– Dorset

– Worcestershire

– Cheshire

– Somerset

– Derbyshire

– Staffordshire

– Welsh styles.

z

Before work starts, the direction in which the hedge would be best laid should be considered. On sloping ground, the pleachers will be under less strain if laid in an uphill direction and will therefore be more likely to sustain new growth the following spring.

As a first step, an assessment should be carried out to determine which stems or pleachers are to be retained and which are to be completely removed. Once this has been done the laying process can be started from one end of the hedgerow. If it is not possible to start at the end of a hedge it may be necessary to cut a number of stems to provide some working room

Hedge laying in central reserve can minimise the need for trimming for a few years

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CHAPTER 6 TECHNIQUES

6.16.3 HEDGE CUTTING z Native hedges can be trimmed in the winter using a tractor-mounted flail. If appropriate, hedges should be cut on a 3-year rotation in order to favour wildlife such as the brown hairstreak butterfly, which lays its eggs on young blackthorn. Ornamental hedges (especially those made up of largeleaved species) may need to be trimmed using hedge trimmers or secateurs.

Hedgerow being flailed. Note the need for mobile lane closures

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Recently cut hedge. Note bollard obstructing access for maintenance

z

The road Operator requires an integrated approach to hedgerow management. Guidelines on hedge cutting are contained within TRMM.

6.16.4 REPLANTING

z Periodic gapping up may be needed to strengthen older hedgerows and hedgerows where plants have not established (refer to Section 6.11).

6.16.5 NOTES z

Hedge laying is a specialist technique, which will require the skills of an experienced hedge layer.

z Access for hedgerow cutting requires traffic management coordination and in some cases agreements with landowners.

NOVEMBER 2004

Example of bad flailing as a result of the flailing being left too long and then using too small a cutter for the size of the stems. This rips the stems and can lead to disease taking hold. This should be avoided at all costs

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CHAPTER 6 TECHNIQUES

6.17 MANAGEMENT OF WATERBODIES

6.17.1 INTRODUCTION z

The number of waterbodies created within the highway network is increasing. This is driven by increasing controls in relation to drainage discharge from the highway, the policy of promoting a sustainable approach to drainage and the desire to encourage habitat creation.

z

Waterbodies may be used as attenuation ponds, soakaways, pollution control devices, ecological mitigation or a combination of the above. The design function of the waterbody will determine the management objectives and therefore the type and level of maintenance required.

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z Waterbodies constructed for water balancing and treatment must be recognised as such and treated differently to those whose main function might be for ecological purposes. The maintenance of the waterbody for these purposes takes priority over any other, and as such management is likely to be more intense and may not consider ecological enhancement. However, the presence of protected species must always be considered to ensure compliance with wildlife legislation.

z

Balancing ponds hold storm water temporarily until it can be discharged into nearby watercourses at permitted discharge rates set by the relevant environmental agency. Soakaways may be used to perform the same function where ground conditions are suitable.

z Pollution control features include Pollution Containment Ditches (PCDs). These are designed to prevent accidental chemical spills reaching watercourses. Intervention is required to ensure that the ditch is closed before the chemical reaches the receiving watercourse, i.e., gates or valves need to be shut as soon as possible after an accident. These devices need to remain closed after the main spill as there is an equal pollution risk from the clean-up operations.

z

There is increased interest in using constructed wetlands to treat highway run-off before it enters natural watercourses. Using a combination of surface and sub-surface flow cells it is possible to remove significant levels of pollutants such as suspended solids. This is achieved through physical, chemical and biological processes including settlement, filtration, precipitation and microbial activity.

The latest recommendations are included in DMRB, Volume 4, Section 2, Part 1.

Ditch maintenance can be very disruptive to vegetation. Spoil deposition is a problem

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CHAPTER 6 TECHNIQUES

6.17.2 CONTROL OF WATER LEVELS & QUALITY z

In order to manage a waterbody appropriately, it is necessary to control water levels, vegetation, silt and debris. These aspects are closely interrelated. Landscape Managers are primarily concerned with the management of waterbodies for nature conservation. However the prime functions are normally engineering related and there will need to be close liaison between both disciplines to provide a combined and integrated approach to management.

z The objectives for ecological mitigation in wetlands should be identified from the outset so that they can be adequately considered during both initial design and subsequent management. Water quality will be an important issue for these wetlands and it may not therefore be possible to combine pollution control and nature conservation functions.

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Removal of silt by weed bucket from roadside ditch to increase available water vole habitat

Maintenance can maintain watercourse function whilst providing wildlife habitat

z

Management of water levels may be desirable for maximising nature conservation interest. Levels can easily be controlled using simple tamper-proof inlet/outlet structures.

6.17.3 CONTROL OF VEGETATION z

Aggressive emergent vegetation such as common reed can take over shallow waterbodies. The best way to prevent this and ensure that areas of open water are retained is to create a varied pond profile with approximately 30 – 40% of the surface area being greater than 1.2m deep.

z

Reed can be cut back but this represents an ongoing maintenance commitment, as shallow areas are rapidly recognised. Artificially increasing the depth of water by excavating or raising the outlet level offers a long-term solution.

6.17.4 REMOVAL OF SILT z

Waterbodies will tend to silt up over time, especially when receiving surface water. Removing silt and recreating areas of open water can reverse the process of natural succession.

NOVEMBER 2004

6.17.5 NOTES z

Trees should not be allowed to shade a pond as this reduces available light for aquatic plants and the health of the pond suffers as a result. If possible, the southern edge of a waterbody should be left unplanted. However, a planted southern edge helps to reduce vigorous aquatic species and adds another habitat element, particularly valuable for certain species, e.g., Daubenton’s bats.

z

Managers must be aware of the safety risks involved in maintaining waterbodies. Safety equipment should be regularly checked.

z

Care must be taken when using herbicides near water. (Glyphosate is approved for use on banks or ditches in close proximity to watercourses; refer to Section 6.3).

z

If a liner has been used in construction, care must be taken when using machinery in or around the pond. Construction details of the waterbody should be included in the Landscape Management Plan and potentially damaging operations identified.

z The timing of management operations should be carefully considered so that disturbance to wildlife is minimised. Cyclical/sectional silt removal should be practiced where possible, with sections left uncleared to act as a reservoir for aquatic life. Refer to guidance in HA BAP/TREBAP and DMRB

Volume 10, Section 4 Nature Conservation.

z Secondary mitigation measures such as amphibian fencing or crossing points could be warranted if significant populations develop.

z The wildlife value of waterbodies should be monitored and rare or protected species noted.

Management can then be adjusted if necessary.

z

Public safety should be considered, especially in relation to children. Fencing and appropriate signage may need to be provided if the risk to public safety is thought to be high, e.g., the waterbody lies next to a public footpath or public open space.

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CHAPTER 6 TECHNIQUES

6.18 HARD FEATURE MAINTENANCE

6.18.1 INTRODUCTION z

The management of hard features will require an integrated approach to management between engineers and landscape managers, as many hard features have a landscape purpose and serve to integrate with and enhance the soft landscape elements. Guidance on maintenance and repair of hard features is contained in TRMM and BS7370, Part 2, 1994.

z

Hard features to be managed include, boundary fencing, security fencing, railings, safety barriers, reinforced earth walls, crib walling, seating and litterbins.

z

Many of the routine management operations are related to weed control and clearance of unwanted vegetation on structures. The landscape manager should offer technical advice on this.

z Some hard landscape features have a closer link with the soft estate, e.g., wildlife fencing and stonewalling, which the landscape manager may be expected to comment on.

