Radio Joins East and West Pakistan
B
D
Radio Joins East and West Pakistan
Vol. No. 76
.
.
.
See Page 6
Sept.-Oct., 1953
Pakistan
West...in
ast meets
RCA joined hands with Radio Pakistan in all phases
of this great national communications project
How the two parts of a great country achieve unity in spite of
a 1,000 -mile separation ... by means of modern radio broadcasting
Six years ago Pakistan had neither
a gov-
ernment nor a capital. There were over 77
million people and 360,000 square miles of
land, but commerce was almost at a standtransportation and communications
still
were disrupted. And the greatest migration
in history was taking place ... 7,000,000 displaced persons crowding into the as yet unorganized nation.
The years have wrought an astounding
change. Today Pakistan is far advanced in a
co- ordinated program of enlightenment and
education for its own people ... and deeply
concerned in helping to promote greater understanding, tolerance and friendship among
the peoples of the world.
...
World leader in radio,
first in recorded music,
first in television
Radio has played a great part in Pakistan's
rapid development. From the very birth of
the new nation, radio was used as the quick
and sure medium of communication, of enlightenment. Radio Pakistan came into being
attracted competent engineers to its
program . .. developed into a compact powerful voice. To RCA was given the job of
providing the powerful radio equipments
installed by Radio Pakistan.
Today in Pakistan there are two 50 KW
shortwave stations operating on an international schedule. A 71 KW shortwave transmitter at Dacca is used to link East with
West Pakistan. A 5 KW broadcast transmitter at Dacca covers East Pakistan. Others
...
join the great network at Lahore, Peshawar
and Rawalpindi ... operating a total broadcast time of 96 program hours a day.
Radio Pakistan is completely co-ordinated.
Its nine transmitters link all sections of the
nation into one united network ... as well as
being an enlightened voice heard 'round the
world.
RCA products and services are available in
all open world markets, through RCA distributors and associated companies. The new
book "Communications, Key to Progress"
tells the inspiring story of radio at work in
many countries. Write to RCA International
Division, 30 Rockefeller Plaza, N.Y., U.S.A.
RCA INTERNATIONAL DIVISION
"Mamas Registradas"
tal
RADIO CORPORATION of AMERICA
vaor
RCA BUILDING
30 ROCKEFELLER PLAZA, NEW YORK, N.Y., U.S.A.
.
OUR COVER this issue, it is hardly necessary to
say, is a scene in the stuiIios of Radio Pakistan in
Karachi. The story of Radio Pakistan I I'g. 61 is
one of disheartening and perplexing difficulties
overcome by determination and ingenuity. We
think that the accomplishment of Radio Pakistan
engineers in the face of such overwhelming ohstacls will he of interest to radio engineers the
world owcr.
Broadcast News
AM. FM. TELEVISION
EAST
IS EAST,
m. west is west, and never the
Iwain shall meet according to Kipling. But in this
issue of Ilao:ua:.wST NF:ws they do. ISee l'g. 6
Published by the
a
and Pg. 18.1
RADIO
CORPORATION
AMERICA
OF
...
ENGINEERING PRODUCTS DEPARTMENT
Not that we ph
d it that way! In fact quite
the opposite. The Pakistan story and the ad on
the inside rover were sent to us by Bill Reilly,
who, as Advertising Manager of the R(:A Internaal Division, is sort of ex- officio foreign editor
'
of 11111/.iO.%S1 News s. The editor, meanwhile, was
working up the WBAP story. When Managing
Editor Bill Hadlork put the two stories together
in his makeup wsr were all surprised at the juxta-
CAMDEN, NEW JERSEY
SEPTEMBER -OCTOBER, 1953
NUMBER 76
tiubsrril
In continental U.
In other countries
S.
positian.
Kates
\.
-
`1.1)0
53.1111
for
for
12
12
a
issues
issues
Our first impulse was to change the story titles
bit to reduce the confusion. On second thought
we decided to let them stand. So we're a little confused as to where east ends and west begins. Who
The important point is that wherever you
all around the wor'.d you find RCA broadequil rut. And every ss hore you find it rated
causes.
JOHN
P.
E.
C.
,.o
cast
W. O. HADLOCK, Managing Editor
TAYLOR, Editor
tops in performancee and in prestige. Those who
have R(: \ equipment are proud of it those who
ish they did.
don't
MASON, M. G. MOON, Associate Editors
ww
Contents
RADIO BRIDGES 1000 MILES
AND WEST PAKISTAN
THE GROWTH OF WHBQ
WBAP
-
-
JOINS EAST
-
o
.
.
MEMPHIS, TENN.
.
by WI?LTON
R(11'
"WHERE THE WEST BEGINS"
18
CISTOM BUILT STUDIO CONTROL CONSOLES
FOR WBAP
.
DELUXE MASTER CONTROL ROOM EQUIPMENT
AT WBAP
.
by A.
S. KARI:EIt
42
by M. E. (itNN
48
NOVEL LOCATION OF TERMINAL BOARDS
MAKES WIRING EASY AT WBAP
TAPE
RECORDERS
.
.
54
I
.
NEW RCA EQUIPMENT COMPONENTS
FOR HIGH FIDELITY FANS
.
\ \ t:v
56
.
58
.
64
.
66
ACTION OF THE CONICAL DOMES IN THE
LC-1A LOUDSPEAKERS
.
I
PROFESSIONAL
RT -11
KDKA CHOOSES RCA TYPE
12
ENGINEERS ARE VIPS,
we've said it before.
we'll -w it again. Install.nions like WIf.AP's are
the proof. Consider the -amide Lusts. An installation of this kind represents an investment of perhaps two million dollars. On this basis a difference of 5!:, in plant operating efficiency represents
a difference of possibly SI00,11011 in investment.
And who contributes most to the pla
g that
pays off in operating elficieney? Almost always it
is the chief enginer of the stay
. He is the one
who says I
unth spare is needed for produclion and operating functions. what the relative
arrangement of these spares should be, and how
they should be equipped. An architect may draw
the plans but it is the chief engineer who tells
him what, how much, and where. To do this the
engineer must have know ledge based on experience), vision no foresee future expansion I, and
ability to communicate his ideas. That's a potent
combination. \nd the enginer who has it is a
mighty valuable man.
.
WABI -TV REMOTES LOCAL BASKETBALL TOURNEYS
Copyright 1953
Corporation of :Intericn
Victor f)irisian
I;C
1
Camden. N. J.
218770
www.americanradiohistory.com
in this issue. For
gets a lot of anent
this we make no apologies. As all can see, it is
one of our favorite stations! Not just because it
is big and beautiful. And not just because we personally know and like the people at WBAP. But
of a score of big star
also because WBAP is
'
s who have Item our very best customers for
a long, long iint e. Most of these stations have used
our equipment for over twenty years -through
M. FM and T\. They've seen us make mistakes
Iwho wouldn't in this r Alex business I. They've
strositier we've Imilt -lived with some of the
and they've helped us take the bugs out of them.
And all the while they've kept an buying our
equipment. Their confidence in us gives us confidence. The kind of confidence that enables us to
inn ttttt lestly say 'yeau in and year out, you do
best with BC.- ."
WBAP
a
-fscw
*
,id
"During our con ,truction period wa
received the most unusual
co- operation from everyone
at RCA...Since going ON -AIR,
the quality and continuity
of equipment service
ha,- been gratifying."
C.
"...our 1 -KW UHF
transmitter and UHF
Pylon Antenna are giving
us far greater coverage
than we anticipated. We
are more than pleased
with the excellent
results."
NEAL
RICHARD EVANS
VICE- PRESIDENT
',,1i
WSBT
GENERAI
d GENERAL MANAGER
RCMB TV
B.
WELCH
MANAGER. WSBT TV
"...our confidence in
UHF television, and
'RCA All The Way.' was
not misplaced."
WARREN
P. WILLIAMSON, JR.
PRESIDENT d GENERAL MANAGER.
WKBN.TV
What Telecasters say
. \131-I\
"Our TT -500A is putting
out a beautiful picture
every day --with practically no maintenance
whatsoever."
W
.
JTv
"RCA can feel justifiably proud of their
1 -KW UHF Transmitter,
UHF Pylon Antenna, studio, and
remote equipment installation
Our RCA transmitter is giving
us a signal far in excess
of what our engineers
.
originally
calculated."
MURRAY CARPENTER
JOHN ROSSITER
MANAGER. WAR] TV
GENERAL MANAGER.
WJTV
KFDMBeaumont,
WgRE......._.
KFDX
Texas
Wichita Falls, Texas
lore-KW UHF Transmitter has proved to be
all that could be desired
..Since our first day
of operation we have
"Our
1
consistently maintained
100% power."
PETER
B.
..our RCA 1 -KW
UHF Transmitter is
working so well our
coverage has exceeded our
wildest expectations...We
are delighted with our
fully RCA- equipped dual
studio, film room,
and control room
layout."
KENNEY
JULIAN GROSS
DAVID M. BALTIMORE
CENT RAI
MANAGER, WORE TV
www.americanradiohistory.com
"For 20 years we
have operated our
Radio Stations on the
policy that our equipment must be nothing
less than the best. Naturally we chose an
RCA l0 -kw transmitter and associated RCA TV
equipment for
KFDX -TV."
DARROLD
A.
CANNAN
PRESIDENT. REIM KFDX-TV
K
"The RCA 12- section
Antenna is performing
in splendid fashion. As
a matter of fact, its
performance exceeds the
promise made by your
Sales Representative."
"Your constant
attention and service
has earned our deepest
appreciation and has made
it possible for us to
render maximum,
dependable TV
service..."
"We are glad we are
RCA ALL THE WAY...RCA
personnel has been
helpful at all times...
I'll recommend RCA
equipment
any time."
i.à
J.
C.
KELLAM
KARL
GENERAL MANAGER, KTBC.TV
O.
FRED WEBER
WYLER
PRESIDENT, WFPG -TV
PRESIDENT, KTSM -TV
about RCA Equipment
the finest TV equipment you can buy, ask the management man who operates a
modern television station.
For a professional analysis of your TV station requirements,
ask the experienced equipment man who knows his TV station
FOR
A
planning ...
PROFESSIONAL OPINION On
YOUR
RCA
BROADCAST SALES REPRESENTATIVE!
RADIO CORPORATION
ENGINEER/NG PRODUCTS DEPARTMENT,
"KROD -TV is completely RCA equipped...
Our RCA 500 -watt transmitter (temporarily installed) has done a very
satisfactory job...Coverage (because of our
high mountain -top
location) has
been phenom-
e
of AMER /CA
"Our new RCA Studio
and Transmitter equipment
combination produces the
best picture I have ever
seen on a receiver."
CAMDEN, N.J.
..in addition to
having excellent equip-
ment, RCA personnel is
certainly qualified to
assist the telecaster."
enal.
Al
VAL LAWRENCE
DORRANCE
D.
RODERICK
JOSEPH HEROLD
STATION MANAGER. KBTV
www.americanradiohistory.com
FRANK
E.
KOEHLER
GENERAL MANAGER, WROV.TV
f4
n
Put your
tI
Do you require
"single- direction" coverage?
If so, RCA
t
has UHF Pylons that can produce
horizontal field patterns shaped like a Car dioid. Figure shows the calculated pattern,
and a measured model pattern, of a "Cardioid
directional" Pylon. Operating frequency,
New, advanced null fill -in system, used in
conjunction with beam -tilting, offers excellent close -in coverage -even for the "difficult" sites. Figure 3 is a typical measured
vertical field pattern of an RCA UHF Pylon.
Figure 4 is a nearly ideal field -distance curve
produced by a "contour- engineered" UHF
Pylon (actual record of a commercial TV
station now "ON- AIR").
1
532 Mc.
Do you
If
require "elongated" coverage?
so, RCA has UHF Pylons that produce a
horizontal field pattern shaped like
a
peanut.
Figure 2 shows the calculated pattern, and a
measured model pattern, of this type of directional Pylon antenna.
Do you
If
require "circular" coverage?
a wide selection of UHF
Pylons that produce equal signals in all
Do you
wnnt BETTER overall coverage
lower signal losses?
-
RCA UHF
cular patterns) have built -in "Beam Tilt."
Easily adjusted at your station by moving the
inner conductor of the antenna up and down,
this feature assures best possible coverage,
with minimumpower loss in vertically polarized
radiation.
ri11II11
111111
11M11111'
o
simplicity -plus!
11
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I1
ElI
11t1
11Jf M
II.UU11
/ I1
FIGURE 3
0.1
is
You find no protruding elements on RCA
UHF Pylons. The smooth surface of the metal
cylinder is the antenna itself. No physical
connections on the antenna. Nothing to
bend or break under ice or wind load. Signal
loss in rain or heavy icing is negligible.
Y111\
02
Pylon design
Just one feedpoint for the line input
All RCA UHF Pylons (directional and cir-
z
How much UHF gain do you need?
RCA UHF Pylons (standard circulars and
directionals) can be furnished with gains in
the order of 3, 6, 9, 12, 21, 24 and 27 (see
table). No tuning compromises in RCA UHF
Pylons -with resultant loss of gain (such as
caused by cross -polarized components). The
gain that's published is the gain you get,
so, RCA has
directions.
Do you need BETTER
"close -in" coverage?
1111M11\!1
1111111'1\I
I1r/\t
Mr/\11M11T1111\Iri
\
I.iga11'!11i6a
\`Au
11\ri1\1/1111
1
12
10
6
ABOVE HORIZONTAL
PLANE
6
2
0
2
VERTICAL ANGLE, DEGREES
6
6
BELOW
lO
It
14
HORIZONTA1e
PLANE
I.0
0.9
al)
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
Typical installation of an
RCA Adjustable Beam,
High -Gain UHF Pylon
A\
Mi1111
11111111=1
FIGURE 4 7
1111
11111111
1111
H
IR
1111
IIIII 1111
r.
11111111
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+14
ABOVE
+12
+10
HORIZONTAL
www.americanradiohistory.com
+6
PLANE
0
DE OREES
-2
-6 -6 -10
-12
BELOW HORIZONTAL PLANE
signal where the population is
Use an RCA
"contour-engineered"
UHF Pylon Antenna
Select the RCA UHF Pylon to meet your requirements
Gain
Channels
Gain
Gam
14-30
3
31-S0
51-83
3
4.77
4.77
4.77
Sections
etem
RCA
Type
2
TFU-38L
TFU-38M
2
TFU30H
7.78
7.71
7.78
4
4
7FU-68L
7FU-68M
TFU-68H
9.54
9.56
9.56
6
TFU-9111
6
TFU798M
e
TFU-9B1
10.79
10.79
10.79
0
7F11-120L
8
TFU-128M
8
7F11-128H
13.22
13.22
14
24
13.8
16
TFU-1201.5
7FU-21111
TFUQ4111.5
74
24
21
27
13.8
U
13.1
13.1
1e
TFU-2411Ms
14.31
16
18
7FU-24DM
TFU-21816
27
14.31
18
TFU-271:114
3
16-30
6
31.50
51.03
6
16-30
31-50
51-03
9
14-30
31-50
51-83
12
16.30
14.30
14.30
11-30
71
31-50
31-50
51-83
51.83
tD81
6
9
9
17
12
71
2
4
14
TFU-2601
No picture deterioration with an RCA UHF
Pylon- Transmitter Combination, even when
the antenna is covered with four inches of ice.
RCA UHF Pylons are shipped complete in
one unit -"custom- tuned" for your frequency
at the RCA factory -and tested by the most
modern methods known to the television inÀustry. You can put up a Pylon, connect the
line, and throw the switch. Tuning is not required at your station!
Z
RCA supplies specially- matched
UHF transmission lines
No UHF antenna functions properly unless your transmission line matches
your antenna closely. RCA-designed
line, not available anywhere else, has
measured performance (VSWR ) that
is better than 1.05 to 1.0.
/r
complete UHF accessories
Only when everything in you:
transmitting system is matched
from transmitter to antenna -can
RCA supplies
-
you be sure of maximum performance. In this respect, RCA cau
supply each and every accessory required to
complete a UHF antenna installation, including
the tower; mitered elbows, line transformers..
spring hangers, dummy loads, wattmeters.
frequency and modulation monitors, filter plexers, and hardware -down to the very last
holt. Everything is designed specifically to
work with the UHF Pylon. And remember.
everything is available from ONE responsible
equipment manufacturer -RCA!
An antenna can make or break a TV station.
The way it works depends on planning NOW.
Take advantage of RCA's antenna- engineering
"know -how" when you talk UHF -and be
sure your antenna installation will meet you:
horizontal and vertical radiation requirements
EXACTLY. Your RCA Broadcast Sales Representative is at your service.
RADIO CORPORATION
ENGINEERING PRODUCTS DEPARTMENT
www.americanradiohistory.com
of AMERICA
CAMDEN. N. J.
LAHOR
WEST
TIBET
PAKISTAN
EAST
KARACHI
PAKISTAN
ARABIAN
INDIA
SEA
BURMA
DACCA
/
BAY
OF
BENGAL
RADIO
BRIDGES 1000
JOINS
EAST
Between East Pakistan and West
AND
Pakistan,
a
WEST
thousand miles
of India
intervenes. One of the world's mightiest raffia networks, born with
a new nation, speaks many languages to its people and the world.
Pakistan found its place on the world map
only six years ago. This State of 80 million people is divided into two parts with
one thousand miles of alien territory separating them. The new sovereign State was
heralded by the chime of the midnight hour
of the 14th of August, 1947. It had inherited three low power medium -wave stations from British India -one at Peshawar,
in the Northwest Frontier Provinces; one
at Lahore, the Capital of Punjab, 300 miles
away from Peshawar; and one at Dacca,
in East Pakistan, over a thousand miles
6
away from Lahore. And there were not
more than nineteen engineers to man these
three stations. Karachi, the Federal Capital, had no radio station at all.
Some of the problems which confronted
the handful of Radio Pakistan workers on
the morning of the 14th were: how to man
the existing stations -there was chaos in
the country and no recruitment was possible; how to maintain the technical efficiency of the three stations when spare
parts were left unredeemable at Delhi ; how
MILES
-
PAKISTAN
to centralize the news; and how to provide
and where to locate a radio station to serve
the Federal Capital.
l'he questions of maintaining the stations
and the procuring of spare parts were left
in the hands of Providence. News Units
were created at Lahore and Dacca which
also fed Peshawar on telephone lines. The
News Units at these two places had to
solve the problem of supplying news for,
at that moment, th °re was no News agency
in the country. The telephone wires connecting East and West Pakistan passed
through India and, consequently, were of
no real aid to Pakistan at the time. The
small number of News Editors available to
the Service struggled hard and managed to
broadcast at least four news bulletins
in four different languages.
a
day
To secure equipment for the new State,
the Chief Engineer of Radio Pakistan was
flown first to England then to America;
however, the equipment was just not available. The war had recently ended and the
manufacturing countries were busy putting
their own house in order. After a great deal
of investigation, Radio Pakistan decided
that the terms and the date of delivery of
RCA were best, and an order for three
short -wave and two medium -wave transmitters was placed.
