ARGENTINA: THE OFFENSE
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE FOR BASKETBALL ENTHUSIASTS EVERYWHERE SEPTEMBER / OCTOBER 2004
ASSIST10
borivoje cenic
serbia and montenegro
youth program
tony khalil
development in lebanese
women’s basketball
oliver purnell
the “wall” defense
sergey chernov and
valery lunichkin
russian basketball
coaches association
tim garl
lower leg pain in
basketball players
OLYMPIC GOLD MEDAL
ARGENTINA:
THE OFFENSE
EDITORIAL
We’ve sat the
exam and the
results are in
Remember the days, maybe long ago, when you
were studying and had to regularly sit for an exam
to measure your progress. In my mind, the Olympic
Games and the FIBA World Championships are
basketball’s “exam time”. Every two years the
world’s best players, best coaches and best officials come to the playing court in the host country
to prove how good they really are. The sport also
gets to check its progress through the interest
shown by spectators and the media in its competition.
As I sit in my office back in Oceania writing these
words, I think basketball can be very pleased with
its report card following our “examination” in
Athens. I expect that the basketball tournament
will go down in history as the best Olympic Games
Basketball tournament ever and I suspect that the
competition will be recognised in the future, as of
similar significance as the 1992 Olympic Games.
The athletes who presented themselves for “examination” in Athens were outstanding examples of
the level that players can reach when they practice and hone their skills. They were taller, more athletic, more skilful and more knowledgeable, right
across the competition, than we have seen in previous Olympics and thanks to them and the work
carried out by their coaches during the preparation
phase and during the Olympics, we witnessed a
feast of scoring.
The coaches I have spoken with have observed
that since Indianapolis two years ago, the offensive skills of teams have advanced more quickly
than the defensive skills. It’s probably true to report
also, that the changes made to the rules of the
game have resulted in it becoming more exciting
and fast paced. We can say the rule changes
implemented by FIBA have “passed the test”.
Clearly, basketball was one of the success stories
of the games - spectator interest was high.
When the numbers are counted, I am sure our
sport will emerge as one of the major attractions
in Athens. And TV, right around the world, was
very interested in beaming the pictures from the
basketball courts of Athens. Four million
viewers, a TV record in Argentina, tuned in to
watch their nation defeat Italy for the men’s gold
medal. The defeat of the USA men by Puerto
Rico in their opening game of the tournament set
the scene for that interest, but I am sure it was
the spectacle of the games, day in and day out,
which kept the fans and the media returning for
more.
The in-arena entertainment program held in
conjunction with the basketball competition proved very popular with spectators and the organisers should be given “top marks” for that.
Congratulations to the Argentine Men and the
USA women who “topped their class” in 2004.
Congratulations also to the other 11 men’s and
11 women’s teams who by their presence in
Athens will show on their report card, top 12 in a
class of 212.
As with any exam, the report card is a time to
look back and consider where you did well and
where you could do better. Some teams no
doubt, feel they performed below expectations
and FIBA as the controlling body will look at
what they can reproduce at future events and
what needs to be changed.
Players, coaches, referees and event organisers, you have 2 years to work on your game
before the next “exam” in 2006.
Steve Smith
Secretary General - FIBA OCEANIA
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 3
TABLE OF CONTENTS
EDITORIAL
by Steve Smith
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
IS A PUBLICATION OF FIBA
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COACHES
FUNDAMENTALS AND YOUTH BASKETBALL
One-on-One: Creating Space
by Ganon Baker
IN COLLABORATION WITH Giganti-BT&M,
Cantelli Editore, Italy
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17
21
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
25
29
The “Triangle and Two” Defense
by Tab Baldwin
Copyright 2004 by FIBA.
32
PSYCHOLOGY AND MOTIVATION
Integrating Psychology at the
Australian Institute of Sport - Part I
by Adrian Schonfield
35
NATIONAL COACHES ASSOCIATIONS
Russian Basketball Coaches Association
by Sergey Chernov and Valery Lunichkin
37
HOOP MARKET
Books and Videos on Zone Defense
by Raffaele Imbrogno
38
2004 - 2005 FIBA CALENDAR
OCTOBER
12 - 17.10
15 - 21.10
27.10
28 - 29.10
30.10
NOVEMBER
21 - 27.11
26 - 28.11
DECEMBER
03.12
PAGE 4 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
Development in Lebanese Women’s Basketball
by Tony Khalil
DEFENSE
The “Wall” Defense
by Oliver Purnell
Printed in Italy.
AN INVITATION TO OUR READERS
No matter what the level of competition you are
concerned about, we invite you (coaches; FIBA
Zones, Federations, Leagues, and team executives, referees, doctors, trainers, conditioning
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The Editorial Staff will decide if and when
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There is no guarantee that manuscripts will be
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10
Offensive Concepts and Principles
by Dirk Bauermann
The magazine is published 6 times per year.
FIBA, Cantelli Editore and the Editor-in-Chief are
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All information in this publication is provided as
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6
Serbia and Montenegro Youth Program
by Borivoje Cenic
OFFENSE
The Argentina Offense
by Ruben Magnano
THE MISSION
Our objective is to help basketball grow globally
and improve in every aspect. Our goal is to produce a technical publication of the highest level,
but one that is easily understood and appreciated by everyone. An ample section of the magazine is devoted to the coaches - more precisely,
youth level coaches - because coaches comprise the largest part of our readership. Basketball
can improve only if every aspect of this sport
improves and moves forward. For this reason
the magazine is also devoted to topics of interest
for team executives, referees, doctors, conditioning coaches, trainers, and mini-basketball
instructors, as well as national Federations,
FIBA Zones, Leagues and teams.
We would like to thank the following persons:
Corrado de Belvis, Lisa Cavallini, Gerald
Couzens, and Raffaele Imbrogno; Paolo
Grilli and Giampaolo Scaglione for their
cooperation.
3
04 - 05.12
FIBA Women's World League 2004,
Final Round in Samara and St.
Petersburg, Russia
Asian U18 Championship for Women
2004 in China
World Commission for Women's
Basketball in Geneva, Switzerland
World Commission for Interantional
Competitions in Geneva, Switzerland
FIBA Commonwealth Games Council
in Geneva, Switzerland
Asian "Borislav Stankovic" Cup 2004
in Taipei, Chinese Taipei
Board of FIBA-Europe in Tallinn,
Estonia
17 - 26.12
Central Board of FIBA in Kuala
Lumpur, Malaysia
U18 African Championship for
Women 2004 in Tunisia
JANUARY 2005
tba
Draw for the FIBA U19 World
Championship for Women in Nabeul,
Tunisia
21 - 22.01
World Technical Commission in San
Juan, Puerto Rico
FEBRUARY 2005
tba
Draw for the FIBA U21 World
Championship for Men in La Mar del
Plata, Argentina
tba
South American League for Men's Clubs
MARCH 2005
tba
Meeting of the FIBA Zone Secretary tba
Generals, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Board of FIBA-Europe
South American Championship for
Women
REFEREES, SCORER’S TABLE
AND COMMISSIONERS
Refereeing the Defense
by Fred Horgan
40
Do You Have the Right Level of Tension?
by Bill Mildenhall and Jan Holmin
43
Right or Wrong?
45
SPORT MARKETING AND
MANAGEMENT
CONDITIONING COACHES
Medicine Ball Exercises for Basketball
by Phil Dyer
59
TRAINERS
Lower Leg Pain in Basketball Players
by Tim Garl
61
MINI-BASKETBALL, SCHOOL
GAMES AND ACTIVITIES
MINI-BASKETBALL
Mini-Basketball Program in Berlin
by Marina Zollner
63
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
66
EXECUTIVES AND MARKETING
Why Is Branding So Important?
by Lars-Haue Pedersen
47
HOW TO SUBSCRIBE:
FIBA’s Corporate Hospitality in Athens
49
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DECEMBER 2005
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African Championship for Women in Dem. Rep. Congo*
AUGUST - SEPTEMBER 2006
Panamerican Championship for Men*
FIBA Women's U19 World Championship
2005 in Hammamet and Nabeul, Tunisia
African Championship for Men in Cote d'Ivoire *
Asian Championship for Women*
FIBA U21 World Championship for Men in
Cordoba and Mar del Plata, Argentina
19.08 - 03.09
19.09 - 01.10
FIBA World Championship in Japan
FIBA World Championship for Women in Brazil
* These championships qualify for the FIBA World Championships
2006 in Japan and Brazil.
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 5
FIBA EUROPE
COACHES - FUNDAMENTALS AND YOUTH BASKETBALL
by Ganon Baker
ONE-ON-ONE:
CREATING SPACE
Ganon Baker, former assistant coach
at Hampton, Belmont Abbey, and
Coastal Carolina, and President of
the “Shake n’Bake Basketball
Services”, he was also player-coach
of a team in Iceland. He teaches oneon-one moves at camps and clinics
all over the US, and he was also invited to give clinics in Australia. He
produced two videos on these moves
with Championship Productions.
Basketball - What a great game! I
have had the opportunity to play with,
coach, and train many great players.
The best and most talented players in
the world are in the NBA. Throughout
my experiences, I have discovered 7
NBA dribble moves used by the NBA’s
best players to create space. The
three main reasons you use a dribble
move are:
1. To create distance from your defender to make a pass or shot attempt.
2. To attack the basket for a better
scoring opportunity.
3. To alleviate pressure from an
aggressive defender.
Begin first by doing the drills stationary. I call this the “training wheel”
theory.
To learn how to ride a bike, you make
it easier by using a two-wheel training gadget hooked on the back
wheel for balance.
To execute these dribble moves,
practice them stationary first with
proper balance. The progression is
form to full speed. Go slow-motion to
one continuous motion on each dribble move. It is important to remember
that ball handling needs to be done
every day.
Let’s start sweating.
Stance is a big key to execution.
Correct practice builds correct
habits.
In all of your moves, you should:
1. Drop your hips to where your knees
PAGE 06 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
SEQUENCE 1
SEQUENCE 2
FIBA EUROP
SEQUENCE 3
SEQUENCE 4
are, form a 90 degree angle and your back
is straight like a steel rod. Don’t bend over,
bend down.
2. Keep your eyes and head up.
3. Dribble hard at knee level.
4. Step with the lead foot on first step
when you execute the move on the run
(i.e. right hand - right foot, left hand - left
foot) and use the opposite hand to shield
off the defender (“chicken wing”). Keep
the ball close to your body. Plant or stop
with the lead foot and use “chicken wing”
to keep defender away from the ball
(sequence 1).
THE MOVES
1. JOHN STOCKTON (STUTTER JAB)
Drive at the defender with the right hand,
jab or step to the side with the left foot,
then keep going right (sequence 2).
Stationary practice: continuous jab step to
the side with the left foot - hard dribble
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 07
FIBA EUROPE
COACHES - FUNDAMENTALS AND YOUTH BASKETBALL
SEQUENCE 5
SEQUENCE 6
with the right hand (each drill done for 30
seconds on each side, and then switch
direction).
2. TRACY MCGRADY
(DOUBLE BETWEEN THE LEGS)
Attack the defender dribbling with the
right hand - go through the legs to the left
- the left foot planted in front, then back
through to the right hand - keep going
PAGE 08 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
right.
Stationary practice: dribble 3 times
between the legs, then switch or scissor
feet and repeat the process (sequence 3).
3. KOBE BRYANT
(BETWEEN THE LEGS - BEHIND THE BACK)
Step with the left leg, the right hand
between legs, to the left hand, then the left
hand to the right hand behind the back,
step with the right leg.
Stationary practice: go continuous
between the legs, then behind the back
(sequence 4).
4. KOBE BRYANT
(BETWEEN THE LEGS - CROSSOVER)
Step with the left leg, the right hand
between the legs to the left hand, then the
left hand to the right hand crossover in
front, step with the right leg.
SEQUENCE 7
SEQUENCE 8
Stationary practice: go between the legs,
crossover in one spot (sequence 5).
5. KOBE BRYANT
(BEHIND THE BACK - CROSSOVER)
Step with the left foot, the left hand to right
hand, behind the back, then right to left
hand crossover, step with the left foot.
Stationary practice: go behind the
back, then crossover, and then switch
direction (sequence 6).
tion (sequence 7).
6. MIKE BIBBY (DOUBLE BEHIND THE BACK)
Plant the left foot, dribble with the right
hand to left, below the buttocks, then the
left hand back to the right hand. The wrist
snaps and the ball is thrown, while stepping right and left.
Stationary practice: go continuous
behind the back, and then switch direc-
7. LEBRON JAMES (CROSSOVER THEN UNDER
LEGS)
Drive right with the right hand, crossover
to the left, plant the left leg, bring the ball
under and through the left leg to the right
hand, and go or shoot jumper.
Stationary practice: do continuous crossover and under leg (sequence 8).
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 09
FIBA EUROPE
COACHES - FUNDAMENTALS AND YOUTH BASKETBALL
by Borivoje Cenic
SERBIA AND
MONTENEGRO
YOUTH PROGRAM
Borivoje Cenic is a Professor at the
Coaches Basketball Academy of the
Serbia and Montenegro Federation. He
coached top division men’s teams in
the former Yugoslavia, Greece, and
Kuwait. He coached the Radnicki Belgrade senior women’s team to four
championships. With the senior women’s national team, he won one silver
medal at the European Championship,
and with the women’s junior team, he
won two silver and two bronze medals
at the European Championships. He
was honored by the Serbia and Montenegro Coaches Association for his lifetime achievement for coaches.
THE PLAN
The organization of youth programs in
Serbia and Montenegro is based on a
wide selection that is expanded in such
a way that no talented player could
ever be left out.
We are a small country and have a
small number of possible candidates for
our national teams.
Each year we lose our top players to
other European and the NBA clubs.
In order to solve this problem, we have
chosen a more intensive and quicker
development of top players through increased training periods, which helps
create a wide selection net. The high
world ranking of our national basketball
teams creates much interest among the
younger players.
The number of the players has increased over the course of years. Today we
have 1,025 teams with 15,610 licensed
players.
ORGANIZATIONAL SCHEME
The training process is performed in three groups:
PAGE 10 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
a. Selection Group
b. Preparation Group
c. Competition Group
In addition, there is also mini-basketball for players 7 to 10 years old.
skills, and tactical skills.
Club coaches attend these practices
and receive instructions for the club
practice plan that has been also designed for individual improvement.
SELECTION GROUP
This consists of players 11-14 years old.
Boys start to be selected when they are
11 because their psychophysical status
enables their gradual introduction into
the training process.
This Selection Group program is run in
a total of 11 regions, 8 in Serbia and 3 in
Montenegro.
REGIONAL TOURNAMENTS
At the end of the season there are Regional Tournaments for the Young Pioneers (11 and 12 years old) and Older
Pioneers (13 and 14 years old), and the
best players are then gathered within
the Regional Teams.
Practices are held twice a month (from
September until mid-June) and last one
day. The players are put into four separate groups based on their age (11, 12,
13, and 14), and they have a total of 12
practice sessions. Each year, 20 of the
top players for their age group are invited to participate in regional competitions.
REGIONAL TECHNICAL STAFF
Each Region has its staff, formed by:
1. Regional Coordinator, who is in constant communication with all club
coaches and the Federation’s head
coordinator of this program.
2. Two coaches for each age category.
The Regional Coordinator checks the
practices and club competitions and
selects the players.
There are more than 2,000 boys that
take part in the four-year training process.
The training process within the Region
includes testing of technique, physical
NATIONAL DEVELOPING
TRAINING CENTER (DTC)
1. SELECTION GROUP
At the end of the season, the best
players of each Region are choosen,
and sixty of the most promising players
of all age groups from all the Regions
are invited to practice at the National
Developing Training Center.
The young players practice twice a day,
for a total of four hours.
They also undergo physical and technical skill tests.
The best players are invited to join the
Preparatory Group, while those players
who are not selected will continue to
practice throughout the summer to
further improve their skills.
2. PREPARATORY GROUP
The Preparatory Group includes potential candidates for the Cadet National
team (15 and 16 years old).
They practice four times a year for a total of 60 days.
The number of players in this Group is
lowered to 30 and this number decreases even further after several training
selections.
3. COMPETITION GROUP
This Group consists of the Cadet (16
years old), Junior (17 and 18 years old)
and Young (up to 20 years old) National
teams.
Practices are held in various periods:
a. During the weekend for two days
(to check the players’ improvement
and games against club teams).
b. At week-long practices in autumn,
winter, and summer, held immediately before certain international
tournaments.
c. Longer practice periods before the
qualifications for the FIBA European Championship, World Championship, and other competitions,
such as the University Games.
There are 80 practice days annually,
with 15 to 25 games.
The roster of players is trimmed to 20
and later to 14 just before the official
competitions.
COMPETITION STAFF SELECTION
Expert coaches and those that have
achieved results in the training of
young players are selected for this
program.
Each coach has to have the title of Senior Basketball Coach.
The staff of the competition teams consists of:
▼
▼
▼
▼
▼
Head coach.
Two assistant coaches.
A medical doctor.
A physiotherapist.
One senior coach, who acts as a
team leader.
LOCAL COMPETITIONS
Based on ages, the competitions are
divided into the following categories:
1. Younger Pioneers (11 and 12 years of
age): they play for the Regional titles.
2. Pioneers (13 and 14 years of age):
they play for the State title.
3. Cadets (15 and 16 years of age):
they play for the State title.
4. Juniors (17 and 18 years of age):
they play for the State title.
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 11
FIBA EUROPE
COACHES - FUNDAMENTALS AND YOUTH BASKETBALL
There are four phases:
▼ I phase- at the Regions level.
▼ II phase- the winners of two Regions
play an elimination round.
▼ III phase- within Republics tournament.
▼ IV phase- at the state level tournament.
All the competitions are held from September to June, with an average of 3040 official games playerd before reaching the final.
