Multimedia glossary

Multimed ia glossary

A

A/B roll editing

Editing with two sources, A & B. When an editor uses a transition or a special effect, Access time

Length of time required for a hard disk, CD-ROM drive, or other similar device to find the data stored on it. Generally measured in milliseconds (ms).

Analog video

The method in which data (usually audio or video) is recorded.

Also known as composite, NTSC, baseband, or linear video. It is created from such devices as camcorders, VCRs, and scan converters.

Analog digital conversion

The method of converting analog data to digital data.

Authoring software

A software package that allows a user to create interactive media and multimedia presentations.

AVI

Audio-Video Interleaved is the file format that Microsoft specifies for video for Windows. Blocks of video and audio data are interspersed together in this format.

ASCII

The standard character set for text files. It stands for American

Standard Code for Information Interchange.

ActiveMovie

Microsoft software component for handling and displaying digital video, including AVI, MPEG, and QuickTime. Incorporated into Windows 98 it is intended to replace Video for Windows.

Renamed DirectShow in 1997.

ActiveX

Microsoftís object technology for the Web, will allow smooth animations and interactivity over the Internet.

Adaptive Compression

Data compression software that continually analyses and compensates its algorithm, depending on the type and content of the data and the storage medium.

Algorithm

In compression software refers to a specific formula used to compress or decompress video.

Anamorphic

A term used to describe the representation of a wide-screen video image by squeezing it horizontally to fit into a conventional 4:3 aspect ratio for purposes of storage and transmission.

Animated GIF

A file containing a series of GIF images that are displayed in rapid sequence by some Web browsers, giving an animated effect.

Animation Path

An editable line that objects follow during the course of an animation.

Applet

Small program that performs a limited range of tasks as part of a Web page.

Asset

Term for all the constituent media files (such as text, graphics, sounds, video) that make up a multimedia movie.

Authoring System

Software which helps developers design interactive courseware easily, without the painstaking detail of computer programming.

Avatar

Digital representation of yourself in a digital environment.

AVK Audio Video Kernel

DVI system software designed to play motion video and audio across hardware and operating system environments

ActionScript

ActionScript is the scripting language of Flash which is derived from ECMA, a European Standard version of JavaScript. ActionScript is a simplified version of ECMA with some additional shortcuts.

AIFF Audio Interchange File Format

A sound and video file format developed for the Apple Macintosh platform. Browser plug-ins are available to play files in this format.

Archie

An older brother of search engines oni the Internet allowing searches of ftp sites.

Archive

A collection of stored files not often used, but nevertheless available. In practice there is no difference between files of current web sites and those in the archive. Both are equally accessible.

A/D Converter

A device used to convert analog data to digital data. Analog data is continuously variable, while digital data contains discrete steps.

Abrasion Marks

On the emulsion surface of the film are caused by scratching.

It can be due to traces of dirt trapped between layers of film as it is wound on the spool, dirt in the film holder or grit on the pressure plate

Absolute Colorimetric

A rendering intent that aims to maintain colour accuracy at the expense of preserving relationships between colours, used to predict how images will appear when printed on paper or other substrate with adistinct colour cast, such as newsprint.

Animation

The small change of one picture to the next to give the impression of movement

B

Byte

A unit of measure of computer memory. A byte generally represents one character, such as “A,” and is made up of eight bits

Bitmap

An image composed of dots or pixels on a grid, also referred to as a two-dimensional pixel graphic.

Bitrate

Used to measure information flow, this indicates the number of bits (pieces of computer information) per given time interval.

Digital audio is often measured in kbps (kilobits per second)

Bracketing

The practice of taking more than one photograph of an area to ensure proper exposure. It’s useful to do when multiple images overlapping each other must be blended together to create a panoramic immersive image.

Buffer

Temporary storage space is used for a segment of the file so that data continues to flow smoothly

Broadcast

Refers to signals intended for delivery over the television system, as well as network delivery to a wide audience.

Bandwidth

The frequency range of a video signal, measured in MHz. The bandwidth is directly related to horizontal resolution. The higher number of picture elements defined, the higher the frequency required. The bandwidth describes “how much” information is being transferred.

B (bulb)

Is the letter on the shutter dial that the shutter will stay open while the real is depressed. This is used for time exposure that are longer than your cameras preset shutter speed.

Back Focus

Distance between the back surface of the lens and the image plane, when the lens is focused at infinity.

Back-lighting

Light coming from behind the subject

Baffle

A type of shield that prohibits light from entering an optical system.

Balanced Fill-flash

Balanced fill-flash is required. In balanced fill-flash operation, flash output is controlled to keep it in balance with the ambient light on the scene.

Bayer Pattern

A pattern of red, green, and blue filters on the image sensors photosites. There are twice as many green filters as the other colours because the human eye is more sensitive to green and therefore green colour accuracy is more important.

Binary Number System

A numbering system used in computers consisting of only 1s and 0s.

BBS

Bulletin Board System The father of newsgroups. A BBS allows one to ‘paste’ messages on an electronic bulletin board. The

FTP service is usually also available on BBS’s.

BIND Berkeley Internet Name Domain

BIND is an Internet Domain Name Service allowing aliasing of

IP numbers (such as 197.45.67.176) to human recognizable names (such as www.wacko.org).

Brightness

The balance of light and dark shades in a image. Brightness is distinct from contrast, which measures the range between the darkness and lightest shades in a image. Brightness determines the intensity of shades; contrast determines the number of shades.

Bpi (Bits Per Inch)

Defines the density of data in a bitmap image.

Bps ( Bits Per Second )

Refers to the number of bits transferred in one second. The bps not often found on modems and serial interfaces.

Box Camera

Simple camera with a fixed, single-element lens and a lighttight box to hold the film. The shutter and aperture are usually pre-determined and unalterable (typically 1/25 sec at 11.)

Early consumer cameras developed by George Eastman were box cameras.

Bounce Flash

Flash illuminating a subject by reflection off a surface as opposed to direct flash, which is flash light aimed straight at the subject. Sometimes also called Bounce lighting.

Blur

The art of softening the detail of a image. The process can be applied selectively to portions of an image.

Boot

To start or restart your computer; loading your operating system.

Boom

A adjustable metal arm, attached to a firm stand, on which lighting can be mounted. Some booms are also made to support camera.

Batch Scanning

Sequential scanning of multiple originals using previously-defined, unique settings for each.

Base Resolution

The PhotoCD image resolution (512 x 1024) that is established for display on current televisions.

Background Colour

This is the colour that appears when part of an image is erased, cut or deleted.

Background

Areas shown behind the main subject in a picture

Badge

A symbol in the corner of a QuickTime movie window which is clicked to bring the standard QuickTime movie controller into view.