6.18.2 TECHNIQUES z Maintenance operations for hard landscape features include:

– removal of debris and litter accumulation by picking and sweeping;

– cleaning of dust and grit accumulation by sweeping, hose or vacuum;

– cleaning of staining and spillage by washing down and solvent application;

– graffiti removal by solvents and washing down;

– general cleansing of all street furniture with detergents;

– de-icing on footpaths, steps and ramps, as well as the road surface itself;

– inspections and repairs to boundary fencing, both agricultural and urban; and

– weed control.

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z The degree to which verges can be kept clean varies with the type of surface, amount of obstruction, ease of access and levels of traffic, together with the associated problems of safety and traffic management. The responsibilities for sweeping and cleaning of motorways vary between countries

(refer to Section 6.14.2).

z Wildlife fencing should be inspected, as part of the monitoring measures set out in the landscape management plan, which will also include repairs required to deer fencing and deer reflectors carried out as part of the landscape management works.

z

Stonewalls should be periodically inspected for spalling or cracking in the mortar and stonework.

Walls in need of repair should be repaired using methods sympathetic to their original construction.

Devon banks and Cornish hedges should be maintained using locally sourced stone, soil, fill and turves. Refer to Hedging; a practical handbook (BTCV) and Dry-stone Walling; a practical guide

(BTCV).

Cornish

Hedgebank

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CHAPTER 6 TECHNIQUES

6.18.3 NOTES z Salt should not be used on surfaces in close proximity to trees and planted areas because of potential damage to low-level foliage from contact with the granules during application and to the root systems from surface run-off of the salt solution. Evergreens and conifers are particularly vulnerable. Salt should be applied with a calibrated spreader rather than by hand. Less damaging alternatives such as calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) may be used in sensitive areas but are more expensive.

z Although the TRMM specifies action on an as need basis, it is good practice that all paved surfaces are routinely swept or washed down at least once a year just before the germination of weed seeds in spring.

z

Integrated control measures using various physical and chemical control methods of weed control should be developed rather than blanket application of herbicides to control weeds in paved areas, which are readily washed off hard surfaces onto plant beds and into drainage systems.

z Where repairs are carried out, matching materials and designs should be used.

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Paved surfaces require regular sweeping to prevent build up of debris and weed growth

Footpath and steps to be kept visible by cutting overhanging vegetation

NOVEMBER 2004

Celtic Cross that has had vegetation removed from around it

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CHAPTER 6 TECHNIQUES

6.19 MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AND BIODIVERSITY ACTION PLAN

SPECIES

6.19.1 INTRODUCTION z

The management of protected species relates to those protected species found most commonly in the soft estate and includes those protected by statute and those species listed in the relevant

BAPS (refer to Table 8.1).

z The road operator will be responsible for maintaining ecological protection and mitigation measures that have been put in place. For example bat boxes, newt fencing, badger tunnels, wildlife ledges, protective mounds, deer reflectors and wildlife underpasses.

6.19.2 TECHNIQUES z

Maintenance techniques relate to the operations that need to be performed in order to ensure that ecological protection is continued.

z The management of protected species and ecological protection measures have been documented in related DMRB documents, to which reference should be made. Refer to the following Table

6.19.1.

Newt fencing must be maintained from vegetation to be effective

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Kestrel box will need cleaning and treatment

Ramp to allow Otters to navigate weir

Badger fencing under construction

6.19.3 NOTES z Survey work on protected species is specific to lifecycles of flora and fauna, as is the timing of implementing works, therefore specialist ecological advice should be sought.

z All works should be carried out with the appropriate licences in place, consult for requirements.

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CHAPTER 6 TECHNIQUES

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Table 6.19.1 DMRB Guidance Documents for Reference

(This is not an exclusive reference list of DMRB and other guidance notes, it is based upon information at the time of writing. Further guidance should be sought from other related conservation bodies and the Devolved Administrations.)

SPECIES/PROTECTION MEASURE

Badger

Bats

Fresh water crayfish

Otter

Wildflower

Amphibians

Wildlife fencing

Biodiversity Action Plan Species

Birds

Various flora and fauna

ADVICE/GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

DMRB Volume 10, Section 4 Nature Conservation, Part 2: Mitigation Against Effects on Badgers February 1997

DMRB Volume 10, Section 4 Nature Conservation, Part 3: Nature Conservation Advice in Relation to Bats

Guidance on works affecting white-clawed crayfish, Stephanie Peay, June 2000, EN/EA

DMRB Volume 10, Section 4 Nature Conservation, Part 4: Nature Conservation Advise in Relation to Otters

Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (2001): Nature Conservation and Roads: Advice in Relation to Otters

DMRB Volume 10, Section 3, Part 1

DMRB Volume 10, Section 4, Part 6

DMRB Volume 10, Section 5, Part 1: Design Guide for Environmental Barriers

DMRB Volume 10, Section 5, Part 2: Environmental Barriers-Technical Requirements

Highways Agency Biodiversity Action Plan

Highways and Birds. A Best Practice Guide HA (2001)

Highways Agency Research Projects current March 2003

- revision of wildflower handbook

- review of wildlife fencing

- soft estate management for reptiles

- otter and water vole mitigation

- herbaceous plants in woodland

- habitat translocation

Management of grassland to encourage reptile to move elsewhere.

Grassland is being cut with cord ended strimmers (not blades)

Keeping a minimum of 50mm height to avoid damaging the reptiles

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CHAPTER 6 TECHNIQUES

6.20 MANAGEMENT OF PESTS AND DISEASES

6.20.1 INTRODUCTION z

This relates to pests that cause regular damage to planting or occur as infestations and epidemics that require control measures or eradication.

z

This section considers the control of rabbits, voles, grey squirrels and deer. It also briefly considers the pests and diseases that affect mature trees and amenity shrub beds.

z Injurious and noxious weeds are classified as pests and legislated under the Wildlife and

Countryside Act 1981, the Weeds Act 1959; and the Ragwort Control Act 2003 (refer to Section 6.4

for weed control techniques). Injurious and noxious weeds include: common ragwort, spear thistle, creeping field thistle, broad leaved dock, curled dock, Japanese knotweed and giant hogweed.

z Pesticides use for the control of weeds and some diseases are contained in Section 6.3 and Section

6.4.

6.20.2 FENCING z Rabbit-proof fencing is a protection measure for large blocks of planting. Rabbit proof fencing

600mm high is inadequate to deter hares, but a wire placed 150mm above the netting may deter them.

z

In areas of recent coppice, deer may be discouraged from feeding on the new growth by fencing off areas with a conspicuous temporary fence at least 1.2m high (depending on species). This works on the principle that deer dislike feeding in an enclosure. However, such a fence may look unsightly.

Limited protection can also be gained by heaping brash over recently cut coppice stools and/or the use of a ‘dead hedge’ around the plot boundary.

z Refer to DMRB advice note on wildlife fencing (in press).