CHANGES OF AGE RULES
FOR THE TEAMS
The decision to “make space” to increase the number of younger players
on the senior teams necessitated a
change of License Rules.
We limited the number of older players
on the teams at every level. In this way,
we rejuvenated our League. Many clubs
are now forced to start the serious program for young players.
a. In the I-A League, only 12 players older than 18 years old may be licensed, with no limit of the number of
younger players.
b. In the I-B League, only 3 players older than 26 and 9 players older than
18 may be licensed, with no limit of
the number of younger players.
c. In the Republic Leagues, 4 players
older than 24 and 8 players older
than 18 are licensed, with no limit of
the number of younger players.
These rule changes have yielded quick
results: the teams play a quicker game
and there are now more quality younger
players involved in top level competitions.
THE AIM
Although there were great results, as
well as failures, at the international
competitions, we can say that the basic
aims for the growth of young and high
quality players was achieved and the
results back this up.
INTERNATIONAL RESULTS OF
THE YOUTH NATIONAL TEAMS
CADET NATIONAL TEAM
The Cadets national teams won the Gold
medal at the last four European ChampionPAGE 12 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
ships. This is due to a variety of factors:
a. A careful selection of the national
team;
b. Early beginning of very organized
practices and a thoroughly prepared Plan and Program;
c. Strong cooperation of the national
team coach with the club coaches;
d. Outstanding support of the Federation;
e. Thorough scouting of the opposing
teams;
f. The other national teams are assembled later and are less prepared.
JUNIOR NATIONAL TEAM
The Junior national team hasn’t achieved the results that we expected, failing to qualify for the European Championship.
Why? Where are the quality players?
What’s the cause of the poor results?
A detailed analysis offers us various
facts that explain the situation, but certainly, do not justify the poor results.
We can explain such results for the following reasons:
1. Rapid maturation of young talented
players forced the clubs to include
them on their senior teams. The more talented players go to play for
other European teams.
2. Clubs are not very keen to have
their players practice for a long time with the national teams. The
most obvious example: before last
year’s European Junior Championship, only four players partecipated
in all of the practices of the national team. Even if a player wanted to
take part in all the training sessions, many clubs do not let them
do so.
Based on the Federation rules, the
clubs have the right to behave in
this manner.
3. Moving from youth to senior teams
does not give the young player the
possibility to practice with continuity. Some players do not get
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 13
FIBA EUROPE
COACHES - FUNDAMENTALS AND YOUTH BASKETBALL
enough time to practice or participate in games, which slows their
progress.
OFFENSIVE TECHNIQUE
▼ Ballhandling.
▼ One count stop.
4. This stops their normal process of
technical development, and affects
their psychological growth and concentration.
YOUNG NATIONAL TEAM
Most players of the Young national
team (Under 20) have good individual
and collective fundamentals, and they
are potential candidates for the senior
national team.
At this point in their athletic careers,
they are at a great crossroad. We believe that players of this age are already
mature enough to be members of the
senior national teams.
These are the past results:
1. Bronze medal at the World Championship in Australia.
▼ Catching and holding the ball.
▼ Passing:
a. Chest pass with two hands, directly
or off the dribble;
b. With one hand from the shoulder or off
the dribble (with right and left hand).
▼
a.
b.
c.
However, at the latest two European
Championships, the team hasn’t achieved remarkable results, and we haven’t
participated in the World Championship.
PROGRAM OF WORK
A Program of Work was implemented
for candidates for the national teams.
Because of its wide scope, it entailed a
great coordination of all the members
of the staff, which runs the practices
during the weekend sessions, and also
with the club coaches.
Special attention was paid to the creation of regulations for our basketball
school.
All the possible rules, criteria, fundamentals, and every other detail for
being considered a potential candidate
of this special program were set.
YOUNGER PIONEER
(11 AND 12 YEARS OLD)
TYPE OF WORK
a. Basic fundamental: 70%
b. Individual tactics: 10%
c. Physical preparation: 20%
PAGE 14 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
PHYSICAL PREPARATION
▼ Running technique.
▼ Development of psycho-motor skills:
a. Speed;
b. Coordination;
c. Flexibility;
d. Sense of space;
e. Balance.
OLDER PIONEERS
(13 AND 14 YEARS OLD)
▼ Dribbling after using the pivot foot.
▼
-
2. Gold medal at the European Championship in Italy.
3. Silver medal at the European Championship in Turkey.
Dribbling (with right and left hand):
Crossover;
Change of rhythm;
Change of direction: in front - through the legs.
▼ Creating the habit to always see the
ball (on offense and defense).
▼ A player with the ball must always
watch the basket.
▼ A defender mustn’t allow the offense player to beat him with the dribble or shot.
Pivoting- in place (front and rear):
After stopping from dribbling;
After moving and stopping;
Two-count-after dribbling (right and left);
Two-count: after receiving the ball
or on movement.
▼ Shooting:
- From a spot with one hand;
- Jump shot from short distances, after
stopping in one-count from dribbling;
- Shot fake and shoot;
- Shot fake and driving.
▼
-
Cutting without the ball:
Change of direction;
Change of pace;
How to get open (going one direction, and in two directions).
DEFENSIVE TECHNIQUE
▼ Defensive stance:
- Paralell;
- Diagonal;
- Footwork-sliding into defensive
stance (in all directions);
- Hand work-movement in all directions;
- Running in various directions with
turns and jumps;
- Jumps with both legs while catching
the ball that bounced off the basket;
- Chasing the player and getting back
in the proper defensive stance.
TACTICS
▼ 1-on-1.
▼ 2-on-1.
▼ Showing the hand (give a target and a signal to the passer) and asking for the ball.
▼ Understanding the proper offensive
spacing (distance, width, and depth).
TYPE OF WORK
a. Basic fundamentals: 50%
b. Individual and group tactics: 30%
c. Physical preparation: 20%
OFFENSIVE TECHNIQUE
All the above fundamentals are practiced
again.
NEW FUNDAMENTALS
▼ Stopping in two-count:
- After dribbling;
- After cutting.
▼
a.
b.
c.
d.
Passing:
Push pass:
After dribbling;
From cutting.
Baseball pass;
Hand-off pass;
Passing with two hands above the
head.
▼ Two steps:
- With continuous jumps;
- Zig-zag step.
▼
-
Dribbling (with right and left hand):
Change of direction behind the back;
Reverse;
Faking with stepping out while
dribbling.
▼ Shooting
a. Jump shot after a two-count stop:
- From middle distance (after the dribble
and a cut);
b. Lay-up shot:
- After a turn;
- After a rebound under the basket;
- With one-count stop;
▼ Cutting with the use of the screen on the
ball.
▼ 2-on-2, plus the help of a player without
the ball.
▼ 3-on-2 on offense and defense.
▼ 3-on-3- cutting and help of players without
the ball (proper space).
▼ Fastbreak (run in the middle of the court or
near the sidelines):
- Outlet pass.
▼ How to get open to receive the outlet pass.
▼ Triangle: one player in the middle lane and
two players on the lateral lanes.
PHYSICAL PREPARATION
▼ Speed development under game
conditions.
▼ Strength development with weight lifting.
▼ Jumping technique on one and two legs.
▼ Combination of running and jumps.
CADETS
(15 AND 16 YEARS OLD)
These players must be ready to master all the
previous fundamentals and must work to play
at a certain level.
TYPE OF WORK
a. Technique and individual tactics: 30%
b. Tactics: 45% (on groups and all the team)
c. Physical preparation: 25%.
As usual, the fundamentals and game tactics
are very important.
c. Lay-up after a prolonged step;
d. Fake- “triple threat”.
▼ Cutting without the ball (how to get
open):
- “V” cut- toward the ball;
- “V” cut away from the ball;
- “L” cut;
- In front of the defender;
- Back-door.
▼ How to set the screen:
- Lateral screen;
- Back screen (“blind screen”).
▼ Technique of bringing the defender into
a screen:
- On dribbling;
- On cutting.
▼ Technique of offensive rebound:
- From cutting and jumping on one
leg;
- Jumping on both legs.
DEFENSIVE TECHNIQUE
▼ Footwork: technique of alternating step.
▼ How to use the hands: depending on
the ball position and intention of the offensive player.
DEFENSIVE STANCES
▼ “Closed” stance.
▼ “Open” stance.
When to use one or the other stance depends by the position of the the ball and offensive player.
OFFENSIVE TECHNIQUE
▼ Passing:
- From cutting from the first step;
- From jump shot;
- Overhead pass;
- Baseball pass;
- After dribbling with “tennis” pass (with the
non-dribbling hand after the bounce of the
ball).
▼ Dribbling:
- Changes of direction, followed by a direct
pass;
- Intensive work on the combination of
rhythm and change direction.
▼Rebounding technique:
- After contact with offensive player.
▼
-
TACTICS
▼ 2-on-2 with two passes.
▼ Cutting without use of the screen.
▼ Baby hook inside the lane:
- After dribbling;
- After cutting;
▼Blocking out technique:
- With a turn to the back;
- With lateral contact.
Shooting:
Fade away jump shot;
“Fade away” - after dribbling;
Reverse jump shot ;
Tap-in;
Dunk.
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 15
FIBA EUROPE
COACHES - FUNDAMENTALS AND YOUTH BASKETBALL
-
Center’s shots from the center’
positions.
▼
-
Cutting without the ball:
Cutting of the center in the lane;
Cutting without the ball;
Cutting with the defender;
Cutting in transition;
Use of the space when the offense outnumbers the defense;
Double screens - how to use and to get
open;
Staggered screens;
“Return” screens.
▼
a.
b.
Defense against the screens:
Pick-and-roll with cutting:
In front of the screen;
Behind the screen;
Popping out on the direction of the offensive player and come back;
c. Aggressive change;
d. Against staggered screens;
e. Against “return” screens.
▼ Defense on the dribble penetration:
- Help and recover.
▼ Defense in outnumbered situations.
▼ “Channeling” in one direction.
▼ Trapping.
▼ Blocking out while the post is guarded in
front.
COLLECTIVE TACTICS
▼ Basic principles of individual defenses.
▼ Basic principles of zone defense.
▼ Basic principles of zone press.
COLLECTIVE OFFENSE
▼ “Pick-and-roll”:
- With opening towards the basket;
- With opening towards outer positions.
▼ Play with overplay center:
- without the screens;
- with the screens.
▼ When to use:
- Continuous screens;
- Return screens.
▼ Avoiding the trapping.
▼ How the center can get free.
▼ Game 3: 3+1.
PAGE 16 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
COLLECTIVE OFFENSIVE TACTICS
▼ Principles and cutting into the
secondary fastbreak.
▼ Cutting in “early offense”.
▼ Principles and cutting in offense
against zone defense.
▼ Principles and cutting in the offense
against zone pressing.
▼ Ball movement and players’ cutting
from one side of the offense to the
other side.
PHYSICAL PREPARATION
Tasks:
▼ Development of speed endurance.
▼ Improvement of:
- Balance;
- Speed;
- Jumping;
- Strength development
(explosiveness);
- Work without load;
- Work with load;
- Perfection of flexibility.
The Cadet players must have the complete knowledge of fundamental and group
tactics of offense and defense.
The best players of this category are
ready to be incorporated into the senior
teams.
Thus, the program of work with cadets is
very important for players’ development,
their maturation and readiness for satisfying the demands and the training of
older categories.
JUNIORS
(17 AND 18 YEARS OLD)
The training methods of this category are
adjusted to the demands of the contemporary basketball game.
This relates to the aggresiveness, contact
game, and especially to the very quick
transitions from offense to defense and
from defense to offense.
A special accent is put on the aggressive
and physical play for the rebound under
the basket.
TYPE OF WORK
▼ Technique: 15%
▼ Tactics: 40%
▼ Physical preparation: 25%
▼ Game: 20%
INDIVIDUAL FUNDAMENTALS
Above all, repeating and improving of technical elements of offense and defense and correction of details.
Special attention is paid to the details
according to the roles and player’s positions in the game.
Technique is practiced under game conditions.
COLLECTIVE OFFENSE
▼ How to get open: “V” cut to the ball and
away from the ball.
▼ Cutting on the screens - based on the
situations of:
a. Staggered screen;
b. Screen made by a perimeter player for a
big player;
c. Screen away from the ball;
▼ Double pick-and-roll.
▼ Pick-and-roll while using the third
player.
COLLECTIVE DEFENSE
▼ Helping.
▼ Aggressive overplaying.
▼ “Bumping”.
▼ Rotations.
TEAM TACTICS
OFFENSE
▼ Quick hitter with two and three players,
with quick ball reversal from one side to
the other side of the court.
▼ Offense against zone defenses:
a. Even;
b. Odd.
▼ Offense against pressing - out-of-bounds
pass.
▼ Secondary fastbreak.
▼ Sideline out-of-bounds.
▼ Baseline out-of-bounds.
▼ Offense against zone press.
▼ Offense against combined defenses.
DEFENSE
▼ Individual defense on and away from
the ball.
▼ Pressing defense with traps.
▼ Zone defense (full and half court).
▼ Combined defense “box and one” and
two players man-to-man and three
players at zone.
Everything that has been mentioned in the
Basics of the Program, according to the age
categories, represents the necessary knowledge needed for successful implementation
of the National Team Program.
We specifically insist that clubs offer individual work as well as group and collective tactics.
This system of work with the young categories has created a good foundation and is
constantly being improved in order to obtain
top results.
FIBA EUROPE
COACHES - FUNDAMENTALS AND YOUTH BASKETBALL
DEVELOPMENT IN
LEBANESE WOMEN’S
BASKETBALL
by Tony Khalil
Tony Khalil has sixteen years experience as
the head coach of top basketball teams in
Lebanon. He was also the senior Lebanese
national coach in 1992, and he was in charge for the women’s Lebanese basketball
program from 1997 to 1999. He won two
FIBA Western Asia Basketball Association
(WABA) Championships for Junior Women
in 1998 and 1999.
Throughout my career, I have coached at all
levels, from the beginners to the National
Team. However, after five years now, one
experience still holds a special place in my
career: being responsible for the women’s
program in the Lebanese Basketball
Federation from 1997 to 1999. A coach usually has to either help develop young players
or build a winning team at the senior level.
Building a complete program from A to Z
was really a challenge.
I am seeing the fruit of this work when I see
girls that I started working with at the age of
13 years blossom as basketball players and
are part of the Women’s national team of
Lebanon.
It all started in 1997, when Lebanon was
hosting the FIBA Pan-Arab Games. I was
named to the technical staff of the
womens Lebanese team that ultimately
finished third in this tournament.
However, one major drawback was the
lack of players. For this tournament, we
lined up 12 players, but only seven had
the experience to play at this higher level.
After the end of the games, I was asked by
the Lebanese Basketball Federation to
start building the women’s program that
would compete with the elite of the Arab
countries. With the support of the
Federation, we started the project. Here is
what had to be done:
1 - Increase the number of clubs and d i v i sions of basketball in 1997 (five teams and
one division) to three divisions, each with
an average of eight clubs in 1999.
2 - Create age-group championships.
Instead of one championship, we now
had the mini-basketball category, Under
8, Under 10, Under 12, Under 14, Under 16,
Junior Women, and Young Ladies championships. In each category, players had
an average of seven to eight months of
competition, either with the first team or
with the specific age category.
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 17
FIBA EUROPE
COACHES - FUNDAMENTALS AND YOUTH BASKETBALL
3 - Make regular weekly practices for the
national teams and adjust the schedule
of the championships. Tuesdays and
Thursdays were for the senior A & B
teams, Fridays and Sundays for the 14to-18-year bracket, Saturdays for the
under-14 bracket. By doing this, we had
had the continuity of the national
teams.
D.1
D.4
D.2
D.5
D.3
D.6
4 - Involve coaches to work with this program through the clinics that the
Lebanese Basketball Federation organized. We could then choose among these
coaches a special group to work with
the national teams for women, giving
them the advantages and the experience of international level competition.
5 - First participate on the regional level and
then move to the international level.
Starting in 1998, we emphasized participation with the Western Asia Basketball
Association and the Arab Basketball
Federation.
6 - Involve the parents with basketball and
the practice sesions by having them
come to practices of the national
teams.
7 - Involve TV in broadcasting women’s
basketball.
WHAT RESULTS DID THIS PROGRAM ACHIEVE?
First, it increased the number of licensed
woman players and the number of women’s
clubs.
Second, it made the women’s national teams
a force on regional level, winning the junior
women’s championship of WABA in 1998
and 1999, the FIBA Pan-Arab Championship
in 2000 (third in 1998), and winning second
place in the FIBA Senior Pan-Arab Games in
2000.
Lebanese Clubs soon became more interested in creating a women’s team.
This was a brief view of the organizational
work done in this period, but how about the
technical work that was performed?
We basically worked on two lines: the general and individual.
This was done for all the players, with specialized work done according to the position.
Although it was the work of the club to form
the players, the technical staff took it on
itself to work with the players on the basics
fo the game. Here is how this work was
done:
PAGE 18 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
▼ Teaching of the jump stop or two count
stop to our center, first without the ball
and then feeding her with passes. The
coach dribbles around the perimeter.
The center sprints toward the ball, receives the pass after a jump stop or a twocount stop (diagr. 1).
▼ Movement in the low post: We start by
teaching without the feeder and without
defense. The pivot will fake left, then go
right, or vice versa. She will learn to step
one way, change direction and go to the
ball. This is the V cut.
▼ The second step is to perform the same
drill and receive ball. We emphasize the
change of direction and hand calling for
ball.
▼ For the third step, we add a defensive
player and start the teaching process of
feeding her with the ball against an
opponent. Our pivot should feel her
opponent and lead her one way to break
to the ball (diagr. 2 and 3).
Pivot offensive moves:
We need to work on daily offensive moves.
The moves that post players use to score to
control the offensive basket include:
A - Catch-and-go
1 - Jump stop: Every night our big player
catch at least several passes from several parts of the court and come to a jump
stop from each of these areas (diagr. 4).
