FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE FOR BASKETBALL ENTHUSIASTS EVERYWHERE SEPTEMBER / OCTOBER 2004 ASSIST10 borivoje cenic serbia and montenegro youth program tony khalil development in lebanese women’s basketball oliver purnell the “wall” defense sergey chernov and valery lunichkin russian basketball coaches association tim garl lower leg pain in basketball players OLYMPIC GOLD MEDAL ARGENTINA: THE OFFENSE EDITORIAL We’ve sat the exam and the results are in Remember the days, maybe long ago, when you were studying and had to regularly sit for an exam to measure your progress. In my mind, the Olympic Games and the FIBA World Championships are basketball’s “exam time”. Every two years the world’s best players, best coaches and best officials come to the playing court in the host country to prove how good they really are. The sport also gets to check its progress through the interest shown by spectators and the media in its competition. As I sit in my office back in Oceania writing these words, I think basketball can be very pleased with its report card following our “examination” in Athens. I expect that the basketball tournament will go down in history as the best Olympic Games Basketball tournament ever and I suspect that the competition will be recognised in the future, as of similar significance as the 1992 Olympic Games. The athletes who presented themselves for “examination” in Athens were outstanding examples of the level that players can reach when they practice and hone their skills. They were taller, more athletic, more skilful and more knowledgeable, right across the competition, than we have seen in previous Olympics and thanks to them and the work carried out by their coaches during the preparation phase and during the Olympics, we witnessed a feast of scoring. The coaches I have spoken with have observed that since Indianapolis two years ago, the offensive skills of teams have advanced more quickly than the defensive skills. It’s probably true to report also, that the changes made to the rules of the game have resulted in it becoming more exciting and fast paced. We can say the rule changes implemented by FIBA have “passed the test”. Clearly, basketball was one of the success stories of the games - spectator interest was high. When the numbers are counted, I am sure our sport will emerge as one of the major attractions in Athens. And TV, right around the world, was very interested in beaming the pictures from the basketball courts of Athens. Four million viewers, a TV record in Argentina, tuned in to watch their nation defeat Italy for the men’s gold medal. The defeat of the USA men by Puerto Rico in their opening game of the tournament set the scene for that interest, but I am sure it was the spectacle of the games, day in and day out, which kept the fans and the media returning for more. The in-arena entertainment program held in conjunction with the basketball competition proved very popular with spectators and the organisers should be given “top marks” for that. Congratulations to the Argentine Men and the USA women who “topped their class” in 2004. Congratulations also to the other 11 men’s and 11 women’s teams who by their presence in Athens will show on their report card, top 12 in a class of 212. As with any exam, the report card is a time to look back and consider where you did well and where you could do better. Some teams no doubt, feel they performed below expectations and FIBA as the controlling body will look at what they can reproduce at future events and what needs to be changed. Players, coaches, referees and event organisers, you have 2 years to work on your game before the next “exam” in 2006. Steve Smith Secretary General - FIBA OCEANIA FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS EDITORIAL by Steve Smith FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE IS A PUBLICATION OF FIBA International Basketball Federation 8, CH. Blandonnet, 1214 Vernier/Geneva Switzerland Tel. +41-22-545.0000, Fax +41-22-545.0099 www.fiba.com e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org COACHES FUNDAMENTALS AND YOUTH BASKETBALL One-on-One: Creating Space by Ganon Baker IN COLLABORATION WITH Giganti-BT&M, Cantelli Editore, Italy PARTNER WABC (World Association of Basketball Coaches), Dusan Ivkovic President EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Giorgio Gandolfi Editorial Office: Cantelli Editore, V. Saliceto 22/E, 40013 Castelmaggiore (BO), Italy, Tel. +39-051-6328811, Fax +39-051 6328815 E-mail: email@example.com 17 21 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 25 29 The “Triangle and Two” Defense by Tab Baldwin Copyright 2004 by FIBA. 32 PSYCHOLOGY AND MOTIVATION Integrating Psychology at the Australian Institute of Sport - Part I by Adrian Schonfield 35 NATIONAL COACHES ASSOCIATIONS Russian Basketball Coaches Association by Sergey Chernov and Valery Lunichkin 37 HOOP MARKET Books and Videos on Zone Defense by Raffaele Imbrogno 38 2004 - 2005 FIBA CALENDAR OCTOBER 12 - 17.10 15 - 21.10 27.10 28 - 29.10 30.10 NOVEMBER 21 - 27.11 26 - 28.11 DECEMBER 03.12 PAGE 4 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE Development in Lebanese Women’s Basketball by Tony Khalil DEFENSE The “Wall” Defense by Oliver Purnell Printed in Italy. AN INVITATION TO OUR READERS No matter what the level of competition you are concerned about, we invite you (coaches; FIBA Zones, Federations, Leagues, and team executives, referees, doctors, trainers, conditioning coaches, minibasket instructors, journalists) to send articles to us for publication. The article must be no longer than 5/6,000 characters, spaces included. If diagrams of plays, drills or sketches are used, please limit them to 12 or less. All manuscripts must be written in English, transmitted by e-mail or faxed to the Editorial Office listed above. The manuscript will become property of the Publisher and the author will automatically be granted the rigths of publication, without asking any fee now or in the future. The Editorial Staff will decide if and when articles will be published. There is no guarantee that manuscripts will be published, nor willl manuscripts be returned. 10 Offensive Concepts and Principles by Dirk Bauermann The magazine is published 6 times per year. FIBA, Cantelli Editore and the Editor-in-Chief are not responsible for the opinions expressed in the articles. All rights reserved. The National Federation and their affiliates can reproduce any part or all the magazine for their internal use, but not sell any part or all of the magazine to an external publisher without the written permission of FIBA. All information in this publication is provided as news matter only and is not to be used to violate any local or national laws. 6 Serbia and Montenegro Youth Program by Borivoje Cenic OFFENSE The Argentina Offense by Ruben Magnano THE MISSION Our objective is to help basketball grow globally and improve in every aspect. Our goal is to produce a technical publication of the highest level, but one that is easily understood and appreciated by everyone. An ample section of the magazine is devoted to the coaches - more precisely, youth level coaches - because coaches comprise the largest part of our readership. Basketball can improve only if every aspect of this sport improves and moves forward. For this reason the magazine is also devoted to topics of interest for team executives, referees, doctors, conditioning coaches, trainers, and mini-basketball instructors, as well as national Federations, FIBA Zones, Leagues and teams. We would like to thank the following persons: Corrado de Belvis, Lisa Cavallini, Gerald Couzens, and Raffaele Imbrogno; Paolo Grilli and Giampaolo Scaglione for their cooperation. 3 04 - 05.12 FIBA Women's World League 2004, Final Round in Samara and St. Petersburg, Russia Asian U18 Championship for Women 2004 in China World Commission for Women's Basketball in Geneva, Switzerland World Commission for Interantional Competitions in Geneva, Switzerland FIBA Commonwealth Games Council in Geneva, Switzerland Asian "Borislav Stankovic" Cup 2004 in Taipei, Chinese Taipei Board of FIBA-Europe in Tallinn, Estonia 17 - 26.12 Central Board of FIBA in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia U18 African Championship for Women 2004 in Tunisia JANUARY 2005 tba Draw for the FIBA U19 World Championship for Women in Nabeul, Tunisia 21 - 22.01 World Technical Commission in San Juan, Puerto Rico FEBRUARY 2005 tba Draw for the FIBA U21 World Championship for Men in La Mar del Plata, Argentina tba South American League for Men's Clubs MARCH 2005 tba Meeting of the FIBA Zone Secretary tba Generals, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Board of FIBA-Europe South American Championship for Women REFEREES, SCORER’S TABLE AND COMMISSIONERS Refereeing the Defense by Fred Horgan 40 Do You Have the Right Level of Tension? by Bill Mildenhall and Jan Holmin 43 Right or Wrong? 45 SPORT MARKETING AND MANAGEMENT CONDITIONING COACHES Medicine Ball Exercises for Basketball by Phil Dyer 59 TRAINERS Lower Leg Pain in Basketball Players by Tim Garl 61 MINI-BASKETBALL, SCHOOL GAMES AND ACTIVITIES MINI-BASKETBALL Mini-Basketball Program in Berlin by Marina Zollner 63 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 66 EXECUTIVES AND MARKETING Why Is Branding So Important? by Lars-Haue Pedersen 47 HOW TO SUBSCRIBE: FIBA’s Corporate Hospitality in Athens 49 A one-year (6 issues) subscription to FIBA Assist Magazine costs Euro 40 (europe), and euro 45 (outside europe) to be payed in one of the following ways: FIBa zones, federations and leagues Sunny 3-on-3: a Program for Four Million Spanish Students FIBA RESEARCH AND STUDY CENTRE From Athens Via Beijing to the Future by Aldo Vitale 51 55 DOCTORS, CONDITIONING COACHES AND TRAINERS DOCTORS Facial Injuries by Enrique Amy 57 Payment with postal current account n. 28300408 headed to Cantelli Editore (Only for subscription from Italy) Payment with banking transaction c/o Cassa di Risparmio in Bologna ABI 06385 - CAB 36740 - c/c 07400012796S - CIN S IBAN: IT73S063853674007400012796S SWIFT: CRBOIT2BXXX Payment with credit card connecting at the website www.shop.cantelli.net Please, fill in the subscription form that you can find on fiba.com, and send it, including the receipt, to: BY MAIL: Cantelli Editore - Via Saliceto, 22/E - 40013 - Castel Maggiore (Bo) - Italy BY FAX: ++39 051 6328816 FOR INFORMATION: ++39 051 6328836 (from 9 am to 1 pm Central European Time) APRIL 2005 tba Panamerican Championship for Women* MAY 2005 tba tba tba Central Board of FIBA in Coffs Harbour, Australia Asian Champions Cup for Men African Champions Cup for Men JUNE 2005 tba South American Championship for Men JULY 2005 tba 15 - 24.07 AUGUST 05 tba tba 05 - 14.08 SEPTEMBER 2005 tba Asian Championship for Men* tba Oceania Championship for Men and Women* 02 - 11.09 European Championship for Women in Bursa, Izmir, Ankara, Turkey* 16 - 25.09 European Championship for Men in Vrsac, Novi Sad, Belgrade, Serbia & Montenegro* DECEMBER 2005 tba African Championship for Women in Dem. Rep. Congo* AUGUST - SEPTEMBER 2006 Panamerican Championship for Men* FIBA Women's U19 World Championship 2005 in Hammamet and Nabeul, Tunisia African Championship for Men in Cote d'Ivoire * Asian Championship for Women* FIBA U21 World Championship for Men in Cordoba and Mar del Plata, Argentina 19.08 - 03.09 19.09 - 01.10 FIBA World Championship in Japan FIBA World Championship for Women in Brazil * These championships qualify for the FIBA World Championships 2006 in Japan and Brazil. FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 5 FIBA EUROPE COACHES - FUNDAMENTALS AND YOUTH BASKETBALL by Ganon Baker ONE-ON-ONE: CREATING SPACE Ganon Baker, former assistant coach at Hampton, Belmont Abbey, and Coastal Carolina, and President of the “Shake n’Bake Basketball Services”, he was also player-coach of a team in Iceland. He teaches oneon-one moves at camps and clinics all over the US, and he was also invited to give clinics in Australia. He produced two videos on these moves with Championship Productions. Basketball - What a great game! I have had the opportunity to play with, coach, and train many great players. The best and most talented players in the world are in the NBA. Throughout my experiences, I have discovered 7 NBA dribble moves used by the NBA’s best players to create space. The three main reasons you use a dribble move are: 1. To create distance from your defender to make a pass or shot attempt. 2. To attack the basket for a better scoring opportunity. 3. To alleviate pressure from an aggressive defender. Begin first by doing the drills stationary. I call this the “training wheel” theory. To learn how to ride a bike, you make it easier by using a two-wheel training gadget hooked on the back wheel for balance. To execute these dribble moves, practice them stationary first with proper balance. The progression is form to full speed. Go slow-motion to one continuous motion on each dribble move. It is important to remember that ball handling needs to be done every day. Let’s start sweating. Stance is a big key to execution. Correct practice builds correct habits. In all of your moves, you should: 1. Drop your hips to where your knees PAGE 06 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE SEQUENCE 1 SEQUENCE 2 FIBA EUROP SEQUENCE 3 SEQUENCE 4 are, form a 90 degree angle and your back is straight like a steel rod. Don’t bend over, bend down. 2. Keep your eyes and head up. 3. Dribble hard at knee level. 4. Step with the lead foot on first step when you execute the move on the run (i.e. right hand - right foot, left hand - left foot) and use the opposite hand to shield off the defender (“chicken wing”). Keep the ball close to your body. Plant or stop with the lead foot and use “chicken wing” to keep defender away from the ball (sequence 1). THE MOVES 1. JOHN STOCKTON (STUTTER JAB) Drive at the defender with the right hand, jab or step to the side with the left foot, then keep going right (sequence 2). Stationary practice: continuous jab step to the side with the left foot - hard dribble FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 07 FIBA EUROPE COACHES - FUNDAMENTALS AND YOUTH BASKETBALL SEQUENCE 5 SEQUENCE 6 with the right hand (each drill done for 30 seconds on each side, and then switch direction). 2. TRACY MCGRADY (DOUBLE BETWEEN THE LEGS) Attack the defender dribbling with the right hand - go through the legs to the left - the left foot planted in front, then back through to the right hand - keep going PAGE 08 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE right. Stationary practice: dribble 3 times between the legs, then switch or scissor feet and repeat the process (sequence 3). 3. KOBE BRYANT (BETWEEN THE LEGS - BEHIND THE BACK) Step with the left leg, the right hand between legs, to the left hand, then the left hand to the right hand behind the back, step with the right leg. Stationary practice: go continuous between the legs, then behind the back (sequence 4). 4. KOBE BRYANT (BETWEEN THE LEGS - CROSSOVER) Step with the left leg, the right hand between the legs to the left hand, then the left hand to the right hand crossover in front, step with the right leg. SEQUENCE 7 SEQUENCE 8 Stationary practice: go between the legs, crossover in one spot (sequence 5). 5. KOBE BRYANT (BEHIND THE BACK - CROSSOVER) Step with the left foot, the left hand to right hand, behind the back, then right to left hand crossover, step with the left foot. Stationary practice: go behind the back, then crossover, and then switch direction (sequence 6). tion (sequence 7). 6. MIKE BIBBY (DOUBLE BEHIND THE BACK) Plant the left foot, dribble with the right hand to left, below the buttocks, then the left hand back to the right hand. The wrist snaps and the ball is thrown, while stepping right and left. Stationary practice: go continuous behind the back, and then switch direc- 7. LEBRON JAMES (CROSSOVER THEN UNDER LEGS) Drive right with the right hand, crossover to the left, plant the left leg, bring the ball under and through the left leg to the right hand, and go or shoot jumper. Stationary practice: do continuous crossover and under leg (sequence 8). FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 09 FIBA EUROPE COACHES - FUNDAMENTALS AND YOUTH BASKETBALL by Borivoje Cenic SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO YOUTH PROGRAM Borivoje Cenic is a Professor at the Coaches Basketball Academy of the Serbia and Montenegro Federation. He coached top division men’s teams in the former Yugoslavia, Greece, and Kuwait. He coached the Radnicki Belgrade senior women’s team to four championships. With the senior women’s national team, he won one silver medal at the European Championship, and with the women’s junior team, he won two silver and two bronze medals at the European Championships. He was honored by the Serbia and Montenegro Coaches Association for his lifetime achievement for coaches. THE PLAN The organization of youth programs in Serbia and Montenegro is based on a wide selection that is expanded in such a way that no talented player could ever be left out. We are a small country and have a small number of possible candidates for our national teams. Each year we lose our top players to other European and the NBA clubs. In order to solve this problem, we have chosen a more intensive and quicker development of top players through increased training periods, which helps create a wide selection net. The high world ranking of our national basketball teams creates much interest among the younger players. The number of the players has increased over the course of years. Today we have 1,025 teams with 15,610 licensed players. ORGANIZATIONAL SCHEME The training process is performed in three groups: PAGE 10 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE a. Selection Group b. Preparation Group c. Competition Group In addition, there is also mini-basketball for players 7 to 10 years old. skills, and tactical skills. Club coaches attend these practices and receive instructions for the club practice plan that has been also designed for individual improvement. SELECTION GROUP This consists of players 11-14 years old. Boys start to be selected when they are 11 because their psychophysical status enables their gradual introduction into the training process. This Selection Group program is run in a total of 11 regions, 8 in Serbia and 3 in Montenegro. REGIONAL TOURNAMENTS At the end of the season there are Regional Tournaments for the Young Pioneers (11 and 12 years old) and Older Pioneers (13 and 14 years old), and the best players are then gathered within the Regional Teams. Practices are held twice a month (from September until mid-June) and last one day. The players are put into four separate groups based on their age (11, 12, 13, and 14), and they have a total of 12 practice sessions. Each year, 20 of the top players for their age group are invited to participate in regional competitions. REGIONAL TECHNICAL STAFF Each Region has its staff, formed by: 1. Regional Coordinator, who is in constant communication with all club coaches and the Federation’s head coordinator of this program. 2. Two coaches for each age category. The Regional Coordinator checks the practices and club competitions and selects the players. There are more than 2,000 boys that take part in the four-year training process. The training process within the Region includes testing of technique, physical NATIONAL DEVELOPING TRAINING CENTER (DTC) 1. SELECTION GROUP At the end of the season, the best players of each Region are choosen, and sixty of the most promising players of all age groups from all the Regions are invited to practice at the National Developing Training Center. The young players practice twice a day, for a total of four hours. They also undergo physical and technical skill tests. The best players are invited to join the Preparatory Group, while those players who are not selected will continue to practice throughout the summer to further improve their skills. 2. PREPARATORY GROUP The Preparatory Group includes potential candidates for the Cadet National team (15 and 16 years old). They practice four times a year for a total of 60 days. The number of players in this Group is lowered to 30 and this number decreases even further after several training selections. 