Betacam

Portable camera/recorder system using 1/2-inch tape originally developed by Sony

BMP

A Microsoft Windows bitmapped graphic file format.

Bit depth (1-bit, 8-bit, 24-bit)

The amount of information (black and white or color) that a computer can discern for each bit of an image. 1-bit is black and white (off or on); 8-bit is 256 “shades,” “values,” or “levels” of gray or 256 colors; 24-bit is millions of colors

Bit

A binary digit, a unit of measure for computer data. A bit is a single computer digit (either a “1” or a “0”). Eight bits make a

Byte, which holds a single character of most languages

Browser

Application that lets you manage and view files. The term is frequently used to refer to software that allows you to view Web sites.

C

C-41

Processing system for colour negative film.

C-mount

A threaded means of mounting a lens to a camera.

Cable Release

Its a flexible cable used for firing a camera shutter. Particularly useful for slow shutter speed and time exposures, when touching the camera may cause camera vibration and blurring of the image

Cache

A temporary storage area for information which locates itself between the hard disk and the RAM by employing intuitive logic. It also speeds up access time of the data

Calibration

The act of adjusting the colour of one device relative to another, such as a monitor to a printer, or a scanner to a film recorder.

Or, it may be the process of adjusting the colour of one device to some established standard.

Camera Angles

Various positions of the camera with respect to the subject being photographed, each giving a different viewpoint and perspective.

Camera Movements

Are mechanical system most common on large format camera which provide the facility for lens and film plane movement from a normal standard position.

Caption

Text that provided detailed information about the image such as, who, what, where, why, when and where. Photo credit, source, date, caption editor and other IPTC information

Card Reader

An Electronic device, which is connected to your computer to transfer pictures from memory cards from digital cameras to your computer.

CC Filters

Yellow, Magenta, Cyan, Red, Green and blue filters that can change the colour balance of the resulting pictures. These filters are most useful for duplicating slides. They come in a range of densities from 0.025 to 0.50 . They are designated by the letter

CD Burning

Saving your digital file to a CD. Usually, after we scan an image, we burn it to CD and send it to you.

CD-R

Compact Disc Recordable writes data to discs, which can then be read by standard CD-ROM drives.

CD Compact Disc

A read only storage media typically capable of holding up to

650 MB of data

Channel

Photoshop uses the term Channels to describes black and white and colour image data. In Photoshop, one channel id typically defined as having up to eight bits of grayscale image information.

Clip Art

Graphic files that are usually distributed on CD-ROMS and can be inserted into documents, presentations, and projects.

Clipping

The removal of some portion of an input signal or quantity from the resulting output, generally by setting certain low and high thresholds and discarding the data that falls below the low threshold or above the high.

Cloning

To make an exact duplicate of digital image data. In digital systems it is possible to copy part of an image onto another

CAV

Acronym for component analog video, component video signals in which an analog voltage or current represents the value of the pixel.

CD-audio

Sounds that have been digitized at a sampling rate almost high enough to duplicate reality.

CD-DA

Compact Disc Digital Audio, or CD-DA, contains musical or audio information that is encoded digitally. CD-DA is the standard format used by the music industry.

CD+G

Compact Disc plus Graphics is a format that includes limited video graphics capabilities in a CD-DA format. Mostly used in

Karaoke (sing-along) devices.

CGI

Acronym for computer graphic imagery.

Character generator

A character generator (CG) is a video device found in online editing suites used for titles and credits. A CG is simply a highend word processor for video with a wide variety of fonts and sizes available.

Chrominance

A color component of an image.

Cinepak

A codec used for digitizing video.

Clip

A segment of a larger movie, defined by an in point and an out point, usually containing a single scene or take.

CMYK

Cyan Magenta Yellow Black; color space commonly used for images which will be printed with 4-color ink on offset presses.

CODEC

An acronym for Compressor/Decompressor, an algorithm or scheme used when recording digital video. Many CODEC schemes are available, depending on image quality and file size.

Color space

A mathematical model that describes colors. Common models include RGB, CMYK, HSV, and YUV. Compositing Combining two or more video or electronic images into a single frame or display.

Compression

A process that allows data to be stored or transmitted using less than the normal number of bits.

Contrast

The range of light and dark values in a picture or the ratio between the maximum and the minimum brightness values.

Convergence

The alignment of the Red, Green, and Blue video on a projected display.

CPU

Central processing unit, the processor chip in a computer.

Crop

To select out an area of an image. Once an image is cropped, save the cropped version with a different name, retaining the original image.

Cross-platform

Usable on different types of computers.

D

DX-coding

A checkered or bar code on some film cassettes. The checkered code can be automatically scanned by suitable equipment for such information as film processing equipment for film type, processing procedure, and so on.

DVD Digital Video Disk

An optical storage medium that can store up to 4.7 Gigabytes

( single layer ), 8.5 GB (double layer ), 9.4 GB (double sided, single layer ), or 17 GB (double sided, double layer ).

Dual Processors

Two central processing units in the computer.

DAT Digital Audio Tape.

This is a method of recording digital audio information on tape at a high density and high quality.

Decode

In multimedia, this term refers to decompressing a compressed

(encoded) file so that it may be displayed. Codecs do this decoding while the video/audio is played.

Dessimation

The loss of lines of data in a movie window as the size of the frame is reduced. Lack of data for certain lines causes undesirable artifacts during movie playback.

Device interface

A converter box which separates the RGB and sync signals in order to display computer graphics on an RGB video monitor.

Digital

The method in which data (usually computer data or audio

CDs) is recorded. A digital signal is an electronic signal that is defined by a series of binary numbers (0’s and 1’s). Common digital devices are the audio CD player and the computer.

Digital image

A computer file which, when used in conjunction with the proper software, displays a picture on the computer screen or prints to a digital device such as a laser printer or imagesetter.

Digital audio workstations

Computer-based systems for editing and manipulating digital audio. The audio can be synchronized with video for video postproduction applications.

Digital video

A video signal represented by binary numbers describing a finite set of colors and luminance levels. Digital video refers to the capturing, manipulation, and storage of video in digital formats. A digital video (DV) camcorder, for example, is a video camera that captures and stores images on a digital medium.

Digitize

The process of converting analog data to digital data.

Dithering

A technique for alternating the values of adjacent dots or pixels to create the effect of intermediate values. In printing color or displaying color on a computer screen, the technique of making adjacent dots or pixels different colors to give the illusion of a third color.

Dither pattern

The matrix of color or gray-scale values used to represent colors gray shades in a display system with a limited color palette.

Dot pitch

A measure of the distance between dots on the screen. The closer the dots, the sharper and clearer the image.

Dot space

The horizontal distance between dot centers. This distance depends on the character pitch in effect.

Download

To copy a file from a server or network to your machine.

