Data Dictionary
Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival - CARES
Complete Data Set for EMS, Hospital, and CAD Participants and
Instructions for Abstracting and Coding Data Elements
January 1, 2013
Bryan McNally, MD, MPH (Principal Investigator)
Arthur Kellermann, MD, MPH (Co-Investigator)
Monica Mehta, MPH (Senior Program Associate)
Rachel Robb, MPH (Senior Program Associate)
Kimberly Vellano, MPH (Senior Program Associate)
Lucinda Klann (Minnesota CARES Coordinator & Analyst)
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Page 1
The CARES data dictionary is a document that reviews and explains every CARES data element
in the EMS, Hospital, and CAD (Computer Aided Dispatch) datasets. This document is designed
to be a helpful reference tool for participating agencies. In the data dictionary each data element
is defined, the source is cited, and coding examples are provided. CARES staff has included
additional examples for those elements that are the most frequently miscoded, as well as
examples for unusual circumstances that may arise in the treatment of an out-of-hospital cardiac
arrest.
Originally, the CARES dataset and dictionary were developed by a committee made up of
experienced leaders and stakeholders in the field of emergency medicine (See Appendix A).
Since that time, CARES staff has continued to update and refine the CARES dataset and
dictionary based on feedback from CARES participants and relevant findings in the cardiac
arrest literature. It is important to recognize that CARES was developed as a surveillance registry
and not a research database; therefore, CARES is collecting only the minimum number of data
elements that are known to be essential in the response and treatment of out-of-hospital cardiac
arrest. In 2010, a supplemental list of optional elements was developed to allow for additional
EMS, hospital and CAD times to be collected in those systems that wish to add these fields
where resources allow.
The sources that were used for the development of the dataset and dictionary include the
National EMS Information System (NEMSIS) and the Utstein template. A brief explanation of
each source is provided below:
 NEMSIS is an effort to create a national EMS database. The NEMSIS dataset and
dictionary include over 400 elements and have been through several updates. CARES has
made every attempt to be NEMSIS compliant wherever possible.
(http://www.nemsis.org/)
 Utstein is the recognized international standard for reporting out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
survival. The Utstein recommendations are an attempt to develop and present consensus
definitions for previously poorly defined areas of clinical epidemiology as they pertain to
out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. 1
CARES staff updates the data dictionary on an annual basis. Please feel free to contact CARES
staff at [email protected] with any questions or comments regarding this document.
1
Jacobs I, Nadkarni V, Bahr J, et al; International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation; American Heart
Association; European Resuscitation Council; Australian Resuscitation Council;New Zealand
Resuscitation Council; Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada; InterAmerican Heart Foundation;
Resuscitation Councils of Southern Africa; ILCOR Task Force on Cardiac Arrest and Cardiopulmonary
Resuscitation Outcomes. Cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation outcome reports: update and
simplification of the Utstein templates for resuscitation registries: a statement for healthcare professionals
from a task force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (American HeartAssociation,
European Resuscitation Council, AustralianResuscitation Council, New Zealand Resuscitation Council,
Heartand Stroke Foundation of Canada, InterAmerican HeartFoundation, Resuscitation Councils of
Southern Africa).Circulation. 2004;110:3385-3397.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Page 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
No.
1
2-4
5-6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
3537
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
Data Item
EMS Dataset
Incident Address
Incident City, State, and Zip Code
First Name & Last Name
Patient Age
Patient Age Units
Date of Birth
Gender
Race/Ethnicity
Patient’s Past Medical History
EMS Agency ID
Date of Cardiac Arrest
Incident #
First Responder Agency
Destination Hospital
Location Type
Arrest Witnessed
Arrest After Arrival of 911 Responder
Presumed Cardiac Arrest Etiology
Resuscitation Attempted by 911 Responder
Who Initiated CPR
Type of Bystander CPR Provided
Were Dispatcher CPR Instructions Provided?
Was an AED Applied Prior to EMS Arrival?
Who First Applied AED?
Who First Defibrillated the Patient
Did 911 Responders Perform CPR?
First Arrest Rhythm of Patient
Sustained ROSC
Was hypothermia care provided in the field
End of the Event
When did first ROSC occur?
Time Variables
Estimated time of arrest
Time of 1st defibrillatory shock
Time of 1st CPR
Mechanical CPR device used?
Automated CPR feedback device used?
Advanced airway successfully placed in the field?
ITD used?
Were drugs administered
Vascular Access
12 lead
STEMI
Hospital Dataset
Emergency Room outcome
Was hypothermia care initiated/continued in the
hospital?
Hospital outcome
Discharge from the hospital
Neurological outcome at discharge from hospital
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Best Data Source/Alternate Data Source
Page
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19-20
21
22
23-24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
EMS Trip Sheet
38
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
EMS Trip Sheet
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
Medical Record/Discharge Summary
Medical Record/Discharge Summary
47
48
Medical Record/Discharge Summary
Medical Record/Discharge Summary
Medical Record/Discharge Summary
49
50
51
Page 3
51
52
53
54
55
5666
Was final diagnosis acute myocardial infarction?
Coronary Angiography performed?
Was a cardiac stent placed?
CABG performed?
Was an ICD placed and/or scheduled?
Time Variables
Time call Received at Dispatch Center
Time First Responder Dispatched
Time of First Responder en route
Time ambulance dispatched
Time for ambulance en route
Time first responder arrived at the scene
Time ambulance arrived at the scene
Time EMS arrived at the patient’s side
Time ambulance left scene
Time ambulance arrived at the ED
No First Responder dispatched
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Medical Record/Discharge Summary
Medical Record/Discharge Summary
Medical Record/Discharge Summary
Medical Record/Discharge Summary
Medical Record/Discharge Summary
Computer Aided Dispatch
52
53
54
55
56
57
Page 4
1. INCIDENT ADDRESS
Definition:
 The street address (or best approximation) where the patient arrested. In the event that the patient
arrested after the 911 call was placed, the street address of the patient when the 911 call was
placed should be recorded as the Incident Address.
Description:
 Street address can be used to map the location of the cardiac arrest using GIS technology and to
identify patterns and clusters of cardiac arrest events.
 The ability to use GIS technology and to map cardiac arrest events is dependent upon the
accuracy of the cardiac arrest address. For this reason, USPS standards are recommended for the
coding of the address. The full document of these standards can be found at the USPS website
(http://pe.usps.gov/cpim/ftp/pubs/Pub28/pub28.pdf).
Instructions for Coding:
 Fully spell out street addresses using standard USPS abbreviations. These abbreviations include,
but are not limited to: ALY (alley), ANX (annex), APT (apartment), AVE (avenue), BLDG
(building), BLVD (boulevard), BYP (bypass), CIR (circle), CT (court), CV (cove), DEPT
(department), DR (drive), EXPY (expressway), FL (floor), HTS (heights), HWY (highway), JCT
(junction), LBBY (lobby), LN (lane), LOOP (loop), MNR (manor), MTWY (motorway), OFC
(office), PARK (park), PH (penthouse), PIKE (pike), PKWY (parkway), PL (place), PLZ (plaza),
RAMP (ramp), RD (road), RDG (ridge), RM (room), RTE (route), SPUR (spur), SQ (square), ST
(street), STE (suite), TER (terrace), TRCE (trace), TRL (trail), WAY (way), UNIT (unit), N
(north), NE (northeast), NW (northwest), S (south), SE (southeast), SW (southwest), E (east), W
(west).
 Uppercase letters are preferred.
 Use the “&” or “+” sign for indicating an intersection address.
 Do not use the “#” sign if there is an address unit designator such as APT, SUITE, or RM.
 Do not use periods, commas, or semicolons in the address.
Examples:
Code
102 MAIN ST SW APT 12
CLIFTON RD NE & N DECATUR RD NE
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Location
Apartment #12 at “102 Main Street Southwest”
Intersection of “Clifton Road Northeast” and “North
Decatur Road Northeast”
Page 5
2, 3, & 4. INCIDENT CITY, STATE, & ZIP CODE
Definition:
 The city or township (or best approximation), state, and zip code where the patient arrested. In
the event that the patient arrested after the 911 call was placed, the city or township, state, and zip
code of the patient when the 911 call was placed should be recorded as the Incident City, State, &
Zip Code.
Description:
 Incident location information can be used to map the location of the cardiac arrest using GIS
technology and to identify patterns and clusters of cardiac arrest events.
 The ability to use GIS technology and to map cardiac arrest events is dependent upon the
accuracy of the cardiac arrest address. For this reason, USPS standards are recommended for the
coding of the address. The full document of these standards can be found at the USPS website
(http://pe.usps.gov/cpim/ftp/pubs/Pub28/pub28.pdf).
Instructions for Coding:
 Uppercase letters are preferred.
 City names should be spelled out in their entirety.
 States should be indicated using the standard USPS two-letter abbreviations.
 Zip Codes should be indicated using the standard 5-number USPS zip codes.
 “99999” should be used if the zip code is unknown and cannot be determined.
Examples:
Code
NEW YORK NY 10065
ATLANTA GA 30327
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Location
New York, NY 10065
Atlanta, GA 30327
Page 6
5. & 6. FIRST NAME & LAST NAME (If Available)
Definition:
 The patient’s first (given) name.
