special report mobile vehicles
$3.00
MAY 1983
Ì
BROADCAST MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING
C77
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SPECIAL REPORT MOBILE VEHICLES:
ON THE ROAD TO SUCCESS
Also in this issue: State of the Cart Goes Critical
Iris Awards Accent Localism
www.americanradiohistory.com
Excellence wherever you need it
New ADM ®consoles are ideal for van, post production or station
With our new VP series audio consoles you
can now have first -line audio quality
wherever and whenever you need it most.
The VP series is particularly suited for ENG,
EFP, in -house post -production and editing
suites. They provide increased versatility in
a compact package and are available in 8,
12 and 16 input configurations. Each input
module offers a direct transformered line
level output with the availability of a VCA
for remote operation.
Like all ADM consoles, these new versions
are "human engineered :' extensively tested
and backed by our exclusive 5 -year
warranty. Easy to service, all components
are readily accessible.
For specific information, contact ADM
Technology, Inc. -The Audio Company 1626 E. Big Beaver Road, Troy, MI 48084,
Phone (313) 524 -2100. TLX 23 -1114.
ATV1,
WEST CENTRAL SALES
(817) 467 -2990
WEST COAST SALES
(415) 945 -0181
The
Audio
Company
MAIN OFFICE AND
EAST COAST SALES
(313) 524-2100
panel is amazingly simple. There's an operating menu right
Total Picture
on the panel; an interactive
Transparency and a
Clear Price
Advantage. The VIP
ADDA's VIP delivers the best picture resolution available in
any digital effects system. Most video effects systems start
with a built -in disadvantage. Because of the sacrifices they
must make to produce compression they lose a substantial
Ammo]
1.11111.1111_11
part of their video. Not so with ADDA's VIP. When the system is in its ful' screen mode it passes the complete NTSC
5MHz bandwidth.
Easy to operate
controller for pre -set
news effects.
mode you're in, states the size and position of the picture,
and lets you select the attributes you want within the
-tilt, pan, rate and so on. The hex keypad can handle
mode
more different commands than ordinary keypads; so the operator isn't faced with bewildering clusters of controls. A
three -axis joystick gives you simple control of picture size
and placement.
The VIP is ideal for news applications and includes frame
synchronization and time base correction for heterodyne
VTRs- perfect for remotes. News directors will also like
picture sizing up to 7/10 with matte background.
Remember, imperfect video effects just won't make it.
Look to ADDA's VIP for absolute purity of picture.
AIWA
And you get effects, sequences and control you'd have to
pay substantially more for anywhere else. Flips, tumbles,
programmable ballistics and trajectory functions -the
system does them all.
What makes the VIP so inexpensive is advanced digital
technology and a powerful microprocessor -the same
things that make it easier to use. The PR -2 remote option
rom ting display confirms the
[WAIIAAnIN
Affordable Excellence
130 Knowles Drive
Los Gatos, California 95030
Call the ADDA 1500 number: Corporate Offices. Los Gatos. Calif. (408) 3791500. Sales Offices. Atlanta (404) 953 -1500. Baltimore (301) 974-1500: Dallas
(214) 373 -1500: Detroit (313) 332 -1500: Kansas City. Mo. (913) 631 -1500: Los
Angeles (213) 489 -1500. Miami (305) 759 -1500: New York City (212) 398 -1500:
Wausau. Wisc. (715)362 -1500.
Circle 100 on Reader Service Card
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Art Biggs coordinates major engineering purchases for
the six Corinthian stations. After careful evaluation of all the
th -inch camera /recorders on the market, he made a multimillion- dollar purchase of the Sony Betacam' system.
"Betacam has several pluses. The most obvious of them
are size and weight. We have one-man camera crews at all our
stations. The camera /recorder that they take into the field is
01983 Sony Corp. of America. 9 W. 57th Si.. New York, NY
10019. Sony is a registered
right at 541/2 pounds. Betacam will reduce this load by more
than half-a significant reduction.
"As for quality of playback, you can see the difference with
the naked eye. Its superiority is most apparent in scenes of fully
saturated colors, particularly reds. It's cleaner. It doesn't have
quite as much of the heavy, stringy -type noise we've grown to
tolerate over the years.
trademark and Betacam is
a
trademark of the Sony Corp.
I TOOK ALL OF THESE!'
;ONTROLLERS' HEADACHES,
ir! Biggs. Vice President, Engineering. Corinthian Broadcasting Corporation
MIG
efiSi
"Another Betacam plus is that it's not a patchwork approach. Its a total Sony system developed from the camera to
the recorder to the player.
"Then there's the bottom line. Betacam is at a very attractive price. It would have cost me hundreds of thousands of
dollars more to get the same amount of camera /recorders that
even approach this kind of quality from someone else.
Klg
ItN
lit7A
"I'll definitely be back for more'
For more information on the Sony Betacam system, and
there's a lot more to know, contact Sony Broadcast in New York/
New Jersey at (201) 368 -5085; in Chicago at (312) 860 -7800;
in Los Angeles at (213) 841 -8711:
in Atlanta at (404) 451 -7671; or in
Dallas at (214) 659 -3600.
SON Y
Broadcast.
Comtech's satellite feed
uses less than 1% of a
transponder's capacity.
,%
WESTAR III
111111/E
BROADCAST MANAGEMENT/ENGINEERING
Publisher
Charles C. Lenz, Jr.
Editorial Director
Gerald M. Walker
WESTAR IV
Editor Emeritus
James A. Llppke
Editor
Robert Rivlin
Senior Editor
Robin Lanier
Senior Associate Editor
Eva J. Blinder
Associate Editor
Tim E. Wetmore
Assistant to the Editor
Douglas Damoth
Editorial Production Assistant
Aliene J. Roberts
Editorial Assistant
Toraa Smith
REGIONAL OR
STATE SATELLITE
RADIO NETWORK
FCC Counsel
Farmer, McGuinn, Flood, Bechtel & Ward
Broadcast Financial Consultant
Mark E. Battersby
Special Projects Editor
Our sophisticated satellite radio network system can reduce your
monthly operating costs substantially compared to land lines. We
design and deliver complete networks that provide the highest
level of performance and reliability at a very attractive cost of
ownership.
Less than 1% of
transponder's bandwidth and EIRP
required
to achieve the same performance provided by other systems
requiring considerably more capacity.
a
is
Network expandability
is achieved via Comtech's unique
mechanical package which allows a combination of SCPC,
MCPC, digital data or composite video audio demodulators. Dual
and triple feeds are available for simultaneous reception from
satellites spaced up to 8°, such as Westar Ill and Westar IV
High quality audio
processing system.
is the result of
Comtech's advanced audio
Up -link Terminal includes audio processor, SCPC modulator.
up- converter, high power amplifier, antenna feed system, 5
meter antenna with mount, and receive -only components for
system monitoring.
Receive -Only Terminals include SCPC demodulator, audio
processor, 7-slot housing, down converter, low noise amplifier,
antenna feed. and 3.8 meter antenna with mount.
For your complete regional or state radio
network, designed, built and delivered by
Comtech, call or write:
COMTECH Data Corporati wi
r11.
350 North Hayden Road
Scottsdale, AZ 85257
(602) 949 -1155. TWX 910-950 -0085
Circle
4
BM /E
MAY, 1983
101 on
Reader Service Card
C.
Robert Paulson
Associate Publishers
Djuna Van Vort
Neal Wilder
Production Director
Janet E. Smith
Art Director
Pearl Lau
Advertising Coordinator
Dana L. Kurtz
Promotion Manager
Paul Clark
Marketing Assistant
Elaine Alimonti
Reader Service
Sharon Porges
Controller
Michael J. Lanni
BROADBAND INFORMATION SERVICES, INC.
295 Madison Ave., New York, N.Y. 10017
212 -685-5320, Telex: 64 -4001
Publishers of:
BM/E- Broadcast Management/Engineering
BM/E's World Broadcast News
*ABP
BM/E BROADCAST MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING (ISSN 0005 -3201) is published
monthly by Broadband Information Services
Inc. All notices pertaining to undeliverable mail or subscriplions should be addressed to 295 Madison Ave., New York,
NY 10017. BM/E is circulated without charge to those responsible for station operation and for specifying and authorizing the purchase of equipment used in broadcast
facilities in the U.S. and Canada. These facilities include
AM, FM and
broadcast stations, CAN systems, ETV
stations, networks and studios, audio and video recording
studios, telecine facilities, consultants, etc. Subscription prices to others $24.00 one year, $36.00 two years. Foreign
$36.00 one year, $60.00 two years. Air Mail rates on request. Copyright 1983 by Broadband Information Services.
Inc., New York
Second class postage paid N.Y, N.Y.
and additional mailing offices.
VBPA
N
C.
JH-618-10-GO/VU
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4> r.c,.
-+
GCr
JH-800
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NSIDE.
181 ':E.
OR
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MCI's years of experience building the
world's finest recording consoles has led
us to the development of two new console
configurations designed specifically for
broadcast and teleproduction. On the road,
take studio performance with you in the
new JH -800 compact console with user
programmable broadcast signal flow,
built -in communications functions and
12 mic or line inputs. Back in the studio,
make creative productions possible with
our JH-618 console in its broadcast configuration with 10 mic inputs and five
stereo line inputs.
Inside and outside, Sony Broadcast has
the answer ... with audio equipment from
MCI. The choice of today's professionals.
Call Sony Broadcast in New York/New
Jersey at (201) 368-5085; in Chicago at
(312) 860-7800; in Los Angeles at
(213) 841 -8711; in Atlanta
at (404) 451 -7671;
or in Dallas at
(214) 659 -3600.
SONY
Broadcast
MAY 1983
VOLUME 19/NUMBER 5
BSI L CONTENTS
SPECIAL REPORT:
MOBILE VEHICLES ON THE
STATE OF
THE CART
PAGE 63
ROAD TO SUCCESS
o
PART 1: Page 40
PART 2: Page 41
Q
DEPARTMENTS
FEATURES
SPECIAL REPORT
PART 1: HOW TO SUCCEED IN
Editorial
Joining the Unions
40
TELEPRODUCTION VEHICLE OPERATION (BY
REALLY TRYING)
10
Broadcast Industry News
The mobile teleproduction vehicle business is
growing. BM /E talks with successful operators
across the country to find out how they overcome
the risks and the challenges of the business.
Radio Programming and Production
PART 2: DESIGNS THAT SUCCEED WITH
MOBILE VEHICLE CONSOLES
41
Choosing an audio console for a mobile unit involves complex decisions that go far beyond simply selecting the biggest and the best.
THE STATE OF THE CART
An expert on broadcast audio cartridges tells how
to evaluate one of the most basic investments a station makes.
14
BM/E's "Best Stations" Honored at NAB;
Financial Interest Bill Introduced in House; um,
Lottery Approved, With Minority Preference.
Starfleet Blair Rises in Quest of Live Radio
Broadcasts
Television Programming and Production
Local Stations Gather
63
27
a
News Feature
AES Addresses
FCC
33
Bouquet of Irises
79
Digital Techniques, Standards
Rules and Regulations
82
Suburban Community Policy and Localism
Tax Tips for Stations
87
Those Other Taxes
Great Idea Contest
90
Broadcast Equipment
94
Advertisers Index
101
Business Briefs
102
INTRODUCING
THE NEW PRIMUS
AUDIO COMPONENTS
PRIMUS
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w,
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Powerful performance
in the palm of your hand,
PRIMUS (Pre-mils): an array of compact, performance engineered audio electronics from Ramko Research.
The new PRIMUS components are unlike any professional audio
equipment you've ever used. Never before has so much advanced performance been put into such compact and rugged packages. Rarely have
you had available so many features and options to help get the job done.
Never have you had a three -year warranty that's backed up by factory
certified proof-of-performance.
PRIMUS is a comprehensive range of components that give you the
'I Alp
flexibility to configure an audio sysem limited only by your imagination.
Whether you choose from tabletop or rack mounting versions, there's
hardly an audio job that can't be improved upon.
Here's a partial list of models currently available:
Lab standard mono or stereo turntable preamplifiers.
Dual and quad input, gain selectable microphone/line amplifier mixers.
Audio distribution amps from three (3) stereo/six (6) mono up to
eight (8) stereo /sixteen (16) mono outputs. All models feature
individual recessed front panel adjustments or optional high
-
All IC's plug
into gold plated sockets. All models
feature quick disconnect UO connectors and
require only 1% inch standard rack height.
We've taken another important step, too.
When you invest in PRIMUS, you receive a Certified
Performance Gold Card that instantly puts you in touch with
our Technical Assistance Department on a toll -free line. Just call
in your registered serial number and you're in touch with the advice
you need.
To put PRIMUS audio components to task on a free two-week trial,
call toll free (800) 821 -2545 or contact your nearest Ramko Research
sales representative or distributor. Put the powerful performance of
PRIMUS in the palm of your hand.
resolution, conductive plastic potentiometers.
= MidLine equalizer amplifiers with balanced I/O and up to
-15 db of reciprocal equalization.
Expandable audio console mixers with cueing, selectable EQ,
metering phones and monitor.
= VoicegardTM combination limiter /compressor, noise gate
with variable threshold and slope ratio; gain reduction metering.
= Signal processing VCA's with six (6) independently con-
trolled channels. DC remote control with balanced outputs.
R/P and playback, stereo and mono NAB cart machines.
Whichever combination of precision PRIMUS audio components you choose, you're guaranteed outstanding specifications. For example, our stereo turntable preamplifier measures:
Signal -to-noise Ratio: -93 dB (A weighted)
Total Harmonic Distortion: Below .0018ck
Frequency Response: 10 Hz to 20 kHZ, ±.25 dB
Stereo Separation: -70 dB @ 1 kHz
Output Level: X25 dBm (10 Hz - 20 kHz)
The simplified and modular packaging of PRIMUS allows
us to concentrate the quality where it belongs: in state -ofthe-art circuitry. High slew -rate integrated circuits and extensive ground planes insure the highest RFI protection.
PRIMUS
PRIMUS audio components are an
array of compact, performanceengineered rack mounting or
tabletop packages.
is a division of Ramko Research, Inc. 11355 -A Folsom Blvd.. Rancho Cordova, California 95670
Circle 103 on Reader Service Card
(916)635.3600
-
1983 Ramko Research
AMPEX 196 ONEIT'S NOT JUST ANS
Beautiful pictures generation after generation.
The high energy formulation of Ampex 196 has been
designed to give you pictures of perfection time after time. With
clarity and color rendering that's truly amazing even after many
generations.
Multi- generation Testing
Recent laboratory
5z
'°
á
tests comparing signal loss 150
48after multiple generations
demonstrated Ampex 196 Ñ
arand
is measurably superior in
_
chroma signal -to- noise,
°2.0
audio distortion and video
-o
8
signal -to- noise. These
44- grandg\
tests put Ampex directly
r ^grand
6
against all other leading
brands in multi -generation
uses.
'
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3.0
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4
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www.americanradiohistory.com
5
6
2
3
4
5
6
7
Even troublesome shades of red hold up brilliantly after
seven generations with Ampex 196. And audio distortion is
insignificant.
But don't take our word for it. Check the charts that show the
test results. Better yet, give Ampex 196 your own test. You'll quickly
realize why so many video professionals
use Ampex 196 for mastering, editing and
duplication.
To find out more about how
Ampex 196 One -Inch Video Tape
can make your productions look
brilliant over and over again,
call your Ampex representative.
AM PEX
Ampex Corporation
One of The Signal Companies
QUALITY WORTH BROADCASTING.
401
AMPEX CORPORATION, MAGNETIC TAPE DIVISION
Broadway, Redwood City, California 94063 (415) 367 -3809
Circle 104 on Reader Service Card
specifications, terms. ana avauaanny are suolect to cuuuye uuu u.e uere.......eu
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!.
THE STATE-OF-THE-ART IN ROUTING
There are a number of people
number of places who claim
they're state -of- the-art. But let's face
it, the state -of-the -art in routing
switchers hasn't changed significantly
in a
in years.
Until now. Because 3M is introducing a whole new approach to
switching technology. And starting
today, you can look to Minnesota for
www.americanradiohistory.com
the true state -of- the-art.
Our Series H Switching Systems
utilize hybrid integrated circuitry,
a technology developed in the
aerospace and medical industries.
The results are the best
performance specs in the business.
Reliability is improved and maintenance is reduced.
Expansion is easier than ever
SWITCHERS JUST CHANGED STATES.
And thanks to miniaturization,
there's at least a 300% increase
in crosspoints - per-rack -unit. What
used to take up an entire room can
now fit in a closet.
Best of all, we offer all these
advantages at a price that's actually
comparable to the price of conventional switching systems.
So if you still think of the state-
of- the-art in terms of yesterday's
technology, call us toll-free at
1 -800- 328 -1684. In Minnesota, call
toll -free 1-800-792-1072. Outside
the continental U.S., call International Operations collect at 1 -612736 -2549. We'll give you a whole
new sense of direction.
3M
St. Paul
Minnesota
broadcast industry
Financial Interest Bill
Introduced in House
Legislation that would prohibit the FCC
from changing its financial interest or
syndication rules -as well as its prime
time access rule-was introduced recently in the House of Representatives
by Rep. Henry Waxman (D -CA). The
bill, known as H.R. 2250, would make
the rules off-limits to change for a fiveyear period.
Waxman, who at press time had 42
cosponsors for the bill, was reportedly
optimistic on its prospects for passage.
Among the cosponsors is Rep. Timothy
Wirth (D -co), who chairs the House
telecommunications subcommittee.
When the bill was introduced, Wirth
read a statement warning against
deregulation "for the sake of deregu-
lation,"
and asserted,
"the level of
competition in the video marketplace
simply does not justify lifting those
rules, which were carefully designed to
protect the public interest from the lack
of competition now facing the net-
works."
The networks, of course, disagree,
and said so in en banc hearings before
the FCC shortly before the bill was intro-
m EWS
duced. At those hearings, representatives of ABC and NBC indicated,
however, that they would be willing to
live with an anti -warehousing clause if
such a clause were coupled with repeal
for the financial interest and syndication rules. Their statements constituted
a shift in position for the two nets,
which had previously opposed such re-
strictions. CBS, on the other hand, remained steadfast in its opposition to
any restrictions.
At press time, the FCC still had not set
a date for its ruling. Some observers believe the FCC will try to schedule the action before the June 30 retirement date
of Commissioners Joseph Fogarty and
Stephen Sharp, thought to favor repeal.
LPTV Lottery Approved,
With Minority Preference
three media holdings. Much debate
centered around whether to grant women minority status for the lotteries, with
commissioners Mimi Dawson and
Anne Jones strongly favoring the proposal. In the end, no preference was
granted, but the Commission said it
would ask Congress to reconsider if the
minority preference should be expanded to women.
Chairman Mark Fowler's vocal opposition to the minority preferences-
By unanimous
vote- though
with
some internal dissatisfaction -the FCC
has voted to institute a lottery system
for choosing among mutually exclusive
applicants for low -power television licenses. Keeping an eye on the future,
the Commissioners voted themselves
the power to resort to lotteries at some
future time for "deadlocked" full power TV battles; for now, however,
lotteries will be limited to new LPTV
stations and major service changes.
A two -to -one preference was voted
for applicants controlled at least half by
minorities as well as for those with no
other media holdings, with a smaller
preference going to those with one to
which, he claimed, would victimize
"the innocent white people who are
denied an equal opportunity to compete
for a Commission license" -was blasted by commissioners Joseph Fogarty
and Henry Rivera.
Shortly after deciding upon the lottery, the FCC issued a clarification of
BM /E's "Best Stations" Honored at NAB
The winners of BM/Es 1982 Best
Station Awards- chosen amid stiff
competition by readers' votes
received commemorative plaques at
a cocktail party given in their honor at
last month's NAB convention. Hun-
-
dreds of guests at the Monday evening affair applauded the winners,
whose stations were described in the
December 1982 issue of BM /E.
The latest winners in the annual
contest were: in the Tv category,
Louis, MO (submitted by
Fred Steurer, chief engineer); in the
AM radio category, KFWB, Los Angeles, CA (submitted by Richard A.
Rudman, engineering manager); in
KSDK -TV, St.
the FM radio category, WNUS -FM,
Belpre, OH (submitted by John
Patten, general manager); and in the
AM/FM
radio category, WEAN,WPJB -FM,
Providence, RI (submitted by Joe
Drury, chief engineer).
Is your station a potential Best Station? If you feel your plant is something special, let us know about it.
Send us a postcard listing station call
letters, address, telephone, and the
name of the person we should contact. Rules for the 1983 Best Station
Contest will be mailed out late this
summer.
Flanked by BM/E's editor, Robert RIvlln
(far left) and editorial director, Jerry
Walker (far right), the Best Station
Award recipients are, from left: Joe
Drury, chief engineer, WEAN/WPJB;
John Patten, WNUS-FM; Richard
Rudman, KFWB-AM; and Fred Steurer,
KSDK -TV.
14
BM/E
MAY, 1983
"Taft demands the best, and when it
comes to presenting to our viewers a
clear and accurate picture of the world.
we turn to Ikegami cameras. Their
rugged durability, combined with the
"studio" quality. that Ikegami delivers,
brings the news in focus for the millions
of viewers who depend on Taft news
operations to keep them informed.
That's also why Midwest designs and
builds our mobile news gathering units.
Midwest custom designed the right
mobile units to meet our needs -and
our deadlines. They're tough, designed
to take all the punishment that
on- location ENG can dish out. Midwest
delivered our Ikegami- equipped
mobile units on time.
When
the news
breaks,
we get it
together
with
Midwest
and
Ikegami:'
We're covering the news stories and
Midwest covers our needs. Taft
demands the best, and we have it - with
Midwest and Ikegami on our news
team:'
For more information on how Midwest
can help you get it together with quality
equipment and mobile units, call
toll -free today: 1- 800 - 543 -1584
(In Kentucky 606 -331- 8990).
Cincinnati. OH
Lexington KY
6063318990
606.277.4994
Columbus. OH
Nashville. TN
614-476-2800
Dayton. OH
513-298-0421
Cleveland. OH
216-447-9745
615-331-5791
Charleston. WV
304.7222921
Virginia BearhVA
804-4646256
417Pittsburgh.
7A07
John Owen. Vice President
of Television Engineering
Taft Broadcasting.
MIDWEST
CORPORATION
301
5T7. 903
Devoit MI
313-689-9730
Charlotte. NC
Indianapolis. IN
3172 15750
AtWn.GA
404-457-4300
Louisville. KY
Miami. FL
5024912888
7043996336
305-592-5355
One Sperti Drive
Edgewood, KY 41017
wivrl. Columbus.
YY
i V N- r v
Circle 107 on Reader Service Card
"IVY
vAI1RiA
1i/VIIIftlf
SLX
CO./MX
I
7
The Ultimate Sports Console
Built -in frequency extender for
phone lines
4 mixing channels with high
quality conductive plastic slide
faders (2 mic /line)
Telephone interface
3 lines
headphone channels with
custom monitor mixing
Compressor/Limiter
Shielded all metal construction
PA feed, ext monitor input, test
tone. overload flasher, 3W' vi
3
Specialists in remote braodcast audio transmission.
Sudbury, MA 01776 617-443 -8811
P.O. Box 269, 60 Union Ave.,
Circle 108 on Reader Service Card
NEC Stereo FM Exciter.
NEC innovation inside
c
f'F.0
Mn.4s36t
PM
and out.
(UM'
No one else has the circuitboard and microchip design and manufacturing technology that NEC has. It's the same technology that
earned two Emmy awards for NEC Frame Synchronizers and Digital
Effects Systems. Designed to complement our full line of high performance FM Broadcast Transmitters, the compact, affordable
HPA -4536B FM Exciter delivers single- source reliability for years of
trouble -free operation. In stereo operation harmonic distortion is
only 0.3% between 30Hz and 15kHz. It teams with any transmitter
and is ideally suited as a replacement exciter.
The HPA -4536B FM Exciter. From NEC. Because no one does
it
better.
NEC
NEC
America, Inc.
Broadcast Equipment Division
130 Martin Lane
Elk Grove Village. IL 60007
Call toll -free 1 -800-323 -6656
In Illinois. call 312- 640 -3792
IMAGINE WHAT WE'LL DO NEXT
Circle 109 on Reader Service Card
16
BM ,'E
MAY, 1983
www.americanradiohistory.com
HEWS
some of its other rules governing LPTV.