2 - Catch-and-go: The post player should
catch-and-go every day from the spots
shown in diagram 5.
After we do these drills, we add the soft
defense in order to perfect the recognition.
B - Show the ball and go to the opposite,
same sequence of work. First, with no
defense, then with defense. All is performed with the back to the basket.
C - Show the ball and go the same way. All
is performed with the back to the basket.
D - Drop step-and-go: With her back to the
basket, she jump stops, catches the ball,
does a drop step, and goes to the basket
from the four different positions.
▼ Post face the basket: Players sprint to
one of the spots, pivot, face the basket,
then drive for the lay-up.
▼ Post face and shoot: Same routine.
Instead of going to the basket, shoot
immediately.
▼ Post face fake left, go left, fake right, go
right.
▼ Post various moves: Like any drill, this
starts with a jump step and it must be
done from various spots on the floor, first
without defense, then with the addition of
defense.
WHAT ARE THE MOVES?
▼ Outside Run
▼ Inside Run
▼ Outside pivot
▼ Inside pivot (diagr. 6)
Also, on our daily big ladies routine, we must
work with pivot shots. These include:
A - Right and left hand
B - Right and left reverse
C - Perimeter jump shot
D - Baby hook (right and left)
I described our work with our centers and
power forward players. I would now like to
describe workouts for our perimeter players.
We start the same as for the big ladies with
the jump stop. The players must catch the
ball, square up, and face the basket. They
must always be in the triple-threat position
because from this position they can dribble,
shoot, or pass. Their left foot should be slightly ahead, if they are right-handed, and vice
versa if left handed. Once they have mastered this drill of catchin the ball and being in
the triple-threat, we start teaching the move:
1 - Direct drive or the strong-side drive:
Once the player catches the ball and she
is in the triple threat position, she uses
the jab step. This is done with the right
foot for right-handed players, and with
the left foot for left-handed players.
After the first short jab step , a bigger
one is made, and the player then explodes to the basket. Players must learn to
go in a straight line to the basket and not
to curve or loop around the defense.
Looping around the defense allows the
defense time to recover and block
access to the basket.
2 - The cross-over drive: Same start as the
direct drive. The perimeter player catches the ball and goes into triple threat
position, then jab steps. The defense is
cutting the way to the basket: If the player
is right-handed, she crosses her right foot
over to the left side, stepping by the
defender’s feet and putting the defender
on her hip.
With both of these moves, players can use
either the jump shot or the power lay-up.
Both moves are performed after a jump stop
and catching the ball.
Let me now describe the moves, which help
the player attack the defense while dribbling:
▼ Stop-and-go: The perimeter player is
dribbling as if attacking the defense, but
she suddenly stops, and when the defense stops, she explodes directly to the
basket.
▼ Cross over: The perimeter player is dribbling, attacking the defense, and she
plants her front foot and crosses over,
low to the other side.
▼ The reverse: If the player is right-handed, she plants her left foot and reverses to the other side, keeping the ball
with the right hand. When she finishes
the move, she dribbles with her left
hand and explodes past the defense.
These moves I have described are not the
only drills we use, but they are important
because they provide the player with the
offensive tools needed to score.
Since the local clubs did not work on
these drills, we had to do this on the national team level, in order to get our players
ready for high-level competition.
When we achieved our national team success, women’s basketball in Lebanon
received much attnetion from local clubs
and more work was done on the regional
level to help develop better players.
Soon, we had more teams and more coaches
involved in the teaching process.
The tremendous success we had with
women’s basketball, between 1997 and
2000, would not have been possible if the
Lebanese Basketball Federation would
not have the
foresight to work
on a long-term
program, and the
Western Asian
Basketball
Association
(which includes
teams
from
Korea,
China,
and Japan) created regular competitions
for
women.
Looking at this
experience, I see
that much work
has already been
done; however,
we have to continue to push
forward and do
even better.
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 19
FIBA EUROPE
COACHES - OFFENSE
by Ruben Magnano
THE ARGENTINA
OFFENSE
Ruben Magnano won the FIBA South
America and Pan-American Championships with the Argentinean Under-21
National team in 2000. In 2001, at the helm
of Senior National Men’s team, he won the
FIBA South American, FIBA Tournament of
the Americas and a silver medal at the
Goodwill Games. In 2002, he won the silver
medal at the FIBA World Championship,
and this year the gold medal at the Olympic Games in Athens. With the Atenas Cordobas club, he won three Argentinean titles, two South American, one Pan-American, and two South American League
Championships.
FASTBREAK “NEW”
5 makes the out-of-bounda pass to 1,
who dribbles the ball on the lateral lane,
and stops at the three-point line. 4 runs
in the middle of the court and goes to
the low-post position on the ball side, 2
and 3 sprints near the sidelines, and 5
sprints to the basket in the center lane,
and stops outside of the three-point line
(diagr. 1).
2, the wing on the ball side, cuts in the lane, receives a screen from 3, and comes
out of the three-point line. 5 screens for
1, and 1 dribbles towards 2. After the pick
for 2, 3 picks for 4, who cuts in the lane to
receive the ball from 1. After the screen
for 1, 5 screens down for 3 (screen the
screener). 1 can pass to 2, 4, 3 or to 5,
who opens up to the ball after the screen
(diagr. 2).
FASTBREAK “CIRCLE”
5 passes to 1 and enters on the court as a
safety man, while 2 and 3 sprint near the
sidelines towards the offensive basket. 4
sprints in the middle of the court, acting
as a trailer (diagr. 3).
1 runs the fastbreak, while the other four
players sprint to reach their respective
positions. 2 and 3 stop at the three-point
line (diagr. 4).
1 passes to 2 on the wing, while 4, the
trailer, goes to the low-post position on
the ball side, and 5 to the high post (diagr. 5). 3
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 21
FIBA EUROPE
COACHES - OFFENSE
D.3
D.1
comes in the middle of the court to receive
the ball from 2 and 1 cuts in the lane and replaces 2 on the wing (diagr. 6).
3 plays pick-and-roll with 5, 4 goes to the high
post position, and 1 and 3 go in the corner
(diagr. 7).
2 passes to 4, who can pass directly to 5 in the
lane, or pass to 3. 3 can pass to 5, who cuts to
the ball (diagr. 8).
A MAN-TO-MAN PLAY
The initial set is a 1-2-2 formation, with one
point guard in the middle of the court, two
high posts, and two wings in the corners. 1
passes to 4, follows the pass, and receives
a pass back from 4. Right after the pass, 4
receives a blind pick from 5 and goes outPAGE 22 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
D.4
D.2
side, while 5 rolls to the basket. If he does
not receive the ball, he goes on the lowpost position (diagr. 9).
1 passes the ball to 4. 4 passes directly to
5 in the low post or to 3. 3 passes to 5
(diagr. 10).
If 4 cannot pass to 3 or 5, 1 follows the
pass, receives a pass back from 4, penetrates, and makes a kick pass to 2, or to 5,
who cuts in the lane, or to 4 who went in
the opposite direction of the penetration of
1. 1 and 4 can also play a pick-and-roll
(diagr. 11).
A MAN-TO-MAN AND A MATCH-UP
OFFENSE: ZERO
The set is a 1-2-2, with the point guard in
the midddle of the court, the two posts at
the corner of the free-throw lane, and the
wings in low-post positions. 1 receives a
screen from 5, who, after the screen,
goes on the high-post position and then
dribbles towards the wing. 4 receives a
blind, diagonal screen (staggered
screen), first from 3, and then from 2. After the screen, 3 goes outside the threepoint line (diagr. 12).
2 comes high, receives a screen from 5,
and cuts outside the three-point-line to
receive the ball from 1. After the screen,
5 goes outside the lane. 1 and 2 go down
in the corners (diagr. 13).
5 screens for 2 and then rolls to the basket. 2 dribbles to the right and then pas-
D.7
D.12
D.5
D.8
D.13
D.6
D.9
D.14
D.10
D.9
D.15
ses immediately to 4, who comes in the
middle of the court to receive the pass
and make a reversal pass to 1, who comes towards the ball (diagr. 14).
ZONE OFFENSE
I will list the general principles, which
serve as the basis of the our offense
versus the zone:
1. Attack the weak sides of the zone
with and without the ball.
2. Respect the spacing between the offensive players.
3. Use the dribble only to divide the zone, to improve the angle of passing, or
for creating proper spacing.
4. Do not face a defensive player.
5. Utilize the skip pass for attacking the
defense from behind.
OFFENSE VERSUS THE ODD ZONE: 12
The starting set is a 2-3. 1 passes to 2,
while 5 cuts along the baseline, and receives a pass from 2. 4 picks for 5, 3 comes high at the corner of the free-throw
line, and 1 and 2 move away from the
ball (diagr. 15).
If 2 cannot shoot, he passes the ball to
5, who comes out of the lane. 4 goes
down (diagr. 16).
5 passes to 1 and then goes on the
opposite direction, while 4 goes
on the low-post position on the
ball side, 5 goes to the high-post
position, and 4 starts to cut along
D.11
the baseline (diagr. 17).
1 dribbles towards the mid-court,
3 cuts in the corner and receives a
pick from 4. It’s very important that
3 coordinates his movement with
the movement of 1. 5 goes to the
D.16
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 23
FIBA EUROPE
COACHES - OFFENSE
D.17
D.21
D.23
D.18
D.22
D.24
D.19
D.20
corner of the lane, while 2 is moving away
from the ball (diagr. 18).
OFFENSE VERSUS THE EVEN ZONE: 23
The initial set is a 1-4, with the point guard in
the middle of the court, the two wings and
two posts at the corners of the free-throw lane.
1 passes the ball to one of the wings (2 in this
case). After the pass to 2, 4 goes low and 5
cuts in the lane and goes outside in the corner on the ball side (diagr. 19).
2 can pass to 5 in the corner or back to 1. After the pass, 2 cuts in the lane and goes in
the other wing position. 3 comes high and
receives the ball from 1 (diagr. 20).
If 5 receives the ball, he passes to 1, 1 to 3,
PAGE 24 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
who comes in the middle of the court, and 3
to 2. When 2 gets the ball, 5 can choose to
cut high or cut low, and 4, based on the direction of the 5’s cut, goes in the opposite
direction (diagr. 21).
An option: 3 gives the ball back to 1, and
then goes in the opposite direction. On this
pass, 2 can cut in order to go back to his original position, and 5 and 4 screen the two
defenders on the ball side. 2 comes out in
the corner and receives the ball from 1 (diagr. 22).
SIDELINE-OUT OF BOUNDS: “THUMB”
The players are set in a box formation, with
the point guard 1 in the low post to the ball
side, and the post 5 opposite to him. 4
screens for 1 and 5 screens for 2. 1 goes high and receives the ball from 3 (diagr. 23).
1 receives a screen from 5, and dribbles to
the other side of the court, while 5 rolls to
the basket. 1 can pass to 5 or to 2. After the
screen, 4 comes high (diagr. 24).
BASELINE OUT-OF-BOUNDS
2 has the ball for the out-of-bound pass, 3
picks for 1, who goes in the corner. At the
same time, 5 screens for 3 (screen the
screener). 2 can choose to pass to 1, 3, or 5
(diagr. 25).
If 1 receives the ball, 4 goes outside of the
free-throw lane, and receives a pass from
him, while 3 continues his cut and goes out
of the three-point line (diagr. 26).
After the out-of-bounds pass, 2 enters the
court and screens for 5, who goes towards
the ball. Right after the screen of 2 for 5, 4
makes a vertical screen (screen the screener) for 2. 3 can pass inside to 5, or to 2 for a
jump shot (diagr. 27).
D.25
D.26
D.27
FIBA EUROPE
COACHES - OFFENSE
by Dirk Bauermann
Dirk Bauermann, a former assistant coach at
Fresno State University (U.S.), was the head coach
of Bayer Leverkusen, where he guided his teams
to six German titles and three German Cups. He
also coached the German National team from 1994
to 1998. In addition, Bauermann also coached
Sunair Ostende (Belgium) and Apollon Patras
(Greece). He presently is the head coach of
Bamberg (Germany) and the German Men’s
National team.
The following article describes some of the basic
offensive concepts that I have used against manto-man defenses in the last couple of years. Both
the club team that I am currently coaching, and the
German National team play according to these
concepts.
As coaches, we must constantly adjust our offensive strategies to the players at hand. We also have
to constantly incorporate new ideas into our philosophy. Nonetheless, we all have certain beliefs
and convictions that create the very substance of
our coaching philosophy. I will outline some of my
basic offensive tactics, principles, and concepts.
1. CREATE OFFENSE WITH DEFENSE
I have always believed that an aggressive, physical
man-to-man defense is the most important building
block of a team’s success. Ideally, we would like to
generate at least one-third of our points from our
defense.
2. BALANCED SCORING
Currently, where statistics have become a major
selling point for agents, every player wants good
statistics to back up his efforts. If the system provides scoring opportunities for everybody, the player
will have much greater motivation to defend,
rebound, and do the dirty work. Also, in a balanced
attack with a lot of weapons, defensive preparation
is much more difficult because one cannot concentrate on stopping the two star players.
Am I a friend of equal opportunity offense? No.
Roles have to be clearly defined and not everybody gets
the same amount of shots. I would much rather have six
players score in double figures than two score over
thirty. Why? Because we will be a better offensive team
that way.
3. PREPAREDNESS
Bobby Knight once said that it is not just the will to win,
OFFENSIVE CONCEPTS
AND PRINCIPLES
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COACHES - OFFENSE
D.1
D.6
D.2
D.7
D.3
D.8
D.4
D.9
D.5
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but, also, the will to prepare to win that makes a
team successful. He said it more in the context of
game preparation, but there is no doubt in my mind
that we must prepare our teams for every conceivable eventuality and situation. I want them prepared for anything that our opponent might throw at
us. I also want them to know precisely what to do at
critical points in the game (e.g., end of quarter
situations, special situations, and end of game
situations). That is why we work on these types of
situations for at least five minutes at the end of
every practice.
This kind of preparedness will help you win becau-
D.11
se your players know what to do and it will develop
the kind of confidence that you need to win your
close games.
D.12
D.17
D.13
D.18
D.14
D.19
D.15
D.20
D.16
4. GAME TEMPO
I’ve always felt that a nice balance of transition and
half-court basketball is most conducive to winning.
Players need to able to get out in the open court
and enjoy the freedom and creativity that the running game provides. Also, the transition game enables you to score easy baskets, which is the main
objective of offensive basketball in the first place.
On the other hand, good teams will minimize your
fast break opportunities with good shot selection,
intelligent decision making, good defensive balance, and great transition defense.
Thus, a team’s ability to function in the half-court
game, to take care of the basketball, to properly
execute its plays under pressure, and to make
smart decisions with the basketball defines its
degree of success to a great extent, especially in
the play-offs.
5. OFFENSIVE STRUCTURE
a. After a defensive rebound, we try to score within
the first six seconds of the shot clock. We want the
ball in our point guard’s hands as quickly as possible. If another player comes up with a defensive
rebound and he has the ability to push the ball up
the court, we encourage him to do so as a way to
eliminate the outlet pass. We want the ball in the
middle of the floor and we want them to pitch the
ball ahead to open receivers. We want our wingmen to sprint, rather than run, and we want them to
slow down just before they approach the scoring
area. In my estimation, it is vital that the players
look for and find open teammates. If they do not,
wings and big men will stop running. We want our
non-rebounding big man to run right at the rim and
we send our rebounding big man right to the weakside elbow area (diagr. 1). If the defense is still
scrambling to get back, we try to score quickly out
of this box alignment with quick pick-rolls, postups, or skips (diagr. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6). All these are simple yet effective ways of creating 2-on-2 situations
out of transition. If the defense has gotten back on
us and there is no more conceivable advantage,
we get the ball to our point guard, change the
rhythm, and run a set play.
b. After a steal, we obviously try to score quickly.
We only encourage our players not to be in a hurry
and make good decisions with the basketball.
c. After a made field goal by our opponent, we
want one of our big men to inbound the ball as
quickly as possible to our point guard. If we can
surprise and score quickly, great. If not, we will run
into a pre-set offensive alignment that looks like a
diamond and then run different options out of that
particular set, depending on the point guard’s call.
6. OFFENSIVE CONCEPTS
These are basic guidelines for our players that give
them an idea of how we want the game to be played.
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 27
FIBA EUROPE
COACHES - OFFENSE
a. The main objective of offensive basketball is to
create a shot for a teammate, not for yourself.
b. Play off the pass rather than the dribble.
c. Play with a purpose.
d. Get the ball inside on a consistent basis - play
inside-out.
e. Do not be content shooting jump shots - attack
the rim-get fouled, score on the free throw line.
f. Play within yourself - KISS (Keep-It-SimpleStupid).
g. Spacing and balance
h. Play with poise and savvy at all times-don’t be in
a hurry.
i. Have faith in each other-share the ball and make
the extra pass.
7. OFFENSIVE AUTOMATICS
As I have mentioned earlier, we run various plays.
Most of them are continuity plays, where we basically go from one option to the next. The players
know their looks and options. We usually try to
reverse the basketball once before we actually
look to score. We try to get the ball inside first, then
settle for a jump shot, or else go to a pick-roll of
some sort. But regardless of what plays one runs,
the same situations occur. With what we call
“automatics” we try to give our players some basic
rules as to how to react and what to expect from
their teammates in these types of situations. Here
are some examples of our automatics:
a. Baseline drive - baseline drift (diagr.7)
When a player drives baseline, the wing player on
the weak side of the floor must move/drift to the
corner in order to get open for a shot.
b. Overplay on wing:
- open post situation: backdoor (diagr. 8)
- post down low: pinch post action (diagr. 9).
b. Wing drives baseline - big man pulls out to elbow
(diagr. 10).
c. Wing drives middle - post drifts to soft spot
(diagr. 11).
d. Pick-and-roll with 5, 4 up to junction (diagr. 12).
e. Pick-and-pop with 4, 5 ducks in and attacks dotted line (diagr. 13).
f. Post feed: Passer runs elbow or baseline cut,
others replace (diagr. 14) or screens and dives
(diagr. 15) depending on what the defense does.