A search was soon begun to select a
suitable site for the location of these transmitters in Karachi, the Federal Capital of
Pakistan. Karachi, at that time, had eleven
aerodromes, and Radio Pakistan had to
keep five miles away from each of them
for the erection of its masts. It appeared as
if Radio Pakistan would have to locate its
facilities fifty -five miles away from the
population of Karachi. This introduced another set of difficulties. Would the reception of medium-wave stations be good from
such a distance? Since there was no publit
transportation available, how could personnel be transported to and from Karachi
and the transmitter site? After a considerable search, a piece of land (suitable
from a technical point of view) was discovered only seventeen miles from the
town. Suggested designs for the building
were obtained from RCA and the work was
soon begun.
.
In the meantime, it was still necessary
to serve the town of Karachi with broad-
The modern Center of Radio Pakistan, 17 miles outside of Karachi (see map, left hand page),
bears the insignia of the organization. The Islamic reference is clearly defined while the eye and
the wings of the falcon are symbolic of radio broadcasting and those whose lives are devoted
to
that service.
The new Radio buildings provide the facilities where the high power transmitters and electric
power generating equipments are installed, as well as offices for the engineering staff. The
building in the foreground contains the transmitter hall, offices and emergency studio and associated speech input and transcription recording equipment. The electric power generators are
housed in the building to the rear.
The spacious Transmitter Hall is equipped with two RCA 50 kilowatt, dual -channel, high frequency broadcast trans
mitters and one RCA 10 kilowatt medium frequency broadcast transmitter. The building has been designed so that
additional equipment may be installed and additional construction carried out for future expansion.
casts. A discarded 200-watt medium -wave
transmitter (Arnie -hype) was discovered
in a junk shop. This was installed in a hut
to provide an interim of program service
to the town. Offices were located in tents
surrounding the transmitter.
Erection of the High Power Transmitter
building took longer than Radio Pakistan
had anticipated. Meanwhile, Radio Pakistan engineers erected masts for the antenna
at the selected site and located a 10 -kw
medium -wave transmitter, supplied by
RCA. in a 20' x 20' building on the other
side of the road. This transmitter replaced
the 200 -watt station previously set up while
improvised studios and the tents still remained to provide program service. As soon
as the main building was ready, the transmitters were installed by Pakistan engineers. The local electric supply company
8
could not meet its commitments to supply
power to the transmitters so generators
were obtained from RCA -two to run
50 -kw short -wave transmitters and two to
run the medium -wave transmitter.
The 10-kw medium -wave transmitter at
Karachi came into operation in November.
1948. The installation of a short -wave
transmitter at Dacca (in East Pakistan)
was completed on January 15. 1949. This
short -wave transmitter was meant to give
an extended program service to East Pakistan and, also, to serve as a link between
East and West Pakistan. The East -West
link, however, was completed on the 14th
of August in the same year when the first
50 -kw transmitter went on the air. The
inauguration of this transmitter coincided
with Pakistan's Second Anniversary. It
was on this day, too, that Radio Pak-
istan centralized its Home News Service.
-
and started four external program services
directed toward its immediate neighbors
Burma on the east, and Afghanistan, Iran
and the Middle East on the west. Even
though reception of such external program
services was uncertain in the target areas.
the conviction that Pakistan had something
to say of interest to the rest of the world
sustained Radio Pakistan. Every effort was
made to provide as effective a signal as was
possible under the circumstances.
Meanwhile, installation of the second
transmitter was speeded up and
Radio Pakistan was able to put it on the
air on December 25, 1949. the birthday
anniversary of the Father of the Nation,
Mohammad Ali Jinnah. Radio Pakistan
had installed three short -wave and one
10 -kw medium-wave transmitters in addi50 -kw
View of No. 2 RCA transmitter in Radio
Pakistan's Transmitter Hall. The front
panels of the transmitter are designed
to allow ready access to the various
units of equipment. Door actuated
switches connect to an interlocking system to protect personnel against exposure to dangerous voltages.
The tube complement for the RCA transmitters has been carefully selected so
that the number of different types is
kept to a minimum in order to simplify
the stocking o`. spares. The tubes shown
here are those in the last modulator
stage of one of Radio Pakistan's 50
kilowatt transmitters. These are the
same type as those used in the radio
frequency power amplifier.
9
www.americanradiohistory.com
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Multilingual Radio Pakistan prints its daily station logs in both English and Urdu; broadcasts regularly in seventeen
languages and dialects. speaking to Europe, the Middle East. Africa. East Asia. Australia, and New Zealand.
tion to a low power short -wave transmitter
at Lahore in little more than a year. Scores
of newly graduated students had been recruited and intensively trained to do the
job. Their zeal to serve the State enabled
them to do it successfully.
'l'he Federal Capital of Radio Pakistan
was no longer without an effective broadcasting station. However. the studios were
still located in a two -room barrack and
program services and production units were
still working in tents. Radio Pakistan had
not succeeded in obtaining any suitable
site for its Broadcasting House. One site
after another was approved, obtained, and
then lost to those with better or more pressing claims. Finally. Radio Pakistan decided
to postpone any new construction for an
indefinite period. A building was selected
at Bunder Road in the Federal Capital and
plans were made to modify the location to
suit the requirements of a broadcasting
house. The ground floor was converted to
accommodate the various offices. I'he second floor was selected to house fourteen
studios but, when the plans were finalized,
10
it became apparent that the second floor
was too heavy for the ground floor to sup-
port. This disheartening and perplexing
situation led Radio Pakistan technicians to
design a novel plan of construction. It
would not be an exaggeration to say that
the studios at the Broadcasting House,
Karachi, are the only hanging studios in
the world. Supported by a mechanism from
above. the roof of the ground floor does not
have to carry any of the weight from the
second floor. These streamlined, multicolored studios of the Broadcasting House
were completed in 1951. Personnel of Radio
l'akistan moved from their tent city which.
in the past three years. had been mistaken
by many a passerby for a gypsy village.
The inauguration of the Federal Broadcasting House, which completed the first
phase of development was preceded a few
months by the installation of a low power
medium-wave station at Rawalpindi, a district nearly 120 miles from l'eshawar and
180 miles from Lahore. This station was
to cater to an area that previously had not
been effectively served by either of the two
older stations. The first phase of Radio
Pakistan Development had ended. The second phase is actively in hand and some of
its projects are making considerable headway. The low power medium -wave transmitter at Rawalpindi has been replaced by
a 10 -kw medium -wave transmitter, and the
installation of two 10 -kw short -wave transmitters at Karachi is well under way.
Today, after six years, Radio Pakistan
longer a disorganized Broadcasting
system consisting of three low power zonal
stations. It is a small, compact organization
meeting the internal as well as the external
needs of the fifth largest State in the world.
Although still far from its ultimate goal,
it is an organic system with a Central Directorate and Central News Organization
having departments of installation, research, and maintenance and a staff training school. It broadcasts thirty -nine news
bulletins as against the four original ones,
and puts out ninety -six program hours in
seventeen different languages, as against
twenty -seven program hours in seven languages at its inception.
is no
OEM-.
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Pakistan's Radio City is the Broadcasting House at Karachi. This center of
program activities houses studios, executive offices, news bureaus and the
many facilities marking a modern radio
network. Here one of Radio Pakistan's
mobile units prepares to leave for a
remote province from which a series of
broadcasts will be initiated.
The brain of Radio Pakistan is this master control room in the Karachi transmitting station. In this room the link is
forged between Pakistan and the outside world, as well as between the
stations of the Pakistan network.
www.americanradiohistory.com
":--
FIG.
1.
The WHBQ 5000-watt transmitter building, with its solar -type front facing south. Two of the five 315 -foot towers are visible in the background.
THE GROWTH OF
When
Station 11 HliQ tout into operation on March 18, 1925 with a 100 -watt
transmitter broadcasting from the basement of St. John's Methodist Church, the
population of the City of Memphis was
approximately 227,000. Licensed by the
late T. T. Thompson, the station in its
100 -watt infancy produced programs primarily of a religious nature. It later moved
to the Dermon Building in Memphis on a
commercial basis.
FIG. 2.
John Cleghorn, General Manager
WHBQ-AM-TV.
WHBQ
By
WELTON ROY
Chief Engineer, WHBQ, AM -TV
In 1932, expansion made more floor
space a necessity, and a transfer to the
Claridge Hotel (with about 1,000 square
feet of station floor space) was effected.
The station went to 250 watts in 1939.
and again the plea was "more room ". So,
in 1942, studios were taken over in the
Hotel Gayoso with approximately 2.000
square feet of floor space. Later 700 square
feet of office space was added. Affiliation
with the Mutual Network occurred in
1944.
Power was raised to 5,000 watts on
March 11, 1949, at which time WHBQ
moved to 560 on the dial.
Today, WHBQ operates with 5,000
watts and the population of Memphis has
grown to 420,550. From 23 square miles
in 1925, the city has expanded to 121
square miles in 1953 and there's even more
growth imminent. But growth paralleling
MEMPHIS
that of the city in which it is located has
been rather natural for WHBQ Radio.
WHBQ's development made a great
leap this fall when its Television station
(Channel 13) went "on -air" with the 10
K \ \' driver portion of their RCA TT -50AH
50 h\\' VHF Transmitter. It is anticipated that WHBQ-TV. Memphis' newest
Television station will achieve maximum
power of 316.000 watts within a short
time.
FIG. 3.
Welton Roy, Chief Engineer
WHBQ.AM -TV.
FIG. 4. This is the WHBQ 5000-watt transmitter. and RCA Type BTA -5 -F. The first rack on the left contains speech
input equipment: the second rack holds test equipment; and the third rack contains frequency phase monitors.
The latest move of the AM facilities to
the Hotel Chisca in Memphis was the result of a need for more floor space for AM
production. On January 9, 1953, the new
studios in the Hotel Chisca were occupied.
The exterior of the studio was designed to
fit into a half -million dollar project for remodeling the 41-year -old Chisca Hotel.
Located on the mezzanine-the entrance is
set off in green and white marble with
shrubbed planter boxes on either side of
the all -glass doors (see Fig. 7).
The receptionist's desk is trimmed in
oak, as is a translucent half -wall separating
the lobby from the business offices. Immediately to the right of the foyer is the
clients' audition room, tastefully furnished
and softly lighted for clients' comfort, and
equipped with a speaker for audition
purposes.
A corridor runs the
entire length of the
station at right angles to the foyer. To
the right are the business offices. These
include the general manager's office, as
EQUIPMENT
ROOM
MEETING
ROOM
PO OM
BANQUET
ROOM
a
P
UPPER PART OF LOBBY
r-E171
well as the offices for local sales, traffic,
FIG. 5. Floor plan of WHBQ Stu.
dios in the Chisca Hotel, Memphis.
13
FIG. 6. Planning WHBQ's new studios which will be housed in a completely new, modernistic building, is lohn Cleghorn, center,
General Manager of WHBQ, along with William Grumbles (left). Operational Manager: and Welton Roy (right), Chief Engineer.
national sales, and the program director.
To the left of the corridor is the accounting
office as well as that of the chief engineer.
This represents the "front" section of the
station, which can be completely cut off
from the production section simply by
closing a door if necessary.
The production segment of the station
arranged for speed and ease in operation.
All control rooms are entered along rubber covered ramps. facilitating the movement
of portable equipment. All doors are of the
Riverbank type to close out sound.
is
Control Room "W' is the center of operations. flanked by the recording room and
Control Room "A ", and visually accessible
to Control Room "C" as well as a small
speech studio. Control Room `B" is
equipped with the most modern equipment of the three control rooms. Announcers work from a BC -2B console
with Fairchild 530 -D turntables. Within
a few inches of the announcer's hands is a
tape recorder. Note Fig. 8.
To the left of the console operator in
Control Room "B" is the recording room
(Fig. 11). Here are dual RCA -73B professional recorders with a 50 -watt NIcfntosh
amplifier, equalizers and matching network.
Selector switches permit program choices
with bridging inputs to 20 monitoring
busses.
The recording room is separate from but
directly accessible to Control Room "C"
and easily visible to Control Rooms "A"
and "B ". Acoustical treatment of the reFIG. 7. The entrance to the new studio in the
Hotel Chisca is decorated in green marble. Visible
through the double glass doors is the oak -trimmed
foyer and the translucent half -wall which divides
the foyer seen from the business offices. The
clients' room is through the door at the right.
FIG. 8. "B" control room is, in effect, the center of operations, with its BC -2B consolette. Through the window to the
right -partially visible
the small speech studio and Control Room "C ". Beyond the announcer is the recording room.
-is
cording room makes it equally effective as
a listening room. "C" Control Room, with
a 76 -B console, two 70 -C turntables and
two fixed tape recorders, is utilized primarily for recording operations. The third
Control Room, "A" (Fig. 12) , operates the
large studio, and is used alternately to "B"
for general purposes. It is equipped with an
RCA 76 -B console and two RCA 70 -1)
turntables. All equipment for terminating
FIG. 9. A iront view of the speech input
equipment, which has the latest ACA amplifiers, all of which are plug -in type. This
rack is in Control Room "A ".
telephone lines and studio equipment is
mounted in the wall. Control room windows are five feet above the studio level
to provide a better overall view.
The small studio is treated for speech
only, with programs channelled through
either "B" or "C" Control Rooms. It is
completely encased in perforated Johns Mansville Transite, and it is extremely
effective for newscasts and small -group
interviews.
The large studio (shown in Fig. 15) is
our pride. Polycylindrical diffusers are
mounted adjacent to each other on one
side and end, with perforated Transite with
blankets opposite. The ceiling is serrated,
or sawtoothed, and covered with acoustical
tile. Halophane lights are set flush into the
ceiling. From this studio emanate shows
which involve participation of large groups,
as well as musical programs.
discs mounted in pigeon -hole files which
were designed and built to speed up the
selection of recordings. A large storage
room for equipment is to the rear of the
music room.
There are certain features of design
which are general throughout the station
and the conrtol rooms. For example, all the
control rooms are floating in felt for maxFIG. 10. This rear view of speech input
equipment demonstrates the adequacy of
jacks which increase flexibility of operation.
The neatness of wiring also is apparent.
Also in the general production section
are the production manager's office, a
printer room for the news machine, and
a bathroom with shower. A general workroom for the engineers adjoins the recording room.
Across the hall, to the rear of the studio,
than 10,000
is the music room, with more
15
FIG. 11. The recording room with 73-B professional recorder.
drives the recording heads
can record from 20 monitoring busses.
A 50 -watt McIntosh amplifier
which is so flexible
it
imuni isolation from outside vibration and
sound. This also brought about, in part.
the increased height of control rooms above
the studios.
Possibilities of sound interference were
eliminated by installing air conditioning for the production unit separate from
the office unit. Air conditioning ducts are
installed independently from each control
room and studio to the conditioning equipment to prevent transfer of sound along
FIG. 12. This 76 -B console is countersunk into the table
and tilts to rest on the table at 90 degrees. This arrangement maintains same angle of slope for all consoles.
ducts from one studio to the other. Each
duct is completely insulated.
ator at identical angles of slope. In addition, the boards tilt back to rest at 90
degrees on the tables. making repairs much
Complete monitoring units are placed in
all offices, with high fidelity receivers for
each network station in Memphis feeding
monitor busses. Each office has its own
speaker and associated amplifier.
simpler.
All control boards are inset at angles in
black formica- topped tables. All consoles
are at the sanie height and face the oper-
The radio station now encompasses approximately 5.000 feet of floor space. and
for special presentations a ballroom of
35.000 square feet can be utilized.
\\'HBQ
has advanced a long way since
it opened up in the basement room of
FIG. 13. This 100 -watt control room, shown in the Hotel Claridge around 1931. had as its only commercial equipment the RCA 12 -A amplifier. 600 -A carbon microphones, and a 106 -B speaker. All other equipment was composite.
a
FIG. 14 (right). This was the
WHBQ 250-watt control room in
the Hotel Gayoso, with its 76 -B
console, 70 -C turntables, 64 -B
loudspeaker and 40 -C amplifier
mounted in the rack at right. To
the right is the original small
studio, later converted to a control room. To the left is the large
studio. WHBQ outgrew these facilities, moved to the Hotel Chisca
January 9, 1953.
FIG. 15 (center). This view of the
latest large studio shows the
junction of the polycylindrical diffusers with a blanket wall under
Transite. A part of the serrated
ceiling is also visible. The control
room at the right has a full view
of the entire studio.
church in 1925. And with 15,000 square
feet, 5,000 watts AM, a 1,000 -foot television tower and ultimately 316,000 watts
for TV, WHBQ is still growing.
On April 20, 1946, Harding College at
Searcy, Arkansas, contracted to purchase
the station and has held ownership ever
since. However, WHBQ is strictly a commercial station.
John Cleghorn, veteran of more than 22
years in radio, was named general manager in 1949. C. L. Ganus of New Orleans
is chairman of the radio committee which
shapes the station's broader policy. On
the committee, also, are: Dr. George S.
Benson, president of Harding College ; and
Dr. L. M. Graves, R. D. Fuller, and R. V.
Lovinggood, all of Memphis. William H.
Grumbles is operational manager of the
station.
FIG. 16. The studio entrance in
the Hotel Gayoso as it appeared
when WHBQ moved there in
1942.
1. WBAP's ten studios (three TV, seven AM -FM). its business offices, and its FM and TV transmitters are housed in this impressive and beautiful
building. Completely air- conditioned and ultra-modern in construction, the brick and sandstone exterior gives it an authentic southwestern flavor.
Helicopter in the foreground was used to take the aerial views on the following pages.
FIG.
WB A P
"where the West begins"
COMBINED AM -FM -TV STUDIO PLANT OF THE
FT.
WORTH STAR -TELEGRAM
STATIONS IS ONE OF THE FINEST INSTALLATIONS ANYWHERE
But \VBAP wasn't always so big, nor,
in all likelihood, was Mr. Hough always so
blasted the ether fur blocks around ". The
studio was a temporarily vacant office in
the Star -Telegram Building. And not the
least anxious of those present was Harold
Hough. That feeble 10 -watt squawk was
his baby, his brain child. It had been built
from a bushel basket full of parts bought
and assembled on a $250 budget, all with
misgivings of Mr. Hough's boss, Amon
G. Carter.
confident. When WBAP was born back on
May 2, 1922, it boasted the tremendous
power of 10 watts. As someone said, it
However, success crowned the venture
from the very start. In a short time Harold
Hough, as the "Hired Hand", endeared
Everything
in Texas has to be big. Everyone knows that. So when \VBAP decided
to build a TV studio it was only natural
that Harold Hough should say, "Make it
big enough to run a herd of cattle through."
And sure enough they did -with a plant
on a scale to go with it.
18
himself to ranchers and farmers from the
Trinity to the Rio Grande. Speaking to
them in their own language, about their
own interests, he won their confidence and
their undying devotion to \VBAP. Before
long Ft. Worth was known far and wide
as the place "where the West begins"
and WRAP was its voice.
-
Today \VBAP is one of the nation's
leading stations. Under the skillful guidance of Mr. Hough, now radio director
for Carter Publications, Inc., and George
Cranston, manager of WBAP, the original
FIG. 2. The WBAP building is located on a small hill about four miles from downtown Ft. Worth (top center in this view). It is 26 miles from Dallas.
With its 500 -foot antenna and 16.4 kw radiated power the station provides good coverage of both cities, plus the whole Ft. Worth -Dallas trading area.
10 watts has grown to 50,000 watts on
820 kc and 5.000 watts on 570 kc.*
However, the "Hired Hand ", belying his
name, has never been one to sit on his
hands
the industry can and will testify. Not satisfied with the tremendous
growth in power and prestige of WBAP
he has insisted that the station maintain
its early reputation as a pioneer. Thus
when TV became a possibility he insisted
that `Ft. Worth must have it first ". To
those who don't know Mr. Hough very
well this may have sounded like another
"Texas brag ". To people in the industry
it was prophecy of TV's future. If the
Hired Hand was for it, it must be good
-as
*WBAP shares time on these two frequencies with \\"FAA, Dallas, maintaining continuous operation from 5:30 A. M. to 12:00 midnight \londay through Saturday, and from 7:00
A.M. to 12:00 midnight on Sunday. WBAP-820
is an NBC affiliate (since 1928) and WRAP570 (organized as KGKO in May 1938) has
been affiliated with ARC since the network
began operation.
business. And, as it turned out, it was mighty good business.
Planning for WBAP -TV was started in
1945, and the station officially went on the
air September 29, 1948. It was the first
TV station in the South, and the first between St. Louis and Los Angeles.
Combined AM-FM-TV Plant
When it came time to build a plant for
WBAP-TV it was recognized that convenience, efficiency and economy would result if all of WBAP's operations (except
the AM transmitters, which are located at
Grapevine, Texas, midway between Ft.
Worth and Dallas, in a plant shared with
\VFAA) could be brought together at one
point.
This is where Technical Director R. C.
( "Super ") Stinson and his engineers came
in. Working with the station's consultants
they located a site which was suitable for
the TV and FM transmitters and still convenient for the commercial and studio operations. Then they sat down to plan a
building which would house all the station's commercial, programming and producing activities, its AM -FM studios, its
TV studios, its FM transmitter and its TV
transmitter. Their orders were to build for
WBAP a plant that would be the finest in
the Southwest, and that would stay the
finest for some time to come. That they
succeeded well is evidenced by the description which follows. So certain aspects of
the installation might be treated in detail
this description has been divided into sections. The subject matter of each of the
sections is as follows:
The WBAP Building and Antenna
20
Floor Layout of WBAP Building
22
WBAP TV Studio #1
24
WBAP TV Control Room
28
WBAP Projection Studio
29
WBAP TV -FM Transmitter Room
30
WPAB TV Remote Equipment
34
WBAP AM -FM Studios
36
WBAP AM -FM Studio Control Rooms 38
WBAP AM -FM Recording Room
39
WBAP AM -FM Master Control Room 40
19
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FIG. 3. Front of the WBAP building from the air. The antenna tower is
25 feet from the building and is located immediately adjacent to the
WBAP BUILDING
l'he WBAP
IR
i
sits on the
transmitter room so that transmission lines are as short as possible.
very Southwestern flavor. so that it
community. Most
of the building is two stories high. but the
ceiling over the T\' studio in the center
is elevated to give an equivalent height of
three stories. The service building in the
rear is one story high.
it
a
top of a small hill, four miles from downtown Ft. Worth, is a beautiful and impressive sight. The illustration on this and the
facing page give some idea of its size and
construction. but hardly do justice to its
beauty.
seems to blend into the
The building is very modern in design
but the exterior treatment (sandstonecolored brick walls and red tile roof) gives
The main section of the Imilding is 196
168 feet deep. The service
building extends 96 feet further back.
20
feet wide by
The antenna timer is 25 feet from the
building trid is located just opposite the
transmitter room so that very short transmission lines can be used. The FM antenna is a 4-sect ilm RCA Pylon. while the
TV antenna is a three-section RCA Super
Turnstile which is mounted on top of the
Pylon. The total height of the structure,
above ground, is 502 feet.
4 (above). The WBAP building which is 196 feet
wide by 264 feet deep is mostly of two -story construction. However, the ceiling over the TV studio area
(center of the building, is the equivalent of three stories
in height so that a ceiling height of 28 feet is provided
in the main TV studio. The service building in the rear
( ,which includes the TV storage area) is a single story
in height.
FIG.
(right). Planning of the WBAP building, its construction, and the installation of equipment were super.
viscd by the WBAP engineering staff under the direction
of B. C. ( "Super ") Stinson, Technical Director of the Ft.
Worih Star-Telegram stations. Picture at the right shows
Mr. Stinson in WBAP's TV mobile unit.
F -G. 5
P
PRODUCT ION
.PR000Cr IO
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sub -areas from outside the building without going through any part of any other
area.
RECEPTION
TI,DOWS
IN
R
STUDIO
TV
TV
CONTROL
ESr
AM- FM
MASTER
CONTROL
ORSERVATiON
of modern "traffic flow" design in that
(a) it is very easy for traffic (people) to
move around within a sub -area, and (b)
traffic (people) can enter any one of the
H
NO 2
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TELEPHONE
EQUIP
NEWS
BOOTH
ANNOUNCE
BOOTH
s
TV MASTER
CONTROL
EQUIP
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DUCTS
TUBES
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STUDIO
GALLERY
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STORAGE
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STUDIO
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NEWT
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EDITOR
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SECRETARY
TELEVISION
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STUDIO
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STUDIO
STUDIO
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OFFICE
VIDEO
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T O R A G E
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MIXING
Editor's Note: This method of traffic
division, i.e., into "TV ", "AM -FM", etc.,
might be called the "vertical" method as
contrasted to the "horizontal" method suggested by Dr. Duschinsky (in his recent
series of articles) wherein traffic is divided
into "technical ", "artist" and "public"
groups. The latter has obvious advantages
for large metropolitan stations, but would
not be economical in buildings such as
WBAP's.
On the second floor of the main building ( Fig. 7) there is a Commercial Office
Area and a Program Area. As on the first
floor, each area has its own corridor and
each can be reached without going through
any part of another area. This means, for
example, that any one visiting the Corn mercial Department can go there without
mixing with program or production traffic.
Similarly, artists coming in for rehearsal
or production can do so without interrupting the business end of the operation.
-
The sixth sub -area-the Service Area
comprises the single -story service building
which is at the rear of the main building
and is appended to the rear of the main
TV studio (Fig. 6).
O R
Production Area
Looking at the six sub-areas more closely
it will be noted that each provides for a
number of sub -functions (varying according to the main function) and that in most
cases there are some exceptions to the
straightforward division of functions between areas. For example, the TV Production Area includes not only the two live
TV studios, the film -projection studio, the
TV master control room, and TV transmitter, but also the FM transmitter (which
is located here for operating convenience
and proximity to the antenna).
TV Production Area also includes the
storage room (which opens off the rear of
the TV studio), the carpenter shop and the
film processing room. All three of these
are actually located in the "Service Building", but are conveniently located with
respect to the studio. Similarly, the Film
Library, and the Men's and Women's dressing rooms (although located on the second
floor) may be considered a part of the TV
Production Area. It will be noted that there
is a rear stairway which provides quick
access from these rooms to the studio.
TV
A IN TAI N AN CE
ROOM
Ground floor plan of the
WBAP building. The front of the
building is at the top. The famed
"video lane" is indicated by a broken line. Scale of drawings, as re-
AIR
CONDITIONING
EQUIPMENT
ROOM
FIG. 6.
bitE
FIRST
FLOOR
PL AN
produced here, is approximately 36
feet to the inch. Since these illustrations were made WBAP has added
a 58 x 68-foot extension adjoining
the carpenter shop. This is used
as an additional storage space.
FLOOR PLANS OF WBAP BUILDING
WBAP's seventy- thousand square feet
of plant floor space is arranged according
to the most modern concepts of "area
usage" and "traffic flow ". Thus the total
floor space of the building is divided into
six sub -areas, each of which contains space
for all of the activities associated with one
main function. Although these areas are
not specifically marked as such they may
easily be identified on the first and second
floor plans shown in Fig. 6 and Fig. 7.
22
For example, on the first floor of the
main building (Fig. 6) there is a TV Production Area, an AM -FM Production Area
and a News Area. It will be noted that
each of these areas is pretty much self contained and each has a corridor running
length -wise through it, from the front of
the building to the rear. Access to these
corridors is from a lateral corridor that
runs across the front of the building. This
arrangement satisfied the two basic tenets
AM -FM Production Area
The AM -FM Production Area includes
sis AM -FM studios (identified as A, B, C,
D, E and F in Fig. 6), each of which has
its own studio control booth. Entrances
to all of these is from a longitudinal cor-
ridor running straight back through the
building. This corridor can be entered
either from the lateral corridor at the front
of the building, or directly from the parking area at the rear.
The master control room (audio), the
recording room and the two radio production offices which are located along the
front of the building might also be considered part of the AM -FM Production Area.
In any event they are conveniently located
with respect to the AM -FM studios.
ROOF
ROOF
ENG
DEPT
i
TRAFFIC
DEPT
The third of the functional areas on the
first floor is the News Area. All of the news
services for both AM -FM and TV are located in this area. It will be noted that
this area also can be entered either from
the front or the rear of the building. Another noteworthy feature is the news booth
located in a corner of the news room. This
PROGRAM
DEPT
AM- FM
PROGRAM
PRODUCTION
C
O
R
R
I
UPPER PART OF
TV STUDIO NO2
PROJ
BOOTH
TV PROGRAM
R
D
O
Li
SEC
OFFICE
`I
ROOF
N
PROMOTION
EQUIPMENT
&.PUBLICITY
PROJ.
BOOTH
ROOM
NO
DIRECTOR
ART
DEPT
LOUNGE
9
EQUIPMENT
ROOM
UPPER PART OF
UPPER PART OF
OF
STUDIO
OF
A
STUDIO
B
a
TR AN SCRIP
cr
cr
LIBRARY
MENS
DRESSING P.
UPPER
WOMEN
DRESS
News Area
PORCH
OF
TV
PART
OF
OFFICE
MAIL
STUDIO NOI
ROOM
FILM
LIBRARY
OFFICE
I
ROOF
booth is acoustically treated and provided
with microphones and its own audio control facilities. News broadcasts made from
this booth do not tie up regular studio
facilities.
ROOF
OF
SERVICE BUILDING
Commercial Office Area
All of the business offices of the station
are located on the left side of the second
floor of the building. Here they are well
removed from the normal traffic flow of the
production area, and vet are just around
the corner from the programming department (with whom they will have the most
SECOND FLOOR PLAN
contact).
Program Area
.1 he
AM -FM Programming offices are
along the front of the second floor and the
TV Programming offices are around the
corner (along the right side of the building. Thus they are convenient to each
other, but are close (by conveniently located stairways) to the production areas
with which they are associated.
FIG. 7. Second floor plan of the WBAP building. Stairways at each corner of the
main building, together with six main building entrances (three in front, and three
in the rear) make it possible to enter any of the six sub- areas, from either the
front or back of the building, without walking through any of the other sub -areas.
Recently a 68 by 58 -foot extension has been added to the left side of the Service
Building to provide additional storage area.
that there
is a door providing easy access
from this point to the corridor which is
the main artery of the TV Production
Area. This facilitates movement of equipment from the studio area to the truck
or vice versa.
Service Area
Most of the service facilities are located
story section at the rear of
the building. These include the boiler
room, air conditioning room, motor room,
maintenance shop and garage. The deep
section of the latter has been designed to
house the TV mobile unit. It will be noted
in the single
Traffic Flow
Integration of functions by area is only
one half of the \\'RAI' building story. The
other part of the story is the careful ar
rangement of these areas with respect to
each other and with respect to outside
access. Study of the plans ( Fig. 6 and Fig.
will show that it is possible to go
)
from any one of the six areas to any other
area without traversing any large part of
a third area. Similarly. any of the areas
may be entered from outside the building
by two different ways (front or rear) without going through any other area. This
remarkable accessibility is gained by having stairways and outside doorways at each
corner of the building. Together with the
7
carefully planned corridor layout it thus
eliminated the confusion which otherwise
would be attendant on an operation of the
size and complexity of WBAP's.
23
FIG. 8. View of WBAP's Studio =1 from the tar end. Control
room windows are lust behind the several tiers of folding type seats.
Above the control room windows are the windows of the "lounge".
which also functions as a deluxe clients' booth. A catwalk, which is
14 feet above the studio floor, runs the full length of both sides of the
studio. Air conditioning ducts are suspended beneath these catwalks.
WBAP TV STUDIOS
Three T \' studios are provided for in
the WBAP building (see Fig. 6, page 22).
Studio #1 is 82 feet long, 45 feet wide
and 28 feet high. Studio #2 is 30 feet long.
20 feet wide and 20 feet high. Studio #3.
which is the film projection studio, is 14
feet wide by 18 feet long.
Studio #1, which is shown in several
accompanying illustrations (Figs. 8, 9),
is the origination point for most of the
station's locally- produced programs. The
illustrations do not give a true impression
of the size of this studio. When walking
into this studio one actually gets the impression of entering a medium -sized gymnasium, and the measurements confirm this
as being so.
WBAP was one of the first stations to
provide a studio of this size (and thereby
established a trend which is being followed
by more and more stations). Although
the station originates only a few programs
which require the entire studio space, nev24
ertheless they feel that it was a good investment. It enables them to do "deluxe
productions" (whenever they are called for
without the need for hiring a theatre or
auditorium. In connection with the "Video
Lane" facility (see below) it provides for
handling the most unusual and special
shows.
Convenience of a Large Studio
In the meantime, the WBAP-TV production staff finds the large studio of great
convenience for every -day shows. The relatively large available space allows them to
have as many as five or six complete sets
in place simultaneously. These are arranged
around the sides and back of the studio.
The center of the studio is reserved for
the cameras which can then be easily
turned to face into any one of the sets.
On some days it is possible to take care of
all the shows for that clay with sets which
are erected in the morning before the station goes on the air. Even on days with
complicated schedules it is seldom necessary to make quick changes of scenery
since there will almost always be occasional breaks (during film or network
shows) during which several new sets may
be put in place. As a result the station can
operate with a much smaller production
staff than would be required if mane quick
changes of scenery were necessary. Similarly. less camera equipment is required
than would be necessary if the same number of shows were to be produced in several smaller studios instead of the one large
one. It does, however, require that rehearsals be scheduled at times when the studio
is not
originating
a
show.
Video Lane
The most publicized feature of \VBAI'
euphemistically referred to as -video
lane-. Briefly, this consists of an arrangement whereby automobiles. trucks, elephants. herds of cattle-, or what have
yott, may be not just brought into the
is
y
N
q
b
r
1. All lights are suspended from a pipe framework and can be
FIG. 9. This view shows the opposite end of WBAP Studio
rotated by means of rope controls which are operated from a "'lighting bridge" (extreme right in this picture). In normal operathe
studio.
Cameras" operating in the center area, move from set to set.
the
sides
of
lion a number of "sets" are arranged along
FIG. 10 (right'. The stepped platform with folding
chairs (Fig. 8) accommodates up to 150 persons.
When a large audience is expected folding chairs
are placed on studio floor: for children's programs
the kids take over everything but the cameras.
studio but actually passed through it - -so
that the viewer sees them in motion. How
this is done can be understood by studying
the illustrations on this page and layout
diagram on page 22. ( Fig. 6).
1
It will be noted that there are two large
doors (15 feet by 12 feet), one on each
side of the studio, and directly facing each
other. 'l'he studio floor is at ground level
and these doors open directly to the out side of the building. Thus anything which
will go through a 12 -foot door can be
driven right through the studio -without
stopping. This not only allows motion, but
also enables the station to show attractions
which because of their length couldn't be
shown in the studio all at one time. For
instance. \VBAI' is probably the only station which ever ran the Budweiser commercial -live": certainly the only one that
ever did it in their studio. It is also possible
to stage "round robin" parades by having
actors, animals, cars, etc.. go out one door.
25
te!..Mo'_
FIG. 11. WBAP has yet to "'run a herd of cattle through "" the studio. But it had a herd of elephants
in it almost before it was finished. The large size doors on either side of the studio are plainly
visible in this view. These doors, opening directly to the outside (see Fig. 6, page 22), make it
possible to bring the largest attractions into or through the studio. Some of these, such as the
famous Budweiser Horses shown on the opposite page, are too long to get into the studio all
at once. The two doors, however, make it possible to pass them through the studio. thus producing
- outside- shots with all the advantages of studio lighting and camera technique. Needless to say.
the balmy Ft. Worth climate makes this more practical than it would be in colder climates.
around the back of the building and back
in the other door.
Video lane, as can be seen from Fig. 6.
back of the studio. Also at this
end is a pull curtain and provisions for
flying screens and backdrops. Thus it is
possible to provide dramatic settings for
the video lane productions or for other
large scale productions.
is near the
Camera Equipment
Three cameras are used in Studio #1.
Two of these are TK -10A's mounted on
TD -5A studio (two -man) dollies; the third
is a TK -30A on a tripod dolly. One TK30A Camera on a tripod dolly is used in
Studio #2.
The method of handling the camera
cables is rather interesting. In constructing
the studios, "Q- ducts" were installed for
this specific purpose. One duct runs from
the control room down the length of the
studio. Three evenly- spaced cross -wise
ducts intersect this longitudinal duct. The
camera cables may be brought up out of
the ducts at any desired point. Thus it is
unnecessary to have long lengths of cable
strung across the floor. Microphone cables
are handled the same way. This, together
with the fact that very few floor lights
26
are used, results in less cluttering up of the
floor area than is usual. For this type of
operation (i.e., where cameras are moved
frequently from one set to another) this
is an important advantage.
..
FIG. 12 (opposite page). WRAP is probably the
only sta'ion to run the Budweiser commercial
live. Upper picture shows the team prancing into
(and through) studio. In lower picture they have
stopped for an "on the street" interview. Note how
provision of two doors allows 80-foot long wagon
and-team to be brought into 45 -foot wide studio.
-
catwalk is that the ventilating ducts are
suspended beneath it. This means that the
ceiling area of the studio (where the ducts
are usually placed) is free for lighting fixtures, battens for flying props and scenery,
etc.
Studio Lighting
is
All general illumination in Studio #1
"off the floor ". The main battery of
lights consists of the following:
16 Incandescent Banks
15 High-Intensity Flourescent Banks
6 Spots hung from ceiling
6 Spots on catwalk rails
Several floor dollies (spots, incandescents, fluorescents) are available when required for modeling or special effects but
are used as little as possible in order to
keep the floor free for camera movement.
The main banks of lights are suspended
from a pipe framework which covers the
upper part of the studio. The position of
these are normally fixed (in a grid pattern). However, they may be moved if
special occasion requires. All 31 banks may
be rotated by means of rope controls which
are grouped on a "lighting bridge" at one
side of the studio. The bridge is reached
by a catwalk which runs along both sides
of the studio. An interesting feature of the
Audience, Clients' Area
An audience of 100 to 150 people can be
accommodated regularly in Studio #1 by
placing folding chairs on a stepped platform at the end of the studio nearest the
control room (Fig. 8). If desired, a much
larger audience can be handled by placing
chairs on a part of the studio floor area.
Clients are really provided for in style.
Referring to Fig. 7 (page 23) it will be
noted that there is an area, marked
"Lounge ", directly over the TV Master
Control Room. In this case lounge is probably more descriptive than "clients' booth ",
for this is a beautiful and spacious (20 feet
by 45 feet) room with large wing chairs.
On one side are three large windows which
provide a full view of Studio #1. On the
opposite side are two similar windows looking into Studio #2. When this room is not
being used as an observation gallery, it is
utilized for meetings with clients, previews
of films and similar activities.
SIPOrm`'..
WBAP's television master control is combined with TV Studio :!--4-1 control as
shown above. Five camera monitors (3 live. 2 film) and a preview monitor are on the lower level,
next to the studio window. The program director and technical director sit on the raised platform.
The TB, who does the camera switching, has a master monitor as well as the switching controls
on his console. The audio operator sits at a floor -level console to the left of the program director
(just behind the raised platform in this view).
FIG. 13 (above).
FIG. 14 (below).
WBAP -TV
STUDIO
Behind the raised platform, on which the technical and program directors sit,
are eleven equipment racks which contain the sync generators, amplifiers, power supplies and
auxiliary equipment. This makes for a very convenient operating and maintenance setup. Moreover. the close grouping of equipment, with short interconnecting runs, made for ease and economy
in installation. Since these photos were made the audio console has been moved over to a position
directly beside the raised platform.
At \\'BAI' the facilities of Studio -control and master control are combined.
as is common practice in this type of operation. This arrangement provides important operating economies and reduces the
amount of equipment required, although it
does complicate somewhat the carrying on
of "camera" rehearsals.
I
\ \'BAI' -T\'
Master Control Room
(approximately 20 feet by
30 feet) which makes it possible to locate
the equipment racks right in the control
room and still have plenty of room for
audio, video and director's consoles.
The
is good -sized
Fig. 13 and Fig. 14 show the arrangement of the equipment. The video console
is at booth floor level (which is 24 inches
above studio floor level). It is made up of
six camera monitor units (four live, two
film) and a preview monitor. The audio
15 (above). This is a view looking into the studio from approximately the audio operator's
position. (A part of the audio console is visible at the lower left). For the type of operating
procedure used by WBAP (and by most independent stations for local programming) a good view
of the whole studio, by all control room personnel, is essential. The wide windows looking into
WBAP studio provide a view not only of the whole width, but also most of the height of the studio.
FIG.
MASTER
CONTROL
console (a modified 76 -B) is also at fluor
level on the left side of the room (behind
the platform in Fig. 15. The director's
console is on al: IS -inch platform in the
center of the room. directly behind the
video console (so that the program director
can see the camera monitors). Both the
program director and the technical director
sit at this position. The TI) has in front
of him a master monitor with a TS -20A
Camera Switching System built into it. He
also has the controls for the stabilizing
amplifiers and the relay receiver.
Fifteen cabine: type racks at the rear of
the control room contain all of the sync
generators, distribution amplifiers. power
supplies and other rack units required for
the operation. 'l'nis plus the fact that the
film studio and Studio #2 are immediately
adjacent. makes for an exceedingly compact equipment installation with video
runs kept to an absolute minimum.
FIG. 16 (below). View looking from the control room into the film projection room. Equipment in
the projection room includes two RCA TP -16D Film Projectors and two RCA TK -20A Film Cameras.
The latter are mounted on revolving type pedestals so that they may be turned to face one of
several projectors. In addition to the film projectors there is Grey Telop and a Selectroslide
projector. with space provided for a second.
FIG. 17. WBAP's RCA TT -5A Television Transmitter as seen through the window from the corridor which runs the length
of the TV area of the building. The control console contains the operating controls for both the TV and the FM transmitters.
FIG. 18 (below). View looking toward the TV end of the transmitter room. The three cabinet
racks at the far end house the television amplifiers, monitors and the auxiliary equipment.
WBAP
TV
AND FM
WBAP's TT -5A TV Transmitter and
its BTF -10B FM Transmitters are located in one large room (see Fig. 17 above)
and are operated from a single combined
control console. Originally this was two
adjacent rooms. However. the partition
was removed and the two control consoles
combined so that one man could operate
both.
The transmitter room is in the right
wing of the first floor. There are large windows between it and the corridor so that
visitors going to and from the "l' \' studio
have a good view of the whole room. The
two transmitters, built into the back walls
and lighted from overhead valances, are a
very impressive sight.
FIG. 19. WBAP's RCA BTF -10B FM Transmitter as seen through the corridor window. The TV and FM transmitters are
built into the wall of the room and are provided with recessed overhead lighting. Behind transmitters is the large work room.
Looking toward the FM end of the transmitter rocm. The three cabinet racks
at the far end contain the audio input and monitoring amplifiers. monitors and test equipment.
FIG. 20 (below).
TRANSMITTERS
At one end of the room are three cabinet racks containing the TV test and monitoring equipment while at the other end
are three matching racks containing the
FM test and monitoring equipment. The
control console, which is made up of standard units, occupies a position in front of
the TV transmitter.
At the rear of the transmitter room is
a large work area, a portion of which is
partitioned off for storage of tubes, equipment and spares. (See floor layout, Fig. 6.
page 22). A door from this area leads out
to the antenna tower which is located close
to the building so that transmission lines
may be kept as short as possible.
-.4=tal
Difi©0
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JJJJJJiY
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--1.
WBAP -TV PLANS FOR POWER INCREASE
The \\'BAI' -T\' transmitter facilities described in the preceding pages are those
presently in operation (September, 1953).
They seem like the ultimate in size and
completeness. But \\'BAI' -T\' has further
and bigger plans in the works.
At the present time WBAP-TV operates
on Channel 5 with an effective radiated
power of 16.400 watts. The most recent
rules of the FCC allow a maximum radiated power of 100.000 watts on Channel 5.
WBAP-TV is well along with its plans to
increase to this maximum power and expects to be operating at 100.000 watts by
early next year.
At the same time that it goes to higher
power, WBAP-TV expects to start using a
new tower which will be 1113 feet high.
This compares to the 502 -foot height of the
present tower. This increase in antenna
height. together with the added power, will
32
increase
\\'BAP -TV's area of "top reception" from about 6,000 square miles to
will be so located and constructed that even
if bombed at the base its fall would hit
over 17.000 square miles.
nothing. The erection of this tower at a
location which is actually within the city
limits of Fort \ \'orth has been approved by
the Air Space Committee.
In order to accomplish the changeover
to higher power without interruption of
programs. WBAP-TV plans to install an
entirely new transmitter and antenna system. A complete new RCA 25 kw TV
transmitter which will be capable of color
telecasts as well as black -and -white has
been ordered. A new 1113-foot guyed tower
will be erected at a point 1000 feet west of
the present tower. A modern brick -and -steel
building will be constructed at the base of
the new tower. This building, which will
have 4000 square feet of floor space. will
house the new transmitter. monitoring and
test equipment. It will be styled to match
the main studio building.
The new tower, which will be one of the
tallest TV towers in this country, will be
guyed at nine points on three levels. It
A six section RCA Type TF -6BMI Superturnstile will be mounted on the top of
the new tower. The site of the tower is on
a small hill so that the actual elevation of
the antenna will be 1749 feet above sea
level.
The combination of the new high power
transmitter. the higher gain antenna. and
the twice -as -high tower will provide a tremendous increase in WBAI'- TV's service
area. A conservative estimate of this increase is indicated in the map on the opposite page. It is almost certain that many
viewers far beyond the largest circle will
receive good service, giving \\BAP-TV one
of the largest service areas in television.
MOO
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it
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ins
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RCA's newest high-power television transmitter
(Type TT -25A) which will be installed in WBAPTV's new transmitter building in the near future.
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Present and future TV coverage. The
inner circle shows the measured
"top reception" area now being
reached by WBAP -TV's 16.4- kilowatt
signals from the present 502 -foot
tower. Outer circle shows the area
tripled by next year when a 100
kilowatt signal goes out from an
1113 -foot tower to be erected 1000
feet from the present one which will
be retained as a stand-by. Towns
far outside the larger circle will get
"fringe" reception, in many cases
as satisfactory as in the strength
measured area.
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FORT WORTH STAR-TELEGRAM
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-_;30-17
FIG. 21. WBAP -TV's field unit is an RCA TV -50A Mobile Unit with complete equipment, including RCA TK -30A Cameras and RCA TTR -1A Microwave Relay Equipment.
FIG. 22 (below). WBAP engineers have made a number of modifications in the TV -50A,
most important of which is the addition of ventilating blowers. These were mounted in
the rear windows as shown in this view. On a hot summer day this is much appreciated.
Another modification provides for operation of four cameras instead of the usual three.
WBAP -TV
FIELD TRUCK
\VBAP's TV remote unit is a standard RCA "F\' -50A
Mobile Unit equipped with Type TIC -30A Cameras,
Type TTR -1A Microwave Relay and auxiliary equipment. A number of minor modifications of this unit
have been made by WBAI' engineers. One of these
which is especially interesting is the addition of ventilating blowers. These were mounted in the two rear
windows, as shown in Fig. 22, and the staff reports that
they have made the lives of the operators much more
bearable (which anyone who has operated in one of
these closed -in units on a hot day will readily believe).
WBAP has two pickup points for their microwave.
One is located on a platform on the roof of the studio
building. Because of the elevation of the site this
is a vantage point which provides a clear shot for
miles around. For those points which are shadowed by
downtown buildings WBAP has another pickup point
on the Medical Arts Building in downtown Ft. Worth
In addition it has a cable connection (AT&T) available for pickups in the Dallas area.
34
WRAP has two microwave relay pickup points: one is this
parabola on the roof of the studio building, another is on the Medical
FIG. 24.
Arts Building in downtown Ft. Worth.
FIG. 23. For pickups at the stadium, ball park and similar events,
WBAP leaves the control equipment in the mobile unit, uses long
cables
to
cameras and microwave parabola located at vantage points.
FIG. 26 (below). To improve their baseball pickup (cameras in press
box were too high) WBAP engineers rigged up this "cowboy camera"
in the Ft. Worth ball park.
FIG. 25 (below). WBAP cameras on the roof of TCU Stadium provide
panoramic view of field.
r
_ y,,,,,
,
a vision of broadcasting's ability to
grow and grow and grow.
had
WBAP AM -FM STUDIOS
The attention and publicity given to
WBA1''s television facilities might lead the
uninitiated to the assumption that radio
had been oyerlookedd. or at least relegated
to special place, in the planning of WBAP 's
new plant. Such an impression would be
entirely wrong.
Stinson, and his Audio Supervisor. Bruce
Howard. have both been with the station
many years. But they are both "old telephone men-. which as every broadcast engineer knows. nuca is they still are. and
always will be, slightly fanatical on the
subject of perfectionism in audio circuitry.
Television was entirely new to the Si uth west at the time WBAP-T\- went on the
air. It was only natural. therefore. that the
For years Bruce and Super (as he is
affectionately known to broadcast men all
over the Southwest dreamed of the studio
setup they would some day build. Many
engineers have such dreams. But Super
cameras and other TV facilities should
catch the eye of the public. However, to
the professional hroadcaster the must notable feature of W II: I''s plant is the completeness and perfection of its audio (A \I-
F\I)
facilities.
Mannino a Deluxe Studio Layout
Only :I itW station , in thc
wintry have
larger st uliuo setups. None has miner equipment. Ti, finical Director R. C. "Super''
36
)
and
Bruce had several things not many
such engineers have. First of all between
them they had over fifty years of audio
experience from the first days of broadcasting right down .o the present_ Second
they worked for a station, which because
of its many network ties, really needled an
elaborate audio setup. And third. they
worked for a man who for thirty years has
Thus, when \\'BA1' finally decided to
build an all -new plant three things happened in rapid succession. First. Super
Stinson dusted off the plans for his many years- dreamed -of super audio installation.
Second. Harold Hough said. in effect.
"Okay, shoot the works." Third, Super
brought his plans to R('A design engineers
who undertook to build exactly the facilities he wanted. The result. to which the
description on the following pages hardly
does justice. is something which engineers
visiting \\`BAI' are wont to drool over.
Six "Independent" Studios
Reference to the floor layout plan ( Fig.
It. page 221 will show that in the new
plant approximately the same floor
area is given to audio (AM-FM ) as to
video (TV). In effect, this means that
radio is Liven the larger share of the operations (since it uses its spaces more effi-
ciently than TV).
FIG. 27 (opposite page). View in WBAP's AM -FM
Studio A. This studio, like Studio B with which
it is identical, is 26 feet by 40 feet by 20 feet
high. Acoustical treatment consists of hard -surfaced polycylindrical diffusers on all four walls
and ceiling. Control of reverberation is accomplished with acoustical sinks in the form of cylinders mounted along walls and suspended from
the ceiling.
FIG. 28 (right). A corner of Studio B. which is
identical to Studio A, thereby giving added flexibility for rehearsal and programming. Each
studio has an "announcer's delight" control box
(far corner) from which position he can do his
own switching when he makes announcements.
Note the cowbell WBAP's identification for thirty
years) at each announce position.
(
FIG. 29 (right). A corner of AM -FM Studio C
which. like Studio D with which it is identical,
is 17 feet by 26 feet by 11 feet high. In these
studios, as in Studios E and F. acoustical treat
ment consists of splayed flat surfaces on walls
and ceilings plus a calculated amount of acous.
tical absorbing maerial in irregular patches.
'('here are six individual radio studios,
all of which are entered from the "audio
corridor" that runs the length of the building. Each studio i; entered through a sound
lock. Each has its own studio control booth,
so that it may be used as an entirely independent operating unit. 'I-his is of great
advantage for rehearsals or when making
recordings (of which WRAP does a large
number).
Two of the studios (A and B) are relatively large (26 feet by 40 feet by 20 feet
high). They are practically identical in
construction as well as size. Studios (' and
D. also identical, are of medium size (17
feet by 26 feet by 11 feet high). Studios
E and F, intended for news, interviews,
etc.. are smaller ;16 feet by 17 feet by
11 feet high).
Unusual Acoustical Treatment
A number of illustrations of these studios are shown on this and the following
pages. It will be noted that the idea of
using broken -up non -parallel surface walls
has been carried out to the ultimate degree. In the two large studios the walls and
ceilings are composed entirely of cylindrical
surfaces of hard -faced materials. Required
sound absorption is obtained with "acoustic sinks" in the form of cylinders or
"barrels" which are mounted along the
sicle walls and suspended from the ceilings ( Fig. 27). An advantage of these is
that they can be moved about to obtain
desired measured characteristics. 'l'hev were
suggested by I)r. Rudimose of Southern
Methodist University who was employed
as acoustical consultant in the design of
the plant.
In the smaller studios sound "breakup"
is accomplished by the use of splayed flat
surfaces on walls and ceilings ( Fig. 29).
A carefully calculated amount of acoustical material is placed on these splays in
irregularly located patches.
In both the large and small studios
acoustical "flats'' are available for con-
trolling the acoustical effect according to
the type of program. These flats (visible
in Figs 28 and 29) are macle up like
"Chinese Screens ". They have a hard flat
surface on one side and are covered with
acoustical material on the other. They may
be used to obtain special effects or to compensate for the size of the talent group.
presence of an audience, etc.
News Studio
In addition to the six regular studios
there is a "news booth" in the news room
itself. This booth is acoustically treated
and provided with permanent microphone
and control facilities. It is used not only
for emergencies but for most of the station's regular newscasts. Thus there are
really seven studios in constant use, each
a complete independent operating unit.
With all of these facilities WRAP is superbly prepared for any type of program.
and for rehearsals, recordings and other
activities in any sequence or combination.
37
FIG. 30. Each of WBAP's six main AM -FM studios
and each
is
has its own control booth. The booths are identical in size and construction
equipped (as shown above) with either two or three RCA Turntables (left), a special RCA custom-built control
program director's table (right). The RCA LC -IA Loudspeakers are mounted in the ceiling overhead.
console (center) and a
WBAP STUDIO CONTROL BOOTHS
WBAP not only produces a large proportion of its own shows locally, but in
addition it originates programs for two
regional networks and makes a very large
number of recordings (for use in stations
throughout the Southwest ). With so many
shows, and attendant rehearsals, it is not
unusual to have four or tìve studios in use
at the same time. An operation of this magnitude is possible only if each studio unit
is complete in itself.
WBAP's studios are planned that way.
Each has its own control booth, and each
booth is competely equipped with every
needed facility. The equipment in all
booths is identical and consists of (1) an
operator's console, (2) a program director's desk, (3) either two or three transcription turntables, and (4) two loudspeakers
mounted in the ceiling.
The operator's console, which is the
heart of the operation, is an unusually complete deluxe -type unit designed and custom -built to WBAP's specifications by
RCA engineers. On the top of this console
are two turrets. One, directly facing the
38
operator. contains all the regularly -used
controls. These include a seven- position
mixer which by means of key selector
switches will handle fourteen inputs, including: five studio microphones, three
turntables, two networks, two remotes,
newsroom and spare. Any of the mixer
positions may be fed independently or in
combination to either of two program
buses. This turret also contains the announce microphone control and the two
master controls.
The second turret (at the right or left
side of the operator depending on which
way the control is arranged) contains a
large jack field plus auxiliary controls
which are used only occasionally. The jack
field contains normalled inputs and output
of all amplifiers, mixers, bus circuits, etc.
The operator can use patch cords to set up
any special circuit arrangement he needs,
or to "patch out" a defective unit in an
emergency. (This operator's console is described in detail in the article entitled
"Custom -Built Studio Control Consoles for
WBAP", by A. S. Darker on page 42 of
this issue.)
The operator's console and the program
director's desk are arranged in front of the
booth window as shown in thY' illustrations
on this page. The window extends almost
the full width of the booth, giving an unusually good view of the studio. The window, however, is very narrow in the vertical dimension so that the amount of glass
surface in the studio is kept relatively low.
The turntables are in the corner of the
booth at the left (or right ) of the operator. Each booth has at least two (two
booths have three). This is another provision designed to make each studio an
autonomous producing unit. Booth monitoring speakers are mounted in the ceiling.
In addition, there is a speaker in the studio
for talkback and cueing.
The announce microphone is located on
small announcer's shelf in the corner of
the studio (per NBC practice). A rather
unusual feature is that this microphone
does not feed into the regular mixer but
rather directly to either bus (following the
master channel mixer). This allows the
studio microphones to be faded down simultaneously while bringing the announce
microphone up.
a
FIG. 31. WBAP's recording room is one of the finest station recording setups in existence. At left, in the view above. are
the RCA 73 -B Professional Disc Recorders. At right are two studio -type tape recorders. Racks in the center house line
amplifiers, recording amplifiers, monitoring amplifiers, power supplies, switching facilities and the auxiliary equipment.
WBAP RECORDING
ROOM
\\ BAP records a surprisingly large number of programs for
firms whose headquarters are in Ft. Worth and who distribute
over the whole southwest. These programs, cut at WBAP, are used
at dozens of local stations over an area several hundred miles in
radius. This requires an elaborate recording setup -and \\'BAl'
has
it!
'l'he recording room, which is just off AEI -FM master control.
has five racks of equipment including line amplifiers, recording
amplifiers, monitoring and switching facilities. Programs originating in any of WBAP's nine studios, from any of four networks.
or at remote points can be recorded on either disc or tape. The
disc recording equipment consists of two RCA 73 -B Professional
Recorders. Tape equipment includes two studio type tape recorders and four portable tape recorders for field work. Tht
equipment also includes an R('A 70 -B Turntable for checking
records or dubbing.
Vacuum pumps for WBAP's disc recorders are located in
basement directly beneath recording room. The starting switch on the recorder also starts the vacuum pump. Switching is arranged so that should
one pump fail, the vacuum line and the control can be shitted so that either
pump will serve either machine.
FIG. 32 (right).
FIG. 33. View of WBAP's AM -FM Master Control Room as seen through the window from the main lobby. Twenty racks of egLipment (with the main
control position in the center) line one side of the room. The opposite side of the room (left in this view) is made up of three huge floor -length
observation windows which divide the master control room from the corridor which runs across the front of the building (see floor plan. Fig. 6).
WBAP AM -FM MASTER CONTROL ROOM
The master control room shown in Figs.
to 37 is the "brain" of the whole
WBAP radio operation. Into this room flow
programs from sixteen different sources.
Out of it flow programs to ten different
transmitting or recording points or networks. Briefly these are:
33
Programs incoming from:
7
2
AM -FM Studios
TV Studios
2
Remotes
4
Networks (ABC, NBC, TQN,
Lone Star)
Spare line
1
1
4
Spare lines (used for feeds to
recording room, or for emergency
t
At any moment any one incoming pro
gram may be going to all ten out -going
channels, or ten incoming programs may
40
a
problem.
The control equipment which takes up
practically the whole side of the fifty foot
long control room is made up of sixteen
standard RCA equipment racks plus a
four -rack -wide center unit which was custom -built by RCA to fit WBAP's needs.
AM Transmitters (WBAP-820,
\VBAP -570)
FM Transmitter (\VBAP -FM)
Networks (ABC, NBC, TQN,
Lone Star)
3
WBAP regularly feeds two transmitters
(WBAP-820 and \VBAP -570) from two
different national networks (NBC and
ABC). It is the origination point for two
regional networks (Texas Quality Network
and Lone Star Network) which it occasionally feeds while carrying a different program itself, and it has a very heavy recording program. Thus the "despatching"
load is in itself something of
Programs outgoing to:
2
be going each to a different one of ten outgoing channels. Or there can be any combination in between. Moreover, the combination usually changes every fifteen minutes (sometimes every five).
All controls regularly used in the switching operation are grouped on this center
unit. On a sloping panel directly in front
of the operator's position are ten vertical
rows of controls. Each row is associated
with one of the outgoing channels. Each
includes a selector switch by means of which
the operator can select one of the sixteen
incoming lines he wishes to connect to
that outgoing line. A series of sixteen lights
just above shows him which one is connected at any time. Another set of sixteen
lights indicates the one he has selected or
"preset" for the next upcoming program
period. With this preset arrangement he
can, if he wishes, "preset" all his lines and
at the proper moment cause them all to be
changed by pressing a single "operate"
button. Above each set of lights is the
master volume control and VC meter associated with that line. Or, if he prefers,
he can switch each outgoing channel separately to the preset line by putting a key
in the "single" position and pressing the
"operate" button for that line only.
By means of this arrangement the most
complicated switching operations are made
to look easy. Actually the circuits are extremely complicated. For example, no less
than 170 relays are required for the switch-
FIG. 34 (above). Main entrance to the WBAP
building is through this door into reception lobby.
FIG. 35 (above,
right). View of the reception
lobby. Reception desk is at the right. window into
master control at the left center.
FIG. 36 (right). Looking down the corridor which
runs ccross the front of the building (see floor
plan, Fig. 6). The windows on the right side look
into the master control room. The doorway at
right leads to the reception lobby: the doorway
at left leads into the side corridor which runs the
length of the AM -FM studio part of the building.
FIG. 37 (right, below). View of the center part
of the master control room as seen through the
corridor windows. Opeating controls cre grouped
in the four -rack -wide center section of the equipment raclas.
ing operations alone. In addition, there are
circuits necessary for automatic interlocking. automatic switching of power supplies, correct leading of circuits. necessary
amplification, etc. All of this equipment is
mounted on tho sixteen racks which flank
the center panel on either side.
'I'he twenty Equipment Racks (counting center section) line one side of the
control room. 'l'he other side ( toward th?
c(rridor)
is practically all glass (as is the
end facing the reception lounge). Thus visitors entering the building are immediately
brought face to face with this huge control setup. Its an impressive sight. Locating it at this point was a stroke of show mhnship which certainly pays off in the
impression it makes on everyone entering
the station for the first time.
All of the equipment in \TEAT' Master
Control Room was custom -built for the
station by RCA. It is dscribed in detail in
the article -Deluxe Master Control Room
Equipment at \VBAI
by M. E. Gunn
''
(page 48 of this issue).
1. Each of WBAP's six AM -FM studios has its own control booth, and each booth is provided with a control console like the one shown above.
These all -steel consoles, custom -built for WBAP by RCA. contain all the equipment facilities (except microphones. loudspeakers and turntables) which are
required for complete independent operation of the studio for all conceivable types of programming. Additional views of console shown on following pages.
FIG.
Custom -Built Studio Control
Consoles for WBAP
By A. S. KARKER
Engineering Products Department
The
studio consoles designed and built
by RCA for WBAP. Ft. Worth, provide
in a single unit all of the operating facilities for the control of a completely independent studio unit. It was intended that
these studio consoles should offer the maximum in fidelity, flexibility, reliability and
convenience of operating. Appearance was
also an important factor in the design.
The desk is constructed entirely of steel
and completely replaces conventional rack
equipment (usually associated with the
console) by providing a housing for all
42
amplifiers, power supply, relays, etc. These
components are mounted and housed in the
pedestal which, in a conventional type of
desk, would be reserved for drawer space.
Three of these consoles were constructed
with the pedestal on the right side and
three on the left side. The pedestal is provided with a 2 -inch connection for a forced
cool air connection from the floor. The
overall dimensions of the console are:
length. 62 inches; depth. 42 inches: and
height, 38 inches. With this low overall
height, there is no obstruction of vision
into the studio.
The pedestal has two compartments.
Doors to these compartments are each supported by a continuous piano hinge. The
doors are latched by bullet type catches
which assure ease of opening and closing.
There is one large compartment with
double doors opening to the inside of the
desk. There are three shelves in this compartment on which are mounted twelve
preamplifiers RCA type BA -1A, two power
supplies RCA type B.X -1C, two program
amplifiers RCA type BA -3C, and three
monitor amplifiers RCA type BA -4A.
Amplifiers and power supplies are of the
plug -in type, and the removal of these
units for any reason is a simple matter.
The smaller compartment which opens
to the front contains the speaker volume
control, power switches, fuses, pilot lights
and terminal blocks for external connec-
,a*+!n!
.e.n.!AS!!'alnl
titras. The placement of terminal blocks in
this convenient location facilitates trouble
shooting when it is necessary to check external circuits to the desk. Needless to say.
the desk installation is less a problem than
with the terminal blocks in some out of
the way place Wiring to the terminal
blocks comes up to the terminal block
compartment through the floor.
.,.we..e!!!!!!rt
walMax
..
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s'............
1M1/1
.
i
rr1!R
FIG.
2
(right).
All
4!'
of the amplifiers, power sup-
plies, relays, etc., associated with the operation
of the studio and control booth are housed in the
pedestal of the console. This eliminates the need
for an equipment rack in the control booth and
greatly simplifies and reduces the cost of equipment installation. The amplifiers, which are all
standard RCA units of the plug -in type, are located on shelves as shown in the view at right.
The top shelf contains eleven BA-1A Booster
Amplifiers, the middle shelf two BA -3A Line
Amplifiers and two BX -1C Power Supplies, and
the bottom shelf three BA -4A Monitoring Amplifiers. The small compartment at the front of
the pedestal (right in this view) houses power
switches, fuses and terminal blocks for external
connections. This very convenient positioning of
the terminal blocks is another contribution to ease
and convenience of installation.
tt,
'4100...aw
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f
q't!1
I
Ilk
.
,r
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FIG. 3 (right, below). The custom -built console
installed in one of the studio control booths at
WBAP. The control turret is relatively low so
that it does not obstruct the view of the studio.
The progrcm director sits at a matching table
(just beyond the side turret in this view). Turn-
tables a-e at the operator's right, loudspeakers
in the ceiling overhead.
43
Accessibility is a feature of the WBAP console. The front panel of the operating turret is hinged at the top so that it can be raised to
provide quick access. The control section of the side turret is hinged at the bottom so that it can be lowered cs shown in the view above. The amplifier
and power control compartments in the pedestal have hinged doors.
FIG. 4.
The side or end of the desk pedestal
which is fastened with concealed screws
was removed during the time the desk was
being wired to provide easy accessibility
to all amplifier plug terminals.
There are two turrets built on the desk
top. The turret directly in front of the
operator has a hinged panel so it can be
raised to gain access to any parts which
are mounted on it that may require maintenance. There are two slopes on this control
panel to provide maximum operation convenience. The mixer controls are mounted
44
at a sixty degree angle (from the vertical
plane) which permits long periods of operation with maximum comfort and minimum fatigue even though these controls
usually require continuous adjustment during programming.
The part of the panel containing the VC
meter. master gain controls and switches
is on a fifteen degree slope. This places
the meter in a position to give maximum
advantage to the operator.
The side turret contains a jack bay
which contains 120 pairs of jacks. Access
to the jack wiring is gained by the removal
of a panel in the back of the turret.
Mounted along side the jack bay towards
the front is a meter for checking cathode
bias voltages of BA -IA and BA-3C amplifier tubes. A selector switch picks up the
metering terminals of these amplifiers.
Sound effects controls, cue selector, head
phone selector and volume control are
mounted on this panel. These controls required only occasional adjustment but are
within reach of the operator. Access to this
section is by lowering the hinged front
i
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FIG. 5. A side (or end) view of the console with the side panels (fastened with concealed screws) removed to show arrangment of components
in the pedestal and the side turret. The amplifiers (front view in Fig. 2) are all of the plug -in type so that they may be removed easily for
servicing or replacement. The fact that all inter-unit wiring and complete check-out is done in the factory makes for fast, economical installation.
panel which is held in place with thumb
screws.
The desk top is wood with a cigarette
burn proof black micarta top. The edge
is
trimmed with aluminum moulding. 'l'he
desk is finished with a baked enamel, light
umber gray with panels in a contrasting
dark umber gray. These color tones produce a pleasing and harmonizing blend
with studio and control room decorating.
All dial plates are nickel silver and
machine engraved characters are used
throughout.
Control Facilities
The circuit block diagram. ( Fig. 7),
embodies a. seven mixer position. Each
mixer has associated with it a lever key.
This provides a choice of two inputs to
each mixer adding to the flexibility of the
overall system. The seven mixer controls
are centrally located on the control panel
with the selector keys grouped at the upper
left section of the panel. Located aloes
each mixer control are two supervisory
lights which indicate the channel (reg. or
aux.) to which the mixer is switched. Each
channel has its own booster amplifier and
master gain control. 'l'he 0011)111 of each
master gain control feeds into is respective
IL -3(' program ampli tier. From these amplitiers, two way branching networks feed
the associated VI circuit, monitor bus and
program line. Selection of the reg. or aux.
channel to the outgoing program line is
made by the on -air key switch and indicated by supervisory lights. "l'he announce
mixer is combined with the reg. and aux.
channels following the program master gain
control. This arrangement allows the stu-
45
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FIG. 6 (opposite page. top). Closeup of the front turret. Mixer controls are
mounted on lower part of panel which is sloped at an angle of sixty
degrees (from verticali to provide maximum comfort for operator. VU meters,
switches. masters and monitoring controls are on upper part of panel which
is at fifteen degree angle for best observation of meters.
FIG. 7 (opposit page, bottom). Simplified schematic diagram showing elec.
trical circuits included in the WBAP consoles. Seven mixer positions" each
with two- position input key, provide for handling fourteen inputs without
patching. Output keys in each position allow them to be switched independently to either of two program /monitor busses.
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FIG. 8 (above). Closeup view of the side turret of the WBAP consoles.
On the control panel at the left are: (1) a meter and selector switch
for checking the cathode -bias voltages of tubes in BA -1A and BA -3A
amplifiers. (2) selector switch and volume control for headphone monitoring
of all important circuits. (3) cue selector switch for obtaining cue from
any of house monitoring busses, (4) sound effects filter switch with con
trots for high and low cutoff. The jack bay contains sixty pairs of double
jacks. Most of these are normalled- through jacks located at the points
in the circuit indicated in Fig. 7. They provide for quick check at any
point in any circuit and, when necessary" for "patching around" any
component In the equipment.
dio microphones to be faded out simultaneously while switching or fading in the
announce position.
the panel opens and closes this echo return
circuit. A sound effects filter is supplied to
obtain a wide variety of effects.
A two position echo mixer circuit with
bridging transformer inputs and a BA-1A
booster is supplied. Reverberation characteristics may be applied to two microphone
channels by patching the output multiple
of one of the microphone or turntable pre amps to one of the bridging transformer
inputs. The output of the booster amp
appears on jacks on a rack in the master
control room from which it can be patched
into an RCA BA-4A which drives a speaker
located in the echo chamber. A microphone
in the echo chamber picks up the output
from the speaker and feeds it into an RCA
BA-2B amplifier, the output of which also
appears on jack in master control. This
circuit is then patched back to the studio
control booth where it can be patched into
an unused mixer to be combined with the
normal program. The reverberation key on
An RCA type BA -4A monitor amplifier bridges the aux. monitor bus through
a bridging volume control and feeds a
speaker in the control room. The reg.
channel monitor bus is bridged to an RCA
type BA -4A monitor amplifier through a
bridging volume control. A key switch
transfers the input of the amplifier to a
rotary switch for selecting a cue for the
studio monitor buses. The studio speaker
and a control room speaker are fed from
this amplifier. The volume control for each
of these monitors is mounted beside the
respective channel master gain control.
The talk back circuit uses an RCA
BA -4A amplifier which feeds the studio
speaker. A relay which turns on the studio
speaker for talk back is operated by a push
button switch on the microphone stand.
This switch is interlocked with the line key
and is inoperative when
the air.
a
program is on
A separate relay is used to cut off the
studio speaker when a microphone is
switched in to prevent feedback.
The announce microphone switch operates a relay which cuts out all the studio
microphones and turns on the announce
microphone. Constant amplifier loading is
always maintained by a system of back
loading all relays.
An eighteen position head phone monitor
switch and volume control with an RCA
BA-1A preamp is provided. These controls
are in easy reach located on the side panel
for adjustment to the operator's desired
volume.
Other facilities provided on the consolette are a utility key, utility attenuator,
standby switch, preset and ready indicator
lights.
47
STUDIO LINE
TO DIAL
OUTPUT CHANS
TO
SYSTEM
2
DIAL
BLANK
SPARE
SHELF
6 -BA -IA
6-BA -IA
BRG VC
STUDIO -6
6 -BA- IA
BLANK
BLANK
6 -BA-IA
3 -DA -IA
BRG VC
RECORDING
BI -2A METER
BRG- VC
STUDIO 7-12
BI -2A METER
BRG VC
CHAN -6
4 -BA -IA
BRG -VC
CHAN 7-10
BI -2A METER
2 -33-A JACKS
5-33A
4 -33A
VC
I
BLANK
BLANK
POWER
POWER
POWER
57 -C
SW PANEL
48
STUDIO 13-16
2 -BX -IC
IBX- IC
BLANK
JACK
BLANK
2 -BX -IC
POWER
SUPPLIES
I
BLANK
SUPPLY
I6 -BRG COILS
FOR HD PHONE
MON BUS
57 -C
SW PANEL
10
BROADCAST
LINES
REM- NET
SERVICE
LINES
REM -CUE
5
6
7
8
t1LACiK
2 -BA -3C
2 -BA -3C
LSC
570 -820 -FM
2 -BA -IA
HD. PHONE
AMPS
BI -IA METER
2 -33A JACK
PANELS
BLANK
PANELS
BLANK
4 -BA -IA
BRG -VC
SUPPLIES
-BX-IC
SUPPLY
1
JACK
PANELS
PHONE
AMPS
4
3
BLANK
BRG
INCOMING
HD
SYSTEM
BLANK
I
-BX -IC
POWER
SUPPLY
BLANK
TON
2 -BA -3C
REM-I
REM -2
BI -IA METER
BLANK
BLANK
NBC LINE
ABC LINE
VU METER
BLANK
BLANK
VU METER
ABC
UTL. VOL.
BI -IA METER
CONTROLS 1+2
PANELS
INCOMING
5-33A JACK
PANELS
24 INCOMING
LINES
3-33A JACKS
2- BA-3C
14
5 -33A JACK
LINES
SPARE
INPUT
16
LINE COILS
600 150
SWITCHING
INPUTS
I
BLANK
-33A JACK
BLANK
COILS NET
BRG TO STUDIO
AVG NET FEED
TO STUDIOS
SPACE FOR
36 TYPE 23A
-33A JACK
I
I
BLANK
I
-BA -4C
8c
BRG COIL
REM -CUE
REM CUE SEL
EMG MAGNETO
12
POS RD
12
POS RD
12
POS RD
-33A JACK
BLANK
12 POS RD
BLANK
BLANK
EQUALIZERS
BRG COILS
FOR HD. PHONE
MON BUS
57 -C
SW PANEL
57 -C
SW PANEL
57 -C
SW PANEL
57- C
SW
PANEL
BLANK
M C
57 -C
SW PANEL
SEE
DET'
r
Deluxe Master Control Room
Equipment at WRAP
by M.
GUNN
E.
RCA Engineering Products Department
The
\CBAI' master control room equipment is one of the largest and most complete installations of its kind in existence.
One of the most recent of a number of
large-size deluxe installations designed and
built by the RCA custom engineering
group, it includes the best features of preceding designs plus a number of new features which broadcast station engineers
will find of interest. These include:
(a) Complete facilities for handling simultaneously sixteen incoming and ten
outgoing lines with provision for any
desired input -to-output combinations.
(b) All -relay -type switching with provision
for "pre- setting" all desired combinations so that at changeover time the
operation of one key accomplishes all
required switching operations.
(c) In -line arrangement of twenty equipment racks along one side of room so
1
(opposite page). WBAP's AM -FM Master
Control Room equipment consists of sixteen standard racks of equipment units plus special four rack -wide center section on which main operating
controls are grouped. These racks take up one
whole side of the forty -foot long control room.
The opposite side of the room and one end (far
end in this view) consist of floor length windows
through which visitors to the building can observe
the control operation.
FIG.
SWITCHING
MEASURING
10
I
BLANK
II
BLANK
II
II
SUPER -PRO
COMMUNICATION RECEIVED
II
that visitors have a full view of all
control room operations.
(d) Control position "built- into" rack
setup so that wiring interconnections
are reduced to a minimum, operation
made more convenient.
(e) Unusually complete provision of auxiliary equipment for monitoring, testing and servicing.
Design of the Equipment
The general specifications for the master
control room equipment were drawn up
by the \\'BAI' engineering staff headed by
L. C. ("Super ") Stinson, Technical Director, and Bruce Howard, Audio Facilities
Engineer. Both of these men have made
audio equipment their chief interest for
many years. Thus, when it came time to
plan a new studio layout they knew exactly
what they wanted. Moreover, they knew
how to lay down "tight" specifications on
performance. The requirements they set up
represented a degree of performance heretofore unequalled in a system of this size.
MEASURING
DRAWING'
TYPE 688
I
DI ST.
II
I
METER
TYPE 63C
I
DAVEN GAIN
SET
II
10-A
BLANK
II
II
CH.
I-
5
CH-6-10
13
14
BLANK
BLANK
BLANK
2-BA-3C
CH-1
CH-2
2-BA-3C
CH-2
CH-3
CH-4
2-BA-3C
CH-6
CH-7
2-BA-3C
CH-8
CH-9
BI-IA METER
BI -IA METER
BI -IA METER
2 -33A JACKS
2 -33A JACKS
4 -33A JACK
4-33A JACK
SPARE
BFO
BLANK
PANELS
PANELS
OPERATORS
TEL SET
BLANK
I-BA-3C
I-BA-3A
86 -AI
CH-
ECHO MIC
BOOSTERS
BLANK
86-Al
BLANK
BFO
.IL
CH.I-2 LIM
I
BLANK
2- BA-2B
PANEL
BLANK
Construction of the Equipment
The individual racks which make up the
\\'13AI' master control equipment were assembled and wired by the RCA Engineering Products Department in Camden. All of
the racks are standard Type BR -84 Cabinet Racks and most of the rack -mounted
amplifiers, jack panels, meter panels, etc.,
are also standard units. The 4- section control unit in the center was, of course, specially designed and manufactured (see
Figs. 5 and 6) to order. However, even
in this unit regular cabinet rack frames
were used so that standard methods of
assembling and wiring components could
be followed throughout.
FIG. 2 (below). This drawing of the equipment racks in the WRAP master
control room shows the placement of the individual units on the racks. In general
these units are grouped according to the part of the circuit they are in. The
function of the units in each rack is indicated by the legend over the rack.
Details of the four -rack center section are shown in Fig. 4 on the following page.
12
I
Engineers of the RCA custom audio engineering group took the \CBAP specifications and planned an equipment layout
which would provide the facilities desired
by the station. Their plans were checked
and rechecked with \\'BAP engineers until
all were in accord. Thus the final design of
the equipment represents the combined
thinking of \ \'BAP and RCA engineers.
2 -BA -IA
PRE AMPS FOR
LIMITERS
-BX -IC
CH-5
BLANK
RECEIVERS
POWER
124V-5A-
SUPPLY
I,24V-SA -DC
POWER
I
SUPPLY
LSW PANEL
SUPER -PRO
POWER
SUPPLY
SW PANEL
BLANK
POWER
SUPPLY
UTL COILS
TEST COILS
TEST PADS
SW PANEL
57- C
SW PANEL
MONITORS
16
17
BLANK
I- BA -4C
HOUSE MON.I
BLANK
-BA -4C
I
DIAL MON
2 -VC-4 SEL
2 -33A JACKS
-BA-4C
-BA -4C
DIAL MON 2
2 -33A JACKS
2 -33A JACKS
1
BLANK
I
CH-10
-BA -4C
ECHO SPKR
I
AMP
BLANK
BLANK
I
-BA -4C
MC MON 3
BLANK
BLANK
MC MON 4
BLANK
BLANK
- BA -4 C
2 ECHO
SPKR AMP
BLANK
BLANK
LINE COILS
NETWORKS
LINE COILS
NETWORKS
BLANK
BLANK
I
57- C
SW PANEL
57-
C
SW PANEL
57 -C
SW PANEL
I
BLANK
HOUSE MON 2
I
I
DC
MONITORS
15
57-
C
SW PANEL
I
-BA -4C
57 -C
SW PANEL
49
FIG. 3. This is a closeup of the main operating position of the WBAP master control position. The special four- rack -wide control section was custombuilt by RCA to WBAP's specifications. It provides means of switching sixteen incoming circuits to any or several of ten outgoing circuits with complete
"preset" facilities. Arrangement of controls is shown in diagram, Fig. 4. on opposite page. Operation is described in the text. Shown in this view are.
at left, R. C. Stinson, Technical Director of WRAP, under whose direction this equipment was planned and installed; and, at right, Roy Bond, of the
WBAP engineering staff.
Arrangement of Equipment
The general arrangement of the equipment in master control is shown in Fig.
1. The location of the various equipment
units on the sixteen racks is shown in Fig.
2. It will be noted that these units are
grouped according to function. The function of the equipment in each rack is indi
cated by the title over the rack in Fig. 2.
All controls regularly used in the switching operation are grouped on a four -rackwide unit. A diagram of this unit is shown
in Fig. 4. On a sloping panel directly in
front of the operator's position are ten
vertical rows of controls. Each row is associated with one of the outgoing channels.
Each includes a selector switch by means
of which the operator can select one of the
sixteen incoming lines he wishes to connect
to that outgoing line. A series of sixteen
lights just above shows him which one is
connected at any time. Another set of six-
teen lights indicates the line which has been
selected or "preset" for the next upcoming
50
program period. With this preset arrangement he can, if he wishes, "preset" all his
lines and at the proper moment cause them
all to be changed by pressing a single
"operate" key. Or, if he prefers, he can
switch each outgoing channel separately to
the preset line by putting a key in the
"single" position and pressing the "operate" key for that line only.
Above each set of lights is the master
volume control and VU meter associated
with that line. At either end of the panel
there is a "utility" VU meter with a selector switch which allows the meter to be
placed across any line for checking purposes. Between these VU meters and the
ten regular channel selector systems there
are spaces which make it possible to add
two additional outgoing line facilities if
they are needed at a later date.
A small vertical panel, just below the
large sloping panel, contains monitor selector and volume controls for four monitor
speakers which are mounted in the ceiling
above the control position, and for two
headphone monitoring circuits which by
means of selectors can be placed across all
important operating circuits.
Circuit Details
The simplified circuit diagram shown in
Fig. 10 indicates the arrangement of circuits in the master control room equipment.
There are sixteen input circuits. Seven of
these are from AM -FM studios, two from
remote positions and one is a spare. All
incoming program circuits (except those
from the studios) are provided with Type
BA-3A booster amplifiers to compensate
for equalization plus line losses.
The sixteen input circuits feed into a
switching system which uses 170 relays to
provide presetting features plus interlocking to prevent more than one program on
the same channel. Each of the ten output circuits incorporates a Type BA -3A
booster amplifier, volume control and VU
meter. In addition, the two main lines to
FACILITIES SAME FOR
10
CHANNELS
STUDIO SEL
2 20 LAMP STRIPS
& PRE SET
CHAN GAIN
STUDIO ON AIR
CHAN VU
ON AIR
UTL
VAR VU ATTN
VU
2
VU-
3
4
5
io
6
-
-o
--o
e
o
o
o
o
o
0
0
0
0
-VAR
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
VU
SEL
SEL
VU AT TN
SEL
INDICATOR
INDICATOR
LAMPS
VU
UTL VOL
LAMPS
\~O
-
00
MAS -OPR SW
POWER SW
IND LAMP
SAME FOR 10 CHAN
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
O
RE -DIAL
I
MON DIAL
MON
I
VC
MON 3
SEL
MON 3 VC
4 (above). Location of the various controls
and indicating lights on the center section of the
WBAP master control are shown in this drawing.
FIG.
5 (right). Wiring the panels of the center
control section. In the foreground is the meter
panel: in the rear is the panel containing output circuit selector switches and indicator lights.
FIG.
This picture shows the
6 (right, below).
maze of wiring in the back of the indicator light
panel. Uncounted miles of wire went into this
job. All of the assembly, wiring and unit checkout was done in the Camden Plant of the RCA
Engineering Products Department.
FIG.
the AM transmitters (570 and 820) are
provided with Type 86 -A Limiting Amplifiers. The main purpose of these is to
equalize the apparent difference in level
between network programs (which are
more or less compressed by the long lines
and narrow frequency band) and local
station announcements (which have wider
frequency range and higher peaks).
ABC and NBC networks are fed to each
studio through bridging coils and variable
attenuators. Once the program is equalized
and level adjusted in master control, the
studio engineer need only open the proper
fader on his console to obtain program.
Four master control monitors provide a
complete check of all audio circuits. Type
BA-4A Amplifiers are used to drive LC-1A
Speakers mounted overhead.
MASTER OPERATE SW
HEAD PHONE VOL
HEAD PHONE SEL
2 MON DIAL
MON VC
MON
4 VOL
FIG. 7 (left). All of the equipment racks for
WBAP, as well as the master control section. and
the studio booth control consoles, were assembled
and wired in the factory. Here are some of the
racks nearly ready for final check.
Two of the monitors have rotary
switches for selecting program. The other
two are equipped with dial selectors which
operate stepping switches.
In addition to the speaker monitors,
there are two headphone circuits with selectors to provide program checking of
twenty -eight important circuits.
A rack containing stepping switches for
twenty stations is included in the overall
system.
Forty -eight rack mounted ringdown circuits make it possible to permanently connect an extensive private telephone network to inside and outside locations.
Auxiliary equipment in the master control room allows almost any conceivable
type of setup and service. There are amplifers for house monitors, amplifiers for echo
facilities and plenty of extra pads and
transformers which may be used in emergency or special setups.
8 (below).
It is not feasible to take a complete -systems- test at the factory on a project of this size. However,
the completed racks are usually "'circuit checked" individuclly as shown here.
FIG.
FIG. 9 (below). More than 170 relays are required at WBAP to
provide complete "preset "" switching plus necessary interlocking
proteciivs circuits. Note terminal bocrds with extra length of
cable for dropping through floor to mounting rack in basement.
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53
Novel Location Of Terminal Boards
Makes Wiring Easy At WBAP
Many an engineer. working on his hands
and knees in the cramped space behind a
row of equipment rack:. has had occasion
to wonder (some not too politely) what
so- and -so thought up that particular form
of medieval torture. No one knows who
first started putting terminal blocks at the
bottom of racks. And certainly no one
who has had to use them thinks well of
the practice. Still. it has persisted for years.
Possibly because no one came forward with
a better idea.
In a few instances the terminal blocks
have been put at the top of the racks. But
with only mild success. True, there's mire
room sometimes. And you don't have to
stoop. But you do need to stretch. And
you are a long way from your ducts and
outside connections.
\ \' BAP found a better way! Bruce
Howard. their Audio Supervisor, is a big
fellow. He doesn't like that hands and
knees stuff worth a darn (expurgated
word' ). The more he thought of those
twenty racks for \ \'BAI''s control room the
more unhappy he became. Finally he had
a "brain storm ". The wiring was going
in the basement. Why not the terminal
boards too?
To make a long story short, that's where
they went. RCA wired all the racks with
extra long leads so that the terminal blocks
could be located eighteen inches below the
bottom of the rack (Fig. 2). \ \'BAP cut
holes in the floor, dropped the terminal
blocks through, and mounted them on a
frame in the basement (Fig. 1). The
frame is a handy height for working on
standing up. If you are nearsighted you
can get your nose within an inch of the
terminals. without contortions. There are
even handy outlets in the a -c conduit for
plugging trouble lights or soldering iron.
\\'BAI' also ran its wiring between studios and master control in the basement.
Angle iron frames with rubber covered pipe
hooks were fastened on the walls of the
basement corridors (where necessary on
the ceiling) and all wiring hung in these
( Fig. 3). This arrangement saved the cost
of running long lengths of ducts. And it's
far more convenient for trouble hunting
or pulling additional cables.
1 (below).
Terminal boards for all of the twenty racks of equipment in WBAP's master control room are mounted on a framework in the basement
just beneath the rack positions. This puts the terminals at eye level where they are very convenient for wiring and easily accessible for changes which
may be made later. Note handy a -c receptacles in conduit overhead.
FIG.
FIG. 2 (right). All of the WBAP racks were wired
in the RCA plant at Camden. Cables to terminal
boards were made about three feet longer than
usual. After racks were set in place at WBAP
the terminal boards were dropped through holes
in the floor and mounted on a frame in the basement as shown in Fig. 1.
Also located in the basement at WBAP
are the studio control room power supplies. They are grouped at one convenient
point so that maintenance is simplified.
It might be of interest to note that
WRAP, like many of the new one and two
story buildings. does not have a basement
under the whole structure. They do, however, have a basement under the front part
of the building and, in addition, they ran
basement corridors (tunnels if you will)
under the building corridors. This provided
a convenient space for their heating and
ventilating pipes, as well as their interstudio wiring. This might be an idea for
some of the new TV buildings being
planned now.
Wiring between studios. control booths and mas.
ter was run in open hangers
located in basement corridors.
These hangers are made of
angle iron and rubber covered pipe hooks. This arFIG. 3.
rangement is cheaper than
ducts and more convenient
for trouble hunting or pulling
additional cables.
:
Landon. Assistant Studio Supervisor of Radio Station KDKA. Pittshurgh. Pa., seated at desk
in master control room. The two rack- mounted tape recorders are RCA Professional Type RT -11.
E. B.
KDKA
PITTSBURGH, PENNSYLVANIA CHOOSES
RCA TYPE RT -11 PROFESSIONAL TAPE RECORDERS
by
T. C.
KENNEY
Chief Engineer, KDKA
Recognizing the growing demand for recorded messages of all kinds, whether for
radio broadcasting or for personal records
of memorable occasions, Westinghouse
Radio Station KDKA, Pittsburgh. has instituted KDKA Recordings, the largest recording studio between New York and
Chicago.
To meet the requirements for such an
undertaking. KDKA installed two RCA
Professional Broadcast Tape Recorders.
56
for delayed broadcasts, tape interviews, distributed tapes to the Armed
Forces, audition checks for clients and
other unique applications
which were obtained from the first batch
that came off the production line. KDKA
had been looking forward with enthusiasm
to the receipt of these recorders following
a demonstration of a pre-production model
which had proved their superiority. 'l'he
Type R'l' -11 Recorders have more than
lived up to expectations in taking over
KI)KA's heavy recording load.
The two recorders are panel mounted in
the Master Control Room. From the beginning they were found to be so dependable that remote control appeared feasible,
and the studio control rooms were wired
so that the engineer handling the program
to be recorded could also control the tape
recorders, "Start ", "Stop ", "Fast Forward", "Fast Reverse ". and "Record ". This
speeds up operation by improving coordination and a single engineer handles the
whole job, even when two machines are
used to get special effects.
Taking advantage of the easy editing.
dubbing and redubbing without loss of
quality, afforded by these machines, all recording is done first on tape, even though
the order is for acetate. This saves time
and avoids spoiled discs, since several cuts
can be made until a satisfactory one is
arrived at from a production standpoint,
before dubbing to discs.
The members of KDKA's Engineering
Department have become very adept at
handling unusual assignments on these versatile machines, and have earned the reputation of being willing and able to tackle
any job, no matter how involved, and to
turn out excellent work.
The equipment is primarily used for
delayed broadcasts, taping interviews or
round table discussions, School of the Air
programs and the Westinghouse School
Science feature, Adventures in Research,
which is distributed to 187 stations throughout the country. and the Armed Forces
Radio Service.
The station's uses of the recorders are
only a part of the purpose for which they
were intended. KDKA Recordings offer a
wide variety of service for auditions and
air checks for clients and agencies. They
also provide an opportunity to build and
recheck air shows for future use.
The business world has been quick to
realize that the human voice is the most
effective means of delivering a message.
Progressive companies have found recordings an ideal medium for use in their business. Sales managers use recordings for
training classes, special sales meetings and
for reports.
KDKA Recordings has a library of 200
10% -inch reels (2.400 feet of tape to each
reel) which were made for clients. Tapes
have been made fer slides. motion pictrues
and orchestral and vocal music for juke
boxes.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
broadcast was successful, but on the way
down through the clouds the plane's radio
beam receiver failed, and the pilot tvas unable to find the airport. For two hours they
circled over Western Pennsylvania. Finally,
the pilot broke out of the clouds. recognized
Grove City below him, and followed Route
(TED) KENNEN', chief engineer of KDKA, has been with the station 27
years having started as a transmitter operator at what was known as the "Hill Station" at East Pittsburgh in 1926.
He became a studio operator in 1931, studio supervisor in 1934, assistant chief engineer in 1941 and gained his present title
May 20, 1943.
During his years in broadcasting, Ted has
TIIEDDMRE C.
handled practically every kind of program
and every kind of transmission. In the early
days at the "Hill Station" he assisted in the
first Westinghouse experiments with frequency modulation and television.
As for programs, he has done remote
pickups from everything but a submarine,
and would have handled that too, bad there
ever been a submarine in Pittsburgh. Offhand, he can remember pickups from planes.
trains, motor boats, barges, blimps, coal
mines. mills, Conestoga wagons. and dozens
of such ordinary events as rallies, parades,
and baseball and football games.
One of the high spots of his career was a
broadcast of an eclipse of the sun, from an
airplane 20,000 feet over Pittsburgh. The
T.
C.
19
back to Pittsburgh.
A less hazardous but equally exciting incident occurred during a broadcast from a
roller coaster. Kenney. sitting beside the announcer. was holding the portable short wave
transmitter through which the program was
relayed to the studios. Suddenly, the car shot
down a steep decline and the transmitter
flew out of Kenney s hands. He caught it in
the air, just as it was going over the back
of the car.
Outstanding among his engineering achievements was the installation of the special antenna system in Pittburgh's famous Liberty
Tunnels, which made possible radio reception in automobiles going through the tubes.
Kenney is a native of Scottdale, Pa. He
received his engineering knowledge at Carnegie Tech.
Kenney, Chief Engineer. KDKA. operates RCA Professional Tape Recorder Type RT -11.
NEW RCA EQUIPMENT COMPONENTS
FOR HIGH -FIDELITY FANS
Broadcasters have been talking up high fidelity for over twenty years. For at least
nineteen of the twenty nobody -but no-
body- seemed
to be listening. Nevertheit. And suddenly the idea
caught. Why did it happen just at this parless, they kept at
ticular moment? Nobody knows' Explanations are a dime a dozen
and worth
just about that. But the fact is that all of
...
a
sudden millions of people have gone
slightly nuts about high -fidelity.
Possibly the announcement of a line of
RCA Hi -Fi Equipment should also be
spread to hobbyists who were not broadcasters. Orders for L(' -IA's began to cone
in from the most unlikely places. Amplifiers too. and even for our professional -
classified as "it had to happen." Broadcast
operators have been making up hi -fi systems out of odd broadcast units for a long.
long time (over twenty years that we personally know about). Gradually the idea
type turntables
It took quite
ridiculous as it seems.
while for our professionally- minded product planners to get used
to the idea that non -professionals. too.
wanted "broadcast quality" equipment.
But came- the -dawn. and now we have it,
a complete line of professional -type equipment specifically designed for custom -built
high -fidelity home music systems. Whether
or not you plan to build a hi -fi system you
a
should know about this equipment because
it is something your non- technical friends
+till expect you Ut advise them on.