It reiterated its stance that LPTV signals
will not be included under the cable
"must-carry" rules for local programming, noting that there is no local
programming requirement for LPTv stations. In addition, it indicated that
translator stations may originate programming and operate as STV outlets,
and that microwave and satellite feeds
are not considered originated programming.
The Commission also denied a request by the Corporation for Public
Broadcasting that a certain number of
LPTV channels be reserved for noncommercial use.
Also in the LPTV arena, two LPTV
advocacy organizations have joined
forces to urge the FCC to act expediently
in processing the backlog of LPTV applications. The National Institute for
Low Power Television (NILPTV) and
the American Low Power Television
Association (ALPTA) have formed the
Coalition for LPTV in '83 and have retained the Washington, DC lobbying
firm Wexler, Reynolds, Harrison &
Schule. According to NILPTV director
John Reilly, the coalition's aims are to
see all Tier 1 applications processed
this year and to urge the FCC to redefine
LPTV stations as local signals for the
purposes of cable carriage and copyright royalties.
"Marketplace" the Winner
in FCC Teletext Decision
Once again, the FCC has turned to the
marketplace to guide its decision on a
technical matter. Over dissension by
commissioner Anne Jones and partial
dissension by Henry Rivera, the Commission voted to authorize both commercial and noncommercial television
stations to transmit teletext on lines
14-18 and 20 of the vertical blanking
interval, using any transmission standard of their choice.
President of NAB Edward O. Fritts
criticized the FCC action, pointing to the
AM stereo marketplace decision as "a
sorry precedent for teletext." Fritts
continued, "The Commission must return to the selection of single standards
if our industry is to provide the public
with new and innovative services at the
earliest possible time and for the least
possible cost commensurate with quality service." Fritts also found fault with
the FCC for voting to allow cable operators to delete teletext signals in retransmitting distant television stations.
At present, teletext proponents fall
into two major technical camps, one favoring the British -developed World
System Teletext and the other the North
American Broadcast Teletext Specifi-
All cassenu; act Jai size
In the current debate concerning 1/2-inch and
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you to consider these simple facts:
There are two 1/2-inch incompatible formats, VHS
and Beta. And the broadcast quality 1/4-inch
Quartercam' from Bosch.
Quartercam 20- minute cassettes
occupy one -fifth the volume of VHS
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20- minute cassettes.
in
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your shirt pocket. You can't with
VHS or Beta. You can save a lot of archive space
and shipping costs.
The logical ENG /EFP successor to 3/4 -inch is /4inch -not 1/2-inch. If you're going -inch you're only
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Circle 102 on Reader Service Card
NEWS
casters a cue to deemphasize programming for children.
The marketplace model is insufficient to provide sufficient quality
programming for children, Rivera continued. "As entities with an exclusive
license to use the spectrum," Rivera
said, "broadcasters have benefitted
substantially from the use of a public
resource. In return, the public is entitled to a dividend." Part of that dividend, Rivera contended, should be
"regular, diverse and enriching" chil-
dren's television.
While claiming "no love for mandatory program performance guidelines," Rivera said he would consider
such guidelines "as a last resort" if
commercial broadcasters failed to meet
their obligations independently. Too
much reliance on public television is
unrealistic because of the funding
crisis, he said.
In calling for the temporary commission, Rivera suggested that it be given a
limited lifespan in which to bring the
NEW!
Production Intercom
from Clear-Com
The DLC * Series
pending rulemaking-and the newer
commissioners -up to date, and present recommendations for action.
At the same hearings, NAB president
Edward O. Fritts painted a different
picture of broadcasters' service to children. Claiming that the last three years
have seen an increase in the amount of
children's television, Fritts stated,
"Broadcaster response to the needs of
children has been, quite simply, far
more thoughtful and imaginative than
some have given them credit for." He
also said that the quality of children's
programming had "improved dramatically in recent years."
President of ACT Peggy Charren,
speaking at the previous day's press
conference, called for stricter EEO enforcement, increased PTV funding, a
guarantee of sufficient public access
channels on cable, and a reaffirmation
of the public interest standard for
broadcasters. These actions, she said,
could help "increase the quantity and
diversity of programming available for
young people."
AM Stereo Study Finds
Stations Showing Caution
stations see stereo broadcasting in
their futures, but don't think it will
prove a cure -all. So found a recent
study by Donald R. Mott of the University of Southern Mississippi and Dr.
John H. Pennybacker of Louisiana
State University. The professors
mailed questionnaires to 1008 U.S. AM
stations, selected at random, and received useable responses from 344
(34.1 percent).
Nearly 69 percent of the stations responding said they had investigated AM
stereo equipment, and almost 82 percent rated AM stereo "very important"
or "fairly important" to the future of
AM stations. A resounding 85.17 percent, however, disagreed with the
statement that AM stereo would prove to
be AM's "saviour," and almost 71 percent disagreed that the future of AM lies
in nonmusic programming.
Approximately two thirds of those
responding felt that the FCC should have
selected a single system for AM stereo
transmission. Almost 85 percent,
though, said they would wait until the
marketplace choice was clearer before
making a decision.
Over 64 percent said their market
positions had been hurt recently by FM
stereo, but only 33.72 percent had
recently changed format in an attempt
to better their ratings. More than 60
percent felt AM stereo would not
AM
Features:
party -line or point -to -point ( "squawk ") communications with
visual signalling
4, 8, 12, or 16 channels - (8 channel shown)
built -in Assignment Matrix
standard functions include Stage Announce. Priority, Call
Signalling, and Channel Isolation (ISO)
locking and momentary push -to -talk buttons
standard electret, noise -cancelling gooseneck mic with exclusive
field- adjustable length
modular design features plug-in Control Modules
optional IFB plug -in modules & Talent Receiver
each Control Module monitors 4 intercom channels
mic limiter
programmable talk/listen functions
balanced program input
compatible with all Clear -Com intercoms
'Digital Logic Control:
all functions are programmable
Circle 113 on Reader Service Card
20
BM /E
MAY, 1983
1111 17th Street
San Francisco, CA 94107
415-861.6666 TWX: 910-372-1087
EXPORT DIVISION: P.O. Box 302
Walnut Creek, CA 94596
415 -932.8134 Telex: 176340
improve their market positions
significantly.
NC engineers
another breakthrough
in video cameras.
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1983
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Circle 114 on Reader Service Card
MEWS BRIEFS
The FCC has approved the largest station sale in its history-the $245 million transfer of KTLA-TV Los Angeles,
from Golden West Broadcasters to
Golden West Television Acquisition
Co. The price beats by $25 million the
tag for Metromedia's 1981 purchase of
WCVB -TV, Boston
Designed to
ease the entry of minorities into
telecommunications, the recently introduced Minority Telecommunications
.
Ownership Tax Act of
1983 would
raise the investment tax credit for mi-
nority owners and allow tax certificates
for the sale of nonbroadcast properties
to minorities. FCC commissioner Henry
Rivera praised the proposed legislation, saying it would "give minority
entrepreneurs potent tools" to enter the
industry
The FCC has denied a request to reconsider its 1982 action
resuming the assignment of daytime only AM stations on clear channel frequencies.
Both NAB and RTNDA have commented unfavorably on an FCC proposal
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Circle 115 on Reader Service Card
22
BM /E MAY,
1983
that would require broadcasters to
share their auxiliary broadcast service spectrum with terrestrial microwave users displaced from the 12 GHz
band, soon to be taken over by direct broadcasting satellites. NAB board
chairman William L. Stakelin, scoring
the FCC for refusing to extend the comment deadline on the proposal, accused
the FCC of "playing 'musical chairs'
with spectrum users." He went on to
say that the proposal had a "mind boggling" potential for havoc, could
cost broadcasters over $100 million
over the next decade, and could interfere with ENG operations. RTNDA president Dean Mell expressed similar
concerns, saying that the proposals
"amount to a giant step in the wrong
direction"
NAB has told the FCC it
opposes any reduction in FM mileage
separations, claiming that even the existing mileage rules allow only the minimum FM stereo service
The FTC
should permanently lift its rules
requiring broadcaster disclosures on
games of chance offered by food and
gasoline advertisers, the NAB has said.
The rules, which call for presentation
of the odds of winning and the exact
number of prizes in each category,
were suspended last December during a
rulemaking proceeding.
CBS Broadcast International and the
BBC have signed an agreement for the
exclusive sale and exchange of public
affairs programs, under which the
BBC will pick up such shows as 60 Minutes, CBS Reports, and Face the Nation, and CBS will receive current
affairs material from the BBC's Breakfast Television. CBS has also signed a
similar agreement giving West
Germany's Westdeutscher Rundfunk
and its affiliated broadcast organizations exclusive rights to all CBS News
public affairs programs
AP Radio was scheduled to begin providing
U.S. and international news coverage to Broadcast News Ltd. of Canada
starting April 1. In return, AP members
will receive Canadian news from
Broadcast News
.. UPI has announced CustomCast, a new "custom" news service that will allow
radio and Tv news directors to preprogram news and information from UPI's
database via a microprocessor located
at each station. UPI also recently announced a name change for its audio
network, from UPI Audio to UPI Radio
Network.
WVIT -TV, Hartford, CT, won the Lee
Nelson Award for best television newscast in the UPI International Tom
Phillips Awards for New England.
Awards in six other categories went to
radio and television stations in the New
England states.
....
....
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reading and a separate
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PROFESSIONAL AUDIO DIVISION
www.americanradiohistory.com
-.
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Studer
Re- States
the
Art
snioFSat ..b.....nam,
With the new A810, Studer makes a quantum leap
forward in audio recorder technology. Quite simply. it
re- states the art of analog audio recording.
By combining traditional Swiss craftsmanship with
the latest microprocessor control systems, Studer has
engineered an audio recorder with unprecedented
capabilities. All transport functions are totally microprocessor controlled, and all four tape speeds (3.75 to
30 ips) are front -panel selectable. The digital readout
gives real time indication (+ or
in hrs, min, and sec)
at all speeds, including vari- speed. A zero locate and
one autolocate position are always at hand.
That's only the beginning. The A810 also provides
three "soft keys" which may be user programmed for a
variety of operating features. It's your choice. Three more
ocate positions. Start locate. Pause. Fader start. Tape
dump. Remote ready. Time code enable. You can
orogram your A810 for one specialized application, then
'e- program it later for another use.
There's more. Electronic alignment of audio
parameters (bias. level, EQ) is accomplished via digital
oad networks. (Trimpots have been eliminated.) After
orogramming alignments into the A810's memory. you
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formulations.
The A810 also introduces a new generation of audio
electronics, with your choice of either transformerless or
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ohase compensation circuits for unprecedented phase
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quickly, runs cool, and offers four spooling speeds.
Everything so far is standard. As an option. the A810
offers time -coincident SMPTE code on a center track
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If you'd like computer control of all these functions.
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More features. standard and optional, are available.
We suggest you contact your Studer representative for
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Circle 118 on Reader Service Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
programming ü production
Starfleet Blair Rises
in Quest of Live
Radio Broadcasts
under the impression that the only mobile productions
undertaken by radio are news and
sports. Not so. There is a live music
production vehicle which has grown
from a one-man operation to one of the
most modern live broadcast facilities:
the Starfleet Blair mobile bus.
The Starfleet Blair mobile broadcast
production system was conceived by
original owner and current president
Sam Kopper as a way of beginning a
broadcast network. The vehicle was designed to perform as a combination
broadcast and music recording studio
on wheels for the purpose of bringing
more live concerts to today's radio audience. The mobile was intended for
broadcasting live concerts as opposed
MANY PEOPLE ARE
Above, Starfleet Blair
president Sam Kopper
at left, with Sammy
Hagar for a live rock
concert from St.
Louis, March 13.
Inside Starfleet, the
audio section displays
the Tangent console,
JBL monitors, and
overbrldge
processing.
BM
www.americanradiohistory.com
E
MAY 1983
27
REiDIO PROGREiMMIMG
to taping a live concert for later broadcast, bringing the spontaneity and excitement of live broadcasting to radio
listeners.
As part of a large organization (it is
now owned by Blair Radio), the bus
uses the resources and contacts of a
large corporation to make use of the
newest technology and most highly
skilled personnel, in dealing with both
the artists and with the equipment. But
it didn't start out that way.
"What I wanted to do was to become
network," says Kopper. "To
take the impact and excitement of a live
music event and bring it to radio." He
a live
set out to do so as soon as he learned the
business.
Fresh out of college in 1968, Kopper
went to WBCN in Boston to perform duties as, among other things, a D7 and
program director. After employment at
that station and with experience as a
freelancer, he bought a school bus
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Modular jack panels, for example, feature Switchcraft's unique packaging concept
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I'fpw.,.
around 1971. He left WBCN in 1971, returning to the then progressive rock station in 1974. During those three years
he assembled enough audio equipment
to make a mobile production studio.
Also at the time, and after returning to
full -time radio work, he kept the vehicle going as a side venture to his work
in broadcasting.
These productions were an attempt
to get live music back on the radio, to
take the music from where it was being
performed and put it out over the air.
The live broadcasts then produced by
the truck (known at the time as Crab
Louie Studios) usually consisted of
Kopper and his partner, Jim Slattery,
pulling the bus up to a club, hooking the
two- and four -track versions of his
Ampex 440B reel -to -reels to his Tascam 12 input mixer and feeding it to a
local station. Also on hand were two
Shure M67 mixers for expansion of the
number of inputs if necessary, but the
dream of becoming a network didn't
seem to be approaching very quickly.
Then, in the spring of 1976, the rolling studios experienced a turnaround.
Kopper was able to produce a Laura
Nyro concert live from Carnegie Hall.
Five stations, from Boston to Washington, DC, took the feed. The reason Crab
Louie could reach only the five was
that, at that time, the phone company
didn't have a way of linking a quality,
live FM signal to more than five stations.
Soon there was capability to link up
to 13 cities and Kopper thought he was
on the way to becoming a broadcast
music network. Unfortunately, reality
intervened when they discovered that
national advertising money would not
support a live broadcast event if it could
reach only 13 cities, even if they were
the top 13 markets. Still, Kopper persevered and persuaded the record
companies to finance the live concerts.
Eventually, with advancements in the
late '70s in phone lines and with the
record companies helping, the broadcasts were able to clear 38 cities.
The mobile system grows up
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In 1979 the mobile unit was renamed
Starfleet Studios. In 1980, Kopper
says, "we produced the first commercially sponsored live radio broadcast
concert by mobile vehicle." It was the
rock band Heart performing in Dallas.
This was possible because of live
broadcast networking improvements
enabling the phone company to deliver
80 cities with a quality signal.
Because of Starfleet's successes with
this advancement, the growing company began to look for venture capital to
finance an upgrade of the mobile studio
or the purchase of a new one, and to pay
for the placement of earth stations.
Again, it was difficult. In the '70s,
when Kopper was looking toward assembling a satellite radio network, so
were a few other companies, namely
Mutual, RKO, ABC, NBC, and CBS. It
became evident that even with new capital, his competition was in the heavyweight division.
At the time Starfleet began searching
for investors, Blair Radio saw the future of radio networking by satellite and
was looking to invest. Through a station they owned, wCOz in Boston, and
from some of the stations they represented, Blair heard about Starfleet. As
the live concert broadcasting successes
grew, so did the realization that, to
make the mobile production system
reach its potential, changes would have
to be made. Late in 1980 Starfleet was
sold to Blair Radio for about $1 million.
Kopper and partner sold the entire
operation and got a contract to run the
company as Starfleet Blair. The goal of
the newly formed company was to produce live music broadcasts, to distribute shows via satellite, and to lease the
antennas for use by independent producers. The decision was finally made
to forget the idea of becoming a network and to cease signal distribution. A
reorganization of the company was implemented in September 1981, Kopper's partner left, and Starfleet Blair
signed with NBC's The Source to help
produce the shows.
The agreement has Starfleet producing the shows, arranging the schedules
and dealing with the artists. NBC clears
the stations and sells the program to
advertisers. Kopper and Joseph Mira bella, executive director of programming for the mobile studios, deal with
Andy Denmark at The Source.
In a reassigned responsibility from
Blair's radio division to its video division, Starfleet Blair now reports to
Dick Coveny in video, since they feel,
with the increase in high -quality music
video productions, the purposes of the
radio broadcast bus and the video division are similar. And, in fact, the bus
will continue its work in live radio as
well as expand its music video operation. In rounding out the Starfleet Blair
concert crew, Steve Canavan is the production coordinator, George Wardwell
is the stage manager, and the chief engineer responsibilities are handled by
Steve Corbiere.
With the assistance of these people,
Sam Kopper was able to take his school
bus and tape recorders and turn it into a
full -fledged mobile production studio.
They have combined the multitrack
music studio control room equipment
with radio broadcast equipment, leaving space for a director, and moved
from a struggling one -man operation to
a mobile broadcast system. The equipment they use has kept pace, including
a 32 -input Tangent console, a 12 -input
Howe broadcast board, two Otan MX
5050s, as well as dbx, Eventide, and
Lexicon processing systems. In the
new, mature system, whenever possible, they use Satellite Systems Corp. to
supply the transportable satellite
antenna.
As the sophistication mounts, and the
stakes are increased, the challenges become greater. Kopper and crew seem to
have met those challenges with a strong
effort and with an attitude reflected by
Kopper: "It's one thing to do a beautiful
mix, and another thing to have a live radio program come out smoothly and professionally in terms of a radio broadcast.
That's what we're after: professional,
live music radio."
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© 1983
(215) 845 -2311
Dept. BME -05
Circle 120 on Reader Service Card
BM E
MAY, 1983
29
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Reader Service Card
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TELEVISIOM
programming & production
Local Stations
gather a baataaî
of March's NATPE International conference, at least for a
group of creative stations, was the presentation of the sixteenth annual Iris
Awards. The ceremonies, a gala affair
in Las Vegas's Sahara Hotel, were unusual in that two stations-WMAQ -TV,
Chicago and KYw -TV, Philadelphia
each won two of the coveted awards.
Readers of BM/E will already be familiar with one of KYW's Iris winners,
"Sweet Nothing," produced by James
Anderson. The special on America's
love affair with sugar was highlighted
in February's special report on post production, "Mid -Sized Video Editors
Take on Special Assignments" (p. 38;
story on "Sweet Nothing" begins on p.
40). KYW, of course, competed in the
large- market category, covering markets one through 10. At the other end of
the market spectrum, one of the winners in the small- market category (markets 41 through 210) was a repeater
from the previous year: KUTV, Salt
Lake City, won another Iris for its magazine show, Extra. The show was profiled in BM/E's look at the last year's
Iris winners (May 1982, p. 29).
In addition to the programming
THE HIGHLIGHT
-
iriiäc..
Irises, which honored 19 stations,
NATPE gave its special Award of the
Year to television producer Garry
Marshall. Marshall, who developed
such series as The Odd Couple, Happy
Days, Laverne and Shirley, and Mork
and Mindy, was cited for his "enormous contributions to television entertainment." Retiring CBS chairman
William S. Paley shared the NATPE
President's award for "a lifetime of
service to television" with the late Sol
Taishoff, editor and co- founder of
Broadcasting magazine.
Stations with ambitions to join next
year's Iris honorees may find some
hints in the following profiles of a few
of this year's winners.
River renaissance
St. John's River, which flows north
through Jacksonville, FL, was one of
the worst polluted rivers in the country
10 years asgo, according to Robbie
Gordon, who with Ken Kaminski
coproduced "River Day '82," which
brought Iris honors to WJXT -TV in the
entertainment category for small markets. Local concern over raw sewage
dumping in the river led the town to a
massive cleanup campaign, and the
now-clean river is celebrated each year
with a River Day.
For its half-hour special, the PostNewsweek -owned CBS affiliate didn't
confine itself to the day's activities,
which included a nine -mile River Run,
swimming, boating, kite flying, water
skiing, and a carnival on the river
shore.
"We tried to give a feel for the history of the river and its people," says
Gordon. The station commissioned
Florida folksinger and storyteller Gable
Rogers to write a song about the river
for the show's opener. The station's
PM Magazine anchor hosted the show,
with the sports anchor covering the
varied sports activities. Rounding out
the show was material on the river's
history and the history of the cleanup
operation -including 1975 footage of
the town's mayor jumping into the
water on waterskis to demonstrate the
river's safety to skeptics.
Producer Anne Michaels (lett) and
director Fritz Roland supervise film -totape transfer of "Our Daily Bread" at
Interface Video In Washington, DC.
Producer Kathy Teets (below) at KBTV's
Sony BVU -500 editing recorders, used to
produce the "Skier's Dream" segment of
the winning edition of Assignment
Colorado.
BM /E
www.americanradiohistory.com
MAY, 1983
33
TELEVISION PROG EiMMING
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Circle 123 on Reader Service Card
34
BM /E
MAY, 1983
biggest problem" complains Kaminski, "was that it all happened the same
day. We only had five hours to edit it."
The show aired at 7:30 p.m., but according to Kaminski, "At 7:15 we
were still working on the third or fourth
segment." The station had a crew of
about 20 in the field, with six Ikegami
HL -79As covering the festivities. One
camera was in the lead vehicle for the
race and another was in a helicopter.
These and a third HL-79A on the Main
Street Bridge were linked by 13 GHz
microwave to the station's EFT, truck,
which relayed live video back to the
station for race coverage during the
day. All the videotaped sections were
on one -inch, with Sony BVH -500 field
recorders. Editing was done on the station's Harris Epic computer editor with
Sony BVH- 1100s. Since the show was
completed, Kaminski says, the station
has added NEC's E -Flex digital video
effects package to the editing system.
Looking at unemployment
Given the seriousness of current
unemployment levels, it's no surprise
that the winner for public affairs specials in the medium -market category
was a show looking at this problem. Atlanta's wTBs, the Turner Broadcasting
System superstation, had identified minority unemployment as a topic for a
special when they contacted Anne Michaels, a Washington, DC -based independent producer who previously had
done some editing work for the station.
Michaels was particularly well
suited to the job, having served as director of communications of the Office
of Equal Opportunity in the Johnson
administration poverty program. Her
partner, Herb Kramer, had also worked
in OEO. WTBS wanted Michaels to talk
to members of the Congressional Black
Caucus and develop a show for them.
"The script actually developed itself," according to Michaels. "We had
a sense of what we were looking for,
but we didn't have a specific script to
start out with." After meetings with
members of the Black Caucus and other
groups concerned with the problem, the
topic was narrowed down to youth
unemployment-culminating in a one hour special, "Our Daily Bread: A
Study in Black Youth Unem-
ployment."
"Our Daily Bread" is largely centered on a pair of black teenagers living
in Baltimore's inner city. Michaels
says Baltimore was chosen in part "because I'm in Washington," and partly
because Baltimore seemed fairly typical of urban areas and had a ghetto that
was "much talked about."
Edit bay at WJXT -TV, showing Grass
Valley 1600 production switcher and
Yamaha audio board.
"The city was small enough to allow
us to get a handle on it," Michaels con-
tinues. "We didn't want to use New
York, which has been done to death."
The story was shot in 16 mm film,
then edited and transferred to one -inch
videotape at Interface Video in Washington. Film editing was done by Robert Pierce.
Working largely without a script,
Michaels let her subjects speak for
themselves to develop the story. "It
wasn't really cinéma vérité," she says,
"but the story evolved by itself."
Working with wTBs, Michaels says,
was an independent producer's dream.
The station didn't look over her shoulder, but gave her complete freedom to
develop a show within the boundaries
of the concept of minority unemployment. When the station received
the completed show, owner Ted Turner
did an intro himself. "The people at
WTBS have an integrity and concern that
most people don't realize," says Michaels.
Featuring creativity
It takes a large dose of creativity to
keep a magazine program out of the
doldrums. That creativity clearly is in
ample supply at KBTV, Denver, an ABC
affiliate owned by Gannett Broadcasting Group. Mary Brenneman, who
produced the station's Assignment Colorado magazine until switching to other
projects at the station this year, pulled
together a diverse, unusual trio of features for the Iris- award-winning edition, in the medium -market category.
The winning show opened with a
piece on a local man who does presentations and storytelling for Denver
schoolchildren on the much neglected
topic of black cowboys. Shot with a
Sony BVP-330 camera, the in- school
segments were intercut with photos of
black cowboys from the local Black
History Museum and interviews with a
;v
-
Sixteenth Annual
Iris Awards
Public Affairs Specials
Markets 1 -10: wji -rv, Washington,
for "The Saving of the President,"
program executive Carol Myers and
producers Paul Fine, Holly Fine, and
Dr. Frank Kavanaugh.