We also have rules against post and pick-roll traps,
but I unfortunately can’t cover them in detail in this
short article.
8. EARLY OFFENSE
As I have mentioned earlier, we run into a pre-set
play after made baskets by our opponent. Our point
guard pushes the ball up the right sideline and
each player runs to a pre-designed starting spot on
the floor (diagr. 16).
As our point guard approaches mid-court, he calls
a particular play that we run out of this diamond set.
A specific play is indicated by the numbers 1 through 5.
Now I will outline our 5 and 3 play to give an example of the type of ball- and player-movement we
like.
PAGE 28 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
D.21
D.25
D.22
D.26
D.23
D.27
D.24
The 5-play (diagr. 17, 18, and 19) is
designed to get the ball inside to our
center.
Note that we always try to reverse the
basketball once before we look to
score.
Not every option and counter will be
shown in detail.
The 3-play (diagr. 20, 21, 22, and 23) is
a version of the shuffle play run by
many teams. In this particular play, we
try to get a shot for our small forward
by playing him inside-outside.
9. SET PLAYS
Most of our set plays are continuity plays.
We rarely run isolation plays or quick hitters, even
though we realize that they are sometimes necessary in order to get a good quick shot, such as
when it takes you too long to get into your offense
or if you have to go quick because you’re behind
late in the game.
Sometimes you also might want to foul a certain
player out of the game and run an isolation play
against him. Again, we strongly believe in the value
of patience and quick, precise ball- and playermovement and our play selection reflects this concept. As an example (diagr.24, 25, 26, and 27), here
are plays that show our ‘shorts’ play.
FIBA EUROPE
COACHES - DEFENSE
by Oliver Purnell
THE “WALL”
DEFENSE
Oliver Purnell is the head coach of Clemson
University. He previously was an assistant
coach at Old Dominion University and the
University of Maryland, and then head coach
of Radford, Old Dominion, and the University of
Dayton. As head coach of the U.S. National
team, his team won the World University
Games in 1999. He served as an assistant
coach on the bronze-medal winning U.S.
Olympic team in Athens.
The philosophy of the “Wall Defense” is primary based on the concept that all five defenders are guarding the ball. This defense can be
summed up simply by stating that, first and
foremost, the defense is guarding the ball
against the basket. “Building the Wall” is a
complete team effort, and require a cohesive,
unselfish group that understands how to support each of its members. Because the “Wall
Defense” does not deny any pass outside the
three-point line, this defense might often be
misconstrued to be more conservative.
Consequently, one of the major challenges in
developing a defensive philosophy, that is less
“man oriented” and more “ball oriented”, is
maintaining pressure on the ball.
Oftentimes, the problem with teaching (or even
learning a defense or developing a defensive
philosophy) can be that it is played “all-ornothing.” In other words, a defense is either
overly aggressive and its players are caught in
situation overplaying the offense, overextending and allowing dribble penetration - or gambling too much in general - or the defense is too
passive and allows the basketball to be moved
wherever it would like without much opposition. The “Wall Defense” solves both of this
problem. By maintaining incredible, intense ball
pressure through the entire possession, while
also defining specific rules of extension and
denial, and, at the same time, trusting in the rest
of the defense to support this constant ball
pressure, a defense can succeed in being
aggressive, while not overextending.
ON THE BALL
X1 guards the offensive player with the ball,
and must apply intense ball pressure, while still
containing his man. Second, he must remember he is “influencing” the ball to the sideline.
And, third, his exact position will depend on
D.1
D.2
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COACHES - DEFENSE
where the offensive player’s head is.
The rule is: head-on-head, it means he should
line his head up with the offensive player’s
head, but always maintaining intense ball pressure and influencing the ball to the sideline
(diagr. 1).
OFF THE BALL (ONE PASS AWAY)
X2 and X3 are each one pass away from the
ball. With the understanding that X1, the defender on the ball, is applying intense ball pressure, X2 and X3 are guarding the ball first, and
their man the second. Therefore, they must be
in a position to first to show the ball-handler
that there nowhere to go, and, second, to help
on the dribble drive if he, indeed, decides to
drive away. X2 and X3 are in what we call “Wall
Position.” A term that can be used to describe
how to defend the ball against the basket is that
the defense is “building the wall.”
OFF THE BALL (TWO OR MORE PASSES AWAY)
X4 is two passes away from the ball, and he
is on the “help position”, with one foot in the
lane.
JUMPING ON THE BALL
On the pass, the defenders must “jump to the
ball”simultaneously as a unit (diagr. 2). The
defender, initially on the ball prior to the pass,
should be most conscious of “jumping” to the
ball, because his man may likely cut to the
basket, looking for a return pass.
X2 is on the ball, X1 and X4 are in “the wall”. X3
is now in “help” (diagr. 3).
GUARD-TO-FORWARD PASS
The defenders “jump to the ball.” Now X4
guards the man with the ball. He must remember that, when he jumps to the ball (diagr. 4), he
cannot get himself out of the position for the
“middle drive.” X2 is “in the wall”, X1 is “in
help” two passes away, while X3 is “in help”
three passes away.
X4 is on the ball, X2 “in the wall,” X1 and X3 are
“in help”, while X3 is giving X4 his “baseline
support” (diagr. 5).
BASELINE DRIVE
X3 gets to the “launching pad” to stop 4 from
getting to the basket. X1 “fills” the spot X3
left, and X2 “sinks” to help X1. X2 is the “zone
guy” for an instant, guarding both 1 and 2, if
either are to receive the ball on a pass out
from 4 (diagr. 6). When the ball is stopped on
the baseline, this is where players should be
positioned (diagr. 7). If the pass comes out to
2, X2 guards the man with the ball, X1 gets “in
a wall” position, and X3 gets in help. X4
retakes his man (diagr. 8). If the pass comes
out to 1, X2 (again) takes the ball, X1 gets “in
the wall” position, and X3 sprints to his “the
PAGE 30 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
D.3
D.6
D.4
D.7
D.5
D.8
wall” position. X4 retakes his man, however
in help as well (diagr. 9).
SKIP PASS OUT OF THE POST
X1 has to now “switch” out and take out the
ball, because he is the closest baseline
defender. X2 gets in a “wall”, defending the
ball and 1. X3 gets in “help” defending the ball
and 2. X4 is helping, giving “baseline support,” guarding the ball and 4 (diagr.10).
Because the baseline drive created a “help”
situation, on a skip pass out of the post, players
are switched onto different men, but the principles remain consistent (diagr. 11).
CUTTER THROUGH
On this situation the players “jump to the ball”
on the pass (X1 does not allow his man to “face
cut” him). X 1 stays between his man and the
ball, keeping eye on the ball, on a drive or
another pass (diagr. 12).
OFFENSE REPLACES AREAS
The principles stay the same. Now, X1 is in
help. He must make sure not to follow his man
all the way out - this is a common mistake on a
D.9
D.10
D.11
D.16
D.17
cut through the lane. X1 is now in help and can
stay in the lane, unless his man either cuts to
the basket or the ball becomes one pass away
from his man, while X3 is in “the wall.” X4’s
position is in “the wall” as well (diagr. 13).
D.12
D.13
D.14
D.15
DRIVE NOTTOWARD THE BASELINE
If the dribble drive is more in the perimeter
area: this is where the “wall” begins to show
its benefits. Let’s review the situation from the
diagr. 2: 2 beats his defender momentarily in
the direction of 4. Because X4 was in a good
“wall position,” he is in good position to help,
but he will do this for a moment. X4 will “show
and go,” stepping up and to the driver as if to
fully help, but recovering immediately to his
man, putting the responsibility back to continue
to “ride the driver” (diagr. 14).
The reason because X4 does not fully commit is because the “stand still”, “spot-up”,
“three-point shot” - 4 in the corner is more a
threat to the defense, than a contested running shot in the lane, going toward the baseline. By stepping to the ball for a moment, X4
gives the illusion that is coming to the ball
completely. Oftentimes, the ball-handler will
pick up his dribble, or better, yet make an
errant pass to 4, assuming his defender X4
has left him and he open for a kick-out pass.
Many times, if the “show and go” is executed properly, the kick-out pass can be deflected or, even, stolen.
ON THE KICK-OUT PASS
X4 may be able to deflect, or even steal, the
pass. X4 is now on the ball and must make sure
he recovers to the top side of the offensive
player 4, so as to allow a middle drive (diagr.
15). If a perimeter player, one pass away from
the ball, is outside the three-point arc, the
defender X3 (and X4), is in a “wall” position, as
stated earlier. However, if the offensive player
steps inside the three-point arc, the defender is
in a denial position. The offensive player is now
a much greater threat to receive the ball in a
scoring area, so the defense must become
tighter an denial position assumed (diagr. 16).
Because 3 and 4 are now inside the three-point
arc, and one pass away, X3 and X4 assume a
full denial position (“ball-you-man”), playing
the passing lane (diagr. 17).
GUARD-TO-FORWARD SKIP PASS
In this case there are a number of critical
movements and thoughts that must take place.
First, X1 must close out in a manner that does
not allow 1 to have the option of driving to the
middle. He must close out in a manner that
does not allow 1 to drive to the middle. He must
close out with a high hand and his top foot up,
forcing, if anything, a baseline drive. If this is
only option 1 has, it is X4’s job to anticipate this
action and be ready to beat 1 to the “launching
pad.” X2 and X3 would “fill and sink,” accordingly to X1’s baseline drive (diagr. 18).
FORWARD-TO-FORWARD SKIP PASS
SPOT-TO-FORWARD
In this case there are a number of critical
movements and thoughts that must take
place. First, X1 must close out in a manner that
does not allow 1 to have the option of driving
to the middle. He must close out with a high
hand and his top foot up, forcing, if anything, a
baseline drive. If this is only option 1 has, it is
X4’s job to anticipate this action and be ready
to beat 1 to the “launching pad.” X2 and X3
would “fill and sink,” accordingly on X1’s
baseline drive (diagr. 19).
D.18
D.19
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 31
FIBA EUROPE
COACHES - DEFENSE
THE “TRIANGLE
AND TWO” DEFENSE
by Tab Baldwin
Tab Baldwin came to New Zealand in the
late 1980s with the goal of leading Otago
from the national second division into the
NBL (National Basketball League) of New
Zealand. From 1995 to 2000 he coached
Auckland, winning five NBL titles and three
Coach-of-the-Year awards. Baldwin became coach of the National team in 2001 and
guided the Tall Blacks to the FIBA 2002
World Championship semifinals. Baldwin
also coached New Zealand in the 2004
Athens Olympic Games.
Coaching basketball should be fun. It should
also be a cooperative effort of a coaching
staff and their players. A team comprised of
a great coach and a reluctant team will fail to
play with style and imagination whereas a
team with a creative coach working with an
intelligent team committed to one another
and quality play can bedazzle and befuddle
opponents far superior in talent.
This was the formula that the New Zealand
Tall Blacks tried to employ heading into the
2002 World Championships. We knew that
we were out manned in terms of talent and
experience but we also believed to the core
of our being that a cohesive and unpredictable team could produce success against
much more fancied opponents. Our intention
was never to be overly complicated in terms
of our playing systems. However, because
we were going to rely on multiple offenses
and defenses and our preparation time was
always going to be severely limited, we did
need to put a premium on the selection of intelligent players as opposed to selecting
strictly along the lines of talent. Fortunately,
because of the fine work of some of our provincial coaches in New Zealand, most of our
highly talented players also came to us with
a good basketball brain.
So, very early in our preparation, we decided
PAGE 32 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
that playing intelligently and using a full range
of offenses and defenses would be one of the
main pillars upon which we would build the
strenght of our team. In using this approach
we knew that our team would have to be very
adaptable to the ebbs and flows of games
and that we, as coaches, would not always
make the right call but that we would always
have other options to go to if needed.
More importantly, we knew that we would be
able to test the adaptability of our opponents.
This aspect of our team was certainly a factor
in turning a seventeen point third quarter deficit to russia into a nine point win and reversing a 12 - 35 first quarter scoreline against
China into ultimate victory. As much as having
a diverse system meant to our ability to recover from bad patches in games was the
knowledge that having diversity meant we
always had other options as to how we would
play the game. This became the foundation of
our belief system: every game is winnable,
we just have to use the right strategy at the right time and then play our butts off.
One of the weapons that we employed in our
system diversity was the “triangle and two”
defense, a renowned type of “junk” defense
that I gave used off and on for many years.
The “triangle and two” defense, like many
junk defenses, can be employed for a variety
of reasons. One belief that I hold very strongly
about junk defenses is that they cannot be
D.1
D.2
D.3
D.4
used for extended periods of time in a game.
We generally hold to the truth that the junk
defense can be effective for no more than
four-six possessions consecutively.
As I said, we use the “triangle and two” defense for any of several reasons. The primary
reason we will use the defese is to attack an
opposition line-up that lacks a third quality
perimeter shooter. Even if your opponent can
move an interior player outside to become a
third shooting option, the defense can still be
very effective with only a simple structural
adjustment. We will also use the defense for
these other reasons:
▼ To disrupt an opponent’s scoring run by
changing to an unorthodox defense (this
▼
▼
▼
▼
can sometimes tale the place of a timeout or a substitution).
To take an opposition team away from a
well executed offensive sequence that is
giving either our man-to-man or conventional zone defense trouble.
To shut down a specific player who has
found a hot scoring streak. This can apply ti an interior player as well as a perimeter player.
To shut down an effective penetrating
guard who is creating easy scoring opportunities with the drive and dish.
To negate the sideline or point pick and
roll play being used so effectively in today’s international game.
The above points outline the strenght possibilities this particular defense offers to your
overall defensive package. However, as I
said, if you overexpose this defense to an intelligent and unselfish opponent then you
will find that the inherent weaknesses of the
defense will ultimately be exposed. Essentially, because it is difficult to maintain good
ball pressure with this defense, it becomes
vulnerable to quick ball movement and weak
side seal/screen actions.
The fundamentals of the “triangle and two”
defense are actually quite simple but it is a
defense that requires a fair amount of practice if you hope to have consistent success
using it. When practicing the defense make
sure that you run different types of offenses
against it and allow the offense several atFIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 33
FIBA EUROPE
COACHES - DEFENSE
D.5
tempts to attack the defense. This will allow
the offense to “learn” the defenses vulnerabilities and consequently the defense will have
to “learn” to adjust. Once players playing this
defense can make adjustments without specific instruction, the defense becomes that much harder to break.
In outlining the defense, I will focus as much
on rules and guidelines as I do on diagrams.
Because there are inherent positional weaknesses in the defense, the players must become excellent at communication. There are
many times when the “rules” of the defense
are broken but this may force the offense into
just one more pass that may introduce the
pressure of the 24-second shot clock. So, as
toy begin to follow the diagrams always keep
in mind that communication, effort and intelligence will mean more to the success of the
defense than close adherence to the “rules”
of the defense.
The basic formation of the defense is shown in
diagram 1.
X1 and X2 will defend their players (1 and 2 to
be referred to from now on as shooters) manto-man. The man-to-man component of the
defense can be either full denial or more passive, help oriented defense depending on the
respective philosophy dictated by the opponent’s capabilities. X3, X4, and X5 play a triangular zone with the following coverages and
responsibilities:
X3 - Mid-post extended to the high post on
both sides of the floor. This player should not
extend beyond the three-point arc. He also
must switch all ball screens in his coverage
area and help on dribble penetration by either
of X1 or X2’s assigned men.
X4, X5 - Mid-post extended to the baseline on
the perimeter. Front the low post when the ball
is on the ball side wing and play behind the opposite low post when the opposite low post
defender is extended. These players must talk
constantly as they can see the entire floor and
defensive responsibilities can change quickly.
“Area Defense” - To understand how the
triangle zone operates, you must understand
the concept of “Area Defense”.
When one of the players playing the triangle
zone has the responsibility of defending the
ball in his area, he must use the following defensive techniques:
▼ Constant foot movement varying the presPAGE 34 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
D.6
D.7
sure on the ball and not allowing the player
with the ball to establish any rhythm in his
shot or break down the defender with oneon-one moves.
▼ Do not allow penetration off the drible.
The ball is positioned on the wing (3) in a nonshooter’s hands (diagr. 2).
X3 - Plays “area” defense not allowing 3 to penetrate or shoot in rhythm but will not consistently pressure the ball either.
X5 - Fronts the low post and X4 will zone the
midline defending the weak side post as well
as offering backside help to 5.
X1, X2 - in this diagram, X1 is denying on the
strong side while X2 is staying close to 2 and
not offering any help side defense. Both could
be playing off of their men and only pressuring
1 and 2 when they have the ball.
D.8
The ball is positioned in the corner in a nonshooter’s hands (diagr. 3).
X5 - Plays “area” defense as X3 in diagram 2.
By playing “soft” on the ball, he makes the post feed to 4 a difficult pass.
X4 - Comes across the three-second lane to
play behind 4 in low post defense. If the ball is
passed into the low post then X5 should hedge
down but not apply a hard double team. X3
must drop lower on the weak side and be prepared to close out on any reversal pass out of
the low post. X1 and X2 can provide some positional help until the ball is passed out of the
post.
X3 - Plays below the free-throw line and on the
weak side of the midline. X3 often has the responsibility of reading the eyes of the ball
handler and closing out on passes out of the
corner. This pass could be thrown to the wings
or to the top and any of those passes become
the responsibility of this man.
forward at the bottom of the triangle zone
(X5) will play the remaining offensive
player basically man-to-man.
The key to getting the inversion quickly and
accurately is to be constantly communicating and identify this offensive maneuver
early.
Finally, the defending of the screen and roll
for either one of the shooters is shown in
diagrams 5, 6, 7, and 8.
