motor transport

motor transport
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-WAR DEPARTMENT
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
MOTOR TRANSPORT
March 12, 1942
FM 25-10
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
MOTOR TRANSPORT
UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON
:1942
WAR DEPARTMENT,
WASHINGTON, March 12, 1942.
FM 25-10, Basic Field Manual, Motor Transport, is published for the information and guidance of all concerned.
IA. G. 062.11 (5 15-41).
BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR:
G. C. MARSHALL,
Chief of Staff.
OFFICIAL:
J. A. ULIO,
Major General,
The Adjutant General.
DISTRIBUTION:
B and H 1, 2, 6, 7 (5); R (10); Bn (5); C 5, 11, 17 (10):
IC 2, 4, 6-10 (10).
(For explanation of symbols see FM 21-6.)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Paragraphs
Page
CHAmTA 1. General -.
------------- __._ . . ... 1-6
1
CHIAPTER 2. Driver.
Section I. General---- _.........________.
7-8
5
II. Preliminary instruction -- _____
…
9-19
6
III. Maintenance by driver
______.
.20 34
14
IV. Driving instruction -.---..... 35-47
23
V. Examination and operator's permit.-----------------------48-49
34
CH}A'lR 3. Motor march.
SectionI. General.-.
.
....................
50 54
35
II. Types of march.-.
............
55-59
41
m. March technique… -----..
_____-.
60-71
53
IV. Orders.-................
72-75
71
CHAOPr
4. Traffic management.
SectionI. General __.-____-______
____
76-82
75
II. Elements of traffic management_
83-85
77
Im. Reconnaissance -----------.----.
86-96
78
IV. The traffic plan
.--------_.--.
97-104
85
V. Execution of traffic plan
…_.____ 105-113
89
VI. Traffic aids -................
114-117
95
VII. Logistical data
____________.
.-118-134
103
CHAPTER 5. Protecti;s measures.
Section 1. General _____-_____
.
.______.__-.
135 143
125
II. Antiaircraft defense
...______.
144-148
128
IIIm. Antimechanized defense _…__ -__. 149 153
132
IV. Protection
against chemical
agents
.
......................154-158
138
V. Handling of explosives and inflammable liquids_
--.
________ 159-163
142
VI. Security detachments -._
164-171
144
CHAnTmR 6. Pioneer work, field expedients, and
difficult operations.
Section I. Pioneer parties ----------… ____-- 172-174
150
II. Field expedients ------________
…
175 186
157
III Difficult operations -----______
…
187-203
166
CHAPrra 7. Military automotive maintenance.
Section I. General -__-_--__…-__…
-__-. _
._ 204
179
180
205 209
II. Organization for maintenance ....
III. Echelons of maintenance __---___ 210-215
193
IV. March maintenance
.------- ___- 216 221
207
V. Lubrication __.--__-_--___-___--_ 222-227
210
VI. Inspections -._____ _._ ..
228
216
VII. Records and reports
............
229-230
219
CHAPTER 8. Loading for movement by rail or
water.
Section I. Movements by rail
__--______ 231-232
223
II. Movements by water __--________ 233-237
224
ArPENnn I. List of references…
.
. .___ .__226
II. Schedule of instruction-Driver training....
227
III. Road test procedure (short form)
.
........235
IV. Written examination for driver ___.________
240
Mn
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Appendix
Page
V. Regulations concerning shipment of explosives and gasoline by truck --- _-_-___
242
VI. Inspection report of vehicles shipped by rail
or water ...........................-245
VII. Daily report-Status of motor vehicles
(9:00 AM' ------------------247
VIII. Automotive operations and maintenance
sheet…
...............................
_
248
IX. Standard form-Driver's aptitude test
.
...249
INDEx-_----__.____._.----._... ______________ ....
255
IV
FM 25-10
1-5
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
MOTOR TRANSPORT
(This manual supersedes FM 25-10, September IS, 1939, including section
I1, Training Circular No. 66, War Department, 1941.)
CHAPTER 1
GENERAL
E 1. DEFINnTIN.-The term "motor transport" as used in
this manual applies to motor vehicles used for transporting
military personnel, weapons, equipment, and supplies, excluding essentially combat vehicles such as tanks, scout cars,
and armored cars.
* 2. ScoPE.-The general fundamentals set forth in this
manual apply primarily to the operation, inspection, maintenance, and management of motor transport and to the
training and duties of the operating, maintenance, and traffic
personnel.
* 3. REFERENCES-The references listed in appendix I should
be consulted in conjunction with the study of this manual.
· 4. EMPLOYMENT.-a. Uses-Military motor transport is
used for the movement of troops, materiel, and supplies in all
kinds of operations. All types of movements are included,
from those of small units by organic transport to those of
large forces by the army motor pool.
b. Supplementary transportation.-Whencommercial motor vehicles are used for emergency troop movements, special
consideration must be given to their nonuniformity in performance, carrying capacity, and maintenance requirements.
* 5. MOTOR TRANSPORT POOLS.-In general, it will be found
that a pooling of effort in the use of motor transport will
give the most efficient and economical results (AR 850-15).
a. Administrative pool.-In this type of pool, the vehicles
and personnel remain with the organizations to which they
are assigned and operate from the organization motor parks.
1
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
5-6
b. Physical pool-In some cases, the actual grouping of
vehicles and personnel from various organizations is advisable. This is normally confined to motor transport units
and on rare occasions to tactical vehicles.
* 6. REQUIREMENTS FOR EFFICIENT OPERATION.-a. Assignment
of drivers.M-A driver and an assistant driver should be assigned to each motor vehicle. Except for instruction, inspection, or like purposes, the vehicle should not be operated
by other drivers if it can be avoided.
b. Prevention of vehicle abuse.-Vehicle abuse is the chief
cause of mechanical failures, excessive operating and maintenance costs, and general unsatisfactory performance of the
motor vehicle and its component parts. The following forms
of vehicle abuse should be prohibited:
(1) Improper use of controls, particularly gear shift,
clutch, brakes, and choke.
(2) Racing engine, especially when cold.
(3) Overspeeding, particularly over rough roads and across
country.
(4) Improper lubrication.
(5) Deferred maintenance, including lack of proper servicing and adjustments.
(6) Lack of systematic maintenance inspection and followup.
(7) Overloading and improper loading.
c. Speed limits.-(l) The caution plate mounted on a motor
vehicle indicates the maximum safe speed for which the
vehicle is designed.
(2) The table which follows indicates normal speed limits
for individual vehicles under favorable conditions. For march
rates see chapter 4.
Vehicle
In towns
highway
mph
35
Confonn to local speed limits-.......
Trucks --......-----------45
Command trucks (½-ton)-... ... do..............-..........
50
Light passenger vehicles .....-...
do-..
_..............
M otoryeles...do --..--------.-.
.
..-------....--
2
MOTOR TRANSPORT
6
(3) Fast driving over rough, slippery, or congested roads
will not be permitted.
(4) Applicable speed limits set by State or local regulations will not be exceeded. Should emergency conditions require otherwise, appropriate arrangements will be made with
local traffic authorities.
(5) Regulated governors, when installed, will be set and
sealed at the maximum speed considered safe and not exceeding that indicated on the caution plate.
(6) Vehicle equipped with a tachometer will be driven
habitually in an appropriate gear and not to exceed its prescribed speed in engine revolutions per minute.
(7) In the conduct of marches, the pace will be set by a
leading vehicle at such a rate that the slowest vehicle in the
column can keep up without exceeding safe and economical
speeds.
(8) When passing through towns and villages, a proper
reduction in speed will be directed by the column commander,
who should control the march in such manner as to insure
the safety of spectators and civilian traffic and to prevent
prolonged operation at low speeds in a high gear. All such
movements necessarily require coordlination with local traffic
authorities so as to permit the passage of entire serials
through "stop" streets or intersections controlled by signal
lights without the necessity of a stop by each individual
vehicle.
d. Factors affecting operation.--() Proper selection, trainIng, and discipline of operating and maintenance personnel.
(2) Strict supervision and control of operations by commissioned and noncommissioned personnel.
(3) Organized maintenance with adequate repair facilities
and the performance of rout:'ne maintenance and inspection
functions.
(4) Serviceable mechanical condition of vehicles, including safety devices.
(5) Recognition of the capabilities and limitations of all
types of vehicles in operation.
(6) Careful reconnaissance of routes to be traveled.
(7) Recognition of the capabilities and limitations of the
drivers.
3
6
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
(8) Training and experience of the commissioned and noncommissioned personnel.
(9) Recognition of the capabilities and limitations of the
road net.
(10) Limitations imposed by the tactical plan and enemy
activity.
4
MOTOR TRANSPORT
7-8
CHAPTER 2
DRIVER
Paragraphs
rcnoN I. General -_____------__
II.
III.
IV.
V.
__----_-------
7-8
9 19
Preliminary instruction -----------------------Maintenance by driver
.------------------------20-34
___________-__-- 35-47
Driving instruction_-_._
48-49
.-----------Examination and operator's permit
SECTION I
GENERAL
* 7. TRAINING (see TF 11-228).-a. The proper training of
drivers is the responsibility of all unit commanders. To train
drivers who are competent to operate the vehicles of their
organizations either alone or in column, a systematic and
progressive course of instruction must be given. Training
schedules should include a maximum of practical instruction
and a minimum of classroom work.
b. (1) Methods of instruction should follow those prescribed in FM 21-5, which include the following steps or
phases:
(a) Preparation on the part of the instructor.
(b) Explanation.
(c) Demonstration or illustration.
(d) Application or practice to acquire skill in execution.
(e) Examination or test, to determine progress or proficiency.
(/) Discussion, to point out correct or incorrect methods of
execution.
(2) To attain the maximum progress, it is best to provide
an instructor for each three students, all to function under a
senior instructor. The students alternate in driving: those
not driving observe the instruction of, or the execution by,
the student who is driving. (See app. II.)
* 8. SELECTION OF DRIVERS.-a. The individuals selected for
drivers should be of average size or larger, be moderate in
habits, alert, dependable, intelligent, and have good Judgment.
In addition, they should possess the following qualifications:
5
8-11
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
(1) An accident-free driving record in case of previous
experience.
(2) Normal vision without glasses (visual acuity correctable
with glasses to not less than 20/30 acceptable).
(3) Average depth perception.
(4) Normal vision at night.
(5) Normal hearing.
(6) Normal reaction time.
(7) Ability to differentiate between red, green, and amber
lights.
b. Through observation and test, the unit commander
should determine the aptitude of prospective drivers before
any instruction is given, eliminating at the start, most of the
men who are inherently unsuitable. (See app. IX for examples of aptitude tests.) In doubtful cases, information
obtained through observation and test should be supplemented
by that obtained from station surgeon, former employers, or
traffic officials. (See TM 31-300.)
SECTION II
PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTION
* 9. REsPONSIBILITY.-The instructor should explain the
object of the training to be given and the responsibility of the
driver in making his organization an efficient one. This
responsibility includesa. Operation and maintenance of motor vehicles in accordance with instructions.
b. Care, condition, and use of vehicle tools and equipment.
c. Loads and loading.
d. Reports and trip tickets.
* 10. ORGANIZATION OF MOTOS PARK-The driver should be
acquainted with the organization of the motor park and with
his duties in connection therewith.
· 11. F'IRE PRECAUTIONS AND FIRE FIGHTING.--Motr vehicles,
shops, and parks are constantly exposed to fires. Drivers
must, therefore, be instructed in the use of fire-fighting
equipment and required to comply with pertinent fire-prevention regulations. (See app. V.)
MOTOR TRANSPORT
12-14
U 12. ACCIDENT PREVENTION.-The formulation
and observance of definite rules will eliminate the majority of accidents
incident to the operation and maintenance of motor vehicles.
These rules should include the following:
a. Place the transmission gear shift and power take-off
levers in neutral, and set the hand brake before hand cranking
an engine or starting it with the starting motor.
b. Make sure the way is clear and no personnel is endangered before a vehicle is moved. If the driver cannot see the
road, he should be directed by a dismounted individual, who
should precede the vehicle at a safe distance. This is particularly important when a vehicle is backed or is moved
through bivouac areas and across country at night without
lights.
c. If it is necessary for a mechanic to work under the
vehicle while the engine is running, make sure that the vehicle
cannot move accidentally, and that there is no loose clothing
that can catch on moving parts.
d. Block up a vehicle safely before the wheels are removed.
e. In order to prevent accidental shorts, remove or disconnect the battery when the engine is being cleaned.
f. To avoid carbon monoxide poisoning, provide ample ventilation for garages, shops, vehicle cabs, and vehicles carrying
personnel.
g. Do not operate motor vehicle engines in a garage or
shop longer than necessary to move the vehicle in or out,
unless the vehicle is standing near wide open doors or the
exhaust gases are removed through a safe outlet pipe.
h. In using trouble lights near engine or under hood, be
sure wire guard is not bent, and that light cannot fall and
be broken.
i. The driver will not smoke while vehicle is in motion.
* 13. NOMENCLATURE AND GENERAL PURPOSE OF MAJOR UNITS
OF MOTOR VEHICLE.-Preliminary instruction should cover the
nomenclature and purpose of major assemblies only, in order
that the driver may become familiar with his vehicle without
being confused by detail.
[ 14. SIGNALS (see TF 11-262).-a. Before a driver changes
the direction or slows the speed of his vehicle, he should give
the appropriate arm signal to warn other drivers of the con7
14
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
templated change. Arm signals should be clearly made and
should be given in time to afford ample warning.
b. The following arm signals are prescribed for military
use:
(1) Turn right.-Extend the left arm outward at an angle
of 45' above the horizontal.
(2) Turn left.-Extend the left arm outward horizontally.
(3) Slow or stop.-Extend the left arm outward to an angle
of 45° below the horizontal.
(4) Start engine.-Simulate cranking.
(5) Report when ready to move (given by unit commander).-Extend the arm vertically, fingers extended and
joined.
(6) Ready to start.Senior in truck stands on running
board, faces leader, and extends the arm toward him, fingers
extended and joined, palm toward the leader.
(7) Stop engines.-Cross arms in front of body at the waist
and then move them sharply to the side. Repeat several
times.
(8) Increase speed.-Carry closed fist to the shoulder and
rapidly thrust it vertically upward several times to the full
extent of the arm.
(9) Decrease speed.-Extend arm horizontally from the
shoulder on to front and move arm up and down vertically
about 24 inches; continue motion as long as a decrease in
speed is desired.
(10) Prepare to mount.-Extend the arm horizontally to
the side, palm up, and wave the arm upward several times.
Mount-same signal with both arms.
(11) Prepare to dismount.-Extend the arm diagonally
upward to the side, palm down, and wave the arm downward
several times. Dismount-same signal with both arms.
(12) Close up.-Extend the arm horizontally to the side,
palm to the front, then describe a 2-foot vertical circle. Each
driver repeats.
(13) Open up-Extend the arm horizontally to the side,
palm to the front, then move the arm down to a vertical position and up to the horizontal, describing a 900 arc. Each
driver repeats.
(14) Pass and keep going-Extend the left arm horizontally
and describe small circles toward the front with the hand.
8
MOTOR TRANSPORT
14-15
(15) Immediate danger.-Use three long blasts of whistle,
vehicular horn, siren or klaxon repeated several times, or
three equally spaced shots with rifle or pistol. The person
giving the signal points in the direction of impending danger.
This signal is reserved for warning of air or mechanized attack,
or other immediate and grave danger. At night the alarm
signal will be supplemented by voice warning to indicate
direction of danger.
(16) Drivers to turn around simultaneously.-Extend the
arm downward, palm to the front. Then move the arm in a
continuous motion'sideward and upward, and sideward and
downward, describing a 180' arc. Each driver repeats.
c. Special signals for ceremonies and drills may be found
in the manuals for the arms and services.
d. In addition to the prescribed arm signals, electrical and
mechanical signals should be used when vehicles are so
equipped.
* 15. ROAD RULES AND TRAFFIC REGULATIONS FOR DRIVERS (see
TF 11-262).-Observance of prescribed road rules and traffic regulations permits the movement of traffic with a maximum of safety and a minimum of confusion and traffic
direction. The following general rules will be observed by all
drivers:
a. Keep to the right of the road.
b. Give the appropriate warning signal before changing
direction, slowing down, or stopping.
c. Keep on the alert for road signs, column signals, traffic
directions, bad spots in road, and side roads.
d. Give the right-of-way promptly to faster moving
vehicles.
e. Reduce speed on dry, dusty roads.
f. If driving at night with lights, dim your lights when
meeting another vehicle.
g. Use horn only when necessary.
h. If your vehicle is disabled, pull to the right of the road
and signal the succeeding vehicles to pass.
i. At intersection of roads of parallel importance, give
the vehicle on the right the right-of-way.
j. In absence of traffic policeman, signs, or traffic lights,
vehicles on a primary road have right-of-way over those on a
secondary road.
9
15
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
k. Do not pass another vehicle in your column unless that
vehicle is disabled or you are ordered or signaled to do so.
1. Do not pass traffic moving in the same direction as your
own(1) When going around a corner or blind curve.
(2) When ascending or descending hills unless you can see
safe passage is assured.
(3) At street intersections or crossroads.
(:) When the road is not wide enough to allow at least 2
feet between vehicles.
m. When meeting and passing an oncoming vehicle you
will(1) Pass on the right giving at least half the road.
(2) Slow down if operating conditions are hazardous.
(3) Permit the vehicle having a clear road ahead to have
the right-of-way.
n. Halt at railroad crossings not guarded by military personnel or civilian watchmen, and proceed in low gear when
safe.
o. Slow down to a safe stopping speed at all road intersections not covered by traffic control personnel or traffic control
devices. Drivers will determine by actual test with maximum
load the speed at which a right turn can be made without
crossing center of road and without "screeching of tires," and
will always conform to this speed when approaching an intersection.
p. Do not coast down hills with the clutch disengaged or
the transmission in neutral.
q. Clear the roadway before halting.
r. Do not halt on bridges, in defiles, at points where the
vision of other drivers is restricted, or in such manner as to
block cross traffic or entering side traffic.
S. During the halt(1) Stop your engine if the vehicle is to stand longer than
a few minutes.
(2) When dismounted keep to the right of the vehicles, and
off the traveled part of the road.
(3) Perform the prescribed inspection and maintenance
functions (par. 33).
t. Obey the State and local traffic regulations unless otherwise ordered.
10
MOTOR TRANSPORT
15-16
U. Under blackout conditions, conform strictly to all restrictions on the use of lights.
U 16. CHAINS AND TRACTION DEVICES.-Chains and traction de-
vices should always accompany the vehicle to which they
pertain. They should be kept in serviceable condition and in
proper adjustment to permit installation with a minimum of
delay. Chains and traction devices should be removed when
the necessity for their use no longer exists, in order to prevent
unnecessary damage to roads and wear on tires, chains, and
traction devices.
a. Chains.-Chains are generally necessary in mud, sand,
snow, or slush-ice. Chains should not be used on ice-covered
roads when they cannot bite into the ice. The following general rules apply to the application and use of chains:
(1) Chains are applied before the vehicle becomes mired.
(2) Chains are so applied that rotation of the wheel tends
to close the chain fastenings. If improperly installed, rotation of the wheel opens the fastening and the chain will be
lost.
(3) Fairly loose adjustment gives better traction and less
tire wear than tight adjustment.
(4) On all-wheel-drive vehicles without center differential
or other compensating torque device, chains must be installed
on all wheels to prevent unnecessary strain.
(5) When only single chains are provided for dual-tired
wheels, they should be installed on the outside tires.
b. Traction devices.--(1) Traction devices temporarily convert a truck into a vehicle having many of the cross-country
capabilities of a tractor. Training with them should be conducted frequently under conditions favorable to their use,
such as in sand or mud.
(2) If traction devices which are applied to individual
wheels cannot be tightened sufficiently to prevent slippage of
the wheel inside the device, they should be chained to the
wheel.
(3) When traction devices are applied on a 6-wheel,
6-wheel-drive (6 x 6) truck, it is preferable, under most conditions, to Use an oval-band coupling around the middle and
rear wheels rather than individual devices on each of these
wheels. The truck then becomes a half-track vehicle with
exceptionally low ground pressure.
11
17-18
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
· 17. USE OF WINc.--The operation, use, and care of the
winch are discussed in Motor Transport Technical Service
Bulletin No. Z-10, Quartermaster Corps. These subjects, and
also the use of the block and tackle with the winch, should be
covered during drivers' instruction. In addition, practice in
the use of the winch should be worked in during the periods
devoted to cross-country driving.
· 18. LOADS AND LOADING.-In order that vehicle capacity and
cargo space may be efficiently used, it is necessary that drivers
have a knowledge of loads and loading. The driver ordinarily
should not be required to handle cargo during the loading
and unloading operations, but he should be directly charged
with the following responsibilities:
a. Maximum authorized load not exceeded unless ordered
by proper authority.-The maximum pay load, road and cross
country, and the maximum tow load are shown on the vehicle
name and caution plate. These loads should not be exceeded
except in case of emergency, and then only when specially
authorized. Lack of knowledge of cargo weight is not an
acceptable excuse for overloading. In order to prevent overloading when cargo weight is unknown and scales are not
available, the driver must determine in advance the level of
the rear spring ends under maximum authorized load. Any
load that depresses the springs below that level is an overload.
b. Proper location and reasonable distribution within body
(see fig. 1).-Efflcient loading insures maximum use of cargocarrying capacity and safety in transit. One loose piece of
cargo may release an entire load; and, if the load is unbalanced, the vehicle is in danger of overturning, is difficult to
handle, and is a menace to traffic. The following principles
should be observed for correct loading:
(1) Heavy supplies should be placed at the bottom of the
load and properly distributed.
(2) In building up the load, place cargo carefully to avoid
shifting, and distribute the weight equally on both sides of
the body.
(3) Loads should not be built up too high. 1high loads
cause swaying and danger of overturning and make the
vehicle hard to handle.
12
MOTOR
TRANSPORT
'Y~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~I
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13
13
18
18-20
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
(4) If the truck is not a covered vehicle, a tarpaulin should
be placed over the cargo as a protection against sun, dust,
or rain.
c. Proper securingof load to body-(l) The safety of loads
on cargo vehicles is dependent upon proper distribution within
the body and the protection offered by the tarpaulin in combination with its rear and front curtains. Cargo lashing is
only required in connection with loads of great length or
height.
(2) Towed loads are attached to their prime movers or
towing vehicles by means of the lunette on the towed load
placed in a pintle on the towing vehicle. The pintle latch
must be closed and secured before the load is moved. Safety
chains, when available, should be used. Care should be taken
in regard to hooking up the electrical connections for lights
and brakes on trailers.
d. Safety of load in transit.-After the load has been placed
in or attached to his vehicle, the driver is responsible for its
safety until the destination is reached.
e. Projectingloads.-The rearmost extension of a load that
extends beyond the tail gate must be marked with a red flag.
If Explosives and inflammable liquids.-The driver is responsible for proper handling and transport of explosives and
inflammable liquids. (See app. V.)
* 19. MAP READING.-Military motor vehicle drivers should
receive sufficient instruction and training in map reading to
enable them to follow routes on marked maps, to choose
routes, and to recognize terrain features represented on topographic maps. Training should include the use of commercial
highway maps, military topographic maps, military road maps,
airplane photographs, and mosaics.
SECTION III
MAINTIENANCE BY DRIVER
* 20. GENERAL.-a. Proper maintenance is essential to economical operation of motor vehicles. This entails the coordination of maintenance functions. Those charged to the
operating organizations embrace preventive maintenance,
minor repairs, and unit replacement possible within the lim14
MOTOR TRANSPORT
20-21
its of the time available, utilizing hand tools and light portable equipment provided in Tables of Basic Allowances.
b.In the organization maintenance set-up, the driver and
assistant driver are responsible for preventive-maintenance
functions within the limits of their ability and the equipment available for their use. Driver preventive-maintenance
functions include servicing, lubrication, tightening, cleaning
and washing, care of tools and equipment, care of tires, care
of storage battery, and above all correct driving. In this
connection the technical manual issued with each truck will
be studied carefully.
c. Efficient enforcement of preventive maintenance is the
responsibility of commanding officers of all units operating
motor vehicles. In carrying out this function, definite maintenance duties will be assigned the motor vehicle operator
and he will be prohibited, except in an emergency, from
performing any maintenance function not specifically assigned. (See AR 850-15.)
d. When operating conditions are particularly arduous, better results may occasionally be obtained by relieving drivers
and assistant drivers of all inspection and care-taking functions normally performed after operation and requiring the
maintenance section or other designated personnel to perform the duties. This practice should be resorted to only
when absolutely necessary.
* 21. SERVCIN.--a. Servicing is defined as the check and
necessary replenishment of gasoline, oil in crankcase, water
or antifreeze in cooling system, and air in tires.
b. Safety precautions concerning the handling of gasoline
must be rigidly enforced.
c. In the replenishment of oil in the crankcase, the following rules should be observed:
(1) Take every precaution to Prevent dust and other foreign matter from entering the crankcase with the oil. Wipe
out the oil measure, the spigot on the oil drum, the funnel,
and the oil filler pipe with a clean cloth before refill oil
touches any of the surfaces.
(2) Pour only the proper amount of oil into the crankcase;
do not overfill.
(3) Use the proper grade of oil for the season.
(4) Wipe off any oil spilled during refilling.
15
21-22
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
d. The water in the radiator should be maintained at the
proper height below the overflow pipe. An overheated engine
should be allowed to cool before any considerable quantity of
water is added to the radiator, or the engine should be allowed
to run and the water added very slowly. In freezing temperatures, if no antifreeze is used, care must be exercised to
prevent freezing. When the cooling system must be drained,
it is necessary in most engines that the cylinder block as well
as the radiator be drained. Clean water, preferably soft,
should be used to fill the cooling system. If conditions make
it necessary to use dirty water, the cooling system should be
drained, flushed, and refilled with clean wiater at the earliest
opportunity.
e. Tire inflation is discussed in paragraph 26.
* 22. LUBRICATION (see TF 25-76 and FS 10-39).--a. A full
discussion of lubrication in general will be found in section V,
chapter 7. This paragraph pertains only to the responsibilities of the driver under the system of decentralized lubrication. In decentralized lubrication, the driver should be
held responsible for the lubrication of all parts that cannot
be damaged by overlubrication, except those requiring special
lubricants. Parts that should be lubricated by the driver
include spring and spring shackle bolts, spring pivot seats,
steering knuckle pivots, steering knuckle tie rod pins, steering
gear connecting rod (drag link) ends, clutch and brake pedal
and brake lever pivots and linkage, accelerator linkage, door
hinges and locks, tail gate hinges, and other slow motion
friction surfaces.
b. Equipment furnished the driver includes a high pressure
lubricator and an oilcan.
c. Lubrication should be performed in accordance with a
lubrication schedule prepared by organization mechanic or
motor sergeant, and reports should be rendered by drivers
when the lubrication is completed in order that proper records may be kept. Grease fittings and oil holes should be
cleaned before lubricant is applied. Careful instruction and
diligent supervision are necessary to assure good lubrication.
Lubrication by the numbers is suggested as an effective method
for teaching lubrication to untrained personnel.
d. Lubrication by drivers involves the use of only two types
of lubricant-oil and chassis lubricant.
16
MOTOR TRANSPORT
22-24
(1) The oil used for lubrication of linkages, hinges, etc.,
should be of the same grade as that used in the engine crankcase.
(2) The chassis lubricant used on spring and spring shackle
bolts, steering knuckle pivots, etc., is of semifluid grease
usually having a brilliant color and stringy consistency.
· 23. T'GHTENING.-a. The distinction between tightening and
adjusting must be definitely understood, otherwise drivers will
undertake operations which they do not have the knowledge, experience, or equipment to perform. In general, adjustment involves placing moving parts or assemblies in proper
relative position and securing them in that position. Adjustments, except specified emergency adjustments, are prohibited
to the driver. On the other hand, tightening consists of
drawing up nuts and screws when adjustments are not
involved.
b. When a driver discovers a loose or lost nut, bolt, screw,
stud, or cotter key, he should tighten or replace it unless the
adjustment of a part or assembly is affected. If adjustment
is involved, report should be made to the chief of section or
other designated individual.
c. A driver should be taught the correct use of the tools
furnished for his use and the proper degree of tightness of
the various nuts, bolts, and screws on his vehicle. If the
drivers are not sufficiently skilled, or if the proper tools are
not furnished for their use, all tightening operations should
be performed by the motor sergeant and mechanics.
* 24. CLEANING.-a. A motor vehicle should be cleaned after
operation to prevent hardening of dirt accumulations and
to keep dust and other foreign particles from working into
bearing surfaces. The body and exterior parts of the chassis
should be washed, using a hose if available. Water should
not be played on the engine as ignition troubles may result.
Dirt should be wiped from the engine and its subunit assemblies. Gasoline will never be used as a cleaning agent; cleaning solvent is recommended because of its greater safety.
Gas and oil lines should not be polished, since pressure incident to polishing is apt to loosen or break the joints, The
use of paint on radiator cores is prohibited, as it retards the
cooling action of air streams passing through the core.
17
24-26
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
b. Unless the vehicles are very dirty, they should be inspected before being washed. This facilitates the detection
of loose parts and assemblies, because broken dust films are
the best evidence of looseness. Scheduled lubrication should
be performed after washing so that any water or dirt which
has entered bearing surfaces may be forced out by the
pressure of the new lubricant.
c. The decontamination of vehicles after a gas attack is
discussed in FM 21-40.
* 25. CARE or TOOLS AND EQUFMIENr.-The driver is responsible that tools, spare parts, pioneer equipment, chains, traction
devices, towing cables, paulins, fire extinguisher, and other
equipment furnished with his vehicle are in their proper
places, are clean, and are in condition at all times for immediate use. Any equipment which becomes unserviceable
should be repaired or replaced immediately. Shortages or
unserviceable equipment should be reported to the chief of
section, motor sergeant, or other designated individual.
* 26. CARE OF TIRES (see TM 31-200).-a. The chief responsibility of the driver in caring for tires is that of proper inflation. Tires should be inflated to recommended pressures and
the pressure checked daily with a reliable gage. Air pressure
cannot be determined satisfactorily by looking at the tire.
b. Wheels, including spares, should be changed periodically
to secure uniform tire wear and to maintain resiliency in the
spare tires.
c. Drivers are also responsible for changing of tires and in
emergencies, the cold patching of tubes. When mounting
tires on a motor vehicle, particular attention should be paid
to sizes. In general, tires should be mounted in pairs. That
is, tires of equal outside diameter should be mounted on the
front wheels and those of equal outside diameter on the rear
wheels of a 4 by 2 vehicle. However, on an all-wheel-drive
vehicle without a center differential or other compensating
device, all tires should have the same outside diameter. In
order to maintain this condition after tires become worn, it
may be necessary to transfer tires from one vehicle to another.
d. When mounting dual tires, the worn tire should be
placed on the inside. Tires differing more than '/2 inch in
18
MOTOR TRANSPORT
26-27
outside diameters should not be mounted on the same wheel
or on the same axle.
e. Drivers should be constantly alert to detect evidence of
excessive or unusual tire wear. The most common causes of
excessive tire wear are(1) Improper inflation, including under and over inflation
and "bleeding" (loss of air from slow leaks and missing valve
caps).
(2) Poor driving, including fast starting and stopping and
improper use of brakes.
(3) Rocks or other foreign material wedged in tire treads
and between dual tires.
(4) Misalinement, due to loose wheel lugs, or incorrect
alinement of front wheels.
(5) Overloading and improper loading.
(6) Improper sizing of tires (different sized tires on the
same axle).
3 27. CARE OF STORAGE BATTERY (see TF 25-75).-The motor
vehicle driver should have a general knowledge of the functioning of a storage battery. He should know the ammeter
reading which indicates proper functioning of the generator
and the general procedure to be followed when any abnormal
reading is observed. He should know how to use the storage
battery so as to prolong its period of usefulness. The following care by the driver should be routine:
a. Keep battery terminal connections clean and tight. Remove and clean corroded connections, using a weak alkaline
solution if available. Dry the connections, apply a thin coating of vaseline or soft grease, replace and tighten the connections. Corroded terminal connections and battery cables
reduce storage battery efficiency and overload the generator,
and should be replaced.
b. Keep the battery clean and securely clamped in the battery carrier.
c. Inspect the height of the battery electrolyte each week
during the summer season and every 2 weeks during the winter season. If the electrolyte is below the prescribed level,
report the fact to the chief of section or other designated individual.
d. Report any unusual performance or battery condition
immediately.
19
28-29
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
U 28. DUTIES DURING SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE AND TECHNICAL
INsPECTIONS.-a. Before his vehicle is submitted for scheduled
maintenance or technical inspection, the driver should correct such mechanical defects as are within the limits of his
ability and the tools and equipment provided for his use.
The vehicle should not be cleaned unless it is excessively dirty,
since the dust film aids the mechanics in detecting defects.
b. The driver should report known mechanical defects
which he is not authorized to correct and accompany his
vehicle while it is undergoing scheduled maintenance or technical inspection in order to further his knowledge of the
mechanical condition of the vehicle and to permit the motor
officer, or his representative, to point out results of improper
operation or vehicle abuse and take proper corrective action.
I 29. REPORTS.-a. Driver's reports generally applicable to all
arms and services operating and maintaining motor vehicles
are (AR 850-15)(1) Driver's Report-Accident, Motor Transportation
(Standard Form No. 26).
(2) Driver's Trip Ticket and Performance Record (W. D.,
Q. M. C. Form No. 237).
b. In case of injury to person or property, the driver of a
motor vehicle will stop the vehicle and render such assistance
as may be needed, complying with State and local regulations
relative to reporting accidents. He will fill out immediately
at the scene of the accident Standard Form No. 26 and deliver
it to his commanding officer immediately upon return to his
station. This must be done in every case regardless of how
trivial the accident may appear to be or whether Government
property or personnel only is injured (AR 850-15). Proper
use of the accident report form protects the careful driver
in that it presents data secured immediately after the occurrence of the accident and permits completion of an investigation before facts become distorted.
c. A properly completed driver's trip ticket furnishes valuable data for organization maintenance records as well as a
written report of performance defects and emergency repairs
effected. The report of defects protects the driver and facilitates repair by shop maintenance personnel. When driver's
trip tickets are not used, an oral report should be made by
the driver.
20
MOTOR TRANSPORT
30-31
· 30. EMERGENCY ROADSIDE REPAIRS.-a. Emergency roadside
repairs are limited by'the ability of the driver and the tools,
supplies, and equipment available for his use.
b. In performing emergency repairs, the driver should not
force any part nor attempt the repair unless he is reasonably
certain that he has diagnosed the trouble correctly. Tampering with mechanisms is prohibited. At the first opportunity after an emergency repair has been effected, the driver
should report the fact to his chief of section or other designated individual in order that proper action may be taken.
The following are examples of emergency roadside repairs
which a driver should be permitted to perform after he has
received proper training:
(1) Remove, clean, reset, and install spark plugs.
(2) Adjust fan belt.
(3) Remove, blow out, and install gas lines.
(4) Tighten nuts.
(5) Tape leaks in gas or oil lines and tighten connections.
(6) Drain and clean the sediment bowl of the carburetor or
fuel pump.
(7) Tape electrical lines.
(8) Plug leaks in the cooling system and tighten waterpump connections.
(9) Loosen tight brakes, subject to inspection by organization mechanic at first opportunity.
(10) Change tires and put cold patches on tubes,
* 31. DRIVER'S INspECTIor BEFORE OPERATION.-A motor vehicle is not ready for service until certain items have been
checked. Before moving his vehicle from its overnight parking position, the driver, under proper supervision, makes this
inspection and reports the results to his chief of section or
other designated individual. The driver is held strictly responsible that all requirements are met, Items are checked
as follows:
a. Be/ore starting engine.
(1) Surface (ground or floor) under the vehicle for evidence
of leaks.
(2) Radiator for proper amount of water and to see that
air passages are open.
(3) Crankcase for proper amount of lubricating oil. Add
oil if required; spare oil should be carried for use In emergencies.
21
31-32
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
(4) Engine for loose parts or electrical connections.
(5) Gasoline tank for proper amount of gasoline.
(6) Fan belt for proper tension, and for fraying, or
splitting.
(7) Drain valve in air-brake storage tanks closed.
(8) Hand brake set and all transmissions and power takeoffs in neutral.
b. After startingengine and during warm-up period.
(1) Proper functioning of all gages on instrument panel,
including air-pressure gage, as engine comes to operating
temperature.
(2) Horn and all lights for proper functioning.
(3) Action of the windshield wiper.
(4) Fan operation.
(5) Engine for loose parts and unusual noises.
(6) Front axle and steering linkage.
(7) Tools and necessary equipment, including fire extinguisher. (B) Carried load for condition and distribution.
(9) Towed load for condition, attachment to truck. and
brake connections.
(10) Pneumatic tires, including spares, for proper condition and inflation.
(11) Wheels for tightness.
(12) Springs for condition.
(13) Recheck for water, oil, and gasoline leakage.
(14) Move vehicle and test the clutch, transmission, steering, and brakes.
E
32. DRIVER'S INSPECTION DURING OPERATION.-a. During op-
eration the driver should be alert to detect malfunctioning of
the engine and all operating assemblies, including clutch, the
power transmission system, and brakes. He should be trained
to detect unusual engine sounds or noises and to follow the
proper procedure when they occur. Ile should glance frequently at the instrument panel gages and know what to do
when abnormal readings are observed. The most common
abnormal readings are(1) Ammeter showing discharge when engine is running.
(2) Oil pressure gage showing abnormally high or low readings, or the needle fluctuating.
(3) Temperature gage reading 200° F.
22
MOTOR TRANSPORT
32-35
(4) Gasoline gage failing to show correct amount of gasoline.
(5) Air gage reading less than 70 pounds.
b. A motor vehicle will not be operated after trouble has
developed which will prove serious, if operation is continued.
When in doubt, the engine should be stopped and assistance
obtained. Inspection during operation applies to the entire
vehicle and should be emphasized throughout the driving
instruction period.
I 33. DRIVER'S INSPECTION AT HALT.-At each scheduled halt
during the march, or at intervals during a day's work on dispatch, the driver should make a careful inspection of his
vehicle to determine its general mechanical condition, reporting defects which he cannot correct. A suitable general routine, the sequence of which may be altered to suit a particular
type of vehicle, is as follows:
a. Allow the engine to run a short time; listen for unusual
noises.
b. Check all items included in the "inspection before operation" (par. 31).
c. Feel brake bands, wheel hubs, and gear cases for evidence
of overheating.
d. Report promptly the result of the inspection to the chief
of section or other designated individual.
N 34. INSPECTION AFTER OPERATION.-At the conclusion of the
day's work, the driver should make an inspection similar to
that made at halts, but more thorough and detailed. If
defects cannot be corrected, they should be reported promptly
to the chief of section or other designated individual. A
suitable routine is as follows:
a. Check all items included in the inspection at the halt
(par. 33).
b. Check body bolts; tighten or replace as required.
c. Drain air tanks to extent necessary to blow off condensed moisture.
SECTION IV
DRIVING INSTRUCTION
e 35. GENERAL RULE.-Careful instruction and painstaking
supervision must be the rule during the driving instruction
period to insure that the driver learns the correct performance
23
35-39
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
of his duties and forms the proper habits. A driving course,
properly laid out and organized, will be of great aid to instructors and will be used when time and facilities permit. (See
app. II.)
* 36. MOTOR VEHICLE CONTROLS.-The day-to-day condition
and the ultimate service of a motor vehicle, as well as safety
to life and property, depend upon the condition and proper
use of the controls. Consequently, instruction and supervision, as well as continued practice, are necessary to insure the
correct use of these important devices. The following controls
should be explained and demonstrated:
a. Carburetor choke control (if not automatic).
b. Carburetor throttle control, to include accelerator.
c. Ignition switch.
d. Spark control (if not automatic).
e. Transmission gearshift lever.
1. Transfer gearshift lever.
g. Clutch pedal.
h. Steering wheel.
i. Brakes, hand and foot.
Power take-off and winch controls.
k. Front wheel declutching lever.
i.
· 37. AIDS TO MOTOR VEHICLE CONTROL.-Although the devices
given below cannot be classed as controls, they aid in motor
vehicle control and should be explained and demonstrated.
a. Light switches.
b. Horn button.
c. Rear view mirror.
d. Windshield wiper.
e. Speedometer.
f. Blackout devices.
* 38. INSTRUMENT BOARD GACEs.-Gages are placed on the
instrument panel in plain view of the driver to give information concerning certain assemblies and systems of the motor
vehicle. The instructor should explain the purpose of each
gage, give its normal reading, and tell the driver what to do
when an abnormal reading is observed.
* 39. STARTING AND WARMING UP ENGINE.-. Special attention should be paid to the proper starting and to the warmup period in order that unnecessary engine wear may be pre24
MOTOR TRANSPORT
39
vented. In this connection, the Technical Manual (manufacturer's instructions) furnished with the vehicle will be
followed closely. In general, the following procedure is satisfactory:
(1) Make the prescribed inspection before starting engine (par. 31a), including setting the hand brake and placing all transmissions and power take-offs in neutral.
(2) Set the choke control (unless automatic), and the hand
throttle control. Consider the peculiarities of the engine,
engine temperature, fuel, and manufacturer's instructions.
Care should be taken to avoid excessive use of the choke.
(3) Disengage the clutch.
(4) Turn on the ignition.
(5) Engage the starter switch contacts. Release the starter
switch contacts as soon as the engine starts.
(a) If the starter device fails to engage the engine flywheel, release the starter switch contacts and allow the
starter armature to come to rest. To avoid damaging the
electric starter assemblies, always make sure that engine
has not been started before depressing starter switch. Try
again. If the device still fails to engage, report to the chief
of section or other designated person.
(b) If the starter device engages the engine flywheel and
locks, release the starter switch contacts, turn off the ignition,
place the transmission in high gear, release the brake, and
rock the vehicle backward. If the starter device fails to disengage, place the transmission in neutral and report as above.
(c) If the starter device engages the engine flywheel and
the engine fails to start after several attempts, note whether
or not the ammeter needle fluctuates, then report as above.
(6) If the engine is magneto equipped and hand cranking
is necessary, follow the manufacturer's instructions.
(7) While the engine is running, adjust the setting of the,
dash throttle control to give the desired engine speed. Release
the clutch pedal.
(8) Allow the engine to warm up to the proper operating
temperature, releasing the choke as rapidly as the engine
temperature permits. The choke should be used only as long
as necessaryand should never be used excessively. The engine
has reached a safe operating temperature when upon acceleration there is no backfiring, and when the oil pressure needle
remains below the maximum reading on the oil pressure gage!
25
39-40
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
scale with the engine running at its normal operating speed.
In'case an abnormal reading is noted, an immediate report
should be made.
b. Some engines, when stopped after reaching an operating
temperature, radiate enough heat to cause boiling of the gasoline in the carburetor float chamber. This condition, which
is not uncommon during hot weather operation, causes a rich
mixture in the intake manifold. To start the engine, the hand
throttle is fully opened, the carburetor choke is. left in the
normal operating position, and the engine started. The
throttle should be adjusted to the desired engine speed only
after the engine begins to run smoothly. Intermittent depression of the accelerator when the engine is not running
will also produce a rich mixture in the intake manifold; the
procedure outlined above should be followed in starting the
engine.
* 40. MANIPULATION OF CONTROLS.--a. Drivers should familiarize themselves with the location and manipulation of the
clutch pedal, the transmission gear shift lever, and the brake
lever and brake pedal before actual driving instruction starts.
b. When the candidate first gets into the driver's seat he
should be required to assume the correct position; that is, sit
erect, without stiffness, squarely behind the steering wheel;
head erect, eyes looking to the front; hands on opposite sides
of the steering wheel, on a horizontal line generally through
the center of the wheel, grasping the steering wheel rim
firmly :but without tenseness; both feet fiat on the floor
boards except when actually manipulating the accelerator,
the clutch and brake pedals, or the starter switch. The feet
should be placed on the control pedals only when the pedals
are to be operated.
c. After the candidate has familiarized himself with the
location and manipulation of the controls, the instructor
should start and warm up the engine. He should then
demonstrate the operation of the accelerator; coordinated
movements of the accelerator, clutch pedal, and transmission gear shift lever: gear shifting, to include reverse;
operation 'of the brake controls; manipulation of the steering
wheel; and the use of the engine as a brake. Upon completion of the demonstration, the candidate should take the
driver's seat and under careful supervision, practice ma26
MOTOR TRANSPORT
40-41
nipulating the controls until he becomes reasonably proficient. In this phase of instruction, the motor vehicle should
be blocked up securely with wheels off the ground.
* 41. GEAR SHIFTING AND USE OF CLUTCH.-a. General.-Pre-
liminary instructions in driving should be conducted on a
large, open field where steering is of secondary importance.
Candidates should be permitted to drive at will with the
transmission in the lower gear ratios until they are reasonably familiar with the operation and control of their vehicles,
after which the driving should become progressively more
difficult.
b. Shifting from lower to higher gear.-In shifting from a
lower to a higher gear without oruble clutching, the following
operations are performed:
(1) Disengage the clutch and at the same time release the
accelerator. The operation of the clutch and the importance
of completely disengaging it should be understood.
(2) Shift to the next higher gear. The gear shift lever
should be moved smoothly but firmly; it should never be
forced.
(3) Engage the clutch and at the same time accelerate the
engine.
(a) The clutch must be released gradually from the time it
starts to engage until it is fully engaged. Since the clutch
action takes place during a relatively short movement of the
pedal, the driver must know the point at which engagement
starts. He can then increase the engine speed to balance the
engine load. He must also know the injurious effects of
allowing the foot to remain on the clutch pedal ("riding the
clutch").
(b) The engine should be accelerated enough to move the
load off smothly, but it should not be raced. During the preliminary instruction period, the accelerator may be blocked
to prevent excessive engine speed.
c. Shifting from higher to lower gear.-After the driver
has become reasonably proficient in shifting from lower to
higher gears, he should receive instruction in shifting from
higher to lower gears, using double clutching. The procedure
is as follows:
(1) Disengage the clutch and shift to neutral; at the same
time decelerate the engine.
27
41-42
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
(2) Engage the clutch and accelerate to an engine speed
slightly in excess of that required in the lower gear to maintain the vehicle speed.
(3) Disengage the clutch and shift to the next lower gear;
at the same time slightly decelerate the engine.
(4) Engage the clutch; at the same time accelerate the engine to effect clutch engagement without shock to the power
transmission system.
(5) Practice double clutching until proficient in shifting
from a higher to a lower gear.
d. Shifting gears on medium and heavy trucks.-On medium and heavy vehicles it is sometimes difficult to shift
from a low gear to a higher gear without clashing the gear
teeth. The clashing may be avoided by using the double
clutching procedure without accelerating the engine during
the shift.
* 42. USE OF TRANSMISSION AND AUXILIARY TRANSMISSION.---a.
A transmission is provided so that the engine may be permitted to run at a speed at which sufficient horsepower is
developed, and at the same time permit the vehicle to travel
at a speed suitable for the road and load conditions. The
addition of auxiliary transmission, usually included as a part
of the power transmission system on 4- and 6-wheel-drive
vehicles, increases the number of gear ratios available and
permits greater flexibility in the transmission of power.
b. The driver should understand what happens when the
gear shift lever is moved and must be practiced in the
manipulation of the controls and the proper use of the transmission and auxiliary transmission. He should be instructed
to shift gears at the proper time so that-the engine will never
be permitted to labor unduly when a change from a higher
to a lower gear would lighten the load. If his vehicle is
equipped with a tachometer, he should know the proper engine speeds for efficient operation.
C. The auxiliary transmission normally provided on military motor vehicles has two gear ratios: high, which does
not change the gear ratios provided by the main transmission; and low, which gives a greater gear reduction (higher
reduction ratio) than that provided by the main transmission. The auxiliary transmission is controlled by a gear
shift lever in the driver's compartment. The high range is
28
MOTOR TRANSPORT
42-43
used for normal operation and the low range for heavy duty.
The ratios in the auxiliary transmission of most types of
vehicles should not be changed when the vehicle is in motion.
* 43. USE OF BRAKES.-a. The brakes should be in such con-
dition that a hard application will cause all wheels to be
locked, but the driver must realize that the maximum retarding effect occurs just before the wheels lock. Intrnmittent
applications will reduce the wear of brake linings and drums.
Application of the brakes should be gradual and with just
enough force to accomplish the desired result.
b. Judicious use of the braking effect of the engine will
Increase the serviceable life of the brake linings and drums.
When the driver anticipates a stop, he should make full use of
the engine braking effect, disengaging the clutch in time to
avoid stalling the engine. When descending hills, a driver
should use the engine as a brake by selecting and engaging
the proper gear ratio, and use the intermittent application
of the brakes to prevent overspeeding the engine. The ignition should not be turned off. The engine speed when descending a hill should be no greater than the speed necessary
to ascend the hill when using the same transmission gear
ratio. On steep hills the gear train necessary to give the
desired results should be engaged before the vehicle is committed to the hill. Attempting to shift gears after the vehicle
has started down a steep slope may result in a runaway
vehicle. In descent of long, steep hills, the vehicle should
be halted occasionally to avoid too rapid cooling of engine
when used as a brake.
c. At all times a driver should know the performance and
the general condition of his vehicle brakes. When operating
conditions require vehicles to move through water, the brakes
become very inefficient because of moisture on the brake linings and in the brake drums. If the distance to be traversed
Is short, considerable water may be kept out of the brake
assemblies by a slight application of the brakes while the
vehicle is in the water. After passing through water, the
brakes should be set slightly and the vehicle operated until
sumcient heat has been generated to dry the brakes. Brakes
should be thoroughly'cleaned after extended driving in soft
mud.
d. Vehicle stopping distances are dependent upon the nature
441574° 42-2
29
43-44
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
and condition of the road surface, the condition of the brakes,
the weight of the load, and the kind and condition of tire
treads. When operating at a speed of 20 miles per hour on a
dry, smooth, level road free from loose material, every motor
vehicle or combination of motor vehicles should be capable,
at all times and under all conditions of loading, of stopping
within the following distances when the foot brake is applied:
(1) Vehicles or combination of vehicles having brakes on
all wheels-30 feet.
(2) Vehicles or combination of vehicles not having brakes
on all wheels-45 feet.
e. Drivers should be cautioned against the use of brakes
when a vehicle is skidding, and when itis being operated on
ice-covered or wet surfaces. Such surfaces afford little gripping action for tires. A sharp application of the brakes will
lock the wheels, causing the vehicle to skid. The braking
action of the engine should be used to the utmost, declutching
only in time to prevent stalling the engine.
