CCTV Concept of Operations - Northern Virginia ITS Architecture

CCTV Concept of Operations - Northern Virginia ITS Architecture
Virginia Department of Transportation
Contract# 27090 (Task NRO-27090-007)
CCTV Concept of Operations Virginia Department of Transportation Northern Region Operations Prepared for: Prepared by: May 2008
VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Concept of Operations Final Table of Contents
1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2.0 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 7.0 7.1 7.2 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 SCOPE .................................................................................................................2 Identification .....................................................................................................2 Role of the Concept of Operations within the Systems Engineering Process...2 System Overview ...............................................................................................3 Goals, and Objectives .......................................................................................3 Vision for the System.........................................................................................4 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS ........................................................................4 USER-ORIENTED OPERATION DESCRIPTION .......................................5 Existing CCTV System ......................................................................................5 Stakeholders and their Roles & Responsibilities ..............................................5 Existing Operational Sequence.........................................................................7 OPERATIONAL NEEDS ..................................................................................9 Freeway Operations........................................................................................10 Signal Operations ...........................................................................................12 Maintenance....................................................................................................12 NoVA District Transportation Planning and NRO Traffic Engineering Needs14 SYSTEM OVERVIEW ....................................................................................14 Software Subsystem.........................................................................................14 Cameras ..........................................................................................................15 Communications .............................................................................................15 OPERATIONS AND SUPPORT.....................................................................16 Personnel ........................................................................................................16 Facilities .........................................................................................................17 Operating Procedures.....................................................................................17 Maintenance and Budget ................................................................................17 OPERATIONAL SCENARIOS ......................................................................18 Scenario 1 - Integrated Corridor Management ..............................................18 Scenario 2 - HOV Clearance Procedures.......................................................19 NEXT STEPS ....................................................................................................20 Detailed Requirements....................................................................................20 System Design .................................................................................................20 Software/Hardware Development Field Installation......................................20 Unit/Device Testing ........................................................................................20 Subsystem & System Verification and Acceptance .........................................21 System Validation............................................................................................21 Operations & Maintenance.............................................................................22 List of Figures
Figure 1 The Systems Engineering Process “Vee”............................................................. 3
Figure 2: CCTV Communications .................................................................................... 16
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
May 2008 High-Level Requirements
NRO ITS Barcode Requirements
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VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Concept of Operations Final 1.0 Scope
1.1 Identification
This Concept of Operations presents a plan for a new, expanded Closed-Circuit Television
(CCTV) system for the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) Northern Region
Operations (NRO). In the development of this document several stakeholders were interviewed in
one-on-one or small group settings in order to understand the breadth of current use and future
needs for the CCTV system. In most cases the future needs are those that the Traffic Management
Center (TMC) operators have for visual information obtained through a CCTV system, although
there are also needs with respect to maintaining the field infrastructure and providing traveler
information.
The “CCTV system”, for the purposes of this document, is defined as the use of VDOT owned
and operated video cameras located along VDOT and associated County assets in the NRO region
for traffic surveillance, congestion monitoring, incident verification, and public/media
information. The CCTV system includes the CCTV cameras, communication infrastructure, and
the variety of output sources described throughout the document.
1.2 Role of the Concept of Operations within the Systems
Engineering Process
A Concept of Operations is the critical first step in the systems engineering process that the
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) mandates in 23 CFR 940 per section 5307(c) of U.S.
Public Law 109-59, the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A
Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). The systems engineering process can be represented by the
“Vee” Diagram in Figure 1. Besides being a federal requirement for project funding, the process
is important to ensure the system or technology being designed and deployed meets the needs of
its end users.
The Concept of Operations presents the users’ perspectives on how the system will help them
meet their business objectives. The term “system” can denote something as simple as a single
CCTV camera or as complex as a multi-million dollar software application. The scope and detail
of a Concept of Operations should be commensurate with the complexity of the system being
deployed. In addition, it presents the case for the new system in the context of the current
environment and defines any external dependencies that may affect or be affected by the system
under consideration.
Written from the user’s perspective, a Concept of Operations is designed to be reviewed and
validated by the system users who may not necessarily have a detailed understanding of the
underlying technologies or design considerations. The user needs lead to system requirements,
which are used to design the system. Once the system is designed and implemented, the process
proceeds up the right side of the “Vee,” where the system is validated against the requirements
and the Concept of Operations to confirm that it has been designed and implemented
appropriately to meet the objectives for which it was intended. This linkage of integration steps
with definition steps enables the system to be tested and verified early and often to reduce the risk
that the final product does not meet user needs.
May 2008 Page 2
VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Concept of Operations Final Figure 1 The Systems Engineering Process “Vee”
1.3 System Overview
The CCTV system provides versatile real-time visual information to the NRO TMC operators.
Acting as eyes in the field, the system aids TMC operators in quickly and effectively identifying
and responding to incidents, events, and maintenance needs. A CCTV camera is typically
equipped with pan-tilt-zoom capabilities to allow the operator to adjust the view and observe
specific areas. The information obtained from the video provides confirmation of traffic incidents,
event, weather conditions, and emergency issues. The CCTV camera system also provides video
distribution for public and media use.
1.4 Goals, and Objectives
The CCTV Concept of Operations supports the following goals and objectives identified in the
Northern Region Operations Strategic Plan. It should be noted, however, that the Strategic Plan is
currently being updated.
1) Goal #1 - Enhance Public Safety
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Objective 1.B: Respond Efficiently to Incidents
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Objective 1.C: Improve Transportation security
2) Goal #2 - Enhance Mobility
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Objective 2.A: Operate the Transportation System Effectively and Efficiently
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Objective 2.C: Expand ITS Infrastructure to Enable Corridor Management
3) Goal #3 - Make the Transportation System User Friendly
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May 2008 Objective 3.B: Support Traveler Information Services
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VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Concept of Operations Final 1.5 Vision for the System
VDOT NRO’s vision for CCTV camera operations is provided below:
The VDOT Northern Region Operations Closed Circuit Television (CCTV)
Camera System will provide Traffic Management Center (TMC) operators with
the ability to detect incidents, verify incident information, and monitor traffic
conditions on VDOT roadways. CCTV images will be shared with regional and
statewide stakeholders to improve interagency coordination. Additionally video
images depicting real-time roadway conditions will be available to the motoring
public.
The system envisioned in this Concept of Operations combines upgrades to the existing system’s
camera and communications equipment, camera infill within the existing system’s covered
corridors, and installation of new field equipment to expand coverage to new areas within the
region. The system also includes new system control, both in terms of new control software and a
new TMC.
The new CCTV system should enhance the benefits that the existing CCTV infrastructure
provides its users while providing adequate coverage to new key areas through expansion. The
system should use CCTV technology’s full potential for gathering and distributing real-time
visual information about remote locations to empower operators to practice corridor management
of freeways and alternate routes. The CCTV system will be an integral part of the regional ITS
network operated through a combination of automated control by Advanced Traffic Management
System (ATMS) software and human operators at the Public Safety Transportation Operations
Center (PSTOC) TMC.
2.0 Referenced Documents
The CCTV system is one component of VDOT NRO’s Intelligent Transportation System (ITS)
and likewise, this Concept of Operations must be consistent with other related work. Those
concurrent efforts and their relationship to this Concept of Operations are described in this
section. In addition, this document builds on past work on the state and future direction of the
CCTV system in the Northern Region.
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NoVA Smart Travel Program Plan Update (2006, under update). This document identifies
VDOT NRO’s overall vision, goals and objectives, ITS-related needs identified by
stakeholders, and the regional operating concept.
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Go-Forward Plan (2005). This document identifies the need to evaluate and recommend
system upgrades to existing traffic management TMC, Safety Service Patrols (SSP), and the
Traffic Signal System (TSS).
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VDOT NRO ATMS Concept of Operations (concurrent). At the same time as this document
is being written, VDOT NRO is in the process of replacing its ATMS software. ATMS
functionality is to include an expert system for incident detection through CCTV and other
device input.
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VDOT NRO Dynamic Message Sign (DMS) Concept of Operations (concurrent). In a
parallel effort, VDOT NRO is developing a concept of operations for DMS. One of the
primary operational needs for DMS, as identified in this document, is to ensure proper
display and operation of the DMS via CCTV cameras.
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VDOT NRO Vehicle Detector Concept of Operations (concurrent). In a parallel effort,
VDOT NRO is developing a concept of operations for vehicle detectors. This work is being
May 2008 Page 4
VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Concept of Operations Final performed under the same contract as this CCTV concept of operations and the stakeholder
information gathering meetings were held jointly in most cases.
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VDOT NRO I-66 Spot Improvements Project Concept of Operations (2008). This document
discusses spot improvements along westbound I-66 in Arlington and Fairfax Counties to
improve mobility and safety. This document references several upgrade aspects for the CCTV
system in this area.
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VDOT NRO TMC/Camp 30-to-PSTOC Transition Plan (2007). This document discusses the
transition from the existing NRO TMC to the PSTOC. It describes the communications
between the PSTOC and field equipment including CCTV cameras.
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VDOT Northern Region Operations Standard Operating Procedures (2007). This document
defines VDOT NRO Traffic Management Center (TMC) standard operating procedures.
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Interviews with Stakeholders (2008). In developing the CCTV Concept of Operations, several
one-on-one and group meeting were held to identify stakeholder needs. Input was received
from the following stakeholders:
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VDOT NRO Freeway Operations;
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VDOT NRO Signal System Operations;
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VDOT NRO Maintenance;
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VDOT NRO Systems Engineering;
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VDOT NRO Traffic Engineering;
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VDOT NRO Planning & Programming; and
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VDOT NoVA Transportation Planning.
3.0 User-Oriented Operation Description
3.1 Existing CCTV System
The Northern Virginia TMC currently operates and monitors a total of 126 CCTV cameras. The
current CCTV camera system serves several purposes including incident detection, incident
verification, traffic management, event monitoring, providing video feeds for general public,
media, and public safety responder use. Main video coverage resides along I-66, I-95, I-395, I495, and Route 267 (Dulles Toll Rd). Smaller groups of CCTV cameras are located at key
locations along Route 27, Route 123, Spring Hill Road, and Route 7. Existing CCTV cameras are
currently connected to the TMC though a variety of methods that include leased lines, twisted
pair, coaxial cable, and fiber optic connections.
3.2 Stakeholders and their Roles & Responsibilities
3.2.1 VDOT NRO Freeway Operations
Freeway Operations includes the real-time operations staff at the NRO TMC which is responsible
for monitoring freeway traffic conditions and controlling the freeway ITS elements and SSP. The
TMC – located in Arlington, VA – is the centerpiece of operations, monitoring the freeway 24
hours, 7 days a week. ITS field equipment is primarily controlled by the TMC including CCTV
cameras, DMS, and Highway Advisory Radio (HAR). Woodrow Wilson Bridge (WWB) operates
their own ITS infrastructure apart from the TMC. Additionally, Safety Service Patrols are
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VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Concept of Operations Final dispatched by the TMC. Fredericksburg currently has 7 freeway cameras that are
connected/monitored by the Thornburg TMC via T-1 lines. Typical freeway operations
responsibilities include:
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Coordinate road closure activities
Collect and process automated traffic data from traffic speed monitoring sites
Monitor traffic on freeway mainlines and on-off ramps using field equipment including
cameras, inductive loops, and non-intrusive equipment
Initiate traffic management strategies on incident impacted facilities
Initiate emergency medical assistance until help arrives
Provide traffic control on freeways (i.e., ramp metering)
Assist motorists with disabled vehicles
Provide traveler information utilizing DMS, 511, and HAR traveler information services
Determine and implement incident clearance and roadway repair needs
Establish and operate alternate routes
Coordinate clearance and repair resources
Repair transportation infrastructure
3.2.2 VDOT NRO Signal Systems Operations
VDOT NRO Signal System Operations staff is responsible for the development and maintenance
of traffic signal timing plans for more than 1,400 traffic signals throughout the region. Although
special plans are not typically programmed as part of the standard time-of-day clock, special
plans can be fine-tuned in the field as needed. Special plans can be called up from the TMC based
on phone calls from the public, known event schedules, or incidents observed on the monitors. As
traffic incidents are monitored from the TMC, VDOT staff can make changes by downloading
adjusted splits or cycle lengths for a temporary period of time when there are no defined incident
management plans. Signal operations staffing is not currently structured around a 24x7x365
environment.
3.2.3 Transportation Planning and Engineering
VDOT Northern Virginia District Transportation Planning and NRO Traffic Engineering staff are
collectively responsible for studying existing and new corridors, as well as making
determinations about transportation infrastructure, needs, regulations, and operations in the NRO.
3.2.4 Maintenance
The Maintenance staff is responsible for the upkeep of VDOT NRO field assets and for repairing
and replacing nonfunctioning equipment. This includes the maintenance of static signs, pavement
markings, lighting, traffic signals, ITS assets, and telecommunications infrastructure.
3.2.5 VDOT’s Statewide Video Distribution System (SVDS)
Clearinghouse
VDOT shares its CCTV camera images with the regional stakeholders and the general public
through its statewide video clearinghouse. TrafficLand is the current SVDS contractor acting as
an agent for VDOT for video distribution. VDOT policy allows up to three (3) private contractors
to serve as clearinghouses. Video images are currently made available to the general public on the
SVDS contractor’s website (currently TrafficLand www.trafficland.com).
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VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Concept of Operations Final 3.2.6 Regional Integrated Transportation Information System
The University of Maryland’s Center for Advanced Transportation Technology (CATT)
Laboratory has taken the lead in developing a system to help improve the transportation
efficiency, safety, and security through the integration of existing transportation management
systems. This system, the Regional Integrated Transportation Information System (RITIS), will
enable the Metropolitan Washington D.C. region to share transportation related information
including video images.
3.2.7 Media/Information Service Providers (ISPs)
The typical roles and responsibilities of the media and ISPs as they relate to incident management
activities include:
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Report traffic incidents
Broadcast information on delays
Provide alternate route information
Update incident status frequently
Provide video or photography services
VDOT NRO is covered by the regional media encompassing the entire Metropolitan Washington,
D.C. area. These media outlets provide news, traffic, and weather information on a regular basis.
VDOT NRO and several emergency management agencies in the area have a close working
relationship with personnel at these media outlets. When VDOT migrates to the PSTOC, media
entities will obtain video images solely through the SVDS contractor (currently TrafficLand).
However, there are several media entities that have a direct connection to the analog video
switching equipment at the Arlington TMC.
3.3 Existing Operational Sequence
The existing operational sequence for CCTV cameras is best described using the incident
management process. Incident management includes a series of activities, which are carried out
by personnel from a variety of response agencies and organizations. It includes the following
activities: (1) detection, (2) verification, (3) response, (4) site management, (5) traffic
management, and (6) clearance. The use of CCTV cameras throughout this process is discussed
below; in addition, the use of CCTV cameras in gate control operations is discussed.
3.3.1 Detection
Detection is the process by which an incident is brought to the attention of the agency or agencies
responsible for maintaining traffic flow and safe operations in the project area. Incident detection
is performed using several different techniques including:
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Calls from motorist cell phones
VDOT Safety Service Patrols (phone, two-way radio)
Virginia State Police (phone, scanner, CAD)
Fire and Rescue (scanner)
Police Department (scanner)
Local jurisdiction emergency alert and notification systems (i.e., Fairfax County CEAN,
Arlington Alert)
Media (phone)
May 2008 Page 7
VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Concept of Operations Final In addition to these detection techniques, the NoVA TMC has three (3) workstations assigned to
monitor designated geographic areas. These geographic areas include I-66, I-95/I-395, and the
Capital Beltway (I-495). TMC operators observe traffic conditions within their assigned areas by
touring CCTV cameras along their designated corridors. The existing camera-to-operator ratio
averages 42:1.
VDOT NRO is currently investigating video incident detection (VIDs) which is a technology for
automatic real-time detection of traffic incidents on roadways based on image processing
techniques. VIDs use images from CCTV cameras which are processed by a video detection unit
that extracts pertinent information enabling the system to spot stopped vehicles. This information
is then transmitted to a TMC Operator via the ATMS software. Incidents and events are logged
into VOIS (Virginia Operational Information System) which is the current source of information
for VDOT’s 511 traveler information system. In the near future, VOIS will be replaced by a new
system called VA Traffic.
