2 Player Rules - FINAL as of 5-18-2015 - 11 MB

2 Player Rules - FINAL as of 5-18-2015 - 11 MB
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Table of Contents
9. COMBAT
9.1 Attack Eligibility
9.2 Combat Tactics
9.3 Drawing Combat Chits
9.4 Combat Chit Situations
9.5 Combat Hits
9.6 Applying Step Losses
9.7 Retreats
9.8 Advance after Combat
9.9 Dispersal
1. INTRODUCTION
2P RULES
2. GAME COMPONENTS
2.1 Map
2.2 Playing Pieces
2.3 Card Sets
2.4 Player Aids
2.5 Ten-sided Die
3. SETTING UP FOR PLAY
10. SUPPLY
10.1 Tracing Supply
10.2 Effects of Unsupply
10.3 Allied Air Resupply
10.4 German Fuel Shortages
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
4. SEQUENCE OF PLAY
4.1 Special Rules on December 16
5. THE DRAW PILE AND HAND
5.1 Playing Cards from Your Hand
5.2 Division Command Cards
5.3 Corps Command Cards
5.4 Army Command Cards
5.5 Army Group Command Cards
5.6 Allied “No Command” Cards
5.7 Discarding Cards
11. RESERVES
11.1 Deploying Reserves
11.2 Multi-Unit Deployments
11.3 Delayed Reserves
11.4 German OKW Reserve
11.5 British XXX Corps
6. ACTIVATING FORMATIONS
6.1 Activating a Corps
6.2 Activating a Division or Brigade
6.3 Activating One Unit
6.4 Activating a German Kampfgruppe
6.5 Consecutive Activation Restriction
12. TOWNS, CITIES, BRIDGES AND IPs
12.1 Towns and Cities
12.2 Bridges
12.3 Improved Positions
7. MOVEMENT
7.1 Effects of Other Units on Movement
7.2 Moving on Roads
7.3 Crossing River Hexsides
7.4 Stacking Units
7.5 Strategic Movement Bonus
7.6 German Army Boundaries
7.7 Allied Corps Boundaries
7.8 Exiting the Map (German Only)
7.9 Allied Roadblocks
13. REPLACEMENTS
13.1 Replacing Lost Steps
14. VICTORY CONDITIONS
15. SCENARIOS
CREDITS
DESIGNER NOTES
INDEX
CALENDAR
DAILY SEQUENCE OF PLAY
8. ZONES OF CONTROL (ZOC)
8.1 Effects of Control
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Table of Illustrations
2P RULES
6.1 Corps Activation
6.4 Kampfgruppe Activation
7.1 ZOC Effects on Movement
7.2 Movement
7.5 Strategic Movement
7.9 Allied Roadblocks
8.0 ZOC Effects with Units
9.1 Attack Eligibility
9.3 Combat Chit Draw
9.4 Flank Attack Situations
9.5 Combat Hits
9.7 Retreats
9.8 Advance after Combat
10.1 Tracing Supply
11.1 Reserve Deployment
11.2 Multi-Unit Deployment
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
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2P RULES
1. INTRODUCTION
Enemy Action is a series of card-driven wargames about
pivotal military operations in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Each game in the series may be played by two players or
one player, playing either side in the conflict simulated.
The focus of the games is on command and capabilities.
 Date ranges – the rule, function, action, or process
applies to the range of dates, inclusive of the first and
last one listed in the range
Ardennes is the first game in the Enemy Action series,
which portrays the German offensive launched against the
western Allies in December 1944, popularly known as the
Battle of the Bulge. Each player controls the German or
Allied (US and British) side. If playing solo, the game
system controls the other side.
ABBREVIATIONS: Throughout the rules, cards, displays
This rules volume covers the TWO PLAYER version of
Enemy Action: Ardennes.
RECOMMENDATION FOR NEW PLAYERS: The Two
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
 Example:1 18+ 8(starting on the December 18
game turn and continuing in effect every game
turn after that)
Player version of Enemy Action: Ardennes is a moderatecomplexity wargame, with several new play concepts.
We recommend playing the Two Player game first before
trying out the Allied and German Solo games. Doing so
will get you familiar with the game system before taking
on the additional complexity of the “paper AI” in the two
solo games. If you want to dive right into solo play, we
suggest starting with the German Solo game.
2. GAME COMPONENTS
Enemy Action: Ardennes
components:
includes
the
following

Three game maps, one each for the Allied Solo, German
Solo, and Two Player games

504 playing pieces on three die-cut sheets

110 cards

Fifteen player aids, some of which are used in the Two
Player game (2.4)

Three rules booklets, one for each game

One ten-sided die

One box and lid set
DATE DEPENDENCIES: Throughout the rules, cards,
displays and player aids, date dependencies are highlighted
uniquely as follows:
 Individual dates – the rule, function, action, or process
applies to the particular date (game turn) only
 Example:1 18 8(the December 18 game turn)
 Starting dates – the rule, function, action, or process
applies both to the listed date and to every date after
that
 Example:8 18-23 -2(starting on the December
18 game turn continuing in effect through the
completion of the December 23 game turn)
and player aids, certain abbreviations are frequently used
and may appear in advance of their formal definition as
follows:

FAR – Fixed Artillery Range – defined on the calendar
for the Fixed Artillery German combat tactic (see the
EVENTS & TACTICS player aid).

IP – Improved Position – defined in 12.3.

MP/MPs – Movement Point(s) – defined in 7.0.

OOS – Out of Supply – defined in 10.2.

RP/RPs – Replacement Point(s) – defined in 13.0.

VP/VPs – Victory Point(s) – defined in 14.0.

ZOC – Zone of Control – defined in 8.0 but also for
movement effects in 7.1.
2.1 Map
The map for the Two Player game portrays the Ardennes
Forest region of northwest Europe encompassing parts
of Germany, Luxembourg, Belgium and France, where
Germany’s Ardennes Offensive occurred in December of
1944. A hexagonal grid is superimposed over the terrain
features to regulate the placement and movement of the
playing pieces. Each hex is numbered for identification,
and represents an area four km (2.5 miles) across.
Terrain The map’s terrain and other key features are
identified in the map’s terrain key. The primary in-hex
terrain types are clear, broken, woods, forest and city.
Road, town and Westwall are terrain features that can
appear in the terrain types. The primary hexside terrain
feature is river.
Meuse River This river extends from the north map edge
to the west map edge as follows: it splits Liège along the
0116-0117 hexside then heads west, passing just north of
Huy, then just east of Namur along the 0625-0626 hexside,
then just west of Dinant, then just east of Givet, and finally
passing through the 1728-1729 hexside before exiting.
Operational Boundary Lines define operational areas for
the three German Armies and six US Corps. German and
US boundary labels border the east and west map edges
respectively. Note that operational boundary areas overlap
each other.
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German Exit Hexes Hexes along the north, south and
west edges of the map with a road leading off the map
are German exit hexes, unless marked “No Exit.” German
units may move off the map from exit hexes. Some exit
hexes are marked with a calendar date, such as 18 in hex
2605. Such a hex is a valid exit hex on or before the listed
day. After that date, German units may not exit from that
hex. Allied units do not exit the map at all.
Victory Point (VP) Hexes Towns and cities with a printed
Victory Point value are VP hexes. The German player
earns the VPs listed for holding each such VP hex.
The 504 playing pieces consist of units, representing
specific German and Allied military forces; combat chits,
used to resolve combat; and markers, placed on units,
tracks, or the map to denote information or status.
2.21 UNITS
Sample Unit: Front
[full strength]
Designation
Setup Hex or
Date of Entry
Number of Steps
and Unit Quality
Movement
Allowance
Combat
Strength
Selector Number
(Not used in 2-Player Game)
Sample Unit: Back
[reduced strength]
Corps Color
Reduced
Number of Steps
Unit Type
Typical Calendar Entry
Max Range from Westwall For
German Fixed Artillery Tactic
# German
Supplemental
Cards
DAY
# Allied
Supplemental
Cards
Key Rules
starting or
ending on
this date
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
The Calendar The game is played in game days,
representing one day of historical time. The rules will
refer to these game days as days or by particular calendar
dates, for example, “starting on December 17”. The
players record the passage of days by moving the Day
marker along the calendar on the map. Each day space of
the calendar lists card allotments and other date-dependent
game information. Note that an enlarged copy of the
calendar appears at the end of the rule booklet.
2.2 Playing Pieces
2P RULES
20+ German army boundaries limit where German

units move and German reserves deploy, and are lifted
beginning with the December 20 game day.

Allied corps boundaries limit where Allied reserves
deploy for the entire game; they do not restrict Allied
movement.
Allied Hand
Size Varies
German Hand
Size ALWAYS 7
VP Ranges
(when applicable)
Reduced
Combat Strength
Unit Colors Colors identify the army and corps to which
the unit belongs, used when determining which units are
activated by play of a command card.
A unit’s overall field color denotes the unit’s nationality
and army:
Allied
Field Colors
German Victory Point Track and Schedule As the
German player gains or loses Victory Points for the
accomplishments listed in the VP schedule, he moves VP
markers along the VP track to indicate his current VP total.
Army Color
German
Field Colors
Unit Boxes Both players have boxes to hold Reserve Units
and Eliminated Units. The German player also has boxes
to hold his OKW Reserve units, the von der Heydte unit,
and units that exit the map.
US 1st Army
Dark Green
US 3rd Army
Olive Green
British XXX Corps
Tan
6th Panzer Army
Light Gray
5th Panzer Army
Dark Gray
7th Army
Blue
OKW Reserve
Gray
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2P RULES
A color stripe across the top of each unit denotes the unit’s
corps. A unit’s corps is also identified with roman numerals
in the rightmost part of the unit’s designation. Exception:
British units and units of the German OKW Reserve have
no corps stripe. Corps affiliations are as follows:

US 1st Army: V, VII and XVIII Corps

US 3rd Army: III, VIII and XII Corps

German 6th Panzer Army: I SS, II SS and LXVII Corps

German 5th Panzer Army: XLVII, LVIII and LXVI Corps

German 7th Army: LIII, LXXX and LXXXV Corps
Unit Types

A unit with a three-part designation is a regiment or
brigade that is part of a division. The first part of the
designation identifies the regiment or brigade, the second
part is the division to which the unit belongs, and the
third part is the corps to which the division belongs,
always expressed as a roman numeral.

A unit with a two-part designation is a regiment, brigade
or entire division attached directly to a corps. The first
part of the designation identifies the regiment, brigade,
or division, and the second part is the corps to which the
unit belongs.
A brigade or division designation in large bold type
indicates the formation appears on a command card. All
corps appear on command cards.
Non-Mechanized Units
Infantry
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
Designation Every unit has a two-part or three-part
historical designation.
Examples:
501.101.VIII is the 501st Regiment of the 101stAirborne
Division in VIII Corps, and the 101st Airborne Division
appears on a command card.
Airborne, Glider, or
Parachute Infantry (1)
14 Cav.XVIII is the 14th Cavalry Regiment attached
directly to XVIII Corps. This formation does not
appear on its own command card. However, its higher
echelon formation, XVIII Corps, appears on two
command cards.
Mechanized Units
Designation Abbreviations
Mechanized Infantry
A: Armored; Cav: Cavalry; F: Fallschirmjäger; GA:
Guards Armoured; P: Panzer; PG: Panzergrenadier; VG:
Volksgrenadier; FuhrBg: Führer Begleit; FuhGren:
Führer Grenadier; OKW: Oberkommando der Wehrmacht;
VDH: von der Heydte.
Armor
Combat Strength is a numerical expression of the unit’s
combat effectiveness, used when resolving combat. When
a unit takes a combat loss (but is not eliminated), its combat
strength is reduced and in some cases is both reduced
and bracketed. A bracketed combat strength indicates the
unit may not attack on its own and does not exert control
when by itself unless in a town or city, or if German, in
a Westwall hex. It also does not contribute a combat chit
when included in an attack (9.4).
Recon
Combined Arms (2)

Note 1: Airborne, glider, and parachute infantry are
functionally identical to infantry in all respects.

Note 2: Combined arms units include both armor and
mechanized infantry capabilities. Any unit with the two
unit symbols is a combined arms unit.
Movement Allowance is the number of Movement Points
(MP) the unit may spend to move during one activation
(see 7.0 and the TERRAIN EFFECTS CHART).
Steps Each unit possesses one to four steps, as shown by
the number of step dots on the unit’s counter. Steps indicate
the unit’s overall manpower. Units lose steps as a result
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Full
Reduced
Front
Back
Front
Combat Situation A situation that may apply to the
combat being resolved.
Example: If the defending unit in a combat is in woods,
forest or city terrain, the front of the combat chit shown
above applies. If in clear terrain, the back of the chit
applies. If in broken terrain, the chit does not apply at
all.
In most cases, the situations listed on the two sides of a
combat chit are mutually exclusive. However, when both
situations apply, the side of the chit with a Priority Symbol
P takes precedence (9.4).
Back
Setup Hex Four-digit ID number of hex in which the unit
starts the game. An underlined ID number indicates that
the unit starts with an Improved Position marker. Disregard
the asterisk on some ID numbers; this affects only the solo
games.
Attacker Hits / Defender Hits The number of combat hits
applied to the attacker or to the defender if the situation on
the combat chit applies. A positive number indicates hits
added to the hit total. A negative number indicates hits
subtracted from the hit total.
Blue combat chits operate like other combat chits and also
trigger a remixing of all combat chits (9.41).
2.23 MARKERS
These are the markers used in the Two Player game. The
following markers are placed on units to indicate unit
status:
Date of Entry The two-digit calendar date in December
1944 on which the unit is available to enter play as a
reserve. Dates on certain Allied units are appended with an
S symbol indicating the unit is a strategic reserve. German
units with OR instead of an entry date enter per 11.4.
Dispersed
2.22 COMBAT CHITS
Low Supply
The sixty combat chits are drawn randomly from a cup
to resolve combat. An additional identical set of sixty
combat chits are provided with the game to use if the first
set become overly worn from use.
Out of Supply
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
Unit Quality Units with black step dots are regular line
units. Red step dots denote an elite unit. White step dots
denote a green, inexperienced unit. The quality of a unit
may change as it loses or gains steps.
2P RULES
of combat losses. A unit with one or two steps has one
counter with one or two printed sides. A unit with three
or four steps has two counters, with two printed sides on
one counter and one or two printed sides on a replacement
counter, distinguished by the replacement symbol R on the
counter. Only one counter for a given unit is in play at a
time.
Sample Combat Chit
[front]
Combat
Situation
[back]
Isolated
Attacker Hits
Improved
Position
Defender Hits
German
Out of Fuel
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The following markers are placed on the map to indicate
special conditions:
2P RULES
Blown Bridge
Allied Corps Command Card
Bridge Control
Higher Echelon
Ownership
Allied Roadblock
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES

The Formation section displays one or more formations
(groups of units) and lists commands that the player may
undertake by playing the card, including commands
involving the formation.

The Support section lists support functions for which
the players can play the card at times other than as a
command card play for the impulse.
Fuel Depot
Fuel: Yes/No
German
Kampfgruppe
Command Formation
Date of
Entry
Command
Value (CV)
SPECIAL
EVENTS &
COMMANDS
& EVENTS
Formation
Section
TACTICS &
REACTIONS
Support
Section
Primary
Indication
Card ID
Number
Functions marked with or or
are available to Allied Player
The following markers are placed and moved on tracks:
German Division Command Card
Day
Command Formations
Higher Echelons
Date of
Entry
Command
Value (CV)
German VP
Number of
Component
Units
“No Fuel” Dates
German Mech.
Formations Only
2.3 Card Sets
Two sets of cards are used in the Two Player game: 37
German Command cards and 34 Allied Command cards.
The Allied Action cards and German Setup cards are not
used in the Two Player game.
The cards are the heart of the game; all game actions are
initiated by the play of cards from the players’ hands. You
start each of your turns (called impulses) by playing a card
from your hand to initiate a command. Each card has two
main sections:
Formation
Section
SPECIAL
EVENTS &
COMMANDS
& EVENTS
TACTICS &
REACTIONS
Support
Section
Functions marked with or
are available to German Player
Card ID
Number
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card play or move. Some support functions are marked
with a date or date range, limiting the days in which the
function may be played. All support functions are fully
described on the EVENTS & TACTICS player aid. Support
functions are independent of the formation listed on the
card.
Command Value Not used in the Two Player game.
Date of Entry indicates when the card becomes available
to the player, expressed as a calendar date in December
1944. German cards with OR instead of an entry date
become available per 11.4.
Component Units If the command formation is a division,
the number of units in the division is given.
Higher Echelons indicate the larger formations to which
the command formation belongs. Formations are color
coded to match unit colors, for ease of identification.
Example: On Command Card 46, the 2nd Panzer
Division and Panzer Lehr Division belong to the XLVII
Panzer Corps, which in turn belongs to the 5th Panzer
Army.

