Energy Saving Quick Guide - Cornell Cooperative Extension of

Energy Saving Quick Guide - Cornell Cooperative Extension of
Quick&Guide&for&Report&Assembly:&Tompkins&Energy&Conservation&Corps&
This%guide%is%organized%to%provide%uniform%language%to%respond%to%problems%that%are%commonly%found%
in%homes%that%have%been%audited%in%Tompkins%County,%and%provide%recommendations%for%these%issues.%%
This%guide%corresponds%to%the%data%collection%sheet%used%during%an%energy%test.%%%For%the%check%boxes%on%
the%data%collection%form,%corresponding%recommendations%are%listed%below.%%These%recommendations%
can%be%copied%and%pasted%into%a%report.%%Keep%in%mind%that%this%is%only%a%guide,%and%that%tailoring%each%
response%to%the%specific%home%you’ve%visited%will%be%most%useful%to%homeowners.%%
%
!
BUILDING SCIENCE BASICS&
Before!we!discuss!improvements!for!your!house,!it!is!important!to!understand!a!few!basics!of!
building!science!and!heat!transfer!in!a!home.!
!
Types&of&Heat&Transfer&
Heat!transfer!is!the!movement!of!heat!from!indoors!to!outdoors!in!the!winter!and!from!outdoors!to!
indoors!in!the!summer.!!Heat!moves!from!regions!of!high!temperature!to!regions!of!low!
temperature.!!Three!types!of!heat!transfer!account!for!the!loss!and!gain!of!heat!in!a!home:!
conduction,!convection,!and!radiation.!!When!determining!how!best!to!stop!heat!loss!from!your!
home,!it!is!important!to!understand!how!these!three!heat!transfer!mechanisms!interact.!!!
!
Conduction&
Conduction!is!the!transfer!of!heat!through!solid!materials.!!Different!materials!allow!conduction!to!
occur!at!different!rates.!!The!use!of!thermal!insulation!in!
a!home!is!designed!to!cut!down!on!the!conductive!heat!
losses!in!a!home!through!walls,!ceilings,!and!floors.!!&
&
Convection&
Convection!is!the!transfer!of!heat!through!air!movement.!!
There!are!three!forces!that!cause!air!to!move!in!your!
home:!the!stack!effect,!mechanical!systems,!and!wind.!!
The!stack!effect!is!described!by!the!phrase!“warm!air!
rises”.!!When!surrounded!by!cold!air,!warm!air!rises.!!
When!a!home!is!heated!in!the!winter,!warm!air!rises!and!leaks!out!of!holes!at!the!top!of!the!home!
will!cold!air!leaks!in!at!the!bottom!to!replace!it.!!!
!
Radiation&
Radiative!heat!transfer!is!heat!transfer!from!one!object!to!another!through!space.!!Radiative!heat!
transfer!is!best!illustrated!by!the!heat!flow!that!occurs!from!a!woodstove!to!a!person!standing!in!
front!of!that!heat!source.!!!
!
UTILITY BILL ANALYSIS&
GECO!Instructions:!
Instructions*for*Accessing*NYSEG*Bills!
Cornell!Cooperative!Extension!of!Tompkins!County!
Note:&we&must&have&a&signed&consent&on&file.&
!
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Go!to!www.nyseg.com!
Click!“For!Suppliers!and!Partners”!
Under!“in!the!spotlight,”!click!“Secured!Services”!
Enter!login!“cornell”!and!password!“cor456”!
Under!left!sidebar,!click!“Customer!history”!
Under!View!Online,!click!“Customer!Use!History”!checkbox!
Enter!PoD!ID!and!click!“Continue”!
Click!“I!have!read!and!agree…”!checkbox!
Click!“Get!History”!
!
PoD!ID!#!
N01!–!Electric!
N02!–!Gas!
NYSEG!Contact:!Tina!Campenella!607Z762Z4838!
!
!
!
AIR LEAKAGE&
The!blower!door!test!sucks!air!out!of!the!house,!causing!air!from!the!outdoors!to!refill!the!house,!
which!measures!how!well!the!building!envelope!contains!pressure.!During!this!test,!the!house!was!
depressurized!to!create!a!50!Pascal!pressure!difference!between!the!inside!and!outside!of!the!
house.!Because!of!this!pressure!difference,!air!rushes!into!the!house!through!areas!of!the!building!
that!aren’t!tightly!sealed.!This!pressure!difference!simulates!the!air!changes!that!would!occur!on!a!
stormy!night!when!30K40!degree!winds!are!hitting!the!outside!of!your!home.!The!blower!door!not!
only!measures!how!airtight!your!house!is,!but!also!is!very!useful!in!helping!identify!where!air!leaks!
are.!!
!!!&
5000& Thorough&air&sealing&
effort&should&produce&
& impressive&energy&
& savings.&
&
4000! Moderate!air!sealing!
effort!should!produce!
significant!savings!
3000! Carefully!targeted!air!
sealing!should!produce!
some!energy!savings.!
2000! Building!air!tightness!
limits!without!whole!
house!ventilation.!
1000! Whole!house!ventilation!
recommended!or!
required.!
0! !
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Your!home!obtained!a!blower!door!reading!of!________CFM50.!!
This!is!the!number!of!cubic!feet!per!minute!of!air!that!the!fan!
pulls!through!your!front!door!when!there!is!a!pressure!
difference!between!the!inside!and!outside!of!50!Pascals.!
!
!
!
________CFM50!!is!the!lowest!blower!door!number!that!your!
home!could!achieve!without!needing!mechanical!ventilation.!!
This!number!is!based!on!climate,!volume!of!your!house,!and!
exposure!to!wind.!You!can!get!your!house!closer!to!this!
building!tightness!limit!by!targeting!certain!air!leaks.!!By!
making!simple!doKitKyourself!changes,!you!could!reduce!your!
air!infiltration!number!by!at!least!a!few!hundred,!and!by!
getting!professional!contracting!work!done,!that!number!can!
be!reduced!even!more.!
!
!
!
!
!