3.3.2 Verification
Verification includes confirming that an incident has occurred, determining its exact location, and
obtaining as many relevant details about the incident as possible. Verification includes gathering
enough information to dispatch the proper initial response. Verification is usually performed by
TMC operators viewing CCTV cameras or by dispatched field units (e.g., police and freeway
service patrol vehicles) at the incident site.
According to VDOT NRO’s Standard Operating Procedures (SOP), verification of incidents
requires TMC operators to obtain the following information:
Location:
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Location of incident (e.g., I-66)
Direction of travel (e.g., westbound, eastbound)
Nearest reference point (e.g., mile marker, exit number)
Number of lanes blocked
Nature of the Problem:
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Are there any injuries?
How many vehicles are involved?
Is the vehicle overturned?
Are any commercial vehicles involved?
3.3.3 Response
Response includes dispatching the appropriate personnel and equipment and activating the
appropriate communication links and motorist information media as soon as there is reasonable
certainty that an incident is present. This coordination is usually led by operators at the TMC.
TMC operators determine through response units the estimated duration and severity of the
incident. First responders with access to video images through TrafficLand or RITIS may use the
video images to assist with the response.
3.3.4 Site Management
Site management is the process of effectively coordinating and managing on-scene resources.
The foremost objective is ensuring the safety of response personnel, incident victims, and other
motorists. CCTV cameras are used during the site management stage to monitor incident response
May 2008 Page 8
VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Concept of Operations Final activities from the TMC. The TMC Operator may occasionally need to block video access to
external agencies, media, and the public depending on the severity of the on-scene conditions
and/or security concerns.
3.3.5 Traffic Management
Traffic management is the application of traffic control measures in areas affected by the
incident. Traffic management occurs both at the incident site and at the TMC. Responders are
responsible for the incident scene while the TMC looks at the regional view. The TMC is
responsible for determining the impact that the incident has on the region and reacting
accordingly. VDOT NRO utilizes several strategies to manage traffic during an incident
including:
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Posting messages on dynamic message signs (DMS) or portable changeable message signs
(PCMS) to advise motorists of incident details and potential actions to take (i.e., alternate
routes, expected delays, travel times, etc). CCTV cameras are used by TMC operators to
verify message content posted on the message signs.
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Operating Ramp Meter System (RMS) on I-66 and I-395. TMC operators utilize CCTV
cameras to fine tune and monitor operation of individual metered ramps, precluding the
necessity for on-site field observation. Additionally, TMC operators use cameras to monitor
operations throughout the peak periods.
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Operating Lane Control Signals (LCS) on I-66 where the signals are currently for shoulder
usage and are used to enable extra capacity during morning and evening rush periods. TMC
operators use CCTV cameras to ensure that the roadway is clear of obstructions before
opening the shoulder; monitor the shoulder for incidents; and verify LCS displays (red X or
green arrow.
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Adjusting traffic signal timing plans to account for excess demand during an incident. VDOT
staff can make changes by downloading adjusted splits or cycle lengths, and use CCTV
cameras to monitor roadways when changing timing plans.
3.3.6 Clearance
Clearance is the process of removing wreckage, debris, or any other element that disrupts the
normal flow of traffic and restoring the roadway capacity to its pre-incident condition. Private
towing companies are responsible for clearing incidents. TMC operators confirm that an incident
has been cleared using CCTV cameras and / or information received from on-site representatives.
3.3.7 Gate Control Operations
TMC operators coordinate with a technician located in the field and use CCTV cameras to verify
that HOV gates and the Monument Drive gates are opened / closed at the time specified.
4.0 Operational Needs
This section details specific needs that will drive the requirements for the future CCTV Camera
System. These operational needs were identified thru a series of one-on-one and group interviews
with VDOT and Virginia Transportation Research Council staff as well as extensive research on
the use of CCTV cameras. The needs ensure that the goals identified in Section 1.4 are integrated
into the development of the specific requirements. Needs are grouped below into the following
categories: freeway operations; signal operations; maintenance; and transportation engineering /
planning needs.
May 2008 Page 9
VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Concept of Operations Final 4.1 Freeway Operations
Freeway Operations staff uses the CCTV system to detect and verify freeway incidents such as
accidents, breakdowns, and debris on the roadway as well as to monitor planned and unplanned
events such as lane closures for road work. Freeway Operations staff needs to be able to verify
the performance of other ITS systems using the CCTV system. The Freeway Operations staff
need the system to help increase operator efficiency through a Video Incident Detection (VID)
expert system to notify operators of road condition changes in a camera’s feed while another feed
is being viewed.
System objectives based on Freeway Operations user needs are presented in the following
traceability matrices.
4.1.1 Traffic Management
Objective
4.1.1.1 Corridor Management
4.1.1.2 Condition Monitoring
4.1.1.3 Inform Public and Media
4.1.1.4 Regional Coordination
User Need
a. Monitor freeways and arterials with limited gaps
b. Ability to monitor and compare parallel arterials that
can support diversion during an incident and report
on congestion
c. Monitor regular lanes as well as express and
reversible lanes
a. Provide camera coverage of full mainline laneage in
both directions
b. Ability to monitor interchanges: merge areas, diverge
areas, and weave areas
c. Avoid visual obstructions such as vegetation, ramps,
overpasses, buildings, and signs
d. Ability to view images in low light conditions
e. Ability to view images in fog, rain, snow conditions
f. Ability to view steady, clear image
g. Cameras programmed to return to preset angle, zoom,
and focus when not under active operator control.
a. Create low bandwidth copy of TMC video feed and
make available to general public via internet sites
such as VDOT 511 webpage
b. Create low bandwidth copy of TMC video and
provide to media and ISPs through a media feed
c. Disable public feeds during emergencies, security
events, or other events of a sensitive nature (i.e.,
fatalities)
a. Share video images with regional stakeholders (state
and local DOTs, Police, Fire & Rescue)
b. Share video images via Video Clearinghouse
c. Share video images via RITIS
4.1.2 Incident and Event Monitoring
Objective
4.1.2.1 Freeway Incidents
May 2008 User Need
a. Provide full camera coverage on interstates and limit
coverage gaps where incidents can occur without
detection
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VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Concept of Operations 4.1.2.2 Planned Events
4.1.2.3 Unplanned Events
Final b. Ability to monitor interchanges: merge areas,
diverge areas, and weave areas
c. Ability to monitor bridges
d. Visually verify incident reports from other detection
means such as Virginia State Police Computer Aided
Dispatch (VSP CAD), Traveler Calls, and the SSP
e. Ability to focus cameras on suspected incidents
f. Ability to select displayed camera feed
g. Potential for automatic notification of incidents: VID
a. Ability to monitor planned events entailing lane or
interchange closures or route diversion, such as longterm construction, parades and festivals, and the
Marine Corps Marathon
a. Operator ability to detect and monitor traffic
conditions due to unplanned events such as early
school closures
4.1.3 Validating Other Infrastructure
Objective
4.1.3.1 DMS
4.1.3.2 High-Occupancy Vehicle
(HOV) Lanes
4.1.3.3 High-Occupancy/Toll
(HOT) Lanes
4.1.3.4 Ramp Metering System
4.1.3.5 Lane Control System
(LCS)
User Need
a. Operator ability to verify DMS status and message
display
a. Ability to detect wrong-way vehicles and notify SSP
operator
b. Ability to tour HOV lane cameras and determine lane
clearance
c. Monitor for stalled vehicles in HOV lanes
d. Monitor HOV lane gates to
a. Monitor the impacts of HOT lanes on general
purpose lanes
b. Monitor HOT lane entry points / exits
a. Ability to monitor the ramp metering system
a. Ability to monitor Lane Control System (LCS)
displays on I-66
b. Ability to use VID on LCS shoulders
4.1.4 Active Speed Limit Management
Objective
4.1.4.1 Adjust Speed Limit to
Traffic Conditions
User Need
a. Obtain qualitative visual descriptive information
about traffic conditions
4.1.5 Performance Measurement for Freeway Operations
Performance measurements will be used to evaluate the CCTV system’s effectiveness in freeway
operations. Criteria will be needed to evaluate the CCTV system’s performance in traffic and
incident/event management. The system’s incident/event management contribution can be judged
by its mean time-to-verification between when an event is detected or reported and when TMC
operators using the CCTV system finish verifying the detected event. This can be contrasted with
the time needed to verify events in areas with little or no CCTV coverage.
May 2008 Page 11
VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Concept of Operations Final Sensitivity settings for the proposed VIDs expert system would need to be evaluated and adjusted
based on false alerts and/or slow response times. The numbers of reported non-events and missed
events by the expert system as a percent of total events during the reporting period is a
quantitative performance measurement for the expert system. These types of systems traditionally
require a lot of care and feeding (i.e., configuration, adjustment, and maintenance), and thus
should play a secondary role given the maintenance burden.
4.2 Signal Operations
The CCTV system will include cameras on signalized arterial highways. These cameras will
provide information that can help Signal Operations monitor the arterials and manage traffic and
incidents.
System objectives based on Signal Operations user needs are presented in the following
traceability matrices.
4.2.1 Arterial Congestion Management
Objective
4.2.1.1 Responsive Timing Plan
Selection
User Need
a. Observe and note overall traffic conditions on the
arterial network.
b. Observe the effectiveness of selected timing plan in
the form of throughput volume.
c. Provide real-time traveler information on 511designated arterials.
4.2.2 High-Accident Location Monitoring
Objective
4.2.2.1 Key Location
Monitoring
User Need
a. Observe and monitor key “high accident” locations.
b. Provide real-time incident information to the
public/media for major arterials.
4.2.3 Performance Measurement for Signal Operations
The CCTV system will provide a method to measure traffic signal performance. VDOT NRO’s
Signal and Freeway Systems Operations group has calculated signal optimization benefits using
modeled, rather than empirical, data about stops and delays at signalized intersections. With
appropriate software, the CCTV system can record the actual number of stops and the lengths of
the delays at a signal. This field data will provide a direct performance measurement for observed
signals and validate the model used to judge the performance of other signals. Also, when NRO
staff receives citizen concerns regarding arterial signal timing, the CCTV system expedites
investigation of concerns within its coverage area by allowing personnel to observe traffic
conditions in real time from afar.
4.3 Maintenance
The CCTV system will be unable to meet freeway and signal operator needs if its elements are
not working. New and replacement CCTV devices will need to be comprised of reliable
components with a high Mean-Time Between Failures (MTBF) rating in order to reduce the
likelihood of failure during an average 5-7 year life span. When elements do fail, VDOT NRO
Maintenance needs to be able to restore system functionality as quickly and easily as possible in
May 2008 Page 12
VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Concept of Operations Final order to provide for other users’ needs to be met. A system that has minimal cost and downtime
when serviced will also help the maintenance department to effectively steward its budgetary and
labor resources.
System objectives based on Maintenance user needs are presented in the following traceability
matrices.
4.3.1 Reliability
Objective
4.3.1.1 Device Reliability
4.3.1.2 System Reliability
User Need
a. CCTV device power and communications should not
be affected by other devices.
b. Key CCTV locations and associated communication
repeater locations with backup power.
c. Long lasting equipment: components rated for
continuous operation without failure for 5+ years
d. Robust, weatherproofed equipment.
a. Ability to control and monitor cameras from main
PSTOC facility or backup TMC
b. Overlapping coverage to prevent coverage gap due to
single device failure.
4.3.2 Preventative Maintenance, Repair & Replacement
Objective
User Need
4.3.2.1 Minimizing Maintenance
Cost and Down Time
a. Field equipment that is simple to replace, remove,
and service, resulting in a short Mean Time To
Repair (MTTR)
b. Readily available device replacements.
c. Appropriate maintenance funds allocated prior to
increase in field devices.
d. Ability to remotely reset equipment power.
e. Ability to remotely test devices via IP protocol.
a. Device components traceable within Inventory &
Maintenance Management System (IMMS)
b. Device’s unique IP numbers logged in IMMS
c. Devices identified according to logical system
d. Devices bar coded in accordance with Appendix 2,
Inventory Barcode Requirements
4.3.2.1 Managing Replacement
Stocks
4.3.3 Camera Location for Maintenance
Objective
4.3.3.1 Minimize physical
damage
4.3.3.2 Accessible to
May 2008 User Need
a. Protect equipment from vehicle impact damage
through appropriate placement or guardrail.
b. Power and communication cables protected against
line breaks.
c. Provide lightning and surge protection for devices
and electrical/communication lead-in conductors.
d. Install on stable foundations.
e. Vandalism prevention and mitigation.
a. Safe access to CCTV locations for maintenance
Page 13
VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Concept of Operations Maintenance crews
Final crews.
b. Accessible with existing 35’ maintenance bucket
trucks.
c. Ample flat, level, and stable surfaces for bucket
trucks with outriggers to operate safely off of the
travel surface without lane closure.
d. Locations to avoid heavy vegetation.
e. Avoid mounting on bridges, overpasses, flyovers, or
other structures.
4.3.4 Maintenance Performance Measures
CCTV availability can be measured by the equipment’s MTBF. When equipment does fail, the
mean outage duration, measured as the MTTR, will also be an indicator of maintenance
performance and CCTV availability.
The number of maintenance personnel trips to service cameras along with travel time and timeon-site can all be tracked as performance measures of system maintenance needs. These
measurements will show the system’s demand on the maintenance staff and budget.
4.4 NoVA District Transportation Planning and NRO Traffic
Engineering Needs
Northern Virginia District Transportation Planning and NRO Traffic Engineering staff has a need
for aggregated road user and network-wide traffic data. Although fulfillment of these data needs
does not incorporate the real-time capabilities of the CCTV system, the system’s cameras can be
used as data collectors within its coverage area for short durations at different times of the year.
System objectives based on Planning and Engineering user needs are presented in the following
traceability matrices.
4.4.1 Planning and Engineering Data Collection
Objective
4.4.1.1 Origin and Destination
Studies
4.4.1.2 Spot Analyses
User Need
a. Ability to augment outsourced data collection with
CCTV system.
a. While current VDOT policy is not to record CCTVs,
Planning & Engineering may consider monitoring or
recording an area for verifying safety, geometric, or
other traffic-related issues.
5.0 System Overview
5.1 Software Subsystem
The new ATMS software that is being developed for the new PSTOC facility will need to be able
to operate and monitor CCTV cameras. Additionally, the new ATMS software should eventually
support a field-based or central-based detection algorithm that will detect anomaly conditions
from CCTV imaging. The new ATMS software should be compatible with high speed Ethernet
communications and networking. In the future, the new ATMS software can recommend specific
CCTV cameras for verifying DMS message displays, gates, and ramp meters at adjacent
locations.
May 2008 Page 14
VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Concept of Operations Final 5.2 Cameras
As per the VDOT NRO’s Go Forward Plan, CCTV camera images should allow for operators to
detect and verify events, verify status of other ITS devices, and provide information on traffic
conditions to the public and the media. CCTV cameras should be added on arterials adjacent to
key highways to monitor their traffic conditions and make informed diversion decisions. The
cameras should be placed so that there are no major coverage gaps for either direction’s traffic. In
addition, views of all dynamic message signs and HOV lane gates should be incorporated within
the CCTV coverage in accordance with the VDOT NRO DMS Concept of Operations and FHWA
funding guidelines for DMS. All CCTV cameras will be equipped with standards-based (i.e.
MPEG-4, H.264, or equivalent) IP-formatted digital encoding with images able to be distributed
via high speed communications and compatible with the new ATMS. Existing cameras will be
upgraded and replaced as funding or device failures warrant. The camera images should continue
to be shared with regional stakeholders and the general public through VDOT’s existing Video
Clearinghouse for traffic incident and condition information dissemination, TrafficLand, or its
successor(s). In an effort to automate the incident detection process, VID expert systems may be
incorporated at strategic locations to support incident management, as well as to further maximize
the ratio of cameras to TMC Operators.
5.3 Communications
As part of VDOT NRO’s IP Video Migration deployment, the Department is planning to
return video from its existing video cameras back to the TMC over an Ethernet network.
Digital video relies on network bandwidth (rated in terms of 1000s of bits per second
(kbps)) and communication media (copper, fiber, wireless). The amount of available
bandwidth is dependent on the chosen media, and indirectly determines the image
quality/resolution that can be achieved.
There are different perspectives on video quality based on the type of user, and the
application. For instance, low-resolution video at a rate of 5-10 frames per second (fps)
may be acceptable to some operators who are merely monitoring for stopped vehicles or
incidents. However, congestion monitoring, and post-processing traffic analysis require a
higher resolution at nearly 30 fps.