3. COMPETITION GROUP This Group consists of the Cadet (16 years old), Junior (17 and 18 years old) and Young (up to 20 years old) National teams. Practices are held in various periods: a. During the weekend for two days (to check the players’ improvement and games against club teams). b. At week-long practices in autumn, winter, and summer, held immediately before certain international tournaments. c. Longer practice periods before the qualifications for the FIBA European Championship, World Championship, and other competitions, such as the University Games. There are 80 practice days annually, with 15 to 25 games. The roster of players is trimmed to 20 and later to 14 just before the official competitions. COMPETITION STAFF SELECTION Expert coaches and those that have achieved results in the training of young players are selected for this program. Each coach has to have the title of Senior Basketball Coach. The staff of the competition teams consists of: ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ Head coach. Two assistant coaches. A medical doctor. A physiotherapist. One senior coach, who acts as a team leader. LOCAL COMPETITIONS Based on ages, the competitions are divided into the following categories: 1. Younger Pioneers (11 and 12 years of age): they play for the Regional titles. 2. Pioneers (13 and 14 years of age): they play for the State title. 3. Cadets (15 and 16 years of age): they play for the State title. 4. Juniors (17 and 18 years of age): they play for the State title. FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 11 FIBA EUROPE COACHES - FUNDAMENTALS AND YOUTH BASKETBALL There are four phases: ▼ I phase- at the Regions level. ▼ II phase- the winners of two Regions play an elimination round. ▼ III phase- within Republics tournament. ▼ IV phase- at the state level tournament. All the competitions are held from September to June, with an average of 3040 official games playerd before reaching the final. CHANGES OF AGE RULES FOR THE TEAMS The decision to “make space” to increase the number of younger players on the senior teams necessitated a change of License Rules. We limited the number of older players on the teams at every level. In this way, we rejuvenated our League. Many clubs are now forced to start the serious program for young players. a. In the I-A League, only 12 players older than 18 years old may be licensed, with no limit of the number of younger players. b. In the I-B League, only 3 players older than 26 and 9 players older than 18 may be licensed, with no limit of the number of younger players. c. In the Republic Leagues, 4 players older than 24 and 8 players older than 18 are licensed, with no limit of the number of younger players. These rule changes have yielded quick results: the teams play a quicker game and there are now more quality younger players involved in top level competitions. THE AIM Although there were great results, as well as failures, at the international competitions, we can say that the basic aims for the growth of young and high quality players was achieved and the results back this up. INTERNATIONAL RESULTS OF THE YOUTH NATIONAL TEAMS CADET NATIONAL TEAM The Cadets national teams won the Gold medal at the last four European ChampionPAGE 12 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE ships. This is due to a variety of factors: a. A careful selection of the national team; b. Early beginning of very organized practices and a thoroughly prepared Plan and Program; c. Strong cooperation of the national team coach with the club coaches; d. Outstanding support of the Federation; e. Thorough scouting of the opposing teams; f. The other national teams are assembled later and are less prepared. JUNIOR NATIONAL TEAM The Junior national team hasn’t achieved the results that we expected, failing to qualify for the European Championship. Why? Where are the quality players? What’s the cause of the poor results? A detailed analysis offers us various facts that explain the situation, but certainly, do not justify the poor results. We can explain such results for the following reasons: 1. Rapid maturation of young talented players forced the clubs to include them on their senior teams. The more talented players go to play for other European teams. 2. Clubs are not very keen to have their players practice for a long time with the national teams. The most obvious example: before last year’s European Junior Championship, only four players partecipated in all of the practices of the national team. Even if a player wanted to take part in all the training sessions, many clubs do not let them do so. Based on the Federation rules, the clubs have the right to behave in this manner. 3. Moving from youth to senior teams does not give the young player the possibility to practice with continuity. Some players do not get FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 13 FIBA EUROPE COACHES - FUNDAMENTALS AND YOUTH BASKETBALL enough time to practice or participate in games, which slows their progress. OFFENSIVE TECHNIQUE ▼ Ballhandling. ▼ One count stop. 4. This stops their normal process of technical development, and affects their psychological growth and concentration. YOUNG NATIONAL TEAM Most players of the Young national team (Under 20) have good individual and collective fundamentals, and they are potential candidates for the senior national team. At this point in their athletic careers, they are at a great crossroad. We believe that players of this age are already mature enough to be members of the senior national teams. These are the past results: 1. Bronze medal at the World Championship in Australia. ▼ Catching and holding the ball. ▼ Passing: a. Chest pass with two hands, directly or off the dribble; b. With one hand from the shoulder or off the dribble (with right and left hand). ▼ a. b. c. However, at the latest two European Championships, the team hasn’t achieved remarkable results, and we haven’t participated in the World Championship. PROGRAM OF WORK A Program of Work was implemented for candidates for the national teams. Because of its wide scope, it entailed a great coordination of all the members of the staff, which runs the practices during the weekend sessions, and also with the club coaches. Special attention was paid to the creation of regulations for our basketball school. All the possible rules, criteria, fundamentals, and every other detail for being considered a potential candidate of this special program were set. YOUNGER PIONEER (11 AND 12 YEARS OLD) TYPE OF WORK a. Basic fundamental: 70% b. Individual tactics: 10% c. Physical preparation: 20% PAGE 14 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE PHYSICAL PREPARATION ▼ Running technique. ▼ Development of psycho-motor skills: a. Speed; b. Coordination; c. Flexibility; d. Sense of space; e. Balance. OLDER PIONEERS (13 AND 14 YEARS OLD) ▼ Dribbling after using the pivot foot. ▼ - 2. Gold medal at the European Championship in Italy. 3. Silver medal at the European Championship in Turkey. Dribbling (with right and left hand): Crossover; Change of rhythm; Change of direction: in front - through the legs. ▼ Creating the habit to always see the ball (on offense and defense). ▼ A player with the ball must always watch the basket. ▼ A defender mustn’t allow the offense player to beat him with the dribble or shot. Pivoting- in place (front and rear): After stopping from dribbling; After moving and stopping; Two-count-after dribbling (right and left); Two-count: after receiving the ball or on movement. ▼ Shooting: - From a spot with one hand; - Jump shot from short distances, after stopping in one-count from dribbling; - Shot fake and shoot; - Shot fake and driving. ▼ - Cutting without the ball: Change of direction; Change of pace; How to get open (going one direction, and in two directions). DEFENSIVE TECHNIQUE ▼ Defensive stance: - Paralell; - Diagonal; - Footwork-sliding into defensive stance (in all directions); - Hand work-movement in all directions; - Running in various directions with turns and jumps; - Jumps with both legs while catching the ball that bounced off the basket; - Chasing the player and getting back in the proper defensive stance. TACTICS ▼ 1-on-1. ▼ 2-on-1. ▼ Showing the hand (give a target and a signal to the passer) and asking for the ball. ▼ Understanding the proper offensive spacing (distance, width, and depth). TYPE OF WORK a. Basic fundamentals: 50% b. Individual and group tactics: 30% c. Physical preparation: 20% OFFENSIVE TECHNIQUE All the above fundamentals are practiced again. NEW FUNDAMENTALS ▼ Stopping in two-count: - After dribbling; - After cutting. ▼ a. b. c. d. Passing: Push pass: After dribbling; From cutting. Baseball pass; Hand-off pass; Passing with two hands above the head. ▼ Two steps: - With continuous jumps; - Zig-zag step. ▼ - Dribbling (with right and left hand): Change of direction behind the back; Reverse; Faking with stepping out while dribbling. ▼ Shooting a. Jump shot after a two-count stop: - From middle distance (after the dribble and a cut); b. Lay-up shot: - After a turn; - After a rebound under the basket; - With one-count stop; ▼ Cutting with the use of the screen on the ball. ▼ 2-on-2, plus the help of a player without the ball. ▼ 3-on-2 on offense and defense. ▼ 3-on-3- cutting and help of players without the ball (proper space). ▼ Fastbreak (run in the middle of the court or near the sidelines): - Outlet pass. ▼ How to get open to receive the outlet pass. ▼ Triangle: one player in the middle lane and two players on the lateral lanes. PHYSICAL PREPARATION ▼ Speed development under game conditions. ▼ Strength development with weight lifting. ▼ Jumping technique on one and two legs. ▼ Combination of running and jumps. CADETS (15 AND 16 YEARS OLD) These players must be ready to master all the previous fundamentals and must work to play at a certain level. TYPE OF WORK a. Technique and individual tactics: 30% b. Tactics: 45% (on groups and all the team) c. Physical preparation: 25%. As usual, the fundamentals and game tactics are very important. c. Lay-up after a prolonged step; d. Fake- “triple threat”. ▼ Cutting without the ball (how to get open): - “V” cut- toward the ball; - “V” cut away from the ball; - “L” cut; - In front of the defender; - Back-door. ▼ How to set the screen: - Lateral screen; - Back screen (“blind screen”). ▼ Technique of bringing the defender into a screen: - On dribbling; - On cutting. ▼ Technique of offensive rebound: - From cutting and jumping on one leg; - Jumping on both legs. DEFENSIVE TECHNIQUE ▼ Footwork: technique of alternating step. ▼ How to use the hands: depending on the ball position and intention of the offensive player. DEFENSIVE STANCES ▼ “Closed” stance. ▼ “Open” stance. When to use one or the other stance depends by the position of the the ball and offensive player. OFFENSIVE TECHNIQUE ▼ Passing: - From cutting from the first step; - From jump shot; - Overhead pass; - Baseball pass; - After dribbling with “tennis” pass (with the non-dribbling hand after the bounce of the ball). ▼ Dribbling: - Changes of direction, followed by a direct pass; - Intensive work on the combination of rhythm and change direction. ▼Rebounding technique: - After contact with offensive player. ▼ - TACTICS ▼ 2-on-2 with two passes. ▼ Cutting without use of the screen. ▼ Baby hook inside the lane: - After dribbling; - After cutting; ▼Blocking out technique: - With a turn to the back; - With lateral contact. Shooting: Fade away jump shot; “Fade away” - after dribbling; Reverse jump shot ; Tap-in; Dunk. FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 15 FIBA EUROPE COACHES - FUNDAMENTALS AND YOUTH BASKETBALL - Center’s shots from the center’ positions. ▼ - Cutting without the ball: Cutting of the center in the lane; Cutting without the ball; Cutting with the defender; Cutting in transition; Use of the space when the offense outnumbers the defense; Double screens - how to use and to get open; Staggered screens; “Return” screens. ▼ a. b. Defense against the screens: Pick-and-roll with cutting: In front of the screen; Behind the screen; Popping out on the direction of the offensive player and come back; c. Aggressive change; d. Against staggered screens; e. Against “return” screens. ▼ Defense on the dribble penetration: - Help and recover. ▼ Defense in outnumbered situations. ▼ “Channeling” in one direction. ▼ Trapping. ▼ Blocking out while the post is guarded in front. COLLECTIVE TACTICS ▼ Basic principles of individual defenses. ▼ Basic principles of zone defense. ▼ Basic principles of zone press. COLLECTIVE OFFENSE ▼ “Pick-and-roll”: - With opening towards the basket; - With opening towards outer positions. ▼ Play with overplay center: - without the screens; - with the screens. ▼ When to use: - Continuous screens; - Return screens. ▼ Avoiding the trapping. ▼ How the center can get free. ▼ Game 3: 3+1. PAGE 16 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE COLLECTIVE OFFENSIVE TACTICS ▼ Principles and cutting into the secondary fastbreak. ▼ Cutting in “early offense”. ▼ Principles and cutting in offense against zone defense. ▼ Principles and cutting in the offense against zone pressing. ▼ Ball movement and players’ cutting from one side of the offense to the other side. PHYSICAL PREPARATION Tasks: ▼ Development of speed endurance. ▼ Improvement of: - Balance; - Speed; - Jumping; - Strength development (explosiveness); - Work without load; - Work with load; - Perfection of flexibility. The Cadet players must have the complete knowledge of fundamental and group tactics of offense and defense. The best players of this category are ready to be incorporated into the senior teams. Thus, the program of work with cadets is very important for players’ development, their maturation and readiness for satisfying the demands and the training of older categories. JUNIORS (17 AND 18 YEARS OLD) The training methods of this category are adjusted to the demands of the contemporary basketball game. This relates to the aggresiveness, contact game, and especially to the very quick transitions from offense to defense and from defense to offense. A special accent is put on the aggressive and physical play for the rebound under the basket. TYPE OF WORK ▼ Technique: 15% ▼ Tactics: 40% ▼ Physical preparation: 25% ▼ Game: 20% INDIVIDUAL FUNDAMENTALS Above all, repeating and improving of technical elements of offense and defense and correction of details. Special attention is paid to the details according to the roles and player’s positions in the game. Technique is practiced under game conditions. COLLECTIVE OFFENSE ▼ How to get open: “V” cut to the ball and away from the ball. ▼ Cutting on the screens - based on the situations of: a. Staggered screen; b. Screen made by a perimeter player for a big player; c. Screen away from the ball; ▼ Double pick-and-roll. ▼ Pick-and-roll while using the third player. COLLECTIVE DEFENSE ▼ Helping. ▼ Aggressive overplaying. ▼ “Bumping”. ▼ Rotations. TEAM TACTICS OFFENSE ▼ Quick hitter with two and three players, with quick ball reversal from one side to the other side of the court. ▼ Offense against zone defenses: a. Even; b. Odd. ▼ Offense against pressing - out-of-bounds pass. ▼ Secondary fastbreak. ▼ Sideline out-of-bounds. ▼ Baseline out-of-bounds. ▼ Offense against zone press. ▼ Offense against combined defenses. DEFENSE ▼ Individual defense on and away from the ball. ▼ Pressing defense with traps. ▼ Zone defense (full and half court). ▼ Combined defense “box and one” and two players man-to-man and three players at zone. Everything that has been mentioned in the Basics of the Program, according to the age categories, represents the necessary knowledge needed for successful implementation of the National Team Program. We specifically insist that clubs offer individual work as well as group and collective tactics. This system of work with the young categories has created a good foundation and is constantly being improved in order to obtain top results. FIBA EUROPE COACHES - FUNDAMENTALS AND YOUTH BASKETBALL DEVELOPMENT IN LEBANESE WOMEN’S BASKETBALL by Tony Khalil Tony Khalil has sixteen years experience as the head coach of top basketball teams in Lebanon. He was also the senior Lebanese national coach in 1992, and he was in charge for the women’s Lebanese basketball program from 1997 to 1999. He won two FIBA Western Asia Basketball Association (WABA) Championships for Junior Women in 1998 and 1999. Throughout my career, I have coached at all levels, from the beginners to the National Team. However, after five years now, one experience still holds a special place in my career: being responsible for the women’s program in the Lebanese Basketball Federation from 1997 to 1999. A coach usually has to either help develop young players or build a winning team at the senior level. Building a complete program from A to Z was really a challenge. I am seeing the fruit of this work when I see girls that I started working with at the age of 13 years blossom as basketball players and are part of the Women’s national team of Lebanon. It all started in 1997, when Lebanon was hosting the FIBA Pan-Arab Games. I was named to the technical staff of the womens Lebanese team that ultimately finished third in this tournament. However, one major drawback was the lack of players. For this tournament, we lined up 12 players, but only seven had the experience to play at this higher level. After the end of the games, I was asked by the Lebanese Basketball Federation to start building the women’s program that would compete with the elite of the Arab countries. With the support of the Federation, we started the project. Here is what had to be done: 1 - Increase the number of clubs and d i v i sions of basketball in 1997 (five teams and one division) to three divisions, each with an average of eight clubs in 1999. 2 - Create age-group championships. Instead of one championship, we now had the mini-basketball category, Under 8, Under 10, Under 12, Under 14, Under 16, Junior Women, and Young Ladies championships. In each category, players had an average of seven to eight months of competition, either with the first team or with the specific age category. FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 17 FIBA EUROPE COACHES - FUNDAMENTALS AND YOUTH BASKETBALL 3 - Make regular weekly practices for the national teams and adjust the schedule of the championships. Tuesdays and Thursdays were for the senior A & B teams, Fridays and Sundays for the 14to-18-year bracket, Saturdays for the under-14 bracket. By doing this, we had had the continuity of the national teams. D.1 D.4 D.2 D.5 D.3 D.6 4 - Involve coaches to work with this program through the clinics that the Lebanese Basketball Federation organized. We could then choose among these coaches a special group to work with the national teams for women, giving them the advantages and the experience of international level competition. 5 - First participate on the regional level and then move to the international level. Starting in 1998, we emphasized participation with the Western Asia Basketball Association and the Arab Basketball Federation. 6 - Involve the parents with basketball and the practice sesions by having them come to practices of the national teams. 7 - Involve TV in broadcasting women’s basketball. WHAT RESULTS DID THIS PROGRAM ACHIEVE? First, it increased the number of licensed woman players and the number of women’s clubs. Second, it made the women’s national teams a force on regional level, winning the junior women’s championship of WABA in 1998 and 1999, the FIBA Pan-Arab Championship in 2000 (third in 1998), and winning second place in the FIBA Senior Pan-Arab Games in 2000. Lebanese Clubs soon became more interested in creating a women’s team. This was a brief view of the organizational work done in this period, but how about the technical work that was performed? We basically worked on two lines: the general and individual. This was done for all the players, with specialized work done according to the position. Although it was the work of the club to form the players, the technical staff took it on itself to work with the players on the basics fo the game. Here is how this work was done: PAGE 18 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE ▼ Teaching of the jump stop or two count stop to our center, first without the ball and then feeding her with passes. The coach dribbles around the perimeter. The center sprints toward the ball, receives the pass after a jump stop or a twocount stop (diagr. 1). ▼ Movement in the low post: We start by teaching without the feeder and without defense. The pivot will fake left, then go right, or vice versa. She will learn to step one way, change direction and go to the ball. This is the V cut. ▼ The second step is to perform the same drill and receive ball. We emphasize the change of direction and hand calling for ball. ▼ For the third step, we add a defensive player and start the teaching process of feeding her with the ball against an opponent. Our pivot should feel her opponent and lead her one way to break to the ball (diagr. 2 and 3). Pivot offensive moves: We need to work on daily offensive moves. The moves that post players use to score to control the offensive basket include: A - Catch-and-go 1 - Jump stop: Every night our big player catch at least several passes from several parts of the court and come to a jump stop from each of these areas (diagr. 4). 