6.20.3 GUARDS & SHELTERS z Tree shelters and guards can provide a cost-effective method of protection against rabbits for individual or small groups of trees, or where a problem is anticipated. The shelters or guards need only be 60cm high, but this must take into account slopes.

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Spiral guards and tree shelters used for rabbit protection

z

Tree shelters can be used to protect planting from deer and must be adequately staked to withstand being knocked over. They must be 1.2m high to give protection against roe deer. Fencing is often the best protection measure from fallow or red deer.

z

Tree shelters can successfully provide protection against voles, but need to be close fitting to the ground to prevent ingress. The maintenance of a weed-free one metre circle around each new plant will also help, as voles are reluctant to cross bare ground. This is best maintained using a herbicide as voles will nest and move under mulch mats.

6.20.4 CHEMICALS z Chemical repellents can prove to be relatively quick and easy to apply for small or awkwardly shaped areas, which may be cheaper than tree shelters or guards.

z

Gassing rabbit burrows, the use of ferrets and live trapping (dangerous near roads) can provide an effective control method in unfenced areas. Guidance on rabbit control is currently in preparation and will form part of DMRB.

z

An EU White Paper is proposing a single system to gather hazard information, assess risks, classify, label, and restrict the marketing and use of individual chemicals and mixtures. (This is known as the REACH system – Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals). The policy would cover both new and existing substances. Chemicals deemed to be of most concern to human health or the environment would be banned unless they were granted an authorisation for particular uses that have been demonstrated to be safe. In terms of landscaping works this will help to address the risk to humans and the environment from chemicals (e.g. herbicides and pesticides).

Current legislation should be checked before using such chemicals.

z

The Forestry Commission advocates grey squirrel control by trapping or by poisoning using poison bait in feeding hoppers that are designed to prevent non-target animals from entering and taking the bait. However, care must be taken in areas where grey and red squirrel populations coincide.

Poisoned bait may also spill onto the ground and be eaten by non-target organisms. English Nature and the Forest Authority can advise further on control methods for squirrels.

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CHAPTER 6 TECHNIQUES

6.20.5 NATURAL CONTROL z Ecologically based control methods for deer may provide a cost effective and successful alternative to tree shelters if deer populations are at an acceptable level. This includes retaining a natural browse, especially bramble and hazel, to distract the deer from the desirable trees, and the limiting of weeding and clearing to form a physical barrier around young trees, which will help protect them.

The retention of a scrubby barrier at the top of the embankment may protect tree and shrub planting nearer to the highway.

z Common diseases and pests of mature trees include:

– Tar spot in sycamore. This not serious and does not require treatment.

– Aphids on sycamore and lime trees can be a major nuisance in urban areas.

– Dutch elm disease for which there is no known remedy at present.

– Fireblight, which is a severe bacterial disease of hawthorn, pyracanthus, sorbus and some cotoneasters. No cure is available, diseased plants must be removed and burnt.

– Canker, which is a bacteria that attacks malus and prunus. The diseased portions should be cut out.

z

Phytophthera, which is a soil borne pathogen that attacks young and mature trees of a wide range of species. Soil sterilization and or the replanting of resistant plants will may occasionally be necessary.

– Honey fungus, which is a soil borne pathogen that spreads long black underground runners from infected plants or stumps to nearby plants. Soil sterilization, and soil fungicides can be effective.

Sinking a physical barrier in the soil around them can protect important trees.

– Athracnoses are a group of fungal diseases that attack many trees. Resistant varieties are available.

– Larvae and caterpillar attacks. Repellents can be used.

z

Mulches need to be removed if they become affected by honey fungus.

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6.20.6 NOTES z Existing methods of dealing with the problem of rabbit populations include the use of rabbit proof fencing, tree guards and tree shelters, and using population control only when numbers reach nuisance levels. Methods of population control have included gassing and the use of ferrets.

Gassing is an operation for a specialist contractor. This may prove to be costly and may lead to unnecessary damage to both roadside planting and the vegetation of neighbouring landowners.

There may also be an impact on protected species, particularly badgers and reptiles that can hibernate in rabbit burrows. Earlier intervention when populations are at lower levels may provide a more effective solution. Refer to DMRB advice note on wildlife fencing (in press).

z

Grazing problems may arise after tree guard removal, should a local rabbit population increase rapidly or feeding patterns change. Occasional observations may need to be backed up by more detailed inspections and the appropriate action taken, if required.

z Chemical repellents are considered a pesticide and have a controlled use as such. They are phytotoxic to young flushing plant growth and only provide protection to the treated parts of the plant. All plants have to be treated annually in late autumn. The use of chemical repellents may therefore be limited to localised short-term use in response to problem areas, and the Forestry

Commission can offer advice on their use.

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CHAPTER 6 TECHNIQUES

APPENDIX 6.1 BEST PRACTICE GUIDANCE FOR TREE INSPECTION

SYSTEMS (refer to Section 6.10.3)

A Risk Management Plan should include:

z

A policy statement z

Goals and outcomes z Guiding principles z

Resources z

Risk zone maps z

Hazard rating to trees z Training z

Recording z

Review z

A failure log

Tree stock records should include:

z An inventory z Zoning of tree stock z

An overall assessment of risk from trees z

A risk assessment of individual trees z A system of regular inspections z A system for obtaining specialist assistance

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Recording

The level of detail is for agents to decide, to ensure the system is adequate to prevent damage or injury where the defect could have been foreseeable.

The recording system should be a computerised database designed for specifically managing trees.

The system should report damage and trigger inspections.

A failure log should be set up to determine trends in tree failure.

Staff Resources

Staff should be trained to differing levels of competence depending on the multifunctional requirements in the management of a large tree stock.

Regular refresher training should be provided.

NOVEMBER 2004 6/48

CHAPTER 7 PREPARATION OF LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT PLANS

7.1

INTRODUCTION z

It is the intention that in England, for the Trunk Road system, all Network Operators will have some form of contractual requirement to record environmental aspects as part of an Environmental

Management Plan (EMP), which in turn may be part of an Environmental Management System

(EMS). Ultimately, these will be stored in the Environmetal System (GIS). LMPs will form part of an

EMP and this section gives guidance as to what an LMP should consist of.

z

Due to different procurement methodologies employed by the Highways Authorities to deliver the operation of the network, guidance is given on best practice principles, rather than giving a model landscape management plan.

z

By definition, an LMP is simply a means of recording how the soft estate is to be managed and will cover visual/aesthetic/biodiversity/safety issues.

z

LMP are critical for inheritance planning purposes and operational reasons.

7.2

BEST PRACTICE PRINCIPLES z As the highway does not sit in isolation, and one of the functions of mitigation is to make the road fit into the surrounding landscape, it will be critical to map the surrounding landscape as well as the soft estate. Up to 200m each side from the centreline of the road should be considered. This would include mapping land use and habitat types as a minimum. Compilers may wish to add other information if it is relevant to managing the soft estate.

z Equally, the soft estate has to allow for many functions and the LMP should reflect this, meshing with the requirements to maintain safety of and access to all highway furniture.

z

As road operators need to manage the whole of the soft estate, LMP should record all of the elements found there. Water, grassland, woodland, scrub using the Elements set out in DMRB Vol.