Most agencies have determined that the lowest level of acceptable quality for traffic
condition monitoring is 1.0 to 1.5Mbps, which is just below the threshold for a leased T-1
telephone service line. However, when fiber resources are available, many elect to use
2.5 to 3.0Mbps for near-DVD quality video using MPEG-4 compression standards.
VDOT NRO is upgrading to an IP-based 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GigE) backbone for ITS
field communications along I-95/395 and I-66 with a physical ring connection along
Route 234. This upgrade is expected to be completed by the end of 2008. Cameras along
these routes will have access to VDOT’s fiber optic resources. A CCTV master plan is
being developed concurrently to evaluate and prioritize the deployment of additional
cameras along existing routes with fiber, as well as those that will require alternate
communication methods including leased lines or wireless.
For CCTV cameras that will be connected to the fiber optic backbone, the CCTV system
is to be connected to the PSTOC on an Ethernet ring architecture as shown in Figure 2.
May 2008 Page 15
VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Concept of Operations Final Each camera will have a digital encoder that converts the camera’s output into a digital
network signal. The encoder will feed the digital signal into an Ethernet field switch.
Chains of these field switches will be consolidated at hubs with much higher-bandwidth
network switches. These hubs will connect to the PSTOC, where switches will distribute
the digital signals to the ATMS software and servers as well as to the digital decoders
that convert the digital signal to analog output for the PSTOC displays. The ATMS
software will also transmit signals back through the network to control the cameras and
displays.
Figure 2: High-Level CCTV Communications Architecture
6.0 Operations and Support
6.1 Personnel
The current CCTV system has an overall camera-to-operator ratio of 42:1 and is monitored with
continuous touring through each operator’s assigned camera set, the size of which varies with the
assigned area. This method’s effectiveness will be challenged as the system expands with the
installation of additional cameras, which will increase the time between tour visits to each
camera. Having a VIDs expert system to notify operators of cameras needing their attention
because of conditions out of the ordinary would allow each operator to monitor a greater number
of cameras and improve efficiency from the touring method. Without this type of system
additional operators would be needed to maintain a similar ratio. Existing geographic areas would
be reassigned to adequately tour cameras and perform responses in a timely manner. Even at full
system deployment and maximum final staffing levels, the number of operators in the TMC will
be constrained to seven per shift. Using current ratios this implies that an expert system will be
needed when the system expands beyond approximately 290 cameras.
May 2008 Page 16
VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Concept of Operations Final 6.2 Facilities
By 2009, the PSTOC will house the operators and their control terminals. The existing TMC will
act as a redundant operations facility until adequate equipment and communication networks are
in place in the Traffic Field Operations (TFO) Building in Gainesville. The TMC will continue to
house the remaining SONET communication subsystem that supports the remaining ASSIST
software functionality. The existing CCTV field devices will have digital video encoders and
Ethernet switches in roadside cabinets.
VDOT NRO plans to use the existing Arlington TMC as a backup operations center until the
Traffic Field Operations (TFO) is capable of serving in this role sometime in 2009. Regardless of
which location is used, this Concept of Operations is based on the need to monitor and control
cameras from two locations without significant software or hardware configuration changes. The
IP Video migration upgrades in the field, along with the parallel ATMS software replacement
will ultimately achieve this operating concept.
6.3 Operating Procedures
Most new and / or replacement CCTV devices should retain the existing operating procedures
such as panning, tilting, zooming, and focusing. After construction, additional procedures should
be developed for automating, through software development or scripts, as many processes as
feasible. Potential changes that may be incorporated into the existing operating procedures are
listed below.
•
Specific CCTV locations should be considered as locations to perform Video Incident
Detection (VIDs). This will automate part of the incident detection within the corridor
and should be incorporated into the operating procedure as part of incident detection
methods. The incident will still need to be verified and handled as done currently.
•
Loss of video signal to a camera for greater than one minute should trigger an email
notification to a System Administrator or Maintenance staff member.
6.4 Maintenance and Budget
There will be a greater maintenance demand and cost due to the increase in CCTV devices. This
demand and cost should be minimized whenever possible through proper design, installation, and
device selection. Reliability as discussed above is a key factor in keeping a sustainable system. A
predetermined number of spare units (typically 5-10% of total installed) should be available for
installation in case devices fail in order to reduce the amount of down time or MTTR. Typically
10% of the capital infrastructure cost is allocated per year for routine maintenance and
replacement of electronics and support equipment.
For planning purposes, $6,000 per camera should be allocated per year for maintenance to
accommodate camera failures/replacement, as well as repairing/replacing surge arrestors, cables,
UPS’/batteries, cabinets, and other support equipment. Additionally, fiber cabling infrastructure is
at the heart of the majority of the NRO communication system. $15-$20,000 per mile of cabling
infrastructure should be allotted for both labor and material expenses to support emergency splice
maintenance and replacing small cable sections damaged by construction or other incidental
activities.
It is anticipated that all maintenance activities for permanent devices will be performed by VDOT
NRO’s Maintenance staff and its contractors utilizing their current maintenance contract. To
support maintenance activities, all ITS field equipment should be deployed in a manner that
allows maintenance staff to safely perform maintenance activities. Field equipment should be
May 2008 Page 17
VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Concept of Operations Final positioned in a manner that allows staff to perform maintenance with minimum impact on the
traveling lanes.
Information identifying and describing each piece of equipment will be collected and logged in
the IMMS at the time of installation. This IMMS data will streamline the process of monitoring,
locating, and tracking parts and equipment for maintenance purposes. Personnel should update
the IMMS information whenever performing maintenance work.
Two additional devices are recommended for maintenance purposes. First, the addition of a
telemetry device that is interlocked with the communications fiber would continuously report the
status (voltage and current) of each circuit in a service panel, including the main supply. The
main benefits would be faster detection of trouble and a more cost-effective response. Second, the
addition of a remotely managed (IP-based) power distribution strip would minimize maintenance
trips to a site for a simple device power restart.
7.0 Operational Scenarios
Operational scenarios present narratives of the system in typical use. Each scenario provides an
example of a situation that implicates a user need and explains how the system would be used to
address that need. These scenarios describe the system being used in concert with other ITS
systems to satisfy objectives in everyday operations.
7.1 Scenario 1 - Integrated Corridor Management
At 1:40 PM on Wednesday afternoon, an accident occurs on I-95 northbound at the Prince
William Parkway overpass in the left lane of the three-lane section. Traffic begins to queue and
the ATMS expert system notifies the TMC operator, who is touring through the I-95 cameras at
Springfield, of unusual conditions south of Prince William Parkway. The operator responds to the
alert by selecting the affected segments and quickly sees the growing congestion south of the
accident. Using cameras’ pan-tilt-zoom features, the operator detects the accident beneath the
overpass and identifies it as a two-vehicle collision. One car is flipped over on its side and a
former occupant appears to be lying on the shoulder.
The TMC operator notifies the VSP of the incident then shuts off the public and media feeds from
the camera viewing the scene. The operator next logs the incident into VOIS and dispatches the
nearest SSP unit. (In the future when VA Traffic replaces VOIS, the operator will be able to log
incidents into the ATMS software once, and it will be distributed to VA Traffic and 511.)
Continuing to monitor the incident and its developments with that camera, the operator quickly
tours through the cameras on the parallel integrated corridor route, U.S. Route 1. Seeing regular
traffic conditions on Route 1, the TMC requests approval from traffic signal engineers before
notifying motorists about Route 1 as an alternate to I-95. Northbound DMS on I-95 are
programmed to announce an incident at Prince William Parkway. A secondary message alerts
motorists about the travel times to Gordon Boulevard via Route 1 and I-95. With the CCTV
system, the TMC operator confirms that the DMS are displaying the messages properly. An I-95
Detour signal timing plan is activated for Route 1.
Northbound Motorist Alpha sees the DMS notice and decides to bypass the accident area. Alpha
exits I-95 at Dale Boulevard and gets on U.S. 1 to bypass the incident and its congestion. The I95 Northbound Detour plan on Route 1 helps Alpha and other northbound motorists circumvent
the incident.
Northbound Motorist Bravo sees the DMS notice and decides to stay on I-95 northbound.
Forewarned by the DMS, however, Bravo changes lanes out of the left lane shortly after Opitz
Boulevard and is prepared to slow down before Prince William Parkway. Bravo and other
May 2008 Page 18
VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Concept of Operations Final northbound motorists are able to avoid secondary collisions on I-95, where traffic slows but does
not stop.
The TMC operator continues to use CCTV to monitor congestion levels along both I-95 and
Route 1. As backups increase, the operator activates additional DMS alerts further south of the
incident in the same fashion.
7.2 Scenario 2 - HOV Clearance Procedures
At 11:30 AM on a Friday morning, the I-395 HOV lane transition from northbound to
southbound flow is scheduled to begin. The process begins with the TMC operator remotely
commanding the northbound entry gates to close. The TMC operator checks the northbound gates
with the CCTV cameras and confirms that all northbound entry gates are closed as the SSP begins
a ride-through to verify that the lanes are clear before the southbound gates open.
The SSP finds a stalled vehicle in the HOV lane. The TMC operator monitors the situation via
CCTV as the SSP renders assistance and/or requests towing service. Once the stall is cleared the
SSP continues the ride-through, finding no more obstructions, as the TMC operator uses the
CCTV system to monitor the motorist’s progress out of the HOV lane. Once the motorist has
returned to the I-395 northbound local lanes, the TMC operator gives the instructions for the
northbound exit gates to close and the southbound gates to open.
The TMC operator uses the CCTV system to check the southbound gates and sees that the entry
gate north of Edsall Road has malfunctioned and remains closed. The TMC operator dispatches
the SSP to that gate and observes while the SSP manually opens the gate. By 12:30 PM, all gates
are open and the SSP returns to patrolling the freeway while the TMC operator resumes touring
the CCTV system.
It should be noted that plans are in process to deploy High-Occupancy Toll (HOT) lanes along I395 and I-495, which would then be operated by private firms.
7.3 Scenario 3 – I-66 Shoulder Lane Control
At 5:19 PM on a rainy Tuesday evening the I-66 Westbound shoulder has been serving as an
additional lane for westbound traffic since 4:00 PM. The TMC operator’s attention has been
focused on the CCTV feed from the camera on I-66 Westbound at Route 234, where the wet
roadway and poor visibility contributed to an accident that is being cleared from the inside lane.
Suddenly, the operator receives a notification from the VID that the Route 655, Waples Mill
Road, camera has detected an anomaly in the shoulder being used as a supplemental lane. The
operator passes control of the Route 234 camera to another operator and brings up the feed from
the Waples Mill Road camera. The camera shows a disabled vehicle in the shoulder 1,000 feet
east of Waples Mill Road.
In response, the operator notifies the SSP of the disabled vehicle. The operator then initiates a
progressive closure of the shoulder lane from the disabled vehicle upstream to Route 123. Each
LCS display in turn, starting with the display immediately upstream from the disabled vehicle,
changes from the green arrow indicating permitted travel on the shoulder to the red X indicating
normal prohibition of travel on the shoulder. The operator also programs a message for the DMS
at Blake Lane to notify westbound drivers of the disabled vehicle at Waples Mill Road and the
shoulder closure west of Route 123.
Using CCTV to verify that this message is showing properly on the two DMS, the operator sees
that a westbound LCS display between Blake Lane and Route 123 has malfunctioned and is
displaying neither the green arrow nor the red X. The operator logs the malfunction and notifies
maintenance personnel of the display needing attention.
May 2008 Page 19
VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Concept of Operations Final 8.0 Next Steps
The Concept of Operations for the CCTV system presents new devices and operating procedures
requiring integration into the new ATMS and daily operations of the system stakeholders. This
section reviews areas of next steps within the systems engineering process to carry these
operations concepts forward to the implementation stage.
8.1 Detailed Requirements
The VDOT NRO Systems Engineering group will develop functional and performance
requirements for system components along with the physical location of these components,
including CCTV cameras and supporting equipment, which may need to have backup power and
communication facilities at key locations for their extended uses. Design requirements will cover
a robust, dependable installation of field devices and requirements for operations and
maintenance staff. More detailed requirements for incorporation into specification and
procurement documents will be provided as part of system design.
8.2 System Design
Detailed design of integrated communications to the ITS elements and integration with existing
VDOT TMC systems will be performed as part of detailed design activities. This will include
new CCTV cameras and related communications and power supply equipment. If creative
approaches or unfamiliar equipment are incorporated into the design, prototype testing should be
performed to minimize risk. The VDOT NRO Systems Engineering group or consultants will
develop the system design. System procurement(s) may occur as part of a design-bid build or as
part of a design-build procurement; the approach will be determined by VDOT. System design
will include identifying the new corridors and specific camera locations, as well as existing
locations that are to be upgraded/included in each deployment package.
If the field equipment, communication system, or intended operations require changes to the
ATMS, the designers will prepare detailed specifications for the software work, so that VDOT
can arrange for that work to be performed.
8.3 Software/Hardware Development Field Installation
All hardware field installation for CCTV will be conducted by VDOT NRO Operations
Installation & Construction (OIC) according to the specifications (detailed design or design-build,
as approved by VDOT), and will be inspected by VDOT NRO OIC. OIC, however, may choose
to use a contractor for either activity. During installation, OIC or the contractor should collect
information on all devices for logging in the IMMS. Meanwhile, VDOT’s central software
contractor will complete the necessary modifications of the ATMS. VDOT NRO ITS Information
Technology Section (ITS-IT) will oversee coordination between the CCTV contractor and the
central software contractor. This may include providing samples of field equipment to the
software contractor for use in testing the software during development. VDOT NRO ITS-IS (or
representative) will also oversee software field installation.
8.4 Unit/Device Testing
This project will require testing geared toward CCTV cameras, encoders/decoders, CCTV related
communications equipment, and CCTV related power supply equipment. Factory acceptance
testing will be required for each unit of certain materials, such as CCTV cameras. Some
equipment may be tested after delivery but prior to installation, if that makes testing easier. For
May 2008 Page 20
VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Concept of Operations Final example, the water tightness of camera assemblies may be tested prior to installation. All items
will be inspected or tested after installation.
Prior to testing, the contractor will be required to provide proposed test procedures for VDOT
NRO OIC and ITS-IT approval. For some items, the project specifications will describe some of
the tests that must be performed. In addition, there will be a general requirement that all tests and
diagnostic activities recommended by the equipment manufacturer must be performed. There will
also be a general requirement that unit testing of items that are intended to communicate with the
TMC must be tested while communicating with the TMC.
The project specifications will stipulate the relationship between the unit testing and payment. For
most items, the contractor will receive a progress payment when the materials are delivered, and
the remaining portion of the bid price (other than retainage) when the item passes its unit test. For
items whose suitability cannot be completely determined by inspection upon delivery, no
progress payment will be allowed. For items whose suitability cannot be completely determined
based on unit testing, a portion of the bid price may be paid when the item passes its unit
acceptance test, but the remainder will not be paid until the related subsystem and system tests
have been passed. For example, cameras can be tested locally at the field cabinets to demonstrate
working units, but they require subsystem testing with the digital encoders, Ethernet equipment,
and central software prior to complete acceptance.
8.5 Subsystem & System Verification and Acceptance
Once all devices and components are individually tested and accepted by VDOT NRO OIS &
ITS-IT Sections, the contractor is responsible for testing of specific subsystems functionality
(e.g., Traffic Operations Requirement, Signal Operations Requirements, etc.) to verify that they
meet all pertinent operational and performance requirements as documented in the specifications.
In most cases, the system or subsystem under test will include the central software, so testing may
reveal problems that are the responsibility of the central software contractor, not the CCTV
contractor. The project specifications must deal with this possibility, indicating how this
eventuality will affect payment. VDOT NRO OIC and ITS-IT are to witness the testing and will
either (a) develop a punch list of items or issues to be resolved, or (b), if there are no remaining
items or issues to be resolved, authorize the start of the system acceptance test.
The system acceptance test, sometimes called a “burn-in” period, entails 30-days of normal
operation with all systems in place. Completion of the acceptance test will assure that all systems
are fundamentally operational. Any major failures which occur within the system operation
during the 30-day period will cause the 30-day clock to start again, until such time that 30 days
go by with the system in full operation. Any item that fails in large numbers will be replaced in its
entirety.
8.6 System Validation
As part of the systems engineering process, a validation plan is typically completed to
complement the Concept of Operations. This plan defines expectations so that when completed,
all stakeholders can agree on whether the system designed or deployed met its objectives.