The screen occurs at the top of the key
for 1. The defense simply executes a
switch with X3 picking up (and staying
with 1) and X1 assuming X3’s responsibilities in the triangle zone as shown in diagrams 5 and 6.
We see the same screening action out of
the corner for 2 in diagram 7. As X3 calls
the switch on the screen, X2 responds by
sprinting to the X3’s area of responsibility
leaving the corner area for X5 to cover.
Note: if 5 executes a re-screen and 2 reverses and dribbles back to the corner, then
X5 will need to switch onto 2 and X4 will have to provide help in the low post on 5’s roll
to the basket.
X2 - has taken on the responsibility of X3 in
the triangle zone and X3 is now playing 2
man-to-man (diagr. 8).
The offense has positioned 1 and 2 in the corners and put two perimeter players at the top
in guard slots. This is done offensively to try to
force X3 to guard two players at the top and
create a better penetrating lane for one of the
offensive players (diagr. 4).
As soon as we identify that the offense is
doing this systematically, we simply invert the
triangle zone and bring one of forwards (X4 or
X5) to the top. We will stay like this as long as
the offense uses this attacking method. The
As stated at the beginning of the article,
the triangle and two combination defense
is not without its weaknesses. If an offense
is overexposed to this defense it will learn
how to break it down. However, using the
defense in a limited way and knowing that
it is always there means that you have one
more weapon to disrupt a talented opponent and exert some control over how your
opposing coach is allowed to use his lineup and tactics.
COACHES - PSYCHOLOGY AND MOTIVATION
INTEGRATING
PSYCHOLOGY
AT THE AUSTRALIAN
INSTITUTE OF SPORT
part I
by Adrian Schonfield
Adrian Schonfield has worked at the
Australian Institute of Sport since the
beginning of 2002 and has been psychologist to the Men’s basketball program
since July 2002.
“While we all had individual goals and
ambitions, in a team sport such as
basketball it is not only your ability to
perform your skills, but also your ability
to form a team and perform within that
[team], that will make a difference”. The
person who said this was Aaron Bruce.
Aaron was a member of the 2003
Australian Emus team that won gold at
the Junior World Championships and
was part of the Australian Institute of
Sport (AIS) Men’s Basketball program in
2002 and 2003.
The purpose of this two-part article is
to outline one of the things we did with
the 2003 AIS Men’s Basketball team to
help bring them together for a successful year. While there were many things
that teams do on a daily level (for
example, training) that help to build
cohesion, we started the year with a
short camp that was designed to bring
the team together and get them focused for the year. In the first part of this
article, I have outlined some of the factors that led to this camp and the choice of activities included and the details
of the first day. It also briefly deals with
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 35
COACHES - PSYCHOLOGY AND MOTIVATION
the underlying theory that has guided
the psychological component in this
case. As with other sports scientists, a
psychologist involving himself in sport
should be guided by models and
theory, backed by scientific research.
The second part of the article (to be
presented in the next issue) expands
on day two activities and gives some
of my impressions of the camp and its
value.
BACKGROUND
The team consisted of 13 young men
aged between 17 and 19, all of whom
were in consideration for the Emus
squad to play at the Youth World
Championships. Ten of the members
would make the final team and would
go on to win gold in Greece. Of the 13,
there were seven returning players
from the 2002 AIS team and six new
players. The AIS team resides together
in dormitory accommodation in
Canberra, trains up to three times per
day and has access to sports science
and sports medicine support including
physiotherapy, massage and physicians.
THE PURPOSE
For the Emus to win the world championship, we knew that what happened
to this group of players during the first
part of the year would be very important, hence there were a number of
purposes for this camp. The most
important was to help the players become familiar with each other and to integrate the new players in with the old to
form one team. Secondly, we wanted a
team culture in which players were
prepared to push themselves and each
other, one in which the players were
responsible for their own behaviour.
Thirdly, we wanted the players to enjoy
themselves in the process of becoming
a team and setting their goals for the
year.
From a personal perspective as the
team psychologist, I had another goal,
which was to gain some understanding
of the team dynamics and individuals
within the team as this would be the
first meeting I had with the new players.
THE RATIONALE
As we wanted a team culture of selfdriven players, I looked to see what
psychological models and theories
existed in this area. Recent conceptualisations of motivation (Ryan and
Deci 2000) suggest that the old dichoPAGE 36 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
tomy of extrinsic and intrinsic is not
specific enough to capture different
sources of motivation. They suggest
that there is a motivation, four types of
extrinsic motivation ranging in the
extent that they are self-determined
and three types of intrinsic motivation:
knowledge, accomplishment and stimulation. Self-determination theory
(Ryan and Deci 1985; 1991) suggests
that human behaviour is motivated by
the fulfilment of needs, specifically the
needs for autonomy, competence and
relatedness. Simply summarised, autonomy is choosing one’s own behaviour,
competence is perceiving themselves
as able, and relatedness is feeling connected with other people. The model
suggests that if we can provide an
environment that leads to an increase
in a person’s perception of their autonomy, competence and relatedness,
we will increase their self-determined
extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. By
allowing the players to be involved in
setting up the standards for their own
team, we would allow them the opportunity for increased autonomy. By
giving the players some challenges mental and physical - we allow them
the opportunity for increased competence. By giving the players the opportunity to form a close-knit team, we
allow them the opportunity for increased relatedness. The end result of this
is that by developing a camp program
that gives opportunities for autonomy,
competence and relatedness, we may
increase self-determined extrinsic and
intrinsic motivation and that will be
important for the times when playing
and training in the AIS and worldchampionship environment get tough.
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
We knew that the players were not
going to be too interested in spending
large amounts of time sitting around in a
classroom-style setting (if they did, they
would be better at school and worse at
basketball). However, to achieve the
purpose of the camp, I thought we needed to have a number of sessions that
involved this type of activity. It then
became important to make sure that,
where possible, activities were active
and that sessions were broken up with
other games to refresh minds and
bodies.
Time constraints suggested that we
would be best to limit the camp from
6.00pm one night until 7.00pm the following night.
WHAT WE DID
Pre-camp
Approximately two days before the
camp was due to start, the players
received a document titled ‘An invitation
to participate (to attend is compulsory)
in the AIS 2003 Men’s Basketball team
camp’. Definitions were also given for
‘attend’ and ‘participate’ to help players
realise that their input was important
and that the camp would not just be
coaches and psychologist talking at
them. Players were also told that the
camp was about them as a group, setting the goals and standards they wanted to achieve. A timetable for the camp
activities was also provided.
Day one
Young, male basketballers tend to like to
eat, so the camp started with a team
meal. We followed dinner with activities
that involved players pairing up, and
with one in each pair blindfolded, the
other member had to instruct the
blindfolded member to move to the
venue for the next activity. This activity
was chosen as it would require players
to communicate with each other, trust
each other and had opportunities for fun
and mischief (walking people over stones and into branches).
The third activity for the night was a
‘modified name game’*. Within the
team, there was a diverse array of origins of names. The name game uses
names as a starting point for each person in the group to explain where they
come from, not only in terms of a country or race, but in terms of some of their
family systems and values. It was thought that by helping each player to understand the other players better, we were
increasing our chances of having a harmonious team. We were surprised to
find that the team had players with heritage from countries such as Croatia,
Serbia, Macedonia, Poland, Italy,
England, Scotland, Ireland and the
Netherlands. This exercise allowed the
players to speak a little about themselves and also to hear about their teammates. While intuitively the game might
accentuate differences between people, with emphasis on the right questions it can be used to display the many
similarities between people.
* The original ‘name game’ was sourced from Teaching About Culture,
Ethnicity and Diversity: Exercises and
planned activities, edited by Theodore
Singelis (1998).
FIBA EUROPE
COACHES - NATIONAL COACHES ASSOCIATIONS
by Valery Lunichkin
and Sergey Chernov
RUSSIAN BASKETBALL
COACHES
ASSOCIATION
Sergey Chernov is the Russian Basketball Federation President,
and Valery Lunichkin is the Chairman of the Russian Basketball
Federation Coaches Council.
The Russian Basketball Coaches Association, which is part of the
Federation, is a public organization with the following structure:
The Men’s and Women’s Coaches Councils are bodies elected by
the General Conference of the Coaches Association, as well as by
the Chairman of the Coaches’ Council, who is also a member of
Russian Basketball Federation (RBF) staff.
The Professional Coaches’ Training Center is also a RBF department and the staff members are paid by the Federation.
These are the various categories of coaches in the country:
▼ Teachers of physical culture and coaches of school teams.
▼ Coaches of youth sports schools.
▼ Coaches of club teams.
▼ Coaches of national teams.
THE AIMS OF THE COACHES’ COUNCILS
1. The first aim of the Councils is to improve the talent level of coaches and prepare a new generation of coaches.
The main targets are young coaches with good potential and former top basketball players who want to pursue a coaching career.
Here is how we try to increase the level of the coaches’ skills:
▼ Publish articles on teaching in “Planet Basketball,” the official
magazine of the RBF.
▼ Provide coaching information on the RBF website.
▼ Conduct annual specialized clinics in a variety of regions.
▼ Conduct clinics with foreign specialists.
▼ Send the “next generation” coaches to clinics abroad.
▼ Conduct seminars about scientific topics related to basketball.
▼ Provide a round table discussions for an enlarged council of
coaches.
▼ Conduct an end-of-season 3-5-day coaches seminar.
▼ Arrange both internal (clubs, different national teams) and
foreign training camps.
▼ Create regional basketball centers.
We also work on the licensing program for coaches.
2. Our second aim is to provide information to clubs and national
teams about scientific training methods. This is achieved through
an efficient and specialized staff from different scientific backgrounds. In addition to organizing clinics, the staff demonstrates
how to organize practice plans, how to perform important physical
and technical tests, how to diagnose positive psychological attitudes, and offers innovative teaching and practice ideas.
3. The third aim of the Coaches’ Council is to optimize the organization and practice of the national teams.
These are the principal items we take care of:
▼ Outlining a long-term strategy, noting possible problems and
how they can be solved.
▼ Defining human and financial resources
essential for realization of the outlined task.
▼ Creating a program and calendar of training with the strong
and weak sides.
▼ Choosing modern technologies for training (methods, means,
forms) that allow work to proceed effectively and efficiently in
achieving the outlined tasks.
▼ Selecting highly-skilled personnel and clearly
defining the functions of each specialist.
▼ Constantly controlling the process of training, making
necessary corrections as needed.
▼ Allowing for “open” national team training sessions to allow
club team coaches to feel they are part of the common
process.
▼ Improving the selection of coaches for the national teams.
▼ Providing constant assistance to these teams, especially with
regard to the individual practice sessions of potential
candidates.
In conclusion, we can say:
1. The activities of the Coaches Association are designed to
improve daily practice sessions with the most up-to-date
methods.
2. These activities must be carried out during the course of the
season.
3. The work of the Coaches Association has proven very effective
in helping coaches, club teams, and all the Russian National
teams.
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 37
FIBA EUROPE
EDITORIAL
COACHES - HOOP MARKET
BOOKS AND VIDEOS
ON ZONE DEFENSE
In this section, we introduce the latest books, videos, CDs, and
other tools that are primarily aimed at coaches, but certainly
useful for all of our readers. Please send your suggestions and
comments about our basketball-related media for review in
this section.
by Raffaele Imbrogno
Raffaele Imbrogno, former Director of the Italian
Basketball Federation Study Center, is an Instructor with the Italian National Coaches Commitee of the Federation. Imbrogno is the author
of several technical basketball pubblication.
The winning experience of Syracuse in the 2003
NCAA championship game shows that playing 23 zone defense for 40 minutes a game is possible
and useful: certainly, if a coach decides to play
zone defense exclusively, he must know the
principle of that tactic very well and force his
players to be aggressive.
The zone defense is useful to help overcome the
troubles of the 1-on-1 individual defense, to help
poor individual players defend a particular area,
change the rhythm of the game, survive a penalty situation, and force the opponents to change the angle of the passes and the type of the
shots.
It is important that a coach know the rules and
the principles of the zone.
If a coach learns well the positive and negative
aspects of the zone defense, he will be able to
recognize when and why it should be employed,
and when it should be abandoned in favor of an
individual defense. There are many good teachers of the zone defense and many good tools
at our disposal to learn it.
Jim Boeheim has been the Syracuse University
head coach for the last 30 years and he used the
zone defense as his main tool to keep the opponents from scoring. Boeheim produced two videos for Championship Productions.
The first, The 2-3 Zone Defense, finds Boeheim
explaining the philosophy, basic movements,
and special options of his 2-3 zone defense. In
the second video, Complete Guide to the 2-3
Match-Up Zone Defense & The Fast Break, he
PAGE 38 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
details these concepts even further.
The videos contain great examples on
how to control the penetrations, deal
with the traps, and how to defend
against the cuts on the baseline, and
the three-point shot attempts.
Two other important videos produced
by the same company include 2-1-2
Match-Up Zone Defense by Dave Loos
and The 2-3 Match-Up Zone (2000) by
Wayne Morgan, head coach at Iowa
State University and a former Boeheim
assistant at Syracuse.
Another interesting video on how to
play zone defense is 1-3-1 Zone Defense, which features the thoughts and wi-
sdom of Billy Tubbs, the head coach of
Lamar University.
Don Casey released The Temple of Zones. Casey, who has over 20 years of
NBA coaching experience, is a true believer in the zone.
Nicknamed “The Czar of the Zone,” Casey presents his version of the 2-3 defense in this video, and teaches how to defend on the low and high post and against the different tactics that the opponents adopt to attack the defense. In addition, he details how to control the cuts
and best grab the defensive rebounds.
Casey also wrote a short book, the 92page The Temple of Zones II, which explains his zone concepts.
In 1998, Fever River Sports Production
published The Temple of Zones: Volume
II, in which the concepts expressed in
the first volume are better detailed,
with several exercises using his 2-3 zone concepts shown.
Other videos featuring zone defense include Jerry Petitgoue’s Simplified Zone
Defenses for Youth Basketball (Coaches Choice, 2000); Zone Defenses
(Coaches Choice, 2000) by Tara VanDerveer; Half Court Defense (Coaches
Choice, 1999) by Morgan Wooten; and
Zone Defenses, by Joe Piscopo, the
former coach at Buffalo State University.
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 39
REFEREES, SCORER’S TABLE AND COMMISSIONERS
by Fred Horgan
Fred Horgan is a member of the FIBA
Technical Commission. He is a FIBA
International Referee Instructor, FIBA
Americas
Instructor,
Technical
Commissioner of Canada, and a member
of the FIBA Americas Technical
Commission. He was elected in 1996 to
the Canadian basketball Hall of Fame.
It wasn’t that long ago when basketball
officials around the world were first introduced to the philosophy, “referee the
defense”. As with all many concepts, it
was seen as the answer to one of the
most difficult officiating circumstances in
the game, that of determining responsibility for contact in block/charge situations,
and as a result instructors were suddenly
putting additional stress on one key question common to all contact situations:
“Who got there first?”
For quite a while this concept seemed to
work very well. It was easy to appreciate
that when an offensive player is unaware
(and therefore unprepared for) the position of a defensive player until the
REFEREEING
THE DEFENSE
PAGE 40 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
moment of contact, the defensive player
had an appreciable advantage. The key
consideration was therefore a simple
one: that of whether or not the position
taken by the defensive player was legally set and, subsequently, legally maintained.
The effect on the game was almost
immediate. Good defense began to be
rewarded like never before, particularly
in situations where the defensive position was adjacent to an end line or in
contact situations that might occur in the
restricted area. In recent years, however, it seems that “referee the defense”
has been tainted a little because many
newer officials (and, maybe, a few older
officials too!) have interpreted “referee
the defense” to mean, “don’t let the
defense get away with anything”.
Far too often, the defensive player is the
one penalized despite the fact that he or
she did absolutely nothing more than
maintain a floor position or path that was
rightfully his or hers anyway.
In this regard, three special areas of
concern come to mind: 1) post play 2)
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 41
REFEREES, SCORER’S TABLE AND COMMISSIONERS
maintaining a legal position, while guarding a moving player 3) shots for goal (or
attempts to gain a rebound) attempted
from immediately beneath the backboard.
POST PLAY
Fair and consistent officiating of post
play contact is crucial to general game
management. When things go wrong, the
first warnings that excessive contact
might not be far away usually can be
detected at a post position.
When two or more players in close physical proximity and in relatively stationary
positions are both intent on receiving or
denying a pass or on releasing or defending a shot for a goal, there most certainly
will be contact. It is in such circumstances that officials must first remind
themselves that contact isn’t necessarily
a foul and that much of the contact in a
post area will be incidental for the simple
reason that neither player had been disadvantaged by that contact. On the other
hand, contact that places the contacting
player at an unfair advantage or that
places the contacted player at an unfair
disadvantage must be penalized. The difficulty, of course, is in the judgment of
what contact is “fair” and what contact
isn’t.
The solution rests in two principles: (a)
see the whole play, and (b) look for
spaces between the players involved.
“Seeing the whole play” is a matter of
being aware of when a player, especially
a defensive player, has assumed a legal
position (that is, a position to which he or
she is entitled). “Looking for spaces” is a
constant necessity, if one is to actually
see when contact does occur. By
observing both of these principles, an
official is prepared to make a reasonable
judgment as to whether a foul should or
should not be called.
When such contact does occur, officials
normally have no trouble with deciding
whether the specific contact merits the
charging of a foul. The problem lies in the
determining of responsibility for that contact, and we too often unfairly put the
blame on the defense.
If the offensive player pushes the
defense out of position, the foul is offensive. If contact is hard enough to compromise the balance of the defensive
player and, consequently, allows the
offense to receive a pass or to release a
shot for a goal, it’s an offensive foul. As
officials, we have a responsibility to have
a closer look at contact on the post and
to be sure the correct person is being
penalized.
