Hardware and Device Connectivity
5Lesson 5:
Hardware and Device
Connectivity
Objectives
By the end of this lesson, you will be able to:

3.5.8: Identify the purpose of an uninterruptible power supply (UPS), and list
common concerns and configuration parameters.

3.7.1: Identify maintenance tasks that can help prevent computer system failures.

3.7.2: Connect common peripherals, including USB, FireWire, eSATA, HDMI, CDROM/DVD, parallel and serial devices (e.g., printers, hard drives, monitors).

3.7.3: Explain the functions of motherboards, storage devices and optical discs (e.g.,
IRQs, SATA, SCSI, USB, memory card readers, memory cards, NICs, CD/DVD/BD).

3.8.1: Obtain proper licensing for operating systems and associated applications.

3.8.2: Recover from application failures.

3.8.3: Restart the system and identify common boot problems.

3.8.4: Explain why a hard drive must be partitioned and formatted.

3.8.5: Identify common file systems (e.g., NTFS, FAT, Ext3, ReiserFS).

3.8.6: Manage basic file and directory permissions.

3.8.7: Use common file system management tools, including Convert, Chkdsk, Disk
Cleanup, Disk Defragmenter.

3.8.8: Delete temporary files manually and by using operating-system-specific
methods.

3.8.9: Back up and restore files to prevent data loss.
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Network Technology Associate
Pre-Assessment Questions
1.
The situation in which two or more devices share a configuration setting is called:
a.
b.
c.
d.
2.
high-level format.
low-level format.
power spike.
resource conflict.
What is the name of the smallest storage allocation unit managed by an operating
system?
a.
b.
c.
d.
3.
a
a
a
a
Cluster
Cylinder
Partition
Root
What is direct memory access (DMA)?
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Lesson 5: Hardware and Device Connectivity
5-3
Introduction to Hardware and Device Connectivity
All networks consist of hardware, such as servers, hard drives, cables, wireless routers,
NICs, motherboards, power cords, etc. Network professionals spend time troubleshooting
these hardware devices to ensure the network runs properly. For example, if a network
service fails due to a server resource conflict or faulty connection, you need to fix it
quickly.
This lesson will teach you about the basic computer hardware devices, how they function
and connect, and how to troubleshoot them if they fail.
®
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Lesson 5: Hardware and Device Connectivity
OBJECTIVE
3.7.3: Motherboard,
storage devices
and optical discs
motherboard
The main circuit
board in a
computer, on which
the microprocessor,
physical memory
and support circuitry
are located.
trace
Thin conductive
path on a circuit
board, usually
made of copper.
Motherboard
The motherboard is the main circuit board in a computer, on which the microprocessor,
physical memory and support circuitry are located. All system devices (such as the
keyboard; the mouse; and serial, parallel and Universal Serial Bus (USB) devices) connect
directly or indirectly to the motherboard. Many motherboards use a multi-layer
construction, which means that there are internal traces in addition to those on the top
and bottom of the board. The internal traces are delicate and easily damaged, so care
must be taken when handling motherboards.
The motherboard must be fastened to the system chassis. Usually, you will fasten the
motherboard using small plastic or metal tabs that plug into the motherboard, and then
onto holes in the chassis. When fastening the motherboard, take care not to allow any
metal to improperly connect and ground the motherboard. The motherboard should not
touch any metal object, except through proper connections (for example, to the power
supply). In addition, make sure that all parts are fastened tightly to the motherboard,
and that excess dust does not build up. A motherboard is shown in Figure 5-1.
Figure 5-1: Motherboard
Always ensure you have the correct power requirements, or you can fatally damage the
motherboard (and the rest of the computer). Electricity is measured according to different
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standards in North America and in Europe, and computing and networking equipment is
manufactured to different standards, depending on where the equipment will be used.
If you travel to Europe and take your laptop or notebook computer that was designed for
use in the United States, you will need a special plug adapter in order to plug into an
electrical receptacle in England, for example. The notebook computer's power supply will
automatically convert the power.
OBJECTIVE
3.7.1: System
component
preventive
maintenance
IRQs, I/O Addresses and DMA
resource conflict
A situation in which
two or more devices
share a
configuration
setting.
Though there are a few exceptions, most devices will require unique configuration values.
Some of these are set by the system and cannot be changed. For those that can be set or
modified, you must avoid introducing resource conflicts (also known as device conflicts).
When you install a network device adapter, you must determine which system resources
are already in use so that you can identify available resources for the installed device.
interrupt request
(IRQ)
A hardware line
over which devices
can send interrupt
signals to the
processor.
In a personal computer, communication is controlled through interrupts. Interrupt
requests (IRQs) are hardware lines that are used to identify when a device wants to
communicate with the processor and to notify a device that the processor wants the
device's attention. This arrangement ensures that only one device at a time can
communicate with the processor. For example, when a printer has finished printing, it
sends an interrupt signal to the computer so the computer can decide what processing
task to perform next.
I/O address
A memory location
that allows
resources to be
allocated to a
system device.
direct memory
access (DMA)
A process that
allows devices to
bypass controllers
and directly access
memory.
In some cases, you need to provide parameters when you install devices in your
computer. These devices are attached to the motherboard, so you have to ensure the
devices do not conflict with one another.
An I/O address is a memory location that allows the system processor and system devices
to communicate. Most devices will have at least one unique input/output (I/O) address.
Direct memory access (DMA) is the process by which a device can directly address
system memory, bypassing the processor. DMA is most often used by hard disk
controllers, but can also be used by other peripherals. DMA is different from programmed
input/output (PIO), which requires that all data first pass through the processor. PIO is
now considered obsolete.
Serial and parallel communication
Before you learn more about IRQs, you need to understand the terms serial and parallel,
and how they relate to communication. Regardless of whether a computer is
communicating internally or with a remote system, all communication occurs as either
serial or parallel.
COM
Older PC serial ports
are referred to as
numbered COM
(communication)
ports. COM ports
have a maximum
transmission speed
of roughly 115 Kbps.
•
Serial communication — occurs one bit at a time over a single line. Data, in the
form of bits, moves through a serial communication channel as a datastream. Serial
communication is used with devices attached to a computer's serial (COM)
(communication) port or USB port. Figure 5-2 illustrates serial communication.
Figure 5-2: Serial communication
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Lesson 5: Hardware and Device Connectivity
LPT
Line printer port. PC
parallel ports are
referred to as
numbered LPTs.
•
5-5
Parallel communication — occurs several bits at a time over several lines. For
example, the computer can move 8 bits (a byte) or 16 bits (a word) at a time. Parallel
communication requires a separate line for each data bit, as well as additional
control lines to manage the data transfer. Parallel communication is used with
devices connected to a computer's parallel port and the internal system buses. PC
parallel (LPT) ports are 8-bit parallel ports. The original speed for LPT ports was 500
Kbps, although higher data rates are available. Most parallel connections have been
replaced by USB ports. Figure 5-3 illustrates parallel communication.
Figure 5-3: Parallel communication
IRQ, I/O address and DMA assignments
Table 5-1 lists standard IRQ, I/O address and DMA assignments. I/O address values are
given in hexadecimal notation. A blank cell indicates that no standard resource
assignment exists for that device.
In the early days of computing, there were only 16 physical IRQs (IRQ 0 through IRQ 15).
That has changed thanks to virtual IRQs that begin at IRQ 16 and provide nearly
limitless IRQs. Also, the assignments sometimes vary, even for the physical IRQs. Modern
devices, such as USB devices, use any IRQ that is available. Table 5-14 lists many of the
original 16 physical IRQs and their assignments. They are also called standard IRQ
assignments.
Table 5-1: Standard resource assignments
Device
IRQ
I/O Address Range
System timer
0
0040 – 0043
PS/2 keyboard port (if used)
1
0060 – 006F
Real-time clock
8
0070h – 0071h
COM1
4
03F8h – 03FFh
COM2
3
02F8h – 02FFh
COM3
4
03E8h – 03EFh
COM4
3
02E8h – 02EFh
LPT1
7
0378h – 037Fh
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Table 5-1: Standard resource assignments (cont’d)
Device
IRQ
I/O Address Range
LPT2
5
0278h – 027Fh
PS/2 mouse port (if used)
12
0060h – 006F
Primary hard disk controller (primary SATA)
14
01F0h – 01F7h
Secondary hard disk controller (secondary SATA)
15
0170h – 0178h
Math co-processor (if present)
13
00F0h – 00FFh
Viewing and changing resource assignments
NOTE:
Lab 5-1: Viewing
resource
assignments will
demonstrate the
Device Manager in
Windows 7 that you
can use to resolve
resource conflicts.
You will usually not need to change a resource assignment. If you do, however, you can
use the Windows Device Manager. In Linux, you would do so by viewing files in the
/proc/ directory. For example, consider the following Linux command:
/proc/interrupts
This command yields a text file you can open in any word processor to view the current
IRQ settings.
Consider the following Linux command:
/proc/iomem
This command yields a text file containing I/O addresses.
In the following lab, you will view resource assignments on your system using the
Windows 7 Device Manager. Suppose that you have just installed a new printer on your
Windows 7 system in your home office, but print tests have failed. You suspect a
resource conflict. How would you determine which system resources are already in use in
order to identify available resources for your new printer?
Lab 5-1: Viewing resource assignments
In this lab, you will view resource assignments on your system.
1.
Open Control Panel | System and Security | System | Device Manager. The
Device Manager will open, as shown in Figure 5-4. You can use the Device Manager
to view and adjust various resource settings, as necessary.
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Lesson 5: Hardware and Device Connectivity
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Figure 5-4: Device Manager
NOTE:
Mass storage
device interfaces
will be presented
later in this lesson.
2.
Double-click IDE ATA/ATAPI Controllers, then double-click your hard drive
controller (for example, NVIDIA nForce Serial ATA Controller) to display its Properties
dialog box. Click the Port 0 tab. Notice that DMA Mode displays in the Transfer Mode
drop-down list (Figure 5-5).
Figure 5-5: Hard drive controller properties — Port 0
3.
Deselect Let BIOS Select Transfer Mode, then display the Transfer Mode dropdown list. Notice that PIO Mode is the other option you can choose.
Tech Note: If your system has a standard Serial ATA drive that is not working properly,
you would probably need to switch the transfer mode setting to PIO Mode. If you have
a hard drive that uses DMA, a setting of PIO Mode would cause hard drive problems.
4.
Close the drop-down list without changing the device setting.
5.
Click the Resources tab and scroll through the Resource Settings list. Notice the
resource settings that display for the I/O ranges and IRQ (Figure 5-6). Also notice
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Network Technology Associate
that No Conflicts displays in the Conflicting Device List area, indicating that your
system does not have a resource conflict.
Figure 5-6: Viewing resource settings
Note: You must have administrator privileges to change network resource settings on
your system.
6.
Close all dialog boxes and windows without making any changes.
In this lab, you learned how you can use the Device Manager in Windows 7 to resolve
resource conflicts.
OBJECTIVE
3.7.3: Motherboard,
storage devices
and optical discs
3.7.1: System
component
preventive
maintenance
interface
A communication
channel between
two components.
Storage Devices
To communicate with a motherboard, a mass storage device (for example, a hard drive or
a USB flash drive) must be connected to that motherboard through an interface. Four
common interfaces used to connect mass storage devices in modern computers are:
•
Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) and External SATA (eSATA).
•
Small computer system interface (SCSI).
•
Universal Serial Bus (USB).
•
Memory card reader.
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Lesson 5: Setting up a Hard Drive
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Lesson 5: Hardware and Device Connectivity
