Mississippi College and Career Readiness Standards for English

Mississippi College and Career Readiness Standards for English
Mississippi College and Career Readiness Standards for
English Language Arts Scaffolding Document
Eighth Grade
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.R.1: Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence
when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
RL.8.1
Desired Student Performance
A student should know
A student should understand
A student should be able to do
Cite the textual evidence
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
(Conceptual Understanding)
(Evidence of Knowledge)
that most strongly supports
an analysis of what the text  Students focus closely and
 Students understand that
 Students closely read,
says explicitly as well as
critically on content in a literary
authors purposely include
analyze, and annotate a
inferences drawn from the
text.
specific details and/or
literary text to comprehend
text.
 Students form a comprehensive
examples in literary texts
what the author says
understanding or analysis of
and/or omit specific details
explicitly and to discover the
what they are reading and for
and/or examples from
levels of meaning embedded
selecting key evidence for use in
literary texts to prompt
deeply within complex
writing or speaking.
students
to
ask
and
answer
literary texts.
 Students cite several pieces of
questions about the text.
 Students conduct self-checks
evidence from the text in the
 Students understand that the
to ensure comprehension of
form of specific details or
details and examples authors
the text, persevere through
examples to support an analysis
of what the text says explicitly.
provide in a literary text
difficult sections, examine
 Students cite several pieces of
reveal meaning.
unfamiliar words or phrases
evidence from the text in the
and attempt to uncover the
 Students understand that
form of specific details or
meaning of unknown words.
authors state information
examples to support an analysis
 Students provide textual
explicitly in a text to allow
of inferences drawn from the
students to make a direct
evidence that most strongly
text.
connection and/or implicitly
supports analysis of what the
 Students refer directly to details
to require students to draw
text says explicitly.
and examples in a text and/or
inferences
from
a
text.
 Students provide textual
quote accurately from a text

Students
understand
that
evidence that most strongly
when explaining what happens
authors provide evidence to
supports analysis of
in the text.
 Students refer directly to details
support an analysis of what
inferences drawn from the
Page 2 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts

and examples in a text and/or
quote accurately from a text
when drawing inferences from a
text.
Students utilize an appropriate
standard format for giving
credit to the authors they are
citing, such as the Modern
Language Association (MLA) or
the American Psychological
Association (APA).
the text says explicitly and/or
to support an analysis of
inferences drawn from the
text.
text.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
cite, textual evidence, most strongly, support, analysis, explicit, implicit, inference, infer, quote, accurately, details, examples
Page 3 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.R.2: Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and
ideas.
RL.8.2
Desired Student Performance
A student should know
A student should understand
A student should be able to do
Determine a theme or
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
(Conceptual Understanding)
(Evidence of Knowledge)
central idea of a text and
analyze its development
 A central idea of a literary
 Students understand that
 Closely read, analyze and
over the course of the text,
work is what the text is
authors may include one or
annotate a literary text for
including its relationship to
mostly about in its entirety
more than one central idea in
evidence of central idea,
the characters, setting, and
and/or
in
various
sentences,
a
complex
literary
work.
theme, and summarizing of
plot; provide an objective
paragraphs or sections.
main points.
 Students understand that
summary of the text.
 A theme is an element of a
authors develop a central
 Determine a theme of a
literary work that conveys a
idea through word choice,
literary text or a section of a
widespread and enduring
characterization, setting, plot
text.
message about life or human
figurative language, stylistic
 Provide an analysis of the
nature; readers often apply
devices, and other literary
development of a theme
themes found in literary
devices over the course of
over the course of a literary
works to their own lives.
the text and/or in specific
text, including how a theme
sections
of
a
text.
 A literary work often contains
relates to the characters,
 Students understand that
both major themes and
setting, and plot (e.g., how
minor themes.
authors reveal a theme,
the theme is revealed
either directly or indirectly,
through the plot)
 A major theme is a message
through the characters,
that a writer usually repeats
 Determine a central idea of a
setting, and plot of a literary
in a literary work; whereas, a
literary text or a section of a
work in its entirety or in
minor theme is a message
text.
sections of a literary work.
that appears only briefly in a
 Provide an analysis of the
literary work and concedes to  Students understand that
development of a central
other, often more prominent,
authors may include one or
idea over the course of a
themes.
more than one theme in a
literary text, including how a
Page 4 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts







A theme of a literary work
may be stated explicitly or
may be implied, requiring
students to draw inferences
to determine a theme.
Determining a theme by
drawing inferences requires
students to attend closely to
word choice,
characterization, plot and
other literary devices
presented by the author.
Themes are often revealed
by how the characters
respond to challenges or by
how the speaker in a poem
reflects upon a topic.
Themes are present in
novels, short stories, dramas,
and poems.
The way authors express
themes may vary according
to the genre of literature.
Fables, folktales, and myths
communicate central
messages, lessons, and/or
morals as themes.
The subject of a literary text
and a theme of a literary
text, although related, are
two different concepts: the





complex literary work.
Students understand that
authors develop a theme
through word choice,
characters, plot and other
literary devices over the
course of the text and/or in
specific sections of a text.
Students understand that
authors present themes both
implicitly and explicitly, often
depending on the genre of
the literary work.
Students understand that
authors utilize elements of
plot, figurative language,
stylistic devices, and other
literary devices to assist
students in determining the
theme or themes from a
literary work.
Students understand that
determining a theme or
themes requires them to
read closely and/or draw
inferences.
Students understand that
determining a theme or
themes from a literary work
often assists the reader in
understanding part or all of
Page 5 of 137

central idea relates to the
characters, setting, and plot
(e.g., how the central idea is
revealed through the plot)
Provide an objective
summary that traces
character and plot
development and retains
overall meaning.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts


subject of the text is a topic
(ex. war), while a theme of
the text relates to the
author’s presentation of the
topic (ex. war is a plague for
humanity).
A summary is a compilation
of the main events in a
literary text. It is
chronologically structured,
includes the central idea or
theme, and refers to the
main story elements.
A summary should be
objective – free from
personal opinions or
judgments.



the author’s purpose for
writing.
Students understand that
authors express their own
ideas about life through their
writings.
Students understand that an
objective summary contains
only information presented
in the text and not personal
opinions or judgments.
Students understand that an
effective summary of a
literary text is written
chronologically, includes the
central idea or theme of a
text, and refers to the
elements of the plot.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
theme, major theme, minor theme, central idea, analyze, analysis, convey, details, particular details, word choice, characterization, plot,
setting, figurative language, literary devices, stylistic devices, summary, summarize, objective, fact, opinion, personal opinion, judgment,
inference, literary genres, author’s purpose, read closely, annotate, evidence
Page 6 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.R.3: Analyze how and why individuals, events, or ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.
RL.8.3
Desired Student Performance
Analyze how particular lines
of dialogue or incidents in a
story or drama propel the
action, reveal aspects of a
character, or provoke a
decision.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)






Students can provide an
analysis of how two or more
story elements interact.
Students understand that a
character’s development
impacts the plot.
Students describe how a plot
develops through events or
episodes.
Students analyze plot
structure and development
(e.g., conflict and resolution,
rising and falling action,
subplots) and determine how
events advance the plot,
explain previous events, and
foreshadow later events.
Students can describe how
characters respond to
challenges over the course of
a text.
Students can describe how
characters change over the
course of a text.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)





Students understand that
dialogue is conversation
between characters.
Students understand that
authors intentionally include
particular lines of dialogue to
propel the action, reveal
aspects of a character, or
provoke a decision of a story
or drama.
Students understand that
particular lines of dialogue
may explicitly propel the
action, reveal aspects of a
character, or provoke a
decision of a story or drama.
Students understand that
particular lines of dialogue
may implicitly propel the
action, reveal aspects of a
character, or provoke a
decision of a story or drama.
Students understand that
authors intentionally include
Page 7 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)







Provide an analysis of how
particular lines of dialogue
propel the action in a story or
drama.
Provide an analysis of how
particular lines of dialogue
show what a character is like.
Provide an analysis of how
particular lines of dialogue
provoke a character to make
a decision.
Provide an analysis of how
key incidents in a story
propel the action.
Provide an analysis of how
key incidents in a story show
what a character is like.
Provide an analysis of how
key incidents in a story
provoke a character to make
a decision.
Provide an analysis discussing
the importance and influence
of setting on characters, plot,
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts






Students know that
characters in a literary text
interact through dialogue
and actions.
Students can compare and
contrast two or more
characters, settings, or
events, citing specific details
from a literary text.
Students can describe in
detail a character, setting, or
event, citing specific
evidence from a literary text.
Students can describe
characters and explain how
the characters traits,
motivations, or feelings
contribute to the events in
the story.
Students can describe how
characters respond to major
events and challenges using
key details from a literary
text.
Students can explain how key
events advance the plot of a
story or a drama.





particular incidents in a story
to propel the action, reveal
aspects of a character, or
provoke a decision of a story
or drama.
Students understand that
particular incidents in a story
may explicitly propel the
action, reveal aspects of a
character, or provoke a
decision of a story or drama.
Students understand that
particular incidents in a story
may explicitly propel the
action, reveal aspects of a
character, or provoke a
decision of a story or drama.
Students understand that
authors develop a character
through direct and/or
indirect characterization
through description of a
character’s appearance,
dialogue, thoughts, actions,
reactions, interactions, and
behaviors.
Students understand authors
often develop characters
using general literary
archetypes.
Students understand general
Page 8 of 137




theme, mood, tone, and
meaning (e.g., how does the
setting influence a
character's outlook?)
Provide an analysis of
characters’ traits, responses,
and motives and how the
central character influences
the plot or theme.
Provide an analysis of how
authors reveal characters
(e.g., thoughts, dialogue,
dialect).
Provide an analysis of how
setting influences and shapes
the plot and characters.
Provide an analysis of how
characters' actions, thoughts,
motivations, and
relationships shape the plot.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts



literary archetypes.
Students understand that
authors develop elements of
a story or drama to interact
together.
Students understand that all
of the elements of a story
shape the plot.
Students understand that all
of the elements of a drama
shape the plot.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
analyze, analysis, dialogue, incidents, story, drama, propel, reveal, provoke, interact, interactions, story elements, setting, plot
structure, exposition, rising action, conflict, climax, turning point, falling action, solution, resolution, characterization, direct
characterization, indirect characterization, archetypes, unfold, episodes, events
Page 9 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.R.4: Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative
meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
RL.8.4
Desired Student Performance
Determine the meaning of
words and phrases as they
are used in a text, including
figurative and connotative
meanings; analyze the
impact of specific word
choices on meaning and
tone, including analogies or
allusions to other texts.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)






Words and phrases with similar
denotative meanings can carry
different connotative meanings
(e.g., sulk/brood;
ally/comrade/best friend) in
literary texts.
Authors purposely choose
words possessing strong, weak,
positive, negative, or neutral
connotations to achieve
particular effects in a text and in
the reader.
Connotation refers to a reader’s
emotion or association
connected with a word.
Authors purposely use figurative
language to achieve particular
effects in a section of a text.
Sound devices (e.g., repetition,
rhyme scheme, alliteration,
assonance, consonance,
onomatopoeia, rhythm) help to
achieve particular effects in a
section of a text.
An allusion in literature occurs
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)




Students understand what a
word means in a given
context, focusing on what the
author is trying to do with
the language.
Students understand that
authors purposely use
figurative language to
achieve particular effects in a
section of a text.
Students understand that
authors purposely choose
words possessing strong,
weak, positive, negative, or
neutral connotations to
achieve particular effects in a
text.
Students understand that
analogies are comparisons. In
literature, an analogy is
expressed using figurative
language (e.g., metaphor,
simile). In effect, an analogy
Page 10 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)





Closely read, analyze and
annotate a text for evidence
of the meanings of words
and phrases as they are used
in a text.
Closely read, analyze and
annotate a text for evidence
of the impact of specific word
choices on meaning and
tone.
Closely read, analyze and
annotate a text for evidence
of the impact of a specific
analogy on meaning and
tone.
Closely read, analyze and
annotate a text for evidence
of the impact of a specific
allusion on meaning and
tone.
Determine the meaning of
words and phrases based on
context.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts








when an author makes
reference, often indirect, to a
person, place, event, character,
work of art or another piece of
literature (e.g., Shakespeare’s
plays, the Bible, etc.) within his
own writing.
Specific word choice helps to
achieve particular effects in a
text and in the reader.
Figurative language helps to
achieve particular effects in a
text and in the reader.
Students can use context clue to
determine what a word means
in a given context.
Tone is the author’s attitude
toward the audience, the
subject, or the character. Tone
is conveyed through the
author’s words and details.
Mood is the emotions the
reader feels while reading a
text. Mood is created by the
author’s word choice, imagery,
dialogue, setting, and plot.
Readers determine tone and
mood of a text clues presented
in the context.
Tone or mood may change
throughout a text. In effect, a
text can have more than one
tone or mood.
Authors often use figurative
is a way of comparing two
things that have a feature in
common but are otherwise
unlike.
 Students understand that
authors use allusions to
assist the reader in
understanding new
characters or information by
connecting the new
character or information to
something or someone
already known by the reader.
 Students understand that
verbal irony occurs when
someone says a name or
description of someone or
something that implies the
opposite of the truth.
 Students understand that a
pun is a play on words that
have similar pronunciations
or more than one meaning.
Page 11 of 137
 Determine the figurative
meaning of words and
phrases based on context.
 Determine the connotative
meaning of words and
phrases based on context.
 Provide an analysis of how
the author’s use of an analogy
impacts or affects the
meaning and tone of a
literary text.
 Provide an analysis of how
the author’s use of allusions
to other texts impacts the
meaning and tone of a
literary text.
 Provide an analysis of the
impact or effect of a wide
range of literary devices used
in literary texts such as
allusion, analogy, irony, and
symbolism, and explain their
meanings and contributions
to the texts
 Provide an analysis of the
impact or effect the
connotations of words or
phrases have on meaning and
tone of a literary text (e.g.,
fancy/gaudy/intricate/
elaborate/overly
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts







language to assist in developing
the tone or mood of a text.
Figurative language uses words
in some way other than their
literal meanings to make a
comparison, add emphasis, or
say something in a fresh and
creative way.
A metaphor compares two
unlike things to illuminate a
particular quality or aspect of
one of the two things.
Metaphors directly state that
one thing is something else and
do not use the words like or as.
A simile compares two unlike
things using like or as to
illuminate a particular quality or
aspect of one of the two things.
An exaggeration is an
extravagant statement that is
not meant to be taken literally.
Students know that some words
used by authors allude to
significant characters found in
mythology (e.g., Herculean).
Figurative meanings refer to
words and phrases meant to be
interpreted beyond the literal
meaning of the word or words.
Literal language means exactly
what the word or word say;
whereas, nonliteral or figurative
language does not mean exactly
Page 12 of 137
complicated).
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
what the word or words say, but
instead uses comparison or
emphasis to imply something
different.
 Students know that words and
phrases (regular beats,
alliteration, rhymes, repeated
lines) provide rhythm and
meaning in a story, poem, or
song.
 Students can identify words and
phrases that suggest feelings or
appeal to the senses.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
determine, figurative, connotation, connotative, analyze, analysis, word choice, meaning, tone, mood, literal, nonliteral, figurative
language, simile, metaphor, hyperbole, personification, literary/biblical/mythological allusions, analogies, puns, idioms, regular beats,
alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines, imagery
Page 13 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.R.5: Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section,
chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.
RL.8.5
Desired Student Performance
Compare and contrast the
structure of two or more
texts and analyze how the
differing structure of each
text contributes to its
meaning and style.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)




A text’s form and structure
provide support for
organizing the ideas and
deepening understanding of
the text.
Authors often use a soliloquy
to convey a character’s inner
thoughts or motivations to
the audience.
A soliloquy is an
uninterrupted speech
delivered by a single
character to the audience but
not to the other characters in
the scene.
A soliloquy can be very poetic
and elegant in nature but is
meant to be a personal
communication of a
character’s innermost
thoughts presented as if the
character were thinking
aloud.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)