2 - Catch-and-go: The post player should catch-and-go every day from the spots shown in diagram 5. After we do these drills, we add the soft defense in order to perfect the recognition. B - Show the ball and go to the opposite, same sequence of work. First, with no defense, then with defense. All is performed with the back to the basket. C - Show the ball and go the same way. All is performed with the back to the basket. D - Drop step-and-go: With her back to the basket, she jump stops, catches the ball, does a drop step, and goes to the basket from the four different positions. ▼ Post face the basket: Players sprint to one of the spots, pivot, face the basket, then drive for the lay-up. ▼ Post face and shoot: Same routine. Instead of going to the basket, shoot immediately. ▼ Post face fake left, go left, fake right, go right. ▼ Post various moves: Like any drill, this starts with a jump step and it must be done from various spots on the floor, first without defense, then with the addition of defense. WHAT ARE THE MOVES? ▼ Outside Run ▼ Inside Run ▼ Outside pivot ▼ Inside pivot (diagr. 6) Also, on our daily big ladies routine, we must work with pivot shots. These include: A - Right and left hand B - Right and left reverse C - Perimeter jump shot D - Baby hook (right and left) I described our work with our centers and power forward players. I would now like to describe workouts for our perimeter players. We start the same as for the big ladies with the jump stop. The players must catch the ball, square up, and face the basket. They must always be in the triple-threat position because from this position they can dribble, shoot, or pass. Their left foot should be slightly ahead, if they are right-handed, and vice versa if left handed. Once they have mastered this drill of catchin the ball and being in the triple-threat, we start teaching the move: 1 - Direct drive or the strong-side drive: Once the player catches the ball and she is in the triple threat position, she uses the jab step. This is done with the right foot for right-handed players, and with the left foot for left-handed players. After the first short jab step , a bigger one is made, and the player then explodes to the basket. Players must learn to go in a straight line to the basket and not to curve or loop around the defense. Looping around the defense allows the defense time to recover and block access to the basket. 2 - The cross-over drive: Same start as the direct drive. The perimeter player catches the ball and goes into triple threat position, then jab steps. The defense is cutting the way to the basket: If the player is right-handed, she crosses her right foot over to the left side, stepping by the defender’s feet and putting the defender on her hip. With both of these moves, players can use either the jump shot or the power lay-up. Both moves are performed after a jump stop and catching the ball. Let me now describe the moves, which help the player attack the defense while dribbling: ▼ Stop-and-go: The perimeter player is dribbling as if attacking the defense, but she suddenly stops, and when the defense stops, she explodes directly to the basket. ▼ Cross over: The perimeter player is dribbling, attacking the defense, and she plants her front foot and crosses over, low to the other side. ▼ The reverse: If the player is right-handed, she plants her left foot and reverses to the other side, keeping the ball with the right hand. When she finishes the move, she dribbles with her left hand and explodes past the defense. These moves I have described are not the only drills we use, but they are important because they provide the player with the offensive tools needed to score. Since the local clubs did not work on these drills, we had to do this on the national team level, in order to get our players ready for high-level competition. When we achieved our national team success, women’s basketball in Lebanon received much attnetion from local clubs and more work was done on the regional level to help develop better players. Soon, we had more teams and more coaches involved in the teaching process. The tremendous success we had with women’s basketball, between 1997 and 2000, would not have been possible if the Lebanese Basketball Federation would not have the foresight to work on a long-term program, and the Western Asian Basketball Association (which includes teams from Korea, China, and Japan) created regular competitions for women. Looking at this experience, I see that much work has already been done; however, we have to continue to push forward and do even better. FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 19 FIBA EUROPE COACHES - OFFENSE by Ruben Magnano THE ARGENTINA OFFENSE Ruben Magnano won the FIBA South America and Pan-American Championships with the Argentinean Under-21 National team in 2000. In 2001, at the helm of Senior National Men’s team, he won the FIBA South American, FIBA Tournament of the Americas and a silver medal at the Goodwill Games. In 2002, he won the silver medal at the FIBA World Championship, and this year the gold medal at the Olympic Games in Athens. With the Atenas Cordobas club, he won three Argentinean titles, two South American, one Pan-American, and two South American League Championships. FASTBREAK “NEW” 5 makes the out-of-bounda pass to 1, who dribbles the ball on the lateral lane, and stops at the three-point line. 4 runs in the middle of the court and goes to the low-post position on the ball side, 2 and 3 sprints near the sidelines, and 5 sprints to the basket in the center lane, and stops outside of the three-point line (diagr. 1). 2, the wing on the ball side, cuts in the lane, receives a screen from 3, and comes out of the three-point line. 5 screens for 1, and 1 dribbles towards 2. After the pick for 2, 3 picks for 4, who cuts in the lane to receive the ball from 1. After the screen for 1, 5 screens down for 3 (screen the screener). 1 can pass to 2, 4, 3 or to 5, who opens up to the ball after the screen (diagr. 2). FASTBREAK “CIRCLE” 5 passes to 1 and enters on the court as a safety man, while 2 and 3 sprint near the sidelines towards the offensive basket. 4 sprints in the middle of the court, acting as a trailer (diagr. 3). 1 runs the fastbreak, while the other four players sprint to reach their respective positions. 2 and 3 stop at the three-point line (diagr. 4). 1 passes to 2 on the wing, while 4, the trailer, goes to the low-post position on the ball side, and 5 to the high post (diagr. 5). 3 FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 21 FIBA EUROPE COACHES - OFFENSE D.3 D.1 comes in the middle of the court to receive the ball from 2 and 1 cuts in the lane and replaces 2 on the wing (diagr. 6). 3 plays pick-and-roll with 5, 4 goes to the high post position, and 1 and 3 go in the corner (diagr. 7). 2 passes to 4, who can pass directly to 5 in the lane, or pass to 3. 3 can pass to 5, who cuts to the ball (diagr. 8). A MAN-TO-MAN PLAY The initial set is a 1-2-2 formation, with one point guard in the middle of the court, two high posts, and two wings in the corners. 1 passes to 4, follows the pass, and receives a pass back from 4. Right after the pass, 4 receives a blind pick from 5 and goes outPAGE 22 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE D.4 D.2 side, while 5 rolls to the basket. If he does not receive the ball, he goes on the lowpost position (diagr. 9). 1 passes the ball to 4. 4 passes directly to 5 in the low post or to 3. 3 passes to 5 (diagr. 10). If 4 cannot pass to 3 or 5, 1 follows the pass, receives a pass back from 4, penetrates, and makes a kick pass to 2, or to 5, who cuts in the lane, or to 4 who went in the opposite direction of the penetration of 1. 1 and 4 can also play a pick-and-roll (diagr. 11). A MAN-TO-MAN AND A MATCH-UP OFFENSE: ZERO The set is a 1-2-2, with the point guard in the midddle of the court, the two posts at the corner of the free-throw lane, and the wings in low-post positions. 1 receives a screen from 5, who, after the screen, goes on the high-post position and then dribbles towards the wing. 4 receives a blind, diagonal screen (staggered screen), first from 3, and then from 2. After the screen, 3 goes outside the threepoint line (diagr. 12). 2 comes high, receives a screen from 5, and cuts outside the three-point-line to receive the ball from 1. After the screen, 5 goes outside the lane. 1 and 2 go down in the corners (diagr. 13). 5 screens for 2 and then rolls to the basket. 2 dribbles to the right and then pas- D.7 D.12 D.5 D.8 D.13 D.6 D.9 D.14 D.10 D.9 D.15 ses immediately to 4, who comes in the middle of the court to receive the pass and make a reversal pass to 1, who comes towards the ball (diagr. 14). ZONE OFFENSE I will list the general principles, which serve as the basis of the our offense versus the zone: 1. Attack the weak sides of the zone with and without the ball. 2. Respect the spacing between the offensive players. 3. Use the dribble only to divide the zone, to improve the angle of passing, or for creating proper spacing. 4. Do not face a defensive player. 5. Utilize the skip pass for attacking the defense from behind. OFFENSE VERSUS THE ODD ZONE: 12 The starting set is a 2-3. 1 passes to 2, while 5 cuts along the baseline, and receives a pass from 2. 4 picks for 5, 3 comes high at the corner of the free-throw line, and 1 and 2 move away from the ball (diagr. 15). If 2 cannot shoot, he passes the ball to 5, who comes out of the lane. 4 goes down (diagr. 16). 5 passes to 1 and then goes on the opposite direction, while 4 goes on the low-post position on the ball side, 5 goes to the high-post position, and 4 starts to cut along D.11 the baseline (diagr. 17). 1 dribbles towards the mid-court, 3 cuts in the corner and receives a pick from 4. It’s very important that 3 coordinates his movement with the movement of 1. 5 goes to the D.16 FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 23 FIBA EUROPE COACHES - OFFENSE D.17 D.21 D.23 D.18 D.22 D.24 D.19 D.20 corner of the lane, while 2 is moving away from the ball (diagr. 18). OFFENSE VERSUS THE EVEN ZONE: 23 The initial set is a 1-4, with the point guard in the middle of the court, the two wings and two posts at the corners of the free-throw lane. 1 passes the ball to one of the wings (2 in this case). After the pass to 2, 4 goes low and 5 cuts in the lane and goes outside in the corner on the ball side (diagr. 19). 2 can pass to 5 in the corner or back to 1. After the pass, 2 cuts in the lane and goes in the other wing position. 3 comes high and receives the ball from 1 (diagr. 20). If 5 receives the ball, he passes to 1, 1 to 3, PAGE 24 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE who comes in the middle of the court, and 3 to 2. When 2 gets the ball, 5 can choose to cut high or cut low, and 4, based on the direction of the 5’s cut, goes in the opposite direction (diagr. 21). An option: 3 gives the ball back to 1, and then goes in the opposite direction. On this pass, 2 can cut in order to go back to his original position, and 5 and 4 screen the two defenders on the ball side. 2 comes out in the corner and receives the ball from 1 (diagr. 22). SIDELINE-OUT OF BOUNDS: “THUMB” The players are set in a box formation, with the point guard 1 in the low post to the ball side, and the post 5 opposite to him. 4 screens for 1 and 5 screens for 2. 1 goes high and receives the ball from 3 (diagr. 23). 1 receives a screen from 5, and dribbles to the other side of the court, while 5 rolls to the basket. 1 can pass to 5 or to 2. After the screen, 4 comes high (diagr. 24). BASELINE OUT-OF-BOUNDS 2 has the ball for the out-of-bound pass, 3 picks for 1, who goes in the corner. At the same time, 5 screens for 3 (screen the screener). 2 can choose to pass to 1, 3, or 5 (diagr. 25). If 1 receives the ball, 4 goes outside of the free-throw lane, and receives a pass from him, while 3 continues his cut and goes out of the three-point line (diagr. 26). After the out-of-bounds pass, 2 enters the court and screens for 5, who goes towards the ball. Right after the screen of 2 for 5, 4 makes a vertical screen (screen the screener) for 2. 3 can pass inside to 5, or to 2 for a jump shot (diagr. 27). D.25 D.26 D.27 FIBA EUROPE COACHES - OFFENSE by Dirk Bauermann Dirk Bauermann, a former assistant coach at Fresno State University (U.S.), was the head coach of Bayer Leverkusen, where he guided his teams to six German titles and three German Cups. He also coached the German National team from 1994 to 1998. In addition, Bauermann also coached Sunair Ostende (Belgium) and Apollon Patras (Greece). He presently is the head coach of Bamberg (Germany) and the German Men’s National team. The following article describes some of the basic offensive concepts that I have used against manto-man defenses in the last couple of years. Both the club team that I am currently coaching, and the German National team play according to these concepts. As coaches, we must constantly adjust our offensive strategies to the players at hand. We also have to constantly incorporate new ideas into our philosophy. Nonetheless, we all have certain beliefs and convictions that create the very substance of our coaching philosophy. I will outline some of my basic offensive tactics, principles, and concepts. 1. CREATE OFFENSE WITH DEFENSE I have always believed that an aggressive, physical man-to-man defense is the most important building block of a team’s success. Ideally, we would like to generate at least one-third of our points from our defense. 2. BALANCED SCORING Currently, where statistics have become a major selling point for agents, every player wants good statistics to back up his efforts. If the system provides scoring opportunities for everybody, the player will have much greater motivation to defend, rebound, and do the dirty work. Also, in a balanced attack with a lot of weapons, defensive preparation is much more difficult because one cannot concentrate on stopping the two star players. Am I a friend of equal opportunity offense? No. Roles have to be clearly defined and not everybody gets the same amount of shots. I would much rather have six players score in double figures than two score over thirty. Why? Because we will be a better offensive team that way. 3. PREPAREDNESS Bobby Knight once said that it is not just the will to win, OFFENSIVE CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 25 FIBA EUROPE COACHES - OFFENSE D.1 D.6 D.2 D.7 D.3 D.8 D.4 D.9 D.5 D.10 PAGE 26 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE but, also, the will to prepare to win that makes a team successful. He said it more in the context of game preparation, but there is no doubt in my mind that we must prepare our teams for every conceivable eventuality and situation. I want them prepared for anything that our opponent might throw at us. I also want them to know precisely what to do at critical points in the game (e.g., end of quarter situations, special situations, and end of game situations). That is why we work on these types of situations for at least five minutes at the end of every practice. This kind of preparedness will help you win becau- D.11 se your players know what to do and it will develop the kind of confidence that you need to win your close games. D.12 D.17 D.13 D.18 D.14 D.19 D.15 D.20 D.16 4. GAME TEMPO I’ve always felt that a nice balance of transition and half-court basketball is most conducive to winning. Players need to able to get out in the open court and enjoy the freedom and creativity that the running game provides. Also, the transition game enables you to score easy baskets, which is the main objective of offensive basketball in the first place. On the other hand, good teams will minimize your fast break opportunities with good shot selection, intelligent decision making, good defensive balance, and great transition defense. Thus, a team’s ability to function in the half-court game, to take care of the basketball, to properly execute its plays under pressure, and to make smart decisions with the basketball defines its degree of success to a great extent, especially in the play-offs. 5. OFFENSIVE STRUCTURE a. After a defensive rebound, we try to score within the first six seconds of the shot clock. We want the ball in our point guard’s hands as quickly as possible. If another player comes up with a defensive rebound and he has the ability to push the ball up the court, we encourage him to do so as a way to eliminate the outlet pass. We want the ball in the middle of the floor and we want them to pitch the ball ahead to open receivers. We want our wingmen to sprint, rather than run, and we want them to slow down just before they approach the scoring area. In my estimation, it is vital that the players look for and find open teammates. If they do not, wings and big men will stop running. We want our non-rebounding big man to run right at the rim and we send our rebounding big man right to the weakside elbow area (diagr. 1). If the defense is still scrambling to get back, we try to score quickly out of this box alignment with quick pick-rolls, postups, or skips (diagr. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6). All these are simple yet effective ways of creating 2-on-2 situations out of transition. If the defense has gotten back on us and there is no more conceivable advantage, we get the ball to our point guard, change the rhythm, and run a set play. b. After a steal, we obviously try to score quickly. We only encourage our players not to be in a hurry and make good decisions with the basketball. c. After a made field goal by our opponent, we want one of our big men to inbound the ball as quickly as possible to our point guard. If we can surprise and score quickly, great. If not, we will run into a pre-set offensive alignment that looks like a diamond and then run different options out of that particular set, depending on the point guard’s call. 6. OFFENSIVE CONCEPTS These are basic guidelines for our players that give them an idea of how we want the game to be played. FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 27 FIBA EUROPE COACHES - OFFENSE a. The main objective of offensive basketball is to create a shot for a teammate, not for yourself. b. Play off the pass rather than the dribble. c. Play with a purpose. d. Get the ball inside on a consistent basis - play inside-out. e. Do not be content shooting jump shots - attack the rim-get fouled, score on the free throw line. f. Play within yourself - KISS (Keep-It-SimpleStupid). g. Spacing and balance h. Play with poise and savvy at all times-don’t be in a hurry. i. Have faith in each other-share the ball and make the extra pass. 7. OFFENSIVE AUTOMATICS As I have mentioned earlier, we run various plays. Most of them are continuity plays, where we basically go from one option to the next. The players know their looks and options. We usually try to reverse the basketball once before we actually look to score. We try to get the ball inside first, then settle for a jump shot, or else go to a pick-roll of some sort. But regardless of what plays one runs, the same situations occur. With what we call “automatics” we try to give our players some basic rules as to how to react and what to expect from their teammates in these types of situations. Here are some examples of our automatics: a. Baseline drive - baseline drift (diagr.7) When a player drives baseline, the wing player on the weak side of the floor must move/drift to the corner in order to get open for a shot. b. Overplay on wing: - open post situation: backdoor (diagr. 8) - post down low: pinch post action (diagr. 9). b. Wing drives baseline - big man pulls out to elbow (diagr. 10). c. Wing drives middle - post drifts to soft spot (diagr. 11). d. Pick-and-roll with 5, 4 up to junction (diagr. 12). e. Pick-and-pop with 4, 5 ducks in and attacks dotted line (diagr. 13). f. Post feed: Passer runs elbow or baseline cut, others replace (diagr. 14) or screens and dives (diagr. 15) depending on what the defense does. We also have rules against post and pick-roll traps, but I unfortunately can’t cover them in detail in this short article. 8. EARLY OFFENSE As I have mentioned earlier, we run into a pre-set play after made baskets by our opponent. Our point guard pushes the ball up the right sideline and each player runs to a pre-designed starting spot on the floor (diagr. 16). As our point guard approaches mid-court, he calls a particular play that we run out of this diamond set. A specific play is indicated by the numbers 1 through 5. Now I will outline our 5 and 3 play to give an example of the type of ball- and player-movement we like. PAGE 28 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE D.21 D.25 D.22 D.26 D.23 D.27 D.24 The 5-play (diagr. 17, 18, and 19) is designed to get the ball inside to our center. Note that we always try to reverse the basketball once before we look to score. Not every option and counter will be shown in detail. The 3-play (diagr. 20, 21, 22, and 23) is a version of the shuffle play run by many teams. In this particular play, we try to get a shot for our small forward by playing him inside-outside. 