Downsize

To reduce the file size of an image, by lowering the resolution and/or reducing the square measurement of the file.

dpi (dots per inch)

Measure of resolution for a laser printer or imagesetter.

Drag and drop

The technique of grabbing an object onscreen with the pointer and keeping the mouse button held down while moving it to another position. When the target is reached, the mouse button is released and the object is dropped.

Dragging

Holding the mouse button down while moving the mouse to move the pointer on the screen.

Dubbing

Making a copy from one recording medium to another.

Duration

The length or persistence of a signal in time.

Device element

Data required for operation of Media Control Interface (MCI) compound devices. The device element is generally an input or output data file.

Division type

The technique used to represent the time between Musical Instruments Digital Interface (MIDI) events in a MIDI sequencer.

E

Ethernet

The most common technology for connecting computers together in a network.

Effects

Effects involve any manipulation or processing of the video or audio signal.

EIA

Electronic Industries Association. The organization which determines recommended audio and video standards in the United

States.

Electronic display

Showing images through the computer.

Electronic media

Any of the media used to publish information electronically (as opposed to print).

Electronic publishing

Composition of text (and frequently graphic images) using a computer for display in a computer presentation program or on the Web.

Encoder

A device which transforms NTSC timed red, green, and blue signals into a single NTSC composite signal combining luminance, chrominance, and sync information.

Embed tag

HTML code that specifies how a graphic or movie will be included within your Web page.

External CD-ROM drive

A CD-ROM drive that is installed outside the computer and connected by a cable to the computer.

Electronic Media

Any of the media used to publish information electronically (as opposed to print). Some examples are: presentation packages, annotated image catalogues, World Wide Web pages.

Effective Resolution

The final appearance of a scan that has been enhanced to produce more data than the scanner can record. This is done by interpolation.

F

FCC

Federal Communications Commission. A federal bureau that regulates radio and television broadcast standards.

Field

One complete vertical scan of the picture, containing 262.5 lines.

Two fields make up a complete television frame; the lines of field

1 are vertically interlaced with field 2 for 525 lines of resolution in the NTSC standard.

File format

The specific way digital information is made and stored by the computer. Not all software applications can read and/or manipulate all file formats. (See BMP, GIF, JPEG, PICT, TIFF.)

Film chain

A device used to transfer film to video. They are still used by some TV stations to broadcast programming distributed on

16mm film.

Firewall

A subsystem of computer software and hardware that intercepts data. A firewall is used to prevent unauthorized access to a network.

FireWire

FireWire is a high-speed data transfer technology that uses a think cable to support the integration of AV equipment, personal computers, and other peripherals. Originally developed by Apple,

FireWire is now an official industry standard also called IEEE 1394 and i.Link.

First generation

The first time the signal is recorded on tape, that tape is called a first generation tape. Each time the tape is dubbed, a generation is added.

Fotovix

The brand-name of a device available from Tamron which provides a relatively inexpensive way to transfer still 35mm film slides and negatives to video.

Frame

One single still image among the many that make up a movie. A video frame is made up of two fields. A film frame is a single photographic image, and does not have separate fields.

Frame rate

The number of frames per second of a movie.

Frequency

The number of complete cycles transmitted per second. Frequency is usually expressed in hertz (cycles per second), kilohertz (kilocycles per second), or megahertz (megacycles per second). In acoustics, frequency of vibration determines musical pitch.

FTP

Acronym for File Transfer Protocol, a common Internet protocol used for transferring files between computers. Often used for downloading files.

Full-motion video

Video reproduction at 30 frames per second for NTSC signals or 25 frames per second for PAL signals.

Flash Duration

Refers to the amount of time it takes for a flash to fire. Flash duration typically varies from about 1/1000 to 1/20,000 sec.

Flash Factor

Is a number which provides a guide to correct exposure when using Flash. See also Guide number

Flash Meter

A device for measuring the light coming from a electronic flash and indicating the appropriate aperture for correct exposure.

Some flash meter can also measure the ambient light.

Flash Memory

A memory chip that has the ability to retain image data even after the host system has been shut off; this feature insures that, even if the digital cameras batteries die, the image data will remain stored in the cameras memory.

Film Scanner

A device that scans slides and negatives to create a digital image.

Flicker

A perceivable fluctuation of the brightness levels of a displayed image. This problem is often present in CRT monitors that have a vertical scan rate that is lower than 50 Hz.

Flash Card

A memory card that works with the flash memory, allowing the camera to retain data after the system has been turned off

Flash Bracket

When working with a flash in a situation where the final product is desired to be of better quality than a snapshot and a flash is needed, a flash bracket is a necessity.

G

Generation loss

The number of times a video clip is copied or processed.

Ghost

A shadowy or weak image in the received picture, offset either to the right or to the left of the primary image. It is the result of transmission conditions where secondary signals are created and received earlier or later than the primary signal caused by a reflected

RF signal.

Gigabyte

A billion bytes.

GIF (Graphics Interchange Format)

A common graphics file format on the Web. Used by online services and Web browsing software, GIFs contain information compressed into a relatively small file size.

Gray Scale

An image type that contains more than just black and white, and includes actual shades of gray. In a grayscale image, each pixel has more bits of information encoded in it, allowing more shades to be recorded and shown.

GIF

Graphic Image File format. A widely supported image-storage format promoted by ComputerServe that gained early widespread use on on-line services and the internet.

Gateway

A computer system for exchanging information across incompatible networks by translating between two dissimilar protocols. May also describe any mechanism that gives access to another, such as an ISP which acts as a gateway to the Internet.

Gradation

A smooth transition between black and white, one colour and another, or colour and no-colour.

Gamut

The range of colours and tones a device or colour space is capable of recording or reproducing. The human eye can sense many more colours than can be reproduced on a computer monitor in RGB colour space.

General MIDI

A synthesizer specification created by the MIDI Manufacturers

Association (MMA) defining a common configuration and set of capabilities for consumer Musical Instrument Digital Interface

(MIDI) synthesizers.

Gradient Fill

An image fill that gradually transitions from one colour to another; commonly used in graphics editors.

Gradient

A smooth spread between colours.

H

Hard disk

An internal or external device for your computer for storage of data.

HDTV

High Definition Television.

Hertz (Hz)

The unit of frequency of vibration or oscillation, defined as the number of cycles per second.

Horizontal resolution

The smallest increment of a television picture that can be discerned in the horizontal plane. This increment is dependent upon the video bandwidth and is measured in frequency or lines .

Horizontal scan frequency

The frequency at which horizontal sync pulses start the horizontal retrace for each line.

Horizontal sync

A signal created and used to synchronize the horizontal scan of a video signal, often combined with vertical sync into a composite sync.

HSI

An acronym for the Hue-Saturation-Intensity color representation. A mathematical conversion from RGB. Often used for machine vision analysis.