Students understand that
identifying the structure of a
text and analyzing how the
author develops ideas in a
text help the reader better
understand the meaning and
purpose of a text.
Students understand that
stories, poems (sonnet,
soliloquy, haiku, elegy, ode,
lyrical), and dramas follow
different forms and
structures.
Students understand that
style describes how the
author chooses to describe
events, objects, and ideas.
An author’s word choice,
sentence structure, use of
figurative language, sentence
arrangement, sentence
fluency and voice all work
together to establish tone,
Page 14 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)



Closely read, analyze and
annotate two or more texts
for evidence of how the
differing structure of each
text contributes to its
meaning and style.
Provide a comparison and
contrast of the structure of
two or more literary texts.
Provide an analysis of how
the differing structure of
each text contributes to its
meaning and style.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts






Sonnets are 14-line lyric
poems, traditionally about
love, that follow particular
rhythm and rhyme scenes.
Sonnets express a person’s
emotions, as opposed to
telling a story.
There are two distinct types
of sonnets in English: (1) the
Italian or Petrarchan form
and (2) the English or
Shakespearean form.
Students know the structures
of various forms of poetry
(e.g., elegy, odes, lyrical,
haiku).
Writers purposely include
specific sentences, chapters,
scenes, or stanzas that
contribute to the
development of the theme,
setting, or plot.
Knowledge of common
narrative structure provides
support for organizing ideas
and deepening
understanding of the text.
Common narrative structure
follows the elements of plot:
exposition, rising action,
climax, falling action,
mood, images, and meaning
in the text.
Page 15 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
resolution.
 Stories may be presented
through common narrative
structure, through common
narrative structure without
conflict, with flashbacks,
through multiple character
perspectives, or with stories
within stories.
 Students explain how specific
chapters fit together to
provide the overall structure
of a story; specific scenes fit
together to provide the
overall structure of a drama;
specific stanzas fit together
to provide the overall
structure of a poem.
 Students know the structural
elements of poems, dramas,
and prose and can refer to
specific elements in writing
and speaking.
 Students can describe how
each successive part of a
poem, drama, or story builds
on earlier sections.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
compare, contrast, structure, form, sentence, chapter, scene, stanza, poem, play, drama, analyze, analysis, soliloquy, sonnet, elegy, ode,
haiku, lyrical, contribute, meaning, style, sentence fluency, author’s voice
Page 16 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.R.6: Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.
RL.8.6
Desired Student Performance
Analyze how differences in
the points of view of the
characters and the audience
or reader (e.g., created
through the use of dramatic
irony) create such effects as
suspense or humor.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)




Point of view influences how
the story is told and how the
author develops the narrator
and other characters (e.g.,
how Robert Cormier slowly
reveals the narrator’s reality
in I Am the Cheese).
Authors often include
characters with opposing
points of view for effect (e.g.,
to present conflict, show how
characters see a situation
differently).
Authors develop point of
view through author’s style,
tone, word choice,
description, dialogue,
thoughts, reflection, author
or narrator commentary,
illustrations.
Authors often direct readers’
attention to the exact detail,
opinion, or emotion the
author wants to stress by
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)




Students understand that
authors present narrators
and characters as reliable or
unreliable.
Students understand that
authors use differing points
of view of the characters and
the audience or reader to
create specific effects (e.g.,
suspense, humor).
Students understand that
authors create suspense,
humor, and other effects
through tone, word choice,
dialogue, thoughts, figurative
language, literary devices,
stylistic devices.
Students understand that
dramatic irony occurs when
the audience or reader
knows things that the other
characters in the book do not
know (e.g., the
audience/reader knows
Page 17 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)

Closely read, analyze and
annotate a text for evidence
of how differing points of
view of the characters and
the audience or reader
create suspense or humor in
a literary text.
 Provides an analysis of how
one or more differences in
the points of view of the
characters and the audience
and/or reader (e.g., through
the use of dramatic irony)
create such effects as
suspense or humor.
 Provide an analysis of how
the narrator's point of view
and characterization affect
the telling of the narrative
(e.g., a biased, unreliable, or
impaired first-person
narrator).
 Compare and contrast the
effects of different points of
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts







manipulating the point of
view of the story.
Students understand the
ways in which an author’s
point of view influences
content and style.
An author’s writing is
influenced by his
experiences, background,
and values.
Authors use different points
of view to offer different
perceptions and to develop a
text based on the author’s
purpose for writing.
A narrative point of view
influences or affects a story
or poem.
A narrator or speaker’s point
of view influences how
events are presented and
affects the information
revealed about the
characters and events.
Students can distinguish their
own point of view from that
of the narrator’s point of
view or other characters’
point of view.
Point of view is the
perspective from which the
about the plans of another
character or about an
awaiting danger).
Page 18 of 137
view (e.g., first/third person,
limited/omniscient,
subjective/objective) on the
plot or on the reader's
perception.
 Provide an analysis of how
dramatic irony (i.e., when
something is known to the
audience or reader but
unknown to the characters)
or other devices create
effects such as suspense or
humor.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts





story is presented.
There are three major types
of point of view: first person,
second person, and third
person.
Third person point of view
consists of three differing
forms: third person
omniscient, third person
limited, and third person
objective.
Students notice the
differences in the points of
view of characters by
speaking in a different voice
for each character when
reading dialogue.
Students can identify who is
telling a story at different
points in a text.
Students know that authors
tell the story in writing and
illustrators provide pictures
of different scenes in a story.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
explain, point of view, develop, development, narrator, speaker, first person, second person, third person, third person omniscient,
third person limited, third person objective, subjective, influence, manipulate, author’s style, tone, perception
Page 19 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.R.7: Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in
words.
RL.8.7
Desired Student Performance
Analyze the extent to which
a filmed or live production
of a story or drama stays
faithful to or departs from
the text or script, evaluating
the choices made by the
director or actors.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
 Authors purposely use word
choice, description, dialogue,
thoughts, reflections, author
or narrator commentary and
illustrations, while directors
purposely select lighting,
sound, color, or camera focus
and angles to achieve specific
effects and influence the
audience/reader’s
perceptions.
 Performed versions of texts
affect audiences differently
than the printed version.
 Students can compare and
contrast reading the text of a
story, drama, or poem to
listening or viewing a
performed version,
describing how each version
affects the reader or viewer
differently (e.g., explain
whether the suspense is
greater in the written or
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)





Directors may choose to
omit, insert, or change parts
of a text when directing a
film version of the text.
Authors purposely use word
choice, style, description,
dialogue, thoughts,
reflections, author or
narrator commentary and

illustrations, while directors
purposely select lighting,
sound, color, or camera focus
and angles to achieve specific
effects and influence the
audience/reader’s
perceptions.
Performed versions of texts
affect audiences differently

than the printed version.
Suspense may be greater in
the written or performed
version of the text.
Page 20 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)
Closely read, analyze, take
notes and/or annotate a text
for evidence of the extent to
which a filmed or live
production of a story or
drama stays faithful to or
departs from the text, noting
specific choices made by the
director or actors.
Provide an analysis of the
extent to which a filmed
production of a story or
drama stays faithful to or
departs from the text or
script, including an
evaluation of the choices
made by the director or
actors.
Provide an analysis and
evaluation of the choices
made by directors,
performers, and artists in
departing from and/or
interpreting the written text
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts






performed version of the
text).
Students can describe the
differences in a written story
or drama and a performed
story or drama.
Students can explain how a
performed story or drama
represents a version of the
written story or drama.
Visual and multimedia
elements contribute to the
meaning, tone, or beauty of a
text.
Students can make
connections between the text
of a story or drama and a
visual or oral presentation of
the same story or drama,
noting where each version
reflects specific descriptions
and directions in the text.
Students can show how a
text’s illustrations contribute
to what is expressed in words
in a story.
Students use illustrations and
words in a print or digital text
to show understanding of a
story’s characters, setting, or
plot.
Page 21 of 137

or script (e.g., explain
differences in what each
version emphasizes)
Provide an analysis of how
the medium used
contributes to the message
conveyed in a filmed,
performed, or multimedia
version of a literary text
(e.g., explain how a film
director can emphasize the
beauty of a natural setting
by focusing on landscape
and sound).
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
Analyze, analysis, extent, film production, live production, story, drama, departs, text, script, evaluate, evaluation, director, actors,
techniques, perceive, medium
Page 22 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Sixth Grade
CCR.R.8: Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the
relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.
RL.8.8
Desired Student Performance
A student should know
A student should understand
A student should be able to do
Not applicable to literature.
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
(Conceptual Understanding)
(Evidence of Knowledge)
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
Page 23 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.R.9: Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches
the authors take.
RL.8.9
Desired Student Performance
Analyze how a modern work
of fiction draws on themes,
patterns of events, or

character types from myths,
traditional stories, or
religious works such as the

Bible, including describing
how the material is
rendered new.





A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
Authors of fiction often
include elements of
nonfiction in their writing.
A fictional text often reflects
and is influenced by a
historical time, place, event
or person.
Stories are influenced by the
genre an author chooses for
his writing.
Multiple texts in different
literary genres may address
similar themes or topics.
Reading multiple literary
texts addressing a similar
theme or topic exposes
students to multiple
perspectives and points of
view.
A specific genre influences
the way information is
presented in a text.
Students know how to
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)



Literary themes have a
timeless nature.
Students recognize allusions
to and connections between
modern literary texts and
traditional and classic
literature and myths.
A literary text reflects and is
influenced by its historical
setting.
Page 24 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)

Closely read, analyze, take
notes and/or annotate a text
for evidence of how a
modern work of fiction draws
on themes, patterns of
events, or character types
from myths, traditional
stories, or religious.
 Provide an analysis of a
modern literary text draws
on themes, patterns of
events, and/or character
types, including describing
how the material is rendered
new.
 Provide a description of how
the material in a modern
text is rendered new.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts






describe and analyze aspects
of the setting to explain how
the setting affects the plot
and characters.
Authors use situational
literary archetypes in a
variety of literary genres
(e.g., journey, the initiation,
good vs. evil, the fall).
To compare and contrast,
students must show both
similarities and differences.
Students can compare and
contrast how stories within a
particular genre deal with
similar themes and topics.
Common literary character
archetypes (e.g., the hero,
the mother figure, the
innocent youth, the
doppelganger, the villain, the
scapegoat) are often used by
authors to develop
characters.
Similar themes, topics, and
patterns of events are found
in stories, myths, and
traditional literature from
different cultures.
Authors often continue
writing about characters they
Page 25 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts

have developed through
books in a series. In the
series, authors may choose
to alter the theme, setting,
characters and/or plot of the
books.
Multiple versions of the same
story can be presented by
different authors or from
different cultures.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
compare, contrast, genre, portrayal, draws on, topic, historical fact, time period, character, setting, events, alter history, theme, epic,
myth, source text, analyze, analysis
Page 26 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.R.10: Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.
RL.8.10
Desired Student Performance
By the end of the year, read
and comprehend literature,
including stories, dramas,
and poems, at the high end
of grades 6-8 text
complexity band
independently and
proficiently.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)




Students self-monitor and
adjust understanding of a
literary text by visualizing
unfamiliar situations,
diagramming complex
relationships, and applying
skills from across the
language arts.
Students can explain the
differences between
different genres (e.g., short
stories, poetry, drama) based
on their characteristics and
structural elements.
Students know how to make
and check predictions.
Students know how to note
important parts of a story.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)


The complexity of text
increases as students
progress through grade
levels.
Students understand the
importance of knowing the
specific characteristics of
different forms of literary
texts (e.g., adventure stories,
historical fiction, mystery,
myths, science fiction,
realistic fiction, allegory,
parody, satire, drama,
graphic novel, play, poetry,
sonnet, ode, ballad, epic).
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)



KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
comprehend, stories, dramas, poems, scaffolding, complexity band, independently, proficiently, range
Page 27 of 137
Closely read, comprehend, take
notes and annotate literary
texts of increasing complexity
within the Lexile range of 9551155 for the purpose of
comprehension.
Monitor and adjust
understanding of a literary text
by recognizing when
comprehension becomes
unclear and applying corrective
strategies automatically,
including summarizing,
paraphrasing, reviewing
previous points, making
connections to other texts and
prior knowledge, determining
word- and sentence-level
meaning of confusing passages,
and applying skills from across
the language arts.
Use knowledge of the
characteristics of different
forms of literary texts to aid in
comprehension of text.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.R.1: Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence
when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text
RI.8.1
Desired Student Performance
Cite the textual evidence
that most strongly supports
an analysis of what the text
says explicitly as well as
inferences drawn from the
text.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)






Students focus closely and
critically on content in an
informational text.
Students form a thorough
understanding or analysis of
what they are reading and
for selecting key evidence for
use in writing or speaking.
Students refer directly to
details and examples in a text
and/or quote accurately from
a text when explaining what
a text is about.
Students refer directly to
details and examples in a text
and/or quote accurately from
a text when drawing
inferences from a text.
Students understand what it
means to draw inferences
from a text.
Students ask and answer
questions to demonstrate
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)




An analysis is a close
examination of the
components or structure of a
text.
Students understand that
authors purposely include
specific details and/or
examples in informational
texts and/or omit specific
details and/or examples from
informational texts to
prompt students to ask and
answer questions about the
text.
Some evidence presented in
a text is stronger that other
evidences presented.
Students must be able to
determine which piece of
evidence from the text
provides the strongest
support for an analysis of the
text.
Page 28 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)




Closely read and analyze an
informational text to
comprehend what the author
says explicitly and to discover
the layers of meaning that
are often embedded within
complex informational texts.
Conduct self-checks to
ensure comprehension of an
informational text, persevere
through difficult sections,
examine unfamiliar words or
phrases and attempt to
uncover the meaning of
unknown words.
Cite evidence from the text in
the form of specific details or
examples to support an
analysis of what the text says
explicitly.
Cite evidence from the text in
the form of specific details or
examples to support an
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts

understanding of a text.
Students utilize an
appropriate standard format
for giving credit to the
authors they are citing, such
as the Modern Language
Association (MLA) or the
American Psychological
Association (APA).



Students understand that the
details and examples authors
provide in an informational
text reveal meaning.
Students understand that
authors state information
explicitly in a text to allow
students to make a direct
connection and/or implicitly
to require students to draw
inferences from a text.
Students understand that
authors provide evidence to
support an analysis of what
the text says explicitly and/or
to support an analysis of
inferences drawn from the
text.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
analyze, analysis, explicit, inference, textual evidence, generalizations, accurate, concepts
Page 29 of 137


analysis of inferences drawn
from the text.
Evaluate evidence to
determine which piece of
evidence provides the
strongest support for an
analysis of the text.
Cite the strongest textual
evidence to support analysis
of an informational text.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.R.2: Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and
ideas.
RI.8.2
Desired Student Performance
Determine a central idea of
a text and analyze its
development over the
course of the text, including 
its relationship to
supporting ideas; provide an 
objective summary of the
text.