Markets 11 -40: wras, Atlanta, for
"Our Daily Bread: A Study in Black
Youth Unemployment," program executive Robert Wussler and producer Anne Michaels.
Markets 41 -210: WDAY -TV, Fargo, for
"Hjemkomst: A Dream Come True,"
program executive Susan Eider and
producer Daniel J. Anderson.
Public Affairs Series
Markets 1 -10: WBBM -TV, Chicago, for
Channel 2: The People, program executive Ed Spray and producer
Bruce DuMont.
Markets 11 -40: wcco -rv, Minneapolis, for The Moore Report, program
executive Chuck Sorlein and executive producer Mike Sullivan.
Markets 41 -210: WLBT -TV, Jackson,
for Small Farmer Profile, program executive Hewitt Griffin and producer
Dennis Smith.
Sports
Markets 1 -10: WMAO-TV, Chicago, for
"Call Me Coach," program executive
Dillon Smith and producer Sandra
Weir.
Markets 11 -40: KOA-TV, Denver, for
"Riding the High Country: The Coors
International Bicycle Classic," program executive Lon C. Lee and producer Bruce Brown.
Markets 41 -210: WHAS -TV, Louisville,
for "Derby '108," program executive
Dick Sweeney and producer Jerry
Drury.
Magazine Format
Markets 1 -10: WMAO -TV, Chicago, for
You, program executive Dillon Smith
and producers Peggy Allen, Len
Aronson, and David Finney.
Markets 11 -40: KBTV, Denver, for Assignment Colorado, program executive Darla J. Ellis and producer Mary
Brenneman.
black woman who had ranched with her
husband. Brenneman edited the piece
herself on KBTV's Sony BVU- 800s. "It
was the first time 1 had used them," she
recalls. "I remember being here at midnight trying to figure out how to work
the things."
The second piece was a "video
1J '
Markets 41 -210: Kurv, Salt Lake
City, for Extra, program executive
Lamar Smith and executive producer
Bill Lord.
Children's
Markets 1 -10: Kvw-rv, Philadelphia,
for "Santa and Son," program executive Chuck Gingold and producer
Raysa Bonow.
Markets 11 -40: WPBT, Miami, for
"The Me Knowbody Knows," program executive John Felton and producer Penelope McPhee.
Markets 41 -210: wowK -TV, Huntington, for "Around the World in 60 Minutes," program executive Paul
Dicker and producer Andrew M.
Friedman.
Entertainment
Markets 1 -10: wDiv, Detroit, for "A
Star Is Born: Detroit Picks a Winner,"
program executive Jim Corno and
producers Curtis Gadson and Bruce
Littlejohn.
Markets 11 -40: KIRO -Tv, Seattle, for
"The Making of Donahue," program
executive Judy Law and producers
Tim Garrigan and Christine Dewey.
Markets 41 -210: wJxT, Jacksonville,
for "River Day '82," program executive Barry Barth and producers Ken
Kaminski and Robbie Gordon.
Other
Markets 1 -10: KYW -TV, Philadelphia,
for "Sweet Nothing," program executive Chuck Gingold and producer
James Anderson.
Markets 11 -40: wsB -Tv, Atlanta, for
"Special Edition: The Making of
Nightline," program executive A.R.
Van Cantfort and producers Marla
Sparks and Monica Kaufman.
Markets 41 -210: KSL -TV, Salt Lake
City, for "Smoke Detectors: What
You Don't Know Could Kill You," program executive Scott R. Clawson
and producer Spence Kinard.
International Iris
Société Radio -Canada, Montreal, for
"Le Mandarin Merveilleux," program
executive Louise Marois and producer Pierre Morin.
skit," similar
in feeling to the video
music of MTV and similar services. It
featured local singer /entertainer Lannie
Garrett, who worked with the station to
conceptualize the skit.
"We wanted to do something more
than the usual profile," explains
Brenneman. Set to the song "Despera-
tion," the skit was a scene in a diner,
with visuals depicting a waitress's
fantasies -realized at the end of the
skit-of becoming a star. Two cameras, a Sony 330 and a 300A, were used
to shoot this segment, and editing was
done on the station's Sony BVU -800
editing recorders, then finished on its
BM/E
MAY, 1983
35
TELEVISION PROGREiMMIMG
340X system, tied to four Sony
one -inch VTRs.
The third piece took a cinéma vérité
look at "helicopter skiing," in which
skiers are taken to generally inaccessible slopes by helicopter. It takes excellent skiing skills, but station
photographer Sam Allen and segment
producer Kathy Teets were up to the
task, shooting the run on a Sony
BVP-300A. "There was no script,"
Brenneman explains. "They let the
natural sound carry the story."
Three segments, each unique in conCMX
tent and feeling: the ingredients of an
attention -holding magazine. Brenneman, understandably, looks back on it
with pride. "All the things I strived for
came together in that show," she says.
Double honors
The Chicago NBC O &O WMAQ -TV
shared with Philadelphia's KYW-TV the
distinction of winning not one but two
Iris awards. You, a magazine -format
show produced by Peggy Allen, Len
Aronson, and David Finney, won in the
magazine category in the large- market
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Circle 124 on Reader Service Card
36
BWE
MAY, 1983
division; the sports prize for that category went to WMAQ's "Call Me
Coach," a half-hour special celebrating Ray Meyer's fortieth year as DePaul University basketball coach.
Sports fans are probably aware that the
69-year -old Meyer recently indicated
he would continue to coach DePaul for
at least another year.
Reviewing a four -decade career gave
WMAQ the impetus to go through its archives for old film footage to incorporate into an imaginative, nostalgic
opener. "We went through the decades, starting in the 1940s, with old
black- and -white footage of DePaul
basketball games transferred to tape,"
explains the station's director of
programming Dillon Smith. (Sandra
Weir, who produced the show, has
since left the station to pursue a
freelance career.) The '40s footage was
accompanied with big band music of
the era, with titles superimposed in a
contemporary typeface. The intro continued through the 1950s-again with
appropriate music and type-and on
through the '60s, '70s, and '80s in the
same manner.
The half -hour show, which ran in
prime -time access period, also included interviews with coach Meyer and his
wife, conducted in their home, and
talks wih former DePaul basketball
players. All production was on video,
using an RCA TK-76 camera. Recording and editing was on the station's
Sony 3/4 -inch gear.
"We composited on two -inch because our one -inch equipment hadn't
arrived at the time," Smith remarks.
The station, he says, is in the final phases of conversion to one -inch operation.
In addition to the interviews, WMAQ
shot plenty of current game action.
"The coach doesn't mind wearing a
wireless mic," notes Smith, and the
station took advantage of that to get
plenty of actuality of Meyer talking to
his athletes in the locker room and on
the sidelines.
Smith admits that "Call Me Coach"
was a relatively low- budget project. It
didn't take too long to shoot, he says,
and although there was a fair amount of
editing involved with all the old footage, the post- production was still within the limits of most standard shows.
What, then, was special about this Iris
winner?
"It's not how many days you
shoot," Smith suggests, "but rather
the quality of the people involved. We
have an exceptionally good staff who
come up with good ideas and concepts,
and we have excellent camera operators
and editors." With two Irises under his
belt, who could dispute him? BM/E
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Circle 125 on Reader Service Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
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FIAWKEYE
PHILADELPHIA NEWS CREW
SWITCHES FROM FILM TO VIDEO
1
WKBS -TV in Philadelphia has "localized" its news operation with HAWKEYE.
And they've done it with a crew that was
previously only experienced with film!
The changeover was quick and easy
according to Glenn Romsos, Engineering
Manager. "We had a hurry -up training program and then our crew hit the streets. The
HCR -1 recording camera is easy to operate
and our people readily adapted to this new
concept in news gathering."
The versatile HAWKEYE HCR-1 recording camera captures local stories which are
then programmed in with the station's CNN
Headline News.
The station also has a complete
studio recording /editing
system and final story segments are transferred to a cartridge recorder for airing. Its
all part of a new WKBS emphasis on news.
HAWKEYE HR -2
"Far Superior to
Recordings"
"The HAWKEYE Chromalrak recording
3/4"
format is giving us video far superior to
recordings," reports Romsos. "Picture
quality is one of the key reasons why
we went with this system. When you compare our news footage with the same story
coverage on 3/4" by other stations in
the city, the difference in quality is
incredible."
HAWKEYE is a versatile system. It can
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complement. Ask your RCA Representative
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Circle 126 on Reader Service Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
RC,'
orb,
TO
HOW
SUCCEED in
TELEPRODUCTION
VEHICLE OPERATION
(BY REALLY TRYING)
By Eva J. Blinder, Senior Associate Editor
Stiff competition and stiffer costs make running a teleproduction truck challenging and
risky. What are the directions that lead a
truck down the road to success?
creativity, fat profits -all these and more await
those adventurous souls who enter the business of mobile teleproduction. Or do they? At
the very best, yes -but the teleproduction
pie, while bigger than ever, is being sliced
thinner and thinner as competition intensifies. Dreams of
the potential awards must be balanced with serious consideration of the costs and pitfalls inherent in running a
mobile facility.
In the mobile business, the concept of "market" undergoes some unusual distortions. Trucks, after all, have
wheels, and are not bound to their home addresses, as are
studios or any other business. Trucks based in New York,
for example, have been known to travel to California for a
really big shoot; a travel radius of 500 to 800 miles is commonplace, giving "competition" a new meaning.
Despite their wide range, trucks remain subject to many
of the woes that plague business in general, such as high
interest rates, rising salaries, and union demands. In addition, the technological pressure is especially high for
teleproduction vehicles, with producers and networks
constantly demanding the latest in sophisticated electronics. Truck operators, however, are forced by the severe
competition to keep a lid on prices and to negotiate each
job on an individual basis.
LAMOROUS NETWORK ASSIGNMENTS,
People make the difference
With all
be negatives,
how does one achieve success?
"The real key, as in any service business, is the creative
ingenuity and capability of the staff," according to
Herbert Bass, president of Unitel, one of the largest production houses in New York City. "All mobile companies have basically the same equipment," Bass continues.
"It is the talents of people that we depend on."
Those talents don't come cheap -in the New York
40
BM/E
market, a skilled mobile maintenance engineer commands a salary ranging from $35,000 to $60,000 a year.
Salaries are somewhat lower in smaller markets where the
cost of living is lower, but they remain a significant expense. And competition for top -notch maintenance personnel means many companies lose their engineers to
higher bidders.
For example, Mike Kanarek, director of operations for
the 45 -foot trailer operated by WKYT-PI, Lexington, KY,
reports that salaries for maintenance engineers average
around $25,000 plus overtime in his area. The station
maintains two full -timers to keep the truck in good shape.
"We can get people at lower rates because it's a smaller
market," Kanarek explains, "but we have trouble keeping them." With the skills and experience they gain working on the WKYT truck, many engineers get itchy for the
larger salaries they can get elsewhere. Kanarek notes,
however, that the truck has never been idle for lack of
staff. "So far we've always been able to find people," he
says. "If necessary we can always promote someone from
the station staff."
"Maintenance is the biggest hassle in trucks," complains Eric Duke, vice president of New York's All Mobile Video. "You have to pay very well to get good
systems maintenance people." Finding someone with top
skills is tricky, and checking references is a must. "Sometimes you just have to try someone out on a freelance basis
if you're strapped for personnel." Duke suggests.
Other personnel needs
In addition to their full -time staffers, most truck operators require freelance help to a greater or lesser degree.
Most agree that it's best to have at least one or two people
who always accompany the truck and know all its idiosyncrasies; but when the truck has to travel several hundred
miles to a shoot, taking along a full crew gets expensive.
Richard Clouser, president of Unitel Mobile Video (the
mobile division is based in Pittsburgh), says the company
has remote crews in many cities who are familiar with its
trucks, allowing Unitel to use the same crew each time it
goes to a particular location. "The full -time employees,
MAY, 1983
www.americanradiohistory.com
continued on page 42
DESIGNS
THAT SUCCEED
WITH
MOBILE VEHICLE
CONSOLES
By Tim Wetmore, Associate Editor
Higher -quality audio is now an essential element in every production vehicle. But fitting the biggest and best possible audio
console into the unit involves complex decisions about van size, cost, potential applications, and engineering issues.
E
ral
XPANDING THE LIMITS Of space and technology. This is the task at hand, this is the challenge. It is being met head -on. Going beyond
the limitations imposed by time and economics, today's mobile design engineers are exerting their imaginations to devise production
vehicles in previously unknown forms.
It is a well-recognized trend that the amount and quality
of audio equipment is on the increase in production vehicles. Now that the giant 40 -foot -plus rigs with large,
expandable sections are with us, whole audio production
studios containing advanced design audio consoles can be
included.
Advances are being made in audio design for the small
and mid -sized vehicles as well. But here, space considerations seem to conflict directly with the need for larger,
higher -quality mixers. These are the questions with which
vehicle designers struggle, reasons they may assume very
different design philosophies in their attempts to reach the
same goal of engineering excellence.
Mobile studios are a reality
According to C.D. Phillips, administrator of the RCA
Mobile Van Projects, "A good audio man who can operate a sophisticated console in the demanding environment
of mobile production can watch his stock rise in the near
future." With the advent of larger vans, and with the influx of tractor-trailer rigs onto the mobile production
scene, the industry has witnessed many changes-among
the most important, the expanding sections on the newer
trailers, creating plenty of room inside for audio.
The central element in increased audio quality and
quantity in these vans is, by necessity, the full -blown au-
dio console. The design questions raised in the large
trucks are generally limited to customer preference and
design principle, since current vehicles do not restrict
console space significantly. It is now common to find
mixers with 36 or more inputs in a truck, with different
features for submasters, outputs, telephone, and 1FB
interfacing.
The large- vehicle designer must have a good working
relationship with console manufacturers so that the heart
of the entire audio matrix is not a stumbling block in the
completion of the mobile production system. The designers, then, look for reliable equipment. That, and considerations such as: Does the manufacturer offer support? Is his
product good? And will he come through with assistance
when it's needed? are very important when the van designer's customer has a set production date for which a
large amount of money has been invested.
Another consideration is how to integrate the console
into the total mobile system. In doing this, the customer's
type of programming, the truck's different applications,
and the crew size must be determined. From this information, the designer will be able to choose the number of inputs necessary for the console, the number and types of
mics required, and the physical location of the console.
A.F. Associates systems division manager Tom
Canavan relates, "It is imperative that we know the
operating practice of the end user in order to determine
how to integrate the console into the total production
package. We often recommend certain consoles with certain capabilities, but only the customer knows exactly
how the system will be used and that is what we must find
out before we start."
AFA just delivered a truck to NBC in November which
was slated for action in the company's massive sports production schedule. The van will be working with other vehicles at various locations, requiring of the console
tremendous mixing capacity and a good deal of versatility. An ADM 32 -input console was installed with eight
submasters and grouped submixers which allow the capability of mixing 60 microphones simultaneously. Of the
continued on page 52
BM,E
MAY, 1983
41
Min
HOW TO
SUCCEED IN
TELEPRODUCTION
VEHICLE OPERATION
(BY REALLY TRYING)
that by today's high interest rates and you're faced with a
weighty corporate decision.
TAV won't escape the pressure to upgrade by concentrating on post- production, however. Eassty says the
company is getting the second Mirage graphics system
produced by MCl/Quantel and is building two new edit
bays. Technological changes have already killed the demand for two-inch VTRs, which used to dominate the industry; Eassty muses, "Maybe five years from now we'll
all be half- inch."
Technological trends
Several truck operators comment that the switch to triax
was one of the most important equipment decisions of the
last couple of years. Eric Address, director of engineering
at E.J. Stewart, notes that many stadiums are now
prewired with triax. "Our largest equipment pressure was
to go to triax cameras," Address remarks, adding that demand for Stewart's two -truck Gemini unit has increased
greatly since installing TK-47s. "We decided to get the
best cameras made and spend the extra money for a good
market position. " The cameras were instrumental in
bringing in a wider range of clients, who now include the
TV networks, cable nets, and foreign broadcasters.
New TK -47s have also figured in the upgrading of
Reeves' 40 -foot truck, now in its sixth year. Moscone
says the company is considering building a new truck, but
meanwhile has ordered the equipment and is installing it
in the old truck as it arrives. "The old truck had TK-46s, a
Chyron III, and no sophisticated switching," Moscone
says perhaps explaining a recent dearth of sports jobs.
All that will probably change with the upgrade, however.
In addition to the four TK -47s, the truck now has two new
HL -79Ds and a Chyron IV, plus better intercom and 1FB
equipment. On order are a 24-input Neve audio board
(Moscone fears the board may not fit into the old box) and
the largest -model Grass Valley 1680 switcher, which was
due to arrive in April. "The switcher will make me feel
like I have a new truck," Moscone sighs.
Another area where technological pressure is especially
great now is graphics. A Chyron IV is de rigeur for any
kind of network job, and clients expect to find one in any
large truck. Shirley Bass says that Rimyth purchased the
latest model Chyron IVB earlier this year; the old Chyron
II is being sold to a television station. "We have to get
whatever is network standard because that's what producers ask for," she comments. The amount of upgrading
necessary varies from year to year, she says, and there is
two or three years' lead time to catch up with the latest
-
network necessity.
WKYT added a Chyron IVB in January; at the same time
the truck added an Ampex ADO system. "Graphics were
a primary concern," says Kanarek. "We had been losing
some clients because of it." When WGBH reclaimed its
truck from a lessee that had operated it for three years, the
station immediately upgraded the Chyron and added
Quantel digital effects, along with two new Sony VTRs.
Unitel's Clouser, however, says, "You can temper
44
BM /E
Production area of Channel One's Starshooter features an ISI
904 switcher and 3M digital matrix effects.
equipment pressure by knowing your clients and what
they're using." He says Unitel stands ready to supply almost anything a customer wants on a per -unit basis. He
concedes, though, "There are a lot of whims in this business." The next trend, he predicts, will be toward full onboard editing capability.
How much will that
cost me?
Determining the charges with most service businesses
is a simple matter of checking a rate card. Things are more
complicated in mobile teleproduction, however: operator
after operator says, "Rate cards don't exist in this business." Rate cards exist, of course, but clients' needs vary
so widely and are so specific that truck operators tend to
negotiate each job on an individual basis. For trucks based
in and around New York city, the going rate for a one -day
shoot with a 40 -foot trailer equipped with, say, four cameras, seems to hover in the vicinity of $5000 to $7000.
Operators are understandably reluctant to discuss figures
because of the large number of variables involved-the
"average" shoot really doesn't exist. An even more sensitive consideration is different clients' differing abilities
to pay. Some operators indicated they would occasionally
lower rates for less affluent clients, such as cable
MAY, 1983
www.americanradiohistory.com
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HOW TO
SUCCEED IN
TELEPRODUCTION
VEHICLE OPERATION
(BY REALLY TRYING)
1
47
C
Staff meets outside Mobile Unit 5, one of three large trucks
operated by Versatile Video of Sunnyvale, CA. The truck,
equipped with Philips LDK -5 triax cameras, was in San Jose
covering the World Games.
-at least if no more lucrative assignment was
available.
Unitel's Clouser explains, "The mix of jobs is very important. You need some long shoots, some network
leases -which are very profitable but hard on the equipment and not stimulating for the staff-and some smaller
jobs to maintain the proper volume." Unitel has two large
trucks: Odyssey 1, a 45 -foot trailer with expandable sides,
10 cameras, six VTRs, and digital video effects; and
Startruck, another 45 -foot trailer. Having two trucks
gives the company more leeway in booking shoots, letting
Unitel serve a greater number of clients without turning
away work. At TAV, Eassty echoed Clouser's sentiments:
"You can't make a decent profit without two trucks -the
overhead is too high and the equipment takes a beating."
"You can't be snobbish about your price structure,"
claims Reeves' Moscone. "It's a buyer's market." Along
with several other truck operators, he expresses concern
that prices can only go so low if a company wants to stay
in business. Operators in general indicate they are trying
to hold their prices level, raising them as little as possible
and trying not to cut. One says his company hasn't raised
prices since 1978.
Several operators agree that network clients are more
likely to shop for the truck they like best, with price a secondary consideration; cable clients, however, tend to negotiate price "right down to the dime." A major reason
for price differentials, however, is clients' varying equip-
ment requirements. Even if the truck has sophisticated
graphics capability and can handle 12 cameras, clients
only pay for the gear they actually use. "You can't expect
a client to pay for something he doesn't need," says
Herbert Bass, echoing the sentiments of most operators.
Full -blown shoots requiring a truck's full equipment complement are much sought by truck operators, but are hardly the kind of job most available. "Network price is
several times what it would be for a local station," says
WPHL's Joel Levitt, "because you have to satisfy their requirements. For a local pickup, that kind of equipment is
overkill -you don't need it." In addition to its large trailer, which Levitt says has served as the house trailer at Veterans Stadium in Philadelphia for 12 years, covering
Phillies baseball and other sports, the station operates a
small one-camera mobile unit for commercial and industrial clients, as well as its own news features.
The wide range of jobs and prices, in turn, makes it difficult to quantify the exact number of days per month a
truck must be booked to show a profit. Leshner of E.J.
Stewart expresses the view of many when he explains,
"How often the truck has to work to be profitable depends
on the dollar size of the shoot. We look for an overall
weekly gross to cover salaries, equipment payments and
overhead, and to provide some profit for the company."
Especially for a sports -oriented truck, work may be seasonal, with a busy season helping to carry the truck
through a slow one.
companies
46
BM/E
MAY, 1983
Available in 2", I", 3/á' and
1/2"
Beta and VHS.
Circle 129 on Reader Service Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
I
HOW TO
SUCCEED IN
TELEPRODUCTION
VEHICLE OPERATION
(BY REALLY TRYING)
For example, Kanarek reports that the WKYT truck usually has a single weekly shoot during football season,
requiring a day for travel, a day for setup, and a day for
shooting. The basketball season can bring two to three
shoots a week. During the spring and summer, however,
the truck may sit idle for as long as three weeks at a time.
Other operators report general formulas for profitability- "one or two major shoots a month, plus some
small jobs "; "the truck should be booked every weekend"; "we try to book the truck 15 to 20 days a month."
Moscone of Reeves says, "If you can fill half the month
you're okay." All emphasize, though, that it is impossible to rely too much on any formula because of the variation among jobs.
One buffer for possible hard times can be a diversified
operation, according to several companies. Shirley Bass
of Rimyth says, "It's difficult to make a profit if you're
concentrated in a single area." The company plans to
open a large facility in New Jersey with six studios, three
editing suites, a duplicating room and stages for film and
video. Herbert Bass -who says Unitel has no lack of mobile business -feels that having a full- service facility is
attractive to clients, provides backup in terms of extra
equipment, and gives several areas of income.
48
Rimyth Video truck (left) on location for CBS. Network jobs
require state -of- the-art equipment.
ness is sluggish.
Once a reputation is established, it is not carved in
stone. Without proper maintenance, a truck's equipment
won't function properly; there's no surer way to lose clients. Many clients are loyal to a truck they like, but others
have roving eyes and may leave if a newer, better
equipped truck drives into the market. And a truck that
was state-of- the -art five years ago isn't state -of-the -art today without extensive, and expensive, upgrading. As
many operators say, "You're only as good as your last
job."
Spirit of cooperation
"The business
is competitive, but we talk to each oth-
Landing the job
er," says Address at E.J. Stewart.
"It hurts like hell to turn business away," complains
Ultimately, then, the profitability of a teleproduction
truck depends on landing the right jobs for the right price.
Having the right equipment is essential, but many trucks
have the right equipment. What actually brings in work,
then, has much to do with a tricky combination of customer service, engineering knowhow, and reputation.
Building a reputation in a competitive field can be difficult for a newcomer. Reputations, after all, are based on
jobs well done, and jobs are based on reputations. This
catch -22 situation can be frustrating for a truck operator
trying to get established.