Hue

One of the three properties of HIS color perception. A color attribute used to express the amount of red, green, blue, or yellow a certain color possesses. White, gray, and black do not exhibit any hue.

HTML

Hypertext markup language, the language the Web uses to display pages, links to other pages, and so on.

HTTP

Hypertext Transfer Protocol, the most common transfer protocol used on the Web.

Hybrid Imaging

Electronic imaging systems that mix traditional silver-halide technologies with digital imaging technologies.

HMS time format

A time format used by Media Control Interface (MCI) to express time in hours, minutes, and seconds. The HMS time format is used primarily by videodisc devices.

Hyperlinks

Typically text, but also graphics, that serve as links that let you move around on the Internet and connect to different web sites.

Hyperlinks are usually blue and underlined.

Hypo

A common name for any fixer; from the abbreviation for sodium hyposulfite, the previous name for sodium thiosulfate (the active ingredient in most fixers).

Hz

An abbreviation for hertz-an international unit of frequency which equals one cycle per second

I

IEEE

The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, an organization that sets many of the standards in the electronics industry.

Image file size

The amount of computer storage space a file requires; usually measured in kilobytes (K) or megabytes (MB)

Image size

The physical dimensions of the image as measured in the small squares (pixels) of a computer screen; an image filling a “typical” computer screen (13-inch diagonal) would be 640 x 480 pixels; compare to “Image file size” above.

Internal CD-ROM drive

A CD-ROM drive that is installed inside the computer.

Internet

Decentralized global computer network. The term “Internet” is often erroneously used to refer to the World Wide Web, which is one specific application of the Internet. The Internet encompasses much more than just the Web, including e-mail, newsgroups, chat rooms, and more.

Intranet

Large private network

Intraframe compression

A form of video compression that compresses full-motion video on a frame-by-frame basis.

IP

Acronym for Internet protocol, a commonly used protocol for transferring data over the Internet. Most networks combine IP with a higher-level protocol called Transport control protocol

(TCP).

ISDN

Moderate speed connection to the Internet. Theoretical throughput is either approximately 8 Kbps or 16 Kbps depending on configuration.

ISP

Acronym for Internet service provider, a company which provides Internet-related services, often including connectivity, email accounts, and Web hosting. Increasingly, ISPs are offering video hosting.

i.LINK

Sony trade name for Firewire or IEEE 1394 technology

Interactive Multimedia Association

(IMA)

A professional trade association of companies, institutions, and individuals involved in producing and using interactive multimedia technology.

International MIDI Association (IMA)

The nonprofit organization that circulates information about the

Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) specification.

I/O Acronym for input / output

Input may be a camera, tape, disk, video, scanner, and output may be tape, disk, CD-ROM, film recorder, printer.

ICC

The International Colour Consortium. An industry group that has endorsed a standard format for device profile

Icon

This is a little picture on a computer screen that represents the various functions of the computer. Generally the user clicks on an icon to start an application or function.

Ilfochrome Formerly Cibachrome

A type of colour printing that produces positive prints directly from transparencies

Image Capture

The use of a device, such as a scanner or digital camera, to create a digital representation of an image. This digital representation can then be stored and manipulated on a computer.

Image Editor

Software programs that have been designed specifically for capturing, creating, editing, and manipulating images. Examples of these programs are Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator,

Macromedia FreeHand, and CorelDRAW.

Image Format

Refers to the specification under which an image has been saved to disk or in which it resides in the computer memory.

There are many commonly used digital image formats in use.

Some of the most used are TIFF, BMP, GIF,and JPEG.

J

Jaggies

Stair-like lines that appear where there should be smooth straight lines or curves.

Java

A programming language developed by SUN. Among other features, it allows the programming of interactive software for the

Internet.

Javascript

A scripting language, developed by Netscape Communications.

Javascript is the language that allows the images on the top of this page to hi-light as you roll your cursor over them. Javascript code can be placed directly onto web pages.

JPEG

(Joint Photographic Experts Group)

A JPEG is a graphic image file created by choosing from a range of compression qualities (actually, from one of a suite of compression algorithms).

JPEG Compression

A standard developed by JPEG for reduction in the amount of data required to represent an image and therefore the hard disk space needed to store it.

JPEG2000

The new JPEG compression standard that will be used in digital cameras and software starting in 2001. It will feature higher compression but will less image quality loss.

Jukebox

A storage device for multiple optical disc, and one or more discs drives. It will automatically select or changeover as needed.

Also Kodaks term for Photo CDs automated disc library.

Juxtapose

In composition, to place two objects close together or side by side for comparison or contrast. Often helpful in showing scale in an image

K

K (Kelvin)

Abbreviation for Kelvin temperature, the measurement of the redness or blueness of white light. This is written without the degree sign. Daylight at noon, for example, has a Kelvin temperature of about 5500K, while photographic tungsten lamps are 3200K

K 14

Kodaks chemical process for developing Kodachrome slides.

KB

Can be used to mean either a keyboard for a computer or more commonly KB means a kilobyte of data

Kernel Size

The number of pixels sampled as a unit during image manipulation and sharpening processes.

Kerning

Tightening the space between letters.

Key Light

A studio light used to control the tonal level of the main area of the subject.

Keystoning

The distortion of a projected slide or movie caused by the projector lens axis not being at a 90 degree angle to the screen.

The image will appear wider at one edge than on the opposite and the image will not be uniformly sharp

Kilobyte

An amount of computer memory, disk space, or document size consisting of approximately one thousand bytes. Actual value is 1024 bytes.

Kodak PhotoCD

A CD-ROM containing digital images; the CD is created with technology developed by Kodak; each scanned image on the disk is available in five sizes; about 1000 images will fit on a single PhotoCD.

Keying

The process of replacing part of one television image with video from another image.

Kilohertz (KHz)

One thousand hertz, or cycles per second.

L

LAN

Local area network.

LANC

A protocol defined by Sony which permits the external control of video devices and access to status information from the device. Also referred to as Control-L.

LCD panel (Liquid Crystal Display)

A device used to present computer images to a class or audience. The LCD panel, connected to the computer, sits on an overhead projector and displays the computer monitor’s image onto a movie screen or wall.

Lossless compression

A type of data compression that makes it possible to recover the original data with no loss of image quality.

Lossy compression

A type of data compression that sacrifices some of the original data in return for higher compression ratios than can be achieved with lossless compression.

Luminance

The aspect of the video signal carrying information about the brightness of an image.

Lab Colour

Is a colour model developed by the Centre Internationale D?lairage

(CIE). These standards are internationally accepted standards for all colormetric measurements. The Lab model, like other CIE colour models, defines colour values mathematically,

Lantern Slides

Is a old term used to described transparencies.

Large Format Camera

Is a general term for any camera having a picture format of 4x5 inches or larger.