During the first year of operation, VDOT will determine the extent to which this project meets its
intended objectives based on the validation plan and the data collected in accordance with that
plan. Data likely to be deemed indicative of the success of this project include:
•
•
Number and location of accidents detected through VIDs
Time to detect and verify incidents
May 2008 Page 21
VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Concept of Operations •
•
Final Reliability of the CCTV system and equipment
Stakeholders’ perceptions of the project impacts
The validation may reveal opportunities to improve the procedures used to develop and
implement similar projects in the future. The validation plan should be developed prior to project
implementation, so that relevant data can be collected before the project for use in before/after
comparisons.
8.7 Operations & Maintenance
Camera system expansion will continue to serve as a cornerstone of TMC’s traffic management
processes. Disruptions or failures in the performance of these functions can impact traffic safety,
reduce system capacity, and ultimately lead the traveling public to lose faith in the information
generated by the transportation network. The problem is further complicated by the fact that
today's systems, subsystems, and components often are highly interdependent, meaning that a
single malfunction can critically impact the ability of the overall systems to perform their
intended functions.
The existing operational sequence and standard operating procedures will need to be modified
and updated both to meet all user needs and to fit the new system architecture.
Operators are currently assigned for given segments (one for I-95/395, one for I-66, and one for I495) of freeway. Arterials outside of Tysons Corner have not been traditionally been monitored
by the TMC operators. A dedicated TMC operator will be assigned to the Dulles Metrorail project
during the core hours of 6am to 10pm for approximately two years of construction. However, this
is neither a long-term solution for these, nor the remaining arterials. VDOT NRO currently has
two dedicated call-takers in the TMC that hand off calls to the appropriate segment operator. In
the PSTOC, this model will change to one where all operators will share in fielding incoming
calls. However, it is still planned to have area or “segment” experts primarily assigned to the
area(s) where they have the most experience. VDOT will have a maximum total of seven freeway
management operator positions in the PSTOC. While not the only factor influencing a need for
additional TMC freeway operators, current staffing levels would suggest an additional operator
for every increase of 40-50 cameras throughout the freeway system.
VDOT NRO Maintenance will continue to own and maintain the system within the expansion
areas. However operations and maintenance for the cameras, as with other similar systems in the
region, could be included in contracted maintenance, since most if not all the components are
expected to be compatible with similar devices elsewhere in the Northern Region Operations
area. Additionally, funding routine device maintenance and/or replacement should be included in
annual budget reviews. The use of 10% of the initial capital investment cost is widely accepted
industry practice. Outsourcing warranty and repair of these items will come at a higher premium,
which will be dependent on the quantity and type of equipment to be maintained, and more
importantly the response times.
May 2008 Page 22
Appendix 1 CCTV ConOps, Appendix 1, NRO CCTV High Level Requirements User Need
ConOps
Section
High-Level Requirement
Number and Title
1.0 - Functional Requirements
Ability to monitor and compare
parallel arterials that can support
diversion during an incident and
report on congestion
Create low bandwidth copy of TMC
video feed and make available to
general public via internet sites such
as VDOT 511 webpage
4.1.1.1.b
1.1 – Video Wall & Monitors
4.1.1.3.a
1.2 – Corridor Bundle Camera
Groups
1.3 – Low Quality Video
Disable public feeds during
emergencies, security events, or other
events of a sensitive nature (i.e.,
fatalities)
Visually verify incident reports from
other detection means such as
Virginia State Police Computer
Aided Dispatch (VSP CAD),
Traveler Calls, and the SSP
4.1.1.3.c
4.1 – Equipment Compatibility
With Other Agencies
1.4 – Cutting Video Feeds
4.1.2.1.d
1.5 – Pan/Tilt/Zoom Controls
Ability to select displayed camera
feed
Potential for automatic notification of
incidents: VID
4.1.2.1.f
2.2 – Arterial Spacing
4.3 – ATMS Software
Compatibility
1.1 – Video Wall & Monitors
4.1.2.1.g
1.6 – Video Incident Detection
Ability to monitor planned events
entailing lane or interchange closures
or route diversion, such as long-term
construction, parades and festivals,
and the Marine Corps Marathon
4.1.2.2.a
1.2 – Corridor Bundle Camera
Groups
2.1 – Freeway Spacing
Operator ability to detect and monitor
traffic conditions due to unplanned
events such as early school closures
4.1.2.3.a
April 17, 2008 2.1 – Freeway Spacing
2.2 – Arterial Spacing
1.7 – User Defined Camera Set
FINAL High-Level Requirement
Operators should have the ability to select and view single or multiple CCTV
locations on either their computer monitor or the PSTOC video wall.
ATMS should support device groupings for parallel routes in support of
incident management diversion corridors.
CCTV encoders and/or software shall be capable of producing a lower
quality/lower bandwidth copy of each camera feed.
Defined in High Level Requirement 4.1 - Equipment Compatibility With
Other Agencies.
Operators should have the ability to disable selected low bandwidth video
feeds to designated agencies, public, or media during justified events. The
feed(s) should remain disabled until the operator reactivates the feed(s).
Primary video feeds for ATMS operators should remain active at all times.
Cameras shall be able to pan/tilt/zoom. Operators will be able to control the
cameras from the PSTOC, or the backup TMC.
Defined in High Level Requirements 2.1 – Freeway Spacing.
Defined in High Level Requirements 2.2 – Arterial Spacing.
Defined in High Level Requirements 4.3 – ATMS Software Compatibility.
Previously defined.
ATMS shall have the ability (where specified by design plans), through
predefined algorithms, to detect a possible event from CCTV video feeds and
notify the appropriate operator. These events include, but are not limited to
accidents, stalled vehicles, unusual congestion and wrong-way vehicles.
Previously defined.
Defined in High Level Requirements 2.1 – Freeway Spacing.
Defined in High Level Requirements 2.2 – Arterial Spacing.
Operator shall have the ability to define a set of cameras as a group to monitor
during an unplanned event. This group can easily be recalled through the
ATMS for a user defined timeframe.
Page A1‐1 CCTV ConOps, Appendix 1, NRO CCTV High Level Requirements FINAL 1.6 – Video Incident Detection
2.1 – Freeway Spacing
2.2 – Arterial Spacing
1.6 – Video Incident Detection
Previously defined.
Defined in High Level Requirements 2.1 – Freeway Spacing.
Defined in High Level Requirements 2.2 – Arterial Spacing.
Previously defined.
1.2 – Corridor Bundle Camera
Groups
1.6 – Video Incident Detection
Previously defined.
The CCTV system shall provide the ability to visually compare side-by-side
videos of selected roadway segments for an operator to assess the traffic
conditions.
The CCTV system shall be capable of providing operators clear, concise
visual indication and verification of real-time traffic conditions on arterials
and freeway roadway networks.
Previously defined.
Ability to detect wrong-way vehicles
and notify SSP operator
Ability to tour HOV lane cameras
and determine lane clearance
Monitor for stalled vehicles in HOV
lanes
Monitor the impacts of HOT lanes on
general purpose lanes
4.1.3.2.a
4.1.3.3.a
1.8 – Comparison of Roadway
Sections
Obtain qualitative visual descriptive
information about traffic conditions
4.1.4.1.a
1.9 – Obtain Visual Information
Observe and note overall traffic
conditions on the arterial network.
Observe the effectiveness of selected
timing plan in the form of throughput
volume.
4.2.1.1.a
1.9 – Obtain Visual Information
4.2.1.1.b
1.9 – Obtain Visual Information
Provide real-time traveler
information on 511-designated
arterials.
Observe and monitor key “high
accident” locations.
Provide real-time incident
information to the public/media for
major arterials.
Ability to augment outsourced data
collection with CCTV system.
Optional monitoring or recording an
area for off-line verification of safety,
geometric, or other traffic-related
issues.
Automatic return to default camera
setting.
4.2.1.1.c
1.11 – Relaying Information
4.2.2.1.a
2.3 – Key Locations
Previously defined.
The ATMS shall be capable of processing CCTV images to compare them to
historical or predefined congestion limits. These limits can then be identified
through the ATMS to the operator and used to verify a signal timing plan or to
indicate an incident.
The CCTV system shall be capable of relaying real-time information (visual
and/or data) to the media, VDOT 511 system, RITIS, and other approved
agencies.
Previously defined.
4.2.2.1.b
1.11 – Relaying Information
Previously defined.
4.4.1.1.a
1.12 – Outsourced Data Input
4.4.1.2.a
1.13 – Monitor and Recording of
CCTV
The CCTV system shall be capable of accepting outsourced video feeds from
other agencies.
The ability to monitor and record CCTV cameras for the possibility of
conducting studies or verifying planning and engineering data shall be
supported by hardware or software means.
4.1.1.2.b
1.14 – Automatic Return Home
4.1.3.2.b
4.1.3.2.c
1.10 – Predefined Congestion
Indicators
Previously defined.
After period of operator inactivity/no direct control, cameras will
automatically pan, tilt, and zoom to a programmed “home” view regardless of
where left by operator.
April 17, 2008 Page A1‐2 CCTV ConOps, Appendix 1, NRO CCTV High Level Requirements Monitor freeways and arterials with
limited gaps
4.1.1.1.a
2.0 - Physical Construction
Requirements
2.1 – Freeway Spacing
FINAL CCTV locations along freeways should be spaced in close proximity to each
other, approximately every 1 mile to ensure full coverage. Where video
analytics are intended and elsewhere as budgets permit, cameras should be
spaced approximately every ½ mile. Twice as many cameras will be needed
where heavily vegetated medians exist.
Monitor regular lanes as well as
express and reversible lanes
4.1.1.1.c
2.4 – Monitoring Multiple
Objectives
Provide camera coverage of full
mainline laneage in both directions
4.1.1.2.a
2.1 – Freeway Spacing
NOTE: CCTV spacing may vary depending on pole height. One mile
spacing is recommended for pole heights in the range of 65’.
CCTV locations along arterials should be spaced depending on the AADT.
Cameras should be placed at intersections of VDOT NRO Expansion
Corridors and spaced approximately every 2-5 miles between intersections.
CCTV locations should be at key intersections, bridges, interchanges, and
high accident areas.
CCTV locations should be located to view multiple desired objectives such as
regular lanes, DMS, HOV gates, metering ramps, HOV lanes, reversible lanes,
express lanes, merge areas, diverge areas, and weave areas.
Previously defined.
Ability to monitor interchanges:
merge areas, diverge areas, and
weave areas
4.1.1.2.b
2.2 – Arterial Spacing
2.3 – Key Locations
Previously defined.
Previously defined.
Previously defined.
Avoid visual obstructions such as
vegetation, ramps, overpasses,
buildings, and signs
4.1.1.2.c
2.4 – Monitoring Multiple
Objectives
2.5 – Avoiding Visual
Obstructions
Ability to view images in low light
conditions
Ability to view images in fog, rain,
snow conditions
4.1.1.2.d
2.6 – Light Levels
4.1.1.2.e
2.7 – Weather Conditions
2.2 – Arterial Spacing
2.3 – Key Locations
Camera locations shall be selected to avoid obstructions whenever possible.
Locations with heavily vegetated medians, by bridges, overpasses and other
visual obstructions may require multiple camera locations to achieve the
desired full visual coverage of the area.
CCTV equipment shall have the ability to adjust sensitivity to low light level
conditions during nighttime hours and high light levels during daytime hours.
Camera shall have an internal heater to avoid fog, ice or snow formation on
the lens. CCTV equipment shall be capable of operating at a temperature
range of -10 to 50 degrees Celsius and humidity range of 20 to 100 percent, at
a minimum. CCTV cameras should be housed in a weatherproof enclosure
intended for pole mounted outdoor locations. Other CCTV equipment should
be mounted inside a weatherproof enclosure or cabinet.
April 17, 2008 Page A1‐3 CCTV ConOps, Appendix 1, NRO CCTV High Level Requirements Ability to view steady, clear image
4.1.1.2.f
FINAL 2.8 – Avoiding Vibration and
Glare
Avoid installing CCTV cameras where subject to vibration and glare.
Locations on structures that may have vibration such as bridges, overpasses,
flyovers, or areas of high winds should be avoided whenever possible. CCTV
cameras should be capable of withstanding a wind load of 90 mph without
permanent damage to the mechanical or electrical equipment. CCTV cameras
should be aimed so that it is not subject to direct sun glare during daylight and
transition times. Glare from other facilities and sources should be avoided as
well.
2.9 – Image Quality
Camera systems shall be color, and have a minimum resolution of 450
horizontal and 350 vertical TV lines per frame and support a frequency of up
to 30 frames per second.
Previously defined.
Ability to monitor interchanges:
merge areas, diverge areas, and
weave areas
4.1.2.1.b
2.3 – Key Locations
Ability to monitor bridges
Ability to focus cameras on suspected
incidents
4.1.2.1.c
4.1.2.1.e
2.4 – Monitoring Multiple
Objectives
2.3 – Key Locations
2.10 – Pan/Tilt/Zoom Ability
Operator ability to verify DMS status
and message display
4.1.3.1.a
Monitor HOV lane gates
4.1.3.2.d
Monitor HOT lane entry points / exits
4.1.3.3.b
Ability to monitor the ramp metering
system
Ability to monitor Lane Control
System (LCS) on I-66
CCTV device power and
communications should not be
affected by other devices.
Key CCTV locations and associated
communication locations with
backup power
Robust, weatherproofed equipment
4.1.3.4.a
4.3.1.1.a
1.5 – Pan/Tilt/Zoom Controls
2.4 – Monitoring Multiple
Objectives
2.10 – Pan/Tilt/Zoom Ability
2.4 – Monitoring Multiple
Objectives
2.4 – Monitoring Multiple
Objectives
2.4 – Monitoring Multiple
Objectives
2.4 – Monitoring Multiple
Objectives
2.12 – Electrical Service
4.3.1.1.b
2.13 – Backup Electrical Service
4.3.1.1.d
2.7 – Weather Conditions
4.1.3.5.a
Previously defined.
Previously defined.
CCTV cameras shall be capable of pan/tilt/zoom operation. Pan and tilt
operations shall be able to run concurrently. Cameras shall be able to zoom in
to accurately and reasonably observe conditions up to a half-mile away.
Cameras shall be able to pan 360 degrees and tilt 180 degrees.
Defined in High Level Requirements 1.5 – Pan/Tilt/Zoom Controls
Previously defined.
Previously defined
Previously defined.
Previously defined.
Previously defined.
Previously defined.
Provide a separate electrical service to CCTV cabinets. If an electrical service
drop must be shared with other equipment, provide CCTV equipment on
separate surge protection devices.
Provide identified key CCTV locations and associated communication
repeater locations with backup uninterruptable power supply unit and
generator receptacle.
Previously defined.
April 17, 2008 Page A1‐4 CCTV ConOps, Appendix 1, NRO CCTV High Level Requirements Overlapping coverage to prevent
coverage gap due to device failure
Accessible for maintenance bucket trucks
4.3.1.2.b
4.3.3.2.b
2.14 – Overlapping CCTV
Conditions
2.15 – Mounting Height
Accessibility
3.14 – Accessible Maintenance
Locations
3.0 - Maintenance
Requirements
3.1 – Equipment Life
Expectancy
3.2 – Replacement, Repair, and
Service
FINAL Key locations and areas should fall within the in-focus field of view for a
minimum of two cameras.
CCTV cameras should avoid a mounting height higher than approximately 65’. Existing VDOT NRO maintenance bucket trucks can only extend to reach
this height. If cameras are mounted at a height higher than 65’, lowering devices must be included.
Defined in High Level Requirements 3.14 – Accessible Maintenance
Locations.
Long lasting equipment
4.3.1.1.c
Components should be rated for 5+ years of continuous operation before
major repair and/or replacement is needed.
Equipment shall be installed so that a replacement can be easily replaced or
repaired during a failure. Cameras shall have lowering systems for easy
access.