MAINTAINING A DEFENSIVE POSITION
There seems to be a problem around
the basketball world in understanding
the difference between “establishing”
a legal guarding position and “maintaining” that position. It’s helpful if we
remind ourselves that first we estab-
lish and then we maintain.
To establish a guarding position, the
guiding principles are clearly presented
in article 44 of the FIBA Rulebook.
Two such principles are essential: the
defensive player must have both feet on
the floor, and must be facing his or her
opponent.
No unnatural extension of the arms or
legs is permitted. If contact occurs on
the torso of the defensive player, then
the offensive player is responsible.
Once a guarding position has been
established, the defensive player is permitted to maintain that position, and it is
only natural that the player might have to
move in doing so. He or she can move
backward or move laterally in response
to the path chosen by the person being
guarded.
The concepts of “seeing the whole play”
in the sense of “who got there first” is
still crucial, but there is no provision that
says the defensive player must have
both feet on the floor at the moment of
the contact. Indeed, both feet could conceivably be off the floor in maintaining a
position, but if the contact is on the torso
and if the defensive player moved in
front of (as opposed to into) the offensive
player then the foul is on the offense.
Too often in situations when a guarding
position is being maintained, the foul is
charged to the defense, with the erroneous explanation that both feet weren’t
on the floor when the contact occurred.
SHOTS FOR GOAL FROM
UNDER THE BACKBOARD
The above principles apply equally to the
situation where the offensive player
finds himself or herself in an awkward
position below the basket and under or
even behind the backboard.
It is blatantly unfair if we allow a player
with the ball or contesting a rebound to
use his or her body to dislodge a defensive player, who is in a completely legal
position. When a foul is called, it is too
often charged against the defense.
“Referee the defense” is still a very good
philosophy provided:
1) We see the whole play;
2) We take note of who was the first to
get to a specific position on the floor, and
3) We watch for contact that places one
player or another at a disadvantage.
In fairness, let’s also be sure to call it
both ways!
PAGE 42 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
REFEREES, SCORER’S TABLE AND COMMISSIONERS
by Bill Mildenhall
DO YOU HAVE
THE RIGHT LEVEL
OF TENSION?
by Jan Holmin
Bill Mildenhall, an Australian FIBA
referee since 1978, has been working
for the Australian Basketball
Federation as the National Referees
Manager since 1991. He is responsible for the education, training, and
resource production for Australian
referees at every level. He has officiated at two Olympics Games, and five
FIBA World Championships.
Jan Holmin, former FIBA referee, is
the National Referees Instructor of
the Swedish Basketball Federation.
In order to be well prepared for a
game you need routines for your
physical and psychological preparations.
You must be prepared to stand the
whole game.
At the end of the game you will face,
especially in close games, difficult
situations to handle.
The players and coaches are tired,
which will cause more violations and
mistakes.
The game is often decided under this
period and that is why your decisions
will be very important with great
impact to the result of the game.
Of course you are also tired, physically and mentally, under this period. In
spite of that, you must make decisions
that might be crucial for the whole
game.
Therefore you must be in such good
shape that your capacity can manage
this stress.
PSYCHOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS
Which are your expectations before
the game?
Are you in good mood and stimulated
for your task?
Do you have positive or negative
expectations before the game?
Do you have positive or negative
experiences before you arrive to the
arena?
Are you tensed and unsure and thinking about everything that might happen during the game?
A certain amount of stress - or tension - is just fine when you are facing
an important task like to officiate a
basketball game.
The tension works like an alarm signal that alerts your senses. But the
tension must not turn into stress and
uncertainty or even fear and agony.
The tension then will have a negative
influence on you and on your work as
a referee.
BASIC AND EXTRA TENSION
All of us have a certain amount of
basic tension.
The level can be very different, from
very low to very high. The extra tension we feel before a demanding task,
like our basketball game, can be useful for the referee with the low basic
tension, but is harmful for the referee
with the high basic tension.
This is the reason why some referees
need “pep talk” before the game and
others prefer a quiet and calm
moment in the locker room.
THE REASON FOR STRESS
If you use to feel too much tension
before your games you better try to
find out the reason.
It is not necessarily the game that
makes you feel stress. It might be
worries or problems at home or at the
job.
Another reason for stress can be your
own expectations before the game. If
you have made “a bad game”, it can
cause you to feel unsure for a long
period afterwards.
Maybe not conscious - but unconscious. You not only remember the
failures, but also the feelings of
regrets, reproaches, anger etc. that
you felt in that situation.
If you have tried to repress a failure it
can cause you to feel worries without
knowing why.
You must therefore find out if you
have an unnecessary high level of
tension and try to find the reason for
it.
Your tension will increase the closer
you get to the game.
For some referees it ends up in the
locker room, for others at tip off.
What you must understand is that
there are many factors behind your
stress.
In many games you know that certain
evaluators or commissioners will
observe you.
This is another reason for the extra
tension to increase.
Even nice persons, who wish you
“good luck” before the game, can
give you this extra, unwanted stress.
How much stress can you stand?
How do you know how much extra
tension you can stand? Are you a referee with low, medium or high basic
tension?
The answer is that nobody knows. It
is not written in your face which basic
tension you have.
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 43
REFEREES, SCORER’S TABLE AND COMMISSIONERS
Nobody can advice you unless it is
a person who knows you very well
and who has followed you for a long
period, and observed your reactions in different games.
Your best coach in this situation is
yourself. As a referee, you are used
to observe and analyse.
Try to identify the persons and situations that increase your tension
and do your best to avoid these situations.
Another method to decrease your
tension and stress is to master a
method of relaxation.
Psychological stress - irrespective
caused by problems at home, conflicts at the job or negative thinking
about the coming basketball game leads to a bad physical tension in
your body.
If you can get rid of this physical
“over-tension”, experience tells us
that you in all probability also has
solved your stress problem, as
there is no way to be psychological
tensioned in a physical relaxed
body.
METHODS OF RELAXATION
There are many different methods
to relax your body. Here is an example, which can be used in the dressing room before the game or even in
the half-time period.
Sit down in a comfortable way. Sit
with your legs slightly spread and
the soles on the floor. Your thighs
shall rest on the chair. Put your
forearms in a cross over the thighs.
Lean forwards.
Take a couple of deep breaths and
stretch alternative your forearms
and your lower part of the legs for
20 seconds. Relax. Feel the difference between a stretched and a
relaxed muscle.
Stretch left arm, right arm, left leg,
right leg. Relax, stretch again,
relax... think all the time of the different feeling of a stretched and a
relaxed muscle. Concentrate on the
difference and the pleasant feeling
when the muscle relax and
becomes heavy. Go on with this
alternative stretching and relaxing
until you feel a total relaxation in
your forearms and legs. Finish the
exercise by taking a couple of deep
breaths.
PAGE 44 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
REFEREES, SCORER’S TABLE AND COMMISSIONERS
RIGHT OR WRONG?
QUESTIONS
1. Shall the assistant coach be permitted to remain standing while the game is being
played?
2. The ball is in the air on a shot for goal when the 24-second signal sounds. The ball
misses the ring on the shot, but is immediately controlled by a defensive player. Has
a 24-second violation occurred?
3. A-3 commits a throw-in violation. Shall team A be permitted to substitute at this time?
4. A-4 is awarded one free throw. After the official has stepped into the restricted area
to administer the free throw but before the ball is at the disposal of A-4, team B asks
for a time-out. Shall the time-out be granted?
5. During an alternating possession throw-in for team A, a violation is committed by
thrower-in A-3. Team B is awarded a throw-in as a result of the violation. Shall team
B be entitled to the next alternating possession throw-in?
6. While the ball is in the air on a shot for goal by A-2, the signal sounds to end the
period. After the ball has touched the ring following the sounding of the signal, it is
tapped into the basket by A-5. Shall the goal count?
7. A-5 commits an unsportsmanlike foul against B-5, after which a technical foul is
committed by coach B. An additional technical foul is then committed by B-2. Shall
the officials cancel the penalties resulting from the coach B technical foul and the
B-2 technical foul and play resume with the penalty for the unsportsmanlike foul?
8. After the ball has been placed at the disposal of A-3 for an alternating possession
throw-in, A-5 commits an unsportsmanlike foul. Shall team A continue to be entitled
to the next alternating possession throw-in?
9. With thirty seconds remaining in a last period, team A scores a field goal. May B-3
substitute at this time?
10. While A-3 has the ball out-of-bounds for a throw-in in the team A frontcourt, A-5 is
more than three seconds in the restricted area in the team A frontcourt. Has A-5
committed a violation?
ANSWERS
1. No (Art. 7.5)
2. No (Art. 29.1.2)
3. Yes (Art. 19.2.2, 19.2.3)
4. Yes (Art. 19.2.3)
5. Yes (Art. 12.4.7)
6. No (Art. 31.2.6)
7. No. Penalties shall be cancelled in the
order in which they occurred; the unsportsmanlike foul by A-5, and the technical foul
by coach B shall cancel each other (Art.
42.2.2, 42.2.3)
8. Yes (Art. 12.4.8)
9. Yes (Art. 19.2.2)
10. No. The 3-second rule does not apply to
throw-in situations (Art. 26.1.1, FIBA
Interpretation)
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 45
SPORT MARKETING AND MANAGEMENT
WHY IS BRANDING
SO IMPORTANT?
by Lars-Haue Pedersen
Lars Haue-Pedersen
is director of the
Swiss / UK consulting group, TSE
C o n s u l t i n g
( w w w. t s e c o n s u l ting.com), one of the
leading providers of
consulting and training services to the
international sports
world. Lars is associate professor in
“Sports Economics”
at
Copenhagen
Business School, and
he lectures in Sports
Management
and
Marketing at various
European universities.
BRAND BUILDING
The term has been a hot topic in the
business world for quite a while now
and is being introduced into the
sports industry following the footsteps of organisations that have already
been successful at it. Those sports
organisations that have understood
the power of branding, have been
able, through its implementation, to
significantly improve general public
interest, push participation numbers
at grass roots levels and raise overall
revenues. Branding in sport could be
the most important tool that organisations might need to use in order to
find new growth opportunities. But
how do we define a brand? Why is it so
important that we go through the sometimes painful process of branding? And
finally, once we, as an organisation,
have decided to take that step, how do
we implement it?
WHAT IS BRANDING?
There is still a general idea in the
world of sport that a brand is a logo.
Although the physical aspects of your
organisation (the logo, the letterhead,
the way your people answer the
phone, etc.) are key, a brand is more
widely and adequately defined as a
distinctive picture and association
positioned in the mind of consumers of
an object (product, service) or a
subject (person, institution). Brands
create imaginations and can direct
behaviour patterns amongst customers and consumers.
When applied to sports, this definition
means that a product or a service,
such as a type of sport (e.g. basketball) or an event (world championships) or a person (athlete), and institution (club, federation) can be perceived as a brand. It also means that
sports consumers perceive these
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 47
objects and subjects in a different
way. So the key is to create a picture
in your customers’ minds and its perception will define the value of your
brand.
This means that the brand gives an
impression, it stands for certain
values, for an image and reputation
and for a position in our mindset.
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?
The brand simplifies the ability to
distinguish products from amongst a
wide range of offerings. Even in the
world of sports the number of offers
grows (e.g. the growing number of
new sports). Therefore every kind of
sport, every federation and club has
to find a way to distinguish itself from
its competitors’ offerings. In a crowded marketplace it gets more and
more difficult to differentiate the services offered. The brand allows a
positive demarcation of the competitors’ offerings.
A strong brand also allows the transfer of the brand to new products.
This allows sports organisations to
offer new services and products, an
opportunity for increased revenues.
An organisation having a strong
brand is better protected from crisis
and from the impact of competitors.
In times of trouble and crisis they
also provide a certain bonus amongst customers, so mistakes and
market fluctuation do not have as
much impact on sales for sports
organisations with a strong brand.
A strong brand enables an organisation to build customer loyalty as they
trust the brand and its quality, e.g.
season tickets for professional sports
clubs are sold years in advance
(Manchester United FC, Montreal
Canadiens). This is the phenomenon
of the brand ‘religion’, where the
value of the brand becomes so high in
the mind of the consumer that he/she
will always stay loyal to it, regardless
of fluctuating results or momentary
crisis (see the diagram on the previous page). Consumers are prepared
to pay a higher price for products and
service offered as a brand also creates trust and confidence. Indeed, a
strong brand presents a proof of competence for the customers. It suggests quality and bestows image and
prestige to its buyers.
HOW DO WE IMPLEMENT IT?
A clear brand determines all future
PAGE 48 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
marketing activities and therefore
represents an important instrument
to influence and control the market.
Brand management as a management task can be practically defined
as finding strategies to build and to
cultivate a brand in order to achieve
competitive advantages. The main
objective in brand management is to
achieve a strong position within the
mindset of customers and to generate public confidence.
The process of strategic brand
management follows in different
steps:
▼ It starts with an analysis of the
current assets of a sports organisation or institution. Where are
your strengths and your weaknesses compared to your competitors’, in terms of different aspects
such as products, services, organisation, staff etc?
▼ Next, you should find out what it
is that you want to brand and how
do you want to be positioned? Is it
your sport, your organisation or
your product (e.g. event)? Within
a sports league, for instance, it
has to be determined whether you
want to promote the league or
single teams. The advantage of
promoting the league is that even
if one or other of the teams suffers a crisis, the brand value of
the league can be retained, which
is crucial for a well managed league such as the NBA.
▼ The next point that has to be
determined is what is your
market. Is it a regional market, a
national market or an international market? Then you have to
determine who your competitors
are in this market.
▼ Based on your initial analysis of
your assets, you have to analyse
how your competitors are positioned on this market. In other words
how do their customers perceive
them? Furthermore, you need to
discover where your customers
would ideally position you. Such a
positioning map is mainly based
on two or three attributes. These
attributes decide whether customers “buy” a product or not. The
map shows where your competitors are positioned, where you
are positioned and where you
should ideally be positioned from
the viewpoint of the customer.
▼ This positioning within the map
should give a clear idea about the
brand image that should be required. The objective would be to be
positioned as close as possible to
the ideal position determined by
the customers.
▼ The second objective, after the
brand image, is to determine the
brand awareness. In other words,
how many people in the contemplated market know your brand.
Both these strategic objectives
then have to be transferred into
action through the marketing mix
(what is our product, at what
price do we sell it, where, and
what communication do we use to
get the word out).
Using the various instruments of the
marketing mix, you should then be
able to make sure that all objectives
concerning brand image and brand
awareness are achieved. This requires a consistent picture of the intended brand to be drawn by all the different instruments in the marketing
mix. So that all actions in terms of
product, price, place and promotion
(communication) have to fit exactly
within the intended brand positioning.
As we can see, branding is a process
that if it is carefully thought through
could amount to considerable financial success for your organisation. It
is important because it forces your
organisation to reconsider itself completely and it forces you to encompass all aspects of your organisation,
to think of it as a whole. Because your
brand needs to make sense.
We have also seen that implementation, as for every single management
process, has an order that should be
carefully respected.
Make sure that the image that you
have decided to communicate is
clear before you actually start communicating. If not, considerable
damage could be done, that could be
very difficult to fix at a later stage.
But if the image is clear and the communication effective, the awareness
that will be created will be of great
value to your sport, your club or your
event.
SPORT MARKETING AND MANAGEMENT
FIBA’S CORPORATE
HOSPITALITY
IN ATHENS
The Olympic Games are the most prestigious, most special, and well-protected sporting event in the world.
The International Olympic Committee
and its TOP Program for global sponsors guarantee an exclusive platform
to an audience that is unparalleled in
sports marketing.
Is there room in this mix for the global
sponsors and partners of an international sports federation without harming the rights of the official Olympic
sponsors? There are two possibilities.
The first is to have International
Federations’ partners supply equipment to the sports event. The second
entails servicing the IF partners with
invitations to particular sports events
or to organize hospitality events.
EQUIPMENT SUPPLY
Suppliers of basketball equipment can
become official suppliers of the
Olympics upon recommendation of the
particular international sports federations, and through agreements with
the local organizing committee. The
FIBA global partners, including
Molten (basketballs), Mondo (floorings and basket supports), and
Champion (referee uniforms) took this
special opportunity and were directly
involved throughout the Games.
HOSPITALITY
To demonstrate the beauty of your
sport at the highest possible level and
also to show the popularity of your
sport, the Olympics is a perfect occasion for sponsors and organizing committees. Inviting your partners to the
basketball games and taking care of
Fumiya Tamiaki, President and CEO of Molten, makes some remarks to the guests with
the new eight-panel basketball in the background.
them in the arena strengthens your
ties and lays a solid foundation for
future commitment. So much takes
place during the two weeks of the
Olympic Games.
Apart from all of the action on the
court during the Olympic basketball
tournaments in Athens, FIBA and their
global sponsors also took the opportunity to visit with some of the many key
individuals in the basketball world
who all convene in one place every
four years. It is a perfect time for
sponsors to make contact and build
relationships with national federations
and national Olympic committees, as
well as one another.
Champion, Molten, and Mondo each
hosted special luncheons along with
FIBA at the Athenaeum InterContinental Hotel during the Olympic
Games in Athens.
At Champion’s luncheon on August 25,
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 49
SPORT MARKETING AND MANAGEMENT
some of their athletic apparel and
shoes were displayed. Throughout
the Olympic Games, all of the
uniforms worn by FIBA’s referees
were from the Champion apparel line.
Molten used their luncheon on
August 26 to introduce its new eightpanel basketball design.
Among the guests were members of
Japan’s women’s national team.
Champion also took the opportunity to
showcase two of their television
commercials that were used leading
up to the Athens Olympic Games.
Mondo’s luncheon on August 22 was
highlighted by the attendance of the
various members of the Stroppiana
family, the longtime owners of Mondo.
Adecco, the international human
resource supplier, also participated
with FIBA in Athens by entertaining
numerous clients aboard the Queen
Mary 2. The company had both clients
and company executives attend some
of the basketball games.