1. Calculate*building*tightness*limit*
Building%Tightness%Limits%Calculation%
This!calculation!is!based!on!a!minimum!natural!air!change!rate!for!a!building!of!0.35!ACH!
(air!changes!per!hour).!!Anything!below!the!calculated!building!tightness!limit!increases!the!
likelihood!of!problems!with!offKgassing!of!new!materials!in!a!home!such!as!carpeting,!or!
problems!with!radon.!!The!most!energy!efficient!way!to!go!about!air!sealing!in!a!home!is!to!
make!the!building!as!tight!as!possible!and!then!ventilate!mechanically!with!exhaust!or!heat!
recovery!fans.!!!
!
cfm50min&=&0.35&X&(House&Volume)&X&N/60.&
The!factor!N!is!the!LBL!correlation!factor!shown!in!the!table!above.!For!example,!suppose!a!
one!story!house!in!New!York!(Zone!2)!with!normal!exposure!(average!N!=!18.5)!and!four!
occupants!has!a!total!living!space!of!2,500!ft2!and!8!ft!ceilings!=!2,160.!!
Zone%
1%
#%of%
stories%
Well%
Shielded%
Normal%
Exposed%
1%
18.6%
1.5%
2%
3%
16.7%
14.9%
13.0%
14.0%
12.6%
12.4%
11.2%
10.9%
9.8%
%
15.5%
14.0%
&
!
Blower!Door!Test!Results/Air!Sealing!
!
See%‘windows%and%doors’%section%for%explanations%on%caulking%and%weatherstripping.%
General!Air!Leakage!
 Recommend&caulking&and&sealing&for&areas&of&infiltration&from&unconditioned&to&
conditioned&space&in&the&following&specific&locations&
&
Windows!
 Recommend&weatherMstripping&and/or&caulking&for&the&windows&in&the&following&
locations&
!
!
Doors!
 Recommend&door&sweeps/weather&stripping&for&exterior&doors&or&doors&separating&
conditioned&and&unconditioned&space&in&the&following&locations!
!
Exterior!Walls!
 Recommend&baby&proof&plugs&for&exterior&wall&outlets&and&interior&wall&outlets&that&
may&be&connected&to&an&unconditioned&space&
Baby!proof!plugs!for!outlets!can!be!used!to!reduce!the!air!flow!in!seldom!used!outlets.!!!
!
 Recommend&foam&insulation&pads&for&exterior&wall&outlets&
Outlet!and!light!switch!insulation!can!be!found!in!any!hardware!store.!!They!are!foam!pads!that!you!
can!simply!insert!behind!the!plate!to!reduce!thermal!loss!and!air!leakage.!!We!recommend!that!you!
install!them!in!all!of!the!outlets!and!light!switches!on!all!exterior!walls.!!
!
Cost*savings*Information**
Go!to:!http://hes.lbl.gov/!and!input!blower!door!number!to!calculate!estimated!cost!savings.!!!
Purchasing!Tips!
• To get the best results, hire a qualified contractor, preferably a "building performance contractor", or "energy
auditor" to find out where the leaks are in your home's shell. Make sure the contractor uses a "blower door"
test to find the air leaks. An infrared scan can be beneficial in addition to the blower door test. Check with
your utility company; some offer no- or low-cost basic energy audits. However, the extra money you would
spend to have the audit done by a home performance contractor is often well worth it. 5,6
• Make sure your contractor tests the leakage rate after completing the sealing, not only to determine the degree
of improvement, but also to ensure that the ventilation in your home is adequate. If you don't already have
proper mechanical ventilation, consider installing a ventilation system. Proper home ventilation will make
your home healthier and more comfortable.
• Make sure your contractor performs a combustion safety test after sealing your home's air leaks. This test
checks for backdrafting and carbon monoxide, and will help assure the safety of your home's occupants. 9
•
If you choose to do the work yourself, follow the guidance in ENERGY STAR's Do-It-Yourself Guide to
ENERGY STAR Homesealing.!
!
WINDOWS AND DOORS&
 Recommend&adding&storm&windows&in&colder&months!
The!best!way!to!increase!the!energy!efficiency!of!older!windows!is!by!adding!storm!windows.!!
Storm!windows!do!little!to!increase!the!insulating!performance!of!windows,!but!they!help!to!
reduce!air!movement!in!and!out!of!windows.!!!Storm!windows!can!be!installed!either!on!the!
interior!or!exterior!of!the!primary!window.!!Types!range!from!inexpensive!plastic!sheets!or!
films!that!can!be!used!for!one!heating!system,!to!glass!or!plastic!panel!units!that!can!be!used!for!
years!(www.energysavers.gov).!
!!
 Recommend&weather&stripping&and/or&caulking&in&specific&locations.&
Weather!stripping!can!be!used!in!your!home!to!seal!air!leaks!around!operable!windows.!!There!
are!many!different!types!of!weather!stripping!that!are!available!to!withstand!friction,!weather,!
temperature!changes,!and!general!wear!and!tear!related!to!the!location.!!!!!
!
Caulking!can!be!used!to!seal!cracks,!gaps!or!joints!that!are!less!than!¼!inch!wide.!!Expandable!
foam!is!best!for!larger!cracks.!!!
!
To%determine%what%type%of%weather%stripping%to%use%for%specific%locations,%refer%to%Table%1:%
Common%weather%stripping%%
http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/insulation_airsealing/index.cfm/mytopic=11280%
%
If%homeowner%is%interested%in%what%type%of%caulk%or%foam%to%use,%refer%to%Table%1:%Common%
Caulking%Compounds.%%
http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/insulation_airsealing/index.cfm/mytopic=11270%
!
&
 If&homeowner&interested&in&replacement&window&recommend:&lowMe,&argonMfilled&
window&for&the&replacement&
!
When!selecting!windows!for!your!home,!there!are!many!types!of!glazing!or!glass!you!can!use!to!
improve!your!home's!energy!efficiency.!