Field equipment that is simple to
replace, remove, and service,
resulting in a short Mean Time To
Repair (MTTR)
Readily available device
replacements
4.3.2.1.a
4.3.2.1.b
3.3 – Replacement Equipment
Appropriate maintenance funds
allocated prior to increase in field
devices
4.3.2.1.c
3.4– Maintenance Budget
Ability to remotely reset equipment
power
Ability to remotely test devices via IP
protocol
Device components traceable within
Inventory & Maintenance
Management System (IMMS)
Devices’ unique IP numbers logged
in IMMS
Devices identified according to
logical system
Devices coded in accordance with
4.3.2.1.d
3.5 – Remote Power Resetting
4.3.2.1.e
4.3.2.2.a
3.6 – Unique IP numbers to
Devices
3.7 – IMMS System
4.3.2.2.b
3.7 – IMMS System
Additional CCTV system components should be purchased in addition to
those for installation. These components shall be handed over to maintenance
staff for quick device replacement during failures. CCTV components shall be
readily available from the manufacturer. CCTV equipment shall not be
installed if it has a known end of life cycle within 3 years of the design
procurement.
An annual maintenance budget of 10% of the capital cost for each device
should be allocated before device acquisition and installation.
An annual maintenance budget of 10% of the capital cost for each
communication and power cable should be allocated before cable acquisition
and installation.
Provide a contactor for remote reset of power to CCTV field equipment from
the PSTOC or backup TMC.
Each device shall have a unique IP number which can be accessed from the
PSTOC to trouble-shoot field device problems.
All CCTV component devices shall be logged into the IMMS system. The
inventory shall include each communication device’s unique IP number,
corridor information, and location information for traceability.
Previously defined.
4.3.2.2.c
3.7 – IMMS System
Previously defined.
4.3.2.2.d
3.8 – NRO ITS Barcodes
All devices shall be coded to conform with the NRO ITS Barcode
April 17, 2008 Page A1‐5 CCTV ConOps, Appendix 1, NRO CCTV High Level Requirements NRO ITS Barcode Requirements
Protect equipment from vehicle
impact damage through appropriate
placement or guardrail
Power and communication cables
protected against line breaks
FINAL requirements.
Mount CCTV poles and cabinets in a safe area protected by guardrail or
within a clear zone to protect workers’ safety and equipment damage.
4.3.3.1.a
3.9 – Safe Access to CCTV
Locations
4.3.3.1.b
3.10 – Power and
Communications Cable
Protection
3.11 – Lighting and Surge
Suppression
Install power and communications cable in separate conduits and junction
boxes. Conduits and junction boxes shall be sealed to prevent damage from
water, ice, snow, dirt, traffic, vegetation, and rodents.
Provide and install lightning rods with all pole assemblies. Provide transient
voltage surge suppression on all incoming electrical and non-optical
communication services to cabinets.
Cabinets shall be installed on a flat (less than 5% grade) surface to prevent
erosion damage. Cabinets shall be installed on a flat stable concrete
foundation.
Mount equipment away from public foot-traffic to prevent vandalism. CCTV
equipment shall be vandal resistant. All cabinets shall be locked and keyed
according to VDOT NRO standards.
Previously defined.
Provide lightning and surge
protection for devices and
electrical/communication lead-in
conductors
Install on stable foundations
4.3.3.1.c
4.3.3.1.d
3.12 – Cabinet Installation
Vandalism prevention and mitigation
4.3.3.1.e
3.13 – Vandalism Prevention
Safe access to CCTV locations for
maintenance crews
Accessible with existing 35’
maintenance bucket trucks
Ample flat, level, and stable surfaces
for bucket trucks with outriggers to
operate safely off of the travel
surface without lane closure
4.3.3.2.a
3.9 – Safe Access to CCTV
Locations
2.16 – Mounting Height
Accessibility
3.14 – Accessible Maintenance
Locations
4.3.3.2.b
4.3.3.2.c
Locations to avoid heavy vegetation
4.3.3.2.d
Avoid mounting on bridges,
overpasses, flyovers, or other
structures
4.3.3.2.e
Create low bandwidth copy of TMC
video and provide to media and ISPs
through a media feed
4.1.1.3.b
3.9 – Safe Access to CCTV
Locations
3.15 – Cabinet Locations
3.14 – Accessible Maintenance
Locations
2.8 – Avoiding Vibration and
Glare
4.0 - Integration and
Configurability Requirements
4.1 – Equipment Compatibility
With Other Agencies
Defined in High Level Requirements 2.16 – Mounting height Accessibility.
Ensure there is adequate space for maintenance crews to safely park and
deploy bucket trucks. Bucket trucks require flat, level and stable surface for
deployment of outriggers. Avoid mounting on structures or other roadways
which require a lane closure for maintenance or require maintenance
personnel to work in an unsafe area.
Previously defined.
Mount cabinets in an area free of heavy vegetation which can damage
equipment and prohibit easy access by maintenance personnel.
Previously defined.
Defined in High Level Requirements 2.8 – Avoiding Vibration and Glare.
CCTV equipment in the PSTOC will be compatible with media, VDOT 511
system, RITIS, and other approved agencies for adequately providing high or
low quality video feeds as needed.
April 17, 2008 Page A1‐6 CCTV ConOps, Appendix 1, NRO CCTV High Level Requirements Share video images with regional
stakeholders (state and local DOTs,
Police, Fire & Rescue)
Share video images via Video
Clearinghouse
Share video images via RITIS
Ability to control and monitor
cameras from main PSTOC facility
or backup TMC
Support a field-based or centralbased detection algorithm
Ability to recommend CCTV to
verify adjacent devices (i.e. DMS,
gates, ramp meters)
FINAL 1.3 – Low Quality Video
4.1 – Equipment Compatibility
With Other Agencies
Defined in High Level Requirement 1.3 – Low Quality Video.
Previously defined.
Previously defined.
4.3.1.2.a
4.1 – Equipment Compatibility
With Other Agencies
4.1 – Equipment Compatibility
With Other Agencies
4.2 – Backup TMC Abilities
5.1.1
4.3 – ATMS Software
Compatibility
4.4 – VID Alert Manager
5.1.2
4.5 – ATMS Device Groups
4.1.1.4.a
4.1.1.4.b
4.1.1.4.c
1.2 – Corridor Bundle Camera
Groups
Previously defined.
PSTOC CCTV controls and monitoring capabilities should be easily
transferred to the backup TMC when needed. The backup TMC should be
identically configured to accept and control all CCTV locations. All camera
feeds should have the ability to be redirected to the backup TMC.
CCTV cameras should support NTCIP or existing camera control protocols
that are compatible with the ATMS software
ATMS software should support the ability to manage alerts generated by
automated detection devices such as VIDs
ATMS software should support the ability to group and/or recommend CCTV
locations to operators in order to verify message displays on DMS, and/or
proper operation of ramp meters and reversible lane gates.
Previously Defined.
April 17, 2008 Page A1‐7 Appendix 2 Detector ConOps, Appendix B, VDOT NRO ITS Barcode Requirements
NRO ITS Inventory – Devices / components requiring a barcode:
Gates
LCS
Gate unit boxes
Control boxes
VMS
Control boxes
Controllers
Modems
Encoders /
decoders
Modems
Encoders /
decoders
Gate arms
CCTV
Control boxes
Controllers
Modems
Encoders /
decoders
Dimmer units
Row boards
Column boards
Modules
Upper control
units
Power supply
units
Wireless comm.
COMMUNICATIONS
Hub / Node
Control boxes
Local control units
Cameras
Modems
Encoders / decoders
Cortech
Wireless heads
Transmitters
Modems
Encoders / decoders
UPS / inverters
Impath cards
Cards (other)
Incident
Detect. Sys.
Ramp Meters
HAR
Tunnel
Detection /
Classification
Truck
Rollover
Computer
Controllers
Modems
Encoders /
Decoders
Detector cards
Control boxes
Controllers
Modems
Encoders /
Decoders
Control boxes
Modems
Encoders /
Decoders
Modems
Encoders /
Decoders
Control boxes
Controllers
Modems
Encoders /
Decoders
Detector
Heads
Detector Cards
Control boxes
Controllers
Virginia Department of Transportation
Contract# 27090 (Task NRO-27090-007)
NRO CCTV Master Plan Virginia Department of Transportation Northern Region Operations Prepared for:
Prepared by: May 2008
VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION / BACKGROUND / PROJECT OVERVIEW .........1 EXISTING CONDITIONS & PLANNED NEAR-TERM PROJECTS..2 1 2 2.1 Location of CCTVs ......................................................................................3 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.2 3 Location of Existing Cables/Infrastructure ..................................................9 PRIORITIZATION CRITERIA AND ANALYSIS .......................... 11 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 4 Base NRO Prioritization ...........................................................................11 Criteria for use in Prioritization of CCTV Expansion Projects....................11 Revised Bundle Prioritization Scoring .......................................................11 Device Placement Considerations that Affect Quantities ...........................11 Summary...................................................................................................11 COMMUNICATION ALTERNATIVES FOR HIGH-PRIORITY
LONG-TERM SEGMENTS ............................................................ 11 4.1 4.2 5 Existing CCTVs ............................................................................... 6 Planned CCTVs ............................................................................... 7 Network Bandwidth Requirements ...........................................................11 Criteria for Considering Alternative Communications ................................11 SUMMARY .................................................................................. 11 INDEX OF TABLES
TABLE 1: CORRIDOR BUNDLE SEGMENT BREAKDOWN .................................................2
TABLE 2: EXISTING CAMERAS .....................................................................................6
TABLE 3: I-66 SPOT IMPROVEMENT CAMERAS ..............................................................7
TABLE 4: I-66/LINTON HALL CAMERAS .......................................................................7
TABLE 5: EXISTING I-495 VDOT CCTV CAMERAS .......................................................8
TABLE 6: I-495 HOT LANES CAMERAS.........................................................................8
TABLE 7: VDOT NRO RECOMMENDATIONS FOR I-495 CAMERA COVERAGE .................9
TABLE 8: NRO OFFICE OF SYSTEMS DESIGN BUNDLE PRIORITIZATION .....................11
TABLE 9: ADJUSTED NRO CORRIDOR BUNDLE RANKINGS FOR CCTV .......................11
TABLE 10: FINAL BUNDLE PRIORITIZATION ..............................................................11
TABLE 11: NEW CAMERAS .........................................................................................11
INDEX OF FIGURES
FIGURE 1: HISTORIC NRO BOUNDARY AND CORRIDOR BUNDLES ................................4
FIGURE 2: EXISTING AND PLANNED CCTV CAMERAS ..................................................5
FIGURE 3: EXISTING, PLANNED, AND PROPOSED CCTV CAMERAS ............................11
FIGURE 3A: EXISTING, PLANNED, AND PROPOSED CCTV CAMERAS - NW INSET ........11
FIGURE 3B: EXISTING, PLANNED, AND PROPOSED CCTV CAMERAS - NE INSET ........11
FIGURE 3C: EXISTING, PLANNED, AND PROPOSED CCTV CAMERAS - SOUTH INSET ....11
May 2008
ii
VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final 1 INTRODUCTION / BACKGROUND / PROJECT
OVERVIEW
This CCTV Master plan presents a logical progression for the Virginia Department of
Transportation (VDOT) Northern Region Operations (NRO) to expand the ClosedCircuit Television (CCTV) system based upon the needs of the various stakeholders
which include groups within NRO and across the Commonwealth. In the development of
this document several groups were interviewed in one-on-one or small group settings in
order to understand the breadth of current use and future needs for the CCTV system. In
most cases the future needs are those that the Traffic Management Center (TMC)
operators have for visual information obtained through a CCTV system, although there
are also needs with respect to maintaining the field infrastructure.
The “CCTV system”, for the purposes of this document, is defined as the use of VDOT
owned and operated video cameras located along VDOT and associated VDOT-managed
County assets in the NRO region for traffic surveillance, congestion monitoring, incident
verification, and public/media information. The CCTV system includes the CCTV
cameras, communication infrastructure, and the variety of output sources described
throughout the document. This document summarizes the prioritization criteria, basis for
device spacing, and identifies communication alternatives when fiber deployment is costprohibitive in the near-term. This document is intended to supplement the GIS mapping
for the proposed CCTV locations to better understand the reasons for the various
locations that have been identified.
May 2008
Page 1 VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final 2 EXISTING CONDITIONS & PLANNED NEAR-TERM
PROJECTS
The following section describes the existing operational, existing nonoperational and
planned CCTV camera locations for the NRO Region. Corridor segments have been
combined to form corridor bundles. These bundles group key segments of roadways that
are parallel routes and interstates as well as the key routes that connect them together.
Roadways which may not be included in these bundles should be evaluated again in the
future.
Figure 1 displays corridor bundle locations. Table 1 below describes each corridor
bundle in detail. These bundles were developed by the NRO prior to the May 2008
realignment of operating region boundaries.
Table 1: Corridor Bundle Segment Breakdown
DISTRICT
BUNDLE
NOVA
A
NOVA
B
NOVA
FRED
C
D
FRED
E
NOVA
F
NOVA
G
NOVA
H
NOVA
I
CULP
J
NOVA
K
BUNDLE DESCRIPTION
I-395: DC Line to I-495
Rt. 110: Rt. 1 to I-66
GW Pkwy: DC Line to I-495 (non VDOT)
I-95: I-495 to Rt.123
Rt.1: I-495 to Rt.123
Rt. 235
I-95 & Rt 1 in Prince William County
I-95 & Rt 1 in Stafford County
I-95 & Rt 1 in Spotsylvania County
Rt.208 in Spotsylvania County
I-66: DC Line to I-495
Rt.267: I-66 to I-495
Rt. 29: DC Line to I-495
Rt. 50: DC Line to I-495
I-66: I-495 to Rt. 50
Rt.29: I-495 to Rt. 50
Rt.50: I-495 to I-66
Rt.123: Rt. 7 to Rt.236
Rt.243: 123 to Rt. 29
I-66: Rt.50 to Rt.15
Rt.29: Rt.50 to Rt.15
Rt.234: N of Rt. 29 to S of I-66
Rt.215: Rt.29 to Rt.28
Rt.234: I-66 to I-95
Rt.28: from Rt.234 to Prince William Co.
I-66 in Fauquier County
DTR: I-495 to Rt.28 (non VDOT)
Rt.7: I-495 to Rt.28
Fairfax County Parkway (Rt.7100): Rt.7 to DTR
Rt.28: Rt. 7 to DTR
May 2008
Page 2 VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final DTR & Dulles Greenway: Rt.28 to Rt. 15 Leesburg (Non VDOT)
Rt.7: Rt.28 to Rt.15
Rt.15: Leesburg & Rt.7 zone
NOVA
L
NOVA
M
NOVA
N
NOVA
O
NOVA
P
Rt.3000: Rt.28/234 to I-95
Rt.28: DTR to I-66
Rt.28: I-66 to Rt.234/3000
NOVA
Q
Rt.15: NRO boundary to Rt. 29
Rt.234: Rt.15 to Rt.29
FRED
R
Rt. 218
Rt. 3: Rt. 20 to I-95
Rt. 3: Rt.17 to King George boundary
Rt. 301: Rt. 3 to King George boundary
CULP
S
CULP
T
CULP
CULP
NOVA
U
V
W
NOVA
X
NOVA
Y
NOVA
Z
Rt. 7: Rt. 15 Leesburg to NRO boundary
Rt. 9: Rt. 7 to NRO boundary
Rt. 287: Rt. 9 to Rt. 7
I-495 (Capital Beltway)
Rt.7100: DTR to I-95
Rt. 123: Rt. 7100 to I-95
Rt.3: Rt.20 to Rt.29
Rt.29: Rt.3 to Madison County
Rt.15: Rt.29 to Rt.3
Rt.29: Rt.15 to Rt.215
Rt.17 & Rt.28 in Fauquier County
Rt.211: Rt.29 to Rappahannock County
Rt.50: I-66 to Rt.15
Rt.236: Rt. 1 to Rt. 50/29
Rt.7: Rt.1 to I-395
Rt.244: Rt.27 to Rt.236
Rt.620: Rt.236 to Rt.7100
Rt.193: from Rt. 7 to Rt.90005
Rt.123: from Rt. 267 to 90005
Due to the May 2008 operating region realignment, previously defined corridor bundles
have been removed from the CCTV system and two new bundles added. These changes
will be described in Section 3.3.
2.1 Location of CCTVs
The VDOT Northern Region TMC operates and monitors a total of 120+ CCTV cameras.
Main video coverage resides along I-66, I-95, I-395, I-495, and Route 267 (Dulles Toll
Rd). Smaller groups of CCTV cameras are located at key locations along Route 27, Route
123, Spring Hill Road, and Leesburg Pike. Existing CCTV cameras are currently
connected to the TMC though a variety of methods that include leased lines, wireless, and
fiber optic connections. Existing CCTV Cameras and those cameras planned as part of
currently programmed projects are shown in Figure 2.