A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
A text often has multiple
central ideas.
Being able to determine a
central idea of a text reflects
comprehension of a text.
A summary should contain
only information from the
text.
Personal opinions about a
topic or idea should not be
included in a summary.
Personal judgments about a
topic or idea should not be
included in a summary.
Student should know the
difference between a
summary and a critique of
ideas in a text.
A critique is a reader’s
opinion or analysis of a text.
A student is able to
determine two or more main
ideas of a text.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)



A text often has more than
one central idea.
Authors often draw
connections and show
relationships between the
central ideas presented in a
text.
An objective summary is free
of personal opinion and
judgment.
Page 30 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)





Closely read, analyze and
annotate a text for evidence
to show how a central idea is
developed over the course of
the text.
Closely read, analyze and
annotate a text for evidence
to identify ideas important
enough to be included in an
objective summary.
Provide a statement of the
central idea of a text.
Provide an analysis of the
development of a central
idea over the course of the
text and explain its
relationship to other
supporting ideas in the text.
Provide an objective
summary of a text.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts




A student can explain how
two or more main ideas are
supported by key details in
the text.
A student is able to
summarize a text.
A student can identify the
main topic of a multiparagraph text.
A student can identify the
focus of specific paragraphs
within a text.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
determine, central idea, development, course of the text, relationship to supporting ideas, objective summary, personal opinions,
judgments
Page 31 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.R.3: Analyze how and why individuals, events, or ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.
RI.8.3
Desired Student Performance
Analyze how a text makes
connections among and
distinctions between
individuals, ideas, or events
(e.g., through comparisons,
analogies, or categories).
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)



A student should be able to
analyze the cause-and-effect
interactions between
individuals, events, and ideas
in an informational text (e.g.,
analyze how ideas influence
an individual)
A student should be able to
analyze how events, ideas, or
individuals' actions influence
subsequent events or ideas in
an informational text (e.g.,
how Jefferson's Louisiana
purchase influenced the
development of the United
States; how movement of
tectonic plates leads to
earthquakes)
A student should be able to
provide a detailed analysis of
how a key individual, event
or idea is elaborated in a text
(e.g., through examples and
anecdotes).
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)





A student should understand
how causal relationships
between events, individuals,
and ideas are introduced and
developed in an
informational text.
A student should understand
the importance of
comprehending ideas and
processes as they develop in
an informational text.
A student should understand
that events, ideas, and
actions described in the text
influence other events, ideas,
and actions.
In turn, a student should
understand that events,
ideas, and actions described
in the text are influenced by
other events, ideas, and
actions.
A student should
comprehend subtle or
Page 32 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)





Closely read, analyze and
annotate a text for evidence
to make connections
between individuals, ideas,
or events.
Provide an analysis of how a
text makes connections
among and distinctions
between individuals through
comparisons, analogies, or
categories.
Provide an analysis of how a
text makes connections
among and distinctions
between ideas through
comparisons, analogies, or
categories.
Provide an analysis of how a
text makes connections
among and distinctions
between events through
comparisons, analogies, or
categories.
Provide an analysis of how an
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts






A student should be able to
determine and explain the
relationships or interactions
between two or more
individuals, events, ideas, or
concepts in a text based on
specific information in the
text
A student is able to provide a
detailed analysis of how a
key individual or idea is
introduced in a text (e.g.,
through examples and
anecdotes)
A student is able to provide
detailed analysis of how a
key individual, event or idea
is illustrated in a text (e.g.,
through examples and
anecdotes)
A student is able to provide
detailed analysis of how a
key individual, event or idea
is elaborated in a text (e.g.,
through examples and
anecdotes)
Illustrate means to explain,
describe, or give example of
an individual, event, or idea.
Elaborate means to provide
more details about an
implied cause-and-effect
relationships; recognizing
flaws in information
presented as a cause and
effect.
Page 33 of 137


informational text uses
sequence to make
connections and distinctions
between individuals, ideas,
events, or processes.
Provide an analysis of how an
informational text treats
subtle similarities and
differences between
information, ideas,
individuals, or events (e.g.,
through comparisons or
analogies)
Provide an analysis of how a
text presents cause-andeffect relationships,
recognizing faulty cause-andeffect descriptions.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts





individual, event, or idea or
to further develop an
individual, event, or idea.
An example is something that
is mentioned in a text to help
explain, illustrate or clarify a
concept for readers.
An anecdote is a short
narrative that is often
presented in an
informational text to assist
readers in comprehending
the text.
A student is able to explain
the relationships or
interactions between two or
more individuals, events,
ideas based on specific
information in the text.
A student is able to explain
the relationships or
interactions between two or
more concepts in a historical,
scientific, or technical text
based on specific information
in the text.
A student is able to explain
procedures in a historical,
scientific, or technical text,
including what happened and
why, based on specific
Page 34 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
information in the text.
 A student can describe the
relationship between a series
of historical events, scientific
ideas or concepts, or steps in
technical procedures in a
text.
 A student can use language
that pertains to time,
sequence, and cause/effect.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
analyze, analysis, connections, key individual, key event, key idea, distinctions, individuals, ideas, events, introduced, illustrated,
elaborated, examples, anecdotes, cause and effect relationships, interactions, flawed logic
Page 35 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.R.4: Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative
meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
RI.8.4
Desired Student Performance
Determine the meaning of
words and phrases as they
are used in a text, including
figurative, connotative, and
technical meanings; analyze
the impact of specific word
choices on meaning and
tone, including analogies or
allusions to other texts.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)





Words and phrases with
similar denotative meanings
can carry different
connotative meanings (e.g.,
sulk/brood;
ally/comrade/best friend) in
informational texts.
Authors purposely choose
words possessing strong,
weak, positive, negative, or
neutral connotations to
achieve particular effects in a
text and in the reader.
Connotation refers to a
reader’s emotion or
association connected with a
word.
Authors purposely use
figurative language to
achieve particular effects in a
section of a text.
Sound devices (e.g.,
repetition, rhyme scheme,
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)




Students understand what a
word means in a given
context, focusing on what the
author is trying to do with
the language.
Students understand that
authors purposely use
figurative language to
achieve particular effects in a
section of a text.
Students understand that
authors purposely choose
words possessing strong,
weak, positive, negative, or
neutral connotations to
achieve particular effects in a
text.
Students understand that
analogies are comparisons. In
informational text, an
analogy is expressed using
figurative language (e.g.,
metaphor, simile). In effect,
Page 36 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)




Closely read, analyze and
annotate a text for evidence
of the meanings of words
and phrases as they are used
in a text.
Closely read, analyze and
annotate a text for evidence
of the impact of specific word
choices on meaning and
tone.
Closely read, analyze and
annotate a text for evidence
of the impact of a specific
analogy on meaning and
tone.
Closely read, analyze and
annotate a text for evidence
of the impact of a specific
allusion on meaning and
tone.
When writing and speaking:
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
alliteration, assonance,
consonance, onomatopoeia,
rhythm) help to achieve
particular effects in a section
of a text.
 An allusion in an
informational occurs when
an author makes reference,
often indirect, to a person,
place, event, character, work
of art or another text (e.g.,
Shakespeare’s plays, the
Bible, etc.) within his own
writing.
 Specific word choice helps to
achieve particular effects in a
text and in the reader.
 Figurative language helps to
achieve particular effects in a
text and in the reader.
 Students can use context clue
to determine what a word
means in a given context.
 Tone is the author’s attitude
toward the audience, the
subject, or the character.
Tone is conveyed through the
author’s words and details.
 Mood is the emotions the
reader feels while reading a
text. Mood is created by the
an analogy is a way of
comparing two things that
have a feature in common
but are otherwise unlike.
 Students understand that
authors use allusions to
assist the reader in
understanding new
characters or information by
connecting the new
character or information to
something or someone
already known by the reader.
 Students understand that
verbal irony occurs when
someone says a name or
description of someone or
something that implies the
opposite of the truth.
 Students understand that a
pun is a play on words that
have similar pronunciations
or more than one meaning.
Page 37 of 137
 Determine the meaning of
words and phrases based on
context.
 Determine the figurative
meaning of words and
phrases based on context.
 Determine the connotative
meaning of words and
phrases based on context.
 Provide an analysis of how
the author’s use of an analogy
impacts or affects the
meaning and tone of a
literary text.
 Provide an analysis of how
the author’s use of allusions
to other texts impacts the
meaning and tone of a
literary text.
 Provide an analysis of the
impact or effect of a wide
range of literary devices used
in informational texts such as
allusion, analogy, irony, and
symbolism, and explain their
meanings and contributions
to the texts
 Provide an analysis of the
impact or effect the
connotations of words or
phrases have on meaning and
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts






author’s word choice,
imagery, dialogue, setting,
and plot.
Readers determine tone and
mood of a text clues
presented in the context.
Tone or mood may change
throughout a text. In effect, a
text can have more than one
tone or mood.
Authors often use figurative
language to assist in
developing the tone or mood
of a text.
Figurative language uses
words in some way other
than their literal meanings to
make a comparison, add
emphasis, or say something
in a fresh and creative way.
A metaphor compares two
unlike things to illuminate a
particular quality or aspect of
one of the two things.
Metaphors directly state that
one thing is something else
and do not use the words like
or as.
A simile compares two unlike
things using like or as to
illuminate a particular quality
Page 38 of 137
tone of an informational text
(e.g., fancy/gaudy/intricate/
elaborate/overly
complicated).
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts





or aspect of one of the two
things.
An exaggeration is an
extravagant statement that is
not meant to be taken
literally.
Students know that some
words used by authors allude
to significant characters
found in mythology (e.g.,
Herculean).
Figurative meanings refer to
words and phrases meant to
be interpreted beyond the
literal meaning of the word
or words.
Literal language means
exactly what the word or
word say; whereas, nonliteral
or figurative language does
not mean exactly what the
word or words say, but
instead uses comparison or
emphasis to imply something
different.
Students know that words
and phrases (regular beats,
alliteration, rhymes, repeated
lines) provide rhythm and
meaning in a story, poem, or
song.
Page 39 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Students can identify words and
phrases that suggest feelings or
appeal to the senses.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
determine, figurative, connotation, connotative, analyze, analysis, word choice, meaning, tone, mood, literal, nonliteral, figurative
language, simile, metaphor, hyperbole, personification, literary/biblical/mythological allusions, analogies, puns, idioms, regular beats,
alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines, imagery
Page 40 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.R.5: Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section,
chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.
RI.8.5
Desired Student Performance
A student should know
A student should understand
A student should be able to do
Analyze in detail the
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
(Conceptual Understanding)
(Evidence of Knowledge)
structure of a specific
paragraph in a text,
 A student should be able to
 Students understand that
 Closely read, analyze, and
including the role of
provide an analysis of the
knowledge of how
annotate a text for evidence
particular sentences in
structure an author uses to
paragraphs are formed aids
to show the structure of a
developing and refining a
organize a text, including
in student comprehension
paragraph.
key concept.
how the major sections
and deeper understanding of  Closely read, analyze, and
contribute to the whole and
a text(s).
annotate a text for evidence
to the development of ideas.  Students understand that
to show the role of particular
 A student should be able to
individual sentences in a
sentences in developing a
provide an analysis of how a
paragraph contribute to the
concept.
particular sentence,
overall concept of the
 Provide a detailed analysis of
paragraph, chapter, or
paragraph.
the structure of a specific
section fits into the overall
 Students understand that
paragraph in text, including
structure of a text
knowledge of common
the role of particular
 A student should be able to
informational text structures
sentences in developing and
provide an analysis of how a
provides support for
refining a key concept.
particular sentence, chapter,
organizing the ideas and
 Analyze how an
or section contributes to the
deepening understanding of
informational text is
development of the ideas
the text.
organized.
 A student knows how to
 Authors use linguistic devices  Identify major sections and
compare and contrast the
specific to different text
explain how they contribute
overall structure of events,
structures (complex
to the development of larger
ideas, concepts, or
sentences, correlative
ideas in the text.
information in two or more
conjunctions, specific nouns,  Explain the author's purpose
Page 41 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts





texts.
A student knows how to
describe the overall structure
of events, ideas, concepts, or
information in a text or part
of a text.
A student knows how to use
text features and search tools
(e.g., headings, tables of
contents, captions, bold
print, subheadings,
glossaries, indexes, electronic
menus, icons, key words,
sidebars, hyperlinks) to
locate information relevant
to a given topic efficiently.
Common organizational
structures are found in
informational texts
(cause/effect,
comparison/contrast,
problem/solution, sequential,
chronological).
Informational texts (i.e.
textbooks, domain-specific
articles) are divided into
different parts.
Titles, introductions,
headings, and sections.
verbs, and adjectives).
Page 42 of 137
or intent and how the author
fulfills that purpose in an
informational text (e.g.,
language use, evidence).
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
analyze, analysis, particular sentence, particular paragraph, particular chapter, particular section, overall structures, organizational
structure, contributes, development of ideas, author's purpose, intent, evidence
Page 43 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.R.6: Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.
RI.8.6
Desired Student Performance
Determine an author's point
of view or purpose in a text
and analyze how the author
acknowledges and responds
to conflicting evidence or
viewpoints.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)







A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)
An author’s point of view is his
 Authors often acknowledge
position on a topic, idea,
opposing or conflicting
individual, event, etc.
viewpoints in a way that
Students understand that
strengthen their own
authors develop point of view
positions.
through author’s style, tone,
 Authors respond to
word choice, description,
conflicting evidence and
omission of information,
viewpoints by downplaying
inclusion of information, etc.
their importance.
Students understand that
 Students should continually
authors can direct readers’
attention to the exact detail,
question the author's
opinion, idea, emotion, etc., the
viewpoint while reading an
author wants to stress through
argument.
his or her style of writing.
 Students understand the
Authors can present
importance of recognizing
information objectively (based
whether or not the author
on facts) or subjectively (based
addresses readers' concerns
on opinions and bias).
or questions.
Bias means having a

Student understand that an
preconceived opinion or
effective argument directly
judgment about something.
addresses and responds to
Students understand the ways
conflicting evidence or
in which an author’s point of
view influences content and
opposing viewpoints.
style.
An author’s writing is influenced
Page 44 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)








Closely read, analyze, and
annotate a text for evidence
of an author’s point of view.
Closely read, analyze, and
annotate a text for evidence
of an author’s purpose.
Closely read, analyze, and
annotate a text for evidence
of conflicting information or
viewpoints.
Provide a statement of an
author’s point of view in a
text.
Provide a statement of an
author’s purpose in a text.
Provide an analysis of how
the author acknowledges and
responds to conflicting
evidence.
Provide an analysis of how an
author acknowledges and
responds to conflicting
viewpoints.
Determine whether the
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts







by his experiences, background,
and values.
Students understand that
authors use different points of
view to offer different
perspectives and to develop a
text based on the author’s
purpose for writing.
Students know that authors
develop point of view through
author’s style, tone, word
choice, description, omission of
information, inclusion of
information, etc.
Students know that authors can
direct readers’ attention to the
exact detail, opinion, idea,
emotion, etc., the author wants
to stress through his or her style
of writing.
Students know the ways in
which an author’s point of view
influences content and style.
An author’s writing is influenced
by his experiences, background,
and values.
Students know that authors use
different points of view to offer
different perceptions and to
develop a text based on the
author’s purpose for writing.
A student should know how to
determine an author’s purpose
when it is not explicitly stated in
Page 45 of 137

biases an author brings to an
argument affect the
credibility or viability of those
arguments.
Explain how word choice,
syntax, and organization are
used to further the author's
purpose or viewpoint.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
the text.
 A student should be able to
analyze multiple accounts of the
same event or topic, noting
important similarities and
differences in the point of view
they represent.
 A student should be able to
compare and contrast a
firsthand and secondhand
account of the same event or
topic and describe the
differences in focus and the
information provided.
 A student should be able to
distinguish his or her own point
of view from that of the author
of a text.
 A student should be able to
identify the main purpose of a
text, including what the author
wants to answer, explain, or
describe.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
author's intent, position, viewpoint, objective, subjective, claim, evidence, conflicting evidence, opposing opinions, counterargument,
response, word choice, syntax, organization
Page 46 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.R.7: Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in
words.
RI.8.7
Desired Student Performance
Evaluate the advantages
and disadvantages of using
different mediums (e.g.,
print or digital text, video,
multimedia) to present a
particular topic or idea.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)





A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)
Students know that authors
 A student should understand
purposely use word choice,
the importance of interpreting
style, etc., while directors
information and data presented
purposely select lighting, sound,
visually, quantitatively, and in
color, or camera focus and
writing.
angles to achieve specific
 Reading and analyzing
effects and influence the
information from multiple
audience/reader’s perceptions.
sources helps student to
Speakers use intonation,
understand a topic better.
pausing, voice, etc., to achieve
 Integrating information on a
specific effects and influence
topic from several texts
the audience’s perceptions.
develops a base of knowledge
Performed versions of texts
on a subject (e.g.,
affect audiences differently
categorize/organize
than the printed version.
information, compare
information, summarize from
A student should be able to
multiple texts).
draw on information from
multiple print and digital
sources, demonstrating the
ability to locate an answer to a
question quickly or to solve a
problem efficiently.
A student should be able to
interpret information presented
visually, orally, or quantitatively
(e.g., in charts, graphs,
Page 47 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)