9. SET PLAYS Most of our set plays are continuity plays. We rarely run isolation plays or quick hitters, even though we realize that they are sometimes necessary in order to get a good quick shot, such as when it takes you too long to get into your offense or if you have to go quick because you’re behind late in the game. Sometimes you also might want to foul a certain player out of the game and run an isolation play against him. Again, we strongly believe in the value of patience and quick, precise ball- and playermovement and our play selection reflects this concept. As an example (diagr.24, 25, 26, and 27), here are plays that show our ‘shorts’ play. FIBA EUROPE COACHES - DEFENSE by Oliver Purnell THE “WALL” DEFENSE Oliver Purnell is the head coach of Clemson University. He previously was an assistant coach at Old Dominion University and the University of Maryland, and then head coach of Radford, Old Dominion, and the University of Dayton. As head coach of the U.S. National team, his team won the World University Games in 1999. He served as an assistant coach on the bronze-medal winning U.S. Olympic team in Athens. The philosophy of the “Wall Defense” is primary based on the concept that all five defenders are guarding the ball. This defense can be summed up simply by stating that, first and foremost, the defense is guarding the ball against the basket. “Building the Wall” is a complete team effort, and require a cohesive, unselfish group that understands how to support each of its members. Because the “Wall Defense” does not deny any pass outside the three-point line, this defense might often be misconstrued to be more conservative. Consequently, one of the major challenges in developing a defensive philosophy, that is less “man oriented” and more “ball oriented”, is maintaining pressure on the ball. Oftentimes, the problem with teaching (or even learning a defense or developing a defensive philosophy) can be that it is played “all-ornothing.” In other words, a defense is either overly aggressive and its players are caught in situation overplaying the offense, overextending and allowing dribble penetration - or gambling too much in general - or the defense is too passive and allows the basketball to be moved wherever it would like without much opposition. The “Wall Defense” solves both of this problem. By maintaining incredible, intense ball pressure through the entire possession, while also defining specific rules of extension and denial, and, at the same time, trusting in the rest of the defense to support this constant ball pressure, a defense can succeed in being aggressive, while not overextending. ON THE BALL X1 guards the offensive player with the ball, and must apply intense ball pressure, while still containing his man. Second, he must remember he is “influencing” the ball to the sideline. And, third, his exact position will depend on D.1 D.2 FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 29 FIBA EUROPE COACHES - DEFENSE where the offensive player’s head is. The rule is: head-on-head, it means he should line his head up with the offensive player’s head, but always maintaining intense ball pressure and influencing the ball to the sideline (diagr. 1). OFF THE BALL (ONE PASS AWAY) X2 and X3 are each one pass away from the ball. With the understanding that X1, the defender on the ball, is applying intense ball pressure, X2 and X3 are guarding the ball first, and their man the second. Therefore, they must be in a position to first to show the ball-handler that there nowhere to go, and, second, to help on the dribble drive if he, indeed, decides to drive away. X2 and X3 are in what we call “Wall Position.” A term that can be used to describe how to defend the ball against the basket is that the defense is “building the wall.” OFF THE BALL (TWO OR MORE PASSES AWAY) X4 is two passes away from the ball, and he is on the “help position”, with one foot in the lane. JUMPING ON THE BALL On the pass, the defenders must “jump to the ball”simultaneously as a unit (diagr. 2). The defender, initially on the ball prior to the pass, should be most conscious of “jumping” to the ball, because his man may likely cut to the basket, looking for a return pass. X2 is on the ball, X1 and X4 are in “the wall”. X3 is now in “help” (diagr. 3). GUARD-TO-FORWARD PASS The defenders “jump to the ball.” Now X4 guards the man with the ball. He must remember that, when he jumps to the ball (diagr. 4), he cannot get himself out of the position for the “middle drive.” X2 is “in the wall”, X1 is “in help” two passes away, while X3 is “in help” three passes away. X4 is on the ball, X2 “in the wall,” X1 and X3 are “in help”, while X3 is giving X4 his “baseline support” (diagr. 5). BASELINE DRIVE X3 gets to the “launching pad” to stop 4 from getting to the basket. X1 “fills” the spot X3 left, and X2 “sinks” to help X1. X2 is the “zone guy” for an instant, guarding both 1 and 2, if either are to receive the ball on a pass out from 4 (diagr. 6). When the ball is stopped on the baseline, this is where players should be positioned (diagr. 7). If the pass comes out to 2, X2 guards the man with the ball, X1 gets “in a wall” position, and X3 gets in help. X4 retakes his man (diagr. 8). If the pass comes out to 1, X2 (again) takes the ball, X1 gets “in the wall” position, and X3 sprints to his “the PAGE 30 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE D.3 D.6 D.4 D.7 D.5 D.8 wall” position. X4 retakes his man, however in help as well (diagr. 9). SKIP PASS OUT OF THE POST X1 has to now “switch” out and take out the ball, because he is the closest baseline defender. X2 gets in a “wall”, defending the ball and 1. X3 gets in “help” defending the ball and 2. X4 is helping, giving “baseline support,” guarding the ball and 4 (diagr.10). Because the baseline drive created a “help” situation, on a skip pass out of the post, players are switched onto different men, but the principles remain consistent (diagr. 11). CUTTER THROUGH On this situation the players “jump to the ball” on the pass (X1 does not allow his man to “face cut” him). X 1 stays between his man and the ball, keeping eye on the ball, on a drive or another pass (diagr. 12). OFFENSE REPLACES AREAS The principles stay the same. Now, X1 is in help. He must make sure not to follow his man all the way out - this is a common mistake on a D.9 D.10 D.11 D.16 D.17 cut through the lane. X1 is now in help and can stay in the lane, unless his man either cuts to the basket or the ball becomes one pass away from his man, while X3 is in “the wall.” X4’s position is in “the wall” as well (diagr. 13). D.12 D.13 D.14 D.15 DRIVE NOTTOWARD THE BASELINE If the dribble drive is more in the perimeter area: this is where the “wall” begins to show its benefits. Let’s review the situation from the diagr. 2: 2 beats his defender momentarily in the direction of 4. Because X4 was in a good “wall position,” he is in good position to help, but he will do this for a moment. X4 will “show and go,” stepping up and to the driver as if to fully help, but recovering immediately to his man, putting the responsibility back to continue to “ride the driver” (diagr. 14). The reason because X4 does not fully commit is because the “stand still”, “spot-up”, “three-point shot” - 4 in the corner is more a threat to the defense, than a contested running shot in the lane, going toward the baseline. By stepping to the ball for a moment, X4 gives the illusion that is coming to the ball completely. Oftentimes, the ball-handler will pick up his dribble, or better, yet make an errant pass to 4, assuming his defender X4 has left him and he open for a kick-out pass. Many times, if the “show and go” is executed properly, the kick-out pass can be deflected or, even, stolen. ON THE KICK-OUT PASS X4 may be able to deflect, or even steal, the pass. X4 is now on the ball and must make sure he recovers to the top side of the offensive player 4, so as to allow a middle drive (diagr. 15). If a perimeter player, one pass away from the ball, is outside the three-point arc, the defender X3 (and X4), is in a “wall” position, as stated earlier. However, if the offensive player steps inside the three-point arc, the defender is in a denial position. The offensive player is now a much greater threat to receive the ball in a scoring area, so the defense must become tighter an denial position assumed (diagr. 16). Because 3 and 4 are now inside the three-point arc, and one pass away, X3 and X4 assume a full denial position (“ball-you-man”), playing the passing lane (diagr. 17). GUARD-TO-FORWARD SKIP PASS In this case there are a number of critical movements and thoughts that must take place. First, X1 must close out in a manner that does not allow 1 to have the option of driving to the middle. He must close out in a manner that does not allow 1 to drive to the middle. He must close out with a high hand and his top foot up, forcing, if anything, a baseline drive. If this is only option 1 has, it is X4’s job to anticipate this action and be ready to beat 1 to the “launching pad.” X2 and X3 would “fill and sink,” accordingly to X1’s baseline drive (diagr. 18). FORWARD-TO-FORWARD SKIP PASS SPOT-TO-FORWARD In this case there are a number of critical movements and thoughts that must take place. First, X1 must close out in a manner that does not allow 1 to have the option of driving to the middle. He must close out with a high hand and his top foot up, forcing, if anything, a baseline drive. If this is only option 1 has, it is X4’s job to anticipate this action and be ready to beat 1 to the “launching pad.” X2 and X3 would “fill and sink,” accordingly on X1’s baseline drive (diagr. 19). D.18 D.19 FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 31 FIBA EUROPE COACHES - DEFENSE THE “TRIANGLE AND TWO” DEFENSE by Tab Baldwin Tab Baldwin came to New Zealand in the late 1980s with the goal of leading Otago from the national second division into the NBL (National Basketball League) of New Zealand. From 1995 to 2000 he coached Auckland, winning five NBL titles and three Coach-of-the-Year awards. Baldwin became coach of the National team in 2001 and guided the Tall Blacks to the FIBA 2002 World Championship semifinals. Baldwin also coached New Zealand in the 2004 Athens Olympic Games. Coaching basketball should be fun. It should also be a cooperative effort of a coaching staff and their players. A team comprised of a great coach and a reluctant team will fail to play with style and imagination whereas a team with a creative coach working with an intelligent team committed to one another and quality play can bedazzle and befuddle opponents far superior in talent. This was the formula that the New Zealand Tall Blacks tried to employ heading into the 2002 World Championships. We knew that we were out manned in terms of talent and experience but we also believed to the core of our being that a cohesive and unpredictable team could produce success against much more fancied opponents. Our intention was never to be overly complicated in terms of our playing systems. However, because we were going to rely on multiple offenses and defenses and our preparation time was always going to be severely limited, we did need to put a premium on the selection of intelligent players as opposed to selecting strictly along the lines of talent. Fortunately, because of the fine work of some of our provincial coaches in New Zealand, most of our highly talented players also came to us with a good basketball brain. So, very early in our preparation, we decided PAGE 32 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE that playing intelligently and using a full range of offenses and defenses would be one of the main pillars upon which we would build the strenght of our team. In using this approach we knew that our team would have to be very adaptable to the ebbs and flows of games and that we, as coaches, would not always make the right call but that we would always have other options to go to if needed. More importantly, we knew that we would be able to test the adaptability of our opponents. This aspect of our team was certainly a factor in turning a seventeen point third quarter deficit to russia into a nine point win and reversing a 12 - 35 first quarter scoreline against China into ultimate victory. As much as having a diverse system meant to our ability to recover from bad patches in games was the knowledge that having diversity meant we always had other options as to how we would play the game. This became the foundation of our belief system: every game is winnable, we just have to use the right strategy at the right time and then play our butts off. One of the weapons that we employed in our system diversity was the “triangle and two” defense, a renowned type of “junk” defense that I gave used off and on for many years. The “triangle and two” defense, like many junk defenses, can be employed for a variety of reasons. One belief that I hold very strongly about junk defenses is that they cannot be D.1 D.2 D.3 D.4 used for extended periods of time in a game. We generally hold to the truth that the junk defense can be effective for no more than four-six possessions consecutively. As I said, we use the “triangle and two” defense for any of several reasons. The primary reason we will use the defese is to attack an opposition line-up that lacks a third quality perimeter shooter. Even if your opponent can move an interior player outside to become a third shooting option, the defense can still be very effective with only a simple structural adjustment. We will also use the defense for these other reasons: ▼ To disrupt an opponent’s scoring run by changing to an unorthodox defense (this ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ can sometimes tale the place of a timeout or a substitution). To take an opposition team away from a well executed offensive sequence that is giving either our man-to-man or conventional zone defense trouble. To shut down a specific player who has found a hot scoring streak. This can apply ti an interior player as well as a perimeter player. To shut down an effective penetrating guard who is creating easy scoring opportunities with the drive and dish. To negate the sideline or point pick and roll play being used so effectively in today’s international game. The above points outline the strenght possibilities this particular defense offers to your overall defensive package. However, as I said, if you overexpose this defense to an intelligent and unselfish opponent then you will find that the inherent weaknesses of the defense will ultimately be exposed. Essentially, because it is difficult to maintain good ball pressure with this defense, it becomes vulnerable to quick ball movement and weak side seal/screen actions. The fundamentals of the “triangle and two” defense are actually quite simple but it is a defense that requires a fair amount of practice if you hope to have consistent success using it. When practicing the defense make sure that you run different types of offenses against it and allow the offense several atFIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 33 FIBA EUROPE COACHES - DEFENSE D.5 tempts to attack the defense. This will allow the offense to “learn” the defenses vulnerabilities and consequently the defense will have to “learn” to adjust. Once players playing this defense can make adjustments without specific instruction, the defense becomes that much harder to break. In outlining the defense, I will focus as much on rules and guidelines as I do on diagrams. Because there are inherent positional weaknesses in the defense, the players must become excellent at communication. There are many times when the “rules” of the defense are broken but this may force the offense into just one more pass that may introduce the pressure of the 24-second shot clock. So, as toy begin to follow the diagrams always keep in mind that communication, effort and intelligence will mean more to the success of the defense than close adherence to the “rules” of the defense. The basic formation of the defense is shown in diagram 1. X1 and X2 will defend their players (1 and 2 to be referred to from now on as shooters) manto-man. The man-to-man component of the defense can be either full denial or more passive, help oriented defense depending on the respective philosophy dictated by the opponent’s capabilities. X3, X4, and X5 play a triangular zone with the following coverages and responsibilities: X3 - Mid-post extended to the high post on both sides of the floor. This player should not extend beyond the three-point arc. He also must switch all ball screens in his coverage area and help on dribble penetration by either of X1 or X2’s assigned men. X4, X5 - Mid-post extended to the baseline on the perimeter. Front the low post when the ball is on the ball side wing and play behind the opposite low post when the opposite low post defender is extended. These players must talk constantly as they can see the entire floor and defensive responsibilities can change quickly. “Area Defense” - To understand how the triangle zone operates, you must understand the concept of “Area Defense”. When one of the players playing the triangle zone has the responsibility of defending the ball in his area, he must use the following defensive techniques: ▼ Constant foot movement varying the presPAGE 34 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE D.6 D.7 sure on the ball and not allowing the player with the ball to establish any rhythm in his shot or break down the defender with oneon-one moves. ▼ Do not allow penetration off the drible. The ball is positioned on the wing (3) in a nonshooter’s hands (diagr. 2). X3 - Plays “area” defense not allowing 3 to penetrate or shoot in rhythm but will not consistently pressure the ball either. X5 - Fronts the low post and X4 will zone the midline defending the weak side post as well as offering backside help to 5. X1, X2 - in this diagram, X1 is denying on the strong side while X2 is staying close to 2 and not offering any help side defense. Both could be playing off of their men and only pressuring 1 and 2 when they have the ball. D.8 The ball is positioned in the corner in a nonshooter’s hands (diagr. 3). X5 - Plays “area” defense as X3 in diagram 2. By playing “soft” on the ball, he makes the post feed to 4 a difficult pass. X4 - Comes across the three-second lane to play behind 4 in low post defense. If the ball is passed into the low post then X5 should hedge down but not apply a hard double team. X3 must drop lower on the weak side and be prepared to close out on any reversal pass out of the low post. X1 and X2 can provide some positional help until the ball is passed out of the post. X3 - Plays below the free-throw line and on the weak side of the midline. X3 often has the responsibility of reading the eyes of the ball handler and closing out on passes out of the corner. This pass could be thrown to the wings or to the top and any of those passes become the responsibility of this man. forward at the bottom of the triangle zone (X5) will play the remaining offensive player basically man-to-man. The key to getting the inversion quickly and accurately is to be constantly communicating and identify this offensive maneuver early. Finally, the defending of the screen and roll for either one of the shooters is shown in diagrams 5, 6, 7, and 8. The screen occurs at the top of the key for 1. The defense simply executes a switch with X3 picking up (and staying with 1) and X1 assuming X3’s responsibilities in the triangle zone as shown in diagrams 5 and 6. We see the same screening action out of the corner for 2 in diagram 7. As X3 calls the switch on the screen, X2 responds by sprinting to the X3’s area of responsibility leaving the corner area for X5 to cover. Note: if 5 executes a re-screen and 2 reverses and dribbles back to the corner, then X5 will need to switch onto 2 and X4 will have to provide help in the low post on 5’s roll to the basket. X2 - has taken on the responsibility of X3 in the triangle zone and X3 is now playing 2 man-to-man (diagr. 8). The offense has positioned 1 and 2 in the corners and put two perimeter players at the top in guard slots. This is done offensively to try to force X3 to guard two players at the top and create a better penetrating lane for one of the offensive players (diagr. 