May 2008
Page 3 VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final Page 4 Figure 1: Historic NRO Boundary and Corridor Bundles
May 2008 VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final Page 5 Figure 2: Existing and Planned CCTV Cameras
May 2008 VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final 2.1.1 Existing CCTV Cameras
The existing cameras identified in the GIS database are subdivided into two categories:
functional, and non-functional. Table 2 summarizes the quantities of cameras by
category to assign them to the prioritized coverage corridors.
Table 2: Existing Cameras
BUNDLE
NUMBER OF FUNCTIONAL
EXISTING CAMERAS
NUMBER OF NONFUNCTIONAL
EXISTING CAMERAS
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
TOTAL
23
14
11
7
0
9
11
16
0
0
11
0
0
17
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
120
0
3
1
0
0
3
2
4
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
17
May 2008 Page 6 VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final 2.1.2 Planned/Programmed CCTV Cameras
This Master Plan references several specific projects in the NRO area that include plans
for CCTV cameras. These four referenced projects are discussed below.
2.1.2.1 I-66 Spot Improvements Project
The VDOT NRO I-66 Spot Improvements Project Concept of Operations (2008)
discusses spot improvements along westbound I-66 in Arlington and Fairfax Counties to
improve mobility and safety. The twelve planned CCTV deployments in this area are
listed in Table 3, all in Bundle F.
Table 3: I-66 Spot Improvement Cameras
I-66 & Lincoln / Monroe St
I-66 @ the Parking Deck at Quincy (West)
I-66 @ the Parking Deck at Quincy (East)
I-66 @ Pedestrian Bridge Between Harrison and Patrick Henry Dr. (West)
I-66 @ Pedestrian Bridge Between Harrison and Patrick Henry Dr. (East)
I-66 @ Patrick Henry (West)
I-66 @ Patrick Henry (East)
I-66 @ Ohio St.
I-66 @ Lee Highway
I-66 @ Williamsburg Blvd. / 29th St. (West)
I-66 @ Williamsburg Blvd. / 29th St. (East)
I-66 @ Great Falls St.
I-66 @ Haycock Rd.
2.1.2.2 I-66/Linton Hall Project
During review of the VDOT NRO I-66/Linton Hall DRAFT Master Plan, five CCTV
locations in Gainesville (Prince William County), Virginia, were identified for
deployment. These sites are listed in Table 4.
Table 4: I-66/Linton Hall Cameras
LOCATION
BUNDLE
US 29 (Lee Highway) @ Linton Hall Road
I-66 West of Eastbound Exit 43A
I-66 Between Westbound Exits 43A and 43 B
I-66 West of Eastbound Exit 44
I-66 East of Westbound Exit 44
T
H
H
H
H
2.1.2.3 I-495/Capital Beltway High Occupancy Toll (HOT) Lanes
Modifications to the existing CCTV system on I-495 have been planned as part of the
Interstate 495/Capital Beltway High Occupancy Toll (HOT) Lanes project. These five
May 2008 Page 7 VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final modifications consist primarily of removing existing single cameras and installing new
four-camera clusters on single poles. Each camera cluster will consist of a camera pair for
VDOT and a camera pair for Fluor-Transurban, the HOT lane private operator. In each
pair, one camera will be equipped with full pan/tilt/zoom capabilities for traffic
observation while the other is a fixed camera for use with a Video Incident Detection
system.
The NRO Office of Planning and Programming has received and offered comments on
CCTV placement in the 30% Drawings for the I-495 / Capital Beltway HOT Lanes.
There are currently nine (9) existing CCTV Cameras in the Project Area. Actions to be
taken regarding these nine existing cameras are listed below.
Table 5: Existing I-495 VDOT CCTV Cameras
CAMERA
ID#
LOCATION
ACTION
CCTV-0564
I-495 @ Backlick Road
Maintain
CCTV-1030
I-495 @ Braddock Road
Maintain
CCTV-1035
I-495 @ Little River Turnpike
Maintain
CCTV-1037
I-495 @ Little River Turnpike
Maintain
CCTV-1040
I-495 @ US 50
CCTV-0230
I-495 @ I-66
CCTV-1045
I-495 @ Lewinsville Road
CCTV-1050
I-495 @ Old Dominion Boulevard
Maintain
Maintain & Remove after
Construction
Maintain & Remove after
Construction
Maintain & Remove after
Construction
CCTV 1055
I-495 @ Georgetown Pike
Maintain
Capital Beltway HOT Lanes 30% drawings call for new cameras at 12 locations along the
length of the I-495 HOT Lanes. The locations for these cameras, which will all be part of
Bundle N, are listed below.
Table 6: I-495 HOT Lanes Cameras
I-495 between Backlick and Braddock Road
I-495 between Braddock Road and Route 236
I-495 @ Route 236
I-495 @ Gallows Road
I-495 @ Lee Highway
I-495 @ I-66 (South)
I-495 @ I-66 (North)
I-495 between Idylwood Road and Oak Road
May 2008 Page 8 VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final I-495 @ Route 7
I-495 between Route 123 and Jones Branch Road
I-495 at the Dulles Toll Road
I-495 between Lewinsville Road and Old Dominion
In order to provide full camera coverage, VDOT NRO Planning & Programming
recommended new CCTV cameras to be installed at the following locations.
Table 7: VDOT NRO Recommendations for I-495 Camera Coverage
I-495 near Backlick Road
I-495 between Route 50 and Route 236
2.1.2.4 I-95/395 HOV/Bus/HOT Lanes
Modifications to the CCTV system on I-95/I-395 are expected as part of the Interstate
95/395 HOV/Bus/HOT Lanes project. Like the I-495/Capital Beltway HOT Lanes
project, this is a public-private partnership between VDOT and Fluor-Transurban.
Accordingly, duplication of the four-camera cluster field architecture from the I495/Capital Beltway HOT Lanes can be reasonably expected. However, this project has
not progressed far enough into its design and engineering stages, so locations for camera
addition or removal have not yet been identified.
2.2 Location of Existing Cables/Infrastructure
Information regarding existing fiber cables and communications infrastructure comes
from the September 29, 2005 ITS Inventory for Communication Bandwidth Demand
Assessment Memorandum within the VDOT NRO Go-Forward Plan.
2.2.1 I-66
Trunk and distribution fiber runs along I-66 from Route 234 Business/Sudley Road to the
Roosevelt Bridge. An existing 48 fiber trunk cable interconnects three nodes that are
located near Route 2548/Bull Run Drive (Node 1), Route 608/West Ox Road (Node 2),
and Route 650/Gallows Road (Node 3). Distribution fibers consist of a 36 fiber cable
running west from Node 2 and 24 fiber cables elsewhere.
2.2.2 I-95
Trunk and distribution fiber runs along I-95 from Russell Road to the I-95/I-395/I-495
interchange. Fiber has been rerouted around the Springfield Interchange via Backlick
Road (Fullerton Road to Industrial Road) as a result of construction. An existing 48 fiber
trunk cable interconnects three hubs that are located near Route 234/Dumfries Road (Hub
3), Route 123/Gordon Boulevard (Hub 2), and Route 7100/Fairfax County Parkway (Hub
May 2008 Page 9 VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final 1). Distribution fibers consist of a 36 fiber cable running north from Hub 1 and 24 fiber
cables elsewhere.
2.2.3 I-395
Trunk fiber runs along Interstate 395 from the I-95/I-395/I-495 interchange to the 14th
Street Bridge.
2.2.4 I-495/Capital Beltway
Fiber runs along the Capital Beltway from the I-95/I-395/I-495 interchange to the
Woodrow Wilson Bridge. A 12 fiber trunk cable ties into a single node located near Van
Dorn Street.
2.2.5 SR-267/Dulles Toll Road
Approximately 144 fibers run along the length of the Dulles Toll Road from I-495 to
Washington Dulles International Airport. The system is interconnected to the TMC via a
48 fiber cable from I-66 along the Dulles Toll Road to Spring Hill Road. Operational
responsibility for this road is in the process of being transferred to the Metropolitan
Washington Airports Authority (MWAA).
2.2.6 SR-234
A resource-sharing arrangement has provided 24 fibers running along Route 234 between
I-66 and I-95. This fiber is currently connected to the TMC, and soon to the PSTOC, to
provide a physical communication route redundancy for ITS equipment on I-95 as well as
I-66. ITS devices have not been connected to this fiber cable as of yet.
May 2008 Page 10 VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final 3 PRIORITIZATION CRITERIA AND ANALYSIS
A base prioritization scheme was developed by the NRO Office of Planning &
Programming, which ranked the corridor bundles listed in Table 1. This prioritization
scheme and its results are presented in Section 3.1 and further modified in the following
sections. The prioritization scheme establishes the corridor rankings for use in planning
camera deployments in order of need throughout the region.
3.1 Base NRO Prioritization
The 26 corridor bundles were analyzed by NRO and given overall ITS priorities within
their districts according to the formula
AADT
CRASHES
∗ (.1D + .2 E + .3F ) + EX +
= SCORE
10,000
100
Where:
AADT = Average Annual Daily Traffic, veh/d
D = % of length with LOS D
E = % of length with LOS E
F = % of length with LOS F
EX = Dummy variable for existing ITS infrastructure: 8 if yes, 2 if no
CRASHES = Crash rate along bundled corridors
This formula was, with one exception, the basis for the overall ITS deployment priority
assigned to the 26 bundles. The one exception to prioritization by this formula was in the
Culpepper District, where Bundle J was raised to the top of the priority list because of its
being on an Interstate Highway, I-66, and the Office of Systems Design’s desire to make
that interstate corridor a model ITS corridor. The VDOT NRO prioritization is shown
below in Table 8.
May 2008 Page 11 VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final Table 8: NRO Office of Systems Design Bundle Prioritization
LEVEL OF SERVICE (%)
DISTRICT
NOVA
NOVA
NOVA
NOVA
NOVA
PRIORITY BUNDLE
EXISTING ITS
INFRASTRUCTURE
(Yes =8, No =2)
CRASHES
SCORE
8
8
8
8
8
409
497
430
254
383
66.1
58.5
45.9
44.7
39.8
1
2
3
4
5
B
A
F
G
C
200,000
175,000
160,000
120,000
100,000
10
10
40
0
10
10
20
10
15
0
80
70
50
85
90
Weighted
Average
2.70
2.60
2.10
2.85
2.80
6
N
H
W
P
K
O
Z
I
Y
X
M
Q
L
160,000
135,000
120,000
100,000
100,000
140,000
80,000
40,000
80,000
80,000
60,000
40,000
60,000
50
40
30
50
30
80
10
10
80
20
30
35
80
20
30
40
0
0
20
80
80
10
80
65
60
20
30
30
30
50
70
0
10
10
10
0
5
5
0
1.80
1.90
2.00
2.00
2.40
1.20
2.00
2.00
1.30
1.80
1.75
1.70
1.20
8
8
8
8
2
8
2
8
2
2
2
2
2
125
345
203
227
301
273
278
219
497
353
314
345
211
38.1
37.1
34.0
30.3
29.0
27.5
20.8
18.2
17.4
16.4
15.6
12.3
11.3
D
E
R
80,000
100,000
60,000
10
40
40
20
50
50
70
10
10
2.60
1.70
1.70
2
2
2
239
424
269
25.2
23.2
14.9
J
T
U
V
S
40,000
60,000
40,000
40,000
40,000
60
80
50
80
90
40
20
50
20
10
0
0
0
0
0
1.40
1.20
1.50
1.20
1.10
2
8
2
2
2
N/A
273
215
320
N/A
7.6
17.9
10.2
10.0
6.4
NOVA
NOVA
NOVA
NOVA
NOVA
NOVA
NOVA
NOVA
NOVA
NOVA
NOVA
NOVA
NOVA
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
FRED
FRED
FRED
2
3
CULP
CULP
CULP
CULP
CULP
AADT
7
8
1
1
2
3
4
5
D
E
F
3.2 Criteria for use in Prioritization of CCTV Expansion Projects
Various characteristics of a corridor are considered for refining prioritization of CCTV
system expansion projects. Criteria that are generally applicable to CCTV deployment
prioritization are discussed below.
•
Existing Nonfunctional CCTV Cameras – Existing CCTV locations that are
inoperable on a corridor present opportunities for an economical expansion of the
CCTV system. These locations require only repair or replacement of devices or
communications in order to establish CCTV coverage and enhance CCTV
coverage on a corridor. Additionally, the existence of the camera indicates that the
site was previously identified as a key location for CCTV coverage, and if not for
the malfunctioning or damaged equipment that coverage would exist already.
•
Volume – The importance of having CCTV coverage on a corridor increases with
the volume on that corridor. Higher volumes mean more people to be negatively
impacted by congestion delays and more people exposed to secondary crashes due
May 2008 Page 12 VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final to highway incidents. Accordingly, a higher priority is assigned to higher volume
corridors along with a higher density of cameras.
•
Existing ITS Infrastructure – Corridors with existing but incomplete CCTV
coverage should be given greater priority than corridors with no existing ITS
infrastructure. These corridors can be expanded by “infill” of existing coverage
gaps by connecting new ITS devices to existing communications infrastructure.
Existing infrastructure enables less expensive deployment of complete coverage
on a corridor.
•
Evacuation Routes – Congestion management and incident detection and
clearance are more pressing on corridors that serve as evacuation routes than on
corridors that do not. However, the Northern Virginia area does not face a
strongly directional evacuation hazard, as do coastal areas subject to hurricanes,
and all corridors under consideration for CCTV deployment are major routes that
may be called upon to serve as an evacuation route in the event of an emergency.
Accordingly, evacuation routes are not a major criterion for prioritizing CCTV
deployment in the NRO area.
•
TMC Operator “Wish List” – TMC operators can be asked to identify, based on
their experience operating and monitoring the CCTV system, locations that are
high-accident locations in a CCTV coverage gap or otherwise have a strong need
for CCTV coverage. Although not every location identified in this manner will
necessarily be appropriate or feasible for CCTV, corridors with several such
locations can be given a higher priority than corridors with few or no such
locations.
Several other criteria, more specific to the NRO area or the user needs defined in the
NRO CCTV Concept of Operations, are discussed below.
•
DMS – One of the user needs for the CCTV system is to verify that Dynamic
Message Signs (DMS) are working and displaying messages to motorists
properly. The presence of DMS on a corridor increases the need for CCTV on that
corridor and by extension the priority of providing CCTV coverage to that
corridor. This is particularly the case for the NRO area as the NRO DMS Concept
of Operations and the NRO CCTV Concept of Operations both envision CCTV
coverage of every permanent DMS installation.
•
HOV Gates – One of the user needs for the CCTV system is to verify that High
Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lane gates other than those for the I-395 and I-495
HOT Lanes are working properly and in the correct open or closed position. The
presence of HOV gates on a corridor increases the need for CCTV on that
corridor and by extension the priority of providing CCTV coverage to that
corridor.
•
Priority Arterial List – NRO Signal Systems Operations has identified 77
“Priority 1” locations and 121 “Priority 2” locations on the signalized arterial
network for CCTV deployment. Although deploying CCTV to all 198 of these
signalized arterial intersections in addition to Interstate and freeway locations is
not feasible within the next twenty years, the list provides a pool of candidate
May 2008 Page 13 VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final locations for consideration as key arterial locations for CCTV deployment. The
number of these locations on or alongside each corridor should have a slight
impact on bundle prioritization.
•
LCS Displays – One of the user needs identified for the NRO CCTV system is to
verify that Lane Control System (LCS) displays on I-66 are functional and
displaying properly. Although it is not anticipated that each LCS display will be
given its own CCTV camera as with the DMS system, this is an additional benefit
to consider when selecting CCTV locations within the I-66 corridors.
3.3 Revised Bundle Prioritization Scoring
Based on the above prioritization concerns, the following adjustments factors were
developed to modify the base NRO prioritization in Section 3.1. These scoring
adjustments are listed below.
FACTOR
SCORE ADJUSTMENT
Existing Nonfunctional Cameras
DMS in Bundle
HOV Gates in Bundle
AADT < 80,000 vehicles/day
AADT > 110,000 vehicles/day
Cameras on “Arterial Priority One” List
Cameras on “Arterial Priority Two” List
Locations on TMC Operator Wishlist
LCS Present
+1 per camera
+.5 per sign
+.5 per gate
-2 for bundle
+1 for bundle
+.1 per camera
+.1 per 3 cameras, rounded down
+.5 for bundle if more than 1 location
+.3 for bundle
Applying these score adjustments to the original 26 NRO bundles results in the ranked
prioritization in Table 9.