Closely read, analyze, take
notes and/or annotate a text
for evidence to use in
evaluating the advantages
and disadvantages of using
different mediums to present
a particular topic or idea.
Provide an evaluation of the
advantages and
disadvantages of using
different mediums to present
a particular topic.
Create a graphic organizer
listing the advantages and
disadvantages of information
from two or more mediums
on a particular topic.
Provide an explanation of
how the presentation of
information in a text
contributes to or detracts
from the clarity and
effectiveness of its message.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
diagrams, timelines, animations,
or interactive elements on Web
pages) and explain how the
information contributes to an
understanding of the text in
which it appears.
 A student should be able to use
information gained from
illustrations (e.g., maps,
photographs) and the words in
a text to demonstrate
understanding of the text (e.g.,
where, when, why, and how key
events occur).
 A student should be able to
explain how specific images
(e.g., a diagram showing how a
machine works) contribute to
and clarify a text.
 A student should be able to
identify basic similarities and
differences between two texts
on the same topic (e.g., in
illustrations, descriptions, or
procedures).
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD

Provide an explanation of
how the medium used
impacts the presentation of
information.
integrate, information, media, formats, visually quantitatively, develop, coherent, understanding, topic, issue, medium, portrayal
Page 48 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.R.8: Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the
relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.
RI.8.8
Desired Student Performance
Delineate and evaluate the
argument and specific
claims in a text, assessing
whether the reasoning is
sound and the evidence is
relevant and sufficient;
recognize when irrelevant
evidence is introduced.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)






A student should know the
difference between sound and
unsound reasoning.
Sound reasoning is based on
facts, data, credible sources,
etc.
Unsound reasoning refers to
evidence presented from noncredible sources such as, blogs,
self-authored cites, opinions,
etc.
A student should know that
some arguments may not be
relevant (not appropriate or
not closely connected) to the
claim.
A student should know that
some of the evidence
presented may not be
sufficient; the argument
presented may be weak details
that do not provide adequate
support for the claim.
Sufficient refers to enough or
adequate.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)




A student should understand
the difference between
relevant or irrelevant
evidence.
Relevant evidence is deeply
connected and significant to
the claim(s) and/or
argument(s).
Irrelevant evidence does not
apply and is insignificant to
the claim(s) and/or
argument(s).
A student should understand
how to determine whether
or not a speaker has provided
enough relevant evidence to
support his or her argument.
Page 49 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)






Closely read, analyze, take
notes and/or annotate a text
for evidence to use in
assessing whether or not the
reasoning is sound and the
evidence is relevant and
sufficient.
Closely read, analyze, take
notes and/or annotate a text
for evidence to recognize
when irrelevant evidence is
introduced.
Provide a delineation of the
argument and specific claims
in a text.
Provide an assessment of
whether the reasoning of the
argument is sound.
Provide an evaluation of
whether the evidence is
relevant and sufficient to
support the claims.
Demonstrate recognition of
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts








A student should identify the
speaker’s purpose and
audience by analyzing the
content and delivery.
Evaluate refers to making a
judgment.
Delineate means to outline,
trace, or describe.
A student should know the
difference between a claim that
is supported with reasons and
evidence opposed to a claim
this is unsupported.
A student should know how to
identify a speaker’s claim(s)
and explain how each claim is
supported by the argument or
arguments the speaker makes
(the evidence).
A student should understand
that a speaker uses reasons,
facts, statistics, details, etc. to
support his or her arguments
for a claim or claims.
A claim is a statement of
opinion the writer or speaker is
trying to prove; a claim is a
statement of opinion that the
author is presenting as a fact.
Argument(s) is how the speaker
supports his claim(s); argument
is the main point or points a
speaker makes to provide
supporting reasons and
Page 50 of 137






when irrelevant evidence is
introduced.
Provide an outline of a
speaker’s claim(s) and
supporting argument(s)
(main points).
Create a list of all evidence
and determine whether or
not each piece is relevant to
the claim(s) and/or
argument(s) presented.
Distinguish facts from
opinions, and evaluate the
logic or validity of opinions
and assertions in text such as
editorials, essays, articles,
and reviews.
Describe problems in an
argument that affect its
credibility (e.g., bias,
unsupported inferences,
outdated information).
Identify and describe a wider
range of logical fallacies in an
argument (e.g., loaded
words, caricatures, leading
questions, and false
assumptions and premises).
Determine whether the
biases an author brings to an
argument affect the
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
evidence for his claim.


credibility or viability of that
argument.
Analyze how an author
responds to conflicting
opinions in an argument.
Delineate and evaluate the
argument and specific claims
in a text and determine
whether the reasoning is
sound and the evidence is
relevant and sufficient.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
trace, evaluate, argument, specific claims, distinguish, claims that are supported by reasons and evidence, claims that are not supported
by reasons and evidence, sufficient, accurate, appropriate, credibility, misleading, outdated, biased, claim, support, evidence, relevance,
relevant, sufficient, sufficiency, supported claim, unsupported claim
Page 51 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.R.9: Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches
the authors take.
RI.8.9
Desired Student Performance
Analyze a case in which two
or more texts provide
conflicting information on
the same topic and identify
where the texts disagree on
matters of fact or
interpretation.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
 A student should be able to
integrate information from
several texts on the same
topic in order to write or
speak about the subject
knowledgably.
 A student should be able to
compare and contrast the
most important points and
key details presented in two
texts on the same topic.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)


A student should understand
how to explain similarities and
differences between
informational texts on the same
topic (purpose, organization,
main ideas, viewpoint).
There are many forms of
Informational text/literary
nonfiction subgenres.
o Exposition
o Argument
o Functional text
o Personal essays
o Speeches
o Opinion pieces
o Biographies
o Memoirs
Journalism
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
compare, contrast, presentation, events, analyze, interpretation, emphasis, topic
Page 52 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)




Closely read, analyze, take
notes and/or annotate a text for
evidence of conflicting
information and disagreement
in two or more texts on the
same topic by different authors.
Provide an analysis of a case in
which two or more texts
provide conflicting information
on the same topic and identify
where the texts disagree on
matter of fact or interpretation.
Describe instances in which
authors writing about the same
topic disagree or arrive at
different conclusions.
Analyze similarities and
differences in emphasis and
interpretation in informational
texts on the same topic.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.R.10: Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.
RI.8.10
Desired Student Performance
By the end of the year, read
and comprehend literary
nonfiction at the high end of 
the grades 6-8 text
complexity band
independently and
proficiently.



A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
Students self-monitor and
adjust understanding of an
informational text by
visualizing unfamiliar
situations, diagramming
complex relationships, and
applying skills from across
the language arts.
Students can explain the
differences between text
structures (chronological,
compare/contrast,
problem/solution,
description, process order,
etc.)
Students know how to note
important parts of a text.
Students know how to
explain the characteristics
and structural elements of
different genres of
informational text (e.g.,
argument, exposition,
functional texts).
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)








The complexity of text

increases as students
progress through grade
levels.
An interpretive framework
can be applied to works of
the same genre.

Literary nonfiction shares
characteristics with literature
but is based on fact.
There are several modes of
discourse (e.g., narration,

description, exposition, and
argument).
Students understand how
text structure impacts a
text’s meaning.
Students understand how the
conventions of a genre
influence the text.
Students understands the
importance of knowing.
Characteristics of
informational text forms
Page 53 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)
Closely read, comprehend,
take notes and annotate
literary texts of increasing
complexity within the Lexile
range of 955-1155 for the
purpose of comprehension.
Analyze the characteristics
and devices of different
genres of informational texts,
and describe how the
characteristics influence a
text
Monitor and adjust
understanding of an
informational text by
recognizing when
comprehension becomes
unclear and applying
corrective strategies
automatically, including
summarizing, paraphrasing,
reviewing previous points,
making connections to other
texts and prior knowledge,
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts


Students know how to
analyze characteristics of
different forms of
informational texts including
argument and literary
nonfiction.
Students know how to
analyze and explain the
characteristics and devices
employed by types of
informational texts including
literary nonfiction (e.g.,
essay, biography) and
argument to begin to
establish an interpretive
framework for understanding
different works.
include:
o Essays
o Speeches
o Opinion pieces
o Biographies
o Memoirs
o journalism
determining word- and
sentence-level meaning of
confusing passages, and
applying skills from across
the language
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
genre, characteristics, devices, narrative, literary nonfiction, argument, expository, structure, essay, biography, autobiography, editorial,
speech
Page 54 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.W.1: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and
sufficient evidence.
W.8.1a
Desired Student Performance
Introduce claim(s),
acknowledge and
distinguish the claim(s)
from alternate or opposing
claims, and organize the
reasons and evidence
logically.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)






A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)
Opposing or alternate claims
are acknowledged by writers
to strengthen the argument
made by the writer and
refute the opposing claim.
Alternate or opposing claims
are often presented using
subordination through
complex sentences;
subordination allows the
writer to emphasize his claim
by deemphasizing the
opposing or alternate claim.
Evidence is introduced to
provide support for the
writer’s claim.
Coherence and cohesion aids
to the clarity of the writer’s
idea.
The structure of the text
should be based on the
purpose of the writing.
Claims are introduced to

The opposing or alternate
claims should be
distinguished from the
writer’s claim.
Page 55 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)





Ensure writing is about a
debatable claim.
Provide an introductory claim
statement about a topic, idea,
or issue under study,
including the title, author,
and genre (TAG sentence) of
the texts from which the
writing is related.
Write a statement of the
alternate or opposing claim(s)
in a way that helps to
strengthen his or her claim.
Complete a graphic organizer
to organize the reasons and
evidence to support his or her
claim clearly.
Separate relevant evidence
from the text into two
groups: (1) evidence that
supports the writer’s claim or
(2) evidence that supports the
counterclaim.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts







present the writer’s opinion
or position on a topic, idea, or
issue.
A counterclaim is an alternate
or opposing claim; the
opposite side of the writer’s
claim.
Some claims attempt to
convince the reader that the
position the writer takes is
correct.
A writer presents an
argument (point, reason,
detail) or several arguments
(points, reasons, details) to
provide support for his claim.
Evidence is introduced to
provide support for the
writer’s claim.
Arguments should be
strategically ordered from
least support to greatest
support so readers end with
the strongest support in their
minds.
The students should be able
to write clearly and concisely
using formal English.
Coherence and cohesion adds
to the clarity of the writer’s
claim(s) and support.
Page 56 of 137


Use the evidence that
supports his or her claim in
his or her writing.
Order his or her evidence
from least support to greatest
support.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts







The structure of the text
should be based on the
purpose of the writing.
A student should know how
to identify a writer’s claim(s)
and explain how each claim is
supported by the argument
or arguments the speaker
makes (the evidence).
A student should understand
that a writer or speaker uses
reasons, facts, statistics,
details, etc. to support his or
her arguments for a claim or
claims.
A claim is a statement of
opinion the writer or speaker
is trying to prove.
Argument(s) is how the writer
or speaker supports his
claim(s); argument is the
main point or points a
speaker makes to provide
supporting reasons and
evidence for his claim.
Claims must be debatable;
claims must have two sides.
There are different types of
Page 57 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts





claims.
o Fact or definition
o Cause and effect
o Value
o Solutions or policies
Reasons and evidence must
be relevant.
There are different types of
evidence.
o Facts
o Quotes
o Examples
o Statistics
o Expert testimony
o Personal/anecdotal
experience
o Analogies
Coherence and cohesion
should be present among
ideas.
Text is organized using
different structures.
o Sequential
o Compare and contrast
o Cause and effect
o Description
o Procedural
o Problem and solution
A student should know how
to introduce a topic or text
clearly, state an opinion, and
Page 58 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts

group idea in a logical
manner to support the
writer’s purpose.
A student should be able to
create an organization
structure and that lists
supporting reasons for an
opinion.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
introduce, claim, argument, acknowledge, distinguish, alternate or opposing claim, counterclaim, organize, least support, greatest
support, reasons, evidence, logically debatable, subordination, emphasize, deemphasize, complex sentence
Page 59 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.W.1: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and
sufficient evidence.
W.8.1b
Desired Student Performance
Support claim(s) with logical
reasoning and relevant
evidence, using accurate,
credible sources and
demonstrating an
understanding of the topic
or text.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)





o
o
o
o
A well-written claim requires
students to have a deep
understanding of the topic or
text.
Sources are considered
credible when they are
trustworthy, accurate, and
reliable.
A student must be able to
distinguish between relevant
and irrelevant evidence.
Evidence (arguments) should
be strategically ordered from
least support to greatest
support so readers end with
the strongest support in their
minds.
There are different ways to
present evidence.
Paraphrasing
Quotations
Summary
Statistics (i.e. data, charts,
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)


Providing support for claims
will convince the reader that
the writer has a wellsupported interpretation of
the claim.
Relevant evidence causes the
argument to be more
credible.
Page 60 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)






Evaluates his or her
resources for accuracy and
credibility and selects
evidence that comes from
credible sources to use in
writing.
Organizes evidence into two
groups: (1) relevant evidence
or (2) irrelevant evidence.
Provides clear reasons and
relevant evidence from
credible sources as support
for claim(s).
Develops an outline of his
claim(s) and supporting
evidence to ensure
understanding of the topic
and/or text(s).
Demonstrate an
understanding of the text
through his or her writing.
The student’s argumentative
response will include claims
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts



graphs, photographs,
illustrations)
Students utilize an
appropriate standard format
for giving credit to the
authors they are citing, such
as the Modern Language
Association (MLA) or the
American Psychological
Association (APA).
Reasons should be logically
ordered and supported by
facts and/or details from the
text.
Support must be provided for
a claim.



that are supported with
evidence that is relevant.
The student’s argumentative
response will include
evidence that is presented
using credible sources.
The student’s argumentative
response will include credible
and relevant sources.
The student’s argumentative
response will demonstrate an
understanding of the topic.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
arguments, support, claims, logical reasoning, relevant evidence, accurate sources, credible sources, demonstrating an understanding,
acknowledge, distinguish, alternate, opposing, organize, logically, topic, text
Page 61 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.W.1: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and
sufficient evidence.
W.8.1c
Desired Student Performance
Use words, phrases, and
clauses, to create cohesion
and clarify the relationships
among claim(s),
counterclaims, reasons, and
evidence.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)


Transition words assist
writers in developing
relationships among claims
and reasons.
There are several types of
transition words.
o Agreement, addition,
similarity (as a matter of
fact, equally,
furthermore, of course,
by the same token)
o Examples, support,
emphasis (in other words,
to put it differently, on
the positive side, on the
negative side, chiefly,
notably, most compelling
evidence)
o Effect, result,
consequence (thus,
accordingly, hence, in
that case, for this reason,
under those
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)




Specific words, phrases, and
clauses are used to show the
reader how the evidence is
connected to the claim.
Cohesion is the connection
that allows the sentences
and paragraphs to work as a
unified piece.
A counterclaim is an
alternate or opposing claim;
the opposite side of the
writer’s claim.
Counterclaims are often
presented using
subordination through
complex sentences;
subordination allows the
writer to emphasize his claim
by deemphasizing the
opposing or alternate claim.
Page 62 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)



Use transition words, phrases
and/or clauses to clarify
relationships among claims,
reasons, and evidence.
Use transition words, phrases
and/or clauses to clarify the
relationship with the
counterclaim.
Demonstrate cohesion in
writing.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
o
o
o
o
circumstances)
Opposition, limitation,
contradiction (although
this may be true, in
contrast, instead,
whereas, despite,
conversely, otherwise, in
spite of, on the other
hand, of course…but)
Cause, condition, purpose
(on the condition that,
with this intention, with
this in mind, for fear that,
whenever, since, because
of, while, due to, given
that, provided that, in
case)
Time, chronology,
sequence (at the present
time, in due time, in the
meantime, after, later,
prior to, straightaway,
suddenly, formerly)
Conclusion, summary,
restatement (generally
speaking, all things
considered, given these
points, as has been
noted, in summary, in
conclusion, on the whole,
in either case, overall)
Page 63 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts





o Subordinating
comparison (than, rather
than, as much as,
whereas, whichever, as
long as, as soon as, by the
time)
o Subordinating concession
(though, although, even
though, while)
o Subordinating condition
(only if, if, unless,
provided that, assuming
that, even if, lest)
o Space, location, place (in
the middle, in the
foreground, in the
background, here,
further, beyond,
alongside)
Precise language is used to
show the reader how the
evidence is connected to the
claim.
Precise language uses words
to convey the exact meaning.
Descriptive words and phrases
convey a clear picture of an
idea.
Sensory details are details that
deal with the senses.
Linking words and transition
Page 64 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
words help to define the
relationship between the
concepts by providing
cohesion.
 Domain specific vocabulary
consists of words that are
critical in understanding the
concept of specific content.
 A warrant explains how the
evidence supports the claim.
 A claim is a statement of
opinion the writer or speaker
is trying to prove.
 Students should be able to link
opinions and reasons using
words, phrases, and clauses
(e.g., consequently,
specifically, for instance, in
order to, in addition, because,
therefore, since, for example,
and, also).
 Students should be able to
write complex sentences.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
precise language, descriptive words/phrases, sensory details, linking words, transitional words, domain specific vocabulary, warrants,
cohesion, clarify, relationships, claim, counterclaim, evidence, reasons, subordination, emphasize, deemphasize, complex sentence
Page 65 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.W.1: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and
sufficient evidence.
W.8.1d
Desired Student Performance
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
Establish and maintain a
formal style.