A good example of this quandary is Rick Abrams, who
says the biggest hurdle for the GBH truck so far has been
establishing a reputation and building a clientele. Even
though the truck had been in service for another production company for three years before GBH reclaimed the
lease and upgraded the equipment last summer, the
carryover in reputation was "negligible," although not
entirely nonexistent. Abrams finds his most effective
means of attracting customers is personal sales calls, but
the healthy profits the station had looked for to defray
some of its operating expenses (as a PBS station, its crunch
is particularly severe) have not materialized. Abrams
finds it difficult to gauge how the economic recession has
affected business. "I have only known hard times," he
says. The truck has had a number of network assignments
in addition to its work for cable companies and other stations, mostly in New England, but business hasn't
matched Abrams's expectations. Interestingly, WGBH,
which owns the production subsidiary, has a reputation
for top -quality program production; still, the truck's busi-
Eric Duke at All- Mobile Video, "but if the truck is
booked we'll refer the client to someone who has what he
wants." Duke adds, "Everyone in this business knows
each other. If you stand away, you get a bad reputation
bad turn catches up with you down the line. After all, no
one company can have everything a client wants."
Referring a client elsewhere when the truck is booked,
Duke implies, may be good for business because it demonstrates to the customer that the company has his interests in mind. In a way, the bottom line in mobile
teleproduction is not merely hardware-which is crucial,
but never unique-but rather the kind of personal service
clients receive.
"Our strength is personal service," insists Unitel's
Clouser. "Anybody can put a truck together." His colleague Herbert Bass explains, "We're really in the people
business, not the hardware business." Address talks
about building up the "confidence factor" with clients by
keeping the truck in top shape. "You must treat the client
one hundred percent nice," he advises.
In sum, it seems that the best advice to someone
contemplating entering the mobile teleproduction field
would be two seemingly contradictory maxims: "proceed
with caution" and "pull out all the stops." The business
is tricky and the stakes are high, and anyone starting up
without a good deal of thought and research is doomed.
But there are no half-way measures that lead to success,
no path to profit without the best in equipment and personnel. Rewards and satisfaction are distinct possibilities, but
heed this word to the wise from Eric Duke: "It's not glamBM/E
orous in the rain."
BM/E
MAY, 1983
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IC Kl'R
ran
DESIGNS
THAT SUCCEED
WITH
MOBILE VEHICLE
CONSOLES
continued from page 41
32 ins, eight have submixers
on them with four mics on
each of the eight inputs. The board also offers one stereo
(two channels) and one mono master output.
The bigger the better
As a general rule, "the bigger the better" is a truism
with which most designers agree. On a CBS sports truck
built by AFA, a 36-input Ward -Beck console was used
with 12 submasters; but because of the style of CBS production, no submixers were employed. In another NBC
truck, the N -1, an ADM console is being interfaced with a
custom 40x20 IFB mix -minas matrix, essentially an audio
routing switcher hooked to the board. All the customizing, all the ins and outs of a particular design, are a direct
result of the three important criteria: How much room?
How will it be used (in terms of application and crew
size)? And how much money is available?
Different companies, of course, approach the console
design and implementation questions differently. RCA,
one of the oldest teleproduction vehicle designer/builders,
has a marketing agreement to install ADM consoles as the
standard unit. If the customer has a preference for a particular brand, or if another model is required, then it is made
available. The mobile van division of RCA has used Neve
and Seimens as well as other mixers depending on the particular job requirements.
RCA entered into the agreement with ADM because the
product met certain standards. These standards, as stated
by C.D. Phillips of RCA, are that "in building for a
worldwide broadcast community we need flexibility. We
look at the mechanical construction of the mixer, considering its durability and space displacement in addition to
its ability to interface easily with other equipment."
The mobile audio system design business, by nature, is
a custom business with modifications and various provisions for physical restrictions invalidating any definite
"way of doing things." As a result of designing with an
eye to the future, RCA has been, for the last seven years,
designing the mobile audio systems with stereo program
capability to accommodate radio broadcasts and the potential for stereo television. One of the recent projects designed for stereo and with complete flexibility in mind
was a $3 million van built for Quality Video in Las Vegas.
The consoles used were a Yamaha 32x8 and a Tapco
16x2. The system was designed such that the two boards
can be married bus -to -bus to provide 10 outputs, or they
can be patched so that the Tapco is routed into two inputs
of the Yamaha, giving submaster control capability from
the eight subs on the Yamaha.
Other electronic design considerations of RCA include
the present increase in digital limiters and digital effects as
well as the increasingly sophisticated monitoring systems. Formerly, only one audio monitor was used so that
the console operator could hear how it sounded. Most of
RCA's present trucks are built with three monitor speakers, one for cue and two for the stereo program. In addi52
BM/E
Quality Video's van by RCA shows a 32 -in Yamaha
console, Technics deck, and dbx processing.
tion, the consoles must handle more and more complex
systems such as voice couplers allowing a voice input to
be cut into the audio mix as well as intercom capability
through the board. RCA, for this type of design, usually
uses the RTS intercoms.
Equipment list approach
With a slightly more regimented design philosophy,
Midwest Corp. begins the overall track design with an
equipment list. The list, including the model of audio
console to be used, also contains a summary of proposed
uses for the van. From this point, David Moore, the design engineer for Midwest, makes every effort to keep a
balanced system and consistent audio levels with balanced impedence. As a standard, these levels are +4
dBm at 600 ohms. An effort is made to isolate the audio as
much as possible by running all lighting circuitry in one
conduit with the ac, separating it as much as possible from
all audio lines and locations.
In an explanation of how the Midwest design principle
affects the audio console installation, Moore claims,
"The placement of the console and the monitors influences how the program is heard. Since the monitors are
directly related to console locations, this is an important
factor. Further, the placement and design of the console
into the entire mobile unit affects the overall capability
and performance of the complete mobile system."
MAY, 1983
www.americanradiohistory.com
ART BIGGS ON
MASTER CONTROL
AUTOMATION.
In the 1950's, two broadcasting engineers
in Tulsa built a small, crude, mechanical
device to automate station breaks. One of
those engineers, Art Biggs, is now Vice
President, Engineering, Corinthian Broadcasting -and his interest in master control
automation remains strong. The respected,
34 -year veteran of the industry works with
the engineering staffs of all six Corinthian
stations, of which two WISH -TV, Indianapolis, and KXTV, Sacramento -are now
using DCC Master Control Automation.
-
EVEN FORMER SKEPTICS LIKE IT
WHO NEEDS IT?
skeptical depend upon it'
"How do you know if you need MCA? If the
chief engineer is constantly trouble- shooting
switching errors or one engineer is a total
slave to switcher buttons, MCA can certainly help. It also liberates personnel from
many manual chores, such as log- keeping,
to make their time more productive:'
CREATES TOGETHERNESS
FOR BIAS OR NON -BIAS SYSTEMS
"MCA brings the traffic department and
technical department closer together. This
makes everything go more smoothly for
everyone :'
"All of our stations are on the BIAS traffic system from DCC, so by using the DCC MCA,
"At first, some of the engineering staff were
enthusiastic, some were skeptical. But within
three weeks after it was released to them,
they did their first total day's operation on
the MCA system. And now, even the most
GIVES MORE CONTROL
think some engineers are afraid that with
MCA, they'll be giving control of their
operation to a machine and be a robot,
sitting there, watching it. Actually, the exact
opposite is true. Even the most vocal of our
"I
I1I:I:
engineers who opposed the idea have
found that MCA frees them from so many
nitty- gritty, demanding, split- second, button
pushers, that they have more time to learn
what all the machine can do and can do
even more than they could before. Now, if
you take it away from them for some
reason, there's a lot of yelling to get it back.
They've learned they didn't relinquish contro
-they gained a tool that gives them greater
control:'
we're dealing with one manufacturer, one
computer, and one system that embraces the
master control operation, the traffic operation, the financial operation, word processing,
film inventory. One source for everything:'
Fora free brochure on how DCC Master
Control Automation can interface with your
on -air switcher and traffic system, write DCC
Marketing.
BROADCAST DIVISION
DATA COMMUNICATIONS CORPORATION
3000 Directors Row, Memphis,Tennessee 38131, 901 -345 -3544
www.americanradiohistory.com
Circle 127 on Reader Service Card
Aft
DESIGNS
THAT SUCCEED
WITH
MOBILE VEHICLE
CONSOLES
In a different version of the audio isolation principle,
the designers at Television Engineering usually opt for a
completely enclosed audio booth rather than just an area
partitioned by racks or walls. With this in mind something
as seemingly mundane as door size can affect the console
choice if only certain models will fit through the door. If
an external door for the audio booth is provided, the field
of choices expands and any size console can be used.
A model often chosen at Television Engineering is the
large Auditronics line which, it feels, offers very high
quality at a reasonable cost. One further particular which
sales manager Larry Mason says is too often overlooked
in the professional audio design world is the use of XLR
connectors and balanced line inputs. Says Mason, "They
are a must for professional use and, strikingly, are very
building teleproduction vehicles, the greatest degree of
compromise coming with the small ENG van. Larry Mason prefers to use small modified tabletop units, often
installed in panels that slide in and out of a rack configuration. On this level, Shure mixers see a lot of use, since
the productions are mostly a matter of mic mixing. Also
used are the RTS and Tapco mixers for the more elaborate
jobs.
In the 14 -foot trucks built by Shook Electronics, Ed
Shook tries to go with an 8x4 mixer because of size. He
often uses a Yamaha mixer or the Tascam 3 (8x4 with
EQ). This 14- footer uses four racks behind the driver, containing the audio equipment, with the console to the right
and video to the left side of the truck.
There are four different designs based on the standard
van which are modified according to client specifications,
reflecting the need to make it seem as open as possible,
make it as efficient as possible, and make it convenient for
two to four crew members to run the systems.
In a similar design approach, AFA uses an eight -input
board for its small vans. In an ENG van with one or two
cameras, a small rack or drop- through mixer is used to
often ignored."
Small vans pose different problems
The concerns of large trailer designers are different
from the ENG van designer in that problems of space allocation and crew size are increased in the smaller setting.
Here, lack of space is the predominating factor, demanding a tremendous amount of custom modification to
install the best possible mixer. Sometimes the designers
are forced to compromise between size and capability, especially if the audio will be restricted to news reports. At
RCA, when size is the most important factor, the ENG vans
get an 8x2 mixer, either in the form of a rack-mount unit
or a tabletop unit which is modified to fit in a rack.
Others, when devising the audio system for the
Econoline van, for example, go for 12 to 16 inputs on the
consoles. As usual, they try and get a mixer with as many
inputs as can fit in, but 12 to 16 is usually the most.
The biggest problem for improved audio in small ENG
vans is that the audio portion of the system cannot be isolated from the video equipment and technical functions,
severely limiting the type of console that can be used, and
consequently restricting the number and type of programs
that can be produced. Often, this is an obstacle that can be
overcome, since many ENG vans are purchased for the
sole task of gathering news information in which superior
audio quality may be of little importance.
For instance, MZB does not emphasize audio in its
trucks, which are almost exclusively 14 -foot vans using
three or five cameras. The engineers at MZB suggest a
16 -input mixer, often a Tascam, and try to provide rack mounted patching close to the console so the board operator can get to the patchbay easily. As a design premise
based on experience, the engineers always use a tabletop
console because of operation ease and flexibility. Since it
is a custom business, the engineers often modify a
standard design to meet client specifications with human
engineering in mind, trying to be most careful of efficiency, space utilization, and user convenience to eliminate
operator fatigue.
Television Engineering's designers recognize that
there are a great number of compromises involved in
54
BM /E
MAY, 1983
Quality Video's Tapco 16 -input mixer, Crown amps, and
Telex carts complete audio room in van.
save space. To accommodate crew members who will
need to be in a press room or outside the van, quite often
the designers will outfit the truck with one of the case contained consoles which have reached quite a high level
of sophistication.
Midwest places emphasis on location and convenience.
In its small ENG vans, Midwest tries to place the console in
a location facilitating the routing of outputs to patchfields,
providing as much flexibility of signal routing as is possible with a small board and little room for other audio
equipment. Thus the strategic placement of jackfields in
various positions in the truck enhance the output
capabilities of the audio console.
For Mark Leonard, the person responsible for van
customization at Wolf Coach, the best way to outfit the
small vans is to use rack rails on pull-out shelves for the
console mounting: a case in which audio generally takes a
secondary position. Wolf Coach has found that cable path
and talent placement are important considerations when
designing the space for the console, both facilitating ease
Get it out of your system.
Its incredibly versatile. You can
Television is an electronic medium. Yet
TV graphics still involve messy paints,
glue, air brushes, razors, and other
paraphernalia.
produce the look of oils, watercolors,
chalk, pencil. You can make stencils.
Air brush. Cut and paste. Even
animate.
MCI /Ouantel's Paint Box can put your
TV graphics into the electronic medium.
You can grab TV frames off the air,
resize them, retouch them, mix them
with graphics.
So you can get all the messy paraphernalia out of your system. Digitally.
You can set type from a large variety
of the highest quality fonts.
The Paint Box lets you do a lot more
than you can do with traditional art
materials. A lot faster. And with typical
Quantel picture quality.
And you can interface the Paint Box
to Quantel's DLS 6000 Library System
for a totally digital still -picture system.
It's awesome.
gives you over 16 million colors. If
that's not enough, you can mix your
own, just like you'd do with paints.
It
_w
m
r-
I:1°1°1;1
`
MCI /QUANTEL
The digital video people.
Circle 132 on Reader Service Card
larde
133 on Meaaer
service Vara
Call your local MCI /Quantel office.
They'll be glad to show you a demonstration tape. Or get in touch with us
directly at 415/856 -6226. Micro
Consultants, Inc.. P.O. Box 50810,
Palo Alto, California 94303.
nab
DESIGNS
THAT SUCCEED
WITH
MOBILE VEHICLE.
CONSOLES
save space. This, of course, depends on the client's desires, but typical would be an eight- to 12 -input mixer.
With a different view on priorities, Television Engineering designers, in their basic configuration for the
medium-sized vans, start with a rack unit to save space;
but if it limits the user, they modify larger consoles into a
vertically mounted position. An important consideration
here is if the connectors are located at the back of the
board or on the bottom, requiring a separate connector
panel, further modification, or necessitating the choice of
another console. The two brands most commonly used at
Television Engineering are the Tapco mixers and the
Tascam 3.
If the audio requirements are such that a console with
up to 16 or more inputs is necessary, an audio room or isolated audio area may have to be designed. In the medium length vans this is difficult. The planned location of this
room should go back to the first rule of van design: find
out the production demands on the truck, and determine
how and where the crew fits in. Often, equipment such as
audio DAs will have to be located in another part of the
vehicle, remote from the audio room, so that more space
can be provided for the console and its operator.
Finally, the market demand for the bigger, better, and
smarter consoles is being met by the versatility and creativity
of mobile production systems designers. The technology is
there to be tapped, and with clever methods and hard work,
what can be done in a mobile vehicle with a good console
can rival the best of studio production.
BM/E
In a Wolf Coach truck, a Richmond Sound console
next to BE carts and Panasonic video monitors.
fits
Shook's modification of the Econoline ENG van shows
how two- person crew can operate console and video
equipment.
www.americanradiohistory.com
THE ALL-AMERICAN WINNER
FO
OUT.
THE BCC-20/21 CAMERA SYSTEM.
No other camera system matches the BCC -20 ¡21
Digicam for superb pictures and total operational
flexibility. The BCC -21 is a top -quality, fully automatic camera for both studio and mobile operation.
Simply remove the BCC -20 from the
studio frame and you have a compact EFP camera perfect for any
portable situation where size and
weight are critical, and performance
cannot be compromised.
The Digicam cameras come with
impressive features, including:
"computer -in- the -head ", Spatial
Error Correction for outstanding
registration and sharpness, remote
control, and an optional Automatic
Setup Unit for more accurate,
faster and simpler setup.
The Digicam system. It gives you the most flexibility with a single camera inside and out. For
details, call your nearest Ampex sales office.
Atlanta 404/451 -7112 Chicago
312/593-6000 Dallas 214/960 -1162
Los Angeles 213/240 -5000 New
York /New Jersey 201/825 -9600
San Francisco 408/255 -4800
Washington, D.C. 301/530-8800
-
AmDt
AMPEX
roorauon
One
of
Tne S.gnai Comoanæs.
SETTING
THE FASHION
IN BROADCAST
VIDEO
Circle 134 on Reader Service Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
takes a very tough
tape to withstand edit after
edit through today's VTR
equipment and still deliver a
crisp, clean playback image.
And tough is exactly what
new Scotch" 480 one -inch
It
video tape
is.
A special coating
formulation on Scotch 480
"Scotch"
is a
registered trademark of 3M.
h 3M, 1983.
www.americanradiohistory.com
means you no longer have
to worry about problems
like stiction.
during computer
editing, 3M lab tests have
shown 480 is capable of
delivering over 1,000 edits
from the same preroll point,
with no significant reduction
in playback quality.
In fact,
And in today's tough video
production environment,
that kind of durability can
mean a lot.
Scotch 480 is further
proof of why 3M is the leader
in professional use video
tape. And why we sell more
one -inch tape for professional
use than all other
manufacturers put together.
For a free brochure on
new Scotch 480 call 1 -800328 -1684 (1-800-792-1072
in Minnesota). And find out
more about the tape that's
as tough as today's editing
equipment.
Magnetic Audio /Video
Products Division /3M.
NEW
SCOTCH 480
1" VIDEO TAPE.
LASER TESTED FOR
CONSISTENCY.
M hears you
Circle 135 on Reader Service Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
3M
Now, disc recording within reach!
Meet the communications breakthrough
that puts advanced disc recording within
your reach. The Panasonic Laser-Optical
Memory Disc Recorder, an instant image
storage /retrieval system unlike any other,
Utilizing easy -to-handle 8" video discs,
the compact Panasonic system lets you
record and instantly access up to 15,000
pictures of people, places, events... even
moving images. You get permanent, highquality image filing that's easy to use and
computer-compatible - RS -232C interface
is standard.
Choose from three models: our color
still recorder, a high resolution b/w still
recorder, and a color still recorder with
t
is
=
ufe
NEWS
motion playback capability. To complete
your system, Panasonic offers a full range
of color monitors, hard copy printers and
color or black and white video cameras.
It's the newest tool around broadcast
gand production studios for all types of per manent video image recording - from
newsfile storage to time-lapse logging.
From computer -generated graphics to
video animation.
The instant-access, computer -compatible
Panasonic Optical Disc Recorder. For details, write or call: Panasonic Industrial
Company, Industrial Sales Division (Video),
One Panasonic Way, Secaucus, N.J.
07094; (201) 348 -8227 or 348 -5332.
The instant-access Panasonic
optical disc recorder.
Pa ásóru
Ind
trial Comps
Circle 136 on Reader Service Card
ITILT EOFTIII
Audio carts have been evolving recently, producing
higher -quality stereo -capable units suitable for every
application. But keeping them in tip -top shape is the radio or TV station's responsibility.
THE BROADCAST AUDIO CARTRIDGE has come a
long way since its introduction to the industry
in the late 1950s. Most of the improvements
over the years have been evolutionary, with
only small modifications; but the basic design
has remained the same. Within the last few
years, however, some departures from the conventional
layout have been made, spurred on by the demand of
broadcasters for higher -performance cartridges. The parameter most often of concern has been phase stability,
due to the increased use of carts for stereo service.
A number of factors can be used to determine whether a
cartridge will meet the high performance requirements in
demand today. These include the obvious specifications
of frequency response, phase stability, tape type used,
wow and flutter, and stop speed. Other not-so-easilydetermined requirements are also important to high performance work. These come from the realization that
cartridges will be used in a real -world environment in
which they will be dropped, stepped on, baked in poorly
ventilated decks, and subjected to various other tortures.
With this in mind, ruggedness becomes very important, as
do the spillout characteristics of the tape wheel. The cart
braking mechanism must be capable of preventing (or at
least adequately dealing with) the tendency of tape to spill
off the wheel and into the tape path when the cartridge is
mishandled.
High -performance audio cartridges are manufactured
by a number of companies. Performance claims vary from
one device to another and opinions by users in broadcasting vary as well. I have found that if you ask five engi-
Jerry Whitaker
Eureka, CA.
is
chief engineer of KRED- AMwKPDJ -FM,
neers their opinion on the best audio cartridge on the
market today, you will get at last eight answers.
The only sure way to select the best cartridge for a particular operation is on -site experience. When considering
the purchase of new cartridges, it is good practice to order
five or more of the devices from each manufacturer that
are to be evaluated. The carts can then be put through their
paces in an actual operating environment.
It is important to also consider the needs of the station.
If stereo carts are used, high -performance types will be
needed. But if all production is done in mono (which is
often the case), a lower-performance and less expensive
device may suffice.
Most cartridges currently on the market will provide
excellent performance and repeatability, provided, of
course, the cart decks on which they will play are accurately set up and adequately maintained. The best cartridge in the world will still sound bad on a poorly adjusted
deck. Using a single type of cartridge for all recorded material at a particular station has obvious benefits, such as
ease of deck alignment, guaranteed interchangeability,
and reduced spare parts requirements.
Phase test procedure
The NAB standards for size and tolerance are shown in
Figure 1. The NAB audio cartridge standard also specifies
that the peak phase difference between stereo channels
(record and subsequent reproduce) should be less than 90
degrees for all frequencies from 50 Hz to 12.5 kHz. Tests
by the individual manufacturers of high -performance (stereo) cartridges show that their devices are well within this
specification. Despite such assurances, a little in -house
testing of devices that are to be considered for purchase
surely will not hurt.
The procedure for conducting phase difference /stability testing on sample cartridges is relatively simple and requires no special test equipment. The basic procedure is as
follows:
1.
Connect the test equipment as shown in Figure 2.
BME
MAY, 1983
83
CnI1T
SHADED AREAS SHALL BE FREE
OF ANY RIGID CARTRIDGE MEMBERS
TO ALLOW FOR EXTERNAL
TAPE GUIDES.
TL'1
0.438±0.002
THE SPRING ACTION DEVICE MUST
NOT PROTRUDE MORE THAN 0.500'
INTO CUT -OUT FROM REFERENCE
'B' NOR MORE THAN 018T ABOVE
DECK SURFACE.
UNSHADED AREAS
AVAILABLE FOR
PRESSURE PADS
0.250 MAX.
TAPE TRAVEL
.400 MAX.
.400 MAX
0.285±
FORCE REQUIRED FOR MAXIMUM
DEFLECTION OF SPRING SHALL BE
4 TO 02. MEASURED ALONG A -A.
PARALLEL TO BASE.
010 HEAb INSERTION LIMITS
HEAD ZENITH 1TO -C- TO 15'
CAPSTAN TO BE LT0 -C- TO 15'
0
0.125
A
r
ID
ID
CONFIGURATION OF
SPRING OPTIONAL
(
9_
FE!
MAXIMUM DEFLECTION
LO.500 MAX
HEAD "B" GAP
3.062 ±0.015
9. HEAD "A" GAP
1.938±.015
SPRING ACTION DEVICE
0.875.
_ 0.005
TAPE
.562
m
1
l
0.187 MAX.
NAB
SECTION ID-ID
VIEW OF HEADS
THROUGH CARTRIDGE
PRESSURE ROLLER AXIS
,
NOTE: THE TAPE RUNNING PATH
SHALL BE PARALLEL TO
NOTE: TAPE PULL TENSION SHALL
NOT EXCEED 3 OZ. - WITH
ANY BRAKE SYSTEM RELEASED.
AND NO TAPE HEADS OR
GUIDES ENGAGED.
TRAVEL
I
-C- AND UPPER EDGE OF
TAPE SHALL BE 0.562 ±.002
Machine/cartridge Interface dimensions
"AA" cartridge spring action device limitations
rNO
Figure 1. Specs for the NAB "AA" cart. Upper left, the basic
design. Upper right, the spring action device limitations.
Lower right, machine cart Interface dimensions.
.333 MIN
.
-
RIBS OR PROJECTIONS-N
IN
.333 MIN
THESE AREAS
0.094 R MAX
am
0.895 0.665
1
770 MIN
.100 MAX
THESE AREAS TO
REMAIN CLEAR FOR
PRESSURE PADS
AND GUIDES
0.575 ±0.025
MAX
Who's the largest
video dealer
in the southeast?
MIN
I
GRAYOOO IV1M U
INATIOO N%
U.
GRAYOOOMIMUN CATI* NS
2.
I
GRAYOOON1MUN NATIONS
I
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OO
NS
I
Equipment- Systems
Production Vehicles
Sales & Service
TAMPA FL
M1)8851411
ORLANDO FL
(105)8967414
005)591 363(404)445.)121
012)883 2121
MIAMI
FL
ATLANTA GA
ALBANT. GA
NASHVILLE. TN
KNOXVILLE. TN
NEW ORLEANS. LA
MOBILE. AL
BIRMINGHAM. AL
Circle 160 on Reader Service Card
64
BM E
(61511933 9175
(615)52) .3107
(504)73) 7265
(205)476.2051
(2051 94 2
2824
-
SHAPE OPTIONAL
NOT TO EXCEED
BOUNDRY DIMENSIONS
NAB
GRAYOOMIMUNINATIOONS
3.
MAX -2 PL
(FRONT)
0.468
MAX
NOTE (II
WINDOW DIMENSIONS
DO NOT INCLUDE DRAFT
MAS BE
UP TO
USED IN SUCH A
DIRECTION AS TO
MANE THE OPENINGS
LARGER THAN THE
STATED DIMENSIONS
0 NS
GIZAY 0
-025R
1.500
"AA" cartridge
Make sure the polarity of the input and output lines is
maintained as shown.
Feed 400 Hz into the tape deck at 10 dB below normal
operating level, as read on the deck's vu meters.
Start the cart machine in the record mode with a cartridge of known quality.
Adjust the oscilloscope horizontal and vertical gain
controls to give the display for zero -degree phase
shift, as shown in the scope pictures of Figure 3. Polarity inversion in some oscilloscopes will result in a
display that is 180 degrees out of phase, when the input is correctly phased. Many scopes have horizontal
polarity inversion switches to correct this situation.
When using a scope without such a control, reverse
the polarity of the horizontal input signal to achieve
the correct pattern. (We make the assumption here
MAY. 1983
www.americanradiohistory.com
J
SONY
NW TUNER UNI
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UM, TUNER
NEC
SONY
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UHF TUNER UNIT
WWI
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When we asked sound engineers which
wireless was superior for sound, quality and design,
the overwhelming choice was Sony.
And now, the wireless system unualed by any of our competitors in quality
is highly competitive in price.
Which means, for about what you pay for
an ordinary system, you can have the most flexible
system you can buy. A modular system that can be se up and rearrang
the greatest possible number of configurations in a mere fraction of the
time it takes to set up any other system. So it's suitable for any production requirement- studio or field.
Then there's the performance. The dynamic range is 96dB. The frequency response is 100-15000 Hz. And signal-to-noise is greater than 60dB.
And because the wireless system is based on the Sony theory of
total system technology, it's compatible with all standard professional audio
and video systems on the market today. For all the facts on how you can
have the state of the art in wireless without going into a state of bankruptcy
contact Sony Professional Audio Products, Sony Drive,
Park Ridge, New Jersey 07656.
Nrorèssional Audio
SON-Y
Sony Communications Products Company. Som
the Sony Corp.
Drire. Park Ridge. \ess Jere n'I'
c
pts? S.mt Corp. of America. Som
Circle 137 on Reader Service Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
is a
registered trademark of
CART
CART TAPE DECK
ao
HOT
COM
620
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620
OUTPUT
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0
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INPUTS
0° PHASE SHIFT
180
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MEN MIMI
90° or 270° PHASE SHIFT
NOTE ALL RESISTOR VALUES
Figure
4.
5.
2.
IN OHMS
OSCILLOSCOPE
Stereo phase test procedure setup.
45
MNR%
MOM OEM
that the tape deck has been recently aligned and meets
the new equipment specifications. The tape heads
and capstan should be cleaned and demagnetized.)
Maintaining the -10 dB input level, switch the audio
oscillator to 12.5 kHz. The scope pattern will vary,
but should not shift more than ±45 degrees, as
shown in the oscilloscope drawings.
Remove the cartridge and insert the "test" carts. Observe the peak phase difference as shown on the scope
when recording the 12.5 kHz test signal. NAB
specifications require a peak phase difference of less
than 90 degrees. Top -quality cartridges should be
able to deliver a phase difference of less than 45 degrees in most cases.
Figure
6.
7.
3.
PHASE SHIFT
J
PHASE SHIFT
MINIM
MINI
MOM MOM
Oscilloscope phasing patte ns. Courtesy
3M ITC.)
Test several cartridges of the same make but different
lengths. The phase jitter problem is generally more
acute in longer cartridge lengths, such as 7.5 minutes.
If desired, a "drop test" can be run on the cartridges
to check their mechanical stability under what is all
too often a typical situation. Record a 12.5 kHz signal on a test cartridge as before and note the differential phase response as shown on the oscilloscope.
Remove the cartridge from the tape deck and drop it
Enduring quality.
700 Series
Multichannel
Audio Mixing
Console
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Standard VCA grouping,
EQ, foldback, effects
sends & returns,
:
monitoring,
communications and
patchbay. Available in 8,
16, or 24 outputs.
Model shown: 740-36
The Auditronics 700 Series is one of the few
multichannel audio mixers designed and
constructed to endure years of daily use.
Specifically designed for broadcast production,
and with facilities for audio follow video, it has
full features in a logical layout.
Only the highest quality components are used.
Top panel markings are chemically etched into
anodized aluminum, and mainframes are
ruggedly constructed to withstand the stresses of
outside broadcast vehicle use.
o
Circle 138 on Reader Service Card
66
BM/E
MAY, 1983
www.americanradiohistory.com
ouditoncs.
3750 Old Getwell Rd.
Memphis, TN 38118 USA
Tel: (901) 362 -1350
Telex: 533356
inc.
Set your standard
ofvideotape
quality...the King way.
With King's new programmable Video Cassette Dropout
Verifier and dedicated companion unit, the Chroma/Audio
Quality Monitor, you can actually see and hear a
representative tape sample under real life conditions
and know exactly the quality of your blank or prerecorded
VHS, BETA or U -MATIC video cassettes.
This videotape evaluation equipment, the world's most
sophisticated and precise, conforms to all current standards.
Model 101 Video Cassette Dropout Verifier
Model 102 Chroma /Audio Quality Monitor
For details, call or write
King Instrument Corporation, 80 Turnpike Road, Westboro, MA 01581 U.S.A.
(617) 366 -9141 Cable KING INST Telex 94 -8485
World Leader in Tape Tailoring Systems
Circle 139 on Reader Service Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
' Copyright 1983 King Instrument Corporation
WIRT
o
CORNER POST
(MAY BE ADJUSTABLE)
PRESSURE PADS
(CHECK RESILIENCY)
TAPE
WHEEL--..
(CHECK PACKING
AND LUBRICATION)
TAPE
(CHECK FOR WEAR
WRINKLES)
BRAKE MECHANISM
(CHECK FOR PROPER
OPERATION)
J
Figure
4.
Cartridge check points.
on the floor. Reinsert the cart and push the play button on
the deck. Observe the differential phase pattern as shown
on the scope.
This test will simulate the typical operating environment in which the cartridge will be put. Phase reversals of
more than 180 degrees have been recorded with just one
crash to the floor.
Cartridge types
Stations looking to purchase new cartridges for stereo
applications have a wide variety of devices from which to
choose.
The Aristocart is manufactured by Western Broadcasting Company of Canada. This device is a veteran
high -performance cart that pioneered many of the features
now used in other top -of- the -line units.
The Audiopac AA -3 is Capitol Magnetics' high performance offering. The AA -3 is the stereo version of
the popular A -2 device.
The Equalizer is Marathon Corporation's newest entry
THE CHOICE IS YOURS!
THE AUDIOPAK A -2 OR
THE STEREO PHASED
M-3 BROADCAST
CARTRIDGE
Capitol Audiopak Broadcast Cartridges
for stations who care how they sound.
-
Both Audiopak carts offer extremely low wow and
flutter; a positive brace system which stops the tape,
not the hub, assuring accurate cueing. Unsurpassed
reliability is assured because we manufacture the tape
and all other components in the cartridge. Moreover,
all carts are 100% tested before shipping.
The AA -3 offers excellent stereo phase stability. It's
loaded with Capitol's own 017 HOLN tape which extends frequency response and headroom to provide
studio sound quality.
CAPITOL MAGNETIC PRODUCTS
Division of Capitol Records, Inc.
6902 Sunset Blvd.
Hollywood, California 90028
A
Circle 140 on Reader Service Card
68
BM
E
MAY. 1983
www.americanradiohistory.com
ADM's
DA16B /CH2 OB
Audio Distribution System
You are assured of one masterful performance after
another because the DA16B/CH2OB provides
audio distribution of unquestioned reliability. It offers a unique combination of features for exceptional
Output amplifiers have individual, front accessed
gain adjustment, and a test point.
The input, and each output is individually trans-
Each CH2OB will house up to six DA16B cards,
and has a complete set of redundant power supplies
with automatic changeover.
But probably the most important feature of all is
ADM's unexcelled built -in quality -quality backed
by a five-year unconditional warranty.
former coupled.
Input levels up to +27 dBv; output levels up to
+27 dBm before clipping.
Contact us today for the complete story about the
unique DA16B /CH2OB system.
versatility.
Each amplifier is a one -input, six -output plug -in
card.
AD4I
i
Phone (313) 524 -2100
West Coast Sales: (415) 945.0181
Audio
Company
ADM TECHNOLOGY,
1626 E. Big Beaver Road
West Central Sales: (817) 467.2990
The
INC.
East Coast Sales: (313) 524-2100
Rocky Mountain Sales: (801)486.8822
Troy. MI 48084
TLX 23 -1114
www.americanradiohistory.com
MN
FA111
11:4L1
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LA4'
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www.americanradiohistory.com
wa
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101111111=1117
aleamm-aa
Broadcast-quail
reliability.
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The new Ampex 3/4" videocassette has been designed
with nothing less thon perfection as its goal.
Its superb chrominance
and luminance performance
makes it ideal to meet
the stringent demands of
broadcast applications
such os electronic news
gathering, electronic
field production and
on -line editing.
And the tape in
Ampex 197 has been
especially formulated
to optimize the performance of the Sony BVU
series of recorders.
Ampex award- winning
sound has been an industry
leader for a quarter of a
century. Now Ampex
197 brings this award winning expertise to
video.
Ampex 197 offers
superior signal -to -noise
and low distortion characteristics. This translates
into crisper, cleaner
audio performance under
heavy editing conditions
and multiple generation
dubbing. It also delivers
excellent stereo fidelity when
used for music recording.
AUDIO MULTIPLE GENERATIONS
'
Ampex 197
"Brand A"
--rksJarhine
1
"Brand B"
Spec
2
3
4
Number of Generations
Even after five generorions. Ampex 197 s
audio signal -ro -noise ratio exceeds the DVU series
machine specificotions.
new 3/4" videocassette
a blend of the finest broadThis
STILL FRAME DURABILITY
Ampex
-
-
'
1
Brand B"
1971
-e
2
Hours in Still Frame Mode
Laboratory tests proved that Ampex 197
held up for three full hours with no RF loss
.
cast materials and Ampex's
unique technical expertise.
In blind field testing, Ampex
197 got the highest marks
from broadcast professionals
for its picture quality, stability,
and durability.
In laboratory trials,
Ampex 197 held up in the
still -frame mode for three
full hours and showed no
dropout increase or RF loss.
Ampex Corporation,
Magnetic Tape Division,
401 Broadway, Redwood Ci
CA 94063 (415) 367-3809
Quality worth broadcasting.
Circle 142 on Reader Service Card
i
NAB "AA" carts (Top, left to right): The Aristocart from
Western Broadcasting Company. The Capitol Magnetics
Audiopac AA-3. The Equalizer from Marathon Corp. (Bottom,
into the stereo cartridge market. It includes a unique
mechanism to maintain tape tension within the cartridge,
thus allowing removal of the pressure pads, if desired.
The Master Cart II is Fidelipac's successor to Master
Cart I, which was introduced to broadcasters in 1975. The
new device is designed to overcome the compatibility
problems that Master Cart I had with some older generation cartridge tape decks.
The Procart includes several tape guides at the head
contact area for tight tape control. The device is manufactured by the Procart Company.
The ScotchCart is 3M's newly designed broadcast cartridge. A radically new tape delivery system is used with
this device which eliminates the need for pressure pads at
the head contact area.
This is by no means a complete listing of all devices
available for high -performance stereo use, but rather a
starting point for interested broadcasters.
Keeping carts fit
Audio tape cartridges are perhaps the most vulnerable
and least maintained parts of most radio and television stations' audio chains. Carts are all too often given no attention until they begin affecting the on -air sound. It is
possible to receive years of service from any of the audio
cartridges currently on the market, but to achieve this, an
72
BM/E
left to right): Fidelipac's Master Cart II. The Procart from
Broadcast Supply West. And 3M's new ScotchCart.
aggressive and thorough maintenance procedure must be
followed. Unless your station can afford to replace all the
carts in the building every year or so, the lack of a maintenance schedule will show up on the air, to one extent or
another.
Figure 4 shows the vulnerable areas of cartridge operation. Precise alignment of the tape to the tape head is as
much a function of the cartridge itself as it is the cart recorder in many units. Cartridges made of plastic are susceptible to manufacturing errors and shock -induced
physical changes. Improper lubrication of the tape wheel
can cause increased wow and flutter, as can a defective
braking mechanism. Heat and normal use may reduce the
resiliency of the foam pressure pads, causing poor tape to -head contact, and thus reduced high frequency output.
These problems certainly should not discourage the use of
cartridges, but instead point up the need for proper
maintenance.
A maintenance schedule should be established and
strictly adhered to. Start by checking and cleaning all of
the cartridges in the production rooms, and then as spot
end dates come up, have the traffic department route all
carts to be recycled back to production through engineering to be checked and cleaned. This procedure will, within a few months' time, allow nearly all of the cartridges at
the station to be inspected.
MAY, 1983
www.americanradiohistory.com
3M
IS HELPING
A LOT OF
COMPANIES
FILL A
ONE -INCH
GAP
For many broadcasters and production companies, wanting a one -inch
VTR system is one thing. But finding the money to buy one is quite another. That's
where 3M can help. We've put together a financing package that makes our
TT-8000 VTR very affordable. And the special combination of enhanced editing
features, automatic track following and controlled tape interchange program make
the TT-8000 an even more attractive package. For a free brochure, call us toll -free
at 1- 800 -328 -1684 (1- 800 -792 -1072 in Minnesota), and find out how we've
brought professional quality one -inch VTR within reach.
Professional Audio /Video Equipment /3M.
3M hears you
Circle 143 on Reader Service Card
3M
...
CART
SAM E32
Size: 17.5"X 13.2" X3.2"
445 X335 X 80mm
8
SATT
Electronics
weight: 17.9lbs
8 kgs
mic/line transformer balanced input
RF Filter
48V Phantom
Low cut on each input (0, 80, 140 Hz)
Two band EQ on each input
Phase reverse on each input
Two group or stereo output,
transformer balanced
Two auxiliary outputs pre or post fader.,
transformer balanced
Insert or return in group and aux channel
Monitor section with headphone outlet
and transformer balanced line output
Line up 1 kHz oscillator plus separate output
Talk back facilities
Built-in AC power; external battery optional
Made in Sweden by
SATT Electronics AB
P.O. Box 32006
S -12611 Stockholm /Sweden
Phone: +46 (8) 81 01 00 Telex: 10884 SATTELS
International distribution:
Benelux: TransTec BV. Rotterdam Canada: Gen Electro
Acoustics. Toronto Denmark AEG Dansk Elektricitets A /S,
Copenhagen Finland: Sähköliikkeiden OY, Vantaa France:
Publison Audio Professional. Paris Japan: Hoei Sangyo Co.
Ltd., Tokyo Norway: Siv.ing. Benum A /S, Oslo Switzerland:
Blesse Elettronica SA, Lugano USA: Martin Audio Video Corp.,
New York.
Circle 144 on Reader Service Card
74
BM/E
The parts needed for maintaining carts are inexpensive
and available from nearly all cartridge suppliers. Individual requirements will depend on the condition of the carts
on hand, but experience has shown that a good supply of
cartridge tops and pressure pads will suffice for most repairs. Other parts can be pulled from a few sacrificed
"junk" carts.
Use a methodical approach to checking and cleaning
each and every cartridge.
1.
Clean the cartridge body using "Glass Plus" (from
Texize) or an equivalent cleaner, and some paper
towels. Get all of the dirt off, particularly any on the
base of the cart. This will insure proper seating when
the device is inserted into the recorder deck.
2. Using a cotton swab, clean the head entrance area inside the cart. Be careful not to touch the tape while
performing this step.
3. Check the cartridge for physical damage. Cracked
tops or bases should be replaced, as should ones with
adhesive tape or labels stuck to them.
4. Examine the audio tape for any signs of damage. Rewind any carts (or use for spare parts) that have wear
streaks on the tape, or any wrinkle marks. Also check
the packing of the tape on the wheel. Uneven packing
is generally due to excessive amounts of tape for the
particular cut length.
5. Test the cartridge for high frequency audio response.
Check the output (record and subsequent reproduce)
of the cart while feeding a 16 kHz tone at 10 dB below
normal operating level. The output should be within
3 dB of a previously established "standard" cart,
such as a brand -new device set aside for this test.
During Step 5, any operational flaws should show up.
Mechanical rattling of the tape wheel is easily corrected
by cleaning the old grease off the support post and replacing it with a light grease, such as Lubriplate. Note that
some of the newer devices do not use grease on the tape
wheel hub, in which case the manufacturer should be consulted. Do not tighten the cart cover hold down screw any
more than necessary to securely clamp the cover. Excessive tightening can result in drag on the tape wheel or
shortened life of the plastic cover.
Poor high frequency response in Step 5 can be caused
by a number of problems, depending on the type of cartridge. Generally, however, the loss of high frequencies
can be traced to the pressure pads. Visually inspect each
pad by lightly pushing on it (the pad, not the tape) with a
clean cotton swab and noting the response. If the pad is
slow to return to its normal shape, it should be replaced.
On cartridges with pressure pads mounted on metal tabs
(Fidelipac 300 and others) the tabs should be parallel to
the head end of the cartridge. Never bend the tabs toward
the heads in order to compensate for bad pressure pads.
Carts placed in playback decks for long periods of time
(such as jingles in single -play automation system reproducers) or those loaded in an Instacart deck, will show
more than the normal amount of pad wear because pressure is being put on the pads the entire time the cartridge is
sitting in the tray. Playback units such as the Go Cart, Audiofile, or Carousel will not show greater pressure pad
wear because the pad will be compressed only when the
selected tray is mated with the playback shelf.
Fidelipac 300, a long -time favorite cartridge, has one
point of adjustment that should be checked if poor high
frequency response is noted. The corner post is set at the
factory, but can be dislodged from its correct position
MAY, 1983
www.americanradiohistory.com
Perfect Timing
Phasing and AM Stereo
The problem of cartridge phase stability is obviously
of great concern to FM broadcasters using carts for
stereo reproduction. Poor performance in this area
can result in a muddy, dull sound, when listening in
mono. AM broadcasters considering a switch to stereo have even more reason for concern about cartridge phase stability, since the day they change
over, virtually 100 percent of their audience will be
listening in mono.
Cartridges that have performed well for years in
mono service may not live up to the requirements of
stereo use. The end result, then, could be a very disappointing experience with AM stereo operation. It
would not take much phase shift in the cartridge system to undo extraordinary efforts at delivering an
"FM- like" sound into a typical AM radio. The station's
audio processor will not clean up a muddy signal
caused by cartridge phasing errors, since the processor works on each channel independently, not the
sum of the two channels.
The basics of stereo phasing are illustrated in Figure 2. Two identical in phase" signals, when
summed, will yield an ouput that is twice the level of
either of the two input signals. When one channel is
shifted 180 degrees out of phase with respect to the
other, an output of zero will result, since the two signals completely cancel each other. Phase shifts other than zero or 180 degrees will produce varying
amounts of signal cancellation.
Dramatic phase shift cancellations resulting in
zero audio output do not show up in everyday practice because (assuming a correctly aligned tape
deck) the degree of shift in a cartridge system is
frequency- dependent. Phase changes are caused
by skew of the tape from the ideal horizontal path
across the tape heads and back into the cartridge, as
shown in Figure 2.
One cycle of a 12.5 kHz signal is stored on just
0.0006 inches of tape at a cartridge speed of 7.5 ips.
The same measurement applied to a 1 kHz tone is
0.01 inches. It can thus be seen that normal tolerance in both the cartridge and tape deck systems will
have a much greater effect on the higher frequencies. As tape heads and guides wear and the
cartridge characteristics change (due to possible
stretching of the tape itself or shock -induced damage
to the cart) the phase errors seen by the user will increase. The phase stability performance of a cartridge system is, therefore, not a static value, but one
that changes with the amount of use (or abuse) the
individual components see.
To AM broadcasters, the phase stability performance of a cartridge has, in the past, been of little concern. With the promise of AM stereo, however, that is
changing.
through rough handling. Generally, the post should be
pushed down with a moderate amount of pressure into the
cartridge base. Occasionally, the post will have to be
moved up in order to achieve the best high frequency response. Once the correct point has been found, secure the
post with some general -purpose plastic cement.
SMPTE
EQUIPMENT
THAT
YOU CAN AFFORD
ES26 I is an eight digit SMPTE /Time Code
Generator, capable of drop frame or non $788
drop frame operation.
Ouninumi
ES253 Eight digit
reader, displays
Hours, Minutes,
Seconds and Frames.
Reads at play back speed, has
"freeze"
$477
control.
ES254 BI- Directional,
Multispeed
(1/20 to 20 times), eight digit reader with
"freeze" control. On loss of code, displays
$709
last valid code read.
AND
FOR OFF -LINE EDITING
ES255
SMPTE IN /VIDEO OUT
ES255 is an eight digit, multi- speed, bidirectional SMPTE reader which adds the
SMPTE input to your video. You can now
"burn" the time code into
the video portion of your
tape, or feed a monitor
directly.
$1045
Write, Wire or Call: (213) 322 -2136
142 Sierra Street, El Segundo, CA 90245
Cart reloading
Reloading cartridges presents no particular problem,
but a couple of guidelines are in order. First, always load
Circle 145 on Reader Service Card
BM
www.americanradiohistory.com
E
MAY, 1983
75
CART
cartridges with new, lubricated tape of the same type used
in the rest of the station's carts. Do not use high-output,
low -noise tape in new carts unless the old ones are loaded
with it as well. This tape type will require, in most cases,
new bias settings on the recorders and result in widely
varying output levels from normal to hot carts. If the
budget allows, complete conversion to high -output, low noise tape should be considered, since it will result in improved signal -to -noise performance from the cartridge
systems.
When rewinding carts, experiment on the first two or
three to determine the optimum amount of slack to leave
in the wind to provide good packing of the tape on the
wheel.
Production techniques
Production techniques play a vital role in insuring good
performance from audio cartridges. The following procedure should be adhered to whenever recording on to a cart.
1.
Use only cartridges recycled and checked out by
engineering.
2. Keep the heads on the record and playback decks
clean at all times.
3. Record all carts on a selected cart machine in each
production room. By keeping the number of machines used for recording carts to a minimum, inhouse tape head alignment problems are generally
reduced.
4. Cue past the splice on the cart.
5. Be certain the cartridge is fully erased, leaving the
demagnetizer energized while the cart is pulled
away to a distance of one to two feet.
Allow one second of start-up time at the beginning
of each cart cut. Ideally, program audio should appear on the cart about one second after it is started.
Some tape cartridges have very poor high frequency
response in the first second or two of tape motion,
and this dead space will prevent muffled starts, as
well as recue "thumps."
7. Apply the end of message tone carefully on encoded
carts. The secondary button should be depressed for
about two seconds, beginning with the final spoken
syllables or last music notes on the spot. Multiple
secondary tones are not acceptable. They can drive
an automation system crazy.
8. Leave the cart machine in the record mode for a few
seconds after the end of program audio. When the
machine is taken out of record, a "thump" is sometimes put on the cart. By delaying the record dropout, an automation system can switch the cart tray
off before the pop comes along, or cover it with other program material.
9. Set aside any carts found to be defective and pass
them on to engineering for repair.
10. Report any equipment problems or malfunctions
promptly.
By establishing good production practices and a thorough cartridge maintenance program, reliable, high BM/E
quality programming is guaranteed.
6.
The author wishes to thank/TG3M, Broadcast Supply West
and the National Association of Broadcasters for their
help in preparing this story.
-Ed.
NEW FR0 m FIDELIPAC
MODEL 400 MAGNETIC TAPE ERASER
Erases audio and video tapes up to 1"x 11".
Designed for professional broadcasters.
Most powerful unit in its price range.
Guaranteed for 2 full years.
Check these Outstanding Features
Thermally protected core
-
will not burn out.
High current horsepower rated switch
for long reliable life.
Lifetime scuff- resistant top.
Attractive and durable hand rubbed
hardwood case.
Removeable aluminum guide pin for erasing
NAB type B and C cartridges.
Erases to virgin tape level.
TFIDELIPAC°
BROADCAST TAPE PRODUCTS
7ehpac Corporation
PO Box B08
Moorestown, NJ 08057
609.235 -3900 TELEX 710-897-0254
Toll Free 800-HOT TAPE
=
Circle 158 on Reader Service Card
76
BM E
MAY. 1983
U.S.A.
George Fridrich's
name shows up
on a lot Qf
awards:
Only one name shows up
on his
lensìpton.
w
Network news cameraman George Fridrich covers the
nation's Capital. Assignments also take him across the
country. But wherever he goes, his work speaks with authority. The most prestigious awards confirm it.
The White House News Photographers Association
named him "newsfilm photographer of the year" for 1982.
(They did the same for 1981 and 1979.) And he received
first place awards for spot and feature news in 1982 from
the National Press Photographers Association.
Obviously, George Fridrich has his choice of lenses. For
years, his choice has been Fujinon, exclusively. Here, in his
words, are his reasons:
"Fujinon lenses deliver great performance and reliability.
use two of them, abuse them and they hold up. They
get knocked around and still perform often under the
worst conditions. The fact is, you just can't go wrong with
any Fujinon lens. On top of that, Fujinon's support and
service are fantastic."
I
I
Introducing FUJINON'S third
generation ENG lens...
THE NEW "WEATHERIZED"
Fast, light and compact-F1.7 speed,
weighs only 1.48kg
Ninon Inc.
Ninon
2101 Midway, Suite 350
Carrollton. Texas 75006
Inc.
(214) 385-8902
how much more you get with Fujinon.
Fujinon provides it all- performance, quality, reliability
and service. And to make it even better, Fujinon is also the
value leader. For all the facts and figures to prove it, talk to
your Fujinon representative or contact:
Al 4x9ERM
Servo zoom, auto iris standard
Wide and tele converters optional
Full range of studio conversion accessories
including Fujinon's microprocessor shot box
Wider angle, smoother zooms -9mm
coverage, more precise servo control
Built -in 2X extender
Macro and adjustable back focus
672 White Plains Road
Scarsdale, New York 10583
(914) 4729800
Telex: 131642
George's basic lens is a Fujinon 14X zoom with built -in
2X extender. When he can't get in close, the lens will and
because its maximum F1.7 aperture stays flatter, farther,
George can still get the brighter, higher contrast picture
quality he demands. His second lens is Fujinon's exclusive
3.5x6.5 wide angle zoom. With an MOD under one foot, no
assignment is ever missed because of tight quarters.
Incidentally, although George didn't receive the White
House News Photographers' award for 1980, Pete Hakel
(WJLA, Washington) did. He won with Fujinon, too. It's not a
coincidence. According to Pete, "90% of the ENG work in
D.C. is Fujinon."
Before you make any ENG /EFP lens decision, see
The tradition of innovation continues.
West Coast Division
Full Optical Systems. Inc.
118 Savarona Way
Carson, California 90746
(213) 532 -2861 Telex: 194978
YOOKOO UV
Circle 146 on Reader Service Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
Continuous Computer Control
of Your Stereo Sound is
Now a Reality.
owe
WM
lnovonics Lives Up to Its Name with the First
Computer Controlled Programmable Audio Processor.
As long -term listenability and sound quality
become more of a factor in broadcast audio,
computer control of your station's sound is a must.
Inovonics has made your stereo or mono
programming predictable with unlimited digital
management of your sound.
The new 250 stereo audio processor, with full
digital programmability, permits you to adapt
processing parameters to best suit changing station
formats and listener profiles over the course of the
broadcast day.
With our standard 250 you can pre -program four
remotely selectable manual presets. The optional
dynamic programming card allows you to program
the 250 on a continuous basis with on -line control by
any of several small computers with RS -232C serial
data interface.
The 250 can Hake its own judgements of dynamic
material, or can be told what kind of music is coming
and be adjusted accordingly. The computer control
will even provide the means to the correct balance
between music and commercials.
The 250 is the only signal conditioner required
ahead of the transmitter. It performs the multiple task
of a slow, gain -riding A.G.C., Multiband Compressor,
Program Equalizer and final Peak Controller.
The 250 is ready now. It's perfect for today's FM
requirements and for upcoming stereo AM and TV
broadcast applications. Priced at under $3,000, it's
half the cost of other audio processors that do not
even offer digital control.
The new 250 from Inovonics.The days of tweaking
and fiddling are
over. Check with
your broadcast
equipment
distributor
Inovonics Inc.
503 -B Vandell Way
Campbell. Calif. 95008
Telephone
(408) 374 -8300
Circle 147 on Reader Service Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
i...v2t1T.
BM r
MEWS FEEITCIRE
SIUDEß
24 -HR.
PROFESSIONAL
SERVICE FOR
COLLINS &
CONTINENTAL
AM & FM
TRANSMITTERS
Continental Electronics offers
parts and engineering service
for all Collins AM & FM
transmitters.
Whenever you want parts or
service for your Collins or
Continental equipment, phone
our service numbers day or night,
Exhibits at AES in Eindhoven drew some heavy traffic.
(214) 327 -4532 parts
(214) 327.4533 service
Continental Electronics Mfg. Co.
Addresses Digital
Techniques, Standards
AES
Box 270879: Dallas, Texas 75227
Phone (214) 381 -7161
1
kW thru 50 kW AM 8 FM transmitters and
related equipment.
By Gerald M. Walker, Editorial Director
the home of
Philips, was taken over by AES visitors
in mid -March when some 3000 audio
engineers filled the town to overflowing during the society's seventy -third
convention. The meeting provided an
excellent insight into what European
broadcasters are up to concerning digital audio technology and in turn how
their standards efforts might affect
U.S. broadcasters.
Essentially, the Europeans, like
Americans, are trying to cope with an
analog -to- digital conversion -learning
to use new digital equipment while continuing to operate a basically analog
broadcast system. Anticipating the
need for standards, they are analyzing
digital procedures in the studio, transmission link (interface), and in eventual transmission systems.
This standards process was reviewed
in a report on European Broadcast Union (EBU) studies in digital audio presented by David Wood of the EBU
Technical Centre in Belgium and Gianfranco Billia of Radio Televisia Italia na, Rome, Italy. It has been a
drawn -out process because of the need
to make the digital audio standards
compatible with digital video standards, which in turn have to account for
not only NTSC and PAUSECAM standards, but film format. Thus, audio and
video are inextricably linked.
A controversial aspect of the EBU's
work is formulating quality standards
for digital audio broadcasting. Mindful
of the need for efficient use of the radioEINDHOVEN, HOLLAND,
frequency spectrum, broadcasters must
ask themselves at what point a digital
audio signal, which is well controlled
in level, is of sufficient quality to make
further data bits unnecessary.
"This is a subjective judgment," the
authors admitted, "but the EBU believes that this point is reached with the
14 bits/sample, 32 kHz [sampling frequency] system. This allows an audio
bandwidth of 15 kHz and a peak
weighted signal -to- quantizing -noise
ratio on the order of 66 dB."
The EBU is making progress toward a
standard interface. Basically, the proposal calls for a two- channel interface
with self -clocking. Auxiliary data is
four bits; one bit validity flag, one bit
user -definable data, one bit channel
status data, and one bit parity. Error
protection could be provided by the
four least significant bits in the sample
word, which is proposed to be 24 bits.
On the studio side, the top priority
among broadcasters is to achieve identical audio sampling frequencies for
broadcast audio tape recorders and videotape recorders, because of the frequent loops between the two for
editing, dubbing, and so on. After
studying this constraint, the EBU has
concluded that a 48 kHz sampling frequency is preferable.
The outlook for a common digital audio tape recorder format is perhaps the
least optimistic, however. Lack of a
common format has frustrated broadcasters in analog video and now a similar fate may befall digital audio.
"A New Strength in Radio Broadcasting Equipment
Circle 148 on Reader Service Card
BROADCAST
BEST BUY!
yF
.from
audiotechniques
FOR SERVICE & PRICE
WE'RE THE BEST!
audiotechniques inc.
NEW YORK CITY
212/586 -5989
STAMFORD, CT
203/359-2312
Circle 149 on Reader Service Card
BM /E
www.americanradiohistory.com
MAY, 1983
79
MEWS FEF1TURE
"We know who will in the end pay
for the lack of standarization of a digital
audio tape recorder format," they
warned. " -Just about everyone."
Other standards
Another important standards -setting
organization in Europe is the CCIR (In-
ternational Consultative Committee of
the International Telecommunication
Union in Geneva). And this group has
also been involved in digital audio issues. Although progress has been slow,
digital techniques have been assigned a
high priority in CCIR's broadcast audio
section, Study Group 10.
Documents prepared by this group
include:
"Digital Audio Techniques for Studios and Quality Measurements,"
which reports results of studies carried
out by the EBU mentioned above.
"Sampling Frequency for Digital
Sound Signals in Broadcasting Studios," which discusses the 48 kHz sampling frequency supported by the EBU.
TEACH YOUR EDITOR
NEW TRICKS
Here is a simple, cost -effective way
to add a full range of special effects
to your post -production editing routines.
k
eta,,__
ti1,
s
:b
CR,NRN.,
Now, directly from the keyboard of your
editing controller, you can mix, wipe,
dissolve, key and produce complex
transitions. Through either standard or
optional interfacing, ECHOlab's SE /3 APcontrolled production switcher can add
a new level of sophisticated capability
to virtually any inexpensive editor.
Permits
Contact Closure Interface
your editor to initiate a wide range of
mix, wipe, key and transition effects.
AvailCustomized Serial Interfaces
able for many editing controllers, including Videomedia Z6000, Convergence
103. 104 Series, United Media Commander II and Sony BVE 800. Gives
your editor complete functional control
of the switcher. You can create complex
-
-
animation sequences and/or access
complex multiple transitions previously
SE
3
-
stored in the SE /3's 5000 steps of programmable memory
all directly from
your editor.
The SE /3 is the only switcher in its
class with serial- editing interfaces
completely self- contained. There are
no costly, external boxes or computers
to purchase.
External Computer Interface
In
addition to the editing interfaces, a
general -purpose serial interface protocol
is available for full remote control of the
SE /3 by an external computer.
Future Interfacing Capabilities
-
-
ECHOIab is rapidly expanding its line of
editing interfaces and is dedicated to
supporting the full SMPTE editing standard when it becomes available in the
final form.
with Contact
Closure Interface
Serial Interface Option
S16,000
$2.225
For details, write or call:
ECHOIab, Inc.
175 Bedford Road, Burlington, MA 01803 (617) 273 -1512
Circle 150 on Reader Service Card
80
BM E
MAY. 1983
www.americanradiohistory.com
"Subjective Assessment of Quality
of Sound in Broadcasting Using Digital
Techniques," which includes studies
of the upper cutoff frequency (15 kHz).
"Digital Coding for the Emission of
High -Quality Sound Signals in Satellite
Broadcasting," which contains the
proposal to use a 32 kHz sampling frequency for satellite broadcasting.
Compact Disc developments
With the compact digital disc a reality on the European market, AES attendees learned that Philips is carrying
out further research with the system
experiments on an erasable compact
audio disc using magneto -optical (MO)
thin films. A paper prepared by K. A.
Schouhamer Immink and J. J. M. Braat
of Philips Research Laboratories described these experiments.
-
The disc is made with a photo polymer layer put over a pregrooved
glass substrate. A thin dielectric layer
separates the photo-polymer from a
magneto-optical storage layer which is
made of an amorphous alloy. The 100
nm thick storage layer is vapor deposited and has an internal magnetization perpendicular to the surface. A
protective layer is then put over the storage layer.
The recorder has an aluminum galium arsinide laser with a wavelength of
850 nm. During recording the laser is
pulsed at intervals of 250 nsec with pulse
duration of 50 nsec. Peak power is 60
mW, but due to losses in the light path
10 mW is available in the focused light
spot. Information recording is done by
locally heating the amorphous MO layer. The coercive force of the layer is decreased by a temperature rise, and with
the aid of a small external magnetic
field the magnetization of the layer is
locally reversed.
The recording process produces the
familiar Compact Disc storage domains. Erasing information requires
two steps. First, while the laser is delivering pulses the external magnetic field
is reversed so that the whole track surface is magnetized in the opposite,
original, direction. Then, new information is recorded in the normal way.
According to the Philips researchers,
the information in neighboring tracks is
unaffected by the erasure track. (Spacing between tracks is 1.7 micrometers.)
And the signal -to -noise ratio is unaltered by erasure when new information is recorded. While recording of a
digital music signal in this manner is
promising, information density in the
track direction is 40 percent of the density of a nonerasable Compact Disc. At
present, the density is limited by disc
surface roughness, not variations in
BM/E
storage domain dimensions.
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interpreting the
FCC rules fr regulations
Suburban Community
Policy and Localism
By Harry Cole
FCC Counsel
AS WE HAVE SUGGESTED
equitable" basis. Congress felt compelled to include this provision
because, back in the dawn of the broadin past col-
umns, the Commission under Chairman Fowler is reshaping many of the
fundamental principles and policies of
its regulatory approach relative to
broadcasting and, indeed, communications generally. Yet another tremor in
the continuing deregulatory earthquake
occurred in March, with the release of a
Report and Order eliminating the Suburban Community Policy, the Berwick
Doctrine, and the De Facto Reallocation Policy. As a practical matter, it is
possible that the effects of this action
may not be felt by many existing broadcasters. As a theoretical matter, however, the action signals a shift in the
Commission's approach to "localism," a shift which could lead to a
reappraisal of the relationship between
broadcasters and their audiences.
In order to understand what the elimination of these policies means, it is
necessary to understand how the policies arose in the first place. It all goes
back to the Communications Act. Section 307 (b) of the act, which was included in the act in 1936 (and which
had first been adopted as part of the
Federal Radio Act of 1927), calls for
the Commission to distribute stations
"among the different States and
communities" on a "fair, efficient and
82
BM /E
cast industry, there tended to be concentrations of broadcast development
in and around major metropolitan areas
like New York, Chicago and San
Francisco. By contrast, very few of the
first 500 to 1000 radio stations were established in less populous (and, as the
theory goes, less lucrative) markets.
Fearful that this trend would continue
and ultimately preclude the institution
of service to the hinterlands, Congress
passed section 307 (b) in order to assure
"an equitable geographical distribution
of stations over the entire country," to
quote the Congressional Record.
In the 1950s and 1960s, taking its
cue from Congress, the Commission
sought to develop mechanisms by
which it could control the development
of the broadcast industry so as to provide service to as many communities as
possible. For new stations this was relatively easy to do in the FM and TV services, since neither of those two had
experienced any substantial development. Thus, the Commission was in a
position to control FM and Tv growth
and distribution. AM service, however,
was another story, since AM stations
had proliferated, and had become geographically entrenched, years before
the adoption of section 307 (b).
With respect to AM stations, the
Commission had long since adopted a
MAY, 1983
www.americanradiohistory.com
"drop -in" approach, under which an
applicant for a new station could specify any community it wanted as long as
the proposed station met various technical standards. In order to factor 307
(b) considerations into this process, the
FCC decided that, to the extent that
competing applicants proposed different communities, the applicant proposing to serve a community which had no
other stations would be preferred over
an applicant proposing to serve a community which already had one or more
stations. This was pretty straightforward, but it was also pretty easy to
circumvent. The Commission soon recognized that applicants were trying to
have their cake and eat it too, mainly by
specifying small suburban towns as
their cities of license. The applicants'
idea, of course, was to gain a preference by specifying the small suburb,
while still keeping the proposed station
close enough to the large city to be able
to program it as if it were licensed to the
large city. Since this tended to undermine the 307 (b) concept, the Commission established the Suburban
Community Policy. That policy stated
that, when the proposed city -grade signal of an AM station would penetrate the
city limits of a large community (i.e.,
50,000 or more population), and when
the proposed city of license was less
than half the size of the large community, the Commission would presume
that the application was, in fact, for the
large community. The applicant could,
of course, try to rebut the presumption.
The showing necessary to rebut it,
however, was a tough one to make, and
many failed in the effort.
With respect to FM and Tv, the Commission was not saddled with the
"drop -in" approach used for AM applications. Instead, it established tables of
allocations in which it designated
which FM and TV frequencies would be
available in which communities. Thus,
rather than "dropping in" stations
wherever they could fit at the request of
an applicant, the Commission doled out
the channels to the various communities before accepting applications for
use of those channels. Applicants were
then free to file for use of any channel
listed in the tables. The community in
which the channel would be used had to
be the one specified in the table of allocations, or a community within at least
10 miles (for a Class A FM station) or 15
miles (for a TV or Class C or B FM station) of the listed community. If an applicant wanted an FM or TV station in a
place where no channel was allocated
and where no channel was available
under the 15- or 10 -mile rule, the applicant had first to convince the Commission to allocate the channel there. If the
Commission agreed to do so, the applicant then had to file an application for a
construction permit for use of the channel. The bifurcated process may seem
unnecessarily difficult, but it provided
the Commission with a relatively efficient means of controlling the geographic distribution of FM and Tv
stations.
Notwithstanding the two -step FM and
Tv allocation process, the Commission
ultimately found it necessary to create
for those services a couple of policies
equivalent to the AM Suburban Community Policy. The FCC was concerned
about applicants acquiring stations already allocated to specific communities
who might turn around and, in spite of
that allocation, try to program their stations to serve other larger (and, again,
more lucrative) nearby communities.
Obviously, such a practice runs directly
counter to the purpose of the allocation
process. What is worse, the Commission feared that some applicants might
try to add insult to injury by proposing
to utilize an available channel in a
smaller, unnerved community (for example, under the 10- or 15 -mile rule) in
order to obtain a comparative preference over other competing applicants
proposing to use the channel in the
larger community to which it was assigned. As it had been with respect to
AM allocations, the FCC was understandably reluctant to let FM or TV applicants take advantage of section 307
(b) preferences in order to acquire a station, only to operate the station in a way
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Circle 153 on Reader Service Card
BM
www.americanradiohistory.com
E
MAY. 1983
83
FCC RULES
& REGULATIONS
wholly inconsistent with just those
preferences.
Thus were born the Berwick Doctrine and the De Facto Reallocation
Policy. Those two closely interrelated
policies were patterned in large measure after the Suburban Community Policy, with appropriate adjustments made
for the differences in allocation policies
underlying AM service, on the one
hand, and FM and Tv service, on the
other. The Berwick Doctrine and De
Facto Reallocation Policy, at bottom,
were intended to permit the Commission to determine when and if a licensee
was abandoning its designated community of license in favor of some other
populous community.
All of these policies are well and
good in theory, but the proof of the pudding, as they say, is in the tasting, and
the proof of a policy is in its application. Unfortunately, none of the three
policies fared well, according to the
FCC's review of its own records. As it
turned out, the policies seemed to have
been invoked in large measure not by
the Commission itself, in an effort to
uphold the letter and the spirit of section 307 (b), but by existing broadcast-
ers seeking to slow, if not prevent
altogether, the arrival of new competition. Thus, for example, if an applicant
proposed a new station in a suburban
community, licensees in the larger
nearby city might petition to deny the
application on the basis of section 307
(b) considerations. While such petitions generally proved unsuccessful,
they did add significantly to the processing time required before the application could be granted, and they also
added considerably to the ultimate cost
of the application, primarily because of
the legal fees incurred in warding off
such petitions.
The Commission was understandably disturbed that its policies might be
used for such anticompetitive purposes, especially since the current
Commission has spent so much time
and effort seeking to increase competition in the industry. Accordingly, last
summer it proposed the abolition of all
three policies. It also proposed the
elimination of the 10- and 15 -mile
rules, and indicated that it would consider the possibility of redefining the
word "community" for licensing purposes. In March, the FCC completed
work on these proposals. The bottom
line? The Suburban Community Policy, Berwick Doctrine and De Facto
Reallocation Policy were eliminated,
as were the 10- and 15 -mile rules. The
definition of "community," however,
was unchanged.
The bases cited for the Commission's action were not unexpected.
They made much of the fact that the
various policies had served more as a
brake on, rather than a spur to, competition. They also relied on the fact that
the number of existing broadcast stations now in operation in and of itself
provides some assurance of competition, assurance which can justify a shift
in regulatory approach. This, of
course, should be a familiar theme by
now, as it has been relied on by the
Commission fairly regularly in a variety of contexts during the last two years
(the most obvious such context being
the 1981 radio deregulation decision).
With respect to the factors underlying
the particular 307 (b)- related policies
under consideration, the Commission's
"safety in numbers" rationale was stated as follows: "Growth in the number
of stations has increased competition in
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Circle 154 on Reader Service Card
84
BM /E
MAY, 1983
www.americanradiohistory.com
the industry and created the incentive
for broadcasters to discover discrete
markets within which to provide an
economically viable service..
Identification with and service of a
small community becomes economically feasible after an increase in the
number of players in an industry
fractionalizes a market."
In addition to this general, deregulatory rationale, the Commission also
noted that it intends to keep in place a
number of rules aimed at insuring truly
.
local service. These include the main
studio rule (which generally requires
that a station's studio be located in its
city of license), the city -grade coverage
rules (requiring that a station provide a
signal of a particular strength to all of
its city of license), the city -grade coverage rules (requiring that a station provide a signal of particular strength to all
of its city of license), and the requirement that each station's programming
be tailored to meet the needs and interests of its city of license. The FCC concluded that it really couldn't complain
if a station in a smaller community
satisfies all these rules and, at the same
time, wishes to compete for audience
and revenues in a larger nearby city or
metropolitan area. This is because, in
the FCC's view, a station's effort to
compete in a large market does not nec-
The question which the Commission
traditionally sought to answer through
the rules and policies which it has eliminated was relatively simple-what city
essarily prohibit it from serving a
smaller locality at the same time.
So much for the Suburban Community Policy, the Berwick Doctrine, and
the De Facto Reallocation Policy. The
10- and I5 -mile rules were eliminated
because the Commission no longer sees
a need to keep its FM and TV allocation
scheme flexible in light of the fact that
does each applicant intend to serve, its
community of license or some other
city? No matter how simple that question may seem, however, it is a difficult
one to answer. Any question of intent is
almost reduced to an effort to read the
applicant's mind, an imprecise exercise
at best. As a result, the Commission
has, in effect, abandoned its attempts to
discover the intent of applicants. Instead, it has decided to presume that, as
long as an applicant satisfies the main
studio and city -grade coverage rules
and offers a program proposal related to
the needs of its city of license, the applicant intends to serve the proposed
both those services are "mature" and
"thriving" and no longer in need of
fostering. The Commission also expressed concern that the 10- and 15mile rules could add to the burdens on
applicants, particularly if those rules
are invoked in comparative situations.
Accordingly, the 10- and 15 -mile rules
have been thrown out. In the future, if
an applicant wishes to specify a particular community which does not have any
vacant channels available, the applicant will first have to seek formal
reallocation of a channel to that community, regardless of whether or not
vacant channels may be available in
nearby cities.
city of license.
Thus the reshaping of the FCC regulations will have, whether direct or indirect, an effect on community policy
licenses and the definition of localism.
If you have any questions concerning
the Commission's recent action or its
possible impact on you, you should
consult with your communications
BM/E
counsel.
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BM/E
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Circle 156 on Reader Service Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
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TRX TIPS for stations
Those Other Taxes
By Mark E. Battersby, Financial Consultant
AMONG THE HIDDEN COSTS of operating
your broadcasting business are those
taxes and charges which relate to the
employment of those individuals who
work with or for you. These taxes frequently are dismissed as minor or
unimportant, but they can -and often
do-add up quickly. Fortunately, with
a little planning and a little knowledge,
even those miscellaneous employment
taxes can be kept to a minimum.