10 Section 0.

z

For the Trunk Road system in England, there is an increasing tendency that the LMP will be audited or be part of a Quality Assurance System. The LMP can help record delivery against targets, for instance, HABAP targets. The Plan should record work carried out on the network in that financial year and include a proposed work programme for the next financial year.

z Work programmes should include studies/assessments as well as management work. Biodiversity studies will be needed to gain the information to comply with the HABAP, for instance. The programme should record those that have taken place and those proposed.

z

It should also set out the monitoring and review procedure that will apply to the plan. Unless otherwise set out in the contract, the LMP should be updated annually and formally reviewed every

5 years. These procedures should be integrated with work programmes and cross-referenced in any

EMP that is in place.

7.3

FORMAT z

The following format is a suggested minimum for an LMP:

Introduction

– This should set the plan objectives and describe the structure of the plan.

Methodology

This section should set out the methodology used in surveying/recording including the date of the

surveys. The landscape resource as defined in Chapter 3 will need to be surveyed and recorded, again using the DMRB system of Functions and Elements. Baseline information can be gained by a variety of means; EIA studies, Environmental System surveys, specific biodiversity and project specific studies. As the LMP will cover biodiversity issues it will be important to map BAP

Priority Habitats, and record instances of Priority Species.

– The methodology should also explain what polices and plans will determine how the landscape will be managed. These will determine the Environmental Functions. Functions will be guided by several things but mostly by: z Landscape Character Assessments z Natural Area Profiles z Local and Administration Biodiversity Action Plans z TRMM (or equivalent) requirements

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

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z Local Authorities Local Plan’s may guide screening requirements.

– The methodology for this section should explain how these drivers have been used to frame the

Environmental Functions and Elements.

Mapping

– It is suggested that Route based LMPs should be mapped at 1:2500 scale. However this could be reduced if it is felt that more detail is needed. The mapping would best use the same format and be a GIS system as that laid out for the Environmental System. However the difference is that the mapping needs to include the wider 400 metre corridor, not just the land within the highway. An example of an LMP Map is included in Appendix 7.1.

NOVEMBER 2004

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CHAPTER 7 PREPARATION OF LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT PLANS

Text

– The text that would accompany each Element needs to include its Environmental Function as set out in DMRB Section 0, Vol. 10, however compilers are strongly encouraged to add additional text to make the objectives more explicit. For example, screening from where to where, what height is screening necessary, should it be all year round, are some important issues.

Remember, Functions are setting out what the Function of the Element is over the plan period, not just what the Function is at the time of the compilation. Functions may need to change from what is there now to what should be there. Examples of Environmental Functions can be found in

Appendix 7.2.

– It will then be important to identify how the various Elements will help to deliver those Functions.

Using the Element codes it may not be enough to say native woodland. It might be necessary to state whether it is supposed to be multi-layered woodland, the main species may need to be listed, whether shrub species are scattered throughout, and the height of the woodland may be important. Descriptions of vertical and or spatial structure may be necessary. It may be necessary to explain the structure and species composition in more detail in order to explain to the landscape manager what he/she is trying to achieve in order to fulfil the Environmental

Function.

– Equally, simply mapping the element “protected or BAP species” will be insufficient. A fuller description may include a population size estimate; site-specific requirements may need to be explained. For example, narrow-headed ant colonies require very high exposure to sunlight with minimal shading. Examples of Environmental Elements can be seen in Appendix 7.2.

Work Programmes

– These should record: l what has been managed against each Element. This should be updated on a yearly basis at the end of each financial year; and l what is to be managed, for the next financial year, as a minimum.

– These programmes should cover all works and studies carried out on the soft estate, including grassland and woodland management and specific species programmes.

7.4

DATABASES AND LMPs

l

A database such as the Environmental System is the single place where information could be held electronically and displayed via a GIS system. It would seem sensible to record LMPs in such a way as could be stored and displayed via each road operator’s own GIS/database.

NOVEMBER 2004

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7/2

CHAPTER 7 PREPARATION OF LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT PLANS

APPENDIX 7.1

EXAMPLE OF LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT PLAN

5610

H eather

Bank

4700

4700

5205

93.2m

R estH aven

3285

2678

Shaft

0455

Un

BS

Shaft

Bry G arry

5300

5300

5906

,

5600

5600 eri n H ouse

I

I I

Factory

C ream ery

I

A c.

C r.

The Shi i ng

Shaft

I

O rchard End

Tram

H ouse

1m

FF and

ED

Bd

Co ons t,C

W hite C ross

W healR ose

Farm house

I

Tank

Depot nk

Ta s

Depot

I

BS

A

30

47

Startrax

Pets H otel

I

118.3m

N orth D ow ns

Farm

Byw ays

BS

I i m

3

2.20.22

Stone

I

1

2.20.3

]

2.32.2

7.62.4

Sundown

U n d 2.20.24

2

2.32.1

H eather

Fi d

Scotsw ood

D ef

10 m

Sunray

BS

1517

ED

and

W ar d

Bd y

CR

C rossroads H otel

(M otel)

104.4m

Stone

TC B

2635

G P

102.0m

B

98

P O

O

SC

A

CL

W ild sw d l asey

1

3

CP

Pa

(um

)

St e

3027

2.32.0

Feathers

(PH )

3531

4

3.09.0

3836

3.08.2

4241

M P 307.5

5

P

3.09.1

P

5

7

G

3.11.1

8

3.07.2

]

3.08.1

3.07.1

6

I

3.03.0

]

3.08.0 3.12.17

ED

a nd

W d ar

Bd y

De f

7.63.7

11

5m

9

M

3.12.16

10

M

3.03.2

3.12.15

P i. A c.

C r.

M

P

307.

25

Tregargus

Shaft

4644

5441

5047 l way

H ouse

5151

5947

Gr eenbank

Shaft

Co ages

Ha llenbeagl

Pa th

5662

6249

6653

H al e

C hy

6359

I

C hy

6665

I

6872

H allenbeagle M ine

Shaft

I

7467

C ottage

R ose C ottage

Station

O U TSID E H IG H W AY

I-Im proved

H edgerow orH edgebank

Scrubland

6.

m

Bare rock

W atercourse l ng

4630

F

BS

Archaeological/H istoric designation

IN SID E H IG H W AY

B

5.10.4

]

Inform ation /D irection Sign

Layby

3

S

Intended hedgerow s

Intended bare rockface

P -Poor

M -M edium

G -G ood

H allenbeagle

P arsons B rinckerhoffLtd

Q ueen V ictoria H ouse,R edland H ill,B ristol,U nited K ingdom ,B S 6 6U S

Tel:44-(0)117 9339300 Fax:44-(0)117 9339253

Shaft

3.03.3

Shaft

8478

3.12.13

C lient/Project:

A 30 SC O R R IER IN TER C H A N G E

TO C H IVER TO N C R O SS

LA N D SC A PE M A N A G EM EN T PLA N

Title:

M A P 1

TH IS D R AW IN G W AS PR O D U C ED U SIN G M APIN FO

AN D SH O U LD O N N O AC C O U N T BE AM EN D ED BY H AN D

9372

100 0 50

D ATE:

SC ALE:

M arch 2003

1:2,500 atA3 m etres

D R AW N BY:

D AR

PR O D U C ED BY:

SR

C H EC KED BY:

PW

G IS R ef:

G IS-H A-21

A P P R O V E D B Y :

RG S

D raw ing num ber

FIG U R E 2

C opyrightParsons Brinckerhoff

R E P R O D U C E D FR O M TH E O R D N A N C E S U R V E Y M A P W ITH TH E

P E R M IS S IO N O F TH E C O N TR O LLE R O F H E R M A JE S TY 'S S TA TIO N A R Y

O FFIC E . C R O W N C O P Y R IG H T.LIC E N C E N U M B E R :100018928

1

NOVEMBER 2004

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

7/3

CHAPTER 7 PREPARATION OF LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT PLANS

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

NOVEMBER 2004

,

9300

13.4m

0002

Ponds

Pa th

(um

1000

1000 an s G e rav

Ea rth wo rk

1900

1900

Tr ac

2400

Pa th

(um

)

11.6m

BM 11.75m

Pond

Ford

I

8286

Dr ai n

Dr ai

Pond

I

I

1.38.

Tr k

0084

Tr ac

SI

R oadside Verge

Inventory Sites

BS280

8676

1.24.08

1.27.8

1.24.09

1.27.7

S

1.24.10

A 3

0(T)

A 3

0

1.27.6

#

1.24.11

#

1.27.5

#

1

#

1.24.12

#

1.27.4

#

2

1.24.13

1.27.3

#

#

1.24.14

1.27.2

SI

SI

8966

0069

I

I I

48

S ports Field

32

28

62

64

60

D AR LIN G TO N R O A

D

60

46

O U TSID E H IG H W AY

GOD

OL

H

IN

RO

A

D

34

SI-Sem i-Im proved

I-Im proved

H edgerow orH edgebank ngl arge tree

Scrubland

T

R

ESC

O

E

RO

A

D

52

1 b St

ElSu a

46

36

Bare rock

W atercourse em ent/D w el i ng

O therbui l ronm ent

DA

RL

ING

N

RO

18 ay

M andal

P en-

D a r

C ourt

Pav

R ydal

4.9m

Archaeological/H istoric designation

IN SID E H IG H W AY

B

5.10.4

H i ghw ay m arkerpost

]

Inform ation /D irection Sign

Layby

Anci entw oodl

3

S

Speci alnote

2553

Ga rage

Ev e

Low er

Tregarthen

4.8m

1

2

5.4m

M arazion M arsh

SSSI,SPA and C W S

Intended hedgerow s

Intended bare rockface ntended habi ed)

P arsons B rinckerhoffLtd

Q ueen V ictoria H ouse,R edland H ill,B ristol,U nited K ingdom ,B S 6 6U S

Tel:44-(0)117 9339300 Fax:44-(0)117 9339253

Intended si e tree

P -Poor

M -M edium

G -G ood

SI

Dr

]

]

7.2m

Pond

G as

G ov

]

3

Low er

C ottage

6

4

]

]

7.63.0

#

#

#

5

#

#

1.34.0

#

P

1.27.0

7

7.63.1

P

8

94

A 3

I

Track

N ew tow n

SI

1.38.1

A

30

A

30

D epots

I

C lient/Project:

A 30 LO N G R O C K B YPA SS

LA N D SC A PE M A N A G EM EN T PLA N

Title:

M A P 2

TH IS D R AW IN G W AS PR O D U C ED U SIN G M APIN FO

AN D SH O U LD O N N O AC C O U N T BE AM EN D ED BY H AN D

0 50 100

D ATE:

20/03/03

SC ALE:

1:2,500 atA3 m etres

D R AW N BY:

D AR

PR O D U C ED BY:

SR

G IS R ef:

G IS-H A-13

C H EC KED BY:

PW

A P P R O V E D B Y :

RG S

D raw ing num ber

FIG U R E 3

C opyrightParsons Brinckerhoff

R E P R O D U C E D FR O M TH E O R D N A N C E S U R V E Y M A P W ITH TH E

P E R M IS S IO N O F TH E C O N TR O LLE R O F H E R M A JE S TY 'S S TA TIO N A R Y

O FFIC E . C R O W N C O P Y R IG H T.LIC E N C E N U M B E R :100018928

7/4

CHAPTER 7 PREPARATION OF LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT PLANS

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

8

T

NOVEMBER 2004

7/5

CHAPTER 7 PREPARATION OF LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT PLANS

Text

The text that would accompany each Element needs to include its Environmental Function as set

out in DMRB Section 0, Vol. 10, however compilers are strongly encouraged to add additional text to make the objectives more explicit. For example, screening from where to where, what height is screening necessary, should it be all year round, are some important issues.

Remember, Functions are setting out what the Function of the Element is over the plan period, not just what the Function is at the time of the compilation. Functions may need to change from what is there now to what should be there. Examples of Environmental Functions can be found in

Appendix 7.2.

It will then be important to identify how the various Elements will help to deliver those Functions.

Using the Element codes it may not be enough to say native woodland. It might be necessary to state whether it is supposed to be multi-layered woodland, the main species may need to be listed, whether shrub species are scattered throughout, and the height of the woodland may be important. Descriptions of vertical and or spatial structure may be necessary. It may be necessary to explain the structure and species composition in more detail in order to explain to the landscape manager what he/she is trying to achieve in order to fulfil the Environmental

Function.

Equally, simply mapping the element “protected or BAP species” will be insufficient. A fuller

description may include a population size estimate; site-specific requirements may need to be explained. For example, narrow-headed ant colonies require very high exposure to sunlight with minimal shading. Examples of Environmental Elements can be seen in Appendix 7.2.

Work Programmes

– These should record: z what has been managed against each Element. This should be updated on a yearly basis at the end of each financial year; and z what is to be managed, for the next financial year, as a minimum.

– These programmes should cover all works and studies carried out on the soft estate, including grassland and woodland management and specific species programmes.

7.4

DATABASES AND LMPs z

A database such as the Environmental System is the single place where information could be held electronically and displayed via a GIS system. It would seem sensible to record LMPs in such a way as could be stored and displayed via each road operator’s own GIS/database.

NOVEMBER 2004

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

7/2

CHAPTER 7 PREPARATION OF LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT PLANS

APPENDIX 7.2 EXAMPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL FUNCTIONS AND

ELEMENTS

Example 1

Environmental Function – Visual Screening

To provide up to 10m high screen to road and traffic from houses in Becky Road whilst permitting views over the top of woodland screen to valley beyond.

Landscape Element – Woodland

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Example 4

Environmental Function – Visual Amenity

To provide colourful planting to emphasize gateway into built up area of Glossop.

Landscape Element – Ornamental Shrubs

Ornamental shrub to 1.5m high, species include berberris, cotoneaster, ceanothus. Maintain shrubs clear of paths and roadway. Maintain planting free of dead vegetation and litter at all times to ensure 100% ground coverage.