* 44. TURNING, BAcKING, AND PARKING.-a. After the driver
has acquired facility in starting, simple driving, and stopping
his vehicle, he should be practiced in maneuvering in difficult
places. The ability to turn his vehicle in a confined space, to
back it accurately, and to park it properly under various conditions are essential requirements for the motor vehicle driver.
b. Turns should be made at speeds commensurate with the
load, road, and traffic conditions. The driver should always
give the appropriate arm, electrical, or mechanical signal in
sufficient time to afford ample warning that a change in
direction is to be made. He should keep at least one hand on
the steering wheel when the vehicle is in motion. Turns
should be made with as little confusion to other traffic as possible. On 2-lane highways, all turns should start and end in
the right lanes. On multiple-lane highways, right turns
should start and end in the extreme right lanes; left turns
should start and end in the lane just to the right of the center
line. The driver should place his vehicle in the proper lane
some distance before reaching the turn in order to avoid the
possibility of accidents.
c. A driver should never back a vehicle until he is certain
that the way is clear. When the driver's view is obstructed,
he should act as directed by an assistant on the ground.
MOTOR TRANSPORT
44
II
FINISH
START
(The figure should be symmetrical, with the stakes placed to allow
a side clearance of approximately 18 inches on the turn. Actual
placement of the stakes should be determined from the performance of a pilot vehicle, since the total space required for the turn
depends upon the type of vehicle used.)
FIGURE 2.-Reverse turning course.
20 FEET
'
X---X-- -X
X
i
(The figure should be symmetrical, With the stakes placed to allow
an over-all side clearance of approximately 18 inches at the finish.
The entering lane should be wide enough to permit the movement
if it is executed correctly.)
FIGoUE 3.-Backing course.
31
44-45
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
When backing unassisted, the driver should always give warning of the movement by sounding his horn. Considerable
practice is necessary to back a vehicle safely and accurately.
This is particularly true when the driver is required to back
a towed load.
STOP
I PARKED
x---I
I
NOMAL
ROAD
WIDTH
CST
I
AR T
(Stakes should be placed so that when parked the vehicle will have
an over-all longitudinal clearance of approximately 10 feet and a
lateral clearance of approximately 3 feet.)
FIGURE 4.-Parking course.
d. Parking includes turning and forward or backward movement of the vehicle in more or less restricted spaces. Factors
which should be given consideration when parking are space
for maneuver of vehicle, solid standing, interference with
other traffic, and cover if applicable.
e. The use of driving courses outlined by stakes will permit
instruction and practice without interference with other traffic and will make closer supervision possible. The instruction
courses shown in figures 2, 3, and 4 are recommended.
* 45. DIFFICULT DRIVINO.-.
After the driver has acquired
facility in driving and maneuvering, he should be taken
32
MOTOR TRANSPORT
45-47
through a series of progressively increasing difficulties, such
as ditches, ruts, chuckholes, woods, slippery roads, mud, difficult curves, and up and down steep slopes until he becomes
reasonably proficient in handling his vehicle under all conditions. This training should include field expedients and
the application and use of chains and traction devices. (See
ch. 6.)
b. The training should start with individual performances
and empty vehicles and should progress to group performances with loaded vehicles, and with towed loads if used in the
organization.
* 46. NIGHT DRIVING.-. Movements under cover of darkness
are frequently necessary in order to escape observation and
gain security. In forward areas, movements must be made
without lights if casualties are to be minimized and secrecy
preserved. Before such movements are undertaken, drivers
should be given thorough training in marching, with and
without lights.
b. Training in night driving should start with empty vehicles operated over good roads with lights. Careful instructions should be issued, and the road should be well marked.
After the drivers have become reasonably skilled in driving
with lights, they should be required to traverse the same route
without lights. Provision should be made to prevent flashing
of the stop light. The routes traversed should become progressively more difficult until drivers are proficient in handling their vehicles under all probable operating conditions.
During this training, special attention should be paid to
march discipline, to the prevention of smoking, and the use of
lights. When a movement with lights is to be continued
without lights, 15 to 20 minutes should be allowed to accustom
drivers' eyes to the changed conditions.
* 47. MARCHING.--a. Successful marching requires welltrained drivers and teamwork on the part of all elements of
the command. Drivers must therefore be trained in march
organization, march formations, march regulations, camouflage and concealment of vehicles, and procedure in case of air
or mechanized attack (chs. 3, 4 and 5). Through instruction
and the enforcement of regulations, a degree of march discipline is attained which enables an organization to pass over
roads with a maximum of speed and safety, and a minimum
33
47-49
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
of interference with other traffic, and to arrive at its destination in the best possible condition.
b. During training in close-column marching (see par. 57),
special attention should be paid to safe driving distances between vehicles. These distances, which vary with vehicle
speeds, should be prescribed initially. The controlling element in the determination of safe driving distance is the
ability to avoid collision with the vehicle ahead without the
excessive or sudden use of brakes. During the early stages
of training, the following rule, properly modified to meet special conditions, gives distances that are considered adequate
for safe marching: The distance in yards between vehicles
should be twice the speedometer reading.
SECTION V
EXAMINATION AND OPERATOR'S PERMIT
E 48. EXAMINATION
(AR 850-15) .- Motor vehicle operator's
permits will be issued only to individuals who have satisfactorily passed an examination conducted by a qualifed commissioned officer. Suitable types of examination are shown in
appendixes III and IV. The following subjects should be included:
a. Mechanical.-Nomenclature and functions of major
units of the motor vehicle.
b. Operation.--() Actual driving of the vehicle, involving
use of controls, reversing, and parking under usual conditions
of traffic and terrain.
(2) Traffic regulations, road procedure, safety precautions,
speed limits, vehicle abuse, and reading of road maps.
c. Maintenance.-Firstechelon (vehicle operator's) maintenance.
E 49. OPERATOR'S PERMIT (AR 850-15).-a, W. D., Q. M. C.
Form No, 228 (U. S. Army Motor Vehicle Operator's Permit)
will be issued by commanding officers to all operators of military motor vehicles, and will indicate the type of vehicle the
holder is qualified to drive.
b. Possession of a motor vehicle operator's permit should
be a guarantee that the individual is a safe driver. Accordingly the permit will be immediately revoked when an accident or other cause so warrants.
34
MOTOR TRANSPORT
50 51
CHAPTER 3
MOTOR MARCH
SEcroN 1.
II.
III.
IV.
Paragraphs
: .. _..
.
General___ ___
_
Types of march
.c
...
March technique
Orders _-____.......__
.__............. 50-54
…...............55-59
60-71
................
_-_______. 7z2-75
__
SECTION I
GENERAL
· 50. SCOPE-This chapter is concerned principally with the
internal management of the individual motor column.
* 51. DErNITIoNs.-Arrival time.-The time at which the
head of a column, or specified element thereof, arrives at a
designated point.
Control point.-A definite, easily identified and described location along a route of march, at which information and
instructions are given and received in order to facilitate and
regulate supply or traffic.
Clearance time.-The time at which the tail of a column, or
specified element thereof, completes passage by a designated point.
Column.-One or more march units, or serials, under one
commander using the same route.
Column commander-The senior officer with the column or
the person designated by him to exercise command.
Control car.-The car which precedes a column, or element
thereof, and sets the rate of march.
Control officer.-An officer, usually the executive or second
in command, who rides at the head of a column, or element
thereof, and regulates the rate of march.
Convoy.--A group of motor vehicles temporarily organized to
operate as a column for the purpose of transporting nonorganic troops or supplies, in contradistinction to organically motorized tactical units or supply trains.
Distance.--The space from the rear of one vehicle (including
towed load, if any) to the front of the next vehicle in the
column; or the space from the rear element of a march
51
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
unit or serial to the leading element of the following march
unit or serial.
Double staggered column.-A two-lane column of vehicles
moving in same direction so arranged that the vehicles in
one lane are opposite the spaces between vehicles in the
other lane. (See fig. 7.)
Doublebanking.-The act of overtaking and passing, or parking or moving abreast of, other traffic headed in the same
direction on a roadway.
Entrucking point or detrucking point.-An easily recognizable
location where the head of a motor column, or element
thereof, halts for the loading, or unloading, of troops or
supplies.
Escort.-Troopsdetailed to prevent interference with a motor
movement by hostile air forces, by mechanized or other
ground forces, or by other traffic.
Guard.-An ihndividual placed at a danger point, such as a
railroad crossing or a turn into or off a main road, to
prevent traffic accidents.
Guide.-An individual who leads or directs a unit or vehicle
over a predetermined route or into a selected locality.
Headway.-The interval of time between individual vehicles,
march units, serials, or columns, measured from head to
head as they pass a given point.
Initial point (IP).-An easily recognizable point at which a
column, or element thereof, is formed by the successive arrival thereat of its various subdivisions.
Lead.-Linear spacing between the heads of successive vehicles, serials, march units, or columns.
March graph.-A time-space diagram used in planning and
controlling marches and in preparing or checking march
tables or march control tables.
March order.-An order issued by a commander, covering the
details of a march.
March table.-A composite list showing the general-organization and time and space schedule for a march movement.
(See par. 130.)
March unit.-One or more motor vehicles under a single
commander for purposes of march control. A company,
troop, battery, or similar organization normally forms the
march unit.
36
MOTOR TRANSPORT
51
Marker.-An individual, distinctive sign, or notice placed at a
critical location to indicate a position, direction, procedure,
or obstacle.
Park.-An area used for the purpose of servicing, maintaining or parking vehicles.
Pioneer work.-Rough, hasty construction or demolition tasks
executed to facilitate the movement of friendly troops or
to impede the movement of hostile troops.
Rate of march.-The average speed of a column over a period
of time including short periodic halts.
Regulating point.-An easily recognizable location where an
incoming motor column, or element thereof, is separated
into groups for movement to assembly or bivouac areas, or
to entrucking or detrucking points.
Release point.-A location at which specified elements of a
column revert to control of their respective commanders.
Road block.-Any obstacle which delays or prevents traffic
movement on the road.
Road space (RS).-The total length of roadway occupied by
a column or element thereof.
Road time.-The total time a column, or element thereof,
requires to clear a given section of road. (Road time=
time length+time distance between ends of the given section of road.)
Serial.-One or more march units, preferably with same
march characteristics placed under one commander for
march purposes.
Shuttling.-A method of moving troops and materiel in repeated trips by same motor vehicles.
Speed.-A rate of travel, usually measured in miles per hour.
Speedometer multiplier (sm).-Any number by which the
speedometer reading in miles per hour is multiplied to determine intervehicular lead in an open column (see par. 58).
Strip map.-A sketch or map, either schematic or drawn to
scale, delineating a route to be followed; sometimes in the
form of a section or strip, cut or reproduced from a map.
Time distance.-The time required to move from one point
to another at a given rate of speed.
Time-gap;--The interval of time, between successive vehicles, march units, serials, or columns as they move past
a fixed point, measured from tail to head.
37
51-52
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
Time length (TL).-The time required for a column, or element thereof, to pass a given point.
Traffic block.-Any use of a section of roadway by vehicles
or traffic which prevents the passage of other vehicles or
traffic in a specified direction.
Traffic bottleneck.-A section of traveled roadway having a
greater traffic density, or a smaller traffic capacity, than
that of the roadway or roadways leading thereto.
Traffic capacity.-The maximum traffic flow attainable with
close column marching on a given roadway, using all available lanes.
Traffic density.-The number of vehicles per unit length of
roadway (e. g., 75 per mile).
Traffic flow.-The number of vehicles that pass a given point
within a given period of time (e. g., 500 vehicles per lane
per hour).
Trail car.-The car carrying the trail officer.
Trail officer.-An officer, usually the motor maintenance officer, who rides at the rear of a column, or element thereof.
(See par. 60 for duties of a trail officer.)
Turn-around.-Alocality where the direction of march may be
reversed.
Vehicle commander.-Usually the senior officer or man riding
in the vehicle.
* 52. COMMAND.-a. Organically motorized tactical units.Movements of organically motorized tactical units are made
under the direction and supervision of the senior commander
in the column.
b. Organicsupply column.-Motorized columns carrying organic equipment and supplies likewise move under the command of the senior officer or noncommissioned officer present
in the column, and each individual vehicle is commanded by
the senior officer or man riding therein.
c. Convoys.-Movements of troops or supplies in nonorganic
vehicles are in absence of orders to the contrary, commanded
by the senior line officer present. In this case the motortransport officer accompanying the vehicles acts only as technical adviser to the commanding officer of troops. However,
if the troop or supply movement is being handled by the staff
of a higher headquarters as part of a large move, command
arrangements are as follows:
38
MOTOR TRANSPORT
52-53
(1) The motor-transport units are organized, staffed, and
a commander of troops and a convoy commander are designated, by the higher headquarters ordering the move.
(2) The convoy commander designated by such orders is
responsible both for the technical operations of vehicles and
for the movement of the column. Orders to convoy-operating
personnel in this case are given only by the convoy commander
and his assistants.
(3) The commander of troops exercises no control over the
movements of the convoy or of individual vehicles, except in
a tactical situation; then the decision rests solely with him.
The troop commander is in all situations responsible for the
administration and discipline of the troops being transported.
(4) Whenever a tactical situation can be foreseen, the senior combat troop commander will be placed in command of
the convoy, the motor-transport officer acting as his technical
adviser.
· 53. ORGANIZATION.-a. General.-The organization of a
motor column depends primarily on the tactical and traffic
conditions likely to affect its movement. The main column
may be organized into serials and march units to facilitate
column control. The management of the main column is
handled by the column commander, assisted by the column
control officer, the column trail officer, commanders of serials
and march units, and such traffic control personnel as may be
posted along the route. Necessary ambulances and medical
personnel and necessary maintenance vehicles, equipment
and personnel, accompany the column to care for march
casualties. Detached parties, operating apart from the main
column, are detailed to perform special duties in connection
with the march. Such parties may be provided by a higher
headquarters for general assistance to several columns, or
they may be detailed from the march column itself. Often
it will be possible to combine one or more of the groups indicated below. When so combined, they are collectively referred to as the "advance party."
b. Reconnaissance parti.-A traffic reconnaissance should
always precede a motor movement. Necessary reconnaissance
in rear areas is usually provided by traffic personnel of division or higher units. However, when movements are to be
made over unknown and unpatrolled routes, the column com39
53
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
mander should detail a reconnaissance party from his own
column. It may often be desirable to assign this duty to the
traffic escort or to the pioneer party. (Traffic reconnaissance
is covered in pars. 86 to 96, incl.; see ch. 5 for tactical reconnaissance.)
c. Pioneer party.-Necessary pioneer work in preparation
of the route is usually accomplished by engineer troops.
Lacking these, this important work must be performed by a
pioneer party detailed from the march column. The requirements for pioneer work vary greatly. They are negligible
when moving over good roads, but become extremely heavy
when moving cross country or over demolished routes. In
any case an estimate must be made of personnel, tools, materials, and the time necessary for elimination and reduction
of obstacles. (Pioneer work is covered in ch. 6.)
d. Traffic escorts-The duties and employment of a traffic
escort are listed in paragraph 111.
e. Quartering party.--The mission of a quartering. party is
to arrange for local purchase ' of necessary supplies or services
(such as rations, forage, water, firewood, bridge tolls, gasoline,
oil, medical attendance, etc.) and to locate and lay out bivouac
or assembly areas and unloading and parking facilities prior
to arrival of the column. It also prepares a plan for the
defense of the area. On arrival of the column, the quartering
party assists the traffic escort or other traffic personnel in
guiding units to their exact areas and arranges for the prompt
relief and return of empty vehicles to their proper units.
Suitable personnel for this party may include a supply and
agent finance officer, one or more officers from each battalion
and regimental staff, a representative from each company,
troop, or battery, and other necessary assistants.
f. Clean-up party.-It is the duty of the clean-up party to
inspect bivouac areas and halt sites after they are vacated by
the column and to correct and report any deficiencies observed. In peacetime the officer with this party completes
necessary paper work in connection with leased camp sites
(see AR 35-6080 and 30-1415) and any claims arising from
damage to private or public property (see AR 35-7020,
'See AR 35-320 (agent finance officer); AR 5-240 and 30-2210 (local
purchase of rations): AR 5-240 (havoline, oil, and motor repair
parts); and AR 40-505 (civilian medical attendance).
40
MOTOR TRANSPORT
53-55
35-7030, 35-7040, 35-7050, 35-7060, 35-7070, 35-7080, 35-7100,
35-7220, and 30-1430). On the road, this group follows the
main part of the column and salvages disabled vehicles which
the column trail officer has ordered abandoned. Vehicles
permanently abandoned by the column trail officer are tagged
(if this has not already been done) to indicate the unit to
which they belong and to show the reason for their unserviceability; and a report is made to the supply service concerned,
stating the location and general condition of such vehicles.
Salvage is covered in detail in chapter 7. Other road duties
of the clean-up party include the picking up of guides, guards,
and markers missed by the main part of the column, the final
investigation of accidents en route (see par, 70) and the
disposition of dead or wounded abandoned by the column.
* 54. SECURITY.-Protective measures for motor transport are
covered in chapter 5.
SECTION II
TYPES OF MARCH
* 55. MEcHANIcs OF COLUMN MOVEMENT.-a. General.-Whenever the tactical situation permits, a march column should
be made up of vehicles with similar march characteristics,
even if this requires the temporary separation of a tactical
unit into two or more independent columns. When the tactical situation demands that a column be composed of vehicles
with different march characteristics, the rate of march of
the column is governed by the performance of the slowest
vehicle. For march control purposes, it is usually desirable
to place the slowest vehicle at the head of the column.
b. Speed variance within column.-It is theoretically possible for an entire motor column to move at a constant speed.
Practically, however, a column of any length will cover simultaneously many diverse stretches of road and incidents of
terrain, including hills, sharp curves, dust clouds, and varying road surfaces. The result is that different parts of the
column, regardless of traffic conditions and vehicle performance characteristics, move simultaneously at different speeds.
This produces accordion-like action and on a long hill or bad
stretch of road serious conditions may result. On the near
side of the obstruction, a long and constantly increasing mass
of vehicles will accumulate and on the far side, the column
will be elongated (fig. 5).
41
56
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
V
,o
o
o 0
0-,
00~~~~~~~~~~~~.
C
-
°
O~~~~~~~
100
oOo
eo~~~~~~
ee
"
cS ~~ z
a
_
to
o
MOTOR TRANSPORT
55 56
c. Solution to problem of column movement at varying
speeds.-(1) A long column can be held together under such
conditions only by continuously adjusting the speed of the
control car, and every succeeding vehicle in the column, to
that of the vehicle moving at the slowest speed. Column
compactness, if that is desired, can be attained only by sacrificing high rates of march. If compactness is not essential,
the ideal type of column movement is such as to permit each
vehicle to pass over any given stretch of road at the same
speed as the control car. This ideal can be approached by
varying intervehicular distances so as to produce constant
headways throughout the column at all speeds. (See fig. 6.)
When this is done the rate of traffic flow up to a section of
road, which must be traversed at a reduced speed, is made
equivalent to the rate of traffic flow over and away from this
section of road. Intracolumn interference is thereby eliminated, and every vehicle in the column is enabled to move as
rapidly as if there were no other vehicles on the road.
(2) In picking up speed after leaving the traffic bottleneck,
the control car should increase its speed gradually, in order to
mitigate the accordion action. If fixed intervehicular distances had been maintained by the column shown in figure
6, the entire column would have been forced to slow down as
soon as the first vehicle began to ascend the hill. The slow
movement would then have been continued until the inst vehicle had completed its ascension of the hill. For a column
20 miles long, the result would have been to reduce the speed
of every vehicle from 30 to 10 miles per hour over a road
distance of 20 miles. With the type of column movement
actually shown in figure 6, on the other hand, the rate of
march of each vehicle is reduced from 30 miles per hour to
10 miles per hour only while ascending the hill. The nearer
the approach to constant headways throughout the column,
the nearer will be the approach to the ideal type of column
movement. Variable intervehicular distances are used in all
of the types of march described in the following paragraphs.
* 56. INFILTRATION.-a. Description.-Vehiclesare dispatched
individually or in small groups over a carefully marked route.
Observation from the air should discern what appears to be
only normal or routine traffic. (See par. 122.)
43
~~56 ~
BASIC FIELD MIIAUAL
___
C
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O~~~~~~~~~o
X
O
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0
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U)
Sa
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oo
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0
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Ji
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~~~~n~~
3
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44~~~~~~4
oe__XE
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aa
MOTOR TRANSPORT
56
b. Uses.-When sufficient time and road space are available, this type of march is used to provide the maximum of
secrecy, deception, and dispersion as a means of passive
protection against enemy observation and attack. It is
therefore well suited to daylight marches in the combat zone.
Because an infiltration column provides a minimum of interference with other traffic and a higher average rate of march,
it is likewise suitable for nontactical motor movements in
peacetime.
c. Execution.-(1) The route of march must be carefully
marked, and every driver and front seat passenger should be
given detailed instructions regarding it. A strip map should
be provided for each vehicle. Complete operating instructions to include running speed, maximum speed, and restrictions on passing should be issued. Vehicles should be dispatched individually or in small groups of not more than 3
to 5 vehicles, and there should be no massing of vehicles
which might disclose the movement to enemy observers.
(2) Deception may be further provided by intermingling
various types of vehicles and by permitting passing within
the column. In order to provide passive protection from
enemy observation and attack, vehicles should normally be
dispatched so as to produce an average traffic density (so far
as the vehicles in the coliumn are concerned) 'of not to exceed
10 vehicles per mile. (See par. 122.) When more than one
movement is taking place simultaneously over the same route,
it may be necessary to coordinate the rates of dispatch in
order to obtain desired dispersion. Dispatching is normally
effected by company, troop, battery, or similar unit in accordance with the plan of the column commander. Staff control
can be exercised at the IP, but movements up to the IP must
be planned so as to avoid an excessive concentration of
vehicles near this point.
(3) Average headways between vehicles are determined initially by the rate at which vehicles are dispatched; thereafter,
speeds and headways are regulated by individual drivers in
conformity with operating instructions. These may include
the use of a prescribed speedometer multiplier (open column
marching) when slower speeds occur en route or minimum
leads to avoid presenting remunerative targets from the air,
orders of the vehicle commander, and instructions of traffic
personnel. If it should become necessary for any part of the
441574---2
4
45
56-57
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
column to halt on the road, vehicles should stop and pull off
the road as soon as need for the halt is detected, and if possible, maintain distances of not less than 100 yards. Supervision of movement is effected by stationing necessary control personnel along the route of march. In order to prevent
massing of vehicles at or near the march destination, it is
important that adequate guides and markers be posted to
insure that vehicles disperse to their assigned areas with
minimum delay. (See par. 122.)
d. Advantages.-This type of march provides the best possible passive protection from hostile observation and attack.
Under light traffic conditions, movement of individual vehicles
is not affected materially by other vehicles in the column and
is limited only by road conditions, vehicle mobility, and the
training, experience, and physical condition of drivers. Thus,
the rate of march is the highest practicable. Driver fatigue
and the probability of accidents are reduced to a minimum.
Since traffic density is normally very light, cross traffic can
move without impeding the march. A traffic escort is not
normally required, although intersection control may be desirable. Operating conditions resulting from the employment
of the infiltration type of march approximate those to which
individual drivers are accustomed in civilian traffic.
e. Disadvantages.-Time length of column is greater than
with any other type of march. Thus, in spite of a higher
rate of march, the total road time for a column may be longer.
Because of extended distances between vehicles, internal control of the column is extremely difficult. Since drivers are not
always able to regulate their movements on the vehicle ahead,
careful marking of the route is necessary to prevent individual vehicles from getting lost.
* 57. CLOSE COLUMN.-a. Description.-Inthis type of march,
the column is formed as compactly as practicable in order
to reduce its time length to a minimum. (See par. 122.)
b. Uses.-Close column is used when a large volume of
traffic must be moved over short distances in a minimum
period of time. It is also applicable to short, high-speed
movements from cover to cover when a minimum time of
exposure may reduce the chances of discovery and attack.
Normally, however, close column is not justified except when
the column is protected by an aerial escort or is otherwise
46
MOTOR TRANSPORT
57
secure from hostile air attack. Close column may be useful
for night moves urder blackout conditions, particularly over
poorly marked routes, when it is essential that distances between vehicles be short enough to enable drivers to maintain
contact with and follow the vehicle ahead. This type of
march may sometimes be used for peacetime movements
through cities or other congested areas, providing that a traffic
escort is available, the move has been coordinated with civilian traffic authorities, and the movement is important enough
to warrant delaying civilian traffic. Because of the excessive
intracolumn interference produced by close column marching, close column should never be used when open column
will provide the desired traffic flow.
c. Execution-When time and road space permit, sufficient headways (1 to 3 min. added to the time length of
the preceding serial or march unit is normally ample) are
prescribed between serials and march units to localize intracolumn interference, allow reasonably smooth marching, and
provide a faster rate of march. If time or available road
space makes it impracticable to divide the column into serials
and march units, the entire column moves in one compact
group as a single march unit (the so-called "follow me" method of marching). Within each march unit, drivers are instructed to follow the vehicle ahead as closely as they think
is reasonable and consistent with safe driving practices. For
purposes of safety, a maximum speed (greater than the average running speed) is prescribed for vehicles regaining lost
distances. Changes in speed should always be accomplished
smoothly and gradually in order to insure safety and uniformity of column movement. At the halt, unless the tactical
situation prohibits congestion, vehicles within each march
unit should close up to a distance of approximately 1 yard
between bumpers. March units and serials, however, do not
close on the units ahead. If a multiple lane road is available
for a movement in a single direction, any number of lanes
may be employed. However, since vehicles in a close column
operate at minimum headways possible, there can be no
weaving or interchange of traffic between lanes. A traffic
escort is necessary when close column marching is used.
d. Advantages.-Forany given speed, time length and road
space of column are reduced to the minimum practicable, and
the full traffic capacity of the road can be utilized. Because
47
57-58
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
of the small headways between vehicles, column control and
intracolumn communication are the bpet obtainable. An
aerial escort or active antiaircraft protection can be utilized
to maximum advantage. Since time length of column is reduced to the minimum, short moves may be completed before
enemy air units have time to strike.
e. Disadvantages.-This type of march does ,not provide
dispersion for passive protection against enemy observation
and attack. The strength and type of organization are readily apparent to hostile observation. In most cases, vehicles
will arrive at terminal-areas faster than they can be handled
without producing congestion. Careful scheduling and rigid
control of traffic are required if dangerous jams at intersec-tions are to be avoided. Intracolumn interference is particularly troublesome and slows down the rate of march of
the column.
* 58. OPEN COLUMN.-a. In this type of column an effort is
made to maintain approximately constant headways between
vehicles at all speeds. Intervehicular leads should vary directly as the speed of movement. (See par. 122.)
b. Uses-Open column is particularly applicable to tactical moves which must be made during daylight without
aerial escort and when time is so important that lack of
secrecy and reasonable losses from attack are acceptable.
Sufficient dispersion may usually be prescribed to prevent
simultaneous shelling or bombing of two or more vehicles.
Open column may be used to advantage when moving with
driving lights at night, or with blackout lights on moonlight
nights. It is likewise applicable to nontactical peacetime
marches if drivers must depend on vehicle ahead for route
guidance, or when volume of traffic to be moved precludes
the use of an infiltration march.
I c. Execution.-(1) In order to give drivers a practical means
of maintaining approximately constant time intervals or
headways at all speeds, the lead in yards between vehicles
in the column is indicated as the product of the speedometer
reading by a specified number called the speedometer multiplier (sm). Drivers and vehicle commanders are held responsible for maintaining specified sm. At slower speeds and
with smaller speedometer multipliers, it is impossible to
maintain the small leads necessary to provide constant head48
MOTOR TRANSPORT
58
ways; at higher speeds and with larger speedometer multipliers, intervehicular leads become so large that it is difficult
for drivers to estimate them accurately. Whenever the
former situation occurs during a march, drivers operate their
vehicles as they would in a close column (unless dispersion
is sought, in which event vehicles will not approach closer
to other vehicles than a minimum prescribed distance);
when the latter occurs, drivers operate their vehicles as they
would in an infiltration column until the preceding vehicle
slows down sufficiently to permit resumption of reasonably
accurate estimates of intervehicular distance. (See par. 122.)
(2) The selection of a specific speedometer multiplier tor
any particular stretch of roadway will ordinarily require a
compromise between two mutually conflicting requirements.
In the first place, it is desirable to increase intervehicular
leads so as to avoid presenting a concentrated target to enemy
attack. It is particularly desirable that vehicles never approach closer to each other on the road than the maximum
diameter of the effective burst area of a shell or light bomb.
(This diameter will generally not exceed 30 to 50 yards.) In
the second place, it is often necessary to reduce intervehicular
leads in order to facilitate column control, decrease road
time, minimize delay to cross traffic, or increase traffic flow
through traffic bottlenecks.
(3) Since intervehicular lead in open column marching
varies directly as speed, the stretch of road at which the
slowest speed occurs is the one which is critical insofar as
dispersion of vehicles in the column is concerned. (Momentary halts or reductions in speed may be disregarded.)
Hence, it is necessary to base the selection of a speedometer
multiplier on the slowest speed expected between halts.
Thus,
desired minimum intervehicular lead
Speedometer multiplier=
slowest speed expected between halts
For example, as a result of careful consideration of the
requirements affecting the selection of speedometer multipliers as indicated in (2) above, it is decided that vehicles
should not approach closer than 35 yards. The slowest speed
expected during the next stage of an open column march is
10 miles per hour. Vehicles average 7 yards in length. The
highest speed expected is 30 miles per hour. It is obvious
49
58
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
that if an intervehicular lead of at least 42 yards is maintained at 10 miles per hour, sufficient lead will be provided
at all speeds greater than 10 miles per hour. Hence, the
speedometer multiplier in this case should be 42/10 or 4+.
A speedometer multiplier of 5 would be prescribed. At 30
miles per hour intervehicular lead will be 150 yards. (This
example is illustrated in fig. 6.) It is often advisable to prescribe a minimum distance beyond which vehicles will not
close either at the halt or while the column is in motion. The
speedometer multiplier obtained by use of the above formula
must not produce an intervehicular headway greater than
that required to maintain time length of columns within the
prescribed limit.
(4) In order to localize intracolumn interference resulting
from inaccurate maintenance of intervehicular headways, it
is desirable to have serials and march units move a specified
number of minutes behind the head of the column. Vehicles
do not close up at the halt, but stop with approximately the
same spacing between vehicles as was being maintained just
before the halt was executed.
(5) If it becomes necessary or desirable to reduce the time
length of a march unit while it is in motion, the march unit
commander can indicate a smaller speedometer multiplier.
When this is done, the head of the march unit should slow
down or stop until the tail of the unit has been able to close
up sufficiently to observe the smaller speedometer multiplier.
This time should be approximately equal to the desired reduction in time length. When it becomes necessary or desirable
to increase the time length, this may be accomplished by indicating a larger speedometer multiplier. Before the time
length is increased, the march unit commander should make
certain that there is sufficient time-gap between the rear of
his unit and the head of the following unit to absorb the increase. The march unit control car should then continue
the march at the fastest safe speed, each following vehicle
slowing down until it is following the car ahead by the desired
distance.
(6) When protective dispersion is not necessary (e. g., during peacetime marches or under conditions of friendly air
superiority) a doubled staggered formation may be used.
(See fig. 7.)
50
MOTOR TRANSPORT
58
(7) A traffic escort is required for an open column, except
where other traffic on the route of march is light.
d. Advantages.-Open column provides the best possible
compromise between the conflicting requirements of a large
traffic flow (or short time length of column) and a wide dispersion of vehicles within the column. Intracolumn interference is minimized, and the rate of march is practically as
high as in infiltration marching. Column control is not as
good as with close column, but it is much superior to that obtainable by infiltration. Driver fatigue and probability of
accident is much less pronounced than in close column
DOUBLESTAGGERED
COLUN
TRUCKNO2 SWINGSOVERTO RIGHTLANEMOMENTARILY
TOAVOIDSTALLEDVEHICLE
TRUCK.NO2 RETURNSTO LEFT LANEAFTERPASSING
SHORT NARROW
STRETCH;TRUCKNO.4
SWINGSOVERTO IGHTLANETO PASS THROUGH
NARROW
STRETCH
IoraGu 7.-Double
staggered column.
marching. Because time interval between vehicles is greater
than in close column, it is easier to direct units to alternate
routes in an emergency. On dusty roads, open column gives
drivers better vision and better control of their vehicles than
if close column were used.
e. Disadvantages.-Because of the relative regularity of
vehicle spacing, little secrecy is possible in moves of this type
during daylight, and more losses will be suffered during aerial
and mechanized attacks than will be the case with an infiltration column. Intervehicular headways in an open column are
generally longer than in a close column, and consequently the
full traffic capacity of the road is not utilized. Other traffic
may be delayed, since headways are smaller than in infiltra51
58-59
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
tion marching and may not be sufficient to permit such traffic
to pass through the column. Driver fatigue is greater than
when infiltration marching is used, and drivers must be
trained to estimate and maintain the variable leads required.
H 59. SHU'rTNGa.-a. GeneraL-When repeated trips of the
same vehicles are required in order to transport troops or
supplies, a system of movement known as shuttling is employed. Any of the foregoing types of march, depending on
traffic and tactical conditions, may be used for shuttling.
This system is not well suited for the movement of troops to
an area in which combat is imminent unless the force moved
in the first trip is capable of sustained combat pending arrival of remainder of unit. The dumping of organic cargoes
in order to move foot troops by shuttling must be limited
to those supplies not immediately needed in combat area.
b. Planning.-The formulas given in paragraph 131 may be
used for estimating the time required for shuttling movements. Terminals are selected so as to provide adequate
turn-around facilities. The preparation of entrucking and
detrucking tables (see par. 127) will help eliminate delay and
confusion at terminals: and the'march graph (see par. 129)
will assist in scheduling the movement.
c. Execution.-There are two general methods by which
shuttling may be performed. In the first method, troops or
supplies may be transported over the entire distance between
the origin and the final destination. This is the normal
method of shuttling and the only method applicable to the
movement of supplies. It is easy on the troops to be moved,
and it eliminates uncertainty in making contact with troops
once they start out on the road on foot. Total time required
for shuttling by this method is somewhat greater than by
other methods, but in most tactical movements time saved by
having troops march part of the way on foot is negligible and
usually does not justify the complicated planning required.
Sometimes it may be desirable to have troops march part of
the way on foot. In this case, the truck column on its first
trip will stop short of the destination at a previously reconnoitered turn-around. The troops detruck and march the
remaining distance on foot. Meanwhile, the troops to be
transported on the second trip start off on foot as soon as
the truck column clears the original entrucking point with
52
MOTOR
TRANSPORT
59-60
its first load. The trucks which transported the first load of
troops, after turning around, then move back along the line
of march or on parallel routes, pick up the second load of
troops, and transport them to a second detrucking point
nearer to the destination than was the first. The process is
continued until the last load is picked up and transported to
the final destination. This method of shuttling has the advantage of reducing the total time required for the movement
and truck mileage with consequent savings in gas and oil.
Its disadvantages are lack of simplicity and greater troop
fatigue. This method of shuttling may be varied by having
the truck column return all the way to the origin to pick up
loads after discharging preceding loads at previously reconnoitered turn-arounds short of the destination; or by having
the truck column transport the first load direct from the
origin to the destination and on subsequent trips proceed all
the way to the destination after picking up troops who have
meanwhile proceeded on foot along the route of march.
SECTION III
MARCH TECHNIQUE
* 60. CONTROL.-a. March discipline.-March discipline is
indispensable to the control of a march column. The specific
objective of march discipline is to insure intelligent cooperation and effective teamwork on the part of march personnel.
Such cooperation and teamwork can be attained only through
constant and thorough supervision by every officer and noncommissioned officer, adequate training and considerable
practical experience in actual marching, and meticulous
attention to all of the following details of march technique:
(1) Immediate and effective response to all signals and
orders.
(2) Strict obedience to traffic regulations, rules of the road,
and instructions of traffic personnel.
(3) Effective use of cover, concealment, camouflage, dispersion, radio silence, blackout precautions, and other protective measures against air, ground, mechanized, or chemical
attack.
(4) Prompt relaying of visual signals.
(5) Correct speeds and headways.
(6) Proper care of transport and equipment.
(7) Observance of rules of march hygiene.
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60
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
b. Intracolumn communication.-As a rule, whatever
method of intracolumn communication is used, only brief,
simple messages should be transmitted while a column is in
motion. Long or complicated messages are best transmitted
verbally, or in the form of a written order, while the column
is halted. Various methods of intracolumn communication
are discussed below:
(1) Two-way voice radio sets located in the control, trail,
and commander's cars, supplemented by small receivers in all
other vehicles in the column, provide the best intracolumn
communication possible and permit maximum flexibility in
the control of a motor column.
(2), In the absence of radio facilities, or when radio silence
must be enforced, less complete control of the march column
can be effected by use of visual and sound signals, and motorcycle messengers and staff cars. Standard hand signals for
this purpose are given in paragraph 14. Flag signals are
sometimes used, but they are rather complicated and are
usually undesirable because of camouflage considerations.
Sound signals and pyrotechnics are generally reserved for
warning against sudden danger-as an air, mechanized, or
chemical attack.
(3) When other means of communication cannot be used,
simple messages from the front of the column may be written
on a sign board and posted on the right side of the road (or
displayed by a guide) so as to be visible to oncoming vehicles.
Such messages are then noted by the driver and commander
of each vehicle as they pass the sign board. Provision is
made to pick up these sign boards (or guides) as the rear of
the column passes. Longer messages directed to a specific
vehicle in the column may be written on a message blank,
given to a guide stationed along the route, and transferred
by him to the proper vehicle. For this purpose, use may be
made of the railroad expedient of fastening the message to a
large wire loop and suspending this loop at the end of a forked
stick held or placed 6 to 8 feet high on the right of the column
where it can easily be caught on the arm of the front seat
passenger while the vehicle continues in motion.
(4) Written or verbal messages may be sent from rear to
front by motorcycle messengers, who drive up alongside the
vehicle concerned and transmit the message directly to the
driver or front seat passenger. In this connection, a proved
54
MOTOR TRANSPORT
60
expedient is the use of a short stick with a common clothespin
at one end. Communication facilities installed along the
route of march may also be available for use in the control
of a moving column. Aircraft may sometimes be available to
pick up a radio or panel message from one part of a long
column and transmit it by visual signal or radio while flying
directly over another part of the column.
c. Control personnel.-(1) Column, serial, and march unit
commanders.--Column, serial, and march unit commanders,
together with their command echelons, are free to move
wherever necessary to insure proper control. It is usually
desirable, however, that commanders be near the head of their
respective units in order to make prompt decisions as different
situations arise. It may sometimes be desirable for the column commander to leave the column and move directly to the
march destination. Whatever his location, however, the
column commander should habitually keep in close touch
with any detached parties sent out to the front, rear, or flanks
of the main part of the column.
(2) Control officers.-Detailed control of the main column
(or element thereof) is usually delegated to the column (serial
or march unit) control officer. This is normally the executive
officer or second in command. The column control officer's
echelon includes that part of the headquarter's staff not elsewhere employed, and representatives from each serial or
march unit within the column. Control officers are responsible for leading the column (or element thereof) along the
designated route, and for regulating the speed of movement
(see par. 55). Time length of column (or element thereof) is
regulated in accordance with instructions transmitted by the
column (serial or march unit) commander or by traffic personnel of a superior headquarters. The column control officer
(by radio or other means of intracolumn communication)
should periodically announce the time the head of the column
passes specified check points along the route of march. If the
column is moving in accordance with a march table or a
march graph, the control officer is responsible that the movement schedule indicated therein is strictly adhered to, and
particularly that the tail of the column clears points of possible conflict with other columns within allowable time limits.
In the event this becomes impossible, both the column commander and traffic control personnel must be notified.
55
60
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
(3) Trail officers-The column (serial or march unit) trail
officer marches at the rear of the column (or element
thereof). His job requires considerable skill and good judgment, as well as a thorough knowledge of motor transport
technique. For this reason, an experienced motor officer or
transport officer is usually selected. Trail officers usually
perform the following duties:
(a) Dispatch individual vehicles, march units, or serials
from the column (serial or march unit) IP.
(b) Report location of tail of column (or element thereof)
to their respective control'officers when called on to do so.
(c) Inspect disabled vehicles and decide whether to repair
them on the spot, abandon them (see par. 66) or take them
in tow.
(d) Note infractions of march discipline, and when necessary take immediate corrective action.
(e) Prevent vehicles or other columns from passing from
the rear whenever this operation presents a traffic hazard.
(f) When column halts, post necessary guards, warning
flags, caution lights, or flares to warn traffic approaching
from the rear.
(g) The column trail officer picks up and, as soon as practicable, returns to the head of the column all guides and
markers distributed by preceding elements of the column.
(4) Traffic escort-The traffic escort, in addition to other
duties (see par. 111) assists the control officer by eliminating
or minimizing traffic delays and traffic hazards.
(5) Assistant drivers.-Assistant drivers or front seat passengers should be constantly on the alert for column signals
and warnings, and for signs placed along the road, transmitting them back along the column when appropriate and
warning the driver. This is particularly important at night
or under conditions of poor visibility. The assistant driver
should constantly assure himself that the driver is awake.
At halts, he should assist the driver in inspecting his vehicle.
d. Identification of special vehicles.-To assist in identification for control purposes, message center vehicles of companies and similar units should display guidons. Message
centers of battalions, regiments, and similar units may be
indicated by distinctive symbols or panels displayed on the
front, rear, top, and sides of appropriate vehicles. When
56
MOTOR TRANSPORT
60-61
necessary for camouflage or other reasons, guidons may be
cased and symbols or panels may be covered or temporarily
removed. The trail car in a column may have red cloth
attached to the radiator grill and tail gate. The column
control car can be indicated by white cloth. Green cloth may
be used for serial control cars. Serial trail cars may use
yellow cloth. Colored lights of suitable design or special
patterns formed with luminous buttons should supplement
colored cloth in night operations. Vehicles within a column
should be numbered serially to facilitate formation of the
column and identification of individual vehicles. Such numbers may be drawn on the sides of vehicle cabs with soft
chalk crayons, or indicated by previously prepared cloth,
paper, or metal signs. Special markings, such as red flags
or painted signs, will be displayed on vehicles transporting
explosives or inflammable liquids. To assist drivers in night
driving during blackouts, the use of patches of white or
luminous paint on the rear of vehicles is indicated.
e. Use of vehicle odometer or mileage indicator-Points
along the route of march can be conveniently referred to in
terms of the mileage from the IP (or other specially designated point). The odometer reading of eadh vehicle on
passing this point should, therefore, be noted and recorded
by the driver or front seat passenger. Trip odometers, in
vehicles so equipped, should be set at zero on passing the IP
(or other specially designated point).
* 61. ENTRUcKING AND DETRUCING.-a. General.-Entrucking and detrucking are often the critical operations in a motor
movement. It is, therefore, essential that detailed plans be
made whenever possible to insure that these operations proceed in an expeditious and orderly manner.
b. Organic transportation.-Entruckingin and detrucking
from organic transportation should be a part of "Standing
operating procedure" in every motorized and mechanized
organization.
(1) Entrucking is normally completed while trucks are
dispersed in bivouac or assembly areas. Each march unit
and serial commander is responsible for the formation of his
own unit and for scheduling his movements so as to arrive
at and clear serial and column IP's within prescribed time
limits and without halting to wait on the road. If danger57
61
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
ous congestion, delay, and traffic conflicts are to be avoided,
great care must be used in selecting routes to IP's and in
scheduling arrival and clearance times thereat. The sequence
prescribed for the clearance of march units and serials at the
column IP is based primarily on tactical considerations.
(2) Detrucking ordinarily is effected after the march column has deployed in unit assembly or bivouac areas. For reasons of security and avoidance of traffic delays, movement of
each vehicle should be continuous and uninterrupted from
time of arrival at the regulating point until the final destination is reached. This may be facilitated by posting guides
(par. 111) or markers (par. 108) at the regulating point and
other appropriate locations within the detrucking area.
(3) Assembly and bivouac areas should be assigned so as
to facilitate entrucking for the next movement. Each unit
commander, or his representative with the quartering party,
posts guides and markers to indicate the exact location of
assembly areas of subordinate units. As each vehicle arrives
at the entrance to its assembly area, it leaves the route of
march and is directed by guides or markers to its position.
Detrucking takes place only after each vehicle has been
spotted in its designated location. While in assembly or
bivouac areas, all units provide their own local security
against air and ground forces. This must be continuous
from the arrival of the first vehicle until the area is vacated.
After assembly or bivouac areas have been occupied, each
truck moving therein at night must be preceded by a man
on foot in order to avoid running over sleeping personnel. AS
an additional precaution, the routes used by vehicles should
be delineated, and troops should sleep at a safe distance
therefrom.
c. Nonorganic transportation.--(1) When
nonorganic
transportation is involved, entrucking and detrucking becomes a rather complicated operation. Entrucking and detrucking tables (see par. 127) are usually prepared for large
or important movements. When entrucking is properly organized and executed, vehicles move past the IP and take
their proper places in the convoy without halting. The convoy trail officer is usually stationed at the IP to see that the
convoy forms in the prescribed order and is dispatched in
accordance with the instructions of the convoy commander
and convoy control officer.
58
MOTOR TRANSPORT
61
(2) Entrucking and detrucking points should be located
on the road so as to be as convenient as possible to the troops.
or supplies to be moved. Main roads should be avoided, if
practicable, in order to minimize interference with other
traffic. If a choice exists, entrucking and detrucking points
should be selected so as to favor loaded vehicles with routes
having shorter time distances and more gentle grades. Adequate loading or unloading facilities should be available, particularly when supplies are being moved. In a supply convoy, trucks may be loaded prior to the start of the march;
in a troop movement, however, personnel are entrucked' just
prior to departure, and when practicable, trucks are headed
in the proper direction before troops are loaded. Troops
should not arrive or be entrucked any sooner than necessary
to allow trucks to move off promptly at the prescribed time.
(3) Entrucking or detrucking groups, including any organically motorized groups that are to move as part of the
convoy, are numbered serially in the order in which they
are scheduled to pass the IP. For purposes of identification,
the leading vehicle of each group should have prominently
displayed on the lower right hand corner of its windshield
the number of its group. The primary consideration in numbering these groups is the order in which the commander
desires them to move in the convoy. It is desirable, however,
to avoid complicating the interior organization of the motor
transport unit by changing the original arrangement of vehicles in the convoy. A reinforced battalion (or equivalent
unit) is about the largest organization that can be handled
efficiently as an entrucking or detrucking group.
(4) Loading of personnel at entrucking points, including
counting off men into vehicle loads and designating trucks to
carry them, is carried out under the supervision of troop
officers in a covered position off the road. It is desirable that
each unit be given full details beforehand as to location of
its entrucking points and the number and capacity of vehicles
allotted to it. In assigning vehicle loads, tactical necessity
may outweigh consideration of the comfort of troops as well
as the rated weight capacity of vehicles (see FM 101-10 for
personnel capacity of standard trucks). When loading must
be accomplished under difficult conditions, complete plans
must be made to meet the incoming motor transport convoy
at a regulating point, divide it into entrucking groups, guide
59
61-62
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
these groups to entrucking points, route and schedule their
movements to the initial point, conduct the convoy to a regulating point at the march destination, breakup the convoy
into detrucking groups, guide these groups to detrucking
points, and route and schedule the movement of detrucking
groups to the IP at which the convoy forms for its return
trip. These plans must be prepared so as to eliminate traffic
conflicts, conserve the energy of troops being moved, and
facilitate the prompt return of nonorganic transportation.
· 62. HALT.--a. Duration and frequency.-During 'moves
of less than 3 hours' duration no halt is necessary except during blackouts or under adverse driving conditions. Halts for
large columns are usually prescribed in orders from higher
headquarters. For smaller columns where the choice lies
with the column commander, a halt of 15 minutes at the end
of the first hour should be made. Thereafter, a halt of 10
minutes every 2 hours is advisable. One half hour to 1 hour
is usually allowed for mess and refueling halts. During combat both the duration and frequency of halts may have to
be reduced to shorten road time and decrease the period of
exposure to enemy attack.
b. Selection of halting places.-Halting places are generally selected in advance by the reconnaissance party. During
active operations, winding roads and wooded stretches make
the best halting places, since they prevent a straight line
target for air attack and provide good concealment. If the
halt is of only brief duration, the column may stop on the
shoulder of the road on which it is traveling. Otherwise,
vehicles should be parked in irregular patterns under coverpreferably on the right side of the road. A column should
never halt on a traveled lane, on a narrow road, or at any other
location where it will interfere with other traffic, if such
places can possibly be avoided. It is desirable that halting
places provide turn-around facilities so the column may be
quickly reversed if necessary. Crossroads, railroad crossings,
and similar points are avoided as far as possible, both to
prevent interference to cross traffic and to keep the column
clear from points likely to attract artillery fire or air bombardment. No part of the column should stop on steep grades
or bridges. Comfort of personnel and servicing facilities for
vehicles are important considerations in selecting sites for
60
MOTOR TRANSPORT
62
long halts. During peacetime, when a column starts from
a populous area, its first halt should be delayed until the
country is reached so as to permit relief of personnel. For
the same reason halts should not ordinarily be made in
villages or towns unless there is a special need therefor.
c. Procedure at halt.-Columns should be halted at points
providing adequate sight distancefor approaching traffic. In
all cases at least 200 yards of clear view must be maintained
to the rear of the last vehicle of the column. When the
column halts so as to force traffic proceeding in the same direction to move on the left of the center line of the roadway,
400 yards clear sight distance should be available throughout
the entire length of the parked column. If road conditions
prevent these sight distances, steps must be taken to forewarn approaching traffic (see par. 60c: also d below).
(1) If crossroads, railroad crossings, and similar danger
points lie within the halt area of a column, subordinate commanders will require vehicles to stop at least 15 yards or more
from the crossing. When halting on the road, vehicles pull
off as far to the right as possible. If shoulders are soft, it
may be necessary to keep left wheels on the firm-traveled
part of the road. When parked at the side of the road, front
wheels of all vehicles are cut toward the center of the road
so as to facilitate a prompt start at the end of the halt;
if parkeu off the road, vehicles should be headed in direction
of probable movement when march is resumed.
(2) It is usually desirable to halt at a specified time, rather
than on a hand signal transmitted from the head of the column. Otherwise, the tail of a long column may not receive
the order to halt until the head of the column has resumed
movement. Halting distances between vehicles depend on
the tactical situation and road space available. (See pars.
56c, 57c, and 58c.)
d. Duties at halts.-Drivers or assistant drivers make the
inspection required in paragraph 33. Guards, warning flags,
caution lights, or flares should be Posted in front and rear
of the column and at any other points where there is a
hazard to passing traffic. Troops remain off the road to
the right of their assigned vehicles and must keep the traveled
portion of the roadway clear at all times. If the column
blocks parts of the road at the halt so that it is necessary to
operate two-way traffic in a single lane, authorized traffic
441574-42--5
61
62-63
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
movements should be alternated by using flags transmitted
alternately from one end of the single lane road to the other
by the last vehicle of each passing traffic group, or pilots to
control traffic first in one direction and then in the other
(see par. 109). When traffic approaching the halted column
(or element thereof) from the rear cannot clear the column
prior to its resumption of march, trail officers will require this
traffic to remain behind until it is safe for it to pass.
* 63. REVERSING DIRECTION.-There are three general methods by which a column may reverse direction:
a. Circling back.-This is the simplest method of reversing
direction. If too long a detour is not involved, a loop road
is used. However, a loop road is not essential when a-passable
circuit of sufficient size is available off the road, or when the
road itself is of sufficient width. When traffic must leave the
road to circle back it may sometimes be necessary to cut a
gap in a fence or fill in a wide ditch. This is often preferable,
however, to a long roundabout detour.
b. Consecutive Y-turns.-A Y-turn differs from a turn
made by circling back in that it is necessary to operate the
vehicle in reverse at one stage of a Y-turn. Crossroads, road
forks, or even wide points in the road are generally sufficient
to accommodate a Y-turn, whereas a much larger area is
required for circling back. The back movement of a Y-turn
should be executed to the driver's left, rather than to his
right, unless poor footing or some other local feature makes
this inadvisable. (See fig. 8.) When a Y-turn is executed
in this manner, vehicles coming out of the turn conflict least
with succeeding vehicles in the column. If the backing movement is executed to the right, on the other hand, it is necessary for vehicles leaving the turn to cross the path of vehicles
entering the turn. Assistant drivers should always dismount
in order to assist their drivers in making a Y-turn. When
trail loads are being carried, Y-turns are very difficult and
require great skill on the part of drivers and assistant drivers.
With trail loads, therefore, it is usually worthwhile to make a
considerable detour in order to execute the turn by circling
back.
Consecutive Y-turns are Y-turns executed successively
from the head of the column, or elements thereof. Vehicles
62
MOTOR TRANSPORT
63
follow each other round the turn as closely as practicable.
When completing the turn, the leading vehicle moves out in
the new direction in the same manner as from a halt. Other
vehicles follow in turn, taking up their positions in column
in accordance with the type of march specified.
c. Turning simultaneously.-The quickest way to reverse a
column is to have all vehicles turn simultaneously. When
this is done, the head of the column becomes the tail and the
order of march is reversed. Y-turns will usually be used,
although vehicles may circle back simultaneously if there is
LEGENOD
ROADOC
FIGURE 8-Proper method of executing Y-turn when interfering
traffic Is blocked off.
sufficient space available. Other traffic should be blocked off
at both ends of the column before the signal for reversing
direction is given. The movement may be executed more
promptly if the order to turn can be transmitted by radio
to every vehicle in the column. When only a few vehicles,
such as commanders' cars, control cars, trail cars, and similar
vehicles are equipped with radio, the order to turn may be
transmitted by radio to.these vehicles, and relayed by hand
signal (see par. 14) or motorcycle messenger to individual
63
63-64
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
vehicles. When no radio communication is possible, the order
to turn is transmitted from the column control car to all
vehicles in the column by means of relayed hand signals, or
by a motorcycle messenger dispatched by the column commander. On receiving the signal to reverse direction, each
driver immediately turns his vehicle around and, as soon as
the vehicle ahead has moved out, resumes running speed in
the new direction.
* 64. REFUELING.-a. General.-Halts made for other pur-
poses should be used for refueling (and replenishing oil)
whenever possible. It is important that refueling be accomplished before there is any possibility of exhaustion of fuel
by any vehicle in the column. If done too early, however, the
refueling operation will have to be repeated more frequently
than necessary. Refueling is usually accomplished immediately at the end of a run; but during tactical operations
advantage is taken of every opportunity to keep fuel tanks
filled. When a limitation of the supply of fuel available requires that vehicles be partially refueled only, close supervision
of fuel distribution is necessary to take care of individual
differences in fuel requirements of various vehicles.
b. Fire precautions.-In order to minimize the fire hazard.
engines must be cut off, care must be taken to avoid spilling
fuel, and there must be no smoking on or near vehicles during
the refueling operation. (See sec. V, ch. 5.) When a column
is subject to enemy attack, refueling is a particularly hazardous operation. It is therefore highly desirable that refueling
during combat be carried out under cover of darkness, or if
in daylight, in wooded areas.
c. Methods.-Fuel may be made available to vehicles in a
column fromFilling stations.
Tank trucks equipped with pumps.
Filled containers.
Gasoline dispensing units (QM).
d. Filled containers.-Of the four methods of refueling
a column given in c above, the third is by far the most rapid.
Whenever it is practicable, therefore, gasoline should be supplied in filled containers. Ordinarily these containers should
be issued to each vehicle before the beginning of the march.
The next best procedure is to supply fuel in filled containers
64
MOTOR TRANSPORT
64-65
which can be distributed down the length of the column from
a truck during a halt.
e. Tank trucks equipped with pumps.-Refueling may be
accomplished in four ways when tank trucks are used:
(1) Tank trucks may be spotted at intervals along the
column. In this case, empty containers are filled from the
tank truck and carried by drivers to their respective vehicles.
(2) Tank trucks may be spotted off the road at the heads of
serials or march units. When this is done, the vehicles of
each such serial or march unit move in turn past the tank
trucks and are refueled by pump.
(3) Tank trucks may themselves move along the column
and refuel each truck in turn.
(4) When each vehicle carries spare fuel containers completely or partially filled, but there is not enough fuel to
complete the march, a considerable saving in refueling time
may be effected by arranging for tank trucks to refuel only
specified vehicles in the column (say every fourth vehicle).
While this is being done the spare fuel in the containers of
the specified vehicles is distributed to the other vehicles in
proportion to their needs.
f. Filling stations and gasoline dispensing units (QM).A column may be refueled from a filling station or QM gasoline dispensing units as from stationary tank trucks (see c
above).
g. Refueling during an infiltration march.-Necessary fuel
supplies are spotted at the predetermined location for the
halt. Vehicles are then refueled immediately on arrival and
dispatched individually as soon as refueling is completed.
* 65. MAINTENANCE.-a. When a column is divided into march
units and serials, maintenance vehicles generally march at
the rear of their respective organizations. During the march,
maintenance activities of personnel assigned to such vehicles
are usually confined to minor repairs. Major repairs and disabled vehicles (see par. 66) are handled under the supervision
of trail officers.
b. In order to conserve their energy for important maintenance work at the end of the march, mechanics should be
directed to sleep and get as much rest as possible while the
column is in motion. Further details on march maintenance
are given in chapter 7.
65
66-67
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
· 66. DISABLED VEHICLES.-a. Removal from roadiway.-Disabled vehicles must be cleared from the traveled portion of
the roadway without delay. This is particularly important
when traveling through towns or other congested areas.
When possible, a disabled vehicle should be pushed off to the
side of the road, and the driver should signal successive
vehicles to pass. Troops should detruck and remain under
cover until the vehicle is able to proceed or until they are
picked up by the trail officer. If the vehicle is repaired prior
to arrival of the trail officer, it should resume the march at
the first opportunity and, when so directed, utilize subsequent
halt periods to move up to its former position in the column.
A maintenance vehicle at the rear of each march unit should
be equipped with towing facilities in order to take care of
disabled vehicles which cannot be repaired on the spot. If
feasible, the trail officers group should include one or two
spare vehicles to pick up personnel or matdriel of disabled
vehicles.
b. Abandonment.-Decision as to temporary abandonment
of vehicles is usually made by the trail officer of the march
unit or serial to which the vehicle is assigned. If temporary
abandonment is decided on, the trail officer leaves the driver,
and if possible a mechanic, to effect necessary repairs. Decision as to permanent abandonment is usually made by the
column trail officer. When a vehicle is to be permanently
abandoned, a tag is attached to the vehicle showing the unit
to which it belongs and the reason for its unserviceability.
* 67. MESSING.-a. General.-The messing of personnel on a
motor march differs little from that of other troops on the
march. On one-day trips or shorter moves, the meal en route
is usually a cold lunch, although it is preferable to serve a
hot meal whenever circumstances permit. 'If cold lunches are
carried, hot or cold drinks will generally be served from thermos jugs or cans. During a night march, coffee should be
available for distribution at. the halt. March menus should
provide an ample amount of vitamin A, since a deficiency of
this vitamin may impair driver vision and thus increase the
danger of accidents.
b. Mess supplies.-The supply officer is usually charged with
local purchase (see par. 53e) and supply of food during a
motor movement. He usually accompanies the quartering
66
MOTOR TRANSPORT
67-68
party in order to make advance arrangements for procurement of food and delivery at the proper place.
68. NIGHT MARCHES.-a. Purpose.-Night marches are
usually made to provide concealment from hostile observation. They may also be made as part of a forced march when
sufficient distance cannot be covered by daylight marching
alone. In hot weather, night marches may be made to avoid
excessive heat.
b. Reconnaissanceand route marking.-Advance reconnaissance, preferably by daylight, should be made whenever possible (see sec. Im, ch. 4). Traffic personnel and markers (see
par. 51) should be posted prior to darkness, if practicable, but
in any event well in advance of the column.
c. Driving lights.-Operation at night when driving lights
are permitted differs from daylight operation only in the
measures that must be taken to overcome the adverse influence of darkness upon ease of control and avoidance of
accidents. In general, vigilance of drivers must be increased,
and speed must be reduced so that drivers are not required to
"overdrive" their lights. Some deception, as well as a relatively high rate of march, can be obtained on dark nights
by turning off all driving lights in a column except those of
the vehicle at the head of each serial or march unit.
d. Blackout marches.--() Night marches under blackout
conditions are particularly difficult for motor columns, especially when made on poor roads. Practicable speeds will vary
from that possible on good roads on a moonlight night to that
of men on foot individually guiding vehicles across a bad
stretch of roadway. In order to maintain close contact between various elements of the column, it may be necessary to
reduce distance between march units and serials to that between individual vehicles. It is extremely important that
marker lights, reflectors, windshields, and especially blackout
driving lights be kept scrupulously clean in order to utilize
efficiently the small amount of light allowable under blackout conditions. The stoplights of all vehicles not equipped
with blackout lights must be disconnected.
(2) Blackout lighting equipment on vehicles greatly facilitates movement under blackout conditions, particularly on
dark nights. Visibility characteristics of vehicle blackout.
lamps are indicated below:
·
67
68-70
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
Lamp
Frmont marker
Rear marker
)istance visible as fonr
liahts
.......
Distance visible as two
lights
Up to 20 yards.
...... llp to 20yards. 20
Dlackout driving...........................
Distance visible as one
light
0-3
yards-0-3yards
yrd
Maximum
height at
which visi.
hbleto air
observers
450 feet.
ifeet.
50
5,000 feet.
Because of the possibility that enemy observation posts
equipped with telescopes may pick up the blackout lights of
vehicles moving near the front, it may be necessary to designate a line beyond which no lights whatsoever will be permitted. Under these conditions, road delineators and illuminated road signs provide effective aids to movement.
e. Special precautions.-On night marches strict march
discipline is required to prevent accidents, keep units from
becoming lost, and eliminate unauthorized use of lights and
matches. Constant effort is necessary to prevent drivers from
becoming drowsy. This may be accomplished by relieving
drivers every 2 hours, by dismounting and exercising them
during halts, and by serving hot coffee. The front seat passenger can help keep the driver awake by making conversation with him and insisting on getting replies. Drivers
who do not see well at night must be relieved immediately.
* 69. UNEXPECTED ROAD BLOCKS.-The reconnaissance party
or the traffic escort should discover road or traffic blocks,
report them to the column commander, and take necessary
action to remove them or to detour the column prior to its
arrival at the block. When a suitable detour is not available
ahead of the column, the column commander must either
take necessary action to clear the road block or direct the
column to reverse its direction of march (see par. 63).
* 70. ACCIENTS.-a. In war-During active combat, or under
other wartime conditions where a traffic accident is a minor
consideration, the main part of the march column does not
68
MOTOR TRANSPORT
70
stop to render assistance. If the accident blocks the route,
however, the occupants of vehicles in rear must clear the way
at once, and then proceed with the march. Necessary steps to
care for the injured and salvage vehicles and cargoes are
carried out under direction of the trail officer, assisted by
medical, maintenance, and salvage personnel.
b. In peace.--() Care for injured.-When an accident in
peacetime results in injury to personnel, the injured should
be given first-aid treatment, rendered every other possible
assistance, and taken to a hospital if necessary. Injured civilians should be taken to the nearest hospital, civilian or military. In case of injury to military personnel when no medical
officer is with the column, the injured person, or persons,
usually should be taken to the nearest military hospital. In
cases of severe injury, he may be taken to the nearest civilian
hospital (see AR 40-505) for emergency treatment. In the
latter event, the next higher superior must be notified immediately, giving full details.
(2) Notify column commander or designated staff officer.Peacetime accidents, however trivial, which result in injury
to an individual or damage to property, are reported to the
column commander or designated staff officer without delay.
(3) Restore normal traffic movements.-This is usually
taken care of by traffic personnel. It is desirable that damaged vehicles be left undisturbed insofar as practicable, in
order to assist the investigating officer in determining how
the accident occurred. Safeguards against further accidents
should be provided by posting guards to warn approaching
traffic and to prevent unsafe parking of vehicles in the vicinity
of the accident. Witnesses should remain at the scene of the
accident to provide information for the investigating officer.
The remainder of the column resumes the march without
further delay. Other traffic is kept moving, if possible, and
not allowed to congregate around the scene of the accident.
(4) Conduct of investigation.-(a) Detailed investigation
of accidents involving vehicles of a march column are usually
conducted by the trail officer or by some other officer specifically designated by the column commander as the investigating officer.
(b) Pending arrival of the investigating officer, the senior
officer or enlisted man at the scene of an accident takes neces69
70-71
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
sar' steps to preserve evidence, assembles witnesses, and
records their names, addresses, and driver and car license
numbers. Drivers of vehicles involved in the accident obtain
information necessary for filling in their driver's accident
report (Standard Form No. 26). All military witnesses should
make note of facts regarding injuries to persons and damage
to property, so that full information can be given to the commanding officer charged with appointing a board of officers to
investigate the accident or injuries.
(c) The accident investigating officer proceeds to the scene
of the accident at once. He sees that the medical officer takes
care of any injured, and after giving orders for disposition
of dead or injured, questions witnesses, obtains or checks their
names and addresses, and when possible takes their sworn
statements. Photographs should be taken to provide evidence
for possible future use. The investigating officer's report is
submitted on Standard Form No. 27. (See AR 850-15.)
* 71. COLD WEATHER MARCHINO.-U. Conditions of ice, snow,
and extreme cold modify the usual effect of terrain features
on motor marches and present special problems. Lakes,
rivers, and swamps, when frozen: may cease to be obstacles to
motor movement' (see par. 134 for carrying capacity of ice).
Mobility of motor vehicles is dependent on ice conditions and
depth of snow. Possible effects of sudden changes in temperatures, such as thaws and freezes, must be considered.
Charcoal, gasoline. or oil stoves in the body of the truck. and
specially designed tarpaulins are necessary to insure the comfort of troops being transported. When such expedients are
used, due precautions must be taken to eliminate the hazards
of fire and carbon monoxide poisoning. Tires should be freed
from ice and engines warmed UP to a temperature of at least
140' F., before beginning a march in cold weather.
b. Under conditions of thawing and freezing, vehicles
heavily encrusted with mud (particularly track-laying vehicles) should have such mud removed from working parts
while still unfrozen. Vehicles should not be parked on soft
ground or in pools of water or slush when freezing may be
expected: Planks, logs, or brush may be used to provide dry
standing under such conditions.
70
MOTOR TRANSPORT
72-75
SECTION IV
ORDERS
U 72. WARNING ORDERs.-Warning orders are of great value
in alerting troops and preparing them for a march prior to
receipt of the detailed march order. A warning order should
be issued orally, or in the case of a large unit, in writing, as
soon as information of a contemplated move is received. The
following is an example of a warning order for a march:
910th Field Artillery
Fort Meade, Md.,
7 April 19-, 7:45 AM
To: (Staff and command distribution).
1. This regiment marches 8 April (tomorrow) after 7:00 AM, to
Join the THIRD ARMY southeast of WAYNESBORO.
2. Pass privileges are suspended at once.
3. Details later.
By order of Colonel A:
X
Lt. Col., 91Oth FA
Executive.
OFFICIAL:
S3
Capt., 91Oth FA
* 73. RECONNAISSANCE.-If practicable, a road or aerial reconnaissance of the route of march should be made prior to the
issuance of the march order. In the continental United
States, detailed information for the march may be obtained
from the various civilian "Highway Traffic Advisory Committees to the War Department" (see par. 132). Technique of
reconnaissance for motor movements is covered in section III,
chapter 4. (See ch. 5 for tactical reconnaissance.)
* 74. MARCH PLANS.-Every motor movement must be carefully planned as to its own operation, and coordinated with
other movements so as to prevent dangerous traffic conflicts.
When there is any possibility of producing serious conflicts
with other traffic, organization commanders should obtain
authority for a march made on their own initiative and
give advance notice of time of movement and routes used.
Logistical data needed for planning a motor march are given
in section VII, chapter 4.
* 75. MARCH ORDERS.-a. General.--The march order should
be issued in sufficient time to allow subordinates to make their
71
75
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
plans, issue their orders, and complete their preparations for
the march. The amount of detail given in march orders will
depend on the tactical and traffic situation, the state of training of the command, and the degree of adherence to a
standing operating procedure.
b. Form.-Brief fragmentary orders may be used for simple
motor movements. A detailed march order is issued in the
form of a 5-paragraph field order accompanied by appropriate annexes. Annexes to the march order may include one
or more of the following:
(1) Administrative order.-When administrative details are
too voluminous for convenient inclusion in paragraph 4 of
the march order, it is customary to issue an administrative
order as an annex thereto. Any of the following information
may be included in the administrative order:
(a) Supply.-Methods of supplying food, water, fuel, ammunition, vehicle parts, etc. Special instructions with reference to local purchase of supplies and services.
(b) Evacuation.-Details with reference to evacuation of
march casualties, burial, salvage of disabled vehicles and
their cargoes, disposition of captured material, and handling of prisoners of war. Special instructions with reference to use of civilian hospitals for military casualties.
(c) Traffic.-Necessary general instructions as to relief of
drivers, doubling, blackout restrictions, marking of vehicles,
marking of routes, maximum speeds, obedience to local traffic regulations, etc.
(d) Personnel.-Uniformto be worn and equipment to be
carried by personnel, method of handling mail, instructions
to quartering and clean-up parties, details as to camp site
routine, hygiene and sanitation, etc.
(e) Maintenance.-Instructions relative to vehicle maintenance, and special types of repairs authorized or prohibited.
(f) Miscellaneous.-Any necessary administrative instructions not otherwise covered.
(2) March table.-See paragraph 130.
(3) Strip ma.-See paragraph 114.
(4) Entrucking and detrucking tables.-See paragraph 127.
c. March graph.-A march graph provides the simplest
means of determining the detailed time schedule of a march.
(See par. 130 for examples of march graphs.)
72
75
MOTOR TRANSPORT
d. Example of march order.-See also FPM 101-5.
910th Field Artillery
Fort Meade, Md.,
7 April 19__, 1:00 PM
FO 93
Map: Strip map (Annex No. 1).
1. a. No change in enemy situation.
D. The THIRD ARMY is concentrating in the CUMBERLAND
VALLEY.
2. a. This regiment will Join the THIRD ARMY by marching to
a concealed bivouac area immediately southeast of WAYNESBORO,
starting after 8:00 AM, 8 April.
b. Route: See strip map (Annex No. 1).
c. Troops (in order of march):
(1) Reconnaissance, pioneer, and quartering party:
Captain C, commanding.
Lieutenant B with 4 men and 2 reconnaissance cars from
Headquarters Battery.
Lieutenant D, one man from each battery, and one truck
from 2d Battalion Headquarters Battery.
Lieutenant E with 12 men and 2 trucks (loaded with pioneer
tools and bridge timber) from 1st Battalion Headquarters
Battery.
(2) Traffic escort:
Lieutenant F, 3 NCOs, 30 privates, and 7 vehicles from Beadquarters Battery.
(3) First serial:
Headquarters and Headquarters Battery (less detachments).
First Battalion (less detachments).
(4) Second serial:
Second Battalion (less detachments).
Medical Detachment.
Regimental Supply and Maintenance Platoon (less detach-
ment).
(5) Clean-up party:
Lieutenant G, 6 men, and I truck, all from Regimental Supply
and Maintenance Platoon.
3. a. Reconnaissance, pioneer, and quartering party will leave by
4: 00 PM (today) 7 April.
b. Traffic escort will move out at 7: 00 AM (tomorrow) 8 April.
c. Conduct of the march:
(I) See march table (Annex No. 2).
blackout
(2) Between
EMMITSBURG AND ROUZERVILLE
lights will be used.
Beyond ROUZERVILLE no lights
whatsoever will be permitted.
4. See Adm O 37 (Annex No. 3).
5. a. The control car of the second serial will relay radio messages
when necessary between the column control car and the column
trail car.
b. (1) Three long blasts of whistle, horn, or klaxon, repeated
several times, will be the warning signal for an air or mechanized
attack.
(2) A series of short horn blasts given by any control car will
signal the "all clear,"
c. Messages to the column control car.
By order of Colonel A:
Lt. Col., 910th FA
Executive.
73
75
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
OFFICIAL:
y
Capt., 910th FA
S3
Annexes:
No. l-Strip map
No. 2-March table
No. 3-Administrative order Z37
Distribution: A
2 copies to THIRD ARMY
NoT.r-The order as given above is more complete than is necessary when a well-developed "Standing operating procedure" is
in use.
74
76-79
MOTOR TRANSPORT
CHAPTER 4
TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
Paragraphs
SEcrroN I.
I.
In.
TV.
V.
VI.
VI.
General
_....__
...............
....
Elements of traffic management ------.Reconnaissance --------------------------The traffic plan_
--------------.-...
....-------Execution of traffic plan
_-----___.-Traffic aids ._-_-__Logistical data ---------------------
7682
83-85
86-96
97-104
105-113
114-117
118-134
SECTION I
GENERAL
* 76. ScoPE.-Military traffic management consists iprimarily of coordinating and controlling movements of vehicles, animals, foot troops, and civilian refugees over roadways and within traffic terminals in conformity with the
tactical situation and military needs.
* 77. DEFINITIONS.-For definitions of special terms used in
traffic management and motor marching, see paragraph 51.
· 78. OBJECTIVE.-The objective of military traffic management is indicated in FM 100-10, which reads in part as follows:
"Traffic circulation and control should be such as to obtain
the best possible use of the road net within a theater of
operations to the end that mobility of the troops may be
maintained and that supplies may always be available as
and where needed."
* 79. CHARACTERISTICS OF MILITARY TRAFFIC.-a. Mass movements.-Military traffic management is principally concerned
with movements of groups of vehicles having a common mission, rather than with random movements of individual vehicles having limitless variations in origin and destination,
such as is the case with civilian traffic.
b. Sudden changes.-Trafflc flow under military conditions
is subject to large, erratic, and ofttimes unpredictable changes;
and flow may be entirely interrupted for short or long periods
of time. Since such changes and interruptions may occur
75
79-82
BASIC FIELD
MANUAL
with little or no advance warning, it is essential that information of these changes be immediately transmitted to a
central agency having all necessary means and authority to
initiate proper corrective measures in time to prevent dangerous congestion. This agency operates under supervision
of G-4 of the headquarters which controls the area involved.
c. Passive protection.-Passive protection, obtained by
camouflage, concealment, and dispersion of vehicles, is of
paramount importance.
d. Discipline and training-Because all military agencies
concerned are subject to centralized control, special traffic
measures may be adopted that could not be utilized in civilian
practice. Proper driver training, march training, and march
discipline greatly assist in the execution of the traffic plan
and lessen the amount of detailed control otherwise necessary.
· 80. CoonnIrTION.-a. Traffic management must also provide effective correlation of all available motor equipment and
road facilities with the different types of traffic to be moved.
These in turn must be coordinated with announced plans of
higher headquarters and needs and desires of adjacent units.
b. When civilian traffic is an important consideration or
when movement must proceed over roads under jurisdiction
of civilian authorities, advance notice should be given to
appropriate civilian agencies so that military traffic can be
coordinated with civilian traffic. (See par. 132, with reference to appropriate agency and manner of contact.)
* 81. MILITARY AGENCIES INVOLVED.-Trafflc management requires definite fixing of responsibility in a single central
authority operating under supervision of the headquarters
controlling the area involved, and close cooperation of all
agencies involved. The traffic functions of military agencies
involved in traffic management are indicated in FM 29-5,
100-5, 100-10, and 101-5.
E 82. CIVLIA EvAcuATnoN.--a. General.-Uncontrolled civil-
ian evacuation and refugee movements may result in large
volumes of heterogeneous traffic, provide concentrated targets
for enemy air attack, and delay or seriously immobilize vital
military operations. Such movements are a special form of
civilian traffic and require particular consideration in the
planning and execution of military operations. Control of
76
MOTOR TRANSPORT
82-85
this type of civilian movement is unusually difficult because
of uncertainty as to volume, type, and timing of traffic to be
expected, and because of the state of panic that may exist.
b. Interference of refugee movements with military traffic
in the theater of operations must be avoided or minimized by
requiring(1) That evacuation take place prior to or during a lull in
military movements.
(2) That refugees use roads or trails which carry little or
no military traffic.
(3) That refugee traffic be diverted from areas most important for military operations.
(4) That refugee traffic be organized as march columns,
whose movements are directed so as to cause least interference with essential military traffic.
SECTION II
ELEMENTS OF TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
* 83. GENERAL.-As indicated in paragraph 76, traffic movement emanates from a system of roads, vehicles, drivers, and
foot and animal units. All factors must be managed so as
to promote expeditious traffic movement and minimize traffic
congestion and accidents.
* 84. TRAFFIC CAPAcrrY.-The traffic capacity of a route or
system of highways can be defined as the maximum traffic
volume which can be accommoaated in vehicles per unit of
time. It is dependent on allowable speed, available lanes,
and permissible density (vehicles per unit of distance).
Allowable speed will depend on road conditions and the
tactical situation. Permissible density will depend upon the
limitations imposed by requirements for dispersion as passive
protection against air attack or artillery fire. The capacity
of various sections of a road will vary-the section of least
capacity limits the volume of traffic. Having been assigned
a route by higher authority, the column or march unit commander must exercise diligence to insure that the road is
used to the fullest capacity consistent with the tactical
situation.
* 85. CONTROL OF TRAFFIC CONFLICTS.-.
All traffic accidents
arise from the same basic cause, which is the conflict of
441574--42--
77
85-87
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
moving traffic units with each other or with fixed objects
in or adjacent to the normally traveled roadway. Conflicts
which the column or march unit commander must consider
are of four types'(1) Between vehicles on intersecting courses.
(2) Between vehicles meeting head-on.
(3) Between vehicles moving along a road and other
vehicles, persons, or objects at the edge of or immediately
adjacent to the road.
(4) Between vehicles proceeding at different speeds in the
same direction.
b. These conflicts, producing either collisions or congestion
are due to many factors, including deficiencies of roads, vehicles, and drivers. The last two mentioned are the most
important from the viewpoint of the column or march unit
commander. Through ignorance, lack of skill, physical incapacity, carelessness or recklessness, drivers aggravate the
potential hazards and bottlenecks. This problem can only be
solved by proper training and march discipline (see par. 15).
Lamps, brakes, identification markers, horns, windshield
wipers, mirrors, warning flares, tools, and all other equipment
important to traffic safety must be kept in good working condition at all times. Excessive loading should be avoided and
overhanging loads should be properly marked at all times.
Except in emergencies, no driver should be required to drive
more than a maximum of 10 to 12 hours in one day, and he
should be given ample opportunity for rest.
SECTION III
RECONNAISSANCE
* 86. GENERAL.-Traffic reconnaissance is necessary to obtain
field information needed for traffic management. Since information must be the most recent obtainable, the type of
information and amount of detail will depend primarily on
available time. trained personnel, equipment, and on the
tactical situation.
· 87. TRAFFIC RECONNAISSANCE PERsoNNEL.-Traffic reconnaissance personnel include all persons who obtain field information for use in planning, facilitating, and regulating traffic
movements. Their specific duties and procedures are indi78
MOTOR TRANSPORT
87-88
eated in subsequent paragraphs. In some cases a traffic
reconnaissance party may be accompanied by an engineer
or pioneer party (sec. I, ch. 6), a quartering party, (par. 53),
and route marking details (par. 108). In other cases the
traffic reconnaissance party may be charged with performing
these functions in addition to their reconnaissance duties. In
forward areas reconnaissance parties should, where possible,
accompany security detachments for their own protection. If
reconnaissance personnel must operate alone, they 'should be
furnished armored vehicles or at least equipped strongly with
offensive and defensive means. In small units, both technical
and tactical, reconnaissance missions may be assigned to a
single reconnaissance party.
* 88. INFORMATION REGARDING SPECIFIC ROUTES.-In reconnaissance of specific routes, the following information may
be required:
a. Road information.--() Location of route (some form
of road map must be made if one is not already available).
(2) Location and character of road blocks.
(3) Time distance between various points marking off
distinct sections of the roadway.
(4) Number of traffic lanes available in each section.
(5) Types of surface and condition of roadway (including
shoulders).
(6) Limiting features (clearance widths and heights, and
maximum allowable loads) of structures such as bridges,
culverts and overpasses.
(7). Location and characteristics of routes that provide
maximum protection from hostile mechanized or air attacks.
(8) Location and characteristics of mines, contaminated
areas, and potential traffic bottlenecks.
(9) Maximum gradients and lengths of steep hills.
(10) Location
and
characteristics
of
turn-around
facilities.
(11) Location and characteristics of by-pass routes or detours around congested areas, fords, bottlenecks, possible
ambush sites, and road blocks.
(12) Road construction proposed, required, and in
progress.
(13) An estimate of engineer work needed and probable
equipment and time necessary for its completion.
79
88-89
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
(14) An estimate of personnel and material required for
decontamination of gassed roads or other special tasks.
b. Terminal and halt information.-Suitable sites for, and
pertinent characteristics of halts, turn-arounds, bivouac and
assembly areas, entrucking or detrucking points, regulating
points, initial points, and other terminal facilities.
c. Supply information-(1) Facilities for procurement of
fuel, repair parts, rations, water, and other supplies.
(2) Repair and replacement facilities for vehicles and
armament.
(3) Evacuation and hospital facilities.
(4) Toll charges, if any, on the route.
d. Traffic movements.-The probable volume of traffic
that may be encountered along the route, any significant
time variations in existing traffic flow, and any traffic blocks
that might be expected.
e. Control measures-(1) Location and type of traffic aids
including signs, road delineators or other markers, and traffic
signal devices.
(2) Markers, signals, guides, or guards that may be needed
at specific locations.
(3) Determination of practicable speeds through potential
traffic bottlenecks and around sharp curves.
/. Other agencies.-When movements are to be made over
routes under the jurisdiction of other units or under civilian
control, contact with these agencies should be made well
in advance in order to obtain full information regarding
possible routes, time when they may be used to best advantage, and locai assistance that may be expected.- (See par.
132.)
* 89. SOURCES OF INFORMATION.-a. Maps and aerial photographs.-Preliminaryinformation as to the location of roads,
their general alinement, and other characteristics may be
obtained from a study of maps or aerial photographs, from
consultation with the engineer officer of the pertinent service
area, and from civilian traffic authorities. (See par. 132.)
b. Field reconnaissance.-Even though other sources of
information may be available, actual field reconnaissance is
usually necessary to supplement data already obtained, to
substantiate this information, and to bring it up to date.
80
MOTOR TRANSPORT
90-91
· 90. RECONNAISSANCE EQUIPMENT.-Equipment needed for reconnaissance will vary with type of information sought. In
addition to general equipment carried by a reconnaissance
party in the field, traffic reconnaissances should give special
attention to the following requirements:
a. Transportation.-Sufficientlight vehicles, preferably with
good cross-country performance, are a necessity. When contact with the enemy is probable, armored vehicles affording
protection to personnel should be used. Aircraft may be
needed for hasty road reconnaissance and for locating
impending traffic jams.
b. Communication.-Communicationfacilities in the form
of radio and motorcycles are desirable. Panels should also be
carried when aircraft are being used in traffic work.
c. Maps and aerial photographs.-Maps, particularly road
maps, are needed for orientation and guidance and provide a
convenient form on which to record road data. Recent
aerial photographs provide a valuable supplement to maps,
particularly when old maps must be used.
d. Special equipment.-The following equipment will be
found useful:
(1) Recording speedometer.
(2) Compass.
(3) Tapes or calibrated rods for bridge, culvert, ford, and
overpass measurements.
(4) Engineer sketching equipment.
(5) Camera.
(6) Means for erecting signs and for testing soundness of
bridge timbers.
U 91. INSTRUCTIONS TO PERSONNEL.-a. Directives for reconnaissance cover the following points:
(1) The mission of the reconnaissance party, including
routes or area to be reconnoitered, the exact extent and
nature of information to be obtained, and form of report
desired.
(2) Brief statement of tactical situation.
(3) Maximum loads expected, maximum over-all lengths,
widths, and heights of vehicles when loaded, and minimum
turning requirements.
(4) Personnel, transport, and equipment available for the
work.
(5) Place and time report will be submitted.
81
91-92
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
b. Upon receipt of a reconnaissance directive, the commander of the reconnaissance party issues a warning order
to members of the party, studies information available at the
headquarters issuing the directive, makes a map and aerial
photograph study of possible routes, and plans his reconnaissance. In deciding how much information to obtain, the
reconnaissance commander must be guided by his mission
and is, of necessity, limited by the time available. Detailed
procedures for obtaining specific types of information together with recording forms are indicated in FM 5-5 and
5-35.
HEIGHT
(DOUBLE
LANE)
41/'
FIGURE 9.Standard method of measuring
under arches.
vertical clearances
N 92. TRAFFIC OBSTRUCTION.-U. Passability.-If the route is
blocked or is otherwise impassable, a detour around the obstruction should be reconnoitered and marked. If the route
can be made passable by limited amounts of work, and time
is available, a rough estimate of time and amount of work
needed should be made. Otherwise, a record should be made
of the nature and extent of the obstructions.
b. Limiting widths.-Whenever movement may be restricted because of narrow widths of roadways or structures
(such as bridges and tunnels), limiting widths should be obtained. (See par. 115.)
c. Limiting heights.-Wherever an obstruction over a road-
way is low enough to interfere with traffic movements, the
82
MOTOR TRANSPORT
92-94
clearance height should be obtained. A suggested manner
of obtaining clearance heights is shown in figure 9.
d. Fords.-Fordsare inspected for passability, particularly
with reference to depth (see par. 133), possible variation in
depth due to tides or flood, condition of bottom and approaches, and strengths of current. The exact route through
the ford is carefully marked.
e. Ice and snow.-Depths (see pars. 119 and 134) and condition of ice crossings should be determined, as well as the
depth and condition of snow over roadways. If dirt, sand,
or cinders will be necessary to provide better traction, availability of these materials should be noted, giving locations
and amounts.
* 93. TYPE AND CONDITION OF ROADWAY, AND NUMBER OF TRAFFIC LANES.-Methods of classifying roadways and indicating
the number of traffic lanes are indicated in paragraph 115.
* 94. BRIDoEs.-a. General.-Bridges should be carefully
checked whenever there is any question of their condition,
load capacity, or clearances afforded to traffic. If necessary,
a detour must be found or the bridge strengthened.
b. Allowable loads on bridges.-(1) In general, newer
bridges on the following named roads will carry gross loads
as indicated:
Strategic highways of the United States as indicated on
War Department strategic map dated September
15, 1939 _________________________-__
_ 15 tons.
National and State highways____________-____ 15 tons.
Country roads _______________-____________ 10 tons.
(2) Older bridges will vary and no assumption should be
made of their load capacity unless same is indicated on the
bridge or otherwise posted. For new bridges with heavy
concrete or other type floors giving wide load distribution,
single vehicles moving over the center of the bridge at
steady speeds of 5 miles per hour or less may exceed the
posted loading by 50 percent on one-lane bridges, and by
100 percent on multiple-lane bridges. For old bridges under
same conditions, the posted capacity should not be exceeded
by more than 25 percent. In case of doubt, the more detailed check methods are indicated in FM 5-35. However,
when exact computations are desirable, engineer personnel
should be consulted.
83
95
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
· 95. CONGESTED AREAS.-Congested areas present special
problems to reconnaissance parties, primarily because of
possible conflict with other military movements or with
civilian traffic, If these conflicts are to be minimized, special
information will be needed so that necessary correlations
can be made. Such information may include the following:
a. Local regulations.--Copies of pertinent local regulations
may be obtained.
b. Route or routes.-As far as possible, the more congested
sections should be by-passed. If impracticable to by-pass the
area, it may be possible to use two or more routes simultaneously in order to reduce time required for passage.
e. Timing of movements.-When practicable, arrival at
large cities should be so timed as to permit passage at a
time when volume of local traffic movements is at a minimum. Hence, recommendations of local authorities should
be obtained regarding best time for making proposed
movements.
d. Recommended type of march.-The type of march used
will determine time length and road time of a column in
passing through a congested area and will govern the extent
to which cross traffic will be delayed. Hence, recommendations should be made as to type of march, time length of
column, headway between vehicles, and time gap between
march units and serials.
e. Speed-Local regulations will normally govern speeds
of casual individual vehicles. However, for column movements with an escort, different speed limits may be desirable.
The reconnaissance party should, therefore, obtain information regarding all locations where speed must be decreased
or may be increased, and the speeds applicable thereto.
f. Time distance.-The time distance between points of
entry into and exit from the congested area may be needed
for planning of movements through the area.
g. Camp sites or billets.-If the command is to be halted
within the area, the reconnaissance party may be required
to locate suitable camp sites or billets.
h. Supply information.-Information regarding supplies
may be obtained: or actual arrangements to obtain supplies
may be made, if the reconnaissance party has been charged
with this duty.
i. Traffic control.-Local authorities will usually lend will84
MOTOR TRANSPORT
95-98
ing cooperation and may furnish escorts to guide and protect
column movements. Consequently, the nature and amount
of this assistance should be determined, and an estimate
made of additional traffic control personnel and equipment
needed to insure efficient handling of traffic movements
through the area. (See par. 132.)
* 96. REPORTS.-The report containing the information re-
quired by the reconnaissance directive, along with any other
pertinent data obtained, is delivered in the form, and at the
time and place specified by the directive. A suitable report
in most instances can be prepared by marking the route or
routes on a road map or an aerial photograph with colored
pencils, and indicating thereon the information which has
been obtained by means of conventional symbols (see par.
115) and by including photographs and sketches.
SECTION IV
THE TRAFFIC PLAN
* 97. GENERAL.-Although the commanding officer of a column or march unit is not directly involved in traffic planning
as such, it is essential that he have general knowledge of
the factors involved in such planning by higher headquarters.
* 98. INFORMATION NEEDED FOR PLAN.-a. Plansof other headquarters.-Plans of higher headquarters, and all traffic restrictions and priorities imposed by them, and plans of adjacent units, or units using the same route successively, must
be considered.
b. Traffic origin and destination.-A general conception of
origin and destination of military traffic should be obtained
through a map study of the location and lay-out of terminal
areas, together with more detailed information obtained
from agencies directly responsible -for movement of troops
and supplies.
c. Priorities,volume, and type of traffic-Traffic priorities
and information regarding volume of military traffic and its
composition (foot troops, animals, artillery, tanks. trucks,
passenger vehicles, motorcycles, ponton trailers, etc.) should
be available from appropriate staff agencies.
d. Tactical and protective limitations.-All restrictions or
85
98-101
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
precautions pertaining to time, type, spacing routing, or
active defense of traffic movements must be determined.
e. Road data.-It is necessary to have information of all
available roadways, their relationship to each other, and
their traffic characteristics. Types of road data that may
be needed are listed in paragraph 88.
/. Civilian traffic.--During peacetime, military traffic must
be superimposed on normal civilian traffic flow and coordination with civilian traffic authorities is frequently necessary.
During active operations, military traffic personnel must make
provision for military control of civilian traffic. (See pars.
82 and 132.)
* 99. TRAFFIC PLANNING-The preparation of traffic plans is
the responsibility of the G-4 division of the staff of a division, corps or army, which coordinates the needs and plans
of the various staff sections, arms' and services. Road
reconnaissance, recommendations to G-4, sign posting, and
sometimes aid in execution, are engineer jobs. Execution of
the plan-the actual regulation of traffic-is assigned to the
military police, under the direction of the provost marshal.
Because traffic control serves primarily to further troop
movements, supply and evacuation. it must be closely coordinated with tactical plans. The basic attributes of a good plan
are simplicity and flexibility.
* 100. SYSTEMS OF CONTROL--Execution of the plan may be
controlled by the organizational or area systems (see par.
106). The system to be used is a part of the traffic plan.
* 101. TRAFFIC SCHEDULES.-Traffic schedules impose severe
restrictions on movement and are used only when a time
apportionment of roads is necessary because of bottlenecks
and priorities. The following types of schedules may be used:
a. Infiltration schedules.-This type of schedule prescribes
for each unit concerned, the maximum number of vehicles
that may be dispatched from the origin over a designated
route during any 1 hour.
b. Column schedules.-Such schedules are usually given in
the form of march graphs, march tables, or march control
tables (see par. 129).
c. Location, route, and system schedules.-These schedules
are necessary to coordinate column schedules at important
86
MOTOR TRANSPORT
101-103
traffic bottlenecks and at locations where an intersection or
junction of movements occurs.
U 102. CLASSIFICATION OF ROUTES.-a. General.-Routes may
be classified according to degree of control exercised by the
traffic authority. Actual control employed at any time will
be the minimum required to obtain desired results.
b. Open.-An open route is a roadway over which a central
traffic authority normally exercises only a minimum of supervision. Ordinarily, supervision on an open route is limited
to control of traffic at intersections with a dispatch or a
supervised route, and to the posting of necessary traffic signs
and regulations. Traffic control personnel needed on an
open route are usually furnished by march columns using the
route. Control exercised by central traffic authority on an
open route is analogous to civilian control over local farm
roads carrying a small traffic flow.
c. Supervised.-A supervised route is a roadway over which
limited control (by means of traffic posts, traffic patrols, or
both) is exercised by a central traffic authority. Small units
are ordinarily allowed to use a supervised route without prior
correlation of individual march schedules, but time of access
to the route may be regulated at control posts in conformity
with the traffic situation. Control on a supervised route is
somewhat analogous to the civilian control normally exercised
over primary highways.
d. Dispatch-A dispatch route is a roadway over which
full control, both as to priorities of use and the regulated
movement of traffic in time and space, is exercised by a central traffic authority. Dispatch routes are controlled by the
schedule system (see par. 101). The operation of a dispatch
route is analogous to that of a railroad.
e. Reserved.-A reserved route is one that is set aside for
the exclusive use of a designated unit or specified type of
traffic, or for other specific purposes.
· 103. NIGHT OPERATIONS.-The primary reason for night
movements is to obtain secrecy and concealment. They
may be desirable also to obtain maximum traffic flow over
a route by utilizing it 24 hours each day, or to cover greater
distances by lengthening the duration of marches. The
fundamental considerations affecting the planning of night
movements are reduced visibility and maneuverability, highly
85
103-104
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
variable rates of march and greater time distances, reduced
capacity of roadways, the possible need of one-way routing,
increased difficulty of communication, and greater need of
special traffic aids.
* 104. TRAFFIC ORDRRS.-The completed traffic plan culminates in the traffic order, issued by the headquarters
responsible for traffic control, as a paragraph of the administrative order. The traffic order should contain all information and regulations necessary for guidance of units
using the road net. Standing traffic orders and regulations
need not be repeated. If time permits and the situation
requixes it, any or a] of the following information may be
included in the traffic order:
a. Time effective.-Whenever any provisions of the traffic
order extend over a period of time different from that of
other paragraphs of the administrative order, the time
applicable in each instance should be stated.
b. Location of terminals.-Locations of supply, evacuation,
administrative establishments, and other traffic terminals
are usually stated elsewhere in the administrative order.
However, information as to the location of all important
traffic terminals is essential to the execution of the traffic
order and should be indicated on the circulation map, if
one is issued.
c. Routes.-Direction of movement on each important
roadway, number of traffic lanes, type and condition of surface, weight and clearance limitations of structures or other
limiting features, average time distance during daylight
between terminals and junctions, and control classification
of each route should be indicated whenever practicable.
This information is usually shown on the circulation map.
d. Time and space restrictions.-If the use of a roadway
is restricted by schedules (see par. 101), or if a roadway
is reserved for the exclusive use of a designated unit or for
other purposes during any period of time, such information
should be stated in the traffic paragraph, shown on the
circulation map, or indicated in a time schedule annex
to the administrative order. If no vehicles, or only specially
designated vehicles, are allowed to proceed beyond a specified point during hours of daylight or hours of darkness,
such restrictions should be indicated on the circulation map.
88
MOTOR TRANSPORT
104-106
e. Priorities.-Traffic priorities may be indicated by schedules or by time and space reservations. However, if no
schedules exist, or if it is not practical to make time or
space reservations, priorities should be stated in the main
part of the traffic order.
/. Restrictions on type of traffic.-Whenever any type of
traffic (such as foot troops, animal columns, or empty vehicles) is restricted from using, or is required to use, specified routes, these limitations should be clearly indicated.
g. Protective measures.-Measures pertaining to security
or passive protection of traffic movements, such as limitations on traffic, special routing or scheduling, or blackout
operation, may also be prescribed in the traffic order.
h. Traffic corlmunications.-Unless indicated elsewhere
or already in effect, all general information pertaining to
the location of traffic headquarters or other traffic establishments and to communication regulations affecting them
should be stated.
i. Construction.-Functional specification of road and
bridge work required and the priorities of such work should
likewise be indicated in the traffic order.
SECTION V
EXECUTION OF TRAFFIC PLAN
* 105. GENERAL.-This section is primarily devoted to techniques applicable to execution of the traffic plan by traffic
control personnel. The commanders of small units should
have detailed knowledge of the various control systems used
in order to insure intelligent cooperation with traffic control
personnel.
* 106. SYSTEMS OF CONTROL AND TECHNIQUES.-a. Systems.There are two general systems of control; their use in a particular, situation depends upon the number of routes available, the traffic conditions, and tactical considerations.
(1) Organizational control.-Under organizational control, traffic personnel from the organization on the march
exercises control, usually by means of an escort. The escort
regulates traffic only along the route traveled by the column
and only insofar as necessary to assure its free movement
with a minimum interruption of other traffic. This type of
control is chiefly used in movements of individual units when
89
106-108
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
conflict with civilian or less important military traffic is all
that is anticipated.
(2) Area control.-Under area control, the headquarters
responsible for traffic control in the area assigns traffic personnel to point, escort, and patrol duty in order to regulate
all traffic in accordance with the circulation plan in effect.
Area control is used chiefly when large scale traffic operations are being conducted, and when a single unified control
over all traffic on a road net is necessary. (For further details see FM 29-5.)
b. Techniques.-The three control techniques are(1) Intersection regulation (also regulation of other bottlenecks).
(2) Regulation by escorts.
(3) Regulation by patrols.
A combination of (1) and (3) above is normally required
in area control; (2) is most often used in organizational control. However, all techniques are interwoven, as an escorted
column may often pass through a controlled area, and escort
personnel often do intersection duty.
* 107. TRAFFIc CONTROL PERSONNEL.-Traffic control personnel are used primarily to keep traffic moving in conformity
with the traffic plan. Under organizational control, personnel
Involved consists of specialists from the organization involved; under area control, traffic control duties are usually
performed by military police detailed by the headquarters
responsible for traffic control in the area. The intensive
specialized training and equipment needed for this important
duty are beyond the scope of this manual; these subjects
are covered in great detail in FM 29-5 and TF 11-262. All
drivers should be familiar with the signals employed by military police as described in FM 29-5.
* 108. ROUTE MARKING.-Markers may be used to aid a specific march, or to aid general traffic movements within an
area. Individuals should not be posted where signs can be
used with equal effectiveness. The mission of marking details is to post signs which will guide traffic over proper roads
and protect it from traffic conflict and road hazards. The
detail will need a supply of all types of signs, tools for Installation, a marked route map, and a light vehicle. If possible, signs should be installed well in advance of the column,
90
MOTOR TRANSPORT
108-109
preferably the day prior to the march. Signs placed by column personnel are usually picked up under supervision of the
column trail officer (see par. 60). When movements are to
be made at night, the route should preferably be marked
during daylight. If the column is to be led by a guide, the
guide should go over the marked route during daylight, and
if possible, also at night.
* 109. PssAcGE oF COL-UMNS.-a. Considerations affecting
overtaking and passing of individual vehicles (par. 15) also
apply generally to columns. Permission should be obtained
from the trail officer of the overtaken column before passing
is begun. Traffic control personnel are posted at the head
and tail of the slower or halted column to facilitate the passing operation, or to prevent it.when passing is unsafe. When
the lane to be used for passing is clear of traffic for the entire
length of the column being passed, the guard at the tail end
of the halted column signals the faster column to move by.
When the last element of the faster column has cleared the
head of the halted column, normal operations are resumed.
Passage of columns should be made at prearranged suitable
locations and during a scheduled halt of the slower column
whenever possible.
b. On roads where the number of lanes available for
movement is equal to the number of lanes occupied by
the two columns concerned, escort personnel from each
column are responsible that all vehicles are cleared from
the counterflow lane before the arrival of the head of their
respective columns. When any column contains vehicles
of unusual length, such as ponton semitrailers, it may be
necessary to post guards at curves to prevent conflicts resulting from the rear sweep of these vehicles during the
passing operation.
c. When a one-lane road must be used by columns proceeding in opposite directions, alternate one-way operation
may be employed, utilizing a traffic control post at each end
of the road. If possible these posts should be connected
by radio, wire, visual, or sound communication. When rapid
communication between ends of the road are not available,
the last vehicle in each group should be distinctively marked
by traffic post Personnel admitting group to roadway. This
distinctive marker is picked up by traffic post personnel at
exit of roadway.
91
110-111
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
· 110. HALTS.-Wherever possible, halts should be confined
to locations where the halt will not interfere with other traffic
on the roadway. Vehicles should be moved off the road
(preferably to the right) into bivouac or parking areas,
sidings, minor roadways. If it is necessary to halt on the
road, all vehicles must park as far to the right as practicable.
Intersections, railroad crossings, or other cross flow facilities
should not be blocked (or sight distances unnecessarily limited) by halted vehicles. When a halt must be made to permit
passing of columns, such halt should be timed to coincide with
a regular rest or mess halt. Detailed information pertaining
to halts for march columns is given in paragraph 62.
* 111. TRAFFIC ESCORTS.---. Functions.-(1) The primary
functions of a traffic escort are to guide a column and to
protect it from interference by vehicles that are not a
part of the column. Signs and signals are used whenever
possible to replace personnel and thus reduce the number of
men required in the escort party or release them for other
duties. Column guidance may be accomplished by designating a guide to lead the column, by stationing guides at
locations where the column may stray from the march route,
or by using appropriate markers.
(2) Guides are especially useful at night, or when it is
necessary to leave the road and travel over short stretches
of difficult ground, such as along a detour or into a bivouac
or assembly area. If the movement is to be made after
dark, guides should go over the road during daylight (and
preferably also after nightfall) to observe and mark every
detail that will identify the route during darkness. Traffic
escorts establish temporary control posts successively forward at all locations where control is needed. This procedure is especially important prior to entry of the column
on one lane open roads when there is a possibility of meeting
another column at a location where passing is impossible.
b. Posting escorts.-When escort personnel are mounted
on solo motorcycles, or use other individual transportation
having similar mobility characteristics, they may again be
posted forward as needed. Their greater speed allows them
to proceed ahead of the column to duty at another location.
Ordinarily, however, escort personnel should not be required
to double a moving column. The following system utilizes
92
MOTOR TRANSPORT
111
fewer vehicles, but requires more personnel:
(1) Before starting out to post the route, the escort officer
distributes the escort detail in vehicles in such a manner as
to leave one vehicle empty.
(2) The detail moves out sufficiently far in advance to
permit posting of personnel without interfering with the
marching column.
FIGURE 10.-Method of posting escort personnel.
(3) Assume that the escort commander has three vehicles
In the order A, B, C, from front to rear, and that B and C
'each carry five members of the escort, while A carries only the
escort commander and driver. Let point X be the position
of the first location to be posted (fig. 10).
(4) On or before reaching point X, the escort commander
gives to the driver of vehicle A Instructions for posting point
X. The driver of vehicle A parks his vehicle where it will
not interfere with traffic and assumes the duties of his post.
441574-42--7
93
111-113
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
(The same procedure may be used if two or more persons
are required at the post.) The escort commander then
mounts vehicle B, now at the head of the column, where he is
able to control movements of the escort party and be in position to give instructions for posting the next location. In a
similar manner, personnel from vehicle B post locations in
the order 1i,2, 3, 4, and 5.
(5) Vehicle B is left at point Y, the driver being used for
post duty at that point. The remainder of the detail moves
on ahead and posts locations from vehicle C in the same
manner.
(6) When the march column clears point X, vehicle A follows and picks up personnel at locations 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. It
then joins the rear of the column in a position just ahead of
the trail officer. In a like manner, when the column and
vehicle A clears point Y, vehicle B follows and picks up post
personnel at successive locations 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10. These
loaded vehicles remain at the rear of the column until a
halt or other condition permits them to pass the column and
rejoin the escort commander.
(7) If posts are numbered consecutively from the beginning
to the end of the route, the escort commander and his assistants will have a means of checking whether any post has
been missed. The error will be detected shortly after it
occurs and only a short distance will have to be traveled to
pick up a missing man. A distinctive flag or sign should be
placed on the trail car so that members of the escort party
can easily identify the end of the column.
* 112. TRAFFIC PATROLS.-Traffic patrols, mounted in small,
highly maneuverable trucks or in motorcycles, are used in
area control to provide liaison between key control points,
supervise traffic between such points, and provide frequent
checking of critical points on the road net when road or traffic
blocks are most likely to develop. (See FI 29-5.)
* 113. NIGHT OPERATION.-Trafflc control at night is coinplicated by reduced visibility. The tactical situation will determine whether headlights are permitted, or whether operation
will be subject to blackout restrictions.
a. With headlights.-Traffic control at night when headlights are used is similar to daylight control except that
transmission of visual signals is more difficult and special
94
MOTOR TRANSPORT
113-114
attention must be given to marking the route for night operation (see FM 29-5).
b. Under blackout conditions.-When movements must be
made with secrecy, and blackout driving lights, blackout
marker lights, or no lights at all are allowed, special control
measures are needed, Signals usually given by hand must
be transmitted by special means, and their range is greatly
reduced. Efficiency of messenger service and motorcycles
is decreased because of decreased mobility. Road time is
increased, and rates of march are more difficult to estimate
and maintain. Plans should be as detailed as possible;
and all arrangements for coordination should be completed
during daylight. Ordinarily, one-way traffic will facilitate
execution and control of movements under blackout conditions. All routes should be carefully reconnoitered, and
traffic control personnel, signs, and signals should all be
posted prior to darkness.
SECTION VI
TRAFFIC AIDS
* 114. TRAFFIC MAPs.-a. General.-Types of maps used primarily for traffic purposes are indicated in the following subparagraphs. Traffic information presented in graphic form
through use of symbols (see par. 115) may include the following items:
(1) Road net.
(2) Designation and numbering of specific routes.
(3) Identification of traffic terminals, cities, towns, intersections, traffic establishments, and important terrain features.
(4) Road data (see par. 88).
(5) Direction of traffic movements.
(6) Control classification of routes.
(7) Traffic flow.
b. Strip map.-Strip maps are particularly useful to commanders of smaller units in organizational column control.
They are used to give a schematic picture of a route of march
and, if desired, information and restrictions pertaining
thereto (see fig. 11). Strip maps should be reproduced in
quantity and supplied to all personnel concerned (including
column commanders, control officers, trail officers, serial and
114
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
AYNESBORO
C.,
Avo~l
WESTMINSTER
WESTMINSTER
FIGURE I/.-Strip
Ikp.
march unit commanders, vehicle drivers, guides, and escort
MOTOR TRANSPORT
In'
*
FIZGm
-
.C,.
.,
*5'
.
12.-CirculatlOn map
'
114
(see par. 116 for meaning of map
made available, march personnel should be provided with a
list of places through which they must pass, numbers of
highways to be used, and detailed directions regarding turns
to be made en route.
c. Circulation map.--Circulation maps (flg. 12) are used
by higher headquarters to indicate a road net, or system of
routes, and necessary information, and traffc restrictions
pertaining thereto.
97
114-115
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
d. Traffic planning map.-Traffic planning maps are used
by higher headquarters in preparing the traffic plan. Strip
and circulation maps may be derived from this map.
· 115. MAP SYMBOLS (see PS 5-1).-a. General.-Symbols
listed in this paragraph may be used to present traffic information in convenient and concise form on traffic maps.
Other map symbols are covered in FM 21-30. Road information shown on a traffic map applies throughout the length
of road between points shown by heavy dots or crossbars.
b. Road types.
Types of surface
All weather
Physical characteristwi
Earth
sthe
ru d Dusty when
Concrete, mas- Grave,
roe or other
adam or other unconsolidated dry muddy
stabilized
material
material
Dustywhen dry
when wet
Good road (gentle grades, gradual
eurves, smooth surface, good
foundation)
.......-.........
Poor road (steep grades, sharp
curves, rough surface, or poor
foundation .......-.....-
EO
A
B
fD
F
I Probably impassable in wet weather.
c. Traffic lanes.
1, 2, 3, etc. Placed after road type symbol to indicate roadways
suitable for continuous traffic in one, two, three,
etc., lanes, respectively.
1+
One-lane roadway having occasional passing locations, and suitable for very light two-way traffic.
1l2
One-lane roadway having frequent passing locations, and suitable for light two-way traffic.
2+
Two-lane roadway having occasional one-lane defiles, and suitable for moderate two-way traffic.
d. Road information.
H
Followed by numeral indicates clearance height in
feet between surface of roadway and overhead
obstruction. (For arches see par. 92.)
MOTOR TRANSPORT
W
115
Followed by numeral indicates clearance width in
T
M
I
/7
f
)~'3
feet provided at most critical location. Symbol
is preceded by numeral to indicate more than one
such lane (e. g., 2 W 9 indicates 2 separate lanes,
each of which provides a clearance width of 9
feet).
Preceded by numeral indicates tonnage limitation.
(See par. 94.)
Preceded by numeral indicates distance in miles.
Followed by numeral indicates average interval of
time (time-distance) in minutes required by motor vehicles during daylight to travel section of
road shown.
!Movable road block.
Permanent road block.
RR grade crossing.
RR above road.
7RR beneath
--
road.
Boundary between two Sections of roadway.
]- _1-Impassable road.
Bridge.
-
Tunnel.
~-4- Rotary traffic.
Oh
~
Turn-around location.
Line drawn parallel to one-lane road indicates
length of roadway where passing is possible.
e. Traffic control.
> One-way traffic.
Two-way
Supervised
tra
roads
(directions of permissible movements
-- ALT-- Alternate one-way traffic
direction, alternately).
shown by arrow).
(roadway used in either
99
115-117
BASIC FIrLD MAN1UAL
Dispatch route (operated by schedule system).
·,9R
Reserved route (can be used by specific traffic
only).
Federal and State route markers, respectively.
Fi-53
Military route marker.
[3 Traffic Post (or unit); traffic headquarters.
m
r6
.23
-LT-
Conventional sign for marked road intersection
(atlas-grid system).
Line beyond which any lights (including blackout
lights) are prohibited.
2 116. METHOD OF INDICATING ROUTES.-A standard method of
identifying all main Federal and State routes is in use within
the continental limits of the United States. This system is
employed f or military use, and may be extended, where needed,
to routes not yet marked. In general, north-south Federal
routes are numbered with odd numbers, beginning with the
chief north-south route nearest the eastern seaboard as
route 1. East-west routes are numbered with even numbers,
beginning with the chief east-west route nearest the northern
boundary as route 2. These route numbers are always prefixed with the letters US and are shown on traffic maps as
numerals within a shield. State routes are usually numbered
similarly to the system employed for Federal routes, except
that the name or symbol of the State is used in lieu of the
US. They are shown on traffic maps as numerals within a
circle.
· 117. SIGNS.-A traffic sign is a marker mounted on a fixed
or portable support whereby notice is given in the form of
words or symbols for the purpose of regulating, warning, or
guiding traffic. Signs are employed whenever possible in
lieu of traffic personnel. When there is danger that signs
may be useful to the enemy, however, signs should be destroyed, and guides used instead. Specific uses of signs
include identification of places, marking of routes, indica100
117
MOTOR TRANSPORT
LEFT CURVE
STOP
RIGHTCURVE
MPH
HILL LROAD
CROSSING
SLOW
I$
| R15
SPEENO
NO-
NO
|
0 WAY
|NROAD
ROAODCLOSED
KKIG
(
Superpnposedd
Regulatory and warning signs.
floeua
13.-Military traffic signs.
101
SLANK
117
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
POINT
HEAD
D.P.
GA
WATER
RAIL
GAS
DO
RIL
WATER POINT
HEAD
Arow
Arrow)
(Add
A w)
(Add od
DUMP
BLANK
E£TOUR
(Ad Arowl
RATIONUUMP
dd Arrow)
|I-4
ABC
LETTERS
ARROW
123
HILLTOWN 277
DIRECTION
N1UMERS
LOCATION
ORGANIZATION
WITH ARROW
Grid)
(Alo
( Guide signs.
FIGURE 13.-Milltary traffic sign-Contlnued.
102
MOTOR TRANSPORT
117-119
tion of directions and distances, and indication of special
situations and traffic regulations. In combat areas, these
signs are usually installed by engineer troops. (See PM
5-10.) Standard military signs are shown in figure 13.
SECTION VII
LOGISTICAL DATA
* 118. GENERAL.-This section provides miscellaneous statistical and technical information useful to commanders of small
units in the detailed planning of motor movements. Additional data will be found in FM 101-10.
* 119. AVERAGE DAY'S MARCH AND RATE OF MARCH.---a. March
day.-During peacetime, and during war when tactical considerations do not interfere, the following may be used as a
guide in planning an average day's motor march:
(1) Preparation for the march_____________-____ 1 hour
(Includes time for breakfast, inspection
of vehicles, and breaking camp.)
(2) Running time..........
__________- 7 to 8 hours
(Includes all halts except noon halt.)
(3) Halt for lunch and refueling of vehicles ______ 1 hour
(This halt may be shortened under wartime conditions.)
(4) Inspection and servicing of vehicles after
arrival at camp--------------------------- 1 hour
b. Rates of march. and distances.-Rates of march to be
adopted and the daily distance that can be covered will vary
according to conditions encountered en route. Table I can
be used as a guide for motor marches.
103
119
EASIC FIELD MAN-UAL
TABLE I
RATES AND LENGTHS OF MARCHES
I
S
4
56
6'
7
Average ratesof march (mph) 4
March
Unit
oun road.
n rads
Across
tr
country
- o1 ,~D.v
road.
NigNht (miled)
e~Per
day)
N"U
On
Remarkh
INFANTRY5
2 Foot troops....
2 -.... -
1I
12 15 Length of pmarob
for a
increasecd with
division
well seasoned
15-20
troops march:
for
ing on good
smaller
toads in favorunits
able weather
when required
by the tactical
situation'
ARTILILERY '
3
4
Horse-drawn
3
Pack (less motor 3
elements).
5 Truck-drawn, light 25
and antiaircraft.
6 Truck-drawn, me- 20
dium, howitzer.
7 Truck-drawn,
15
heavy.
8 Tractor drawn,
5
heavy.
3.......
3.......
3
3
2
2
20
20
25 (lights)10 (no lights)
7 (lights).
10 (nolights)
15 (lights)
10 (no lights).
5-.......
8
5
175
8
5
140
8
5
100
3
2
40
l The rate of march of a column omposed olfelements with different rates of march
is regulated by that of the slowest element.
I Greater distances than those given in column 6 may be covered under forced
march conditions.
I Horse artillery marches at the rates of horse cavalry (line 9).
4 Rates shown apply primarily to movemrat in close column, and may,b increased
for small Commands under favorable conditions, or for movement in open column.
I For movement over mountainous terrain, an additional allowance of 1 hour should
be made for each 1,000 feet of climb.
104
MOTOR TRANSPORT
119
TABLE I-Contlnued
RATES AND LENGTHS OF MARCHES--ontinued
I
14
Y
6
62
Average rates of mrch (mph)
7
L th
of
(vaerce
roads
Da
th
9
10
ihD
Day Ni
Niht
N
(mias
~ ~CAVALRY
Animal elements
Cars, armored or
scout.
..
35
5
4
35
35 (lights).- 10
10 (no lights)-
5
2
5
150
Undercondlitions
requiring maneuver, these
rates may be
ARMORED
11
Tanks, light and
medium (units
under own
power).
25
25 (ligbts)-0 (no lights)
15
MISCELLANEOUS
12
13
14
Animal-drawn
trains.
Trucks, ambulances, motorized units (except medium
and heavy artfilery).
Cars, passenger-..
33 3-.........
35
-i
1
20
Y25(lights).
10 (no lights)
8
5
175
35 (lights)....
10 (no lights)
8
6
20
105
Convertible medium tanks
move of hardsurfaced roads
-on tracks only.
120-121
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
· 120. SxZs AND WEIGHTS OF VEHICLEs.-Dimensions
weights of various vehicles are shown in FM 101-10.
and
* 121. ROAD SPACES AT HALT.-The following figures are averages, based on experience. The figures shown for motor
elements, trailers, and guns and howitzers take into consideration the average length per vehicle and allow sufficient
space for Individual vehicle maneuvering.
Yards
a. Foot troops.
In column of fours, per man _
.-.
..........0. 6
In column of threes, per man -__________-____
0. 8
In column of twos, per man. ___..___._____
..
1. 2
Single file, per man-._--_____._
_----_.--2. 4
b. Animals.
In column of fours, per animal __-.-______.. 1.0
In column of twos, per animal ______________ 2. 0
Single file, per animal ___-____________-_____ 4.0
For large units, column of fours __-__________ 1.5
For large units, column of twos ____-- _______ 3. 0
Horse-drawn field artillery, per animal_______ 3. 0
c, Bicycles.
In single file ___________________________..
.4. 0
d. Motor elements.
Motorcycles (solo or w/s/c) ..______________ 5. 0
Passenger cars -----------------___________
7.0
Trucks, utility (1/4- to 1-ton) _______-_________ 7. 0
Trucks, light (14 - to 2 -ton) --___.___________ 9. 0
Trucks, medium (2V4- to 4-ton) __-.__ ________ 13.0
Trucks, heavy (5-ton or over) ______.-________ 13.0
Tractors, light or medium _-________________ 5. 0
Light tanks_ ______.______________________
.7. 0
Medium tanks _____.__-___________________
8. 0
Scout cars _
-_______________________________
8. 0
Half-track vehicles------ __.__ ___________-___ 8. 0
Water tank truck (750 gal.) ______________ 8. 0
Mobile water purification unit-____________ 8. 0
Map reproduction unit-__________---_____
8. 0
Prime movers for ponton semitrailers -______
…
8. 0
Mobile map reproduction train_______- ______ 17. 0
e. Trailers (less prime movers).
1-ton, cargo__._____.________._
.-......
4. 0
2-wheel, van __-________ - ____ ___-.. 6..__0
106
MOTOR
TRANSPORT
121-122
Yards
10-ton, tilting bed tandem____._-__.-----5.0
Searchlight M1AA _________________________ 6.0
2-wheel ponton trailer ____-_____________.. 11.0
10-ton, Ponton semitrailer and dolly -__-_____ 15. 0
25-ton, ponton semitrailer and dolly
.------12. 0
8-wheel, platform ----------------_______ 12. 0
i. Guns and howitzers.
75-mm guns ____-- ____-.._______.____._ ___- 7.0
8. 0
._________
105-mm howitzers -___._____._
8.0
155-mm howitzers .____-.___
............. .
155-mm guns ___.----___--___
-_________-__ 11.0
3-inch antiaircraft guns ---..
.
..........
9.0
37-mm guns, antitank -.. _______________ 5. 0
37-mm guns, antiaircraft _________….….......
7.0
240-mm howitzer bogies_ __-_____
_
_ 14.0
240-mm carriage bogies___-____.______ 10. 0
* 122. TlMr LrNGTn, TArlec FLow, AND DENSITY or MOTOR
COLUMNS.-a. Time length-(1) Time length of a motor column may be obtained by multiplying number of vehicles in
column by average intervehicular headway of column. Thus
a column composed of 300 vehicles having an average intervehicular headway of 0.10 minutes (6 sec.) Would have a time
length of 300 x 0.10 or 30 minutes (600 vehicles per hour).
(2) Time length of open or close columns may likewise be
obtained by reference to figure 14. To use figure, read speed
on horizontal scale, move upward to close column line or
appropriate speedometer multiplier and read time length of
100 vehicles on vertical scale. Multiply time length obtained
by number of vehicles in column and divide by 100. The
quotient is time length of column in minutes.
(3) When hourly flow is known, time length of column in
hours may also be computed by dividing number of vehicles
in column by hourly flow. Thus an infiltration column of
200 vehicles dispatched at rate of 50 vehicles per hour would
have a time length of 200/50 or 4 hours. However, time
length of an infiltration column en route or at end of march
will ordinarily be somewhat greater than initial time length.
b. Infiltration.-Rates of dispatch (traffic flow) of an infiltration column corresponding to traffic density obtained at
various average speeds are indicated as follows:
107
BASIC FELo D MANrAL
122
ConeAverage rate of dispatch (vehicles per hour) for
Maxi
average speeds expected
spondmum
traffic
ing in- ...
density tervedesired hicular
5
20
25
30
35
40
le0 mph mph mph mph mph mph mph
per(vehicles
mile) (yard
2
3
4
6
t0
880
587
440
352
176
10
15
20
25
0
20
0
40
5
100
30
45
0
75
1
40
60
80
100
20
50
75
100
125
250
60
00
120
150
300
70
105
140
175
350
80
120
160
200
400
c. Close column.--Traflic characteristics of close column
marches of short duration are as follows:
Speed
(miles
per
hour)
Intervehicular
lead
(yards)
Traffic
density
(vehicles
per mile)
Traffic
flow
(vehicles
per hour)
Intervehieular
headway
(minutes)
tolnage
hauled
by 2½-ton
trucks
(per hour)
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
17
22
28
36
44
53
62
70
79
102
79
63
49
40
3
29
25
22
508
790
938
970
1,000
1,00
1,0
1,000
1,000
.118
.076
064
.062
.060
.060
060
.00
. 1
1,270
1,975
2,345
2, 42
2,500
2,50
2, 50
2,500
2,500
NoTE.-Foregolng figures are for single lane movements for short
distances only. They contain a factor of safety of approximately
twenty percent. (Traffic flow as high as 1,254 vehicles per hour has
been attained under test conditions.)
In computing data, use
slowest speed expected between halts. It should be noted that practically the same tonnage can be hauled in close column past a
given point at 25 mph as can be hauled at 40 mpn. Thus traffic
capacity of a given roadway will be utilized to the same advantage
at all speeds from 25 mph to 45 mph except that there will be
less wear and tear on the roadway and safer operation will prevail
at the lower speeds. However, the higher speeds are advantageous
when higher rates of march are desired in order to complete a
movement in a minimum of time and thus obtain greater utilization of vehicles (as in shuttling movements), or to travel greater
distances within a given period of time (increase length of march
per day).
108
MOTOR TRANSPORT
122
30
ISM =8 oPen cc lumn
=
.
025
:
. 20
en
SM=
SM =
lumn
op
Ol n=ccflumn
0
015
a6 1ISM
_ ===_=
SM=
SMS ;3 open column
cc un
'
5 c
l
jog colur nn
0
10 15 20 25 30 35
5
0
Average speed of column in miles per hour
40
]arE 14.--Average time length of open and close motor columns
at various speeds.
d. Open column.-Data tabulated below indicate traffi
flow, traffic density, and intervehicular headways corresponding to selected speedometer multiplier and vehicle speeds.
For example of method used to determine proper speedometer
multiplier see paragraph 58c.
44s157i4a042
109
122-125
Speed-
ometer
multipliert
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
Traffic
Traffic density (vehiles per mile) for average fo at
all
speeds expectd
,
I10
15
2
25
30
40
mph mph mph mph mph mph mph
()
(Q)
88
70
58
50
4
(')
(2)
44
35
29
25
22
()
39
29
23
19
17
1l
44
29
22
18
15is
13
11
as
23
I1
14
12
(I)
29
19
15
12
()
(;)
(0)
22
15
II
(')
(')
(')
(5)
MaxiIntermum
ehilr tonnage
y hauled
eeds at all
vehi- speeds
(inhour)
utes)
880
587
440
352
293
250
0
0.07
.10
.14
.17
.21
.24
.27
by 2ton
truks
(per
hour)
2,200
1,467
1,100
880
733
625
550
lntervehiulsr headway in sceCnds is approximately equal to two times the
speedometer multiplier.
I Drivers operate as in close column.
. Drivers operate as in infiltration.
U
123. AvERAGE ROAc SPACE OF MOTOR COLUMNS AT VARIOUS
SPEEDS.-a. Average road space (in miles) of motor columns
moving at various speeds may be obtained by dividing the
number of vehicles in column (disregarding trailers) by the
average density (number of vehicles per mile). (See par. 122
for vehicle densities.)
b. Average road space may also be obtained by reference
to figure 15. To obtain road space, read speed on horizontal
scale, move upward to line marked close column or to lne
indicated by appropriate speedometer multiplier, and read
road space of 100 vehicles on vertical scale. Multiply this
reading by number of vehicles in the column and divide by
100. Th'e quotient is road space of column in miles.
* 124. HAULING CAPACITY OF COLMNS.-The maximum rate
per hour at which tons of cargo or number of troops can be
hauled by a column is obtained by multiplying the traffic
flow per hour by the tonnage, troop, or cubic capacity of
vehicles in the column. See paragraph 122c and d for hauling capacity of columns composed of 21/2-ton trucks.
* 125. T R o o P CAPACITY OF VnHCLEs.-The troop-carrying
capacity of motor vehicles transporting no loads of materiel
110
125
MOTOR TRANSPORT
15
20
o
0
0
5.
10
15
20
25
30
35 40
Averoge' speed of column in rmilis per hour
Foa(r
15-Average road space of open and close motor columns
at various speeds.
111
125-127
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
other than individual arms and equipment of troops is
follows:
Trucks, ½/-ton--.-----------------------------Trucks, I /-ton ---------------------- ________
_--- -_ -- - ---_
_ - __
Trucks, 21/2-ton _------- --
as
5
15
25
Loads listed are in addition to driver and one man on the
front seat. For distances greater than 75 miles, the above
figures should be reduced.
I 12d. TRoop LOADING ANi U¥NOADING Tlar.--With troops
properly disposed at loading site, average time required to load
and unload personnel and their individual equipment into
Average time
and out of military trucks is as follows:
required
15 minutes
To load----.-.-------.-----------..
--. ______ 10 minutes
To unload _-_----------------__
'Well-trained troops, properly organized and prepared, can load
and unload in halt this time under good conditions.
* 127. ENTRUCKNG AND DETRUCKING.-Computatlon of trucks
required, and correlations necessary for entrucking and detrucking are facilitated by use of tables. Truck requirement
form, shown as table II, is self-explanatory. For a complex
TABLs II-Truck requirement table for troop movement
T/O strength
Actual
strength
.
at
Unit and group
number I
5
Number of trucks required
0
.
I tUse same group numbers as shown in column 1 on work sheet.
Transcribe to column 2 on work sheet.
112
MOTOR TRANSPORT
127
movement, work sheets shown as table IE will be of assistance
in preparing data required for an entrucking (detruckingO
table. (See par. 61 for discussion of entrucking anq
detrucking.)
TAtLE II.-Work sheet for prepration of entrc!ngq table
RP=Regulating point.
IP=lnitial point.
1
2
1
4
:a
.
C
Z
EPE= Atrucking point.
In
5
a
7
8
..
9
10
11
TP.
(
!
-
/F7
Out
0:
2
4
6
Con mn cl ears
For succeeding groups add to the hour at which the head of preceding group passes
RP the time length of the preceding group (column 3) plus additional delay, if any,
of the group considered.
See page 114 for footnotes 2, 3, 4, and 5.
113
128-129
BAsIc FIELD MANUAL
* 128. TImE, DISTANCE, AND SPEED.-Necessary conversions of
time, distance, and speed are facilitated by use of nomograph
given in figure 16.
* 129. MARCH GRAPHS AND MARCH TABLES.-a. The field order
for a march may be accompanied by a march table, particularly when the details of the march are not subject to change
and can be foreseen. The march table affords a convenient
means of transmitting to subordinates the many details pertaining to the march, the inclusion of which in the body of
the field order would tend to complicate or make it unduly
lengthy.
b. A march graph is the simplest method of obtaining data
required for a march table or order. It shows the approximate location at any hour of the head or tail of each serial,
providing the march proceeds as scheduled. The march
graph is prepared on cross-section paper, using one sheet
for each route. The vertical scale to the left, with point of
origin at the bottom, serves as a distance scale in miles and
should show the relative locations along the route of critical
points where coordination of the movement is required. The
horizontal scale provides a time scale in hours, beginning
at the left with the earliest hour at which the first serial may
start the march.
c. A serial is rep esented on the graph by a horizontal line,
drawn to scale, equal to the time length of the serial. This
Tofind the approrimate Isee (4) below time thehead of thefirst group should pass
the initial point use the following formula:
Uour the head of the first group passes the initial pint = the hour head of first
group passes regulating point + the greatest time consumed by group in traversing
route from RP to IP and in loading.
3The hour the head of any sueroeding group should pass the initial point = hour
that the head of the preceding group passes the initial point + the timelength of that
group. Any prescribed time intervals should be added to the "out" time length of
al groups except the last.
I When time entries on the work sheet are eompleted, compare entries in column
6 and column 9. if any or several groups are timed to begin loading before
arrival at the entrueking point determine the group having the greatest difference in
minltes between time of arrival at the entrurking point and the time loading is to
begin. Add to the first figure in olunmn 11 this difference in minutes and adjust
all subsequent figures accordingly. This eliminates the approximation that may
occur as a result of the application of the formula given in footnote 2.
iTo find the hour last group clears the initial point, add the last entry in column
3 to the last entry in column 11.
114
129
MOTOR TRANSPORT
TADLr IV
ANNEX
Maps:
.-..........
NO.
TO FIELD ORDERS NO............
Title
Place
Date and hour
ENTRUCKING TABLE 1
1
2
oup Troo
Nmp
o.e(e)por
3
Mor
transassign
ment
(Authentication)
4
5
Route
from
reg]atng
t
point
hour
to enhead
truck
passes
ig
ae poi
L toing
point
6
7
Entruckog
Hour
enpoint
and
truckhour
ing
begins
head
reachea
Same
8
9
10
Hour
head
leaves
entrucking
point
Route
from
entrucking
point
to
initial
point
Initial
point
ad
hour
head
passes
same
Column clears initial point at
(Signature)
I This form will be used for a detrucking table by substituting detrucking for
entrucking.
It should be shown what elements (e. g., foot troops, carts, kitchens, motors,
animals, etc.) of each tactical unit noted in this column are to be moved by motor
transport.
115
129
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
line is plotted opposite the point on the vertical scale, corresponding to the initial point of the serial; the left of the
line being plotted above the hour, on the horizontal scale,
at which the serial begins the march. From this left end
a line is drawn upward at a slope representing the rate of
T.ME- NUTES
10
IOHRS
90
01I5TANCE-MtLE$
1000
900--45
0
70-
S-EEO
MILES£
PERHOUR
12
60 MItt6O 600-40
Go
7
90
50
30
s
6
-
50- -500
Z5
-. , 40:400
0
00
10
100
0
40
400I-5
'4
-20
20- 200
15--I O-
9 90
Ohs·ovnc
'25T
..
SOidd 25 MPH
T20,
· S Mitut..
7
,
5
4.
40
3
30
.
.t....
~70~
0.4
_ I
S..
Mi..
1.*,
O
0 Dioscn. ,in Mlt,
S
T
march (at 10 miles per hour the slope equals 10 miles on
the vertical to 1 hour on the horizont alse). This sloping
line represents the march of the head of the column. The
intersection of this line with the horizontal line from any
point along the route, if projected down to the time scale,
will show the time the head arrives at such point. A line
116
MOTOR TRANSPORT
co
0G
2
LO
att
o0
-C)-
129
129-130
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
drawn from the right end of the horizontal line representing
the time length of the serial and parallel to the line representing the head of the column will represent the tail of the
serial. Time of clearances may be obtained as explained
for the head of the serial. The movement or location of a
unit after it leaves the route represented on the distance
scale, or passes the rear boundary of its destination (new
bivouac area), may be shown on the graph by dotted lines.
d. If the hour at which a march must be completed is
the only time factor known, the graph may be constructed
starting with the tail of the column at the destination and
working back to obtain the hour of starting for the head
of the column. The graphs of all serials may be adjusted
to allow for crossing columns or other interferences. The
need for and the means of making such adjustments may
be visualized. In preparing the march graph a safety factor
of 15 to 30 minutes should be allowed between serials at
critical points on the route. In the march table this time
is divided between serials, the major portion usually being
assigned to the leading serial. A small gap of about 5
minutes should be reserved during which the route is clear.
* 130. EXAMPLES OF MARCH GRAPHS AFiD MARcH TABLEs.--a.
The division commander has directed that the 1st Engineer
Battalion, 1st Quartermaster Battalion, 1st Medical Battalion,
and the 1st Infantry, in army reserve, move under cover of
darkness from their present bivouacs, areas A and B to areas
C and D, beginning at 7:00 PM, 17 October 19-, under the
following conditions:
(1) Movement to be made without lights and to be completed prior to 5:00 AM, 18 October 19-.
(2) Route A is available for the movement but CR 515 is
reserved for army columns from 11:36 PM to 12:06 AM and
from 2:36 AM to 3:00 AM.
b. The following example of march graph-route A is the
graph used by the division staff, 1st Division, in planning
the march.
NOTES
1. Time lengths:
(a) Serial 1-2,650 men on foot in column of threes at 2 mph
(chart, par. 37, FM 101-10) =36 minutes.
(b) Serial 2-250 vehicles at 10 mph (chart, fig. 14) =19 minutes.
(c) Serial 3-315 vehicles at 10 mph (chart, fig. 14)
2. O indicates remark in march table.
118
23 minutes.
130
MOTOR TRANSPORT
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MOTOR TRANSPORT
131-132
U 131. SHUTTLE MOVEMENTS._a. Definition.-TrooD movement by shuttling is a movement by motor in which all or a
portion of the trucks make successive trips in moving both
cargoes and troops.
b. Time formula.-The following formula is useful for determining the total time of movement of a unit in shuttling:
3Xdistance in miles
+T
Speed in miles per hour
(1) The figure 3 indicates the number of trips for each
shuttle; for example, one trip to move foot troops, a return
trip, and a third with organic cargo.
(2) T (a variable), represents the number of hours consumed in unloading and loading personnel and equipment, in
turn-arounds at forward and rear assembly areas, and in
closing the column into its area of destination. When two
routes are available for the movement a value of 3 may be
assumed for T with a reasonable factor of safety. When
more than two routes are available the value of T may be
reduced.
(3) Speed in miles per hour represents the average speed of
the vehicles in the movement.
Hours required=-
U 132. COORDINATION WITH CIvrLIAN AUTHORITIES.--a. Within
continental United States, State Highway Traffic Committees
have been formed to provide necessary coordination between
the Army and civilian traffic officials, and to facilitate and
expedite military motor movements with least possible conflict between military and civilian traffic. Civilian assistance
in planning motor movements will be obtained by contacting
the "Liaison member, State Highway Traffic Advisory Committee to the War Department" care of State highway police
at State capital concerned. In order that intelligent answers
to specific questions may be made, and to provide a background for civilian assistance, information shown in the
following form should normally be supplied to the committee:
121
132
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
PLANNING DATA
FOR USE OF
STATE AND MUNICIPAL TRAFFIC OFFICIALS
IN
MILITARY MOVEMENTS
1. Origin and destination of movement........................
.-....... on U. S. (State) highway No.
2. Will enter State at
.---- on U. S. (State) highway No....
3. Desire to leave State at
AM
hour of arrival --- PM
.
Approximate
.......
4. Date of arrival --.
(Indicate Daylight
Saving or Standard Time)
.........................
.
5. Designation of column
6. Officer in command
______._.__.______
__.._._.._.__________.
7. Personnel strength
1/4-ton trucks
¼--Military police ---- On solos .-----Side cars
8. Necessary halts.
a. Halts ..........................
(Frequency and duration)
b. Noon halt(s)
c. Night halt(s)
...
-.......
..
(Duration and other requirements)
(water for men, cooking, animals, bathing)
(latrines: straw)
*............
(Area and facilities required)
.
..
9. Convoy does (does not) have explosives.
10. March characteristics of column:
Serial number
Etc.
Number of vehicles.....
Gross weight of heaviest vohicle (pound
s)...
.
Sketch showing axle loading and sipcing of
heaviest vehicle
....
Maximum height of tallest vehicle (feet and
ihs) .................---------------- -------------Maximum width of widest vehicle (feel and
..
..............................
inches)
Maximum practicable speed under good conditions (miles per hour)
...............
..
.
Type ofmarch
........... .. ..
Maximum time length (minutes) .
...........
Road space at halt (feet) .............
Maximum road space when moving (feet)
..
I Infiltration, open, or close column.
122
Colum
Summary
,
..
...
,
.
MOTOR TRANSPORT
132-133
11. Other data (include any reference to blackout marches). ---NoTE-The column commander would appreciate having
_._
(Number)
of the latest State Highway maps indicating detours and construction.
INSTRUCTIONS.-Omplete in triplicate. Original and one copy for
State committee concerned.
b. When and where practicable, this communication with
the liaison member of the State committee will be established
by personal conference by the commander or his representative. When time will not permit personal conference, liaison
will be established by telephone, telegraph, or radio, in which
event sufficient information will be furnished to permit the
committee to plan intelligently. Initially the liaison member of the State committee will be able to provide the commander with information pertaining to most of the following:
(1) Most practicable route(s) to be used.
(2) Alternate route(s).
(3) Points where it may be advisable to divide column and
use two or more routes to alleviate congestion or road wear.
(4) Time when it is best to pass through areas of traffic
congestion or traffic defiles.
(5) Vehicle spacing and speeds most desirable for coordination with other traffic.
(6) Location and nature of any unusual road conditions.
(7) Emergency highway repair work which may be required.
(8) Required additional information on vehicle weights
for investigation of weak bridges.
(9) Location of facilities for service and supplies.
(10) State and city police escorts to assist the column.
(11) Availability of State police communication system for
emergency messages including possibility of tuning column
radios into police net.
(12) Location of hospitals available in case of emergency.
(13) Procurement of dependable road maps.
Whenever unforeseen circumstances dictate a change in the
plans for the movement, the civilian agency concerned will be
notified promptly of such change.
* 133. FORDABLE DEPTHS OF WATER.-When it is necessary to
cross streams, the following figures will be applicable under
conditions when moderate current and hard bottom prevail:
123
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
133-134
Unit
Depth in feet
Heavy tanks and tractors.
4 to 6_---------.
Horse cavalry.
4 to 5------.
2 to 4-_________. Medium tanks and tractors.
3 to 4__-_______. Infantry.
3--------------- Horse-drawn artillery and wagons.
1 to 3---_------. Light tanks and tractors.
2-______________ Trucks and truck-drawn artillery.
·
134. CARRYING CAPACITY OF IcE.-The following minimum
thicknesses of new sound ice in floating contact with water
are required to support loads indicated:
Capacity
Thickness of ice in
inches
3---
---------
4 to 5________--7--_____________
9 to 12_________
.
16
.....-20_
.
Small groups of men.
Horse cavalry in small groups.
Wagons and 75-mm guns.
Light tanks (singly).
loads.
12-ton
....
......-... 20-ton loads.
124
135-138
MOTOR TRANSPORT
CHAPTER 5
PROTECTIVE MEASURES
Paragraphs
135-143
General ----.---------------Antiaircraft defense…
Antimechanized defense.-................
.......
Protection against chemical agents
Handling of explosives and inflammable
liquids -........................
____.____.____._.__
VI. Security detachments
Sr-oXN I.
II.
III
IV.
V.
144-148
149-153
154-158
159-163
164-171
SECTION I
GENERAL
* 135. SCOPE.-This chapter describes various methods and'
techniques that may be used to avoid or minimize special
hazards affecting motor transport. The general principles
only are contained herein; their application in a particular
situation will be materially affected by the composition of the
motor column, by its mission, and by protective means on
hand.
* 136. DEFENSE OF MOTOR TRANSPORT.-Normally, a troop
movement by motor should not be attempted except when the
area into which the movement is to be made has already been
secured, or when sufficient mechanized vehicles are available
to permit the employment of mechanized security detachments
capable of clearing the route of minor resistance encountered.
Motor transport is particularly vulnerable to enemy attack at
locations along the road where congestion is most likely to
occur and where traffic density and traffic flow are greatest.
Both active and passive defense measures should be utilized at
these locations.
* 137. PROTECTION FOR INDIvIDUALS.-Narrow trenches or indi-
vidual pits dug in the ground provide cover for personnel
against shells. air bombs, or machine-gun fire; if of proper
depth and in firm soil these will be passed over by track
vehicles without crushing occupants.
- -
(See FM 5-15.)
* 138. CAMOUFLAGE. a. General.-Camouflage can be accomplished by hiding, blending, or deceiving (see FM 5-20).
441574--42 -- 8
125
138-139
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
b. Terminal areas.-(1) Stationary vehicles can best be
camouflaged by placing them under natural vegetation in
such a way as to break up the regular pattern of shadows produced by vehicles and by covering all parts likely to cast a
noticeable reflection of light. When natural concealment is
not available, some protection can be obtained by using fish
nets or chicken wire properly garnished with artificial garnishing material or natural vegetation. Care must be taken,
however, that color and texture blend with the surrounding
area.
(2) Strict camouflage discipline must be maintained to prevent the formation of tracks or paths indicating the location
of camouflaged vehicles and terminal installations. Existing
paths should be wired in to prevent changes that would be
readily apparent to enemy observation. Tracks made by the
vehicles themselves should be carried beyond the actual location of the vehicle so as not to end abruptly and thus call
attention to the presence of the vehicle. Any tendency toward
formation of geometric patterns in the parking of vehicles
should be avoided. All visible movement must be stopped
when enemy aircraft are in the vicinity.
(3) When snow is on the ground, white sheets may be of
some value for camouflage purposes. Their use is effective,
however, only when strict camouflage discipline is enforced,
since wheel tracks, paths, and discoloration show up very
readily on snow.
c. Moving vehicles.-Moving vehicles cannot be successfully
camouflaged artificially. However, movements may often be
routed over roads which are concealed by natural vegetation.
If dusty roads are avoided, the chance of the enemy's detecting a motor movement will be minimized. In a stabilized
situation, artificial road screens will conceal the nature and
extent of road movements from hostile ground or balloon
observers.
· 139. CONTROL OF COMMUNICATIONS.-Enforcement of strict
radio silence may often be necessary in order to prevent
hostile radio intercept service from locating motor transport movements. Even when strict radio silence is not
essential, care should be taken that radios do not provide
important information to the enemy. Communication by
wire is likewise often subject to enemy interception, especially
126
MOTOR TRANSPORT
139-142
when enemy mechanized units are known to be operating
in the area. Whether radio or wire communication is used,
therefore, it is desirable to set up a prearranged code for
use in transmitting information of traffic movements.
· 140. BLACKOUT RESTRICTIONS.-Restrictions on use of lights
are required to provide secrecy and concealment at night.
To prevent light from any source being observed, there must
be no smoking or lighting of matches during marches made
under blackout conditions. Flashlights, headlights, and
vehicle parts that might reflect light should be covered.
Special blackout lighting equipment has been devised to
facilitate movement under these conditions, but in close
proximity to the enemy use of any lights whatsoever may
be inadvisable. Blackout restrictions are usually covered
in the traffic paragraph of the administrative order. They
may be repeated in paragraph 3x of the march order.
E 141. PROTECTION OF PNEUMATIC TIRES.-Enemy efforts to
obstruct roads and delay movements of pneumatic-tired
vehicles may sometimes include the scattering of broken
glass, planks studded with nails, sharp pieces of metal, or
specially designed multipronged spikes along the road.
Methods of protecting motor transport from such obstructions may include the following:
a. Use of electromagnetic sweepers to clear the road of
magnetic materials.
b. Use of mechanical brooms to sweep up both magnetic
and nonmagnetic materials.
c. Use of improvised scrapers or sweepers attached at an
angle on the front of a truck.
d. Use of "puncture proof" tires with periodic inspections
and cleaning of such tires at frequent intervals.
· 142. PROTECTION FROM MINxs.-a. Detection-Antitankand
trap mines are likely to be encountered when entering areas
recently evacuated by the enemy. Mines can sometimes be
discovered from a study of aerial photographs. Spoil from
mine burial, patterns of mine fields, tracks, paths, and other
signs of activity may help to betray the presence of concealed mines. Electrical or magnetic mine detectors, if
available, are useful for locating individual mines. Forks,
127
142-144
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
sticks, grapnel lines, probes, and similar equipment are used
by mine clearing parties (see PM 5-30).
b. Removal.-Engineers and pioneer parties should be
specially trained to discover and remove mines from the
roadway. Inexperienced personnel who locate a mine should
not disturb it except in an emergency, but should post a
sentry or sign to warn passing traffic until trained personnel
are available to remove the mine or destroy it. Special
mine sweepers such as a heavy road roller pushed in front
of a tank or other vehicle provide the safest method for
destroying antitank mines. Bangalore torpedoes and detonating nets made of detonating cord can be used as a rapid
means for clearing a path through mine fields. (See FM
5-30.) Fuzes should be removed immediately from a mine
picked up by hand. If impossible to clear the entire road
of mines, one lane should be cleared and the other barricaded and well marked. Holes caused by removal of mines
should be refilled to restore the road surface to proper condition for vehicular use.
143. WARNING SIGNALs.-Aircraft may give warning of impending danger by means of wing signals, flares, dropped
messages, or radio. Security detachments may use radio,
pyrotechnics, or sound signals. Within the motor column,
warning of air or mechanized attack may be given by three
long blasts of horn, whistle, siren, or klaxon, repeated several times: or three equally spaced shots with rifle or pistol;
or three short bursts of fire from machine gun or submachine
gun. An "all clear" signal should be specified to indicate
when the danger is over. Only specifically authorized officers
in the column initiate the "all clear" signal.
E
SECTION II
ANTIAIRCRAFT DEFENSE
* 144. GENERAL
(see TF 7-109).-Antiaircraft
defense
of
motor transport comprises all measures adopted to prevent
or minimize the effects of enemy air operations against motor
vehicles and their assigned personnel and cargoes. To
achieve maximum results, coordinated and timely use must
be made of all measures applicable; and all troops should
participate in either a passive or active capacity.
128
MOTOR TRANSPORT
145
* 145. AIRCRAFT WARNING SERVICE.-a. General.-Speed of
air operations makes it imperative that early information be
obtained and timely warning given of approach of enemy air
forces. Any plan for the defense of motor transport which
does not include a suitable warning service is inadequate.
The column commander should be directly connected by radio
or other means to the aircraft warning service covering the
area through which the march is being conducted, and he
should be provided with suitable means for alerting various
elements of the column. The length of time required for a
column to meet an attack varies between wide limits depending on what defense measures are employed. A few seconds
warning is sufficient for antiaircraft artillery machine guns
mounted in trucks and for other antiaircraft artillery units
in position; this warning likewise is sufficient for troops
marching in trucks with tarpaulin covers removed. However, at least a minute or more will be required to permit
motor transport to clear the road and take cover.
b. Local warning systems.--Local measures for warning of
the approach of hostile aircraft may include the use of
friendly airplanes, the antiaircraft artillery intelligence service, and the posting of local air guards and air guard observers throughout the moving column (or in terminal areas) and
at vantage points to the front, rear, and flanks.
e. Aviation-Reconnaissance and observation aviation
properly employed provide an effective means for discovering
and transmitting warning of the approach of hostile aircraft.
d. Antiaircraft artillery intelligence service--When antiaircraft artillery is employed for protecting critical points on
the road net, the antiaircraft artillery intelligence service, in
addition to alerting elements of the antiaircraft artillery, can
be used to supplement the system of observation designed
specifically for the protection of motor columns or terminal
areas.
e. Air guards and air guard observers.-Posting of air
guards and air guard observers places responsibility for warning on designated individuals whose sole duty is continuous
observation. Frequent relief of personnel is essential in order
to insure alertness in the performance of this duty. Air
guards should be posted to front and rear and on both flanks
of the column (or terminal area) and made responsible for
observation within a specified sector. If security detach129
145-146
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
ments are used, air guards normally are provided by these
detachments. Air guards should be particularly alert to
attacks that might come from direction of the sun. In
cloudy weather, attacks are most likely to come from fast,
low flying, light bombardment planes. By day, air guards
should be equipped with dark glasses to permit them to observe for long periods against a bright sky or directly into
the sun; night glasses will assist them at night. In order
to provide continuous observation, air guards for a moving
column move by bounds from one good observation post to
another. It is important that air guards be thoroughly
trained in recognition of hostile and friendly aircraft (see
P2M 30-30, 30-34, 30-35, and 30-38), and in maintaining a
constant lookout for warning signals transmitted by air
guards, by friendly aircraft, or by the antiaircraft artillery
intelligence service.
M 146. PAssIVE DEFENSE.-a. Concealment.-Concealment may
be used to afford protection from attack by offering a less
definitely designated target. Concealment may be obtained
by artificial camouflage, use of wooded areas, taking advantage of darkness or weather conditions unfavorable to enemy
air operations, use of smoke, employment of blackout lights
or extinguishing all lights, and limitations of movement.
b. Dispersion.Dispersion can be used to reduce vulnerability to air attack by limiting the number of elements which
can be damaged by a single bomb or burst-of fire. A column
moving with extended headways presents an unfavorable
target for combat aviation and forces such aviation to make
each vehicle an individual target. In planning a march, full
utilization should be made of all usable parallel routes so as
to obtain the maximum of dispersion, as well as to reduce
road time of the march. Within a march column dispersion is
obtained by means of infiltration marching (par. 56) or open
column marching (par. 58). When open column marching is
used, the column commander can control dispersion of the
column at will.
c. Deception.-Numerous changes in direction of march,
dispatching vehicles in small groups at irregular time intervals and increased distances, mixing of different types of
vehicles, and allowing vehicles to pass each other within the
column (all of which can be obtained by the use of infiltra130
MOTOR TRANSPORT
146-148
tion marching) will tend to give an air observer the impression
that the target is t6o transient for attack and deceive him as
to the extent of movement. Geometric patterns and uniformity of appearance, either at the halt or while the column is
in motion, are quickly noted by air observers, and should be
avoided.
d. Speed.-Since it takes an appreciable length of time for
observation airplanes to report a column and have attacking
airplanes dispatched, a column may often minimize danger
of attack by rapid movement. Usually, a column exposed in
movement for a period of one hour or less need have little
fear of an attack specially organized against it. Attack by
transient airplanes already operating in the area, however,
may always be expected.
· 147. ACTIVE ANTIAIRCRAFT DEFENSE.-I. General.-Active
antiaircraft defense includes the employment of ground and
vehicular weapons, both by antiaircraft artillery units and by
all troops equipped with small arms weapons.suitable for
employment against low-flying aircraft. Pursuit aviation
may also be employed as an active defense measure.
b. Motor column.-Strong defense, preferably by antiaircraft artillery machine guns, should be provided for protection
of the head and tail of a column. Other machine guns, automatic rifles, and rifles should be used for protecting interior
portions of a column. All weapons should be kept loaded and
elevated so as to be ready for immediate use. Truck covers
should be removed from trucks transporting personnel (except when the column may expect to be attacked with chemical agents) (see par. 157), to facilitate firing at airplane
targets. Whenever terrain and roads permit, detachments
armed with weapons capable of delivering antiaircraft fire
should march parallel to columns.
c. Critical locations.-Thirty-seven millimeter antiaircraft
guns, and guns of larger caliber on present mounts, are not
suitable for protecting motor columns when moving as part of
the column. Such guns should take positions at traffic bottlenecks and other critical points along the route of march prior
to arrival of the main body of the column. Antiaircraft artillery should be made available at important terminal areas.
M 148. PROCEDURE IN CASE OF AIR ATTACK WHILE ON
MARCH.-
In case of an air attack by day or night on a moving column, the
131
148-150
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
column commander must make the decision as to whether the
column should continue the march or halt. In general, the
motorized elements should clear the center of the road, halt,
dismount, take cover, and bring all suitable weapons to bear
on the attacking aircraft. If the situation demands continued movement in order to arrive at destination at appointed
time, maximum advantage is taken of dispersion; elements
other than troops manning antiaircraft guns take any cover
afforded by the vehicles while in motion.
SECTION mII
ANTIMECHANIZED DEFENSF
* 149. DEFINInON (see FM 100-5 and TF 5-146).-Antimechanized defense of motor transport embraces all measures for security and defense of a moving column or terminal
area against hostile mechanized or armored units.
* 150. BARRIERS AND OBSTACLES (see FM 5-30 and TF 5-145,
5 146, 5-147, 5-148, and 5-149).--a. General.-Obstacles include both natural terrain features and artificial works of
construction or demolition, other than fire power, that may
impede enemy mechanized units. The term "barrier" is applied to a group of obstacles used to block an area. Barriers
and obstacles are of value only so long as they are covered by
fire sufficient to prevent removal or neutralization. Barrier
detachments are security units charged with the erection of
barriers and their protection by fire. Obstacles used for road
blocks preferably should be placed so that enemy vehicles
will come upon them unexpectedly and not be able to stop
or turn in time to avoid them. Road blocks should always
be placed in a defile so as to prevent a detour being made
more easily or quickly than reduction of the obstacle. Barriers and obstacles when placed so they cannot easily be bypassed and when covered with fire of all available weapons,
provide surest defense against mechanized attack.
b. Antitank mines.-The antitank mine (see fig. 19) is the
most effective quick obstacle for general use under field service
conditions.
Mines disable and stop vehicles by damaging their wheels or
tracks. To preserve surprise, mines should be concealed.
However, adequate numbers of unconcealed mines properly
132
MOTOR TRANSPORT
150
covered by fire will block mechanized vehicles. Dummy mines
may be used to delay and deceive the enemy as to location
of real mine fields. Antitank weapons are needed to destroy
mechanized vehicles that have been disabled and slowed down
by mine fields. Antitank mines are generally laid in a band
of from 3 to 6 rows, with a distance between rows of from
I to 3 yards. (See fig. 20.) The least density of mines in one
band, considering all rows, should be about 1'/2 mines per
yard of front. For increased protection, it is preferable to lay
ISAFETY CLIP
FUZE ASSEMBLY
I0MRIBEAS
--
E
FPiorU
19.-Antitank mine.
V R,4£BEDOER
XPI
additional bands 20 to 30 yards in rear rather than to thicken
a single band.
c. Wire rolls.-Wire rolls (see FPM 5-30) use a No. 11 oiltempered steel wire wound in a continuous spiral about 4
feet in diameter, with spirals connected at points around the
circumference by strong clips. When extended, these rolls
are about 40 feet long and are anchored lightly to the ground
by small metal pins. (See fig. 21.) If not damaged by vehicles, wire rolls may be collapsed and easily transported to
another location. Each roll weighs approximately 40 pounds,
and about 100 can be transported in a 21/-ton truck. Effective wire rolls are difficult to improvise in the field because
133
150
BASIC FIELD
'
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MANUAL
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, -- ,-.--"---,2
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,--
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FGU
20.-Methods of arranging band of antitank mines.
Of the strong clips required. To establish a wire roll obstacle
group, four rolls should be extended across the roadway and
located with each roll in contact with the adjacent roll. The
ends should be pinned down. The first roll of the group
134
MOTOR TRANSPORT
150
should be suspended so that the bottom of the roll is about
6 inches above the road surface. Logs, 8 to 10 feet long and
about 5 inches in diameter, should be placed in one or two
of the three rear rolls. The wire roll obstacle should be
established in groups of two and spaced about 40 to 50 yards
apart. Wire rolls are effective against wheeled vehicles but
are not an obstacle against track-laying vehicles.
d. Demolitions.-A most effective way to deny a road to
enemy mechanized units is to demolish its bridges. This is
often done with explosives (see FM 5-25), although wrecking bridges by pulling them down with vehicles and cables
or by use of wrecking tools may be just as quick and effective; wooden bridges can be destroyed by pouring gasoline
FIGURE 21.-Wire roll.
on them and setting them afire. Frequently, it may be possible to block a road by use of explosives at a deep cut, or
high fill, by demolishing a tunnel, or by dropping an overpass
structure down on the road.
e. Inundation.-Floodingof ground to a depth of 4 or more
feet by construction of a dam or by cutting a levee will provide a serious obstacle to wheeled vehicles and light and
medium tanks. However, flooding is not effective against
amphibians.
f. Parked vehicles.-In an emergency, vehicles may be
parked across a road defile so as to block it temporarily, after
removing wheels or tracks to prevent towing.
g. Reducing road friction.-Oil, soap, or other slippery
materials placed on sharp curves, at well chosen locations,
may cause enemy vehicles to skid off the road and overturn.
This means may also be used to reduce traction on a steep
grade so as to make it impassable to enemy vehicles. In
135
150-151
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
below freezing weather, water poured on a road will turn
to ice and accomplish the same results.
h. Puncture producing materials.-The strewing of broken
glass, nails, sharp pieces of metal, or specially designed multipronged spikes may cause delays to enemy vehicles equipped
with pneumatic tires.
i. Chemical mines.-Chemical mines may be used alone or
in combination with other obstacles to block a road or other
location providing an approach for mechanized vehicles.
They are most effective in low places and in thick vegetation.
Standard mines weigh about 12 pounds each and are packed
6 in a box crate weighing about 90 pounds in all. These
mines can either be fired with a nonelectric cap and time
fuze, or by electric caps and magneto exploders. Each mine
contaminates an area 20 to 25 yards in diameter. To contaminate roads, chemical mines are staggered at intervals of
17 yards on each side of the road using about 200 mines for
one mile of road. To contaminate demolitions or other
obstacle sites, one or more mines should be fired either with
or subsequent to the demolition or construction of the obstacle,. so 'as to drench the area where work of repair or
removal will have to be done.
] 151. WEAPoNs.-Antimechanized weapons include antitank
guns, antitank machine guns, small arms, antiaircraft guns,
field artillery, combat aviation, armored vehicles, rifle grenades, hand grenades, gasoline bombs and flame throwers.
a. Guns and small arms.-The effectiveness of fire on
mechanized vehicles will vary with angle of impact, thickness
of armor, material of which the armor is composed, type of
vehicle (open or closed), and the caliber and ballistic properties of weapon. In general, it may be assumed that small
arms, requiring drivers to keep their ports closed, will penetrate light armor at a range of 200 yards and may damage
more heavily armored vehicles by hits on vulnerable parts.
The preEent 37-mm antitank gun is able to penetrate the
armor ,n light tanks at 1,000 yards and will damage most
medir n tanks at that or somewhat shorter ranges.
b. Combat aviation-In case of a surprise attack, combat
aviation may be the only combat force immediately available to divert or delay a hostile mechanized unit. Combat
aviation depends primarily on bombing for its effect against
mechanized vehicles.
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MOTOR TRANSPORT
151-152
c. Armored vehicles.-Armored vehicles may function as
mobile antitank guns in defense of motor transport.
d. Grenades.-Hand grenades (particularly thermite grenades) and sticks or blocks of explosives may be effectively
employed against mechanized units if dropped from above, or
thrown and exploded under vehicles.
e. Gasoline bombs.-This type of bomb can be improvised
by using glass bottles, gasoline, and rags. A glass bottle,
preferably a quart size, is filled with gasoline or other inflammable liquid, and the stopper is securely attached.
Around its base a gasoline soaked rag or 6ther such material
is fastened, This rag is ignited just before the bottle is
thrown. On striking a vehicle the bottle shatters and the
gasoline spreads out and burns. Greater effect is produced by
Using larger bottles, or cases of such bottles, and dropping
them on the vehicle from above.
1. Flame throwers.-Flame throwers can be used against
the ports of mechanized vehicles and will prevent the effective
use of weapons carried by such vehicles.
· 152. SEcuRITY-a. Security elements-Security elements
for antimechanized defense may include aircraft, armored
vehicles, cavalry, or motorized security detachments.
b. Column formation.-A column moving at extended distances (using infiltration or open column formation) is less
vulnerable to mechanized attack than is a compact closed-up
column.
c. Disposition of weapons.-Antimechanized w e a p o n s
should be spread throughout the column, with a heavy concentration of weapons in the advance and rear guards. If
one or both flanks are exposed, heavy concentrations of antimechanized weapons should also be allotted to flank guards.
d. Selection of route.-Careful planning will often permit
the column commander to select a route limited by natural
features to a few avenues of hostile approach. In this event,
a high degree of security may be obtained by proper use
of barriers and obstacles. Halt locations should be selected
so as to make full use of terrain lines. or natural features
which restrict the operation of mechanized vehicles, and
security detachments should habitually be disposed in
positions of readiness.
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BASIC FIELD MANUAL
U 153. PROCEDURE ON MAKING CONTACT WITH HosTILE MECHANIZED UNITs.-Actions of a column commander on making
contact with hostile mechanized units will depend upon his
estimate of the situation. In general he has a choice between
two courses of procedure:
a. Utilization of speed of column to outdistance mechanized
force.-When an alternate route is available, the column
commander may divert the column to such route at the first
warning of a mechanized attack. If the attack comes from
the front, the entire column may reverse direction simultaneously, dispatch a barrier detachment to cover its withdrawal, and proceed to the rear until a suitable detour road
to the flank can be found. A motor column attacked from
the flank can best protect itself by dispersion. In this
case, vehicles at the point of attack transmit the specified
warning signal, disperse and engage the hostile troops with
all available means and weapons; vehicles ahead of the point
of attack continue the march at increased speed; and
vehicles behind the point of attack make a rapid detour to
the rear. Barrier detachments are dispatched, if practicable,
from each group of vehicles at the earliest opportunity to
block roads to their rear. At the end of the attack all
vehicles assemble at the next scheduled halt location. Smoke
may sometimes be used to confuse attacking hostile mechanized units while the column is making good its withdrawal.
b. Active resistance.-A motor column having sufficient
combat power to warrant a stand against a mechanized threat
should prepare for active resistance. In this case, at the first
warning of the attack, the column halts. all vehicles clear the
road, troops detruck and dig in, barriers are erected, and
antimechanized weapons are placed in concealed positions
to cover the terrain over which the mechanized unit must
advance.
SECTION IV
PROTECTION AGAINST CHEMICAL AGENTS
* 154. GENERAL.-This
section summarizes
the most im-
portant measures that may be used for protection of motor
transport against chemical agents. Details of defense
against chemical attack are included in EM 21-40.
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MOTOR TRANSPORT
155-157
· 155. INTELLIGENCE.-Advance information as to enemy capabilities as regards the use of chemical agents is provided
by regular intelligence agencies in the same manner as any
other information of. the enemy.
* 156. RECONNAISSANCE.-. Distant reconnaissance.-Distant
reconnaissance by air or other means should determine the
enemy's immediate preparations for chemical operation, both
offensive and defensive. This reconnaissance may provide
specific information, such as the installation or storage of
chemical mines, cylinders, projectors, etc.
b. Close reconnaissance.-When enemy capabilities include
use of chemical agents, particular attention must be paid to
selection of routes and terminals which are least favorable
to enemy chemical attack. When practicable, reconnaissance should be made in the daytime, since it is extremely
difficult to determine the exact extent of contaminated areas
at night. If a contaminated area is found, the following
information should be obtained:
Exact location and extent of area.
Kind of gas and concentration, heavy, medium, or low.
Availability of routes leading around area on upwind
side.
Necessity of wearing gas masks while traversing area.
When no detour is available, estimate of time, labor,
and materials required for decontamination.
* 157. PROTECTION AGAINST CHEMICAL ATTACK.-a. Methods
of attack.-Chemical attack against motor transport will
usually be in the form of chemical bombs or spray attacks
from the air or in the form of chemical shells fired from
artillery or from chemical mortars. The agents most likely
to be carried in small bombs or shells are persistent agents
and white phosphorus. Large bombs or shells may discharge
either persistent or nonpersistent gas. Spray attacks may
involve the use of mustard, lewisite, or any type of liquid
smoke. One airplane can cover an area approximately 800
yards long and 300 yards wide. Obstacles may be contaminated by static chemical mines, thus endangering any person
attempting to clear the road.
b. Protectionagainstair attack.-In general, measures used
for protection of motor transport against chemical attack
139
157
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
from the air are the same as those applicable to other forms
of air attack (see pars. 144 to 148 incl.). As a means of protection from vesicant action of liquid, mustard or lewisite,
however, all tarpaulins should be tightly closed, vehicle windows should be rolled up and on open cars side curtains should
be installed. This will materially lessen the extent to which
fire power from the column may be used against attacking
aircraft, but is nevertheless necessary when spray attacks may
be expected. Gas masks should be put on at first warning of
attack, and every effort made to prevent the body from coming
in direct contact with drops of mustard or lewisite. Personnel
operating antiaircraft weapons and others in exposed positions
should wear protective clothing. When protective clothing is
not available, raincoats will provide limited protection. That
part of a moving column affected by a chemical attack from
the air should normally continue to march while the attack
Is in progress and move out of the contaminated area as rapidly as possible. Elements of the column in rear of the contaminated area should bypass it on the upwind side or should
reverse direction and make a wider detour by using the first
available side road. If detour of contaminated area is impracticable, the column may pass through it under conditions
outlined in PM 21-40.
c. Protection againstchemical shells-The range of chemical shells is so limited as to make it improbable that motor
transport would be subjected to an extensive chemical attack
by this means. However, if so attacked, procedures would be
essentially those indicated for air attacks in b above.
d. Procedurein passing contaminated road block.-If a contaminated obstacle is encountered, an uncontaminated way
around is sought. In case the road block has been located
in such a manner that no alternate routes are possible, the
contaminated debris and surroundings must be removed and
destroyed, or otherwise made safe. Personnel engaged in
opening up or clearing contaminated obstacles will wear protective clothing, and gas masks and all tools and equipment
used in work will be decontaminated afterwards.
e. Procedure after attack.-After attack, the column reassembles outside the contaminated area and engages in the
following:
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MOTOR TRANSPORT
157-158
(1) First aid and evacuation.-Affected individuals will be
given first aid and all casualties evacuated. All contaminated clothing shall be removed, piled, and marked for later
salvage, care being taken that contact with, or vapor from,
does not endanger other personnel.
(2) Reconnaissance.-Since an area contaminated as a
result of a chemical attack involving persistent gases will be
dangerous for some time, the extent of the area should be
determined and a full report of the attack should be made
to higher headquarters. Signs should be posted to indicate
extent of contamination and available detours (see par. 117).
(3) Preliminary to decontamination.-The commander of
any motor vehicle, train, convoy or other motorized element
which has encountered a contaminated area, or which has
suffered a direct chemical attack will, as soon as possible
thereafter, make an inspection of the vehicles in his command to determine the following:
(a) Whether or not decontamination of the vehicles is
necessary;
(b) If so, the priority of decontamination operations.
* 158. DECONTAn
NATION.--After a chemical attack, decontamination by various agencies may be required.
a. Decontamination of equipment and vehicles.-Decontamination of the motorized element and its equipment is
the responsibility of the commander thereof. Each vehicle
is equipped with a 1l/2 quart decontaminating apparatus
which is furnished for emergency purposes. If more thorough decontamination is necessary, methods, materials and
equipment as outlined in FM 21-40 and TM 3-220 will be
employed.
b. Decontamination of areas and roads.-When a road or
area must be decontaminated to permit safe passage of a
convoy, the commander thereof is responsible for its decontamination. Special chemical troops may be used for this
work. However, in case no troops are available, the operation
must be carried out by such troops as can be had for the job.
Procedures, materials, organization, and other pertinent iinformation is contained in FM 21-40 and TM 3-220.
441574'-42--10
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159-161
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
SECTION V
HANDLING OF EXPLOSIVES AND INFLAMMABLE
LIQUIDS
U 159. DISPERSION.-Explosives and inflammable liquids (see
FM 5-25 and TM 9-2900) should be stored, handled, and
transported in small units; individual units should be sufficiently separated from each other to prevent an explosion
or a fire involving one from exploding or burning another.
This is particularly important when it is necessary to transport explosives and inflammable liquids over important
bridges or through congested areas, tunnels, or other particularly vulnerable locations.
* 160. SEGREGATION OF CAPS.-Detonatlng caps should never
be transported in a vehicle carrying other explosives or inflammable materials. Mines, grenades, and demolition explosives should not be fuzed until they are ready to be used,
and fuzes should be removed before the explosive materials
are transported to a new location.
* 161. PROTECTION FROM SPARKS AND FIRES.-a. Static electricity.--round conductors should be provided to neutralize
charges of static electricity prior to and during transfer of
inflammable liquids.
(1) Drag chains for this purpose should be attached to the
body of tank trucks or other vehicles used for transporting
such liquids. These chains, to be effective, must provide a
continuous metallic contact from the container carrying the
liquid to the surface of the road. For this purpose, about 4
inches of chain should be in contact with the roadway. A
4-inch or 6-inch length of large (6-inch) pipe rolling in contact with the road on the axis of a smaller (1-inch) pipe
suspended by two chains from the truck body, can also be
used.
(2) When transferring inflammable liquids from one container to another, the two containers should be bonded by
an electric conductor. Such bonding can be made by touching
the metal of the two containers together. In fueling vehicles
from drums or cans the flexible nozzle of the can must be
brought into solid contact with the filler opening. When
filling drums or vehicles from a hose of a dispenser, the nozzle must always be brought solidly against the metal of the
142
MOTOR TRANSPORT
161-162
drum or tank. Special bonding arrangements may be needed
in filling tank trucks.
b. Exhaust gases and ignition sparks.-As a precaution
against accidental fire or explosion caused by hot exhaust
gases or sparks from a vehicle ignition system, vehicle engines
should be turned off when loading explosives or inflammable
liquids.
c. Sparks from metal.-To avoid the possibility of sparks,
nonmetallic tools should be used for handling explosives or
inflammable liquids. The interior of truck bodies used for
transporting explosives and inflammable liquids should be
lined with wood or other nonsparking material.
d. Open flames and coals.-Smoking and unnecessary
lighting of matches should be absolutely prohibited when in
the vicinity of explosives or inflammable liquids, particularly
when such materials are being loaded or unloaded. Only
electric lights should be used for illumination. Infiammables
and explosives carried in open trucks should be well covered
with a tarpaulin as a means of protecting the load from cigarettes carelessly thrown from other vehicles. Vehicles carrying explosives or inflammables should always maintain a
safe distance from open fires.
e. Fire fighting equipment.-Large size fire extinguishers
should be carried by vehicles transporting inflammable or
explosive materials. In areas where considerable quantities
of such materials are being handled, special apparatus for
fighting large scale fires should be available.
* 162. GENTLE HANDLING.--Great care must be exercised to
avoid unnecessary jar or shock in the handling of explosives.
This is particularly essential in carrying sensitive explosives
used in detonators. Containers packed with explosives should
never by rolled, thrown, or dropped while being handled. All
reasonable precautions, including placing the vehicle in gear,
setting the hand brake, and blocking wheels, should be taken
to prevent accidental movement of vehicles when they are
parked. Explosive materials should be securely loaded inside
the vehicle in which they are being transported so as to eliminate any possibility of shifting or falling out. Explosives
should never be carried on a tail gate or on the outside of a
truck body. Unless there is a need for secrecy, vehicles carrying explosives should be clearly identified. Whenever they
143
162-167
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
halt on the road, guards or signs should be conspicuously
posted to warn approaching traffic of the special danger of
collision. Speeds of such vehicles should be moderate to avoid
unnecessary jars to loads and to minimize possibility of
collision with other vehicles.
1 163. LEAKAGE OF INFLAMMABLE LiQUIDS.-If a vehicle transporting inflammable liquids develops leakage en route, as a
result of collision or other cause, further movement of the
vehicle should be limited to the minimum distance necessary
to dispose of the load safely. When leakage is of such character that further transportation is unsafe, the vehicle should
immediately move off the traveled portion of the road.
Trenches may be dug to prevent the liquid being spread over
a wide area. If possible, the liquid should be kept away from
streams and sewers. Congregation of spectators should be
avoided, and smoking or lighting of fires in the vicinity must
be prevented. Guards or markers should be posted to outline
the area involved and to warn all concerned against the danger
of sparks, open flames, or smoking. (For detailed safety rules
see app. V.)
SECTION VI
SECURITY DETACHMENTS
* 164. GENERAL.-When security detachments are detailed
from a motor column, these detachments, in addition to providing tactical security, may also be called upon to perform
other duties (see FM 100-5 and 17-10).
* 165. TYPEs.--Securit
detachments dispatched from a
motor column may include advance reconnaissance patrols,
an advance guard, flank guards, and a rear guard. Motor
transport terminal areas are protected by an outpost.
* 166. EcONOMY OF FORCE.-Duty on reconnaissance and security missions is very tiring. In order that troops may be
prepared to perform their primary missions, they must be
given every opportunity to rest. Security detachments, therefore, should be no stronger than necessary. Promptness and
speed will frequently contribute more to safety of a moving
column than deliberate and detailed security measures.
· 167. ADVANCE RICONNAISSANCE PATROLS.-a. General.-Advance reconnaissance in the direction of march is provided
144
MOTOR TRANSPORT
167
for by small patrols (moving in mechanized vehicles if these
are available) which operate well ahead of the column and
cover the main routes and important intersecting routes in the
direction of march. Each patrol should have at least two
vehicles in addition to any vehicles required for messengers.
The number of patrols varies with the situation and road net.
If marches are not in immediate presence of the enemy, these
patrols can be reduced to one or two. When contact with
hostile elements becomes imminent the number of patrols
should be increased. Advance reconnaissance patrols normally should precede the head of the first march unit by 30
minutes or more. Advance patrols ordinarily operate under
a reconnaissance commander. The message center vehicle
of this commander should habitually march on the route to be
followed by the main part of the column. The advance guard
may be made responsible for sending out advance patrols
when its strength and composition are appropriate.
b. Conduct of reconnaissancepatrols.-The principal mission of advance tactical reconnaissance is to locate hostile elements in the direction of march and to give the column
commander timely information of their location, strength,
composition, and movement. One vehicle in each patrol
should be used for "get-away" in case the patrol is surprised.
This vehicle should march well to the rear of the rest of the
patrol. Messages between patrol and reconnaissance commanders are sent by the "get-away" vehicle when radio
communication cannot be used. Patrols no longer able to
advance report contact with the enemy, conceal their vehicles,
take cover, and remain in observation. If their mission requires it, such patrols may put out road blocks or otherwise
take steps to delay the enemy. Reconnaissance of alternate
routes should also be made.
c. Indications of hostile movement.-Reconnaissance patrols should be constantly alert to any evidence of the presence
of hostile forces. They should look for indications of hostile
movement, such as(1) Direction of hostile movement shown by wheel tracks
on gravel and dirt roads, particularly at road intersections,
and by wheel tracks on shoulders of paved roads where troops
have halted or where traffic has left the road to move cross
country.
145
167-168
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
(2) Trash or debris along the road giving evidence of extent
and nature of enemy movement.
(3) Dust created in dry weather by truck columns moving
over dirt or gravel roads.
(4) Fields and meadows showing signs of use as bivouac
sites.
(5) Woods and brush giving evidence of use for camouflage
purposes.
(6) Marks of urination visible on dry ground or in snow
where columns have halted, which may indicate both length
of halted column and number of personnel.
(7) Silhouette of hostile troops moving in the distance
against the skyline in rough or rolling country.
(8) Sound of columns, particularly when such columns include track vehicles.
* 168. ADVANCE GUARD.-a. Composition and formation.The advance guard precedes the first march unit of a motor
column by from 5 to 15 minutes. This time distance must be
increased when the terrain is open and where contact with
enemy is probable. The advance guard usually consists of a
point, an advance party, support, and reserve. The point
precedes the advance party by from 2 to 5 minutes. A point
should consist of at least four vehicles, two of which should
be motorcycles. Scout cars are used if available. Due to
the danger of ambush, no more men than are needed to
observe should be included in the point. The point should
move by bounds when contact with the enemy is probable.
The advance party, which consists of three or more vehicles
marching in open column, usually follows the point. The
support follows several minutes behind the advance party.
When necessary, the advance guard is reinforced by the
leading march unit of the column. If this is done, the
senior commander present assumes command of the combined forces. The rear vehicle of each element of the advance guard is designated as a "get-away" vehicle. Provision should be made to include antitank mines in the advance
guard. Antitank and antiaircraft guns, if available, are distributed in the advance guard. These guns are disposed for
fire when danger of air or mechanized attack is imminent.
b. Duties.-The advance guard protects the column from
the front and facilitates its march. It observes the route of
146
MOTOR TRANSPORT
168-169
march and intersecting roads for indications of hostile movement (see par. 167). It drives off small hostile elements, and
develops, and delays strong hostile forces without committing
the column to a general engagement. It keeps the column
commander completely informed of the situation to the front
and adopts a formation which will facilitate escape of at
least one vehicle in case of surprise.
c. Procedurewhen attacked.-When the point discovers the
enemy it immediately repeats the specified warning signal,
then does everything possible to delay the enemy (including
blocking the road and laying out antitank mines). If other
means of communication cannot be used, the "get-away"
vehicle of the point proceeds to the rear to carry information
of the attack to the advance party. The remainder of the
advance guard relays the warning signal to the head of the
main column, halts, and detrucks. All but two or three
vehicles reverse direction and take cover to the rear. The
two or three remaining vehicles are turned sideways on the
road to form a temporary road block, and a band of antitank
mines is laid across the road in front of these trucks. The
advance guard then, utilizing available terrain to best possible
advantage, takes prompt and aggressive action to develop the
situation. If the enemy is weak, the advance guard pushes
him back or destroys him. If enemy in force is encountered,
the advance guard seizes the best available terrain from which
to cover the development of the main body.
U 169. FLANK GTARDS.-a. General.-Flankprotection is provided by covering detachments which successively occupy key
positions on the exposed flank or flanks of a march column.
The interval between the column and its outer flank detachments varies with the terrain and road net, but in open country this interval should be from 5 to 10 miles. At night, and
in close country, this interval may be reduced. All detachments operating on one flank of a column should be under
the command of a flank guard commander, who normally
marches on a designated flank route. Flank detachments
vary in size from reconnaissance patrols to detachments of
size and composition similar to advance guards.
b. Operation.-The mission of a flank guard is to give
warning of hostile activity to its flank and to delay enemy
attacks long enough to permit the column to proceed unin147
169-170
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
terrupted. Flank reconnaissance patrols fight only when this
is necessary to accomplishment of their mission. Heavy flank
guards march in approximately the same formation as an
advance guard, except that where the road net permits they
maintain a patrol on the outer flank in addition to a point
in front. When attacked, the flank guard acts in a manner
similar to an advance guard. Usually. however, it cannot
expect to be reinforced by detachments from the main column.
Flank guards attacked by strong enemy forces will frequently
have trouble in regaining their position on the flank of a
column. In this event, they should notify the main column
so they can be replaced by new detachments.
c. Rate of march.-The flank guard must regulate its
movement so as to provide continuous security for the flank
of the column. Often, it will be necessary to move out far
in advance of the column in order to establish detachments
at key terrain features in time to cover the main column.
Normally it will proceed by bounds so as to cover successively,
important avenues of hostile approach. Changes in general
direction of march of the main column will often require
that new flank guards be constituted from the advance guard,
the old flank guard being given a new mission. The flank
guard commander, therefore, should know the time length
of the column and the time at which it is scheduled to arrive
at specified points on the route of march. In addition,
the progress of the main column should be checked at frequent intervals.
- 170. REAR GUARD.-The rear guard is similar in organization and operation to the advance guard. The mission of
the rear guard is to protect the rear of the main column
from molestation by hostile forces which have swifter marching rates than the column. It is not normally reinforced
from the main body. In case of a withdrawal movement,
the rear guard may be required to execute demolitions prepared by detachments from the main column. When attacked, the rear guard makes dispositions similar to those
of the advance guard (see par. 168), except that its trucks
normally stay closer to personnel so as to enable them to
get away quickly when necessary. After disengaging from
the enemy, the rear guard entrucks as rapidly as possible
and resumes its former position in the march column.
148
MOTOR TRANSPORT
171
0 171. OUTPosTS--The outpost organized for protection of
a motor transport terminal area is similar to that used by
any military command (see FM 100-5). Until such outpost
is organized, however, advance, flank, and rear guards of a
column establish outguards outside the boundaries of the
terminal area. These outguards cover main routes of hostile
approach to the area. They lay mine fields or construct temporary road blocks on these routes of approach, but they do
not execute demolitions or construct road blocks of a permanent nature unless specifically ordered to do so. Vehicles in
the terminal area are parked in a dispersed formation and
are concealed or camouflaged to the greatest practicable extent. Local protection of vehicles is provided for by sentinels
detailed from among the drivers.
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BASIC FIELD MANUAL
CHAPTER 6
PIONEER WORK, FIELD EXPEDIENTS, AND DIMFWICULT
OPERATIONS
SEcToN I. Pioneer parties
II. Field expedients -..
III. Difficult operations
Paragraphs
.-. _____._
. ___. ...........
172-174
_........
_ .
.........
175-186
__---__...----187-203
SECTION I
PIONEER PARTIES
* 172. MIsSION.-The mission of a pioneer party is to execute
rough, hasty tasks of construction or demolition, to facilitate
movement of our troops and impede the movement of hostile
troops. This work is ordinarily determined by route reconnaissance (see sec. III, ch. 4).
* 173. EUImPMENT-Personnel and equipment for pioneer
parties are based on an estimate of road work that will be
required.
a. Military vehicles which may operate across country
should carry pioneer tools and equipment to assist in crossing
difficult terrain. These will vary according to Tables of Basic
Allowances. If possible, a winch equipped vehicle should
accompany each cross-country group. In general, allowances
vill permit the following equipment per vehicle:
1 jack
1 pick
1 shovel
1 tow chain or cable
1 tow rope
1 ax
1 set antiskid chains
1 set strap-on emergency chains
b. One or more vehicles in a march unit should carry additional equipment for the pioneer party. The following will
serve as a guide for loading a truck to accompany a pioneer
party:
150
MOTOR TRANSPORT
173
1 set, vehicle tools
1 winch, if available, with 300 feet of cable
1 block and tackle (with 300 feet 1-inch rope) (if
winch is not available)
2 pieces tow rope, 1-inch, 150 feet long
1 3/%-inch or larger cable 300 feet long (if winch is not
available)
2 towing bars, universal
1 jack (in addition to the one assigned to the vehicle)
2 planks for jack bases, 2" by 12" by 2'
2 shovels
2 wire cutters
1 pick
2 axes
2 sledges
2 crowbars
1 rectangular timber about 4" by 6" by 6', railroad
tie, steel rail, or I-beam (suitable for deadman or
wheel block)
1 keg of nails, 60d
300 feet 12-gage wire
2 hammers, claw
1 saw, crosscut, 2-man
2 saws, hand, crosscut
2 tow chains (each about 15 feet long)
4 I-beams or channels heavy enough to carry the
heaviest loaded vehicle over an 8-foot span, or
sufficient timbers for the same purpose
4 wheel mats, canvas or braided rope, 3' x 6'
1,000 sandbags
1 roll of heavy chicken wire
1 roll of burlap
500 pounds decontaminating material
1 apparatus, demustardizing
1 squad set, engineer demolition equipment
(See Corps of Engineers Supply Catalog, Part II, 1942.)
c. Pioneer tools for individual trucks should be carried
so as to be readily available for use without unloading the
vehicle. These tools are mounted in a tool bracket fastened
to vehicles as specified in Quartermaster Corps Miotor Trans-
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173-174
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
port Technical Service Bulletin No. X-7, August 27, 1940
(Recommended Mounting for Pioneer Tool Brackets).
U 174. DUTIES.-The principal operations performed by a
pioneer party are as follows:
a. Obstacles such as rocks, logs, stumps, trees, and holes
which cannot be detoured are eliminated. Buried mines
are detected and removed (par. 142).
b. Soft surfaces such as sand, marshes, or loose soil are
strengthened by covering with sandbags, logs, planks, brush,
small rock, wheel mats, cornstalks, hay, or like materials.
Sand may be covered with chicken netting or burlap.
c. Ice-covered winter roads are covered with sand, dirt, or
cinders where slippery or dangerous.
d. Ravines and ditches are made passable by breaking
down steep banks sufficiently so that running boards, lower
parts of the chassis, overhanging front or rear portion of
the body, or the spade of a towed gun trail will not be
suspended. When wet, the bottoms of ditches are strengthened to withstand the wheel impact and traction effort of
heavy vehicles. Logs, rocks, brush, sandbags, etc., are used
to fill in: planks or logs are used for bridging purposes.
These and similar materials are secured by staking down,
wiring, weighting with rocks, etc., so that they will not be
displaced.
e. Shallow stream crossings with good approaches and solid
bottoms are chosen. Steep approaches are cleared straight
down so that there will be no danger of side slipping. Traction should be increased when banks are soft or slippery.
If this cannot be done sufficiently with brush, hay, etc., ramps
may be covered with poles, corduroy or planking. Loose dirt
is never added on slippery approaches, in holes, or on steep
ascents, because it reduces traction. However, sand may be
added to wet clay approaches to increase traction. Rocky
creek bottoms are checked carefully for dangerous obstructions. If there are holes or if the bottom is soft, rocks, brush
in fascines, or logs are used to fill such holes and prevent
vehicles becoming mired. The passage across a stream is
plainly marked, indicating, when pertinent, strength of current, width, and depth.
f. On steep ascents or descents or where a deep crossing
is required, a winch or tackle is placed in position.
152
MOTOR TRANSPORT
174
g, Bridges which are found to be weak (par. 94) are usually
strengthened by the addition of a bent, a single support
(where one beam only is weak), or stringers. Where there is
danger of loads breaking through the flooring, additional
planks are laid along the wheel tracks to distribute the load.
Joints are staggered and planks are nailed down. Wheel
guards of heavy timbers, ties, or poles are secured near the
safe edge of the bridge to prevent vehicles from running off
(fig. 22). (See FM 5-10 or 5-35.)
h. Rafts are usually built for crossing unfordable waters
where bridges, engineer equipment, or commercial ferries are
not available. (See TF 7-20 and FM 5-10.) Simple rafts
large enough to ferry trucks and their towed loads can be
built from boats, oil drums, logs, and timbers. Twenty-five
50-gallon drums floated between the cross timbers of a platform will give a capacity of about 10,000 pounds. Care must
be taken that the drums are sealed. If a rope or cable is
stretched across the water, a raft may be attached thereto
and operated as a rope (cable) ferry. Propulsion of a rope
ferry is by man power or winches on the two shores. The rate
of crossing may be greatly increased by towing the ferry, using
the cable only as a guide. Trail or flying ferries (fig. 23) may
be used to cross flowing streams when the current is as great
as 3 feet per second. Trucks may be placed on paulins,
Wrapped up with load, pushed in, and floated over. On
grounding, paulins are released, and trucks driven or
"winched" out.
i. A barbed wire entanglement that blocks a road can be
removed by cutting it on each side of the road, attaching a
tow chain or rope to the section, and pulling the section out
with a truck.
j. Sections, of road and bridges which have been sprayed
with persistent chemical agents are decontaminated (par.
158). Where decontamination is not immediately practicable,
detours are selected.
k. Paths are cleared and marked through land mine areas.
or detours are selected. (See par. 142.)
i. In a withdrawal operation obstacles are placed to delay
the enemy. (See FMl 5-25 and 5-30.)
153
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
174
( Bent.
ec
K
® Single support.
FIGURE 22.-Relnforcing bridges.
154
MOTOR TRANSPORT
174
stringer
RReinforcing stringer
() Added stringer.
® Additional planking and wheel guards.
FIGURE 22.-Reinforcing brldges-Continued.
155
174
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
\1
O Trail ferry with landing stage.
D Flying ferry.
FiGUXE 23-Current operated ferries.
156
MOTOR TRANSPORT
175-176
SECTION II
FIELD EXPEDIENTS
* 175. TRACTION DEVICEs.-Antiskid chains (see par. 16) provide the most satisfactory means of increasing the traction
of wheeled vehicles. Strap-on emergency chains may be
carried in individual vehicles operating alone to provide a
quick means of increasing traction in case the vehicle stalls
on a muddy road. In an emergency, makeshifts such as
short pieces of rope or web belts may be used for the same
purpose. The Galinot-Watson, or oval-band type of traction
device can be used on the 6 x 6 truck, over the middle and
rear wheels; the vehicle, in effect, becomes a half-track
vehicle with exceptionally low ground pressure.
* 176. WINCH TRUCK AND WRECKING CRANES.-Although
equipment in different types of motorized units will vary,
each organization should have at least one winch truck.
Winch trucks and wrecking cranes are employed as follows:
a. Winch trucks normally march near the rear of their
units in order to assist vehicles which may drop out of the
column. However, if the column is marching over a difficult route, at least one winch truck should be moved to the
head of the unit so as to be in a position to assist other
vehicles in crossing any obstacles encountered.
b. If necessary, the winch truck is taken across an obstacle
under the assisting power of the winch, with the cable attached to a deadman or tree. The power of the drive wheels
should assist the winch, but the gears must be so chosen
that the wheels will cover ground at the same speed as the
winch cable is pulled in.
c. When pulling in a vehicle with the winch, the towed
vehicle should likewise assist with its maximum traction.
The best power combination generally results if the winch
is operated in the highest gear that will give sufficient power
and the towed truck is pulling in lowest gear.
d. After the winch truck has crossed an obstacle, the cable
may be run out, the winch locked, and the truck used as a
towing vehicle, or the truck may be halted and the winch
utilized.
e. When the winch is used on a difficult pull, the winch
truck may be held in place by use of the brakes and wheel
441574'2
--
11
157
176
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
blocks, or by anchoring to a tree or deadman. Traction devices will assist in holding the vehicle in place. A snatch
block may be used to increase the mechanical advantage of
the winch when pulls are too difficult for the winch alone.
O In position for use.
FIGURE 24.-Wrecking crane.
/. Certain precautions are necessary in the proper use of
the winch cable. Whenever the towing cable is slipped over
the ground it should be protected by placing pieces of wood
158
MOTOR TRANSPORT
176
under it. Power must be applied to the cable gradually. As
a precaution against the lashing ends of a broken cable, all
men should stand clear before the winch cable is tightened.
g. When cable is rewound on drum after use, care must
be taken to see that it is wound in neat layers that run entirely across the drum. Otherwise, the cable may be tangled
and damaged when the next pull is made. It is also important
that all kinks are taken out of the cable before it is used or
rewound on the drum. For detailed data on the subject of
winches and cables see Quartermaster Motor Transport Technical Service Bulletin 2-10.
® In traveling position.
FIGURE 24.-Wrecking
crane-Continued.
h. Wrecking cranes are intended primarily for use by the
maintenance section. They may be mounted in either the
winch truck or the tender carrying the equipment of the
maintenance section. (See fig. 24.)
i. The wrecking crane can be used to tow one end of a
disabled vehicle in an elevated position when the steering
mechanism or the axle is damaged. The hoist attachment
may be of use in giving a towing lift to a mired vehicle. Care
must be taken not to attempt to lift too heavy loads, which
will nose-up the hoisting vehicle. In some cases, where lift
159
176-178
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
only is necessary, nosing up may be prevented by placing short
posts under the rear corners of the truck body or by installing
a temporary brace under the hoist attachment.
* 177. WHErL MATS.-Flat mats improvised by braiding
together strands of rope, or pieces of heavy canvas, in sizes
of about 3 feet x 6 feet, with ropes attached to the four
corners, are useful to place under the wheels where the going
is soft. When a vehicle is stalled with wheels slipping, wheel
mats may be used by attaching them to the wheels at one
end, or they may be laid down in front of the wheels with
FIGURE 25-Spreader bar.
the end away from the wheels staked down. To increase traction over a soft or slippery spot, one or several of these mats
may be tied end to end. They may then be staked down,
held by hand, or tied to trees or rocks by a long rope, or they
may be maneuvered ahead of the wheels. Sandbags or, in
an emergency, blankets, and like articles may be used to
serve the same purpose.
* 178. Tow CHAINS
OR CAeLES.-Tow chains or cables should
be about 25 feet long and should have a hook on one end and
a ring or loop on the other. Cables and chains 3%to 1/2 inch
160
MOTOR TRANSPORT
118-180
give sufficient strength. In addition, double tow ropes 150
feet in length will be found helpful.
· 179. SPREADER BARS (fig. 25).-To prevent the frame from
being bent, improvised spreader bars should always be used
to attach a cable or tow chain to both tow hooks.
* 180. Tow RoPRs-Tow ropes should be about 30 feet long
and preferably have a loop at both ends. The loop makes it
possible to drop the tow rope over a tow hook before a
(DClove hitch (end not pulled through).
FioURE 26.-Knots.
vehicle is completely stalled and, with manpower or a tow
from another vehicle, quickly help it past a difficult point.
Tow ropes can most safely be attached to tow hooks, pintles,
or, in an emergency, around the spring shackle. When tow
ropes must be tied, simple knots such as the clove hitch,
with end left through to form a bow (fig. 26), should be used.
The double Blackwall knot for attachment to tow hooks and
the single Blackwall knot for attachment to the pintle are
the easiest to untie, but may occasionally slip (see fig. 26).
A 1-inch rope will safely stand a tension of about one ton.
161
180
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
Pintle.~
=01
( Single Blackwall knot.
® Double Blackwall knot.
FIcmuE 26.-Knots-Continued.
162
MOTOR TRANSPORT
180-183
Safe tension limits for larger or smaller ropes vary roughly
as the square of their diameters. The vehicle being towed
should always assist with its own power.
* 181. BLOCK AND TACKLE.-When a winch truck is not available, a block and tackle should be carried. A block and
tackle attached to a tree, anchored stake, or deadman is
useful for increasing the /towing ability of either manpower
or a towing vehicle.
* 182. TOWING BARS (fig. 27).-Towing bars are used when a
vehicle is to be towed a considerable distance.
FiourE 27.-Towing bar.
FIGURE 28.-A-frame.
* 183. A-frame (fig. 28).-An A-frame is an expedient which
combines both a lift and a tow. It is easily constructed
with two poles approximately 12 feet long and two tow chains
163
183-184
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
or cables. Holes are dug as supports for the foot of the frame,
and a cross chain or plank is used to prevent the poles from
spreading. Care must be taken to place the A-frame far
enough away from the towed vehicle so that, when it is
lifted over, the feet of the legs will not damage the front
of the vehicle. This simple device is useful when a wrecking
hoist attachment is not available to lift a vehicle out of and
over a ditch or hole, or when a heavy vehicle is completely
mired.
* 184. DEADMAN INSTALLATION (fig. 29).-The procedure of
installing a deadman is to utilize as much surface of undisturbed earth as possible and at the same time prevent-rotation out of position. To get the best results the following
points are essential:
Picket,
~
AtgCable
GInUsn
29.-Deadman installation.
a. Position.-A position for the deadman is best if chosen
at least a yard behind a natural crest or mound. It should be
placed far enough back so that it will not interfere with the
vehicles clearing the obstacle, and so that the attached cable
or chain will not exert an upward pull.
b. Digging.-A trench is dug deep enough so as to place
the top of the deadman at least a foot below the ground surface,.and long and wide enough to hold the deadman. The
bank in the direction of pull is undercut at an angle of about
15° from the vertical. The bottom of the hole is cleared at
a right angle to this bank. To assist in strengthening the
tep edge of the hole in the direction of pull, two stakes are
164
MOTOR TRANSPORT
184-185
usually driven on either side of the cable at a slightly greater
angle to the vertical than the bank, and so as to be flush
with the slanted bank near the top. A trench for the cable
is cut from the hole through the crest of the hill or mound.
This should be slightly deeper than the bottom of the hole
at the beginning and should continue out in an ascending
slope.
c. Cable attachment.-A rectangular railroad tie or larger
timber of the type used for a wheel block is most suitable for
the deadman, since it presents the maximum surface to
oppose the direction of pull. The cable or chain is attached
to the deadman so that the largest area of the deadman is
against the bank, and so that any tendency of the deadman to
rotate acts downward and not upward.
· 185. ANCHORED STARE (fig. 30).-Two stakes and a rope
lashing may be used to install an anchored stake which will
withstand considerable pull. The first stake is driven into
the ground at a little greater than a right angle from the
direction of pull. The second stake is driven at an angle
slightly closer to the ground and 3 to 6 feet to the rear of
the first stake. A rope is used to anchor the top of the first
stake to the bottom of the second. In order that this rope
rousn
30.-Anchored stake.
will not slip down on the first stake, it is first tied to the bottom
of the second, then wrapped over itself with a one-half clove
hitch at the top of the first stake. The rope then is passes
around the second and another half clove hitch is completed over the first, wrapping the rope around below. the
first hitch. This lashing is completed a number of times
before the rope is secured to the second stake, A third stake
may then be used to twist the lashing tight, after which it is
driven into the ground. The operation may be continued
with an additional stake to give a still stronger anchorage.
165
186-187
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
· 186. MECHANICAL EXPEDIENTS.--The usual limitations for
repair of the vehicle by the driver are stated in chapter 2.
However, the following repairs can be made in the field when
it is essential for a vehicle to proceed under its own power
in an emergency:
a. Broken spring leaves are splinted by means of strong
pieces of wood or metal held in place with Wire. One or
several tent pins may be used. If necessary, a block of wood
is secured between the frame and axle to prevent spring
action. When necessary, displacement of the axle is prevented by running a wire around the front spring hanger and
the axle. The vehicle should be driven very slowly, and road
bumps should be avoided until repairs can be made.
b. When the light fuse is burned out, it mayi be temporarily
replaced with tinfoil. This should be done only after the
short in the system has been corrected. Remove tinfoil as
soon as Possible and replace with correct light fuse.
c. A fan belt may be replaced with rope waist belt, or the
old one fastened together with wire. Friction tape may be
wrapped around the belt to reinforce such splices as are made.
d. When water has shorted the ignition system, it should
be wiped away from the spark plugs, distributor head, and
coils. The wires should then be removed from the distributor
head and wiped dry. After drying, spark plugs and all contacts should be wiped with cloth moistened in kerosene or
fire extinguisher fluid.
e. Loose or broken wires may be repaired temporarily by
splicing and covering splice with friction tape.
f. Canned milk will often stop the average radiator leak.
SECnION mI
DIFFICULT OPERATIONS
U 187. POINTS TO BE OBSERVED (see TF 6-104 and 6-106).When moving across country or under other difficult conditions the following points should be observed by officers and
noncommissioned officers:
a. The leading vehicle should have a selected driver and
should be in good mechanical condition.
b. On approaching doubtful crossings or steep hills, a quick
reconnaissance to determine the best route is made on foot
ahead of the first vehicle.
166
MOTOR TRANSPORT
187-189
c. Guards are dropped where necessary to caution drivers
in rear.
d. While moving, a driver is given freedom in the operation
of his vehicle within the limits of safe and efficient operation
of the column.
e. When a vehicle is stalled, the driver must be given advice
and help. A decision is required at once as to whether or not
it can be moved by the next vehicle or by men at hand. If it
cannot be moved without holding up the column, it is left for
the trail or maintenance officer to handle.
f. The column must be kept moving. When the road is
blocked, a detour route is immediately found for other
vehicles.
* 188. POWER, MOMENTUM, TRACTION, AND FLOTATION.-The
ability of a motor vehicle to negotiate difficult terrain depends
upon its power, momentum, traction, and flotation. A proper
appreciation of these related factors will assist military personnel in the choice of a practical expedient to meet most
road difficulties.
a. Power in any gasoline-propelled vehicle depends primarily upon maintaining sufficient engine speed. A shift to
a lower gear allows the appplication of more power, but
with a loss of forward momentum.
b. Momentum is the energy stored up by the weight of the
vehicle in motion. It increases with the speed of the vehicle.
c. Traction is the ability of the wheels or track of an
automotive vehicle to adhere to the road.
d. Flotation is the ability of a wheel or track to ride the
ground surface. Flotation increases with the area of ground
contact afforded.
· 189. ASCENDING STEEP SLOPES.--a. Approaching normal
hill.-On approaching the usual hill, the leading driver should
select a sufficiently low gear and proceed to the top without
attempting to race his engine to keep up the normal rate of
march. The driver of each succeeding vehicle closes up as
the ascent begins and loses distance as the vehicle ahead
picks up speed at the crest.
b. Approaching difficult short slope, grade or hill.-Where
the grade is slippery or the slope particularly steep, the leading driver on approaching the hill should select a sufficiently
low gear to gain the maximum momentum which his load
167
189
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
and the condition of the road permit. The driver of the next
vehicle should slow up and halt before he arrives at the
approach. He should wait long enough to see that the
vehicle ahead has cleared the crest. The driver of each
succeeding vehicle should follow only after being certain
that the vehicle ahead will negotiate the hill.
c. Overcoming failure.-On a steep ascent, stalling usually
occurs because of either power or traction failure. Four
solutions are presented:
(1) Taking another run.-If a driver has failed to give his
vehicle the maximum momentum practical on the approach,
or if a shift has been made at the last moment in an effort
to increase the power, the driver is usually at fault. Another
trial, with the maximum momentum practicable or with a
lower gear ratio, may succeed.
(2) Increasing or decreasing load.-If power fails with
/ maximum momentum and the lowest gear ratio the load may
be decreased. However, if failure is due to loss of traction when flotation is good, sufficient traction may be gained
by increasing the load. This is usually done by loading
men over the driving axle or axles. This solution will often
be successful on vehicles with two-wheel drives, and on
empty vehicles moving heavy towed loads. On nontowing
vehicles having front-wheel drives, the addition of more than
the normal load is seldom advisable, because these vehicles
usually have sufficient traction to pull to the limit of their
power.
(3) Applying traction devices.-If the road is soft or slippery, skid chains or other traction devices should be installed.
(4) Touing.--Towing is usually the most expeditious
method of getting over a difficult ascent. If the hill or critical ascent is short, the use of man power pulling on a tow
rope is usually the quickest and most practical method. If
the hill is long and a winch truck is available, it should go up
first and then pull the other vehicle over. If one truck can
be pulled over, a long rope, cable, or chain may be used
to connect each vehicle in turn so that each helps the next
over the ascent. Towed loads may be disconnected and
pulled up separately. If necessary, several vehicles may be
connected in tandem to pull up a towed load.
d. Precaution.-When a vehicle stalls on a hill, the driver
should not shift gears until he has tested the brakes by dis168
MOTOR TRANSPORT
189-191
engaging the clutch gradually. After the brakes have been
tested and found to hold, the driver should shift to reverse
and keep the vehicle in gear while backing down the hill or
off to the side of the road.
* 190. DESCENDING STEEP SLOPES.-Steep descents should be
approached as cautiously as steep ascents. The following
precautions should be observed:
a. Choosing descent.-Very steep slopes should be descended
straight down, so that in case sliding occurs the vehicle will
not get out of control. All personnel except the driver should
be dismounted.
b. Braking.-Hills should always be descended in gear. The
correct gear for the descent of a steep slope should be chosen
during the approach and should not be changed until the
bottom of the hill is reached. As a rule, the same gear is
required in going down a hill as would be used in coming up
the same hill. A sufficiently low gear should be selected so
that the brakes need not be used. However, when necessary,
the driver should apply the brakes intermittently, being careful not to lock the wheels. The tendency of trailers and
semitrailers to "Jack-knife" when stopping or when descending grades can be prevented by applying brakes on towed load
in such a manner that a drag on the towing vehicle or prime
mover is created. In the descent of a hill, no attempt should
be made to maintain the normal rate of march by racing
the engine. The ignition should not be turned off.
c. Assistance.-Outside assistance should be given to vehicles descending steep slopes. It may be applied as follows:
(1) By manpower through the use of tow ropes, or block
and tackle. A tree or post may be used for snubbing the rope.
(2) By use of another vehicle connected by chain, cable, or
rope to the vehicle descending, both descending in low gear.
(3) By use of the winch, the cable being run out in gear,
the descending truck operating in the lowest gear.
(4) By setting brakes on towed loads and attaching a safety
rope or tackle. When necessary, towed loads should be disconnected and let down separately.