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Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) and
External SATA (eSATA)
Integrated drive electronics (IDE), also known as Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA),
was formerly the standard electronics interface used to connect mass storage devices to
the motherboard. Serial ATA (SATA) provides faster speeds than standard ATA. SATA is
currently the de facto standard for PC-based drives. SATA devices are connected using a
SATA cable that can transfer 3 Gbps (SATA version 1) or 6 Gbps (SATA version 2).
Desktop computers and laptops typically use SATA interfaces for internal hard disk
drives. External SATA devices can be connected using an eSATA port located on the back
of some computers.
Small computer system interface (SCSI)
bus
An electronic
pathway that
conducts signals to
connect the
functional
components of a
computer.
NOTE:
SCSI is found in
higher-end systems,
usually on servers
meant to process
large amounts of
data.
SCSI (pronounced "skuzzy") was originally adopted by Apple Computer as an expansion
bus standard. SCSI has gained popularity in high-performance workstations and servers,
especially for hard disks, such as servers in data centers.
SCSI is a parallel interface standard that allows you to connect multiple devices to a
single interface adapter in a daisy chain configuration. You can attach a SCSI cable from
the SCSI port on your computer to another SCSI device, then attach that SCSI device to a
second SCSI device, and so on up to 127 devices. This grouping can include a mix of
internal and external devices.
A SCSI daisy chain must be terminated at both ends and only at the ends. Termination is
the most common problem associated with SCSI devices.
Universal Serial Bus (USB)
Many external hard drives connect to computers using a Universal Serial Bus (USB)
connection. The advent of USB 3.0 has made USB external hard drives nearly as fast as
internal connectors. For instance, the internal SATA v2.0 connector achieves 6 Gbps, whereas
USB 3.0 can achieve 5 Gbps (provided the device, connectors and cables support it).
With the advent of high-capacity USB flash drives, computer storage and backups can
also use USB flash drives as a storage and backup location.
USB flash drives are replacing optical drives, such as DVD and CD drives. USB flash
drives are faster for read/write functions, have no moving parts, are extremely portable,
and can hold more data than DVDs/CDs. flash drives are available at 256 GB, and
eventual capacity is expected to achieve 2 Terabytes (TB). Figure 5-7 shows a sample USB
3.0 flash drive with 256 GB of memory.
Figure 5-7: USB flash drive
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Memory card reader
A memory card reader is a device used to read and write data on memory cards, such as
Secure Digital (SD) cards and Memory Sticks. Some memory card readers are compatible
with 52 different types of memory cards that use various types of flash memory. These
card readers are very common and are called multi-card readers.
Memory card readers do not have the ability to store information. Rather, they are the
interface between the computer and the card. Most multi-card readers include a USB
port as well. Figure 5-8 displays a multi-card reader.
Figure 5-8: Internal multi-card reader
Secure Digital (SD) cards
A Secure Digital (SD) card is a common flash memory card designed specifically for use in
mobile devices. SD cards are used extensively in devices such as digital cameras, mobile
phones, media players, GPS receivers and video game consoles.
SD cards can be removed from a mobile device and placed into a computer's memory
card reader. Increased memory has allowed them to function as storage devices and
backup locations for computers.
SD cards are about the size of a postage stamp, and are available in a variety of transfer
speeds and storage capacities. Standard SD cards can hold anywhere from 4 MB to 4 GB
of data. High-capacity SD cards (SDHCs) can hold anywhere from 4 GB to 32 GB of data.
SD Extreme (SDXC) cards are capable of 2 TB of data. You can use SD cards to store and
transfer images, songs, video files and other digital data from a portable device to a PC.
People commonly use SD cards to organize their collection of music and images. Some people
prefer to store data on smaller-capacity SD cards to better organize and categorize their files,
whereas others place all of their files on a higher-capacity SD card. It is important to keep
backup copies of your files on a PC in case the SD card(s) are damaged or lost.
Figure 5-9 shows a sample SDXC card.
Figure 5-9: SanDisk 64 GB SDXC card
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MiniSD and microSD cards
In addition to the standard SD card, there are the miniSD and microSD cards. The miniSD
card is about 37 percent of the size of a standard SD card, and the microSD card is about
one-quarter the size of a standard SD card. Both cards were developed to meet the constantly
changing industry demands for smaller mobile devices. Both cards are incompatible with
standard SD card slots, but can be connected to SD slots via a special adapter.
The miniSD card is capable of storing 4 GB. The high-capacity microSD (microSD HC)
card can store up to 32 GB. The microSD card is used primarily with smartphones,
hand-held GPS devices, portable audio players, video game consoles and expandable USB
flash memory drives.
To learn more about SD cards of all types, visit www.sdcard.org.
CompactFlash
CompactFlash is another removable flash memory device that is used to store data for
mobile devices. The sticks can be removed from the mobile device and inserted into a
computer's memory card reader. Increases in memory capacity have allowed them to also
be used as storage devices and backup locations.
CompactFlash also provides an easy way to transfer large amounts of data from portable
devices to PCs, and vice versa. CompactFlash devices can hold as much as 128 GB of
data and are used to store a wide variety of digital content, from photos and computer
data to music and video files.
Figure 5-10 shows a sample CompactFlash card.
Figure 5-10: CompactFlash card
To learn more about CompactFlash, visit http://compactflash.org.
OBJECTIVE
3.7.1: System
component
preventive
maintenance
NOTE:
Usually a NIC will
have lights on it.
These lights indicate
whether the NIC is
receiving power, as
well as the collisions
and network traffic
it is experiencing.
Network Interface Card (NIC)
You were introduced to NICs earlier in the course. Each network device must have a NIC
(also known as a network adapter card). Figure 5-11 shows a typical peripheral
component interconnect (PCI) network adapter that is already installed. The network
adapter makes the physical connection between the device (such as a computer) and the
network cabling. When selecting a network adapter, you must choose an adapter that is
supported by both your computer and your network.
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Network Technology Associate
Figure 5-11: Installed network adapter
The network adapter is essentially a translator between the computer and the network.
Networks transmit data serially, or one bit at a time. The network adapter converts the
data from the computer into a format appropriate for transmission over the network.
The network adapter component that handles data transmission is called the transceiver.
You were introduced to transceivers earlier in the course. All modern networking devices
(for example, Ethernet cards, modems, mobile phones) use a transceiver. It ensures that
the appropriate data format is being used when transmitting information. Most NICs have
more than one transceiver, with each attached to the different connectors available on the
back of the card.
OBJECTIVE
3.7.3: Motherboard,
storage devices
and optical discs
3.7.2: Common
peripherals
Optical Discs
Optical discs are optical storage devices that store data on a reflective metal surface that
is accessed by a laser beam. Optical discs include:
•
Compact discs (CDs), including CD-ROMs, CD-Rs and CD-RWs.
•
Digital video discs (DVDs).
•
Blu-ray Discs (BDs).
Data is written to an optical disc by burning depressions into the metal surface of the
disc. These depressions are called pits; the flat areas on the metal surface are called
lands. A land reflects laser light from the disc surface into a sensor and is interpreted as
the binary digit 1. A pit scatters laser light from the disc surface into a sensor and is
interpreted as the binary digit 0.
CD-ROM characteristics
A compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM) is an optical storage device from which data
can be read only. In other words, data cannot be written to a CD-ROM. CD-ROM drives
use common mass storage interfaces. The most common type of CD-ROM device has a
SATA interface, but SCSI and USB versions are also available.
NOTE:
Review the CD-ROM
features and
compare them with
those of hard disks.
Table 5-2 lists key features of CD-ROMs, which have become a popular storage and
distribution medium.
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Table 5-2: CD-ROM features
Feature
Description
Storage capacity
Up to 1 GB of data.
Reliability
Not affected by magnetic fields because it is an optical medium. Does not
degrade over time because the data is burned into the surface by a laser
beam.
Durability
Much more durable than their predecessors, floppy disks. Avoid
scratching the surface of a CD-ROM; data in the affected sectors may be
destroyed. Can also be physically damaged by high heat.
Performance
CD-ROM drives now surpass many hard disks in performance, which has
improved dramatically in the past few years.
Security
Commercially distributed CD-ROMs are a read-only medium. After the
data has been written to the CD-ROM, it cannot be changed.
Mixed-media
support
In addition to digital data, a CD-ROM can contain audio, image and video
content, and can play audio CDs.
Cross-platform
compatibility
The current ISO 9660 data format (High Sierra format) standard is
supported by Windows operating systems, MS-DOS, Linux/UNIX, the
Apple OS X operating system and others.
Writable CDs
Writable CD devices allow you to create, or "burn," your own data and audio CDs. You
can create your own distribution CDs, copy selected files or folders from your hard disk,
and duplicate existing CD-ROMs and audio CDs.
You should always adhere to copyright regulations. It is illegal to make copies of
copyrighted material, which includes both software distribution CDs and audio
CDs. You are sometimes granted a limited right to make backup copies, or you
may obtain copy permission from the copyright holder. Make sure that you do
not violate copyright restrictions when copying any CD.
Writable CDs are available in the following two formats:
NOTE:
The difference
between a CD-R
and CD-RW is in the
medium.
•
CD-recordable (CD-R) — a write-once format. After the data has been written to the
CD-R, it cannot be modified.
•
CD-rewritable (CD-RW) — a rewritable format. You can write data to it multiple
times, similar to hard disks. Only CD drives that support multi-read capability can
read CD-RWs.
Some early CD-RW drives were known as erasable CD drives, or CD-E drives.
According to specifications, you should be able to rewrite over the same spot on
a CD-RW nearly 1,000 times.
Live CD
A live (or bootable) CD is a CD that contains a bootable computer operating system on
the medium itself. You can use a live CD to run an operating system on a computer that
lacks a hard disk drive. Most live CDs are based on Linux, and most Linux distributions
now come on live CDs.
Live CDs can be used to:
•
Install a Linux distribution on a hard drive.
•
Test operating system and hardware compatibility.
•
Test an operating system distribution before installing it on a hard drive.
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•
Provide a secure platform where files cannot be permanently modified.
•
Repair or restore a computer system.
•
Recover data.
Live USB
Live (or bootable) USB flash drives are similar to live CDs in that they also contain
bootable computer operating systems on the medium itself. However, live USB devices
can also write changes and save settings back onto the USB device. Because of this, you
can store applications and personal files on a live USB and use it on multiple systems.
A live USB can provide a measure of security because you can carry the device with you
and store it in a secure location. However, a USB device is easy to misplace or can be
easily stolen, so you need to make sure you back up and encrypt your data before
transferring it to a live USB.
DVD characteristics
NOTE:
DVDs are sometimes
referred to as digital
versatile discs.
DVDs were designed and developed for use with applications in both video and data
storage. They work in much the same way as CD-ROMs: Data is stored in pits and lands.
However, DVDs have a much higher storage capacity, the pits are smaller, and DVDs use
a higher track density than CD-ROMs do.
MPEG
A video
compression
standard.
Most DVD drives use a SATA interface, although USB and IEEE versions are available
and have become common. The physical removal and replacement procedures for internal
devices are the same as for other SATA mass storage devices. DVD drives are plug-andplay devices, but typically come with other software in addition to the required device
drivers. For example, they often include MPEG decoding software and a media player so
you can play DVDs on your computer.
The initial DVD standard provided 4.7 GB of storage capacity. Current DVD standards