For example, the unemployment
compensation bite is among the most
neglected financial problems facing the
average-sized station. The unemployment compensation system is designed
in such a way as to provide the minimum benefits established by our lawmakers to individuals who lose their
jobs because of layoff or discharge (but
not for cause). These benefits are paid
by the state to the employee for a
specified period of time, so long as the
discharged employee is seeking work
and willing to accept other employment
if available. The program is ordinarily
run by an agency of the state which has
its own rules and regulations, employees, and appellate procedures.
The short response time allowed under the present computerized system
can work against the employer, unless
that employer makes a conscious decision before claims are filed to respond
to every claim. For instance, consider
what happens if an employee leaves
your station to take another job and is
fired from the new job. In many states
the experience rating (which is the way
in which your tax payments are determined) of the original employer is the
one that is charged with this former employee's present unemployment benefits. This may be the case even under
these conditions: you asked that employee to stay, the former employee's
departure from your station was voluntary, and you as an employer had no
part in the discharge by the new
employer.
Should you choose to represent yourself in objecting to having your station
charged with this employee's inability
to keep the new job, you will undoubtedly find it a time -consuming and
frustrating experience. In many states
the hearing officer is also the representative of the state agency and the
employee. He also is charged with interpreting the complex rules and regulations. What's worse, continuances
for the appearance of the employee are
readily granted in most cases.
There is another way to handle this
kind of claim on a relatively inexpensive basis. There are firms that do
nothing but handle unemployment
compensation claims for others such as
your station. These specialized firms,
usually for a flat fee per calendar quarter, will keep you advised of any
changes in the law or regulations, and
will assist you in setting up a procedure
for termination of the employment of
any individual so that you will have
documentation available for any subsequent unemployment compensation
claim.
Furthermore, most of these firms
will represent you in any hearing,
freeing you from any time -consuming
personal appearance-not to mention
the frustration and aggravation normally accompanying such appearances.
Some firms will even monitor your
claims for you and give you computer
readouts of your experience factor with
respect to your unemployment compensation claims.
There may be instances in which an
employee is discharged for cause, because of his inability to get to work on
time, for example, or for being unavailable for work when required, being involved in theft or fraud, or for other
similar reasons which may be the basis
for a legitimate denial of unemployment compensation benefits. If you can
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Circle 157 on Reader Service Card
BM /E
www.americanradiohistory.com
MAY, 1983
87
TAX TIPS
properly present your case and thereby
defeat unwarranted claims, you will be
in a position to keep your unemployment compensation costs lower.
Another element in the tax cost
buildup is workmen's compensation.
Workmen's compensation is not, strictly speaking, a tax, but nonetheless usually falls within the category of "other
taxes." Workmen's compensation is a
statutory means by which employees
may collect from their employer for injury on the job or for job -related inju-
ries. In many states this is handled
through private insurance. Although in
the manufacturing and construction industries this can be a substantial cost
because of the tremendous risk of injury, in a broadcasting station or office
the risks are substantially reduced. Regardless, many insurance companies
have used these vehicles as moneymaking opportunities by consistently
raising premiums.
Depending on the size of your station, the number of employees, and the
Computer Systems
Engineer
With the largest computer company
in the broadcast industry
Data Communications Corporation has an excellent
opportunity for qualified Computer Systems Engineers
at our Sun Belt headquarters in Memphis, Tennessee.
The individual we seek will become directly involved
in our DCC Master Control Automation Department. The
latest in technology and resources will be at your disposal
for systems design and systems and applications programming for the master control computer and switcher interfaces. You will be working with the most recently announced master control switchers on the market.
The position requires a BSEE or equivalent, with minicomputer or microprocessor experience. Broadcast technology or master control digital techniques are a definite
plus.
DCC, the company that developed BIAS (Broadcast
Industry Automation System), is the undisputed leader
in broadcast automation with products and services for
station departments, national reps, and corporate offices.
We are on the move with room for Systems Engineers
who are looking for a challenge and a career path in broadcast technology. We offer an excellent salary, benefits,
and relocation package.
Please send your resume with salary history to:
Holly Jenkins
Personnel Department
3000 Directors Row
Memphis, Tennessee 38131
BROADCAST DIVISION
An equal opportunity employer
88
BM,E
MAY, 1983
www.americanradiohistory.com
law in your state. it may be possible for
your station to self- insure its own workmen's compensation coverage. To self insure you merely establish a fund to
cover a set number of potential claims
with an insurance policy covering any
catastrophic losses. Naturally, you
must know what you are doing and get
the approval of the proper authorities
but, again, there are firms willing to
help you in this area too. Furthermore,
in light of the present highly competitive insurance market, it may even be
possible to shop for other insurance
companies in order to determine whether your worker's compensation premiums can be reduced.
With the signing of recent legislation, other obligations affect the station's taxes. Through December 31,
1981, an employer did not have to pay
the employee's portion of FICA on sick
pay. However, on that date, President
Reagan signed a bill entitled "Social
Security Amendments of 1981." The
bill states that any payments made to,
or on behalf of, an employee on account of sickness or accident disability
are subject to Social Security taxes
unless those payments are made under a
qualified plan or paid after the employee has not worked for an employer for
more than six months. What's more, if
the employee is getting disability payments from an insurance company, the
employer will still be liable for FICA
withholding if the disability insurance
carrier advises the employer of the
amount of taxable wages and the amount
of the employee's FICA contributions
withheld.
A final tax burden on the station
owner comes from local government.
Many municipalities have so- called
"head" taxes which are used as a
means of taxing the employer, particularly where employees may tend to
come from the surrounding communities and live outside the municipality.
In almost every instance there are exemptions which should be carefully
studied and reviewed in order to determine whether you as an employer are in
fact subject to the tax. In some communities, employers have banded
together to fight such taxes on constitutional or other legal grounds and in
some cases have successfully managed
to defeat them.
Unearthing the hidden costs of those
"other taxes" is beginning to have
a bigger payoff. You can save on
employee taxes and charges by knowing the law in your community and by
carefully reviewing all of your contracts and practices regarding these
matters. As always, but perhaps more
so in these days of recession, every
dollar counts.
BM /E
-
The telecine without tubes.
Digital CCD technology
means better pictures.
Advanced technology in the new
Bosch FDL 60 "U.S. Series" with
PanScan and black stretch gives you
tremendous advantages over conventional film scanners.
And the most important of these is
superb picture quality with high resolution, excellent signal -to -noise ratio, and
brilliant color rendition with negative or
positive film.
CCDs make the difference
The use of solid -state CCDscharge- coupled devices -completely
eliminates electro- optical problems
inherent to pickup or scanning tubes.
You don't have to worry about
burn -in, afterglow, or field lag because
there's no photoconductive or phosphor
layer to cause these effects.
You can forget about shrinkage,
flicker, vertical deflection, horizontal
misregistration, and positioning errors
of all kinds.
And never again will you be subjected to the expensive ordeal of tube
changes
New operational modes
Thanks to the FDL 60's capstan
drive and digital signal processing, you
can operate slow motion, fast motion,
forward, reverse, and freeze frame -all
in full broadcast quality. You can start
and stop instantly, and with frame
accuracy. You can search for scenes or
frames either with variable programmable search or frame jogging, both
with full format color pictures.
Low operating costs
The solid -state devices used in the
FDL 60, including the CCD sensors,
need no maintenance.They have all the
reliability and long operating life typical
of semiconductors. So besides giving
you a better picture, the FDL 60 saves
you money on maintenance.
Operational flexibility
The FDL 60 gives you operational
flexibility you'd expect only in a modern
videotape recorder. You control it like a
VTR, too. The servo deck with continuous capstan drive and microcomputer control ensures gentle film
handling. And it's totally insensitive to
perforation damage.
A keyboard that lets you enter time
code cue points and a changeover
switch give you disturbance -free transitions between two machines in parallel
operation.
You can even integrate the FDL 60
into your VTR editing and film -to -tape
transfer systems.
A quick- switch optical block lets
you run either 35mm or 16mm film in
combination with all the usual types of
sound track.
Find out for yourself how high
technology can mean better pictures.
Call your local Fernseh office. Or get
in touch with Fernseh Inc., P.O. Box
31816, Salt Lake City, Utah 84131,
(801) 972 -8000.
Convenient film deck controls include speed,
mode, direction, format, framing, and focus.
Adjacent decks control audio. video, and
color correction.
BOSCH
1982 Emmy Award
Winner For
CCD Technology
Circle 159 on Reader Service Card
1982 Fernseh Inc. All rights reserved.
NEW, BIGGER PRIZE: $50.00 FOR
EACH CONTEST WINNER!
Problem 18: Automation With
Home Computers
COF1TET
Here's a chance to share your own personal solutions to some of broadcasting's
most vexing engineering needs
Each month, BM/E presents two engineering problems and invites you to submit solutions complete with diagrams.
BM/E's editors will read the entries and
select the best for publication- giving
readers an opportunity to vote for the
idea they consider best by using the ballot
area on the Reader Service Card.
We will pay $10 for each entry printed.
In addition, the solution in each month's
competition receiving the most votes on
our Reader Service Card will win $50.00.
So put on your thinking cap and submit an
answer to either of the problems outlined
below
and be sure to watch this section for the solutions.
.
.
.
Allen W. Marshall Ill, president and GM of wKEU AM and FM, Griffin, GA,
writes: "I don't have a Great Idea Contest solution, but I do have a problem: Has anyone been able to design a home -built automation system
using a small, relatively inexpensive computer such as the Apple or
TRS -80? Everything that the salesmen pitch me is in the $25,000 range
and up. Surely with the price of home computers they can be put to good
use at the broadcast station." Can anyone make some suggestions for Mr.
Marshall?
Solutions to Problem 18
must be received by
May 23, 1983 and will be
printed in the July, 1983 issue
Problem 19: Wire Service
Automation
Although there are several commercial newsroom automation systems
that incorporate wire service tracking, does anyone have a program that
allows a personal computer to perform this task? Describe your program
(without going into a line -by -line rundown) for acquiring AP, UPI and
similar services, storing the data, then providing for computer recall by
categories (news, weather, sports, and so on). (Problem submitted by
J. T. Vobbe, CE, WI .F\ :\\t'FM. Bad Axe. \n.)
Solutions to Problem 19
must be received by
June 20, 1983, and will be
printed in the August, 1983 issue
...
CONTEST RULES
1.
Mail Official Entry Form to:
How to Enter: Submit your ideas on how to solve the
problems, together with any schematic diagrams, photographs, or other supporting material. Entries should be
roughly 500 words long. Mail the entries to BM /E's Great
Ideas Contest, 295 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10017.
Use the official entry form or a separate piece of paper with
your name, station or facility, address, and telephone
number.
2. Voting and Prizes: BM /E's editors will read all entries and
select some for publication; the decision of the editors is
final. Those selected for publication will receive a $10 honorarium. Each month, readers will have an opportunity to
vote for the solution they consider the best by using the
Reader Service Card. BM/E will announce the solution receiving the most votes and will award the winner of each
month's competition a $50.00 check.
3. Eligibility: All station and production facility personnel are
eligible to enter solutions based on equipment already built or
on ideas of how the problem should be solved. Consultants
are welcome to submit ideas if they indicate at which facility
the idea is in use. Manufacturers of equipment are not eligible
to enter. Those submitting solutions are urged to think
through their ideas carefully to be certain ideas conform to
FCC specs and are in line with manufacturers' warranty
guidelines.
90
BM/E
BM/E's Great Ideas Contest
295 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10017
Solution to Problem
#
Your Name:
Title:
Station or Facilite:
Address.
Telephone:
(
assert that, to the best of my knowledge, the idea
submitted is original with this station or facility, and
hereby give BM /E permission to publish the material.
I
1
Signed
Date
MAY, 1983
www.americanradiohistory.com
J
SOLUTIONS to problem 16:
Cart Ready /Not Ready Indication
Many older audio cart machines lack a blinking "ready" light that
indicates whether a cart in the machil)e has already played. Several engineers sent in circuit designs for indicators, with lights or
otherwise, to show if a cart is ready, playing, or finished playing.
Here are the finalists, as selected by BM E's editors.
SOLUTION A
-
Andrew Ellis
Technical Supervisor
KCBS, San Francisco, CA
This circuit interfaces easily to almost
any audio cart machine. It provides an
unambiguous indication that the cart
has cued out by flashing the ready light.
A steady- burning ready light indicates
that the cart either has not played at all,
or was last stopped manually. The
flashing lamp reminds operators to unload played carts promptly to prevent
accidental replays.
When a cart is inserted, the deck
switch output is used to set flip -flop
U3A -U3B. The Q output of the flipflop goes low, forcing the output of
U3D high. This turns on U4, allowing
the ready lamp to bum normally. The
line to the ready lamp is broken and the
output side of U4 inserted in it to allow
gating the lamp.
When a stop cue is detected, the voltage from the cue detector couples a
negative pulse to U3B -6, clearing the
flip-flop. U3C is a clock, running at
about 4 Hz. The square wave at
U3D -12 forces the output of U3D to
toggle, flashing the ready lamp through
U4. The flip -flop remains in this condition until the cart is removed and another inserted. The next cart insertion
begins the cycle again.
The optically coupled inputs allow
operation of this circuit with positive or
negative -going indications for cart insertion and cue detect. If the insertion
switch provides a switched +24 Vdc,
for example, the switch connects to the
"CART+" input and the "CART
input is grounded. If a switched ground is
provided, the switch connects to
"CART
and +24 Vdc is connected
to "CART+ ". Optical coupling also
means the unit will not introduce
ground loops.
U5 provides a 12 Vdc supply. It can
be eliminated if the cart machine has a
10 to 15 Vdc supply available. Otherwise, the flasher operates from the 24
Vdc relay supply. Polarity is unim-
portant, since there is no ground reference on inputs or output.
This is the fourth generation of this
device designed and built at KCBS. Total parts cost is less than $6.00. In most
cases, the only changes needed to the
cart machine are the break in the ready
lamp line and the connection to the cue
detector circuit. Do not use the STOP
circuit to clear the flip -flop, since this
would allow the unit to indicate a cued out cart after a manual stop. The input
to U2 must be from the stop cue detector itself.
R and R2 are chosen to provide a
few milliamperes of LED current when
the circuits are active. For 24 Vdc indications, 10k is a reasonable value. A
copy of our 1.4 -inch by 2 -inch PC board
layout of this device is available for an
SASE from the author.
1
SOLUTION B
Gary Shirk
Supervisor
WCAO /WXYV, Reistertown, MD
Our first step was to learn the conditions of the ITC Series 99 cart we used.
The only thing that seemed to give a
false indication was a power failure. So
we designed the circuit not worrying
how the logic changed once it saw a
power failure. The machine we used in
the design was an ITC Triple Decker. I
haven't worked with too many Tape
Casters, but I do know that they have an
octal control plug with which you can
get different combinations of highs and
lows. So there is no visible reason why
this circuit won't work with virtually
any machine on the market.
The basis of the circuit consists of a
NAND latch and an AND gate. We will
show different kinds of flash circuits
that can be used. The one using the
fewest parts is Radio Shack's LED
#276-036. The only drawback is that if
you want to use a ready light, run light
and a flashing light, you would need
three LEDS, so a different light would
have to be used for the flashing indicator. But Radio Shack also has an LED
flasher/oscillator lc #276 -1705 that
has an adjustable flash rate. If this is
used, some simple steering diodes and
the same ready light can be used.
Pins 8, 2 and of control plug J1 on
the ITC 3D was used. In order for this
circuit to work, the micro switch S I has
to be used. You have to bring each side
of the micro switch out to appropriate
points. Not all machines use a spot
switch, but one can be put in almost any
machine.
With the machine in the rest mode,
no cart in the machine, the micro switch
NC is at ground. Resistor R2 and R3
place a low at Pin A, which sets the
latch. A high is at Pin C. The ready
light will not light until a cart is inserted, completing the ground for the LED.
When the cart is started, a low appears
at Pin E which resets the latch and turns
out the light with a low at Pin C. When
the cart stops, a high will be on Pin E, a
low on Pin D which makes Pin F go
high. So with Pin F and Pin E going to
the AND gate, this will give a high to the
flasher circuit. Note: When the cart is
in, Pin A goes high and stays high until
1
Solution A
(ri-aSvó4)
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VOTE NOW!
BALLOT ON READER SERVICE CARD
BM /E
www.americanradiohistory.com
MAY, 1983
91
OBIT IDEOS
TI
ing Red on bottom. Of course, the same
ready light can be used if the LED Flasher
IC is used. Also a slow A- Stable Multi vibrator can be used, but you would
need more parts to accomplish this. For
the run circuit, a tap -off point voltage
divider, across the run lamp circuit,
works well with no logic involved.
Qz IOK
eINT Boo
LED
(RASHER)
CART
SUP
SOLUTION C
RED
Robert Tarsio
MICRO
Assistant Chief Engineer
SWIM
WKHK, New York, NY
SI
R5
O
IoK
eUN
CIRCUIT
ONLY
Solution
/GREEN
RUN
t IL,HT
B
the cart is pulled out and reinserted. Pin
E is high when cart is in and Pin C is
high which keys Pin D high and Pin F
low. So the only time Pins F and E are
high is when the cart has played and
stopped. This is the heart of the flash
circuit; a way to turn a circuit on in the
proper sequence of events. Also notice
that the ready light is forced to stay out
because there is always a high on Pin A,
which forces Pin C to stay low, until the
cart is reinserted. All three LEDS can be
stacked; Ready Light Yellow in middle, Green Run Light on top and Flash-
Howe 7000 Series Stereo Consoles
.
.
The circuit involved was designed to be
used with the ITC SP, RP or 30 cartridge playback systems. With a few
modifications, it could easily be
adapted to any cart machine with remote control capability. Power for the
circuit is derived from the cart deck,
thus eliminating the need for an external power supply. (Total current drain
per circuit is about 40 mA.)
When a cartridge is inserted, the
ready light (external to the machine) is
turned on due to a trailing edge pulse
appearing at Pin 7 of the 74C76 flip flop. This causes Pin 10 of the Q out-
The $10,000 console
for only $5800.
LC
Our Howe Consoles have afforded us
sound quality and flexibility beyond our
expectations. >>
John Patten, General Manager WNUS
Belpre, Ohio
All our users recommend the cost -effective
Howe line of broadcast equipment. The purchase price and low maintenance costs contribute to the valued position Howe Audio
maintains in the industry
With the advent of Opti- Cue", Howe Audio
now offers an all- inclusive three -year warranty.
Contact a Howe Audio products user today.
Contact us for a complete users list.
.
Congratulations WNUS...
FM Station of the Year!
For further information contact
Howe Audio
3085 -A Bluff Street
Boulder. CO 80301
(800) 525-7520 or (303) 444 -4693
howe audio productions, inc.
P.O. Box 383.
Boulder, CO 80306
Circle
92
BM E
MAY. 1983
Opti -Cue'"
161 on
Reader Service Card
is a
trademark of Howe Audio
put to go low, inhibiting the 555 timer.
The steady state of the 555 is high, turning on the light driver transistor.
When the cartridge is started, a trailing edge pulse appears at Pin 8 of the
74C76 flip -flop. This causes a high to
appear at Q which, when the 555 has
supply voltage applied to it, will enable
it to oscillate at a I Hz rate, turning on
and off the light driver transistor. The
555 is starved for current at its supply
pin until the cartridge recues and stops.
This is accomplished by tying Pin 8 of
the 555 through a resistor to the run pin
from the cart machine. When the cartridge is removed, the light goes out
and stays out because the emitter lead
of the transistor driver is tied to the cart
in switch to ground only when a cartridge is inserted. When a new cartridge
is inserted, the light comes back on and
stays on, and the process starts all over.
We chose to use the "off light" in
our Broadcast Audio System 20 console, which normally indicates the fader off state. In doing this, we needed
to tie the console, cart machine and circuit grounds together, which did not
cause any problem. The ready light in
the cart deck could have been rewired
to perform the same function.
Oc To fADEe
'OFF"LaC
3o
360
360
vcc izv 0
PIN 8
30 DN40
.3
CT INSeRT
30 pIN 6 ()
RVN"
o
4
s
\
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15
IN41N0
q1
SK30Z4
4'1°10 s
4 '1o20ó
S'1o3p
Solution
C
This was done because the cart machine is started by the on button on the
console fader. Without ever having to
look at the cart machine, the operator
knows the states of the machine by
merely looking at the console. If he
sees no lights, he knows he can insert a
VOTE NOW!
BALLOT ON READER SERVICE CARD
cartridge; if the off light is illuminated,
a cart is ready to go; if the on light is lit,
the cartridge is playing; and if the off
light is flashing, that cart has already
played. One further thing should be
noted: at the end of each cart we play on
the air, a secondary tone is placed on
the cart that closes a relay, which turns
off the fader, thus extinguishing the on
or "run" light indication. This system
is virtually foolproof in that a false indication from the console lighting system
is impossible, short of a bulb failure.
r
UNCOMPROMISING
WIRELESS
MICROPHONES
Finally, you can choose a wireless mic to fit the application. The Telex WHM -300, the electret wireless
transmitter mic for uncompromising speech
clarity. Or a Telex WHM -400 dynamic wireless transmitting mic for vocal entertainment with rich, full bodied audio quality.
Both elegantly tapered and without ,
trailing antenna wires. Or select
the miniature electret WLM -100 k
lavalier mic (or any standard
dynamic mic) with our belt pack transmitter.
r
Combined with the superb
Telex dual diversity* FM
receiver, you'll have a
wireless system that is
as good as any hard
wired mic, and at a
reasonable price.
Write us today for
full details.
Quality products for the Audio Professional
TELEX
TELEX ÇOMMUNICATIONS, INC.
'U
S
Patent No 4293955. Other patents applied for.
Circle 163 on Reader Service Card
BM /E
MAY, 1983
93
broadcast
EQLI 1PM EIlT
Morgan -Fairfield
250
Releases
Graphics Computer
Morgan -Fairfield Graphics has released the IBIS illustration software
implemented with the new Florida
Computer Graphics Beacon color
graphics computer. It is a graphic design and video illustration production
system designed with an electronic
stylus for use by artists and graphics
designers in production facilities and
broadcast stations. The company
claims no computer experience or
engineering background is necessary to
operate the computerized graphics
package.
IBIS is a menu -driven format with
access to 32 pen weights, user-definable brushes, 256 colors used 16 at a
time, and digital templates and drafting
aids. The user can also call on roam and
zoom, locking functions for registra-
lüirsted
MATCHMAKER SYSTEMS
for the customized approach
to videoproduction centers.
1" VTR
CONSOLE
Winsted's new model 3101 -T
console is designed for space
efficiency and operator
convenience. VTR turntable
rotates for complete machine
servicing. viewing comfort.
Monitor bridge adjusts in 1"
increments. Several models
available.
M..
«.....
Ns ó.
For full -line catalog of
editing, production and
dubbing consoles, tape and
film trucks, film and
videotape storage systems,
call toll -free or write:
THE WINSTED CORP.
8127 Pleasant Ave. So.
Minneapolis, MN 55420
612 888 -1957
MODEL
Phone Toll -Free
1- 800 -328 -2962
SONY FORMALLY
INTRODUCES
THE ECM 50-PBW.
Covering the Emnlys? The Grammys? The Oscars? Or
merely having a little tête -à -tête with the President of
the United States in front of 40 million people? You'll find the
world's most preferred broadcast mic is now even more
suited for the occasion. Because the legendary Sony ECM 50
lavaliere mic now comes in an elegant, black satin finish.
Ask your Sony dealer about the ECM 50. It's what all
the best -dressed newscasters will be
Professional Audio
wearing this year.
SONY
Sons Communication Product. Company. Son. Orne. Park Ridge. Sew Jeres 07656.
Sons Corp. or America. Som
a registered trademark of the Som Corp.
i
Circle 167 on Reader Service Card
94
BM
E
Circle 162 on Reader Service Card
MAY. 1983
www.americanradiohistory.com
e
1983
EQUIPMENT
::.;.
,
tion and placement of graphic elements, and a selection of type sizes and
styles with shadowing and kerning options. A font editor is included for users
to enter their own or existing type designs.
The complete turnkey system consists of the IBIS software and a Beacon
computer with 896 kbytes of memory,
a 13 -inch color monitor with 640x480
resolution, a five -megabyte Winchester disk drive, and a 640 kbyte
floppy disk drive. A keyboard and a digitizing tablet with an electronic pen
complete the hardware. Depending on
the user's requirements, a frame camera, I9 -inch monitor, color printer, or
video interface can be added as options.