Functions on Allied cards marked with an arrow or the
or
code are available to the Allied player; those
marked are not available to the Allied player.

Functions on German cards marked with an arrow or
code are available to the German player; those marked
are not available to the German player.
Some commands are marked with a date or date range,
limiting the days in which the command may be played.
Certain commands are “events”: the command events
and special events are fully described on the EVENTS &
TACTICS player aid.
Example: Command Card 19 lists the Artillery
Barrage event prefixed with the
code. This Allied
command event is only available in the German Solo
game; hence, there is no description of this event on
the EVENTS & TACTICS player aid for the Two Player or
Allied Solo games.
The Support Section lists functions you may initiate by
playing the card at a time other than your command card
play for your impulse. Support functions include combat
tactics, playable when attacking or defending in combat,
and reactions, playable in immediate response to an enemy
Primary Indication A Card marked PRIMARY is available
to the player every day. Cards without the primary
indication are supplemental and are available to the player
on a random basis.
“No Fuel” Dates appear on cards for German Mechanized
divisions and brigades indicating dates on which the
formation may be out of fuel (10.4).
The name of the formation’s commanding officer is listed
on all army and army group cards, for historical interest
only.
2.4 Player Aids
Key reference aids for the Two Player game are at the back
of the rule book:

DAILY SEQUENCE OF PLAY

CALENDAR
Other charts and summaries for the Two Player game are
included on the following player aids:

KEY RULES SUMMARIES

COMBAT PROCEDURES

EVENTS & TACTICS (Allied & German)
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
Commands are functions you may undertake with the play
of a card. Some commands apply to the formation listed
on the card, while others do not, as stated in the command
text. Commands are coded to show which game they apply
to. In the Two Player game:
2P RULES
Command Formation A command formation can be a
single unit, a division (one to four units), a corps (several
divisions), an army (several corps), or an army group (all
the player’s forces). Each card lists either (a) a single army
group, army or corps formation or (b) one to three divisions
or smaller unit formations.
The Two Player game uses both command displays:

ALLIED COMMAND CARD DISPLAY

GERMAN COMMAND CARD DISPLAY
All games use the following player aids:

TERRAIN EFFECTS CHART & MISCELLANEOUS

CARD & UNIT REFERENCE
2.5 Ten-sided Die
A ten-sided die is used for all die rolls in the game,
generating a number from 1 to 10.
If you should find yourself using a ten-sided die that is
numbered from 0 to 9, treat each roll of 0 as a 10.
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ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
2P RULES
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3. SETTING UP FOR PLAY
Supplemental Cards box face down, and all reinforcement
cards in the Cards Entering Play box face up.
Lay out the map for the Two Player game so that the Allied
player is sitting on the north side and the German on the
south. Each player places his own COMMAND CARD
DISPLAY to the side of the map.
Unit Placement
Choose a Scenario to Play
All scenarios except Crisis at the Meuse begin on
December 16 and use the setup instructions in this rules
section.

The Initial Assault is an introductory scenario covering
the first day of the battle, December 16. See 15.1 for
modifications specifically for this scenario.

The Allies Surprised covers the first three days of the
campaign during which the German forces penetrated
the Allied lines and sought a meaningful breakout. This
scenario is recommended for tournament play, taking two
to three hours to complete. See 15.2 for modifications
specifically for this scenario.

The German Breakout covers the first six days of the
campaign as the Germans raced to exploit breakouts
in the face of rapidly arriving Allied reserves. This
scenario takes about five hours to complete. See 15.3 for
modifications specifically for this scenario.

The Battle of the Bulge presents the full campaign, from
December 16-29, taking about 10 hours to complete. See
15.4 for modifications specifically for this scenario.

Crisis at the Meuse covers the critical seven days from
December 22-28 as the Allies struggled to contain the
breakout of the 5th Panzer Army, taking about six hours
to complete. See 15.5 for complete setup instructions.
Every unit has a placement designation on its front side:

Place each unit with a 4-digit hex number in the
indicated hex on the map.

Place each unit with a 2-digit date in the indicated space
of the calendar. For ease of play, organize units into
stacks by corps.

Place aside each unit with an R (for replacement). These
will enter play as certain units lose steps.

Place German units with an OKW in the German OKW
Reserve box.

Place the German VDH unit in the Von der Heydte box.
Marker Placement

Place Allied Improved Position markers on each of the
six US units with underlined hex placement numbers.

Mix up the five Fuel Depot markers face down, then
randomly place them face down in the five hexes on the
map with a fuel depot symbol. The Allied player may
inspect them once in place; the German player may not.

Place four Blown Bridge markers pointing to bridges
bordering hexes 1707, 1907, 2106 and 2303.

Place the Day marker in the December 16 space of the
calendar.

Place two German VP markers in the “0” space of the
German Victory Point Track.
Finally place one set of sixty combat chits in a coffee mug
or other wide-mouth container to draw from during play.
The other set of combat chits is not used in the game.
Card Preparation
Sort the command cards by side – German and Allied.
Within each nationality separate the initial cards (those
with the date of December 16 in the upper right corner)
from the reinforcement cards (those with a later date or the
designation OKW). Then further separate the initial cards
into two piles, those marked PRIMARY and all others. After
sorting, card quantities should be as follows:
German
Allied
Initial
Primary
Cards
Initial
Supplemental
Cards
Reinforcement Cards
(primary and
supplemental)
7
3
18
9
12
22
Each player places his cards on his own COMMAND CARD
DISPLAY. Place initial primary cards in the Draw Pile box
face down, initial supplemental cards in the Available
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4. SEQUENCE OF PLAY
III. SUPPLY PHASE 17+
I. RESERVE PHASE
Take units from the calendar space for the current day and
place them in the respective Reserve Units boxes.
II. CARD PREPARATION PHASE
Using their respective card displays, each player prepares
his draw pile for the day and draws his initial hand, as
follows:
1. Place Reinforcement Cards scheduled to enter play
this date face down in the Draw Pile box if Primary,
or face down in the Available Supplemental Card box
if Supplemental.
2. Shuffle the Available Supplemental Cards. Draw
the number of cards indicated for this calendar date
and place them face down in the Draw Pile box.
3. Place all Supplemental Discards from the previous
day face down in the Available Supplemental Card
box.
4. Place all Primary Discards from the previous day
face down in the Draw Pile box.
5. Shuffle the draw pile and draw the number of cards
indicated for this calendar date to form your initial
hand for the day.
IV. COMMAND PHASE
The players alternate conducting impulses, beginning
with the German player. The player taking his impulse
is referred to as the active player and his opponent is the
inactive player.
1. GERMAN IMPULSE
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
18+ If either player has units in his Reserve Units box

with a printed entry date two days earlier than the current
date, he may deploy them to the map, German player
first. (11.3)

If the conditions for releasing the German OKW Reserve
are met, place the German OKW Reserve units in the
calendar space for the next day (11.4).
1. The Allied player may play Engineers command events
and the German player may play Bridge Engineers
command events to repair and build bridges.
2. Determine supply status of all Allied units and
roadblocks, and 19+ all German units (10.0 & 10.1).
Remove all Low Supply, Out of Supply and Isolated
markers from units determined to be in supply.
3. Adjust supply status (10.2): Place a Low Supply marker
on each unsupplied unit. If the unit is already in low
supply, place an Out of Supply marker. If already
OOS, place an Isolated marker. If already isolated,
check for surrender (10.24).
4. 20+ The German player checks his hand for cards
indicating German formations are out of fuel,
discarding any if required and placing Out of Fuel
markers on units on the map (10.4). He may play the
Fuel Priority command event or spend a Fuel marker
to prevent a formation from being out of fuel.
5. 21+ The Allied player may play one Airpower
command event to conduct Allied Air Interdiction
(5.1). He draws and discards two cards at random
from the German player’s hand, and the first German
Impulse of the day is skipped.
2P RULES
Enemy Action: Ardennes is played in Days, each representing one day of the campaign. Each day consists of
five phases, conducted in sequence. In the first three phases
the players prepare for the day’s operations by receiving
reserve units, setting up their card decks and checking
supply status of all units. The Command Phase is the heart
of the day, consisting of a repeating cycle of German and
Allied impulses during which players play cards to activate
units to move and attack, or to implement other functions.
In the End of Day Phase, the game map is cleared of status
markers placed during the day.
The German player plays one card to initiate one command
of his choice listed on the card. All the possible commands
are listed below. A given card possesses a subset of these.

Activate all units in the formation listed on the card
(6.1 & 6.2).
OR

Once per day, activate any one unit able to trace supply,
regardless of formation (6.3). The unit may not attack.
OR

Activate a Kampfgruppe – German player only (6.4).
Place the KG marker in any hex on the map. All units of
the Army (or all units in case of Army Group B card) that
start the activation within two hexes of the KG marker
are activated. Remove the KG marker from the map at
the end of the activation.
OR
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
Deploy reserve units in the formation listed on the card
by moving them from the Reserve Units box to the map
(11.1)
OR
2P RULES
20+ Assign replacements to units in the formation

listed on the card (13.0).
OR

Implement the command event or special event listed
on the card, if any. See the EVENTS & TACTICS player
aids.
ACTIVATIONS: A formation or unit activated in the
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
immediately preceding German impulse may not be
activated this impulse (6.5). Activated units conduct
operations in the following sequence:
1. Roadblock removal (German player only; 7.9).
2. Movement (7.0).
3.Combat (9.0). You may play additional cards as
combat tactics, each in support of one combat.
4. Build improved positions (12.3).
5.Remove Dispersed markers.
During an activation, the Allied player may play cards
as reactions or combat tactics.
The German player may choose to pass instead of playing
any cards if his draw pile is empty and he has fewer cards
in his hand than the Allied player.
After completing a command, the German player draws
cards from his draw pile to bring his hand up to seven
cards.
20+ German Fuel Shortages – Germans Only (10.4).

The German player checks the cards just drawn for cards
indicating German formations are out of fuel, discarding
any if required and placing Out of Fuel markers on units
on the map. He may play the Fuel Priority command
event or spend a Fuel marker if available.
2. ALLIED IMPULSE
The Allied player plays a card from his hand for the same
commands as the German player, with the roles reversed.
He may pass if his draw pile is empty and his hand has the
same number or fewer cards than the German player’s
hand. After completing a command, the Allied player
draws cards from his draw pile to bring the number of
cards in his hand up to his hand size limit for the day.
3. REPEAT IMPULSES
The players repeat the impulses (German then Allied) of
the Command Phase until both players’ draw piles are
exhausted and all cards have been played from their hands,
at which time the day ends.
V. END OF DAY PHASE
If the space for the current day on the calendar includes
Victory Levels, check to see if either player has won the
game (14.2). If not:

Return all combat chits to the cup.

Remove all Dispersed and Out of Fuel markers from the
map.

Advance the Day marker to the next day on the calendar
and start a new day.
4.1 Special Rules on December 16
To recreate the almost total surprise the Germans achieved
in their initial assaults, the following rules are in effect on the
first day of all scenarios beginning on December 16. These
rules supersede standard rules where they conflict.
4.11 GERMAN SURPRISE ATTACKS: The German player
receives three impulses in a row prior to the first Allied
Impulse. Each impulse must be used to activate formations
in different corps: no unit may be activated more than once
in the first three impulses. During these three impulses:

German units may not move; they may attack and
advance after combat. Exception: A unit may move via
play of the Reinforce Battle combat tactic.

The Allied player may not play cards for any purpose.

The German player may not play cards as special events,
command events or to deploy reserves. He may play
cards to activate units and as combat tactics.

The German player replenishes his hand at the end of
each impulse.
After the German player completes his third impulse, the
Allied player takes his first impulse, and the rules of 4.11
no longer apply.
4.12 GERMAN TRAFFIC JAMS: The following rule is in
effect throughout all impulses of December 16:

Only one German unit may use a given bridge in a single
activation. Another unit may cross the bridge hexside,
but must do so as if crossing an unbridged river.
4.13 SLOW ALLIED REACTION: The following rules are
in effect throughout all impulses of December 16:

Allied non-mechanized units may move only one hex
when moving during an activation. This does not apply
to a unit moving via the Raise the Alarm command event
or the Reinforce Battle combat tactic.

The Allied player may not blow bridges or play the
Artillery combat tactic.

The Allied player may play the Corps Artillery combat
tactic.
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5. THE DRAW PILE AND HAND
From his available cards each day, each player assembles a
draw pile consisting of all his primary cards plus a number
of randomly drawn supplemental cards indicated for the
current day on the calendar by following the procedure in
the sequence of play and his card display. The supplemental
cards in the draw pile come from all available supplemental
cards except those that were in the player’s draw pile on
the previous day. Once his draw pile is formed, the player
uses it to draw and replenish his hand throughout the day.
Allied Player, December 17:

As listed on the ALLIED COMMAND CARD DISPLAY,
four new cards become available to the Allied
player on December 17 – one primary and three
supplemental, giving him a total of four primary
cards and 12 supplemental cards potentially available
to him.

However, the four supplemental cards that were in
his draw pile on December 16 are not available to
him this day, leaving him with eight supplemental
cards available.

He shuffles those eight cards and draws five for this
day, as noted on the calendar.

He shuffles the five supplemental cards together with
his four primary cards to form his draw pile for the
day.

He then draws five cards from the draw pile (his hand
size this day) to form his initial hand.
In each impulse, the active player plays one card from his
hand to initiate one command listed on the card, such as
activating a formation, deploying reserves or implementing
a command event. Each player may play cards from his
hand in other ways and at other times, as follows:

If a card is played as a command to activate units, the
player may play additional cards during that activation as
combat tactics for attacks by his active units.

Cards may be played as combat tactics for units defending
against enemy attacks in the enemy impulse.

During the Supply Phase, the German player may play
cards listing the Bridge Engineers or Fuel Priority
command event, and the Allied player may play cards
listing the Engineers or 21+ Airpower command event.
These card plays may also be made during the players’
respective impulses.

During the German impulse, the Allied player may play
cards listing the Engineers reaction to place a roadblock
or destroy a bridge in response to German activation (see
Reactions on the EVENTS & TACTICS player aid).

The German player may play a card listing the Operation
Greif reaction in immediate response to an Allied attempt
to destroy a bridge (7.33).
21+ ALLIED AIR INTERDICTION: During the Supply
Phase beginning December 21, the Allied player may play
cards listing the Airpower command event to implement
air interdiction (see the Sequence of Play). He draws and
discards two cards at random from the German player’s
hand, and the first German Impulse of the day is skipped.
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
Examples:
Allied Player, December 16:

The Allied player begins the game with three primary
cards and nine supplemental cards potentially
available.

He shuffles his nine supplemental cards.

The December 16 space of the calendar indicates that
he receives four supplemental cards, so he draws four
cards face down from his nine supplemental cards.

He then shuffles the four supplemental cards together
with his three primary cards to form his draw pile for
the day, consisting of seven cards.

From his draw pile, he draws four cards to form his
initial hand for the day, as indicated in the current
day space of the calendar.

At the end of each Allied impulse, the Allied player
draws cards from his draw pile to bring his hand back
up to four, until the draw pile is exhausted.
5.1 Playing Cards from Your Hand
2P RULES
At game start, each player’s primary and supplemental
cards dated December 16 are potentially available to him.
More cards become available over the course of the game
per each player’s card schedule on the Card Displays.
The German hand size limit is seven cards, every day of
the game. The Allied hand size limit for each day is noted
on the calendar starting at four cards on December 16 and
increasing on subsequent days.
PASS OPTION: Once a player’s draw pile is exhausted, he
may pass instead of playing a card during his impulse. The
Allied player may pass if his hand has the same number
or fewer cards as the German hand. The German player
may pass if his hand has fewer cards than the Allied hand.
Passing does not prevent a player from playing cards in
subsequent impulses.
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5.2 Division Command Cards
Corps (13.0).

If the card lists a command event or special event valid
on the current date, play as an event.

Activate all on-map units in one division or brigade listed
on the card (see 6.2).

Activate (once per day only) any one unit on the map
able to trace supply (see 6.3).

Deploy all available reserve units in the division(s) and/or
brigade(s) listed on the card (see 11.1). Cards for divisions
with no units in reserve do not list this command.

Deploy any one reserve unit in the same corps as the
division listed on the card.

If the card lists a command event or special event valid
on the current date, play as an event. In addition, some
command and special events can be played during the
enemy impulse or at another point, as indicated in the
event description.
5.4 Army Command Cards
5.21 NON-DIVISIONAL UNITS: The German Peiper /

Activate all on-map units in any one corps and if Allied,
all units stacked with units in that corps (see 6.1).