4). As soon as we identify that the offense is doing this systematically, we simply invert the triangle zone and bring one of forwards (X4 or X5) to the top. We will stay like this as long as the offense uses this attacking method. The As stated at the beginning of the article, the triangle and two combination defense is not without its weaknesses. If an offense is overexposed to this defense it will learn how to break it down. However, using the defense in a limited way and knowing that it is always there means that you have one more weapon to disrupt a talented opponent and exert some control over how your opposing coach is allowed to use his lineup and tactics. COACHES - PSYCHOLOGY AND MOTIVATION INTEGRATING PSYCHOLOGY AT THE AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF SPORT part I by Adrian Schonfield Adrian Schonfield has worked at the Australian Institute of Sport since the beginning of 2002 and has been psychologist to the Men’s basketball program since July 2002. “While we all had individual goals and ambitions, in a team sport such as basketball it is not only your ability to perform your skills, but also your ability to form a team and perform within that [team], that will make a difference”. The person who said this was Aaron Bruce. Aaron was a member of the 2003 Australian Emus team that won gold at the Junior World Championships and was part of the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) Men’s Basketball program in 2002 and 2003. The purpose of this two-part article is to outline one of the things we did with the 2003 AIS Men’s Basketball team to help bring them together for a successful year. While there were many things that teams do on a daily level (for example, training) that help to build cohesion, we started the year with a short camp that was designed to bring the team together and get them focused for the year. In the first part of this article, I have outlined some of the factors that led to this camp and the choice of activities included and the details of the first day. It also briefly deals with FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 35 COACHES - PSYCHOLOGY AND MOTIVATION the underlying theory that has guided the psychological component in this case. As with other sports scientists, a psychologist involving himself in sport should be guided by models and theory, backed by scientific research. The second part of the article (to be presented in the next issue) expands on day two activities and gives some of my impressions of the camp and its value. BACKGROUND The team consisted of 13 young men aged between 17 and 19, all of whom were in consideration for the Emus squad to play at the Youth World Championships. Ten of the members would make the final team and would go on to win gold in Greece. Of the 13, there were seven returning players from the 2002 AIS team and six new players. The AIS team resides together in dormitory accommodation in Canberra, trains up to three times per day and has access to sports science and sports medicine support including physiotherapy, massage and physicians. THE PURPOSE For the Emus to win the world championship, we knew that what happened to this group of players during the first part of the year would be very important, hence there were a number of purposes for this camp. The most important was to help the players become familiar with each other and to integrate the new players in with the old to form one team. Secondly, we wanted a team culture in which players were prepared to push themselves and each other, one in which the players were responsible for their own behaviour. Thirdly, we wanted the players to enjoy themselves in the process of becoming a team and setting their goals for the year. From a personal perspective as the team psychologist, I had another goal, which was to gain some understanding of the team dynamics and individuals within the team as this would be the first meeting I had with the new players. THE RATIONALE As we wanted a team culture of selfdriven players, I looked to see what psychological models and theories existed in this area. Recent conceptualisations of motivation (Ryan and Deci 2000) suggest that the old dichoPAGE 36 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE tomy of extrinsic and intrinsic is not specific enough to capture different sources of motivation. They suggest that there is a motivation, four types of extrinsic motivation ranging in the extent that they are self-determined and three types of intrinsic motivation: knowledge, accomplishment and stimulation. Self-determination theory (Ryan and Deci 1985; 1991) suggests that human behaviour is motivated by the fulfilment of needs, specifically the needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness. Simply summarised, autonomy is choosing one’s own behaviour, competence is perceiving themselves as able, and relatedness is feeling connected with other people. The model suggests that if we can provide an environment that leads to an increase in a person’s perception of their autonomy, competence and relatedness, we will increase their self-determined extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. By allowing the players to be involved in setting up the standards for their own team, we would allow them the opportunity for increased autonomy. By giving the players some challenges mental and physical - we allow them the opportunity for increased competence. By giving the players the opportunity to form a close-knit team, we allow them the opportunity for increased relatedness. The end result of this is that by developing a camp program that gives opportunities for autonomy, competence and relatedness, we may increase self-determined extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and that will be important for the times when playing and training in the AIS and worldchampionship environment get tough. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS We knew that the players were not going to be too interested in spending large amounts of time sitting around in a classroom-style setting (if they did, they would be better at school and worse at basketball). However, to achieve the purpose of the camp, I thought we needed to have a number of sessions that involved this type of activity. It then became important to make sure that, where possible, activities were active and that sessions were broken up with other games to refresh minds and bodies. Time constraints suggested that we would be best to limit the camp from 6.00pm one night until 7.00pm the following night. WHAT WE DID Pre-camp Approximately two days before the camp was due to start, the players received a document titled ‘An invitation to participate (to attend is compulsory) in the AIS 2003 Men’s Basketball team camp’. Definitions were also given for ‘attend’ and ‘participate’ to help players realise that their input was important and that the camp would not just be coaches and psychologist talking at them. Players were also told that the camp was about them as a group, setting the goals and standards they wanted to achieve. A timetable for the camp activities was also provided. Day one Young, male basketballers tend to like to eat, so the camp started with a team meal. We followed dinner with activities that involved players pairing up, and with one in each pair blindfolded, the other member had to instruct the blindfolded member to move to the venue for the next activity. This activity was chosen as it would require players to communicate with each other, trust each other and had opportunities for fun and mischief (walking people over stones and into branches). The third activity for the night was a ‘modified name game’*. Within the team, there was a diverse array of origins of names. The name game uses names as a starting point for each person in the group to explain where they come from, not only in terms of a country or race, but in terms of some of their family systems and values. It was thought that by helping each player to understand the other players better, we were increasing our chances of having a harmonious team. We were surprised to find that the team had players with heritage from countries such as Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia, Poland, Italy, England, Scotland, Ireland and the Netherlands. This exercise allowed the players to speak a little about themselves and also to hear about their teammates. While intuitively the game might accentuate differences between people, with emphasis on the right questions it can be used to display the many similarities between people. * The original ‘name game’ was sourced from Teaching About Culture, Ethnicity and Diversity: Exercises and planned activities, edited by Theodore Singelis (1998). FIBA EUROPE COACHES - NATIONAL COACHES ASSOCIATIONS by Valery Lunichkin and Sergey Chernov RUSSIAN BASKETBALL COACHES ASSOCIATION Sergey Chernov is the Russian Basketball Federation President, and Valery Lunichkin is the Chairman of the Russian Basketball Federation Coaches Council. The Russian Basketball Coaches Association, which is part of the Federation, is a public organization with the following structure: The Men’s and Women’s Coaches Councils are bodies elected by the General Conference of the Coaches Association, as well as by the Chairman of the Coaches’ Council, who is also a member of Russian Basketball Federation (RBF) staff. The Professional Coaches’ Training Center is also a RBF department and the staff members are paid by the Federation. These are the various categories of coaches in the country: ▼ Teachers of physical culture and coaches of school teams. ▼ Coaches of youth sports schools. ▼ Coaches of club teams. ▼ Coaches of national teams. THE AIMS OF THE COACHES’ COUNCILS 1. The first aim of the Councils is to improve the talent level of coaches and prepare a new generation of coaches. The main targets are young coaches with good potential and former top basketball players who want to pursue a coaching career. Here is how we try to increase the level of the coaches’ skills: ▼ Publish articles on teaching in “Planet Basketball,” the official magazine of the RBF. ▼ Provide coaching information on the RBF website. ▼ Conduct annual specialized clinics in a variety of regions. ▼ Conduct clinics with foreign specialists. ▼ Send the “next generation” coaches to clinics abroad. ▼ Conduct seminars about scientific topics related to basketball. ▼ Provide a round table discussions for an enlarged council of coaches. ▼ Conduct an end-of-season 3-5-day coaches seminar. ▼ Arrange both internal (clubs, different national teams) and foreign training camps. ▼ Create regional basketball centers. We also work on the licensing program for coaches. 2. Our second aim is to provide information to clubs and national teams about scientific training methods. This is achieved through an efficient and specialized staff from different scientific backgrounds. In addition to organizing clinics, the staff demonstrates how to organize practice plans, how to perform important physical and technical tests, how to diagnose positive psychological attitudes, and offers innovative teaching and practice ideas. 3. The third aim of the Coaches’ Council is to optimize the organization and practice of the national teams. These are the principal items we take care of: ▼ Outlining a long-term strategy, noting possible problems and how they can be solved. ▼ Defining human and financial resources essential for realization of the outlined task. ▼ Creating a program and calendar of training with the strong and weak sides. ▼ Choosing modern technologies for training (methods, means, forms) that allow work to proceed effectively and efficiently in achieving the outlined tasks. ▼ Selecting highly-skilled personnel and clearly defining the functions of each specialist. ▼ Constantly controlling the process of training, making necessary corrections as needed. ▼ Allowing for “open” national team training sessions to allow club team coaches to feel they are part of the common process. ▼ Improving the selection of coaches for the national teams. ▼ Providing constant assistance to these teams, especially with regard to the individual practice sessions of potential candidates. In conclusion, we can say: 1. The activities of the Coaches Association are designed to improve daily practice sessions with the most up-to-date methods. 2. These activities must be carried out during the course of the season. 3. The work of the Coaches Association has proven very effective in helping coaches, club teams, and all the Russian National teams. FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 37 FIBA EUROPE EDITORIAL COACHES - HOOP MARKET BOOKS AND VIDEOS ON ZONE DEFENSE In this section, we introduce the latest books, videos, CDs, and other tools that are primarily aimed at coaches, but certainly useful for all of our readers. Please send your suggestions and comments about our basketball-related media for review in this section. by Raffaele Imbrogno Raffaele Imbrogno, former Director of the Italian Basketball Federation Study Center, is an Instructor with the Italian National Coaches Commitee of the Federation. Imbrogno is the author of several technical basketball pubblication. The winning experience of Syracuse in the 2003 NCAA championship game shows that playing 23 zone defense for 40 minutes a game is possible and useful: certainly, if a coach decides to play zone defense exclusively, he must know the principle of that tactic very well and force his players to be aggressive. The zone defense is useful to help overcome the troubles of the 1-on-1 individual defense, to help poor individual players defend a particular area, change the rhythm of the game, survive a penalty situation, and force the opponents to change the angle of the passes and the type of the shots. It is important that a coach know the rules and the principles of the zone. If a coach learns well the positive and negative aspects of the zone defense, he will be able to recognize when and why it should be employed, and when it should be abandoned in favor of an individual defense. There are many good teachers of the zone defense and many good tools at our disposal to learn it. Jim Boeheim has been the Syracuse University head coach for the last 30 years and he used the zone defense as his main tool to keep the opponents from scoring. Boeheim produced two videos for Championship Productions. The first, The 2-3 Zone Defense, finds Boeheim explaining the philosophy, basic movements, and special options of his 2-3 zone defense. In the second video, Complete Guide to the 2-3 Match-Up Zone Defense & The Fast Break, he PAGE 38 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE details these concepts even further. The videos contain great examples on how to control the penetrations, deal with the traps, and how to defend against the cuts on the baseline, and the three-point shot attempts. Two other important videos produced by the same company include 2-1-2 Match-Up Zone Defense by Dave Loos and The 2-3 Match-Up Zone (2000) by Wayne Morgan, head coach at Iowa State University and a former Boeheim assistant at Syracuse. Another interesting video on how to play zone defense is 1-3-1 Zone Defense, which features the thoughts and wi- sdom of Billy Tubbs, the head coach of Lamar University. Don Casey released The Temple of Zones. Casey, who has over 20 years of NBA coaching experience, is a true believer in the zone. Nicknamed “The Czar of the Zone,” Casey presents his version of the 2-3 defense in this video, and teaches how to defend on the low and high post and against the different tactics that the opponents adopt to attack the defense. In addition, he details how to control the cuts and best grab the defensive rebounds. Casey also wrote a short book, the 92page The Temple of Zones II, which explains his zone concepts. In 1998, Fever River Sports Production published The Temple of Zones: Volume II, in which the concepts expressed in the first volume are better detailed, with several exercises using his 2-3 zone concepts shown. Other videos featuring zone defense include Jerry Petitgoue’s Simplified Zone Defenses for Youth Basketball (Coaches Choice, 2000); Zone Defenses (Coaches Choice, 2000) by Tara VanDerveer; Half Court Defense (Coaches Choice, 1999) by Morgan Wooten; and Zone Defenses, by Joe Piscopo, the former coach at Buffalo State University. FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 39 REFEREES, SCORER’S TABLE AND COMMISSIONERS by Fred Horgan Fred Horgan is a member of the FIBA Technical Commission. He is a FIBA International Referee Instructor, FIBA Americas Instructor, Technical Commissioner of Canada, and a member of the FIBA Americas Technical Commission. He was elected in 1996 to the Canadian basketball Hall of Fame. It wasn’t that long ago when basketball officials around the world were first introduced to the philosophy, “referee the defense”. As with all many concepts, it was seen as the answer to one of the most difficult officiating circumstances in the game, that of determining responsibility for contact in block/charge situations, and as a result instructors were suddenly putting additional stress on one key question common to all contact situations: “Who got there first?” For quite a while this concept seemed to work very well. It was easy to appreciate that when an offensive player is unaware (and therefore unprepared for) the position of a defensive player until the REFEREEING THE DEFENSE PAGE 40 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE moment of contact, the defensive player had an appreciable advantage. The key consideration was therefore a simple one: that of whether or not the position taken by the defensive player was legally set and, subsequently, legally maintained. The effect on the game was almost immediate. Good defense began to be rewarded like never before, particularly in situations where the defensive position was adjacent to an end line or in contact situations that might occur in the restricted area. In recent years, however, it seems that “referee the defense” has been tainted a little because many newer officials (and, maybe, a few older officials too!) have interpreted “referee the defense” to mean, “don’t let the defense get away with anything”. Far too often, the defensive player is the one penalized despite the fact that he or she did absolutely nothing more than maintain a floor position or path that was rightfully his or hers anyway. In this regard, three special areas of concern come to mind: 1) post play 2) FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 41 REFEREES, SCORER’S TABLE AND COMMISSIONERS maintaining a legal position, while guarding a moving player 3) shots for goal (or attempts to gain a rebound) attempted from immediately beneath the backboard. POST PLAY Fair and consistent officiating of post play contact is crucial to general game management. When things go wrong, the first warnings that excessive contact might not be far away usually can be detected at a post position. When two or more players in close physical proximity and in relatively stationary positions are both intent on receiving or denying a pass or on releasing or defending a shot for a goal, there most certainly will be contact. It is in such circumstances that officials must first remind themselves that contact isn’t necessarily a foul and that much of the contact in a post area will be incidental for the simple reason that neither player had been disadvantaged by that contact. On the other hand, contact that places the contacting player at an unfair advantage or that places the contacted player at an unfair disadvantage must be penalized. The difficulty, of course, is in the judgment of what contact is “fair” and what contact isn’t. The solution rests in two principles: (a) see the whole play, and (b) look for spaces between the players involved. “Seeing the whole play” is a matter of being aware of when a player, especially a defensive player, has assumed a legal position (that is, a position to which he or she is entitled). “Looking for spaces” is a constant necessity, if one is to actually see when contact does occur. By observing both of these principles, an official is prepared to make a reasonable judgment as to whether a foul should or should not be called. When such contact does occur, officials normally have no trouble with deciding whether the specific contact merits the charging of a foul. The problem lies in the determining of responsibility for that contact, and we too often unfairly put the blame on the defense. If the offensive player pushes the defense out of position, the foul is offensive. If contact is hard enough to compromise the balance of the defensive player and, consequently, allows the offense to receive a pass or to release a shot for a goal, it’s an offensive foul. As officials, we have a responsibility to have a closer look at contact on the post and to be sure the correct person is being penalized. MAINTAINING A DEFENSIVE POSITION There seems to be a problem around the basketball world in understanding the difference between “establishing” a legal guarding position and “maintaining” that position. It’s helpful if we remind ourselves that first we estab- lish and then we maintain. To establish a guarding position, the guiding principles are clearly presented in article 44 of the FIBA Rulebook. Two such principles are essential: the defensive player must have both feet on the floor, and must be facing his or her opponent. No unnatural extension of the arms or legs is permitted. If contact occurs on the torso of the defensive player, then the offensive player is responsible. Once a guarding position has been established, the defensive player is