Additional hard and floppy disk drives
may be added to increase storage capacity to a maximum of 20 megabytes.
The Beacon is equipped with a
CP/M- compatible FCG operating system, allowing other computer operations such as accounting, inventory,
and word processing. Also standard is
an external video extension board providing RS -170 RGB, NTSC, or Xerox
color copier outputs. The complete
turnkey package is priced at $39,500.
,
'\
.':-:
;.
,
.;;;.
.
-,-
--
.î .,
11-%
.
-
Studer Introduces Talk Show System
The new Telephone Audio System.
based on Studer's Telephone Hybrid,
allows operation by radio talk show
hosts independent of the main studio
console. The Talk Show set of equipment consists of a rack -mount unit and
a separate remote module with a 30foot cable.
In the 19 -inch rack frame is contained the power supply, a microphone
preamp for the studio announcer, a dual
relay unit, and an auto-balancing hybrid circuit. The hybrid accomplishes
sidetone attenuation by electronically
matching the telephone line capacitance and resistance. Operation of the
unit is automatic, with activation of the
hybrid triggered as soon as voice modu-
251
lation begins. A tape recorder output
( + 6 dBu) is also incorporated.
The tabletop remote module contains
a mic input and level control, a headphone output and level control, telephone return control, and a hybrid
on -off switch with an LED "on" indicator. A small vu meter on the remote
module reads the mic input level.
Advantages to the Talk Show equipment, claims the company, are that it
eliminates the need for a mix -minus bus
audio feed, and allows stations with
less sophisticated audio consoles to
make use of the hybrid. The system
may also be used on remotes and in applications where a complete, standalone telephone link is required.
A product of ye
of refineme
1979 3/4 -TON CHEVROLET MOBILE
VIDEO VAN -IDEAL FOR SMALL TV
PRODUCTION COMPANY
PHILIPS LDH -10 CAMERAS
TRIPODS
CCUs
SWITCHING EQUIPMENT
TERMINAL /TEST GEAR
3
MONITORS
AUDIO EQUIPMENT, INCLUDING
CABLES
MIXER AND MICROPHONES
RTS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
AIR CONDITIONED
STEEL BELTED RADIALS
29,000
MILES
PLUS MUCH, MUCH MORE!
READY TO ROLL AT ONLY S82,500!
Financing Available
-
-
We are purchasing new equipment and must sell immed
ately. For complete equipment list and further details
contact:
Our well know
Model "F' VHF television transmitter is a ixth- generation design. With solid state circu ts, modular construction and our control logic
bypass sy tern, it has proven reliability and cost -effectiveness. Offered in power ratings from 250 W to the 30 kW model shown here,
it's availab e from
Imom no lar
LARCAN COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT INC.
Andy Maisner. President
2131823.8622
396 Attwell Drive. Rexdale. Ontario, Canada M9W 5C3
Telephone 1416) 675 -7517 Telex 06- 989302
In USA: Lewis F Page. 323D Washington Blvd.. Laurel. Maryland 20707
Telephone (301) 4906800
Circle 168 on Reader Service Card
Circle 169 on Reader Service Card
AMERICAN VIDEO FACTORY
4150 Glencoe Avenue, Marina Del Rey, CA 90291
A
BM E
www.americanradiohistory.com
MAY. 1983
95
EQUIPMENT
MicMix Produces
Audio Processing
252
The MC -Series of modular audio processing equipment includes the MC101, a single -channel Dynafex noise
reduction module. The device provides
up to 30 dB or more of noise reduction
without encoding or decoding.
A threshold control for noise reduction, a hard -wired in/out switch, and a
switch to set the appropriate signal reference level are included in the unit.
The reference levels range through:
-10, 0, +4, or +8 dB, allowing interface with consumer, sound reinforcement, recording studio, or
broadcast equipment. A stereo version
(MC -102) of the MC-101 will be available in the spring. The MC -101 sells for
$325 and the 102 for $600.
Asaca Unveils Digital Still Store
The Asaca/Shibasoku ADS -1000 digital still store features a high -speed
memory and an eight -inch Winchester
disk drive. The system will store up to
218 fields of still pictures on one disk.
By adding the maximum four disks, a
253
total of 872 fields may be recorded.
Sort'ng of up to 16 pictures simultaneouslg is possible with the ADS -1000.
The unit can also instantly replay still
pictures within one second, and has a
built -in floppy disk to store pictures.
PROGRESS
"Breakaway" from the Crowd
t
1
BYDESIGN
25 N. York St.. Pottstown, PA 19464
215) 327 -2292. TWX 710 -653 -0125
9625 N. 21st Dr., Phoenix AZ 85021
(602) 997 -7523. TWX: 910 -951 -0621
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Now that's Progress...
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{oK
PidPéAtitnA^t`,uia
...with Videotek's new RS-10A Audio
Follow Video Routing Switcher. Ten
bridging video inputs with dual channel audio breakaway make this an
extremely versatile switcher. A remote
control model is also available.
.
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825
.MajorCred,lCardsACceptrd
Audi :VideoEngmeers
VIDEOTEKtNC
Circle 170 on Reader Service Card
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BM /E
MAY, 1983
www.americanradiohistory.com
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::a :-r
EQUIPMENT
Marconi Designs
Amplitude Analyzer
254
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o
>o
_ ::
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U
A new automatic Amplitude Analyzer,
Model 6500, has been designed by
Marconi for testing microwave systems
and components. The scalar analyzer
has a graphic display screen.
Amplitude and frequency scaling
can be automatically arranged for optimum display, and a bright line cursor
shows frequency and amplitude across
the band which, according to the manufacturer, makes for ease of use and accurate measurements. The 6500 is
designed to control any sweeper or RF
source which may be driven externally
by a voltage ramp, eliminating the need
to buy special RF sources. With its 10
MHz to 18 GHz detectors, it measures
and displays absolute power, transmission and return loss, and VSWR.
Display flexibility and automatic
correction for square -law and temperature effects in the detectors is achieved
through the use of a digital design with
nonvolatile memory. All front panel
settings, amplitude limits, and frequency ranges can be stored in and recalled
from memory.
In addition to optional GPIB control
of all front panel functions, a conventional analog output allows the use of
normal x -Y recorders. The resulting
I
.
.
- ;._
=
_,.
w
.
own
4
1
plot is a function of the 6500 instructing
the device's recorder to include graticules and labeled axes. The unit is
priced at $9325.
Winsted Devises Corner Console
255
The four -bay corner equipment console
can be configured into a three -bay editing station and can, with the addition of
modular components, be expanded in
capacity. The steel constructed console
accepts a rack to make a three -high unit
for additional space and flexibility. A
complete line of accessories is available for the console, including rack slide
VTR mounting kits, storage drawer,
blank panels, and electrical outlets.
The accessories are finished in matching textured pearl gray and light beige.
VITC ENCODE -DECODE
/./
_ ..,.,..,
PROVIDES THE BEST OF BOTH CODES
LAUMIC HAS THE EDGE
IN
VIDEO EDITING EQUIPMENT
\\\\\\\\\\\
11/111111111111111111%
I4.5Y3P.02
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1
MODEL VIE 224 ENCODER
r1]IRLI
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":5, 31.0Z
l
7:1
I
MODEL VID 225 DECODER
Decodes longitudinal and /or VITC and
outputs a SMPTE longitudinal code at a
rate proportional to either input to
provide an automatic interface with
most edit controllers.
Encodes VITC on any combination of
vertical interval lines from 10 through
20 on either or both fields.
Two separate modular instruments for
maximum flexibility and economy.
Works in conjunction with your
existing SMPTE longitudinal code
equipment.
[GRAY ENGINEERING LABORATORIES
504 W. Chapman Ave. Suite P
Orange. Ca. 92668 714-997 -4151
RE N T
a CMX Portable
Now you can
3 machine system from Laumic Company
''
THE EDGE
computer assisted editing system with internal
memory. re-edit. list ripple. time code pulse count editing. auto assembly, floppy disk, printer. GPI and built -in A V dissolver: interfaced
with ADDAS TWIN TBC and DIGITAL EFFECTS SWITCHER: WAVEFORM & VECTORSCOPE: 3 SONY 5850'S SYNC GEN.: and VIDEO
& AUDIO MONITORS.
Its yours for short or long term rental. Call today.
SALES, SERVICE AND RENTALS OF JVC. SONY,
HITACHI. INDUSTRIAL BROADCAST VIDEO
EQUIPMENT SYSTEMS DESIGNED AND INSTALLED.
LAUMIC COMPANY, INC.
306 EAST 39th STREET. NEW YORK. N. V. 10016 TEL. (212) 889.3300
Circle 173 on Reader Service Card
Circle 172 on Reader Service Card
BM /E
www.americanradiohistory.com
MAY, 1983
99
EQUIPMENT
Imagery System
256
From Fantastic Animation
to achieve the effects images.
The use of the effects requires two
\TRs and any luminance keying switch er. The imagery is in black and white,
so once the switcher has been set to do a
luminance key, images from any video
source can be substituted for the video
imagery black and white signal, including those from video cameras, switch ers, colorizers, and vTRs. The 30
prerecorded effects are played in several speeds and are marked with SMPTE
code.
The Fantastic Animation Machine has
introduced the Video Imagery System,
a computer -generated series of animated wipes, transitions, mattes, and backgrounds prerecorded on videotape.
The Series I images are designed to
be used with any switcher's luminance
key mode. The SMPTE time -coded tape
is fed through the switcher and combined there with any other video source
Mar
When accuracy Counts ...Count on
AM /FM /TU MONITORS
for
.
o
v
v
I
v
The video imagery is designed for
use on tape from half-inch to two -inch,
and each effects tape has been individually registered. The Series I imagery
sells for $400 on 3/4 -inch and for $700
on one -inch.
Minneapolis Magnetics 257
Improves Audio Heads
of
Life Plus, record, playback, and erase
heads. The new tape head design uses
laminate and material structures to increase the life and electrical performance of the heads.
According to MMI, head core losses
are negligible from 0 to 25 kHz, requiring less corrective equalization. The
heads are designed for retrofit installation without additional kits for Ampex
and other reel -to -reel equipment. The
company plans to have the heads available for cart equipment and has doubled
the warranty period on all Life Plus
products.
MMI has announced the introduction
CALL ARNO MEYER (215) 687 -5550
BELAR
ELECTRONICS LABORATORY, INC.
LANCASTER AVENUE AT DORSET. DEVON. PA 19333
i
BOX B26
(215)
6875550
Circle 174 on Reader Service Card
JVC
MO
EQUI PM
Call Toll -Free
1- 800 - 334 -8688
For Lowest JVC prices
VC 511U
JVC 10 Pin Camera Cable
S
100
13G25
Sharp 13" TV
S
5120
VF 19000
CB 2000KY
JVC 14 Pin Camera Cable
S
100
4118
Wheelit Cart
S
165
JVC 1.5" Viewfinder
S
250
VSEC-43TD
Jaytex Edit Control
S
700
KY2700 Shipping Case
S
100
5110
3M Color Insert Keyer
S
500
CB 1900KY
KY1900 Shipping Case
S
50
HZ -FS14U
JVC Servo Focus for
S
475
1.9 10-100MM
FUJINON 10 to
S
200
VC- 418 -10S
JVC Ext. Cable for
GNC 80U
S
130
VC
1
Lens
229
KY2700
1118
Aquastar Video Projector
S4500
210
3M Color Bar 8 Sync Gen
S
595
KIRKMAN ELECTRONICS, INC.
Winston -Salem, N.C.
Toll Free (800) 334 -8688
NC (800) 672 -0109
Circle 175 on Reader Service Card
100
BM
E
MAY. 1983
www.americanradiohistory.com
Augat Offers
Fiber Optics Tool Set
258
The new tool set is designed for complete optical connector installation,
providing all the tools necessary for either field or laboratory work. The set is
supplied in a case and is designed for
Augat's JSC and DSC connector lines
but is, according to the company, suitable for other compatible products.
Included in the kit are blades, tubes,
strippers, an insertion tool, a scribe,
epoxy curing tool, and polishing tool.
All necessary chemicals, distilled water, and other materials are also contained in the set. The complete set is
priced at $495 and the refill pack at
$78.50, available from stock.
ERTISER'S INDEX
ADDA Corp
ADM Technology, Inc
Agfa-Gevaert, Inc
American Video Factory
Ampex AVSD
Ampex MTD
Andrew Corp
Audiotechniques, Inc.
Auditronics, Inc.
1
NEC America, Inc
16
C -2, 69
81
95
Otani Corp
50 -51
Panasonic /Matsushita
Panasonic /Ramsa
Philips Television Systems, Inc
Potomac Instruments
62
24 -25
32
87
Ramko Research
RCA Broadcast Systems
38 -39
MCI /Quantel, world leader in advanced digital video systems for
broadcasting and teleproduction, has
several outstanding career opportunities for sales and technical people.
74
34
85
2 -3, 65, 94
26
96
28
Immediate openings for sales persons
to be district managers in Dallas/
Fort Worth and Mid -Atlantic locations. Some experience in broadcast
or teleproduction equipment required, together with good track
record in sales.
Telex Communications, Inc
93
Videotek, Inc.
96
Senior video systems test technicians
required at our handsome new
headquarters in Palo Alto, California.
Ideal
background would include
experience with digital video systems,
but experience in computers or
peripherals may suffice.
30-31, 59
8 -9, 70-71
19
79
66
Bally, Case & Cooler, Inc.
Belar Electronics Lab, Inc
Bosch (Fernseh)
29
100
17, 89
Capitol Magnetic Products
Christie Electric Corp
Clear -Com Intercom Systems
Comrex
Comtech Data Corp
Continental Electronics Mfg. Co.
Convergence Corp
Countryman Associates
68
83
20
16
4
79
57
83
CAREERS
IN DIGITAL
VIDEO
Satt Electronics
Schneider TV Lenses
Shintron
Sony Broadcast
Studer Revox America, Inc
Swiderski Electronics, Inc
Switchcraft, Inc
7
Sales Representatives
Technicians
Data Communications Corp
Datatron, Inc.
53, 88
36
Echolab, Inc
Elector
80
45
75
ESE
Fidelipac
Fujinon Inc
Fuji Photo Film USA, Inc
76
77
47
Gray Communications Consultants
Gray Engineering Labs
64
99
Harris Video Systems
Harrison Systems
Hitachi Denshi American Ltd
Howe Audio Productions, Inc.
37
Ward Beck Systems Ltd.
Winsted Corp.
SALES OFFICES
BMÏE
Broadcast Management /Engineering
Ikegami Electronics USA, Inc
Inovonics, Inc.
US JVC Corp
Kamen Broadcasting Systems
King Instrument Corp
Kirkman Electronics
Larcan Communications
Equipment, Inc.
Laumic Co., Inc.
Lerro Electrical Corp
Lines Video Systems
LPB, Inc.
295 Madison Ave.
New York, New York 10017
11
C -3
92
86
78
21
23
67
100
95
99
43
49
84
Telex: 64 -4001
Vice President, National Sales
James C. Maywalt
Eastern & Central States
295 Madison Avenue
New York. New York 10017
212- 685 -5320
James C. Maywalt
Gene Kinsella
Western States
1021 South Wolfe Road, Suite 290
Sunnyvale, CA 94086
408 -720 -0222
Neal Wilder
C -4
94
Field Service Engineers
Immediate opening for East Coast
location. Experience required in
maintenance of digital video systems
or computer -related equipment. Installation experience a plus.
MCI /Quantel offers an excellent
starting salary, good benefits package,
and plenty of room for advancement.
Plus the prestige of being associated
with the top company in an exciting
industry. We're changing the look of
television
and you can be a part
of it.
-
Send your resume to MCI /Quantel,
P.O. Box 50810, Palo Alto, CA
94303. Or call Marsha Verse at (415)
856 -6226.
An equal opportunity employer.
Charleen Kennedy
5015 Birch Street, Office One
Newport Beach, CA 92660
714-851 -1461
Neal Wilder
United Kingdom /Europe
Chilberton House
Doods Road
Reigate, Surrey, England
Telephone, Reigate (7372) 43521
Bronwyn Holmes
3M /Magnetic Tape Div
3M /Pro-AV
MCI (Div. of Sony America)
MCI /Quantel
Merlin Engineering
Midwest Corp.
Minolta Corp.
60 -61
12 -13, 73
5
55, 101
18
15
Derek Hopkins
Japan /Far East
Eiraku Building
-13 -9, Ginza,
Chuo -Ku, Tokyo 104 Japan
03 (562) 4781
S. Yasui
1
K. Yamamoto
MCI /QUANTEL
The digital video people
22
BM /E
MAY. 1983
101
13LISIMESS
A new film and videotape facility,
(212) Studios, will rise in Long Island
City, NY, opening its doors in January
1984. The 6.9 -acre facility will provide
complete pre -production, production,
and post-production services, including mobile video and satellite communications. Nancy Littlefield, formerly
director of the New York City May-
or's Office of Film, Theater, and
Broadcasting, will become president
and chief executive officer of (212)
Studios beginning April 4, 1983.
KCOP in Los Angeles will begin its
ENG operation with two RCA Hawkeye
half-inch recorder -cameras and two
complete Hawkeye studio systems
Ampex has reached agreements
with Wheelabrator Financial Corp.
and Commercial Funding to provide
financing alternatives for the lease or
purchase of audio and video recorders
to its U.S. customers.
In a pending $9.5 million cash transaction, Andrew Corp. has a tentative
agreement to acquire the assets of
Grasis Corp., a privately held manufacturer of microwave towers and
equipment shelters
Also, U.S.
Philips has acquired M/A -Com's 50
percent interest in Valtec, a manufacturer of optical fiber and cable, bringing Philips' interest in Valtec to 100
percent.
Nortronics has introduced a new
merchandising plan for its recorder
maintenance product lines, including
freight on volume orders, a rebate program, new discount terms, and additional advertising and public relations
.
.
.
....
BRIEFSI
....
Prudential Insurance will invest $45 million as a shareholder in
United Satellite Television Corp.,
which is planning to launch a DBS service by this fall.
In finances, RCA had record sales
and higher earnings in 1982 totalling
$8.237 billion, amounting to a net income of $222.6 million
Oak Industries reported its operating result for
1982, taking a pretax charge of $23
million against 1982 earnings for writedowns of certain subscription televi-
....
sion development costs. After
write- downs, net income for 1982
amounted to $4.1 million
Zenith
has reported a net loss of $21 million in
1982, compared with a net income of
$15.6 million in 1981.
A.F. Associates in New Jersey has
purchased more than $3.5 million of
Ampex video equipment for integration into studio production systems.
The equipment includes four ADO systems, 20 VPR -3s, eight VPR -80s, and
an ACR -25 automatic VCR
Sunrise Video West has ordered from
CMx/Orrox a 340X editing system for
its Albuquerque production facility.
WNEP-TV in Scranton/Wilkes -Barre,
PA has acquired a new 100 -watt EMCEE
transmitter to rebroadcast its Channel
16 signal to the Clarks Summit area
WGN -TV and Radio have purchased from Colorgraphics Systems
the Newstar computerized newsrooms
made by Integrated Technology
CBS RadioRadio has signed a
contract to purchase a complete New -
....
....
.
....
star system for its news operation.
Modern Videofilm in Los Angeles
has bought three Sony BVH -2000 VTR5
for its film-to -tape transfer operation
Stargem Recording studio in
Nashville has outfitted its studio with
ma/Sony recorders and consoles. Included in the equipment list are a
JH -636 automated console, a JH -24
multitrack recorder, and a JH -110B
mixdown recorder in half-inch stereo.
Larcan Communications has received an order for a 30 kW VHF trans-
mitter from
WVAN,
Channel
9 in
. Larcan also reSavannah, GA
ceived an order for a 60 kW VHF transmitter from WBIQ, Birmingham, AL,
and two major orders for VHF transmitters from the Canadian Broadcasting
.
Peter Hammer, curator of the Ampex
Museum of Magnetic Recording, shows
off an Ampex VRX -1000 videotape recorder. The first to be delivered to a
customer, the CBS Television Network,
in 1956, it was kept in operation for 22
years before CBS returned it to Ampex
in 1978.
....
Corporation
Custom DL ,gIcation of Los Angeles has added an Otani
DP7000 tape duplication system with
five slave units to its existing five -slave
configuration
.
Sound Arts of
Oakhurst, NJ has added two slave units
to its existing DP7000
ABC Radio Network recently purchased 74
Otani MTR -10 two- and four -channel
recorders and an MTR -90 16/24 channel recorder.
Eureka Teleproduction Center has
entered into the Northern California
audio /video production facilities business, located in San Carlos, CA
.
..
....
...
Computer Video Productions of
Minneapolis will move, expanding into
new 20,000 -square-foot video production facilities in May 1983.
personnel /business
In
develop-
ments, Quad/Eight Electronics announced that Kenneth Davis, Jr. has
acquired the company, assuming the
Marc Plitt,
duties of president
former president of Comprehensive
Video, has established his own company, specializing in a complete line of
video supplies and accessories.
Docuvid has undertaken a major reorganization in its New York and
Washington, DC headquarters. John J.
Sheehan is now executive VP and will
be based in New York; Craig Maurer is
now manager, Washington news operations
Clyde Smith has joined
Math Associates as president of
Fibervision. Thomas Califano will be
the VP marketing at Fibervision.
John D. Rittenhouse was elected
Group VP for the government systems
The company
division of RCA
also announced the election of James
Vollmer as senior VP of technical
Chyron
evaluation and planning
named Paul Rozzini as new VP of the
corporation with responsibilities for the
expanding manufacturing operations.
Gary Schmidt recently joined Artel
Communications as manager, broadcast sales with responsibility for all fiThe new director
ber optic sales
of broadcast engineering for McMartin Industries is Charles Goodrich, in
charge of new product development
Ernest Pappenfus has moved
from Cetec Corporation's Vega division to a corporate staff position, and
Gary Stanfill has been named to succeed him as Vega GM.
M /A -Com Video Satellite announced the appointment of Randy
Young as marketing manager of the
SMATV division, with marketing responsibility for the growing satellite
market. As part of the expansion program of TFT, Inc., John E. Leonard,
Jr. has been named VP of RF products
division.
....
....
....
....
....
.
"I want the world.
Consistent .05% corner re
and full auto-setup of up
cameras on com uter comma
HfiACHI HEARD YOU.
Don't want much, do you?
Dynamic registration not just at dead center but at all four corners.
AUTO
Plus 2- minute auto -setup of all those cameras.
SETUP
You're asking for some smart camera system, networks
of the world and top -drawer video production companies.
Well, Hitachi heard you, and has created an outright genius
the Hitachi SK -110 Camera System.
The computer registration capabilities of this camera system
produce pictures of a
clarity and resolution
previously unheard of.
And you get auto -setup
at the push of just one button, and zero reference,
too, where the computer
sets the green channel and
compares blue and red to
it with absolute precision.
The SK -110 is not only self-correcting, but self-diagnostic
as well. It gives both video screen display and hard copy printout; can be hooked into the CRT for control room monitoring.
There's a high -performance contour corrector;
5 automatic setup modes including quick check;
5 data files; so many other unique features an ad
can't begin to tell you about them.
The ultimate Hitachi SK -110. Contact the
broadcast video division at any of the offices
listed below. Hitachi Denshi America Ltd.,
175 Crossways Park West, Woodbury, NY
11797 (516) 921-7200. Offices also in
Chicago (312)344 -4020; Los Angeles
(213) 538 -4880; Atlanta (404)
451 -9453; Cincinnati (513) 489 -6500;
Dallas (214) 233 -7623; Denver
(303) 344 -3156; Seattle,
(206) 575 -1690; and Washington,
i
-
D.C. (301) 459 -8262.
Circle 176 on Reader Service Card
www.americanradiohistory.com
This
a- òphisticat-.
.n
audio system for the Post Pro..
Control Room at Group W's, KPIX, San
Francisco, is the third of a series
operating at their new station facilities.
Using top of the line Ward -Beck Series
460 modular components, its features
include an integral routing switcher with
alpha- numeric dot -matrix displays to
indicate the status of the
48- input /24- output configuration.
This particular unit is employed on
program post -production for Group W's
highly successful, nationally syndicated
-
PM Magazine.
First by Design.
Ward -Beck Systems Ltd.
841 Progress Avenue, Scarborough,
Ontario, Canada M 1 H 2X4.
Tel: (416) 438 -6550.
Tlx: 065 -25399.
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