Multi-layered dense mixed woodland not more than 10 meters high, species to include holly

(20%), field maple (20%), hazel (20%), hawthorn (20%) and whitebeam (5%). Holly to be scattered throughout the plot. Woodland edge on roadside to be dogwood (5%) and wayfaring tree (15%). Screening must be maintained at all times. Corridor underneath overhead power lines to be kept free of trees.

Example 2

Environmental Function – Landscape Integration

To replicate shape and form of hedgerow trees in surrounding landscape.

Landscape Element – Scattered Trees

Single pedunculate oak trees, at the top of the embankment only, with main stem exposed to browse line height.

Example 3

Environmental Function – Nature Conservation and Biodiversity

To provide floristically rich limestone grassland (NVC…) for the main purpose of providing a habitat for colony of Adonis blue butterfly.

Landscape Element – Species Rich Grassland

Limestone grassland, ensure survival of good colonies of horseshoe vetch, restrict any cutting and raking to winter months and never cut closer than 50mm to the ground. Butterfly likes areas where vegetation is sparse and there is some bare ground so some scarifying may be needed. BAP species.

NOVEMBER 2004 7/6

CHAPTER 8 TABLE 8.1

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

COMPARISON OF LEGISLATION, GUIDANCE, HIGHWAY TERMINOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES USED BY UK GOVERNMENTS

England Northern Ireland Scotland Wales Legislation, Guidance, Term,

Procedure

Overseeing Organisation

Network Operator

Hard Feature Maintenance

Litter Collection

Legislation

Highways Agency Department for Regional

Development – Roads Service

Managing Agent

Motorways and Trunk Roads -

Responsibility of Network Operator

Motorways – Highways Agency

(Managing Agent)

Trunk Roads – Local Authority

Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 as amended

Countryside and Rights of Way

(CROW) Act 2000

Highways Act 1980

Department for Regional

Development – Roads Service

Department for Regional

Development – Roads Service

Motorways – Department for

Regional Development – Roads

Service

Other roads – Local Authority

The Wildlife (Northern Ireland)

Order 1985

The Wildlife (Amendment)

(Northern Ireland) Order 1995

The Access to the Countryside

(Northern Ireland) Order 1983

Countryside Access (Amendment)

Regulations (Northern Ireland)

1996

The Roads (Northern Ireland)

Order 1993

Scottish Executive Transport

Group: Network Management

Division

Operating Company

Operating Company

Motorways: Operating Compan

Trunk Roads: Local Authority

As England

Not in Scotland

(will be covered in Nature

Conservation Bill currently in draft and due to be passed in 2004)

Roads (Scotland) Act 1984

Transport Directorate, Welsh Assembly

Govt (Y Gyfarwyddiaeth Drafnidiaeth,

Llywodraeth Cynulliad Cymru)

Trunk Road Agents (may change in 2004)

As England

As England

As England

NOVEMBER 2004

8/1

CHAPTER 8 TABLE 8.1

Legislation, Guidance, Term,

Procedure

Legislation (cont)

Statutory Nature Conservation

Organisations

Environmental Agencies

Guidance

England Northern Ireland Scotland Wales

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Conservation (Natural Habitats

&c.) Regulations 1994

(as amended)

The Conservation (Natural Habitats, As England etc.) (Northern Ireland)

Regulations 1995

The Conservation (Natural Habitats, etc.) (Amendment) Regulations

(Northern Ireland) 1997

As England Hedgerow Regulations 1997

“Wild Mammals” Act 1996

Protection of Badgers Act 1992

Weeds Act 1959

Environmental Impact Assessment

(Highways) Regulations 1999

English Nature

Environment Agency

Roads (Environmental Impact

Assessment) Regulations

(Northern Ireland) 1999

Department of the Environment –

Environment and Heritage Service

Department of the Environment –

Environment and Heritage Service

Protection of Wild Mammals

(Scotland) Act 2002

As England

Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH)

PPG9 Nature Conservation 1994

HABAP Roads Service – Environmental

Handbook

As England

As England

As England

As England

Countryside Council for Wales

Scottish Environment Protection

Agency (SEPA)

National Planning Policy Guidance

(NPPG) 14, Natural Heritage 1999

Trunk Roads Biodiversity Action

Plan (2000) Review for Discussion

Environment Agency Wales

TAN5 1996 Planning Policy Wales

March 2002

TREBAP (in draft 1/2003)

The Transport Framework for Wales

2001

Trunk Road Forward Programme 2002

NOVEMBER 2004

8/2

CHAPTER 8 TABLE 8.1

Legislation, Guidance, Term,

Procedure

Guidance (cont)

England

Trunk Road Maintenance Manual

(TRMM)

Northern Ireland Scotland Wales

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Not in Northern Ireland – covered by ‘Roads Service Policy &

Procedures Guide E019’

Not in Scotland (covered as

Employer’s Requirements in the

Term Contract For Management

And Maintenance Of The Scottish

Trunk Road Network)

The Transport Framework for Wales

2001

Trunk Road Forward Programme

2002

Environmental System (previously known as Environmental Data

Base (EDB))

Landscape Management Plans

Design Manual for Roads and

Bridges (DMRB)

Local Biodiversity Action Plan

As England

Northern Ireland Habitat &

Species Action Plans

Landscape Action Plans

As England

As England

As England

As England

NOVEMBER 2004

8/3

CHAPTER 8 ABBREVIATIONS

DA

DEFRA

DETR

DMRB

EA

EDB

EEC

EMP

EMS

EN

ESA

FEPA

GIS

HA

HABAP

HSE

AONB

APTR

ASSI

BSI

BTCV

CCW

CDA

CMA

COPR

COSHH

CROW

LE

LMH

LMP

LNMS

Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty

All Purpose Trunk Road

Area of Special Scientific Interest (N.I.)

British Standards Institution

British Trust for Conservation Volunteers

Countryside Council for Wales

Controlled Droplet Applicator

Calcium Magnesium Acetate

Control of Pesticides Regulations, 1986

Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations, 1988

Countryside and Rights of Way Act, 2000

Devolved Administration

Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs

Department of Transport and the Regions

Design Manual for Roads and Bridges

Environment Agency

Environmental Database

European Environment Commission

Environmental Management Plan

Environmental Management System

English Nature

Environmentally Sensitive Area

Food and Environment Protection Act, 1985

Geographic Information System

Highways Agency

Highways Agency Biodiversity Action Plan

Health and Safety Executive

Landscape Element

Landscape Management Handbook

Landscape Management Plan

Local Network Management Scheme

NOVEMBER 2004

RSPB

SAC

SNCO

SPA

SSSI

TAN

TPO

TREBAP

TRMM

WTRMM

WCA

ULV

Royal Society for the Protection of Birds

Special Area for Conservation

Statutory Nature Conservation Organisation

Special Protection Area

Site of Special Scientific Interest

Technical Advice Note (Wales)

Tree Preservation Order

Trunk Road Estate Biodiversity Action Plan

Trunk Road Maintenance Manual

Welsh Trunk Road Maintenance Manual

Wildlife and Countryside Act, 1981

Ultra low volume

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

8/4

CHAPTER 9 GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Arborist/Arboriculturalist

Biodiversity

Bio-engineering

Canopy

Chipping

Coppicing

Crown

Crown lifting

Crown reduction

Crown thinning

Design Manual for Roads and Bridges (DMRB)

Enrichment Planting

A person with a recognised qualification in the care and management of trees.