Mrs. and Mr. Fumiya Tamiaki (left) from
Molten and Sauro Mambrini from Champion
took this rare opportunity to visit during
Champion’s luncheon on August 25.
Sauro Mambrini, President and CEO of Champion Europe, (second from right) and
Joseph Monahan from Champion Ireland (right) speak with NBA Commissioner
David Stern and Andrew Messick, NBA Senior Vice President for International
Affairs.
Mondo played an
important role in
Athens not only supplying basketball
backstop units, but
also providing floorings and tracks for
other sports as well.
Here left to right:
Aldo Vitale, FIBA
Marketing Director;
Elio Stroppiana,
Chairman of Mondo;
Ferruccio Stroppiana
from Mondo; Patrick
Baumann, FIBA
Secretary General;
and Maurizio
Stroppiana from
Mondo.
PAGE 50 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
SPORT MARKETING AND MANAGEMENT
Can you imagine 3,000 children
dribbling basketballs and beating
a world record?
Well, that is exactly what happened about a year ago, just before
the national teams of Israel and
Spain played an exhibition game.
Now, imagine 300,000 basketballs
that are expected to be distributed to young Spanish students by
the
Spanish
Basketball
Federation (FEB).
That is another sign that Spanish
basketball is going through a new
season of success.
Players such as Pau Gasol,
Navarro, and Raul Lopez are doing
their part to help popularize the
sport, but a phenomenon like the
Sunny 3-on-3, the basketball in-
SUNNY 3-ON-3: A PROGRAM
FOR FOUR MILLION
SPANISH STUDENTS
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 51
SPORT MARKETING AND MANAGEMENT
school program, started by FEB in
2001 and reserved to the primary and
secondary schools students, deserves everybody’s attention.
PAGE 52 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
FEB organizes and manages a program that involves 19 local basketball
associations.
Here is how the project works:
1. After a school is enrolled to the
program, educational and technical equipment is sent to the
school.
2. The teachers involved in the project
with each school start to develop
the program with their students.
3. The students involved in the program take part in their local tournaments: the winners represent
their community at the provincial
tournament.
The schools that participated to the
2003 edition of SUNNY 3-on-3 were
11,500 approximately.
Basic help in the development of the
project is provided by Procter &
Gamble, the sponsor of the program.
Their vitamin-enriched soft drink is
called Sunny.
Last year, P&G helped with the distribution of a technical kit that included
basic materials, such as balls, nets,
and backboards.
A CD that contained interviews with
successful coaches and players was
also given to motivate young players
and their coaches.
This year, a one-hour video is expected to be in the package.
Leading Spanish basketball stars will
talk about how they play the game
and focus on different aspects of
offense and defense.
THE OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAM
The main objectives of the program are
the growth and popularity of basketball
among Spanish students, from the elementary to the secondary schools.
SUNNY 3-on-3, which has involved 3.5
million students in its first year, is
extremely popular in Spain.
The teachers involved in the program
are physical education instructors.
Each teacher involved in SUNNY is
expected to teach the basic concepts
of basketball and physical conditioning, in order to make them interested in basketball.
In time, the students are expected to
demonstrate their skills in local and
provincial competition.
Last year, about 4 million students
took part in the SUNNY 3-on-3.
Due to the success of the program
over the past four years, King Juan
Carlos I recently presented one of the
most prestigious Spanish sports
awards to Segura De Luna, the FEB
President.
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 53
SPORT MARKETING AND MANAGEMENT
THE RULES OF PLAY
▼ SUNNY 3-on-3 is a half court
competition.
The teams consist of four players
(one of them sits on the bench).
The captain of each team also
works as “coach” and makes
substitutions.
▼ The maximum length of each
game is 20 minutes.
The team reaching 21 points (the
team must win by two points,
e.g., 21-19) wins the match.
If the two teams are tied at the
end of the 20 minutes, each
player on the two teams gets a
free-throw: the team making
most free-throws is the winner of
the match.
▼ All baskets are worth 1 point. In
the competitions between the
students of the secondary
schools, baskets made from
behind the three-point line are
worth 2 points.
▼ A drawing assigns the first possession.
In any change of possession, the
players have to “clear the ball”
beyond the three-point line in
order to start a new play.
▼ After a foul, the players are
expected to put the ball in play
from the boundary lines.
Each team has seven fouls to
give: when the “penalty” is on,
each foul is punished by a free
throw.
▼ When a team makes a freethrow, the possession of the ball
is given to the opponents; in case
of an unsuccessful free-throw,
the shooting team keeps the ball.
▼ When a player commits his fifth
personal foul, he is out of the
game.
▼ There is no referee on the court.
The players are expected to call
fouls by themselves and be absolutely honest and polite during
the game.
PAGE 54 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
FIBA RESEARCH AND STUDY CENTRE
by Aldo Vitale
FROM ATHENS
VIA BEIJING
TO THE FUTURE
“Welcome home,” proclaimed the Athens 2004 slogan. The
FIBA Study Center also received a warm welcome from the
Athens 2004 Olympic Committee (ATHOC 2004), thanks to
the extensive collaborative efforts the two groups shared
long before the Olympic basketball tournament.
The collaboration between ATHOC 2004 and the FIBA
Study Center started in April 2001 with the first meeting in
Athens at the ATHOC 2004 headquarters. In attendance
were the FIBA Study Center delegates, top ATHOC 2004
personnel, the representatives of the Hellenic Basketball
Federation (HBF), and government officials representing
the Ministry of Public Works.
The focus of the meeting was the use of the OAKA and
Hellenikon Sports Facilities and the four training facilities
(Maroussi, Ano Lossia, Peristeri and Agia Paraskevi), as
well as the choice of the most suitable basketball equipment for the Games.
As far as the time schedule was concerned, it should be
noted that thanks to the valuable collaboration of ATHOC
2004 and the Ministry of Public Works, the delivery terms
were honored and most problems were overcome. Most of
the problems were related to the Hellenikon Sports Center,
whose steel structure was imported from Spain. This
entailed a delay in the adjustment of the existing facilities.
Nevertheless, the materials employed and the execution
of the building works was of the highest quality and the
work was completed.
This outcome was also made possible through the efforts
of the Study Center.
Over the past few years, the Center offered guidance in
the necessary improvements in the quality and safety
standards of the basketball facilities and technical equipment.
The results of this teamwork were evident during the
Olympic tournaments.
The potential multi-purpose problems (the Hellenikon
Sports Center also hosted the handball tournament while
OAKA hosted the gymnastics tournament) were all eliminated without any difficulties occurring during the competition stages.
A more detailed analysis of the works undertaken in each
facility now follows.
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 55
FIBA RESEARCH AND STUDY CENTRE
1. OAKA
The work undertaken in OAKA was minor since the sports
hall was recently built and therefore in very good condition.
The only work entailed waterproofing the covering (necessitated due to the seepage of rainwater), repair of the air conditioning system, and refurbishment of the support areas
(changing rooms, mixed zone, and guest area). This work
was carried out in compliance with the norms related to disabled people since the Paralympics Games would be held
soon after.
For the center court, a mobile wooden floor and brand new
backstop units were installed according to the latest safety
standards. All technical equipment supplied by the FIBA
Study Center Partners was of the highest quality.
2. HELLENIKON SPORTS CENTER
The work at the Hellenikon Sports Center was the most substantial, both in terms of structure and in terms of costs. The
aim was to restructure the old hangar of the Glifada airportpreviously used for aircraft in need of maintenance-in order
to transform it into a basketball facility that could seat 15,000
spectators.
More than 150 foundation poles had to be installed to bear
the weight of tribunes that had to be installed. To meet spectator safety standards, the most complex work concerned
the placement of a 200-ton iron bar above the facility.
Having solved the structural problems, the next step was the
installation of the technological systems. The adjoining court
also had to be outfitted with permanent structures so it could
be used after the Games.
3. THE FOUR TRAINING HALLS
The four training halls needed minimal rehabilitation: adjustment of the air conditioning system (Maroussi and Peristeri);
upgrading the lighting system (Agia Paraskevi); refurbishing
changing rooms (Peristeri); and a simple plastering of the
changing rooms for
three other halls (Ano
Liossia, Maroussi, and
Agia Paraskevi). All four
training halls were supplied with backstop
units used on the playing
courts.
4. BASKETBALL
EQUIPMENT
We adhere to the highest quality and safety
standards. Each facility
used in the Games for
basketball (as well as
gymnastics and handball) had the best equipment available, protecting both the athlete and
spectator in the process.
With the end of the
Athens 2004 Olympic
Games, the FIBA Study
Center is already looking
PAGE 56| 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
to the future. FIBA representatives have already had their
first meeting to inspect the Wukesong Arena, where the
Beijing 2008 Olympic Games will take place.
An early analysis of the preliminary projects indicates that
some innovative solutions have been utilized in the planning
of the arena, both in terms of its dimensions (20,000-spectator capacity) and its architectural character. These innovations will involve the FIBA Study Center in a new challenge...
towards the future.
BEIJING 2008
The challenge of the basketball tournament for the Beijing
2008 Olympic Games has already started. A meeting in
Beijing between the FIBA Study Center representatives (Aldo
Vitale, Pier Luigi Marzorati, and Mabel Chang) and representatives from the Chinese Olympic Committee BOCOG (led by
Zhiwei Pan and Liu Wenbin) was held to evaluate the planning of the Wukesong Arena, which will host the basketball
tournament. Through our cooperative efforts, the Wukesong
Arena, which will also have space for a trade center, will
become an international showcase.
The inside of the arena is compact and extremely functional.
Great care has been given to designing support structures,
changing rooms, and areas. A more detailed evaluation will
establish whether the emergency exits for spectators and
the parking facilities for cars are in sufficient number. As far
as the basketball equipment is concerned, all FIBA-approved
products will be used. In view of the Paralympics Games that
follow the Olympics, access for the disabled athletes and
spectators will be addressed.
A new meeting will be organized shortly to evaluate all
further steps in the planning works. Given the budget granted
by the Government of the People’s Republic of China for the
Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, the highest sum ever granted,
the work of the FIBA Study Center at the basketball facilities
will achieve the highest levels in terms of safety and comfort.
DOCTORS, TRAINERS AND CONDITIONING COACHES
facial
INJURIES
part II
by Enrique Amy
Enrique Amy is Assistant Professor
at the Department of Physical
Medicine-Rehabilitation and Sport
Medicine of the School of Medicine
at the University of Puerto Rico.
NASAL FRACTURES
The prominent position of the nose
makes it a common site of injury
during team sports.
The lower portion of the nasal bone
is broad, thin, and subject to fracture. Direct frontal force to the nasal
dorsum usually results in fracture of
the lower half of the nasal bone.
Lateral impact accounts for most
nasal fractures.
Fractures and dislocations of the
anterior (cartilaginous) septum often
accompany nasal fractures.
In a nasal fracture, crepitance and
mobility of the fractured segments is
often found.
External nasal deviation may be present, but it can be masked by edema.
The intranasal structures should be
thoroughly examined and shrinkage
of the mucosa with a vasoconstrictor
may be required.
A complication that should not be
missed is hematoma of the septum,
because it can lead to collapse of
the nasal structures due to the loss
of septal cartilage secondary to
abscess formation or pressure
necrosis.
The basic treatment for this injury is
similar in children and adults.
Under intravenous sedation or gene-
ral anesthesia, nasal bones should
be realigned and an osteotomy may
be required in some instances to
improve facial symmetry.
Approximately six weeks is required
for the injury to heal.
FRACTURE OF THE MANDIBLE
Fracture of the mandible or the inferior maxilla occurs very often in
sports.
The parts affected in are the base of
the mandible and the alveolar process.
Of all the bone fractures, 50 percent
involve teeth in the line of the fracture, more frequently in the area of the
third molars, canines, and premolars.
In many occasions, periodontal
defects and defects in the bone are
related to the position of the line of
fracture.
Some typical signs that can be
observed in case of fracture are:
▼
Tooth displacement
▼
Alteration in chewing
▼
Paresthesia
▼
Abnormal movements
of the mandible
▼
Edema
▼
Lacerations
▼
Hematomas
▼
Ecchimosis
▼
Loose teeth
Palpation is recommended to verify
changes in contour of the bone or
crepitation (sounds) in the joint.
Bimanual manipulation helps to
detect mobility between the fragments.
As a general rule, x-rays should be
taken at different angles.
FRACTURES OF THE MAXILLA
Maxillary fractures are classified by
location and severity in: Le Fort I, Le
Fort II, and Le Fort III.
In Le Fort I fractures, the palate and
alveolar process are separated from
the maxilla by a fracture line above
the antral floor and the floor of the
nose.
The clinical signs of this type of fracture are: edema, hematoma, disocclusion, open bite, mobility of the
alveolar process, epistaxis, and
paresthesia.
Emergency treatment should include
temporary immobilization and referral to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon.
In Le Fort II fractures, the line of
fracture goes through the lateral and
anterior walls of the maxillary sinus
and continues through the infraorbital borders to unite with the bridge of
the nose.
This fracture is commonly known as
“floating fracture”.
The signs and symptoms are: bilateral infraorbital paresthesia, diplopia,
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 57
DOCTORS, TRAINERS AND CONDITIONING COACHES
and abnormal skin sensations.
Treatment should include the immediate intervention of a maxillofacial
surgeon in a hospital setting.
Le Fort III fractures are similar to Le
Fort II except that the patient presents
with loss of cerebral-spinal fluid
through the nose.
The patient may present other features of traumatic brain injury.
FRACTURES OF THE ZYGOMA
Fractures of the zygoma occur frequently because of its prominent lateral position in the facial structure.
Diagnosis of this condition is performed through a clinical exam and a
series of x-rays.
The zygomatic bone should be palpated, feeling for flatness of the cheek or
steps in the orbital rim.
Other signs and symptoms of this fracture include periorbital ecchymosis,
edema, molar prominence, orbital
margin deformity, epistaxis, crepitation, diplopia, and difficulty with opening or closing the mouth.
Treatment may vary and depends on
the extension of the fracture. In many
cases, this fracture will require surgical treatment with reduction under
general anesthesia.
TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT
The temporomandibular joint is found
on both sides of the face, immediately
under the ear, close to the hearing
canal.
Trauma is the etiologic factor in the
majority of the disorders of the temporomandibular joint.
There is a higher probability of trauma
to this joint in athletes that participate
in contact-collision sports.
Many of these athletes suffer direct or
indirect hits to the joint that, in the
long run, cause chronic injuries that
are very difficult to correct.
In the diagnosis of condyle fractures,
the following signs and symptoms
should be taken into consideration:
▼
▼
Evidence of facial trauma,
especially in the area of the
mandible and symphysis,
accompanied by pain.
Swelling in the joint area.
PAGE 58 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
▼
Limitation of the oral opening.
▼
▼
Helping prevent trauma to the
temporomandibular joint
Deviation when opening the
mouth toward the affected
area.
▼
Serving as a splint, keeping
teeth in their place when a
strong hit is received
▼
▼
Open bite in the counter-lateral
area of the trauma.
A mouth protector should have the following properties:
Blood in the external
hearing canal.
▼
Custom made for a specific
patient.
Pain when the place
of fracture is touched.
▼
Fine and smooth edges.
The changes suffered in the temporomandibular joint cause pain, inflammation of the chewing muscles, ligaments, cervical region, and the arm, in
some cases.
Chronic symptoms of the joint can be
associated with psychological problems, such as anxiety and depression.
▼
Enough retention to avoid
coming out of place during
competition.
▼
Strong enough so that teeth
cannot penetrate it.
▼
Lasting approximately
two years.
CUSTOM-BUILT MOUTH PROTECTORS
Mouth protectors are used to protect
various structures in the oral cavity
during athletic events, and their construction is an essential service provided by sports dentistry.
▼
Thermal resistant so that
it can be sterilized.
▼
No smell or flavor.
▼
Reasonable cost.
▼
Mouth protectors are removable
appliances that usually cover the
upper teeth; but they can also cover
the lower teeth as well.
These protectors are made up of a
flexible material that is constructed
from a plaster model of the patient’s
teeth.
Custom-made mouth protectors are
preferred and a trained dentist should
fabricate them.
Mouth protectors are essential for
athletes involved in contact sports.
The main functions of mouth protectors are:
▼
Protection of soft tissue and
lips from lacerations caused
by the teeth in times of contact
▼
Cushioning and distribution of
direct punches to the jaw,
reducing the incidence
of fractures
▼
Providing support to the jaw,
absorbing the punch,
and minimizing the possibility
of a fracture to the condyles
TYPES OF MOUTH PROTECTORS
There are three types of mouth protectors:
Ready-made. They come in a universal
size and are placed over the upper
teeth. These models are sold in most
sporting good stores.
Mouth-formed protectors. There are
two types: thermo-set and chemo-set.
The thermo-set type is found in sporting goods stores and is softened in
hot water, tempered in cold water, and
adapted directly over the teeth.
The chemo-set type is adapted through the use of soft auto-polymerized
resin and it is used by the majority of
athletes.
Custom-built protectors are fabricated
on a stone model of a mold of the athlete’s teeth.
This type is preferred because it is
more adaptable to the oral tissues,
comfortable, and interferes minimally
with breathing and speech.
These are fabricated by a dentist or a
dental technician.
More durable than the other types of
mouth guards, these are the only ones
that really guarantee maximal protection.
DOCTORS, TRAINERS AND CONDITIONING COACHES
by Phil Dyer
MEDICINE BALL
EXERCISES FOR
BASKETBALL
Phil Dyer is currently
working as the Head
Athletic Trainer at
Caldwell College in
Caldwell,
New
Jersey. He is a licensed, certified Athletic
Trainer as well as a
certified Strength &
Conditioning
Specialist. He over
sees all rehabilitation
and
strengthening
programs for the athletes, especially the
basketball programs.