• Gas&Fills:&some!double!paned!windows!have!gases!in!between!the!two!panes.!!The!
gases!most!commonly!used,!argon!and!krypton,!have!a!higher!resistance!to!heat!
flow!than!air,!which!increases!the!thermal!performance!of!the!windows.&
• LowMemissivity&(LowME)&coatings:!these!coatings!control!heat!transfer!through!
windows!that!have!insulated!glazing.!!The!coating!is!a!microscopic!coating!of!
metallic!oxide!that!reduces!the!infrared!radiation!from!a!warm!pane!of!glass!to!a!
cooler!pane.!!LowKE!coatings!can!increase!the!price!of!windows!by!10K15%!,!but!can!
reduce!energy!loss!by!30K50%!(www.energysavers.gov).&
&
NOTE:&Replacing%windows%is%one%of%the%most%costly%energy%improvements%that%a%homeowner%can%do,%so%
normally%we%don’t%want%to%recommend%that%homeowners%replace%windows.%%However,%if%they%are%
already%seriously%considering%replacing%windows,%the%following%things%are%good%to%recommend.%
&
 Recommend&latching&windows&securely&
Latching!windows!securely!will!significantly!cut!down!on!air!leakage,!by!drawing!the!sashes!
(moveable!panels)!in!together!to!eliminate!the!gap!between!them.!!!
Doors!
 Recommend&adding&storm&doors&in&colder&months&
Storm!doors!can!reduce!air!leakage!from!your!doors!if!the!door!is!old!but!still!in!good!condition.!!
Adding!a!door!to!a!newer,!insulated!door,!however!is!probably!not!worth!the!investment!
because!it!won’t!save!you!much!energy!(www.energysavers.gov).!!
!
&
 Recommend&weather&stripping&doors&with&visible&gaps&to&exterior&
(see!weather!stripping!windows!info)!
&
To%determine%what%type%of%weather%stripping%to%use%for%specific%locations,%refer%to%Table%1:%
Common%weather%stripping.%%
http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/insulation_airsealing/index.cfm/mytopic=11280%
!
!
%
INSULATION&
Insulation!is!measured!in!RKvalues!–!the!higher!the!RKvalue,!the!better!your!walls!and!roof!will!
resist!the!transfer!of!heat.!!Insulation!aids!in!preventing!the!conductive!loss!of!heat!through!walls,!
ceilings,!and!floors.!!According!to!local!heating!and!cooling!costs,!and!climate!conditions!in!different!
areas!of!the!country,!the!Department!of!Energy!has!recommended!ranges!of!RKvalues!for!different!
parts!of!your!home.!!!
%
Insulation&guidelines&for&Tompkins&County&&
Variations!are!due!to!differences!in!heating!costs!associated!with!different!energy,!i.e.!whether!the!
home!is!heated!with!gas,!electricity,!etc.!
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Attic:!R49!to!R60!
Cathedral!Ceiling:!R30!to!R60!
Wall!Cavity:!R13!to!R21!
Wall!Insulation!Sheathing:!R5!to!R6!
Floor:!R25!to!R30!!
Rim!Joists:!R25!
Unheated!basement:!basement!ceiling!insulated!from!R30!to!R40!
!
Insulation&recommendations&
!
Walls:!!
A!wall!with!no!insulation!typically!has!an!RKvalue!of!RK4!to!RK5.!!Existing!walls!can!be!filled!with!
blownKin!insulation!to!increase!the!RKvalue!of!a!wall!to!RK13.!!This!increase!will!cut!conductive!heat!
loss!through!wall!by!about!70%.!
!
To%increase%the%R[value%of%a%2x4%wall%any%more,%contractors/%homeowners%would%need%to%go%to%more%
extreme%measures%like%stripping%the%exterior%wall,%inserting%a%layer%of%foam,%and%then%replacing%siding.%
Not%cost%effective,%so%don’t%recommend,%unless%homeowner%is%interesting%in%making%an%ultra[efficient%
home.%%%%
%
!
Attics:!!
An!attic!floor!that!is!completely!unKinsulated!typically!has!an!RKvalue!of!1.!!Attics!are!often!one!of!
the!easiest!places!in!a!home!to!insulate.!!!The!Department!of!Energy!recommends!installing!
between!RK49!and!RK60!insulation!for!this!geographic!area.!!Typically!loose!fill!or!batt!insulation!is!
installed!in!attics.!!
!
Before!insulating!an!attic,!it!is!important!to!seal!all!areas!where!air!is!leaking!from!the!home!to!the!
attic.!!!Most!insulation!does!not!cut!down!on!air!leakage,!and!will!not!be!effective!if!air!leaks!aren’t!
sealed!first.!!!!!!!
!
DOE%recommends%approx%R[50%for%this%climate.%%Reach%R[50%by%adding%addtl%cellulose%on%top%of%the%
fiberglass.%%%Payback%for%this%can%be%fairly%long%(15[20%years),%especially%if%there%is%already%R[20%
insulation%in%the%attic.%%Big%benefits%come%from%insulating%the%currently%un[insulated%areas%and%sealing%
the%leaks%in%the%attic%floor.%
!
!
Basements:!!
Look%at%on%a%case%by%case%basis…%
Refer%to%the%following%website%for%guidance:%
http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/insulation_airsealing/index.cfm/mytopic=11470%
%
LIGHTING&
&
 Recommend&replacing&incandescent&bulbs&with&CFLs&
!
Compact!fluorescent!light!bulbs!(CFLs)!use!only!25K30%!of!the!energy!that!incandescent!bulbs!use!to!
provide!the!same!amount!of!light!(www.energysavers.gov).!!!!!!
Compact!fluorescent!light!bulbs!have!improved!to!the!point!that!you!can!barely!tell!the!difference!
between!an!incandescent!and!compact!fluorescent.!!Many!different!models!characterized!by!different!
styles,!wattage!types,!and!lighting!color!are!now!available!for!costs!that!have!gone!down!significantly!
since!CFLs!first!came!out!on!the!market.!!!
!
o
o
o
100W!incandescent!=!23W!CFL!
60W!incandescent!=!13W!CFL!
40W!incandescent!=!8W!CFL!
CFLs!for!lighting!locations!where!homeowners!might!not!have!known!CFLs!were!available!for:!!
• Dimmable!lighting!fixtures!
• Recessed!lighting!fixtures!