Formal language should not
include words that are used
in a casual language. (i.e.
euphemisms, slang, biased
language, group-specific
jargon)
Formal language uses correct
grammar and spelling.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)


The level of formality is
determined by the audience.
Academic writing requires a
formal tone.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
formal style, arguments, support, clams, reasons, relevant evidence
Page 66 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)



Develop a response
appropriate for the intended
audience.
Omit casual language.
Use correct spelling and
grammar.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.W.1: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and
sufficient evidence.
W.8.1e
Desired Student Performance
Provide a concluding
statement or section that
follows from and supports
the argument presented.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)


Students should be able to
provide a concluding
statement or section related
to the opinion presented.
Conclusions wrap up what
has been discussed
throughout the paper.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)


Conclusions address why the
reader should align with your
position.
Support for the argument(s)
presented will convince the
reader that the writer has a
well-supported
interpretation of the claim.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
concluding statement/ section, arguments, support, claims
Page 67 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)


Provide a concluding
statement or section that
restates the arguments
presented to support the
claim.
Provide a concluding
statement or section that
addresses why the reader
should align with your
position.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.W.2: Write informative /explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through
the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
W.8.2a
Desired Student Performance
Introduce a topic clearly,
previewing what is to
follow; organize ideas,
concepts, and information
into broader categories;
include formatting (e.g.,
headings), graphics (e.g.,
charts, tables), and
multimedia when useful to
aiding comprehension.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)







Students should be able to
introduce a topic clearly,
provide a general
observation and focus, and
group related information
logically.
Students should be able to
include formatting (e.g.,
heading), illustrations, and
multimedia when useful to
aiding comprehension.
Students should be able to
group related information in
paragraphs and sections.
Topics should be narrow.
Formats used to signal major
divisions throughout the text.
o Headings
o Sections
Graphics (i.e. charts, tables)
provide examples for the
topic.
Multimedia (i.e. audio, still
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)





The topic must be clear and

presented in the
introduction.
Including a preview of the
information that will be

included in the text allows
the reader will know what to
expect.
Ideas, concepts, and

information should be
organized into broader
categories for audience and
purpose using the most
effective method.
Ideas can be organized using
different methods.
o Definition
o Classification
o Compare/contrast
o Cause/effect
The method of organization
will assist in the development
of the topic.
Page 68 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)
Introduce a topic clearly and
provide a preview of what is
to be presented in the body
of the text.
Organize ideas, concepts, and
information using a specific
organizational method
and/or graphic organizer
appropriate to the topic.
Include specific formatting,
graphics, and/or multimedia
when it aids in
comprehension.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
images, video, animation)
help the reader understand
the topic.


The text should be formatted
to help the reader
understand the major
divisions within the text.
Graphics and multimedia can
help the reader understand
the topic.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
informative, explanatory, introduce, topic, previewing, ideas, concepts, related information, logically, organization, definition,
classifications, comparison, contrast, cause, effect, formatting, graphics, multimedia, comprehension
Page 69 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.W.2: Write informative /explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through
the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
W.8.2b
Desired Student Performance
Develop the topic with
relevant, well-chosen facts,
definitions, concrete details,
quotations, or other
information and examples.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)





Students should be able to
develop a topic with facts,
definitions, concrete details,
quotations, or other
information and examples
related to the topic.
Definitions provide
statements of the exact
meaning of a word.
Concrete details are facts
that come from the source.
Quotations are words taken
from a text or speech and
repeated by someone other
than the original speaker.
Examples are a model or
pattern of something that
can be imitated.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)






Developing a topic will help the
reader to understand what the
writer is trying to convey.
Relevant facts connected to the
topic will aid the reader in
comprehending the information
the writer is presenting.
Well-chosen facts will aid in the
reader’s understanding of the
topic.
Concrete details about the topic
will aid the reader in
comprehending the information
the writer is presenting.
Quotations about the topic will
aid the reader in
comprehending the information
the writer is presenting.
Examples that are relevant to
the topic will aid the reader in
comprehending the information
the writer is presenting.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
topic, relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, examples
Page 70 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)

Develop the main point(s)
(body) of the paper by
including relevant, wellchosen facts; definitions;
concrete details; quotations
or other information and
examples retrieved from
resources that support the
main focus of his paper.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.W.2: Write informative /explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through
the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
W.8.2c
Desired Student Performance
Use appropriate and varied
transitions to create
cohesion and clarify the
relationships among ideas
and concepts.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)





Transitions connect ideas and
paragraphs.
Transitions connect
corresponding paragraphs.
Transitions signal different
relationships.
o Exceptions
o Time
o Repetition
o Summary
o Conclusion
o Emphasis
o Examples
o Sequence
Varied transitions will consist of
different transitional words.
Cohesion is the connection
between the sentences and
paragraphs.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)






Transitions unify writing into a
whole piece.
Transitions help readers
understand how ideas and
paragraphs work together.
Transitions help readers
understand that ideas and
paragraphs reference one
another.
Transitions help readers
understand that ideas build
from a small point to a larger
point.
Transitions create logical
progressions for the reader in
order to help the writer get the
point across.
Cohesion is the connection that
allows the sentences and
paragraphs to work as a unified
piece.
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)





The student’s
informative/explanatory
response will include transitions
that provide logical transitions
in writing.
The student’s
informative/explanatory
response will include a variety
of transitions.
The student’s ideas and
paragraphs build from a smaller
point to a larger point.
The student’s paragraphs refer
to each other.
The student’s
informative/explanatory
response to the prompt should
clearly show the relationships
among ideas and concepts.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
appropriate, varied, transitions, cohesion, clarify, relationship, ideas, concepts, informative/explanatory texts
Page 71 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.W.2: Write informative /explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through
the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
W.8.2d
Desired Student Performance
Use precise language and
domain-specific vocabulary
to inform about or explain
the topic.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)


Precise language is language
that uses the right words to
convey the exact message.
Domain specific vocabulary
includes words that are
specific to certain domain/
area.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)

Precise language will help the 
reader understand the
writer’s topic.

KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, inform, topic, audience, purpose for writing
Page 72 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)
Include language that is
specific to the writer’s topic,
audience, and purpose.
Include domain-specific
vocabulary in order to inform
or explain the writer’s topic.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.W.2: Write informative /explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through
the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
W.8.2e
Desired Student Performance
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
Establish and maintain a
formal style.


Formal language should not
include words that are used
in a casual language. (i.e.
euphemisms, slang, biased
language, group-specific
jargon)
Formal language uses correct
grammar and spelling.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)


The level of formality is
determined by the audience.
Academic writing requires a
formal tone.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
informative/explanatory, organization, analysis, relevant content, formal style
Page 73 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)



Develop a response
appropriate for the intended
audience.
Omit casual language.
Use correct spelling and
grammar.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.W.2: Write informative /explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through
the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
W.8.2f
Desired Student Performance
Provide a concluding
statement or section that
follows from and supports
the information or
explanation presented.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)


Conclusions wrap up what
has been discussed
throughout the paper.
The concluding section
should support the
information presented.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)


Conclusions wrap up what
has been discussed
throughout the paper.
Providing support for the
information presented will
convince the reader that the
information presented is
accurate.
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)


Include a concluding
statement or section that
restates the topic.
Include a concluding
statement or section that
supports the information
presented.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
concluding statement ,concluding section, support, information, explanation, informative/explanatory, organization, analysis of relevant
content
Page 74 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.W.3: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and wellstructured event sequences.
W.8.3a
Desired Student Performance
Engage and orient the
reader by establishing a
context and point of view
and introducing a narrator
and/or characters; organize
an event sequence that
unfolds naturally and
logically.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)







A student should be able to
orient the reader by
establishing a situation and
introducing a narrator and/or
characters.
A student should be able to
organize an event sequence
that unfolds naturally.
A student should be able to
write a narrative in which he or
she recounts a well-elaborate
event or short sequence of
events; includes details to
describe actions, thoughts, and
feelings; uses temporal words
to signal event order; and
provides a sense of closure.
A narrative tells a story.
A narrator is the person who
tells the story of events.
A narrative includes a setting,
characters, and a plot.
The plot of a narrative is made
up of the events that take place
in a story (e.g., the exposition,
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)


Establishing a context will let
the reader know what the
essay is about.
Organizing an event
sequence that unfolds
naturally and logically will
allow the reader the
opportunity to get engaged
with the piece.
Page 75 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)






Complete a graphic organizer
to plan the context, setting,
introduce the characters, and
logically sequence the plot.
Develop an engaging context
to hook the reader into the
narrative.
Establish a point of view.
Determine how he or she will
begin the narrative.
Introduce the narrator and
characters.
Organize an event sequence
that unfolds naturally and
logically.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts







rising acting, conflict, climax,
turning point, falling action,
solution/resolution).
The conflict is the central
problem that drives the action
of a narrative.
The setting of a narrative is the
time and place in which the
events of the narrative take
place.
The characters of a narrative
are the people, animals, or
other things in the story.
The point of view is the
perspective, or view from which
the narrator tells the story.
A story can be told in first
person point of view; first
person means a character in the
story is telling the story.
A story can be told in third
person point of view.
There are three types of third
person point of view.
o Third person omniscient
o Third person limited
o Third person objective
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
engage, orient establish a context, point of view, first person, third person omniscient, third person limited, third person objective,
introduce, narrator, characters, event, sequence, logically, effective technique, relevant descriptive details, well-structured event
sequences
Page 76 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.W.3: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and wellstructured event sequences.
W.8.3b
Desired Student Performance
Use narrative techniques,
such as dialogue, pacing,
and description, to develop
experiences, events, and/or
characters.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)







A students should be able to
use narrative techniques
such as dialogue, description,
and pacing, to develop
experiences and events.
Narrative techniques include
dialogue, pacing, and
description.
Dialogue is a conversation
between two or more
people.
Pacing is the manipulation of
time.
Pacing moves the events of
the narrative forward.
Description is a way to give
details about events, people,
and experiences.
A student should be able to
use dialogue and descriptions
of actions, thoughts, and
feelings to develop
characters.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)




Narrative techniques such as
dialogue, description, and
pacing, assist in developing
complex characters.
Dialogue, pacing, and
description work together
and/or individually to drive
the action and push the plot
toward a resolution/solution.
Pacing is important to a
narrative to assist the
development of the plot by
allowing the events to flow
naturally.
Description provides a
spoken or written
representation of a person,
experience or an event.
Dialogue is important to the
development of the
character and events in a
narrative.
Page 77 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)





Include techniques such as
dialogue, pacing, and
description to develop the
characters’ experiences.
Include techniques such as
dialogue, pacing, and
description to develop the
events in the plot.
Include techniques such as
dialogue, pacing, and
description to develop
complex characters.
Focus a short time period for
the narrative that allows the
student to develop the
experiences, events, and
characters in a complex,
engaging manner.
Include pacing that allows
the events and experiences
to flow and unfold naturally.
Include detailed description
in order to provide the
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
A student should be able to use
narrative techniques such as
dialogue, description, and
pacing, to show the responses of
characters to situations.
reader a visual image of the
events, experiences, and or
characters in the story.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
narrative techniques, dialogue, pacing, description, experiences, events, characters, effective technique, descriptive details, wellstructured sequences
Page 78 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.W.3: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and wellstructured event sequences.
W.8.3c
Desired Student Performance
Use variety of transition
words, phrases, and clauses
to convey sequence and
signal shifts from one time
frame or setting to another.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)



Transition words, phrases,
and clauses connect ideas
and paragraphs.
Transitional words will signal
exceptions, time, repetition,
summary, or conclusion,
emphasis, or give examples.
Sequencing is the order in
which things happen.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)







Transitions unify writing into
a whole piece.
Transitions connect ideas and
paragraphs.
Transitions connect
corresponding paragraphs.
Transition words assist
writers in developing
relationships among claims
and reasons.
There are many transition
words that convey sequence,
time, chronology (after, as
soon as, before, initially,
now, immediately,
meanwhile, when we
finished, soon after, before
long, suddenly, later on)
Transitions help readers
understand how ideas and
paragraphs work together.
Transitions help readers
understand that ideas and
Page 79 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)






Include a variety of transition
words, phrases, and/or
clauses that provide logical
transitions in their writing.
Annotate his or her writing
for inclusion of transitions
that link one event and/or
paragraph to another are
included.
Annotate his or her writing
for inclusion of signal shifts
from one time frame to
another to ensure the plot is
moving forward.
Include signal shifts to
introduce a flashback if
appropriate to the context of
the narrative.
Use transition words to link
one setting to another in
appropriate to the context of
the narrative.
Give and receive peer
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts





paragraphs reference one
another.
Transitions help readers
understand that narratives

build from a small point to a
larger point.
Transitions create logical
progressions for the reader in
order to help the writer get
the point across.
A flashback occurs when a
writer interrupts a
sequenced narrative to
include an event from an
earlier time.
Effectively inserting a
flashback signals a time shift
from one time frame to
another.
A narrative can have more
than one setting.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
variety, transition words/phrases/clauses, convey, sequence, signal shifts, time frame, flashback, setting
Page 80 of 137
feedback on the inclusion of
transitions to signal shifts
from one time frame to
another.
Give and receive peer
feedback on the inclusion of
transitions to signal shifts
from one setting to another
setting.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.W.3: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and wellstructured event sequences.
W.8.3d
Desired Student Performance
Use precise words and
phrases, relevant
descriptive details, and
sensory language to convey
experiences and events.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)





A student should be able to
use concrete words and
phrases and sensory details
to convey experiences and
events precisely.
A student should be able to
provide a sense of closure in
a narrative.
Precise language is language
that uses the right words to
convey the exact message.
Descriptive details convey a
clear picture of an idea.
Sensory details are details
that deal with the senses.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)






Writers should choose
precise words based on the
effect they want to achieve in
the reader.
Choosing words for their
specific connotations assists
the reader in determining the
mood of the passage and the
tone of the writer.
Tone is how the author
chooses to present the
writing (e.g., style, word
choice).
There are many possible
tones a writer can use (e.g.,
serious, humorous, amused,
angry, playful, neutral, ironic,
suspicious, witty).
Mood is the feeling a piece of
literature evokes in a reader.
There are many possible
moods a reader can feel (e.g.,
optimistic, gloomy, happy,
Page 81 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)





Include words that are
precise to convey
experiences and events and
evoke feelings in the reader.
Include relevant descriptive
details to convey experiences
and events.
Include sensory language to
help create an image in the
reader’s mind of experiences
and events in the narrative.
Annotate his or her writing
for precise words, descriptive
details, and sensory
language.
Give and receive peer
feedback on the inclusion of
precise words, descriptive
details, and sensory
language.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts



peaceful, sorrowful,
mournful).
Precise language will help the
reader understand the
writer’s topic.
Descriptive details provide a
spoken or written
representation of a person,
experience or an event.
Sensory details create visual
images for the reader.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
precise words, precise phrases, relevant descriptive details, sensory language, tone, mood, connotation, convey, experiences, events,
narratives, effective technique
Page 82 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.W.3: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and wellstructured event sequences.
W.8.3e
Desired Student Performance
Provide a conclusion that
follows from the narrated
experiences or events.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)

A student will be able to
provide a conclusion that
follows the narrated
experiences or events.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)


Conclusions inform the
reader of the resolution or
solution.
A conclusion brings the
narrative to a close (e.g.,
shows what was learned
through the experience or
event by the narrator or
another character, connects
the event to a larger
meaning, provides a
reflection of the experience
or event).
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
provide, conclusion, narrated experiences, narrated events
Page 83 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)


Include a concluding
statement or section that
follows from the narrated
events or experiences and
brings the narrative to a
close.
Give and receive peer
feedback on the inclusion of
an appropriate conclusion.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.W.4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose,
and audience.
W.8.4
Desired Student Performance
Produce clear and coherent
writing in which the
development, organization,
and style are appropriate to
task, purpose, and
audience.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)






Coherent writing is logically
ordered, well-organized and
connected, and easy to
understand.
Text structure is how the
information within the text is
written or organized.
o Narration
o Description
o Process
o Definition
o Division and Classification
o Compare and Contrast
o Analogy
o Cause and Effect
A writer’s style is the way he
or she chooses language to
convey ideas.
Style includes the author’s
voice, tone, and word choice.
A task is an assigned piece of
work to be completed.
There must be a purpose for
writing.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)


The assigned task must be
addressed in the writing.
Considering the purpose of
the writing will assist the
writer in the organization of
the writing.
Determining the audience
will be helpful when
developing the subject.
Page 84 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)




Present writing in a clear,
coherent manner.
Address the assigned task.
Use language appropriate to
the task, purpose, and
audience.
Give and receive peer
feedback on development,
organization, style, task
purpose, audience for a
variety of pieces of writing.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts

o Entertain
o Inform/explain
o Express feelings/ideas
o Persuade
o Description
Audience refers to the
intended readers of the piece
or listeners to the piece.
Attending to the audience
and purpose assists the
reader in determining
appropriate language
(formal, informal).
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
produce, clear and coherent writing, development, organization, style, appropriate, task, purpose, audience, formal, informal
Page 85 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.W.5: Use technology, including the internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.
W.8.5
Desired Student Performance
With some guidance and
support from peers and
adults, develop and
strengthen writing as
needed by planning,
revising, editing, rewriting,
or trying a new approach,
focusing on how well
purpose and audience have
been addressed. (Editing for
conventions should
demonstrate command of
Language standards 1-3 up
to and including grade 8 on
page 53.)
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)

A peer is someone who is of
equal standing.