support dual-layer discs with a storage capacity of 8.5 GB. Also, a double-sided disc
standard supports 9.4 GB when writing to one side of the DVD or 17 GB total when
writing to both sides of the DVD. The current transfer rate is 1.3 MBps for all formats,
with an access time ranging from 150 milliseconds to 200 milliseconds (ms).
DVD drives are backward-compatible; those that support the newer standards can also
support the initial DVD standard. DVD drives can also read CD-ROMs and CD-RWs, and
play audio CDs.
Writable DVD (DVD-RW)
NOTE:
Writable DVDs are
common on home
computer systems.
Writable DVDs are common for standard corporate desktops. Four different writable DVD
standards exist. Table 5-3 describes these standards and their storage capacities.
Table 5-3: Writable DVD standards
Standard
Storage Capacity
Description
DVD-R
4.7 GB per side
Write-once standard currently in use. The standard was
released in 1997. Supported by most DVD drives.
DVD-RAM
4.7 GB per side
Write-once standard currently in use. The standard was
released in 1997. The least expensive format, but has only
limited support.
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Table 5-3: Writable DVD standards (cont’d)
Standard
Storage Capacity
Description
DVD-RW
4.7 GB per side
A rewritable standard. Most DVD drives are designed to read
this standard. Very few DVD-RW devices are available.
DVD+RW
8.5 GB per disc
A rewritable standard. Few DVD drives are designed to read
this standard. Very few DVD+RW devices are available.
Blu-ray Disc characteristics
NOTE:
Technically, the
laser used by Blu-ray
Discs is blue-violet. In
any case, the name
is derived from the
laser used to read
and write data from
the medium.
Blu-ray, also known as Blu-ray Disc (BD), is a high-definition optical disc storage
medium that is designed to be the successor to DVDs. Blu-ray Discs were introduced in
2006 and have the same physical dimensions as standard CDs and DVDs. Approximately
200 consumer electronics, personal computer, recording media, video game and music
companies form the Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA), an industry consortium that
develops and supports Blu-ray Disc technology.
Current DVDs use a red laser to read and write data to the disc. Blu-ray uses a blue laser,
which has a much shorter wavelength, enabling it to store much more data on the disc
compared to DVDs. Single-layer BDs can hold up to 25 GB of data, and dual-layer BDs can
hold up to 50 GB. A 50-GB BD can hold over nine hours of high-definition video or 23
hours of standard-definition video. Most current BD players include a BD/DVD/CDcompatible optical head, which makes them backward-compatible with DVDs and CDs.
Blu-ray Disc-recordable
There are two types of Blu-ray Disc-recordable optical disc formats:
OBJECTIVE
3.7.1: System
component
preventive
maintenance
•
BD-R — a write-once format.
•
BD-RE — a rewritable format.
Optical disc drive maintenance
CD, DVD and BD drives of all types are vulnerable to contamination. Keep the drives
closed when they are not in use, and check all discs for foreign matter before inserting
them into the drive. Commercial products are available for cleaning disc surfaces. CDs,
DVDs and BDs should be handled only by the edges, and care must be taken to avoid
scratching the disc surface.
Commercial cleaning kits are available to clean the internal laser. Never directly touch or
try to manually clean the laser.
Brush away or vacuum accumulated dust without contaminating the disc carrier area or
laser. Verify that the data and power cables are securely mounted.
If an optical disc drive will not open because of a malfunction or power loss, it is possible
to eject a disc manually from the drive. Locate the small hole on the face of the drive near
the Open/Close button. Straighten a paper clip, place it (or another thin instrument) into
the hole and press hard to eject the disc manually.
When an optical disc drive fails completely, you will generally need to replace the drive.
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Network Technology Associate
OBJECTIVE
3.7.2: Common
peripherals
Device Connectivity
peripheral port
A socket on a
computer into
which a peripheral
device is
connected.
Peripheral ports are the sockets on the back panel of the computer into which input and
output devices connect to the computer. Newer computers provide many ports. If a port is
unavailable for a particular device, you must install an expansion board that includes the
port you need.
PS/2 connector
The six-pin mini-DIN
connectors
introduced with the
IBM PS/2.
The mouse and keyboard typically connect with a USB port, although some systems still
use PS/2 connectors (shown in Figure 5-12). Most new systems also have monitor
adapter circuitry built into the motherboard and a permanent monitor connector. Some
systems have embedded sound card and game controller support.
Devices connect to computers in many different ways. With the advent of mobile devices
and high-definition monitors, there are a multitude of connectors available. This section
will explain the most common connections.
Figure 5-12: Peripheral ports
Traditional serial ports and parallel ports have been replaced almost entirely by USB
ports. Systems usually have two or four USB ports on the back. Some systems have USB
ports on the front of the system as well, to provide easy access.
Standard port use
NOTE:
USB is the standard
printer interface.
The fastest parallel
port interface is 2
MBps, which is faster
than standard USB.
Still, standard USB is
more efficient in its
data transfer.
The standard ports listed in Table 5-4 support most devices. FireWire ports do not always
come standard and must often be added using an available card slot on the motherboard.
Manufacturers use color-coded ports and connectors. This color-coding makes it
easier for users, specifically home users, to set up their own systems.
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Table 5-4: Standard port use
Port
Use Guidelines
USB port
A serial interface. The USB port can physically support any USB device.
It is often used for printers, scanners, keyboards, mouse devices and
external hard drives. USB hubs allow a single-system USB port to
support multiple devices, up to 127 peripherals.
Three USB standards exist:
-USB 1.0/1.1
-USB 2.0 is backward-compatible with USB 1.0. However, USB 1.0 does
not support USB 2.0 devices.
-USB 3.0 is backward compatible, but requires a special USB 3.0 cable
to achieve 5 Gbps.
eSATA
External Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (eSATA) is an external
interface for SATA devices. It competes with USB and FireWire to provide
high-speed transfer speeds for external storage devices.
HDMI
High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) is an audio/video interface
used to transmit high-definition digital video and high-resolution digital
audio data.
DVI
Digital Video Interface (DVI) carries uncompressed digital video data to a
display.
S/PDIF
The Sony/Philips Digital Interface Format (S/PDIF) is a digital audio
interface used to connect audio equipment. It uses fiber-optic or coaxial
cable. It is often used to connect home theater audio systems.
DisplayPort
A digital display interface used to connect a video source to a display
device, such as a monitor. DisplayPort is also used to transmit USB,
audio and other data. It was built to replace older VGA monitor
connections and DVI.
FireWire (IEEE 1394)
A serial interface. FireWire is used for various devices that require high
throughput, including external disk drives, digital and Web cameras,
and network connections. IEEE 1394a devices support transfer rates
from 100 Mbps to 400 Mbps. IEEE 1394b devices support up to 800
Mbps. As with any interface type, IEEE 1394 ports can be added using
PCI or PCI Express adapters. IEEE 1394 ports can support up to 63
peripherals.
Game port
The older game controller port often serves as the Musical Instrument
Digital Interface (MIDI) connector. This port can connect MIDI-compliant
digital music devices, such as digital keyboards.
First serial port
(COM1)
Rarely found in modern computers. If you are using a serial mouse, it
should always be connected to COM1. If you have a PS/2 mouse, COM1
is available for use by any serial device. It is possible to print through a
serial port, including COM1. Regardless of the COM channel you use,
serial communications are enabled by a universal asynchronous
receiver-transmitter (UART). The most common UART is 16550A.
Second serial port
(COM2)
Rarely found in modern computers. COM2 can support any serial
devices, but a potential configuration concern exists: Hardwareconfigured internal modems typically default to using COM2 and would
therefore conflict with any other device connected to COM2. It is possible
to print through a serial port, including COM2.
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Network Technology Associate
Table 5-4: Standard port use (cont’d)
Port
Use Guidelines
Parallel port
(IEEE 1284)
Rarely found in modern computers. The parallel port is usually used for
connecting a local printer, but other devices operate through a parallel
port, including network adapters and disk controllers. The IEEE 1284
standard supports five different modes:
-Compatibility (150 KBps)
-Nibble (50 KBps to 150 KBps)
-Byte (up to 500 KBps)
-Enhanced parallel port (500 KBps to 2 MBps)
-Extended capability (up to 2 MBps — uses DMA)
You may need to enter a system's complementary metal oxide
semiconductor (CMOS) to choose the most appropriate mode.
Sometimes, you may need to choose a mode supported by your system
and the peripheral device.
Troubleshooting port and cabling problems
Make sure that cables are properly inserted into the proper ports. Check all cables
associated with a problem device and make sure they are securely plugged in. Table 5-5
lists common problems related to ports and cables, and their solutions.
Table 5-5: Common port and cabling problems and solutions
Cable/Port
Problem
Cause/Solution
USB
USB 3.0 device performing
slowly or not at all.
Ensure that you have a cable that
supports USB 3.0 speeds. Verify that the
cable is secure.
All video, audio
and eSATA ports
The connection is intermittent.
Verify that the cable is secure.
SCSI
No communication, or
communication in at least one
device is intermittent after
adding a new device.
Verify termination on the SCSI chain.
Serial
Mouse fails when modem is
turned on.
IRQ conflict. Change either the mouse or
the modem port.
Mouse is jittery, or modem
intermittently fails.
Secure the cable into both the modem
and computer.
Slow or no printing.
Verify that the correct IEEE 1284 mode is
chosen. Secure the cable on both the
printer and the computer.
Parallel
In the following lab, you will identify a number of the most common peripheral ports.
Suppose you are interested in voice-over work with your home studio equipment. You
just bought a USB microphone that enables you to record your voice with high quality.
You need to connect the microphone to your computer by means of a USB cable. Can you
recognize the USB ports and other ports on your computer?
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Lab 5-2: Identifying common peripheral ports
In this lab, you will identify common peripheral ports.
1.
Look at the back panel of your PC (or the instructor's PC), and identify each of the
peripheral ports you see. Do you have the following ports? If so, how many? Write
your answers in the spaces provided.
USB:
PS/2:
Serial:
HDMI:
Parallel:
FireWire:
eSATA:
S/PDIF:
DVI:
DisplayPort:
Analog audio port:
Other:
2.
Instructor (if time permits): Open your system and display the internal
components. Point out SATA cables, hard disk drives, CD-ROM drives, various
adapter boards and so forth.
3.
Instructor (if time permits): Use a static-free vacuum or can of compressed air to
demonstrate how to blow dust out of the system.
In this lab, you identified common peripheral ports.
HDMI and DVI Connections
HDMI (HighDefinition
Multimedia
Interface)
A compact
audio/video
interface for
transmitting
uncompressed
digital data.
As previously mentioned, High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) is an
audio/video interface that is used to transmit high-definition digital video and highresolution digital audio data. HDMI consists of 19 wires wrapped in a single cable that
resembles a USB wire. HDMI is able to carry a bandwidth of up to 5 Gbps.
Digital Video
Interface (DVI)
A video interface
technology that
carries
uncompressed
digital video data to
a display.
Personal computers and video graphics cards also use the Digital Video Interface (DVI).
DVI is a video interface technology that maximizes the quality of flat-panel LCD monitors
and digital projectors. Until recently, the DVI standard was the digital transfer method
used for enhanced-definition television (EDTV), high-definition television (HDTV), Plasma
displays, and other high-end video displays for television, movies and DVDs. HDMI is
now replacing DVI as the technology of choice.
NOTE:
You can visit
www.datapro.net/t
echinfo/dvi_info.ht
ml to learn more
about DVI.
An HDMI video signal is electronically compatible with a DVI signal, making HDMI
backward-compatible with DVI. This means that a DVI source can run an HDMI monitor,
or vice versa, by means of a suitable adapter or DVI/HDMI cable.
HDMI supports any TV or PC video format, including standard, enhanced, and highdefinition video, and up to eight channels of digital audio. It is commonly used for highdefinition televisions (HDTVs) and home theater systems that have surround-sound
audio. Every new HDTV has at least two HDMI inputs, and other devices such as digital