• Outdoor!flood!lighting!!
!
 Recommend&transitioning&from&CFLs&to&LED&bulbs&
While!CFLs!use!1/3!of!the!energy!of!an!incandescent!light!bulb,!LED!light!fixtures!use!up!to!1/10!of!the!
energy!that!a!typical!incandescent!bulb!uses.!Also,!some!of!the!latest!LED!light!bulbs!will!work!for!
100,000!hours.!That’s!over!11!years!of!light!if!the!bulb!was!left!on!continuously.!!&
%
%
Cost!Savings!Calculator!
1) Lawrence!Berkley!Home!Energy!Saver:!http://hes.lbl.gov/!
2) CFL!payback!period!calculator:!!
http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=find_a_product.showProductGroup&pgw_c
ode=LB!
3) *Need!to!know:!number!of!bulbs,!electricity!rate!($/kWh),!hours!used!per!day,!initial!estimated!
retail!price,!wattage,!lifetime!(hours)!!
4) !
APPLIANCES
!
Primary!and!Secondary!Refrigerators!
Current!refrigerator:!_____________________________________________________________________________!
(year,%make,%model,%cubic%feet,%energy%star?)%
!
 Recommend&Energy&Star&replacement,&if&6&years&old&or&older&
When!it!is!time!to!replace!your!refrigerator,!consider!choosing!an!Energy!Star!rated!model.!!The!
goal!of!the!Energy!Star!program!is!to!make!appliances!that!use!50%!less!energy!than!their!6KyearK
old!equivalents.!!!
!
If!your!current!refrigerator!was!made!before!1993,!it!uses!about!twice!the!amount!of!energy!used!
by!new!models.!A!new!Energy!Star!qualified!refrigerator!uses!less!energy!than!a!60Kwatt!light!bulb!
run!continuously.!!Additionally,!Energy!Star!qualified!refrigerator!models!use!at!least!20%!less!
energy!than!required!by!current!federal!standards!(www.energystar.gov).!
!
 Recommend&cleaning&the&coils&at&least&once&a&year&
Cleaning!the!condenser!coils!at!least!once!a!year!will!help!your!refrigerator!run!more!efficiently.!!
Condenser!coils!are!located!either!under!or!behind!the!refrigerator.!
!
 Recommend&unplugging&unused/seasonal&freezers&and&refrigerators&
Unplug!unused!or!seasonal!freezers!and!refrigerators!when!they!are!not!in!use.!!Also,!filling!a!
freezer!as!full!as!possible!prevents!the!appliance!from!using!extra!energy!to!keep!the!interior!space!
cool.!!!
!
!
Cost*Savings*
1)!Lawrence!Berkley!Home!Energy!Saver:!http://hes.lbl.gov/!!
2)!Energy!Star!energy!saving!calculator!for!refrigerators:!!
http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=refrig.calculator!
*Need!to!know!electricity!price,!basic!type!of!fridge!(freezer!on!top,!side,!bottom,!etc),!approximate!
model!year,!capacity!or!size!OR!model!number.!!I!think!we!could!add!these!calculations!in!to!the!report!
when!recommending!a!new!refrigerator.!!We!might!also!be!able!to!put!something!like!this!on!a!
resource!page!at!the!end!of!the!report!for!people!who!might!want!additional!information.!!
!
Dishwasher!
Current!dishwasher:!_______________________________________________________________________________!
(year,%make,%model,%energy%star?)%
!
 Recommend&replacing&dishwasher&w/Energy&Star&model&if&older&than&2000&
If!you!are!replacing!your!dishwasher,!consider!an!Energy!Star!model,!which!can!save!energy!and!
water.!The!goal!of!the!Energy!Star!program!is!to!make!appliances!that!use!50%!less!energy!than!
their!6KyearKold!equivalents.!!!
!
Cost*Savings*Information*
1) Lawrence!Berkley!Home!Energy!Saver:!http://hes.lbl.gov/!
2) http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=find_a_product.showProductGroup&pg
w_code=DW!
*This!is!an!excel!spreadsheet!that!you!plug!the!different!values!into.!It!is!on!the!right!
sidebar!of!the!page!(“savings!calculator”).!!
*Need!to!know:!electric!rate,!water!rate,!gas!rate,!average!number!of!loads!per!week,!type!
of!water!heating,!estimated!initial!retail!price!(Energy!Star!vs.!conventional),!unite!
electricity!consumption!(KWh/year),!and!unit!water!consumption!(gallons/year).!!
!
!
 Recommend&general&energy&saving&practices&
Save!water!by!scraping!dishes!instead!of!rinsing!them!before!loading!in!the!dishwasher.!Run!your!
dishwasher!with!a!full!load!and!use!the!airKdry!option!if!available!(www.energystar.gov).!
!
Rinsing!dirty!dishes!before!loading!your!dishwasher!uses!a!lot!of!water!and!energy.!Most!
dishwashers!today!can!thoroughly!clean!dishes!that!have!had!food!scraped,!rather!than!rinsed,!off!
—!the!wash!cycle!and!detergent!take!care!of!the!rest.!To!make!the!most!efficient!use!of!your!
dishwasher's!energy!and!water!consumption,!run!the!dishwasher!only!when!enough!dirty!dishes!
have!accumulated!for!a!full!load!(www.energystar.gov).!
 &
!
Clothes!Washer!
!
 If&homeowner&is&considering&getting&a&new&washer,&recommend&a&new,&frontMloading&
Energy&Star&model&
If!you!are!preparing!to!replace!your!clothes!washer,!it!is!worth!investing!in!a!new!energy!efficient!
clothes!washer.!Many!new!models!are!much!more!efficient!than!those!manufactured!10–12!years!
ago.!!Energy!Star!qualified!clothes!washers!reduce!energy!use!by!about!30%!compared!to!standard!
washers!to!clean!clothes.!They!also!reduce!water!consumption!by!over!50%,!and!have!a!better!spin!
cycle!allowing!for!less!drying!time.!
 General&energy&saving&practices&
Wash!your!laundry!with!cold!water!whenever!possible.!To!save!water,!try!to!wash!full!loads!or,!if!
you!must!wash!a!partial!load,!reduce!the!level!of!water!appropriately.!!!
Hot!water!heating!accounts!for!about!90!percent!of!the!energy!your!machine!uses!to!wash!clothes!
—!only!10!percent!goes!to!electricity!used!by!the!washer!motor.!Depending!on!the!clothes!and!local!
water!quality!(hardness),!many!homeowners!can!effectively!do!laundry!exclusively!with!cold!water,!
using!cold!water!laundry!detergents.!Switching!to!cold!water!can!save!the!average!household!more!
than!$40!annually!(with!an!electric!water!heater)!and!more!than!$30!annually!(with!a!gas!water!
heater).!!Washing!full!loads!can!save!you!more!than!3,400!gallons!of!water!each!year!
(www.energystar.gov).!!
Cost*Savings*Information*
1) Lawrence!Berkley!Home!Energy!Saver:!http://hes.lbl.gov/!
2)!Energy!Star!Calculator!
http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=find_a_product.showProductGroup&pgw_co
de=CW!
This!is!an!excel!spreadsheet!that!you!plug!the!different!values!into.!It!is!on!the!right!sidebar!
of!the!page!(“savings!calculator”).!!
Need!to!know:!what!kind!of!fuel!is!used,!oil!rate!($/gallon),!square!footage!of!home,!year!the!
home!was!built,!when!the!existing!boiler!was!installed,!estimated!initial!retail!price!(Energy!
Star!vs.!conventional),!use!with!programmable!thermostat!(Yes/No)!
Note:!This!spreadsheet!compares!buying!a!new!energy!star!appliance!with!a!new!
conventional!appliance!
!
!!
Clothes!Dryer!
 Recommend&keeping&lint&filter&clean&
A!clothes!dryer’s!lint!trap!is!an!important!energy!saver.!Dryers!work!by!moving!heated!air!through!
wet!clothes,!evaporating!and!then!venting!water!vapor!outside.!If!the!dryer!cannot!provide!enough!
heat,!or!move!air!sufficiently!through!the!clothes,!they!will!take!longer!to!dry,!and!may!not!dry!at!
all.!One!of!the!easiest!things!you!can!do!to!increase!drying!efficiency!is!to!clean!the!lint!trap!before!
each!and!every!load.!This!step!can!save!you!up!to!$34!each!year!(www.energystar.gov).!
 Recommend&general&energy&saving&tips&
Don't!overKdry!your!clothes.!If!your!dryer!has!a!moisture!sensor!that!will!automatically!turn!the!
machine!off!when!clothes!are!done,!use!it!to!avoid!over!drying.!Remember!to!clean!the!lint!trap!
before!every!load.!Dry!full!loads,!or!reduce!drying!time!for!partial!loads.!
It's!easy!to!over!dry!your!clothes,!if!one!setting!is!used!for!various!fabric!types.!Try!to!dry!loads!
made!up!of!similar!fabrics,!so!the!entire!load!dries!just!as!the!cycle!ends.!Many!dryers!come!with!
energyKsaving!moisture!or!humidity!sensors!that!shut!off!the!heat!when!the!clothes!are!dry.!If!you!
don't!have!this!feature,!try!to!match!the!cycle!length!to!the!size!and!weight!of!the!load.!A!dryer!
operating!an!extra!15!minutes!per!load!can!cost!you!up!to!$34,!every!year!(www.energystar.gov).!
!
Dehumidifier!
 Recommend&replacing&dehumidifier&with&an&Energy&Star&model&
If!you!are!considering!replacing!your!dehumidifier,!choose!an!Energy!Star!model.!!Energy!Star!
models!remove!the!same!amount!of!moisture!from!the!air!as!regular!models,!but!use!10K20%!less!
energy!doing!so.!!!Energy!Star!models!have!more!efficient!refrigeration!coils,!compressors,!and!fans!
than!regular!models!(www.energystar.gov).!
The!average!ENERGY!STAR!qualified!dehumidifier!can!save!consumers!more!than!$20!per!year.!
Over!the!life!of!the!unit,!that's!more!than!$230!in!savings!!!(www.energystar.gov)!
!
Stove/Range!!
If&fuel&used&is&gas:&&Keep!the!burners!clean!on!your!gas!range!to!ensure!maximum!efficiency.!Blue!
flames!mean!good!combustion;!yellow!flames!mean!service!may!be!needed!to!ensure!the!gas!is!
burning!efficiently.&
!
Other!appliances/electronics!
 Recommend&turning&off&electronics&(TV,&computer,&stereos)&when&not&in&use&
&
 Recommend&installing&power&strips&with&switch&or&unplug&electronics&when&not&in&
use&(eliminate&phantom&load)&
Home!electronics!use!energy!when!they!are!switched!off!to!power!features!like!clock!displays!and!
remote!controls.!!Anything!with!a!remote!control!stays!on!continuously,!in!order!to!receive!the!
signal!from!the!remote.!!By!unplugging!electronics!when!not!in!use!or!installing!power!strips!with!
switches!to!entirely!cut!the!power!use!from!these!appliances,!the!“phantom!load”,!or!unnecessary!
electricity!use!can!be!eliminated.!!
!
 Recommend&changing&power&settings&on&computer&to&sleep&or&hibernate&
Instead!of!leaving!your!computer!on!at!home!or!at!work!during!the!hours!you!are!not!using!it,!
switch!the!machine!to!a!“sleep”!or!“hibernate”!setting!which!puts!the!computer!in!a!power!saving!
state!that!allows!the!computer!to!preserve!what!you!were!working!on!in!memory.!!On!a!PC,!“sleep”!
uses!a!small!amount!of!power!to!maintain!the!memory,!while!“hibernate”!writes!the!current!
settings!and!content!of!the!memory!to!the!hard!disk!and!then!completely!powers!down!the!system.!!!
!
 Recommend&avoiding&use&of&electric&space&heater&
Because!electricity!is!more!expensive!than!other!energy!sources!used!to!heat!your!home,!electric!
space!heaters!should!be!used!sparingly!to!cut!down!on!energy!costs.!