The steps of writing include
planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new
approach.
Planning allows the student
the opportunity to gather
ideas, brainstorm, and map

out thoughts and make
decisions about the content
of a piece.

Revising is altering something
that has already been written
or printed in order to
impove, update or make
corrections.
Editing is correcting written
work, checking for grammar,
spelling, or punctuation
errors.
The student needs to know
the command of the
conventions of Standard
English grammar and its





Receiving guidance and
support from peers and
adults will help the
development of and
strengthen the writing by
giving the writer an
opportunity to write for an
audience.
Using the writing process will
help develop the writer’s
piece.
Using the writing process will
help strengthen the writer’s
writing.
Page 86 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)






Ask for and receive guidance
and support from peers and
adults for pieces of writing.
Make change to pieces of
writing, based on the
feedback from peers and
teachers to strengthen
writing.
Demonstrate command of
the conventions of Standard
English grammar and usage.
Demonstrate command of
the conventions of Standard
English capitalization,
punctuation, and spelling.
Request peer or adult
feedback on the conventions
of standard English and edit
pieces of writing accordingly.
Demonstrate knowledge of
language and its conventions.
capitalization, punctuation,
and spelling.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts




usage.
The student needs to know
the command of the
conventions of Standard
English capitalizations,
punctuation, and spelling.
The student’s must have
knowledge of language.
Rewriting is to write again.
Audience refers to the
people who will read the
writer’s response.
The purpose is the reason the
writer writes a piece.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
guidance, support, peers, adults, develop, strengthen writing, planning, revising, editing, rewriting, new approach, purpose, audience
Page 87 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.W.6: Use technology, including the internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.
W.8.6
Desired Student Performance
Use technology, including
the internet, to produce and
publish writing and present
the relationships between
information and ideas
efficiently as well as to
interact and collaborate
with others.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)






Link to sources means to
include a hyperlink to the
website resource used in
part/all of the presentation.
Linking the sources to the
writing will show the reader
the direct connections in the
writing.
Citing sources identifies and
credits the source from
which the information came.
Citing sources will allow the
reader to verify that the
information given is
supported by a reliable
source.
Technology consists of
electronic and web-based
tools and applications used
to access, analyze, and
evaluate information.
The internet is a global
system of interconnected
computer networks.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)





The student’s writing will be
produced using technology
(PowerPoint, Prezi,).
The student’s writing will be
published through
technology (e.g., classroom
blogs, classroom webpages).
Presenting the relationships
between the information and
ideas will aid the reader in
their comprehension of the
materials presented.
Interacting and collaborating
with others will allow the
writer to have an ample
amount of information on
the topic.
Collaborating with others
provides many positive
opportunities for students
(e.g., make and receive
suggestions, assist others and
receive assistance,
coproduce products and
Page 88 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)







Produce writing using
technology.
Publish their writing through
technology.
Type a minimum of three
pages in a single sitting.
Present the relationships
between information and
ideas efficiently.
Collaborate with others to
retrieve information and/or
publish information.
Provide a link to sources
within the
presentation/publication.
Cite sources.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts






Produce means to create
something.

Publish is the final step in the
writing process then the

writer shares the work with
others.
Collaborate means to work

cooperatively with others.
Keyboarding skills are
necessary for using both
word processing software
and database software.
Students should be able to
type a minimum of two pages
in a single sitting.
Single sitting means one
period of time during which
someone completes an
activity.
tasks).
The writing must be
produced using technology.
The writing must be
published through
technology.
Interacting and collaborating
with others will allow the
writer to have an ample
amount of information on
the topic.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
technology, internet, produce, publish, present, relationships between information and ideas, collaborate, demonstrate, sufficient
command of keyboarding skills, link to sources, cite sources, single sitting
Page 89 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.W.7: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused quotations, demonstrating understanding of
the subject under investigation.
W.8.7
Desired Student Performance
Conduct short research
projects to answer a
question (including a selfgenerated question),
drawing on several sources,
and generating additional
related, focused questions
that allow for multiple
avenues of exploration.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)





A student should be able to
conduct short research
projects, using several
sources to build knowledge
through investigation of
different aspects of a topic.
A research project is an
organized study to discover
facts about a particular topic.
Sources are people, places,
or things that provide
information.
An inquiry is a request for
information.
An investigation is conducted
to find out the facts about
something.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)





Researching a topic will
answer questions that the
reader may have.
Using several sources will
provide more support for the
research topic.
Several sources will help
verify answers to the
research questions.
Based on the information
found, additional avenues
may be explored.
Exploration is searching for
information or resources.
Students utilize an
appropriate standard format
for giving credit to the
authors they are citing, such
as the Modern Language
Association (MLA) or the
American Psychological
Association (APA).
Page 90 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)




Conduct short research
projects that answer a
question.
Use several sources when
conducting research.
Generate additional
questions that will allow
multiple avenues to be
explored.
Use a graphic organizer to
organize and maintain the
information from resources.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
Research projects, question, self-generated question, sources, generate, related/focused questions, multiple avenues, exploration
Page 91 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.W.8: Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the
relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.
W.8.8
Desired Student Performance
Gather relevant information
from multiple print and
digital sources; using search
terms effectively; assess the
credibility and accuracy of
each source; and quote or
paraphrase the data and
conclusions of others while
avoiding plagiarism and
following a standard format
for citation.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)




A student should be able to
recall relevant information
from experiences or gather
relevant information from
print and digital sources.
Digital sources are sources
that are available in electric
form, readable and
manipulated by computer.
A student should be able to
summarize or paraphrase
information in notes and
finished work.
A student should be able to
provide a list or sources.
A student should be able to
quote a source correctly
within his or her writing.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)






Information can be gathered 
from print and digital
sources.
Sources are considered

credible when they are
trustworthy, accurate, and
reliable.
Paraphrase means to

rephrase an author’s idea in
different words.
Information from sources
should be used without
plagiarizing.
Plagiarism is the use of ideas
or writings of another author,
representing them as one’s
original work.
Providing bibliographic
information about sources
will give the author of the
information credit. Quotes
are a repeat or copy of
someone else’s statement or
Page 92 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)
Gather information from
several print and digital
sources.
Assess the credibility of the
source by the author, the
author’s purpose, and the
date of the information.
Quote directly from a source
and provide credit to the
author by providing basic
bibliographic information
using an appropriate
standard format.
Paraphrase information from
others while avoiding
plagiarism and providing
basic bibliographic
information using an
appropriate standard format.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts


thoughts.
Bibliographic information
consists of sources that are
consulted by a writer while
conducting research.
Credible sources are sources
worthy of confidence or
belief.
Students utilize an
appropriate standard format
for giving credit to the
authors they are citing, such
as the Modern Language
Association (MLA) or the
American Psychological
Association (APA).
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
multiple print sources, digital sources, search terms, credibility, quote, paraphrase, plagiarism, citation
Page 93 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.W.9: Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches
the authors take.
W.8.9a
Desired Student Performance
Apply grade 8 Reading
standards to literature (e.g.,
“Analyze how a modern
work of fiction draws on
themes, patterns of events,
or character types from
myths, traditional stories, or
religious works such as the
Bible, including describing
how the material is
rendered new”).
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)




A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)
A student should be able to
 Evidence to support analysis,
compare and contrast a fictional
reflection, or research must
portrayal of a time, place, or
be retrieved from literary
character and a historical
texts.
account of the same period as a
means of understanding how
authors of fiction use or alter
history.
A student should be able to
compare and contrast texts in
different forms or genres [e.g.,
stories and poems; historical
novels and fantasy stories] in
terms of their approaches to
similar themes and topics.
A student should be able to
compare and contrast two or
more characters, settings, or
events in a story or drama,
drawing on specific details in a
text.
A student should be able to
describe in depth a character,
setting, or event in a story or
drama, drawing on specific
details in a text.
Page 94 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)



Provide a written response to
questions based on Reading
for Literature Standards 2-9.
Support written responses to
questions based on Reading
for Literature Standard 1.
Include evidence from
literary texts that supports
analysis, reflection, and
research.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts







Evidence is information that
shows, proves, or gives reasons
for making a judgment.
Literary texts are written works
such as a novel, poem, or play.
Support is used to show that an
idea, statement, or theory is
true or correct.
Analysis means to separate into
parts in order to determine
what something is or how it
works.
Reflection is to consider the
thoughts on a topic or literary
work.
Research is the careful
investigation or study of a topic.
Students should have
knowledge of grade 8 reading
standards to literature.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
evidence, literary texts, informational texts, support, analysis, reflection, research, reading standards to literature
Page 95 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.W.9: Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches
the authors take.
W.8.9b
Desired Student Performance
Apply grade 8 Reading
standards to literary
nonfiction (e.g., “Trace and
evaluate the argument and
specific claims in a text,
assessing whether the
reasoning is sound and the
evidence is relevant and
sufficient to support the
claims”).
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)




A student should be able to
trace and evaluate the
argument and specific claims
in a text, assessing whether
the reasoning is sound and
the evidence is relevant and
sufficient to support the
claims.
A student should be able to
trace and evaluate the
argument and specific claims
in a text, distinguishing
claims that are supported by
reasons and evidence from
claims that are not.
A student should be able to
explain how an author uses
reasons and evidence to
support particular points in a
text, identifying which reasons
and evidence support which
point(s).
Evidence is information that
shows, proves, or gives
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)

Evidence to support analysis,
reflection, or research must
be retrieved from
informational texts.
Page 96 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)



Provide a written response to
questions based on Reading
for Information Standards 29.
Support written responses to
questions based on Reading
for Information Standard 1.
The student’s writing will
include evidence gather from
informational texts that
supports analysis, reflection,
and research.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts






reasons for making a
judgment.
Informational texts are
written selection intended to
explain an idea, topic, or
process.
Support is used to show that
an idea, statement, or theory
is true or correct.
Analysis means to separate
into parts in order to
determine what something is
or how it works.
Reflection is to consider the
thoughts on a topic or
literary work.
Research is the careful
investigation or study of a
topic.
Students should have
knowledge of grade 8 reading
standards to literary
nonfiction.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
evidence, literary texts, informational texts, support, analysis, reflection, research, reading standards to literary nonfiction
Page 97 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.W.10: Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single
sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.
W.8.10
Desired Student Performance
Write routinely over
extended time frames (time
for research, reflection, and
revision) and shorter time
frames (a single sitting or a
day or two) for a range of
discipline-specific tasks,
purposes, and audiences.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)








Routine is a sequence of
actions regularly followed.
Time frames are periods of
time.
Research is the careful
investigation or study of a
topic.
Reflection is done to consider
the thoughts on a topic or
literary work.
Revision is a step in the
writing process used to
correct or improve the
original work.
Single sitting is a limited
period of time without
stopping.
Discipline-specific tasks are
tasks related to a specific
branch of knowledge.
Purpose is the intended or
desired result of a piece of
written or spoken material.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)





Writing should be done
regularly.
Writing will have to be
produced during different
time frames.
Writing will be produced for
a range of discipline-specific
tasks.
Writing will be produced for
a range of purposes.
Writing will be produced for
a range of audiences.
Page 98 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)



Write routinely over
extended time frames and
shorter time frames.
Produce writing for a range
of discipline-specific tasks.
Produce writing for a range
of purposes.
Produce writing for a range
of audiences.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts

Audiences are the people for
whom a selection is written
or performed.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
routinely, extended time frames, shorter time frames, discipline-specific tasks, purposes, audiences
Page 99 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.SL.1: Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on
others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
SL.8.1a
Desired Student Performance
A student should know
A student should understand
A student should be able to do
Come to discussions
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
(Conceptual Understanding)
(Evidence of Knowledge)
prepared, having read or
researched material under
 A good communicator is able  A student should understand
 Provide evidence of
study; explicitly draw on
that sometimes it is necessary
to express his or her ideas
reading/studying required
that preparation by
to
prepare
for
a
discussion
by
effectively and listen actively.
material through note-taking
referring to evidence on the
researching
the
topic,
text,
or
and/or annotation of the
 A student should know to
topic, text, or issue to probe
issue to be discussed.
text.
come to discussions
 A student should understand
and reflect on ideas under
 Participate in discussions on
prepared, having read
that reading required material
discussion.
required material.
the required material, citing
prepares them for discussion of
evidence from the text to
 A student should know how
the text.
support comments on the
to use evidence to support
 A student should understand
text.
ideas shared in a discussion.
how to identify key ideas from
researched material on the
 Ask questions that require a
topic, text, or issue under
deeper probing of ideas
discussion.
presented in the text.
 A student should understand
 Provide comments that offer
how to use evidence to support
a differing perspective or
ideas shared in a discussion.
reflection of the topic or
 A student should understand
ideas under discussion.
how to formulate comments,
 Develop comments,
questions, and responses on
questions, and responses
ideas under discussion.
based on evidence.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
discussion, researched, evidence, probe
Page 100 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.SL.1: Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on
others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
SL.8.1b
Desired Student Performance
A student should know
A student should understand
A student should be able to do
Follow rules for collegial
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
(Conceptual Understanding)
(Evidence of Knowledge)
discussions and decisionmaking, track progress
 A student should know how
 A student should understand  Continually demonstrate the
toward specific goals and
to follow agreed-upon rules
ability to follow established
and use the rules for collegial
deadlines, and define
of a collegial discussion.
rules for participating in
discussions and decisionindividual roles as needed.
collegial discussions (e.g.,
 A student should understand
making.
listen actively and
the importance of setting

A
student
should
understand
attentively, do not
goals and deadlines for
how
to
set
goals
and
monopolize discussion, ask
collegial discussions.
deadlines,
and
then
track
for clarification, respect
 A student should understand
every member)
how to define individual roles
progress.
for group discussions.
 A student should understand  Within a collegial discussion,
students remain on task and
how to assign and assume
track progress toward
individual roles in a
achieving the instructional
discussion.
goal(s) set forth by the
teacher within the
established time frame.
 Participate in small group
discussions and effectively
carry out assigned role (e.g.,
leader, recorder, reporter,
illustrator, time keeper).
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
collegial, discussion, decision-making, track, goals, deadlines, roles
Page 101 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.SL.1: Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on
others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
SL.8.1c
Desired Student Performance
A student should know
A student should understand
A student should be able to do
Pose questions that connect
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
(Conceptual Understanding)
(Evidence of Knowledge)
the ideas of several
speakers and respond to
 A student should know how
 A student should understand  In small group or whole
others’ questions and
to pose questions that elicit
how to create questions that
group settings, ask questions
comments with relevant
elaboration.
connect the ideas of several
that connect the ideas of
evidence, observations, and
speakers.
several classmates.
 A student should know how
ideas.
 A student should understand  In small group or whole
to respond to others’
questions and comments
how to respond to questions
group settings, answer
with relevant observations
and comments with relevant
questions about a topic, text,
and ideas.
evidence, observations, and
or issue under discussion by
ideas.
providing relevant evidence,
 A student should know how
observations, and ideas from
to bring a discussion back on
the text.
topic as needed.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
pose, connect, relevant, evidence, observations
Page 102 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.SL.1: Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on
others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
SL.8.1d
Desired Student Performance
A student should know
A student should understand
A student should be able to do
Acknowledge new
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
(Conceptual Understanding)
(Evidence of Knowledge)
information expressed by
others, and, when
 A student should know how to
 A student should be able to
 In one-on-one, small group,
warranted, qualify or justify
acknowledge new information
consider the key ideas
or whole group settings, a
their own views in light of
expressed by others.
presented by others in a
student reviews new
 A student should be able to
the evidence presented.
discussion.
information expressed by
modify his or her own views
classmates.

