Unit1 - Electrical
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Electrical Machine Design
Chapter.1 PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL MACHINE DESIGN
Introduction
The magnetic flux in all electrical machines (generators, motors and transformers) plays an
important role in converting or transferring the energy. Field or magnetizing winding of rotating
machines produces the flux while armature winding supplies either electrical power or mechanical
power. In case of transformers primary wing supplies the power demand of the secondary.
The basic design of an electrical machine involves the dimensioning of the magnetic circuit,
electrical circuit, insulation system etc., and is carried out by applying analytical equations.
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A designer is generally confronted with a number of problems for which there may not be one
solution, but many solutions. A design should ensure that the products perform in accordance
with the requirements at higher efficiency, lower weight of material for the desired output, lower
temperature rise and lower cost. Also they are to be reliable and durable.
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A practical designer must effect the design so that the stock (standard frames, punching etc.,) is
adaptable to the requirements of the specification. The designer must also affect some sort of
compromise between the ideal design and a design which comply with manufacturing conditions.
A electrical designer must be familiar with the,
a. National and international standards
Indian Standard (IS), Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS), India
British Standard (BS), England
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
NEMA (The National Electrical Manufacturers Association).
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b. Specifications (that deals with machine ratings, performance requirements etc., of the
consumer)
c. Cost of material and labour
d. Manufacturing constraints etc.
A designer can refer to Design Data Handbook (Electrical Machine Design Data Book, authored
by A Shanmugasundaram and others , New Age International Publishers, Reprint 2007, or any
other such handbooks) which is a source of design procedure, properties of materials, ranges of
design parameters etc., and manufacturer’s brochure.
As the design involves a number of assumptions and constraints, final design values can be
obtained only by iterative methods. Computer plays a vital role in arriving at the final values. By
Finite Element Method (FEM), the effect of a single parameter on the dynamical performance of
the machine can be studied. Furthermore, some tests, which are not even feasible in laboratory
setup, can be virtually performed by Finite Element Method.
The design problems, that have been considered to solve in the latter chapters, are of different
nature from the design worked out in detail in respect of any machine. However, these test
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problems provide adequate elementary skills in design, which is an indication that a student has a
fair knowledge to deal with the entire design.
Factors for consideration in electrical machine design
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The basic components of all electromagnetic apparatus are the field and armature windings
supported by dielectric or insulation, cooling system and mechanical parts. Therefore, the
factors for consideration in the design are,
1. Magnetic circuit or the flux path: Should establish required amount of flux using
minimum mmf. The core losses should be less.
2. Electric circuit or windings: Should ensure required emf is induced with no
complexity in winding arrangement. The copper losses should be less.
3. Insulation: Should ensure trouble free separation of machine parts operating at
different potential and confine the current in the prescribed paths.
4. Cooling system or ventilation: Should ensure that the machine operates at the
specified temperature.
5. Machine parts: Should be robust.
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The art of successful design lies not only in resolving the conflict for space between iron,
copper, insulation and coolant but also in optimization of cost of manufacturing, and operating
and maintenance charges.
The factors, apart from the above, that requires consideration are
a. Limitation in design ( saturation, current density, insulation, temperature rise etc.,)
b. Customer’s needs
c. National and international standards
d. Convenience in production line and transportation
e. Maintenance and repairs
f. Environmental conditions etc.
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Limitations in design
The materials used for the machine and others such as cooling etc., imposes a limitation in
design. The limitations stem from saturation of iron, current density in conductors,
temperature, insulation, mechanical properties, efficiency, power factor etc.
a. Saturation: Higher flux density reduces the volume of iron but drives the iron to
operate beyond knee of the magnetization curve or in the region of saturation.
Saturation of iron poses a limitation on account of increased core loss and excessive
excitation required to establish a desired value of flux. It also introduces harmonics.
b. Current density: Higher current density reduces the volume of copper but increases
the losses and temperature.
c. Temperature: poses a limitation on account of possible damage to insulation and other
materials.
d. Insulation (which is both mechanically and electrically weak): poses a limitation on
account of breakdown by excessive voltage gradient, mechanical forces or heat.