If German, activate a Kampfgruppe made up of units in
any German armies (see 6.4).

Deploy all reserve units available to the nationality (see
11.1).
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
2P RULES
A division card may be played for one of the following
commands of the player’s choice at the start of his impulse:
150th Panzer Brigade command card functions like other
division cards, even though the listed units are not actually
divisions. 17-18 If played to activate either Peiper on
December 17 or the 150th Panzer Brigade on December 18
as indicated on the command card, the activated unit may
ignore enemy ZOCs while moving.
An army card may be played for one of the following
commands of the player’s choice at the start of his impulse:

Activate all on-map units in one corps in the army listed
on the card and if Allied, all units stacked with units in
that corps (see 6.1).

If German, activate a Kampfgruppe made up of units in
the army (see 6.4).

Deploy all available reserve units in the army (see 11.1).
5.5 Army Group Command Cards
An army group card may be played for one of the following
commands of the player’s choice at the start of his impulse:
5.6 Allied “No Command” Cards
5.3 Corps Command Cards
These cards list no formation. Each may be played as either
an Engineers or Airpower command event, depending on
the calendar date.

Activate all on-map units in the corps listed on the card
(see 6.1).

Activate (once per day only) any one unit on the map
able to trace supply (see 6.3).

Deploy all available reserve units in the corps (see 11.1).
20+ Beginning December 20, assign the number of

Replacement Points indicated on the card to units in the
5.7 Discarding Cards
A corps card may be played for one of the following
commands of the player’s choice at the start of his impulse:
Division
Command
Once a card has been played for any purpose and its effects
are implemented, the player discards it. Each player’s card
display has two boxes for discards, one for primary cards
and one for supplemental cards. This separation facilitates
card preparation at the start of the next day.
Corps
Command
Army
Command
Army Group
Command
Allied
“No Command”
Allied Cards
German Cards
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6. ACTIVATING FORMATIONS
6.1 Activating a Corps
During the active player’s impulse, he may play one card
to activate on-map units. Activated units perform actions
in the following sequence.

A corps card activates all of the units in the corps listed
on the card.

An army card activates all the units of one corps of the
player’s choice within that army.

An army group card activates all the units of one corps of
the player’s choice.

For Allied activations by army or army group card:

Any units stacked with units of the activated corps are
also activated.

All attacks by active units receive a bonus wild card
combat tactic (9.23).
German
Unit
German
Unit
German
Unit
German
Unit
German
Unit
German
Unit
The Allied player plays the 1st
Army command card for a corps
activation of the XVIII Airborne
Corps. All the units of that corps
on the map are activated, including
units from other formations
stacked with units of that corps.
Thus, two units from V Corps –
the 394.99.V unit and the 16.1.V
unit – are also activated. This
flexibility is not available when
activating the corps with a corps
command card and is not available
to the German player at all.
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
Illustration of Corps Activation
[6.1]:
2P RULES
1. All activated units may move (7.0).
2. All activated units may attack adjacent enemy units
(9.0).
3. Activated units that did not move or attack may build
improved positions (12.3).
4. Activated units that are dispersed become undispersed
(9.9).
The player activates all the on-map units of a corps by
playing any of the following cards:
German
Unit
German
Unit
German
Unit
German
Unit
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6.2 Activating a Division or Brigade
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
2P RULES
The player activates all on-map units of a division or
brigade by playing a division card listing the formation. If
the card lists more than one formation, the player chooses
just one formation to activate.
Example: Allied Command Card 28: Activate one of
the listed divisions, the 90th Infantry Division, the 6th
Armored Division or the 35th Infantry Division.
6.3 Activating One Unit
Once per day, each player may activate any one unit able
to trace supply at the moment of activation, by playing
a division or corps card, regardless of the unit’s corps or
division assignment. A unit activated in this manner may
not attack.
6.4 Activating a German Kampfgruppe
Play of an army card allows the German player to activate all
on-map units in the army within two hexes of a designated
command hex; this is instead of playing the card to activate
a corps in the army. Upon playing an army card to activate
a Kampfgruppe, the German player places the KG marker
in any hex on the map (even if occupied by an enemy unit).
All units in the army that start the activation within two
hexes of the KG marker are activated, regardless of their
corps assignment and regardless of the presence of enemy
units (Exception: see 6.5). Remove the KG marker from
the map at the end of the activation.
6.5 Consecutive Activation Restriction
The player may not activate a brigade, division, corps, or
Kampfgruppe containing units that were activated in his
immediately preceding impulse. A player may not activate
a unit in a formation that was activated in his immediately
preceding impulse. Thus, if a division were activated in one
impulse, the player could not activate that same division in
his next impulse and could not activate the corps to which
the division is attached. If the German player activates a
Kampfgruppe (6.4), it cannot include any units activated
in the previous German impulse. In the impulse following
activation of a Kampfgruppe the German player may not
activate any corps or division formation that includes units
that were part of the Kampfgruppe.
Examples:

The German player plays the 6th Panzer Army card
to activate a Kampfgruppe made up of units of the
I SS Panzer Corps and II SS Panzer Corps. In his
next impulse, the German player may not activate
any units in either corps. He could activate units
in LXVII Corps (also in 6th Panzer army), or any
formations in his other armies.

The Allied player plays the XVIII Corps card to
activate units in that corps. In his next impulse he
cannot play a card to activate XVIII Corps or to
activate any division in that corps, and may not play
a card to activate a single unit in the corps.

The German player activates the single FB Brigade
unit (in XLVII Corps) by playing a division card. In
his next impulse he cannot activate XLVII Corps or
any unit in XLVII Corps.
Playing a command card to deploy reserves or assign
replacements for a formation are not activations and do
not prevent play of a card to activate that formation in the
player’s next impulse. Conversely, activating a corps does
not prevent deploying reserves or assigning replacements
for that formation in the player’s next impulse.
Bringing a unit into a combat via the Reinforce Battle
or Assault Coordination combat tactic card play is not
considered an activation and so is not subject to these
restrictions.
These restrictions do not carry over from the last impulse
of one day to the first impulse of the next.
Play of the Army Group B card allows the German player
to activate all on-map German units within two hexes of
a designated command hex, regardless of corps or army
assignment (Exception: see 6.5).
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Illustration of Kampfgruppe
Activation [6.4]:
Allied
Unit
Allied
Unit
Allied
Unit
Allied
Unit
Allied
Unit
2P RULES
The German player plays the
Army Group B command card
and places the KG marker on hex
0804. All German units within
two hexes regardless of corps
or army affiliation are activated.
This activation includes divisions
and attached units from the I SS
Panzer Corps of the 6th Panzer
Army and some of the divisions
and attached units from the LXVI
Corps of the 5th Panzer Army.
Allied
Unit
Allied
Unit
Allied
Unit
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
Allied
Unit
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2P RULES
7. MOVEMENT
When a player plays a card to activate units, he may move
all, some, or none of his active units. Each unit is moved
individually through one or more contiguous hexes, up to
the limit of the unit’s movement allowance. For each hex
entered, the unit pays one or more Movement Points. The
Movement Point (MP) cost to enter a hex varies with the
type of unit moving (infantry or mechanized), the terrain
in the hex being entered, and the presence of a river along
the intervening hexside, as specified on the TERRAIN
EFFECTS CHART.
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
BASIC RESTRICTIONS: A unit may not exceed its
movement allowance when moving.
A unit with
insufficient Movement Points to enter a hex may not do
so. The movement of one unit must be completed before
the next is begun. Any Movement Points left unused by
a unit are lost; they are not saved for a future activation
or impulse. Movement Points may not be transferred
between units.

Exception: A unit may always move at least one hex, as
long as the move is otherwise allowed.
7.1 Effects of Other Units on Movement
ZONE OF CONTROL (ZOC)EFFECTS: The movement of
units is affected by enemy units and their zones of control
(8.0). A unit must pay one Movement Point to leave an
Illustration of ZOC Effects on Movement [7.1]: Unit
A, adjacent to an enemy, shows movement options and
prohibitions. Note that moving out of an enemy ZOC
costs +1MP in addition to the cost of the terrain for the
hex to be entered.
P
+1
A
P
+1
Allied
Unit
O
German
Unit
German
Unit
O
No ZOC-to-ZOC
enemy-controlled hex, in addition to the cost of the terrain
in the hex being entered. A unit may not move directly
from one enemy-controlled hex to an adjacent enemycontrolled hex. There is no additional cost to enter an
enemy-controlled hex, but the unit must stop moving upon
doing so.
HEX ENTRY RESTRICTIONS: A unit may never enter an
enemy-occupied hex. A unit may enter an unoccupied
enemy town or city, but not if using strategic movement
(7.5). Friendly units have no effect on the movement of
other friendly units.
7.2 Moving on Roads
A unit entering a hex through a connecting road hexside
(including an intact bridge) pays just one Movement Point
to enter the hex, regardless of the terrain in the hex.
7.3 Crossing River Hexsides
7.31 UNBRIDGED RIVER HEXSIDES: Units may move
across unbridged river hexsides with the following
restrictions:

A unit must spend its entire movement allowance to cross
an unbridged river hexside. That is, the unit must start its
move in a hex bordering the river hexside to be crossed
and end its move upon entering the adjacent hex across
the river hexside.

No more than one unit may cross a given unbridged river
hexside in a single impulse. This limit applies to a single
river hexside, not the river overall. Two units in a hex
bordered by two or more river hexsides could each cross
different hexsides, as long as only one unit crosses a
specific hexside.

A bridged river hexside with a Blown Bridge marker is
considered unbridged.
7.32 BRIDGED RIVER HEXSIDES: There is no limit to
the number of units that may cross a bridged river hexside,
unless the hex being entered is in enemy control. Only
one unit may move across a given bridge hexside into an
enemy-controlled hex in a single impulse, even if the hex
moved into is friendly-occupied.
7.33 BRIDGE DEMOLITION DURING A GERMAN
MOVE: The Allied player may interrupt the movement
of a German unit in a hex bordered by a bridge hexside,
by playing a card as an Engineers Reaction to destroy the
bridge. See the EVENTS & TACTICS player aid for details. The
German unit whose move or advance triggered the bridge
destruction may continue moving in another direction but
may not cross the hexside with the just destroyed bridge in
this move. The German player may negate the destruction
by playing a card listing the Operation Greif reaction.
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Illustration of Movement [7.2, 7.3]:
2P RULES

A: The armor unit moves 6 hexes expending 6 MPs by using the road at a cost of 1MP per hex entered to threaten the
main road going southwest from St. Vith (or it could reach St. Vith directly expending 5 MPs). The mechanized unit
movement costs for entering forest and broken terrain (not using a road) are shown.

B: The mechanized unit moves 2 hexes expending 5 MPs. The movement costs for entering woods and broken terrain
(not using a road) are shown.

C: The infantry unit moves 3 hexes expending 3 MPs. Unlike mechanized units, infantry movement costs 1 MP per hex
unless entering into forest.

D: A unit must start adjacent to an unbridged river to cross it.

E: Only one unit may cross an unbridged river hexside (including a blown bridge), so each of the four units must cross
the river at different hexsides.
C
1
1
1
O
2
1
1
P
3
D
P
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
1
X
ANY
X
X
1
All
A
All
X
All
X
X
1
X
X E
1
1
X
6
B
All
1
ANY
X
ANYE
X
1
X
4
5
X
1
2
7.4 Stacking Units
More than one friendly unit may occupy a hex; this is
called stacking. The maximum number of units that may
occupy a hex is three units or six steps.
Example: If a four-step unit and a two-step unit occupy
a hex, a third unit could not stack with them. If three
one-step units occupy a hex, no more units can stack
with them.
3
2
Stacking limits must be observed at all times, except
during the movement portion of an activation and during
retreat or advance after combat. That is, units may move
through other units in violation of stacking limits but
when all movement in an impulse is complete, or when all
retreats and advances after a combat are complete, stacking
limits are enforced. If units are found to be in violation
of stacking limits after completing movement, retreat or
advance, the owning player must reduce or eliminate units
to meet the limits.
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7.5 Strategic Movement Bonus
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
2P RULES
An active unit in supply that begins its move in a road
hex and not adjacent to an enemy unit may move with an
increased movement allowance as long as it conducts its
entire movement within the following restrictions:

The unit must move through hexes connected by roads.

The unit may not move adjacent to an enemy unit, even a
unit that exerts no control.

The unit may not enter an enemy town or city.

The unit may not cross an enemy bridge.
Allied and German units have additional specific
restrictions on strategic movement:

An Allied unit may not enter a Westwall hex.

A German unit may not move adjacent to a hex with an
Allied roadblock.

A German unit may not enter a hex further west than the
westernmost unit in its army.

A German unit may not exit the map and may not enter a
hex on the map edge.
Example: If the farthest west unit in the 5th Panzer
Army is in hex 1316, a unit in the 5th Panzer army using
strategic movement may not enter any hex ending in a
number higher than xx16.
A unit conducting strategic movement has its movement
allowance increased as follows:

Armor, recon, and mechanized infantry: Movement
Allowance is doubled (to 10 or 12)

Allied infantry: Movement Allowance is tripled (to 9)

German infantry: Movement Allowance is increased by
two (to 5)
7.6 German Army Boundaries
German units are initially restricted in the areas they can
move on the map depending on the army to which the unit
belongs.
7.61 RESTRICTIONS: Boundary lines for the German 6th
Panzer Army, 5th Panzer Army and 7th Army are printed
on the map. Until movement restrictions are lifted (7.62),
no German unit may move outside of its army boundary
(Exception: units of the OKW Reserve may move
anywhere on the map). The boundaries of the German 5th
Panzer Army overlap the 7th Army to the south and the
6th Panzer Army to the north. Units of both armies may
operate in overlapping areas.
Illustration of Strategic Movement [7.5]:

A: The German infantry unit (hex 1708) has 5 strategic MP
allowance (3 MP plus bonus of 2 MP), but it cannot spend
the last MP available in hex 1713 since this would place it
further west than any other unit in its army. It also cannot
enter Wiltz (Allied town).

B: The German armor unit (hex 1906) has 10 strategic MP
allowance (5 MP x 2). After expending 7 MP, it stops, since
it cannot cross an Allied bridge.

C: The German armor unit (hex 1607) has 10 strategic MP
allowance (5 MP x 2).Two movement options are blocked
by the well-placed (if weak) Allied unit at the crossroads
southwest of St. Vith. Using 9MP, the unit follows a
circuitous route to reach adjacent to Vielsalm. It cannot
proceed further because of the Allied roadblock. Regardless,
it cannot enter Vielsalm (Allied town).

D: The Allied infantry unit (hex 2413) has 9 strategic MP
allowance (3 MP x 3). Moving the Allied unit to hex 2312
reaches a dead-end. It could move outside the XII corps
boundary north to Bastogne (no Allied boundary restrictions)
or nearby east of Martellange. Instead, it moves eastward
(avoiding moving adjacent to enemy units): having spent 8
MP, it must stop because it cannot enter an enemy zone of
control. Regardless, it cannot cross the German bridge into
the German town of Ettelbruck.
route of retreat for the unit. A unit that retreats across an
army boundary may subsequently move only if each hex
entered is across or closer to the unit’s army boundary line.
This requirement is immediately removed as soon as the
unit moves within its army boundary.
7.62 RESTRICTION DATES 16-19 :
German Army boundary restrictions
are in effect at the start of December
16. All such restrictions are lifted
beginning December 20.
Until movement
restrictions are lifted,
German 6th Panzer Army
units cannot move south
of this boundary (outside
of the army’s area)
A German unit may attack across its army boundary but
may not advance across the boundary. A unit may retreat
across an army boundary only if that is the only possible
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21
O
Allied 1st
Army Unit
German
5th Panzer
1
Army Unit
O
O
Allied 1st
Army Unit
1
German
5th Panzer
Army Unit
[X]
1
O
Allied 1st
Army Unit
O
1
German
5th Panzer
Army Unit
1
1
C
1
1
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
German
5th Panzer
Army Unit
German
5th Panzer
Army Unit
1
1
A
German
5th Panzer
Army Unit
German
5th Panzer
Army Unit
O
Allied 1st
Army Unit
1
B
1
O
Allied 1st
Army Unit
2P RULES
1
1
1
German
5th Panzer
Army Unit
1
1
German 7th
Army1Unit
1
1
O
O
D
1
1
Allied 3rd
Army1 Unit
O
1
1
O
1
German 7th
Army Unit
Allied 3rd
Army Unit
1
1
German 7th
Army Unit
Allied 3rd
Army Unit
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7.7 Allied Corps Boundaries
Corps boundaries only affect where Allied reserve units
may be deployed.
2P RULES
7.71 RESTRICTIONS: Boundary lines for the Allied corps
are printed on the map. Once deployed to the map, Allied
units may move, retreat or advance without restriction due
to corps boundaries (Exception: 7.72).
7.82 EXIT VPS AND NO RE-ENTRY: The German player
earns VPs for exiting his units. Once a unit exits the map,
it may not re-enter play (see 14.1).
7.72 BRITISH XXX CORPS RESTRICTIONS: Units of the
7.9 Allied Roadblocks
British XXX Corps may not move or advance into a hex
east of the Meuse River until:

the moment a German unit enters
a hex adjacent to the Meuse River,
or
26+ the game day is December 26

or beyond.
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
edge. If any units exit the north map edge east of hex 0116,
the south map edge may no longer be exited. Conversely,
if any units exit the south map edge, the north map edge
east of the Meuse River may no longer be exited.
The Allied player may play an Engineers reaction at the start
of a German activation to place two Roadblock markers on
the map, to temporarily block German movement through
specific hexes; see the EVENTS & TACTICS player aid for
details.
EFFECTS OF ALLIED ROADBLOCKS: A German unit...

may not enter a hex with a Roadblock marker at any
time.

must stop moving or advancing upon entering a hex that
is (a) adjacent to the roadblock's hex and (b) has a direct
road connection to that hex with the roadblock.

need not stop if it enters a hex adjacent to a roadblock but
not connected by a road, or if it is retreating.

using strategic movement may not enter any hex adjacent
to a roadblock hex.
Once either of these occur, units of
XXX Corps may move anywhere on
the map. Exception: if 29A.XXX
is deployed in 1126 (Dinant)
per 11.51, the unit may move
anywhere on the map.
Active US V Corps units
in reserve may only be
deployed north of this
line
Roadblock markers do not exert control and do not negate
German zones of control for purposes of tracing Allied
7.8 Exiting the Map (German only)
Hexes along the north, south and west edges of the map
with a road leading off the map are German exit hexes,
unless marked “No Exit.” Some exit hexes are marked
with a calendar date, such as 18 in hex 2605. Such a hex is
a valid exit hex on or before the listed day.
A supplied German unit may exit the map from a valid exit
hex by spending one Movement Point. A unit may not exit
the map from a hex controlled by an enemy unit. A unit
may not exit the map if using strategic movement, or if in
low supply, out of supply, or isolated. German units are
restricted in where they may exit by their army designation:
Illustration of Roadblocks [7.9]:

A: The German unit must stop as soon as it enters the second
hex adjacent to an Allied roadblock because the two hexes
are connected by a road.

B: The German unit can enter the first hex – even though
it is adjacent to an Allied roadblock, the two hexes are not
connected by a road. When it enters the second hex, it must
stop because it has entered a hex that is adjacent to the
roadblock and the two hexes are connected by a road.

C: The German unit can move and continue past the Allied
roadblock (it does not enter an adjacent hex that is connected
to the roadblock hex by a road) but must stop when it enters
an enemy zone of control (8.0).

6th Panzer Army: May exit along the north or west map
edge.

5th Panzer Army: May exit along the west map edge.

7th Army: May exit along the south map edge.

OKW Reserve: May exit along the west map edge and
along the north map edge west of the Meuse River.
7.81 EXIT OPTION LIMITATION: German exit options
STOP
OK
C
A
STOP
STOP
OK
B
become limited if German units exit the north map edge
east of the Meuse River, or anywhere along the south map
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23
supply and retreat routes. German supply may be traced
adjacent to but not through a roadblock.
A Roadblock marker remains on the map until removed for
any of the following reasons:
If the German special event Manteuffel Directs Traffic is in
effect, you may not place a Roadblock marker within four
hexes of a unit in the 5th Panzer Army.
8. ZONES OF CONTROL (ZOC)
BRACKETED COMBAT STRENGTH: Some units lose
the ability to exert control as they lose steps, noted by
their combat strength becoming bracketed. A unit with a
bracketed combat strength does not exert control unless in
a town or city hex or a German unit in a Westwall hex.
Two non-dispersed units with bracketed combat strengths
stacked together in a hex do exert control.
8.1 Effects of Control
•A unit must stop movement upon entering an enemycontrolled hex and cannot move further that activation.
•A unit that starts its move in an enemy-controlled hex
must pay an additional Movement Point to exit the hex,
and may not move directly into an adjacent enemycontrolled hex. The presence of other friendly units in
the adjacent hex does not negate this effect.
•Friendly supply may be traced from but not through an
enemy-controlled hex, unless that hex is occupied by a
friendly unit.
•A unit may retreat into an enemy-controlled hex, within
the retreat priorities of 9.7. If the hex is occupied by a
friendly supplied unit there is no penalty. If the hex is
unoccupied, or occupied only by a friendly unsupplied
unit, the retreating unit or stack must lose a step.
•A unit may ignore enemy zones of control when advancing
one hex. If advancing a second hex, the unit may not
advance from one enemy-controlled hex to an adjacent
enemy-controlled hex. Exception: An advancing unit
following the path of retreat of a unit that retreated two
hexes may ignore enemy zones of control if following
the path of retreat into the second hex.
•A hex may be mutually controlled by opposing units.
There is no additional effect when more than one unit
exerts control into a hex.
A
X
These undispersed units DO EXERT a ZOC:

A: unit with non-bracketed combat strength;

B: unit with bracketed combat strength in a town
or city hex;

C: unit with bracketed combat strength stacked
with any other undispersed units.
These units DO NOT exert a ZOC:

D: any unit that is dispersed or isolated;

E: single unit with bracketed combat strength not
in a town or city hex.
C
1st US
Army Unit
Illustration of ZOC Effects with Units [8.0]:
.
[X]
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
Every undispersed, non-isolated unit with a non-bracketed
combat strength exerts control into the six adjacent hexes.
Control inhibits enemy movement, retreat, advance and
the tracing of enemy supply.
dispersed do not exert control, even if in a town or city or
stacked with another unit.
2P RULES

An Allied unit enters its hex.

The roadblock is adjacent to an active German unit at the
start of a German activation.

During the Supply Phase, you cannot trace Allied supply
to the roadblock.
ISOLATED & DISPERSED: Units that are isolated or
.
B
[X]
D
ANY
.
[X]
.
E
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24
2P RULES
9. COMBAT
5. CALCULATE HITS
After a player has completed moving his active units, he
may have any of his active units attack adjacent enemy
units. Combats are declared and resolved one at a time, in
any order chosen by the active player. The active player is
termed the attacker and the inactive player the defender.
COMBAT SEQUENCE
Each combat is against all the enemy units in one hex and
is resolved in the following sequence:
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
1. ATTACKER DECLARES TARGET & ATTACKING UNITS
The attacker declares an enemy-occupied hex adjacent
to at least one active unit as the target of the attack, and
declares which of his active units adjacent to the target hex
are participating in the attack.
2. ATTACKER PLAYS COMBAT TACTIC CARDS
The attacker may play one or more cards as combat tactics
for the attack. If a combat tactic allows additional units to
join the attack, he identifies and moves those units.
3. DEFENDER PLAYS COMBAT TACTIC CARDS
The defender may play one or more cards from his hand
as combat tactics for his defense. If a combat tactic allows
additional units to join the defense, he identifies and moves
those units.
Once the attacker stops drawing chits, the players add up
the number of defender hits and attacker hits listed on the
retained combat chits to arrive at hit totals incurred by the
defender and the attacker.
6. DEFENDER APPLIES HITS TO HIS UNITS
The defender applies hits to his units by removing one
step per hit or retreating all units one hex per hit. If the
defending units occupy an improved position, the IP marker
is removed to satisfy the first hit. Up to two defender hits
may be satisfied by retreat; all other hits must be satisfied
by step losses.
7. ATTACKER APPLIES HITS TO HIS UNITS
The attacker applies hits to his units. The first attacker hit
must be applied as a step loss. The second and third hit
may be applied by dispersing all attacking units or as step
losses. All subsequent hits must be applied as step losses.
8. ADVANCE AFTER COMBAT
If the defending units retreated or were eliminated and the
attacking units are not dispersed, the attacking units may
advance into the hex vacated by the defending units. If
the defending units retreated two hexes or were eliminated,
attacking mechanized units may advance two hexes.
9. CLEAN UP
Both players discard any combat tactic cards played. The
attacker sets all the drawn combat chits aside.
4. ATTACKER DRAWS COMBAT CHITS
The attacker draws combat chits from the combat chit cup.

Minimum Draw. He must draw a number of chits equal
to the total number of steps in the defending units, at
minimum. He may then stop, or he may draw additional
chits up to a specified maximum.

Maximum Draw. If he continues, he declares a total
chit draw up to the number of his attacking units. Other
factors may increase or decrease the maximum allowed
(9.3). He must then draw additional chits to reach his
declared maximum.

Examination. As each chit is drawn, he checks to see
if the situation on either side of the chit applies to the
combat. If so, the chit is retained for step 5. If not, the
chit is set aside (but still counts as a chit draw).
9.1 Attack Eligibility
The attacker may attack only one hex at a time in a single
combat. Any number of active units in any hexes adjacent
to the target hex may participate in the attack. Units are not
required to attack. Some units in a stack may participate
while others do not. Inactive units may not attack, even
if stacked with active units, unless allowed by the play of
the Reinforce Battle or Assault Coordination combat tactic
card.
A unit may participate in only one attack in a given
activation. A defending unit may only be attacked once in
a given activation (however, see 9.74).
Units that are dispersed, out of supply, or isolated may
not attack. German mechanized units that are out of fuel
(10.41) may not attack.
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25
played. Combat tactics benefit any supplied units on the
player’s side, regardless of the formation and army listed
on the card.
9.22 COMBAT TACTIC WILD CARDS: Both players’
Army and Army Group cards may be played as any
combat tactic available to the player’s nationality, whether
attacking or defending. The player chooses a combat tactic
from the list of tactics and declares its use when he plays
an army or army group card as a combat tactic.
9.23 ALLIED ARMY & ARMY GROUP ACTIVATION
COMBAT BONUSES: All attacks conducted by Allied
2P RULES
Illustration of Attack Eligibility [9.1]: This illustration
applies to both players.

A: The attacker may attack only one hex at a time.

B: Units are not required to attack.

C: A unit may attack while another unit stacked with it
attacks a different hex or not at all.

D: A unit may participate in only one attack in an
activation.

E: Inactive units may not attack unless allowed by a
combat tactic.

F: A defending unit may only be attacked once in an
activation and a unit that is dispersed or unsupplied may
not attack.
units activated by an army or Army group command card
benefit from one bonus combat tactic wild card. Every
attack receives the bonus, and the Allied player may assign
each a different combat tactic. This is in addition to any
combat tactic cards the Allied player chooses to play in
support of a specific attack.
A
B
9.24 VON DER HEYDTE: Combat tactics may not be
F
played to support the German von der Heydte unit, even if
in supply. See the details for the von der Heydte command
event described on the EVENTS & TACTICS player aid.
C
9.3 Drawing Combat Chits
D
MINIMUM DRAW: The attacker in a combat draws
combat chits blindly from the combat chit cup one at a
time. The required minimum number of draws equals the
number of steps in the defending units, regardless of any
combat tactics played or other factors.
E
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
Example: Each attack conducted by units activated by
the 1st Army command card benefit from one combat
tactic of the Allied player’s choice and the maximum
combat chit draws available to each attack is increased
by one.
Example: If a hex under attack contains a two-step
unit and a one-step unit, the attacker must draw three
combat chits.
9.2 Combat Tactics
After declaring a combat, the attacker then the defender
has the opportunity to play cards from their hand as combat
tactics, as long as at least one of the player’s units involved
in the combat is in supply and not dispersed.
BENEFITS: Each combat tactic provides a specific benefit
described on the EVENTS & TACTICS player aid. In addition,
each combat tactic played by the attacker allows him to
draw an additional combat chit (9.3), even if that tactic
provides no tangible benefit.
9.21 APPLIES TO ONE COMBAT: A card played as a
combat tactic applies only to the combat for which it is
OPTION TO CONTINUE: Once the attacker has drawn the
minimum number of combat chits required, he may choose
to stop there or to draw any number of additional chits,
up to a total equal to the maximum allowed. The attacker
must choose the total number he will draw prior to drawing
any additional chits. Once he has decided, he draws that
number of chits and only that number of chits.
MAXIMUM DRAW: The maximum equals the number of
attacking units (not steps) with non-bracketed combat
strength, with the following modifications:
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2P RULES
26
+1 chit for every combat tactic played by the attacker.
+1 chit if the attacking units include one or more elite units.
+1 chit for each attacking unit with three or four steps.
+1 chit if the defender is out of supply.
+2 chits if the defender is isolated.
-2 chits if the Allied defender played the Screen combat
tactic.
Illustration of Combat Chit Draw [9.3]: Five German
units are attacking an Allied unit with two steps. One of
the five units has bracketed combat strength. The German
player played two combat tactics and one attacking unit
is elite. A minimum of two chits must be drawn and a
maximum of seven chits may be drawn. After drawing
and inspecting the first two chits, the German player must
declare that he is drawing zero to five more chits. Once
declared, he must draw that number and abide by the results
of the drawn chits.
Minimum Draw: 2
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
▪ 2 steps defending
Maximum Draw: 7
▪ 4 units non-bracketed
combat strength
▪ 1 elite unit
▪ 2 combat tactics played
9.4 Combat Chit Situations
As the attacker draws combat chits, the players check the
situation listed on the front and back of each chit.

EITHER: If either situation applies to the combat, the
chit is retained with the applicable side up, for both
players to see.

BOTH: In some cases, both situations on the chit may
apply. If so, use the side with priority, indicated by a P
symbol.

NEITHER: If neither situation applies, set the chit aside;
it is not returned to the cup and still counts as a chit draw.
Combat chits list the following situations:
Combat Ratios are a comparison of the attacker’s combat
strength to the defender’s combat strength. To determine
if a combat ratio situation applies, add up the strength of
all attacking units and all defending units and compare
the two. The attacker’s strength is given first in the ratio.
Include bracketed combat strengths in the calculation.
Examples:
> 3:1
The attack strength is at least three times the
defense strength e.g. 9:3
> 1:1 The attack strength is greater than the
defense strength e.g. 5:4
< 2:1
The attack strength is less than two times the
defense strength e.g. 5:3
> 8:1
The attack strength is at least eight times the
defense strength e.g. 16:2
< 1.5:1 The attack strength is less than one and a
half times the defense strength e.g. 7:5
Terrain affects the calculation of combat ratios in the
following situations:
•The strength of units defending in a city hex is doubled.
•The strength of German units defending in a Westwall
hex is doubled.
•The total strength of units attacking across a river hexside
is halved; round down any fractions to the nearest whole
number.
Example: If two units with a total strength of seven
are attacking across a river, their strength is halved and
rounded down to three.
MANDATORY MINIMUM: If the calculated chit draw max-
imum is equal to or less than the required minimum draw,
the attacker draws just the required minimum number of
combat chits. Never draw less than the required minimum.
Terrain such as clear, broken, woods, forest, town or
city applies if the defending units occupy a hex with one
or more of the terrain features listed on the combat chit.
Both natural terrain (clear, broken, woods, forest) and built
terrain (town or city) can apply in a combat situation.
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27
Example: An attack on Trois Ponts (hex 0812) gives
the defending unit(s) the benefit of both town and forest
terrain. If the attacker draws a combat chit that lists
either or both terrain features, the effect still applies
only once for that particular combat chit (9.5).
Allied or German Airpower applies if the attacker or
defender has played the corresponding combat tactic card.
Attacker or Defender Artillery applies if the attacker or
defender has played the corresponding combat tactic card.
Attacker or Defender Elite applies if any attacking or
defending units are elite.
Attacker or Defender Green applies if any attacking or
defending units are green.
Illustration of Flank Attack Situations [9.4]:

A: Unit A is flanked because enemy units are attacking it
from three hexes.

B: Unit B is not flanked because only one enemy unit is
adjacent to it.

C: Even though three enemy units are adjacent to Unit C,
it is not flanked because it is in a town.

D: Unit D is flanked because it is adjacent to two enemy
units which are not adjacent to each other.
Dispersed or Unsupplied applies if all defending units are
dispersed, in low supply, out of supply, isolated or out of
fuel.
Flank Attack applies if the attacking units occupy at least
three hexes or occupy two hexes not adjacent to each
other; or if a German attack is supported by the Infantry
Infiltration combat tactic. Flank Attack does not apply if
the defender is in a town or city.
Large Attack applies to any attack in which at least seven
combat chits are drawn.
Allied Attack applies to any attack by Allied units.
5 PZ Army Attack applies to a German attack in which
at least half the attacking units are in the 5th Panzer Army.
IP Crossfire applies if the defender occupies an Improved
Position.
One-Hex Attack applies if all the attacking units are in a
single hex. This situation is negated if a German attack is
supported by the Infantry Infiltration combat tactic.
Only Attacker or Defender Armor applies if only one
side has an armor unit in the combat. The Tank Battalion
or Panzer Battalion combat tactic card fulfills this
requirement.
Only Attacker or Defender Combined Arms applies if
only one side has both armor plus infantry or mechanized
infantry unit types in the combat. All units with both
armor and mechanized infantry symbols possess combined
arms on their own. The Tank Battalion or Panzer Battalion
combat tactic card fulfills the armor part of this requirement.
A
B
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
Combat Engineers applies if the attacker (only) played
the Combat Engineers combat tactic.
Defender Recon applies if the Allied units defending
against a German attack include a recon unit type.
2P RULES
Dec 16 or Dec 17 applies if the attack occurs on the listed
date.
Defender Adjacent applies if the defender is adjacent to a
non-dispersed unit in supply and friendly to the defender,
and which has not yet been attacked in the current impulse.
Combined Arms?
NO
YES
YES
NO
C
D
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2P RULES
9.41 REPLENISHING THE COMBAT CHIT CUP: Once
drawn, combat chits are kept out of the cup. After
resolving a combat, place the drawn combat chits to the
side with any previously drawn chits until replenishment
occurs. Replenishment is triggered when a blue combat
chit is drawn. Upon drawing a blue combat chit, return all
drawn chits from previous combats to the cup and resume
drawing chits for the current combat. Retain chits drawn
for the current combat, including the blue chit. The combat
chit cup is also replenished at the end of the day; return all
chits to the cup at that time.
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
9.5 Combat Hits
After drawing combat chits and determining which ones
apply to the combat situation, the players calculate the total
hits incurred by the attacking and defending units. Each
combat chit lists an A (for attacker) or D (for defender)
followed by a numerical hit result, for example A1 or D2.
Some chits list hit results for both the attacker and defender,
such as A1 D1. Some chits list a hit result subtraction,
such as D-1. Still other chits list G for German or U for
US/Allied followed by a hit number; these apply to units of
that nationality, whether attacking or defending.
Illustration of Combat Hits [9.5]:
These three chits total A2 D2; two hits to the attacker
and two to the defender.
Calculate the hits (add and subtract as necessary) on all the
chits for the defender and attacker to arrive at a hit total for
each side.
HIT TOTAL ADJUSTMENTS: The hit total is adjusted in the
following situations:
•If the defender occupies a town, city or improved
position, or Westwall hex in case of German defenders,
the total number of defender hits is reduced by one. The
IP marker is removed upon conferring this reduction.
•If all defending units are any combination of dispersed,
out of supply or out of fuel, the total number of attacker
hits is reduced by one.
•If all defending units are isolated, all attacker hits are
ignored.
HIT TOTAL LESS THAN 0: A hit total less than 0 (due to
subtractions) is treated as 0.
PROCESSING HITS: After calculating each side’s hit totals,
the defender applies defender hits to his units, then the
attacker applies attacker hits to his units. Apply each hit
by removing a step from a unit participating in the combat
or by retreating or dispersing all participating units, within
the following restrictions:
•The defender may retreat his units one hex to satisfy
one hit, or retreat two hexes and disperse all defending
units to satisfy two hits. All other defender hits must be
satisfied by step losses.
•The attacker must apply his first hit as a step loss. He
may satisfy up to two additional hits by dispersing all his
attacking units. All other attacker hits must be satisfied
by step losses.
•A player is never required to retreat or disperse his units.
He may choose to apply all hits as step losses, even if this
results in the elimination of the units.
These five chits total A1 D2; although
the chits show four defender hits,
the two D-1 results reduce the total
defender hits to two. If the attacker had
stopped drawing with the fourth chit in
the sequence, the result would be A1 D3.
If the German player is attacking, these four chits total
A1 D3; if the German player is defending, these chits
total A0 D4.
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Example: Five German units have attacked two Allied
units, with one step and two steps respectively, resulting
in 3 hits against the defender and 2 hits against the
attacker.
A combat hit assigned as a step loss is applied to one unit
that participated in the combat, chosen by the owning
player. To apply a step loss, flip the unit from its full
strength side to its reduced strength side, or replace the unit
with its replacement counter (marked R), showing one less
step dot. A one-step unit assigned a step loss is eliminated.
Step
Loss
retreat into any hex regardless of terrain. However, retreat
is allowed across an unbridged river or into a forest hex not
via road only if no other hex is available in that priority.
9.71 RESTRICTED HEXES: A unit may not retreat into an
9.6 Applying Step Losses
Step
Loss
MORE THAN ONE CHOICE: Within any of these priorities,
Step
Loss
unoccupied enemy town or city. An Allied unit may not
retreat into a Westwall hex unless occupied by an Allied
unit.
9.72 AVOID ELIMINATION: If following the above retreat
priorities would result in a unit’s elimination when another
valid retreat route of lesser priority would not, the lesser
priority route may be taken.
9.73 STAY TOGETHER: When more than one unit in a hex
is retreating, all retreating units must retreat together and
end in the same hex.
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
Next, the German player must apply the first hit to one
of the attacking units. Now he has two options: (1) if he
disperses all his attacking units, he can satisfy the one
remaining hit – only up to two hits after the first hit can
be satisfied this way; or (2) he applies the second hit to
another one of his attacking units (now satisfying both
hits as step losses) – if the defender retreated, then his
attacking units may advance.
1. Into a hex not in enemy control. If none available…
2. Into a hex in enemy control, occupied by a friendly
supplied unit. If none available …
3. Into an unoccupied hex in enemy control and in
friendly supply. This retreat requires the removal of
a step from one of the retreating units. The step loss
does not count toward satisfying a combat hit.
4. Into an unoccupied hex in enemy control and not in
friendly supply or into a hex in enemy control and
occupied only by friendly unsupplied units. This
retreat requires a step loss, as in Priority 3.
2P RULES
The defender must process hits first. The Allied player
has three options: (1) apply all hits to the defending
units resulting in their elimination; (2) satisfy one hit
by retreating one hex but then apply the other two hits
as step losses resulting in the elimination of one of the
two Allied units; or (3) satisfy two hits by retreating two
hexes, dispersing all his defending units, and finally
applying the remaining hit as a step loss to the stronger
unit – this enables German advance but preserves both
units to fight again.
RETREAT PRIORITIES: Units are retreated by the defending
player, by moving the units one hex away from the hex
they occupied during combat, observing stacking limits
at the completion of the retreat, in the following priority
order:
9.74 ALREADY RETREATED UNITS: If a unit ends its
9.61 ASSIGN STEP LOSSES EVENLY: If the player is
assigning more than one step loss to units in a given
combat, no unit may be assigned a second step loss until
all participating units have been assigned one step loss.
Furthermore, when the attacker is assigning step losses to
units that attacked from multiple hexes, units in a given hex
may not be assigned a second step loss until one step loss
has been assigned to every hex containing attacking units.
9.7 Retreats
The defender in a combat may satisfy one hit by retreating
all defending units one hex, or two hits by retreating and
dispersing all defending units two hexes. The attacker
may not retreat. Exception: The German VDH parachute
infantry unit and out of fuel units may not retreat at all.
retreat in a hex occupied by a friendly unit, and that friendly
unit is subsequently attacked in the same activation, the
retreated unit contributes nothing to the defense in the
attack, its steps are not counted in determining combat chit
draws, and its steps may not be removed to satisfy step
losses. If the defending unit retreats or is eliminated by the
attack, the previously retreated unit is eliminated.
9.75 TWO-HEX RETREAT: The defender may retreat
undispersed units two hexes to satisfy a second combat hit.
When he does so, the retreating units become dispersed.
A unit retreating two hexes may retreat through friendly
units, even in excess of the stacking limit. A two-hex
retreat must end two hexes away from the combat hex.
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Illustration of Retreats [9.7]: Since combats are resolved one at a time, the order of resolution will affect the retreat priorities
available. Each of the attacking Allied units in this illustration will advance one hex in the direction of the attack arrow (the triangle
symbol shows how many defender hits have to be processed by the defending unit). Hits satisfied by retreat and/or dispersal are
noted by green checkmark symbols. Hits incurred are noted by red “x” symbols.
2P RULES
A: This unit incurs one hit in combat and can satisfy that hit by retreating one hex. Using retreat priority 1, its only choice is to
retreat directly across the unbridged river hexside to the woods hex.
B: This unit incurs two hits in combat and can satisfy both of them by retreating two hexes and becoming dispersed. It uses
retreat priority 1 to retreat across the bridge. For the second hex, retreat priority 1 allows retreat into the clear or woods hex,
the unit chooses the woods hex.
C: Two two-step units incur one hit in combat. If both units hold position, one step loss is taken. If a one-hex retreat is attempted,
both units must retreat together and end up in the same hex together. They cannot use retreat priority 1 to enter hex 1220 or hex
1420 because those hexes are now
in enemy ZOC. Nor may the units
enter hex 1320 because the overall
number of steps in the hex (seven
steps for three units) would exceed
the stacking limit. Therefore, the
two retreating units must now
use retreat priority 3, losing an
extra step for retreating into an
C
enemy ZOC. In the end, the two
1
C
units retreat one hex to hex 1220,
satisfying the original hit, and then
one of them incurs a step loss for
using retreat priority 3.
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
P
O
P
P
D: This unit is a two-step unit and
it incurs two hits in combat. Note
that the unit which attacked unit A
has advanced and now occupies
the hex formally occupied by
unit A (blocking one retreat path
option). Normally, unit D must
use retreat priority 3 and with
more than one choice must first
enter the broken hex instead of
the forest hex. However, if it
follows this path (broken hex then
woods hex), it will have satisfied
the original two hits from the
combat, but will be forced to take
two additional step losses, one for
each hex using retreat priority 3 –
thereby being eliminated. In this
case, the alternate path (forest hex
then woods hex occupied by the
retreated unit A), only incurs one
additional step loss penalty. In the
end, unit D satisfies two hits by
using a two-hex retreat, suffers
only one penalty step loss when
it passes through the forest hex
adjacent to an enemy ZOC, and
survives as a dispersed unit.
B
2
P
1
A
P
O
D
2
P
O
O
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9.8 Advance after Combat
9.9 Dispersal
A unit becomes dispersed in the following situations:

The unit is defending in combat and retreats two hexes.

The unit is attacking and becomes dispersed to satisfy
combat hits.
2P RULES
If the defender vacates the hex under attack, by retreat or
elimination, the attacking player may advance any and all
undispersed attacking units into the hex, within stacking
limits. This advance may be made regardless of the
presence of enemy zones of control. Refer to illustrations
of Advance after Combat on the following page.
9.81 TWO-HEX ADVANCE: If the defending units retreat
two hexes or are eliminated, the attacking player may
advance any and all of his attacking mechanized units two
hexes, as long as stacking limits are met when the advances
are completed.
9.82 ADVANCING ACROSS RIVERS: This depends on
whether the river has a bridge or not (12.2).
BRIDGED HEXSIDE: Any number of attacking units may
advance across bridged river hexsides. A unit advancing
across a bridged river hexside may advance two hexes,
if otherwise allowed. However, no more than one unit
may advance across a given bridged river hexside into an
enemy-controlled hex in a single combat, even if the hex is
friendly occupied.
A dispersed unit:

does not exert control;

may not move, attack or build an improved position;

may not advance after combat.
A dispersed unit and any units stacked with it:

may retreat only one hex if attacked.
If all units defending in a combat start the combat dispersed:

the attacker subtracts one hit from his hits incurred;

the defender may not be the recipient of combat tactics.
REMOVAL: A dispersed unit becomes undispersed as
follows:

The unit is activated. After all other units in the activated
formation have completed their actions, the unit’s
Dispersed marker is removed. An attacking unit that
becomes dispersed does not become undispersed at the
end of the same activation.

An attacking unit that becomes dispersed does not
become undispersed at the end of the same activation.

All Dispersed markers are removed at the end of the day.
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES

The first hex entered in the advance must be the attacked
hex.

The second hex entered in the advance may be any hex
adjacent to the attacked hex. However, when deviating
from the path of retreat, the advancing unit may not move
directly from one enemy-controlled hex to another, may
not cross an unbridged river and may not enter a forest
hex unless entering along a road.

When more than one unit is advancing two hexes, they
may advance into different hexes.
EFFECTS: Place a Dispersed marker on the unit.
UNBRIDGED HEXSIDE: A unit may only advance across
an unbridged river hexside if it attacked across that hexside
or is following the path of retreat. A unit advancing across
an unbridged river hexside must stop in the hex across the
river, even if the unit is mechanized and has advanced only
one hex. Furthermore, only one unit may advance across a
given unbridged river hexside in a single combat.
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ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
2P RULES
Illustration of
Advance after Combat (1) [9.8]:
A: The defending unit retreated two
hexes, allowing the mechanized and
infantry unit to both advance into the
vacated hex. The mechanized unit can
advance a second hex and does not have
to follow the retreat path and has three
options. Note that it can enter hex 1509
because it is not moving directly from
one enemy ZOC to a second enemy
ZOC (otherwise, that option for advance
would be prohibited).
[X]
.
C
B: The defending unit retreated two
hexes, allowing both mechanized
units to advance across the bridge into
the vacated hex. Since an adjacent
defending unit does not have a ZOC,
both can advance a second hex. If any
of the attacking units advance a second
hex, none can enter a forest hex (unless
by a road).
X
X
5
5
B
[X]
C: The defending unit retreated one
hex, but since an enemy unit still exerts
a ZOC into the just vacated hex, only
one attacking unit can advance across
the bridge.
.
A
X
X
3
5
Illustration of
Advance after Combat (2) [9.8]:

D: Although the defending unit retreated
two hexes, only one attacking unit can
cross the unbridged hexside into the just
vacated hex and that unit must stop.
D

E: Since only one unit can advance
across an unbridged hexside, the
attacker decided to split his force into
two separate combats (both resulting in
very unlikely but possible retreats by
the defender) to gain the advantage of
moving both attacking units across the
river (across two different hexsides).
E
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Additional supply requirements apply to the Two Player
game:
Units and hexes are considered to be in supply or
unsupplied. A unit must be in supply in order to function at
full effectiveness. A unit becomes unsupplied if it cannot
trace a supply line during the Supply Phase.

In order to release the OKW Reserve a German unit
must be adjacent to or across the Meuse River in a hex in
German supply during the Reserve Phase (11.4).

In order to play the “Activate any one Unit” command
(6.3) the unit must be in a hex in supply.

To place an Allied Roadblock marker, the hex must be in
Allied supply.
SUPPLY PHASE 17+ : All units start the game in supply.
Starting December 17, the Supply Phase is conducted each
day.
FRIENDLY MAP EDGES: For purposes of tracing supply
lines, the following map edges are friendly as follows:

German-friendly: the east map edge plus those portions
of both the north and south map edges that contain or are
east of a Westwall hex.

Allied-friendly: the west map edge plus those portions
of both the north and south map edges that are west of a
Westwall hex.
SUPPLY FOR HEXES: Supply for a hex is determined at
the moment any one of the following functions is to be
performed in the hex:

In order for Allied Engineers to destroy a bridge, at least
one hex bordering the bridge hexside must be in Allied
supply.

In order for German Bridge Engineers or Allied Engineers
to repair or build a bridge across a given river hexside, at
least one hex bordering that hexside must be in friendly
supply.

To place a reserve unit in a hex, the hex must be a friendly
supply head.

To assign replacements to a unit, the unit must be in
supply and able to trace supply from its hex.

To earn Victory Points for a German unit west of the
Meuse River, the unit’s hex must be in German supply
during the End of Day Phase.
SUPPLY PATH CONSIDERATIONS: A unit or hex is in
supply if a path of no more than four hexes can be traced
from the unit or hex to a hex on a friendly map edge or to
a road hex that is a valid supply head.

First, the hex for which supply is being traced may be in
an enemy ZOC.

From there, the four-hex path may not pass through
enemy town or city hexes, across enemy bridges, or
through hexes occupied by enemy units.

The path may be traced through a hex in an enemy ZOC
only if occupied by a friendly unit.

The path may be traced through a hex adjacent to an
enemy unit that does not exert a ZOC.

If the path crosses an unbridged river hexside, its allowed
length is shortened to one hex; that is, the unbridged river
hexside must border the unit’s hex and a valid supply
head must be in an adjacent hex across the river in order
for the unit to be in supply.
SUPPLY HEAD CONSIDERATIONS: A road hex is a valid
supply head if a path of connected road hexes can be
traced from the hex to a hex on a friendly map edge with a
road leading off the map.
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
SUPPLY FOR UNITS: Supply for all units in play is
determined during the Supply Phase of the day. Supply
determinations made for units in the Supply Phase apply
throughout the day. Exception: Allied Air Resupply (10.3).
10.1 Tracing Supply
2P RULES
10. SUPPLY

The road path may be of any length but may not pass
through enemy town or city hexes, across enemy bridges
or through hexes occupied by enemy units.

The road path may be traced through a hex in an enemy
ZOC only if occupied by a friendly unit.

The road path may be traced through a hex adjacent to an
enemy unit that does not exert control.
10.11 SUPPLY AT MAP EDGE: A unit in a hex along a
friendly map edge is always in supply.
10.12 GERMAN INITIAL SUPPLY 16-18 : All German
units are in supply throughout December 16, 17 and 18,
regardless of their situation. Exception: See the von der
Heydte command event.
10.13 SUPPLY AND WESTWALL: Allied supply may not
be traced through a Westwall hex unless occupied by an
Allied unit.
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Illustration of Tracing Supply [10.1]: Hexes marked with a green check symbol are valid supply head hexes, whereas those
marked witha red "x" symbol are not.

A: In Supply: this unit’s path exits an enemy ZOC and reaches a supply head in two hexes.

B: In Supply: this unit’s path exits an enemy ZOC into a hex adjacent to an enemy unit that does not project a ZOC (bracketed
combat strength) and reaches a supply head in two hexes.

C: In Supply: this unit’s path exits an enemy ZOC and immediately enters a friendly-occupied hex in an enemy ZOC followed by
a hex adjacent to an enemy unit that does not project a ZOC (bracketed combat strength) and reaches a supply head in three hexes.

D: Out of Supply: this unit’s supply path directly across an unbridged river hexside is only one hex; the hex the path enters is
not a supply head (it is one hex short of the road).

E: In Supply: this unit’s supply path directly across an unbridged river hexside is only one hex but the unoccupied hex the path
enters has a road and due to lack of enemy ZOC is a supply head.

F: Out of Supply: although the unit’s path gains the advantage of directly entering a friendly-occupied hex, its path did not start
immediately adjacent to an unbridged river hexside.

G: Out of Supply: this unit cannot trace a valid path to a supply head: it is within four hexes of Houffalize by two different
routes, but neither path is valid for unit G due to the presence of enemy ZOCs.
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
2P RULES
34
P
A
P
P
B
P
[X]
O
.
O
P
O
C
E
D
[X]
F
.
G
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10.2 Effects of Unsupply
A unit that cannot trace supply during the Supply Phase
enters one of three successive states of unsupply: low
supply, out of supply (OOS) or isolated. A unit in any of
these three states is considered unsupplied.
supply before the current Supply Phase
receives a Low Supply marker. A unit in low
supply operates normally, except for the
following:
UNIT TYPE

No combat tactic may be played in the
unit’s support. If the combat includes other
friendly units in supply, combat tactics may
be played on their behalf.

The unit may not exit the map.
SURRENDER
RESULT
Green
Regular
Elite
10.22 OUT OF SUPPLY: An unsupplied unit already in a

If mechanized, the unit may move only one
hex.

The unit may not build an IP, but may retain
one previously placed.

The unit may not attack.

Out of supply only: If attacked, the enemy attackers
may draw one extra combat chit and may disregard one
attacker hit.
10.23 ISOLATED: An unsupplied unit already out of supply
during the Supply Phase receives an Isolated
marker. An isolated unit suffers all the
effects of being out of supply, plus the
following:

The unit does not exert a ZOC, even if in a
town or city.

An infantry unit may move only one hex,
and if attacked may retreat only one hex.

A mechanized unit may not move or retreat.

The unit may not exit an enemy ZOC.

The unit may not enter an enemy town or city, and may
not cross an enemy bridge.

The unit does not affect the placement of enemy reserve
units (except in its own hex).

Isolated only: If attacked, the enemy attackers may draw
two extra combat chits and disregard all attacker hits on
all chit draws.

An isolated Allied unit may not enter an unoccupied
Westwall hex.
1-6
1-4
1-2
10.3 Allied Air Resupply
The Allied player may play an Airpower command event
as his card play for his impulse to place an unsupplied
Allied unit or stack of his choice in supply. When he does
so, the stack immediately returns to supply; remove the
Low Supply, Out of Supply or Isolated marker from the
stack. During the next Supply Phase, the unit will again be
subject to a normal supply check.
10.4 German Fuel Shortages 20+
Beginning on December 20, German mechanized units are
subject to fuel shortages. During the Supply Phase each
day and each time he replenishes his hand, the German
player must check all the division cards in his hand to see if
any of the listed formations lack fuel on the current date. If
so, the German player must place Out of Fuel markers on
all units of the formation, and must then discard the card,
without drawing another.
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
state of low supply during the Supply Phase
(from a previous day) receives an Out of
Supply marker. An out of supply unit suffers
the effects of low supply, plus the following:
2P RULES
10.21 LOW SUPPLY: An unsupplied unit that was in
10.24 SURRENDER: An unsupplied unit already isolated
during the Supply Phase continues to suffer all the effects
of being isolated. In addition the owning player must roll
the die and check for surrender of the isolated unit. If the
die result falls into the die roll range for the unit quality, the
owning player must remove one step from the unit. If this
was the last step, remove the unit from the map and place it
in the Eliminated Units box. Check surrender for each unit
in an isolated stack separately.
Example: On December 23, the German player draws
into his hand the command card for the 1st SS and 12th
SS Panzer Divisions, indicating no fuel for the 1st SS
on December 22 and 26, and no fuel for the 12th SS
on December 23 and 29. Since it is December 23, the
12th SS Panzer Division has no fuel. He places Out of
Fuel markers on the three units of the 12th SS Panzer
Division (if in play) and then discards the command
card.
The German player may prevent a formation from being
out of fuel by playing the Fuel Priority command event
(see the event descriptions) or by spending a Fuel marker
(10.42). If he spends a Fuel marker, the card is not
discarded.
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10.41 EFFECTS OF NO FUEL: An out of fuel unit suffers
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
2P RULES
the following effects:

The unit may not move, retreat or advance
after combat.

The unit may not attack.

If the unit is attacked, the enemy attackers
may disregard one attacker hit.
The effects of being out of fuel last throughout the day
incurred. Out of Fuel markers are removed during the
End of Day Phase. The effects of being out of fuel are
cumulative with the effects of being in Low Supply or Out
of Supply. An isolated unit may not also be out of fuel,
however, if its division card indicates the unit’s division is
out of fuel, the card is still discarded.
10.42 FUEL DEPOTS: Five Fuel Depot markers are placed
on the map at the start of play. Two of these say NO on
their hidden side (just a rumor of fuel) and three say YES
(available fuel). When a German unit enters a hex with a
Fuel Depot marker, the German player reveals the hidden
side. If NO, he discards it. If YES, he removes the marker
from the map and keeps it.

Play a Division card to deploy reserve units in all
formations listed on the card. Alternatively, he may
deploy any one unit in the same corps as the formations
on the card.

Play a Corps, Army or Army Group card to deploy all
reserve units in the corps, army or army group listed on
the card.
STANDARD RESERVE DEPLOYMENT: To deploy reserve
units, the player places them in hexes of his choice on the
map within all the following restrictions:

In the unit’s operational area: if Allied, in the unit’s corps
area; if German, in the unit’s army area.

In a road hex that is a valid friendly supply head (10.1).

At least three hexes away from an enemy unit or enemy
town or city, excluding isolated enemy units. This
distance is reduced to two hexes if placing the unit in a
map-edge hex.
Within these restrictions, place the unit within three hexes
of a unit in the same division. If this is not possible or no
units of the division are on the map, then place the unit
within three hexes of a unit in the same corps. If this is not
possible then place the unit within three hexes of a unit in
the same army.
ALTERNATE ALLIED STRATEGIC RESERVE DEPLOYMENT:
USE OF FUEL DEPOTS: If the German player possesses a
fuel depot when he draws a card indicating a formation is
out of fuel, he may spend (discard) the fuel depot to ignore
the out of fuel effects – he gets to keep the card and does
not place Out of Fuel markers on the units.
11. RESERVES
Reserves are units that have not yet entered play. During
the reserve phase of each day, each player places newly
arriving reserve units (those marked with the current date)
in his Reserve Units box. Units in the Reserve Units boxes
are deployed onto the game map by the play of a card, or
after two days have passed since their scheduled day of
arrival.
An Allied reserve unit with a printed entry date marked
with an S or whose printed entry date is earlier than the
current date is considered an Allied strategic reserve. Such
a unit may be deployed by the standard method described
above or may alternately be placed in any valid friendly
supply head road hex in the unit’s corps area, and at least
five hexes away from all enemy units and enemy towns
and cities, excluding isolated German units. This distance
is reduced to two hexes if placing the unit in a map-edge
hex.
Illustrations of Reserve Deployment: On December 16,
five units start in the Allied Reserve Units box. The Allied
player has the following choices in deploying these units
shown in the following three illustrations.
Note that on December 17, any of these
units that are still in the Reserve Units box
may be entered via the standard method or
the alternate Allied strategic method.
11.1 Deploying Reserves
As his card play in his impulse, the active player may play
a card to deploy all the reserve units in the formations
listed on the card.
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Illustration A [11.1]: 4th Infantry Division (1 unit): Since a unit of the 4th Infantry Division is already in play (2403), the reserve
unit must be placed within 3 hexes of a 4th Division unit and at least 3 hexes away from an enemy unit (2 hexes away if in a map
edge hex), per the standard deployment method. The Allied player chooses to hold off deploying the other unit of the 4th Infantry
Division.
2P RULES
O
O
O
P
P
P
O
P
P
P
Illustration B [11.1]: The 1st Infantry Division reserve unit must be placed within 3 hexes of any unit in V Corps (and within the
V Corps boundary area), since no units of the 1st Infantry Division are on the map, per the standard deployment method.
O
O
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
O
P
P
P
O
P
P
P
P
P
O
O
P
P
O
P
O
O
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2P RULES
38
Illustration C [11.1]: 9th Armored Division (2 units): A unit of the 9th Armored Division is already
in play (2205). However, the reserve units are strategic reserves (“16S”). This gives the Allied
player a choice of placing them by the standard method (available deployment hexes marked with
light green check mark) or the alternate method (available deployment hexes marked with dark
green check mark and all road hexes to the west of those marks). Although strategic deployment
puts the deployed units farther from the line, there is greater flexibility in deployment choice). If
both reserve units enter with the same card play, they must be placed in the same hex.
P
P
O
O
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
O
P
O
Standard
Deployment
P
O
P
O
P
O
P
P
Strategic
Deployment
O
P
O
P
P
O
P
P
P
O
P
P
P
P
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11.2 Multi-Unit Deployments
Units from the same division entering as reserves in the
same impulse must be placed in the same hex.
Reserve units may be deployed in hexes with other friendly
units as long as stacking limits are observed.
When deploying reserve units from different divisions
in the same impulse, the player may deploy them in any
sequence. The moment a unit is placed it is considered in
play when determining where subsequent reserves may be
placed in the same impulse.
US AIRBORNE DIVISIONS: Three US airborne divisions
consist of four units each. When deploying all units of an
airborne division at the same time, place the four units in
two adjacent hexes, so as to avoid over-stacking. Both
hexes must be valid reserve placement hexes.
Illustration of Multi-Unit
Deployment [11.2]: If units
from different divisions in a
corps are being deployed, the
player may place the units of
one division within three hexes
of an on-map unit in the same
corps, and then place the units
from the other division within
three hexes of the just placed
division. If the Allied player
uses the V Corps card to deploy
the 26.1.V (1st Division) and
the 47.9.V (9th Division), and
places the 1st division unit
(A) into either hex marked
with light green check, then
he will be able to place the 9th
Division unit (B) into either
Spa or Stavelot (marked with
dark green check), thereby
extending the defensive line.
Example: A unit with the date December 16 would be
deployed during the Reserve Phase of December 18, if
still in the Reserve Units box.
11.4 German OKW Reserve
The German OKW Reserve, consisting of
eight units in three mechanized divisions,
is released to the German player during the
Reserve Phase if at least one German unit is
in a hex adjacent to or across (west or north of) the Meuse
River and able to trace supply at that time. When this first
occurs, move all units from the OKW Reserve box to the
calendar space for the next day.
During the Reserve Phase of the next day, move the OKW
Reserve units from the calendar to the Reserve Units
box and add the four OKW command cards to the cards
available to the German player, one to his draw pile and
three to his available supplemental cards.
11.41 DEPLOYING OKW UNITS: The OKW Reserve
is not attached to a specific army. Once in the German
Reserve Units box, all OKW units may be deployed by
play of the Army Group B card or the OKW Reserve Corps
card. OKW units may also be deployed by the play of
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
Example: If two divisions in a corps are being
deployed, you may place the units of one division
within three hexes of an on-map unit in the same corps,
and then place the second division within three hexes
of the just placed division.
During the Reserve Phase any units in each player’s
Reserve Units box with a printed date two days earlier than
the current date may be deployed to the map without a card
play, in accordance with the reserve placement rules.
2P RULES
Example: Three units of the 3rd Armored Division are
in the Reserve Units box. If all are deployed with the
same card play, they must all be placed in the same hex.
11.3 Delayed Reserves 18+
A
B
P
P
P
P
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ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
2P RULES
40
their respective division cards. The first OKW division to
be placed on the map must be placed in a road hex that
is a valid German supply head, within three hexes of any
German unit, and at least three hexes away from a nonisolated Allied unit or Allied town or city. Thereafter,
other OKW Reserve units must be placed within the above
restrictions within three hexes of an OKW unit on the map.
11.42 ACTIVATING OKW UNITS: Once on the map,
OKW units are all considered to be in one corps. They
may be activated as a corps by playing the Army Group
B card or the OKW Reserve corps card. OKW units may
also be activated by one of the three German army cards,
depending on the OKW units’ map location:

6th Panzer Army card -- If all on-map OKW units are
within the 6th Panzer Army boundary.

5th Panzer Army card – if at least one OKW unit occupies
a hex between the 6th Panzer Army boundary and the
7th Army boundary, or if OKW units occupy both army
boundaries.

7th Army card – if all on-map OKW units are within the
7th Army boundary.
12. TOWNS, CITIES, BRIDGES &
IMPROVED POSITIONS
12.1 Towns and Cities
DEFINITION & OWNERSHIP: Every town and city hex
is considered owned by the Allies or the Germans, even if
not occupied by a unit. At the start of play, all towns east
of the line of Westwall hexes are German, and all towns
and cities west of the Westwall are Allied. Ownership of a
town or city changes the moment an enemy unit enters the
hex. From that point forward, the town or city is owned by
the player whose unit last entered the hex, even if his units
subsequently leave the hex.
OKW units may be included in a Kampfgruppe activated
by any army or army group card, if within two hexes of
the KG marker. OKW units in a particular division may be
activated by playing the corresponding division card.
11.5 British XXX Corps
TOWN
The deployment of reserve
units of British XXX Corps
is governed by the following
special rules.
CITY
EFFECTS: An enemy town or city has the following effects:
11.51 DEPLOYMENT: If deploying reserve units from
British XXX Corps prior to a German unit entering a hex
west of the Meuse River, place each unit within these
special restrictions:

A unit may not retreat into an enemy town or city.

A unit conducting strategic movement may not enter an
enemy town or city.

Supply may not be traced through an enemy town or city.

A reserve unit must be placed at least three hexes away
from an enemy town or city.

In a road hex in Allied supply, west or north of the Meuse
River. Exception: The unit designated 29A.XXX may be
placed in Dinant (hex 1126).

If any units of XXX Corps are already on the map, then
within three hexes of a unit in the same division. If no
units of the division are on the map, then within three
hexes of a unit in XXX corps.

At least two hexes away from a German unit or German
town or city, excluding isolated German units.
Ownership of a town or city is not affected by being in an
enemy zone of control or by being out of friendly supply;
an enemy unit must actually enter the town or city to take
ownership.
Once a German unit enters a hex west of the Meuse River
(7.7), reserve units of XXX Corps are deployed as if in a
corps in the US 1st Army.
DEFINITION: Where a road depiction crosses a river
German and Allied Ownership markers are provided for
marking ownership. Players may use these at their option
to mark towns or cities where ownership is not obvious.
12.2 Bridges
hexside, this hexside is defined as a bridged river hexside.

A bridged river hexside that is not marked with a Blown
Bridge marker has an intact bridge, otherwise, if marked,
it has a blown bridge.
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Where no road depiction exists crossing a river hexside,
this hexside is defined as an unbridged river hexside.

A bridged river hexside marked with a Blown Bridge
marker is considered an unbridged river hexside.
CHANGE OF CONTROL: A bridge changes ownership (i)
when a non-owning unit crosses the bridge, or (ii) when a
non-owning unit begins its activation in a hex bordering
the bridge and no owning unit occupies the hex across the
bridge.

Supply may not be traced across an enemy bridge.

A unit moving via strategic movement may not cross an
enemy bridge.
12.21 DESTROYED BRIDGES: Four bridges start the game
destroyed (see the map’s terrain key), noted by a Blown
Bridge marker. You may destroy other bridges by playing
the Engineers command event. A blown bridge may be
repaired by the play of an Allied Engineers event or German
Bridge Engineers event, as long as the requirements in the
event description are met. When a blown bridge is repaired,
remove the Blown Bridge marker; the bridge and the road
crossing the bridge are now intact.
Controlled Bridge
Controlled New Bridge
12.23 CONNECTION BENEFITS: A new or repaired
bridge allows units to move across the hexside with no
river penalty and allows supply to be traced across the
river. A repaired bridge connects the roads leading to the
river hexside; a new bridge does not connect roads.
12.3 Improved Positions
DEFINITION: An improved position (IP)
is a defensive preparation that aids units
defending in combat.

When a unit with an IP marker is attacked,
the total number of hits incurred by the
defender is reduced by one.

An IP marker confers this benefit just once –
the marker is removed when the IP absorbs a hit.
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
When bridge ownership changes, place a German or Allied
Bridge Control marker in either hex adjoining the bridge.
If ownership of the bridge later reverts to the original
owner, remove the marker.
2P RULES
CONTROL AT START: Every bridge is Allied or German
owned. At the start of play the four destroyed bridges
listed in the Terrain Key (at hexes 1707, 1907, 2106 and
2303 going west across the Our River) and the three intact
bridges behind the German lines (at hexes 1802, 1903 and
2202 going west across the Prüm River) are German. All
other bridges are Allied.
side that built it) pointing toward the hexside crossed by
the bridge. If later destroyed, remove the Bridge Control
marker.
12.31 BUILDING IMPROVED POSITIONS: As noted in
the setup instructions, several Allied units start the game
with IP markers. In addition units of either side may gain
an IP marker during play in the following ways:
Blown Bridge
12.22 NEW BRIDGES: A new bridge may be built across
any river hexside by the play of an Allied Engineers
event or a German Bridge Engineers event as long as the
requirements in the event description are met. When a
new bridge is built, place a Bridge Control marker (for the

At the end of an impulse, the active player may place
an IP marker on each active unit that is in supply or low
supply that did not move or attack in the impulse.

The Allied player may play the Engineers command
event as his card play for his impulse to place an IP
marker on any one Allied unit in supply.

During a combat the defender may play the Engineers or
Combat Engineers combat tactic to place an IP marker
on his defending units.
Dispersed units may not build an IP (9.9).
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12.32 NOT IN TOWN OR CITY: An IP marker may not be
placed in a town or city hex, or in a hex that already has
an IP marker.
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
2P RULES
12.33 ADDITIONAL EFFECTS: If a unit moves into a
hex occupied by a friendly unit with an IP marker, the
arriving unit gains the benefit of the IP, even if the unit
originally in the hex moves out. IP markers do not count
against stacking limits. An IP marker may remain in a hex
indefinitely, as long as friendly units occupy the hex.
12.34 REMOVING IMPROVED POSITIONS: An IP
marker is removed in any of the following situations:

The hex with the IP marker is attacked and the defender
incurs at least one hit – the marker is removed after
reducing the number of defender hits by one, before
conducting retreats and advances. The IP marker is not
removed if the defender receives no hits.

The hex with the IP marker is attacked and the attacker
is supported by the Engineers combat tactic (if Allied) or
the Combat Engineers combat tactic (if German). The IP
marker is removed before resolving the combat, negating
its benefit to the defender.

All units in a hex with an IP marker participate in a combat
as attackers – the IP marker is immediately removed.

A unit moves out of a hex with an IP marker, leaving the
hex unoccupied. An IP marker is removed if abandoned;
it never moves with a unit.
Example: The Allied player plays the V Corps
command card to assign two replacement steps to units
in V Corps. He decides to flip a reduced unit of the
99th Division from its one-step side to its two-step side.
Then he flips a reduced 9th Division unit.
13.11 SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS: A unit must be in supply
and be able to trace supply at the moment replacements are
being assigned in order to receive replacements. The unit
receiving replacements may be in an enemy-controlled
hex, and may be dispersed.
13.12 ELITE REPLACEMENTS: A unit may only receive
an elite replacement step if there are no non-elite units in
the corps eligible to be assigned non-elite steps.
13.13 RESTRICTIONS: A given unit may be increased
by no more than one step via replacements in a single
impulse. Eliminated units may not be returned to play by
replacement assignment. Unused replacement steps are
lost if not assigned in the impulse received.
14. VICTORY CONDITIONS
Victory is determined by the number of Victory Points
(VPs) earned by the German player. The Allied player
does not earn VPs.
13. REPLACEMENTS
REPLACEMENTS START 20+ : Beginning on December
20, German and Allied units may receive replacements to
enable reduced units to regain steps.
Both players may play a Corps card during their impulse to
rebuild lost unit steps via replacements. Playing a card for
replacements counts as the card play for the impulse but is
not considered a unit activation.
13.1 Replacing Lost Steps
Each corps card lists a number of Replacement Points (RP),
which is the number of steps that may be replaced within
that corps per card play. Upon playing a corps command
card to assign replacements, the player assigns replacement
steps to units up to but not exceeding the number of
Replacement Points listed on the card. Replacement steps
are assigned by flipping a reduced unit over so that it gains
one step or by exchanging a reduced unit with its original
unit so that it gains one step. One replacement step is
expended for each step gained when doing so.
14.1 German Victory Points
The German player starts the game with no Victory Points.
As he gains and loses Victory Points, the German player
adjusts the VP markers on the VP track to show his current
total. Two markers, one for single VPs and one for VPs
x10, allows from 0 to 99 VPs to be recorded. The German
player gains and loses VPs for the following:
OWNING VP TOWNS & CITIES: Certain town and city
hexes on the map contain a VP value. The moment a
German unit enters a VP hex, the German player earns the
VPs listed. If an Allied unit subsequently enters the VP
hex, the German player loses the VPs.
CROSSING THE MEUSE RIVER: If a German unit occupies
a hex west of the Meuse River from which German supply
can be traced during the Victory Check (in the End of
Day Phase), the German player is awarded 10 VPs. Do
not place or adjust a Supply marker when making this
special check. These VPs are awarded just once per game
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43
regardless of how many units cross the Meuse River, and
once awarded cannot be lost.
14.3 Meanings of Victory Levels
GERMAN UNIT EXIT: German units in supply may exit
Offensive succeeds in smashing through the thin Allied
front. Disorganization and intelligence failures in SHAEF
result in piecemeal arrival of reserves, unable to stop the
onslaught of the 5th and 6th Panzer Armies. The Germans
pour across the Meuse River, driving toward Antwerp
in force, while destroying the fighting capability of four
US Corps and rendering the Western Allies incapable of
offensive operations for at least a year.
CONDITION
AWARD
Infantry unit exits east of
the Meuse River
1 VP per step
Mechanized unit exits east
of the Meuse River
2 VPs per step
Infantry unit exits west of
the Meuse River
1 VP per strength point
Mechanized unit exits west
of the Meuse River
2 VPs per strength point
GERMAN OPERATIONAL VICTORY: While the German
offensive lacks the depth to make a serious drive on Antwerp,
it holds the Meuse River and severs communication
between the US and British forces, decimating three US
Corps in the process. Allied command and supply is thrown
into disarray, delaying the western drive into Germany by
six months.
ALLIED UNITS ELIMINATED: The German player gains
1 VP for every two Allied units eliminated.
VON DER HEYDTE RELIEF: If a German unit enters the
hex occupied by the von der Heydte (VDH) airborne
infantry unit, the VDH unit is removed from the map and
the German player gains 1 VP.
ALLIED UNIT IN WESTWALL HEX 18+ : Starting with
the December 18 turn, the German player loses 5 VPs for
each Westwall hex that is owned by the Allies. He loses
these VPs the moment an Allied unit enters the hex and
regains the VPs if a German unit subsequently enters the
hex. Ownership markers may be used to show status.
The scenario instructions in Section 15 state when the
players conduct victory checks and the number of VPs that
result in an Allied or German victory, as well as the level
of victory achieved. Levels of victory may be compared to
the historical outcome (14.3).
Meuse River and deliver a serious blow to Allied forces
and morale before running out of steam. Two US Corps
are crippled, though at heavy cost to German armor.
Disorganized, Allied operations to reduce the bulge will
not get underway until late January, buying the Wehrmacht
a two-month respite in the west.
ALLIED
TACTICAL
VICTORY
(Historical
Result):
Overcoming their initial surprise and disorganization,
the Allies rally to stop the German offensive short of the
Meuse River. Three Allied divisions are shattered but the
Germans suffer much worse, as their offensive capabilities
and reserves in the west are depleted. Allied operations to
eliminate the bulge are underway in January, and broader
offensive plans resume in February. The war will end in
May 1945.
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
GERMAN TACTICAL VICTORY: The Germans reach the
14.2 Winning the Game
2P RULES
the map in accordance with the restrictions of 7.8. Exited
units gain the German player VPs at the moment of exit.
Once gained, VPs for exiting units may not be lost.
GERMAN STRATEGIC VICTORY: Hitler’s Ardennes
ALLIED OPERATIONAL VICTORY: Recovering quickly
from the German surprise attacks, the Allies counter
the offensive with an effective response. The Germans
cannot capitalize on isolated breakthroughs and manage to
create only a shallow bulge in the line, a bowl in which
their armored might is destroyed. The end of the war is
accelerated by one month.
ALLIED STRATEGIC VICTORY: After breaking the crust
of the thin Allied front line, the attacking Germans meet
a wall of rapidly arriving Allied reinforcements. With
Allied communication and logistics unaffected, a broad
counteroffensive against the depleted Wehrmacht destroys
the German reserves and rolls across the Rhein. The war
will end in March with the western Allies possibly reaching
Berlin before the Soviets.
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44
15. SCENARIOS
15.3 The German Breakout
GAME DURATION: Five or six days, December 16-21.
15.1 The Initial Assault
SETUP: Per Section 3 with the following adjustments:
2P RULES
GAME DURATION: One day, December 16.
SETUP: Per Section 3 with the following adjustments:

Do not set up Fuel Depot markers.

Place only those reserve units dated December 16 on the
calendar.

Use only those command cards dated December 16.

Skip rules for Replacements (13.0).
SPECIAL VP AWARDS: Each town initially held by the
Allies without a VP value is worth 1 VP in this scenario
only. In addition, all standard VP awards apply (14.1).
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
VICTORY CONDITIONS: The German player wins the
game immediately if a German unit enters a hex adjacent
to the Meuse River or exits the map per 7.8. If this does
not occur, determine the winner during the end of Day
Phase based on German VPs accrued:
GERMAN VPs
VICTORY LEVEL
8 or more VPs
German Tactical Victory
7 or fewer VPs
Allied Tactical Victory

Place only those reserve units dated December 16-21 on
the calendar.

Use only those command cards dated December 16-21.
VICTORY CONDITIONS: Check for victory during the End
of Day Phase on December 20 and 21, as described in the
15.4 Victory Conditions. However on December 21, use
the following VP values instead of those shown on the
calendar:
GERMAN VPs
VICTORY LEVEL
50 or more VPs
German Strategic Victory
43 – 49 VPs
German Operational Victory
36 – 42 VPs
German Tactical Victory
33 – 35 VPs
Draw
26 – 32 VPs
Allied Tactical Victory
21 – 25 VPs
Allied Operational Victory
20 or fewer VPs
Allied Strategic Victory
15.2 The Allies Surprised
15.4 The Battle of the Bulge
GAME DURATION: Three days, December 16-18.
GAME DURATION: Up to 14 days, December 16-29.
SETUP: Per Section 3 with the following adjustments:
SETUP: Per Section 3.

Do not set up Fuel Depot markers.

Place only those reserve units dated December 16, 17 and
18 on the calendar.

Use only those command cards dated December 16, 17
and 18.

Skip rules for Replacements (13.0).
VICTORY CONDITIONS: The game can end in a victory for
either player at the end of any day beginning December 20,
if the number of German VPs is sufficiently high or low.
VICTORY CONDITIONS: Determine the winner during the
End of Day Phase on December 18 based on German VPs
accrued:

If the number of VPs equals or exceeds the value listed
for a German victory, the game immediately ends in a
German victory of the level listed.

If the number of VPs is equal to or less than the value
listed for an Allied victory, the game ends in an Allied
victory of the level listed.

If the number of VPs falls between the two values, the
game continues.
GERMAN VPs
VICTORY LEVEL
26 or more VPs
German Operational Victory
18 – 25 VPs
German Tactical Victory
11 – 17 VPs
Allied Tactical Victory
10 or fewer VPs
Allied Operational Victory
At the end of each day, beginning December 20, the players
compare the current number of German VPs to the Victory
Levels shown for the current day on the calendar.
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15.5 Crisis at the Meuse
GAME DURATION: Up to seven days, December 22-28.
SETUP: Follow the setup instructions below for units,
markers and cards.
GERMAN UNITS
LXXXV Corps (6 units)
272-R 0205
326-R 0305
277-R, 8.3PG, 29.3PG 0604
II SS Panzer Corps (7 units)
9.9SS, 19.9SS, 20.9SS
2.2SS, 3.2SS
4.2SS
519
0612 – Low Supply
0705
0810
0911
0809
0808
0806
0909
1215
Eliminated
LIII Corps (3 units)
104.15PG, 115.15PG 1712
FuhGren 2010
LXXX Corps (5 units)
276-R
423.212
316.212-R
320.212
LXXX armor
2206
2404
2403
2503
2209
ALLIED UNITS
1010
1213
1312
1008
V Corps (11 units)
102 Cav
39.9
47.9, 9.2, 38.2-R
395.99-R
393.99, 23.2
16.1
18.1-R, 26.1
394.99
LXVI Corps (3 units)
18-R 1108
62-R 1207
244 1308
LVIII Panzer Corps (6 units)
16.116P
60.116P, 156.116P-R
560-R
LVIII armor
1129.560
2015
2215 – IP
2314
2213 – IP
2208
2007
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
14.5F
13.5F
15.5F-R
11-R
352-R
79
LXVII Corps (5 units)
I SS Panzer Corps (15 units)
Peiper.1SS-R
48.12, 2.12-R, 89.12-R
1.1SS
2.1SS
150-R
5.3F-R, 8.3F-R, 9.3F
12.12SS-R, 26.12SS-R, 25.12SS
501-R
506-R
VDH
1008
1417
1518
1517
1715
1813
1816
2014
2P RULES
UNITS IN HEX LOCATIONS: Place the following units in
the hexes indicated. Units marked “-R” start the scenario
reduced by one step. Hexes marked “-IP” start with an
improved position. Hexes marked “-Low Supply” are
marked with a Low Supply marker. Place units listed as
Eliminated in their respective Eliminated Units box.
XLVII Panzer Corps (11 units)
FuhBg
304.2P-R
3.2P-R
2.2P
39.26-R, 78.26
243-R, 77.26-R
130.Lehr, 902.Lehr-R
901.Lehr
1117
1116
1215
1316
1410
0306
0405
0506
0507
0606
0607
0707
Eliminated
XVIII Corps (12 units)
119.30
120.30
117.30
504.82
0512
0709
0711
0812
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MARKERS:
XVIII Corps continued
2P RULES
505.82
325.82, 508.82
CCA.7A
CCB.7A-R
CCR.7A
517
424.106-R
14 Cav, 422.106, 423.106
0912
1212 – IP
1111
1109
1311
0615
1208
Eliminated
CARDS: Set up the command cards as described in Rules
Section 3, Card Preparation. However add all cards dated
December 22 and earlier to the initial decks. Card displays
should have the following quantities:
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
VII Corps (7 units)
4 Cav
CCA.3A
CCB.3A
CCR.3A
333.84
334.84
335.84
0617
0816
0513
1017
1219
1218
0521
VIII Corps (7 units)
CCB.9A-R
CCA.9A-R
112.28
502.101, 327.101
501.101
506.101-R
CCR.9A, 109.28, 110.28
1208
2307
1309
1814 – Low Supply
1915 – IP, Low Supply
1815 – Low Supply
Eliminated
Primary
cards
Supplemental
cards
German
9
23
Allied
7
24
Reinforcement
cards
5
(including OKW)
3
SPECIAL RULES: The scenario starts after the Supply Phase
on December 22. The Allied side has already played
one airpower event during the Supply Phase to conduct
Interdiction, giving the Allies the first impulse of the day.
Place Allied command card 13 in the Allied discard pile.
Then draw only seven supplemental cards and shuffle them
together with the seven primary cards to form the Allied
draw pile. Then the Allied player draws his initial hand for
the day of seven cards.
After the German player draws his initial hand for the
day, the Allied player blindly draws two cards from the
German player’s hand and discards them, to complete the
air interdiction.
XII Corps (6 units)
CCA.10A-R
CCB.10A-R
CCR.10A-R
12.4
8.4
22.4

Roadblock markers: 1014, 2410, 2413

Blown Bridge markers: 1118, 1515, 0812 (two), 2107.
All other bridges on the map are intact / repaired.