A
student
should
understand
when warranted.
 In one-on-one, small group,
that it is important to allow
 A student should be able to
your views to be flexible.
or whole group settings, a
demonstrate understanding of
student reflects on others’
 A student should understand
multiple perspectives by
ideas and, when warranted,
how to use evidence to
reflecting on the ideas expressed.
qualifies and justifies his own
qualify or justify personal
 Group discussions can be a
views in light of the evidence
viewpoints.
powerful way to gain new
understanding.
presented.


A student should know that
reflecting and paraphrasing
information helps you better
understand the key ideas
expressed in a discussion.
A student should know that
paraphrasing means to express
the meaning of another person’s
writing and/or speaking using
different words.
Page 103 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
acknowledge, warranted, qualify, justify, views, evidence
Page 104 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.SL.2: Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
SL.8.2
Desired Student Performance
Analyze the purpose of
information presented in
diverse media and formats
(e.g., visually,
quantitatively, orally) and
evaluate the motives (e.g.,
social, commercial, political)
behind its presentation.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)






A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)
A student should be able to
 A student should understand
identify and analyze the main
that there are various
purposes for presenting
idea and supporting details
information to an audience.
presented in a variety of media
 Information can be
and formats.
presented objectively or
A student should know that the
subjectively.
ideas presented in diverse
media and formats should help
 Information presented
to clarify the topic, text, or issue
objectively is unbiased and
under study.
not influenced by the
By interpreting information
presenter’s opinions or
presented in diverse media and
feelings.
formats, you develop a stronger
 Information presented
understanding of the topic, text,
subjectively is biased and is
or issue under study.
influenced by the presenter’s
Interpreting information
personal feelings, tastes, or
requires students to attend
opinions.
closely to the format in which
 A student should understand
the information is presented.
that presenters show their
Interpreting information means
explaining what the information
bias or subjectivity in various
means.
ways (e.g., word choice,
Diverse media and formats refer
intonation, pauses in
to the different types of media
speaking, omitted
and formats available.
information, added
o Visual (e.g., video clips,
Page 105 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)







Determine the purpose of the
information being presented in
a variety of media and formats.
Evaluate the presenter’s
motives.
Analyze a presentation for
evidence of bias or subjectivity.
Analyze the main idea and
details of the information
presented to evaluate the
motives behind the
presentation.
Participate in a discussion of
how information presented in
different media forms and
formats has different purposes
and motives.
Discuss and explain how visual,
quantitative, and oral formats
contribute differently to a topic,
the presenter’s purpose, and
the presenter’s motive.
Paraphrase the information
presented in diverse media and
formats to determine
objectivity or subjectivity.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts





graphics, diagrams,
photographs, illustrations,
digital storytelling, web
page, blog, images, political
cartoons, maps, magazines,
timelines)
o Quantitative (e.g., bar
graphs, line graphs, pie
charts, box plots, tables,
spreadsheets, histograms)
o Orally (e.g., discussion,
interview, radio, television,
teleconference,
presentations, speeches,
audio recordings)
A student should be able to
summarize a written text orally.
A student should be able to
summarize information
presented through various
forms of media and various
formats (visually, quantitatively,
orally).
A student should be able to
paraphrase portions of a readaloud text orally.
A student should be able to
paraphrase information
presented through various
forms of media and various
formats (visually, quantitatively,
orally).
A student should be able to
determine the main ideas and




information, facial
expressions, body language).
Intonation refers to the rise
and fall of the presenter’s
voice.
A student should understand
that a presenter’s motive is
often embedded with bias,
meaning the presenter may
be strongly in favor of or
strongly against the topic,
idea, or issue on which he is
presenting (e.g., political
speeches, advertisement).
A student should understand
how to determine and
evaluate the motives (social,
commercial, political) behind
the presentation of the
information.
Motive refers to the reason
someone does something;
motive is often meant to be
hidden, not obvious.
Page 106 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts



supporting details of a readaloud text.
A student should be able to
determine the main idea and
supporting details of
information presented in
various media and formats
(visually, quantitatively, orally).
A student should be able to
recount or describe key ideas
and details from a read-aloud
text.
A student should be able to
recount or describe key ideas
and details from information
presented orally or through
other media.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
analyze, purpose, information, diverse media and formats, visually, quantitatively, orally, evaluate, motive, behind the presentation,
bias, objectivity, subjectivity, intonation, main ideas, supporting details, explain, clarify, topic, text, issue, interpret, contributes
Page 107 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.SL.3: Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence or rhetoric.
SL.8.3
Desired Student Performance
Delineate a speaker’s
argument and specific
claims, evaluating the
soundness of the reasoning
and relevance and
sufficiency of the evidence
and identifying when
irrelevant evidence is
introduced.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)







A student should know the
difference between sound and
unsound reasoning.
Sound reasoning is based on
facts, data, credible sources,
etc.
Unsound reasoning refers to
evidence presented from noncredible sources such as, blogs,
self-authored cites, opinions,
etc.
A student should know that
some arguments may not be
relevant (not appropriate or not
closely connected) to the claim.
A student should know that
some of the evidence presented
may not be sufficient; the
argument presented may be
weak details that do not provide
adequate support for the claim.
Sufficient refers to enough or
adequate.
A student should identify the
speaker’s purpose and audience
by analyzing the content and
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)




A student should understand
the difference between
relevant or irrelevant
evidence.
Relevant evidence is deeply
connected and significant to
the claim(s) and/or
argument(s).
Irrelevant evidence does not
apply and is insignificant to
the claim(s) and/or
argument(s).
A student should understand
how to determine whether
or not a speaker has provided
enough relevant evidence to
support his or her argument.
Page 108 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)





Provide an outline of a
speaker’s claim(s) and
supporting argument(s)
(main points).
Provide an evaluation of
whether or not a claim is
supported by reasons and
evidence.
Provide an evaluation of
whether or not the evidence
and reasoning presented is
sound.
Provide an evaluation of
whether or not the evidence
presented is relevant and
sufficient.
Create a list of all evidence
and determine whether or
not each piece is relevant to
the claim(s) and/or
argument(s) presented.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts







delivery.
Evaluate refers to making a
judgment.
Delineate means to outline,
trace, or describe.
A student should know the
difference between a claim that
is supported with reasons and
evidence opposed to a claim
this is unsupported.
A student should know how to
identify a speaker’s claim(s) and
explain how each claim is
supported by the argument or
arguments the speaker makes
(the evidence).
A student should understand
that a speaker uses reasons,
facts, statistics, details, etc. to
support his or her arguments
for a claim or claims.
A claim is a statement of
opinion the writer or speaker is
trying to prove.
Argument(s) is how the speaker
supports his claim(s); argument
is the main point or points a
speaker makes to provide
supporting reasons and
evidence for his claim.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
delineate, argument, claims, evaluating, evaluation, soundness, sound reasoning, unsound reasoning, relevance, relevant, irrelevant,
sufficient, sufficiency, evidence, distinguish, supported claim, unsupported claim
Page 109 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.SL.4: Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the
organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
SL.8.4
Desired Student Performance
A student should know
A student should understand
A student should be able to do
Present claims and findings,
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
(Conceptual Understanding)
(Evidence of Knowledge)
emphasizing salient points
in a focused, coherent
 A student should know how
 A student should understand  Present claims and findings,
manner with relevant
to determine salient points
how to choose relevant
emphasizing salient points in
evidence, sound valid
and pertinent descriptions,
evidence to support his or
a focused, coherent manner
reasoning, and well-chosen
facts, details, and examples
her claim.
with relevant evidence,
details; use appropriate eye
in order to emphasize them
sound valid reasoning, and
 A student should understand
contact, adequate volume,
in a presentation.
well-chosen details.
how to determine if
and clear pronunciation.
 A student should know how
reasoning is sound and valid.  Determine whether or not
to arrange claims, findings,
the evidence presented is
 Valid reasoning refers to
salient points, pertinent
relevant to the claim or
reasoning that is fair, logical,
descriptions, facts, details,
findings.
and reasonable.
and examples in a focused,

Determine whether or not
 A student should understand
coherent manner.
the reasoning presented is
how to choose details that
 A salient point refers to a
sound and valid.
support his or her claims and
prominent or obvious detail
 Select relevant and valid
findings.
or feature.
evidence, reasoning, and
 Coherent manner means to
details to support claims and
express the salient points in a
findings.
clear, logical and well
 Use appropriate eye contact,
organized way.
adequate volume, and clear
pronunciation when
 A student should know how
presenting.
to plan and deliver
presentations.
 A student should know how
Page 110 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts







to sequence ideas logically.
A student should know the
importance of separating
pertinent information from
impertinent information
when presenting claims and
findings.
Pertinent refers to whether
or not the description, facts,
and details clearly relate to
or are relevant to the claim
or findings under discussion.
Accentuating a main idea or
theme means to present
information that emphasizes
a main idea or theme by
using details, facts, gestures,
and body language.
A student should know the
importance of using
appropriate eye contact,
adequate volume, and clear
pronunciation.
A student should know how
to report on a topic or
present an opinion in an
organized manner.
A student should know how
to sequence ideas logically.
A student should know how
to use appropriate facts and
Page 111 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
relevant, descriptive details
to support main ideas or
themes.
 A student should know how
to speak clearly at an
understandable pace.
 A student should know how
to tell a story in an organized
manner, using appropriate
facts and relevant,
descriptive details to support
main idea or theme.
 A student should know how
to recount an experience in
an organized manner.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
present claims, present findings, salient points, focused, coherent, relevant, evidence, sound valid reasoning, sequencing, logically,
pertinent, description, fact, detail, accentuate, main idea, themes, appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, clear pronunciation
Page 112 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.SL.5: Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding of
presentations.
SL.8.5
Desired Student Performance
A student should know
A student should understand
A student should be able to do
Integrate multimedia and
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
(Conceptual Understanding)
(Evidence of Knowledge)
visual displays into
presentations to clarify
 A student should understand  A student should understand  Create and/or select
information, strengthen
which parts of his or her
how to integrate multimedia
multimedia components that
claims and evidence, and
presentation could use
and visual displays to clarify
help to clarify information
add interest.
clarification or emphasis.
information in his
given in his or her oral
presentation.
presentation, strengthen
 A student should understand
claims and evidence, and add
 A student should understand
how to select multimedia
interest.
components/visual displays
that integrating multimedia
that add meaning to his or
and visual displays is one way  Design and create a visual
her presentation.
to strengthen his or her
display to include in an oral
claims and evidence.
presentation that helps to
 A salient point refers to a
clarify claims and findings
prominent or obvious detail
 A student should understand
and emphasize salient points.
or feature.
which parts of his or her
presentation could use
 Determine whether or not a
 A student should know how
additional
interest.
multimedia component or
to identify a speaker’s
visual display strengthens or
claim(s) and explain how
weakens claims.
each claim is supported by
the argument or arguments
the speaker makes (the
evidence).
 A student should understand
that a speaker uses reasons,
facts, statistics, details, etc.
to support his or her
Page 113 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts






arguments for a claim or
claims.
A claim is a statement of
opinion the writer or speaker
is trying to prove.
Argument(s) is how the
speaker supports his claim(s);
argument is the main point
or points a speaker makes to
provide supporting reasons
and evidence for his claim.
A student should know that
including multimedia and
visual components can help
the audience understand the
main idea and key details of
his or her report.
A student should know how
to select appropriate
multimedia components
(graphics, images, music,
sound, etc.) that best clarify
information in a
presentation.
A student should know how
to select appropriate visual
displays that best clarify
information in a
presentation.
A student should know that
adding multimedia (e.g.,
Page 114 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
graphics, sound) and visual
displays to a presentation
can enhance the
development of main ideas
or themes.
 A student should be able to
create engaging audio
recordings of stories and
poems that demonstrate
fluid reading at an
understandable pace.
 A student should be able to
add visual displays to a
presentation to emphasize or
enhance certain facts or
details.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
Integrate, multimedia, components, graphics, images, music, sound, visual displays, presentations, clarify, strengthen claims, claim,
evidence, add interest, findings, emphasize, salient point
Page 115 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.SL.6: Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated
or appropriate.
SL.8.6
Desired Student Performance
A student should know
A student should understand
A student should be able to do
Adapt speech to a variety of
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
(Conceptual Understanding)
(Evidence of Knowledge)
contexts and tasks,
demonstrating command of  A student should understand that
 A student should understand  Appropriately adapt speech
formal English when
language should be adjusted
that language should be
for a variety of contexts and
indicated or appropriate.
depending on whom he or she is
adjusted depending on
tasks.
speaking to and on what the
(See grade 8 Language
audience and the specific
 Based on audience, context,
specific occasion, context or task
standards 1 and 3 for
occasion,
context
or
task.
and task, determine when
is.
specific expectations.)
formal or informal language
 A student should understand how  A student should understand
how to determine if formal
should be used.
to determine if formal or informal
English is appropriate in a given
or informal English is
 Demonstrate correct usage
setting and audience.
appropriate in a given setting
of formal English when
 A student should be able to
and audience.
indicated.


identify formal and informal
settings.
A student should know the
qualities of formal and informal
speech.
A student should be able to
differentiate between contexts or
situations that call for formal
English and contexts or situations
where informal English is
appropriate.
A student should be able to speak
in complete sentence when asked
to provide requested details,
information, or clarification.
Page 116 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
adapt, speech, variety, contexts, tasks, formal English, appropriate, situation
Page 117 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.L.1: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
L.8.1a
Desired Student Performance
Explain the function of
verbals (gerunds,
participles, infinitives) in

general and their function in
particular sentences.






A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
A student should know that a
noun names a person, place,
or thing, or idea.
A student should know that
an adjective modifies a noun.
An adjectives answers the
questions which ones, what
kind, and how many.
A student should know that
an adverb modifies a verb,
adjective, or another adverb.
An adverb answers the
questions when, where, why,
and how.
A student should know that
an action verb expresses
action that a noun can do.
A student should know that a
linking verb connects the
subject to additional
information in the sentence
about the subject.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)




Gerunds, participles, and
infinitives are verbals.
A verbal is a word that is
formed from a –ing verb but
functions as a noun, adjective,
or adverb in a sentence.
A gerund begins with an –ing
verb but acts as a noun.
o A gerund phrase begins
with a gerund (an –ing
verb) and will include other
modifiers and/or objects.
o A gerund or gerund phrase
functions as a noun – as a
subject, predicate
nominative, direct object or
object of the preposition.
A participle is formed by using
the present or past participle of
a verb.
o A present participle ends in
–ing.
o A past participle ends in –
ed or –en.
o A participial phrase begins
with a participle (the
Page 118 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)



Use and explain the functions
of gerunds or gerund phrases
in general and their function
in particular sentences.
Use and explain the functions
of participles and participial
phrases in general and their
function in particular
sentences.
Use and explain the functions
of infinitives and infinitive
phrases in general and their
function in particular
sentences.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts

present or past participle of
a verb) and will include
other modifiers and/or
objects.
o A participle or participial
phrase functions as an
adjective.
An infinitive is formed by using
the word to with a verb (e.g., to
eat, to write, to dictate).
o An infinitive phrase begins
with an infinitive and will
include other modifiers
and/or objects.
o An infinitive and infinitive
phrase can function as a
noun, an adjective or an
adverb.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
function, verbal, verbal phrase, gerund, gerund phrase, participle, participial phrase, infinitive, infinitive phrase
Page 119 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.L.1: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
L.8.1b
Desired Student Performance
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
Form and use verbs in the
active and passive voice.