“WOODCHOPPERS”
Medicine ball exercises can help a basketball player learn to
maintain a functional
athletic
basketball
position (squat position: defensive stance, initial shooting
position, defensive
block-out, rebound)
through strength, stabilization, coordination and flexibility
while doing core
movements. This is an
important aspect of
training for basketball,
because the squat
position and the core
are the basis for triple extension (hips,
knees, ankles).
As stated in a prior article on box agilities,
strengthening the muscles for these three
joints will allow an athlete to handle the forces required playing the game at a competitive level. These five medicine ball exercises will not only help strengthen the key
components of triple extension but also
tap into the athletes potential through
the movements these exercises require.
The use of medicine balls for basketball
training is extremely functional, because there is a direct correlation between
the exercise and the play on the court.
The medicine balls used range from 2 kg
to 5 kg, and the sets range from two three of five to ten repetitions for each
side or leg.
“WOODCHOPPERS”
The “woodchopper” series involves
three motions - straight down, angled right shoulder to left knee, angled - left
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 59
DOCTORS, TRAINERS AND CONDITIONING COACHES
EXTENDED
ROTATION
shoulder to right knee. Start by standing with knees slightly flexed, feet
shoulder width apart, upper body
erects - core tight, ball extended high
overhead. The motion is swinging the
ball straight down between the legs
(keeping the arms straight) below the
knees. As the ball nears the mid-section of the body, start to bend at the
hips - knees to allow the ball’s momentum to flow all the way down near the
floor. Start to decelerate the ball with
the core when it approaches the
shins. Explode back up into the original position. The angled motions are
done the same way, except now the
ball starts across the body at the
shoulders and angles down to the outside of the opposite knee.
PAGE 60 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
Keys to this exercise are to use the
hips and knees as stabilizers so that
the core can significantly benefit from
the motion of the ball. Keeping the
arms straight will allow more force to
be generated, thus adding stress on
the mid-section (core), while recruiting more muscles around the leg
joints to stabilize. This is a great exercise for strengthening the lower back.
EXTENDED ROTATION
Start in solid squat position (standing
with hips, knees flexed, feet shoulder
width apart, upper body erect - core
tight). The ball is extended straight out
from the body just above the waist.
Start by twisting (can be either direction first) towards the right, accelera-
ting the ball with the core. Keep the
arms as straight as possible while
trying to reach the ball all the way to
the side of the body. Bring the ball
back to the starting position, pause,
and then explode in the other direction.
Keys to this exercise are to make sure
the lead hip (direction the ball is accelerating) is flexing and the trail hip is
extending. Concentrate on keeping the
ball above the waist, and pausing at
the starting point. This ensures the
proper movement is started and
muscles are recruited each time. This
exercise is a good way to teach a
basketball player to strengthen his
stance while overcoming lateral forces.
DOCTORS, TRAINERS AND CONDITIONING COACHES
by Tim Garl
LOWER LEG PAIN
IN BASKETBALL
PLAYERS
figure 1
Tim Garl is the Indiana
University’s basketball trainer.
He is also the program’s
Director
of
Basketball
Operations. He has served as
the Trainer for the USA 1982,
and
1986
FIBA
World
Championship Teams, and 1984
USA Olympic Gold Medal
Basketball Team. He is also a
member of the United States
Olympic, Sports Medicine
Committee.
Lower leg pain is common in
athletes and is frequently seen
in basketball players.
The conditions causing the
pain can be soft tissue injury or
involve the tibia or fibula.
Soft tissue lower leg pain is
often referred to in a catch all
term “shin splints” and is technically called Medial Tibial
Stress Syndrome (MTSS). This
condition usually affects athletes involved in running and
jumping activities.
This complaint is frequently
seen in basketball players’.
It is a result chronic strain or
overuse resulting in miocrotrauma to the muscles and
connective tissue, tibia and
occasionally the fibula.
It is most commonly seen early
in training where there is
increase in activities such as
running and jumping.
It may also occur anytime
when training is increased
suddenly in speed and distance or when the training surface
is changed.
MTSS is characterized by pain
that occurs during exercise in
the lower leg.
Typically pain is significant at
the beginning of training and
usually decreases once the
player is warmed up. It may
then intensify, with fatigue, at
the end of activity.
Symptoms are most commonly
located along the inner
(medial) portion of the tibia in
the middle third of the bone.
The painful area is often diffuse and may move around. Pain
subsides after activity however
the athlete may complain of
aching pain at night.
The exact cause of the injury
has many theories, and frequently may have more than
one contributing factor.
These factors may include
muscle fatigue or imbalance of
muscles of the lower leg,
improper or worn footwear,
poor flexibility, and overtraining.
Training surface may also contribute to the injury (figure 1).
Figure 1.
Stretching
the muscles
of the lower leg
and good
flexibility
is important
in treating
and preventing
injuries.
figure 2/3
Figure 2 and 3.
There are
numerous
appliances
available that
a player can
wear to help
manage the
MTSS
symptoms.
All of these mechanisms can
result in an overload to lower
leg in the form of repetitive
trauma from weight bearing.
Torsion to the tibia from
muscle/tendon insertions that
contract during running and
jumping may also contribute
(figure 2 and 3).
One challenge of managing
lower leg pain (MTSS) is determine the extent of the injury
and identifying proper treatment. The history and characteristics of the pain, such as
length of symptoms, changes
in training routine, other injuFIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 61
DOCTORS, TRAINERS AND CONDITIONING COACHES
figure 4
Figure 4 and 5.
Strengthening the muscles of the lower leg is
important part of prevention and rehabilitation.
figure 5
ries that might contribute to
biomechanical errors, painful
activity versus pain free activity, should all be evaluated to
help make the correct diagnosis and determine the proper
management.
Athletes, who present a history
of recent change in level or
intensity of training, recent
onset of symptoms, diffuse
pain that is most severe during
the beginning and end of training may be suffering from
MTSS or inflammation to the
soft tissue of the lower leg(s).
Management consists of first
eliminating the insulting activity and treating the area for
acute inflammation.
Although many therapies exist
for soft tissue inflammation,
the author finds that ice, rather
than any thermal modality, provides the best relief of symptoms.
Anti-inflammatory or analgesic
medications may also be used
as part of the treatment.
figure 6
Figures 6 and 7.
Some weight machines allow for stretching and
strengthening during the same activity.
figure 7
Examination of the players’
footwear is essential to determine wear patters and to help
identify biomechanical problems.
High quality footwear is essential and custom orthotics may
be needed to correct biomechanical errors.
Training routine will need to be
modified, and cross training
should be incorporated to
reduce stress.
Stationary cycling, swimming
and stair stepper machines are
all good cardiovascular activities that can supplement reduced running.
Jumping activates, if allowed,
should be done on soft surfaces (figure 4 and 5).
Prevention consists of maintaining good flexibility in the
lower body. Increase training
moderately over a period of
time.
Strengthening the muscles of
the lower leg should be part of
the training routine.
PAGE 62 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
Proper footwear must be worn
for the activity and surface. A
player should attempt to train
on the softest surface possible, especially when doing
jumping drills (figure 6 and 7).
Emerging thought is that lower
leg injuries exist along a continuum and more serious juries
such as stress fractures, compartment
syndromes
and
preiostitis often result from
complications of mistreatment
or untreated lower leg pain.
Stress fracture is the most
common serious complication
of overuse injuries in the lower
leg and can occur very quickly
in the athlete with serious training errors.
Positive signs include local
tenderness, pain on direct or
indirect percussion, and continuous pain during weight bearing.
Imaging studies are usually
needed to confirm clinical diagnosis.
Bone scan has traditionally
been the standard diagnostic
study.
An increasing number of clinicians are using Magnetic
Resonance Imaging instead
because of its ability to access
the bone and surrounding soft
tissue structures. Standard xray is usually not sensitive
enough to make an early diagnosis of the micro fractures
to the bone.
Management begins with rest
to allow the bone to heal and
remodel.
Non-weight bearing activity
such as deep water pool
workouts
and
stationary
cycling may be used to keep
the athlete conditioned during
this period.
Early management and treatment of lower all leg pain is the
best approach to eliminate
stress fractures.
New studies suggest that electric and electromagnetic fields
or sound waves may help in the
healing of stress fractures.
MINI-BASKETBALL, SCHOOL GAMES AND ACTIVITIES
Mini-Basketball
Program
in Berlin
by Marina Zollner
Marina Zöllner, an ex-German
National women’s team and club
player with TuS Lichterfelde, has
been coaching the mini-basketball
teams at TuS Lichterfelde since 1978.
TUS LICHTERFELDE AND BASKETBALL
Around 3,000 members of the
Lichterfelde Gymnastics and Sports
Club, which was founded in 1887, play
thirteen sports. The sports that
attract the largest following are sport
gymnastics, then basketball (545
members), and gymnastics.
The
basketball
department has 33
teams playing actively and is one of
the
largest
in
Germany.
In 1992, the basketball
department
signed a cooperation contract with
Alba Berlin for the
men’s teams. The
ALBA/TuSLi cooperation project was
developed on many
levels. The first step
was moving the
ALBA player, Emir
Mutapcic (ex-national player for Bosnia
& Herzegovina, and
later
coach
of
ALBA),
to
TuS
Lichterfelde.
Another level is the
c o o p e r a t i o n
between the ALBA
and TuSLi trainers;
the head coach
works for both ALBA
and TuSLi; there are
jointly held training
sessions, discussions, and visits to
observe training sessions.
Division of the groups in the 2003/2004
season:
MINI-BASKETBALL ORGANISATION IN BERLIN
The mini-basketball games are organized by the Berlin Basketball
Federation, which has divided the
various player groups in a way so the
children can play against each other
based on age and ability. It is of great
importance for all players to gain
actual playing experience. However,
for philosophical reasons, no championships are held.
▼ Mini advanced F1
Born 1993
and younger with game experience
▼ Mini advanced F2
Born 1993
and younger with little game experience
▼ Mini beginners A1 Born 1994
and younger
▼ Mini beginners A2 Born 1995
and younger, plus complete beginners 1994
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 63
MINI-BASKETBALL, SCHOOL GAMES AND ACTIVITIES
▼ Mini girls
Girls only teams
There are 12 games during the season (September-April), when the
teams play within their groups according to the official of the German
Basketball Federation (DBB) rules
(with minor changes).
Additional mini tournaments are offered by the clubs and take place on
game-free weekends. In addition to
the games, there are also relays,
basket-shooting competitions, and
games for the parents. Especially
talented children from the older minibasketball age groups receive additional support from qualified
Federation trainers in the E-squad.
They train for 4-5 hours once a month.
For two years now the TuSLi, in association with the IBBA (International
Basketball Academy), has organized
a mini-basketball camp during the
summer on Fehmarn Island. Henrik
Rödl, ex-national league player and
national player, is head coach of the
camp.
A further highlight of the season is
participating in the Mini-Basketball
Tournament in Göttingen (the first one
was held 25 years ago), one of the
largest tournaments in Europe for this
age group.
PRACTICE PROGRAM
Mini-basketball should be considered
play, fun, and an enjoyable experience. Children from 7 to 11 learn the
team sport of basketball according to
PAGE 64 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
simplified rules. In addition, to the
various exercises, first contact with
the ball, and little games, emphasis is
placed on the development of the
basic motor abilities (speed, flexibility, coordination, strength, and stamina). A varied, fun, all-round training regimen offers everyone motor
development.
A new group of around 30 children (all
are 7 years old) has started up at TuS
Lichterfelde. Girls and boys are trained
separately due to their differing development. Not only professional players,
but coaches and referees can develop
through these broad foundations, and
they are important to the progress and
development of basketball.
instructors have years of training
experience and many started as
players with TuSLi. Each must be a
combination of teacher, friend,
comforter, and psychologist. They
advise parents, take care of health
issues, sort out arguments, and take
care of organizational aspects of training, games, and extra activities (planning for tournaments and trips).
Every trainer has a junior player or interested helper who helps as an assistant
at training sessions and games. This
person can take the trainer’s place at
training sessions and is being trained to
take a group of his own later on.
During the first year, the 7- and 8year-olds have weekly training sessions.
The aim of these sessions is to teach
the basics of dribbling, passing, catching, and lay-up shots. When the
youngsters play full-court, 5-on-5,
the focus is on play with two baskets
and observation of the foul, travelling, and double-dribble rules. The
overall aim is to lead up to team
game-level via small games with and
without the ball.
Training of core motor skills:
▼ Strength: push and pull exercises/climbing/relays with medicine
balls (exercises with body weight
only, no additional weights).
▼ Co-ordination: running with and
without the ball, ball handling,
skipping, exercises from other
sports, e.g. gymnastics, trampoline.
▼ Flexibility: yes, but no stretching
(except in certain individual
cases).
▼ Speed: reaction games, small
games.
▼ Aerobic stamina: small games, 5-
10 min. runs, 6-day races.
LEARNING BASIC BASKETBALL SKILLS
▼ Passing, catching (chest pass,
floor pass).
▼ Throwing (right and left handed
lay-ups).
▼ Dribbling.
During the second year, the basics are
developed into skilled playing: passing, catching, dribbling, and right and
left lay-ups. The children have 1-2 training sessions per week.
PARENTS
We want to keep the parents interested in basketball as a sport. Parents
help with organizing car shares to
games or tournaments, provide refreshments (e.g. buffets at tournaments),
organize parties or leisure-time planning. At games, they set up in the hall
and put things away afterwards, help
the table officials as timekeepers and
scorers, and wash the uniform shirts.
Finally, they can give financial support
through sponsorship (playing shirts,
warm-up suits) or donations, photocopying information leaflets, putting
address lists together. Even so, in spite
of all the help they provide, parents are
not instructors or coaches.
THE FUTURE
Several changes instigated by the
regional trainers will be introduced in
the coming season:
All groups will play 4-on-4. Fewer
players on the court means more
space for individual moves. This
should mean more ball contact for
each player and, therefore, better training in basic techniques. Demands on
conditioning will also increase.
In the third year, all techniques are
reinforced, physical conditioning
improved, and particular emphasis is
placed on man-to-man defense.
Training regularly takes place twice a
week.
The referee will not check the ball at a
throw-in (except in the case of a foul).
This should mean more speed in the
game, more fluidity of play. Quick switches and fast breaks will be encouraged.
MINI-BASKETBALL INSTRUCTORS,
AND ASSISTANTS
The mini-basketball instructor’s aim is
to show children how much fun
basketball can be. On this basis, the
trainer has to work with all children in
the group and organize his training to
be as flexible as possible. Most TuSLi
Man-to-man defense over the entire
court is a regulation of play. One-onone playing continues to be encouraged; each player must take responsibility. These measures mean playing
under more pressure and should lead
to improved switching and quick
attack speeds, and implementation of
the basic techniques.
FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE | 10 2004 | PAGE 65
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
play
with us
NOW IT’S OUR TIME TO WRITE A LETTER...
FIBA Assist has already passed our first year of life and we want to thank all the people from every corner of the globe
who have contributed to the magazine with such great enthusiasm and passion. The Olympic Games were an unbelievable showroom for our sport, and the incredible results were the best advertising for the most popular indoor team
sport in the globe.
We mention the Olympic Games because we are glad to have as our contributor to this issue, Ruben Magnano, the
head coach of Argentina, the gold-medal winning team. Above all, we would like to thank him for his great collaboration and availability. Even though he has been besieged with so many commitments, Coach Magnano worked through
the night to give us the article on time (and just one week after the end of the Games), showing us that he is not only a
great coach, but also a very nice person. Thanks, Coach, and congratulations to you and your team!
The Editor-in-Chief and all the editorial staff of FIBA Assist Magazine
NIEDNAGEL THEORIES
I was absolutely fascinated by the theories Jonathan
Niednagel mentioned in his article on the different brain
types and what it means in sports. Could you be so kind
to let me know how I can contact Niednagel? I would also like to know how to order his book. Thank you very
much and, again, thanks for printing his article.
Stefan Hermann, Munich (Germany)
Professor Jonathan Niednagel can be reached by email at this address: jeremy@braintypes.com. The Internet site is www.braintypes.com. The title of his book
is:
“Your Keys to Sports Success”, by Jonathan Niednagel,
Laguna Press, Laguna Niguel, California 92677, USA
A DEVICE FOR REFEREES
I heard that at the Olympics Games in Athens a special
device for basketball referees was used for the first time. Please explain what it is and how it works.
Akiro Morikawa, Kyoto (Japan)
The device you are referring to is the Precision Time
System, and Michael Costabile, a former NBA referee,
invented it in 1992. The first time it was used by FIBA
was at the 2002 FIBA World Championships in Indianapolis, and then at the Olympic Games in Athens this past
summer. In short, the Precision Time System stops the
game clock immediately when the referee blows the
PAGE 66 | 10 2004 | FIBA ASSIST MAGAZINE
whistle, avoiding any possible protest from the coaches
or players. This is especially critical at the end of the
periods and especially at the end of a game. The device
consists of a base station that is designed to interface
with the arena time-keeping equipment. Each referee
wears a special belt pack, which signals at the speed of
the light the starting and stopping of playing time. The
referees also have omnidirectional microphones that
are tuned to a specific whistle frequency. The game
clock is instantly stopped when the whistle is blown.
You can obtain more information about the device from
the company Web site at www.precisiontime.com.
The NBA, many American universities and high schools
has officially adopted the Precision Time System, and,
since this past September, FIBA has used it for all international competitions. FIBA now recommends its use
for all national Division 1 and 2 teams.
Editorial Office: Cantelli Editore, V. Saliceto 22/E, 40013
Castelmaggiore (BO), Italy
Tel.+39-051-6328813- Fax +39-051-6328815
Editor-in-Chief: GIORGIO GANDOLFI
E-mail: fibaassist@cantelli.net
Note: Readers who wish to send technical or non-technical articles are kindly requested to read the information in
the box INVITATION TO THE READERS on page 4 (or online at www.fiba.com).
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