Lasso

Image editing tool used to select areas of an image for moving or cropping

Latent Image

An image formed by the changes to the silver halide grains in photographic emulsion on exposure to light. The image is not visible until chemical development takes place.

Lateral Reversal

A mirror image, as seen in the viewfinders of some cameras where the scene appears flipped from left to right.

Latitude

Is the degree by which exposure can be varied and still produce an acceptable image. The degree of latitude varies by film type.

Faster films tend to have greater latitude than slower films.

LCD Screen

Liquid Crystal Display screen found on many digital cameras that allows previewing or reviewing of images. The screen also serves as a monitor for the interface of some camera controls.

Leading

Vertical spacing between lines of type, measured in points.

Leaf Shutter A camera mechanism that admits light to expose film by opening and shutting a circle of overlapping metal leaves.

Lens

A optical device made of glass or other transparent material that forms images by bending and focusing rays of light. A lens made of a single piece of glass cannot produce very sharp or exact images, so camera lenses are made up of a number of glass elements

LPI Liner Per Inch

A measure of resolution, usually screen frequency in halftone.

Linear Scanner

A scanning device that uses a linear array CCD. The linear array sees one line of the image at a time, and the linear array is moved past the image or the image is moved past the linear array in steps in order to capture the entire image area.

Layer

In CSS objects can be displayed on top of one another and described as such along the z-axis.

LIST

chunk A Resource Interchange File Format (RIFF) chunk with a chunk identifier of LIST. LIST chunks contain a series of subchunks.

List type

A four-character code (FOURCC) identifying the type of data contained in a Resource Interchange File Format (RIFF) chunk with a chunk identifier of LIST.

M

Macro Attachment

These are supplementary elements attached to the front of a normal lens to give an extreme close-up facility.

Macro Lens

Is a lens specially designed to give accurate resolution of a very near subject without the need for supplementary attachments.

Sometimes, incorrectly, referred to as a micro lens.

Magic Wand

This selection tool chooses portions of an image based on colour.

Mega Pixels

One million pixels or more. The more pixels that exist in a image the higher the resolution and therefore the greater the quality of the image. Many new Kodak cameras are equipped with mega pixel sensors.

Multiple Exposure

More than one exposure on the same frame of film. Called a

Double-exposure when there are two exposures on a single film frame.

Movements

The adjustments a view camera can make: tilt, shift, swing, rise and fall. Typically used to adjust plane of focus, distortion and perspective.

Mac OS

The Apple Macintosh operating system.

Marquee tool

The selection tool in some software applications that looks like a box of dotted lines and is used to select a rectangular part of an image for scanning or manipulation

MCA-Media Control Architecture

A specification developed for addressing various multimedia devices from Macintosh computers.

Megahertz (MHz)

One million hertz, or cycles per second.

MIDI

Acronym for Musical Instrument Digital Interface. It is a standard communications protocol used by electronic music equipment allowing device control from personal computers.

MIDI

time code A time code system allowing timed device control through MIDI protocols.

MIME

An acronym for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, a specification originally used for non-ASCII e-mail messages so that they can be sent over the Internet. Web browsers also support various

MIME types which enable the browsers and the installed plug-ins to handle non- HTML files, such as movies and audio.

Modulate

To modify or alter a signal so as to transmit information.

Moiré

Optical disturbance caused by interference of similar frequencies.

Moiré is the wavy effect produced by the convergence of lines. It usually appears as a curving of the lines in the horizontal wedges of a test pattern. It is a natural optical effect when converging lines in a television picture are nearly parallel to the scanning lines.

Monitor

A particular type of television that receives a composite and/or component video signal (as opposed to an RF signal) directly from a VCR, camera, or separate TV tuner for high-quality picture reproduction. It does not contain a channel selector.

Monochrome signal

A single color video signal; usually a black and white signal or, sometimes , the luminance portion of a composite or component color signal.

MPEG Layer-2 audio

Generally used for high bandwidth MPEG audio at near CD quality. Used for audio with both MPEG-1 and MPEG-2.

MPEG Layer-3 audio (MP3)

MPEG audio format which is very popular on the Internet. Generally used in audio-only files (.mp3 files), this is a lower-bandwidth format than MPEG Layer-2 audio, but still not ideal for modem streaming.

Multimedia

Combination of different communication tools such as text, graphics, sound, video, and animation.

Multiscan

A term taken by a particular manufacturer often used to refer to any multisync device.

N

Nanosecond

One billionth of a second. It is commonly used to measure the speed of memory chips.

Neutral colors

The range of gray levels, from black to white, but without color. For neutral areas in the image, the RGB signals will all be equal. In color difference formats, the color difference signals will be zero.

NTSC

Acronym for National Television Standards Committee which defines North American broadcast standards. The term “NTSC video” refers to the video standard defined by the committee.

It is also used to describe the television signal used in North

America and several other parts of the world.

Nanometer

Is a unit of measurement of light wavelength. A nanometer is one million of a millimeter.

Nanoseconds

A time measurement equal to one-billionth of a second.

Near Ultraviolet

Are wavelength from about 400nm down to 250nm. Most photographic emulsions are sensitive to this range of bands.

Nearest Neighbor

Type of interpolation in which the value of the new pixel is an average of the neighboring pixels. Quick and dirty interpolation that gives rather ragged results.

Negative

A photographic image which tonalities and colours are reversed from the original scene. Usually the film negative is used to make a positive print.

Negative Carrier

A frame that holds a negative flat in an enlarger.

Neutral Density Filter

Describes a gray camera filter which has a equal opacity to all colours of the spectrum and so does not affect the colours in the final image. It is used to reduce the amount of light entering the camera when apertures or shutter must remain constant.

Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH)

A rechargeable battery that lasts longer than a NiCad and has no memory, so it is easier to manage.

Normal Lens

A lens with a focal length approximately the same as the diagonal measurement of the film being used. This produces an image that approximates the same angle of view and perspective of the human eye. For a 35mm camera, the 50mm lens is considered normal.

Non-lossy

Image compression without loss of quality.

O

Online Service

A commercial service that gives computer users Internet access and connection to a variety of online offerings, such as shopping, games and chat rooms.

Opacity

The degree to which an object blocks light. Technically, opacity is expressed as a ratio of the incident light to the transmitted light.

Opening Up

Is increasing the size of the lens aperture or decreasing the shutter speed to admit more light to the film.

Optical Axis

Is an imaginary line passing horizontally through the center of a compound lens system.

Optical Disk

A digital storage system commonly used for mass storage

Optical Scanner

A device that changes images from either reflection or transparency medium to digital data.

Optical Storage

A peripheral device for storing data. It may be WORM or rewritable.