permitted to maintain that position, and it is only natural that the player might have to move in doing so. He or she can move backward or move laterally in response to the path chosen by the person being guarded. The concepts of “seeing the whole play” in the sense of “who got there first” is still crucial, but there is no provision that says the defensive player must have both feet on the floor at the moment of the contact. Indeed, both feet could conceivably be off the floor in maintaining a position, but if the contact is on the torso and if the defensive player moved in front of (as opposed to into) the offensive player then the foul is on the offense. Too often in situations when a guarding position is being maintained, the foul is charged to the defense, with the erroneous explanation that both feet weren’t on the floor when the contact occurred. SHOTS FOR GOAL FROM UNDER THE BACKBOARD The above principles apply equally to the situation where the offensive player finds himself or herself in an awkward position below the basket and under or even behind the backboard. It is blatantly unfair if we allow a player with the ball or contesting a rebound to use his or her body to dislodge a defensive player, who is in a completely legal position. When a foul is called, it is too often charged against the defense. “Referee the defense” is still a very good philosophy provided: 1) We see the whole play; 2) We take note of who was the first to get to a specific position on the floor, and 3) We watch for contact that places one player or another at a disadvantage. In fairness, let’s also be sure to call it both ways! PAGE 42 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE REFEREES, SCORER’S TABLE AND COMMISSIONERS by Bill Mildenhall DO YOU HAVE THE RIGHT LEVEL OF TENSION? by Jan Holmin Bill Mildenhall, an Australian FIBA referee since 1978, has been working for the Australian Basketball Federation as the National Referees Manager since 1991. He is responsible for the education, training, and resource production for Australian referees at every level. He has officiated at two Olympics Games, and five FIBA World Championships. Jan Holmin, former FIBA referee, is the National Referees Instructor of the Swedish Basketball Federation. In order to be well prepared for a game you need routines for your physical and psychological preparations. You must be prepared to stand the whole game. At the end of the game you will face, especially in close games, difficult situations to handle. The players and coaches are tired, which will cause more violations and mistakes. The game is often decided under this period and that is why your decisions will be very important with great impact to the result of the game. Of course you are also tired, physically and mentally, under this period. In spite of that, you must make decisions that might be crucial for the whole game. Therefore you must be in such good shape that your capacity can manage this stress. PSYCHOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS Which are your expectations before the game? Are you in good mood and stimulated for your task? Do you have positive or negative expectations before the game? Do you have positive or negative experiences before you arrive to the arena? Are you tensed and unsure and thinking about everything that might happen during the game? A certain amount of stress - or tension - is just fine when you are facing an important task like to officiate a basketball game. The tension works like an alarm signal that alerts your senses. But the tension must not turn into stress and uncertainty or even fear and agony. The tension then will have a negative influence on you and on your work as a referee. BASIC AND EXTRA TENSION All of us have a certain amount of basic tension. The level can be very different, from very low to very high. The extra tension we feel before a demanding task, like our basketball game, can be useful for the referee with the low basic tension, but is harmful for the referee with the high basic tension. This is the reason why some referees need “pep talk” before the game and others prefer a quiet and calm moment in the locker room. THE REASON FOR STRESS If you use to feel too much tension before your games you better try to find out the reason. It is not necessarily the game that makes you feel stress. It might be worries or problems at home or at the job. Another reason for stress can be your own expectations before the game. If you have made “a bad game”, it can cause you to feel unsure for a long period afterwards. Maybe not conscious - but unconscious. You not only remember the failures, but also the feelings of regrets, reproaches, anger etc. that you felt in that situation. If you have tried to repress a failure it can cause you to feel worries without knowing why. You must therefore find out if you have an unnecessary high level of tension and try to find the reason for it. Your tension will increase the closer you get to the game. For some referees it ends up in the locker room, for others at tip off. What you must understand is that there are many factors behind your stress. In many games you know that certain evaluators or commissioners will observe you. This is another reason for the extra tension to increase. Even nice persons, who wish you “good luck” before the game, can give you this extra, unwanted stress. How much stress can you stand? How do you know how much extra tension you can stand? Are you a referee with low, medium or high basic tension? The answer is that nobody knows. It is not written in your face which basic tension you have. FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 43 REFEREES, SCORER’S TABLE AND COMMISSIONERS Nobody can advice you unless it is a person who knows you very well and who has followed you for a long period, and observed your reactions in different games. Your best coach in this situation is yourself. As a referee, you are used to observe and analyse. Try to identify the persons and situations that increase your tension and do your best to avoid these situations. Another method to decrease your tension and stress is to master a method of relaxation. Psychological stress - irrespective caused by problems at home, conflicts at the job or negative thinking about the coming basketball game leads to a bad physical tension in your body. If you can get rid of this physical “over-tension”, experience tells us that you in all probability also has solved your stress problem, as there is no way to be psychological tensioned in a physical relaxed body. METHODS OF RELAXATION There are many different methods to relax your body. Here is an example, which can be used in the dressing room before the game or even in the half-time period. Sit down in a comfortable way. Sit with your legs slightly spread and the soles on the floor. Your thighs shall rest on the chair. Put your forearms in a cross over the thighs. Lean forwards. Take a couple of deep breaths and stretch alternative your forearms and your lower part of the legs for 20 seconds. Relax. Feel the difference between a stretched and a relaxed muscle. Stretch left arm, right arm, left leg, right leg. Relax, stretch again, relax... think all the time of the different feeling of a stretched and a relaxed muscle. Concentrate on the difference and the pleasant feeling when the muscle relax and becomes heavy. Go on with this alternative stretching and relaxing until you feel a total relaxation in your forearms and legs. Finish the exercise by taking a couple of deep breaths. PAGE 44 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE REFEREES, SCORER’S TABLE AND COMMISSIONERS RIGHT OR WRONG? QUESTIONS 1. Shall the assistant coach be permitted to remain standing while the game is being played? 2. The ball is in the air on a shot for goal when the 24-second signal sounds. The ball misses the ring on the shot, but is immediately controlled by a defensive player. Has a 24-second violation occurred? 3. A-3 commits a throw-in violation. Shall team A be permitted to substitute at this time? 4. A-4 is awarded one free throw. After the official has stepped into the restricted area to administer the free throw but before the ball is at the disposal of A-4, team B asks for a time-out. Shall the time-out be granted? 5. During an alternating possession throw-in for team A, a violation is committed by thrower-in A-3. Team B is awarded a throw-in as a result of the violation. Shall team B be entitled to the next alternating possession throw-in? 6. While the ball is in the air on a shot for goal by A-2, the signal sounds to end the period. After the ball has touched the ring following the sounding of the signal, it is tapped into the basket by A-5. Shall the goal count? 7. A-5 commits an unsportsmanlike foul against B-5, after which a technical foul is committed by coach B. An additional technical foul is then committed by B-2. Shall the officials cancel the penalties resulting from the coach B technical foul and the B-2 technical foul and play resume with the penalty for the unsportsmanlike foul? 8. After the ball has been placed at the disposal of A-3 for an alternating possession throw-in, A-5 commits an unsportsmanlike foul. Shall team A continue to be entitled to the next alternating possession throw-in? 9. With thirty seconds remaining in a last period, team A scores a field goal. May B-3 substitute at this time? 10. While A-3 has the ball out-of-bounds for a throw-in in the team A frontcourt, A-5 is more than three seconds in the restricted area in the team A frontcourt. Has A-5 committed a violation? ANSWERS 1. No (Art. 7.5) 2. No (Art. 29.1.2) 3. Yes (Art. 19.2.2, 19.2.3) 4. Yes (Art. 19.2.3) 5. Yes (Art. 12.4.7) 6. No (Art. 31.2.6) 7. No. Penalties shall be cancelled in the order in which they occurred; the unsportsmanlike foul by A-5, and the technical foul by coach B shall cancel each other (Art. 42.2.2, 42.2.3) 8. Yes (Art. 12.4.8) 9. Yes (Art. 19.2.2) 10. No. The 3-second rule does not apply to throw-in situations (Art. 26.1.1, FIBA Interpretation) FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 45 SPORT MARKETING AND MANAGEMENT WHY IS BRANDING SO IMPORTANT? by Lars-Haue Pedersen Lars Haue-Pedersen is director of the Swiss / UK consulting group, TSE C o n s u l t i n g ( w w w. t s e c o n s u l ting.com), one of the leading providers of consulting and training services to the international sports world. Lars is associate professor in “Sports Economics” at Copenhagen Business School, and he lectures in Sports Management and Marketing at various European universities. BRAND BUILDING The term has been a hot topic in the business world for quite a while now and is being introduced into the sports industry following the footsteps of organisations that have already been successful at it. Those sports organisations that have understood the power of branding, have been able, through its implementation, to significantly improve general public interest, push participation numbers at grass roots levels and raise overall revenues. Branding in sport could be the most important tool that organisations might need to use in order to find new growth opportunities. But how do we define a brand? Why is it so important that we go through the sometimes painful process of branding? And finally, once we, as an organisation, have decided to take that step, how do we implement it? WHAT IS BRANDING? There is still a general idea in the world of sport that a brand is a logo. Although the physical aspects of your organisation (the logo, the letterhead, the way your people answer the phone, etc.) are key, a brand is more widely and adequately defined as a distinctive picture and association positioned in the mind of consumers of an object (product, service) or a subject (person, institution). Brands create imaginations and can direct behaviour patterns amongst customers and consumers. When applied to sports, this definition means that a product or a service, such as a type of sport (e.g. basketball) or an event (world championships) or a person (athlete), and institution (club, federation) can be perceived as a brand. It also means that sports consumers perceive these FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 47 objects and subjects in a different way. So the key is to create a picture in your customers’ minds and its perception will define the value of your brand. This means that the brand gives an impression, it stands for certain values, for an image and reputation and for a position in our mindset. WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? The brand simplifies the ability to distinguish products from amongst a wide range of offerings. Even in the world of sports the number of offers grows (e.g. the growing number of new sports). Therefore every kind of sport, every federation and club has to find a way to distinguish itself from its competitors’ offerings. In a crowded marketplace it gets more and more difficult to differentiate the services offered. The brand allows a positive demarcation of the competitors’ offerings. A strong brand also allows the transfer of the brand to new products. This allows sports organisations to offer new services and products, an opportunity for increased revenues. An organisation having a strong brand is better protected from crisis and from the impact of competitors. In times of trouble and crisis they also provide a certain bonus amongst customers, so mistakes and market fluctuation do not have as much impact on sales for sports organisations with a strong brand. A strong brand enables an organisation to build customer loyalty as they trust the brand and its quality, e.g. season tickets for professional sports clubs are sold years in advance (Manchester United FC, Montreal Canadiens). This is the phenomenon of the brand ‘religion’, where the value of the brand becomes so high in the mind of the consumer that he/she will always stay loyal to it, regardless of fluctuating results or momentary crisis (see the diagram on the previous page). Consumers are prepared to pay a higher price for products and service offered as a brand also creates trust and confidence. Indeed, a strong brand presents a proof of competence for the customers. It suggests quality and bestows image and prestige to its buyers. HOW DO WE IMPLEMENT IT? A clear brand determines all future PAGE 48 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE marketing activities and therefore represents an important instrument to influence and control the market. Brand management as a management task can be practically defined as finding strategies to build and to cultivate a brand in order to achieve competitive advantages. The main objective in brand management is to achieve a strong position within the mindset of customers and to generate public confidence. The process of strategic brand management follows in different steps: ▼ It starts with an analysis of the current assets of a sports organisation or institution. Where are your strengths and your weaknesses compared to your competitors’, in terms of different aspects such as products, services, organisation, staff etc? ▼ Next, you should find out what it is that you want to brand and how do you want to be positioned? Is it your sport, your organisation or your product (e.g. event)? Within a sports league, for instance, it has to be determined whether you want to promote the league or single teams. The advantage of promoting the league is that even if one or other of the teams suffers a crisis, the brand value of the league can be retained, which is crucial for a well managed league such as the NBA. ▼ The next point that has to be determined is what is your market. Is it a regional market, a national market or an international market? Then you have to determine who your competitors are in this market. ▼ Based on your initial analysis of your assets, you have to analyse how your competitors are positioned on this market. In other words how do their customers perceive them? Furthermore, you need to discover where your customers would ideally position you. Such a positioning map is mainly based on two or three attributes. These attributes decide whether customers “buy” a product or not. The map shows where your competitors are positioned, where you are positioned and where you should ideally be positioned from the viewpoint of the customer. ▼ This positioning within the map should give a clear idea about the brand image that should be required. The objective would be to be positioned as close as possible to the ideal position determined by the customers. ▼ The second objective, after the brand image, is to determine the brand awareness. In other words, how many people in the contemplated market know your brand. Both these strategic objectives then have to be transferred into action through the marketing mix (what is our product, at what price do we sell it, where, and what communication do we use to get the word out). Using the various instruments of the marketing mix, you should then be able to make sure that all objectives concerning brand image and brand awareness are achieved. This requires a consistent picture of the intended brand to be drawn by all the different instruments in the marketing mix. So that all actions in terms of product, price, place and promotion (communication) have to fit exactly within the intended brand positioning. As we can see, branding is a process that if it is carefully thought through could amount to considerable financial success for your organisation. It is important because it forces your organisation to reconsider itself completely and it forces you to encompass all aspects of your organisation, to think of it as a whole. Because your brand needs to make sense. We have also seen that implementation, as for every single management process, has an order that should be carefully respected. Make sure that the image that you have decided to communicate is clear before you actually start communicating. If not, considerable damage could be done, that could be very difficult to fix at a later stage. But if the image is clear and the communication effective, the awareness that will be created will be of great value to your sport, your club or your event. SPORT MARKETING AND MANAGEMENT FIBA’S CORPORATE HOSPITALITY IN ATHENS The Olympic Games are the most prestigious, most special, and well-protected sporting event in the world. The International Olympic Committee and its TOP Program for global sponsors guarantee an exclusive platform to an audience that is unparalleled in sports marketing. Is there room in this mix for the global sponsors and partners of an international sports federation without harming the rights of the official Olympic sponsors? There are two possibilities. The first is to have International Federations’ partners supply equipment to the sports event. The second entails servicing the IF partners with invitations to particular sports events or to organize hospitality events. EQUIPMENT SUPPLY Suppliers of basketball equipment can become official suppliers of the Olympics upon recommendation of the particular international sports federations, and through agreements with the local organizing committee. The FIBA global partners, including Molten (basketballs), Mondo (floorings and basket supports), and Champion (referee uniforms) took this special opportunity and were directly involved throughout the Games. HOSPITALITY To demonstrate the beauty of your sport at the highest possible level and also to show the popularity of your sport, the Olympics is a perfect occasion for sponsors and organizing committees. Inviting your partners to the basketball games and taking care of Fumiya Tamiaki, President and CEO of Molten, makes some remarks to the guests with the new eight-panel basketball in the background. them in the arena strengthens your ties and lays a solid foundation for future commitment. So much takes place during the two weeks of the Olympic Games. Apart from all of the action on the court during the Olympic basketball tournaments in Athens, FIBA and their global sponsors also took the opportunity to visit with some of the many key individuals in the basketball world who all convene in one place every four years. It is a perfect time for sponsors to make contact and build relationships with national federations and national Olympic committees, as well as one another. Champion, Molten, and Mondo each hosted special luncheons along with FIBA at the Athenaeum InterContinental Hotel during the Olympic Games in Athens. At Champion’s luncheon on August 25, FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 49 SPORT MARKETING AND MANAGEMENT some of their athletic apparel and shoes were displayed. Throughout the Olympic Games, all of the uniforms worn by FIBA’s referees were from the Champion apparel line. Molten used their luncheon on August 26 to introduce its new eightpanel basketball design. Among the guests were members of Japan’s women’s national team. Champion also took the opportunity to showcase two of their television commercials that were used leading up to the Athens Olympic Games. Mondo’s luncheon on August 22 was highlighted by the attendance of the various members of the Stroppiana family, the longtime owners of Mondo. Adecco, the international human resource supplier, also participated with FIBA in Athens by entertaining numerous clients aboard the Queen Mary 2. The company had both clients and company executives attend some of the basketball games. Mrs. and Mr. Fumiya Tamiaki (left) from Molten and Sauro Mambrini from Champion took this rare opportunity to visit during Champion’s luncheon on August 25. Sauro Mambrini, President and CEO of Champion Europe, (second from right) and Joseph Monahan from Champion Ireland (right) speak with NBA Commissioner David Stern and Andrew Messick, NBA Senior Vice President for International Affairs. Mondo played an important role in Athens not only supplying basketball backstop units, but also providing floorings and tracks for other sports as well. Here left to right: Aldo Vitale, FIBA Marketing Director; Elio Stroppiana, Chairman of Mondo; Ferruccio Stroppiana from Mondo; Patrick Baumann, FIBA Secretary General; and Maurizio Stroppiana from Mondo. PAGE 50 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE SPORT MARKETING AND MANAGEMENT Can you imagine 3,000 children dribbling basketballs and beating a world record? Well, that is exactly what happened about a year ago, just before the national teams of Israel and Spain played an exhibition game. Now, imagine 300,000 basketballs that are expected to be distributed to young Spanish students by the Spanish Basketball Federation (FEB). That is another sign that Spanish basketball is going through a new season of success. Players such as Pau Gasol, Navarro, and Raul Lopez are doing their part to help popularize the sport, but a phenomenon like the Sunny 3-on-3, the basketball in- SUNNY 3-ON-3: A PROGRAM FOR FOUR MILLION SPANISH STUDENTS FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 51 SPORT MARKETING AND MANAGEMENT school program, started by FEB in 2001 and reserved to the primary and secondary schools students, deserves everybody’s attention. PAGE 52 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE FEB organizes and manages a program that involves 19 local basketball associations. Here is how the project works: 1. After a school is enrolled to the program, educational and technical equipment is sent to the school. 