video recorders (DVRs), DVD players, Blu-ray players, game consoles and personal
computers include HDMI outputs to deliver audio and video.
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Network Technology Associate
HDMI is a far superior technology to the analog cables many people still use for their
television audio/video. With an analog interface, a clean digital signal is translated into a
less precise analog signal, sent to the television, then converted back to a digital signal to
display on the screen. With each conversion, the digital signal loses integrity, which can
distort the picture quality. HDMI preserves the source digital signal by eliminating the
digital-to-analog-to-digital conversion. However, to preserve the integrity of the digital
signal and prevent degradation, HDMI cables should not run longer than 15 feet (5
meters).
To replicate what HDMI provides with a single cable using analog cables, you would need
to connect three component-video cables and six analog audio cables. A single HDMI
cable replaces the tangle of multiple analog cables, making the process of setting up a
home theater system, for example, much simpler, while delivering superior output.
For more information about HDMI, visit the following sites:
•
www.hdmi.org
•
www.datapro.net/techinfo/dvi_info.html
®
CIW Online Resources – Online Exercise
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complete an interactive exercise that will reinforce what you have learned
about this topic.
Exercise 5-1: Common system components
®
CIW Online Resources – Course Mastery
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the Course Mastery review of this lesson or lesson segment.
NTA Lesson 5 - Part A
System Management
As an IT professional or as an individual computer user, you may need to perform system
management tasks to maintain your client operating system. In the remaining sections of
this lesson, we will discuss the importance of:
•
Obtaining proper operating system and software licensing.
•
Identifying common file systems.
•
Using common file system management tools.
•
Using utilities to perform maintenance and recover from application failures.
•
Troubleshooting software, including identifying common boot problems.
•
Identifying ways to remotely manage and troubleshoot workstations.
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Lesson 5: Hardware and Device Connectivity
OBJECTIVE
3.8.1: OS and
application
licensing
5-21
Software Licensing
When you purchase operating system or application software, you are actually
purchasing the right to use the software under certain restrictions imposed by the
copyright owner (for example, the software publisher). These restrictions are described in
the license agreement that accompanies the software.
Typically, these restrictions state that you have the right to load the software onto a
single computer and make one backup copy. If you install, copy or distribute the software
in ways that the license prohibits, such as allowing a friend or colleague to load the
software on his or her computer, you are violating federal copyright law. It is imperative
that you understand and adhere to the restrictions outlined in the license.
When you load operating system or application software, the license agreement typically
displays during the installation process. You must indicate that you have read and
understood the agreement before the installation procedure will allow you to continue.
NOTE:
It is extremely
important to use
only properly
licensed operating
system and
application
software to avoid
legal, technical and
software
maintenance
problems.
OBJECTIVE
3.8.4: Hard drive
partitioning/
formatting
Apart from legal consequences, using unlicensed software can also mean:
•
No documentation.
•
No warranties.
•
No technical product support.
•
Greater exposure to software viruses.
•
Corrupt discs or defective software.
•
Ineligibility for software upgrades.
Partitions and Logical Drives
When installing an operating system on a new computer or after recovering from a hard
disk failure, you will need to prepare the hard disk before it can be used. Disk
preparation includes the following three fundamental steps:
1.
Partition the hard disk, using applications such as fdisk in Linux or Device Manager
in Windows 7.
2.
Create logical drives, using fdisk or Device Manager.
3.
Format the logical drives, using applications such as mkfs in Linux or Device
Manager in Windows 7.
Disk partitioning
A partition is a way of dividing a hard disk's total storage space. You will typically
partition a hard disk as either:
•
A primary partition only — A primary partition is required if you want to use a hard
disk as the system's boot drive, which is the drive that will be used for system
startup. A hard disk can be configured with multiple primary partitions, although the
default is generally to partition the hard disk as a single primary partition.
•
A primary partition and an extended partition — You can create an extended
partition if space remains after you recreate the primary partition. A hard disk can
have only one extended partition.
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Network Technology Associate
Figure 5-13 illustrates a drive with a primary and an extended partition.
Figure 5-13: Disk partitions
active partition
A logical partition
that contains the
files necessary to
boot an operating
system. This partition
is read first at boot
time. If no active
partition exists, or if
the operating
system files are
corrupted or
missing, the
computer will report
error messages.
The primary partition being used for startup must be identified as the active partition.
This identification forces the system to read the initial load programs from that partition.
A hard disk can be configured with multiple primary partitions, but only one partition
can be identified as the active partition. The default, in most situations, is to partition the
hard disk as a single primary partition.
Logical disk drives
A disk partition must be assigned a logical drive identifier (drive ID or drive letter) before
it can be recognized by an operating system. A primary partition is treated as a single
logical drive. An extended partition can be divided into multiple logical drives, as shown
in Figure 5-14.
Figure 5-14: Logical disk drives
The system drive will be identified as Drive C. Drive IDs D through Z are available for
assignment. Drives A and B can be used as drive IDs for floppy disk drives only.
Logical disk drives are not the only devices that need logical drive IDs. CD drives, DVD
drives and other devices that are used for interactive storage must be assigned drive IDs.
Drive IDs are also used to identify connections to shared file resources in a network
environment.
Logical drive format
root directory
Topmost hard disk
directory (folder).
After a logical disk drive is defined, it must be formatted. The format process prepares the
logical drive for use by the operating system. Any attempts to write to or read from a
logical drive that has not been formatted will generate an error. The format procedure
creates the file system root directory and the files used to track disk space use.
Logical drive format is known as a high-level format. This distinguishes logical drive
format from the low-level format that is sometimes required to prepare a hard disk for
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Lesson 5: Hardware and Device Connectivity
5-23
use. A hard disk must be prepared through low-level format before disk partitions can be
defined. Low-level format is primarily the responsibility of the hard disk manufacturer,
and hard disks ship already formatted.
OBJECTIVE
3.8.5: Common file
systems
File Systems
cluster
A group of sectors
used as the basic
unit of data storage.
The format process creates the drive's file system by adding information about how files
should be stored on the drive to organize and manage disk storage. For example, the file
allocation table (FAT) file system supported by MS-DOS and all Windows family operating
systems uses a file allocation table to track cluster use. Because it is responsible for
tracking space use, the file system also sets the maximum amount of space that can be
managed as a single unit (a logical drive).
NOTE:
Make sure you
understand the
FAT32 and NTFS
formats.
The file system you choose will depend on the operating system you are running. Table 56 describes the most common file systems for computers and the operating systems
supported by each.
After you have created partitions and logical drives, you must format the primary
partitions and the logical drives so the operating system can use them.
Table 5-6: Computer file systems
File
System
Operating System
Support
Description
FAT32
Windows
Used in earlier versions of Windows, including Windows
95, 98 and Me.
NTFS
Ext
Windows
Linux
© 2014 Certification Partners, LLC. — All Rights Reserved.
•
Provides support for hard disks up to 32 GB.
•
Does not offer security features for individual files.
•
Does not offer automatic recovery for disk-related
errors.
The preferred file system for Windows. Introduced with
the Windows NT 3.1 (server) and Windows 2000 (client).
It has many benefits over FAT32.
•
Supports hard disks up to 16 TB.
•
Provides encryption and access control permissions
to specific files.
•
Automatic recovery from certain disk-related errors.
•
The Ext3 file system was used by default in Ubuntu
Linux.
•
The Ext4 version offers performance improvements
over Ext3 and larger hard disks up to 16 TB.
•
Ext4 provides extents, which are ranges of
contiguous physical blocks that reduce
fragmentation and improve large file performance.
•
For more information, consult
http://kernelnewbies.org/Ext4.
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Network Technology Associate
Table 5-6: Computer file systems (cont’d)
File
System
Operating System
Support
Description
Reiser
Linux
The original Reiser File System (ReiserFS).
•
Somewhat newer than Ext3
•
Offered more sophisticated algorithms for storing
information.
•
For more information on ReiserFS, consult
www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/fs/reiserfs.
Reiser4 provided more efficient journaling and support
of small files over ReiserFS.
•
Provides faster directory handling for directories with
a large number of files.
•
Supports encryption and compression, and offers
database transaction support.
•
For more information on Reiser4, consult
www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/fs/reiser4.
In the following lab, you will view drive partition information. As previously mentioned,
the ability to view drive partitions on a computer is very important, especially if you need
to add a logical drive ID to a newly added device. Suppose you want to add a DVD drive to
your Windows system. You will need to assign a logical drive ID to the device. How would
you choose and assign the proper drive ID? What utility could you use to view your
system's volume and drive partition information?
Lab 5-3: Viewing drive partitions using Disk Management
In this lab, you will use the Windows 7 Disk Management utility to view drive partition
information.
1.
Click Start, right-click Computer, then click Manage to display the Computer
Management window.
2.
In the left pane of the window, click Disk Management to display your system's
volume and partition information (Figure 5-15).
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Lesson 5: Hardware and Device Connectivity
5-25
Figure 5-15: Disk Management — volume and partition information
3.
Review the partition structure that exists. From this window, you can format disks
and change the file system type.
4.
Close the Computer Management window.
In this lab, you viewed drive partitions using Disk Management.
File and directory permissions
permission bit
A file or directory
attribute that
determines access.
Permission bits
include read, write
and execute
permissions.
OBJECTIVE
3.8.7: File system
management tools
One of the primary benefits of an NTFS file system is that it allows you to secure
resources. NTFS allows you to set permission bits on system resources (for example,
files and directories). With NTFS, you can protect files so that only certain users or
groups of users can read them. One group of users may be able to execute applications in
a directory, whereas another group may have full access to it. The security provided by a
user-based file system such as NTFS can have drawbacks, however. Consider the
following potential problems:
•
If permissions are applied improperly, you may take security for granted.
•
Improperly set permissions can disable or damage an operating system.
Convert utility
Information about the files on an NTFS volume and their attributes is stored in the
master file table (MFT). In Windows, a partition or logical drive can be converted from
FAT32 into NTFS by using the Convert utility. The Convert utility uses the following
syntax:
convert drive /FS:NTFS [/v]
Replace drive with the letter of the drive you are converting into NTFS. The /v option
stands for verbose and prints information about the success of the operation to the
screen. In Windows, if a partition can be locked, the conversion will occur immediately,
without a restart. However, Windows still requires you to restart the system before boot
and system partitions can be converted.
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OBJECTIVE
3.8.6: File and
directory
permissions
Network Technology Associate
In the following lab, you will learn how to view NTFS permissions. NTFS allows you to