U 191. MuDDY ROADS.-The usual muddy road that will be
encountered is soft and slippery on the surface, while underneath it is generally hard or will pack sufficiently to support
a vehicle. Soft spots will allow spinning wheels to dig in
169
191
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
quickly. The following suggestions are applicable to negotiating this type of muddy going:
a. Traction aids.-Skid chains usually give the best aid to
traction and reduce skidding.
b. Gear.-In general, the highest gear that will give sufficient power is selected. As the loss of momentum and the
sudden application of increased power at a critical point
start the wheels to spin, the need for a gear reduction must
be anticipated.
c. Momentum.-Momentum should be maintained across
slippery places and up grades. Usually when slipping occurs,
the speed of the engine should immediately be decreased so
that the wheels can take hold.
d. Choice of track.-Old ruts are the hardest packed and
should generally be chosen. This principle usually holds for
all vehicles following the first. The exception to this rule
is covered in paragraph 192. Where road centers are high
ruts should be straddled, or a new track should be made.
e. Procedure on stalling.-Once a vehicle has come to a
complete stall in mud, the clutch is disengaged at once. No
new trial is attempted until an outside check-up is made.
Proper procedure for quickly extricating a stalled vehicle
is dependent upon judgment and experience. The following
possibilities are suggested:
(1)- Dismounting personnel.-If personnel are carried, they
should dismount and try to push the vehicle out. Often the
lightened load and this applied power will be sufficient. In
making a try with outside aid, the driver should apply power
to the wheels gradually by easing in the clutch. This trial
should not be continued to such an extent that the wheels
dig in.
(2) Selecting best way out.-Usually a vehicle can be
moved backward for a new trial easier than it can be moved
forward.
(3) Use of manpower.-If tow ropes and sufficient men
are available, an immediate attempt should be made to move
the vehicle by manpower.
(4) Applying nearest suitable tow.-If a light tow will probably succeed, the next suitable vehicle ahead or behind may
be used. Often the next vehicle can be detoured and used
for a tow. Where the vehicle has slid off a highly crowned
110
IMOTOR TRANSPORT
191
road, men with tow ropes attached to the sides of the vehicle
may assist in helping the vehicle back onto the road.
I. Stalled vehicle.-Where the above expedients will not
suffice, a winch, tractor, vehicles in tandem, or a block and
tackle must be used. Where a vehicle operating alone becomes stalled in mud, the driver and any personnel that may
be with him are dependent on one of the following methods
of extricating it:
(1) Improving traction.-Any additional traction devices,
such as wheel mats or skid chains, may be applied. Often
one or more drive wheels must be jacked up and traction and
flotation increased by placing brush, boards, rocks, or similar
material under the wheels. If a pole is available, it may be
used as a lever and inserted under the hub or axle in order to
raise the wheels.
(2) Digging out.-Ditches dug in the direction that the
wheels are expected to move assist in moving the vehicle out.
When wheels are in deep ruts, ditches dug at an angle to the
ruts may be necessary in order to assist the wheels back to a
straddle position over the rut. In this case the ruts should
be filled.
(3) Windlass method.-The windlass method of having a
dual-wheel truck pull itself out of a bad mud hole is simple
and rather certain of success. Two tow ropes and six stakes
are required. Two anchored stakes are installed on the bank
at the same distance apart as the wheels and directly in front
of or behind the vehicle. The loop ends of the ropes are
taken in between the tires of each dual wheel and secured by
passing the loop between the spokes and over the hub. The
ropes are then attached to the anchor stakes. When this is
done the vehicle can move out on its own power by allowing
the tow ropes to wind up between the dual wheels.
(4) Pole method.-It may sometimes be possible to obtain
sufficient traction by inserting a pole as a track between
the dual wheels that are slipping.
g. Caution.-Because of the danger of slipping under the
vehicle, personnel should be cautioned against pushing on the
side of a moving vehicle that has slipped into the ditch from
a high crown road, or on a vehicle that has slipped into old
wheel ruts.
171
192-194
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
U 192. SWAMPY OR BOGGY GRounm.-Where water has been
standing for a considerable time and swamp grass has grown,
a surface crust has usually formed on top of a bottomless
soil. Certain variations in principles and procedure apply
in this exceptional type of muddy going.
a. Avoid swamps if possible.-Boggy or swampy soil may
usually be avoided. Every effort should be made to move
over the highest ground available.
b. Unload personnel.-Personnelshould dismount and assist with tow ropes at critical points.
c. Maintain momentum.-The main requirement in moving
over a boggy piece of ground is to move over it rapidly without
stopping. Wheel spinning should be kept at a minimum.
d. Follow separate tracks.-The grassy crust may carry
one vehicle but may not support another in the same track.
Therefore, each vehicle should follow a separate track. A
guide should precede each vehicle on foot, locating the hard
ground and guiding the driver carefully over the best route.
e. Stalling.-When a vehicle comes to a flotation stall, the
clutch should be disengaged at once to avoid "digging in"
of the wheels. No attempt should ever be made to move it
without outside power.
f. Towed loads.-To pull towed loads, several trucks may
sometimes be hooked in tandem; or they may be placed
abreast, with the towed load attached by a pulley sliding on
a cable between the two trucks.
g. Deflating tires.-Flotationmay be increased by deflating
tires.
* 193. GUMBO AND OTHER SICKY SOILS.-Gumbo and other
sticky soils present a problem similar to that of boggy ground.
In addition, these soils give little traction and stick to the
tires and wheels in great masses. Boards, shovels, knives, and
the like may be fastened to the truck body to scrape the mud
from the wheels. Whenever possible, old, hard-packed roads
should be selected through these areas.
* 194. PASSING THROUGH SAND.-Flotation in sand increases
more or less below the surface. Usually sand will support a
vehicle moving rapidly. However, traction is very limited
because wheels are continually slipping. As soon as a drive
wheel begins to spin it digs in fast. Generally the methods
172
-MOTOR TRANSPORT
194-196
described in paragraphs 191 and 192 will be applicable. However, the following additional expedients may be used in
overcoming traction failures in sand:
a. Improve surface.-Chicken wire fencing or heavy burlap
staked on the surface of sand will usually make satisfactory
surface for movement of motor vehicles. For long columns,
two thicknesses should be used. Maintenance personnel
should be provided.
b. Follow in track.-In order to reduce rolling friction,
vehicles should follow exactly the tracks of the vehicle ahead.
c. Dig vehicle out.-When the sand is somewhat encrusted
below the surface, the vehicle will continue to creep while
the wheels spin. As long as the vehicle continues to move,
the wheels may be kept slowly spinning, allowing the vehicle to
dig itself out.
d. Increase tire surface.-In exceptional circumstances air
pressure may be decreased in the tires to give sufficient
flotation.
e. Avoid changing gears-As it is imperative that momentum be maintained changing of gears must be avoided by
selection of proper gear before entering the gand.
U 195. CROSSING FROZEN STREAMS.a. Carrying capacity of
ice.-See paragraph 134.
b. Increasing carrying capacity of ice.-(1) Planks may be
used to distribute weight of wheeled vehicles and thus increase
bearing power of ice.
(2) In freezing temperatures, thickness of ice may be
increased by flooding surface of ice. Water can be confined
to desired area by means of low earthen dams. Belt of thickened ice should be at least three times the width of roadway
to be used. Piling of snow on the surface of ice and flooding
the snow with water will accomplish the same result as when
water alone is used.
(3) When a river is frozen on each side but open in the
middle due to a swift current, a boat or other surface obstacle
placed across the interval will often check the current enough
to permit freezing.
U 196. DRIVING ON SNOW AND ICE.-On soft snow flotation Is
at a minimum, while on ice traction is at a minimum. In
441574'-42-12
173
196-197
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
addition to many of the principles already listed, the following are applicable to winter driving:
a. Traction aids.-Skid chains on all wheels are usually the
best safeguard in normal winter driving. However, on glare
ice skid chains add little or no traction and are apt to give
a false feeling of security. Deflating tires will assist in preventing skidding.
b. Moving over fresh snow.-When breaking freshly fallen
snow, manpower should be readily available to push or tow the
first vehicle where the snow is deep. Other vehicles follow
exactly in track and usually can move under their own power
provided they are able to gain sufficient momentum in approaching difficult slopes and crossings. Alternate shifting
from reverse to forward gears often will "rock" a vehicle out
of a hole in snow.
c. Braking.-In slowing down or descending hills, the engine
should be used as a brake. The driver shifts to a lower gear
when more braking power is needed. Foot brakes, when used,
should be applied lightly and released quickly if skidding
begins.
d. Accelerating.-Rapid acceleration should not be attempted, as it may cause one drive wheel to spin, thus
losing traction or causing skidding.
e. Overcoming skidding.-If skidding occurs, the brake or
clutch should not be touched. The accelerator should gradually be released. The front wheels are turned in the same
direction the rear wheels are skidding, so that the vehicle
will be carried forward by its momentum in a straight line
parallel to its original path. This method will ordinarily
result in reobtaining traction.
/. Holding vehicles on road.-Where necessary, men with
tow ropes may be used to hold vehicles on dangerous icy roads.
* 197. CROSSING DITCHES AND DEEP RAVINES.--a. Narrow or
shallow ditches.-Ditches with width approximating the diameter of the wheel, and wider shallow ditches, should
always be traversed at an angle by two-wheel drive vehicles
so that the drive wheel on one side will take hold of the far
edge of the ditch at the same time that the opposite wheel
is going into it. As this angle of crossing is a severe strain
on the frame, springs and driving mechanism, personnel
should dismount, and the ditch must be crossed slowly.
174
MOTOR TRANSPORT
197-199
Multidrive vehicles can usually cross ditches at a right angle,
and thus avoid unnecessary strain on the frame and body.
b. Wide ditches or ravines.-When a ditch is wider than the
diameter of the wheel and deeper than the running board or
undercarriage clearance, no attempt should be made to pass
it until the banks are cut down or the bottom filled with solid
material. Such ditches should be crossed at right angles. If
they are wet, they should be approached slowly and the vehicle
speeded up, but without causing wheel slipping, just as the
front wheels cross the lowest point.
* 198. FORDING SHALLOW STREAMS.-Fordings should be attempted only after careful reconnaissance. Maximum depths
of fords are given in paragraph 133. The following points
should be observed when fording a shallow stream:
a. Cross slowly.-As a rule nothing is to be gained by attempting to Use momentum in crossing streams. They should
be crossed slowly in a low gear.
b. Disconnect fan.-If there is any danger of the water
surging or splashing into the fan, the fan should be disconnected for the crossing.
c. Dry brakes.-After crossing a stream brakes should be
applied intermittently until dry enough to hold.
d. Check lubrication.-At the first opportunity, wheels,
crankcase, universal joint, differential, transmission, and
subtransmission should be checked for proper lubrication.
e. Exhaust manifold.-If streams are wide, disconnect the
exhaust manifold.
* 199. DEEP STREAM CROSSING.-When the situation demands
that streams too deep for fording be crossed, the first consideration should be to secure engineer assistance, or to
obtain, or improvise ferries, or rafts. HFowever, even if none
of these are available, it is possible to tow vehicles across
streams of almost any depth without serious damage provided suitable precautions are taken. The tackle and tow
indicated in figure 31 are used. The vehicle must be properly
prepared for submersion by closing all openings and removing such parts as will be seriously harmed or rendered inoperative by moisture. After crossing, the vehicle should be
thoroughly serviced and all water removed.
175
200-201
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
* 200. BRDoGES.-Speed, caution, and bridge capacity signs
should be carefully observed. (See par. 94 for estimating
capacity of bridges.) When the capacity of a bridge is not
sufficient to carry both a prime mover and towed load, the
towed load should be pulled across by a tow line longer than
the bridge. Track-laying vehicles should be started across
a bridge so that they will not have to be turned, because
steering them places a severe strain on the bridge.
Anchor
Current
/
, -Snatch
------ -bock~-/
Towing vehicle
~ _
=
-Tall-rope
ccrewh o
nchor.
=-_
-
-
Towed vehicle
.
iOUREs 31.-Tackle for deep stream crossing.
· 201. DRIVING ON SLIPPERY CuRVES.-Skidding on slippery
curves is avoided by a reduction of speed before the vehicle
goes into the turn. The tendency to skid arises from two
factors (both of which are restricted by the friction between
the vehicle wheels and the surface of the road).
a. Centrifugal force tends to throw a vehicle to the outside of a curve; it varies as the square of the speed.
b. When the brakes are applied the weight of the load is
shifted from the rear wheels to the front wheels, reducing
the traction on the rear wheels and increasing the tendency
to skid. When the brakes on a towed load are not applied,
the tendency to skid is increased for the same reason. Ex176
MOTOR TRANSPORT
201-203
perienced drivers may counteract this tendency to skid by,
accelerating their vehicle after it enters the curve.
* 202. NEGOTIATING
TURNS WITH A TOWED LOAD.-If a curve
is too sharp for a truck and towed load, it is usually possible
to uncouple the truck, drive it around the turn, and then
pull the towed load around the turn by use of a tow rope
or block and tackle.
* 203. RIGHTING AN OVERTURNED VErICLE.-Overturned vehicles can often be righted by manpower alone. When this is
impossible, a rigging similar to that shown in figure 32 may be
used. Brakes should be applied before the vehicle is righted.
Any of the towing means may be used to pull on the rope.
-
PFICue
t%
-"
PullK
32.-Righting an overturned vehicle.
177
'----"",
203
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
Holding lines should be used to prevent damage to the vehicle
from its settling too rapidly. When the vehicle has been
righted, a careful inspection must be made to determine the
extent of any damage caused by the accident. The axles may
be bent, the frame twisted, the wheels bent or broken, or the
steering mechanism damaged. Such damage should be repaired as soon as possible, since driving the damaged vehicle
invites other and perhaps more serious accidents. Before the
vehicle is moved under its own power, necessary oil and gas,
battery acid, and radiator water should be replaced.
178
MOTOR TRANSPORT
204
CHAPTER 7
MILITARY AUTOMOTIVE MAINTENANCE
Paragraphs
General ---------_-------------------204
Organization for maintenance
.--..........
205-209
_ 210-215
aEchelons of maintenance --------- _----- March maintenance -.
_......___.___.__
....
216-221
222-227
V. Lubrication -............................
VI. Inspections
..............................
_
228
_ 229-230
.---------------------VII. Records and reports-
SrcTnoN I.
II.
III.
IV.
SECTION I
GENERAL
* 204. BASIC PRINCIPLES.-a. The primary purpose of motor
transport maintenance is to meet military transportation requirements with a minimum loss of time from avoidable
repairs. The Army system of maintenance is based on(1) Scheduled preventive maintenance, unit replacements,
minor repairs, and the inspections necessary to insure economical, uninterrupted vehicle service.
(2) Systematic detection and correction of incipient vehicle
failures before they occur or develop into major defects, and
the servicing necessary to maintain motor vehicles in a satisfactory operating condition.
(3) The necessary major repairs to worn out or otherwise
defective subassemblies, units, or vehicles.
b. The principle of unit replacement, rather than major
repair to a unit while installed on a vehicle, is to be practiced
whenever replacement units are available. An exception is
made when a repair can be accomplished without dismantling
a unit or removing it from a vehicle, or when any repairs can
be made more expeditiously by repairing than by replacing
the unit. When an unserviceable unit is removed, but is
repairable, it is dismantled and rebuilt. The unit repair or
overhaul is normally a fourth echelon function, quartermaster or ordnance. A rebuilt (overhaul) unit is thus made
available as a replacement assembly either for immediate use,
or for return to stock for future use.
179
204-205
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
c. To insure the combat efficiency of motor vehicles during
field service, the maintenance system within organizations
must be adequately and properly supplied with tools and
equipment, must have trained personnel and a limited supply
of parts and repair itenms with a reserve promptly available.
Organizational maintenance is based upon(1) Meeting needs of motor transport operating in the
field.
(2) Limited decentralization of maintenance within the
regiment, the battalion, the squadron, or similar organization.
(3) Prompt and adequate support from the service motor
maintenance and motor supply organizations.
(4) Anticipation of motor vehicle casualties as a result of
field service and the necessity for prompt repair or replacement. Maintenance facilities immediately available and the
existing field conditions will determine whether these casualties are to be repaired by the operating organization or by
the repair establishment of the supporting service (quartermaster or ordnance).
(5) Prompt replacement of unserviceable vehicles which
cannot be repaired within the time demanded by the particular tactical situation or emergency.
d. The economic factors in peace affect all phases of motor
maintenance as a function of garrison or post routine. This
must not obscure the correct conception of motor maintenance under field service conditions. The shop equipment
usually used in post shops is inadequate or incorrectly designed for field use. To insure efficient field motor maintenance, garrison training must stress the use of the specialized
field maintenance tools and equipment.
e. Care must be exercised by all concerned to retain the
distinction between organizational maintenance and service
maintenance. Under field conditions, organizational maintenance activities must not exceed their prescribed scope. The
facilities of the higher service echelons (quartermaster and
ordnance) must be fully used.
SECTInoN II
ORGANIZATION FOR MAINTENANCE
* 205. ESSENTIAL MAnrTENANCE FACTORS.-Motor maintenance
depends on four essential factors:
180
MOTOR TRANSPORT
205 206
a. Personnel.-properly trained and technically qualified
for the particular work assigned;
b. Tools and equipment.-adequate and proper for the work
to be done;
c. Supplies.-correct as to kind, size and quality;
d. Time.-available and sufficient to complete the work to
be done.
U 206. TYPES OF MAINTENANCE.--The motor maintenance pre-
scribed for the military service is a flexible system that can
be adapted to various operating conditions. This system is
divided into two main divisions with subdivision as indicated:
a. Organizationalmaintenance.-(1) First echelon (driver
maintenance).-Preventive maintenance is limited by the
tools and equipment made available to the motor vehicle
operator. Definite maintenance duties are to be assigned to
the motor vehicle operator and he should be prohibited from
performing any maintenance function not specifically within
the category of lubricating, tightening and cleaning his vehicle. (See sec. III, ch. 1.)
(2) Second echelon.-The duties of this echelon include
preventive maintenance, adjustments, minor repairs and unit
replacement within the limits of the time available, utilizing
hand tools and light portable equipment authorized in Tables
of Basic Allowances.
(3) ResponsibilitV.-Organizationalmaintenance (first and
second echelons) is the responsibility of the commanders of
units to which the vehicles belong.
b. Service maintenance.-(1) Third echelon.-(a) The
functions of this echelon are1. Supply of units and parts.
2. Unit replacement beyond the' scope of the second
echelon.
3. Repairs involving the use of mobile shop equipment,
and the services of general automotive mechanics, and a limited number of automotive trade
specialists.
4. Evacuation to other service echelon shops, when the
required repairs are beyond the capacity or
scope of second and third echelon facilities.
181
206-207
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
(b) The third echelon (quartermaster or ordnance) is
equipped to serve a number of motorized or armored organizations as single large commands. It is under the direction
of the higher unit commander. It technically supervises
motor operations and maintenance activities of organizations
to which it is assigned.
(c) Maintenance units of the third echelon are organized
and equipped to provide immediate decentralized support to
motorized or armored organizations requiring it.
(2) Fourth echelon.-(a) This normally will function as
a fixed motor repair shop established in conjunction with
motor supply depots; it may under special conditions be
semimobile. A limited amount of fourth echelon repairs will
necessarily have to be accomplished in the field with a large
unit or combination of units of armored force when operating
on distant missions.
(b) The functions of this echelon are1. Supply of units and parts to all lower echelons.
2. General overhaul and reclamation of vehicles, units
and parts involving the use of heavy equipment,
and the service not only of general automotive
mechanics, but of highly trained specialists
capable of performing the most difficult repairs.
3. In an emergency, this echelon may even be required
to engage in manufacturing to meet special
conditions.
(3) Responsibility.-Servicemaintenance (third and fourth
echelons) is the responsibility of the commander of the
unit to which third and fourth echelon service units are
assigned.
* 207. ORGANIZATIONa. The commander of a regiment, of
a battalion or squadron, and of a battery, company or troop,
depending upon the type of organization and the conditions
under which it is serving, is responsible for the first echelon
maintenance and for part or all of the second echelon work.
b. While the designations and specific duties may differ
slightly according to Tables of Organization and practices of
the arms or services concerned, the organization chart and
outline of functions and of personnel (shown in table IV) can
be used as a general guide for lower (organizational) echelons.
182
MOTOR TRANSPORT
* 208. PERSONNEL-a.
208
General.-(1) Motor transport personnel ranges from the regimental commander, who is directly
responsible for the efficiency of his command, through subordinate officers and noncommissioned officers to the technicians, skilled artisans, drivers and other personnel necessary to the performance of required duties. Operation, maintenance and supply of motor transport activities are highly
specialized and are closely interwoven; they include command
and technical supervision, administrative control and other
functions necessary and vital to efficient motor transportation. While responsibilities must be definitely fixed, the
actual performance of duties in connection with motor
transport must be decentralized as far as possible.
(2) The unit commander who is directly responsible to
higher commanders normally has a technically qualified motor officer directly responsible to him for all organizational
motor transport activities.
(3) When fleets of motor vehicles are assigned, Tables of
Organization provide, in most instances, the personnel necessary to supervise and perform required motor transport duties. This personnel is usually part of either the headquarters or service battery, company or troop of the
regiment and is administered by its commanding officer. Organizational maintenance (first and second echelon) work
is performed by this personnel.
(4) Noncommissioned officers and other enlisted personnel,
known as truckmasters, motor sergeants, chief mechanics,
motor supply sergeants, chiefs of sections and squad leaders,
assist in the supervision and technical administration of motorized organizations. When all vehicles of the organization
are pooled and all maintenance functions are performed by
the regimental or similar unit personnel, all personnel involved are centralized. However, the organization is generally such that the personnel, the tools and equipment, and
the supplies can be decentralized into battalion maintenance
sections and if urgent, into battery, company or troop groups.
(5) The success of preventive maintenance within a regiment or similar unit, depends upon the judgment, energy,
ability and common sense, not only of the commander, but
also of all subordinates. The training, discipline, morale
and effectiveness of the latter will also have a direct bearing
183
208
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
upon the efficiency of the motor transport of the organization. In order to insure a high state of efficiency during
motor transport operations, the commander should(a) Separate, as much as possible, vehicle operation and
maintenance functions, other than first echelon.
(b) Establish and fix definite responsibilities for such
functions.
(e) Maintain high standards for all work.
(d) Make vehicles available for cleaning, lubricating, servicing and maintenance inspections, as required.
(e) Make provisions for scheduled preventive maintenance
work and enforce it by frequent checking.
(f) Establish a simple method of recording data on vehicle
operation, inspections, lubrication, servicing, and repair work.
(g) Make provisions for and conduct schools to insure
proper and uniform training of personnel, including drivers
and mechanics.
(h) Provide necessary guide forms for routine lubrication,
maintenance inspection and scheduled preventive maintenance work on all types and makes of assigned motor vehicles.
(i) Make the command inspections necessary to insure
proper coordination and functioning of all personnel.
(i) Motor operation and maintenance are functions of
command. Continuous and efficient operation by a motorized organization requires that all command personnel give
to maintenance activities the necessary time and effort to
obtain desired results.
(k) If a command is to retain its mobility, unusual operations require unusual maintenance efforts. Although a
commander may properly delegate authority to his motor
officer and other subordinates, considerable personal and
active control on the part of the commander is necessary to
maintain any fleet in a high state of operating efficiency.
b. Motor officer-The organizational motor officer should be
selected from those having either technical automotive training, practical automotive experience, or a particular aptitude
for the work.
(1) Technical supervision is a distinct responsibility of the
motor officer whether the maintenance functions are centralized in one activity or decentralized to the battery, company or troop.
184
MOTOR TRANSPORT
208
TAns IV.--Loer echelon (first and second) organization
CHART AND OUTLINES OF FUNCTION AND OF PERSONNEL
UNIT
COMMANDER
MOTOR OFFICER
Vehicle operation
Maintenance
Supply
Records
Training
Inspection
Reports
FIRST SERGEANT
Truckmaster
VEHICLE
OPERATION
MAINTENANCE
SUPPLY
CHIEF MECHANIC
SUPPLY
SERGEANT
CHIEF OF
SECTION
SQUAD LEADER
MOTOR
SERGEANT
Property records
Requisitions
Storage and Issue
Supervision
O~peration
Operation
Inspections
Reports
Training drivers
ShOp
forean
Inspections
Maintenance
Reports
Reord
Records
DRIVER
MECHANIC
Operation
Caretaking
Inspection
Driver lubrication
Servicing
Reports (trip and
accidents)
Maintenance
Minor repairs
Special lubrication
Inspection
185
RECORDS AND
REPORT
REPORTS
_
CLERK
Dlspatcbing
Reports
Records
Clerical work
208
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
(2) The organizational motor officer (regiment or similar
unit), as a representative of the commander should develop a
uniformly high standard of operation and maintenance
throughout the regiment by exercising close technical
supervision.
(3) He must be cooperative and diplomatic in his dealings
with subordinate unit commanders and instill a feeling that
he is assisting them in the necessary performance of work.
He must be careful to avoid assuming command of the battery,
company or troop maintenance personnel.
(4) He must assist personnel concerned with necessary
technical information by preparing guide forms, by informal
individual instructions, or by organized group instruction
attended by personnel of the regiment.
(5) The motor officer checks on the performance of maintenance work by calling, without prior notice, for specific
vehicles of the regiment. Information obtained through
these special maintenance inspections, together with general
observation of the vehicles brought in for routine repairs
and observation of the personnel of subordinate organizations while at work, will indicate the condition of vehicles
and the quality of maintenance work being performed.
Where unsatisfactory vehicle operation or maintenance is
observed, the regimental motor officer should usually first
advise the subordinate unit commander concerned and make
suggestions for the corrective measures to be taken. When
improvement cannot be obtained through this procedure,
the matter should then be reported to the regimental or
similar superior commander.
(6) The motor officer should familiarize himself with all
vehicles of the organization, their peculiarities and limita,tions, and with the special considerations to be given them
in accordance with instructions contained in the vehicle
manufacturer's .operation and maintenance manuals. He
should be able to inform his immediate superior at any time
of the general condition of the vehicles in the organization.
He is essentially the technical adviser to his immediate superior and is responsible only to him for all technical features
pertaining to organizational motor transport.
(7) The duties of the regimental or similar motor officer
include186
MOTOR TRANSPORT
208
(a) Commanding the regimental motor maintenance section, platoon or company. In certain types of organization,
such as motor truck companies and light and heavy motor
maintenance companies, he may also be commanding officer
of the entire organization.
(b) Coordinating and consolidating all requests for third
echelon repairs. Coordinating with the higher motor repair
echelons as to requirements for repairs and as to supply of
spare parts and other authorized items.
(c) Supervising repair operations and such unit replacement as may be authorized or required to meet special
conditions.
(d) Making motor transport inspections required by existing current regulations and orders.
(e) Supervising operations and maintenance records and
reports. Preparing records and reports on motor transport
and forwarding those required by higher authority.
(/) Technically coordinating and consolidating requisitions for motor transport parts and supplies handled directly,
or through the regimental, or similar supply officer. Supervising the receipt and distribution of these motor transport
supplies within the regiment.
(g) Recording funds allotted or credits established for
motor transport procurement for the regiment and the expenditures of such funds. Prorating any budget allowance
provided for cleaning and preserving material and for the
parts and supplies required by current regulations and approved by the regimental or similar organizational commander.
(h) Preventing the hoarding of motor transport parts and
supplies by one or more batteries, companies, or troops to
the detriment of others, and to the detriment of the service
as a whole.
(i) Maintaining contact with all motor operation and
maintenance activities within the regiment and with all
maintenance establishments of the higher echelons to which
the regiment has been assigned for the performance of third
and fourth echelon repairs.
(j) Supervising motor transport schools within the regiment.
(k) Assisting the regimental commander in making command inspections.
187
208
BASIC FIELD
MANUAL
(1) Working out the details on use and movement of
vehicles of the regiment, coordinating all phases, including
road circulation and traffic control, especially when operating
under field conditions.
(m) Furnishing information to all subordinate units as
to the location of the regimental or similar organization
repair facilities in the field.
(n) In time of peace he makes suitable arrangements for
repairing or salvaging vehicles on the march so damaged
that towing is not practicable. He directs the transfer of
loads from damaged vehicles and gives instructions to the
personnel of these vehicles left behind during a march. In
time of war he must make arrangements for immediate repair
or abandonment of unserviceable vehicles when towing is not
practicable giving proper instructions to expedite any roadside repair or rescue work.
(o) Supervising the examination of driver candidates and
the issuing of War Department, Q.M.C. Form No. 228 (U.S.
Army Motor Vehicle Operator's Permit).
(p) Preparing maintenance guides for subordinate units
under his technical supervision and enforcing the use of these
guides as well as the use of vehicle manufacturer's manuals
within the regiment. Lubrication guides will be based upon
the sources of lubrication instructions described in paragraph
225.
(q) Informing his immediate superior as to the efficient
operation and maintenance of vehicles within the regiment
or similar organization.
(r) Insuring that pertinent information contained in
motor transport technical service bulletins and other official
orders and regulations reaches all motor transport personnel
of the regiment.
(s) Making frequent visits to operating and maintenance
activities of the organization, rendering necessary assistance
and advice.
(t) Organizing and supervising vehicle servicing, cleaning,
maintenance and repair work.
(u) Watching lubrication activities and checking the type
and kind of lubricants used. Extreme care must be exei cised
in keeping all lubricants clean and also the places wnere they
are stored or kept.
(v) Eliminating all fire hazards.
188
MOTOR TRANSPORT
208
(w) Observing drivers actually operating vehicles.
c. Truckmaster.-The truckmaster of a truck company and
similar organizations, acting as first sergeant, is the intermediary between the company commander and the enlisted
men of the organization. He also acts as the direct supervisor of motor transport operation, assisting the company
commander in coordinating and controlling such activities.
In some instances, especially in organizations having two or
more interrelated functions, such as a field artillery battery,
signal corps company, or mechanized cavalry troop, the first
sergeant essentially assists the commander in the performance of the battery's or troop's combat mission and the motor
sergeant then acts as truckmaster. The combined duties of
a motor sergeant, as a truckmaster and as a chief mechanic,
are shown in e below.
d. Motor sergeant.-The motor sergeant, in smaller organizations, can be considered as a combination truckmaster and
chief mechanic. He should be selected for his technical
knowledge, his mechanical ability and his aptitude for
organizing and supervising. He should be well versed in
field expedients and in the methods used to get vehicles
through when they are stalled or when the going is bad.
(1) As truckmaster, his duties include(a) Principal assistant to the motor officer.
(b) Direct supervision of the vehicle motor park.
(c) Assisting, when required, in making inspections.
(d) Supervising and checking vehicle operation.
(e) Reporting evidence of neglect, abuse or carelessness to
his superior officer.
(I) Supervising, through subordinate noncommissioned
officers, all personnel assigned to motor transport duties.
(g) Keeping or supervising the recording of vehicle opera.tion, fuel and oil used and supplies (through the supply
sergeant and clerk).
(2) As chief mechanic, his duties include(a) Supervision of mechanics and their work.
(b) Enforcement of scheduled maintenance work.
(c) Supervision and checking of adjustments and repairs.
(d) Observing vehicle operation on the march and taking
prompt corrective action when necessary.
(e) Supervising the rescue or removal of stalled and disabled vehicles.
441574'-42-13
189
208
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
(f) Checking, or requiring mechanics to check, all vehicles
during any march halt and upon completion of the day's
run. Particular attention should be paid to excessively
heated parts (gears, wheel bearings, engines, brakes, and the
like).
(g) Supervising -starting of vehicle engines for prompt
starting, proper warming up and for continued operation.
(h) Riding. usually, at the tail of the column as a part
of the maintenance group.
(i) Allotting work to mechanics and inspecting their work
during actual performance and when it is completed.
(j) Diagnosing mechanical failures and when necessary
giving mechanics instruction as to proper corrective action.
(k) Making prescribed records and reports on scheduled
preventive maintenance, servicing and repair work satisfactorily completed.
(1) Coordinating the technical phases of motor supply with
motor maintenance activities.
(m) Establishing, in the absence of the regimental motor
officer and any commissioned assistants, the maintenance setup in the field and notifying all concerned of its location.
e. Chief mechanic.-The chief mechanic is the technical
supervisor of the maintenance work of the organization. 'His
duties are detailed in d(2) above.
J. Mechanics.--() Mechanics are detailed to organizations in accordance with Tables of Organization based on the
number of vehicles to be maintained and the type of repair
work.to be done. For obvious reasons, they should be the
best qualified mechanics in the regiment or similar
organization.
(2) Mechanics make necessary repairs and adjustments
under the direction of the motor sergeant or the chief
mechanic.
(3) They perform scheduled preventive maintenance work,
where specialized technical knowledge is a requisite to its
proper performance.
(4) They observe vehicles during a march for signs of
probable failures or defects.
(5) They assist section chiefs and squad leaders, when
detailed, in making adjustments and in servicing vehicles.
(6) Mechanics usually ride on the march with the motor
maintenance group.
190
MOTOR TRANSPORT
208-209
g. Chief of sections and squad leaders.-These noncommissioned officers supervise and control their respective sections and/or squads to coordinate all motor transport
activities within their groups and as part of the entire organization. They should see that all instructions on cleaning,
tightening, servicing, and lubricating vehicles of their groups
are complied with. They control the march of their sections
and squads as to gear selections, distances, safety, operating
speeds, and similar matters. Their duties include(1) Responsibility for supervising and directing driver
(first echelon) maintenance.
(2) Prompt reporting of vehicle defects and failures to the
truckmaster, the chief mechanic or motor sergeant, as may
be required.
(3) Responsibility for checking the supply of gasoline, oil,
water, and other supplies required for vehicle operations.
(4) Riding, usually, in the first vehicle of their section or
squad.
h. Other personnel.-Drivers, assistant drivers and other
personnel of motorized and mechanized organizations perform
duties as indicated by their designation or as directed by the
commissioned and noncommissioned officers over them.
* 209. SUPPLY.a. Unit supply officer.-The regimental or
similar unit supply officer is usually charged with procuring,
requisitioning and issuing fuel, lubricants, antifreeze, cleaning
and preserving supplies, and similar motor transport items
required by the batteries, companies or troops. In preparing
requisitions and whenever otherwise required, he should
utilize the technical experience and knowledge of the motor
officer and his assistants, especially as to kind, type and
quality, even to quantity, of motor supplies needed. The
responsibility of the supply officer for such supply activities
in no way changes those of the motor officer.
b. Tools and equipment--(1) Tables of Basic Allowances
prescribe the authorized allowance of tools and equipment for
all echelons of maintenance, including the first and second
(organizational) echelons.
(2) Each general motor mechanic authorized in Tables of
Organization is allowed a "motor vehicle mechanic's" set of
about 50 hand tools; included are a tool bag (box end, engineer):; pipe, socket and crescent wrenches; hammers, punches,
files, drifts, screw drivers, thickness gages, chisels and pliers.
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These sets are issued individually on memorandum receipt.
As a rule, the mechanic carries his set of tools with him
wherever he is on duty.
(3) In addition to these motor vehicle mechanic's tool
sets, special tools or kits for ignition, carburetor, brake and
other repairs or maintenance work demanding them, may
be issued.
(4) Depending upon the number of motor vehicles in its
fleet, organizations performing first and second echelon
repairs are authorized to use Unit Set No. 1 (for 20 to 30
or less vehicles) and Unit Set No. 2 (for fleets of about
60 vehicles). To augment these sets the following additional
equipment when authorized may be furnished organizations:
Unit set No. 3 (air equipment set).
Unit set No. 4 (block and tackle set).
Unit set No. 5 (welding equipment set).
Unit set No. 6 (electric generator set).
Unit set No. 7 (wrecking set).
These are essentially intended for field service but may also
be used for maintenance work in garrison.
(5) One or more mechanics or repair trucks are authorized
for organizations to carry the mechanics, the tools and equipment, and the parts and other supplies. If Unit set No. 7
(wrecking set) is authorized, an extra vehicle is required as
a wrecker.
c. Spare parts and supplies.-(1) To prevent their hoarding, dispersion or dissipation, the stock of spare subassemblies,
units, parts and supplies, in organizational maintenance
echelons (first and second) is generally limited to that re.quired for prompt and immediate repairs and for other
necessary maintenance functions. The stock required will
vary with the number, makes, types and age of vehicles, as
with the efficiency of personnel and of such operating conditions as cold, dust, sand, mud and hilly, or poor terrain.
As a rule, the following items are stocked in organizational
maintenance echelons:
Spark plugs
Electric wiring
Condensers
Caps (hub, gas tank,
Fuzes
etc.)
Lamps (light bulbs)
Nuts
Cotter keys
Fan belts
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Ignition and battery
Fittings
cables
Packing
Hose and clamps
Bolts
Gaskets
Washers
Gas and oil lines
Screws
The above list is not all inclusive but includes items normally
known as "Parts common" or as "High mortality parts."
(2) The bulk of these supplies is carried within the regimental motor maintenance section, platoon, or similar group.
(3) Unserviceable units are replaced as soon as possible
by serviceable ones. - The unserviceable units should be sent
to the third (or fourth) echelon for exchange; for repair and
return; for repair and stock; or for disposition by action
of an inspector or a surveying officer.
SECTION III
ECHELONS OF MAINTENANCE
* 210. FIRST ECHELON.-This echelon performs preventive
maintenance and is the principal factor upon which the life
of motor vehicles depends. The driver and assistant driver
are directly responsible for the performance of the duties
and tasks included in this echelon. (See sec. IIn, ch. 2, for
details.)
* 211. SECOND ECHELON.-a. General.-(1) (a) This echelon
essentially performs preventive maintenance. By scheduled
and periodic inspections made in accordance with the
principles prescribed herein, it detects minor incipient defects and corrects them promptly and properly. It makes
such repairs and such unit replacements as are possible
within the limits of time, facilities, and technical ability of
the available personnel.
(b) When vehicles are pooled or are in one organization,
such as a truck company, a signal company or similar
motorized organization, the first and all of the second echelon
functions are combined under the responsible unit commander. On the other hand, when a company, battery, troop,
or similar organization is with its regiment or its battalion,
the second echelon functions may be decentralized and divided
between the smaller organization and its parent unit. These
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smaller organizations, to which vehicles have been assigned,
are responsible for all first echelon (drivers') maintenance
and for certain second echelon duties that may be authorized.
These latter responsibilities are limited as a rule, by tools and
equipment, spare parts and the ability and capacity of the
mechanics available to the smaller organization.
(c) The regiment is essentially a basic second echelon
maintenance unit; the same is often true of the battalion
and the squadron. With its organized maintenance section,
platoon or company, it performs the repair operations requiring a greater degree of skill than is ordinarily available to the
smaller units, and has a larger and more specialized variety of
tools. Under normal conditions, it is the point of contact
between the organizational echelons and the higher (service)
echelons. It must often make decisions as to what repairs
can be made within the regiment, battalion, or squadron and
what work must be passed along to the nearest higher
available echelon.
(d) The maintenance functions of this echelon may be
subdivided into scheduled maintenance and operating (or
march) maintenance.
(2) (a) Scheduled maintenance is based on both time and
mileage. This calls for daily maintenance, monthly or
1,000-mile maintenance, 6 months or 6,000-mile maintenance,
and seasonal maintenance, such as spring and fall when
vehicles are prepared to meet the different operating conditions of summer and winter. These scheduled maintenance
duties include both inspection and the necessary repairs-and
adjustments. Mechanics will perform the major portion of
this work, but the motor sergeant or chief mechanic should
closely supervise their work and may perform certain of
the duties. As a matter of instruction, the driver of a
vehicle should, when practicable, be an assistant whenever
his vehicle is undergoing scheduled maintenance.
(b) It should be distinctly understood that preventive
maintenance of a mechanical nature must be placed on a
strictly mileage basis to be effective. However, in the case
of some units of the tank, such as the engine, the check is
made on an hourly basis. When a vehicle has been operated
a certain number of miles certain checks and adjustments
should be made. It is vital that the collection of machinery
and mechanical devices that go to make up the motor vehicle
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211
be inspected at given mileage periods, checked and adjusted
where necessary. Normally nothing should be permitted to
interfere with these inspections.
(c) If vehicles are operated daily there should be a daily
visual check by second echelon personnel to cover such things
as oil, water or gasoline leaks, obvious damage to body or
running gear, conditions of tires, etc. This should be done
in all cases after the end of the day's operation and in addi.tion to the first echelon inspection made by the driver. It
should be made as an assurance that the vehicle will operate,
as a safety precaution, and to minimize road hazards to life
and limb as an incident to defects in the vehicle.
b. Monthly (1,000-mile) maintenance operation.-This
maintenance operation is normally performed by the company, battery, or similar unit mechanics under the supervision
of the motor sergeant. A record is made to show the defects
that could not be corrected, the time of accomplishment, the
mechanic who performed the operation, and the officer who
made the maintenance inspection. This record should be
retained until the semiannual (6,000-mile) maintenance
operations and technical inspection, at which time it may be
disposed of as the unit commander sees fit, Pertinent data
from the record are entered in the vehicle service record. A
guide for this maintenance, which should be modified as
necessary for a particular type of vehicle, follows. Tolerances
and clearances might well be added. Items marked with an
asterisk (*) may require tools and parts not available or
authorized, in which case the defect should be corrected
by the next higher echelon:
(1) Road test.
(a) 1. Bring engine to operating temperature and examine for smoke or fumes. Examine condition of
oil on measuring stick. Observe any evidences of
blow-by or leaks.
2. Test horns,.lights, windshield wiper, and other safety
devices.
(b) Drive vehicle.
1. Test for proper steering.
2. Observe engine for power delivery, acceleration, and
unusual noises.
3. Test clutch action. Stop and investigate unusual
noises.
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4. Test gear sets and final drives for ease of shifting
and unusual noises.
5. Test brakes for equalization, stopping distance,
pedal travel, and pedal "feel."
6. Observe action of instruments on dash.
7. Observe the final drive and power transmission
units while another person drives or while the
vehicle is blocked up with the wheels off the
floor. Note any overheating of units.
(c) Check lubrication. levels after return to motor park.
(2) Maintenance operations, general.-(a) Clean and
tighten storage battery, terminals, and carrier bolts. Test
battery and refill to proper level.
(b) Tighten body bolts, fenders, running boards, splash
pan joints, bumpers, brush guards, head lamp brackets,
mirrors, tow hbooks, pintles, body parts, radiator shell, and
hardware.
*(c) Repair body injuries.
(d) Replace unserviceable instruments or safety devices.
(e) Adjust lights.
(3) Wheels, brakes, and springs.--*(a) Replace worn brake
lining.
(b) Correct overlubrication or leakage of lubricant.
(c) Remove looseness or bind from wheel bearings.
(d) Tighten wheel stud nuts.
(e) Correct any leaks in hydraulic or air brake system.
(/) Fill master cylinder to proper level.
(g) Centralize and adjust brakes.
(h) Replace unserviceable shock absorbers and linkage;
replenish fluid.
(i) Repair broken or loose spring hold-down bolts, rebound clips, and center bolts. Tighten loose shackle bolts.
(j) Correct any malfunctioning of the brake system.
(4) Steering mechanism.-(a) Remove by adjustment or
repair any excessive play in1. Steering knuckle bearings.
2. Tie rod ends.
*3. Bushings.
4. King pin wedge bolts.
5. Drag link or connecting link.
6. Pitman arm on sector shaft.
7. Steering gear.
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211
(b) Tighten attachment of steering mechanism to frame,
and of steering column to body.
(c) Replace any excessively worn or bent parts.
(d) Tighten, replace, or properly secure all lock washers,
cotter keys, nuts, and similar items.
*(e) Adjust wheel stops when turning radius is incorrect.
(Note any wear on drag link.)
(f) Lubricate entire mechanism while front wheels are off
the floor. Turn wheels from side to side to insure distribution of lubricant and to ascertain whether or not the entire
mechanism works freely.
(5) Driving axles.-(a) Tighten loose driving flange nuts
and cap screws.
(b) Tighten and properly secure all assembly, pinion carrier, cover plate, spring seat, and other bolts and nuts.
*(c) Correct any leakage of lubricant.
*(d) Remove any excessive play or backlash.
(6) Clutch, transmission, transfer case, propeller shafts,
and universal joints.-(a) Adjust incorrect clutch free travel
and floor clearance.
*(b) Repair defective reverse shifter stop, and malfunctioning shifter mechanisms.
(ec) Tighten all loose bolts and nuts, assembly support,
carrier, and cover plate.
*(d) Correct any leakage of lubricant.
(e) Correct misalinement of universal joints.
*(f)
Repair all fractures.
*(g) Replace excessively worn spline and universal joints.
*(h) Repair all evidences of slackness, looseness, or leakage.
(i) Open clutch housing drain vent.
(j) Repair or replace muffler or tail pipe.
(7) Cooling system.-(a) Tighten radiator supports, braces,
and attachment of shell to core.
(b) Adjust fit of hood on shell and fit of hood locks.
(c) Replace unserviceable hose and hose clamps.
*(d) Correct all evidences of water leakage.
(e) Adjust incorrect fan-belt tension; replace unserviceable fan belt.
(8) Fuel system.-(a) Clean dirty sediment bowls.
* (b) Correct any leakage in or around the fuel pump.
(c) Tighten connections: repair or replace leaking lines.
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'(d) Correct any malfunctioning of fuel pump.
(9) Engne.--(a) Service all air filters; replace oil filter
if required.
(b) Tighten engine mountings, flywheel housing, oil pan,
flywheel cover, timing-case cover, manifolds, accessory attachments, and other bolts and nuts.
* (c) Correct all breakage, cracks, or leaks.
(d) Set manifold heat valve to seasonal adjustment.
*(e) Repair unserviceable breaker points.
(I) Replace all damaged wiring.
*(g) Correct malfunctioning generator or starter.
*(h) Correct generator output.
(i)Adjust noisy valves.
*(j) If on the road test any missing occurs, the entire
ignition system should be carefully checked and spark plugs
removed, examined, cleaned, reset, and serviceable ones
reinstalled.
*(k) Remove causes of other knocks, noises, and unsatisfactory engine performance. (Vacuum gage is valuable for
diagnosis of troubles.)
(1) Repair looseness in any controls.
(10) Road test.-Check repairs.
(11) Record.-Preparea record as follows:
(a) Defects not corrected.
Unit
DeJect
(b) Mechanic's and motor sergeant's certificate.
I have performed the maintenance operations as outlined in the
guide for monthly (1.000-mile) maintenance operations, and so
far as can be determined this vehicle can be expected to give 30
days, or 1,000 miles, of satisfactory service, except as indicated under
defects.
Date ___-______ _ signature -_.___
(Mechanic)
Signature ------------(Motor
sergeant)
(c) Maintenance inspection certificate.
I certify that I have performed the maintenance inspection on
this vehicle as required by AR 850-15 and that it can be expected
to give 30 days or 1.000 miles of satisfactory service.
Date -_.
.
.....
Signature
_-_-_-_-___--_-__---tMotor officer)
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TRANSPORT
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c. Semiannual (6,000-mile) maintenance operations.These maintenance operations are normally performed by the
regimental second echelon of maintenance. Under extremely
severe operating conditions certain items may have to be
checked every 2 or 3 months. An instructional guide
similar to that used for the monthly (1,000-mile) maintenance operations should be drawn up. These maintenance
operations differ from the monthly operations in that all
accessory Units and some other parts are disassembled,
cleaned, inspected, and lubricated. They are then repaired
or exchanged if necessary. Semiannual (6,000-mile) maintenance operations are thus more complete than are those
performed monthly or every 1,000 miles, and should assure
reasonable vehicle service if the monthly (1,000-mile) maintenance operations are carefully performed. If a shop card
is not made out to show the repairs, the mechanic, the items
not corrected, and the completion of the inspection, a record
similar to that used in conjunction with the monthly (1,000mile) maintenance operations should be prepared and retained until after the technical inspection. Maintenance
operations that should normally be included in the 6-month
(6,000-mile) service are(1) Records to include inspection of vehicle repair and
operating records for the past 6 months (6,000 miles), followed by a road test similar to the monthly (1,000-mile)
maintenance.
(2) Engine tune-up to include check of oil and air filters, a
vacuum and compression test, cleaning of oil pan and interior
of engine, adjustment of valves, adjustment of spark plugs,
reconditioning of ignition wiring, generator servicing, starter
servicing, ignition servicing, carburetor servicing, and check
of tightness and serviceability of all parts and accessories.
(3) Fuel system to include examination and servicing of
fuel pump, gas lines, carburetor, and tank.
(4) Cooling system to include radiator service and check of
therniostat, fan, belt, and water pump.
(5) Instruments and electrical systems to include check,
service, or replacement of horn, lights, wiring, windshield
wiper, and dash instruments.
(6) Clutch, transmission, and transfer case to include
clutch travel and floor clearance, reverse shifter stop, trans199
211
BASIC FIELD
AMANUAL
mission and transfer case supports, grease seals, tightness,
and lubrication.
(7) Propeller shafts and universal joints to include slackness, free movement of spline joints, grease seals, and lubrication.
(8) Driving axles to include backlash, inspection, lubrication, and adjustment of wheel bearings, spring clips, spring
hold-down bolts, spring shackles, driving flanges, leaks,
grease seals, and lubrication.
(9) Steering mechanism to include attachment of steering
mechanism and column, pitman arm, play in steering mechanism, steering linkage, steering stops, turning angle of
front-drive axle, and lubrication.
(10) Front end to include spring hold-down bolts, rebound
clips, shackles, shock absorbers, lubrication and adjustment
of wheel bearings, tie rods, and tires for wear and alinement.
(11) Wheels and brakes to include hub bolts, grease seals,
brake lining, brake linkage and lines, and brake cylinders.
(12) General to include storage battery, body and attachments, curtains, muffler, and tail pipe.
(13) Engine check by bringing engine up to operating temperature and checking results of engine tune-up for quietness;
idling speed; acceleration; and leaks in carburetor, fuel pump,
gas lines, cooling system, oil pressure lines, and oil seals.
(14) Road test.
(15) Record of operation.
d. Seasonal maintenance.-As vehicles are prepared for the
different operating conditions of summer and winter, opportunity is afforded the following (to be done during a
service operation if possible):
(1) Remove all wheels and examine brake drums, linings,
and bearings. Repack bearings with proper grade of wheel
bearing lubricant and adjust the bearings.
(2) Drain transmission, also transfer case and power to
take-off unit, check for leaks, loose hanger bolts, misalined
shafts; note tooth wear; refill with proper winter (or summer)
lubricant (EP lubricant if required),
(3) Drain differentials, check for backlash and proper tooth
engagement; note tooth wear, leaks; refill with proper winter
(or summer) lubricant (EP lubricant if required).
(4) Carburetor, clean and adjust.
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(5) Drain, flush, and thoroughly clean engine cooling
systems; replace and tighten hose connections if required;
refill with antifreeze (if for freezing weather).
(6) Liquid cooled engine operating temperatures should be
maintained at 140' F to 160 ° F in cold weather. This may
be accomplished by keeping thermostats in workable condition, closing louvres and partially covering radiator.
e. Lubrication of vehicles.-This operation is usually performed by the first echelon but special service conditions may
make it necessary to assign this responsibility to technical
personnel of the second echelon to assure correct lubrication
and to meet unusual requirements. TM 10-540 contains
detailed information on general application of lubricants.
Specific information on a particular make or model of vehicle
can be found in the vehicle manufacturer's operation and
maintenance manual or in the vehicle's service record (W. D.,
Q. M. C. Form No. 248), and in technical manual for that
vehicle. In the case of ordnance vehicles, general information on lubrication is found in OFSB (6-series).
* 212. COMPANY OR BATTERY AND REGIMENTAL SECOND ECHELON
REPAIRS.-The following examples do not include all the
operations performed but show some of the common ones:
a. Company or battery.-(1) Adjustments.-Wheel bearings, pedal clearances, steering gear and linkage, fan belt,
water pump, spring shackles, and lights.
(2) Replacements.-Carburetor,generator, distributor cap
and rotor, fuel pumps, batteries and cables, manifolds, instruments and switches, oil lines and filters, and brake
shoes.
b. Regiment or battalion.-(1) Adjustments.-Steering geometry, voltage regulator, carburetors, generators, valve
tappets and timing.
(2) Replacements.-Tie rods, distributor points, valve
springs, carburetors, thermostats, fuel pump diaphragms, and
governors.
· 213. THIRD ECHELON.--a. The third echelon of maintenance
is performed by mobile organizations of the Quartermaster
Corps and by the Ordnance Department for combat vehicles
and others in an emergency. Maintenance operations include the following:
(1) Supplies units and parts to the second echelon.
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(2) Makes unit replacements beyond the scope of the
second echelon.
(3) Makes repairs involving the use of mobile shop equipment.
(4) Evacuates to the fourth echelon shops those vehicles
and assemblies which require repairs beyond the scope of
the third echelon.
(5) Makes technical inspections.
b. The work of this third echelon within a division is performed by the maintenance platoon (company) (troop) of
divisional quartermaster troops or by a quartermaster company (troop) of a light maintenance battalion, attached
from army or army corps.
(1) This echelon is provided to serve a number of organizations in which the first and second echelons (organizational) are functioning. It is charged with the technical
supervision of the work of the lower echelons, as provided
in current orders and regulations or by higher authority.
(2) Light maintenance units (third echelon) are organized and equipped to provide immediate decentralized support to lower organizational echelons requiring it, especially
Under field service conditions.
c. Ordnance third echelon maintenance will be done to a
very limited extent by the ordnance section of division special
troops. The major portion of these repairs and replacements will be made by the ordnance battalion, maintenance,
corps special troops; and ordnance battalion, maintenance
and supply, army troops. The ordnance maintenance section of the division is a small detachment carrying a limited
load of spare parts. Its main duty is to advise the using arms
on the maintenance of ordnance vehicles or, when necessary,
quartermaster vehicles.
d. The following indicates the type and nature of repairs
to be performed by the third echelon of maintenance:
(1) Minor repairs to bodies.
(2) Repair or replace radiator.
(3) Install complete assemblies such as engines, transmissions, axles, and the like, or replace subassemblies and
small items such as cylinder heads, carburetor, oil pump, oil
pan, fan assembly, generator, starting motor, oil pressure
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gage, ignition units and others, when inspection discloses
that the old one is in need of repair or replacement.
(4) Repair hoods.
(5) Repair bumpers.
(6) Adjust or replace shock absorbers.
(7) Replace clutch.
(8) Replace transmission.
(9) Replace inclosed propeller shaft and universal joints.
(10) Rebush or replace front axle assembly or parts
thereof.
(11) Replace and adjust rear axle assembly or parts
thereof.
(12) Repair sheet metal.
(13) Replace steering gear or parts thereof.
(14) Repair oil pump.
l15) Rebush or replace spring shackles.
(16) Replace and adjust wheel assembly or bearings.
(17) Repair fenders.
(18) Repair storage battery.
(19) All electric and gas welding (oxygen-acetylene).
(20) Repair troop seats.
e. No attempt is made in the above to indicate in detail
all of the operations which may be performed in the third
echelon. It must be remembered that parts or subassemblies
should be installed only when the repair is economical and
necessary for proper vehicle performance. Whenever replacement of a complete major unit is indicated, such as an
engine, transmission, front or rear axle assembly, no attempt
should be made by the third echelon organization to overhaul
the assembly or unit removed from the vehicle.
I. The main objective of the third echelon is to return the
vehicle to service in a good operating condition in the shortest possible time. Normally this can be done best by replacement of unit assemblies, subassemblies, or minor repairs not
involving complete tear-down of a unit. If the third echelon
activity oversteps its bounds and attempts to do the work
that properly belongs to the fourth echelon, it will probably
become swamped with work and the entire fleet or fleets of
vehicles it is serving will suffer from the resulting delays.
Consequently, third echelon maintenance units are equipped
only with the tools, mobile equipment, and motor mainte203
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BASIC FIELD MANUAL
nance supplies that will enable them to perform the functions
of unit replacement efficiently by limiting their capacity to,
work that can be done within reasonably short periods of
time.
g. The third echelon will ship unserviceable units removed
from vehicles to the proper fourth echelon shop for rebuild
and replacement, when necessary. These unserviceable units
when shipped must be complete with all subassemblies and
parts; that is, an engine must not be shipped without its
carburetor, fan, ignition unit, air cleaner, oil filter, and the
like.
h. The third echelon, as indicated above, maintains stock
on hand at a predetermined level so it can immediately meet
all demands made by the lower echelons. This stock includes spare parts, unit assemblies, and common parts that
are most' generally used. The amount and kind of stocks
on hand must always be based on the make, type, and
model of vehicles in the operating fleet of the regiments and
similar organizations served by the particular third echelon
activities. The actual quantities kept on hand are determined on the basis of experience tables covering the vehicles
to be maintained and anticipated consumption of the higher
mortality parts.
* 214. FOURTH ECHELON.a. The fourth echelon of maintenance is normally a fixed shop and a supply depot. Under
some circumstances this echelon may be a semimobile establishment. It is organized to supply units, parts, and specialized automotive items to all lower echelons (first to third
inclusive), and in some instances to other fourth echelon
activities. It utilizes the services of the most skilled automotive mechanics and trade specialists available for general
overhaul and reclamation of units and vehicles involving
major repairs and manufacture of parts. It also is organized
to perform the maintenance functions normally done by the
lower echelons (first to third) when conditions make it
necessary.
b. The functions of the fourth echelon are performed by
quartermaster heavy maintenance regiments, battalions, or
companies. These organizations operate according to the
several automotive maintenance classifications and the technical qualifications of the specialists assigned to them. The
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214
quartermaster heavy maintenance regiment consists of a
headquarters and headquarters' detachment and three battalions. Each battalion consists of a battalion headquarters
and headquarters' detachment, a motor transport depot company, and three heavy maintenance companies. The heavy
maintenance company consists of a company headquarters;
a shop headquarters and supply platoon, and four maintenance platoons designated vehicle assembly, heavy units,
power plant, and allied trades.
c. Fourth echelon maintenance activities are essentially
based on mass production methods to insure a prompt return
of repaired units, assemblies, and subassemblies to depot
stock so that they can be issued as required or returned to
their proper organization when required. The same is generally true with regard to its reclamation and salvage activities. Special manufacturing and vehicle reconstruction work
are performed in this echelon, whenever required to meet
special conditions. Stocks are determined from experience
tables based on parts mortality and are selected for the
particular type of motor transport vehicles included in the
organizations to be supplied.
(1) Supplies necessary for motor transport may be divided
generally into three classes:
Operating supplies (fuel, lubricants, etc.).
Maintenance supplies (spare parts, replacement parts,
etc.).
Cleaning and preserving materials.
Gasoline or other automotive fuels and lubricants will be
handled in the field 'by quartermaster battalions (or companies), gasoline supply.
(2) The supply of maintenance items requires careful
planning, prompt service, and strict economy, to insure efficient operation. Stocks of spare parts, assemblies, and units
must be maintained in quantities necessary to meet replacement demands. The ordinary procedure requires that an
unserviceable unit be replaced from stock and turned in for
overhaul or salvage. For example, when a carburetor on a
vehicle becomes unserviceable, the second echelon may replace
it at once by a spare carburetor in stock and send the defective unit to the third echelon establishment in exchange for
a serviceable one to replenish the stock. The actual repair
441574'-42-
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BASIC FIELD MANUAL
of the damaged item may be made in the third echelon or
fourth echelon before it is returned to stock; if beyond repair,
it is disposed of in accordance with existing orders. Constant
watchfulness on the Dart of the responsible officers is necessary to insure that stocks of the echelons are kept to the
prescribed limits. If the stocks. become depleted, delays and
an increase in the number of unserviceable vehicles on hand
will result. On the other hand, if stocks are accumulated in
unnecessary quantities in the lower echelons, it will result in
excessive vehicle loads or in delaying or stopping the repair
work of other organizations which cannot obtain the part due
to "stock hoarding." Hoarding and accumulating of excessive stocks of supplies, especially in the lower echelons,
should be discouraged and all efforts made to prevent such
action.
* 215. APPLICATION OF ECHELON SYSTEM OF MAINTENANCE TO
THEATER OF OPERATIONS.-a. It should be noted under the military echelon system of maintenance that echelon repairs to
vehicles and units are limited by the supplies, equipment,
personnel, and time available. Thus, it may happen when
conditions are favorable, that an unserviceable unit or vehicle
ordinarily turned over to the fourth echelon for repair or
reclamation by the third echelon may be actually repaired
and returned to the using organization by the third echelon.
When the third echelon shop has repairs beyond its capacity,
it is often necessary that some of its third echelon work be
evacuated to the fourth echelon shop. At other times and
under favorable conditions, the second echelon may make
third echelon repairs rather than evacuate the vehicle or
assembly. These conditions illustrate the flexibility of the
echelon system of maintenance.
b. Supply and evacuation.-The procedure governing supply
in a theater of operations is that supplies must flow down
through all four echelons of maintenance described in preceding paragraphs. Supplies in combat areas must always
move forward from the rear (fourth echelon) to the front
(first echelon). Each one of these echelons carries a stock
of spare parts, the first may be limited to only a spark plug
or a roll of tape. In addition the extent to which second
echelon organizations carry spare parts is limited by current
regulations and by the capacity of available vehicles for
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MOTOR TRANSP:.RT
215 218
carrying these units in addition to tools, spare parts, and
motor supplies. While this latter restriction does not apply
in post or garrison, it is a most vital consideration in field
service.
SECTION IV
MARCH MAINTENANCE
* 216. GENERAL.-Maintenance, while on a march, presents
many special and difficult problems, although, in general, the
principles already described apply. The speed maintained,
especially on long marches, in a very short time causes
disabled vehicles to become separated from their units by
considerable distances. This must be considered in making
decisions concerning the vehicles and any personnel left with
them, especially on sections of road which will be needed for
other marching groups or which will soon pass to the control
of other military units. Personnel and maintenance facilities may become sufficiently separated from their respective
units to endanger their return. Because of the unpredictable nature of marches near the enemy, and the ever present
urgent need for transportation, every opportunity for motor
maintenance should be used, even if it is only possible to make
repairs to keep the vehicle moving and it is necessary to finish
the work at some other time.
* 217. MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL.-Where marches of tactical
units are involved, each organization will have the maintenance personnel allowed by Tables of Organization. It is
possible in special situations, that some third echelon personnel may be attached. Maintenance personnel of batteries,
companies, or similar units normally ride at the tail of their
respective units, while the regimental motor maintenance
personnel ride at the tail of the regiment.
I 218. EQUIPMENT, SPARE PARTS AND SPARE UNITS.-The repair equipment available consists of the tools and equipment
allotted by the Table of Basic Allowances for each organization. The parts and units carried should be sufficient to cover
all work that experience indicates will probably occur.
Where small organizations such as batteries, companies, or
similar organizations operate by themselves, a minimum of
spare parts and units should be furnished from the regimental
second echelon.
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BASIC FIELD MANUAL
* 219. REPAIR PROCEDURE.--. During marches, roadside repairs to disabled vehicles are frequently temporary in character. The necessity for keeping the vehicles under control
and moving to complete their assigned tasks, often requires
hasty temporary repairs sufficient only to complete the trip.
Upon reaching its destination or bivouac, the vehicle should
be thoroughly repaired. When a vehicle drops out of its
battery, company, or similar unit, the maintenance personnel
at the tail of the unit should attempt to diagnose and correct
the trouble quickly.
b. If the diagnosis shows that the vehicle only needs a minor
repair, a mechanic with a kit of tools and spare parts may
be dropped off with the vehicle. When the vehicle is carrying supplies and troops, or towing a gun, and doubt exists as
to its probable repair in a reasonable time, its cargo or tow
must be removed and loaded or attached to another vehicle.
The driver must always remain with the vehicle, unless ordered by competent authority to abandon it. When a vehicle
drops out, it should be driven, pushed, or towed well off fo
the right of the road, so that other vehicles may pass around
without halting. If the vehicle is repaired by the mechanic
who was dropped off, it resumes the march at the maximum
authorized speed and rejoins the rear of the last unit that
has passed, remaining there until the next halt. If march
orders so permit, it then doubles the column and proceeds
to join its organization. If the mechanic cannot complete
the repairs, the vehicle should either be repaired or towed by
the regimental motor maintenance personnel bringing up
the rear of the march column.
c. (1) If the mechanic crew of the battery, company, or
similar unit decides that immediate repair is not possible, the
vehicle may be towed and repairs made later, or it may be
abandoned to regimental motor maintenance or to a higher
echelon. The decision in all cases is made by the motor
officer, or, in his absence, by the motor sergeant or chief
mechanic. This demands considerable practical knowledge
and training. Under certain circumstances it is advisable
to tow the vehicle until a more suitable place for making
repairs can be located. Many considerations, such as type of
repair, road, weather, enemy action, traffic conditions, and
distance from bivouac, have a bearing on this decision. For
example, the regimental motor maintenance organization
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MOTOR TRANSPORT
219-221
should tow a vehicle with a burned out bearing when only
an hour or so from the bivouac. Yet, if the same failure
should occur shortly after departure from a bivouac, or in
the mountains with a heavy load, the repair should be made
on the spot if the parts required are available.
(2) When repair personnel are working by the side of the
road, individuals as guards, flags, signs, lights or flares should
be put out as a warning to passing traffic unless the vehicle
is completely off the road. At night, red lanterns should be
used, Lighted warning signals, unless of the approved type,
should not be used when "blackout" light restrictions are in
effect.
(3) Whenever a battery, company, or similar unit maintenance crew stops to diagnose a vehicle that has fallen out,
care must be exercised that the crew personnel does not become separated from their parent organization. If this happens, the unit then has no maintenance personnel to care
for the remaining vehicles of the group. Maintenance personnel should normally be with the organization when it
arrives in bivouac, to assist in inspecting, repairing, and servicing the vehicles of the organization.
* 220. TowiNG DISABLED VEHICLES.-Arrangements in any
march column for towing disabled vehicles depend upon the
type of vehicle, road conditions, type of march, and other
considerations. Some vehicle or vehicles near the rear of
each organization should be designated as spare and towing
vehicles so that when a vehicle falls out, some vehicle near
the rear of the march group will be available if towing is
required. Such an arrangement prevents confusion and possible loss of a vehicle for the lack of a towing vehicle. If
vehicles are not made available as spares and for towing
purposes, the disabled vehicle must be repaired or abandoned
with its cargo. Towing vehicles should be provided with tow
bars, tow ropes, or tow chains.
* 221. ABANDONING VEHICLES.-a. When vehicles on the march
becdme disabled and for some reason are not towed or are
not capable of being towed with vehicles within the organization, they may be abandoned either temporarily or
permanently.
(1) When the abandonment is temporary, the driver and
possibly a mechanic are left with the vehicle which must be
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BASIC FIELD MANUAL
moved off the road. In the combat zone consideration rmust
be given to the possibility of not recovering the personnel and
facilities thus detached. If a gun prime mover fails, the
gun should be coupled to any available vehicle and accompany its organization. Every effort should be made to remove to other vehicles all essential combat equipment prior
to abandonment. A driver left with a vehicle awaiting maintenance or salvage personnel should be given explicit orders
concerning the protection or removal of the load.
(2) If the abandonment is permanent, the proper steps
should be taken to comply with orders covering such action.
When vehicles are abandoned or left for the disposition by
service echelon, the commander should obtain replacement
as soon as possible. When operating units abandon vehicles,
the supply service concerned should be furnished accurate
reports as soon as practicable of the location and general
conditions of such vehicles.
b. It is extremely important that highways be kept clear,
consequently abandoned vehicles must be pushed well off the
road.
SECTION V
LUBRICATION
* 222. GENERAL.-. Lubrication is an essential part of preventive maintenance, To a great extent it determines serviceability of parts and assemblies; it materially influences
repair and operation costs; and it is one of the most important factors affecting dependable mobility and long and
useful vehicle life. Training, supervision, supplies and equipment are required for the performance of correct lubrication.
b. Correct lubrication provides and maintains, under all
conditions of operation, a suitable oil film between friction
surfaces that require it.
c. Details and methods of lubrication are included in various manufacturers' manuals, in TM 10-540, in Technical
Manuals covering individual vehicles, and in case of ordnance
vehicles, in OFSB (6- series).
* 223. METHODS.-.
Lubrication may be decentralized or
centralized. In either case the unit commander must definitely fix responsibility. The motor officer, assisted by the
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MOTOR TRANSPORT
223
truckmaster, the motor sergeant, and/or the chief mechanic,
prepares lubrication schedules, supervises lubrication and
makes frequent inspections to assure himself that all vehicles
are properly lubricated, using as guide information listed in
paragraph 19c.
(1) Decentralizedlubrication.-Thismethod is particularly
applicable to field service operations, and will give excellent
results when personnel are properly trained and supervised,
and lubrication schedules are carefully followed. Responsibility is divided as follows:
(a) The driver performs the prescribed first echelon lubrication functions. (See par. 22.)
(b) The mechanics lubricate gear cases, steering gear
housing, wheel bearings, universal joints, starting motor,
generator, distributor, clutch release bearing, water pump,
fan, air cleaner, and other special items, also change crankcase oil.
(c) Squad leaders, chiefs of sections, motor sergeants, chief
mechanics, and truckmasters are charged with direct supervision of lubrication activities in the organization. They
should make frequent inspections to insure correct and
scheduled lubrication.
(2) Centralized lubrication.-When this method is employed, all lubricating functions are carried on at a central
point and drivers are relieved of all responsibility for lubrication except the replenishment of engine crankcase oil.
When centralized lubrication is applied to a small fleet one
qualified individual should be charged with responsibility
for lubrication. When the fleet is too large to be lubricated
correctly by one individual, assistants should be provided and
responsibilities should be definite and fixed. Vehicles should
be sent to the central place when lubrication is required and
should be accompanied by the driver. The driver's services
should be utilized to assist in and expedite the work. Centralized lubrication is not normally recommended for field
service operations of combat organizations and of supply and
service units in the combat area.
b. When motor vehicles are detached from their organizations so that they will miss their scheduled lubrication service,
provision should be made for the performance of the lubrication functions. This should be accomplished in one of the
following ways:
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BASIC FIELD MANUAL
(1) Send qualified personnel and the necessary supplies and
equipment with the vehicles.
(2) Arrange for the vehicles to be lubricated by the other
organization.
(3) Provide the necessary supplies and equipment, and
direct the driver to perform the lubrication.
C. During cross-country operations, involving low-gear
operation, consideration should be given to more frequent
oil change.
* 224. SCHEDULES.--a. Lubrication schedules should be prepared for each make of vehicle assigned to an operating
organization. When more than one type vehicle of the same
make is assigned, usually one schedule can be devised which,
with a few exceptions, should apply to all types of the same
make. The schedule or chart furnished by the manufacturer
should form the basis for organization lubrication schedules
and should be modified in accordance with practical experience. When the manufacturer's or other approved recommendations are not available, schedules should be devised
by experienced personnel and steps immediately taken to
obtain approved recommendations. TM 10-540 can be used
as a guide.
b. Lubrication periods recommended by the manufacturer
are generally too infrequent to provide correct lubrication
for military motor vehicles under hard field service conditions.
They often should be modified to meet the operating conditions imposed by field service. In general, the chassis and
slow moving parts should be lubricated, if practicable, every
15 days or 100 hours of vehicle operation; the crankcase oil
should be checked frequently and oil changed after 500 to
1,000 miles of operation, especially if a vehicle is operated for
considerable periods across country or in low gear. Extreme
conditions of operation' may necessitate more frequent changing of the oil. Winter operation, operating in dust, or sandladen atmospheres, conditions which permit water to enter
bearings and gear cases, may make more frequent oil changes
and lubrication necessary. It is essential that the air cleaners
be kept in perfect working order at all times. The gear
lubricants should be checked weekly and changed seasonally,
unless manufacturer recommends more frequent changes.
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MOTOR TRANSPORT
224-225
Supply of proper lubricants, properly trained personnel,
energetic supervision, and strict application of lubrication
schedules are all necessary to achieve correct lubrication.
* 225. LUBRICArN.-a. General.-Lubricantsused on military
motor vehicles should conform to the recommendations of
vehicle manufacturers or of the supply services concerned.
When no recommendations are furnished by the manufacturer or the supply service concerned and when a doubt
exists, the selection and use of the proper lubricants should
be based on the experience of technically qualified personnel.
During field service it may be impossible to supply a complete
assortment of lubricants which meet the above recommendations and it will be necessary to make the best use of those
available.
b. Types and uses.-Correct lubrication of motor vehicles
requires the use of several types of lubricants and the application of each type in accordance with a lubrication schedule. Detailed instructions as to types of lubricants and their
general use are shown in TM 10-540. In the case of ordnance vehicles, information is given in OFSB (6-series) and
in Technical Manuals covering specific vehicles. General
instructions as to types and uses are as follows:
(1) Lubricating oils.-Lubricatingoils used on military motor vehicles are exclusively mineral oils obtained by distilling
crude petroleum oils. They are characterized by physical
properties such as viscosity, viscosity index, flash point, and
pour point. They should be used in accordance with the approved recommendations. In general, oils are employed to
lubricate engine bearings; starting motors; generators; slowmoving surfaces such as brake pedal pivots and brake linkage, door hinges, and locks; some fan bearings; some water
pumps; and some transmissions. Different makes of oils
should not be mixed.
(2) Gearlubricants.-Gearlubricants are heavy bodied oils,
pure mineral oil or pure mineral oil to which materials have
been added, used for the lubrication of parts where a strong
oil film is required. In general, they are employed for the
lubrication of final drives and differentials, transmissions,
auxiliary transmissions, transfers, steering gear housings,
some wheel bearings, and some universal joints. Approved
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225
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
recommendations should be followed.
of gear lubricants are available:
The following types
(a) Fluid gear oils.-These are pure mineral oils.
They
are heavier in body than oils used in the engine crankcase,
but are usually not so highly refined. These oils are comparable to steam cylinder oil, a dark-colored, heavy-body oil.
They are used for the lubrication of gear trains, steering
gears, and universal joints where pressures and temperatures
are moderate.
(b) Compound gear lubricants.-These are blends of mineral oil and soap. The soap, usually a soda type, acts as a
filler, but does not increase the lubricating properties of the
oil. Normally, .compounded gear lubricants are used instead
of fluid gear oils when tooth wear has taken place or when
the gear housings will not retain a fluid oil.
(c) Extreme pressure (EP) lubricants and hypoid lubricants.-These lubricants are mineral oils combined with certain soaps and/or chemicals to increase the oil film strength.
They are required for the proper lubrication of final drives
where high-unit pressures, combined with severe squeezing
action, prevail. A pure mineral oil or a compounded gear
lubricant does not provide an oil film strong enough to prevent
metal-to-metal contact under these operating conditions.
Hypoid lubricants must be used to lubricate hypoid final
drives. Different types of gear lubricants, different makes of
EP, or different makes of hypoid lubricants should not be
mixed. EP lubricants and hypoid lubricants, being chemically active, are harmful to some metals and are susceptible
to chemical changes during use: therefore they should be
used in accordance with accepted practice.
(3) Greases.--Greases are usually made by compounding
mineral oil with a soap. The load-carrying properties of
greases, except graphite grease, are determined by the oil
used in compounding the grease. Greases are used to lubricate surfaces where pure mineral oil or gear lubricants cannot be retained. The following types of greases are used:
(a) Chassis lubricant.-Chassis lubricant or pressure gun
grease is usually made by compounding a light oil with a
soap. It is available in a variety of consistencies. The consistency may be determined by either the oil or the soap, or
both, used in compounding and should not be used as an index
to the lubricating and load-carrying properties of the grease.
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MOTOR TRANSPORT
225
Consistency affects ease and manner of application. Chassis
lubricants have a natural tendency to spread readily over the
bearing surfaces, to cling to them, and to resist the action of
water. They are used at practically all points on a motor
vehicle that are equipped with pressure grease fittings, with
a few exceptions such as water pumps, universal joints, and
wheel bearings.
(b) Cup grease.--Cup grease has a higher consistency than
chassis lubricant but is not heat resistant. Since the development of special greases there is little or no use for cup grease
for the lubrication of motor vehicles.
(c) Water-pump grease.-Water-pump grease is usually
made by mixing tallow with cup grease. It is not readily
soluble in water and has a melting point considerably higher
than the boiling point of water. This grease was especially
developed for water pump with gland packings.
(d) Sodium soap (fiber) greases.-Mineral oil combined
with sodium soap produces greases known as fiber or fibrous
greases. These greases are stringy or fibrous in nature, but
there is no fibrous material actually present in the grease.
Fiber greases have a high melting point and a very strong
tendency to cling to bearing surfaces, making them particularly suitable for the lubrication of parts and assemblies
where centrifugal force tends to throw out the lubricant.
They are usually soluble in water, thus limiting their use to
parts or assemblies that are practically free from the action
of water. The general uses of fiber grease are universal
joints, wheel bearings, clutch-release bearings, and some drive
axle universal joints.
(4) Miscellaneous lubricants and fluids.-(a) Spring lubricant.-Graphite grease, a mixture of grease and graphite, is
generally used for the lubrication of spring leaves. It is not
to be used for general lubrication purposes.
(b) Penetratingoil--This oil is used principally to get into
places that have become very dry or rusty, such as brake linkage and nuts or bolts that cannot be loosened or tightened
with a reasonable amount of force.
(c) Petrolatum or vaseline.-Petrolatum or vaseline is used
to coat battery terminals and connections to reduce corrosion.
It is also used to lubricate the fiber block on the movable
breaker point arm in the distributor housing.
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BASIC FIELD MANUAL
(d) Kerosene.-Kerosene may be used to thin engine lubricating oil in very cold weather. Approved recommendations
should be followed closely when it is necessary to resort to
this practice.
(e) Cleaningsolvent.-Cleaning solvent is a compound fluid
used for washing engines, parts and assemblies. It is not
highly inflammable; however, it should be employed with
caution when used for cleaning hot engines. When cleaning
solvent is not available kerosene may be used.
(f) Alcohol.-Hydraulic-brakeparts should be cleaned with
denatured alcohol. Gasoline, kerosene, cleaning solvents, and
oils are harmful to these parts and must not be used for this
cleaning.
* 226. MEANS OF APPLIcAnoN.-Lubricants are applied to the
motor vehicle by employing the equipment provided by Tables
of Basic Allowance and in accordance with vehicle manufacturer's manuals or with TM 10-540.
* 227. REcORDS.-A complete record of lubrication should be
kept. Responsible personnel should report when lubrication
duties have been completed in order that proper entries may
be made.
SEcnON VI
INSPECTIONS
* 228. GENERAL-A thorough and comprehensive system of
inspections is a primary requisite for the satisfactory operation
of motor vehicles. Inspection has for its purpose the detection of deficiencies in mechanical condition, appearance, servicing and operation of motor vehicles, and the recommendation of corrective measures to prevent recurrence of such
deficiencies. While the appearance of the vehicle as a whole
is of some concern, the important inspection is that which
covers the adjustments and mechanical condition of operating units, and that which investigates the lubrication of a
vehicle with a view to maintaining standards of reliability and
performance originally built into the vehicle. Such inspections are classified as command, maintenance, and technical
inspections.
a. Command inspections.-Itis the duty of all commanders
to make regular and frequent inspections of their motor ve216
MOTOR TRANSPORT
228
hides and of the operating and maintenance activities of
their commands.
b. Maintenance inspections.-Maintenanceinspections are
a part of scheduled maintenance operations and normally
should be performed by personnel of the operating organization during and upon completion of these operations.
(1) Daily inspections.-Dailymaintenance inspections normally are made by the chief of section under the supervision
of company, battery, or similar unit officers. They consist in
checking and supervising the work of the vehicle operator in
his performance of daily maintenance operations.
(2) Weekly inspections.-Weekly maintenance inspections
normally are made by the chief of section under supervision
of 6ompany, battery, or similar unit officers. They consist
of checking and supervising the work of the vehicle operator in his performance of weekly maintenance operations.
In addition, the chief of section should examine the less
accessible places, looking for rust spots, leaks, breaks, and
excessive or deficient lubrication. The serviceability and
completeness of tools and other equipment should be
thoroughly checked. A guide for his weekly inspection should
be drawn up and issued to him to fit the particular vehicle
or vehicles he is assigned. A suggested guide is as follows:
-______-________-______________-Accident report__
Appearance ..........................
Battery --.-.--------.-.-.-.-.-.-. -------------_ _ ___.___________._._
Body bolts and screwr
Bows__________________
---------Brakes ____._.__.__.__.__.__._____ __.
Broken metal.
.
_..
Bumper and tow hooks________
Canvas._______..__________.__________-___
Chains ----------------------------------------Condition of motor .......................
Curtain fasteners_____.______.____.______
Doors _____._____
..
______.____________.
Driver's permit____ ______
Extinguisher -......................
_____
Fender bolts
______....._____..._
Fenders ___.-.---------------------.------------
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BASIC FIELD MANUAL
228
Floor boards ___________________________________
G lass -----------------_ ------_-_-_-_-__
-_______
Handle and latches _.
_____.________.._____.__
Hood fasteners
________
Horn
------- -------------- - - - - - - - - - - - -
Insulating material________
Keys _...__.__________------_---- ___---- _
Leaks on ground.
_______.___...................
Lights...................
_______-___.
Lubrication _._._.._.
Mats _.
.
...
.
.....
.
..
Rear view mirror ________..
Running boards ________...._._._.X
Running gear
__ ___
_.
_ .
Seat brackets.
.
.
.
.
Servicing .__ __. ___ __ ___ _._._
Special mountings__________ 00.__________.___
Springs....
_._. ... _._._._._._._._._._._
Steering ___.___.___.____._.__.___-_______
___
Straps ___._.__.__.....................Tail gate
___..._________________________ _
.__
Tires:
Cuts_...
.
.
.
.
.
.
Inflation __.__.__._____._._.___._
Unusual wear .........................
Tool brackets ___________
Tools ----------------......---Traction devices _
._______.____......
..
Upholstering ........................
__
Wheel lugs________
__..___
Windshield wiper ________
Defects to be corrected:
...
.....................................- ---
(3) Lubrication inspections-All lubrication operations
performed by the driver normally are inspected by the chief
of section. The motor sergeant inspects all lubrication, in-
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MOTOR TRANSPORT
228-229
eluding that performed by the driver, if any, and that performed by unit maintenance personnel.
(4) Monthly (1,000-mile) inspections.-The monthly
(1,000-mile) maintenance inspection is a check on company,
battery, or similar unit maintenance. It normally is made
by the motor officer of that unit but may be made by the
regimental, battalion, or similar unit motor officer. Before
reporting a vehicle to the motor officer for maintenance
inspection, the motor sergeant assures himself that the work
of his mechanics has been properly performed and that no
items have been overlooked. The motor officer spot checks
such items as he believes necessary, including those that are
inaccessible or frequently neglected. He should make a short
road test of the vehicle.
(5) Six-months (6,000-mile) inspections.-The six-months
(6,000-mile) maintenance inspection is a check on the maintenance work performed by the regiment, battalion, or
similar unit. It will be made by the unit motor officer, assisted
by qualified enlisted personnel, upon completion of the sixmonths (6,000-mile) maintenance operation in a manner
similar to that described for the monthly (1,000-mile) maintenance inspection.
c. Technical inspections.-Technical inspections are made
by fully qualified technical personnel of the supply services
to determine the vehicle condition. These inspections are
covered in AR 850-15, in Circular 1-10, OQMG, and TM 10545.
SECTION VII
RECORDS AND REPORTS
* 229. GENERAL.-In maintaining a fleet of motor vehicles
certain reports and records are indispensable. They must be
simple and complete, and must be prepared by qualified personnel. The regimental or similar organization motor officer
should periodically assemble all personnel of the regiment
who prepare these records and reports, and explain and demonstrate the simplest yet correct manner of keeping them.
Posting of all reports daily or at relatively short intervals
should be required. and a careful check should be maintained
by the commanding officers of all units operating and maintaining motor transportation. Records often clearly indicate
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229-230
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
items that require attention. Usually high fuel consumption
or low oil mileage indicates poor performance or unauthorized
disposition of fuel or oil. Excessive repairs might indicate
poor, careless or indifferent driving. The records as a whole
keep the organization commander informed of the general
condition of the vehicles and assist him in making timely
request for supplies, repairs and replacement.
[[ 230. REPORTS AND REOORDS REQUIRED BY REGULATIONS.-a.
Standard Form No. 26 (Driver's Report-Accident, Motor
Transportation).-Thisform must be carried on every military motor vehicle. Its use is mandatory whenever a military
driver is involved in an accident, no matter how trivial it
may be.
b. Standard Form No. 27 (Investigating Officer's ReportAccident, Motor Transportation).--The officer designated to
investigate an accident submits his report on a motor vehicle
accident on this form.
c. W. D., Q. M. C. Form No. 228 (U. S. Army Motor Vehicle
Operator'sPermit).--This permit must be in the possession
of a vehicle operator at all times when he is operating a motor
vehicle. It should not be issued without a thorough test as
to driver's ability.
d. W. D., Q. M. C. Form No. 260 (Technical Inspection Report of Motor Vehicles).-This form is used in recording the
technical inspections required by existing regulations and for
such other inspections as may seem desirable.
e. W. D., Q. M. C. Form No. 237 (Driver's Trip Ticket and
Performance Record).-No vehicle will be dispatched unless
a trip ticket accompanies the vehicle. Upon completion of
the trip, drivers should be required to complete the form in
full detail. These forms provide information required in the
vehicle service record books. These forms need not be issued
to groups of vehicles on a march or a convoy.
f. W. D., Q. M. C. Form No. 248 (Motor Vehicle Service Record Book).-This record is kept for every quartermaster motor vehicle in operation. It constitutes the service record of
the vehicle and must be transferred with it. Instructions
relative to the posting of this record are contained in the
book itself. This is a most important record, and must be
accurately and promptly -posted.
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MOTOR TRANSPORT
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g. W. D., O. O. Form No. 5956 (Ordnance Motor Book).This record is kept for every ordnance vehicle in operation.
It constitutes the service record of the vehicle and must be
transferred with it. Instructions relative to the posting of
this record are contained in the book itself. This is a most
important record, and must be accurately and promptly
posted.
h. Other forms.-Other prescribed forms are:
(1) W. D., Q. M. C. Form No. 220 (Data for RegistrationMotor Vehicle).
(2) W. D., Q. M. C. Form No. 221 (Motor Vehicle Transfer
Form).
(3) W. D., Q. M. C. Form No. 252 (Annual Physical Inventory Report of Motor Vehicles).
(4) W. D., Q. M. C. Form No. 253 (Annual Report of Motor
Vehicle Changes of Accountability).
(5) W. D., Q. M. C. Form No. 231 (Gasoline and Lubricant
Issue Slip), W. D., Q. M. C. Form No. 437 (Delivery Order
and Receipt), W. D., Q. M. C. Form No. 438 (Daily Abstract
of Issues of Fuel, Forage, Gasoline and Oils, and Operating
Supplies), W. D., Q. M. C. Form No. 440 (Monthly Abstract
of Issues of Fuel, Forage, Gasoline and Oils, and Operating
Supplies), and W. D., Q. M. C. Form No. 425 (Abstract of
Property not otherwise accounted for). W. D., Q. M. C. Form
No. 231 should be used when required as a requisition on the
gasoline filling station to supply fuel and lubricants required. Under Change No. 5, Circular 1-5, O. Q. M. G., 1940,
after issues are made they are receipted for on Form No. 437.
These Forms Nos. 437 are posted daily to Form No. 438 as
evidenced by the original Form No. 437. The totals of the
daily abstract on Form No. 438 in turn are posted on Form
No. 440. At the end of the month Form No. 440 will be totaled,
the issues will be certified by the quartermaster and the quantities dropped from Form No. 425.
(6) W. D., Q. M. C. Form No. 254 (Dally Dispatching Record
of Motor Vehicles).
(7) These forms and others necessary or beneficial in keeping the above records or making the above reports should be
obtained from the supply services when available, otherwise
such forms or charts must be prepared locally to meet requirements. Forms used for controlling and recording motor
maintenance records are listed in the current "Regulations
441574 -42-
16
221
230
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
governing industrial activities at motor repair shops of the
Quartermaster Corps," and may be adapted to requirements
of organizational maintenance activities.
i. Special forms.-These must be developed and improvised locally, as necessary.
(1) Automotive operations sheets.-A major part of the
data for the W. D., Q. M. C. Form No. 248 (Motor Vehicle
Service Record Book) is abstracted from the driver's trip
tickets. When the entries on this record book are made
monthly, a bulky stack of trip tickets accumulates before the
entries can be made in the record book. To obviate this
condition and to consolidate all operating, inspection, and
maintenance data, the operations sheet shown in appendix
VIII may be utilized. One of these is required for each Vehicle, and is an invaluable aid to the maintenance personnel.
(2) Preventive maintenance operations guides-Models of
forms that can be adapted to meet any requirement will be
found in TM 10-540 and 10-545.
(3) Motor vehicle morning report.-This form as shown in
appendix VII can be modified and adapted to local needs so
as to give the motor transport officer concerned a day-by-day
report on the status of all motor vehicles of the organization,
pool, or similar establishment.
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MOTOR TRANSPORT
231-232
CHAPTER 8
LOADING FOR MOVEMENT BY RAIL OR WATER
SECTION I Movements by rail --.-------II. Movements by water
............
_.__.. _.
_
Paragraphs
231-232
233-237
SECTION I
MOVEMENTS BY RAIL
* 231. REFERENCES.-Information concerning rail movements
may be found in AR 30-930, 30-935, 30-940, 30-945 and 30-955,
and in FM 101-10. In the absence of such regulations the
local rail transport officer should be consulted.
* 232. GENERAL PROCEDURE.-.
When individual motor vehicles are shipped or when an organization does not accompany its transportation, vehicles are turned over to the
local quartermaster for shipment. In this case the quartermaster is normally responsible for furnishing the necessary
personnel and material for loading and blocking equipment.
b. In organized rail movements of troops and their transportation, organizations are grouped and their vehicles are
loaded and blocked by their own personnel on suitable railroad cars. Vehicles are usually shipped on flat cars (36 to
60 feet in length), gondolas (36 to 60 feet in length), or
special box cars (usually 50 feet in length) designed for the
handling of motor vehicles. Automobile or flat cars with
wooden floors are most desirable because of the ease of loading them and blocking the loaded vehicles. (See FM 101-10.)
c. For tactical organizations moved by rail, the necessary
administrative orders detailing procedure and methods of
loading are issued by the commander of the tactical organization through his staff. Normally a quartermaster officer is
charged with the responsibility of making the necessary arrangements with the railroad company for the type and
number of cars required and point and time of delivery.
Sufficient notice should be given this officer to allow him
ample time to procure the equipment. If the tactical organization is not near any post, camp, or station or in contact
223
232 234
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
with a representative of the Quartermaster Corps, the supply
officer of the organization usually becomes responsible for
making the necessary arrangements with the railroad company. The inspection and preparation of railroad equipnment before and after loading, such as removing brake handwheels, is accomplished by railroad employees and an inspection is made by the quartermaster. Whenever it is possible to do so, permanent teams should be used for loading
and blocking. Because of their increasing familiarity with
their particular jobs, these teams will be more efficient and
will accomplish more work than would different teams for
each organization. In the long run this procedure will result in saving time and labor. For details as to preparation
of motor vehicles for loading, equipment and material needed,
and railroad specifications, see FM 101-10.
SECTION II
MOVEMENTS BY WATER
* 233. GENERAL PROCEDURE.-Preparation of vehicles for water shipment is accomplished by military personnel. Loading
and securing of vehicles is accomplished by the ship's personnel under the direction of the transport's officer and with
the use of the transport's loading rigging. After loading,
movement of vehicles into position on board should be done
by the regular military drivers under the vehicles' own power,
when practicable. Because of the dovetailing of the duties
of ship's crew and military personnel, close coordination is
essential between the ship's officer and the commissioned
officer in charge of loading.
* 234. PREPARATION FOR SHIPMENT BY TRANSPORT.-Preparation of a vehicle for water shipment is, with obvious modification, the same as that laid down for rail shipment.
When the vehicle, after being loaded is to be moved into
position on board under its own power, gasoline and water
are not drained and the battery is not disconnected until
the vehicle is in its final position. Preparation of tires, tops,
curtains, cushions, and loose property is the same as for rail
shipment. Because of a greater tendency for parts to rust
during water shipment, special attention must be given to
rust prevention. All exposed bright metal parts and exposed
224
MOTOR TRANSPORT
234-237
working parts should be greased, and engines should be
cranked several turns about every 3 days, oftener if necessary. Under conditions especially likely to cause rust,
engines should also be slushed internally with heavy oil
inserted through spark plug openings. As in the case of
rail shipments, an inspection with the aid of a check list
should be conducted to insure that the vehicle is properly
prepared for shipment (app. VI).
* 235. FACILITIES FOR LOADING.-Loading vehicles on board is
accomplished by ship's personnel with the use of the ship's
loading rigging. This usually consists of a boom rigged
with a block and a winch or similar rigging. Vehicles are
raised from the dock and lowered into the hold by means of a
sling.
* 236. SECURING VEHICLES ON BOARD,-Vehicles placed below
decks, where there are usually wooden floors, are blocked
and secured as described for rail shipment on flat cars. On
deck or on other metal floors, vehicles must be lashed in
place with stout rope. In either case lengthwise, sidewise,
and bouncing motion of the vehicle should be eliminated.
Miscellaneous loose equipment is to be boxed and secured
to avoid shifting which would damage vehicles and avoid
loss incident to pilferage. After the vehicles are completely
secured, the hatches are sealed. Frequent inspections should
be conducted especially during rough weather, to insure that
the blocking and lashing is holding, and that the vehicles
are riding without damage.
· 237. UNLOADING.-Unloading is conducted again by the
ship's personnel and with the same ship's equipment, as was
used for loading. After the vehicles have been serviced, an
inspection with the aid of the original loading check list
should be made to insure that the vehicle is properly prepared to resume operation.
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BASIC FIELD MANUAL
APPENDIX I
LIST OF REFERENCES
· 1. ARMY REGULATIONS.
AR 30-955, Transportation of Supplies.
AR 40-75, Ambulances-General Provisions.
AR 730-10, Fuel and Lubricants for Motor Vehicles and
Equipment Used for Training Purposes.
AR 850-5, Marking of Clothing, Equipment, Vehicles,
and Property.
AR 850-10, Registration and Inventory of Motor Vehicles.
AR 850-15, Military Motor Vehicles.
AR 850-18, Storage of Motor Vehicle Equipment.
· 2. OTHER PUBLICATIONS.
Field Service Regulations, FM 100-5.
Staff Officers' Field Manuals, FM 101-5 and 101-10.
Field Manuals for the arms, FM 5-10, 5-25, 5-30, and
5-35.
Basic Field Manuals, FM 21-40 and 29-5.
Technical Manuals, TM 10-540 and 10-545.
Circular 1-10, OQMG, Motor Transportation.
Quartermaster motor transport technical service bulletins.
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MOTOR TRANSPORT
APPENDIX
1
SCHEDULE OF INSTRUCTION-DRIVER TRAINING
· 1. The following schedule of instruction which requires
approximately 85 hours is designed primarily as a guide for
the training of drivers who are to operate trucks with towed
loads, but with obvious modifications it will be satisfactory
for the training of drivers for any military motor vehicle.
The training includes conferences, demonstrations, and practical periods and is terminated with a qualification examination. The continuity of instruction may be changed to meet
local conditions if related conferences and practical periods
are coordinated.
IST PERIOD (2 hours).
a. Conference.
(1) Responsibility of drivers.
(2) Personnel and general duties.
(a) Unit commander.
(b) Motor officer.
(c) Motor sergeant.
(d) Mechanics.
(e) Chiefs of section or truckmasters.
(f) Drivers.
(3) Fire prevention and fire fighting.
(a) Precautions against fire. (AR 850-15 and
local orders.)
(b) Proper methods of fighting fires.
1. Gasoline and oil fires-Fire extinguishers, blankets, sand, and chemicals.
2. Other fires.
(c) Location of fire-fighting equipment.
1. In and around motor park.
2. On the motor vehicle.
(d) Method of reporting fire-Location of telephones, how and whom to call.
(4) Accident prevention.
(a) Precautions against accidents,
(b) Carbon monoxide poisoning.
(c) Whom to call to get assistance.
(5) Care, condition, and use of vehicle tools and equipment.
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BASIC FIELD MiANUAL
b. Questions on material covered during the period.
2D PERIOD (light vehicle, 3 hours).
a. Conference and demonstration.
(1) The command truck, pick-up truck, or any appropriate vehicle.
(a) Use.
(b) General nomenclature.
(c) Vehicle equipment.
(d) Characteristics.
(2) Inspection prior to starting engine.
(3) Proper method of starting engine, to include coldweather starting.
(4) Proper warm-up of engine.
(5) Inspection after starting engine.
(6) Driver's position.
(7) Positions of the gear shift lever.
(8) Proper use of the clutch, accelerator, gear shift
lever, brakes, and other controls to start, change
gears, and stop the vehicle.
(9) Driver's arm signals.
(10) Signals for control of the unit.
b. Practical-(Vehiclesmay be blocked with all wheels off
the ground. A qualified instructor is assigned to each
vehicle.)
(1) Inspection prior to starting engine, by the numbers.
(2) Students mount, assume correct position, and familiarize themselves with controls. (Engine not
running.)
(3) Start and warm up engines.
(4) Inspection after starting engine, by the numbers.
(5) Drivers shift transmission into each of the several
ratios at will.
(6) Drivers shift into designated speeds and change
direction on signal of instructor. Students give
proper arm signals. Repeat until drivers are
reasonably proficient.
(7) Stop engines.
c. Conference and demonstration.
(1) Inspection during operation.
(2) Inspection at the halt.
(3) Driver's trip ticket.
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MOTOR TRANSPORT
d. Questions on material covered during the period.
3D PERIOD (light vehicle, 3 hours).
(Command, pick-up trucks or any appropriate vehicle on
a large, unobstructed field prior to the conference or driven
to the field by the assistant instructors.)
a. Conference and demonstration.
(1) Inspection prior to leaving park.
(2) Proper procedure to put vehicle in motion.
(3) Proper method of shifting gears and appropriate
gear to use.
(4) Proper niethod for stopping vehicle.
(5) Proper method for backing vehicle.
(6) Duties of assistant driver.
(7) Rules of the road.
(8) Arm signals for various maneuvers limbered.
(a) Explain movements.
(b) Distance, interval, guides.
(9) Issue trip ticket.
b. Practical.
(1) Inspection prior to starting engine, by the numbers.
(2) Inspection after starting engine, by the numbers.
(3) Inspection prior to leaving park, by the numbers.
(4) Preliminary driving. Students, accompanied by
qualified instructors, drive at will to familiarize
themselves with the manipulation and performance of their vehicles.
(5) Form vehicles in column and maneuver by arm
signals.
(6) Form line and halt.
(7) Inspection at the halt, by the numbers.
c. Conference.-Organization and formation of the motor
park.
d. Practical.
(1) Caretaking.
(2) Inspection after caretaking.
(3) Completion of trip ticket.
e. Question drivers.
NonE.-In all succeeding periods where operation is involved,
include the following, if applicable:
Issue of trip ticket.
Inspection prior to starting engine.
Inspection after starting engine.
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BASIC FIELD
LANUAL
Inspection prior to leaving park.
Inspection during operation.
Inspection at halt.
Forming park.
Caretaking.
Inspection after caretaking.
Completion of trip ticket.
4TH PERIOD (light vehicle, 3 hours).
(Vehicles in open field or on unused road. Stakes should
mark the places for shifting and stopping.)
a. Conference.-Review of controls.
b. Practical.
(1) Driving and shifting.
(2) Simple, easy turns.
(3) Starting and stopping.
5TH PERIOD (light vehicle, 3 hours).
(Vehicles on a field marked to simulate a street corner.)
a. Conference and demonstration.
(1) Arm signals.
(2) Right turn.
(3) Left turn.
(4) Right-of-way at intersections.
(5) U-turns.
(6) Intersection markings and signs.
(7) Turns on multiple-lane highways.
(8) Review safety precautions.
b. Practical.
(1) Right turn from stop.
(2) Left turn from stop.
(3) Right turn moving.
(4) Left turn moving.
(5) Right turn with opposing traffic.
(6) Left turn with opposing traffic.
6TH PERIOD (light vehicle, 3 hours).
a. Conference and demonstration.
(1) Nomenclature and functioning of vehicle units
and assemblies with particular attention to
lubrication. (To be carried on through the
remainder of the course or until drivers are
qualified in this subject.)
(2) Weekly inspection.
(3) Drivers' maintenance.
230
MOTOR TRANSPORT
b. Practical.
(1) Inspections.
(2) Proper method of doubling (passing).
(3) Proper method of parking.
(4) Stopping distances.
(5) Drivers' maintenance; cleaning, lubricating, inspecting, servicing, tightening, and emergency
repairing.
7TH PERIOD (truck, 3 hours).
(Trucks in an open field or on unused road. Stakes placed
to indicate places for shifting and stopping and a marked
intersection.)
a. Conference.
(1) Use of controls.
(2) Shifting to higher gears.
(3) Stopping.
b. Practical.
(1) Driving and shifting.
(2) Simple, easy turns.
(3) Starting and stopping.
(4) Right turns from stop.
(5) Left turns from stop.
(6) Right turns moving.
(7) Left turns moving.
(8) Right and left turns with opposing traffic.
(9) Tight circle turns,
8TH PERIOD (truck, 3 hours).
a. Conference and demonstration.
(1) Vehicle characteristics.
(2) Double clutching.
(3) Gear range (auxiliary transmission-transfer case).
(a) Purpose.
(b) Use.
(c) Location and operation of shift lever.