2. The teachers involved in the project with each school start to develop the program with their students. 3. The students involved in the program take part in their local tournaments: the winners represent their community at the provincial tournament. The schools that participated to the 2003 edition of SUNNY 3-on-3 were 11,500 approximately. Basic help in the development of the project is provided by Procter & Gamble, the sponsor of the program. Their vitamin-enriched soft drink is called Sunny. Last year, P&G helped with the distribution of a technical kit that included basic materials, such as balls, nets, and backboards. A CD that contained interviews with successful coaches and players was also given to motivate young players and their coaches. This year, a one-hour video is expected to be in the package. Leading Spanish basketball stars will talk about how they play the game and focus on different aspects of offense and defense. THE OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAM The main objectives of the program are the growth and popularity of basketball among Spanish students, from the elementary to the secondary schools. SUNNY 3-on-3, which has involved 3.5 million students in its first year, is extremely popular in Spain. The teachers involved in the program are physical education instructors. Each teacher involved in SUNNY is expected to teach the basic concepts of basketball and physical conditioning, in order to make them interested in basketball. In time, the students are expected to demonstrate their skills in local and provincial competition. Last year, about 4 million students took part in the SUNNY 3-on-3. Due to the success of the program over the past four years, King Juan Carlos I recently presented one of the most prestigious Spanish sports awards to Segura De Luna, the FEB President. FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 53 SPORT MARKETING AND MANAGEMENT THE RULES OF PLAY ▼ SUNNY 3-on-3 is a half court competition. The teams consist of four players (one of them sits on the bench). The captain of each team also works as “coach” and makes substitutions. ▼ The maximum length of each game is 20 minutes. The team reaching 21 points (the team must win by two points, e.g., 21-19) wins the match. If the two teams are tied at the end of the 20 minutes, each player on the two teams gets a free-throw: the team making most free-throws is the winner of the match. ▼ All baskets are worth 1 point. In the competitions between the students of the secondary schools, baskets made from behind the three-point line are worth 2 points. ▼ A drawing assigns the first possession. In any change of possession, the players have to “clear the ball” beyond the three-point line in order to start a new play. ▼ After a foul, the players are expected to put the ball in play from the boundary lines. Each team has seven fouls to give: when the “penalty” is on, each foul is punished by a free throw. ▼ When a team makes a freethrow, the possession of the ball is given to the opponents; in case of an unsuccessful free-throw, the shooting team keeps the ball. ▼ When a player commits his fifth personal foul, he is out of the game. ▼ There is no referee on the court. The players are expected to call fouls by themselves and be absolutely honest and polite during the game. PAGE 54 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE FIBA RESEARCH AND STUDY CENTRE by Aldo Vitale FROM ATHENS VIA BEIJING TO THE FUTURE “Welcome home,” proclaimed the Athens 2004 slogan. The FIBA Study Center also received a warm welcome from the Athens 2004 Olympic Committee (ATHOC 2004), thanks to the extensive collaborative efforts the two groups shared long before the Olympic basketball tournament. The collaboration between ATHOC 2004 and the FIBA Study Center started in April 2001 with the first meeting in Athens at the ATHOC 2004 headquarters. In attendance were the FIBA Study Center delegates, top ATHOC 2004 personnel, the representatives of the Hellenic Basketball Federation (HBF), and government officials representing the Ministry of Public Works. The focus of the meeting was the use of the OAKA and Hellenikon Sports Facilities and the four training facilities (Maroussi, Ano Lossia, Peristeri and Agia Paraskevi), as well as the choice of the most suitable basketball equipment for the Games. As far as the time schedule was concerned, it should be noted that thanks to the valuable collaboration of ATHOC 2004 and the Ministry of Public Works, the delivery terms were honored and most problems were overcome. Most of the problems were related to the Hellenikon Sports Center, whose steel structure was imported from Spain. This entailed a delay in the adjustment of the existing facilities. Nevertheless, the materials employed and the execution of the building works was of the highest quality and the work was completed. This outcome was also made possible through the efforts of the Study Center. Over the past few years, the Center offered guidance in the necessary improvements in the quality and safety standards of the basketball facilities and technical equipment. The results of this teamwork were evident during the Olympic tournaments. The potential multi-purpose problems (the Hellenikon Sports Center also hosted the handball tournament while OAKA hosted the gymnastics tournament) were all eliminated without any difficulties occurring during the competition stages. A more detailed analysis of the works undertaken in each facility now follows. FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 55 FIBA RESEARCH AND STUDY CENTRE 1. OAKA The work undertaken in OAKA was minor since the sports hall was recently built and therefore in very good condition. The only work entailed waterproofing the covering (necessitated due to the seepage of rainwater), repair of the air conditioning system, and refurbishment of the support areas (changing rooms, mixed zone, and guest area). This work was carried out in compliance with the norms related to disabled people since the Paralympics Games would be held soon after. For the center court, a mobile wooden floor and brand new backstop units were installed according to the latest safety standards. All technical equipment supplied by the FIBA Study Center Partners was of the highest quality. 2. HELLENIKON SPORTS CENTER The work at the Hellenikon Sports Center was the most substantial, both in terms of structure and in terms of costs. The aim was to restructure the old hangar of the Glifada airportpreviously used for aircraft in need of maintenance-in order to transform it into a basketball facility that could seat 15,000 spectators. More than 150 foundation poles had to be installed to bear the weight of tribunes that had to be installed. To meet spectator safety standards, the most complex work concerned the placement of a 200-ton iron bar above the facility. Having solved the structural problems, the next step was the installation of the technological systems. The adjoining court also had to be outfitted with permanent structures so it could be used after the Games. 3. THE FOUR TRAINING HALLS The four training halls needed minimal rehabilitation: adjustment of the air conditioning system (Maroussi and Peristeri); upgrading the lighting system (Agia Paraskevi); refurbishing changing rooms (Peristeri); and a simple plastering of the changing rooms for three other halls (Ano Liossia, Maroussi, and Agia Paraskevi). All four training halls were supplied with backstop units used on the playing courts. 4. BASKETBALL EQUIPMENT We adhere to the highest quality and safety standards. Each facility used in the Games for basketball (as well as gymnastics and handball) had the best equipment available, protecting both the athlete and spectator in the process. With the end of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games, the FIBA Study Center is already looking PAGE 56| 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE to the future. FIBA representatives have already had their first meeting to inspect the Wukesong Arena, where the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games will take place. An early analysis of the preliminary projects indicates that some innovative solutions have been utilized in the planning of the arena, both in terms of its dimensions (20,000-spectator capacity) and its architectural character. These innovations will involve the FIBA Study Center in a new challenge... towards the future. BEIJING 2008 The challenge of the basketball tournament for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games has already started. A meeting in Beijing between the FIBA Study Center representatives (Aldo Vitale, Pier Luigi Marzorati, and Mabel Chang) and representatives from the Chinese Olympic Committee BOCOG (led by Zhiwei Pan and Liu Wenbin) was held to evaluate the planning of the Wukesong Arena, which will host the basketball tournament. Through our cooperative efforts, the Wukesong Arena, which will also have space for a trade center, will become an international showcase. The inside of the arena is compact and extremely functional. Great care has been given to designing support structures, changing rooms, and areas. A more detailed evaluation will establish whether the emergency exits for spectators and the parking facilities for cars are in sufficient number. As far as the basketball equipment is concerned, all FIBA-approved products will be used. In view of the Paralympics Games that follow the Olympics, access for the disabled athletes and spectators will be addressed. A new meeting will be organized shortly to evaluate all further steps in the planning works. Given the budget granted by the Government of the People’s Republic of China for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, the highest sum ever granted, the work of the FIBA Study Center at the basketball facilities will achieve the highest levels in terms of safety and comfort. DOCTORS, TRAINERS AND CONDITIONING COACHES facial INJURIES part II by Enrique Amy Enrique Amy is Assistant Professor at the Department of Physical Medicine-Rehabilitation and Sport Medicine of the School of Medicine at the University of Puerto Rico. NASAL FRACTURES The prominent position of the nose makes it a common site of injury during team sports. The lower portion of the nasal bone is broad, thin, and subject to fracture. Direct frontal force to the nasal dorsum usually results in fracture of the lower half of the nasal bone. Lateral impact accounts for most nasal fractures. Fractures and dislocations of the anterior (cartilaginous) septum often accompany nasal fractures. In a nasal fracture, crepitance and mobility of the fractured segments is often found. External nasal deviation may be present, but it can be masked by edema. The intranasal structures should be thoroughly examined and shrinkage of the mucosa with a vasoconstrictor may be required. A complication that should not be missed is hematoma of the septum, because it can lead to collapse of the nasal structures due to the loss of septal cartilage secondary to abscess formation or pressure necrosis. The basic treatment for this injury is similar in children and adults. Under intravenous sedation or gene- ral anesthesia, nasal bones should be realigned and an osteotomy may be required in some instances to improve facial symmetry. Approximately six weeks is required for the injury to heal. FRACTURE OF THE MANDIBLE Fracture of the mandible or the inferior maxilla occurs very often in sports. The parts affected in are the base of the mandible and the alveolar process. Of all the bone fractures, 50 percent involve teeth in the line of the fracture, more frequently in the area of the third molars, canines, and premolars. In many occasions, periodontal defects and defects in the bone are related to the position of the line of fracture. Some typical signs that can be observed in case of fracture are: ▼ Tooth displacement ▼ Alteration in chewing ▼ Paresthesia ▼ Abnormal movements of the mandible ▼ Edema ▼ Lacerations ▼ Hematomas ▼ Ecchimosis ▼ Loose teeth Palpation is recommended to verify changes in contour of the bone or crepitation (sounds) in the joint. Bimanual manipulation helps to detect mobility between the fragments. As a general rule, x-rays should be taken at different angles. FRACTURES OF THE MAXILLA Maxillary fractures are classified by location and severity in: Le Fort I, Le Fort II, and Le Fort III. In Le Fort I fractures, the palate and alveolar process are separated from the maxilla by a fracture line above the antral floor and the floor of the nose. The clinical signs of this type of fracture are: edema, hematoma, disocclusion, open bite, mobility of the alveolar process, epistaxis, and paresthesia. Emergency treatment should include temporary immobilization and referral to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon. In Le Fort II fractures, the line of fracture goes through the lateral and anterior walls of the maxillary sinus and continues through the infraorbital borders to unite with the bridge of the nose. This fracture is commonly known as “floating fracture”. The signs and symptoms are: bilateral infraorbital paresthesia, diplopia, FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 57 DOCTORS, TRAINERS AND CONDITIONING COACHES and abnormal skin sensations. Treatment should include the immediate intervention of a maxillofacial surgeon in a hospital setting. Le Fort III fractures are similar to Le Fort II except that the patient presents with loss of cerebral-spinal fluid through the nose. The patient may present other features of traumatic brain injury. FRACTURES OF THE ZYGOMA Fractures of the zygoma occur frequently because of its prominent lateral position in the facial structure. Diagnosis of this condition is performed through a clinical exam and a series of x-rays. The zygomatic bone should be palpated, feeling for flatness of the cheek or steps in the orbital rim. Other signs and symptoms of this fracture include periorbital ecchymosis, edema, molar prominence, orbital margin deformity, epistaxis, crepitation, diplopia, and difficulty with opening or closing the mouth. Treatment may vary and depends on the extension of the fracture. In many cases, this fracture will require surgical treatment with reduction under general anesthesia. TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT The temporomandibular joint is found on both sides of the face, immediately under the ear, close to the hearing canal. Trauma is the etiologic factor in the majority of the disorders of the temporomandibular joint. There is a higher probability of trauma to this joint in athletes that participate in contact-collision sports. Many of these athletes suffer direct or indirect hits to the joint that, in the long run, cause chronic injuries that are very difficult to correct. In the diagnosis of condyle fractures, the following signs and symptoms should be taken into consideration: ▼ ▼ Evidence of facial trauma, especially in the area of the mandible and symphysis, accompanied by pain. Swelling in the joint area. PAGE 58 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE ▼ Limitation of the oral opening. ▼ ▼ Helping prevent trauma to the temporomandibular joint Deviation when opening the mouth toward the affected area. ▼ Serving as a splint, keeping teeth in their place when a strong hit is received ▼ ▼ Open bite in the counter-lateral area of the trauma. A mouth protector should have the following properties: Blood in the external hearing canal. ▼ Custom made for a specific patient. Pain when the place of fracture is touched. ▼ Fine and smooth edges. The changes suffered in the temporomandibular joint cause pain, inflammation of the chewing muscles, ligaments, cervical region, and the arm, in some cases. Chronic symptoms of the joint can be associated with psychological problems, such as anxiety and depression. ▼ Enough retention to avoid coming out of place during competition. ▼ Strong enough so that teeth cannot penetrate it. ▼ Lasting approximately two years. CUSTOM-BUILT MOUTH PROTECTORS Mouth protectors are used to protect various structures in the oral cavity during athletic events, and their construction is an essential service provided by sports dentistry. ▼ Thermal resistant so that it can be sterilized. ▼ No smell or flavor. ▼ Reasonable cost. ▼ Mouth protectors are removable appliances that usually cover the upper teeth; but they can also cover the lower teeth as well. These protectors are made up of a flexible material that is constructed from a plaster model of the patient’s teeth. Custom-made mouth protectors are preferred and a trained dentist should fabricate them. Mouth protectors are essential for athletes involved in contact sports. The main functions of mouth protectors are: ▼ Protection of soft tissue and lips from lacerations caused by the teeth in times of contact ▼ Cushioning and distribution of direct punches to the jaw, reducing the incidence of fractures ▼ Providing support to the jaw, absorbing the punch, and minimizing the possibility of a fracture to the condyles TYPES OF MOUTH PROTECTORS There are three types of mouth protectors: Ready-made. They come in a universal size and are placed over the upper teeth. These models are sold in most sporting good stores. Mouth-formed protectors. There are two types: thermo-set and chemo-set. The thermo-set type is found in sporting goods stores and is softened in hot water, tempered in cold water, and adapted directly over the teeth. The chemo-set type is adapted through the use of soft auto-polymerized resin and it is used by the majority of athletes. Custom-built protectors are fabricated on a stone model of a mold of the athlete’s teeth. This type is preferred because it is more adaptable to the oral tissues, comfortable, and interferes minimally with breathing and speech. These are fabricated by a dentist or a dental technician. More durable than the other types of mouth guards, these are the only ones that really guarantee maximal protection. DOCTORS, TRAINERS AND CONDITIONING COACHES by Phil Dyer MEDICINE BALL EXERCISES FOR BASKETBALL Phil Dyer is currently working as the Head Athletic Trainer at Caldwell College in Caldwell, New Jersey. He is a licensed, certified Athletic Trainer as well as a certified Strength & Conditioning Specialist. He over sees all rehabilitation and strengthening programs for the athletes, especially the basketball programs. “WOODCHOPPERS” Medicine ball exercises can help a basketball player learn to maintain