secure resources, such as files and directories. Suppose you work as an IT technician at
a company, and you need to divide the execute permissions for files or applications
among different groups of employees. Applying permissions appropriately helps ensure
security as well as the smooth functioning of the various systems. Assuming your
company uses NTFS, what utility should you use to view NTFS permissions for various
files and applications?
Lab 5-4: Viewing NTFS permissions
In this lab, you will view NTFS permissions for directories and files.
1.
Open Windows Explorer and make Drive C the active drive.
Note: Drive C should be an NTFS drive. If it is not, select another drive that is NTFS, or
use the Convert utility.
2.
Use the appropriate commands to create a new folder and a text file on Drive C.
3.
Right-click the folder you created, click Properties, then click the Security tab. The
NTFS permissions that are assigned by default to this resource appear in the
Properties dialog box (Figure 5-16).
Figure 5-16: Properties dialog box — Security tab
4.
Close the Properties dialog box.
5.
Right-click the text file you created, click Properties, then click the Security tab to
view its NTFS permissions.
6.
Close the Properties dialog box and Windows Explorer.
In this lab, you learned how to view NTFS permissions.
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Lesson 5: Hardware and Device Connectivity
OBJECTIVE
3.7.1: System
component
preventive
maintenance
preventive
maintenance
A program that
helps avoid
component failures
by maintaining
them properly at all
times.
planned
maintenance
Scheduled
preventive
maintenance tasks
that occur on a
regular basis.
5-27
Preventive Maintenance
You should always perform periodic preventive maintenance (PM) in order to avoid
component failures. Preventive maintenance procedures typically include device cleaning,
general maintenance, and backing up and restoring data.
All preventive maintenance programs must include planned maintenance, which
includes scheduled maintenance procedures. Scheduled maintenance often takes care of
any minor problems that you discover. For example, if you find a worn cable while
cleaning a computer, you should replace the cable at that point, rather than waiting for it
to fail. Other general maintenance procedures include checking items that you know can
cause system problems, such as disk fragmentation. (Disk fragmentation will be
discussed in detail later in this lesson.)
You should verify basic system operations after completing preventive maintenance
procedures to make sure that your system is in good working order. All computer
components experience (or appear to experience) failure. Before replacing components or
obtaining the services of a qualified computer technician, you can often fix a problem
yourself by performing one of the following simple tasks (depending on the component):
•
Check that the component is plugged in.
•
Check that the component is turned on.
•
Check that all components are connected in order to operate properly (for example,
ensure that the keyboard is connected to the computer).
Preventive maintenance helps to maintain your hard disk and data in order to ensure
that your system operates at peak efficiency. These tools also help prevent hardware
failures and data loss. In the following sections, you will learn about preventive
maintenance, including cleaning system devices, and using the Disk Defragmenter,
Chkdsk, Disk Cleanup, Backup and Restore utilities.
®
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Lesson 5: Drive Maintenance
Device cleaning
NOTE:
See Optional Lab 51: Removing dust
from a PC.
One of the primary reasons for cleaning a system is to remove accumulated dust. Dust
acts as a heat insulator. Excessive dust can cause components to overheat and fail. Dust,
dirt and other foreign matter can cause excessive wear on physical components. If a
system is missing slot covers, for example, replace them. They will help reduce dust and
make your system last longer.
If you need to remove dust from internal system components (such as the motherboard
and adapter boards), use a soft brush and a static-free vacuum. You can also use
compressed air to remove dust.
Before conducting preventive maintenance on any device, turn off the device
and unplug the power cord. Leaving power applied to the computer or
peripheral can be a shock hazard and can cause component failure.
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5-28
OBJECTIVE
3.8.7: File system
management tools
Network Technology Associate
Disk Defragmenter utility
Over time, as files are created and deleted, a partition can become severely fragmented.
Fragmentation is one of the leading preventable causes of poor performance. Contiguous
files provide good performance because the disk drive read/write heads do not have to
jump from location to location. You can use the Disk Defragmenter utility to defragment
hard disks and put fragmented files back together in a contiguous format.
In Windows 7, the Disk Defragmenter utility runs in the background only when your
computer is idle. You use the Task Scheduler to determine when and how often Disk
Defragmenter is to run. By so doing, your hard disk is automatically defragmented on a
regular basis. By default, Disk Defragmenter defragments files smaller than 64 MB only.
If you want to defragment files on Drive C that are larger than 64 MB, you need to enter
the following command at the command prompt and add the –w parameter:
defrag c: -w
In the following lab, you will learn how to defragment a hard disk using the Disk
Defragmenter utility. Suppose your boss needs you to install a new spreadsheet
application for an important new project. You install the application correctly, but find
that your system now tends to start up sluggishly or exhibit other aspects of poor
performance. You suspect that your hard disk may require defragmenting because you
have installed and worked with many new files and programs over the past several
months.
Lab 5-5: Defragmenting hard disks
In this lab, you will defragment your hard disk.
1.
Select Start | All Programs | Accessories | System Tools | Disk Defragmenter to
open the Disk Defragmenter (Figure 5-17). Notice that you cannot select a drive to
defragment in this window. If you want to defragment any drive other than C:\, you
must execute the defrag command from the command prompt.
Figure 5-17: Disk Defragmenter
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Lesson 5: Hardware and Device Connectivity
2.
5-29
Click the Configure Schedule button to display the Disk Defragmenter: Modify
Schedule dialog box (Figure 5-18). You use this dialog box to specify how often to
defragment your disk, as well as the day of the week and time that the process
should execute.
Figure 5-18: Disk Defragmenter: Modify Schedule dialog box
NOTE:
You may want to
allow the
defragmentation
process to execute
for a few minutes in
case it actually
completes in that
amount of time.
OBJECTIVE
3.8.7: File system
management tools
3.
Close the Disk Defragmenter: Modify Schedule dialog box.
4.
In the Disk Defragmenter, click the Defragment Disk button. This action starts the
defragmentation process. Because the process may take from several minutes to
several hours to complete, click the Stop Operation button to suspend the process,
then close the Disk Defragmenter.
In this lab, you defragmented your hard disk to improve system performance.
Chkdsk utility
You can use the Chkdsk utility in Windows to create and display a status report for a
disk based on its file system. You can also use Chkdsk to list and correct errors on the
disk, and to display the status of the disk in the current drive.
Chkdsk examples
NOTE:
Run the Chkdsk
utility on your
system using the
commands (or
similar commands)
shown in this
example.
Consider the following command:
chkdsk
This syntax will yield a status report showing any errors discovered in the current
partition.
Now consider the following command:
chkdsk g:
This syntax will yield a status report showing any errors discovered in the partition you
specified (in this example, G).
Next, consider the following command and option:
chkdsk g: /f
This syntax will yield a status report showing any errors discovered in the partition you
specified (in this example, G) and will fix the errors.
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Checking a disk in Linux/UNIX
In Linux or UNIX, you use the fsck command to check disk partitions. The fsck command
performs the same function as the Chkdsk utility in Windows systems. For example, if
you want to check the first partition on the first hard drive, you would enter:
fsck /dev/hda1
OBJECTIVE
3.8.7: File system
management tools
Disk Cleanup utility
Operating systems generate temporary files that you should periodically delete to
conserve disk space. In some cases, deleting temporary files and directories will help you
recover from application failures and from failed application installations. Common
locations of temporary files in Windows 7 include:
•
C:\$WINDOWS.~Q\DATA\Documents and Settings\user_name\Local
Settings\Temp.
•
C:\$WINDOWS.~Q\DATA\Documents and Settings\user_name\Local
Settings\Temporary Internet Files.
•
Directories and subdirectories created by installation programs.
NOTE:
Temporary files are
often referred to as
"temp" files.
You can delete temporary files manually by right-clicking them and clicking Delete, or
you can use the Windows Disk Cleanup utility.
OBJECTIVE
3.8.8: Deleting
temporary files
In the following lab, you will learn how to use Disk Cleanup to delete temporary files that
waste important disk space. Suppose your co-workers have asked for your help with minor
performance problems they are having on their Windows systems. After questioning them,
you learn that most of them have never deleted the cache of temporary files on their hard
disk drives. So you decide to teach them as a group how to use the Disk Cleanup utility.
After their lesson, you instruct them all to use this cleanup method at least once a week.
The Disk Cleanup utility enables you to recover the disk space used by temporary files,
unused applications, files in the Recycle Bin, files you downloaded as part of Web pages
and files created when Chkdsk attempted to recover lost file fragments.
Lab 5-6: Deleting temporary files
In this lab, you will delete any temporary files residing on your system.
1.
Select Start | All Programs | Accessories | System Tools | Disk Cleanup to
display the Disk Cleanup: Drive Selection dialog box (Figure 5-19).
Figure 5-19: Disk Cleanup: Drive Selection dialog box
Note: If you have only one hard disk and the disk is not partitioned, the Disk Cleanup:
Drive Selection dialog box will not appear. Instead, the program will check the hard
drive to determine how much space it can free up. Then the Disk Cleanup dialog box
shown in Figure 5-20 will appear.
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Lesson 5: Hardware and Device Connectivity
NOTE:
In Step 2, Disk
Cleanup will scan
the system after you
click OK. The scan
may take several
minutes to
complete.
2.
5-31
Specify the drive you want to clean up, then click OK. The utility will calculate how
much disk space will be recovered, then display the Disk Cleanup dialog box shown
in Figure 5-20. You use the Disk Cleanup dialog box to select the types of files to
remove when the utility executes.
Figure 5-20: Disk Cleanup dialog box
3.
restore point
A snapshot of a
computer's settings
at a particular point
in time. Also known
as a system
checkpoint.
To view a list of eligible files, click any of the items in the list box to select it, then
click the View Files button. Notice that downloaded program files, temporary
Internet files and thumbnails are specified to be deleted by default.
Note: A computer automatically creates restore points at regular intervals. If you
experience problems, you can restore your computer settings to their most recent
restore point (in other words, the point at which your computer was functioning with no
errors or problems).
4.
Click the Clean up system files button to begin the disk cleanup process. The Disk
Cleanup dialog box will redisplay. Click OK to execute the disk cleanup process.
When you are prompted to permanently delete the files, click the Delete Files
button. When the process is finished, all utility dialog boxes will automatically close.
In this lab, you learned how to delete temporary files to improve system performance.
OBJECTIVE
3.8.7: File system
management tools
Backup and Restore utilities
Even the best ongoing maintenance schedule cannot prevent a hard disk drive from
wearing out or accidents from occurring. Keeping a current backup of all data files is
essential to ensuring that data can be recovered if a hard disk drive fails. When you back
up data, you store copies of folders and files to a source other than your computer's hard
disk. Depending on file size and available hardware, storage sources can include writable
CDs, writable DVDs, external USB hard drives, SDXC cards, USB flash drives and
network server hard disks. The storage source must have enough room for the backup.
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All files and folders have archive properties that identify when the file or folder needs to
be backed up. New files and existing files that have been modified have their archive
attributes set to "on," indicating that they are ready for backup the next time data is
backed up. Each time a file is backed up, the archive attribute is set to "off," indicating
that the most recent version of the file has been backed up.
Backing up and restoring data in Linux/UNIX
You can use the dump command to back up files and directories on Linux and UNIX
systems. You can then use the restore command to restore the backed-up data, if needed.
Backing up data in Windows 7
NOTE:
Before performing a
backup, you should
think about the
data you want to
back up and the
location in which
you want to store
the backed-up
information.
In Windows 7, you can use the Backup And Restore Center to back up data. The first
time you conduct a backup operation, you will be prompted for information before
starting the backup process. This information is used to complete the following steps:
1.
Select the file types to be backed up.
2.
Select a file location or storage media for the backed-up data.
3.
Specify backup options.
4.
Initiate the backup.
In the following lab, you will learn how to back up data in Windows 7. Suppose you and
another co-worker are preparing copy for your company's Web site. Your tasks consist of
writing and editing large amounts of information, in both text and table format, to be
posted to the company Web site as HTML documents. This project is scheduled to take
several weeks, so you want to back up your work on a regular basis. How can you store
these documents for safe-keeping?
Lab 5-7: Backing up data in Windows 7
OBJECTIVE
3.8.9: Backup and
restore procedures
NOTE:
Removable mass
storage devices,
such as USB hard
drives or larger USB
flash drives, can be
used for backing up
data.
Make sure you have
determined a
backup location
before beginning
this lab.
In this lab, you will perform the backup procedure in Windows 7.
Note: The backup procedure is very time-consuming and requires that each system have
access to a writable CD drive, writable DVD drive or network drive in which to store the
backed-up data. You cannot back up data to the same drive on which your data resides;
you must back up your files to a different drive. You also cannot back up data to a tape
drive or non-writable DVD/CD-ROM drive in Windows 7.
1.
Select Start | Control Panel | System and Security | Backup and Restore to
display the Backup And Restore window.
2.
Click Set Up Backup to display the Set Up Backup window. You use this dialog box
to specify where you want to save your backup. You can specify to save your backup
to a hard disk, writable CD, writable DVD, USB flash drive, memory card, or network
share. If you have a writable CD/ DVD, insert it into your DVD/CD writable disc
drive. If you do not have one, you can specify to back up data to a network share,
other device or hard drive. Please note that DVD/CD backups usually take longer
than other options.
3.
Select the appropriate backup destination from the list, then click Next.
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Lesson 5: Hardware and Device Connectivity
4.
5-33
You will now be prompted to specify which file types you want to back up. You can
select Let Windows Choose (Recommended) or Let Me Choose. For the sake of time,
select Let Me Choose and click Next. Select the check box for Data Files |
[username] Libraries, where username is your computer account name. Make sure
to deselect everything else in the window, especially Include A System Image Of
Drives: System Reserved, (C:). Your screen should appear similar to Figure 5-21.
Figure 5-21: Specifying file types to back up
NOTE:
Backed-up data
can be stored in
multiple files and
can span multiple
discs.
5.
Click Next. You will review your backup settings. Notice the Schedule section at the
bottom of the window. Specify how often to create a backup by clicking Change
Schedule. Notice that you can specify to automatically run the backup utility daily,
weekly or monthly, as well as the day and time. Accept the default backup schedule
and click OK.
6.
Accept all default settings and click Save Settings And Run Backup. Notice that
Windows creates a shadow copy of the files you specified to back up. A shadow copy
is a point-in-time copy of your files. This feature allows you to restore previous
versions of your files and folders, if need be.
7.
When the backup finishes successfully, close all Backup And Restore windows.
8.
Open Windows Explorer and navigate to the backup location. You should see a
folder containing the backed-up data. To view the contents of the folder, right-click
the folder and select Open.
9. A dialog box may appear stating You Don't Currently Have Permission To Access This
Folder. Ensure that you are an Administrator, then click Continue to permanently
get access to the folder.
10. Expand the backup folder and all of its subfolders so you can see the backup files.
Backed-up data is stored as .zip files (with a maximum size of around 200 MB each).
11. Close Windows Explorer. Open the Backup And Restore window. After you perform
a backup, the Backup And Restore window is updated to show when the backup was
performed and where it was stored. Notice that you can use Backup And Restore to
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Network Technology Associate
back up your entire PC, rather than only the file types you specified. The next time
you perform a backup, only files that have been modified from the time you
performed the previous backup will be backed up.
12. Close the Backup And Restore window.
In this lab, you learned how to back up data to prevent data loss.
Restoring data in Windows 7
If backup data needs to be accessed, you can restore the data using the Backup And
Restore window. By default, the files are restored to their original locations and existing
files are not overwritten. However, using advanced options, you can specify that the files be
restored in an alternative location of your choice.
In the following lab, you will learn how to restore data that has been backed up. Suppose
you have been compiling a list of potential customers for your opt-in online marketing
business, backing up the list each night after you finish the day's work. Your most recent
day's work, however, was lost due to a power spike caused by an electrical malfunction.
You need to recover the data from the most recent backup, which was the previous night.
Restoring data allows you the option of overwriting existing files, and enables you to place
restored files in a specific location on your system.
Lab 5-8: Restoring data in Windows 7
OBJECTIVE
3.8.9: Backup and
restore procedures
In this lab, you will perform the restore procedure in Windows 7.
Note: You must have completed Lab 5-7 before you can complete this lab.
1.
Open the Control Panel and open the Backup And Restore window.
2.
Click the Restore My Files button to display the Restore Files window. You can
choose to restore files from the latest backup or files from an older backup.
3.
Restore specific files or folders by clicking the Add Files or Add Folders button (or you
can click the Search button to search for the backed-up data). Select your backup
folder to restore. Click the Add Folders button to display the folder you have selected
within the Restore Files window. Click Next.
4.
Specify the location where you want to restore the files. For this lab, select In The
Original Location, then click Restore.
5.
When the restore procedure is finished, click Finish. Close the Backup And Restore
window. Navigate to the restored files. Do the original files still exist?
In this lab, you learned how to restore data that has been backed up.
®
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about this topic.
Exercise 5-2: File system management tools
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Lesson 5: Hardware and Device Connectivity
5-35
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)
OBJECTIVE
3.5.8: Uninterruptible
power supply (UPS)
An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is a device that allows your computer to keep
running for at least a short time when the primary power source is lost. As such, a UPS
provides a measure of security by protecting data and networks in the event of a power
outage. It also provides protection from power surges. A UPS uses a battery to maintain
power during an outage.
With a UPS, AC line voltage feeds into a charger that keeps the battery backup charged at
all times. The computer is powered from the battery, not from the AC line, so there is no
need to switch over if power is lost. Generally, if a power outage occurs, the UPS will keep
the computer running long enough for you to save data and shut down the computer
properly. If power is out for an extended length of time, the UPS can initiate a system
shutdown before battery power is lost, thereby eliminating (or at least minimizing) data
loss. A UPS will also smooth power irregularities and provide clean, stable power.
One major concern when selecting a UPS is its power rating in watts. Be sure that the
UPS provides enough power to support the devices that you plan to connect. Connecting
more than one computer to a UPS is usually not recommended except on UPS systems
designed for that purpose. Connecting multiple systems increases the UPS power
requirement. Also, only one of the systems will be able to monitor the UPS status signals.
Choosing systems for UPS
You must decide which computers to protect with UPS systems. Protecting all computers
may not always be practical. However, you should protect mission-critical systems,
including network servers and any other systems that provide data or services to a
network. If a computer system must be kept running or if you must guarantee that a
computer will be shut down correctly if power is lost, you should provide UPS support for
that computer.
Configuring UPS
You can configure a UPS to specify the number of minutes it will provide power to the
system. However, be careful not to specify to shut down a system in a time frame longer
than the UPS itself can remain operational. For example, if you specify a system
shutdown 45 minutes after a power loss, but the UPS can only remain operational for 30
minutes, you may lose data and services.
A UPS can also be configured to shut down entire systems automatically, shut down only
certain components automatically (for example, monitors) or place components into
minimal power-use mode until you manually shut down the system.
NOTE:
Troubleshoot
software settings
first, then move to
hardware. If a
hardware
component does
not seem to be
functioning, use the
appropriate tool to
determine whether
the correct driver is
installed (for
example, Device
Manager in
Windows 7).
Software Troubleshooting
Software troubleshooting refers to solving any problems other than those caused by
system hardware. Software problems can have a number of causes, including bugs,
corrupted files, incompatibilities and virus infections.
Discerning between hardware and software problems can sometimes be difficult.
Hardware failures often initially appear to be software-related; they can be symptoms of a
software problem, such as a corrupted device driver.
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Network Technology Associate
One of the best ways to avoid software problems is to keep your software up to
date. Operating system manufacturers often issue regular updates to correct
known problems. Microsoft refers to these updates as service packs. Application
program manufacturers will also sometimes release updates that fix known
problems. Often, the main justification for the release of a new software version is
to fix known bugs.
In the following sections, you will study software problems as they are exhibited during
the operating system boot process and when applications fail.
OBJECTIVE
3.8.3: Boot problems
and restarting
Operating system boot problems
Following is a brief discussion of boot problems that can occur in workstations.
Error: No operating system
You may sometimes receive an error indicating that no operating system is present. If
this happens, perform the following steps:
1.
Make sure that there is no floppy disk inserted in the floppy disk drive.
2.
Perform a cold boot of the system (i.e., turn your computer off and back on again) to
ensure that an operating system is present. Sometimes, completely powering down
the system and restarting it can solve a temporary problem that appears to be a disk
failure.
Table 5-7 lists some other common boot-problem error messages and their solutions.
NOTE:
Use caution when
editing the registry.
Incorrectly editing
the registry can
severely damage a
system.
To access Safe
mode, you can
restart the system
and press the F8
key. Safe mode
gives you access to
only basic files and
drivers, and can be
used to diagnose
problems. If
symptoms do not
reappear when you
start in Safe mode,
the default settings
and minimum
device drivers can
be eliminated as
possible causes.
Table 5-7: OS boot problem errors
Error Message
Problem
Solution
-Bad or missing
command
interpreter
Operating system files are
missing.
Use a boot disk, if available. Refer the
problem to a help desk technician if a boot
disk is not available.
-Missing ntldr
(Windows)
Operating system files can
be lost through disk
corruption, file corruption
or file deletion.
-Kernel not
available (Linux)
System startup failure can
also be caused through
user actions — for example,
by making changes to the
system registry, which is a
database in which Windows
stores configuration
information.
Hard disk or
controller failure
This message indicates a
hardware failure, but the
problem can initially look
like a software failure.
System reinstallation may be necessary.
You may also be able to restore the system
using system recovery features found in
many operating systems.
If changes were made to the system
registry, you may be able to start up in
Safe mode (which is a basic configuration
that is primarily used for system
troubleshooting and repair) and correct the
registry. Otherwise, you may need to
reinstall the operating system and restore
data from backups. See the Tech Tip
following this table.
Boot from a CD-ROM and try to access the
hard disk and controller. You will need to
get the failing component replaced by a
trained technician.
Depending on the nature of the edits to the registry, Windows 7 may be able to
correct the error. Press F8 to interrupt startup, as you would to start up in Safe
mode, and select the Last Known Good Configuration option. This action will
revert to the previous configuration and may allow you to start the operating
system.
Occasionally you will not be able to find a cause for the system failure. In such cases,
repair the system and monitor its performance. If the failure does not occur again, it
could have been caused by a transient event such as a power spike.
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5-37
Blue screen of death (BSOD)
The technical name for the BSOD is the stop screen. The term "blue screen of death"
refers to a blue screen that displays during startup in Windows, which indicates that a
critical operating system failure has occurred during startup. This failure may be caused
by a transient condition, so one of the first solutions to try is to restart the system. Also,
try starting up using the Last Known Good Configuration option.
If a system has been working properly and starts experiencing BSOD failures during
startup, you need to determine whether the system can start up at all. Try starting up in
Safe mode rather than Normal mode. If you can start in Safe mode, the problem may be
one or more corrupted files or configuration settings. Restore from backups and test. If
you still cannot start the system in Normal mode, reinstall the operating system.
If the problem occurs during a new installation, a component (for example, a NIC or a
video driver) is probably not compatible with Windows. You will probably not be able to
install Windows to run properly on the system.
If a BSOD appears during startup, the system will store the information on the screen in
a dump file. In Windows 7 after a BSOD crash, Windows should generate the
C:\Windows\Minidump folder and write a memory.dmp file to it. You can read more
about how to parse (in other words, read) Windows blue screens at
http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc750081.aspx.
System lockup
NOTE:
Sometimes,
computers will
freeze and screens
will black out
completely, rather
than display the
BSOD. In such cases,
you will need to
reboot your system.
If a system locks up often, consider the following solutions:
•
If possible, determine what application was running at the time of the lockup. The
application may be incompatible with the operating system or with a hardware
component.
•
Look for IRQ conflicts.
•
Check log files for indications of a related problem.
When recovering from a lockup, you may need to power down your system manually by
pressing and holding down the power key for five seconds. Otherwise, Windows may not
surrender control of the system to the actual computer.
OBJECTIVE
3.8.2: Application
failures
Application failures
Application failures can take several forms in an operating system. An application may
not load, or it may crash under certain conditions. After most application errors, you
should try to quit the application (if it did not quit automatically) and attempt to
duplicate the error. If you can consistently duplicate the error, the problem probably lies
with the application. If the error does not occur at the same point or in the same fashion,
the problem is probably in the operating system or a device driver.
Some manufacturers list known problems on their Web sites. Others do not publish
the problems, but may provide bug and other problem information through
technical support. Some manufacturers charge for telephone support. Many
manufacturers that charge for telephone support still provide free support by e-mail.
Next, try restarting the operating system to initialize the system and clear errors caused
by transient conditions. Attempt to duplicate the error after system restart; if you cannot,
the error was probably caused by a transient condition.
In the following sections, we will discuss some of the more common application failures.
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Network Technology Associate
Application will not start
When an application will not start, consider the following causes and solutions:
•
System random access memory (RAM) may have gotten too low, in which case you
must free up system memory. Shut down applications running on the system.
•
The current logon environment may have crashed, even though it may appear to be
running properly. In all Windows systems, the logon environment is made possible by
explorer.exe and other applications. Sometimes, this application will fail to execute
properly. First, try logging off the system and logging back on. If doing so does not
solve the problem, restart the system. To determine whether the problem is specific to
your account, log on as another user and try to launch the application. If it launches
in the other logon environment, review the settings for the problem account. If the
problem continues, reinstall the application.
•
Some applications will not load properly unless you have additional privileges. Verify
your permissions.
•
System RAM may get too low because application crashes will not surrender the RAM
they have been using to the operating system. Restart the system.
•
Some applications will not run unless your system is using a certain resolution or
color level. Verify or change system resolution to solve the problem.
System log
NOTE:
See Optional Lab 52: Using the
Windows 7 Event
Viewer.
Viewing the system log is an effective way to determine the reason or reasons for an
application's failure to launch. In Windows systems, use Event Viewer to see log entries
generated by the application.
In Linux/UNIX systems, the log file is called messages, and resides off the /var/log/
directory. You can also open the /var/log/messages file using various applications,
including text editors such as vi. You can also use the cat command to view the entire
file, as shown in the following syntax:
cat /var/log/messages
However, you may not want to read the entire log file. To read only the last 10 lines of the
log file, use the tail command instead of the cat command.
Windows protection errors
Windows protection errors may sometimes occur on a system. Such an occurrence also
indicates a problem with internal (operating system) management and security. Windows
protection faults are often caused by device drivers that were not written specifically for
your operating system. They can also be caused by applications or utilities that attempt
to bypass the operating system and directly access local system hardware. Make sure you
are using the most recent driver version for your operating system. Some errors can be
corrected by reinstalling the operating system, but this solution means that the computer
cannot be used while the operating system is being installed and configured.
Application installation and loading failures
Application installation and loading failures can include the following situations:
•
An application will not load into memory.
•
An application causes an illegal operation, resulting in the BSOD.
•
An application will not install at all.
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Table 5-8 provides information about the most common application installation and
loading failures, as well as proposed solutions.
Table 5-8: Application installation and loading errors
Failure
Solution
Incompatible
application
Make sure that the application or application version is compatible with
the operating system. Otherwise, find a compatible version of the
application.
Lack of
administrative
privileges
Linux and Windows systems often require a user with full administrative
privileges to install some applications. Log off and log back on as the
administrator to the system. If the system belongs to a Microsoft domain,
and the local administrator has been limited, log on as the domain
administrator.
Registry busy or
corrupt
The area of the Windows registry pertinent to the application may be
locked or busy. Use Task Manager to ensure that no other applications are
currently running (Task Manager provides information about programs
and processes running on your computer. Press CTRL+ALT+DEL, then click
the Start Task Manager button to open Task Manager). If the registry is
corrupt, you may need to restore it from a backup.
Media failure
The local or remote drive containing the installation medium may not be
available or may be unrecognized. Ensure that the drive and/or network
connection is working properly.
Failed service
Start or restart the service (or daemon in Linux/UNIX). You may need to
restart the entire system, or log off and log back on.
Application
dependency
Some applications require certain services and additional applications and
libraries before installation can occur. Install all dependencies, and then
install the application. In Linux, for example, an application may not run
because of a problem with the X Window environment. You may need to
edit the X Window configuration files (for example, the files and
subdirectories in the /etc/X11 directory).
Hardware failure
The application depends on a device, such as a NIC, that is somehow
unavailable. Check the device.
Leftover files from
a previous (failed)
installation
Regardless of your operating system, temporary files exist in a directory
with permissions that forbid the current user from deleting them. Delete
the files and/or directories. You may need to consult system
documentation to learn where temporary files are stored for the application
and specific operating system.
Insufficient drive
space
An application may fail to run or install if your hard drive is full. Many
applications generate log files and other files in temporary folders. If no
space is available, the application will crash. Clear some space and try
again.
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Course Lesson 5 - Part B
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Version 2.1
5-40
Network Technology Associate
Case Study
Network Maintenance in Adverse Conditions
Nevine is an archeologist who is spending six months at an archeological site in southern
Egypt. She has become known as the IT administrator after setting up a small computer
network (using the Windows 7 operating system) in the main tent. Due to the frequent
desert winds that blow across the Sahara and deposit dust practically everywhere, Nevine
realizes she needs to set up a preventive maintenance program to keep the small network
working properly.
Nevine decides to immediately perform the following tasks:
•
She asks her colleagues to help seal the tent as much as possible to prevent dust
from infiltrating the chamber containing the network devices.
•
She checks all computers to ensure that slot covers completely cover all slot
openings.
Next, Nevine decides to implement the following preventive maintenance program:
•
Back up user data to high-capacity storage disks on a daily basis.
•
Run the Chkdsk utility on a weekly basis to check for and correct physical disk
errors.
•
Run the Disk Cleanup utility on a weekly basis to delete temporary files and conserve
disk space.
•
Run the Disk Defragmenter utility on a quarterly basis to defragment the hard disk
drives.
•
Clean all adapter boards and input devices with a static-free vacuum and
compressed air on a quarterly basis to remove accumulated dust.
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As a class, discuss this scenario and answer the following questions:
•
What additional maintenance activities could Nevine implement to ensure that the
small network continues to work properly?
•
How often should she perform these tasks?
© 2014 Certification Partners, LLC. — All Rights Reserved.
Version 2.1
Lesson 5: Hardware and Device Connectivity
5-41
Lesson Summary
Application project
When you have time, attempt to restart your computer in Safe mode (press the F8 key
during the reboot process). When your Desktop displays, note the differences in the
Desktop between Normal mode and Safe mode. What are the differences?
Open the Display Settings dialog box (right-click the Desktop, click Personalize, then click
the Display Settings link). What is your screen resolution? Open Windows Explorer and
attempt to access a network drive. What happens? Restart your computer in Normal mode.
Skills review
In this lesson, you learned about the basic hardware and system maintenance
procedures that you should perform to minimize component failure and system problems.
You learned about the maintenance issues associated with motherboards, IRQs, I/O
addresses, DMA, SATA disk drives and SCSI devices. You were introduced to peripheral
ports, and you learned about optical discs, TV tuner cards and HDMI connections. You
also learned about mobile computing devices and associated technologies.
You also studied the basics of managing a client operating system. You learned about the
importance of software licensing and preparing a hard disk for use. You reviewed the
characteristics of several file system types, and you learned how to use file system
management tools and troubleshooting software. Finally, you learned how to remotely
manage and troubleshoot workstations.
Now that you have completed this lesson, you should be able to:

3.5.8: Identify the purpose of an uninterruptible power supply (UPS), and list
common concerns and configuration parameters.

3.7.1: Identify maintenance tasks that can help prevent computer system failures.

3.7.2: USB, FireWire, eSATA, HDMI, CD-ROM/DVD, parallel and serial devices (e.g.,
printers, hard drives, monitors).

3.7.3: Explain the functions of motherboards, storage devices and optical discs (e.g.,
IRQs, SATA, SCSI, USB, memory card readers, memory cards, NICs, CD/DVD/BD).

3.8.1: Obtain proper licensing for operating systems and associated applications.

3.8.2: Recover from application failures.

3.8.3: Restart the system and identify common boot problems.

3.8.4: Explain why a hard drive must be partitioned and formatted.

3.8.5: Identify common file systems (e.g., NTFS, FAT, Ext3, ReiserFS).

3.8.6: Manage basic file and directory permissions.

3.8.7: Use common file system management tools, including Convert, Chkdsk, Disk
Cleanup, Disk Defragmenter.

3.8.8: Delete temporary files manually and by using operating-system-specific methods.

3.8.9: Back up and restore files to prevent data loss.
© 2014 Certification Partners, LLC. — All Rights Reserved.
Version 2.1
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Network Technology Associate
®
CIW Practice Exams
Visit CIW Online at http://education.Certification-Partners.com/CIW to take
the Practice Exams assessment covering the objectives in this lesson.
Course Objective 3.05 Review
Course Objective 3.07 Review
Course Objective 3.08 Review
Lesson 5 Review
1.
What are two formats supported for writable DVDs?
2.
What steps must you perform to prepare a hard disk for use?
3.
Why is it important to periodically defragment a partition on which files are
frequently created, modified and deleted?
4.
What is the purpose of the Disk Cleanup utility?
5.
What are some of the problems associated with using unlicensed software?
6.
What is the term for an audio/video interface that can transmit high-definition digital
video and high-resolution digital audio data in a single cable?
© 2014 Certification Partners, LLC. — All Rights Reserved.
Version 2.1
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