 The patient’s last (family) name.
Description:
 Patient names are essential for ensuring accuracy in locating outcome information from hospitals.
 This information is protected in confidence and should not be withheld based on HIPAA
concerns. Please contact the CARES Project Coordinator (CPC) or your agency’s CARES liaison
for questions.
 When the individual CARES record is complete and verified with matching hospital data, the
patient name (as well as the date of birth) will be “scrubbed” from the registry to de-identify the
record.
Instructions for Coding:
 If the patient’s name is known, indicate the first and last name.
 If the patient’s name is unknown, list as “John/Jane Doe.”
Examples:
Code
Bill Smith
John Doe
Jane Doe
Name
First name: Bill
Last name: Smith
Unidentified male patient
Unidentified female patient
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Page 7
7. PATIENT AGE
Definition:
 The patient’s age (calculated from the date of birth or best approximation).
Description:
 Allows for categorization of patients according to their age at the time of cardiac arrest when used
in conjunction with patient age units.
Instructions for Coding:
 Both “Patient Age” and “Patient Age Units” must be coded.
 If the patient’s actual age is not known, it should be estimated and recorded.
 If a child is less than one year, enter the number of months. If older than one year, do not enter
months.
 If a child is less than one month, enter the number of days. If older than one month, do not enter
days.
 This is an all-inclusive registry – please enter patients of ALL ages.
Examples:
Code
001
011
064
Age
1 day, 1 month, or 1 year when combined with “Patient Age Units.”
11 days, 11 months, or 11 years when combined with “Patient Age Units.”
64 years when combined with “Patient Age Units.” (If the age is 64 days, the age
should be recorded as 002 with the “months” code for “Patient Age Units.”)
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Page 8
8. PATIENT AGE UNITS
Definition:
 The units by which the age is documented.
Description:
 Allows for categorization of patients according to their age at the time of cardiac arrest.
 Detailed pediatric age groups may identify those cardiac arrests that are associated with
congenital heart defects that may be inherited (such as prolonged QT Syndrome and WolfParkinson-White Syndrome).
Instructions for Coding:
 Select the appropriate units for the recorded age in the previous field.
Field Values:
Code
Age Unit Options
1
Years
2
Months
3
Days
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Page 9
9. DATE OF BIRTH
Definition:
 The patient’s date of birth.
Description:
 Patient date of birth is essential for ensuring accuracy in locating outcome information from
hospitals.
 This information is protected in confidence and should not be withheld based on HIPAA
concerns. Please contact the CARES Program Coordinator or your agency’s CARES liaison with
questions.
 When the individual CARES record is complete and verified with matching hospital data, the
patient’s date of birth (as well as the patient’s name) will be “scrubbed” from the registry to deidentify the record.
Instructions for Coding:
 All dates should be entered with 8 digits in the following form: MMDDYYYY
 Do not leave any component of the date (month, day, or year) blank unless the date of birth is
unknown. In such cases, mark the “DOB unknown” box and leave the date field blank.
Example:
Format
MMDDYYYY
Code
07252004
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Date
July 25, 2004
Page 10
10. GENDER
Definition:
 The patient’s gender.
Description:
 The sex of the patient may be an important risk factor for cardiac arrest and resuscitation
interventions.
Instructions for Coding:
 The patient’s sex as recorded in the patient record or by self-report.
Field Values:
Code
Gender Options
1
Male
2
Female
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Page 11
11. RACE / ETHNICITY
Definition:
 The patient’s race or ethnicity as defined by the OMB (US Office of Management and Budget;
http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/ OR http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_1997standards/ ).
o American Indian or Alaska Native: A person having origins in any of the original
peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintains
tribal affiliation or community attachment.
o Asian: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast
Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan,
Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam.
o Black or African American: A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of
Africa.
o Hispanic/Latino: A person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American,
or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race.
o Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander: A person having origins in any of the original
peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands.
o White: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle
East, or North Africa.
o Unknown
Description:
 The race/ethnicity of the patient may be an important risk factor for cardiac arrest and
resuscitation interventions.
Instructions for Coding:
 Assign race/ethnicity of patient as considered by patient, family, or healthcare provider.
 If the patient is of mixed race, select the category that is most appropriate.
 Currently, OMB allows for coding of more than one race. However, due to the structure of one
answer for each data field, CARES will only accept one answer. In these cases, select the most
appropriate/applicable race.
Field Values:
Code
Race/Ethnicity Options
1
American-Indian/Alaska-Native
2
Asian
3
Black/African-American
4
Hispanic/Latino
5
Native-Hawaiian/Other-Pacific-Islander
6
White
9
Unknown
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Page 12
12. PATIENT’S PAST MEDICAL HISTORY
***OPTIONAL ELEMENT***
Definition:
 Patient’s past medical history.
Instructions for Coding:
 Code any and all that are known as part of the past medical history of the patient.
 Other would apply for any other chronic diseases that are known but not classified by the existing
choices.
Field Values:
Code
Options
1
No
2
Unknown
3
Heart Disease
4
Diabetes
5
Cancer
6
Hypertension
7
Renal disease
8
Respiratory disease
9
Hyperlipidemia
10
Stroke
11
Other
Examples:
Example
The patient has a history of heart disease.
The patient has diabetes, renal disease and history of a stroke.
Patient has ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis).
Patient is unresponsive and EMS is unable to obtain any past
medical history.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
3 – Heart Disease
4 – Diabetes,
7 – Renal Disease, and
10 – Stroke
11 – Other
2 – Unknown
Page 13
13. EMS AGENCY ID
Definition:
 For desktop data entry and for automatic extraction, this field is auto-populated.
 The state-assigned provider number for the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) responding
agency.
 For CARES, EMS is defined as personnel who respond to the medical emergency in an official
capacity (i.e. respond to the 911 call) as part of an organized medical response team AND are the
designated transporter of the patient to the hospital.
o NOTE: By this definition, organized responding personnel who are not the designated
transporter of the patient to the hospital are characterized as a “First Responder” and are
not part of the EMS system.
o NOTE: By this definition, physicians, nurses, or paramedics who witness a cardiac arrest
and initiate CPR but are not part of the organized rescue team are characterized as Lay
person Medical Provider and are not part of the EMS (or First Responder) system.
Description:
 EMS that provided out-of-hospital care to the patient in cardiac arrest.
 Not nullable. A unique value must be provided to create a unique record ID within the database.
 All EMS agency demographic information is associated with the EMS agency number.
Instructions for Coding:
 Use the official code for your EMS agency assigned by the state.
 If you do not know your agency’s ID, please contact your CARES liaison or CARES staff.
Example:
EMS Agency ID
000003
EMS Agency
Shady Grove EMS
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Page 14
14. DATE OF CARDIAC ARREST
Definition:
 Date cardiac arrest occurred.
Description:
 Allows the calculation of survival time based on consecutively timed events from this index date.
Instructions for Coding:
 Use the date of event as recorded in the EMS trip sheet.
Example:
Format
MMDDYYYY
Code
07252009
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Date
July 25, 2009
Page 15
15. INCIDENT #
Definition:
 The unique number automatically assigned by the EMS agency for each patient care report
(PCR).
Description:
 The number will be used to identify each unique event within the CARES database.
 Not nullable. A unique value must be provided to create a unique record ID within the database.
 Where applicable, it will trace and link dispatch information (CAD data) for EMS and first
responders.
Instructions for Coding:
 This is essential information for follow-up and linking data, and should not be missing.
 Use the record number as recorded in the EMS trip sheet.
 There are 15 characters designated for this field. When the incident number is less than 6
characters, do not use preceding “0”s unless the information is transmitted by XML file.
 If letters are used in the incident number, they should be recorded as capital letters.
 NOTE: Agencies may refer to this number in different terms (e.g., Call #). Please note the
CARES definition relates to the unique number assigned by the EMS Agency.
Examples:
Call #
1234
123456
AB6468
000000123456789
Examples
Four (4) number incident #
Six (6) number incident #
Incident # with letters and numbers
Incident # with more than 6 characters with preceding “0”s.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Page 16
16. FIRE/FIRST RESPONDER AGENCY
Definition:
 The name and state-assigned code number for the First Responder agency.
 For CARES, a First Responder agency is defined as personnel who respond to the medical
emergency in an official capacity as part of an organized medical response team but are not the
designated transporter of the patient to the hospital.
o NOTE: By this definition, organized responding personnel who are the designated
transporter of the patient to the hospital are characterized as “EMS” and are not
considered a “First Responder.”
o NOTE: By this definition, physicians, nurses, or paramedics who witness a cardiac arrest
and initiate CPR but are not part of the organized rescue team are characterized as Lay
person Medical Provider and are not part of the First Responder (or EMS) system.
Description:
 First Responder agency that provided out-of-hospital care to the patient in cardiac arrest.
 All First Responder agency demographic information is associated with this field.
 Where applicable, it will trace and link dispatch information (CAD date) for First Responders.
Instructions for Coding:
 Use the official code for your EMS agency assigned by the state.
 The names and/or codes of the First Responder agency may be documented on the EMS trip
sheets.
 For desktop data entry and for automatic extraction, this field is in a “drop-down menu” format.