WHAT THE
RCA
HI -FI
LINE
INCLUDES
line of R('A High -Fidelity
Equipment includes players, tuners, ampli"l'he new
fiers, speakers, enclosures and accessory
items of matched design. In each classification there are several models so that a
choice of features, range and power output
is
available.
Illustrations and detailed descriptions of
the individual units of the new RCA HiFidelity line will be found on the following
pages. There are also diagrams indicating
how these units may be combined in various ways to form complete hi- fidelity systems. Those whose immediate interest is in
details should turn to these pages.
]'hose who would like 14) know more
about the RCA Engineering Products Department's thinking on high -fidelity equipment. the principles followed in the design
of this equipment, and the reasons for
emphasizing certain features. will find the
following of interest.
THE SEPARATE UNIT IDEA
FIG. 1. Dr. Harry F. Olson, director of the acoustical laboratories of the David Sarnoff Research
Center. shows the new model of the LC-1A speaker. This iustly- famous unit originally designed
for broadcast monitoring use is being made available to hi-fi fans as part of the new RCA line.
Action of the acoustical domes, which are a feature of the new LC -1A. is explained on Page 64.
58
High -fidelity reproduction in the hone
is not an exactly definable quality. It depends on the type and source of music one
wants to listen to, the size and furnishings
of the listening room, and even on the hearing of the individual listener. Thus, to a
considerable degree, it is a matter of determining personal satisfaction rather than
blindly complying with a set of absolute
standards.
Most high -fidelity enthusiasts believe
that for each of them individually the end
WHERE TO BUY IT
RCA Internadched High -Fidelity Equipment components are sold through authorized RCA Electronic Distributors.
Your local distributor will he glad to
give you full information or you may
write to RCA Engineering Products. De.
partment 503 -RN, Bldg. 15 -I, Camden, N. J.
result of pleasing reproduced sound is attainable only through their personal selection and arrangement of components. For
this reason RCA Hi- Fidelity Equipment
is made up of separate units, each with a
single function. There are five main categories: players, tuners, amplifiers, speakers
and enclosures. In each category there are
several types to choose from. Thirty or
more different combinations of these units
are feasible. In addition they can be used
with most existing equipment. Thus the
"hi -fi" builder has plenty of room for individual expression. Also he has "flexibility"
-allowing him to rearrange his system at
will. Finally, and perhaps most important,
he has provision for expansion, for "growing," in easy steps, by replacing one unit
at a time or by supplementing with new
units.
FIG.
2.
Type SAC51 three speed automatic record changer designed for hi -fi music systems.
WHERE DID THE "SEPARATE UNIT"
IDEA START?
It is interesting to speculate on the origin
of the "separate units for hi -fi" idea. There
is an impression that it is an outgrowth of
the fact that "hi -fi" had its beginnings
among hobbyists who liked to "build their
own." And that is partly true. But it is
also true that most of these hobbyists assembled their systems by making use of
separate units already available. These separate units -turntables, amplifiers, speakers
-were usually those which had been originally designed for professional applications, such as broadcasting, recording or
public address systems.
Equipment for these fields has always
been designed on a "quality- first" basis.
Moreover, it has always been built in separate units, so that standard units could be
custom -assembled to fit any application.
These professional attributes of quality and
flexibility appealed to the early hi -fi en
thusiasts. To build their systems they
picked up these professional units wherever
they could. Such units as the RCA LC -1A
Speaker became collectors' items. Gradeally each hobbyist completed a system of
such "commercial" units to his own liking.
Thus a pattern was set, and the industry
has followed it.
MATCHED DESIGN OF UNITS
The early hi -fi enthusiasts had the right
idea in selecting top units in each category
FIG. 3. Type SV -1 Deluxe Preamplifier provides selection of characteristics, separate bass and
treble controls.
FIG.
4
(below). Type
SP -10
Deluxe Power Amplifier. All units have cables with plug-in connectors.
FIG. 5. The player, preamplifier and tuner may be easily mounted in this convenient equipment
cabinet. The cabinet shown here has a hinged door. However, production models have a door which
slides up under the top. This gets the door out of the way and looks better when cabinet is left open.
of equipment, and putting them together
to form a system. However, the final results were often disappointing, either because impedances weren't matched, driving
voltages were insufficient, or power was incorrectly coupled. And this same disappointment often occurs today.
system demanded by the perfectionist. To
provide for both extremes, and for intermediate states, RCA offers a number of
models of each type of unit. Selection of
these will allow a system to be made up
to fit any requirement.
Only an expert on circuiting can buy
units of various makes and put them together with certainty of satisfaction with
the final result. The average buyer, lacking
such knowledge, takes a chance. To avoid
this, RCA units have been designed to
"work together" as systems. They are provided with input and output impedances
so that when connected, according to simple instructions, all units are "matched."
Volume controls provide correct inter -unit
voltages at normal settings and with min-
COMPLETE INTERCHANGEABILITY
OF UNITS
imum noise levels.
AVAILABILITY OF UNITS IN
SEVERAL RANGES
Not everyone likes the sane kind of
music. Not everyone has a perfect listening room. And not everyone has the same
amount of money to invest. "l'hus, there is
need for several different ranges, or degrees
of high fidelity. For those whose interest
is simply in standard recordings, a rather
modest system will probably suffice. Such
a system will reproduce to the limit of the
recordings, and it will be incomparably better than a standard radio -phonograph. But
it will cost much less than the elaborate
60
True satisfaction with a high-fidelity
music system is a matter of individual taste
and of a particular setting. A music lover
may select, in a distributor's showroom. a
system which he thinks sounds just right.
When he gets it set up in his "soft" living
room it doesn't suit him. This usually leads
to a desire to change one or more units
to "experiment" until he gets it just right.
With a separate unit system such substitution is easy if all units are interchangeable
as to impedances, driving power and connections. In the RCA line they are!
-
This is also convenient for the enthusiast
whose taste for quality grows. He can start
with the least expensive units, gradually
change them as his taste grows.
"PLUG -IN" CONNECTING CABLES
To make assembly of R(A Hi -Fi units
easy for even the non -technical. each unit
is supplied complete with connecting cables.
Audio inputs to the preamplifier are of the
pin -jack type. Main amplifiers have plug-in
connectors of the type shown in Fig. 4.
Speaker leads have spade terminals. Thus,
any system of RCA units can be interconnected in minutes, without the use of
a soldering iron, and even without a screwdriver (you can use a dime on the speaker
terminals). This not only facilitates installation (and service) but also makes it easy
to interchange units.
30 (OR MORE) POSSIBLE COMBINATIONS
"there are at least thirty different practical combinations of the RCA Hi -Fi units
(not counting those arrived at by possible
multiple speaker combinations). The choice
will depend on (a) what use the system is
intended to serve: (b) the amount one is
willing to spend: and (c) the desired
physical arrangement of components.
Fig. 6 illustrates diagrammatically the
possible combinations of units using the
ST -1 tuner. This unit does not contain a
preamplifier. It is necessary, therefore, to
use with it either a separate preamplifier
(SV -1) or a main amplifier (SVP -10)
which contains a built -in preamplifier.
Dyed -in -the wool enthusiasts prefer a separate preamp. This increases the cost but
provides greater flexibility, especially in
arrangement of units. An alternative is to
use the SVT-I tuner which has a preamp
built into it. Possible combinations using
this tuner are diagrammed in Fig. 7.
Amplifiers are either 10 watts or 20
watts. The engineers say that 10 watts is
OUTPU- OF ANY (OR ALL) OF
THESE
SOUND SOURCES
FROM TV CHASSIS
TO INPUT OF ANY OF THESE
THREE AMPLIFIERS
C
y
10 ANY GI HLSE
SPEAKER; OR
'JUTPUT
'
rlr.
BINAIION1, (,f Tllf'1
Of ANY Of
THESE AMPLIFIERS
II U:-I
? c '0
1
SVP- I O AMPLIFIER
St 8 SPEAKER
(10 WATT -WITH
PRE -AMPI
8 -IN.
SRC -51 RECORD CHANGER
SV-
I
SP -IO AMPLIFIER
110 WATT)
PREAMPLIFIER
SL -I2 SPEAKER
I
ee
W
ST -I AM -FM TUNER
(DOES NOT HAVE PREAMPLIFIER)
2-IN.
ö
SV -I
PREAMPLIFIER
SP
20
AMPLIFIER
120 WATT)
LC -IA SPEAKER 15 -IN
FIG. 6. This diagram indicates possible combinations of RCA Hi -Fi units using the Type ST -1 Tuner. This tuner has sufficient output to
drive a power amplifier directly. However it does not include a pre amplifier or provisions for handling record player input. It is necessary, therefore, to use with it, either the Type SVP -10 Amplifier (with built-in pre -amp) or the separate Type SV -1 Preamplifier feeding
into either an SP-10 or an SP -20 Power Amplifier.
FROM TV CHASSIS
OUTPUT Of TUNER
OR PREAMPLIFIER
OUTPUT OF EITHER
OF THESE AMPLIFIERS
TO ANY
OF THESE
SPEAKERS
TO INPUT OF EITHER
OF THESE AM-
OR COM-
BINATIONS
PLIFIERS
SRC -51 RECORD CHANGER
St -8 SPEAKER
8 -IN.
OF THEM
SP -10 AMPLIFIER
110 WATTI
SI -I2 SPEAKER
12 -IN.
WITH
SVT
AM -FM TUNER
BUII T -IN PREAMPLIFIER
SP -20 AMPLIFIER
20 WATTI
LC -IA SPEAKER 15 -IN
Possible combinations of RCA Hi-Fi units using the deluxe Type SVT -1 Tuner. This tuner has a built-in preamplifier together
with an input selector switch for player. radio, television, auxiliary and lape inputs. Thus its output may be fed directly to the input
of an SP -10 or SP -20 Power Amplifier. In these combinations, or those shown above, the output of any amplifier may be fed to any
of the three types of speakers.
FIG. 7.
61
center hole and "45" records. Center hole
records are handled by a gentle pusher -type
platform. There is an easily inserted spindle
for 45 rpm records. The spindle remains
stationary when the record is played, thereby eliminating wear of the center hole of
the record. Reproducer heads are of the
plug-in type, designed for the users' choice
of cartridges.
Type ST -1 AM -FM Tuner
The A \1 -1-M tuners. Types ST -1 and
S\'T -1 include separate tuned r.f. stages
and triode converters on both AM and FM
to insure low noise reception. Wide bandwidth in the i.f. stages insures broad response. Sharp skirts on the band pass
characteristics of the i.f. sections provide
good selectivity. A 10 -kc narrow band
elimination filter cuts out the beat note
produced by interchannel interference in
AM reception. A completely shielded chassis minimizes oscillator radiation and insures electrical isolation of the tuner.
Double-shadow tuning eye and "no drift"
a.f.c. on FM simplifies tuning. There are
three controls: bandswitch, volume and
tuning.
FIG. 8. This equipment cabinet, in style matching the speaker cabinets, is available in blonde
or mahogany. It provides apace for the player, preamplifier and tuner as shown in Fig. 5.
The power amplifier may be mounted in the speaker cabinet or in any convenient place.
sufficient for most living rooms -but 20
watts is a more or less standardized size
and is insisted upon by some audiophiles.
Choice of speaker depends on size of enclosure. size of room (and to some extent on
size of pocketbook). The SL -8 is very good
for its size---and recommended for cramped
quarters. The SL -12 is good in anybody's
league -probably the best moderate- priced
speaker ever offered. The LC -1A, of course.
is the peer of them all -the finest speaker
unit ever made. But expensive, of course.
Unless you're a fanatic you'll be well satisfied with the SL -12.
MOUNTING THE UNITS
Many hi -fi fans like to build their own
enclosures, or to mount their equipment
units in an existing cabinet, closet, or what
have you. All RCA Hi -Fi units have been
designed for easy mounting. The player is
provided with a wooden base enclosure so
that it can rest directly on a shelf, or the
base may be removed and the motorboard
used by itself. The tuners have a demountable face plate. Thus an oblong hole can
be cut in any horizontal or vertical surface
and the unit mounted with a minimum of
work. The face plate of the preamp is also
62
removable so that it can be mounted outside the supporting panel. Long shafts are
provided for controls (with notches so that
they can be easily shortened for shallow
mountings).
For those not so mechanically inclined,
R('A has designed equipment and speaker
cabinets. The equipment cabinet. Fig. 8,
has space for the player, a tuner. a preamp
and a power amplifier. The cabinet has a
"slide -up" door on the side. The three
speaker enclosures all have the same appearance. Fig. 9, but are sized in proportion to the size of the speaker units to be
used. Both equipment and speaker cabinets
are available in blonde or mahogany.
DESCRIPTION OF THE UNITS
The various units of the new RCA Hi -Fi
line are described in detail in a catalog
which we will be glad to send to all interested readers of BROADCAST Ni:ws. In
the meantime, here is a brief description
of these units.
Type SRC -51 Record Player
'l'he Type SR(' -51 record player is a
three -speed automatic record changer with
two interchangeable spindles, for standard
The Type ST -1 tuner provides adequate
output to drive an amplifier such as the
Type SVP -10 which contains a preamplifier, but requires a preamplifier such as the
Type S\' -1 to drive straight power amplifiers such as Types SP -10 or SP -20. Sensitivity is better than 5 mcrovolts. Output
is 2 volts with less than 0.5% distortion.
Response is within -!-1 db from 40 to
15,000 cycles.
Type SVT -1, AM -FM Tuner
"I'he Sß'7' -1 Tuner is similar to the ST -1
Tuner but has a built -in preamplifier which
provides power to drive a Type SP -10 or
SI' -20 Amplifier. Connections are provided
so that the record changer Type SRC-51
may be fed through this preamplifier. The
tuner is provided with the following controls: input selector switch for phonograph
(Ortho, LP, AES, 78 compensations).
radio, television, auxiliary, and tape; volume; tuning; bass; and treble.
Type SVP -10 Amplifier
Type SVP -10 Amplifier contains both
preamplifier and power amplifier. In addition, it is provided with the following controls: selector for phonograph (78, LP,
AES, Ortho compensations), radio, television, auxiliary and tape; volume control;
separate bass and treble controls and an
"off -on" switch. The response frequency
characteristic of the amplifier with the tone
controls in the mid -position is within ±i
db from 30 to 18,000 cycles.
Type SV -1 Preamplifier
The RCA preamplifier, Type SV -1, is a
deluxe unit designed to be used with the
RCA power amplifiers. Types SP -10 and
SP -20. There are five input jacks with a
control for selecting the following inputs:
input selector switch for phonograph
(Ortho, LP, AES, 78 compensations),
radio, television, and auxiliary, one volume
control for all inputs, a bass control, and
a treble control with an "off -on" switch.
With the tone controls in the slid position.
the response frequency characteristic is
within -!-1 db from 20 to 20.000 cycles.
The distortion is less than 0.5 per cent for
1.5 volts output.
SP-I0 Amplifier
'l'he RCA power amplifier. Type SP -10.
is a high quality unit with 10 watts output.
The response frequency characteristic is
within +0.5 db. -0.2 db over the frequency range from 20 to 20.000 cycles.
Full output is obtained for an input of
0.5 volts. The SP -10 supplies 6.3 volts a -c
at 1.2 amperes and 250 volts d -c at 8.0
milliamperes for operation of the RCA preamplifier Type SV -l.
Type
SP-20 Amplifier
The RCA power amplifier, Type SP -20.
is a deluxe high quality unit with 20 watts
output. The response frequency characteristic is within 4-0.3 db, -0.2 db over the
frequency range from 20 to 20,000 cycles.
Full output is obtained for an input of
0.5 volts.
Type
Loudspeakers
The RCA 1.. udspeakers. Types SL -8
and SL -12, are extended range 8 and 12
inch single cone loudspeakers developed
and designed for High Fidelity applications. These loudspeakers were especially
designed for a smooth response frequency
characteristic. A loudspeaker with a ragged
and nonuniform response frequency will
introduce frequency discrimination, will not
exhibit good transient response, and will
tend to accentuate noise.
The smooth response frequency characteristic of these loudspeakers was obtained
by employing a particular shape for the
curvilinear cone, a special pulp for the
material of the cone, and a damping ring
in the outer suspension which provides a
matched terminating acoustical impedance.
The shape and material of the cone play
the important roles in determining the directivity pattern of the loudspeaker. In
wide frequency range loudspeakers the directivity pattern should be broad in order
to reduce frequency discrimination for observation points removed from the axis.
The material and shape of the cone were
Type
SL -8
and
SL -12
FIG. 9. Decorator designed speaker cabinets such as the one shown here are available
in three sizes (for the three speaker units) and in either blonde or mahogany finish.
The two larger sizes can be mounted horizontally, as shown here, or vertically.
selected through extensive research and development so that a very large distribution
angle of more than 40 degrees was obtained
in these two loudspeakers. The SL -8 has a
goal response from 65 to 10,000 cycles;
flit 'I. -12 from 50 to 16.000 cycles.
Type LC -1A Loudspeaker
')'his is an improved model of the famous
"Olson" speaker developed especially for
broadcast monitoring. One of the outstanding features of the original LC -1A loudspeaker was the broad directivity pattern.
This has been broadened even further so
that now uniform response is obtained over
an angle of 140 degrees. 'l'he response frequency characteristic is even more uniform
than in the preceding model.
New features of the LC-1A include: a
series of conical domes placed on the surface of the large cone, a damping ring in
the suspension system, and a multiple vane
deflector in front of the high frequency
cone.
Equipment and Speaker Cabinets
The cabinets designed for these speakers
are of the phase inverter type. The walls
are of heavy construction combined with
bracing which minimizes cabinet wall vibration. 1'he internal damping is provided
by diagonally placed sound absorbing material. The absorbing material is located
away from the cabinet walls. which places
it where the sound volume current is high,
giving high absorbing efficiency. This way
effective damping of standing waves is obtained and excessive low frequency absorption, which would reduce the efficiency in
the low frequency range, is avoided. 'Ehe
design of the cabinets combines function alisin from an acoustic diffraction standpoint with beautiful styling. While the cabinets are contemporary in spirit, they can
be combined with virtually any decor. They
may be used either horizontally or vertically. These cabinets are available in
blonde or mahogany.
An equipment cabinet, Type SE -l. which
matches the loudspeaker cabinets is available in the same finishes. This cabinet will
house a record changer, tuner, and preamplifier. These units may be mounted
either horizontally or vertically depending
upon mounting of the cabinet.
63
ACTION OF THE CONICAL DOMES IN THE
IMPROVED TYPE LC-1A LOUDSPEAKER
Broadcastri -. looking at the new v rsiun
of the L(' - \. will probably moan. What
have they done to it ?" The irreverent may
say even stronger things. For the L(' -IA
that once was a deceptively -simple looking
unit has now blossomed out with wings
and other things (politely called "conical
I
domes ") .
FIG. 1. The "'new" LC IA Speaker has
seven conical - domes" mounted on the
low -frequency cone plus a small vane-type
diffuser mounted at the center of the high
frequency cone.
-
This jazzed -up model is g"ing 1,1 be
blamed on the advertising men. sure as
anything. But so help us. fellows. we didn't
have a thing to do with it. "I'he appurtenances (another polite terni) were added in
the acoustical lab at Princeton. We were
just as surprised to see them as you were.