The variety of life on Earth. Most often articulated in terms of the abundance and variety of species and habitats.

The combination of engineering materials and vegetation to provide defence against erosion and slip, eg geotextiles and grass.

The uppermost layer of woodland structure, which contains the standard (climax) emergent and understorey trees.

The use of a machine, a woodchipper, to reduce tree waste and softer prunings, such as gorse and bramble, to small chips for distribution on site or removal for composting.

The regular cutting down of trees and shrubs near ground level, allowing the tree or shrub to re-grow from the stump.

The spreading branches and foliage of a tree.

A pruning technique to provide clearance below a tree by removing the lower branches, so raising the canopy as it develops.

A technique to reduce the overall size of a tree by pruning back to its main branches whilst maintaining its overall shape.

A technique to reduce the overall density of a tree’s crown by removing up to 30% of its branches.

A comprehensive handbook published by the Department of Transport, providing best practice guidance for the construction, operation and management of roads and bridges.

Secondary planting, often after thinning, to improve species diversity, screening etc.

NOVEMBER 2004

Environmental barrier

Environmental Database

Environmental Element

Environmental Function

Environmental Management

Plan

Geographical Information

System

Groundcover

Growth retardant

Habitat

Hard Estate

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

A barrier which combines the function of visual screen and noise barrier to protect residential, recreational and other vulnerable areas alongside a road.

A standardised, nationally consistent database of the

Highways Agency’s ecological and environmental assets designed both for operational and strategic purposes.

A feature occurring in the highway estate that is relevant to achieving the non-landscape environmental functions in respect of auditory amenity, water quality, and nature conservation/biodiversity.

The purpose of the landscape and environmental elements; why they are there and what they are intended to achieve in environmental terms.

Route based plans produced by Network Operators that deal with the management of all environmental elements on the soft estate.

A generic term for a computer program that can store, retrieve and manipulate data related to a digital mapping system.

Plants, which by their natural habitat of low close growth are suitable for covering the ground surface and discouraging weeds.

A chemical that temporarily restricts shoot growth.

(i) The normal abode of a plant or animal.

(ii) The recognisable area or environment in which an organism normally lives.

The engineering/operational part of the highway estate, including structures, carriageways, hard shoulder and central reserve that are constructed with concrete, tarmac, steel etc.

9/1

CHAPTER 9 GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Heading back

Herbicide

Landmark feature

Landscape Manager

Landscape Management

Plan

Landscape Management objective

Laying

Leggy

Mulch

National Association of

Agricultural Contractors

A pruning technique that entails cutting back the previous seasons growth to within a few centimetres of older stems in late February each year.

A chemical used to destroy or control unwanted plant growth.

A feature designed to orientate and impart a sense of place or progress to travellers.

A person with the appropriate training and qualification for maintaining the ‘soft‘ estate.

A record of how to manage landscape and environmental features.

The intended way in which the landscape or environmental feature will achieve its function.

A technique used to rejuvenate and thicken hedges by cutting part way through a standing stem and then positioning (laying) it to form a barrier.

Unduly long and spindly growth of stems.

A protective covering that is spread on bare ground around plants to inhibit evaporation and weed growth, control soil temperature, and enrich the soil.

The NAAC represents contractors in the UK who supply all types of land-based services to farmers, government, local authorities, sports and recreational facilities. All contractors are welcome as members, whether they are large or small businesses, specifically land, livestock or amenity based farmers with a contracting sideline or whole farm contractors.

The NAAC is committed to representing the interests of contractors at national and European level; it will offer information and advice; promote the services of its members and assist contractors in providing a professional and competitive service to farmers and the community.

Naturalised

Network

Network Operator

Nurse species

Pernicious

Pesticide

Phytotoxic

Pollarding

Priority Habitats

Priority Species

NOVEMBER 2004

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

A species, having been introduced, that colonises places where not indigenous.

The trunk road and motorway network for which the

Agency is responsible.

Organisation responsible for the day-to-day management, maintenance and operation of the road network, including works of an environmental nature.

A species that is planted to protect other species by providing shelter, shade and preventing weed growth during the initial establishment period.

Persistent and having qualities harmful to other plants or animals.

(i) A generic term used under the Food and Environment

Protection Act 1985 to cover any substance, preparation or organism prepared or used, to protect plants or wood or other plant products from harmful organisms; to regulate the growth of plants to give protection against harmful creatures, or to render such creatures harmless. It includes herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, and growth retardant.

(ii) A more specific term to cover a material for killing a pest or pathogen.

Poisonous to plants.

Method of managing trees, by cutting the trunk at head height or higher to prevent grazing by animals, and letting it regrow to produce branches which are repeatedly cut at regular intervals.

A habitat for which a costed Action Plan has been prepared in the UKBAP (formerly referred to as ‘key habitats’).

A species for which a costed Action Plan has been prepared in the UKBAP.

9/2

CHAPTER 9 GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Road verge

Soft estate

Thinning

Trunk Road Maintenance

Manual

Wildlife corridor

In engineering terms, the operational clearance margin, usually grassed, on either side of a road or between the road and embankment or cutting slope.

The natural, vegetated part of the highway estate.

The removal of selected trees or shrubs from group planting to give the remainder more growing space.

A Highways Agency handbook providing detailed guidance to contractors undertaking the maintenance and management work on the trunk road network. It includes requirements relating to the maintenance of all landscape and ecological elements within the Highways Agency’s responsibility.

A linear habitat feature that links two or more habitats within a landscape and along which wildlife can move.

NOVEMBER 2004

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

9/3

CHAPTER 10

REFERENCES

Agate E, 1984, Hedging: A Practical Handbook, British Trust for Conservation Volunteers

Arboricultural Association, 1985, Trees on Development Sites

Arboricultural Association, 1987, A Guide to Tree Pruning

Andrews J & Rebane M, 1994, Farming & Wildlife, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds,

Sandy

Andrews J et al, 1994, The New Rivers & Wildlife Handbook, RSPB

Barnett J P & Baker J B, 1990 Regeneration Methods, In Forest Regeneration Methods (eds.

Duryea M L & Dougherty P M), Kleuwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht

Blyth J, Evans J, Mutch W E S & Sidwell C, 1991, Farm Woodland Management, (2nd edn.)

Farming Press

British Agrochemicals Association, 1993, Amenity Handbook: A Guide to the Selection and

Use of Amenity Pesticides

British Standard

BS 3938:1989 Recommendations for Tree Work

BS 4428:1989 Code of Practice for General Landscape Operations

BS 5837:1991 Trees in Relation to Construction

BS 7370: Ground Maintenance parts 1, 2, 3, 4

Brooks A, Dry-stone walling: A Practical Handbook, British Trust for Conservation Volunteers

Brooks A, 1980, Woodlands: A Practical Handbook, British Trust for Conservation Volunteers

Brooks A, 1981, Waterways & Wetlands: A Practical Handbook, British Trust for Conservation

Volunteers

Brooks A, 1988, Woodlands - a practical handbook, British Trust for Conservation Volunteers

Byron H, 2000, Biodiversity and Environmental Impact Assessment: A good practice guide for

Road Schemes. The RSPB, WWF-UK, English Nature and the Wildlife Trusts, Sandy

Cobham R, 1990, Amenity Landscape Management

Crofts et al, 1994, The Lowland Grassland Management Handbook

NOVEMBER 2004

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Crop Protection Council, 1992, The UK Pesticide Guide, CAB International/British

Davis R J, Trees and Weeds: weed control for successful establishment, Forestry Commission

Handbook 2

Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, 1992, Design Manual for Roads and Bridges, The Stationery Office, London

Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, 1998, A New Deal for Transport in

England, The Stationery Office, London

Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, 2001, Delivering Best Value in

Highway Maintenance: Code of Practice for Maintenance Management

Department of Environment, 1992, Guidance Control of Weeds on Non-Agricultural Land

Department of Environment, 1992, Weed Control and Environmental Protection

Emery M, 1986, Promoting Nature in Cities and Towns: a practical guide, Croom Helm,

Beckenham

English Nature, 1993, Roads and Nature conservation: Guidance on Impacts, mitigation and enhancement

English Nature, 1999, Biodiversity: Making the Links, English Nature, Biodiversity Series,

Peterborough

English Nature, 1999, Lowland Grassland Management Handbook

English Nature, 2003, The Herbicide Handbook: Guidance on the use of herbicides on nature conservation sites

English Nature, 2003, The Scrub Management Handbook: Guidance on the management of scrub on nature conservation sites

Environment Agency, 2003, Guidance for the Control of Invasive Weeds in or near Fresh

Water

Evans J, 1984, Silviculture of Broadleaved Woodland, Forestry Commission Bulletin 62

Evans J, 1988, Natural Regeneration of Broadleaves, Forestry Commission Bulletin 78

10/1

CHAPTER 10

REFERENCES

Gardiner B A, Stacey G R, Belcher R E & Wood C J, 1997, Field and Wind Tunnel

Assessments of the Implications of Re-spacing and Thinning for Tree Stability, Forestry 70

No 3 pp 233 - 251

Garfitt J E, 1977, The Management of Motorway Plantings, Quarterly Journal of Forestry 71 pp 162-164

Garfitt J E, 1977a, Irregular Silviculture in the Service of Amenity, Quarterly Journal of Forestry

71 pp 82-85

Garfitt J E, 1980, Treatment of Natural Regeneration of Young Broadleaved Crops, Quarterly

Journal of Forestry 74, 236-239

Garfitt J E, 1984, The Group Selection System, Quarterly Journal of Forestry 78 pp 155-158

Garfitt J E, 1995, Natural Management of Woods - Continuous Cover Forestry, Research

Studies Press, Taunton

Gilbert O L & Anderson P, 1998, Habitat Creation and Repair, Oxford University Press

Harmer R & Kerr G, 1996, Natural Regeneration - is more advice needed?, Quarterly Journal of Forestry 90 pp 190-196

Hart C, 1991, Practical Forestry for the Agent and Surveyor, Sutton Publishing, Stroud

Hart C, 1995, Alternative Systems to Clear Cutting in Britain: a review, Forestry Commission

Bulletin 115

Helliwell D R, 1988, Uneven Aged Woodlands in Britain: Advantages, Disadvantages and

Problems, Arboricultural Journal 12 pp 273-278

Helliwell D R, 1999a, Continuous Cover Forestry, Continuous Cover Forestry Group

Highways Agency, 1999, Trunk Road Maintenance Manual

Highways Agency, Manual of Contract Documents for Highway Works

Hodge S J,1995, Woodlands Around Towns, Forest Authority Handbook 11

NOVEMBER 2004

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

Institution of Highways and Transportation, 2001, The Environmental Management of

Highways

Jennings S B, Brown N D & Sheil D, 1999, Assessing Forest Canopies and Understory

Illumination: canopy closure, canopy cover and other measures, Quarterly Journal of Forestry,

72 pp 59-73

Kirby K J, 1988, A Woodland Survey Handbook, Joint Nature Conservation Committee,

Research and Survey in Nature Conservation 11

Kirby K J, 1995, Rebuilding the English Countryside: habitat fragmentation and wildlife corridors as issues in practical conservation, English Nature Science Series 10

MAFF/HSE, Pesticides approved under the Control of Pesticides Regulations

Matney T G & Hodges J D, 1990, Evaluating Regeneration Success, In Forest Regeneration

Methods (eds. Duryea M L & Dougherty P M) pp 321 - 331, Kleuwer Academic Publishers,

Dordrecht

Matthews J D, 1989, Silvicultural Systems, Clarendon Press, Oxford

Miller R W, 1997, Urban Forestry Planning and Managing Urban Greenspace, Prentice Hall,

New Jersey

Mutch W, 1998, Tall Trees and Small Woods: how to grow and tend them, Mainstream

Publishing, Edinburgh

National Joint Utilities Group, 1995, Publication No10: Guidelines for the Planning, Installation and Maintenance of Utility Services in Proximity to Trees

Parker D M, 1995, Habitat Creation - a critical guide, English Nature Science Series 21

Peniston M J, 1938, The Selection System - irregular silviculture, Quarterly Journal of Forestry

32, pp 51-54

Pepper H, 1992, Forestry Authority Bulletin 102: Forestry Fencing

Peterken G F, 1981, Woodland Conservation and Management, Chapman & Hall, London

Peterken G F, 1996, Natural Woodland: ecology and conservation in northern temperate regions, University Press, Cambridge

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CHAPTER 10

REFERENCES

Potter M, Forestry Commission Handbook 7: Treeshelters

Rodwell J, Patterson G, 1994, Creating New Native Woodlands, Forestry Commission Bulletin

112

Rowe J, Forestry Authority Leaflet 56: Grey Squirrel Control

Savill P, Evans J, Auclair D, Falk J, 1997, Plantation Silviculture in Europe, Oxford University

Press, Oxford

Scottish Office, 1998, Cost Effective Landscape: Learning from Nature, Edinburgh

Shephard K R, 1986, Plantation Silviculture, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht

Troup R S, 1952, Silvicultural Systems, (2nd edn.) (Jones E W ed.), Clarendon Press, Oxford

NOVEMBER 2004

VOLUME 10 SECTION 3

PART 2 HA 108/04

10/3

Volume 10 Section 3

Part 2 HA 108/04

11. ENQUIRIES

All technical enquiries or comments on this Advice Note should be sent in writing as appropriate to:

Chapter 11

Enquiries

Chief Highway Engineer

The Highways Agency

123 Buckingham Palace Road

London

SW1W 9HA

G CLARKE

Chief Highway Engineer

Chief Road Engineer

Scottish Executive

Victoria Quay

Edinburgh

EH6 6QQ

Chief Highway Engineer

Transport Directorate

Welsh Assembly Government

Llywodraeth Cynulliad Cymru

Crown Buildings

Cardiff

CF10 3NQ

Assistant Director of Engineering

The Department for Regional Development

Roads Service

Clarence Court

10-18 Adelaide Street

Belfast BT2 8GB

J HOWISON

Chief Road Engineer

M J A PARKER

Chief Highway Engineer

Transport Directorate

D O’HAGAN

Assistant Director of Engineering

November 2004

11/1

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