 If a First Responder agency was not dispatched, this field can be left blank. (However, an
explanatory comment should be provided in the “General Comments” box).
 If a First Responder agency was dispatched, this field MUST be completed. This is independent
of whether or not the First Responder actually provided direct care to the patient.
 If more than one First Responder agency was dispatched, the unit that arrived first at the scene
should be indicated as the “First Responder” for this field.
 First Responder does not need to be on the scene first.
Example:
Code
003
First Responder Agency
Shady Grove Fire Department
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Page 17
17. DESTINATION HOSPITAL
Definition:
 The hospital that the patient was transported to.
Description:
 Destination Hospital name and/or code is essential for matching outcome data to the record.
 When possible, state issued hospital codes should be used along with the name of the hospital.
 Important for grouping data by destination location, which also allows data to be sorted by
geographic areas in many agencies.
 Provides information on overall service area as well as patterns and times for agency
configuration.
Instructions for Coding:
 This field must be completed for all patients that are transported to the hospital. This is
independent of whether or not the patient was later admitted to the hospital.
 For desktop data entry and for automatic extraction, this field is in a “drop-down menu” format.
 The destination hospital should be documented on the EMS trip sheet.
 This field can only be left blank when the patient was not transported to the hospital.
Example:
Code Destination Hospital
321
Shady Grove Hospital
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Page 18
18. LOCATION TYPE
Definition:
 The type of location for the address given in field 1.
 This should be the type of location where the patient arrested. In the event that the patient
arrested after the 911 call was placed, the type of location should be for the address of the patient
when the 911 call was placed.
o Ex: if patient arrests in the back of the ambulance, the location type should be coded as
the place where the call was made from.
Description:
 Allows categorization of cardiac arrest according to type of location. This may allow for a
greater understanding of high frequency arrest locations that can be targeted for prevention or
response programs.
Instructions for Coding:
 Select the location type that is most appropriate based on the definitions below:
Field Values:
Code Values & Definitions
01
Home/Residence – Includes apartment, boarding house, institutional place of residence,
halfway house, group home, dormitory building, private home, residential house, home
premises, private driveway, private garage, private garden, private walkway, swimming pool
within private residence or garden, and yard of home.
02
Public/Commercial Building –Includes any building used by the general public, including bank,
café, state, public, and private schools, casino, church, cinema, clubhouse, commercial shop,
courthouse, dance hall, farm, fire station, daycare, hotel, jail, market, movie theater, music hall,
nightclub, office building, opera house, parking garage, post office, public hall, restaurant,
broadcasting station, and store. Excludes home garage (see Home/Residence), industrial
building/workplace (see Industrial Place), and physician’s office (see Healthcare Facility).
03
Street/Hwy – Includes all public roadways, and sidewalk or road not associated with a residence
or business.
04
Nursing Home –Includes all medical residential institutions that are licensed by the state as
nursing homes or assisted-living centers.
05
Healthcare Facility – Doctor’s office, dialysis clinic, free standing clinic (unless meeting the
definition of Hospital).
06
Place of Recreation – Includes amusement park, baseball field, basketball court, beach resort,
cricket grounds, football field, golf course, gymnasium, hockey field, holiday camp, ice palace,
lake resort, mountain resort, playground, public park, racetrack, resorts of all types, riding
school, rifle range, skating rink, sports grounds, stadium, public swimming pool, tennis court
and other recreational locations within an educational institution (such as playground,
gymnasium). Excludes occurrence in private house, private garden, private swimming pool, and
private yard (See Home/Residence).
07
Industrial Place – Includes building under construction, dockyard, dry dock, factory building or
premises, garage (place of work), industrial yard, loading platform in factory or store, industrial
plant, mine, quarry, railway yard, shop (place of work), warehouse, and workhouse.
08
Transport Center – Includes bus station/terminal, train/subway station, ferry terminal and
airport.
09
Other – Is to be used when location is not included in the above categories. Includes parking lot,
boat/ferry. When this option is selected, please indicate/describe the location type in the free
text field.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Page 19
Examples:
Example
Patient arrested while on a private tennis court located in the
backyard of a residential home.
Patient arrested while on a tennis court at the Shady Grove Country
Club.
Patient was walking down the street. Not feeling well, the patient
approached a nearby home to ask for help. Upon stepping on the
private porch, the patient had a cardiac arrest.
Patient had a cardiac arrest while in the Shady Grove Supermarket.
Appropriate Code/Value
01- Home/Residence
06- Place of Recreation
01- Home/Residence
02- Public/Commercial Building
Patient had a cardiac arrest in the parking lot of the Shady Grove
Supermarket.
Patient arrested at the Shady Grove Neighborhood Church.
09- Other
Patient arrested while in his/her college dorm room.
01- Home/Residence
02- Public/Commercial Building
Patient arrested while on dialysis at the Shady Grove Dialysis Clinic. 05- Healthcare Facility
Patient arrested while in the Atlanta airport.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
08- Transport Center
Page 20
19. ARREST WITNESSED
Definition:
 A witnessed arrest is one that is seen or heard by another person.
Description:
 To be able to determine a true Utstein survival rate in a given community it is necessary to
identify those patients who have been witnessed to collapse.
Instructions for Coding:
 A witnessed arrest is one that is seen or heard by another person.
 If the patient was found after an uncertain period of time (the arrest was neither seen nor heard),
then the arrest is considered an unwitnessed arrest.
Field Values:
Code
Options
1
Witnessed arrest
2
Unwitnessed arrest
Examples:
Example
The patient was found on the floor of the kitchen by her husband. He
did not see or hear her fall but immediately called 911.
The patient’s wife heard a load ‘thud’ in the next room. She
immediately walked into the room to find the patient on the floor
unconscious/unresponsive and called 911
EMS was called to the home of the patient, who complained of
shortness of breath. The patient was awake and alert when EMS
arrived and the first monitored cardiac rhythm was sinus tachycardia
of 150 bpm. After 2 minutes of monitored sinus tachycardia, the
patient went into ventricular fibrillation. Resuscitation was begun, etc.
EMS was called to the corner of Main Street and 14th Street for a
possible cardiac arrest. Upon arrival, the patient was found lying on
the sidewalk with no pulse. The couple, who had called 911, was
interviewed and stated they found the patient while walking to their
car.
EMS was called to the YMCA for a possible cardiac arrest. Upon
arrival the patient was found lying on the gym floor with no pulse.
Several other people were playing basketball when the event occurred,
but no one heard or saw the patient collapse.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
2 – Unwitnessed Arrest
1 – Witnessed Arrest
1 – Witnessed Arrest
2 – Unwitnessed Arrest
2 – Unwitnessed Arrest
Page 21
20. ARREST AFTER ARRIVAL OF 911 RESPONDER
Definition:
 Indicates if the patient arrested before or after the arrival of a 911 responder.
Description:
 Allows data to be sorted based on when the arrest occurred: before/after the arrival of a 911
responder.
 Patients who experience a cardiac arrest after the arrival of EMS or First Responder personnel are
in the best of circumstances to be resuscitated by trained personnel with the equipment to provide
immediate defibrillation.
Instructions for Coding:
 If the arrest occurred after the arrival of a 911 responder, mark Yes.
 If the arrest did not occur after the arrival of a 911 responder, mark No.
 NOTE: If this field is marked “Yes,” then field 19 (Arrest Witnessed) should be coded as a
“Witnessed Arrest.”
Field Values:
Code
Options
1
Yes
2
No
Examples:
Example
The patient was found on the floor of the kitchen by her husband. He
did not see or hear her fall but immediately called 911.
The patient’s wife heard a load “thud” in the next room. She
immediately walked into the room to find the patient on the floor
unconscious/unresponsive and called 911.
EMS was called to the home of the patient, who complained of
shortness of breath. The patient was awake and alert when EMS
arrived and the first monitored cardiac rhythm was sinus tachycardia
of 150 bpm. After 2 minutes of monitored sinus tachycardia, the
patient went into ventricular fibrillation. Resuscitation was begun, etc.
EMS and a First Responder were dispatched to the Shady Grove
Sporting Club for a patient complaining of mild chest pain. The First
Responder arrived on scene to find the patient awake and alert. After
1 minute, the patient went into full cardiac arrest. Resuscitation efforts
were begun. EMS personnel arrived 2 minutes later, etc.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
2 – No
2 – No
1 – Yes
1 – Yes
Page 22
21. PRESUMED CARDIAC ARREST ETIOLOGY
Definition:
 Indication of the etiology or cause of the cardiac arrest.
 All cardiac arrests of non-traumatic etiology MUST be entered into CARES including:
presumed cardiac, drowning, respiratory causes, electrocution, drug overdose, presumed
poisoning/intoxication, asphyxia, and exsanguinations.
 An arrest is presumed to be of cardiac etiology unless it is known or likely to have been caused
by trauma, drowning, respiratory causes, electrocution, drug overdose, presumed
poisoning/intoxication, asphyxia, exsanguinations, or any other non-cardiac cause as best
determined by rescuers.
 In cases where seemingly minor “trauma” may be present but not likely the cause of the arrest,
cardiac etiology should be considered (i.e. minor MVC with patient slumped over, a minor fall).
 Trauma - defined as out-of-hospital injury (e.g. blunt or penetrating trauma, burns, etc.) resulting
in traumatic arrest.
 Respiratory - underlying respiratory disease or a respiratory mechanism as the primary cause of
arrest, e.g. acute respiratory event that is likely the cause of the cardiac arrest
 Drowning - submersion in water with no evidence of other contributing factors such as drug
poisoning or trauma prior falling into the water.
 Electrocution - primary cause of arrest due to electric shock, i.e. by a source of high voltage
current.
 Other - only to be used if the cause of arrest is known and documented but is not one of the
available options (presumed cardiac etiology, trauma, respiratory, drowning, or electrocution).
Description:
 This field allows for categorization based on evidence to suggest the presumed etiology of the
arrest. This will allow for the best chance of identifying patients that are otherwise presumed to
have a primary cardiac etiology and help establish an Utstein survival rate for a community.
Instructions for Coding:
 The arrest is said to be of “presumed cardiac etiology” unless it is known or likely to have been
caused by a non-cardiac cause (see definitions above).
 “Other” should only be used if the etiology is known and documented but is not one of the
available options (presumed cardiac etiology, trauma, respiratory, drowning, or electrocution).
“Other” is not the default answer and therefore should not be used for “unknown” etiologies.
 Additional information when available from the hospital (if the patient is transported) or medical
examiner’s office (death certificate) that may help clarify the etiology should also be used when
available.
o If the hospital determines the etiology to be other than what is listed by pre-hospital
providers, the pre-hospital agency should be notified and the etiology changed in CARES
with approval of pre-hospital provider.
 If the arrest is selected as a non-cardiac etiology, explain the circumstances of the arrest in the
“General Comments” free text field.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Page 23
Field Values:
Code
Etiology Options
1
Presumed Cardiac Etiology
2
Trauma
3
Respiratory
4
Drowning
5
Electrocution
9
Other
Examples:
Example
EMS was called to the home a patient who complained of shortness of
breath. The patient was awake and alert when EMS arrived and the
first monitored cardiac rhythm was sinus tachycardia. The patient then
went into ventricular fibrillation. Resuscitation was begun, etc.
EMS was called to a dialysis clinic to find patient in full cardiac arrest.
No other information was provided.
EMS arrived on scene to find patient unresponsive on the floor of a
public building. Bystander stated that the patient exhibited seizure-like
activity before becoming unresponsive. The patient had no history of
seizures.
EMS was called to the home of a one month old cardiac arrest patient.
The patient had no prior medical history, and the cause of arrest is
unknown.
EMS is called to the home of a forty year old man for an attempted
suicide. Patient is found hanging and resuscitation efforts are initiated.
EMS was called to the home of a patient who complained of shortness
of breath. EMS arrived to find the patient awake and alert. The
patient had a medical history of asthma. After two minutes the patient
stopped breathing and went into respiratory arrest.
EMS was dispatched to a possible cardiac arrest. Upon their arrival
the patient was unconscious in the swimming pool. The patient did not
have a pulse when he was removed from the pool.
EMS arrived at a college dormitory to find patient unconscious and
unresponsive. Drug paraphernalia was located near the patient.
Friends of the patient said she had been using cocaine and heroin
throughout the day.
EMS arrived on scene to find patient lying in bed unresponsive. The
patient had end stage cancer and was in hospice care.
Patient found in a parked car in his garage, suspected of carbon
monoxide poisoning.
Patient found with exsanguinations, felt to be from a gastrointestinal
hemorrhage.
EMS responds to an infant arrest believed to be Sudden Infant Death
Syndrome (SIDS) or Sudden Unexpected Infant Death (SUID), the
unexpected, sudden death of a child under age 1 in which an autopsy
does not show an explainable cause of death.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
1 – Presumed Cardiac
Etiology
1 – Presumed Cardiac
Etiology
1 – Presumed Cardiac
Etiology
1 – Presumed Cardiac
Etiology
2 – Trauma
3 – Respiratory
4 – Drowning
9 – Other
9 – Other
9 – Other
9 - Other
9 - Other
Page 24
22. RESUSCITATION ATTEMPTED BY 911 RESPONDER (or AED shock given prior
to EMS)
Definition:
 Indication of an attempt to resuscitate the patient who is in cardiac arrest.
 A resuscitation attempt is defined as the act of attempting to maintain or restore life by
establishing or maintaining airway (or both), breathing, and circulation through CPR,
defibrillation, and other related emergency care techniques.
 Bystander CPR that results in ROSC without the need for defibrillation or 911 Responder CPR
would not be considered a resuscitation attempt.
 Patients with signs of obvious death (dependent lividity, rigor mortis, decomposition) where
initial efforts may have been initiated will not be considered as attempted resuscitation. This
includes cases where First Responders may start CPR but upon arrival of ALS, efforts are ceased
due to obvious signs of death.
Description:
 Allows data to describe the number of cardiac arrests within the EMS patient population which
resulted in resuscitative efforts.
Instructions for Coding:
 Determine if a 911 Responder attempted resuscitation, as defined above.
 If the patient was defibrillated successfully prior to 911 responders arrival and post-resuscitative
care was provided, then this field must be marked “Yes”.
 If the patient only received bystander CPR, and did not require defibrillation or 911 responder
CPR efforts, then this field must be marked “No”.
 This field is independent of whether or not resuscitation efforts were later stopped at the scene
(for any reason).
Field Values:
Code
Field Options
1
Yes
2
No
Examples:
Example
EMS arrived on scene to a lay person performing CPR on a patient with dependent
lividity. EMS terminated the resuscitation effort (without ever performing CPR
themselves) due to the futile nature of the event.
After witnessing a man collapse, a lay person performed CPR and a lay person
medical provider applied an AED (but did not defibrillate), resulting in a full
resuscitation of the patient prior to arrival of EMS. EMS transported the patient to the
hospital, providing supportive care only.
After witnessing a man go into cardiac arrest, a lay person performed CPR and a lay
person medical provider applied an AED (with AED defibrillation), resulting in a full
resuscitation of the patient prior to arrival of EMS. EMS transported the patient to the
hospital, providing supportive care only.
EMS found patient in PEA arrest, and patient was treated per ACLS guidelines
without change. Patient’s wife requested that resuscitation efforts be stopped, and
patient was pronounced per protocol.
First Responders arrived on scene, started CPR, and placed AED. EMS arrived and
found patient with dependent lividity/rigor mortis. Patient pronounced per protocol.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate
Code/Value
2 – No
2 – No
1 – Yes
1 - Yes
2 – No
Page 25
23. WHO INITIATED CPR
Definition:
 Identifies the initial person to perform CPR.
 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an attempt to restore spontaneous circulation by
performing chest compressions with or without ventilation.
Description:
 Used to measure Bystander and First Responder involvement.
Instructions for Coding:
 If CPR was not initiated, select “Not Applicable”.
 Select who initiated CPR using the definitions below.
 If the person who initiated CPR fits the definitions for both “Lay Person Family Member” and
“Lay Person Medical Provider,” then “Lay Person Medical Provider” should be selected.
 If arrest occurs at a Nursing Home, assume Lay Person Medical Provider initiated CPR unless
otherwise specified.
Field Values:
Code
Definition
9
Not Applicable
1
Lay Person – Someone not responding to the medical emergency in an official capacity (i.e.
not part of the response team to the 911 call). Known family members and medical
providers are excluded from this group for this question. (See “Lay Person Family
Member” and “Lay Person Medical Provider” below.)
2
Lay Person Family Member – Lay person who is known to be a family member of the
patient.
3
Lay Person Medical Provider – Physicians, nurses, or paramedics who are not part of the
organized rescue team.
4
First Responder (non-EMS)
5
Responding EMS personnel
Examples:
Example
After attending the symphony, a couple saw a woman suddenly collapse
to the sidewalk. Since there was no pulse the man began chest
compressions while the woman called 911.
Police responded to a 911 call at a single family dwelling at 123 Smith
Road. When police arrived wife stated she saw her husband collapse
while he was washing dishes but she did not perform CPR. Since there
was no pulse police began chest compressions.
After attending a movie, a group of nurses heard someone call for help
in the parking lot. A man was found on the ground with no pulse and no
respirations. CPR was initiated by the nurses.
If CPR was not initiated by any bystander or EMS team/Private
ambulance crew, indicate “Not Applicable”. E.g. A case whereby there
is obvious sign of death (rigor mortis, lividity or decapitation) and
resuscitation was not attempted at all.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
1 – Lay Person
4 – First Responder
3 – Lay Person Medical
Provider
9 – No CPR Initiated
Page 26
24. TYPE OF BYSTANDER CPR PROVIDED
Definition:
 Describes type of CPR performed by a bystander.
 “Compressions and ventilations” is defined as a combination of chest compressions and mouth or
bag ventilations.
 “Compressions only” is defined as manual chest compressions performed with no attempt at
ventilations.
 “Ventilations only” is defined as mouth or bag ventilations performed with no attempt at
compressions.
Description:
 This field allows for categorization on type of bystander CPR and will provide information on the
survival rate with each method.
 Determine if a bystander performed CPR.
 If a bystander performed, then determine type of CPR.
 You should only choose one field.