May 2008 Page 14 VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final Table 9: Adjusted NRO Corridor Bundle Rankings for CCTV
BUNDLE
B
A
F
G
C
N
H
W
P
K
D
E
O
Z
X
T
Y
I
R
M
Q
V
U
J
L
S
DMS
HOV
# "PRIORITY"
OLD
# NOT
VOLUME
LCS
Weighted
RANK WORKING ADJUST # POINTS # POINTS
1 2
Points
1
3
1
20
10
6
3
0 12 13
1.6
2
0
1
12
6
7
3.5
0
4 0
0.4
3
3
1
16
8
1
0.5
0
4 4
0.5
4
2
1
12
6
2
1
0.3 4 9
0.7
5
1
0
7
3.5
7
3.5
0 11 4
1.2
6
4
1
10
5
1
0.5
0
4 0
0.4
7
4
1
4
2
0
0
0 10 4
1.1
8
0
1
6
3
0
0
0
0 2
0
9
0
0
5
2.5
0
0
0
0 14
0.4
10
0
0
2
1
0
0
0
2 22
0.9
12
0
0
7
3.5
0
0
0 13 0
1.3
14
0
1
10
5
0
0
0
5 1
0.5
11
0
1
2
1
0
0
0
1 10
0.4
14
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1 0
0.1
15
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2 4
0.3
17
0
0
1
0.5
0
0
0
0 0
0
18
0
0
1
0.5
0
0
0
3 7
0.5
16
0
-2
1
0.5
0
0
0
0 4
0.1
20
0
-2
4
2
0
0
0
0 8
0.2
19
0
-2
2
1
0
0
0
0 1
0
21
0
-2
3
1.5
0
0
0
0 0
0
24
0
-2
3
1.5
0
0
0
0 0
0
23
0
-2
1
0.5
0
0
0
0 0
0
25
0
-2
7
3.5
0
0
0
0 0
0
22
0
-2
0
0
0
0
0
3 3
0.4
26
0
-1
6
3
0
0
0
0 0
0
WISHLIST
NEW
NEW
RANK
# POINTS SCORE RANK CHANGE
0
0
2
0
2
6
2
0
0
0
6
8
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
1
0
0
0.5
0
0.5
0.5
0.5
0
0
0
0.5
0.5
0
0
0
0.5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.5
0
0
0
84.7
69.4
59.4
55.4
49.5
49.5
45.7
38.0
33.2
30.9
30.5
30.2
29.9
20.9
20.2
18.9
18.4
16.8
15.1
14.6
11.8
11.5
11.2
11.1
9.7
9.4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
-2
0
0
1
1
-2
1
-1
0
2
0
1
-3
0
May 2008 Page 15 VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final The May 2008 reorganization of the VDOT operational regions changed the boundary of
the NRO. Culpepper, Fauquier, Orange, Madison, and Rappahannock Counties were
moved from Northern Region Operations to Northwestern Region Operations. However,
the NRO retained responsibility for I-66 in Fauquier County and gained responsibility for
I-66 in Warren County. Also, I-95 and Route 1 within Caroline County were moved from
Central Region Operations to Northern Region Operations. As a result, bundles S and V
were removed from further consideration in this master plan and two new bundles,
Bundles AA and AB, were created for I-95/US 1 in Caroline County and I-66 in Warren
County respectively. Bundles T and U were kept in this Master Plan to preserve logical
route/corridor continuity between Bundles I and R. Keeping Bundles T and U in this
Master Plan serves the user needs expressed in the NRO CCTV Concept of Operations.
These two bundles, however, were reduced in priority below all ITS bundles that are
within the new NRO boundaries.
Bundle AA was placed in the priority listing based on having an AADT of 85,000
vehicles per day, five TMC operator wish list locations, no other ITS, and assumed crash
rates and weighted levels of service 90% of the adjacent Bundle E. Bundle AB was
placed in the priority listing based on having an AADT of 37,000 along its busiest
segment, no other ITS, and assumed crash rates and weighted levels of service 90% those
of the adjacent Bundle J. This yields the final priority ranking below in Table 10.
May 2008 Page 16 VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final BUNDLE
PRIORITY
DISTRICT
B
2
NOVA
A
6
NOVA
F
1
NOVA
G
3
NOVA
C
N
4
5
NOVA
NOVA
H
8
NOVA
W
7
NOVA
P
9
NOVA
K
10
NOVA
D
11
FRED
E
12
FRED
O
13
NOVA
Z
15
NOVA
X
16
NOVA
AA
17
FRED
Y
18
NOVA
I
19
NOVA
R
20
FRED
M
21
NOVA
Q
22
NOVA
J
AB
23
24
CULP
CULP
L
14
NOVA
T
25
CULP
U
26
CULP
BUNDLE DESCRIPTION
I-95: I-495 to Rt.123
Rt.1: I-495 to Rt.123
Rt. 235
I-395: DC Line to I-495
Rt. 110: Rt. 1 to I-66
GW Pkwy: DC Line to I-495 (non VDOT)
I-66: DC Line to I-495
Rt.267: I-66 to I-495
Rt. 29: DC Line to I-495
Rt. 50: DC Line to I-495
I-66: I-495 to Rt. 50
Rt.29: I-495 to Rt. 50
Rt.50: I-495 to I-66
Rt.123: Rt. 7 to Rt.236
Rt.243: 123 to Rt. 29
I-95 & Rt 1 in Prince William County
I-495 (Capital Beltway)
I-66: Rt.50 to Rt.15
Rt.29: Rt.50 to Rt.15
Rt.234: N of Rt. 29 to S of I-66
Rt.50: I-66 to Rt.15
Rt.3000: Rt.28/234 to I-95
Rt.28: DTR to I-66
Rt.28: I-66 to Rt.234/3000
DTR: I-495 to Rt.28 (non VDOT)
Rt.7: I-495 to Rt.28
FfxCo. Pkwy (Rt.7100) Rt.7 to DTR
Rt.28: Rt. 7 to DTR
I-95 & Rt 1 in Stafford County
I-95 & Rt 1 in Spotsylvania County
Rt.208 in Spotsylvania County
Rt.7100: DTR to I-95
Rt. 123: Rt. 7100 to I-95
Rt.193: from Rt. 7 to Rt.90005
Rt.123: from Rt. 267 to 90005
Rt.236: Rt. 1 to Rt. 50/29
Rt.7: Rt.1 to I-395
I-95 & Rt 1 in Caroline County
Rt.244: Rt.27 to Rt.236
Rt.620: Rt.236 to Rt.7100
Rt.215: Rt.29 to Rt.28
Rt.234: I-66 to I-95
Rt.28: from Rt.234 to Prince William Co.
Rt. 218
Rt. 3: Rt. 20 to I-95
Rt. 3: Rt.17 to King George boundary
Rt. 301: Rt. 3 to King George boundary
Rt. 7: Rt. 15 Leesburg to NRO boundary
Rt. 9: Rt. 7 to NRO boundary
Rt. 287: Rt. 9 to Rt. 7
Rt.15: NRO boundary to Rt. 29
Rt.234: Rt.15 to Rt.29
I-66 in Fauquier County
I-66 in Warren County
DTR & Dulles Greenway: Rt.28 to Rt. 15
Leesburg (Non VDOT)
Rt.7: Rt.28 to Rt.15
Rt.15: Leesburg & Rt.7 zone
Rt.15: Rt.29 to Rt.3
Rt.29: Rt.15 to Rt.215
Rt.17 & Rt.28 in Fauquier County
Table 10: Final Bundle Prioritization
May 2008 Page 17 VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final 3.4 Device Placement Considerations that Affect Quantities
•
Where video detection analytics are planned, CCTV cameras should be placed at
½-mile intervals. Elsewhere, key CCTV cameras should be placed at one-mile
intervals on freeways until funding permits fill to ½-mile intervals.
•
CCTV locations along arterials should be located at key intersections but no less
than every 2 miles on main routes, as identified by AADT volumes greater than
110,000. Along routes with AADT volumes between 80,000 and 110,000 cameras
should be located at key intersections but no less than every 3.5 miles, and along
routes with AADT volumes less than 80,000 cameras should be located at key
intersections and no less than every 5 miles.
•
Large median vegetation will prohibit CCTV locations from monitoring both the
northbound and southbound or westbound and eastbound roadway facilities. If
both directions are desired and median vegetation prevents clear vision, two
cameras will be required for installation instead of one. The maps in Figures 3
through 3C do not reflect this consideration.
•
CCTV locations that serve multiple purposes will help to alleviate redundant
cameras. Placement where a camera can monitor both the display of a DMS sign
or a HOV gate while monitoring traffic in that area should be considered key
locations.
•
Visual obstructions such as flyovers and overpasses will require multiple CCTV
locations rather than one. The maps in Figures 3 through 3C do not reflect this
consideration.
Figures 3 through 3C show the proposed CCTV layout.
3.5 Additional Prioritization Considerations
Recognizing that covering the region’s corridor bundles will be challenging within a 20year horizon, the GIS data for the CCTV locations is broken into two groups: key and
backfill locations. Examples of key locations include DMS sites, freeway interchanges,
one mile spacing on freeways, and major arterial intersections. Backfill locations are
those locations provided to give complete freeway coverage and regularly-spaced arterial
coverage. This distinction allows for prioritization of locations within a corridor bundle
and lends itself to a two-phase deployment in bundles needing many cameras.
May 2008 Page 18 VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final Figure 3: Existing, Planned, and Proposed CCTV Cameras
May 2008 Page 19 VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final Figure 3a: Existing, Planned, and Proposed CCTV Cameras - NW Inset
May 2008 Page 20 VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final Figure 3b: Existing, Planned, and Proposed CCTV Cameras - NE Inset
May 2008 Page 21 VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final Figure 3c: Existing, Planned, and Proposed CCTV Cameras - South Inset
May 2008 Page 22 VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final 3.6 Summary
This Master Plan combines existing cameras in need of repair or replacement, cameras
whose installation has been planned as part of current VDOT projects, and newly
proposed cameras to provide 435 new cameras to the CCTV system. The 391** proposed
new cameras consist of 202 Key cameras and 189 Backfill cameras. Backfill cameras will
provide full coverage by filling in the area between key cameras. The number of cameras
to be installed in each corridor bundle is shown below in Table 11.
Table 11: New Cameras
BUNDLE
F
B
G
C
N
A
W
H
P
K
D
E
O
L
Z
X
AA
Y
I
R
M
Q
J
AB
T**
U**
TOTAL
# OF CAMERAS
TO
REPAIR/REPLACE
3
3
2
1
4
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
17
# OF
PLANNED
CAMERAS
# PROPOSED
KEY
CAMERAS
13
0
-1
0
11*
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
27
11
13
6
10
4
2
6
3
7
6
15
17
5
7
3
7
7
3
6
22
7
12
11
4
4
4
202
# PROPOSED
BACKFILL
CAMERAS
6
5
2
8
6
2
2
7
6
13
13
15
5
6
2
4
12
5
9
23
2
15
7
4
3
7
189
COMBINED
NEW
CAMERAS
33
21
9
19
25
4
8
16
13
20
28
32
10
13
5
11
19
8
15
45
9
27
19
8
7
11
435
*Overall change due to planned removal of 3 cameras and installation of 14 cameras for I-495 HOT Lanes.
** NOTE: 18 proposed cameras within corridors T and U are included in the 391
proposed cameras for the regional CCTV camera expansion. While they are included for
continuity of operations, they should not be considered in the final project budget
allocations for NRO, since they have now been allocated to the Northwestern Region
Operations (NWRO).
May 2008 Page 23 VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final 4 COMMUNICATION ALTERNATIVES FOR HIGHPRIORITY LONG-TERM SEGMENTS
4.1 Network Bandwidth Requirements
Network bandwidth, measured in megabits per second (Mbps) is determined by the
communications media used. Bandwidth requirements are driven by the number of
cameras connected through a network segment, by video quality both in terms of frames
per second (fps) and image resolution, and by the digital file format used for video feeds.
There are different perspectives on video quality based on the type of user and the
application. For instance, low-resolution video at a rate of 5-10 frames per second (fps)
may be acceptable to some operators who are merely monitoring for stopped vehicles or
incidents. However, congestion monitoring and post-processing traffic analysis require a
higher resolution at nearly 30 fps.
Most agencies have determined that the lowest level of acceptable quality for traffic
condition monitoring is VHS-quality at 1.0 to 1.5Mbps, which is just below the
maximum bandwidth of a leased T-1 telephone service line. However, when fiber
resources are available, many elect to use 2.5 to 3.0Mbps for near-DVD quality video
using MPEG-4 compression standards.
4.2 Criteria for Considering Alternative Communications
A number of communication approaches are available for the CCTV system. Different
infrastructures are discussed below. Each alternative’s approximate cost, as well as its
strengths and weaknesses, is briefly reviewed. Throughout, “download” refers to
transmitting data from the TMC to a camera, while “upload” refers to transmitting data
from a camera to the TMC.
Fiber: An agency-owned fiber network has nearly unlimited bandwidth and will enable
multiple cameras to be controlled on a network line. VDOT would own any new fiber
and would be responsible for installing the fiber and maintaining the fiber and related
equipment (including line break repairs), but would have guaranteed exclusive use of the
fiber network. Once fiber was provided along a corridor, VDOT could splice future
cameras into the network on the existing fiber line. Because of right-of-way acquisition
and installation that involves trenching or directional drilling, fiber has a high up-front
capital cost. However, this alternative provides the greatest possible bandwidth and thus
maximizes possible video quality as well as the number of cameras and other ITS devices
that can be installed on a network segment.
Telephone Line: Regular twisted-pair copper wire DS-0 telephone lines can be used for
ITS data transmission. However, it is not suited for CCTV cameras since its maximum
bandwidth is 64 kilobits per second (kbps).
Leased T-1 Lines: A T-1 line is created through the digital multiplexing of 24 DS-0
telephone lines on a single twisted-pair copper wire. T-1s can provide 1.544 Mbps of
upload and download bandwidth for a single CCTV camera. These lines are leased from
May 2008 Page 24 VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final a commercial telecom provider such as Verizon with typical monthly costs of
approximately $300 per line. They do not require VDOT to obtain right-of-way or install
and maintain communication lines and equipment. They are ideal for isolated cameras in
rural areas and those outside the planned fiber network expansion/coverage.
Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL): DSL services, regardless of the particular DSL
variation, generally allow download bandwidth to 3 Mbps and upload bandwidth to 384
kbps. DSL circuits are generally less expensive than T-1s but are limited to a three-mile
range from the nearest telecommunications provider Central Office (CO) or fiber optic
digital loop carrier (DLC) cabinet. DSL’s available bandwidth also diminishes farther
away from the CO/access point. These characteristics make DSL best suited for isolated
arterial cameras that will be used only for incident detection, and do not require the high
video quality that necessitates a T-1 line. DSL generally entails an internet connection.
This will ease connections to backup TMCs, but will create the possibilities of internetbased tampering with the cameras and loss of data due to internet “clogging” unless
statewide measures are employed for maintaining access to critical locations during an
emergency. Like other leased lines, DSL is a commercial service provided by telecom
companies for $80 to $100 monthly per connection.
Leased T-3 Lines: Using coaxial copper cable, these leased lines provide the same 672
channel capacity of OC-1 fiber, though with a somewhat lower 44.032 Mbps maximum
bandwidth due to being multiplexed from 28 T-1 lines. They typically cost approximately
$2,000 to $2,500 a month, thereby costing only as much as 8 T-1 lines which provides a
clear cost basis for picking between T-1 and T-3 leased lines. T-3 lines are ideal for
isolated clusters of cameras, which would have prohibitive costs for fiber deployment, or
for receiving multiple field cameras at the TMC head-end.