%
HOT WATER&
ELECTRIC!WATER!HEATERS!
! How!you!can!tell:!
! K!No!flu/vent!pipe!
! K!Wire!goes!in!
! K!Hot!cold!connections!on!top!
!
GAS!WATER!HEATERS!
!
How!you!can!tell:!
!
K!Draft!hood!
!
K!Flu!pipe!
!
KPilot!light!sometimes!visible!underneath!storage!heater!
&
Hot&Water&
Current!hot!water!heating!system:___________________________________________________________________________!
(type,%manufacturer,%model%number,%year,%fuel,%water%heater%volume)%%
!
 Recommend&new&heater&if&current&hot&water&heater&is&older&than&10&years&
StandKalone!water!heaters,!which!are!most!common,!have!a!life!of!approximately!12K15!years.!!
When!it!is!time!to!replace!your!hot!water!heater,!there!are!multiple!options!to!consider!based!on!
energy!efficiency,!price!range,!and!your!existing!heating!system.!!!
*
On4Demand*Tankless*Water*Heaters*
Tankless!water!heaters!provide!hot!water!as!it!is!needed,!reducing!the!standby!energy!
losses!that!occur!with!storage!water!heaters.!!For!homes!that!use!41!gallons!or!less!of!hot!
water!daily,!demand!water!heaters!can!be!24%–34%!more!energy!efficient!than!
conventional!storage!tank!water!heaters.!They!can!be!8%–14%!more!energy!efficient!for!
homes!that!use!a!lot!of!hot!water—around!86!gallons!per!day!(www.energysavers.gov).!!!!
*
Tankless*Coil*and*Indirect*Water*Heaters*
A!tankless!coil!water!heater!uses!a!heating!coil!or!heat!exchanger!installed!in!a!main!furnace!
or!boiler.!When!a!hot!water!faucet!is!turned!on,!the!water!flows!through!the!heat!exchanger,!
providing!hot!water!on!demand!without!a!tank.!!Since!they!rely!on!the!furnace!or!boiler!to!
heat!the!water!directly,!tankless!coil!water!heaters!work!most!efficiently!during!cold!
months!when!the!heating!system!is!used!regularly.!
Indirect!water!heaters!use!the!main!furnace!or!boiler!to!heat!a!fluid!that!is!circulated!
through!a!heat!exchanger!in!the!storage!tank.!The!energy!stored!by!the!water!tank!allows!
the!furnace!to!turn!off!and!on!less!often,!which!saves!energy.!An!indirect!water!heater!is!
used!with!a!highKefficiency!boiler!and!wellKinsulated!tank!can!be!the!least!expensive!means!
of!providing!hot!water!(www.energysavers.gov).!
%
%
!
!
 Recommend&pipe&sleeves&made&with&polyethylene&or&neoprene&foam,&insulated&to&RM3&
to&RM7,&if&hot&water&pipes&are&unMinsulated&and&run&through&unconditioned&space&
Insulating!hot!water!pipes!can!cut!down!on!convective!heat!losses!through!pipe!walls.!!The!
most!common!pipe!insulation!is!made!from!polyethylene!and!is!readily!available!at!
hardware/home!improvement!stores!and!is!easy!to!install.!!!
 Recommend&lowMflow&showerheads&&
 Recommend&faucet&aerators&&
Installing!lowKflow!showerheads!and!faucet!aerators!is!an!easy,!low!cost!solution!to!help!cut!
down!on!the!amount!of!water!used!when!showering!and!dishwashing,!which!will!reduce!the!
amount!of!energy!you!need!to!use!to!heat!water.!!
!
 Potentially&replace&electricity&for&a&fuel&(natural&gas,&propane),&only&recommend&if&the&
house&already&has&utilities&for&that&fuel&(Infrastructure&costs&associated&with&laying&
new&pipes&are&not&costMeffective)&
Another!factor!worth!considering!when!you!are!looking!to!replace!your!water!heating!
system!is!the!fuel!used.!!Electricity!is!a!significantly!more!expensive!energy!source!to!use!for!
heating!water.!!
%
HEATING&
Current!Heating!System:!list%findings%here%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%.%
(Type,%fuel,%manufacturer,%model%number,%year,%input%capacity,%annual%efficiency)%
&
&
Furnace!
Recommendations:!
 Replace&your&furnace&with&a&more&efficient&model&if&it&is&older&than&20&years.&&&
Although!furnaces!can!last!for!30+!years,!changing!a!boiler!that!is!20+!years!old!is!usually!a!good!
investment.!!
!!!!
Look!for!a!sealed!combustion!model,!which!draws!air!from!the!outside!directly!into!the!burner,!and!
releases!flue!gases!directly!to!the!outside.!!Models!that!are!not!sealed!combustion!draw!heated!air!
into!the!unit!for!combustion!and!then!release!warm!air!up!the!chimney,!wasting!heated!air!
(www.energysavers.gov).!
!
The!Energy!Star!program!certifies!oil!and!gas!furnaces!that!are!85%!and!90%!efficient!or!greater,!
respectively.!!!
!
!
New!high!efficiency!furnaces:!
o 90%!efficiency!is!standard!for!natural!gas!(96%!for!a!highKefficiency!model)!
o 83%!efficiency!is!standard!for!oil!(95%!for!a!highKend!model)!
!
Cost!Savings!Information:!
!
1)!Lawrence!Berkley!Laboratory!Energy!Savers!Site:!http://hes.lbl.gov/!
!
2)!!Energy!Star!Cost!Calculator!
http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=find_a_product.showProductGroup&
pgw_code=FU!
*This!is!an!excel!spreadsheet!that!you!plug!the!different!values!into.!It!is!on!the!right!
sidebar!of!the!page!(“savings!calculator”).!!
*Need!to!know:!what!kind!of!fuel!is!used,!gas!rate!($/gallon),!square!footage!of!the!
home,!year!the!home!was!built,!year!existing!furnace!was!installed,!estimate!retail!price!
of!uninstalled!unit,!annual!fuel!utilization!efficiency!(AFUE),!use!with!programmable!
 Change&furnace&filter&every&30&–&90&days&
thermostat!(Yes/No)!
&
*Note!that!this!spreadsheet!is!comparing!buying!a!new!energy!star!furnace!to!a!new!
 Recommend&sealing&ducts&
conventional!furnace.!
Sealing!air!leaks!in!an!air!duct!distribution!system!can!have!a!large!effect!on!furnace!efficiency!in!a!
!
home.!!Duct!sealing!can!be!done!using!duct!mastic,!a!latexKbased!compound!that!is!used!to!seal!
holes,!cracks,!and!seams!in!ductwork.!!All!joints!in!supply!and!return!duct!systems!should!be!sealed!
with!mastic!to!prevent!air!leakage.!!!
Ductwork!that!runs!through!an!unconditioned!space!should!be!insulated.!!!Insulation!with!an!RK
Value!of!RK6!to!RK10!should!be!used!to!insulate!ducts.!!Keep!in!mind!that!ducts!should!be!tightly!air!
sealed!with!mastic!before!they!are!insulated,!otherwise!insulation!will!not!be!effective.!!!!!
!
Boiler&
!
Recommendations:!
&
 Replace&your&boiler&with&a&more&efficient&model&if&it&is&older&than&20&years.&&&
Although!boilers!can!last!for!30+!years,!changing!a!boiler!that!is!20+!years!old!is!usually!a!good!
investment.!!Boilers!that!were!made!before!probably!have!an!Annual!Fuel!Utilization!Efficiency!
(AFUE)!of!65%!or!less.!!Federal!standards!promulgated!in!1992!required!all!boilers!on!the!
market!to!be!at!least!80%!efficient!(http://aceee.org/).!!!
!
Look!for!a!sealed!combustion!model,!which!draws!air!from!the!outside!directly!into!the!burner,!
and!releases!flue!gases!directly!to!the!outside.!!Models!that!are!not!sealed!combustion!draw!
heated!air!into!the!unit!for!combustion!and!then!release!warm!air!up!the!chimney,!wasting!
heated!air!(www.energysavers.gov).!
!!
The!Energy!Star!program!certifies!boilers!that!are!85%!efficient!or!greater.!
!
New!high!efficiency!boilers:!!!!!!!!!
o 85%!K!95%!efficiency!is!standard!for!natural!gas!or!propane!
o 80%!K!87%!efficiency!is!standard!for!oil!
o Energy!Star!models!have!an!Annual!Fuel!Utilization!Efficiency!(AFUE)!of!at!least!
85%!!
%
%
Find%the%annual%estimated%savings%per%$100%of%fuel%costs%for%furnaces%and%boilers%using%
this%chart%and/or%include%chart%in%reports.%
!
!
(www.energysavers.gov)!
&
 Bleed&air&out&of&radiators&at&least&twice&a&year&
At!the!beginning!of!each!heating!system,!turn!the!bleed!valve!on!each!radiator!slightly!to!allow!air!
to!escape,!until!water!starts!to!escape!from!the!valve.!!!
Cost!Savings!Information!
1)!Lawrence!Berkley!Lab:!http://hes.lbl.gov/!
2)!Energy!Star!Calculator!
http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=find_a_product.showProductGroup&pgw_code=BO!
This!is!an!excel!spreadsheet!that!you!plug!the!different!values!into.!It!is!on!the!right!sidebar!of!the!page!(“savings!
calculator”).!!
Need!to!know:!what!kind!of!fuel!is!used,!oil!rate!($/gallon),!square!footage!of!home,!year!the!home!was!built,!when!
the!existing!boiler!was!installed,!estimated!initial!retail!price!(Energy!Star!vs.!conventional),!use!with!programmable!
thermostat!(Yes/No)!
Note:!This!spreadsheet!compares!buying!a!new!energy!star!appliance!with!a!new!conventional!appliance!
!
!
Other&Heating&System&Recommendations&
!
 Recommend&replacing&electricity&for&a&fuel&(natural&gas,&propane)&for&certain&
appliances&such&as&water&heater&or&dryer&&&
Electricity!is!a!much!more!expensive!way!to!heat%water/run%the%dryer!in!your!home.!!In!this!
area,!it!is!currently!more!expensive!per!BTU!(British!Thermal!Unit)!of!heat!produced!by!
electricity!than!it!is!for!gas!and!propane.!!!
But%only%recommend%if%the%house%already%has%utilities%for%that%fuel%and%if%the%homeowner%is%thinking%
about%replacing%that%appliance.%
!
 Oil:&Recommend&cleaning&and&tuning&every&year&(twice&a&year&is&best)&
 Natural&gas&or&propane:&Recommend&cleaning&or&tuning&every&2&years&
!
Choose%the%heating%system%found%in%the%home%and%include%this%information%from%
www.energysavers.org%about%the%type%of%maintenance%the%homeowner%or%a%maintenance%professional%
should%be%doing%on%the%heating%system.%
All!systems:!
•
•
•
•
Check!the!condition!of!your!vent!connection!pipe!and!chimney.!Parts!of!the!venting!system!
may!have!deteriorated!over!time.!Chimney!problems!can!be!expensive!to!repair,!and!may!
help!justify!installing!new!heating!equipment!that!won't!use!the!existing!chimney.!
Check!the!physical!integrity!of!the!heat!exchanger.!Leaky!boiler!heat!exchangers!leak!water!
and!are!easy!to!spot.!Furnace!heat!exchangers!mix!combustion!gases!with!house!air!when!
they!leak—an!important!safety!reason!to!have!them!inspected.!
Adjust!the!controls!on!the!boiler!or!furnace!to!provide!optimum!water!and!air!temperature!
settings!for!both!efficiency!and!comfort.!
If!you're!considering!replacing!or!retrofitting!your!existing!heating!system,!have!the!
technician!perform!a!combustionKefficiency!test.!
!
ForcedKair!Systems:!
•
Check!the!combustion!chamber!for!cracks!
•
•
•
•
•
•
!
Test!for!carbon!monoxide!(CO)!and!remedy!if!found!
Adjust!blower!control!and!supplyKair!temperature!
Clean!and!oil!the!blower!