Field Values:
Code
Field Options
1
Compressions and ventilations
2
Compressions only
3
Ventilations only
Examples:
Example
EMS arrived on scene while two bystanders are performing CPR on a
patient. Bystanders were providing ventilations with chest
compressions.
EMS arrived on scene while a bystander is performing chest
compressions only. Ventilations were not attempted.
EMS arrived on scene while a bystander is performing ventilations
only. Compressions were not attempted.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
1 – Compressions and
ventilations
2 – Compressions only
3 – Ventilations only
Page 27
25. WERE DISPATCHER CPR INSTRUCTIONS PROVIDED?
Definition:
 Indicates if dispatcher CPR instructions were provided to the caller.
Instructions for Coding:
 For the answer to be “Yes”, the 911 dispatcher must have provided CPR instructions to the caller.
 For the answer to be “No”, the 911 dispatcher must not have provided CPR instructions to the
caller.
 We are asking whether CPR instructions were provided, not whether CPR was performed (this is
asked in Questions 23 and 24).
Field Values:
Code
Options
1
Yes
2
No
3
Unknown
Examples:
Example
Bystander calls 911 and is provided with CPR instructions.
Bystander calls 911 and is not offered CPR instructions.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
1 - Yes
2 - No
Page 28
26. WAS AN AED APPLIED PRIOR TO EMS ARRIVAL?
Description:
 To determine the incidence of automated external defibrillator (AED) use prior to EMS arrival.
 This question is designed to capture both public access defibrillation (PAD) and First Responders
with an AED (as opposed to a monitor defibrillator).
Instructions for Coding:
 To be coded “Yes”, the machine would need to have the pads applied to the patient with a
minimum of one analysis performed, regardless of whether or not a shock is indicated.
 Indicate whether AED was used to defibrillate patient.
Field Values:
Code
Definition
1
Yes, with defibrillation
2
Yes, without defibrillation
3
No
Examples:
Example
EMS responded to a possible cardiac arrest at Town Center Mall. Upon
arrival a female patient was found on the floor with mall security at her
side and an AED in use. Pads had been applied and one shock had been
given.
After the fitness instructor applied the AED to the collapsed jogger in
the health club, she reported to the responding EMS personnel that the
AED indicated an unshockable rhythm. Therefore, she did not
defibrillate the patient.
EMS was called to the YMCA for a possible cardiac arrest. Upon
arrival a man was found lying on the gym floor with no pulse. Several
other people were playing and watching a basketball game when the
event occurred. Several bystanders saw the man collapse and were at
his side. EMS applied monitor/defibrillator.
Police respond to a possible cardiac arrest and arrive to find a woman
down and receiving bystander CPR. The police carry and apply an
AED to the patient with no shock advised.
A man collapses at a downtown café; first on the scene is an engine
company from the fire department. They apply an AED and shock the
patient and start CPR prior to ALS arrival.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
1 – Yes, with defibrillation
2 – Yes, without
defibrillation
3 – No
2- Yes, without
defibrillation
1- Yes-with defibrillation
Page 29
27. WHO FIRST APPLIED AED?
Description:
 Identifies the individual who initially applied/used the AED during the resuscitation.
 To determine the frequency of use of publicly available AEDs during resuscitations.
Field Values:
Code
Definition
9
Not Applicable (device not used)
1
Lay Person (lay person not known to be a family member)
2
Lay Person Family Member (lay person known to be family member)
3
Lay Person Medical Provider
4
First Responder (non-EMS)
If yes, was it applied by Police?
o Yes
1
o No
2
Examples:
Example
EMS responded to a possible cardiac arrest at Town Center
Mall. Upon arrival a female patient was found on the floor
with mall security at her side and an AED in use. Pads had
been applied and one shock had been given
Police responded to a 911 call at a single family dwelling at
123 Smith Rd. When police arrived wife stated she saw her
husband collapse while he was washing dishes but she did not
perform CPR. Since there was no pulse police began chest
compressions. An AED was applied by police and police
noted that the patient was shocked once.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
1 – Lay Person
4 – First Responder (non-EMS),
then “Yes”
Page 30
28. WHO FIRST DEFIBRILLATED THE PATIENT?
Description:
 Identifies the individual who was responsible for first defibrillating the patient.
 To determine the frequency of defibrillatory shocks among bystanders and responders.
Field Values:
Code
Definition
0
Not applicable
1
Lay Person (lay person not known to be a family member)
2
Lay Person Family Member (lay person known to be family member)
3
Lay Person Medical Provider
4
First Responder (non-EMS)
If yes, did the police defibrillate the patient?
o Yes
1
o No
2
5
Responding EMS personnel
Examples:
Example
EMS responded to a possible cardiac arrest at Town Center
Mall. Upon arrival a female patient was found on the floor
with mall security at her side and an AED in use. Pads had
been applied and one shock had been given
Police responded to a 911 call at a single family dwelling at
123 Smith Rd. When police arrived wife stated she saw her
husband collapse while he was washing dishes but she did
not perform CPR. Since there was no pulse police began
chest compressions. An AED was applied by police and
police noted that the patient was shocked once.
EMS was called to the YMCA for a possible cardiac arrest.
Upon arrival a man was found lying on the gym floor with no
pulse. Several other people were playing and watching a
basketball game when the event occurred. Several
bystanders saw the man collapse and were at his side. EMS
applied Monitor/Defibrillator and provided shocks.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
1 – Lay Person
4 – First Responder (non-EMS),
then “Yes”
5 – Responding EMS Personnel
Page 31
29. DID 911 RESPONDERS PERFORM CPR?
***OPTIONAL ELEMENT***
Definition:
 Indicates if 911 responder (BLS and/or ALS) performed CPR.
Instructions for Coding:
 For the answer to be “yes”, CPR must be performed by 911 Responder (BLS and/or ALS).
Field Values:
Code
Options
1
Yes
2
No
Examples:
Example
911 responder performed CPR.
911 responder arrived on scene to a lay person performing CPR on a
patient with dependent lividity. Responder terminated the resuscitation
effort (without ever performing CPR themselves) due to the futile
nature of the event.
After witnessing a man go into cardiac arrest, a lay person performed
CPR and a lay person medical provider applied an AED (but did not
defibrillate), resulting in a full resuscitation of the patient prior to
arrival of 911 responder. 911 responder transported the patient to the
hospital, providing supportive care only.
After witnessing a man go into cardiac arrest, a lay person performed
CPR and a lay person medical provider applied an AED (with AED
defibrillation), resulting in a full resuscitation of the patient prior to
arrival of 911 responder. 911 responder transported the patient to the
hospital, providing supportive care only.
911 responder found patient in PEA arrest, and patient was treated per
ACLS guidelines without change. Patient’s wife requested that
resuscitation efforts be stopped, and patient was pronounced per
protocol.
First responders arrived on scene, started CPR, and placed AED. 911
responder arrived and found patient with dependent lividity and rigor
mortis. Patient was pronounced per protocol.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
1 – Yes
2 – No
2 – No
1 – No
1 – Yes
2 – No
Page 32
30. FIRST ARREST RHYTHM OF PATIENT
Description:
 The first monitored rhythm is the first cardiac rhythm present when a manual
(monitor/defibrillator) or AED (automated external defibrillator) is attached to a patient after
cardiac arrest. If the AED does not have a rhythm display, then it may be possible to determine
the first monitored rhythm from a storage data card, hard drive, or other device used by the AED
to record data. If the AED has no data-recording device, then the first monitored rhythm should
be classified simply as “unknown shockable” or “unknown unshockable.” This data point can be
updated later if the AED has downloadable capability.
 The initial rhythm that the patient was found to be in as indicated by EMS personnel. For the
purposes of uniform reporting, the Utstein group classifies a deflection on the surface ECG <
1mm amplitude (calibrated 10 mm/mv) as asystole; 1 mm or more is ventricular fibrillation.
Instructions for Coding:
 In order to obtain the first monitored rhythm from the AED, it must have a working recording
cartridge. The recording cartridge provides an electronic copy of the recorded rhythms and
respective defibrillations that may be delivered. This cartridge must be retrieved after the arrest
for review by the principle investigators or registry medical director.
 For manual defibrillators, the first monitored rhythm should be recorded in the patient care
narrative by EMS paramedics.
 If an AED is used during the event and is without a recording cartridge, selection should only be
made from “Unknown shockable rhythm” or “Unknown unshockable rhythm.”
Field Values:
Code
Definition
00
Ventricular Fibrillation
01
Ventricular Tachycardia
02
Asystole
03
Idioventricular/Pulseless Electrical Activity (PEA)
06
Unknown Shockable Rhythm
07
Unknown Unshockable Rhythm
Examples:
Example
Monitor/Defibrillator was available to rhythm
interpretation by First Responder or EMS. Ventricular
Fibrillation was the presenting rhythm interpreted by
trained personnel.
An AED was used by bystander or First Responder that did
not provide observation of rhythm for interpretation. The
AED advised to deliver a shock. This is the first arrest
rhythm regardless of actual rhythm observed after EMS
interpretation.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
00 – Ventricular Fibrillation
06 – Unknown Shockable Rhythm
Page 33
31. SUSTAINED ROSC (20 consecutive minutes) or present at the end of EMS care
Definition:
 Return of Spontaneous Circulation (ROSC) is defined as the restoration of a palpable pulse or a
measurable blood pressure
 Sustained ROSC is deemed to have occurred when chest compressions are not required for 20
consecutive minutes and signs of circulation persist.
 20 minutes can be estimated as it is understood these times can be hard to quantify.
Instructions for Coding:
 If a patient has a subsequent loss of spontaneous circulation after “Sustained ROSC” this
subsequent arrest is NOT coded as a new event. After the cardiac arrest event that resulted in the
initial 911 call all subsequent arrests after ROSC are considered part of the initiating event.
Field Values:
Code
Definition
1
No
2
Yes, but pulseless at end of EMS care (or ED arrival)
3
Yes, pulse at end of EMS care (or ED arrival)
Examples:
Example
After defibrillation, patient monitored rhythm returned to sinus
tachycardia with a palpable carotid pulse. There was no further
fibrillation or asystole. Patient remained stable and was transported
to the ED. ROSC was sustained through arrival and at the ED.
After defibrillation, patient monitored rhythm returned to sinus
tachycardia with a palpable carotid pulse. After 10 minutes, the
patient became flaccid and asystolic. Chest compressions were
restarted.
After defibrillation, patient monitored rhythm returned to sinus
tachycardia with a palpable carotid pulse. After 22 minutes, the
patient became flaccid and asystolic. Chest compressions were
restarted and spontaneous circulation did not reoccur during
transport or arrival at ED.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
3 – Yes, pulse at end of EMS
care (or ED arrival).
1 – No
2 – Yes, but pulseless at end of
EMS care (or ED arrival)
Page 34
32. WAS HYPOTHERMIA CARE PROVIDED IN THE FIELD
Description:
 Hypothermia care is provided in the field if measures were taken to reduce the patient’s body
temperature by means of external cold pack application to armpits and groin and administration
of cold intravenous saline bolus, with or without sedation or other medications.
Field Values:
Code
Definition
1
Yes
2
No
Examples:
Example
20 y/o intubated male achieves prehospital ROSC, remains
comatose, and EMS applies cold packs and cold IV fluid bolus.
34 y/o female achieves ROSC and is awake and alert shortly
after defibrillation. She does not receive hypothermia care.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
1 – Yes
2 – No
Page 35
33. END OF THE EVENT
Definition:
 The reason that CPR or other resuscitation efforts were discontinued.
 A resuscitation event is deemed to have ended when death is declared or spontaneous circulation
is restored and sustained for 20 minutes or longer.
 If a DNR is produced, even if resuscitative attempts have already been started, this field should be
coded “Effort ceased due to DNR”
Description:
 This variable will be used to quantify the number of patients who had resuscitation terminated in
the field and which patients were transported to the hospital.
 The final destination of the patient at the end of the EMS call.
 If a DNR is produced, even if resuscitative attempts have already been started, this field should be
coded “Effort ceased due to DNR”
Field Values:
Code
Definition
1
Pronounced in Field
2
Pronounced in ED
3
Effort ceased due to DNR
4
Ongoing Resuscitation in ED
Examples:
Example
Patient expired without being transported.
Following transfer of patient to hospital, EMS had knowledge
that resuscitation efforts were terminated by ED staff.
EMS arrived, initiating CPR and applying an AED. In the
meantime, the patient’s family presented a valid DNR. All
resuscitative attempts were terminated.
Whether or not the patient had a pulse upon arrival, the patient
was continuing to receive care by hospital staff at time of EMS
departure from hospital. Note: this includes patients with
sustained ROSC, who have no impairment whatsoever, but had
experienced cardiac arrest during this event. This option is vital
to request outcomes information from the destination hospital.
If, for some reason, the End of the Event is unknown and the
patient was transported to the hospital, this option should be
coded.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
1 – Pronounced in Field
2 – Pronounced in ED
3 – Effort ceased due to DNR
4 – Ongoing Resuscitation in ED
Page 36
34. WHEN DID ROSC FIRST OCCUR?
***OPTIONAL ELEMENT***
Definition:
 Return of Spontaneous Circulation (ROSC) is defined as the restoration of a palpable pulse or a
measurable blood pressure
Description:
 Useful when determining the timing of when ROSC first occurred
Field Values:
Code
Options
1
Never
2
After Bystander CPR only
3
After Bystander defib shock
4
After 911 Responder CPR only
5
After 911 Responder defib shock
6
After ALS
9
Unknown
Examples:
Example
The patient had return of a sustained pulse immediately after being
defibrillated by EMS providers
The patient was noted to have a pulse and blood pressure upon EMS
arrival after bystander CPR was performed.
The patient never had a pulse throughout treatment.
After EMS providers completed 2 minutes of CPR a sustained pulse
was detected.
After First Responder provides a defibrillation a pulse is noted
After 2 minutes of First Responder CPR a pulse is noted.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
5 – After 911 Responder
defib shock
2 – After Bystander CPR only
1 – Never
4 – After 911 Responder CPR
only
5 – After 911 Responder
defib shock
4 – After 911 Responder CPR
only
Page 37
35, 36, & 37. TIME VARIABLES
***OPTIONAL ELEMENTS***
35. ESTIMATED TIME OF ARREST
36. TIME OF 1ST DEFIBRILLATORY SHOCK
37. TIME OF 1ST CPR
Instructions for Coding:
 Use the time as documented on the EMS trip sheet
 Allows the calculation of survival time based on consecutively timed events.
 Avoid missing time data since the intervals calculated between consecutive events are fundamental to
the CARES Registry.
 All times collected for the CARES Registry should be coded in a uniform manner. Uniformity of this
data collection will allow accurate calculation of resuscitation time intervals and survival time which
is the fundamental purpose of the CARES Registry.
35. Estimated time of arrest:
Bystander witnessed arrest: time of arrest can be presumed to be time of 911 call in the absence of other
information. This also applies to an arrest that was heard.
EMS witnessed: this should be known from run sheet (or can be deduced if vitals are documented).
Unwitnessed, but recently seen: example: “We saw him 10 minutes prior to finding him collapsed.” Time of
arrest can be assumed to be 10 minutes prior to call OR unknown. Anything greater than 10 minutes should be
coded as Unknown.
36. Time of first shock:
This includes both AED use AND manual mode on a monitor/defibrillator.
If the first shock is manual: Use the info on the run sheet or actual print out/scan of event from device.
If the first shock is from a PAD or BLS crew AED: If possible, time should be obtained from AED
downloads.
Examples:
BLS crew placed device and shocked upon arrival: defib time would be roughly equal to time at patient side.
BLS crew arrived, did 2 mins CPR, placed device and shocked: defib is two minutes after time at patient side.
BLS crew arrived, did CPR for undetermined amount of time, and eventually shock was advised: defib time is
unknown.
37. Time of first CPR:
This is CPR performed by anyone, not just 911 Responder.
Bystander witnessed arrest with bystander CPR: CPR start time is time of call in the absence of other
information.
Unwitnessed with bystander CPR: CPR start time is time of call in the absence of other information.
EMS witnessed: should be same as “Estimated Time of Arrest”.
Code
HH:MM:SS
Definition
Time should be recorded based on military time. The first two digits represent the hour
00- 24. The second two digits represent the minutes 00-59. The last two digits are
seconds 00-59. A colon should separate the hour, minutes and seconds.
Examples:
Code
Definition
01:23:45 Twenty three minutes and 45 seconds after 1 o’clock in the morning
16:30:15 Four thirty and 15 seconds in the afternoon
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Page 38
38. MECHANICAL CPR DEVICE USED?
***OPTIONAL ELEMENT***
Definition:
 Indicates if a mechanical CPR device was used during the course of resuscitation at the ED.
 If mechanical CPR device was used, indicate which type of device was applied.
 Choose only one that applies from the list provided.
 Defined as an automated device which can take over the chest compressions for the rescuer.
Instructions for Coding:
 If mechanical CPR device was used, indicate which type of device was applied.
 Choose only one that applies from the list provided.
Field Values:
Code
Options
1
Yes
2
No
If ‘Yes’, please specify:
1
Load Distributing Band (AutoPulse™)
2
Active Compression/Décompression (LUCAS™ device)
3
Mechanical Piston
4
Other
Examples:
Example
An “AutoPulse” cardiac life support pump was used during
resuscitation.
A “LUCAS” chest compression system was used during
resuscitation.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
1 – Yes, then 1 – Load
Distributing Band
1 – Yes, then 2 – Active
Compression/Decompression
Page 39
39. AUTOMATED CPR FEEDBACK DEVICE USED?
***OPTIONAL ELEMENT***
Definition:
 Indicates if CPR Feedback device was used.
 Automated CPR Feedback device is defined as any device that automatically senses the
performance of CPR in real-time during resuscitation care and provides either audio or video
information on CPR performance.
Instructions for Coding:
 Code “Yes” if automated CPR feedback device used.
Field Values:
Code
Options
1
Yes
2
No
Examples:
Example
“PocketCPR”, a CPR Feedback device, was used during resuscitation
MRX AED audio feedback was used during resuscitation
QCPR device was used during CPR
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
1 - Yes
1 - Yes
1 - Yes
Page 40
40. ADVANCED AIRWAY SUCCESSFULLY PLACED IN THE FIELD?
***OPTIONAL ELEMENT***
Definition:
 Indicates if an advanced airway was used.