Wireless Broadband: A number of broadband wireless technologies exist with off-theshelf commercial service provided by telephone companies. Currently, these services are
based on third-generation cellular technology with bandwidth averaging 700 kbps
download and 144 kbps upload. Pricing for these services has tended to range from $60
to $80 per month for unlimited use with each device, but Verizon has begun charging
monthly fees for overall use in excess of 5 GB and other providers may follow suit. Even
accounting for the low upload bandwidth, connecting a camera through this network for
round-the-clock daily use would exceed the 5 GB monthly cap by tens to hundreds of GB
per month, resulting in extreme fees. Also, currently available technology’s low
bandwidth sharply limits the video quality that can be obtained with wireless broadband
connections. However, for temporary installations using portable cameras wireless
broadband is the most convenient connection method since it does not require a fixed,
immovable connection. Video quality limitations due to bandwidth availability for
wireless broadband should loosen in the near future with the deployment of fourthgeneration wireless technologies such as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave
Access (WiMAX) and Long Term Evolution of the Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System (LTE). The first of these technologies expected to be
available in the NRO’s area is WiMAX, which Sprint has indicated will be available in
late 2008. Competing wireless carriers have selected the LTE cellular technology, with
Verizon’s LTE network expected to deploy in 2010.
May 2008 Page 25 VDOT Northern Region Operations CCTV Master Plan Final 5 SUMMARY
This plan calls for the VDOT NRO CCTV System to contain 557 cameras after a 20-year
build-out: 120 functional existing cameras, 17 existing nonfunctional cameras to be
repaired, 27 planned cameras to be installed, and 391 new cameras to be installed. These
cameras will be distributed among 26 corridor bundles throughout the NRO. Also,
although they are no longer part of the NRO, this plan calls for 18 cameras to be installed
along US Routes 15, 17, 28, and 29 in Fauquier County to maintain continuity and logical
route management for NRO corridors in Stafford and Prince William Counties. After
adjusting for the 18 NWRO cameras along corridors T and U, the remaining proposed
NRO cameras have been subdivided into 194 key locations and 179 backfill locations to
provide coverage along the prioritized corridors.
A rough order of magnitude probable cost estimate for the cameras in the CCTV system
can be made assuming costs of $65,000 per new camera, $10,000 per repair/replacement
of inoperable/existing cameras, and $6,000 per upgrade of existing cameras to new
communications. This yields a probable construction cost of:
•
$720,000 for upgrades to existing cameras,
•
$170,000 for repair and replacement of existing cameras,
•
$1,755,000 for installation of planned/programmed cameras, and
•
$24,245,000 for installation of proposed new cameras ($12,610,000 for
key cameras and $11,635,000 for backfill cameras).
Fiber optic cable expansion of the CCTV communications infrastructure is estimated to
cost $200,000 per mile, and is not included in the CCTV system expansion probable costs
above. Multiple options for leased communication services exist in the interim.
On-going maintenance costs of 10% of each capital construction project (i.e. $6,500 per
camera location per year) should be allocated for repairs and device replacement services
over the life of each device. Allocating funds for this purpose will accommodate cameras
deployed in the near-term, which may be replaced two to three times during the course of
a 20 year deployment plan.
May 2008 Page 26 Virginia Department of Transportation
Contract# 27090 (Task NRO-27090-007)
CCTV Validation Plan Virginia Department of Transportation Northern Region Operations Prepared for:
Prepared by: May 2008
CCTV Validation Plan
1.
FINAL
Introduction
A Validation Plan provides a guide for evaluating a deployed ITS system to determine if it has
met its goals. The Validation Plan lists criteria for judging whether or not the ITS system meets
the user needs and objectives defined in the Concept of Operations. This Validation Plan
addresses the needs and objectives defined in the CCTV Concept of Operations for the Virginia
Department of Transportation (VDOT) Northern Region Operations (NRO). It is intended to be
used in validating the future Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) System in Northern Virginia
against the VDOT NRO CCTV Concept of Operations and the High Level Requirements for
VDOT NRO CCTV.
The validation plan is divided into “need categories” corresponding to Section 4: Operational
Needs of the VDOT NRO CCTV Concept of Operations. These categories are Freeway
Operations, Signal Operations, Maintenance, and Transportation Planning/Engineering Needs.
For each operational need, the Validation Plan asks if the deployed system meets that need.
2.
Freeway Operations
2.1. Traffic Management
The following checks validate the CCTV system against the user needs defined in Section 4.1.1
of the CCTV Concept of Operations.
2.1.1. Corridor Management
2.1.1.1.
Monitoring Freeways and Arterials with Limited Gaps
Are there critical gaps in the CCTV system’s coverage of freeways and arterials for each
deployed roadway bundle?
2.1.1.2.
Monitor and Compare Parallel Routes
Is the CCTV system able to effectively compare conditions on bundled parallel routes and guide
diversion management decisions?
2.1.1.3.
Monitor Regular & Express Lanes
Does the CCTV system coverage sufficiently monitor conditions on express lanes, such as High
Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) or High Occupancy/Toll (HOT) Lanes?
2.1.2. Condition Monitoring
2.1.2.1.
Full Mainline Coverage
Can the CCTV system be used to monitor conditions on mainline laneage in both directions of
covered freeways?
2.1.2.2.
Interchange and Intersection Coverage
Can the CCTV system be used to monitor conditions at weave areas, merge areas, and diversion
areas for freeways and arterials?
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CCTV Validation Plan
2.1.2.3.
FINAL
Unobstructed Views
Do objects such as vegetation, buildings, signs, or overpasses and flyovers block lines of sight to
any camera locations?
2.1.2.4.
Day/Night Use
Can imagery from the CCTV system be used at night or in other low-light conditions?
2.1.2.5.
All-Weather Use
Can imagery from the CCTV system be used during rain, fog, snow, or other inclement weather
conditions?
2.1.2.6.
Constant Image
Do all cameras provide a steady in-focus image?
2.1.2.7.
Automated Return to Preset Image
Do cameras automatically return to a preset angle, zoom, and focus after a set period of operator
inactivity?
Do VIDs automatically re-establish detection/monitoring/alerting upon the camera’s return to its
preset?
2.1.3. Informing the Media and Public
2.1.3.1.
Internet Video Feeds
Can members of the general public obtain CCTV feeds via a website using typically available
bandwidth?
2.1.3.2.
Media Video Feeds
Can Information Service Providers or mass media services access CCTV imagery via a
designated media feed?
2.1.3.3.
Disabling Feeds
Can TMC operators disable individual camera feeds to the public and media during sensitive
events such as fatalities, emergencies, and security events?
2.1.4. Regional Coordination
2.1.4.1.
Video Sharing Methods
Can video be shared with stakeholders via the Statewide Video Distribution System (SVDS)
contractor and the Regional Integrated Transportation Information System?
2.1.4.2.
Video Sharing Users
Are stakeholders including local DOTs, Virginia State and Local Police, and Fire & Rescue able
to access shared video?
May 28, 2008
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CCTV Validation Plan
FINAL
2.2. Incident and Event Monitoring
The following checks validate the CCTV system against the user needs defined in Section 4.1.2
of the CCTV Concept of Operations.
2.2.1. Freeway Incidents
2.2.1.1.
Full Coverage
Are there gaps in camera coverage allowing incidents to occur in a location where the CCTV
system is unable to detect or verify them?
• Is there full mainline coverage?
• Is there full coverage of interchanges, including merge, diverge, and weave areas?
• Is there coverage on and under bridges, overpasses, and flyovers?
• Is camera spacing sufficient (e.g. ½ mile)?
• Is camera coverage sufficient for Video Incident Detection (VID) systems?
2.2.1.2.
View Control
Are TMC operators able to control the camera and image?
• Can TMC operators select the camera to control and view?
• Can TMC operators direct cameras at suspected incidents using pan/tilt/zoom features?
2.2.1.3.
Incident Verification
Are TMC operators using the CCTV system to verify incident reports received from motorists,
the Safety Service Patrol (SSP), and the Virginia State Police (VSP)?
2.2.1.4.
•
•
•
•
•
Automated Condition Alerting
Is a Video Incident Detection (VID) expert system alerting TMC operators of suspected
incidents and/or unusual traffic conditions in a timely manner?
Is a VID expert system effectively alerting TMC operators of shoulder lane incidents,
debris, and/or stalled vehicles in a timely manner?
Do VIDs relying on pan, tilt, zoom cameras work as effectively as fixed cameras?
Do PTZ-based VIDs stop alerting when operators switch from the “alerting” preset
camera view, and re-start upon return to the preset?
Do the VIDs require too much operational adjustment and maintenance time in order to
minimize false alerts?
2.2.2. Planned Events
Can the CCTV system be used to monitor planned events affecting traffic patterns or the
roadway?
• Can the CCTV system be used to monitor long-term construction?
• Can the CCTV system be used to monitor diversions due to road closures for planned
events such as parades, festivals, and road races?
• Can the CCTV system be used to monitor traffic due to planned trip generating events
such as Washington Nationals games, concerts at the Nissan Pavilion, etc.?
2.2.3. Unscheduled Events
Can the CCTV system be used to monitor and manage traffic due to unscheduled events such as
evacuations or early school closures?
May 28, 2008
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CCTV Validation Plan
FINAL
2.3. Validating Other Infrastructure
The following checks validate the CCTV system against the user needs defined in Section 4.1.3
of the CCTV Concept of Operations.
2.3.1. Dynamic Message Signs (DMS)
Can TMC operators view all DMS with the CCTV system to verify correct message display?
2.3.2. High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lanes
2.3.2.1.
Wrong-Way Vehicles
Can TMC operators view HOV lanes with the CCTV system and detect vehicles traveling the
wrong way?
2.3.2.2.
Lane Clearance
Can TMC operators tour CCTV cameras to determine that HOV lanes are cleared when switching
HOV lane direction?
• Can TMC operators verify with CCTV that HOV lanes are clear of moving vehicles?
• Can TMC operators verify with CCTV that HOV lanes are clear of stalled or otherwise
nonmoving vehicles and/or debris?
2.3.2.3.
Gate Status
Can TMC operators view all HOV lane entry/exit gates to confirm that gates are correctly open or
closed?
2.3.3. High-Occupancy/Toll (HOT) Lanes
2.3.3.1.
Entry/Exit
Can TMC operators view entry and exit points for HOT lanes to verify clear ingress and egress?
2.3.3.2.
Impacts
Can TMC operators use the CCTV system to monitor HOT lane impacts on main travel lanes?
2.3.4. Ramp Meters
Can TMC operators use the CCTV system to monitor ramp meters and gauge their queues and
their real-time effects on the mainline?
2.3.5. Lane Control System
•
•
•
•
Can TMC operators use the CCTV system to verify lane control displays for shoulders
used as auxiliary laneage?
Is a VID expert system alerting TMC operators of shoulder lane incidents, debris, and/or
stalled vehicles in a timely manner?
Do VIDs relying on pan, tilt, zoom cameras work as effectively as fixed cameras?
Do PTZ-based VIDs stop alerting when operators switch from the “alerting” preset
camera view, and re-start upon return to the preset?
May 28, 2008
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CCTV Validation Plan
•
FINAL
Do the VIDs require too much operational adjustment and maintenance time in order to
minimize false alerts?
2.4. Active Speed Limit Management
Does the CCTV system meet the user need defined in Section 4.1.4 of the Concept of Operations
by enabling CCTV operators to obtain qualitative descriptions of traffic conditions for use in
active speed limit management?
3.
Signal Operations
3.1. Arterial Congestion Management
The following checks validate the CCTV system against the user needs defined in Section 4.2.2
of the CCTV Concept of Operations.
3.1.1. Observe Arterial Network
Can the CCTV system be used to note overall conditions on the arterial network?
3.1.2. Timing Plan Selection
Can the CCTV system be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a selected timing plan in a
Responsive Timing Plan Selection scheme?
Does the CCTV system provide improved performance measures in comparison to those prior to
installation of cameras?
3.1.3. Traveler Information
Can the CCTV system be used to gather real-time traveler information for the 511 system?
3.2. High-Accident Location Monitoring
•
•
•
Does the CCTV system meet the user need defined in CCTV Concept of Operations
Section 4.2.3 by being useful for monitoring key high-accident locations?
Does the CCTV system decrease the amount of time needed to verify computer-aided
dispatch (CAD) information from the police?
Does the CCTV system decrease the response and clearing time in contrast to prior to
installation of cameras?
4.
Maintenance
4.1. Reliability
The following checks validate the CCTV system against the user needs defined in Section 4.3.1
of the CCTV Concept of Operations.
4.1.1. Device Reliability
4.1.1.1.
Independent/isolated Power
Does CCTV equipment have an independent power supply such that other ITS equipment cannot
adversely affect the CCTV system?
May 28, 2008
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CCTV Validation Plan
4.1.1.2.
FINAL
Backup Power
Do CCTV camera and communication locations have Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS)
backup power supplies?
4.1.1.3.
•
•
•
High Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF)
Are components rated for at least five years of continuous operation?
Are components robust and weatherproofed?
Are components reaching their expected life expectancy?
4.1.2. System Reliability
4.1.2.1.
Backup Control
Can the CCTV system be controlled and monitored from a backup TMC in addition to the main
PSTOC facility?
4.1.2.2.
Overlapping Coverage
Are cameras placed so that there is overlapping coverage to prevent excessive coverage gaps if a
device fails?
4.2. Preventative Maintenance, Repair, and Replacement
The following checks validate the CCTV system against the user needs defined in Section 4.3.2
of the CCTV Concept of Operations.
4.2.1. Minimized Maintenance Cost and Time
4.2.1.1.
•
•
Can maintenance personnel test CCTV devices remotely using Internet Protocol (IP)?
Can maintenance personnel reset CCTV equipment remotely?
4.2.1.2.
•
•
•
Easy Servicing
Do maintenance personnel find it simple to remove, replace, and service CCTV
equipment?
Does the camera equipment Mean-Time-to-Repair (MTTR) adequately support TMC
operations?
4.2.1.3.
•
Remote Testing and Reset
Maintenance Preparation
Has additional yearly funding for maintenance been set aside at the time of new camera
deployments?
Are device and part replacements readily available for existing installations?
4.2.2. Replacement Stock Management
4.2.2.1.
Bar Coding
Are all devices and components bar coded in accordance with the NRO Inventory Barcode
Requirements?
May 28, 2008
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CCTV Validation Plan
4.2.2.2.
FINAL
Inventory and Maintenance Management System (IMMS)
Does the IMMS track all CCTV system devices and components through logged descriptors and
identifiers, including IP number?
• Is all field equipment logged in the IMMS at the time of deployment?
• Are replacement devices and equipment stocks logged in the IMMS?
• Do maintenance personnel update the IMMS after performing maintenance?
• Do maintenance personnel update the IMMS after replacing bar-coded equipment?
4.2.2.3.
Logical Identifier System
Does the method of identifying CCTV cameras help to systematically describe and locate them?
4.3. Maintenance Placement Needs
The following checks validate the CCTV system against the user needs defined in Section 4.3.3
of the CCTV Concept of Operations.
4.3.1. Minimization of Damage
4.3.1.1.
Vehicle Impact
Is all CCTV equipment protected from vehicle impact by guardrail or placement away from edge
of pavement?
4.3.1.2.
Line Breaks
Are all CCTV power and communication cables protected against line breaks with sealed
conduits and junction boxes?
4.3.1.3.
Lightning and Surge Protection
Do all devices and electrical/communication lead-in cables have protection against lightning and
transient electrical surges?
4.3.1.4.
Foundations
Are all CCTV field devices installed on stable foundations on level ground to prevent erosion and
undermining?
4.3.1.5.
Vandalism
Are all CCTV field devices placed out of reach or in locked cabinets to prevent vandalism?
4.3.2. Maintenance Access
4.3.2.1.
Safe Access
Can maintenance personnel access CCTV cameras and equipment in a safe manner?
4.3.2.2.
No Traffic Impact
Can maintenance personnel access CCTV cameras without requiring lane closures or encroaching
on a travel lane?
• Are cameras mounted off of the roadway and road-spanning structures such as bridges,
overpasses, and flyovers?
May 28, 2008
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CCTV Validation Plan
•
FINAL
Are cameras and equipment placed with adequate space off of roadway for maintenance
personnel, equipment, and vehicles?
4.3.2.3.
Accessible Height
Are CCTV cameras accessible with VDOT’s standard bucket trucks?
5. NoVA District Transportation Planning and NRO
Traffic Engineering
The following checks validate the CCTV system against the user needs defined in Section 4.4.1
of the CCTV Concept of Operations.
5.1. Origin/Destination Studies
Can the CCTV system be temporarily equipped with external hardware and software (i.e. licenseplate readers) to track vehicles through a corridor and report pairings of entry and exit points?
Is the data accuracy provided by this approach comparable to conventionally-outsourced data
collection methods?
5.2. Spot Analyses
Can the CCTV system be used to record imagery of a location for use in later analysis of safety,
geometric, or traffic-related issues?
May 28, 2008
Page 8
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