And, at first, just as quizzical. Since then.
however. Dr. Olson has given us a detailed
explanation of the action of the "domes"
and now that we understand it we feel he
really has something. In fact we suspect
that this may start a whole new trend in
speaker design.
high frequency and low frequency units
are not only co-axially mounted, but additionally have the same effective center
point. The two units (which are electrically and mechanically independent are
mounted so that the angle of their cones
makes a single line ( Fig. 2). This reduces
interference patterns between units and
thus smooths out the response curve. In
addition the low frequency cone decreases
the angle into which the high frequency
cone works. thereby improving its efficiency. Finally. the shallow angle of the
low- frequency cone broadens the angle
over which good response is obtained.
)
Before we give you Dr. Olson's explanation, a little of the background of this new
development is in order. This is particularly so in that there has been some misunderstanding of the features of the original LC -IA (and the 64 -B which preceded
it). Most everyone knows that these speakers have a wide frequency range and very
low distortion. But what is not so well
understood are two other properties which
are even more unique. One of these is
that the frequency response is unusually
smooth. 'I'o a large degree it is free of
the sharp dips and peaks found in most
speaker response curves. The second is the
wide listening angle (nearly 120') through
which the response stays nearly uniform.
There are other speakers with a frequency
response as good as the LC -LA- providing
you stay on or near the axis when listening. There are none. to our knowledge.
with as wide an angle of high frequency
These special properties of the original
LC -1A speaker are inherent in the duo cone design. By keeping this in mind it is
easier to understand the following explanation of the action of the ;domes" as given
to us by Dr. Olson.
Dr. Olson's Explanation
RCA Type L(' -IA Loudincorporates three new features
which improve its performance. They are
the damping ring in the outer suspension
of the low -frequency cone. the conical
domes fastened on the surface of the low frequency cone. and the high -frequency.
vane -type diffuser.
The
The conical domes attached to the surface of the low- frequency cone improve
the performance in three ways: by decreasing the angle into which the high frequency cone feeds. thereby increasing
the output of the high -frequency cone; by
diffusely reflecting some of the sound
response.
These two important properties of the
LC-1A are due largely to the fact that the
.
ti
0
4
HIGH
FREQUENCY
CONE
LOW
FREQUEN«Y
VOICE
COILS
SECTIONAL
CONE
cone feeds without the "domes" is relatively wide.
1
CONICAL
DOME
N
C<
f
Sb
:
FREQUENCY
CONE
VOICE
COILS
VIEW
FIG. 2. The angle J, into which the high -frequency
b
NIGH
new
speaker
SECTIONAL
LOW
FREQUENCY
CONE
VIEW
When the "domes" are added the angle !, is
much smaller, thereby improving high -frequency efficiency.
FIG. 3.
CONICAL
DOME
CONIC AL
DONE
DIRECT
PENCILS
OF
SOUND
HIGH
HIGH
FREQUENCY
FREQUENCY
REFLECTED
CONE
CONE
PENCILS
DIFFRACTED
PENCILS
OF
SOUND
OF
LOW
SOUND
Low
FREQUENCY
FREQUENCY
CONE
CONE
PLAN
VIEW
WAVE
FRONT
PL NC ILS
REFLECTED
PENCILS
CONICAL
OF
Zoo
NU
DOME
SOUND
COP' yd
-
DOME
HIGH
F
RE OUE NCY
HIGH
LOW
CONE
VOICE
COILS
FREQUENCY
FREQUENCY
LOW
CONE
CONE
FREQUENCY
CONE
SECTIONAL
VIEW
SECTIONAL
Some of the sound emitted by the high
frequency cone is diffusely reflected by the
FIG. 4.
-
"domes ", thereby smoothing out response curve.
emitted by the high -frequency cone, thereby eliminating discreet reflections; and by
diffracting some of the sound emitted by
the high -frequency cone; thereby broadening the directivity pattern.
The angles into which the high -frequency cone feeds, without and with the
conical domes applied to the low- frequency
cone, are designated as ¢I and sb_, respectively, in Figs. 2 and 3. Since 0: is smaller
than ¢I, the acoustic radiation load upon
the cone is greater with th° conical domes
than without them. When the acoustic
radiation load upon a direct radiator loudspeaker is increased, the sound power output is increased. Thus it will be seen that
VIEW
S. Some of the sound emitted by the high -frequency
cone is diffracted by the "domes ", decreasing the cur.
vature of the wavefront and broadening the pattern.
FIG.
the conical domes increase the high -frequency sound radiated by the high -frequency cone. In other words, the high -
frequency efficiency is improved.
Some of the sound emitted by the high frequency cone is diffusely reflected by the
conical domes, as shown in Fig. 4. Without
the domes. there woud be many similar
reflections which would lead to reenforcements and cancellations with the direct
radiation. The result would be corresponding peaks and dips in the response of the
high -frequency cone. With the domes, the
symmetry of the low -frequency cone is
upset and there are many reflections in different directions and of different path
lengths. The reflections therefore cancel
out and the net result is a smooth response- frequency characteristic.
Some of the sound emitted by the high frequency cone is diffracted by the conical
domes as shown in Fig. 5. By diffraction is
meant the bending of the sound around an
obstacle. The pencils of sound designated
1 and 2 in Fig. 5 are diffracted. The pencils of sound designated 3 to 7 inclusive
are radiated directly from the high -frequency cone. It will be seen that the effect
of the diffracted sound is to decrease the
curvature of the wavefront in the direction
of 1, 2, and 3. As a result. the directivity
pattern is broadened.
65
RCA personnel assist WABI -TV in tele-
casting local basketball tourneys. Shown
at controls behind the table are Fred
Brown (left) and George Class, RCA
Service Company engineers. Just beyond Brown is Jim McCarvill, of the
Shows and Exhibits Division. On camera are Walter Dickson (left), WABI-TV
Chief Engineer, and Elmer Snow. engineering assistant at the station.
WABI -TV Remotes
Local Basketball Tourneys
Upper
New Englanders take their high
school basketball seriously. Fans in and
around Bangor, Maine are much happier
of late, thanks to RCA Victor's Shows and
Exhibits Division.
During recent high school basketball
championships in Bangor and Orono.
Maine, an RCA Shows and Exhibits crew
lent a helping hand to R-ABI -TV in Bangor. The station had been in operation less
than two months when the tournaments
occurred. It had been operating on a small
scale, its equipment consisting of transmission facilities, a single camera, and a two projector film camera chain. Programming
had been fairly well limited to film and
Kinescope recordings.
1VABI -TV management sensed that the
tournaments offered an excellent oppor-
66
tunity to present live programs of great
local interest to thAr viewers. However.
they were faced with a shortage of personnel trained in remote pickups of athletic events, as well as a lack of equipment
required to do the job.
Having heard of the work and facilities
of the global television demonstration crew
of RCA Victor's Shows and Exhibits Division. they placed a request through Broadcast Field Sales Representative. J. E. Hill.
A crew of three engineers and a television
director was dispatched to Bangor. along
with a two -field camera chain, a microwave
relay system and supplementary lighting
equipment.
Installations were in turn set up at the
Bangor Auditorium (about six miles from
the transmitter site) and at the University
of Maine (about fourteen miles from the
transmitter site). From these two locations.
four tournaments (a total of twenty -four
ganses) were telecast to anxious basketball
fans.
Three of the station's engineers were
trained in camera operation by the Shows
and Exhibits crew. Video direction and
video console operation were handled by
an RCA director and two RCA engineers,
one of whom assisted in camera operation.
Another RCA engineer assisted at the
transmitter where he advised regarding
technical and production problems at that
point.
Descriptive and transitional announcing
and audio control was handled by station
personnel. Overall program control and the
insertion of commercials was handled at
the studio.
RCA MICROWAVE
radio -relay communication
and remote control
Osage Hydroelectric Power Plant installation of Union Electric Company of
Missouri, at Bagnell Dam, Mo.-serviced
by RCA Microwave.
RCA Microwave radio relay installation
at High Ridge, Mo. powers are rugged,
designed to withstand 100 -mph winds
under severe icing conditions.
OWUVaU
iwM
How UNION
ELECTRIC
HAll
solved today's
..
t
Tawruw-
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communication problem
Two years ago Union Electric Company of Missouri ran into the communi-
cation problem which sooner or later
confronts all growing utilities: their
high -line carrier transmission system
had become inadequate.
The 150 kc bandwidth, all,: tted for
power line carrier operation, permits
the use of only a relatively few channels
which are not sufficient to meet all the
requirements of a modern communications system. Direct wire lines were
ruled out
as
too costly.
That prompted engineers to adopt
Microwave, supplemented with mobile
radio at major relay points. RCA Microwave provides channels for remote control of load dispatching, telemetering,
teletype and voice communication. It
results in close co- ordination of vehicles,
field crews, executive and service personnel at outlying offices ana stations.
And, 70% of the RCA Microwave system
is available for future expansion.
Union Electric Co. Microwave system stretches
out 425 miles in 3 directions from St. Louis.
RCA Microwave can he interconnected with existing phone lines and
station to station. The radio beams fol-
switchboards. It uses familiar channeling
circuits and readily available tubes.
It provides as many channels as needed
with minimum use of frequency space.
NJw Union Electric has dependable,
year -round communications over the full
length of its operations. RCA "dish"
antennas atop 100- to 300 -foot towers,
spaced 11 to 46 miles apart, send concentrated beams of radio energy from
mately parallel to the transmission lines.
You, too, can plan now for tomorrow's
problems-prepare for your expanding
communications needs before they develop. The booklet listed below provides quickly digested facts for future
thinking, with no obligation on your part.
Mail the coupon. Remember, only RCA
can provide the nation -wide service
facilities of the RCA Service Company.
r
low
a
RADIO CORPORATION
COMMUNICA rrons
DEPT. 129 U,
lOIMPA/.Nr
Building
line -of -sight path-approxi-
of AMERICA
CAMDEN.
15.1
Please send me your re ^rìnt describing Union Electric
Microwave system, "Microwave Relines Overcrowded Circuits."
Name_
Title
_
Compa.r
Address
City__
1]
Zone
State
Have an RCA representative get in touch with me.
Annoying "Roll- over " -starts up in TV
sets when you
mix ren,,,tes with locals
RCA's TV Genlock TG -45 ends picture slipping when you
"lap dissolve" and "superimpose."
Now you can lock two entirely different programs together- remote
or local -and hold pictures steady right through switching! No
manual adjustments of phasing to fiddle with. No extra equipment
needed at remote pick -up points. Here's how the GENLOCK works.
Located in your main studio, this simple unit compares the signal
of your remote sync generator with the signal of your local sync
generator. The difference in the phasing of the pulses produces an
"error" signal which locks your local generator as a "slave" to your
remote generator as a master. This enables you to treat remote
signals as local signals -and switch back and forth without picture
"roll- over," no matter where your program originates!
The RCA GENLOCK is simple in design, completely automatic in
operation -"locks -in" much faster than you can switch. It fits any
standard 19 -inch TV rack.
Give your programming a lift. Switch as you please between
programs for variety and for special effects. It's easy with a GENLOCK.
For more information call your RCA TV equipment representative.
Or write Dept. 19AE, RCA Engineering Products, Camden, N. J.
Good -bye "Roll- over "! The RCA TV
GENLOCK tightly locks your local and
remote sync generators together-instantaneously and automatically.
RCA GENLOCK, Type TG -45. 'l hi, is
the simple, automatic system that electrically locks two separate television
pick -up systems together.
TELEVISION BROADCAST EQUIPMENT
rte
RADIO CORPORATION
of AMERICA
ENO /NEER /NO PRODUCTS DEPARTMENT, CAMDEN, M.J.
In Canada: RCA VICTOR Company Limped, Montreal
High -gain
VHF antenna
with
a
50 -kw rating!
l
RCA's 12- section, 50 -kw
Superturnstile, in combination with a high -power
VHF transmitter, meets FCC maximum power limits
-with plenty of gain to spare.
It has adjustable beam tilting Optional with all RCA
12-section 50-kw Superturnstiles, this feature insures
best possible coverage and maximum reinforcement
of your vertical pattern. It's done simply by phase shifting the power between upper and lower halves of
the antenna -using standard feedline.
It provides null fill-in: With RCA 12- section 50 -kw
Superturnstiles, you can virtually eliminate first null
with practically no loss of gain. Benefits are: Effective
close -in coverage, and vertical field -pattern shaping
for constant field.
It delivers up to 316 kw ERP:
/
It uses a switchable feed system: Advanced-type junction boxes, new feedlines, and a sectionalized lineconnecting system, enable you to switch power from
one part of the antenna to another. An important
feature for emergency operation!
Q't
VHF antenna
operates right without close matching with the transmission line. RCA's Styroflex transmission line
matches the impedance of Superturnstile sections,
handles higher power, holds center conductor in
position -even when line is coiled.
Specially matched Styroflex line: No
Complete VHF Antenna Accessories: RCA has all
equipment for VHF 50 -kw Superturnstile systems
-
transmission line fittings, towers, r -f loads and wattmeters, diplexers, etc. Everything is "system matched" for maximum performance.
REMEMBER: RCA makes five different types of VHF
50 -kw antennas to fit your needs. RCA has all 50 -kw
antenna accessories. RCA can supply high -gain 50-
was taken during erection
of an RCA TF-12AH, 12-section 50kw Superturnstile at KTBC -TV.
Interim transmitter power was 2 kw
when KTBC -TV went on the air.
Now it's 10 kw
This picture
-
tailored specifically for your
VHF channel, power, and service area. Let your
RCA Broadcast Sales Representative help plan your
TV antenna system.
kw antenna systems
can still increase power many
times without a single change in its
antenna system
KTBC -TV
®RADIO CORPORATION
ENGINEER/NO PRODUCTS DEPARTMENT
of AMERICA
CAMDEN- N.J.
New sime/size-
I. Increase power to
10
kw with
this simple kit
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*RCA ALL-NEW 5-kw AM transmitter,
Type BTA -5G. The 10-kw Type BTA -IOG
is same size, same appearance. Maximum floor area, only 33 sq. ft. Both
transmitters are completely air-cooled.
..
t/í I 10
faisre.
"
New operating convenience-New operating economy
ill
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or,o
t:iC]OO
11,1*,
2. Up to 40% less floor area than previous "5 kw's.'
3. Power lube costs reduced
Just read these exclusive features
Q
e
4.
1
/60th second arc -back protection
O
...
5 -kw AM transmitter you can increase to 10 kw- easily -inexpensivelyquickly. No lost air time for conversion.
One simple kit makes it easy to increase
power overnight. (Yes, you can buy this
transmitter ready-built for 10 kw, too).
It is a
It requires less "operating" floor space
than other 5 kw's -saves up to 40% floor
area. Entire transmitter is only 84" high,
130" wide, 32 y2" deep.
It's the ONLY "5 kw" with such low tube
costs. Power and modulator stages use
the new small size, lightweight RCA -5762
-costing less than half that of power types
in most "5 kw's ".
O It's the
ONLY "5 kw" with "split -cycle'
overload and voltage protection -using
thyratron. controlled rectifiers. Circuits
work so fast audiences cannot detect "off air" breaks.
5. Lower power bills
O It
holds power bills to the LOWEST in
the "5 -kw" field -through smaller power
tubes, fewer stages, fewer tubes (only 24
tubes and 8 different types).
O It's the ONLY "5
kw" with horizontally sliding doors front and back. Benefits:
si
I/
si
-
6. Sliding doors
front and rear
[email protected])RADIO
ENGINEERING
Saves over 60 square feet of floor area
Provides more elbow room for operator
Makes it easier to get at transmitter
For all the facts about this basically new transmitter
newest of nearly three hundred RCA
"5 -kw's" now on the air ... call your RCA Sales
RepresentatiA e.
...
CORPORATION of AMERICA
RODUCTS DEPARTMENT
CAMDEN. N.J.
for your protection
TO
new image Orthicon
MAKE SURE the
is
-fresh.'
you buy is "factory
use in its own
replacement
for
5820
unbroken
each
container. The
sturdy, tamper-Proof
no hand has
that
assurance
red seal is your
RCA factory.
since it left the
touched your tube
it.
to use
You are the first
of
like this is typical
Customer protection
broadcast
effort to bring
tubes
RCA's never -ending
most dependable
the
and TV stations
can offer.
the industry
RCA Tube Distributorne eds.
Your neighborhood in meeting your
especially experienced
on Image
For fast service
types of RCA tubes
... p
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abed nel
s
.
i
10-kw TV transmitt
for
The RCA TT- 10ÁL /AH,
newest and finest of
all VHF Transmitters, is now being produced
in quantity -and shipments are being made
every week. Already a number of stations are
on the air with the TT- 10AL /AH. Other stations have received their TT-AL/AH Transmitters and will be on soon. Before long this
new transmitter will be the most widely used
television transmitter in the world.
The list of stations going on the air in rapid
succession with the TT- 10AL /AH is RCA's
"proof- of-production." You too can be on the
air soon with an RCA 10 -kw transmitter.
:-,
S
VHF
ECONOMICAL... TODAY AND TOMORROW
This 10 -kw VHF transmitter- operated in
conjunction with an RCA high -gain antenna -can
produce 100 kilowatts ERP at substantially -lower
cost per radiated kilowatt than any other transmitterantenna combination now available.
Ifyougotohigherpower ,this10- kwVHFtrans.
miner can be used as the basic driver for RCA's
high -power 25 -kw amplifier -such as now in operation at WAVE -TV. (RCA's 50 -kw rated, high -gain
antenna can handle the extra input -with another
25 -kw to spare for any future increase.)
For complete details -and delivery informatloo
-call your RCA Broadcast Sales Representative.
-
.-.,bWWIIc.
®®r
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#26'& yore
oteeeiteeeroeaENGINEERING PRODUCTS DEPARTMENT--->
www.americanradiohistory.com
CAMDEN N.J.
di? THE
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in a
FEATURES YOU WANT
Popularly,.
Priced TAPE
RECORDER
COMPLETE WITH:
Microphone
Reel of RCA Sound
tape
Spare Reel
Bridge Input Cord
Instruction Book
RCA
11\\\\\
P
0©©Douuo©
EASY TO RECORD
"record" buttons,
.
.
.
TAPE RECORDER
Just push the clearly marked
TECHNICAL DATA
set the gain control and you are
recording.
.
14"
Weight
EASY TO PLAY . . . Push the "play" button, set the
volume control of the built-in amplifier and speaker
for listening level.
EASY TO USE . . . Just push -a- button to start,
what
record, rewind, stop, fast forward or play
ideal for
could be easier! It's virtually automatic
announcers and non -technical personnel.
-
Reel
Better tone through RCA electronic engineering
Capacity
Two Operating Speeds
...
x
12"
x
9"
26 pounds
Recording /Playing Time
Uses
___2
all sizes up to 7" reels
hrs. max.
for 1200' tape
3.75" and 7.5" per second
Voltage
105 to 125 volts
Current
60 cycles, a.c. only
70 watts
Power
Handsome styling -dignified carrying case
elk
Vol/
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Size
Right price for your budget
5 Longer
life through RCA mechanical design
ENGINEERING PRODUCTS DEPARTMENT
RADIO CORPORATION
Camden, New Jersey
www.americanradiohistory.com
of AMERICA
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