Instructions for Coding:
 If advanced airway was used, indicate which type of airway was applied during ED resuscitation.
Check only one that applies from the list provided.
 Abbreviations:
o ET-endotracheal intubation
o LMA laryngeal mask airway
 Please note that Oropharyngeal (also known as oral airway, OPA or Guedal airway) and
Nasopharyngeal airways are NOT advanced airways but are only airway adjuncts.
Field Values:
Code
Options
1
Yes
2
No
If ‘Yes’, please specify:
1
Combitube
2
King airway
3
LMA
4
Oral/Nasal ET
5
Other
Examples:
Example
The patient had oral tracheal intubation performed after being
defibrillated into a perfusing rhythm.
The patient had a King Airway device inserted after a failed intubation
attempt.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
1– Yes, then
4 – Oral/Nasal
1 – Yes, then
2 – King airway
Page 41
41. ITD USED?
***OPTIONAL ELEMENT***
Definition:
 The impedance threshold device (ITD) is a device that allows positive pressure ventilation but
prevents inspiration caused by negative pressure within the chest.
 It is assumed in this question that the ITD was placed on the BVM. Please select the next airway
it was used on (unless it was only used on the BVM).
Instructions for Coding:
 If the device is used during resuscitation, the method of how it was used should be indicated.
Field Values:
Code
Options
1
No
2
Yes
If “Yes”, select how:
o Bag valve mask
1
o Endotracheal tube
2
o Combitube
3
o King airway
4
o LMA
5
o Oral/Nasal ET
6
o Other
7
Examples:
Example
No ITD was applied during resuscitation
An ITD was applied to an ET tube and used during CPR
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
1 – No
2 – Yes, Oral/Nasal ET
Page 42
42. WERE DRUGS ADMINISTERED?
***OPTIONAL ELEMENT***
Definition:
 Describes drugs that were administered during ED resuscitation.
Instructions for Coding:
 Indicate “yes” or “no”
 Check all that apply from the list provided. Indicate which of the listed drugs were administered
during ED resuscitation.
Field Values:
Code Options
1
Yes
2
No
If ‘Yes’, select drugs given
1
Epinephrine
2
Atropine
3
Amiodarone
4
Bicarbonate
5
Dextrose
6
Lidocaine
7
Vasopressin
8
Other
Examples:
Example
A total of 6 mg of epinephrine and 2 mg of Atropine were provided
during the code.
The patient was defibrillated once and successfully regained a pulse
and was then started on a Amiodarone infusion with bolus provided
No drugs were administered during the code.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
1 - Yes, then
1 - Epinephrine and
2 - Atropine
1 -Yes, then
3 - Amiodarone
2 - No
Page 43
43. VASCULAR ACCESS?
***OPTIONAL ELEMENT***
Definition:
 Describes which, if any, devices were inserted into a vein, which permits administration of
intermittent or continuous infusion of parenteral solutions or medications.
Instructions for Coding:
 Code “No IV” if no intravenous catheter was used.
 Code “IV” if intravenous catheter was used.
 Code “IO” if intraosseous catheter was used.
Field Values:
Code
Options
1
No IV
2
IV
3
IO
Examples:
Example
An intravenous catheter was placed in the patient right arm
An intraosseous catheter was placed in the right tibia.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
2 - IV
3 - IO
Page 44
44. 12 LEAD?
***OPTIONAL ELEMENT***
Definition:
 An 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is a recording of the electrical activity of the heart using
specific wires (leads) place on the chest wall and extremities.
Description:
 An ECG may be performed on the patient in the field during post resuscitation care and can assist
in identifying those patients that may be having evidence of a myocardial infarction evidence by
certain ECG changes (ST elevation on the ECG).
 Evidence of ST elevation myocardial infarction is abbreviated as (STEMI) and is coded as a
separate field.
Field Values:
Code
Options
1
Yes
2
No
Examples:
Example
A 12 lead ECG was performed after the patient was resuscitated on the
way to the hospital
No 12 lead ECG was performed during post-resuscitative care in the
field.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
1 - Yes
2 - No
Page 45
45. STEMI?
***OPTIONAL ELEMENT***
Definition:
 STEMI = A myocardial infarction with ST elevation. Requires a 12 lead electrocardiogram
(ECG) to be to be performed and analyzed.
 Location refers to anatomical region of the heart that has developed myocardial necrosis (tissue
death), as evidence by ST elevation in these respective ECG leads.
Instructions for Coding:
 If “yes”, please select location of anatomical region of the heart that has developed myocardial
necrosis
Field Values:
Code
Options
1
Yes
2
No
3
Unknown
If ‘Yes’, select location
1
Anterior
2
Inferior
Examples:
Example
The patient has evidence of ST elevation in their anterior ECG leads.
The patient does not have evidence of any ST elevation on their ECG
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
1 – Yes, then 1 – Anterior
2 – No
Page 46
HOSPITAL DATASET
46. EMERGENCY ROOM OUTCOME
Description:
 The final disposition of the patient from the emergency department.
 This variable will be used to quantify the outcome of the patient from emergency department
specifically. It will be used to differentiate the outcome in the field (EMS resuscitation) and the
outcome from the hospital (hospital survival) from the outcome in the emergency department.
Instructions for Coding:
 This variable should not be left blank. All the information from the EMS trip sheet and patient
medical record should be used to complete this data field.
 If “Transferred to another acute care facility from the emergency department” (Code 3) is
selected, the destination hospital should be documented using the corresponding drop-down
menu. If a transfer hospital is not selected, CARES will prompt the user to choose one from the
drop-down menu or to type the name of the facility (if not listed) in the comments box.
 Codes for hospitals receiving transfers are established through the CARES registry for each
particular EMS Agency. Contact the CARES Coordinator if the correct hospital is not located on
the drop-down menu.
Field Values:
Code
Definition
1
Resuscitation terminated in ED
2
Admitted to hospital
3
Transferred to another acute care facility from the emergency department
Examples:
Example
Patient was received in the ED after successful resuscitation in the field
by EMS personnel. Patient blood pressure was liable upon receiving in
the ED and continued to deteriorate. Patient was pronounced dead in
the ED 20 minutes after arrival.
Patient was received in the ED after successful resuscitation in the field
by EMS personnel. Patient blood pressure was adequate upon
receiving in the ED and continued to improve after the addition of
Dopamine. Patient was transported to the CCU.
Patient was received in the ED with ongoing resuscitation by EMS
personnel. Patient was stabilized in the ED after the addition of
Dopamine. Patient was transported to Pine Valley Tertiary Care
Hospital for further intervention.
Pt was taken directly from the field to the cath lab.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
1 – Resuscitation
terminated in ED
2 – Admitted to hospital
3 – Transferred to another
acute care facility from the
emergency department
2 – Admitted to hospital
Page 47
47. WAS HYPOTHERMIA CARE INITIATED/CONTINUED IN THE HOSPITAL
Description:
 Hypothermia care is provided in the hospital if measures were taken to reduce the patient’s body
temperature by either non-invasive means (administration of cold intravenous saline, external
cold pack application to armpits and groin, use of a cooling blanket, torso vest or leg wrap
devices) or by invasive means (use of a cooling catheter inserted in the femoral vein).
Instructions for Coding:
 Indicate “Yes” or “No”
 Indicate whether hypothermia procedures (e.g. external cooling-ice packs or cooling
blankets/pads and internal cooling – cold IV fusion or invasive catheter lines for internal cooling)
were performed in ED.
 If the patient is admitted or transferred, then this field is required.
 This field should not be left blank, even if a facility is not providing hypothermia. If hypothermia
is not being provided, then “No” should be selected.
 In the case of a transfer, this field should be completed by the original destination hospital.
Field Values:
Code
Definition
1
Yes
2
No
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Page 48
48. HOSPITAL OUTCOME
Description:
 The final disposition of the patient from the hospital.
 This variable will be used to quantify the outcome of the patient from the hospital.
Instructions for Coding:
 This variable should not be left blank. All the information from patient medical record and
discharge summary should be used to complete this data field.
 If “Transferred to another acute care facility” (Code 4) is selected, the destination hospital should
be documented using the corresponding drop-down menu. If a transfer hospital is not selected,
CARES will prompt the user to choose one from the drop-down menu or to type the name of the
facility (if not listed) in the comments box.
 If “Not yet determined” (Code 8) is selected, the patient will remain in the hospital’s inbox until
the patient has been discharged and a final outcome has been selected.
 Codes for hospitals receiving transfers are established through the CARES registry for each
particular EMS Agency. Contact the CARES Coordinator if the correct hospital is not located on
the drop-down menu.
Field Values:
Code Definition
1
Died in the Hospital
2
Discharged Alive
3
Patient made DNR
If yes, choose one of the following:
o Died in the hospital
1
o Discharged alive
2
o Transferred to another acute care hospital
3
o Not yet determined
4
4
Transferred to another acute care hospital
8
Not yet determined
Examples:
Example
Patient was admitted to CCU after successful resuscitation from sudden
cardiac arrest. Patient became unstable after 2 days in the CCU. Blood
pressure could not be maintained after pharmacological support. Patient
arrested at 04:30 after being admitted to the CCU. Resuscitation attempts
were unsuccessful and patient was pronounced dead at 6:00.