a functional athletic basketball position (squat position: defensive stance, initial shooting position, defensive block-out, rebound) through strength, stabilization, coordination and flexibility while doing core movements. This is an important aspect of training for basketball, because the squat position and the core are the basis for triple extension (hips, knees, ankles). As stated in a prior article on box agilities, strengthening the muscles for these three joints will allow an athlete to handle the forces required playing the game at a competitive level. These five medicine ball exercises will not only help strengthen the key components of triple extension but also tap into the athletes potential through the movements these exercises require. The use of medicine balls for basketball training is extremely functional, because there is a direct correlation between the exercise and the play on the court. The medicine balls used range from 2 kg to 5 kg, and the sets range from two three of five to ten repetitions for each side or leg. “WOODCHOPPERS” The “woodchopper” series involves three motions - straight down, angled right shoulder to left knee, angled - left FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 59 DOCTORS, TRAINERS AND CONDITIONING COACHES EXTENDED ROTATION shoulder to right knee. Start by standing with knees slightly flexed, feet shoulder width apart, upper body erects - core tight, ball extended high overhead. The motion is swinging the ball straight down between the legs (keeping the arms straight) below the knees. As the ball nears the mid-section of the body, start to bend at the hips - knees to allow the ball’s momentum to flow all the way down near the floor. Start to decelerate the ball with the core when it approaches the shins. Explode back up into the original position. The angled motions are done the same way, except now the ball starts across the body at the shoulders and angles down to the outside of the opposite knee. PAGE 60 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE Keys to this exercise are to use the hips and knees as stabilizers so that the core can significantly benefit from the motion of the ball. Keeping the arms straight will allow more force to be generated, thus adding stress on the mid-section (core), while recruiting more muscles around the leg joints to stabilize. This is a great exercise for strengthening the lower back. EXTENDED ROTATION Start in solid squat position (standing with hips, knees flexed, feet shoulder width apart, upper body erect - core tight). The ball is extended straight out from the body just above the waist. Start by twisting (can be either direction first) towards the right, accelera- ting the ball with the core. Keep the arms as straight as possible while trying to reach the ball all the way to the side of the body. Bring the ball back to the starting position, pause, and then explode in the other direction. Keys to this exercise are to make sure the lead hip (direction the ball is accelerating) is flexing and the trail hip is extending. Concentrate on keeping the ball above the waist, and pausing at the starting point. This ensures the proper movement is started and muscles are recruited each time. This exercise is a good way to teach a basketball player to strengthen his stance while overcoming lateral forces. DOCTORS, TRAINERS AND CONDITIONING COACHES by Tim Garl LOWER LEG PAIN IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS figure 1 Tim Garl is the Indiana University’s basketball trainer. He is also the program’s Director of Basketball Operations. He has served as the Trainer for the USA 1982, and 1986 FIBA World Championship Teams, and 1984 USA Olympic Gold Medal Basketball Team. He is also a member of the United States Olympic, Sports Medicine Committee. Lower leg pain is common in athletes and is frequently seen in basketball players. The conditions causing the pain can be soft tissue injury or involve the tibia or fibula. Soft tissue lower leg pain is often referred to in a catch all term “shin splints” and is technically called Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (MTSS). This condition usually affects athletes involved in running and jumping activities. This complaint is frequently seen in basketball players’. It is a result chronic strain or overuse resulting in miocrotrauma to the muscles and connective tissue, tibia and occasionally the fibula. It is most commonly seen early in training where there is increase in activities such as running and jumping. It may also occur anytime when training is increased suddenly in speed and distance or when the training surface is changed. MTSS is characterized by pain that occurs during exercise in the lower leg. Typically pain is significant at the beginning of training and usually decreases once the player is warmed up. It may then intensify, with fatigue, at the end of activity. Symptoms are most commonly located along the inner (medial) portion of the tibia in the middle third of the bone. The painful area is often diffuse and may move around. Pain subsides after activity however the athlete may complain of aching pain at night. The exact cause of the injury has many theories, and frequently may have more than one contributing factor. These factors may include muscle fatigue or imbalance of muscles of the lower leg, improper or worn footwear, poor flexibility, and overtraining. Training surface may also contribute to the injury (figure 1). Figure 1. Stretching the muscles of the lower leg and good flexibility is important in treating and preventing injuries. figure 2/3 Figure 2 and 3. There are numerous appliances available that a player can wear to help manage the MTSS symptoms. All of these mechanisms can result in an overload to lower leg in the form of repetitive trauma from weight bearing. Torsion to the tibia from muscle/tendon insertions that contract during running and jumping may also contribute (figure 2 and 3). One challenge of managing lower leg pain (MTSS) is determine the extent of the injury and identifying proper treatment. The history and characteristics of the pain, such as length of symptoms, changes in training routine, other injuFIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 61 DOCTORS, TRAINERS AND CONDITIONING COACHES figure 4 Figure 4 and 5. Strengthening the muscles of the lower leg is important part of prevention and rehabilitation. figure 5 ries that might contribute to biomechanical errors, painful activity versus pain free activity, should all be evaluated to help make the correct diagnosis and determine the proper management. Athletes, who present a history of recent change in level or intensity of training, recent onset of symptoms, diffuse pain that is most severe during the beginning and end of training may be suffering from MTSS or inflammation to the soft tissue of the lower leg(s). Management consists of first eliminating the insulting activity and treating the area for acute inflammation. Although many therapies exist for soft tissue inflammation, the author finds that ice, rather than any thermal modality, provides the best relief of symptoms. Anti-inflammatory or analgesic medications may also be used as part of the treatment. figure 6 Figures 6 and 7. Some weight machines allow for stretching and strengthening during the same activity. figure 7 Examination of the players’ footwear is essential to determine wear patters and to help identify biomechanical problems. High quality footwear is essential and custom orthotics may be needed to correct biomechanical errors. Training routine will need to be modified, and cross training should be incorporated to reduce stress. Stationary cycling, swimming and stair stepper machines are all good cardiovascular activities that can supplement reduced running. Jumping activates, if allowed, should be done on soft surfaces (figure 4 and 5). Prevention consists of maintaining good flexibility in the lower body. Increase training moderately over a period of time. Strengthening the muscles of the lower leg should be part of the training routine. PAGE 62 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE Proper footwear must be worn for the activity and surface. A player should attempt to train on the softest surface possible, especially when doing jumping drills (figure 6 and 7). Emerging thought is that lower leg injuries exist along a continuum and more serious juries such as stress fractures, compartment syndromes and preiostitis often result from complications of mistreatment or untreated lower leg pain. Stress fracture is the most common serious complication of overuse injuries in the lower leg and can occur very quickly in the athlete with serious training errors. Positive signs include local tenderness, pain on direct or indirect percussion, and continuous pain during weight bearing. Imaging studies are usually needed to confirm clinical diagnosis. Bone scan has traditionally been the standard diagnostic study. An increasing number of clinicians are using Magnetic Resonance Imaging instead because of its ability to access the bone and surrounding soft tissue structures. Standard xray is usually not sensitive enough to make an early diagnosis of the micro fractures to the bone. Management begins with rest to allow the bone to heal and remodel. Non-weight bearing activity such as deep water pool workouts and stationary cycling may be used to keep the athlete conditioned during this period. Early management and treatment of lower all leg pain is the best approach to eliminate stress fractures. New studies suggest that electric and electromagnetic fields or sound waves may help in the healing of stress fractures. MINI-BASKETBALL, SCHOOL GAMES AND ACTIVITIES Mini-Basketball Program in Berlin by Marina Zollner Marina Zöllner, an ex-German National women’s team and club player with TuS Lichterfelde, has been coaching the mini-basketball teams at TuS Lichterfelde since 1978. TUS LICHTERFELDE AND BASKETBALL Around 3,000 members of the Lichterfelde Gymnastics and Sports Club, which was founded in 1887, play thirteen sports. The sports that attract the largest following are sport gymnastics, then basketball (545 members), and gymnastics. The basketball department has 33 teams playing actively and is one of the largest in Germany. In 1992, the basketball department signed a cooperation contract with Alba Berlin for the men’s teams. The ALBA/TuSLi cooperation project was developed on many levels. The first step was moving the ALBA player, Emir Mutapcic (ex-national player for Bosnia & Herzegovina, and later coach of ALBA), to TuS Lichterfelde. Another level is the c o o p e r a t i o n between the ALBA and TuSLi trainers; the head coach works for both ALBA and TuSLi; there are jointly held training sessions, discussions, and visits to observe training sessions. Division of the groups in the 2003/2004 season: MINI-BASKETBALL ORGANISATION IN BERLIN The mini-basketball games are organized by the Berlin Basketball Federation, which has divided the various player groups in a way so the children can play against each other based on age and ability. It is of great importance for all players to gain actual playing experience. However, for philosophical reasons, no championships are held. ▼ Mini advanced F1 Born 1993 and younger with game experience ▼ Mini advanced F2 Born 1993 and younger with little game experience ▼ Mini beginners A1 Born 1994 and younger ▼ Mini beginners A2 Born 1995 and younger, plus complete beginners 1994 FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 63 MINI-BASKETBALL, SCHOOL GAMES AND ACTIVITIES ▼ Mini girls Girls only teams There are 12 games during the season (September-April), when the teams play within their groups according to the official of the German Basketball Federation (DBB) rules (with minor changes). Additional mini tournaments are offered by the clubs and take place on game-free weekends. In addition to the games, there are also relays, basket-shooting competitions, and games for the parents. Especially talented children from the older minibasketball age groups receive additional support from qualified Federation trainers in the E-squad. They train for 4-5 hours once a month. For two years now the TuSLi, in association with the IBBA (International Basketball Academy), has organized a mini-basketball camp during the summer on Fehmarn Island. Henrik Rödl, ex-national league player and national player, is head coach of the camp. A further highlight of the season is participating in the Mini-Basketball Tournament in Göttingen (the first one was held 25 years ago), one of the largest tournaments in Europe for this age group. PRACTICE PROGRAM Mini-basketball should be considered play, fun, and an enjoyable experience. Children from 7 to 11 learn the team sport of basketball according to PAGE 64 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE simplified rules. In addition, to the various exercises, first contact with the ball, and little games, emphasis is placed on the development of the basic motor abilities (speed, flexibility, coordination, strength, and stamina). A varied, fun, all-round training regimen offers everyone motor development. A new group of around 30 children (all are 7 years old) has started up at TuS Lichterfelde. Girls and boys are trained separately due to their differing development. Not only professional players, but coaches and referees can develop through these broad foundations, and they are important to the progress and development of basketball. instructors have years of training experience and many started as players with TuSLi. Each must be a combination of teacher, friend, comforter, and psychologist. They advise parents, take care of health issues, sort out arguments, and take care of organizational aspects of training, games, and extra activities (planning for tournaments and trips). Every trainer has a junior player or interested helper who helps as an assistant at training sessions and games. This person can take the trainer’s place at training sessions and is being trained to take a group of his own later on. During the first year, the 7- and 8year-olds have weekly training sessions. The aim of these sessions is to teach the basics of dribbling, passing, catching, and lay-up shots. When the youngsters play full-court, 5-on-5, the focus is on play with two baskets and observation of the foul, travelling, and double-dribble rules. The overall aim is to lead up to team game-level via small games with and without the ball. Training of core motor skills: ▼ Strength: push and pull exercises/climbing/relays with medicine balls (exercises with body weight only, no additional weights). ▼ Co-ordination: running with and without the ball, ball handling, skipping, exercises from other sports, e.g. gymnastics, trampoline. ▼ Flexibility: yes, but no stretching (except in certain individual cases). ▼ Speed: reaction games, small games. ▼ Aerobic stamina: small games, 5- 10 min. runs, 6-day races. LEARNING BASIC BASKETBALL SKILLS ▼ Passing, catching (chest pass, floor pass). ▼ Throwing (right and left handed lay-ups). ▼ Dribbling. During the second year, the basics are developed into skilled playing: passing, catching, dribbling, and right and left lay-ups. The children have 1-2 training sessions per week. PARENTS We want to keep the parents interested in basketball as a sport. Parents help with organizing car shares to games or tournaments, provide refreshments (e.g. buffets at tournaments), organize parties or leisure-time planning. At games, they set up in the hall and put things away afterwards, help the table officials as timekeepers and scorers, and wash the uniform shirts. Finally, they can give financial support through sponsorship (playing shirts, warm-up suits) or donations, photocopying information leaflets, putting address lists together. Even so, in spite of all the help they provide, parents are not instructors or coaches. THE FUTURE Several changes instigated by the regional trainers will be introduced in the coming season: All groups will play 4-on-4. Fewer players on the court means more space for individual moves. This should mean more ball contact for each player and, therefore, better training in basic techniques. Demands on conditioning will also increase. In the third year, all techniques are reinforced, physical conditioning improved, and particular emphasis is placed on man-to-man defense. Training regularly takes place twice a week. The referee will not check the ball at a throw-in (except in the case of a foul). This should mean more speed in the game, more fluidity of play. Quick switches and fast breaks will be encouraged. MINI-BASKETBALL INSTRUCTORS, AND ASSISTANTS The mini-basketball instructor’s aim is to show children how much fun basketball can be. On this basis, the trainer has to work with all children in the group and organize his training to be as flexible as possible. Most TuSLi Man-to-man defense over the entire court is a regulation of play. One-onone playing continues to be encouraged; each player must take responsibility. These measures mean playing under more pressure and should lead to improved switching and quick attack speeds, and implementation of the basic techniques. FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 65 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR play with us NOW IT’S OUR TIME TO WRITE A LETTER... FIBA Assist has already passed our first year of life and we want to thank all the people from every corner of the globe who have contributed to the magazine with such great enthusiasm and passion. The Olympic Games were an unbelievable showroom for our sport, and the incredible results were the best advertising for the most popular indoor team sport in the globe. We mention the Olympic Games because we are glad to have as our contributor to this issue, Ruben Magnano, the head coach of Argentina, the gold-medal winning team. Above all, we would like to thank him for his great collaboration and availability. Even though he has been besieged with so many commitments, Coach Magnano worked through the night to give us the article on time (and just one week after the end of the Games), showing us that he is not only a great coach, but also a very nice person. Thanks, Coach, and congratulations to you and your team! The Editor-in-Chief and all the editorial staff of FIBA Assist Magazine NIEDNAGEL THEORIES I was absolutely fascinated by the theories Jonathan Niednagel mentioned in his article on the different brain types and what it means in sports. Could you be so kind to let me know how I can contact Niednagel? I would also like to know how to order his book. Thank you very much and, again, thanks for printing his article. Stefan Hermann, Munich (Germany) Professor Jonathan Niednagel can be reached by email at this address: firstname.lastname@example.org. The Internet site is www.braintypes.com. The title of his book is: “Your Keys to Sports Success”, by Jonathan Niednagel, Laguna Press, Laguna Niguel, California 92677, USA A DEVICE FOR REFEREES I heard that at the Olympics Games in Athens a special device for basketball referees was used for the first time. Please explain what it is and how it works. Akiro Morikawa, Kyoto (Japan) The device you are referring to is the Precision Time System, and Michael Costabile, a former NBA referee, invented it in 1992. The first time it was used by FIBA was at the 2002 FIBA World Championships in Indianapolis, and then at the Olympic Games in Athens this past summer. In short, the Precision Time System stops the game clock immediately when the referee blows the PAGE 66 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE whistle, avoiding any possible protest from the coaches or players. This is especially critical at the end of the periods and especially at the end of a game. The device consists of a base station that is designed to interface with the arena time-keeping equipment. Each referee wears a special belt pack, which signals at the speed of the light the starting and stopping of playing time. The referees also have omnidirectional microphones that are tuned to a specific whistle frequency. The game clock is instantly stopped when the whistle is blown. You can obtain more information about the device from the company Web site at www.precisiontime.com. The NBA, many American universities and high schools has officially adopted the Precision Time System, and, since this past September, FIBA has used it for all international competitions. FIBA now recommends its use for all national Division 1 and 2 teams. Editorial Office: Cantelli Editore, V. Saliceto 22/E, 40013 Castelmaggiore (BO), Italy Tel.+39-051-6328813- Fax +39-051-6328815 Editor-in-Chief: GIORGIO GANDOLFI E-mail: email@example.com Note: Readers who wish to send technical or non-technical articles are kindly requested to read the information in the box INVITATION TO THE READERS on page 4 (or online at www.fiba.com).
* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project