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e. Mechanical strength of the materials poses a limitation particularly in case of large and
high speed machines.
f. High efficiency and high power factor poses a limitation on account of higher capital
cost. (A low value of efficiency and power factor on the other hand results in a high
maintenance cost).
g. Mechanical Commutation in dc motors or generators leads to poor commutation.
Apart from the above factors Consumer, manufacturer or standard specifications may pose a
limitation.
Materials for Electrical Machines
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The main material characteristics of relevance to electrical machines are those associated with
conductors for electric circuit, the insulation system necessary to isolate the circuits, and with
the specialized steels and permanent magnets used for the magnetic circuit.
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Conducting materials
Commonly used conducting materials are copper and aluminum. Some of the desirable
properties a good conductor should possess are listed below.
1. Low value of resistivity or high conductivity
2. Low value of temperature coefficient of resistance
3. High tensile strength
4. High melting point
5. High resistance to corrosion
6. Allow brazing, soldering or welding so that the joints are reliable
7. Highly malleable and ductile
8. Durable and cheap by cost
Some of the properties of copper and aluminum are shown in the table-2.
Table-2
Sl.
Particulars
Copper
Aluminum
No
0.0172 ohm / m/ mm2
0.0269 ohm / m/ mm2
1
Resistivity at 200C
0
6
58.14 x 10 S/m
37.2 x 106S/m
2
Conductivity at 20 C
8933kg/m3
2689.9m3
3
Density at 200C
0
0.4 % per 0C
4
0.393 % per C
Temperature coefficient
Explanation: If the temperature increases by 1oC, the
o
(0-100 C)
resistance increases by 0.4% in case of aluminum
23.5 x10-6 per oC
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Coefficient of linear
16.8x10-6 per oC
o
expansion (0-100 C)
10 to 18 kg / mm2
6
Tensile strength
25 to 40 kg / mm2
7
Mechanical property
highly malleable and
not highly malleable and
ductile
ductile
0
6600C
8
Melting point
1083 C
238 W/m 0C
9
Thermal conductivity
599 W/m 0C
(0-100oC)
10 Jointing
can be easily soldered
cannot be soldered easily
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For the same resistance and length, cross-sectional area of aluminum is 61% larger than that of
the copper conductor and almost 50% lighter than copper.
Though the aluminum reduces the cost of small capacity transformers, it increases the size and
cost of large capacity transformers. Aluminum is being much used now a days only because
copper is expensive and not easily available. Aluminum is almost 50% cheaper than Copper
and not much superior to copper.
Magnetic materials
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The magnetic properties of a magnetic material depend on the orientation of the crystals of the
material and decide the size of the machine or equipment for a given rating, excitation
required, efficiency of operation etc.
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The some of the properties that a good magnetic material should possess are listed below.
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1. Low reluctance or should be highly permeable or should have a high value of relative
permeability µr.
2. High saturation induction (to minimize weight and volume of iron parts)
3. High electrical resistivity so that the eddy emf and the hence eddy current loss is less
4. Narrow hysteresis loop or low Coercivity so that hysteresis loss is less and efficiency of
operation is high
5. A high curie point. (Above Curie point or temperature the material loses the magnetic
property or becomes paramagnetic, that is effectively non-magnetic)
6. Should have a high value of energy product (expressed in joules / m3).
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Magnetic materials can broadly be classified as Diamagnetic, Paramagnetic, Ferromagnetic,
Antiferromagnetic and Ferrimagnetic materials. Only ferromagnetic materials have properties
that are well suitable for electrical machines. Ferromagnetic properties are confined almost
entirely to iron, nickel and cobalt and their alloys. The only exceptions are some alloys of
manganese and some of the rare earth elements.
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The relative permeability µr of ferromagnetic material is far greater than 1.0. When
ferromagnetic materials are subjected to the magnetic field, the dipoles align themselves in the
direction of the applied field and get strongly magnetized.
Further the Ferromagnetic materials can be classified as Hard or Permanent Magnetic materials
and Soft Magnetic materials.
a) Hard or permanent magnetic materials have large size hysteresis loop (obviously
hysteresis loss is more) and gradually rising magnetization curve.
Ex: carbon steel, tungsten steal, cobalt steel, alnico, hard ferrite etc.
b) Soft magnetic materials have small size hysteresis loop and a steep magnetization
curve.
Ex: i) cast iron, cast steel, rolled steel, forged steel etc., (in the solid form).
-Generally used for yokes poles of dc machines, rotors of turbo alternator etc., where
steady or dc flux is involved.
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ii) Silicon steel (Iron + 0.3 to 4.5% silicon) in the laminated form. Addition of silicon in
proper percentage eliminates ageing & reduce core loss. Low silicon content steel or
dynamo grade steel is used in rotating electrical machines and are operated at high flux
density. High content silicon steel (4 to 5% silicon) or transformer grade steel (or high
resistance steel) is used in transformers. Further sheet steel may be hot or cold rolled. Cold
rolled grain oriented steel (CRGOS) is costlier and superior to hot rolled. CRGO steel is
generally used in transformers.
c) Special purpose Alloys:
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Nickel iron alloys have high permeability and addition of molybdenum or chromium
leads to improved magnetic material. Nickel with iron in different proportion leads to
(i)
High nickel permalloy (iron +molybdenum +copper or chromium), used in
current transformers, magnetic amplifiers etc.,
(ii) Low nickel Permalloy (iron +silicon +chromium or manganese), used in
transformers, induction coils, chokes etc.
(iii) Perminvor (iron +nickel +cobalt)
(iv) Pemendur (iron +cobalt +vanadium), used for microphones, oscilloscopes, etc.
(v) Mumetal (Copper + iron)
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d) Amorphous alloys (often called metallic glasses):
Amorphous alloys are produced by rapid solidification of the alloy at cooling rates of about a
million degrees centigrade per second. The alloys solidify with a glass-like atomic structure
which is non-crystalline frozen liquid. The rapid cooling is achieved by causing the molten
alloy to flow through an orifice onto a rapidly rotating water cooled drum. This can produce
sheets as thin as 10µm and a metre or more wide.
These alloys can be classified as iron rich based group and cobalt based group.
Maximum
permeability
µ x 10-3
Material
Saturation
magnetization
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Coercivity
A/m
Curie
temperature
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C
Resistivity
Ωm x 108
90
2.0
6-7
745
48
2.5% Si grain non -oriented
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2.0
40
745
44
<0.5% Si grain non oriented
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2.1
50-100
770
12
Low carbon iron
3-10
2.1
50-120
770
12
78% Ni and iron
250-400
0.8
1.0
350
40
50% Ni and iron
100
1.5-1.6
10
530
60
Iron based Amorphous
35-600
1.3-1.8
1.0-1.6
310-415
120-140
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3% Si grain oriented
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Insulating materials
To avoid any electrical activity between parts at different potentials, insulation is used. An
ideal insulating material should possess the following properties.
Should have high dielectric strength.
Should with stand high temperature.
Should have good thermal conductivity
Should not undergo thermal oxidation
Should not deteriorate due to higher temperature and repeated heat cycle
Should have high value of resistivity ( like 1018 Ωcm)
Should not consume any power or should have a low dielectric loss angle δ
Should withstand stresses due to centrifugal forces ( as in rotating machines), electro
dynamic or mechanical forces ( as in transformers)
9) Should withstand vibration, abrasion, bending
10) Should not absorb moisture
11) Should be flexible and cheap
12) Liquid insulators should not evaporate or volatilize
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1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
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Insulating materials can be classified as Solid, Liquid and Gas, and vacuum. The term insulting
material is sometimes used in a broader sense to designate also insulating liquids, gas and
vacuum.
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Solid: Used with field, armature, transformer windings etc. The examples are:
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1) Fibrous or inorganic animal or plant origin, natural or synthetic
paper, wood, card board, cotton, jute, silk etc.,
rayon, nylon, terelane, asbestos, fiber glass etc.,
2) Plastic or resins. Natural resins-lac, amber, shellac etc.,
Synthetic resins-phenol formaldehyde, melamine, polyesters, epoxy, silicon resins,
bakelite, Teflon, PVC etc
3) Rubber : natural rubber, synthetic rubber-butadiene, silicone rubber, hypalon, etc.,
4) Mineral : mica, marble, slate, talc chloride etc.,
5) Ceramic : porcelain, steatite, alumina etc.,
6) Glass : soda lime glass, silica glass, lead glass, borosilicate glass
7) Non-resinous : mineral waxes, asphalt, bitumen, chlorinated naphthalene, enamel etc.,
Liquid: Used in transformers, circuit breakers, reactors, rheostats, cables, capacitors etc., & for
impregnation. The examples are:
1) Mineral oil (petroleum by product)
2) Synthetic oil askarels, pyranols etc.,
3) Varnish, French polish, lacquer epoxy resin etc.,
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Gaseous: The examples are:
1) Air used in switches, air condensers, transmission and distribution lines etc.,
2) Nitrogen use in capacitors, HV gas pressure cables etc.,
3) Hydrogen though not used as a dielectric, generally used as a coolant
4) Inert gases neon, argon, mercury and sodium vapors generally used for neon sign lamps.
5) Halogens like fluorine, used under high pressure in cables
No insulating material in practice satisfies all the desirable properties. Therefore a material
which satisfies most of the desirable properties must be selected.
Classification of insulating materials based on thermal consideration
Previous Present
Maximum
operating
temperature
in ℃
E
B
B
F
F
H
C
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E
105
120
130
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A
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A
155
H
180
C
>180
Cotton, silk, paper, wood, cellulose, fiber etc., without
impregnation or oil immersed
The material of class Y impregnated with natural resins,
cellulose esters, insulating oils etc., and also laminated wood,
varnished paper etc.
Synthetic resin enamels of vinyl acetate or nylon tapes,
cotton and paper laminates with formaldehyde bonding etc.,
Mica, glass fiber, asbestos etc., with suitable bonding
substances, built up mica, glass fiber and asbestos laminates.
The materials of Class B with more thermal resistance
bonding materials
Glass fiber and asbestos materials and built up mica with
appropriate silicone resins
Mica, ceramics, glass, quartz and asbestos with binders or
resins of super thermal stability.
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Y
Typical materials
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Insulation class
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The insulation system (also called insulation class) for wires used in generators, motors
transformers and other wire-wound electrical components is divided into different classes
according the temperature that they can safely withstand.
As per Indian Standard ( Thermal evaluation and classification of Electrical
Insulation,IS.No.1271,1985,first revision) and other international standard insulation is
classified by letter grades A,E,B,F,H (previous Y,A,E,B,F,H,C).
The maximum operating temperature is the temperature the insulation can reach during
operation and is the sum of standardized ambient temperature i.e. 40 degree centigrade,
permissible temperature rise and allowance tolerance for hot spot in winding. For example, the
maximum temperature of class B insulation is (ambient temperature 40 + allowable
temperature rise 80 + hot spot tolerance 10) = 130oC.
Insulation is the weakest element against heat and is a critical factor in deciding the life of
electrical equipment. The maximum operating temperatures prescribed for different class of
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insulation are for a healthy lifetime of 20,000 hours. The height temperature permitted for the
machine parts is usually about 2000C at the maximum. Exceeding the maximum operating
temperature will affect the life of the insulation. As a rule of thumb, the lifetime of the winding
insulation will be reduced by half for every 10 ºC rise in temperature. The present day trend is
to design the machine using class F insulation for class B temperature rise.
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