Patient was received in the ED after successful resuscitation in the field
by EMS personnel. Patient blood pressure was adequate upon receiving
in the ED and continued to improve after the addition of
Dopamine…..Patient was transported to the CCU……Patient remained
stable and Dopamine was weaned off in 12 hours. Patient was transferred
to the floor and discharged home after one week in the hospital.
Patient was admitted to CCU after successful resuscitation from sudden
cardiac arrest. Patient is still in the CCU and has not yet been discharged
from the hospital.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
1 – Died in the Hospital
2 – Discharged Alive
8 – Not yet determined
Page 49
49. DISCHARGE FROM THE HOSPITAL
Description:
 This variable will be used to determine the type of destination and the frequency of each
destination type for discharged patients.
Instructions for Coding:
 If the field “Hospital Outcome” has a value of “Discharged Alive,” this variable should not be left
blank. All the information from patient medical record and discharge summary should be used to
complete this data field.
 Rehabilitation facility is defined as an establishment for “treatment or treatments designed to
facilitate the process of recovery from injury, illness, or disease to as normal a condition as
possible.”
 Skilled nursing facility is defined as “an establishment that houses chronically ill, usually elderly
patients, and provides long-term nursing care, rehabilitation, and other services. Also called longterm care facility, nursing home. Hospice facility is defined as a providing special care for people
who are near the end of their life. Note: If a patient is discharged home with hospice care, this
should be coded as “Home/Residence.”
Field Values:
Code Definition
1
Home/residence
2
Rehabilitation facility
3
Skilled nursing facility/Hospice
Examples:
Example
After two weeks in the CCU following sudden cardiac arrest, and a week
on the floor, the patient was discharged home with follow up orders.
After 3 weeks in the CCU and 5 weeks on the floor patient was
transported to Sunshine Rehabilitation Hospital for further treatment.
After an extensive stay at Memorial Hospital, the patient was discharged
with severe cerebral disability in a hospice facility.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
1 – Home/residence
2 – Rehabilitation facility
3 – Skilled nursing
facility/Hospice
Page 50
50. NEUROLOGICAL OUTCOME AT DISCHARGE FROM HOSPITAL
Description:
 Survival without higher neurological outcome is suboptimal; therefore it is important to attempt
to assess neurological outcome at discharge.
 This variable will be used to determine the frequency of neurological outcome in resuscitation
survivors at the time of discharge.
Instructions for Coding:
 The level of cerebral performance of the patient at the time of discharge from the hospital. The
following simple, validated neurological score is referred to as the Cerebral Performance
Category, CPC.
 1 = Good Cerebral Performance – Conscious, alert, able to work and lead a normal life.
 2 = Moderate Cerebral Disability – Conscious and able to function independently (dress, travel,
prepare food), but may have hemiplegia, seizures, or permanent memory or mental changes.
 3 = Severe Cerebral Disability – Conscious, dependent on others for daily support, functions only
in an institution or at home with exceptional family effort.
 4 = Coma, vegetative state.
 If the field “Hospital Outcome” has a value of “Discharged Alive,” this variable should not be left
blank. All the information from patient medical record and discharge summary should be used to
complete this data field.
 If a record is coded as discharged to a 'Rehabilitation Facility' or 'Skilled Nursing
Facility/Hospice' with 'Good Cerebral Performance' at time of discharge, CARES will prompt the
use to clarify in the comments box.
 If a record is coded as discharged to 'Home/Residence' with 'Severe Cerebral Performance' or
'Coma, vegetative state' at time of discharge, CARES will prompt the user to clarify in the
comments box.
Field Values:
Code
Definition
1
Good Cerebral Performance; CPC 1
2
Moderate Cerebral Disability; CPC 2
3
Severe Cerebral Disability; CPC 3
4
Coma, vegetative state; CPC 4
Examples:
Example
At discharge, patient was conscious, alert, able to work and lead a normal
life.
At discharge, patient was conscious and able to function independently
but had some permanent memory changes.
At discharge, patient was unable to function independently with severe
cognitive disability,
Patient was in a vegetative state at time of discharge.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
1 – Good Cerebral
Performance
2 – Moderate Cerebral
Disability
3 – Severe Cerebral
Disability
4 – Coma, vegetative state
Page 51
51. WAS FINAL DIAGNOSIS ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION?
***OPTIONAL ELEMENT***
Description:
 Determine the number of cardiac arrests that were eventually confirmed as a myocardial
infarction.
 This question refers to the etiology of the initial event only.
Instructions for Coding:
 Indicate “Yes” or “No”
 In the case of a transfer, this field should be completed by the destination hospital.
Field Values:
Code
Definition
1
Yes
2
No
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Page 52
52. CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY PERFORMED?
***OPTIONAL ELEMENT***
Definition:
 Coronary Angiography is a therapeutic procedure used to treat the stenotic (narrowed) coronary
arteries of the heart.
 Indicate whether emergency coronary angiography was performed after patient has ROSC.
Coding Instruction:
 If yes, please provide date and time of the coronary angiography.
o Use initial groin puncture of the femoral artery as the time of procedure.
Field Values:
Code
Options
1
Yes
2
No
3
Unknown
If yes, provide date and time
Examples:
Example
Coronary Angiography was performed on the patient.
Coronary Angiography was not performed on the patient.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
1 – Yes; provide date and time
2 – No
Page 53
53. WAS A CARDIAC STENT PLACED?
***OPTIONAL ELEMENT***
Definition:
 A cardiac stent is a small mesh tube that is introduced into the coronary artery and is used to prop
it open during a PCI procedure
Field Values:
Code
Options
1
Yes
2
No
3
Unknown
Examples:
Example
A cardiac stent was placed.
A cardiac stent was not placed.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
1 – Yes
2 – No
Page 54
54. CABG PERFORMED?
**OPTIONAL ELEMENT***
Definition:
 CABG is defined as a coronary artery bypass graft
Coding Instruction:
 Indicate whether CABG was performed after patient has ROSC.
Field Values:
Code
Options
1
Yes
2
No
3
Unknown
Examples:
Example
CABG was performed on the patient.
CABG was not performed on the patient.
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Appropriate Code/Value
1 – Yes
2 – No
Page 55
55. WAS AN ICD PLACED AND/OR SCHEDULED?
***OPTIONAL ELEMENT***
Definition:
 ICD - An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is a small battery powered electrical
impulse generator which is implanted in patients who are at risk of sudden cardiac death due to
vfib and vtach.
Coding Instructions:
 Indicate “yes” if ICD was placed and/or scheduled.
Field Values:
Code
Options
1
Yes
2
No
3
Unknown
Examples:
Example
ICD was placed.
ICD was not placed.
Appropriate Code/Value
1 – Yes
2 – No
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Page 56
56-66. TIME VARIABLES
***OPTIONAL ELEMENTS***
57. TIME CALL RECEIVED AT DISPATCH CENTER
58. TIME FIRST RESPONDER DISPATCHED
59. TIME OF FIRST RESPONDER EN ROUTE
60. TIME AMBULANCE DISPATCHED
61. TIME FOR AMBULANCE EN ROUTE
62. TIME FIRST RESPONDER ARRIVED AT THE SCENE
63. TIME AMBULANCE ARRIVED AT SCENE
64. TIME EMS ARRIVED AT PATIENT SIDE
65. TIME AMBULANCE LEFT SCENE
66. TIME AMBULANCE ARRIVED AT ED
56. No First Responder Dispatched
Instructions for Coding:
 Use the time as documented on the computer aided dispatch (CAD) records
 Allows the calculation of survival time based on consecutively timed events.
 Avoid missing time data since the intervals calculated between consecutive events are
fundamental to the CARES Registry.
 All times collected for the CARES Registry should be coded in a uniform manner. Uniformity of
this data collection will allow accurate calculation of resuscitation time intervals and survival
time which is the fundamental purpose of the CARES Registry.
Code
HH:MM:SS
Definition
Time should be recorded based on military time. The first two digits represent
the hour 00- 24. The second two digits represent the minutes 00-59. The last
two digits are seconds 00-59. A colon should separate the hour, minutes and
seconds.
Examples:
Code
Definition
01:23:45 Twenty three minutes and 45 seconds after 1 o’clock in the morning
16:30:15 Four thirty and 15 seconds in the afternoon
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Page 57
APPENDIX A
CARES data element ad hoc panel:
Mickey Eisenberg, MD, PhD, University of Washington School of Medicine
Ray Fowler, MD, University of Texas Southwestern
Ian Greenwald, MD, Emory University School of Medicine
Richard Hunt, MD, Center for Disease Control and Prevention
Alex Isakov, MD, MPH, Emory University School of Medicine
Greg Mears, MD, University of North Carolina School of Medicine
Peter Moyer, MD, PhD, Boston University School of Medicine
Eric Ossmann, MD, Emory University School of Medicine
Arthur Yancey, MD, MPH, Emory University School of Medicine
2013 CARES Data Dictionary
Page 58
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