Optical Viewfinder

A viewfinder system that shows a similar view to that seen by the camera lens ( as on 35mm compact cameras ) Useful because it uses no power, but can cause parallax and focus errors.

Oxidation

Loss of chemical activity due to contact with oxygen in the air.

Oversampling

Scanning at more than an optimum sampling rate.

Overdevelop

To give more than normal the amount of development.

Output Resolution

The detail and clarity (achieved by tightness of dots) with which the image will be displayed or printed (dependent on the capability of the display or printing device).

Out-of-focus

Refers to an image created when the rays of light passing through a lens fall upon a plane in front of or beyond the point at which they converge to form a sharp image. Out-of-focus images appear blurred or fuzzy

Orthochromatic ( Ortho Film )

Black-and-white emulsions that are not equally sensitive to all colours of light. They are more sensitive to blue and green, but not sensitive to red light.

Optical Zoom

An optical zoom is made to bring you closer to your subject, without you having to move. Zooms are constructed to allow a continuously variable focal length, without disturbing focus.

Object movie

An object movie allows the user to rotate and/or tilt a virtual object. It is created by capturing a series of images taken from different angles around the object. For example taking pictures of a statue as you walk around it.

Overscan

A method by which the video image is scanned beyond the normal viewing area of the screen.

P

PAL

Acronym for Phase Alternative Line, systems that are used in most countries outside the United States. The system in the

U.S. is called NTSC.

PICT

A type of Macintosh graphics file format. A PICT is a bitmapped image in which each bit or pixel contains information.

Pixel

One dot in a video or still image. A typical low-resolution computer screen is 640 pixels wide and 480 pixels tall.

Pixelization

Pixels that make up an image get exaggerated or enlarged. This makes the image look jagged and is often the result of compression artifacts.

Plug-in

Separate add-on which is integrated into the main application upon opening and is then used from within the main application. Plug-ins are not normally autonomous, that is, they do not work outside an application.

Posters

A single frame of a QuickTime movie that is designated as a static substitute for the movie’s video data. The poster is typically the frame that would be printed if a movie was pasted into a document.

Panning

Moving the camera so that the image of a moving object remains in the same relative position in the viewfinder as you take a picture. The eventual effect creates a strong sense of movement.

Panoramic Camera

Camera with a special type of scanning lens which rotates. Or a static lens camera with a wide format e.g. 6cm x 17cm.

Paper Base I

s the support for the emulsion used in printing papers.

Paper Grade

Is a numerical terminological description of paper contrast: numbers 0-1 soft; numbers 2 normal; number 3 hard; number

4-5 very hard; number 6 ultra hard. Similar grade number from different manufactures do not have the same characteristics.

Paper Safe

Is a light-tight container for unexposed photographic papers, with an easy open positive closing lid.

Parallax

Focus Focusing system in some compact cameras that compensates for the difference between viewfinder and lens placement.

Path

A path is an overlay that sits on top of your image, allowing you to work with it.

PCMCIA Card

Personal Computer Memory Card International Association card. used in digital cameras to transfer photos to a notebook or PC.

Photo CD

A popular storage method for digital images. In the basic Kodak

Photo CD configuration, five different levels of image quality are stored for each in an Image Pac.

Photo Diode

A semi conductor measuring or converting light into electrical current, commonly used in scanners and CCDs

Photomontage

A photographic composition assembled from pieces of different photographs or of different negatives, closely arranged or superimposed upon each other. Sometimes graphic material is added to the combination

Photoshop

A sophisticated software program, produced by Adobe Systems, for editing and processing of images.

PICT Macintosh picture

A storage format for digital images designed for the Macintosh.

Pigment

Particles that absorbs and reflect light and appear coloured to our eyes. The substance that gives ink its colour.

Pixel Dropping

A subsampling technique used to reduce the number of pixels in an image by dropping every nth pixel from the scan.

Pixel Modulation

A process used in printing which changes the brightness of individual pixels by changing the pixel size.

Pixel Skipping

A means of reducing image resolution by simply deleting pixels throughout the image.

Pixelization

The stair-stepped appearance of a curved or angled line in digital imaging. The smaller the pixels, and the greater their number, the less apparent the pixelization of the image. Also known as the jaggies.

Plug And Play

The ability to install equipment with little or no setup.

Proof

A test print made for the purpose of evaluating density, contrast, colour balance, subject composition, and the like.

Progressive Scan

A non-interlaced refresh system for monitors that cuts down on

CRT flicker.

Proxy

A representative version or sample of a larger image.

PSD

The native file format of the Adobe Photoshop graphical editing application. Adobe Photoshop is a standard editing application in the print and internet media worlds.

Q

QuickTime

Apple’s cross-platform multimedia architecture. It is widely used for a range of applications including CD-ROM, video, editing, the

Web, and more.

QuickTime streaming

Apple’s streaming media addition to the QuickTime architecture.

QuickTime Virtual Reality

An application from Apple that offers tools create panorama, objects, and scenes.

Quality Control

Techniques ensuring that high quality is maintained through various stages of a process. For example, quality control during image capture might include comparing the scanned image to the original.

Quantization

The artificial forcing of like gray levels to the same gray level as a result of limited tonal resolution in a scanner. Quantization is most often seen in the shadow portion of scanned images.

Quarter Tones

Tones between shadow and midtones are known as 3/4 tones and those between highlight and midtones are known as 1/4 tones.

Queue

The line of events within the computer or peripheral.

R

Ram

Random Access Memory. The high speed portion of the computers memory that is held on special chips.

Raster

The series of lines of information such as the parallel and horizontal scan lines that form a television or video display image.

Raster Image

This is a resolution - dependant image that is produced using pixels. The quality of a low - resolution image decreases as you zoom in to the image. Photoshop is raster software.

Raster Scan

A scanning pattern, generally from left to right while progressing from top to bottom of the imaging sensor or the display monitor. Generally comprised of two fields composed of odd and even lines.

Rasterization

Converting mathematical and digital information into a series of dots by an imagesetter for the production of negative or positive film.

Raw Data

Data that is not formatted or processed.

RIFF form

A file-format specification based on the Resource Interchange

File Format (RIFF) standard.

RGB

The color model Red/Green/Blue. Mixing varying parts of these three colors produces the intermediate colors.

Removable media drive

A computer file storage device with media (tapes, optical discs, magnetic cartridges, and so on.) that can be inserted and removed.

Resize

To change the size of an image by reducing or increasing the resolution and/or the square measurement of the file.

Radio-frequency (RF) modulator

A device that makes your television set work as a monitor.

RGB monitor

A type of color monitor that receives separate signals for each color (red, green, and blue).

Rotoscope

A camera set up that projects live-action film one frame at a time onto a surface so that an animator can trace complicated movements. The completed animation film exactly matches the motion of the original action.

Rule Of Thirds

A general composition guideline that divides the negative frame into thirds horizontally and vertically to position the subject

Rubber

Stamp This tool is used to retouch flaws, make a copy of a selected area and paste it elsewhere, or reproduce an object.

Rubber

Stamp This tool is used to retouch flaws, make a copy of a selected area and paste it elsewhere, or reproduce an object.

Reversal

A process for making a positive image directly from film exposed in the camera; also for making a negative image directly from a negative or a positive image from a positive transparency.

Reversal Film

Film that produces a positive image (transparency) on exposure and development.

S

Scanning

The rapid movement of the election beam in a pickup device of a camera or in the CRT of a television receiver. It is formatted in a line-for-line manner across the photo-sensitive surface which produces or reproduces the video picture.

SCSI-Small Computer System Interface

An industry standard connection for hardware devices prior to

USB and FireWire.

Selection tool

A tool in some software programs that allows you to target a specific area of an image for some type of manipulation; this can be displayed as a pointer arrow, crosshairs, a lasso, or a box surrounded by dotted lines.

Server

A computer on a network that can be accessed by other computers on the same network; a server can hold software for several people to use and space for people to save and access files.

Signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)

An S/N ratio can be given for the luminance signal, chrominance signal, and audio signal. The S/N ratio is the ratio of noise to actual total signal, and it shows how much higher the signal level is than the level of noise. It is expressed in decibels

(dB). The bigger the value is, the more crisp and clear the picture and sound will be during playback.

SIMMs

Single Inline Memory Modules are a type of memory that is commonly used today. SIMMs are actually small printed circuit boards on which RAM chips are placed.

Single speed

A CD-ROM drive that accesses data at a speed of 150KB/sec.

This is the speed at which standard audio CDs can be read.

Single speed is the standard speed for CD-ROM drives.

Synthesized audio

Audio output from a synthesizer.

Synthesizer

An electronic musical device that generates sound.

SMPTE

Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, pronounced

“simptee.” An organization which studies and proposes standards for the film and television industry.

Snow

Random noise on the display screen, often resulting from dirty videotape heads or TV signal breakup caused by weak or no video reception.

Sound digitizer

A device for recording natural sounds and voices and storing them as computer files.

Split screen

A special effect utilizing two or more video sources so that two or more scenes are visible simultaneously on each part of the screen. It is often used to make window-dubs of multicamera shoots. This is a useful means for comparing two sources simultaneously. It permits a fast visual check of the phase and sync timing between two inputs.

Storyboard

A series of panels of pictures (usually sketches) designed to show how a production will look.

S-RAM (Static RAM)

The most expensive type of RAM found in on-board memory units, some printers, and in PCMCIA Type I Cards. D-RAM, Dynamic Ram. Most often seen as the expandable RAM used by the computer for memory.

Safelight

A special darkroom lamp whose light is of colour and intensity that will not affect light-sensitive photographic material. Not all such material can be handled under a safelight, and some required a type designed specifically for them.

Safety Film

A photographic film whose base is fire-resistant or slow burning. At the present time, the terms safety film are synonymous.

Sample

In imaging to gather the value of a colour. to select an image colour to be used in a drawing or painting tool.

Scan Size

The length and width dimensions of the part of a document that can be digitized.

Scan Time

The total time to convert text or graphical information into electronic raster form.

Scanned Image

The computer picture that results when a photograph, slide, paper imager, or other two or three dimensional images are converted into a digital image.

Scanner

A device that captures an image for your computer and converts it to a digital form that your computer can display, edit store and output. A scanner can be used for a wide variety of application, such as incorporating artwork or photos into documents and so on

Secure Digital Memory

Memory card about the size of a postage stamp that weighs approximately two grams; available with storage capacities as high as 128MB. Secure Digital memory is gaining favor in all types of personal electronics devices

Selection (tool Or Box)

A tool in some software that allows you to target a specific area of an image for some type of manipulation; this can be a pointer arrow, crosshairs, a lasso, a box made of dotted lines.

Shadow

A term that refers to the amount of detail contained in the dark parts of an image. It is desirable to maintain shadow detail but there is a risk of decreasing overall contrast if one lightens the shadow too much in an attempt to expose detail.

Service Bureau

A business that specializes in outputting computer files on laser imagesetters, film recorders, large-format plotters and other types of output devices.

T

T1

A fast network connection. The theoretical limit is 150 Kbps, but the realities of the Internet usually cut the throughput down dramatically.

TCP

Stands for Transfer Control Protocol, a common network transfer protocol used widely on the Internet.

Telecine

Film-to-video conversion system that introduces the 3/2 Pulldown necessary to compensate for the differences in frame rates between film and video

Television receiver

A device capable of accepting video signals broadcast as RF.

Also capable of producing a demodulated video signal output from an off-air input signal.

Test pattern

An optical guide for television camera reference alignment.

TIFF Tagged Image File Format

A type of graphic file format developed for scanning. TIFFs are bitmapped graphics that can contain lots of information about each bit or pixel. TIFFs can be read by both Macintosh and Windows applications.

Time code editing

By recording a sequential time code along with the video and audio material, you can obtain a precise reference for editing.

Each frame has its own number or code which tells the time in hours, minutes, and seconds, and includes a frame number.

The industry standard code is called SMPTE time-code

Title generator

A black-and-white camera that is used to shoot titles which are electronically superimposed on the video picture while shooting or during editing. Title color can be selected and changed independently. A more sophisticated device known as a character generator (CG) can generate titles directly.

Track

A grouping of homogeneous data within a movie file. Typical track types might include video, sound, transitional effects, text, MIDI data, and so on.

Tracking

The angle and speed at which the tape passes the video heads.

Transfer rate

The time required for data to be transferred from the hard disk

(or CD-ROM drive) to the computer’s CPU.

Tanks

Are containers for holding chemical solution for processing films.

Tagged

A photoshop image containing an embedded profile.

Tablet (Graphics Tablet)

An input device that uses a stylus or specialized mouse to write or draw on the tablet surface to communicate with the computer.

T (setting)

Setting that holds the camera shutter open until the shutter dial is turned or release is press the second time. This setting differs from B (Bulb) that is usually is a standalone setting and never drains the battery power.

True Colour

Describes the colour output on a monitor or printer. Requires at least 16 million colour nuances.

Tungsten Film

Often called Type B. Film that is balanced to record colour correctly under tungsten lighting.

Tungsten Light

Light that is roughly 3200 degrees Kelvin in colour temperature.

TWAIN

Protocol for exchanging information between application and devices such as scanners and digital cameras. TWAIN makes it possible for digital cameras to talk with one another on PCs

U

Ultraviolet

The part of the spectrum just beyond violet. Ultraviolet light is invisible to the human eye but strongly affects photographic materials.