German Ownership markers: The Germans own all
unoccupied towns and bridges behind their front lines
plus St. Hubert (1719).

German VPs: 11 (St. Vith, Ettelbruck, La Roche, St.
Hubert, 7 Eliminated Allied units).

Day marker: December 22.
2306
1815
2308
2505
2504
2603
The Allied player takes the first impulse.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR OTHER UNITS: Place the following
units as indicated.

Place the German OKW units in the OKW Reserve box.

Place all German and Allied units with an entry date of
December 22 in their respective Reserve Units boxes.
Place all other units on the calendar in their dates of
entry.
VICTORY CONDITIONS: The German player wins an
Operational Victory if, at the end of any day, he has 35 or
more VPs. The Allied player wins an Operational Victory
if, at the end of any day beginning December 24, the
German player has 15 or fewer VPs. If neither player has
won by December 28, use the following victory thresholds
at the end of that day:
GERMAN VPs
VICTORY LEVEL
25 or more VPs
German Tactical Victory
21 – 24 VPs
Draw
20 or fewer VPs
Allied Tactical Victory
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CREDITS
Developer: John A Foley
Game Graphics: Tim Schleif
Composition: Ken Dingley
Box Design: Brien Miller, Tim Schleif
Box Cover Art: “Rainbows Run” R.G.Smith,
www.rgsmithart.com
Heroes: Tom Kassel, Allan Rothberg, Thom Sobczak and
Scott Steffan
Primary Playtesters: Jon Gautier, Sevy Herdan, Tom
Kassel, Cy Lon, Jonathon Quass, Allan Rothberg, Marty
Sample, Thom Sobczak, Scott Steffan, John Sutcliffe,
James Terry and Tom Zombek
Final Proofreading: Paul Aceto, Matthew Banner, Markus
Broecker, Cole Dano, Edgar Gallego, Jon Gautier, Sevy
Herdan, Dave Hoeft, Jorge Iglesias, Tom Kassel, Jonas
Martinsson, Kevin Miller, Scott Stefan, Michael Toot and
Michael Vogt
2P RULES
Critical Reading & Proofreading: Matthew Banner,
Markus Broecker, Mats Edén, Edgar Gallego, Jon Gautier,
Sevy Herdan, Tom Kassel, Ernie Lo, Chad Mekash, Rich
Pardoe, Marty Sample and Scott Steffan
Designer: John H Butterfield
Others: Marc Guenette, Randy Heller, Kai Jensen, Rich
Simon, Charles Vasey and Rob Winslow
Playtest Modules: Kevin Coombs
Produced by: Ken Dingley and Bill Thomas for Compass
Games, LLC
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
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DESIGNER NOTES
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
2P RULES
After my designs for D-Day at Omaha Beach and RAF
were published in 2009, two game design challenges were
on my mind.
I had long assumed that the traditional hex-based
operational-scale wargame was beyond the reach of paper
AI due to the open nature of movement and the complex
patterning of a mobile front line. DDOB began to erode this
assumption, giving the Allied player full maneuverability
over a large hex field, against a primarily static defending
German AI. In the second half of the game, the Germans
gain limited abilities to reposition and react in ways that
simulate a mobile enemy. These building blocks laid the
foundation for AI concepts in Enemy Action: Ardennes.
At the same time, I came to enjoy card-driven wargames
such as We the People and Combat Commander. I
wondered how the card-driven approach might work for
operational level two-player wargames.
Putting these two challenges together led to the Enemy
Action game system – operational level wargaming for
two-player and solo play.
The Two Player Game
Unlike my previous design for both solo and two players
RAF, I determined to design EA:A as a successful twoplayer game before designing for solo play. I employed
a card-driven system to simulate the lack of control army
and army group commanders have over their subordinate
formations, as the command chain, terrain obstacles,
weather, supply logistics and unreliable intelligence
on enemy dispositions create a layer of chaos between
orders and execution. A card-based command system can
also create fog-of-war – though the players may see an
exploitable gap in the line or a unit in danger, the actual
commanders may not always have that intelligence.
Therefore, you may see an opportunity for a killer move,
but can only act on it when you have the command
resources in hand to execute the order.
I wanted to incorporate a wide range of factors into combat
resolution without the bean-counting of a traditional
combat results table with its column shifts, die modifiers
and numerous combat results. Enemy Action introduces a
combat chit draw system. As chits are drawn, the narrative
of the combat’s outcome is revealed, resolving combat
while taking into account terrain, unit quality, combat
strength, number of units committed, supply state, attack
frontage, supporting artillery, armor, and airpower. For
example, if you commit air power to an attack and two air
power chits are drawn, your ground support had devastating
effect; whereas if no airpower chits are drawn, your air
strike missed its targets. In another example, if several
of the drawn chits show attack ratios, then the relative
sizes of the opposing forces determine the outcome. If no
chits show attack ratios, other factors such as terrain or
armor superiority make the difference. This uncertainty
encourages players to focus on tactical planning, not on
column shifts and die roll subtractions.
Solitaire Framework
With the Two Player game working, I turned my attention
to the Allied and German Solo games. The card-driven
system provided a perfect mechanism for alternating
player and AI actions. Each command card activates a
single corps or division, allowing the player to focus
on decisions and AI processing in a limited area and for
just a few units at a time. Early playtesting showed that
activating AI formations by random card draw was smart
enough to compete with the player selecting formations
from his limited hand of cards.
The solo games simulate more fog of war than the twoplayer experience. Many enemy units in the solo games
are not revealed to you until your forces move to contact
or face them in combat. Enemy units behind the front
line often disappear from the map to reappear where you
least expect or want them, all within realistic movement
limitations.
Though the German and Allied Solo games share the same
overall play structure with the Two Player game, it became
clear in early planning that two different AI systems were
required.
The German Solo Game
For the German Solo game, the Allied AI needed to be
about Allied reaction and keeping the player guessing
where his thrusts would meet Allied resistance. In the
game’s narrative, the Allies first attempt to delay and
channel unavoidable German advances, then contain the
overall German offensive. In the early game the Allies
string together defensive positions through roadblocks
and reserve placement. Then Allied action cards instruct
formations to make tactical moves to protect themselves,
then to begin local counterattacks as opportunities arise.
Late in the game the action cards direct the Allies in larger
offensive operations with the aim of squeezing the Bulge.
The Allied Solo Game
On the other hand, in the Allied Solo game the German AI
needed to push the Germans relentlessly and effectively
toward their goals. No time to react, just go! Situational
action cards were not the way to keep the Germans attacking
and seeking gaps to exploit. Therefore I developed the
German Movement Methods -- a set of prioritized actions
that the player processes to land on the best offensive
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The German set-up cards are another unique feature of
the Allied Solo game. It occurred to me that with unit
deployment set on December 16, why burden the AI
with trying to analyze the situation to generate optimal
opening moves? Instead, the set-up cards randomly depict
countless plausible results of the initial German attacks, up
to that moment on the morning of Dec 16 when the Allied
command is first aware that something big is underway
and able to react – the Allied player’s first move. In this
way, the Allied player faces different first-move challenges
every game.
PROTECTING THE FLANKS: A goal specific to simulating the
Ardennes offensive is to allow development of a threatening
bulge – a thrust toward a breakout with disregard for flanks.
In most Bulge games, the tendency is toward a traditional
continuous line of units and zones of control pushing
forward at an even pace, to prevent problems caused by
a gap in the front or a unit out of line. This was not the
case in the actual battle, especially on the southern flank
where broad gaps developed as the Germans pushed to and
beyond the Ourthe river. In Enemy Action: Ardennes, the
Allies often hold the north and south shoulders, as they did
historically, while a battle of breakout and maneuver rages
in the center.
In the Two Player and Allied Solo games, the Germans
may threaten the allied flanks – gaining VPs for exiting the
south or north map edge east of the Meuse River. But in
the German Solo game, the German player may only exit
the map west of the Meuse, per Hitler’s directives. Why
are flank exits prohibited in German Solo but allowed in
Two Player and Allied Solo? To put the Allied player in
the mindset of December 1944, when they did not know
the German objectives. Historically, the Allies put great
importance on securing their flanks to the extent that they
did so while keeping the middle wide open. If the Allied
player knows the Germans cannot win by heading north or
south, they will ignore their flanks – an ahistorical response.
In the German Solo game, the Allies are “programmed”
to protect their flanks, rendering the need for alternate
German strategies unnecessary.
MECHANIZED UNITS AND COMBINED ARMS: Many
mechanized units in EA:A possess both armor and
mechanized infantry, as shown by dual unit type symbols
on their counters. For German Panzer divisions, this
departs from the traditional organization of one armor and
two mechanized infantry regiments. While the tradition
matches the division’s paper organization, in reality armor
was parceled out to infantry formations to create small
combined arms Kampfgruppen. This is reflected in the
combined arms status of many German mechanized units.
However, German units were not as deep in armor and
tracked vehicles as their counterparts in the Allied armored
divisions. Therefore, as German mechanized units lose
steps, they lose combined arms.
RIVER CROSSINGS: Some players have asked about the
generous river crossing rules – any type of unit can cross a
river by spending all their movement points to do so. This
represents the presence of many small capacity bridges
and fords, not shown at the game’s scale. To counter this
abstraction, units crossing an unbridged river will be
unable to trace supply as they move away from the river.
The Good Shepherd
I have been fortunate to partner with John Foley for this
project, in my opinion the best game developer in our
hobby. He undertook the huge task of transforming the
designs into a finished product – taking three games through
testing, numerous rounds of revision and managing the
production of all final elements. Where rules needed to
be the same in the games, John aligned their presentation.
Where rules differ, he codified the exceptions. His clarity
of expression is essential in guiding players through the
processing of the game’s complex AI. His task was larger
than either of us envisioned and I am most grateful to John
for his dogged dedication to the highest standard of quality
in seeing Enemy Action: Ardennes through to publication.
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
Other Elements of the Design
closed to exiting. This represents German commitment
to a single alternate strategy -- a swing to encircle Allied
troops to the north or south of the Ardennes.
2P RULES
move for a formation’s tactical situation. The sequencing
and definition of these methods went through extensive
modification, expansion and compression during testing to
arrive at the most “intelligent” method given the German
goals in the Ardennes. In this effort I am most indebted
to Tom Kassel who provided invaluable stress testing and
suggestions.
John H Butterfield
To keep the German player somewhat honest in the Two
Player game, he cannot threaten everywhere. If he does exit
a unit on the north or south flank, the other flank becomes
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ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
2P RULES
INDEX
16 : Special Rules (4.1)
16-18 : German Full Supply (10.12)
16-19 : German Movement Restrictions (7.61, 7.62)
17+ : Start Supply Phase (10.0)
17-18 : Special activation of Peiper & 150th Panzer Bgd (5.21)
18+ : Delayed Reserves (11.3), Allied Unit in Westwall (14.1)
20+ : German Fuel Shortages (10.4), Replacements (13.0)
21+ : Allied Air Interdiction (5.1)
26+ : No British Movement Restrictions (7.72)
Activating Formations: 6.0
Advance after Combat: 9.8
Advance, Two-Hex: 9.81
Advancing across Rivers: 9.82
Air Resupply (Allied): 10.3
Already Retreated Units (Retreats):
9.74
Alternate Allied Strategic
Deployment (Reserves): 11.1
Army Group: 5.5
Army: 5.4
Attack Eligibility (Combat): 9.1
Avoid Elimination (Retreats): 9.72
Boundaries, Allied Corps: 7.7
Boundaries, German Army: 7.6
Bracketed Combat Strength: 8.0
Bridge Demolition (German
Movement): 7.33
Bridge Ownership: see Bridges
Bridged River Hexsides (Movement):
7.32
Bridges: 12.2
Brigade or Division: 5.2, 6.2
British XXX Corps Deployment
(Reserves): 11.51
British XXX Corps Restrictions
(Movement): 7.72
Calendar: 2.1, Inside End Page, Map
Card Discards: 5.7
Card Play: 5.1
Combat Activation Bonuses (Allied):
9.23
Combat Chit Cup: 9.41
Combat Chit Draw: 9.3
Combat Chit Situations: 9.4
Combat Chits: 2.22, 9.4
Combat Hits: 9.5
Combat Tactics Chit Draw: 9.2
Combat Tactics: Player Aid
Combat: 9.0, Player Aid
Combined Arms: 2.21, 9.4
Command Cards: 2.3, 5.0
Command Events: Player Aid
Commands (Activation): 5.2 — 5.6
Consecutive Activation Restriction:
6.5
Control: see Zones of Control
Corps: 2.2, 5.3, 6.1
Crossing River Hexides (Movement):
7.3
Date Dependencies: 2.0
Date of Entry: 2.21, 2.3
Delayed Reserves: 11.3
Destroyed Bridges: 12.21
Dispersal (Combat): 9.9
Division or Brigade: 5.2, 6.2
Draw Pile & Hand Rules: 5.0
Exiting the Map (German): 7.8
Flank Attack: 9.4
Friendly Map Edges: 10.0
Fuel Depots (German): 10.42
Game Components: 2.0
German Fuel Shortages: 10.4
German Initial Supply: 10.12
German OKW Reserve (OR): 11.4
German Surprise Attacks: 4.11
German Traffic Jams: 4.12
Improved Positions: 12.3
Isolated (Unsupply): 10.23
Kampfgruppe (Activation): 6.4
Key Rules Summaries: Player Aid
Low Supply (Unsupply): 10.21
Map Edge (Supply): 10.11
Map: 2.1
Markers: 2.23
Maximum Draw (Combat Chit): 9.3
Meuse River: 2.1, 7.72, 7.8, 11.51,
14.1
Minimum Draw (Combat Chit): 9.3
Movement: 7.0
Movement Costs: Map Legend,
Player Aid
Multi-Unit Deployments (Reserves): 11.2
New Bridges: 12.22
No Command (Allied): 5.6
No Fuel Effects (German): 10.41
Out of Supply (Unsupply): 10.22
Player Aids: 2.4
P (Priority): 2.22, 9.4
Reactions: Player Aid
Removing Improved Positions: 12.34
R (Replacement) Steps: 2.21
Replacements: 13.0
Replacing Lost Steps: 13.1
Reserves: 11.0
Restricted Hexes (Retreats): 9.71
Retreats & Retreat Priorities: 9.7
Retreats, Two-Hex: 9.75
Roadblocks (Allied): 7.9
Roads (Movement): 7.2
Scenarios: 15.0
Sequence of Play: 4.0, End Page
Setting up for Play: 3.0
Slow Allied Reaction: 4.13
Special Events: Player Aid
Stacking: 7.4
Standard Deployment (Reserves):
11.1
Stay Together (Retreats): 9.73
Steps: 2.21
Step Losses: 9.6
Strategic Movement Bonus: 7.5
Supply: 10.0
Supply Head: 10.1
Supply Path: 10.1
Surrender (Unsupply): 10.24
Terrain Costs & Effects: Map Legend,
Player Aid
Town & City Ownership: 12.1, see
Victory Conditions
Towns & Cities: 12.1
Tracing Supply: 10.1
Unbridged River Hexsides
(Movement): 7.31
Units: 2.21
Unit Activation: 6.3, 11.42, see
Activating Formations
Unit Values & Effects: 2.21, 8.0
Unsupply: 10.2
Victory Conditions: 14.0
von der Heydte: 9.24, 10.12, 14.1
Westwall: 2.1, 7.5, 8.0, 9.4, 9.5, 9.71,
10.13, 14.1
Wildcards (Combat Tactics): 9.22
ZOC Effects (Movement): 7.1
Zones of Control (ZOC): 8.0
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2P RULES
ENEMY ACTION: ARDENNES
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