(4) Four-speed transmission-Positions of gear shift'
lever.
b. Practical.-Driving.
9TH PERIOD (truck, 3 hours).
(1) Cross-country driving.
(2) Driving through water.
(3) Changing tires and repairing tubes.
231
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
(4) Application of traction devices.
(5) Use of winch.
(6) Accident report.
b. Practical.-Cross-countrydriving, fairly difficult.
10T PERIOD (truck with towed load, 3 hours).
a. Conference and demonstration.
(1) Precautions for towed loads.
(2) Loads, loading, and lashing.
(3) Coupling.
(4) March formations, signals, and distances.
(5) Rules of the road.
(6) Reading of road maps.
b. Practical.-Maneuvers,followed by a short road march
on good roads.
Noan.-Drivers' Inspections must include towed load.
11TH PERIOD (truck with towed load, 3 hours).
a. Conference and demonstration.-Special maneuvers for
arm or service.
b. Practical.-Maneuversas covered by appropriate regulations.
12TH PERIOD (truck with towed load, 3 hours).
a. Conference.
(1) Traffic regulations.
(2) Road marches.
(a) Distances.
(b) SPeeds.
(c) Route markers.
(d) March regulations.
(3) Passage through cities and congested areas.
b. Practical.-Roadmarch on good roads.
13mT PERIOD (truck with towed load, 3 hours).
a. Conference and demonstration.
(1) Difficult draft.
(2) Feld expedients.
b. Practical.
(1) Cross-country driving, difficult.
(2) Occupation of position.
(3) Disposition of vehicles during firing.
(4) Camouflage and dispersion of vehicles.
14TB PERIOD (truck with towed load, 3 hours).
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MOTOR TRANSPORT
a. Conference.
(1) Driving in traffic.
(2) Review rules of the road.
(3) Review traffic regulations.
(4) Map reading.
b. Practical.-Road march in traffic.
15TH PERIOD (truck and towed load, 3 hours).
a. Conference.-Roadside repairs.
(1) Normal.
(2) Emergency.
(3) Action upon return to park.
b. Practical--Road march in traffic.
16TH PERIOD (truck with towed load, 3 hours).
a. Conference.-Night marching.
(1) With lights.
(2) Without lights.
b. Practical.-Nightmarch, with lights, fairly good roads.
17TH PERIOD (truck with towed load, 3 hours).
Practical.-Night march, without lights, same road as 16th
period.
18TH PERIOD (truck with towed load, 3 hours).
Practical.-Night march, cross-country, with lights.
19TH PERIOD (truck with towed load, 3 hours).
Practical.-Night march, cross-country, without lights.
20TH PERIOD (truck with towed load, 8 hours).
Practical.-Marchover varied terrain.
21ST PERIOD (truck with towed load, 6 hours).
Practical.
a. Night march over varied terrain.
b. Disposition of vehicles.
22D PERIOD (3 hours).
a. Conference and demonstration.-Preparationof vehicle
for 1,000-mile scheduled maintenance.
b. Practical.-Preparationof vehicle for 1,000-mile scheduled maintenance.
23D PERIOD (4 hours).
Demonstration and practical.-1,000-milescheduled maintenance.
24TH PERIOD (2 hours).
Demonstration and practical.-Complete lubrication of
vehicle.
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BASIC FIELD MANUAL
25TH PERIOD (2 hours).
a. Conlerence and demonstration.-Formal inspection.
b. Practical.-Formalinspection.
26TH PERIOD (2 hours).
Examination, theoretical, for driver's permit.
27TH PERIOD (2 hours).
Examination, practical, for driver's permit.
E 2. If personnel are selected carefully, the instruction in
the training schedule will turn out drivers who are capable
of good performance under all reasonable operating conditions. Additional instruction in maneuvers, inspections, and
ceremonies, as covered by appropriate regulations and manuals, may be necessary for the various arms and services.
If more or less time is available for instruction, the schedule
should be changed generally as follows: With more time
available, increase the driving time; with less time available,
decrease the conference time.
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MOTOR TRANSPORT
APPENDIX III
ROAD TEST PROCEDURE (SHORT FORM)
* 1. PURPOSE.-A road test is usually given for one of two
reasons:
a. To determine whether a man is qualified to operate a
given vehicle.
b. To determine what type of corrective training a driver
needs most. A good road test also tends to raise the standards of driving instruction.
* 2. REQUIREMENTS OF GOOD ROAD TEsT.--a. The test should
be as long as time will permit in order that a fair sample of
driving situations may be included: 20 minutes should be
considered as an absolute minimum.
b. The test should include difficult maneuvers which really
test a man's ability. Most any person can drive successfully
"around the block."
c. A standard procedure and test route should be used so
that the test will be the same for all men examined.
d. The examiner should check definite items concerning the
driver's performance in order to reduce subjective judgment,
and to point out driving faults which may be corrected by
proper training.
* 3. ROAD TEST CHECK LIST.-a. As a guide for giving the
test, a check list should be used. This should be brief so
as not to confuse the examiner and yet it should be long
enough to include the more important elements of driving.
Following is a suggested "Road test check list."
Serial Number -------.---------------------Name
Date.Organization ------------------ROAD TEST CHECK LIST
Point score
Weight
_1-t................
1-.....................
1--------------1.
4 --------------------------
.
.........
Final rating:
1 2
3 4
5
)
Starting vehicle (O. K-...
. starts motor with gears engaged
2. Starts motor with clutch engaged
3. Falls to release handbrake
4. Kills motor in starting
.....
.....------------5. Jerks in starting
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BASIC FIELD MANUAL
Weight
1----------------------.
1...........--..............
Stopping on Level (0. K-)---6. Motor not used for braking
7. Jerks in stopping
Use of controls (0. K----)
4-----------------------.
8. Does not double clutch
3--------------------------9.
Strains motor
I--------------------------- 10, Rides clutch
I--------------------------. 11. Clashes gears
1--.--.....................
12. Uses brake excessively
1--------------------.
13. Tries over 1 shifting 4th to 3d
1.-.
.................14. Tries over 1 engaging I. w. d.
1.-.
.
.................
15. Tries over 1 engaging low range
Hand signals (0. K ----)
1.--......................
16. Not given for STOP
1--------------------17.
Not given for RIGHT TURN
2-18---.....................
18. Not given for LEFT TURN
Stop signs (O. K-.... )
1-------------------------.
19. Goes through 0 to 5 mph
2----------------------20. Goes through over 5 mph
Driving on hills (0. K ----- )
4-21----------------------.
21. Goes up in wrong gear
2.
.......................
22. Stops to shift while going up
3-------------------------- 23. Stalls motor while starting on hill
S3----------2------------.
24. Jerks in starting on hill
2-2-----------------------.
25. Rolls back over 1 foot in starting
1---....................
26. Coasts driving down hill
27. Coasts backing down hilt
3-2.....................
Driving through mud (O. K ----)
-1-.------------------------ 28. Engages f. w. d. late
.2--..................
29. Fails to use f. w. d.
2.
.
.....................
30. Stops while in mud
Steering (0. K -.
)
1.----------------------.
31. Fails to keep to right
1
.
...
.....--......... 32. Drives off road
1------------------.
33. Cuts corners
1
.
..
.
..........
.....--. 34. Swings wide on turns
Parallel parking (0. K ----)
.2---------------.
35. Backings over 1
1---------------------.
36. Markers or curb hit
1---------------------37. Feet left wheels outside
Racking to platform (O. K-----)
1
.
..
......--.............38. Backings over 1
1
.
..
.
.....--...........
39. Feet over 1 from platform
40. Markers or platform hit
1.
........................
Miscellaneous
I-..............-...........41. Speed excessive for conditions
20 ---------.-----------. 42. Accident
10
…--------------------- 43. Near accident
5--.................
44. General rating: 1 2 3 4 5
Years of driving experience Miles last year....
Driving of 1K-ton} Civilian (yrs) --...............
truck or heavier Army.............
(bri)
Hours of driving type. cOftruck used for test.........
Comments:
Examinrd by........................
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MOTOR TRANSPORT
b. The check list is based on an enumeration of errors most
likely to be made by a driver of an Army vehicle. Through
previous study the elements have been selected which are the
best indicators of general driving ability. The items have been
weighted in terms of their correlation with general driving
ability. In giving the test a check mark Is recorded each
time an error is made or repeated.
* 4. SUGGESTED PROCEDURE FOR GIVING ROAD TEST.-In giving
the test the driver should be put at ease as far as possible in
order to determine his normal driving. The first part of the
course should be straight and level to enable the driver to become familiar with the operation of the truck. For most testing a 2½/2-ton all-wheel-drive truck will be satisfactory. In
general, drivers should be tested in the type of truck they will
be expected to drive.
a. Starting vehicle.-(1) Before the driver gets into the
truck to take the test, the hand brake should be set, the
ignition turned off, the transmission engaged, the front wheel
drive disengaged, and the transfer case placed in high range.
(2) Ask the driver to start engine and proceed down the
road. Place a check mark before items 1 to 5 for any error
made. Each time any of these errors are repeated use additional check marks. By the time the test is completed some
items may have a large number of check marks.
b. Stopping on level.-At some place in the course ask the
driver to come to a stop. Check item 6 if the clutch is depressed before the brake so that the motor is not used for
braking. Check item 7 if a jerk is made.
C. Use of controls.-(l) The coordination of the driver in
the manipulation of brake, clutch, gear shift, etc., is to be
observed throughout the test and checks made when errors
occur. Check item 8 if the driver has trouble in shifting because he does not double clutch. If on a heavy pull, the driver
strains the motor instead of shifting to a lower gear, check
item 9. Check the other items each time an error is made.
Some time during the test when the truck is in 4th gear ask
the driver to shift to 3d. If the shift is made on the first try,
do not check item 13. However, if the driver must try more
than once, use a check mark for each try in excess of 1. If
the gears are clashed, check item 11.
441574-42-
1
237
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
(2) At another Part of the course ask the driver to engage
front wheel drive and at still another place ask him to shift
to low range. Use a check mark for each try necessary in
excess of 1.
d. Hand signals.-The test route should include at least
three right and three left turns. Check items 16, 17, and
18 each time a signal is not given. If signals are given but
given improperly, make a note under "Comments."
e. Stop signs.-The route should include at least two stop
signs. Check item 19 if a complete stop is not made.
J. Driving on hills.-If the terrain permits, part of the
course should include steep hills and mudholes. If the
driver must stop to shift while going up, check item 22.
When part way up a hill, have the driver stop, shut off the
motor, and then proceed up the hill. Check items 23, 24,
and 25 for errors made in starting. Ask the driver to back
part way down a hill. If the driver does not use reverse
gear, check item 27.
g. Driving through mud.-If the driver fails to engage
front wheel drive before getting into mud, check item 28.
Check item 29 if front wheel drive is not used even though
driver gets through mud. If the driver has to stop while
in the mud for any reason, check item 30.
h. Steering.-Observe the steering throughout the test and
check each time an error is made.
i. Parallel parking.-Mark off a space with lines for parallel parking, 8 feet wide and 10 feet longer than the truck
from bumper to bumper. Use a log for a curb if one does
not exist. Use 6-foot posts or stakes set in kegs filled with
dirt to mark the ends and corners of the space. Do not
allow over three backings. Check item 35 for each backing
over 1, item 36 each time a marker or the curb is hit, and
item 37 once for each foot the left wheels are outside the
8-foot limit line when parking is completed. Count the left
wheel that is farthest out of the parking space.
j. Backing to platjorm.-Mark off a space 10 feet wide and
extending 20 feet from a loading platform. Use posts or
stanchions to mark the edges. Check item 38 for each
backing required in excess of 1. Check item 40 each time
a marker or the platform is touched. When the driver is
parked, measure the distance from rear bumper to platform.
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MOTOR
TRANSPORT
Place one check mark for item 39 for each foot in excess
of 1. If the truck were 3 feet away, two check marks would
be used.
k. Miscellaneous.-Check these items each time they occur.
Circle one of the figures after item 44, giving a general estimate of the driver without regard to individual items; 1 is
very good, 3 is average, and 5 is failure.
* 5. SCORING ROAD TEST.-a. The "point score" is the sum of
the check marks multiplied by their weightings. For example,
item 9 checked twice would count 6 points. For item 44, multiply the rating by 5. A rating of 4 would thus count 20 points.
The addition of all points from items 1 to 44 will give the point
score. After a number of drivers have been tested a scale
should be worked out so that a "final rating" can be given
on the basis of the point score. A rating of 1 would include
the best drivers-those with the lowest point scores.
b. Any driving faults not included in the check list should be
listed under "Comments." As an educational measure, the
various driving faults should be explained to the driver at the
conclusion of the test.
239
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
APPEN1DIX TV
WRITTEN EXAMINATION FOR DRIVER
Place a check in the column "T" if the statement is true;
in column "F" if false.
T
F
1.
2.
3.
4.
Racing an engine to warm it up is advisable.
The band brake should be set when motor is started.
The clutch should be disengaged when the motor is startec.
While driving, the right foot rests on the accelerator and the left fIot
on the clutch pedal.
5. Driver inspects for leaks under motor by crawling under vehle3i
while engine is running.
6. Driver is responsible fir tightening all loose bolts and nuts.
7. Driver inspects for loose and broken parts before washing vebiel.
8. In case a person is overcome by carbon monoxide gas he should be
removed from gassed building and given a stimulant.
9. Traction devices should be placed on wheels before moving ot d
motor park in muddy weather.
10. If oil pressure gage shows zero, it should be reported after reaching
motor park.
11. Driver cheeks panel instruments only before and after operation.
12, Driver uses only two types of lubricants, chassis and oil.
1=. In case of emergency, driver applies pressure enough to look an
brakes.
14 The service brake is applied by hand.
15 Driver should disengae clutch while descending grades.
16 All vehicles should pull to side of road when siren is heard.
17. Left turns are made from right lane.
18 Signal for right turn is: Arm straight ot.
19. Battery water level recommended is: Cell flled up to filler cap.
20. sediment bowls should be removed and cleaned daily.
21. Driver's Accident Report should be made immediately upon returning to the motor park.
22. Wheel-bearing grease is soluble in water.
23. Water-pump grease is soluble in water.
24. It is very essential in using the winch that the line be kept tight .2
all times.
256.The monthly (1,000-mile) inspection is made by the drive.
26. A cause of crankcase dilution is overchoking.
27. It is recnamended that trip tickets be turned in weekly.
28. When amonting dual tires, the worn tires should be placed n the
inside.
29. A driver starting in
column always signals by extending the left
outward and upward when hib vehicle is ready to move.
240
MOTOR TRANSPORT
T
F
30. A drier is not personally liable when driving a Government vehicle.
31. A driver of a military vehicle does not have to comply with local trafoo
regulations.
32. Any member of the United States Army is authorized to drive a miiitary vehicle.
33. For economicaloperation, it is permissible in the Army to mix different
makes of lubricants.
34. A military driver may use gasoline to clean his engine.
3 . A military vehicle is never moved until the engine has reached the
proper operation temperatnre.
36. A military driver is responsible that his vehicle tools are always
present, complete, and in serviceable condition.
37.a Amilitary driver, after discovering amechanical condition injurious to
further operation of his vehicle, will continue in column unless
ordered to fall out by higher authority.
38. A military driver is responsible that the load of his vehicle does not
exceed the rated capacity.
-
39. A military vehiclo is backed without signal when no men or vehicles
are observed in the vicinity.
40. A military driver should always know his destination and route before
leaving the motor park.
41. It is sot essenial that military drivers have a practical knowledge of
map reading.
42. Correct tire pressure can be satisfactortll determined by kicking the
tire.
43. If a driver is careful, it is not necessary to plug holes in the battery cell
filler cap when washing top of battery with soda water.
44. Arms crossed in front of body is the signal for cranking motors.
45. Dual tires should be inspected at each halt and objects wded between
tires removed immediately.
241
BASIC FIELD IAANUAL
APPENDIX V
REGULATIONS CONCERNING SHIPMENT OF EXPLOSIVES AND GASOLINE BY TRUCK
* I. Interstate Commerce Commission regulations will govern the shipment of explosives and gasoline by truck. (See
par. 291/2, AR 30-955, and AR 850-20.)
E 2. The movement of gasoline or explosives in trucks is a
highly dangerous task. It is, therefore, essential that all
personnel be constantly reminded of the safety rules governing
their movement, because the slightest carelessness may have
fatal results. Officers and enlisted men charged with such
movements will not only instruct their men thoroughly on
safety rules but will also conduct informal inspections constantly to insure that safety measu:es are followed. All personnel are required to call to the attention of the person concerned any violation of these safety rules.
· 3. The following safety rules will be observed by all personnel who are engaged in moving gasoline or explosives:
Rule 1.-To prevent fire, the following measures will be
constantly enforced:
a. Smoking is forbidden within 100 feet of any truck loaded
with explosives or gasoline.
b. The presence of open flames, such as those produced
by striking of matches, use of cigarette lighters, torches,
etc., within 100 feet of any motor vehicle loaded with explosives or gasoline is prohibited.
c. At least one fire extinguisher properly filled, securely
mounted in a bracket, and ready for immediate use, will be
carried on each truck.
d. All personnel will be instructed in the proper use of fire
extinguishers and where practicable the instructions will be
supplemented by demonstration.
e. If a truck catches fire, all trudks will be moved away
from the vicinity of the fire and all traffic stopped. Every
practicable effort will be made to give warning of danger to
inhabitants living in the Vicinity.
242
MOTOR TRANSPORT
I. When loading or unloading trucks, care will be taken to
prevent explosives being placed in the vicinity of the exhaust.
g. Ignition and lighting systems will be properly insulated
and frequently inspected to insure that danger from short
circuits is eliminated. Trucks carrying gasoline will trail a
chain or other device which drags on the road to permit the
escape of static electricity.
h. Every effort will be made to prevent leaks in gasoline
tanks, fuel lines and carburetors. When a leak is discovered,
the truck will be unloaded and moved to a safe distance
before repairs are made.
i. Oil and grease thrown from moving parts shall not be
allowed to accumulate on the truck body, engine, or other
places where a fire hazard may be introduced.
i. Motor vehicles transporting explosives or gasoline will
not be driven past fires of any kind burning on or near the
highway until after it has been ascertained that the fire
can be passed with safety.
Rule 2.-Advance reconnaissance and contact with state
and local officials, as prescribed in section III, chapter 4, are
essential. Routes selected should avoid heavy traffic and
large cities if possible.
Rule 3.-Loitering will not be permitted in the vicinity of
the convoy.
Rule 4.-When a truck breaks down, it will be moved as
far to the side of the road as possible and pending the arrival of an empty truck or repair party, the truck will be
left in charge of a guard.
Rule 5.-Fuzes and detonating devices will not be carried
in the same truck with other explosives.
Rule 6.-The interior of the truck body will be lined in such
a manner that every portion of the lining with which a container may come in contact shall be of wood or other nonsparking material.
Rule 7.-Loads will be braced and stayed to prevent shifting.
Rule 8.-Trucks loaded with explosives or gasoline will never
be towed or pushed by another truck except to move a disabled truck to the side of the road.
Rule 9.-Hourly halts to inspect loads and vehicles will be
made.
Rule 10.-Motor vehicles transporting explosives on public
roads or highways will be marked with placards bearing the
243
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
word "Explosives" in letters at least three inches high. The
placards will be prominently located on each side and on the
rear of the truck.
Rule 11.-No motor vehicle transporting explosives or gasoline will be left unattended upon any public street or highway.
Rule 12.-The motor will be stopped when loading or unloading trucks haul;ng explosives or gasoline.
Rule 13.-Where trucks are of the open body type, a tarpaulin will be used to protect the cargo from rain or the direct
rays of the sun.
Rule 14.-The entire cargo of explosives or ammunition
shall be contained within the body of the truck. Truck tail
board or tail gate shall be closed effectively and secured.
244
MOTOR
TRANSPORT
APPENDrx VI
INSPECTION REPORT OF VEHICLES SHIPPED BY RAIL
OR WATER
* 1. When vehicles are shipped by rail or water, an inspection
should be made before and after shipment to insure that the
vehicle has been properly serviced,
* 2. The inspection should be systematic and recorded on a
check list similar to the following:
Check
a. Cooltng system.
(1) Pet cocks on block opened.
(2) Pet cocks on radiator opened.
(3) Pet cocks clear and open (insert wire).
b. Fuel system.
(1) Gas tank drained.
(2) Engine run until remaining gas is used up
(3) Sediment bowl drained.
(4) Fuel pump and carburetor drained (if
possible) .
c. Storage battery.
(1) Positive cable disconnected and taped.
(2) Positive cable tied away from battery.
------------------_.____
--------------------
d. Tires.
(1) Inflated to 10 pounds above normal.
(2) Spare tire locked.
e. Miscellaneous.
(1) Ignition switch off.
(2) Gear shift in low gear.
(3) Parking brake set.
(4) Hood closed and sealed.
(5) Tops, curtains, paulins and cushions secured .
(6) Windshield closed and fastened.
(7) Windows closed tight.
(8) Doors closed, latched and locked or lashed.
(9) Keys in small cloth bag tied to steering
wheel (or with truckmaster or motor
sergeant) .
245
--------------------------------------______
------
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)
(14)
(15)
(16)
Vehicle tagged for destination.
Rust-preventive measures completed.
Loose parts boxed and secured.
Tool box locked.
Guard posted and familiar with duties.
Parts missing.
Damages.
246
MOTOR TRANSPORT
APPENDIX VII
DAILY REPORT-STATUS OF MOTOR VEHICLES
(9:00 AM)
Post Garage,
Fort Blank, Maryland
(Organization and Station)
December 21, 1940
(Date)
Type vehicle
Oondition of vehicl es 'It ] Tr
a ,l ntraNeed
d s signed
iSermajor Pi
Iles
h ipit
iceable rpairs eTpairs ''h
Passenger ears
½-tonpick-ups
i-ton clmmand
1
I ½-toncargo
..2i-ton CeO
4 ton cargo_.
9i-ton trailers
4-ton wreckers
Field aabull ncs.
6
12
I
16 ...
10
80
1
1
6
2
..
..
2
....
*2
..
--
8
IS
13
132
16
12
82
44
3
3
Reiarrks
* I On I ald I report.
'12 *Arrived 4 PM-12/2/140
'At Port
1
Meadc
l.M
'Arrived I PM-12/20140
*Indicates note made in column "Remarks."
NoTrrS. One of the 1½-ton cargo trucks has been in local repair
shops since Dec. 11, 1940.
J. T. SMnrrn,
(Truckmaster or motor sergeant).
247
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
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MOTOR TRANSPORT
APPENDIx IX
STANDARD FORM-DRIVER'S APTITUDE TEST
· 1. Driver's aptitude tests Will be conducted before any
actual instruction in the driving of vehicles is given. Individuals rated below the minimum requirements in any phase
of the test will be rechecked and if still below minimum
will not be trained as drivers. Measures will be taken to
have such individuals transferred to other duties. If an
unsatisfactory rating is obtained, the following entry should
be made in the soldier's service record: "Does not possess
necessary aptitude for motor vehicle operator."
* 2. The following tests are suggested and will be conducted
under the direct supervision of a commissioned officer:
a. Test No. 1--Clearness of vision.-(1) Equipment.-Two
forms of a Snellen chart hung on a wall at eye level and
illuminated by two 25 watt lamps in reflectors placed on each
side and 24 inches in front of the charts. Lights must be
adjusted to prevent glare on the charts or in the eyes of the
person tested.
(2) Procedure.-Each eye is tested separately, using separate charts, the examiner holding a card over the unused eye.
The score is the smallest line read with not over one error.
Individual must not see charts or observe others being tested
before he is tested.
(3) Satisfactory score.-20/30 in each eye (Vision may
be corrected by the use of glasses, except for tank drivers).
b. Test No. 2--Color blindness.-(1) Equipment-Red,
yellow, green, blue and orange worsted tufts. Alternate
equipment: Red, green and amber lights, at least two of
each.
(2) Procedure.-Individualpicks but all red and green tufts
or red and green lights.
(3) Satisfactory rating.-Correct identification of all red
and green tufts or lights.
c. Test No. 3-Field of vision.-(1) Equipment-(See fig.
33.) Mark off /4-inch plywood as shown with nail driven
at 0 point. Two 8-inch pointers with dime sized white disks
at one end.
249
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
(2) Procedure.-Haveindividual hold board level one inch
below eye level and directly under a ceiling electric light.
Stand directly in front of individual and make certain his
eyes are focused on 0 point during the test. Hold pointer
vertical and with white disk extending one inch above surface
of board. Move from extreme back position slowly forward
until seen by individual out of the corner of his eye. Keep
hand and arm below board and out of sight of person tested
so that he does not know from which side to expect pointer.
Repeat test until two trials check within 5 ° for each side.
-
70
FIcrmE 33.-Equipment for field of vislon test.
(3) Satisfactory rating.-Average of 850 on each side.
d. Test No. 4-Glare blindness.--(1) Equipment.-200 watt
lamp in 10-inch reflector; 7 watt night light lamp with shield:
18-inch cubical box which will rotate about a vertical axis.
Box to be white with following signs painted on the four sides
in black letters 6 inches high: SLOW, STOP, HILL, and
TURN.
(2) Procedure.-Test to be given in a completely darkened
room. Individual to remain in artificially lighted room at
least 15 minutes and in uark room 15 minutes before testing.
With individual seated, place sign exactly 30 feet straight
ahead and 200 watt lamp 3 feet to left of sign so that light
shines directly into face of person tested. Place 7 watt night
light 3 feet to left of person tested so it will shine toward sign
but shielded so it cannot glare into face of person tested.
200 watt lamp is turned on for 10 seconds while examiner
MOTOR TRINSPORT
watches person tested to make ;ure his eyes are fixed on the
glaring light. Sign is changed and 200 watt light turned off.
Time for person to read sign illuminated only by the night
light is recorded in seconds. Three trials are given and the
average computed,
(3) Satisfactory rating.-A recovery time not more than
twice as long as the average of the men tested with a given
set-up.
e. Test No. 5--Depth perception.--(l) Equipment (see fig.
34).-Suspend 40 watt lamp with reflector 2 feet above
open end of case so that rods are uniformly illuminated and
with no glare toward person tested.
i
,+
FrURE 34.-Equipment for depth perception test.
(2) Procedure.-With individual seated, place test at eye
level and with fixed rod exactly 20 feet away. Rods are lined
up by individual pulling right or left string. Person tested
must not be able to see either bottom or top of rods. Give two
practice trials then record average of 6 additional trials.
(3) Satisfactory rating.-Average error of less than 1 inch
in alinement.
f. Test No. 6-Reaction.-(1) Equipment (see fig. 35).Make certain test is level, board fits loosely in groove and
falls without friction. A curtain or hood is placed between
the top of the test and the person tested so he cannot anticipate the fall of the board by noting when the string is pulled.
(2) Procedure.-Individual holds pointer 4 inches from
board. As soon as he sees board start to fall he stops it by a
thrust of the pointer. Twenty trials are taken and the number of times the board is caught is recorded.
251
BASIC FIELD MANUAL
(3) Satisfactory rating.-Ability to catch the board at
least 10 times out of 20.
\*
,oc6 . d
FIGURE 35-Equipment for reactloll test.
g. Test No. 7-Stability.-(1) Equipment.-(See fig. 36.)
F*GI
~,,~'
FIGnEx
r
3--Equip
~...
tlt
-
t-
t.
',
36.-Equipment for stability
252
test.
MOTOR TRANSPORT
(2) Procedure.-The block of wood is fastened to the individual's head by means of the rubber bands and the pencil
is inserted in the block. The arm to which is fastened the
pad of paper is adjusted to the proper height so as just to
touch the pencil. The person is directed to stand erect as
quietly as possible for one minute. The variations of sway
back and forth, as marked on the pad, are measured in inches
and recorded.
(3) Satisfactory rating.-Not over 1/4 inches.
h. Suggested form for recording.
RECORD OF DRIVER'S APTITUDE TEST
Name
lear.
Color
ness of blindvision
ness
Field
o!
vision
Glare Dept
Reblind- pWeeeation
I
ness achin
o
Stability
Final
rating
Incherhs Inches
Private A.
Private B
p,i,vate CPrivate D --
20/20
20120
20/20
20i/00
441574'--42-
S
S
S
17
180
180
165
253
S
S
U
S
S
U
8
10
12
I
N
Y.
S
S
U
INDEX
Paragraph
Page
A-Frame-....
____._.____-_.....____._.____..
183
163
Abandoning vehicles
.-........................
221
209
Accidents:
85
77
Conflicts, control.-........
_.__._____
March column --. ___________________________
70
68
Prevention..-...
12
.......
7
AdvanceGuard- ______.___
_.______________.
.168
146
Reconnaissance_ _-__________..__.._..__
167
144
Air attack _..._____.._.
______ 148,157
131, 139
Anchor, tackle.-.........
..................
185
165
Antiaircraft defense:
Active __--______________--__
-___________ 147
131
Attack on column----_
...............
148
131
Coordination..-...............
144
128
Passive…
______________.._______ _146
130
Warning service.-.....................
145
129
Antimechanized defense:
Barriers _.______________________ __________
..
150
132
Definition
______.____-_______________.
.149
132
Obstacles __________ ____-- _____.
.
.... 150
132
Procedure on making contact
___.___
.…
_ ....153
138
Security
-----…____…____…._____.-.…
_
152
187
Weapons_.-._____....__
151
136
Aptitude test -__________ ___________._____ App. IX
249
Army Regulations -.__________________
______ App. I
226
Ascending steep slopes_
_._________.-...
189
167
Assistant drivers __------ __------------------60
53
Backing, practice
_------------------_---------Barriers, antimechanized
.____...._.-----_______
Battery, storage, care ---.-----------------_
_
Blackouts
. _-.. _--____--___________
...
.
...
Block and tackle
.…
...---.------____-______ _Bog -----------------------_____________
Brakes ----------------__------------------Bridges -----------.-.----------_____.- 94,
44
150
27
140
181
192
43
200
30
132
19
127
163
172
29
83, 176
Camouflage
.------- -- _______----------------138
Capacity:
Hauling, column--------------------------124
Traffic
_
……____._____________.___________
84
Troop, vehicles
....
________._._
......--125
Care:
Storage battery
.----------------.
__ _______27
Tires
.--------------------___-__.-----_--_
26
Tools
.
.__............----.....-_
25
Chains--..
_________________
.
..........
16, 175
11,
Chemicals, defense against:
Decontamination -..__.-_____.___.-______
158
Intelligence_------------------ ___--- ----- _
155
Protection
_____________________________
……
157
Reconnaissance -----------------156
Reference.- __......--_-___-____
154
255
125
110
177
110
19
18
18
157
141
139
139
139
133
INDEX
Paragraph
Page
Civilian authorities, cooperation… --------------132
121
Cleaning.-...
24
........
17
Clutch __.----_________.-------------.
41
27
Cold weather march.-.
.
.......................
71
70
Columns:
Close…
_______..________________..________
57
46
Infiltration…
....
_56
..............
43
Logistical data. (See Logistical data.)
Movement, mechanics-5
______._..
.
____
65
41
Open-.---- _____________.___.--------_____
58
48
Passage
…____________.…_.____________.…_____
109
91
Shuttling -____.___.___________________._
59
52
Command, motor march __.---------------------52
39
Communication:
Control --- ---------------------.
. .......
139
126
Intracolumn_ _-______....-_---------------60
53
Congested areas _- ________.---------------------95
84
Control:
March column.--------------------------60
53
Traffic:
Personnel… ---------______------------107
90
System s…
-----------------------------106
89
Controls:
Aids- _______________________________
.-.
37
24
Important -___--__.______. _________________
36
24
Manipulation _.-----___--------___--_-_40
26
Conversion-time, distance, and speed ---_._______
128
114
Curvesa ..
__________.____--_________ _ ______
'
201
176
Deadman
_________._____.__-_____________
.---184
Decontamlnation _-------------------__.----___
158
Defense:
Antiaircraft ------------- ____-_-__-______
144-148
Antimechanized_ ______________-__________ 149-153
Chemical warfare -___..___-__-.____-_____ 154-158
Individual -_________________-.___-________
137
Motor transport --------------------------- _
136
Definitions:
Antimechanized defense
...
______
......---- _
149
Motor march -_______________--____________
-51
Motor transport
___________--_____________
1
Traffic management ----------___-_________
76
Traffic reconnaissance-----------------------86
Density, column -_-__-__.__.-____ .- ___________
122
Descending steep slopes _-_-.-------..-______.__
190
Detonating caps_
-.
_______._-___--__.__________
160
Detruckmg--________-______-______-__-________ 61, 127
Difficult operations:
Ascending steep slopes -------..
__________
189
Bog -____-________-----____-_____________
192
Bridges__ ______________-------------------200
Deep streams _.….._________..___- ___.____
199
Descending steep slopese----------------__
_
190
Ditches…---------------------------------197
Factors… -__
_--_--.------------------------188
Fording
___________._-___.______________
.--198
Frozen streams --------------.
___________ 134, 195
Gumbo -------------------------________._
193
256
164
141
128
132
138
125
125
132
35
1
75
78
107
169
142
57, 112
167
172
176
175
169
174
167
175
124,173
172
.
INDEX
Paragraph
Page
Difficult operatlona-Continued.
173
196
-T-----------___-----______
-------Ice
191
169
___________
Muddy roads --.-.--------------Overturned vehicle_.........___..
.-..
.
..
203
177
Points to be observed.---------------___._
187
166
Practice
.----------------------------------45
32
197
174
Ravines-__:__
...............
____-_________
Sand
_____________________
.----------------194
172
201
176
Slippery curves _..-...................
Snow ----.----.----.---.-..-..
.
.
..
________.
196
173
Swamps ______.-...........___.____._____
192
172
Towed load.-----------------------------202
177
66, 220
66, 209
_ .
.
..
.......................Disabled vehicles
60
o
53
.--------------____
Discipline, march columnDitches…--------------------------------------197
174
Drivers:
249
App. IX
.-......................
Aptitude test6
2
-_______
Assignment -------------------Examination_
_
___..____________-----48
84
Instruction. (See Instruction.)
Maintenance. (See Maintenance.)
34
. .......-----49
.
..
Operator's permit
Selection ---------------------------------8
5
5,
App.
A227 II
Training -.......................
Echelons. (See Maintenance.)
57, 112
- 61, 127
Entrucking… ---------------------------------Equipment:
Maintenance ------------------------------218
207
150
_173
Pioneer party -----------------------Traffic reconnaissance --______
---.
_
9----90
81
111
92
.-.....................................
Escorts
82
76
--------------------Evacuation, civilian…-...--Examination-------------------------.------48
84
Explosives and inflammable liqlrlds:
142
160
Caps ------------------------------------142
159
-Dispersion ----------------------------- __
143
162
Handling ------------------------------163
..........
144
_ ....
:
Leakage
142
161
Protectlon from sparks and fires ------.-242
V
App.
.-----------------------------Regulations
.----------------------------186
166
Fan belt157
175-186
.....................
Field expedients -_.-..
169
147
.-.
.
............................
Flank guard133, 198
123,175
....
_.________
________._____._.._..
.
Fording
.
.-.
.
...................
214
204
Fourth echelon186
166
Fuze, light…-----------------------------------99
86
_-_____.._....___.._
G-4, traffic planning
88
24
.-..
_
_ ..........................
Gages-_
242
App. V
..-....
__._______
.
Gasoline, shipment27
41
.-..............
_.____________
Gear, shifting114
.............................
129
.
.-.
Graph, marchGuards:
Advance .------...
---.----------------168
146
Flank ___------------------.-.-.-.-160
147
170
148
Rear ----..............................
--.----------.....---------------193
172
Gumbo_...-.
257
INDEX
Paragraph
62, 110
Halt ----.-....-...............................
Page
60, 92
Ice:
134, 195
124,173
Carrying capacity… -- __-__….-- _---------_
Traction-_ ___..______.___..__________
196
173
Ignition system, wet
.
.
................
186
166
Infiltration
______.._______ .-.
__________
56
43
Inflammable liquids. (See Explosives and inflammable liquids.)
Information:
98
85
__________.____.
.-------------Traffic plan88. 89
79, 80
_________.____
.....
Traffic reconnaissance…
Inspections:
Driver's:
23
34
_._._______________
After operation…...
At halt_
…_.._____________________
33
23
Before operation .________.___.___
g31
21
.During operation
______.__
.-..
382 ..
22
Duties during scheduled.-........
____
28
20
System..-................_______
228
216
Vehicles shipped by rail or water
.-.....
App. VI
245
Instruction:
Driving:
Aids to control_____.
..-......
37
.__
24
Backing ____._-_--3--------------44
30
Brakes
.
.-.
.
...................
43
29
Clutch.------------------_______
41
27
Controls…
__._______…_…_____.___
36
24
Difficult operations. (See Difficult operations.
27
.
Gear shifting… _........._____ _41
General rule_.._.________
.-..........
35
23
Instrument board gages
.-.
_
.......
38
24
Manipulation of controls ________
..___ 40
26
Marching______------------.--47
33
Night--.
___..__..
_
.
..........46
33
Parking_____________
.-....____.___
44
30
Schedules
__._____
.-.
.__.__.._
.....
App. II
227
Starting engine.-.
_.__.______
.......
39
24
Transmission -_______.__-_______.______
42
28
Turning
--..----___------------44
30
Preliminary:
Accident prevention__________
.-...
12
7
Chains.-...............
16
11
Fire prevention ____.._.______._____
11
6
Loads--...
____.______
.__-___ 18
..12
Map reading..-----___.- _- __.___19
14
Motor park
.----------10
6
Nomenclature __-_______._______.___
13
7
Responsibility .___._.______________
9
6
Road rules-.
_________ _
._______.___
15
9
Signals-_
__-------------- ___14
7
Traction devices… _..___.________._______
16
11
Traffic regulations…
__._________
.......
15
9
Winch __.__
________._______
17
12
Traffic reconnaissance --..
___________
291
81
Instrument board gages -____-_-__
- _____-_____
38
24
258
INDEX
Page
Loading and unloading:
Paragraph
Rail movements
__-__________-.
.-.
231-232
223
Time….............._;___
-------126
112
Water movements --------- -_--_
233-237
224
Loads
______.________
.
.-.............
18
12
Logistical data:
Civilian authorities, coordination
______.
132
121
Commanders of small units
.-.
118
...........
103
Density of motor columns
.-....
- ____
122
107
Entrucking and detrucking
.-.
.___________
61,127
57,112
Hauling capacity.---........
_______
124
110
Ice, carrying capacity ______-_
_______ .. 134
124
Loading and unloading time______
-126
112
March day-_.__________.________
119
103
March graphs and tables-- ____________
129, 130
114,118
Nomograph. _.___ ..-.....
.. 128
114
Rates of march-.
__.._______._. ........
119
103
Road spaces- _
__._________-______
.-.
121, 123
106,110
Shuttle movements-_________
______ ...
131
121
Size and weights__......____.
.-.......
120
106
Time length.
.-----------------122
107
Traffic flow.----------________
122
107
Troop capacity.-.
.........................
125
110
Water, fordable depths
.-.
.______________
133
123
Lubrication:
Application ____.-.
_
__..
__________
226
..216
First echelon. _.....
.-...
22
......
16
Importance ____.__________.......
222
210
Lubricants_______
-_____
225
213
Methods__.------------------223
210
Records _: ___..........._
.
__
.
__ 227
216
Schedules.-.
.........................
224
212
Maintenance:
Basic principles…
_________________
......
204
179
Drivers':
Care:
Storage battery.
.-........... 27
19
Tires -____________________
___
26
18
Tools…
_._._______-____
...
25
18
Cleaning.
..-...
24
17.
Duties during inspection
.--.......
28
20
Emergency repairs ___-..._.
_____ ...
30
21
Inspection:
After operation _-______.-___
34
23
At halt..----------33
23
Before operation-_
_______-.
..
31
21
During operation --_--___-_-___..._
32
22
Lubrication_____.___.... .22
...
16
Preventive-______
.
._.___._____
20
14
Reports
. ________-.-.........
29
20
Servicing
.
.
.....................
21
15
Tightening -...................
23
17
Echelons:
Company or battery and regimental second
echelon repair -_
___._.__._....
...
212
201
First - ---------------_______-__
210
193
Fourth
__..............
.
.-.
214
204
Second--.............
.......
_
211
193
259
INDEX
Maintenance-Continued.
Echelons--Continued.
Paragraph
Page
Theater of operations.- ------..
____..- -_
215
206
Third _____.____.__._._.__________
213
201
Lubrication. (See Lubrication.)
March:
Abandoning vehicles __........_.-____-_
221
209
Equipment -.. _.____.__________________
218
207
Organization ------.- __________ ____.-_
65
65
Personnel _-.____-.___-_________.____217
207
Problems
…___-___________
____._._.___
216
207
Repair procedure _____-___
.________ 219
208
Spare parts and units
____________
.-..
218
207
Towing--....
_._..............
220
.....
209
Organization:
Factors…
...............
_____________
205
180
March ___________-_
_.____
..
._
____.
65
65
Personnel ----------------__
________. 208
183
Supply
.-.
...........................
209
191
Types -____.______.___________._____
206
181
Maps:
Reading _________
______...____._
19
14
Traffic:
Symbols_________ _-__...
___-___..__
115
98
Types
..
............................
114
95
March:
Accidents…
- _-_-_-_-__-__.-.
---- _-_-___.__ _
70
68
Cold weather ___-_______.___
.______________
71
70
Command
.
..-.
.
...............
52
38
Control __________________
.__.___________
60
53
Definitions __-__-.._____..._…-____-__.--___
51
35
Disabled vehicles ..............._. ___.
66
66
Entrucking and detrucking .
.. ..........-- 61, 127
57, 112
Graphs and tables..129
114
Halts
__…______________________ 62, 110
60, 92
Logistical data. (See Logistical data.)
Maintenance.
(See Maintenance.)
Messing.-...........
_..............
67
66
Night-_-___________----------68
67
Orders -..
____…__…......______
.
......... 72 75
71
Organization -___......____.....
53
30
Passage of columns_________._______.___
109
91
Refueling--...
_______.___
.__._____. 64
64
Reversing direction ___._______.___.________
63
62
Security -__________
_._________
____
54
41
Types:
Close column __-___-______.____________
57
46
Column movement---....
___________
. 55
41
Infiltration ____-____.._______________
56
43
Open column __________-_........_
.
58
48
Shuttling.-............. 59
52
Markers, route-. _________________.___
108, 116, 117
90, 100
Mechanized units. (See Antimechanized defense.)
Messing
_-________.----__-________.____
67
66
Mines:
Protection fromg - -------------------142
127
Use
_.1._.______________________
1_
120
1
Mission, pioneer-_________________
.------___ 172
,l0
2W.
INDEX
Paragraph
Motor park -___-__________
_________._
._______ 10
Mud -..
____.______________________________
_
191
Night
Driving.-............
_________.__.____
46
Marches--...
_________
.____________68
Operations, planning___________-____.-.
103
Nomenclature, instruction _-____._____-________
13
Nomograph
.---------------------------.
128
Obstacles, antimechanized
…_____._________
150
Obstruction, traffic…
_._______
..
.____.__
92
Odometers… __
_______________ __ _.__
60'
Operator's permit…
___._________
.
..... ._
49
Orders:
March
.
….................
._.___…_._.__
75
Plans-..........................
74
Reconnaissance, prior
…_--______________
____
73
Traffic
.-...........
_________
.___...
104
Warning
.
__________
.-..............
72
Organization, motor march -.. _______._.___
75
Outposts
__._ ____…..___.__…__
.
...
..
171
Overturned vehicles __…..______._…__.....
...
203
Page
6
169
33
67
87
7
114
132
82
53
34
71
71
71
88
71
71
149
177
Parking ------------ _
..
44
.......---------30
0Passage of columns ____-_._________________._
109
91
Patrols:
Advance reconnaissance…
_______.__
..
167
144
Traffic -___-_-.______________________
112
94
Permit, operator's ____.._________
49
34
Personnel:
Drivers, selection8
.________.______
____
8
5
Maintenance.
.-.............
_______ 208, 217
183,207
Traffic reconnaissance--.
_.__________. _ 87, 91
78,81
Pioneer parties:
Duties. ___________.__.
.-.
.
..... 174
152
Equipment
.-.
__.______
.
..................
173
150
Mission-__._.._________
172
150
Plan, traffic. (See Traffic management.)
Preventive maintenance___---____-__-__--___ 6. 20
2,14
Protection, measures:
Application.-...........
_________
135
125
Blackouts.-.
.
.........................
140
127
Camouflage.-..........................
138
125
Communications _______-_____--__-___----__
139
126
Individual --------___-________________
137
125
Mines
....
_____._.___._
142
127
Motor transport-_
136
125
Tires141
127
Warning signals.-.
....................
_
143
128
Publications__.._.___________
.-.
.
App.
..... I
226
Radiator leak__--------------------_
186
166
Ravines
.--------------------------------------197
174
Rear guard.-------------------------------____
170
148
Reconnaissance:
Advance patrols.-.
........................
167
144
Chemical operations.-.................
156
139
261
INDEX
Reconnaissance-Continued.
Traffic:
Paragraph
Page
Bridges ------------- _-_----_--- ------94
83
Congested areas.-.__._.
_____.___..
....
95
84
Directives
.
.
..........
91
81
Equipment
__._.
.-.... _____..._
.......
90
81
Information:
Required.-.
...................
88
79
Sources89
80
Obstruction
_..
.-._____________
_ ...
92
82
Personnel
_-___________...___..__.
87
78
Purpose_-------------------86
78
Reports.----------------------------96
85
Road classification-_
...
115
98
Records and reports-----------------229. 230
219.220
References--......
_
_____________..._____ App. I
226
Refueling___..____
.-.
___
. _ .......
..
.......... 64
64
Regulations, explosives and gasoline
_______
.-.
App. V
242
Repairs:
Emergency, roadside
__________-____
.-----30. 186
21.166
Procedure on march -__-_____-__________-__219
208
Second echelon-...
____._______________
212
201
Reports:
Driver's--.
.
...................
29
20
Inspection of vehicles shipped by rail or
waterA
____.__ ........
App. VI
245
Status of motor vehicles
.---------__-__ App. VII
247
Traffic reconnaissance__.__.__
.-....
96
.
85
Responsibility, driver's___---_______------.--9
6
Reversing direction_
_____.__. .-.
63
62
RoadBlocks _________--_..______ __-___.-.. ..
_
69
68
Rules
__..__..___.__.____
.-.
.
............
15
9
Test procedure_____.___.____.______
.-...
App. III
235
Routes:
Classification
..-...........
102
87
Indication method__--_-____---------_
.--116
100
Marking--.
_____
. ______
.............
108
90
Sand----..................
194
Schedules:
Driver training.
___________
.-...
App. II
Traffic--..
______.__________
.
..
101
Second echelon
.-.
._.- .______....._.-_
211
Security, antimechanized…
________________
152
Security detachments:
Advance guard__.-........
.__.________
168
Advance reconnaissance
__._.______
.
......
167
Duties-------------------__-------------164
Economy of force .-.......................
166
Flank guards____
.
.-............
169
Outposts_
-.............
___._______...
171
Rear guards _-......_._._.............__
170
Types ---------------- _-__________
__._____._
165
Selection of drivers…---..
_.__.______…._-_--.....
8
Servicing
...................................
__
21
Shifting gear __-----------------_________-______
41
Shuttling
............................
59, 131
262
172
227
86
193
137
146
144
144
144
147
149
148
144
5
15
27
52. 121
INDEX
Signals:
Paragraph
14
Driving-___________
Page
7
Warning.........
- - - - - - - 143
128
Skidding
__
.
.....
_______ ..
201
176
196
173
Snow ----- ..................
Spaces, road:
...........-......
121
106
.
At halt
.
...
123
110
Average --...................
Spare parts _-_--___--____________--___.
209, 218
191, 207
6
2
Speed limits--..
.
_._._._______
Spreader bars
. ___________
.-.............
179
161
...-.............. 186
166
Spring leaves.
Steep slopes _ __._________.________
..
189, 190
167,169
Streams:
Deep
...............................
199
175
Frozen.
.-.......................
134, 1965
124.173
Shallow.-..........
__
198
175
191
.
.-.
...........209
Supply for maintenance_
172
.
..-.................... 192
Swamps-
.
Tables, march- _
___.._ .
.-... _____ 129, 130
114,118
Tackle.
.
..-.....................
181
163
Theater of operations, echelon system_______
-215
206
Third echelon ________...__ ___
213
201
Tightening.
..-...
923
.............
17
Time length, column .._.__________
122
107
Tires __-._..........-_____.______-__
26, 141
18,127
_________._________________
.-...
25
18
Tools
Traction devices…----- __-___....__________ __ 16, 175
11, 157
Traffic management:
Agencies involved
.
_. .......
._ 81
76
Characteristics.----------------------79
75
Civilian evacuation_
.
...-...
82
76
80
76
Coordination -. _.__________________..___
Definition…
_____________...
.
.
76
75
Elements:
Capacity of route __-__.__._._____
84
77
Conflicts, control
.
__
..... 85
77
Factors___--------------------.-----83
77
Logistical data. (See Logistical data.)
Maps.
.--------114, 115
1---95, 98
Objective.-...
78
........
75
Plan:
Commanding officer
.------------------97
85
Execution:
Commanders of small units.
.-..
__
105
89
Escorts
…...
.
.............111
92
Halts
..-------- 110
92
Markers, route.------------------108
90
Night operation -.
.
..........
_
113
94
Passage of columns
.---------- ___-109
91
Patrols___....
112
94
Personnel.-......
_.._____
107
90
Systems -___._____..___________
106
89
Information needed -__...___.._______
98
85
Night operations __-------_____
103
87
Orders
__.
.
...-...
..... 104
88
Responsibility---...
.
............
99
86
Route classification…
.
. .........
102
87
263
.
INDEX
Traffic management-Continued.
Page
Paragraph
Plan-Continued.
Schedules
_-----------------------.-.
101
86
Systems
_.._.___.___
.-.
.
..........
106
89
Reconnaissance. (See Reconnaissance.)
Regulations, instruction -..
15
....
9
Route indication.
.-............... 116
100
Signs ____-________..__.____________.___
117
100
Trail officers ___.______________
.___________ 60
53
Training, driver's ---------------------7
5
Transmission ._-----------_....._____--___---__
42
28
Turning:
Practice _______-------------------------44
30
.-..............
___
202
177
Towed loadTowBars_-_
--- ____.----._____ - -__________182
163
Chains or cables -.---.............
178
160
Ropes
..
. ...................
180
161
Towing_
__._____. _______.____.__
..... 220
209
Warm-up, engine.-.
......................
39
24
WarningService…
..
. ..........................
145
129
Signals. _._.__
.-............
143
128
Water, fordable depths…
______._____._____
133
123
Weapons, antimechanized
..
..-............
151
136
177
160
.-.
.
........................
.
Wheel matsWinch___._.__......................
.-.
17
12
Winch truck.-.
.
............................
176
157
Wrecking cranes_.________.___
.
.-........
176
157
0
264
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