Under-development

Is a reduction in the degree of development. It is usually caused by shortened development time or a decrease in the temperature of the solution. It results in a loss of density and a reduction in image contrast.

Undercolour Removal

A separation technique in which black ink is used to replace approximately equal amounts of cyan, magenta, and yellow ink in neutral tones, primarily in the shadows, so as to reduce the total ink coverage.

Underexposure

A condition in which too little light reaches the film, producing a thin negative, a dark slide, or a muddy-looking print.

URL

Stands for Uniform Resource Locator, the global address of documents, pages, and other resources on the Web.

User interface

Appearance of a program allowing interaction with the user. It includes all graphical elements, such as menus, buttons, and so on.

Untagged

A Photoshop file that does not contain an embedded ICC profile. To be used in a colour-managed workflow an untagged image must be resaved in Photoshop (with the Embed profile checkbox selected) or tagged with the assign profile command.

Unsharp Masking

A process by which the apparent detail of an image is increased; generally accomplished by the input scanner or through computer manipulation.

Unipod

A Monopod, a single-legged camera support that functions in a manner similar to a tripod.

UV Filter

Is a filter which is used to absorb ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

USM ( Unsharp Mask )

The term comes from a conventional colour separation camera technique that uses a unsharp photographic mask to increase contrast between light and dark areas of the reproduction and gives the illusion of sharpness.

USB

Universal serial bus. The USB offers a simplified way to attach peripherals and have them recognized by the computer. USB ports are about 10 times faster than a typical serial connection. These

USB ports are usually located in easy to access locations on.Upload

To move a file from your computer to a server.

V

Vacuum Back

Is a camera back with a perforated plate through which air is drawn by a pump. A sheet of film is therefore sucked flat against the plate and held firmly during exposure used for special large format cameras.

Video

A means for reproducing moving visual images by representing them with an analog electronic signal. The images are decomposed into a series of horizontal scan lines. In this way the signal can be stored, transmitted, and reproduced.

Video CD

A format that allows the viewing of MPEG 1 video on CD-ROM. Playback of these CDs requires a computer with MPEG hardware and software and a video CD player.

Video distribution amplifier

A special amplifier for strengthening the video signal so that it can be supplied to a number of video monitors or other devices at the same tim e.

Video format

A standard determining how a video signal is recorded onto videotape.

Video monitor

A display device that can receive video signals by direct connection only and cannot receive broadcast signals such as commercial television. It can be connected directly to the computer.

Video recording

Any image, still or moving, can be converted into a video signal, most often through a video camera.

Video signal

A dynamic signal which represents the varying levels of a video image but does not contain the sync pulses for its display. The video signal can be combined with sync pulses into a composite signal.

Videotape

A magnetic medium capable of storing an electronic signal and consisting of backing, binder, and coating. The coating usually consists of iron oxide; however, metal particle or metal evaporated coatings are also used.

Virtual reality

A technology that allows the user to experience 3D interaction with the computer.

VISCA

The Video System Control Architecture is a platform independent protocol designed by Sony to provide computer control of multiple video devices.

VRAM

Memory chips designed specifically for use with computer video displays. Increasing VRAM in a computer system or graphics card increases the color depth viewable as well as increases the number of pixels that can be displayed.

VITC

Vertical Interval Time Code.

VTR

Video Tape Recorder. An electro-mechanical device capable of recording, storing, and reproducing an electronic signal which contains audio, video, and control information. The term VTR includes reel-to-reel and cassette type (VCR) recorders.

Vertical sync

A pulse used to trigger the vertical retrace of a scanning electron gun from the bottom of a frame back to the top.

Value

The lightness or darkness of a gray or of a color. The darkest level or value of gray is black and the lightest level of gray is white.

VCR

Video cassette recorder.

Vector

In multimedia, vector refers to formats which store graphical information in terms of mathematical algorithms, instead of as pixels. Because these images don’t have any pixels, but are rather equations describing the objects portrayed, vector images scale perfectly to larger and smaller sizes. Illustrator files, Flash, and

QuickTime curve media are vector formats.

Vectorscope

A round oscilloscope used to analyze and align the amplitude and phase of the color video signal.

W

WAN

Wide area network.

Waveform

The shape of a wave (a graph of a wave’s amplitude over time).

Waveform monitor

An oscilloscope used to display the video waveform.

Wavelength

The horizontal extent of one complete cycle of a wave.

Www

Short for “World Wide Web.”

Web page

Files on the World Wide Web that contain text, graphics and links to other files integrated into visually interesting pages much like electronic magazine pages.

Wipe

A visual transition between images during which the edge of one image moves across the screen revealing the next image.

Wow and flutter

Small fluctuations in tape speed. Wow is a gradually occurring change; flutter is a rapidly occurring change. A widely used specification in analog audio and videotape recorders.

WYSIWYG

Stands for “What You See Is What You Get.”

World Wide Web

Hyperlinked, graphical application of the Internet.

Web

Optimization When a photo or graphic is produced its file size is often too large for use on a website. Optimization is acheived by reducing the size of a large file by converting it to GIF or JPEG format.

Web Safe Colours

Colours in which will display accurately and consistently on every version of internet browser (Internet Explorer, Netscape

Navigator, etc.) or computer platform (PC or Mac). There are

216 web safe colours.

Wetting Agent

A chemical solution used after washing the film. By reducing the surface tension of the water remaining on the film, it speeds up drying and prevents water spots. Kodak version of this is called

Photo-flo.

Whit Point Adjustment

An adjustment made that will determine the amount of highlight detail in an image. It is considered proper to set the white point so that the lightest part of an image will only just have zero detail.

X

XSL Extensible Stylesheet Language

XSL is a style sheet language based on the principals of XML and more powerful than CSS. XSL consists of two main components: XSLT (which concerns the document tree) and formatting (which is based on CSS 2.0).

Y

Yellow

A subtractive primary, and one of the four process ink colours; yellow reflects red and green light, and absorbs blue.

YUV

Color model which describes color information in terms of luminance (Y) and two chrominance channels (U,V). The YUV space is commonly used in video, and easily supports color subsampling.

Z

Zip

To compress a file or files into one file. Commonly used to reduce the size of a file to speed up transmission over the Internet.

Zone Focusing

A method of focusing the lens so that the depth of field extends over a preselected range of distances.

Zone System

A method of planning film exposure and development to achieve precise control of tones in a print. Pioneered by photographers such as Ansel Adams and Minor White.

Zoom Optical Vs. Digital

Whereas an optical zoom uses the optics (lens) of the digital camera to move you closer to your subject, a digital zoom simply uses the existing image and enlarges it digitally.

Zooming

Enlarging a portion of an image in order to see it more clearly or make it easier to alter. Opposite of zoom-out, which is useful for viewing the entire image when the full image is larger than the display space.

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