Remove!dirt,!soot,!or!corrosion!from!the!furnace!or!boiler!
Check!fuel!input!and!flame!characteristics,!and!adjust!if!necessary!
Seal!connections!between!the!furnace!and!main!ducts.!
HotKwater!Systems:!
•
•
•
•
!
Test!pressureKrelief!valve!
Test!highKlimit!control!
Inspect!pressure!tank,!which!should!be!filled!with!air,!to!verify!that!it's!not!filled!with!water!
Clean!the!heat!exchanger.!
Steam!Systems:!
•
•
•
•
•
Drain!some!water!from!the!boiler!to!remove!sediments.!This!improves!the!heat!exchange!
efficiency!
Test!lowKwater!cutoff!safety!control!and!highKlimit!safety!control!
Drain!the!float!chamber!to!remove!sediments.!This!prevents!the!lowKwater!cutoff!control!
from!sediment!clogs!
Analyze!boiler!water!and!add!chemicals!as!needed!to!control!deposits!and!corrosion!
Clean!the!heat!exchanger!
!
(cite!www.energysavers.org)!
&
!
 Recommend&repairing&leaks&or&spots&that&have&become&corroded&
 Recommend&proper&and&safe&removal&of&asbestos!
!
[section!complete]!
!
AIR CONDITIONING&
Current!air!conditioning!system:!__________________________________________________________!
(central%air%or%room%conditioning,%year,%number%of%units,%location/space,%total%output%capacity,%
SEER/EER)!
!
 Central&AC:&Recommend&if&it&is&older&than&10&years&a&model&with&14M15&SEER&(seasonal&
energy&efficiency&ratio)&
If!you!have!a!central!air!conditioning!system!that!is!more!than!20!years!old,!replacing!your!system!
with!a!new,!energy!efficient!model!will!pay!for!itself!in!energy!savings.!!High!efficiency!systems!on!
the!market!today!are!almost!twice!as!efficient!as!systems!from!the!early!1980s.!!If!you!have!a!
system!that!is!less!than!10!years!old,!it!is!probably!more!cost!effective!to!keep!it!running!as!
efficiently!as!possible!through!properly!maintaining!it!until!it!wears!out.!!!
!
New!central!air!conditioning!systems!are!rated!for!energy!performance!with!a!Seasonal!Energy!
Efficiency!Rating!(SEER).!The!higher!the!SEER,!the!more!efficient!the!system!is.!!New!central!air!
conditioners!are!required!to!have!a!SEER!rating!of!at!least!10,!while!the!most!efficient!units!on!the!
market!today!have!a!rating!of!16!or!more!(Taunton’s!Insulate!and!Weatherize,!p.!142).!
!
 Room&AC:&Recommend&an&Energy&Star&replacement&if&units&are&older&than&7&years&
If!you!are!considering!purchasing!a!new!room!air!conditioning!unit,!consider!purchasing!an!Energy!
Star!model.!!Energy!Star!room!air!conditioning!units!use!at!least!10%!less!energy!than!conventional!
models,!and!often!include!timers!for!better!temperature!control.!!!
 Recommend&better&maintenance,&clean&the&filter&every&30&days,&and&inspect&every&
couple&of&years&
Proper!maintenance!on!your!air!conditioner!will!increase!the!efficiency!and!life!of!the!equipment.!!
Routine!service!on!an!air!conditioning!unit!should!include!testing!the!controls,!cleaning!the!blower,!
cleaning!the!condenser!and!evaporator!coils,!checking!the!insulation!the!refrigerant!lines,!and!
checking!the!condensate!drain!system!(Taunton’s!Insulate!and!Weatherize,!p.141).!!!
Cost!Savings!!
1) http://hes.lbl.gov/!
2) Energy!Star!Calculator!
http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=find_a_product.showProductGroup&pgw_code=C
A!!
*This!is!an!excel!spreadsheet!that!you!plug!the!different!values!into.!It!is!on!the!right!sidebar!of!the!
page!(“savings!calculator”).!!
*Need!to!know:!number!of!units,!electric!rate!($/kWh),!initial!estimated!retail!cost!(Energy!Star!vs.!
conventional),!seasonal!energy!efficiency!ratio!(SEER)!rating,!use!with!programmable!thermostat!
(Yes/No)!
*Note:!This!spreadsheet!compares!buying!a!new!energy!star!appliance!with!buying!a!new!
conventional!appliance!
!
!
!
[section!complete]!
!
THERMOSTATS&
 Recommend&programmable&thermostat&&
Install!an!Energy!Star!programmable!thermostat,!and!program!it!to!change!the!temperature!
settings!when!you!are!away!from!home!and!at!night.!The!EPA!estimates!that!Energy!Star!
programmable!thermostats!can!save!consumers!10K15%!on!heating!and!cooling!bills!when!used!
properly.!It!costs!less!to!warm!up!a!cool!house!than!it!does!to!keep!the!house!at!a!constant!higher!
temperature.!!!
Programmable!thermostats!allow!a!homeowner!to!set!multiple!daily!settings!(six!or!more!
temperature!settings!a!day)!that!you!can!manually!override!without!affecting!the!rest!of!the!daily!or!
weekly!program.!If!you!would!like!the!house!to!be!warm!when!you!arrive!home!from!work!in!the!
evening,!for!example,!you!can!set!the!thermostat!so!that!it!begins!warming!your!home!an!hour!
before!you!arrive.!
 Recommend&turning&down&thermostats&to&58º&F&when&away&from&the&house&for&trips&
and&vacations&
Consider!reducing!the!temperature!of!your!home!by!a!few!degrees!when!the!house!is!unoccupied.!!
This!can!either!be!done!manually,!before!leaving!the!house!for!work/vacation,!or!by!installing!a!
programmable!thermostat.!!
Cost!Savings!Information!
1) Lawrence!Berkley!Lab:!http://hes.lbl.gov/!
2) For!every!degree!a!thermostat!is!set!back!for!8!hours!you!save!approximately!1%!on!your!
heating!bill.!
For!more!information:!
http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=thermostats.pr_thermostats_guidelines!!
& !
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!
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