A student should know that
the subject of a sentence is
the person, place, thing, or
idea that is doing or being
something.
A student should know that
an action verb expresses
action that a noun can do.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)



Verb voice describes how a
verb relates to its subject.
In the active voice, the
subject performs the action
of the verb,
In the passive voice, the
subject receives the action
expressed by the verb.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
verbs, active voice, passive voice
Page 120 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)

Form and use verbs in the
active and passive voice.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.L.1: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
L.8.1c
Desired Student Performance
Form and use verbs in the
indicative, imperative,
interrogative, conditional,
and subjunctive mood.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)



A student should know that
an action verb expresses
action that a noun can do.
A student should know that
a linking verb connects the
subject to additional
information in the sentence
about the subject.
A student should know that
auxiliary verbs are used
with main verbs to create
verb phrases.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)





Verbs in the indicative
mood are used to express a
fact or opinion.
Verbs in the imperative
mood are used to give
orders or to make a
request.
Verbs in the interrogative
mood are used to ask
questions.
Verbs in the conditional
mood are used to express
uncertainty.
Verbs in the subjunctive
mood are used to express
something contrary to the
fact or make a suggestion.
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)





Form and use verbs in the
indicative mood.
Form and use verbs in the
imperative.
Form and use verbs in the
interrogative mood.
Form and use verbs in the
conditional mood.
Form and use verbs in the
subjunctive mood.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
Action verb, linking verb, auxiliary verb, indicative mood, imperative mood , interrogative mood, conditional mood, subjunctive mood
Page 121 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.L.1: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
L.8.1d
Desired Student Performance
Recognize and correct
inappropriate shifts in verb
voice and mood.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)









Verb voice describes how a
verb relates to its subject.
Verbs can be in the active or
passive voice.
In the active voice, the
subject performs the action
of the verb,
In the passive voice, the
subject receives the action
expressed by the verb.
Verb mood refers to the
manner in which the verb is
expressed.
Verbs can be in the
indicative, imperative,
interrogative, conditional, or
subjunctive mood.
Verbs in the indicative mood
are used to express a fact or
opinion.
Verbs in the imperative
mood are used to give orders
or to make a request.
Verbs in the interrogative
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)






Shifts in verb voice and mood 
can confuse your reader.
Shifting the verb voice from
active to passive makes your
writing less direct and
emphatic.
A student should understand
that a shift in verb voice
occurs when a sentence
contains both active and
passive voice.
To correct a shift in verb
voice, a student should revise
the sentence so that the
voice is consistent.
A student should understand
that a shift in verb mood
occurs when more than one
mood is used in the same
sentence.
To correct a shift in verb
mood, a student should
revise the sentence so that
the mood is consistent.
Page 122 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)
Recognize and correct
inappropriate shifts in verb
voice and mood.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts


mood are used to ask
questions.
Verbs in the conditional
mood are used to express
uncertainty.
Verbs in the subjunctive
mood are used to express
something contrary to the
fact or make a suggestion.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
inappropriate, shifts, verb voice, verb mood
Page 123 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.L.2: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
L.8.2a
Desired Student Performance
Use punctuation (comma,
ellipsis, dash) to indicate a
pause or break.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)








Dashes can be used to add
emphasis, set off a new
thought, or show a sudden
change in thinking in a
sentence.
Commas can be used to
enclose nonrestrictive and
parenthetical elements from
the rest of the sentence.
Commas are used to
separate items in a series.
A comma is used to separate
an introductory element
from the rest of the
sentence.
A comma is used to set off
the words yes and no.
A comma is used to set off a
tag question from the rest of
the sentence.
A comma is used to indicate
direct address.
A comma is used before a
coordinating conjunction in a
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)





Some punctuation indicates
when a reader should pause.
A comma can be used to
indicate a pause or break
after introductory words,
nouns of direct address, and
parenthetical elements.
Ellipsis is three dots within a
sentence.
Ellipsis can be used to
indicate an unfinished action
or a pause in the process of
thinking.
A dash can be used to
indicate a change in thought.
Page 124 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)



Use a comma or commas to
indicate a pause or break.
Use an ellipsis to indicate a
pause or break.
Use a dash or dashes to
indicate a pause or break.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts






compound sentence.
Commas and quotation
marks are used to mark
direct speech and quotations
from a text.
Commas and quotation
marks are used in dialogue.
Commas are used in
addresses.
Commas are used in
greetings and closings of
letters.
Commas are used in dates.
Commas are used to
separate single words in a
series.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
punctuation, comma, ellipsis, dash
Page 125 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.L.2: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
L.8.2b
Desired Student Performance
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
Use an ellipsis to indicate an
omission.

A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)

An ellipsis is three dots
within a sentence.
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)
A student should understand When writing:
that ellipsis should be used to
indicate that information in a  Use an ellipsis to indicate an
omission.
direct quotation has been
omitted.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
ellipsis, omission
Page 126 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.L.2: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
L.8.2c
Desired Student Performance
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
Spell correctly.

A student should know how
to consult reference
materials, as needed, to
check the spelling of a word.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)

Effective communication of
ideas when writing or
speaking relies on the
appropriate usage of the
conventions of Standard
English.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
Spell
Page 127 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)

Spell grade level appropriate
words correctly.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.L.3: Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for
meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
L.8.3a
Desired Student Performance
A student should know
A student should understand
A student should be able to do
Use verbs in the active and
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
(Conceptual Understanding)
(Evidence of Knowledge)
passive voice and in the
conditional and subjunctive
 A student should understand
 A student should know that
 Use verbs in the active voice
mood to achieve particular
that writers choose a specific
when a verb is In the active
to achieve particular effects
effects (e.g., emphasizing
voice
and
a
specific
mood
in
voice, the subject performs
when writing.
the actor or the action;
which
to
present
their
the action of the verb,
 Use verbs in the passive voice
expressing uncertainty or
information to achieve certain
 A student should know that
to achieve particular effects
effects.
describing a state contrary
when a verb is in the passive
when writing.
 A student should understand
to fact).
voice, the subject receives
 Use verbs in the conditional
that the active voice should be
the action expressed by the
mood to achieve particular
used to emphasize the subject
verb.
effects.
performing the action.
 Use verbs in the subjunctive
 A student should know that a  A student should understand
mood to achieve particular
verb in the conditional mood
that the passive voice should be
used to emphasize the action.
effects.
is used to express

A
student
should
understand
uncertainty.
that the conditional mood
 A student should know that a
should be used to express
verb in the subjunctive mood
uncertainty.
is used to express something
 A student should understand
contrary to the fact or make
that the subjunctive mood
a suggestion.
should be used to describe a
state contrary to the fact.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
verbs, active voice, passive voice, conditional mood, subjunctive mood
Page 128 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.L.4: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown or multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing
meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.
L.8.4a
Desired Student Performance
A student should know
A student should understand
A student should be able to do
Use context (e.g., the
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
(Conceptual Understanding)
(Evidence of Knowledge)
overall meaning of a
sentence or paragraph; a
 Context clues are words and  The overall meaning of a
 Use the overall context of
word’s position or function
phrases in the text that give
sentence or a paragraph can
sentence or paragraph to
in a sentence) as a clue to
hints to a word’s meaning.
be used to determine the
determine the meaning of an
the meaning of a word or
meaning of a word or phrase.
unknown word or phrase.
 There are several types of
phrase.
 A word’s position and
 Use a word’s position and
context clues readers can
look for when trying to figure
function in a sentence can be
function in a sentence to
out unfamiliar text. Many of
used to derive word
determine the meaning of an
the types have signal words.
meaning.
unknown word or phrase.
o Definition (is, means, are,
or)
o Example (such as, like, for
example)
o Restatements (or, that is,
in other words, which is)
o Cause/Effect (as a result,
because)
o Comparison/Contrast
(although, similarly, like,
unlike)
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
context, definition, example, restatement, cause/effect, comparison/contrast, position, function
Page 129 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.L.4: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown or multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing
meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.
L.8.4b
Desired Student Performance
A student should know
A student should understand
A student should be able to do
Use common, grade(Prerequisite Knowledge)
(Conceptual Understanding)
(Evidence of Knowledge)
appropriate Greek or Latin
affixes and roots as clues to
 Adding an affix (prefix or
 A student should understand  Demonstrate knowledge of
the meaning of a word (e.g.,
suffix) to a root word forms
the meanings of gradethe meaning of gradeprecede, recede, secede).
many English words.
appropriate Greek or Latin
appropriate roots.
roots in order to use their
 The root of a word is its basic
 Demonstrate knowledge of
meanings as a clue to
meaning before an affix is
the meaning of gradedetermine the meaning of
added.
appropriate Greek or Latin
unknown words.
prefixes.
 A prefix is a word part that
o
Example:
cede
means
can be added to the
 Demonstrate knowledge of
“go, move”
beginning of a root to change
the meaning of grade A student should understand
its meaning.
appropriate Greek or Latin
the
meanings
of
gradesuffixes.
 A suffix is a word part that is
appropriate Greek and Latin
 Use Greek and Latin affixes
added to the end of a root to
affixes in order to use their
and roots to derive word
change its meaning.
meanings as a clue to
meaning.
determine unknown words.
o Examples:
 pre- means “before”
 -ion means “act or
process of”
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
affix, prefix, suffix, root
Page 130 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.L.4: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown or multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing
meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.
L.8.4c
Desired Student Performance
A student should know
A student should understand
A student should be able to do
Consult general and
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
(Conceptual Understanding)
(Evidence of Knowledge)
specialized reference
materials (e.g., dictionaries,
 Reference materials are print  Words can have more than
 Consult a dictionary, either
glossaries, thesauruses),
or digital resources that give
one definition and can
print or digital, to confirm the
both print and digital, to
factual information about a
function as more than one
meaning of a word and to
find the pronunciation of a
word or topic.
part of speech. When reading
find its pronunciation and
word or determine or clarify
and writing, consult a
part of speech.
 A dictionary lists words in
its precise meaning or its
reference material to
 Consult a glossary of a book,
alphabetical order. Each
part of speech.
determine or clarify a word’s
entry contains the word’s
either print or digital, to find
meaning or part of speech.
pronunciation, part of
a word’s pronunciation, part
speech, and definition(s).
of speech, and to determine
the word’s meaning in that
 A glossary is an alphabetical
particular book.
list of words that are used in
 Consult a thesaurus, either
a book. The glossary also
print or digital, to find
contains the word’s
synonyms and antonyms of a
pronunciation and part of
word.
speech, but the glossary will
only provide the definition of
the word as it is used in the
book.
 A thesaurus lists synonyms
and antonyms for words.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
reference materials, dictionary, pronunciation, part of speech, definition, glossary, thesaurus, synonym, antonym
Page 131 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.L.4: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown or multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing
meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.
L.8.4d
Desired Student Performance
A student should know
A student should understand
A student should be able to do
Verify the preliminary
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
(Conceptual Understanding)
(Evidence of Knowledge)
determination of the
meaning of a word or
When writing and speaking:
 A student should know how
 Verifying the preliminary
phrase (e.g., by checking the
to determine the meaning of
determination of the
inferred meaning in context
an unknown word using
meaning of a word or phrase  Determine the meaning of a
or in a dictionary).
context clues.
by checking the inferred
word by checking the
meaning in context or in a
inferred meaning in context.
 A student should know how
dictionary ensures that you
 Determine the meaning of a
to consult reference
are using words correctly
materials to determine the
word by checking by checking
when writing or speaking.
meaning of a word.
the inferred meaning in a
 Effective readers, writers,
dictionary.
and speakers use knowledge
of language to acquire,
clarify, and appropriately use
vocabulary.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
verify, preliminary, inferred, context
Page 132 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.L.5: Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
L.8.5a
Desired Student Performance
Interpret figures of speech
(e.g. verbal irony, puns) in
context.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)

Figurative language is

language that goes beyond
the literal meaning of the
words.
 A student should know how

to interpret similes,
metaphors, personification,
and allusions in context.
o A simile compares two
things using the words like
or as.
o A metaphor compares
two things by stating that
one thing is other.
o Personification is a figure
of speech that gives
human attributes to
something that is nonhuman.
o Allusion is a reference to a
well-known person, place,
event, piece of art, or
literary work.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)
Verbal irony is the use of
words that mean something
different from what is said or
written.
A pun is a play on words.
Writers often use different
word meanings for the
purpose of being funny.
Page 133 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)

A student should be able to
interpret figures of speech in
context.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
interpret, figures of speech, figurative language, literal, similes, metaphors, compares, personification, attributes, allusion, associations,
verbal irony, puns
Page 134 of 137
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.L.5: Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
L.8.5b
Desired Student Performance
Use the relationship
between particular words to
better understand each of

the words.
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
A student should know that
understanding how words
are related to one another
helps build vocabulary
knowledge.
 A student should know that
synonyms are words that
have the same, or nearly the
same meaning.
 A student should know that
antonyms are words that
have opposite meanings.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)


An analogy shows the
relationship between two
pairs of words.
A student should understand
that it is important to
determine the relationship
between the first pair of
words in an analogy. Then,
the student should apply the
same relationship to the
second pair of words.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
Relationship, analogy, analyze
Page 135 of 137
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)


Analyze the relationship
between particular words.
Use the relationship between
particular words to better
understand each of the
words.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.L.5: Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
L.8.5c
Desired Student Performance
Distinguish among the
connotations (associations)
of words with similar
denotations (definitions)
(e.g., bullheaded, willful,
firm, persistent, resolute).
A student should know
(Prerequisite Knowledge)



A student should be able to

determine the explicit
meaning of a word.

A student should be able to
use word relationships to
clarify meaning of a word.

A student should know that a
word can have different kinds
of meanings.
A student should understand
(Conceptual Understanding)
A student should be able to do
(Evidence of Knowledge)
A word’s denotation is its

dictionary definition.
A word’s connotation is the
feeling or association that it

suggests.
Connotations can be positive,
negative, or neutral.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
distinguish, connotation, association, denotation, definition, dictionary, positive, negative, neutral
Page 136 of 137
Determine the connotations
of words with similar
denotations.
Choose and use specific
words for their connotations
to achieve an effect or a
specific purpose.
College- and Career-Readiness Standards for English Language Arts
Eighth Grade
CCR.L.6: Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading,
writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary
knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
L.8.6
Desired Student Performance
A student should know
A student should understand
A student should be able to do
Acquire and use accurately
(Prerequisite Knowledge)
(Conceptual Understanding)
(Evidence of Knowledge)
grade-appropriate general
academic and domain A student should know how
 Academic words are words
 Provide a statement
specific words and phrases;
to identify, understand, and
that are used routinely in all
demonstrating accurate
gather vocabulary
th
use 6 grade general
types of texts. They often
meaning and use of gradeknowledge when
academic and domainrepresent subtle or precise
appropriate general
considering a word or
specific terms.
ways to say relatively simple
academic words and phrases.
phrase important to
things.
 A student should know that
 Use a range of general
comprehension or
 Domain-specific words are
certain phrases signal
academic and grade-specific
expression.
relationships, such as
words that are specific to a
words and phrases
contrast.
course of study.
accurately.
 Correctly use the general
 Students should understand
academic and domain
how to use context clues and
specific words that are
their knowledge of language
important to the
to determine a word’s
comprehension of a text.
meaning in reading, writing,
speaking, or listening.
KEY LANGUAGE/VERBS/TERMS RELATED TO THE STANDARD
academic words, domain-specific words, subtle, precise
Page 137 of 137
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement