UPS Handbook - Comstor Canada
Power Quality
The Eaton UPS and Power Management
Fundamentals Handbook
August 2011
2
eaton corporation Power Quality
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction
4
Questions to consider
5
Top UPS design considerations
6
Other UPS design considerations
8
How to size a UPS
9
UPS cost justification worksheet 10
UPS form factors 11
Input plugs and output receptacles 12
UPS startup 14
The basics of voltage, amps and frequency 15
Decentralized or central UPS? 16
What is three-phase power? 18
Increase server energy efficiencies by using high-voltage power supplies and 208V UPSs 19
Worldwide voltage map (single-phase) 20
Worldwide voltages 21
The nine power problems 22
UPS topologies 23
UPS battery overview 24
Factors affecting battery life 26
UPS software overview 27
Service overview 28
Frequently asked questions 30
Electric transmission distribution system 32
Eaton's Blackout Tracker 34
Overview of 2010 national power outage data 36
Case study example one 38
Case study example two 40
Commonly used acronyms 42
Glossary of power terms 44
www.eaton.com/powerquality 1.800.356.5794
3
Introduction
Welcome to the Eaton UPS and Power
Management Fundamentals Handbook.
From plug and receptacle charts and facts
about power problems to an overview of
various UPS topologies and factors affecting
battery life, you’ll find a wealth of pertinent
resources designed to help you develop the
optimum solution. We have also included
valuable, real-world case studies that
showcase exactly how Eaton can help you
to develop the best power protection
solution.
®
This handbook is your one-stop source for
essential information ... whether you need
power protection for small, medium or large
data centers; health care facilities; or other
environments in which ensuring uptime and
safeguarding data are critical.
4
eaton corporation Power Quality
Why a UPS?
In general, a UPS protects IT equipment and
other electrical loads from problems that
plague our electrical supply, performing the
following three basic functions:
1. Preventing hardware damage typically
caused by surges and spikes. Many UPS
models continually condition incoming
power as well.
2. Preventing data loss and corruption.
Without a UPS, devices that are
subjected to a hard system shutdown
can lose data completely or have it
corrupted. In conjunction with power
management software, a UPS can
facilitate a graceful system shutdown.
3. Providing availability for networks and
other applications while preventing
downtime. In some cases, they provide
enough battery runtime to ride through
brief outages; in other cases, they
provide hours of runtime to ride through
extended power outages. UPSs are also
paired with generators to provide enough
time for them to power up.
Questions to
consider
When it comes to backup power, here are
some basic questions to ask yourself.
9. Does the UPS need to be scalable?
Applications
Accessories
1. How often do you refresh and maintain
your IT hardware (including servers)?
What about your UPS equipment?
1. How is power getting from the UPS to
your equipment?
2. If you have a converged data-voice
network, have you protected all critical
switches?
3. If you have virtualized your servers, have
you considered the impact on your UPS
equipment?
4. What would happen if the power went
out at your facility right now?
5. Have you thought about the impact of
damaged or corrupted data?
6. How much energy do your UPS units
consume? How efficient are they?
7. What is the air speed velocity of an
unladen swallow? An African swallow.
UPS-specific
1. What size UPS do you need? (kVA or
amperage)
2. What voltage is currently available at
your site?
3. What voltage do you need?
4. What runtime do you want?
5. Are there any clearances or size
constraints?
6. Do you have bypass requirements?
10.Do you need redundancy?
2. Do you have a need for enclosures,
communications, seismic mounting,
floor stands or rail kits?
3. Is a maintenance bypass switch
needed?
Software
1. Is there a need to have orderly
scheduled shutdowns?
2. Do you want to remotely monitor the
UPS?
3. Would you like to remotely notify others
of UPS events?
4. How will your UPS software manage
virtual servers during an extended power
outage?
Service
1. Do you need immediate factory
response?
2. What kind of parts and labor coverage
do you need?
3. Do you want any type of preventive
maintenance?
4. When’s the last time you checked the
batteries in your existing UPS units?
7. What types of input and output
connections are required?
8. Is there a generator on site?
www.eaton.com/powerquality 1.800.356.5794
5
Top UPS design
considerations
The following factors outline the key design considerations to take into account when
analyzing your needs.
1. Power environment: single- and threephase
Understanding your existing power infrastructure is a crucial step in the qualification
and sales process. While you may focus on
larger, three-phase power systems, the
majority of IT managers are dealing primarily
with single-phase equipment, often at the
rack level.
Many existing computer rooms and small
to mid-sized data centers have single-phase
loads at the rack level. Ground-up designs
are increasingly moving three-phase power
to the point of utilization to gain efficiencies
and reduce costs, creating great opportunity
for three-phase solutions in new
construction.
2. Installation environment
It’s imperative to understand how a
prospective UPS will be deployed. Since
most environments support several different
solutions, you may need to evaluate these
options.
6
3. Power load
5. Scalability
The VA or watt rating of your power loads
is one of the most important factors in
identifying the right UPS. After identifying
the power environment (if the UPS needs
to be single- or three-phase), the size of the
UPS further narrows the selection. In
single-phase deployments especially, it
often makes sense to select a UPS that
exceeds current power requirements but
offers greater runtimes and allows for
future growth.
It’s always important to consider your future
expansion needs when evaluating solutions.
Eaton’s scalable UPS solutions provide a
competitive advantage by offering a costeffective way to increase capacity. Virtually
all Eaton UPSs with a 6 kVA or greater
power rating offer some form of scalability,
either through a simple firmware upgrade,
the addition of modular hardware components or the paralleling of multiple UPSs.
4. Availability
This is where you need to determine your
true runtime requirements. While runtime
may seem like a simple thing to quantify,
understanding the facts behind the numbers
help contribute to the development of
end-to-end solutions.
Generally, the amount of runtime required
can significantly affect the solution cost,
but many Eaton solutions are actually
more cost-effective in extended runtime
applications.
eaton corporation Power Quality
For cost-conscious or budget-constrained
customers, a UPS with inherent scalability
often proves to be the best value in the long
run, allowing you to increase capacity
without purchasing additional hardware. A
simple kVA upgrade is all that’s needed to
enable a UPS with inherent scalability to
operate at full capacity.
You may want to service the UPS yourself.
If that’s the case, look for a unit that allows
you to add capacity with power and/or
battery modules.
While modular solutions—including multiple,
paralleled systems—are often a more affordable option initially, they can be a more
expensive solution over the long term due
to added hardware and installation costs.
Depending on your needs, a larger, centralized, non-modular system with inherent
scalability might ultimately be the most costeffective solution.
6. Power distribution
It is important for you to consider how
power will be delivered to your critical
equipment. In some cases, you may simply
plug loads directly into the UPS. In others,
you may need large PDUs to distribute
power. You may also incorporate rack-based
power strips or ePDU units into your design.
7. Manageability
8. Operation and maintenance
While a UPS protects the attached load
during a power outage, power management
software is required to ensure that all workin-progress is saved and that sensitive
electronic equipment is gracefully shut
down if the power outage exceeds the
battery runtime of the UPS. Without
software, the UPS simply runs until its
batteries are depleted and then drops the
load. In addition to this basic functionality of
UPS software, you should consider the
following monitoring and manageability
capabilities:
While you may value the ability to service
your own equipment, the vast majority of IT
and facility management professionals
prefer the peace of mind that comes with
full factory support through on-site service
or an advanced UPS exchange agreement.
To make an informed decision on service
support, you must accurately assess your
own technical and service capabilities. You
should also look at the various UPS product
designs to gauge how easy it is to swap out
battery and power modules.
• Power event notifications, including
e-mails, pop-up alerts and text messages
to pre-designated recipients
9. Budget
Although the latest performance features of
a UPS may fit nicely with what you are
looking for, budget constraints may force
you to make trade-off decisions. Be
prepared to prioritize your needs for redundancy, scalability, efficiency, software
management, modularity and serviceability.
• Logging of power events
• Advanced capabilities in virtual
environments, including integration into
VMware’s ESXi and vSphere and
Microsoft’s Hyper-V
• Dedicated battery monitoring and
advanced service notifications
• Remote monitoring by service personnel
from the UPS manufacturer.
www.eaton.com/powerquality 1.800.356.5794
7
Other UPS design considerations
3. Ensure the UPS can be placed in its
final position.
Will the UPS components fit through doors?
Are there any stairs? Please consult Eaton’s
website for detailed UPS dimensions and
specifications: www.eaton.com/powerquality.
4. Verify that the floor is strong enough
to support the UPS and battery cabinets.
The UPS and its battery cabinets can be
heavy, so make sure the site has the proper
floor loading capacity.
5. Confirm that the UPS will have
adequate ventilation.
Eaton UPS models use internal fans to cool
them. You shouldn’t install the UPS in a
sealed container or small, sealed room.
The following design guidelines should be
reviewed and followed prior to ordering the
appropriate UPS solution.
1. Check to see if there’s an adequate
electrical supply near the UPS.
Compare UPS fuse ratings (amps) and
breaker types and whether any electrical
work may be needed (i.e., cabling to the
UPS terminal block input).
2. Find out the dimensions of the UPS
and include any battery cabinets.
Make sure your installation site has enough
space available.
8
6. Always be sure which wall receptacle
is required to plug in the UPS.
Only UPSs with power ratings up to 1500
VA plug into a standard 15-amp wall outlet.
All others require a larger receptacle, which
must be installed by an electrician. Things
go more smoothly if you aren’t waiting for
this to be done after all of the equipment
has arrived. Most small and rackmounted
computers run on normal 120 volt, 15-amp
electrical service. Some computers have
power cords that require a higher voltage of
208V or 240V, in which case you’ll need a
3000 VA or larger UPS.
eaton corporation Power Quality
7. Hardwired connections.
9. Using a UPS and a generator together.
Hardwired outputs are generally useful if
you want the UPS output to be distributed
via electrical panels. Using an electrical
distribution panel allows for flexibility with
receptacles types. If there’s no other UPS
that fits your receptacle and power requirements, you may need to hardwire it.
Hardwired UPS models typically require the
use of a certified electrician to wire them to
the electrical distribution panel, which could
be a more costly option.
A UPS provides backup power and actively
conditions and regulates voltage. Similarly,
an auxillary generator provides backup
power, but typically takes 10-15 seconds to
start up, depending on its type. For longterm backup servers and IT equipment, this
isn’t an optimal situation, so during that
downtime the UPS kicks in. Basically, the
UPS bridges the power gap between loss of
power and generator coming online.
8. Installing small UPS models behind
larger UPS models.
If you’re installing a smaller UPS behind a
larger UPS, you must consider the total
potential power of the smaller UPS as well
as other loads that will be powered by the
larger UPS. For example, if you’re plugging a
1500 VA UPS into a 10,000 VA UPS, you
must consider the load of the smaller UPS
rather than just the load that’s plugged into
it. In addition, the larger UPS must be at
least five times larger than the smaller UPS.
This design guideline must be followed due
to charging capacity that may be required by
the smaller UPS; any anomalies associated
with the building power, and to avoid
overheating or potential over loading of the
larger UPS which may result in failure of the
all UPS models in the string.
When choosing your UPS solution, it’s
important to keep power ratings in mind;
you cannot size a generator in a 1:1 match
to the UPS and expect successful results.
There are two reasons for this: first, UPSs
aren’t 100% efficient and second, generators need to account for step loads. In
addition, very small generators don’t often
provide enough kinetic energy to provide a
smooth transition. As a rule of thumb, for 20
kVA and above, auxiliary generators should
be sized 1.5 times the size of the output
rating of the UPS in kW, while for 20 kVA
and below, they should be two times larger.
It’s also important to note that gas-powered
generators should be sized a bit larger.
10. Building codes.
Verify that the final UPS solution meets local
building codes.
How to size a UPS
You have decided that you need a UPS.
What’s next? Well, you have to pick the
right one!
UPS Sizing Worksheet
Alternative #1:
Equipment
Visit www.eaton.com/UPSselector
1
22
233
Amps
x
Volts
=
VA
x
Quantity
=
VA Subtotal
Alternative #2:
x =x
=
Call our knowledgeable inside sales team:
800.356.5794
x =x
=
x =x
=
x =x
=
x =x
=
x =x
=
x =x
=
x =x
=
x =x
=
x =x
=
x =x
=
x =x
=
Alternative #3:
Do it the old fashioned way. Completing
these steps is also very useful for the first
two alternatives.
1 L
ist all equipment to be protected by the
UPS. (Remember to include monitors,
external hard drives, routers, etc.)
2 L
ist the amps and volts for each device.
These ratings can typically be found on
the label on the back of the equipment.
Multiply amps by volts to determine
VoltAmps (VA). Some devices may list
their power requirements in watts. To
convert watts to VA, divide the watts by
power factor. For servers, the power
factor is often 0.9.
3Multiply the VA by the number of pieces
of equipment to get the VA subtotals.
4 Add the VA subtotals together.
5Multiply the total by 1.2 to get the grand
total. This step accounts for future
expansion.
4 Total
5x1.2
6
Grand Total
6Use the grand total to select a UPS.
When choosing a UPS, be sure that the
total VA requirement of supported
equipment does not exceed the VA
rating of the UPS.
www.eaton.com/powerquality 1.800.356.5794
9
UPS cost
justification
worksheet
This worksheet helps you determine the estimated dollar savings that a UPS can deliver.
Simply fill in the information to calculate the costs of one hour of downtime. Actual dollar
amounts will vary from company to company, location to location, and industry to industry.
1.Number of critical loads:
Critical loads = any equipment running or supporting your
applications (servers, routers, PCs, network devices, etc.)
2. Number of employees using critical loads:
3. Employees’ average hourly earnings:
4.Estimated cost of lost business per hour of downtime
($1,000, $5,000, $10,000…)
5. Cost of service calls per hour:
6. Cost of recreating or salvaging data (if applicable):
7. Cost of replacing hardware (if applicable):
8. Cost of reinstalling software (if applicable):
9. Lost employee time (line 2 x 3): 10.Lost business (line 4): 11.Service (line 5):
12.Recreating or salvaging data (line 6):
13.Replaced hardware and software (line 7 + 8):
14.Estimated total cost per hour of downtime:
This is only one hour. Imagine if your systems were down all day!
10
eaton corporation Power Quality
$
UPS form factors
With applications spanning from desktops to large data centers, UPSs come in a variety
of form factors.
1
2
1. Desktop and tower UPS
a. The Eaton 3105 UPS also fits easily
on top of or under a desk.
b. The Eaton 9130 tower UPS fits under
a desk or in a network closet.
2. Wall-mount UPS
a
The Eaton 5115 rackmount UPS includes
hardware to mount it to a wall.
b
3. Rackmount UPS
3
4
The Eaton 9130 rackmount UPS occupies
only 2U of rack space (fits both 2- and
4-post racks).
4. Two-in-one rackmount/tower UPS
The Eaton 5PX UPS can be mounted in
a rack or installed as a tower model.
5. Scalable UPS
a. The Eaton BladeUPS is a scalable,
redundant rackmount UPS.
5
6
b. The Eaton 9170+ is also a scalable,
redundant UPS.
6. Large tower UPS
The Eaton 9390 UPS is designed to be a
central backup for multiple loads, including
data centers.
a
b
www.eaton.com/powerquality 1.800.356.5794
11
Input plugs and
output receptacles
When you receive a UPS, you should be
able to plug it in right away. If a UPS can’t
be plugged into the wall socket, or their
equipment can't be plugged into it,
you’ve got a problem.
Any UPS with a rating of 1500 VA or below
can be plugged into a standard household
receptacle/socket. UPS models with ratings
higher than 1500 VA use input plugs that
can’t be plugged directly into a standard
receptacle. Many higher rated UPSs (above
1500 VA) may also be hardwired directly into
the electrical distribution panel at the installation location by a licensed electrician.
Many UPS models offer a fixed set of input
and output receptacles. Other UPS models
can be configured with a custom set of
input and output connections.
For reference we’ve included the following
chart to help you visually confirm input and
output plug/receptacle options:
*5-15P can plug into 5-20R
R = Receptacle, P = Plug, L = Locking
For the number before the hyphen:
5 = 125V, two-pole, three-wire (grounded)
6 = 250V, two-pole, three-wire (grounded)
14 = 125/250V, three-pole, four-wire (grounded)
The number after the hyphen indicates the amperage.
For example, the L5-30R is a 30A receptacle.
12
eaton corporation Power Quality
Input plug and output receptacle chart
5-15R 5-15P
5-20R5-20P
L5-30RL5-30P
6-15R 6-15P
L6-20R L6-20P
L5-20RL5-20P
IEC-320-C13 (female)
IEC-320-C14 (male)
IEC-320-C19 (female)
IEC-320-C20 (male)
L14-30R
L14-30P
IEC-309, 16A
IEC-309, 32A
L6-30R
L6-30P
Terminal Block (Hardwired)
1. Fixed
Smaller UPS models like the Eaton
9130 UPS provide a fixed set of output
receptacles
2. Customized
UPS models like the Eaton 9355 can be
customized with a variety of output
receptacles
3. Hardwired
Large UPS models like the Eaton 9390
are hardwired to incoming utility power
though some models leverage output
receptacles
4. Additional receptacles
Eaton ePDU products mount easily into
racks and provide additional receptacles
1
2
3
4
www.eaton.com/powerquality 1.800.356.5794
13
UPS
startup
14
Self-startup
Assisted startup
Manufacturer-required startup
UPSs equipped with a standard input plug
(units 1500 VA and below) that fits into
standard wall sockets are very easy to
install. Units 2000 VA and above require a
different wall socket that may not already
exist in the location where the UPS will be
installed. In these cases, an electrician can
install the proper wall socket, after which
you should have little problem with UPS
installation.
You may not feel comfortable installing
electrical equipment—justifiably so. UPS
installation deals with electrical power and
batteries—both of which can be dangerous
if not handled properly. In addition, UPS
batteries can be very heavy and some units
require a hardwired connection. As a result,
UPS manufacturers usually offer a startup
service for an additional fee. You can also
hire a systems integrator, electrician or
third-party service organization for UPS
installation.
Many three-phase UPS models (typically
>40 kVA) must be started up by the UPS
manufacturer to ensure they’re properly
installed and calibrated. In general, electricians and contractors don’t have the
required in-depth knowledge of the UPS.
Manufacturer-trained field technicians
provide an overview of the equipment and a
tutorial of how to operate the UPS.
eaton corporation Power Quality
The basics of voltage, amperes
and frequency
When discussing and dealing with
electricity and electrical products,
several terms are used to specify
electrical characteristics. Three of the
most common are voltage, amperes
and frequency.
In layman’s terms, volts (V) is a measure of
the “pressure” with which electricity moves
through a wire/circuit, while amperes or
amps (A) is a measure of the “volume.”
Volts and amps are often compared to
water in a hose, with volts representing
the amount of pressure and amps representing the volume. When you turn on a
garden hose without a nozzle, there is a lot
of water (amps) but not much pressure
(volts), but by placing your thumb over the
end of the hose, you reduce the quantity
(amps) and increase the pressure (volts), so
it squirts farther.
Applying this analogy to electricity, the
number of amps signifies how many
electrons are flowing in the wire, while
the number of volts characterizes how hard
those electrons are being pushed. For an
equivalent voltage, a wire carrying more
amps needs to be a larger diameter, similar
to a fire hose operating at the same
pressure as a garden hose will obviously
deliver more water.
Frequency, on the other hand, is the number
of times per second (Hz) that the electrical
signal oscillates. Frequency in household
voltages varies with geographic location,
while industrial voltages can often be
customized to meet specific site
requirements.
Ensuring that the volts, amps and frequency
of connected equipment are compatible
with the supply of electricity is much like
filling up a car with the appropriate type of
fuel. Just as diesel fuel wouldn’t power a
gasoline-driven car, a 120V, 15A, 60 Hz
device can’t be connected to a 240V, 15A,
50 Hz outlet.
www.eaton.com/powerquality 1.800.356.5794
15
Decentralized
or central UPS?
Decentralized or central UPS?
Is a single, larger UPS better, or is it best to have
multiple, smaller UPSs? Naturally, the answer is
that it depends on a number of factors. In a
decentralized (also known as distributed) UPS
configuration (see Figure 2), multiple UPSs support
a handful of devices or perhaps only a single piece
of equipment. Decentralized UPSs typically use
plug and play connections and are usually less than
Central UPS
Why you’d choose a
central UPS solution
Why you wouldn’t
Typically, the sales and service life of
the UPS is longer.
A single UPS can mean single point of
failure. You can overcome this
concern with an N+1 or N+X UPS for
redundancy.
A single UPS is easier to monitor,
service and maintain than lots of
smaller UPSs.
The single UPS may not be close
physically to the equipment it will
protect. A single electrical distribution
panel may not feed all equipment.
Larger UPSs will be three-phase and/
or 208V, 400V or 480V and often result
in more efficient operation and lower
operating costs.
There is no space for a large UPS.
A central UPS is often housed away
from high traffic areas. As a result,
it’s less easily disrupted, accidentally
damaged or maliciously interfered
with.
A central UPS generally requires a
trained service technician or
electrician to service, maintain or
install.
A central UPS can be located where
cooling is more tightly controlled.
Remember, heat is the enemy of the
batteries inside a UPS.
A central UPS may incur higher
installation and wiring costs.
Though a technician may need to
replace the batteries, you only have to
worry about a single UPS. A
distributed UPS configuration may
result in various models that require
different batteries. Do you want to
take the time to replace the batteries
on five to 20 UPSs?
Figure 1
16
eaton corporation Power Quality
or equal to six kVA. In a central UPS configuration
(see Figure 1), a larger UPS supports multiple
devices. A centralized UPS is typically hardwired
into an electrical panelboard. The following tables
include a number of factors to consider when
making a decision between a decentralized and
central UPS.
Combining the configurations
It’s important to keep in mind that decentralized and
centralized power protection deployment strategies aren’t
necessarily mutually exclusive. The two strategies can be
used in combination to provide redundancy to missioncritical applications. For example, an entire facility may be
protected by a large, centralized UPS, but a specific department such as a 24x7 call center may have decentralized
UPSs as well to provide redundant protection and possibly
extend runtime for call center equipment.
Decentralized UPS
Why you’d choose a
decentralized UPS configuration
Why you wouldn’t
No rewiring is required. Use existing
wall sockets.
If a generator supports the building,
smaller standby and line-interactive
UPSs may not be able to function
while it’s running.
Requires lower capital outlay and
installation costs. Fits within IT
manager purchase limits. Generally
don’t need to approve a large capital
expense. Will most likely not require
additional installation costs from
electrician.
No central panelboard exists or
there’s no room for the UPS.
You have no idea how much your
company will grow and don’t want to
get locked into a particular UPS.
You don’t want to monitor or service a
bunch of UPS units. A decentralized
design may require more time and
focus to keep up with replacing
batteries and maintaining multiple
UPSs.
You already have a number of smaller
UPS units that are fairly new and you
don’t want to discard them. (Most
UPS manufacturers offer a trade-in
program.)
You want a single UPS that can be
shut down using emergency power
off. Also, a decentralized design may
not offer redundancy and other
capabilities provided by a larger,
central UPS.
Power conditioning is implemented at
the point of use, which mitigates any
electrical disturbances that may be
coupled into the distribution wiring of
a centralized system.
Adding redundancy, extended runtime
or maintenance bypass functionality
to multiple UPSs can be costly.
Diverse applications within a building
may require varying levels of power
protection and functionality. For
example, extended runtime can be
configured for specific applications,
eliminating the need to add additional
battery modules for less critical
equipment.
Multiple audible alarms/alerts may be
irritating.
Figure 2
www.eaton.com/powerquality 1.800.356.5794
17
What is
three-phase
power?
Three-phase power, the most efficient
way to distribute power over long
distances, allows for large industrial
equipment to operate more efficiently. It’s
characterized by three single-phase
waves that are offset in their phase angle
by 120 degrees, or one-third of the sine
wave period as illustrated in Figure 1.
Three-phase voltage can be measured from
each phase to neutral or from one phase to
any other. The voltage relation between
phase-to-neutral and phase-to-phase is a
factor of the square root of three (e.g., 120V
versus 208V).
Conversely, single-phase power is distributed through common household outlets to
power everyday equipment such as laptops,
lighting and televisions. When looking at an
oscilloscope image of the voltage coming
out of a single-phase outlet as illustrated in
Figure 2, there’s only a single wave. Singlephase power is obtained by simply using
only one phase of a three-phase system. Its
root mean square (RMS) voltage is 120V (for
North America) and it oscillates between its
peaks of ±170V at 60 Hz (or 60 times a
second).
90˚
180˚
270˚
360˚
90˚
180˚
270˚
360˚
270˚
360˚
270˚
360˚
Figure 1. Three-phase power
90˚
Figure 2. Single-phase power
90˚
18
eaton corporation Power Quality
180˚
180˚
Increase server energy efficiencies by using
high-voltage power supplies and 208V UPSs
Maximizing energy efficiencies in today’s
data centers has become an important
factor in saving costs and reducing an
organization’s carbon footprint. While
there are new energy-saving tools and
technologies being introduced every day,
understanding existing methods and
systems can bring immediate efficiencies
and savings, often without an additional
investment.
At first glance, high-voltage input power
seems counter-intuitive when thinking about
energy savings. However, in the real world,
power supplies operate more efficiently at
high voltage. The typical server switch-mode
power supply has an efficiency rating
between 65 and 80 percent, with some
special-purpose products able to reach 90
percent efficiency. Lower voltage causes
the power supply to operate at the lower
end of this range.
One such method is to operate equipment
at high-line voltage and use 208V UPSs,
which maximizes energy efficiency and
uptime, and saves money. IT devices
equipped with a C14 plug are capable of
running on high voltage, which can
dramatically increase efficiency.
When operating at 208 volts, a 1 to 2
percent difference in efficiency can be
experienced for a 1000W power supply,
depending on the load level. When the loss
in the power distribution transformer (PDU)
needed to get to the 120V is added, there’s
an additional 1.5 to 2 percent savings.
Factor in cooling efficiencies and the savings
can add up to between 4 and 8 percent,
which translates to about $70 per power
supply. When multiplied by the number
of power supplies in the server rack, the
savings certainly justifies making the switch
to 208 volts, especially when expanding or
moving into a new location.
Even small increases in UPS efficiency can
quickly translate into tens of thousands of
dollars in savings. For example, assuming a
utility rate of 10 cents per kWh, a 60 kW
N+1 redundant configuration would save
more than $30,000 over five years. High
UPS efficiency also extends battery
runtimes and produces cooler operating
conditions, resulting in lower utility bills.
One of the main reasons that U.S.
customers have been reluctant to switch to
high voltage is that high voltage UPSs are
typically fitted with IEC outlets (or even
inlets) and customers don’t know how
to connect them to IT equipment with a
traditional NEMA plug. However, all IT
power supplies come with a detachable
input cord with a NEMA plug on one side
and an IEC plug on the other. By simply
changing the standard NEMA/C13 power
cord to an IEC C13/C14 power cord, these
additional IT equipment efficiencies can be
captured. IEC cables are fully UL-listed and
are the standard method of connection in
large mission-critical data centers across
the U.S.
To read the complete white paper on this
subject, please visit www.eaton.com/pq/
whitepapers.
Making the connections
Remove the standard 5-15P/C13 power cord that
shipped with your IT equipment and replace it with
one of the C13/C14 jumper cables that shipped
with your UPS. Your IT equipment is now
operating at 208V, running more efficiently and
saving you money.
www.eaton.com/powerquality 1.800.356.5794
19
Worldwide voltage map
50 Hz
60 Hz
Single-phase voltages*
110-127V; 60 Hz (also 208V; 60 Hz)
110-127V; 60 Hz
100V
220/230V; 50 Hz
240V; 50 Hz
20
eaton corporation Power Quality
*Mixed voltages are present in several countries, including Vietnam, South Korea, Philippines, Brazil, Peru and Saudi Arabia
Worldwide voltages
Country
Single-Threephase
phase voltage
voltageFrequency
(V)(V) )
(Hz)
Country
Afghanistan 220 38050
Albania
230 40050
Algeria
127/220400 50
American Samoa
120/240
208
60
Andorra
230 40050
Angola
220 38050
Antigua
230 40060
Armenia
230 38050
Argentina 220 38050
Aruba
115/127220 60
Australia
240 41550
Austria
220-230400 50
Azerbaijan 220 38050
Azores (Portugal)
220
400
50
Bahamas
120 20860
Bahrain
220 40050
Balearic Islands
230
400
50
Bangladesh 220 38050
Barbados 115 20050
Belarus
220 38050
Belgium
220-230400 50
Belize
110
190/38060
Benin
220 38050
Bermuda
120 20860
Bhutan
230 40050
Bolivia
110-115/220400
50
Bosnia-Herzegovina220
400
50
Botswana 220 40050
Brazil
110-127 220/380/60
220 44060
Brunei
240 41550
Bulgaria
220 40050
Burkina Faso
220
380
50
Burundi
220 38050
Cambodia
120/220400 50
Cameroon
220-230380 50
Canada
120
208/240/60060
Canary Islands (Spain) 220
400
50
Cape Verde
220
400
50
Cayman Islands 120
208
60
Central African Republic220
380
50
Chad
220 38050
Channel Islands
240
400
50
Chile 220
380
50
China
220 38050
Colombia
110-220440 60
Congo
220 40050
Congo, Dem. Rep. of
220
380
50
(formerly Zaire)
Cook Islands
240 415
50
Costa Rica
120
240
60
Croatia
220 40050
Cuba
120 19060
Cyprus
240 40050
Czech Republic 220
400
50
Single-Threephase
phase voltage
voltageFrequency
(V)(V) )
(Hz)
Country
Single-Threephase
phase voltage
voltageFrequency
(V)(V) )
(Hz)
Denmark 220-230
400
50
Laos
220
400
50
Djibouti
220 38050
Latvia
220
400
50
Dominica 230 40050
Lebanon
110-220
400
50
Dominican Republic
110
120/208/
60
Lesotho
240
380
50
227/480
Liberia
120
208
60
Ecuador
120 19060
Libya
127-230
220/400
50
Egypt
220 38050
Liechtenstein
220
400
50
El Salvador
115
200
60
Lithuania
220
400
50
England
240 40050
Luxembourg
220-230
400
50
Estonia
220 40050
Macau
220 38050
Ethiopia
220 38050
Macedonia 230 40050
Faeroe Islands
230
400
50
Madagascar
220
220/38050
Falkland Islands
240
415
50
Madeira (Portugal)
220
400
50
Fiji
240 41550
Malawi
230 40050
Finland
220-230400 50
Malaysia
240 41550
France
220-230400 50
Maldives
230 40050
French Guiana
220
380
50
Mali
220 38050
Gabon
220 38050
Malta
240 40050
Gambia
220 40050
Martinique 220 38060
Gaza
230 40050
Mauritania 220 22050
Georgia
220 38050
Mauritius 230 40050
Germany
220-230400 50
Mexico
127
220/48050
Ghana
220 40050
Moldova
220 38050
Gibraltar
240 40050
Monaco
220 40050
Greece
220-230400 50
Mongolia
220 40050
Greenland 220 40050
Montserrat 230 40060
Grenada
230 40050
Morocco
220 38050
Guadeloupe 220 40050
Mozambique220 38050
Guam
110-120190 60
Myanmar 230 40050
Guatemala 120 20860
Namibia
220-250380 50
Guinea
220 20850
Nauru
240 41550
Guinea-Bissau220
380 50
Nepal
220 40050
Guyana
110
19050/60
Netherlands Antilles
120-127/220
220/380
50/60
Haiti
110-120 19050/60
Netherlands 220-230400 50
Honduras 110 19060
New Caledonia
220
380
50
Hong Kong
200
380
50
New Zealand
230
415
50
Hungary
220 40050
Nicaragua 120 20860
Iceland
220 40050
Niger
220 38050
India
220-250400 50
Nigeria
230 40050
Indonesia 220 40050
Northern Ireland
240
400
50
Iran
220 40050
Norway
220-230400 50
Iraq
220 40050
Okinawa
110-120 200/23060
Ireland
220 40050
Oman
240 41550
Isle of Man
240
400
50
Pakistan
230 40050
Israel
230 40050
Palau
120 20860
Italy
220-230400 50
Panama
110-120190 60
Ivory Coast
220
380
50
Papua New Guinea
240
415
50
Jamaica
110 19050
Paraguay
220 38050
Japan
100
20050/60
Peru
110/220 22050/60
Jordan
220 40050
Philippines 115 38060
Kazakhstan 220 38050
Poland
240 40050
Kenya
240 41550
Portugal
220 40050
Korea, South
220
380
50/60
Puerto Rico
220-230
208
50
Kuwait
240 41550
Qatar
240 41550
Kyrgyzstan 220 38050
Country
Single-Threephase
phase voltage
voltageFrequency
(V)(V) )
(Hz)
Réunion Island
230
400
50
Romania
220
400
50
Russia
220
400
50
Rwanda
220
400
50
Saudi Arabia
127/220
190/380
50/60
Scotland
220 40050
Senegal
220 40050
Serbia
230 40050
Seychelles 240 24050
Sierra Leone
230
400
50
Singapore 230 40050
Slovakia
220 40050
Slovenia
230 40050
Somalia
110/220380 50
South Africa
220-230
400
50
Spain
220-230400 50
Sri Lanka
230
400
50
St. Kitts & Nevis
230
400
60
St. Lucia
240
400
50
St. Vincent
230
400
50
Sudan
240 40050
Surinam
115 22060
Swaziland 230 40050
Sweden
220-230400 50
Switzerland 220-230400 50
Syria
220 38050
Tahiti
220 38050
Taiwan
110 19060
Tajikistan
220 38050
Tanzania
230 40050
Thailand
220/230380 50
Togo
220 38050
Tonga
115 41560
Trinidad & Tobago
115/23
200
60
Tunisia
220 40050
Turkey
220 40050
Turkmenistan220 380 50
Uganda
240 41550
Ukraine
220 38050
United Arab Emirates
220/230
415
50
United Kingdom
240
400
50
United States
120
277/480
60
Uruguay
220 22050
Uzbekistan 220 38050
Venezuela 120 24060
Vietnam
120/220380 50
Virgin Islands
120
190
60
Wales
220 40050
Western Samoa
230
400
50
Yemen
220 40050
Zambia
220 40050
Zimbabwe 220 41550
www.eaton.com/powerquality 1.800.356.5794
21
The nine power problems
In an ideal world, your wall socket would provide an infinite stream
of perfect power, at constant voltage and cycling exactly the same
number of times per second. Don’t count on it.
Power Problem Definition
1
Power Failure
2
Power Sag
3
Power Surge
(Spike)
Rush of energy following a double shot of espresso or short-term high voltage more
than 110% of normal.
4
Under-voltage
(Brownout)
When your amp’s too wimpy to handle the bass line or reduced line voltage for an
extended period of a few minutes to a few days. Often happens during the summer
months when everyone is cranking up their air conditioners.
5
Over-voltage
Inhuman cheefulness exuded by aerobics instructors or increased line voltage for an
extended period of a few minutes to a few days.
6
Electrical
Line Noise
Excuse you use to get off the phone quickly or a high power frequency power wave
caused by radio frequency interference (RFI) or electromagnetic interference (EMI).
7
Frequency
Variation
Fluctuation in how often you do laundry from week to week or a loss of stability in the
power supply’s normal frequency of 50 or 60 Hz.
8
Switching
Transient
Breaking up with your significant other only to get back together every six months or
instantaneous under-voltage in the range of nanoseconds.
9
Harmonic
Distortion
“Music” blaring from your nephew’s headphones or the distortion of the normal power
wave, generally transmitted by unequal loads.
22
When a superhero loses his ability to fly or a total loss of utility power.
Post-lunch sleepiness or short-term low voltage.
eaton corporation Power Quality
DC to AC
Inverter
Battery
UPS topologies
There are several different UPS topologies that provide varying degrees of protection. Selecting
the best fit depends on several factors, including the level of reliability and availability desired,
the type of equipment being protected and the application/environment. While all four of the
most common UPS topologies outlined below meet the input voltage requirements for IT
equipment, there are key differences in how the result is achieved, as well as the frequency
and duration of demands on the battery.
DC topower
AC
Standby UPSs allow equipment to run off utility
until the UPS
detects a problem, at
Capacitor
Inverter
which point the UPS switches to battery power to protect against sags, surges or outages.
Battery
Because the band of normal operation is typically narrow, the UPS must resort to batteries
frequently, which can reduce battery runtime and service life.
DC to AC
Inverter
Battery
Capacitor
Capacitor
DC to AC
Inverter
AC to DC
Rectifier
Online UPSs provide the highest level of protection by isolating equipment from raw utility
power—converting power from AC to DC and Battery
back to AC. When input voltage is within preset
UPS tolerances, the output is regulated without going to battery. In this manner, the UPS uses
the batteries less often and for less time than either standby or line-interactive designs. Many
online UPSs allow an even wider input acceptance window when the UPS is below 100% load.
High-efficiency mode UPSs are among
the latest generation of UPS models, successfully
Buck Boost
combining the benefits of single- and double-conversion technologies. Under normal conditions
when power falls within acceptable limits, the multi-mode UPS operates as a high-efficiency,
energy-saving system, regulating voltage and resolving common utility power anomalies.
During erratic power or fleeting disturbances when AC input power falls outside of preset
DC to AC
Batterythe UPS switches
tolerances for line-interactive mode,
Inverter to online double-conversion mode,
Charger
completely isolating equipment from incoming power. If power is lost altogether, or the input
power exceeds the tolerances of the double-conversion
rectifier, the UPS relies on
Battery
the battery to keep loads operating, converting back to high-efficiency mode when it’s safe.
DC to AC
Inverter
AC to DC
Rectifier
Battery
DC to AC
Inverter
AC to DC
Rectifier voltage either by boosting or decreasing utility power as
Line-interactive UPSs regulate
necessary before allowing it to Buck
passBoost
to theBattery
protected equipment or by resorting to battery
power. Line-interactive models typically switch to battery mode with a transfer time of 3-8
milliseconds, which is within acceptable limits for most power supplies. Battery usage is
lower than a standby UPS, but still higher than an online model.
Battery
Buck Boost
Charger
DC to AC
Inverter
Battery
DC to AC
Inverter
Battery
Charger
Internal Static Bypass
AC to DC
Rectifier
DC to AC
Inverter
Battery
Ferroresonant UPSs operate similarly to line-interactive models with the exception that a
ferroresonant transformer is used to condition the output and hold energy long enough to
cover the time between switching from line power to battery power which effectively means
a no-break transfer. Many ferroresonant UPSs are 82-88 percent efficient and offer excellent
isolation. Although no longer the dominant type of UPS, these robust units are still used in
industrial settings such as the oil and gas, petrochemical, chemical, utility and heavy
industry markets.
Battery
Internal Static Bypass
AC to DC
DC to AC
Rectifier
Inverter
Internal Static Bypass
Battery
Normal Operation
Battery Power
AC to DC
Rectifier
DC to AC
Inverter
Battery
Capacitor
DC to AC
Inverter
Battery
www.eaton.com/powerquality 1.800.356.5794
23
UPS battery overview
It’s well known that the battery is the most vulnerable part of a UPS. In fact, battery failure
is a leading cause of load loss. Understanding how to properly maintain and manage UPS
batteries can extend their service life and help prevent costly downtime.
Valve
Positive Flag
Terminal
Extruded Intercell
Welded Connection,
Low Resistance
Current Path
Cover/Lid
Strap Joining
Negative
Plates in
Parallel
Negative
Pasted Plate
Lead Alloy
Grid
Polypropylene
Container/Jar
Figure 1. VRLA batteries are frequently used
in UPS or other high-rate applications.
24
Separator
Figure 2. Internal and external components of a valveregulated lead acid (VRLA) battery.
eaton corporation Power Quality
Valve-regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries,
also known as sealed or maintenance free
are most commonly used in UPSs. VRLA
batteries are sealed, usually within
polypropylene plastic, which offers the
advantage of not containing any sloshing
liquid that might leak or drip. Because water
can’t be added to VRLA batteries,
recombination of water is critical to their life
and health, and any factor that increases the
rate of evaporation or water loss—such as
temperature or heat from the charging
current—reduces battery life.
Frequently asked
questions: batteries
1. What is the “end of useful life”?
The IEEE defines “end of useful life” for a
UPS battery as the point when it can no
longer supply 80 percent of its rated
capacity in ampere-hours. When your
battery reaches 80 percent of its rated
capacity, the aging process accelerates and
the battery should be replaced.
2. Is there any difference between the
batteries used by smaller UPSs, from 250
VA to 3 kVA, and the ones used by larger
UPSs?
While basic battery technology and the risks
to battery life remain the same regardless of
UPS size, there are some inherent
differences between large and small
applications. Smaller UPSs typically have
only one VRLA battery that supports the
load and needs maintenance. As systems
get larger, increasing battery capacity to
support the load gets more complicated.
Larger systems may require multiple strings
of batteries, introducing complexity to
battery maintenance and support. Individual
batteries must be monitored to prevent a
single bad battery from taking down an
entire string, and putting the load at risk.
Also, as systems get larger, wet-cell
batteries become much more common.
3. My UPS has been in storage for over a
year. Are the batteries still good?
As batteries sit unused, with no charging
regimen, their life will decrease. Due to the
self-discharge characteristics of lead-acid
batteries, it is imperative that they be
charged after every six to 10 months of
storage. Otherwise, permanent loss of
capacity will occur between 18 and 30
months. To prolong shelf life without
charging, store batteries at 10°C (50°F) or
less.
6. If I add more batteries to a UPS, can I
add more load?
Adding more batteries to a UPS can
increase the battery runtime to support the
load. However, adding more batteries to the
UPS doesn’t increase the UPS capacity. Be
sure your UPS is adequately sized for your
load and then add batteries to fit your
runtime needs.
4. What is the difference between
hot-swappable and user-replaceable
batteries?
9. Why are batteries disconnected on
small, single-phase UPSs when they’re
shipped?
will be less than it would have been if the
batteries were fully charged.
This is done to ensure they’re in compliance
with Department of Transportation
regulations.
13. What are the risks associated with a
lack of battery maintenance?
10. Does the UPS need to have a load on
it to charge its batteries?
The UPS should have a minimum of 10%
load to charge its batteries. Once connected
to a standard supply of electricity (via input
plug or hardwiring), your UPS should charge
its batteries regardless of how much load, if
any, is attached to it.
Hot-swappable batteries can be changed out
while the UPS is running. User-replaceable
batteries are usually found in smaller UPSs
and require no special tools or training to
replace. Batteries can be both hotswappable and user-replaceable.
Figure 4. Adding extended battery modules
increases runtime but doesn’t increase the
power rating or capacity of the UPS.
7. If my UPS is in storage, how often
should I charge the batteries?
The batteries should be charged every three
or four months to prevent loss of capacity.
Figure 3. UPS models like the Eaton 9130 feature
hot-swappable batteries for maximum uptime.
8. What is the average lifespan of UPS
batteries?
The standard lifespan for VRLA batteries is
three to five years. However, expected life
can vary greatly due to environmental
conditions, number of discharge cycles, and
adequate maintenance. Have a regular
schedule of battery maintenance and
monitoring to ensure you know when your
batteries are reaching their end-of-life. The
typical life of an Eaton UPS with ABM
technology is 50% longer than with standard
models.
5. How is battery runtime affected if I
reduce the load on the UPS?
The battery runtime will increase if the load
is reduced. As a general rule, if you reduce
the load by half, you triple the runtime.
11. How can you be sure UPS batteries
are in good condition and ensure they
have maximum holdover in the event of
a power failure? What preventive
maintenance procedures should be done
and how often?
The batteries used in the UPS and
associated battery modules and cabinets are
sealed, lead-acid batteries often referred to
as maintenance-free. While these types of
batteries are sealed and you don’t need to
check their fluid level, they do require some
attention to assure proper operation. You
should inspect the UPS a minimum of once
per year by initiating a self-test.
The primary risks of improperly maintained
batteries are load loss, fire, property damage
and personal injury.
14. What is thermal runaway?
Thermal runaway occurs when the heat
generated in a lead-acid cell exceeds its
ability to dissipate it, which can lead to an
explosion, especially in sealed cells. The
heat generated in the cell may occur without
any warning signs and may be caused by
overcharging, excessive charging, internal
physical damage, internal short circuit or a
hot environment.
15. Why do batteries fail?
Batteries can fail for a multitude of reasons,
but common reasons are:
• High or uneven temperatures
• Inaccurate float charge voltage
• Loose inter-cell links or connections
• Loss of electrolyte due to drying out or damaged case
• Lack of maintenance, aging
12. How long does it take for the UPS
batteries to recharge?
16. How is battery performance generally
measured?
On average, it takes 10 times the discharge
time for the UPS batteries to recover. (A
30-minute battery discharge requires about
300 minutes to recharge.) After each power
outage, the recharge process begins
immediately. It’s important to note that the
load is fully protected while the batteries are
recharging, but if the batteries are needed
during that time, the holdover time available
Batteries are generally rated for 100+
discharges and recharges, but many show a
marked decline in charging capacity after as
few as 10 discharges. The lower the charge
the battery can accept, the less runtime it
can deliver. Look for batteries with a highrate design that sustains stable performance
for a long service term.
www.eaton.com/powerquality 1.800.356.5794
25
All UPS batteries have a limited service life,
regardless of how or where the UPS is
deployed. While determining battery life can
be tricky, there are four primary factors that
contribute to a battery’s overall lifespan.
1. Ambient temperature
Because the rated capacity of a battery is
based on an ambient temperature of 25°C
(77°F), any variation from this can affect
performance and reduce battery life. For
every 8.3°C (15°F) average annual
temperature above 25°C (77°F), the life of
the battery is reduced by 50 percent.
2. Battery chemistry
UPS batteries are electro-chemical devices
whose ability to store and deliver power
slowly decreases over time. Even if all
guidelines for storage, maintenance and
usage are followed, batteries will still require
replacement after a certain period of time.
3. Cycling
After a UPS operates on battery power
during a power failure, the battery is
recharged for future use, which is called the
discharge cycle. At installation, the battery is
at 100 percent of its rated capacity, but each
discharge and subsequent recharge slightly
reduceds its relative capacity. Once the
chemistry is depleted, the cells fail and the
battery must be replaced.
4. Maintenance
For larger UPS models, service and
maintenance of batteries are critical to its
reliability. Periodic preventive maintenance
not only extends battery string life by
preventing loose connections and removing
corrosion, but can help identify ailing
batteries before they fail. Even though
sealed batteries are sometimes referred to
as maintenance free, they still require
scheduled service, as “maintenance free”
refers only to the fact that they don’t require
replacement fluid.
For additional information on UPS batteries, to
use the Eaton battery replacement selector, or to
request a free copy of Eaton’s battery handbook,
visit www.eaton.com/upsbatteries.
26
eaton corporation Power Quality
Factors
affecting
battery life
UPS software overview
Operating a UPS without power
management software is kind of like driving
in the rain without windshield wipers — you
may be protected from the downpour, but
your visibility only lasts for so long.
Some software offerings are capable of
delivering a global view across the network
— often from any PC with an Internet
browser. Software can also provide a
complete log of events and UPS utility data,
which is invaluable when debugging a
power anomaly. Many power management
products have the ability to centralize
alarms, organize data by customized views
and maintain event logs for preventive
maintenance of the entire installed
equipment base.
While a UPS protects the attached load
during a power outage, power management
software is required to ensure that all workin-progress is saved and sensitive electronic
equipment is gracefully shut down if the
power outage exceeds battery runtime.
Without software, the UPS simply runs until
its batteries are depleted and then drops the
load.
The more robust and versatile software
offerings are compatible with devices that
support a network interface, including all
manufacturers’ UPSs, environmental
sensors, ePDUs and other devices.
Furthermore, power management software
enables load segment control for UPS
models supporting that feature.
In addition to facilitating automatic, orderly
shutdown of all connected devices during an
extended outage, power management
software delivers a broad spectrum of other
advantages. The perfect complement to any
UPS solution, management software keeps
a constant pulse on network health through
its monitoring and management capabilities.
Because power protection and management
are just as vital for virtual machines as they
are for physical servers, new software
technologies have been specifically
designed to provide monitoring and
management capabilities in virtualized
environments. Shutdown software is now
compatible with VMware’s ESXi and
vSphere and Microsoft’s Hyper-V, enabling
graceful shutdown of multiple virtual
machines.
Most power management software is
shipped with the UPS and is usually
available as a free download online as well.
Power event notifications are available as
audible alarms, pop-up alerts on a monitor,
e-mails to pre-designated recipients based
on the condition, text messages, phone calls
from our remote monitoring center, and
triggers for a multitude of network and
building management systems to initiate the
orderly shutdown of equipment.
Figure 1. Eaton’s Intelligent Power Manager facilitates easy and versatile remote monitoring and management of
multiple devices, keeping you apprised of power and environmental conditions.
To view an online demonstration of Eaton’s power
management software capabilities, please visit
www.eaton.com/intelligentpowermanager.
www.eaton.com/powerquality 1.800.356.5794
27
Service overview
One of the best ways to protect your
investment is by including a service
plan. Scheduled preventive maintenance
can help detect a wide range of ailments
before they become serious and costly
issues.
Research indicates that regular, routine
preventive maintenance is crucial to
achieve maximum equipment performance;
studies show it appreciably reduces the
likelihood that a UPS will succumb to
downtime. The 2007 Study of Root Causes
of Load Losses compiled by Eaton revealed
that customers without preventive
maintenance visits were almost four times
more likely to experience a UPS failure
than those completing the recommended
biannual preventive maintenance visits.
All manufacturers’ UPSs are complex
devices that perform several critical power
conditioning and backup supply functions
and are subject to failure. Without proper
maintenance, all UPSs will eventually fail
over their useful life, since critical
components like batteries and capacitors
will wear out from normal use. A good
maintenance plan delivered by trained and
experienced personnel can greatly
minimize this risk of failure.
28
eaton corporation Power Quality
The Eaton service
offering
Types of UPS service Types of service
There are several UPS service delivery
agreements
methods, including:
• Depot exchange repair or replace.
You contact the UPS service provider and
ship your UPS to a repair facility. The
service provider returns the repaired unit
or a refurbished unit.
• Advance swap depot exchange.
You contact your UPS service provider,
which ships a refurbished unit to you; the
original UPS unit is returned to a repair
facility.
• Onsite repair. You contact your UPS
service provider and factory-trained field
technicians travel to your site to diagnose
and repair electronic or battery-related
problems.
Smaller UPS products (below 1000 VA)
generally can be repaired at a depot, while
products over 1000 VA and up to 15 kVA can
either be repaired at a depot or serviced
onsite. Larger UPSs that are either
hardwired (can’t be unplugged) or too heavy
to ship can only be serviced onsite by
trained technicians.
Figure 1. Smaller UPS models are usually sent to a
repair facility.
Figure 2. Larger UPS models require onsite preventive
maintenance visits for optimal performance.
A variety of different UPS service options
are available, any of which will likely save
you time and money by minimizing business
interruption and the costs of downtime, as
well as enhancing overall return on
investment by extending the lifespan of
critical power equipment.
• Support agreements, or service
contracts, usually combine parts and
labor coverage (electronics, batteries or
both), one or more UPS preventive
maintenance inspections annually, and a
combination of coverage hours and arrival
response time. Plans can be tailored to
meet almost any need. Special features
like remote monitoring, battery
replacement insurance and spare part kits
may also be added.
• Extended warranty (or basic warranty)
may also be purchased for many UPS
products. A warranty commonly covers
specified parts and labor such as
electronic components for a fixed period
of time, but won’t include 24x7 coverage
or arrival response times. Warranties also
don’t include preventive maintenance,
although extra services can be purchased
in addition to a warranty extension. The
more services added to a warranty, the
closer it becomes to a support
agreement.
• Time and material (T&M) service is a
pay-as-you-go approach through which
the service provider makes a repair only
when something breaks. T&M can be
done either via depot repair or onsite,
depending on the UPS. This method
can be an unacceptable service solution
for some customers, since it’s often
expensive, and there’s the uncertainty
of not knowing when a field technician
will arrive. Because support agreement
(contract) customers always take priority,
T&M response times can be up to five
days, based on the product and location.
Eaton offers power quality services for
its UPS products as well as for related
equipment such as power distribution units
(PDUs) and batteries. Eaton also services
products from legacy brands, including
Powerware, Exide Electronics, Best Power,
MGE Office Protection Systems, IPM,
Deltec and Lortec. Eaton has more than
40 years of experience designing and
servicing industry-leading UPSs for
government, healthcare, industrial and
data center applications.
Figure 3. Eaton is one of the UPS companies that
provides remote monitoring services.
For more information on UPS service, and to access
service-related white papers, please visit www.eaton.
com/upsservices.
.
www.eaton.com/powerquality 1.800.356.5794
29
Frequently
asked
questions
We compiled the following set
of questions based on our extensive
experience dealing with resellers and end
users. For frequently asked questions about
UPS batteries, please visit the UPS battery
overview section on page 24.
1. What’s the difference between a surge
protector and a UPS?
A surge protector provides just that—surge
protection. In addition to surge protection, a
UPS continually regulates incoming voltage
and provides battery backup in the event of
a power failure. You'll often see surge
protectors plugged into a UPS for added
surge protection and additional output
receptacles.
2. How much capacity of a UPS should
I use?
To allow for future expansion, we
recommend that you install a UPS at
approximately 75% capacity. In addition, the
batteries degrade over time; by oversizing,
you provide room for error. In the online
Eaton UPS sizing tool (www.eaton.com/
powerquality) we’ve included a “capacity
used” column.
3. How much UPS battery runtime do
I need?
During an outage, you need enough battery
runtime to gracefully shut down systems or
switch to backup generators. You may add
an optional external battery module (EBM)
to increase runtime.
4. How is battery runtime impacted if
I reduce the load on the UPS?
There can be a significant increase in
runtime. Generally speaking, a UPS that
provides five minutes at full load will
provide 15 minutes at half load.
5. My business is too small for protective
measures. Do I really need a UPS?
Power problems are equal-opportunity
threats. Your PCs, servers and network are
just as critical to your business as a data
30
eaton corporation Power Quality
center is to a large enterprise. Downtime is
costly in terms of hardware and potential
loss of goodwill, reputation and sales. Also
add in the delays that inevitably occur when
rebooting locked-up equipment, restoring
damaged files and re-running processes that
were interrupted. A sound power protection
strategy is cost-effective insurance.
6. Why is power quality such a problem
today?
Today’s high-tech IT equipment and control
units are much more sensitive to electrical
disturbances and are more important to the
critical functions of many businesses than
in the past. As a result, power quality
problems today are more frequent and
more costly than ever.
7. Are power quality problems always
noticeable?
No. In many cases, disturbances can cause
imperceptible damage to circuits and other
components, a major cause of premature
equipment failure and problems like
computer lockups. Many power quality
problems go unresolved, resulting in lost
revenue and data.
8. How is reliability measured?
Power reliability is usually stated as a
percent of time the power is available. For
example, the power grid system in the U.S.
provides three nines of reliability—the
power is available for 99.9% of the time.
Because those 8.8 hours of downtime
translate into significant downtime and
expense, IT and telephone network services
require at least five nines of reliability.
Reliability average Non-availability per year
99%
88 hours
99.9%
8.8 hours
99.99%
53 minutes
99.999%
5.3 minutes
99.9999%
32 seconds
99.99999%+
3.2 seconds
9. How are phone systems and IT
equipment affected by inconsistent
power?
Fluctuating power is a waste of valuable
time and money. If customers expose their
telephone systems (and any other electronic
equipment) to inconsistent utility power,
they’re vulnerable to hardware and software
damage, data corruption and communication
breakdown. The time and cost of replacing
equipment, as well as the business lost
during breakdown and replacement, can
greatly affect a company’s bottom line.
10. We have a generator. Do I still need
a UPS?
A generator will NOT protect your
equipment against power problems. You
need a UPS to guarantee that the
equipment stays up until the generator
kicks on and stabilizes—which often
requires several minutes.
11. How much UPS capacity do I need?
Determine the total load (in watts) of the
equipment you want to protect. Add
10–20% for future growth and decide the
minimum amount of runtime you need. Use
the online sizer at (www.eaton.com/
powerquality) to identify the right solution
for your application.
12. I already have surge protection. Why
do I need a UPS?
Surge protection won’t keep your business
and phones operational during a blackout. In
addition, surge protectors do nothing to
improve the quality of power feeding your
sensitive and expensive telecom
equipment. The Eaton UPS provides
perfect, clean power to your equipment at
all times. Over time, poor quality power will
degrade your equipment.
13. What happens if the UPS is
overloaded, for example, if the protected
equipment and/or load draws more
current than it can provide.
The geometric relationship between
apparent power, reactive power and real
power is illustrated in the power triangle
below:
The UPS transfers the load to bypass (for a
few minutes) until the overload condition is
reversed. If the overload condition
continues, some UPS models automatically
shut down. Some models can run at 110V
indefinitely in bypass.
Mathematically, real power (watts) is related
to apparent power (VA) using a numerical
ratio referred to as the power factor (PF),
which is expressed in decimal format and
always carries a value between 0 and 1.0.
For many newer types of IT equipment,
such as computer servers, the typical PF
is 0.9 or greater. For legacy personal
computers (PCs), this value can be
0.60 – 0.75.
14. What causes a UPS to be
overloaded?
There are two possible answers: (1) the
UPS was undersized (e.g., the load is rated
at 1200 VA, but a 1000 VA UPS was
provided), or (2) you plugged more
equipment into the UPS than it was
designed to handle.
Using one of the following formulas, a
calculation can be made to determine the
missing quantity:
Watts = VA * Power Factor or VA = Watts /
Power Factor
Since many types of equipment are rated in
watts, it’s important to consider the PF
when sizing a UPS. If you don't take PF into
account, you may under size your UPS. As
an example, a piece of equipment that’s
rated at 525 watts and has a power factor
of 0.7 results in a 750 VA load.
15. What’s the difference between VA
and watts?
The engineering answer: To correctly size
a UPS, it’s important to understand the
relationship between watts and VA.
However, we must first have a brief
discussion about power terminology. Real
power (measured in watts) is the portion of
power flow that results in the consumption
of energy. The energy consumed is related
to the resistance in an electrical circuit. An
example of consumed energy is the filament
in a light bulb.
750 VA = 525 Watts / 0.7 PF
Sizing the UPS to operate at 75% capacity
results in a UPS with a 1000 VA rating (750
VA / 0.75 = 1000 VA).
The answer for the rest of us:
Reactive power (measured in VAR or voltamps reactive) is the portion of power flow
due to stored energy. Stored energy is
related to the presence of inductance and/or
capacitance in an electrical circuit. An
example of stored energy is a charged flash
bulb in a camera.
Apparent
power (VA);
Full capacity
Apparent power (measured in VA or voltamps) is a mathematical combination of
real power and reactive power.
{
}
Real power
(watts);
Actual usable
power
Single phase: Multiply amps by voltage (120
volts in the U.S.). 10A x 120V = 1200 VA.
Three phase: Amps x volts x 1.732 = VA.
Reactive
Power
VAR
In a centralized configuration, a larger UPS
supports multiple loads from a single point.
Centralized UPSs are often hardwired into
an electrical panelboard. A decentralized
configuration allows multiple UPSs to
protect a handful of devices. Decentralized
UPSs generally utilize plugs and receptacles
for the input and output connections.
18. I have a 3000 VA UPS. Can I just plug
the unit into a standard 15A wall outlet?
Only UPSs with power ratings up to 1500
VA plug into a standard 15A wall outlet. All
others require a larger receptacle, which
must be installed by an electrician.
19. Why is power management software
important?
Although UPSs are typically rugged and
reliable, they do require ongoing monitoring
and support. Power management software
continuously monitors and diagnoses the
state of the grid, batteries and power
sources, together with the condition of the
UPS’s internal electronics. Eaton UPS
software and connectivity cards enable
remote monitoring and management
capability, including graceful shutdown and
load segment control.
You can remotely control your Eaton UPS
using the Eaton UPS management software
or through a secure web interface if you
choose the optional connectivity card, which
also allows for automated e-mail alerts for
power events without needing to install any
software.
21. My data center only went down for a
couple of minutes. What’s the big deal?
When a data center goes down and then
back up during a power outage without a
managed shut down, it doesn't come up
nicely. Storage arrays initialize after servers
that try to mount their shares, while some
servers boot without access to DNS servers
that are also booting and thus have other
problems. Although the outage was short, it
can take hours to get everything back
online. In addition, data corruption is a
serious concern.
22. Where can I get technical help?
Contact your territory representative or call
the Eaton UPS hotline at 1-800-356-5794 for
pre-sales support and 1-800-356-5737 for
technical support. You can also visit
www.eaton.com/powerquality.
20. Will my current UPS software
monitor my new Eaton UPS?
16. How do you convert amps to VA?
Apparent Power (VA)
17. What’s the difference between a
centralized and decentralized UPS
solution?
Yes, you can monitor your Eaton UPS with
any UPS or facility management software
that supports the industry standard
Management Information Base (MIB, RFC
1628) as long as you install the optional
connectivity card. Most UPS vendors
support this MIB and all good facility
management software, including
OpenManage, OpenView and Tivoli also
support it. Extended Eaton Advanced MIBs
are available for greater levels of detail.
Real Power (Watts)
www.eaton.com/powerquality 1.800.356.5794
31
Electric transmission
distribution system
32
eaton corporation Power Quality
The flow of electricity begins at the
utility company, where it’s created at the
generating station. A generator transformer at the station switchyard then
steps up the voltage to minimize cable
size and electrical losses.
The transmission substation then increases
the voltage, which depends on the distance
the power needs to travel and the amount
desired. Electricity then enters the
transmission system, traveling at nearly the
speed of light, over heavy cables strung
between tall towers. A step-down
transformer located at a substation near the
final destination reduces the voltage to
between 22,000 and 69,000 volts, so the
electricity can be carried on smaller
distribution lines that carry it to the end
user. Transformers that adjust the voltages
down to the proper level for use are located
at or near each end user facility. For
commercial use, the load can range from
416 volts to 480 volts, while residential use
is typically 208/120 volts in the U.S. and
Canada.
Substation
Overhead
Transmission
Lines
Overhead
Main
Feeder
Transformer
Breaker
Switchgear
Residential
Small Business
Customer Service
Static
8
Lateral
Fuse
Commercial Customer
Service Equipment
Residential Load
120V and 280V
Lightning
Arrestors
2
9
4
3
5
Powers Poles
Conduits
12,470
Volts
10
13
Pad Mounted
Transformer
11
14
15
6
12
1
Underground
Transmission
Lines
230,000 Volts
Underground
Main Feeder
Underground
Service
7
Commercial Load
480/277 volts
380/220 volts
416/240 volts
Threats to the system
At each stage, there are a number of threats
that can interrupt the flow and distribution
of electricity. Everything from lightning
strikes to failed equipment can severely
affect the end user and disrupt important
and vital processes.
1 Fire sparked by weak wire
burns through line
6 Squirrels and raccoons chew through
a wire or wander into the wrong area
10 Mylar balloons drift into power lines
2 Lightning strike damages
transmission line
7 Underground explosion causes cable
failure
12 Failure of underground cable
3 Bird flies in causing short circuit
8 Storm blows branches and limbs down
that crash into power lines
4 Thieves steal copper
5 Blown fuse at substation transformer
9 Equipment malfunction
11 Three-car collision strikes utility pole
13 Equipment failure
14 The power goes out and no one
knows why
15 Utilities conduct a planned outage for
repairs or upgrades
www.eaton.com/powerquality 1.800.356.5794
33
Eaton’s Blackout Tracker
34
eaton corporation Power Quality
Eaton’s Blackout Tracker monitors power outages across the U.S. and Canada to
provide a snapshot of reported power outages. The Blackout Tracker is an interactive
and educational way to share information about the causes, frequencies and impact
of power outages. You can view a region or individual state or province to see specific
information about power outages, including their cause, duration and number of
people affected. Visit www.eaton.com/blackouttracker to see this interactive tool and
order the latest Blackout Tracker annual report.
Impact of power
outages
Every day, an interruption to electrical
service in homes, businesses and public
sector organizations occurs, and the losses
from these power outages can be extensive
and of great consequence. For a business,
the recovery time is significant and the
costs are high. According to Price
Waterhouse research, after a power outage
disrupts IT systems:
• >33 percent of companies take more than
a day to recover
• 10 percent of companies take more than
a week
• It can take up to 48 hours to reconfigure
a network
• It can take days or weeks to re-enter
lost data
• 90 percent of companies that experience
a computer disaster and don't have a
survival plan go out of business within
18 months
Power outages can cause substantial losses
for the companies affected. According to
the U.S. Department of Energy, when a
power failure disrupts IT systems:
• 33 percent of companies lose $20,000$500,000
• 20 percent lose $500,000 to $2 million
• 15 percent lose more than $2 million
www.eaton.com/powerquality 1.800.356.5794
35
Overview of 2010 US national power
The following data was compiled by Eaton based on reported power outages during 2010.
Total number of people affected by outages
17,546,945
(This is the sum of the number of people affected by reported power outages in the U.S. for 2010.)
Total duration of outages
225,192 minutes (approximately 3,753 hours or 156 days)
(This is the sum of the durations of the reported power outages.)
Total number of outages
3,419
(This is the sum of the number of reported power outages.)
Average number of people affected per outage
8,097
(This number is determined by dividing the “Total number of people affected by outages” by the number of outages that reported
the number of people affected. Not all reports of outages included number of people affected.) See Note A below. Average duration of outage
227 minutes (nearly 4 hours)
(This number is determined by dividing the “Total duration of outages” by the number of outages that reported durations. Not all
reports of outages included the duration.) See Note B below.
Notes:
A. Total number of people affected (and average) is based on 2,167 (63%) of the total reported outages. Total duration of outages (and average) is based on 991 (29%) of
the total reported outages. These are the number of outages that had reports including data for number of people affected and duration, respectively.
B. Reports from news services, newspapers, websites, etc. used as sources, sometimes give statistics using different terms. For example, some reports may be based on
“people” while others may be based on “addresses,” “homes and businesses” or “utility customers.” For purposes of this report, all of these are assumed to be and
counted as people.
36
eaton corporation Power Quality
895
Planned
Theft / Vandalism
outage data
Unknown
296
650
Reported power outages by cause in 2010
350
Faulty Equipment /
Human Error
300
Planned
250
Theft / Vandalism
Unknown
100
m
be
r
r
De
ce
m
be
ve
No
to
be
r
r
Oc
Se
p
te
m
be
st
gu
ly
Ju
ne
Ju
ay
M
ril
Ap
Au
Ja
Note: Each power outage was grouped into one of seven possible causes. The outages by cause were totaled
and the results displayed in the chart above. The number adjacent to the pie piece is the number of outages
attributable to that cause.
ch
0
ar
Weather/Falling Trees
50
M
Vehicle Accident
ry
179
150
nu
650
29
200
br
ua
296
Weather/Falling Trees
2008
2009
2010
ar
y
895
Vehicle Accident
Reported power outages by month/year
Fe
246
179
400
Animal
1127
29
Note: Data collection began February 16, 2008.
2008
2009
2010
400
350
300
250
200
www.eaton.com/powerquality 1.800.356.5794
37
Case study example one
Here’s an example of a customer request that Eaton can handle with a complete solution.
Challenge:
A small college with multiple satellite
campuses is consolidating data centers to a
brand new facility. This site is a small
community branch with only single-phase
loads left in the data center and it supports
only small processes and equipment. It does
have generator backup, which works for
long-term outages, but the IT manager
wants 15 minutes of runtime. Although the
shutdown process takes six to seven
minutes, the IT manager prefers to have 15
minutes for peace of mind. The main IT
support and servers will be handled from
the main campus, but some of the backup
and support processes will be run from this
data center and need power protection.
There’s no need for scalability, as the load at
the various branches will most likely
decrease over the next several years. With
the move to the central data center, the
expectation is that over the next five years
almost all the IT equipment will be housed
at the main campus.
The IT manager provides a list of equipment
that shows the majority of the load needing
protection is telecom equipment. There are
three 120V telephony racks with an average
power draw of 1.5 kW each. There are two
208V racks of servers to handle the support
processes that average 2.5 kW each.
38
Operation and maintenance: With the
move to the main data center, the support
staff onsite will be minimal. The IT manager
wants a comprehensive support plan to
handle all service and maintenance.
Budget: The budget is a major
consideration, since the satellite campus IT
budgets have been reduced due to IT
equipment consolidation. The IT manager
expects to spend less than $20,000.
Management: The IT manager wants to
continue to manage the equipment over the
network but only minimal monitoring is
needed.
Power distribution: The facility has several
rackmount UPSs being fed from an
upstream distribution panel. There’s a
mixture of 5-20R and L6-30R receptacles
available on this distribution panel. The IT
manager prefers to continue using the
existing distribution panel without bringing
in an electrician to rewire the facility. Eaton
9130 UPSs are available with these options
in both tower and rackmount models. The IT
manager can separate racks based on 208V
or 120V, due to the limited equipment and
ample rack space from the consolidation.
eaton corporation Power Quality
Recommended solution:
Customer equipment
1 Onsite generator
2 Distribution panel
3 Single-phase power
4 Three telephony racks with a total load of
4.5 kW (120V)
5 Two server racks with a total load of 5
kW (208V)
Eaton solution
1 Three Eaton 9130 UPSs and three EBMs
provide 1.8 kW of power each and 40
minutes of battery runtime
UPS part number: PW9130L2000R-XL2U
EBM part number: PW9130N3000REBM2U
2 Two Eaton 9130 UPSs and two EBMs
provide 2.7 kW of power each and 20
minutes of battery runtime
UPS part number: PW9130G3000R-XL2U
EBM part number: PW9130N3000REBM2U
3 Six ePDU models, two in each rack for
the A and B feeds. Model ePBZ97 with
(24) 5-20R output receptacles
4 Four ePDU models, two in each rack for
the A and B feeds. Model ePBZ92 with
(20) C13 and (4) C19 output receptacles
5 Intelligent Power Software Suite (free
with UPS) for comprehensive monitoring
and shutdown capabilities
6 Recommended service contract: Flex
Onsite
• Comprehensive coverage of UPS
and batteries
• Telephone technical support
• eNotify Remote Monitoring
• Connectivity support
• Expedited delivery of replacement
parts, modules and batteries
• Onsite startup
• Onsite corrective maintenance
• Next-day 24-hour response
www.eaton.com/powerquality 1.800.356.5794
39
Case study example two
Here’s another example of a customer request that Eaton can handle with a complete solution.
Challenge:
Recommended solution:
A data center has 480 Vac three-phase
service with dual-mains, feeding an older
300 kVA UPS. There are two wall-mounted
panels being fed from the two utility
sources that feed the UPS (rectifier and
bypass input), which is feeding a
switchboard. The switchboard feeds two
150 kVA power distribution units (PDUs). It’s
a three-phase environment for the main UPS
and single-phase UPSs within the racks.
The switchboard, fed by the UPS, is feeding
two 150 kVA PDUs; the PDUs are feeding
six rows of racks via cabling under the
12-foot raised floor. Each rack has metered
ePDU units for in-rack power distribution,
which are being fed from the PDU
distribution breakers and receptacle junction
boxes under the floor. With metered ePDUs
in each rack, this is a nice power distribution
scheme. The ePDUs are being fed through
receptacle boxes under the floor with
L6-30P input plugs for each rack. The IT
manager also says he has a mixture of C13
and C19 outputs on each ePDU.
40
One or more UPSs will replace the existing
300 kVA system and be installed in the
dedicated facility or power room behind the
wall. In total, the facility has 54 racks of IT
equipment (~1500 square feet) with a total
load of 214 kW, or 4 kW per rack.
The facility has a backup generator, that
suffices for long-term outages. Because he
has critical phone switches and other
telecom equipment, the IT manager wants
10 minutes of runtime to be safe, should he
face generator problems. Since he also has
two 150 kVA PDUs, the IT manager is
interested in the possibility of providing two
parallel UPSs for N+1 redundancy. With two
UPSs providing a total of 300 kVA or more,
only half the data center would be impacted
in a UPS or mains failure.
With regard to service, the IT manager
defers to the facility manager, who prefers
complete factory support. With the systems
backing up their critical data center, they
want to ensure each UPS is under a service
contract with ongoing preventive
maintenance.
eaton corporation Power Quality
Customer equipment
1 480 Vac three-phase service
with dual-mains
4 Startup and one year of on-site service
included with all 9390 units.
5 Recommended PowerTrust service plan:
• Parts and labor for electronics
2Switchboard
• 24x7 onsite corrective maintenance
3 Pair of 150 kVA PDUs
• 8-hour field technician response time
4 54 racks of IT equipment
(~1500 square feet)
• 8x5 preventive maintenance
(1 per year)
5 Backup generator
• Battery preventive maintenance
(1 per year)
Eaton solution
• eNotify Remote Monitoring service
1 Two Eaton 9390 UPS (160 kVA each)
providing 320 kVA of support or 288 kW
(34% extra capacity); includes parallel
configuration, Web card, side-car tie
cabinet and three-breaker MBS
(TD1622231129010)
• Discounted spare parts and
upgrade kits
2 Two external battery cabinets (432 Vdc)
providing 12 minutes of runtime
(TL1602E28211100)
3 54 monitored ePDU units with L6-30P
input, (24) C13s and (4) C19s
(PW105MIOU096)
5 Intelligent Power Software Suite UPS
software (free with UPS) for
comprehensive monitoring and
shutdown capabilities
6 Future LAN drop to UPS for
communications and PowerXpert for
advanced monitoring and management
capabilities
4
5
2
2
1
3
1
6
3
4
5
www.eaton.com/powerquality 1.800.356.5794
41
Commonly used acronyms
UPS and electrical acronyms
AAmpere
AC
Alternating Current
AFCI
Arc Fault Circuit Interrupter
AH
Ampere Hour
ANSI
American National Standards
Institute
ASCII
American Standard Code for
Information Interchange
AVR
Automatic Voltage Regulation
BBM
Break-Before-Make (Bypass
Switch)
BDM
Bypass Distribution Module
BTU
British Thermal Unit
CRAC
HVAC Heating, Ventilating and
Air Conditioning
HWHardwired
HzHertz
IEC
International Electrotechnical
Commission (IEC)
IEEE
Institute of Electrical And
Electronics Engineers
IGBT
Insulated Gate Bi-polar
Transistor
ISO
International Standards
Organization
ITIC
Information Technology
Industry Council
Computer Room Air
Conditioning
kAIC
CRAH Computer Room Air Handler
CSA
Canadian Standards
Association
DC
Direct Current
DCIE
Data Center Infrastructure
Efficiency
EBC
Extended Battery Cabinet
EBM
Extended Battery Module
EMC
Electromagnetic Compatibility
EMF
PDU
Power Distribution Unit
Vac
Volts Alternating Current
PF
Power Factor
Vdc
Volts Direct Current
PFC
Power Factor Correction
VRLA
Valve Regulated Lead Acid
PoE
Power over Ethernet
WWatt
POTS
Plain Old Telephone System
PPDM PowerPass Distribution
Module
Eaton acronyms
PPE
Personal Protective
Equipment
ABM
Advanced Battery
Management
PUE
Power Usage Effectiveness
AFC
American Football Conference
REPO
Remote Emergency Power
Off
AM
Advanced Monitored (ePDU)
RFI
Radio Frequency Interference
ARG
Amphibious Ready Group
Kiloampere Interrupting
Capacity
RM
Rackmount (also Rectifier
Magazine)
BA
Basic (ePDU)
CSE
Customer Service Engineer
kVA
Kilovolt ampere
RMS
Root Mean Square
EOSL
End of Service Life
LAN
Local Area Network
RoHS
EMS
Energy Management System
LCD
Liquid Crystal Display
Restriction of Hazardous
Substances
ESS
Energy Saver System
LED
Light-Emitting Diode
SCR
Silicon-Controlled Rectifier
ME
Metered (ePDU)
LV
Low Voltage
SLA
Service Level Agreement
MI
Ethernet Monitored (ePDU)
MBB
Make-Before-Break (bypass
switch)
NFC
National Football Conference
PDR
Power Distribution Rack
MIB
Management Information
Base
RMA
Return Material Authorization
Electromagnetic Force
MOV
Metal Oxide Varistor
RPM
Rack Power Module
EMI
Electromagnetic Interference
MTBF Mean Time Between Failure
ROO
Remote On/Off
FCC
Federal Communications
Commission
MTTR Mean Time To Repair
RPO
Remote Power Off
RPP
Remote Power Panel
SEAL
Sea Air Land
SW
Switched (ePDU)
VVolt
T&M
Time and Material
VA
VMMS Variable Module Management
System
GFCI
Ground-Fault Circuit
Interrupter
GNDGround
HV
42
High Voltage
NEC
National Electrical Code
NEMA National Electrical
Manufacturers Association
NIC
Network Interface Card
PDM
Power Distribution Module
eaton corporation Power Quality
SNMP Simple Network Management
Protocol
SPD
Surge Protection Device
THD
Total Harmonic Distortion
TVSS
Transient Voltage Surge
Suppressor
UL
Underwriters Laboratory
UPS
Uninterruptible Power System
(or Supply)
USB
Universal Serial Bus
Volt Ampere
Other acronyms
CI
Converged Infrastructure
PBX
Private Branch Exchange
CPU
Central Processing Unit
PC
Personal Computer
DCIM
Data Center Infrastructure
Management
PHI
Personal Health Information
DISA
Defense Information Systems
Agency
DNS
Domain Name System
DR
Disaster Recovery
DSL
Digital Subscriber Line
PICNIC Problem in chair not in
computer
PMDC Portable Modular Data Center
DVV or Data, Voice, Video
DV2
E911
Enhanced 911
EMEA Europe, Middle East, Africa
PSAP
Public Safety Answering Point
PSTN
Public Switched Telephone
Network
RAM
Random Access Memory
SAN
Storage Area Network
SATA
Serial Advanced Technology
Attachment
FMC
Fixed/Mobile Convergence
SOA
Service-Oriented Architecture
FTP
File Transfer Protocol
SQL
Structured Query Language
GUI
Graphical User Interface
SSL
Secure Socket Layer
HDD
Hard Disk Drive
SVGA
Super Video Graphics Array
HPC
High-Performance Computer
TCP/IP Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol
HTML HyperText Markup Language
HTTP
HyperText Transfer Protocol
IP
Internet Protocol
ISP
Internet Service Provider
KVM
Keyboard, Video, Mouse
LEED Leadership in Energy and
Environmental Design
TDM
Time-division Multiplexing
UC
Unified Communications
URL
Uniform Resource Locator
VGA
Video Graphics Array
VoIP
Voice over Internet Protocol
VM
Virtual Machine
MSP
Managed Service Platform
VPN
Virtual Private Network
NAS
Network Attached Storage
WAN
Wide Area Network
NOC
Network Operations Center
PABX
Private Automatic Branch
Exchange
www.eaton.com/powerquality 1.800.356.5794
43
Glossary of power terms
In the following glossary, we’ve
attempted to capture the common terms
related to UPS and power distribution
products. If you look closely, you might
see us trying to have a little fun!
Advanced Battery Management
A three-stage charging technique that
automatically tests battery health.
Provides advance notification when
preventive maintenance is needed,
allowing ample time to hot-swap batteries
without ever having to shut down
connected equipment significantly
extending the life of your UPS's battery
(and, quite possibly, your contract).
Alternating Current (AC)
An electric current that reverses its
direction at regularly recurring intervals,
as opposed to direct current, which is
constant. Usually in a sine wave pattern,
for optimal transmission of energy.
Ampere (A or Amp)
The unit of measure for the rate of flow
of electricity, analogous to gallons per
minute. VA x 0.7 (power factor) = watts
Apparent Power
Applied voltage multiplied by current in an
AC circuit which doesn’t take the power
factor into account. Unit is volt amperes
(VA).
Arc
Sparking that results when undesirable
current flows between two points of
differing potential due to leakage through
the intermediate insulation or a leakage
path due to contamination. In astronomy,
an arc is the part of a circle representing
the apparent course of a heavenly body.
Audible Noise
A measure of the noise emanating from a
device at audible frequencies.
Backup Time
The amount of time the battery in a UPS
is designed to support the load.
Balanced Load
(1) AC power system using more than
two wires, where the current and voltage
are of equal value in each energized
conductor. (2) Laundry with equal parts of
light and dark clothes.
44
eaton corporation Power Quality
Battery String
A group of batteries connected together
in a series.
Blackout
A zero-voltage condition lasting for more
than two cycles. Also known as a power
outage or failure.
British Thermal Unit (BTU)
Used to measure heat dissipation and is
the amount of energy required to raise
one pound of water one degree
Fahrenheit. One pound of water at 32°F
requires the transfer of 144 BTUs to
freeze into solid ice.
Commercial Power
The power supplied by local utility
companies which can vary drastically in
quality throughout the U.S. depending on
location, weather and other factors.
Communication Bay
Also known as an option slot, a UPS
feature that enables the addition of various
connectivity cards for Web, SNMP,
Modbus or serial connectivity interface
capabilities.
Brownout
A steady state of low voltage, but not
zero voltage. Brownouts often occur
during summer months when energy use
is high.
Canadian Standards Association (CSA)
An independent Canadian organization
that tests for public safety, similar to the
function of Underwriters Laboratories
(UL) in the U.S. As far as we know, it
doesn’t set the rules for hockey.
Capacitor
An electronic component that can store
an electrical charge on conductive plates.
Charger
(1) An electronic component in a UPS that
provides regulated DC voltage to
recharge batteries. (2) An inferior mascot
for an inferior team in the AFC West.
Cloud Computing
(1) Internet- (cloud-) based development
and use of computer technology. This
new supplement, consumption and
delivery model for IT services typically
involves the provision of dynamically
scalable, and often virtualized, resources
as a service over the Internet. (2) Work
done while traveling on a plane.
Common Mode Noise
An undesirable voltage that appears
between the power conductors and
ground.
Eaton 9130 equipped with a communication bay.
Converter
A device that delivers DC power when
energized by a DC source. It’s also a
section of a switching power supply that
performs the actual power conversion
and final rectification.
Crest Factor
Usually refers to current. It’s the
mathematical relationship between RMS
and peak current. A normal resistive load
will have a crest factor of 1.4142, which
is the normal relationship between peak
and RMS current. A typical PC will have a
crest factor of 3. Unrelated to toothpaste.
Critical Equipment
Equipment such as computers,
communications systems or electronic
process controls, which must be
continuously available.
Delta Connection
A circuit formed by connecting three
electrical devices in series to form a
closed loop; most often used in threephase connections. If you fly Delta
Airlines, this most likely takes place in
Atlanta, Salt Lake City or Cincinnati.
Electrical Line Noise
Radio frequency interference (RFI),
electromagnetic interference (EMI) and
other voltage or frequency disturbances.
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
Electrical interference that can cause
equipment to work improperly, EMI can
be separated into conducted EMI
(interference conducted through cables
out of the UPS) and radiated EMI
(interference conducted through the air).
Derating
A reduction of some operating
parameters to compensate for a change
in one or more other parameters. In
power systems, the output power rating
is generally reduced at elevated
temperatures.
Energy Saver System (ESS)
Innovative technology from Eaton that
enables select UPS models to operate at
99% efficiency without compromising
reliability—not to be confused with
inferior “eco” modes.
Direct Current (DC)
An electric current in which the flow of
electrons is in one direction, such as
supplied by a battery.
DC Distribution (DCD)
A module in a DC power system that distributes DC power to the loads. It also
provides protection for the load cables.
ePDU
A power distribution unit that mounts to
rack enclosures and distributes power to
connected devices via a wide variety of
output receptacles.
DC Power System
An AC to DC power supply with
integrated control and monitoring, and
standby batteries designed to supply
no-break DC power (usually 24V or 48V)
to telecommunications and IT network
equipment.
Federal Communications Commission
(FCC)
A U.S. federal regulating body whose
new EMI limitations are affecting the
design and production of digital
electronics systems and their related
subassemblies.
Double Conversion
A UPS design in which the primary power
path consists of a rectifier and inverter. It
isolates the output power from all input
anomalies such as low voltage surges
and frequency variations.
Flooded Batteries
A form of battery where the plates are
completely immersed in a liquid
electrolyte.
Frequency
The number of complete cycles of AC
voltage that occur during one second
(Hz). In North America, electrical current
is supplied mainly at 60 Hz, or 60 cycles
per second.
Downtime
The time during which a functional unit
can’t be used because of a fault within it
or the environment.
Dry Contacts
Dry contact refers to a contact of a relay
which does not make or break a current.
Ground
A conducting connection, whether
intentional or accidental, by which an
electric circuit or equipment is connected
to the earth, or to some conducting body
of relatively large extent that serves in its
place.
Efficiency
The ratio of output to input power.
Generally measured at full-load and
nominal line conditions. If the power
efficiency of a device is 90%, you get
back 90 watts for every 100 you put in,
and the rest is mainly dissipated as heat
from the filtration process. To think of it
another way, this would be equivalent to
a bartender pouring off about an ounce
and a half of your beer before handing
you the remaining 14.5 ounces!
Earth ground symbol
Harmonics
A sinusoidal component of an AC voltage
that’s multiple of the fundamental
waveform frequency. Certain harmonic
patterns may cause equipment problems
Harmonic Distortion
Regularly appearing distortion of the sine
wave which is converted into a complex
waveform at a multiple of the
fundamental frequency.
Hertz (Hz)
A unit of frequency equal to one cycle per
second.
High Efficiency Mode
A mode of UPS operation that cuts
energy usage and operating costs.
High Voltage (HV)
In the context of UPS products, high
voltage is anything ≥200V: 200V, 208V,
220V, 230V, 240V, 250V, 480V and 600V.
High Voltage Spike
Rapid voltage peaks up to 6,000 volts.
Hot Swappable
The ability to change a module without
taking the critical load off the UPS. Also
see “user replaceable.”
The batteries on this Eaton 9130 UPS are hot
swappable.
Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)
A three-terminal power semiconductor
device, noted for high efficiency and fast
switching. It switches electric power in
many modern appliances such as electric
cars, trains and UPSs.
Impedance
The total opposition to alternating current
flow in an electrical circuit.
Input Voltage Range
The voltage range within which a UPS
operates in “normal” mode and doesn’t
require battery power.
Inrush Current
The maximum, instantaneous input
current drawn by an electrical device
when first turned on. Some electrical
devices draw several times their normal
full-load current when initially energized.
Inverter
UPS assembly that converts internal DC
power to output AC power to run the
user’s equipment. When the inverter is
supporting 100% of the load at all times,
as with an online UPS, there is no break
from utility to battery power.
Kilovolt Ampere (kVA)
A common measurement of equipment
capacity equaling 1000 volt-amperes. An
approximation of available power in an AC
system that does not take the power
factor into account.
Kinetic Energy
The energy an object possesses because
of its motion.
Line Conditioner
A device intended to improve the quality
of the power that’s delivered to electrical
load equipment. A line conditioner is
generally designed to improve power
quality (e.g., proper voltage level, noise
suppression, transient impulse protection,
etc.).
Line Interactive
An offline UPS topology in which the
system interacts with the utility line to
regulate the power to the load. Provides
better protection than a standby system
but isn’t as fully prepared against
irregularities as a full double-conversion
system, making it the "Goldilocks" of UPS
topologies.
Linear Load
AC electrical loads where the voltage and
current waveforms are sinusoidal. The
current at any time is proportional to
voltage.
Load
The equipment connected to and
protected by a UPS. Pretty rockin’
Metallica album.
www.eaton.com/powerquality 1.800.356.5794
45
Load Segment
UPS configuration with separate
receptacle groups, enabling scheduled
shutdowns and maximum backup power
time for critical devices.
Nominal Output Voltage
The intended, ideal voltage of any given
output.
Non-linear Load
AC electrical loads where the current is
not proportional to the voltage. Non-linear
loads often generate harmonics in the
current waveform that lead to distortion
of the voltage waveform.
Offline
Any UPS that doesn’t fit the definition of
online. Line-interactive and standby
topologies are offline, as are minor
skirmishes that take place just outside
the boardroom.
This Eaton 9130 UPS is equipped with two load
segments, each with three 5-15R
Low Voltage (LV)
In the context of UPS products, low
voltage is anything <200V (100V and
120V).
Maintenance Bypass
An external wiring path to which the load
can be transferred to upgrade or perform
service on the UPS without powering
down the load.
Make-Before-Break
Operational sequence of a switch or relay
where the new connection is made prior
to disconnecting the existing connection,
that’s also know as soft-load-transfer
switching.
Modbus
A serial communications protocol that’s
the most commonly available means of
connecting industrial electronic devices. It
allows for communication between many
devices connected to the same network.
Network Transient Protector
UPS feature that isolates networks,
modems and cables from power threats,
including surges and spikes.
Noise
(1) A disturbance that affects a signal; it
can distort the information carried by it.
(2) Random variations of one or more
characteristics of any entity, such as
voltage, current or data. (3) Loosely, any
disturbance tending to interfere with
normal operation of a device. (4) What
parents with children deal with every day.
46
Ohm
The unit of measurement for electrical
resistance or opposition to current flow.
Online
(1) A UPS that provides power to the load
from its inverter 100% of the time,
regulating BOTH voltage and frequency,
usually using double-conversion topology.
(2) The most convenient way to shop,
bank, get news, etc.
Orderly Shutdown
The sequenced shutdown of units
comprising a computer system to prevent
damage to it and subsequent corruption
or loss of data.
Output Waveform (UPS)
The shape of the graph of alternating
current on the output side of a UPS. The
highest quality of an output waveform
from a UPS is the sine wave, but, some
UPSs provide step waves or modified
sine waves.
90˚
180˚
270˚
360˚
Sine Wave
Parallel Operation
The ability of UPSs to be connected
so the current from corresponding
outputs can be combined into a
single load.
90˚
180˚
270˚
Peak Demand
The highest 15- or 30-minute demand
recorded during a 12-month period.
Rack Unit (U)
A unit of height measurement in a rack
enclosure. A U is equivalent to 1.75
inches.
Phase
The time relationship between current
and voltage in AC circuits.
Plenum Cable
Cable that’s laid in the plenum spaces of
buildings to facilitate air circulation for
heating and air conditioning systems. The
plenum space is typically used to house
computer and telephone network
communication cables. Cable that runs
between floors in non-plenum areas is
rated as riser cable.
The Eaton 5PX UPS occupies 2U of rack space and
the optional extended battery module also
occupies 2U.
Rail Kit
A set of metal brackets that allows the
installation of a UPS or extended battery
module in a 2- or 4-post rack.
Plug and Play
An electrical device that doesn’t require
extensive setup to operate.
Power Factor (PF)
(1) The ratio of real power to apparent
power. Watts divided by VA. Most power
supplies used in communication and
computer equipment have a power factor
of 0.9.
Four-post rail kit
(PF = 0.9)
VA x PF = W
W/PF = VA
(2) Why DeNiro can get immediate
seating in any restaurant he wants, and
you can’t.
Power Sag
Low voltage (below nominal 120 volts).
Power Surge
High voltage (above nominal 120 volts).
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
A circuit used in switching regulated
power supplies where the switching
frequency is held constant and the width
of the power pulse is varied, controlling
both lines and load changes with minimal
dissipation.
360˚
Partition
A logical division of a hard disk created
to have different operating systems on
the same hard disk or to create the
appearance of having separate hard
eaton corporation Power Quality
drives for file management, multiple
users, or other purposes.
Rackmount
Ability to mount an electrical assembly
into a standardized rack. Generally
stacked up to 42U and 19 inches wide
— about the size of a pizza box but not
as greasy.
UPS in a two-post rack
Rectifier
A UPS component that converts incoming
AC power to DC power for feeding the
inverter and charging the battery.
Rectifier Magazine (RM)
A module in the DC power system used
to connect the rectifiers in the power
system.
Redundancy
The ability to connect units in parallel so if
one fails the other(s) will provide
continual power to the load. This mode
is used in systems when power failure
can’t be tolerated.
Relay Communication
Communication between a UPS and
a computer through the opening and
closing of solid-state relays that are
pre-defined to indicate UPS status.
Standby
(1) UPS type that "stands by," waiting for
a power problem from the utility company
and rapidly switching to UPS battery
power to protect equipment against
power failures, sags and surges. (2) The
person you call after your hot date falls
through, and the two of you go out for
milkshakes in your sweatpants instead.
Root Mean Square (RMS)
A modified average. Averaging a sine
wave would give a zero, so to obtain
meaningful values, the wave is first
squared (S), then averaged over one
period (M) and finally the square root
taken (R). In a sine wave, the factor
between RMS and peak is the square
root of two. If you know what that
means, you’re pretty smart!
Static Switch
An electrical component in a UPS that
turns power flow on and off on command
without moving or mechanical
components.
Step Load
An instantaneous change in the loading
conditions presented to the output of
a UPS.
RS-232
(1) The standard for serial interfaces
(serial refers to the eight bits of each
character successively sent down one
wire) used by most computers, modems
and printers. (2) A little known droid in the
Star Wars trilogy.
Switching Frequency
The rate at which the source voltage
is switched in a switching regulator
or chopped in a DC-to-DC converter.
Simple Network Management Protocal
(SNMP)
A User Datagram Protocol (UDP)-based
network protocol. It’s used mostly in
network management systems to
monitor network-attached devices for
conditions that warrant administrative
attention.
Technischer Uberwachungs-Verein (TUV)
An independent non-profit organization
that tests and certifies electrical
equipment for public safety in the U.S.
and worldwide.
The Far Side
The greatest cartoon strip ever. Created
by Gary Larson.
Sine Wave
A mathematical function that plots three
qualities of an electrical signal over time:
amplitude, frequency and phase. Clean,
uninterrupted power is represented by a
sine waves, which can also resemble
ocean waves, though they're rarely
perfect.
Thermal Regulation
Monitoring the temperature of the
batteries to ensure proper charging.
Three Phase
(1) Power supplied through at least three
wires, each carrying power from a
common generator but offset in its cycle
from the other two. Used for heavy-duty
applications. (2) The universal healing
process after buying inferior power
protection:
Single Phase
(1) Power system with one primary
waveform. Lower-capacity distribution of
power using only one portion of a power
source that’s three-phase, like what's
supplied by most electric utilities. Used
for heating and lighting, no large motors
or other heavy-drain devices. (2) That part
of junior high school in which you briefly
but fiercely embrace an unusual hobby or
interest, like lawn bowling, never to
return to it.
1. Denial
2. Anger
3. Calling Eaton
Topology (UPS)
The core technology of a UPS. Typically, a
UPS is either standby, line interactive or
online though other hybrid technologies
have been introduced.
Sliding Demand
Calculating average demand by averaging
demand over several successive time
intervals, advancing one interval at a time.
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
(1) How much the circuit voltage deviates
from a perfect sine wave. When viewed
on a meter, a poor voltage THD is most
often manifested in a flat-topped
waveform that comes from the inability
of a power source to respond to the
demands of highly nonlinear loads. (2)
The parts of a difficult lecture that didn't
quite make it into your brain, but rather
united in a "blahblahblah" cacophony of
scratchy-sounding jargon and esoteric
corollaries.
Transfer Time
The length of time it takes a UPS to
transfer to battery power. Typically
measured in milliseconds (ms).
Transformer
(1) A magnetic device that converts AC
voltages to AC voltages at any level. An
ideal transformer is a lossless device in
which no energy is stored that requires
no magnetic current. (2) An alien robot
that can disguise itself by transforming
into everyday machinery.
Transient
(1) A temporary and brief change in a
given parameter, typically associated with
input voltage or output loading
parameters. (2) Transient killer whale
pods are generally comprised of an adult
female and two or three of her offspring.
Among the differences between
residents and transients are that while
resident orcas of both sexes stay within
shouting distance of their mothers their
entire lives, only first-born male transients
maintain such intense fidelity to their
mothers.
Unbalanced Load
(1) An AC power system using more than
two wires, where the current is not equal
due to an uneven loading of the phases.
(2) A load that makes your washing
machine go, “whump, whump, whump.”
Underwriters Laboratories (UL)
An independent non-profit organization
that tests for public safety in the U.S. UL
recognition is required for equipment
used in some applications.
Uninterruptible Power System (UPS)
(1) An electrical system designed to
provide instant, transient-free backup
power during power failure or fault. Some
UPSs also filter and/or regulate utility
power (line conditioning). (2) A Device
whose sole purpose is to save your
equipment, your data and your job.
User Replaceable
Capable of being replaced by an end user.
Connected equipment may need to be
shut down first. Also see “hot
swappable.”
Variable Module Management System
(VMMS)
Innovative technology from Eaton that
maximizes UPS efficiencies at low load
levels while supplying the load with
continuous double-conversion power.
Virtualization
The creation of a virtual (rather than
actual) version of something, such as an
operating system, server, storage device
or network resource. Operating system
virtualization is the use of software to
allow a piece of hardware to run multiple
operating system images at the same
time.
Volt/Voltage (V)
Electrical pressure that pushes current
through a circuit. High voltage in a
computer circuit is represented by 1,
while low (or zero) voltage is represented
by 0.
Volt Amps (VA)
(1) The voltage applied to a given piece
of equipment, multiplied by the current it
draws. Not to be confused with watts,
which are similar but represent the actual
power drawn by the equipment, and can
be somewhat lower than the VA rating.
(2) Legendary Brigadier General from
Planet Zap.
Volts Alternating Current (Vac)
Volts Direct Current (Vdc)
Watts (W)
The measure of real power. It’s the rate
of doing electrical work. W x 1.3 = VA.
Wye Connection
A connection of three components made
in such a manner that one end of each
component is connected. It’s generally
used to connect devices to a three-phase
power system.
www.eaton.com/powerquality 1.800.356.5794
47
UNITED STATES
8609 Six Forks Road
Raleigh, NC 27615 U.S.A.
Toll Free: 1.800.356.5794
www.eaton.com/powerquality
Canada
Ontario: 416.798.0112
Toll free: 1.800.461.9166
LATIN AMERICA
South Cone: 54.11.4124.4000
Brazil: 55.11.3616.8500
Andean & Caribbean:
1.949.452.9610
Mexico & Central America:
52.55.9000.5252
Europe/Middle East/Africa
Denmark: 45.3686.7910
Finland: 358.94.52.661
France: 33.1.6012.7400
Germany: 49.0.7841.604.0
Italy: 39.02.66.04.05.40
Norway: 47.23.03.65.50
Portugal: 55.11.3616.8500
Sweden: 46.8.598.940.00
United Kingdom: 44.1753.608.700
Asia Pacific
Australia: 61.2.9693.9366
New Zealand: 64.0.3.343.3314
China: 86.21.6361.5599
HK/Korea/Taiwan: 852.2745.6682
India: 91.11.4223.2300
Singapore/SEA: 65.6825.1668
Eaton and Powerware are trade names,
trademarks, and/or service marks of
Eaton Corporation or its subsidiares.
All other trademarks are property of
their respective owners.
© 2011 Eaton Corporation
All Rights Reserved
Printed in USA
COR172FYA
August 2011
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement