Assessment Theory Sheets for Teachers

Assessment Theory Sheets for Teachers
Aerobics - Theory/Fact Sheet
Aerobics is a life time activity which will provide students a low- economic method of
improving cardio-vascular fitness, strength, endurance and coordination. This will also
afford students the opportunity to become knowledgably in understanding their target
heart rate and fitness goals and become physically fit through low and high impact motor
and non-motor movements.
Safety Concerns
— Exercise in open areas with good lighting
— Exercise with a friend
— Let someone know where you’ll be and what time you’ll return
— Dress for the weather.
— Listen to your body signals.
— Exercise at least two or three times weekly
— Warm up before exercising
— Cool down after each session
Terminology
Aerobic dance - continuous and rhythmic movement to music intended to improve
cardiovascular fitness.
Choreographed routines- formally arranged step patterns taught in the same sequence each time the
routine is performed.
Cueing- verbal and nonverbal techniques used to inform participants of upcoming movements.
Dehydration-state in which the body has lost more water than has been taken in
Freestyle routine-aerobic movements that are done in random fashion
High impact aerobics- dance style characterized by movement that requires both feet to
leave the floor
Lifelong fitness- the ability to stay healthy and fit as you age
Low impact aerobics- dance style requiring that one foot remain on the floor most of the
time
Muscular strength- maximum amount of work a muscle can do at a given time
Physical fitness- the ability of the body to perform daily tasks without getting out of
breath, sore, or overly tired while avoiding diseases related to a lack of activity
Target heart rate zone- range that should be reached during exercise to gain cardio-respiratory
health benefits
Tempo- rate of speed of music played; determined by counting the number of beats per
minute
Warm-up- a five- to ten-minute period of mild exercise that prepares your body for more
vigorous exercise
Four Main Aerobic Sequences
— Warm up/Pre Stretch
— Aerobic Activity
— Cool Down
— Final Stretch
Four Benefits of Aerobic Fitness
— Develops overall fitness
— Improves flexibility, strength, cardiovascular fitness and body composition
— Develop coordination and balance
— Provides opportunity for social interaction
Examples of Aerobic Exercise
— Swimming
— Brisk walking
— Dancing
— Jumping rope
— Cross-country skiing
Additional Benefits of Aerobics
— Appearance
— Increased energy level
— Improved self esteem
Aquatics/Swimming - Theory/Fact Sheet
Aquatic training is a life-time activity and survival skill. Aquatics can be beneficially
healthy for fitness and wellness. The unit will express the positive impact of swimming,
mentally, physically and socially. Students will be introduced to basic life- saving
techniques, aquatic safety, strokes, breathing techniques and water survival skills. (Where
applicable)
Safety Concerns
— Always swim in a facility with a lifeguard
— Know the depth of the water before you enter
— Never swim alone
— Do not eat or chew gum while swimming
— Obey all rules and regulations of the facility
— Know your limits
— Never swim when tired
Terminology
Buoyancy- characteristic of water that holds a person up
Dive- headfirst entry into the water with arms outstretched in front of head and legs straight and together
Inhale/Exhale- breathing in through the mouth and out through the nose and mouth
Finning- basic form of propulsion taught to beginning swimmers while on their backs
Float- maintaining motionless posture on the surface of the water
Glide- move through the water with body fully extended after a dive or push off
Jump- feet first entry from poolside or from a spring board
Tread Water- combination of hand/arm movements, along with a kick, to keep above
surface
Basic Skills
— Water Entry
— Breathing
— Floating
Strokes
— Backstroke
— Breaststroke
— Sidestroke
Additional Benefits of Aquatics/Swimming
— Appearance
— Increased energy level
— Improved self esteem
— Lifetime Activity
— Survival Skills
— Rescue Skills
Badminton- Theory/ Fact Sheet
The objective of the game is to hit the shuttle back and forth over a net until a point is
scored. The team/person who reaches the determined amount of points first wins.
Students will be introduced to a life-time recreational activity to develop quick eye-hand
coordination, strength and balance. Emphasis will be placed on the rules and regulations,
safety and being a team player.
History
— Badminton evolved from a game called battledore that was played in China in
5th century
— Played in England in the fourteenth century
— Introduced in US in 1878
— 1936 American Badminton Association organized
— Became an Olympic medal sport in 1992
Equipment
— Racket is made of lightweight material like wood, plastic or metal.
— Shuttlecock (birdie) – made of feathers, nylon or plastic mesh
Terminology
Around the head shot- overhead forehand stroke taken when the shuttle is on the
backhand side of the body
Backhand-stroke made on the non-racket side of the body
Block-return of opponents smash
Carry-shuttle illegally stays in contact with the racket during the stroke
Clear-a shot hit deep into the opponent's court
Crosscourt-shot hit diagonally into the opposite court
Drive-a fast and low shot that makes a horizontal flight over the net
Drop-shot that just clears the net
Fault-a violation of the playing rules
Forehand-stroke made on the racket side of the body
Game point-the point that allows the server to win the game(if won)
Inning-time during which a team or player keeps the serve
Let-a minor violation of the rules allowing a rally to be replayed
Love-term used to indicate a score of zero (0)
Match-a series of games to determine a winner
Match point-the point that wins the match for the server (if won)
Setting-choosing the number of points to play when certain tie scores are reached
Side out-when the serve is lost
Smash-fast, downward overhead stroke
Underhand-stroke that is hit upward from below shoulder level
Scoring
A player/team can only score when they have the serve.
Fifteen points win the game
When serving, if the servers score is even, the serve is taken from the right side, and when
the score is an odd number, it is taken from the left
Rules
A coin toss or spin of the racket determines who will serve first
A player may not touch the net with a racket or body during play
A birdie may not come to rest or be carried on the racket
A birdie may hit the net on its way across during play and the rally can continue
A player may not reach over the net to hit the shuttlecock
A loss of serve is called a side out
Different types of shots are the lob, drop shot, smash and drive
The serve must be hit diagonally across court
A serve that touches the net and lands in the proper court is called a let
A serve that is totally missed may be tried again
The racket must make contact with the birdie below the waist on a serve
The server and receiver must stand within their respective service courts until the serve is
made
All lines are considered in bounds
Diagram
Basketball- Theory/ Fact Sheet
This unit will review previously learned fundamentals and introduce advanced sport
specific skills and strategies of basketball to be able to participate in a life-time activity.
The unit affords students the ability to cooperate and work as team. Students will receive
the skills and knowledge to participate in a regulation game complete with officials and
full court regulations.
History
— Designed by James Naismith in 1891
— Now professionally played by both men and women
Terminology
Bounce pass – pushing ball toward a teammate so that the ball bounces 1 time before
arriving at the receiving player’s waistline.
Box out – a technique used when rebounding to position your body so that the opponent
cannot get the ball.
Chest pass – pushing the ball with two hands toward a teammate so that the ball never
bounces and arrives at about chest level.
Dribbling – pushing the ball toward the floor using the fingertips of 1 hand so that the
ball returns back to about waist height in order to be pushed back toward the floor again.
Double dribble- when a player stops his/her dribble and then decides to dribble again
Foul- an infraction of the rules which can lead to a free throw or possession of the ball
Free throw – a 1 point shot from the free throw line. During a free throw, the clock is
stopped and the player shooting is unguarded.
Give and go- a player passes the ball to a teammate and then immediately cuts to the
basket
Jump shot – a technique used to shoot the ball toward the basket. It is important to bend
at the knees to ease the amount of effort the arms need to expend during a jump shot.
Lay-up – a 2 point field goal that is scored close enough to the basket that a jump shot is
not required. When performing a lay-up with the right hand, a player should jump off of
the opposite foot.
Man to man defense – in man to man defense, every player is responsible to guard one
player Overhead pass – throwing the ball using a similar motion to that of throwing a
baseball when a player is open down-court and cannot be reached with a bounce pass or a
chest pass.
Passing – act of giving the ball to another player
Post up – the act of pinning an opponent behind your back deep under the basket in order
to easily receive a pass and be in scoring position.
Setting a pick – the act of sneaking up and standing right next to a teammate’s defender
to make a cut and the defender to run into the person setting a pick so that the other
teammate is now unguarded
Traveling Violation- if a player takes 3 steps after picking up his or her dribble while
moving
Zone defense – in zone defense, each player is responsible to cover a designated area
Equipment
— Basketball
— Backboard & Hoop
Playing Area
— A basketball court measures 90 feet in length and 50 feet in width
— The rim is 10 feet above the playing surface.
Players/Positions
— Guard – handles and distributes the basketball to teammates. The guard is
usually a smaller player who is quick and has good vision. The guard can be a
scoring threat, however, the guard spends a lot of time creating space to that
other teammates can get an open shot.
— Forward – the two forwards are usually bigger than the guards and do
majority of the scoring for an offense. Forwards must have a decent jump
shot and an inside game as well.
— Center – the center is usually the tallest player on the team. He/she has the
responsibility of playing underneath the basket majority of the game in order
to get rebounds and create an inside threat.
These main players also play defense. Two defensive strategies are:
— Man to man defense – every player is responsible to guard one player on the
opposing team no matter where that player goes. This is used to pressure the
other team into making quick decisions and hopefully create a turnover.
During man to man defense teams are vulnerable because if a player gets beat,
the offensive team has a huge advantage.
— Zone defense –each player is responsible to cover a designated area. If an
offensive player moves through a designated area and then into another, the
defensive player will fall back and let another teammate cover that offensive
player.
Scoring
— 2 point field goal – a shot made anywhere inside the “arc” during game-play
— 3 point field goal – a shot made anywhere behind the “arc” during game-play
— Free Throw – 1 point for an unguarded shot from behind the free throw line
Rules
Women’s basketball is played at the professional level in the United States.
The NBA incorporates a shot-clock which gives the team with the ball 24 seconds from
the moment they gain possession of the ball to attempt a shot at the basket.
There are 5 players on the court for each team.
An offensive team has 10 seconds to get the ball past half-court by either dribbling or
passing
A defensive player can stop a pass with any part of the body except the legs and feet.
Depending on the level of play, players are allowed either 5 or 6 fouls before “foulingout” of the game.
Diagram
Bowling - Theory/Fact Sheet
This unit will provide an introduction to a life-time activity to enhance strength and
coordination. Students will receive basic fundamentals of the skills and strategies to
participate in the sport both competitively and socially.
History
— The sport of bowling originated in Germany.
— The American Bowling Congress is the organization that oversees, sets the
rules and governs the sport of bowling.
Safety Considerations
— One person bowls at a time.
— Proper bowling shoes
Terminology
Anchor- the last person who bowls on the team
Book- when the ball hits between the #1 and #3 pin
Brooklyn side- when the ball hits on the left side between the #1 and #2 pins
Head pin- # 1 pin in the set-up
Laying a foundation- is when you get a strike in the 9th frame.
Sleeper pin- when one pin is hidden behind another
Equipment
— Bowling ball- The ball must be round, solid, have a circumference of no more
than 27 inches, and weigh between 10 and 16 pounds. Most bowlers use a ball
drilled with 3 holes: one for the thumb, one for the ring finger, and one for the
middle finger. You may also see some bowling balls with more than 3 holes.
This allows players to be able to adjust their hand position on the ball during a
game.
— Bowling shoes
Playing Area
— Foul line to pins, which are numbered left to right starting with the #1 pin,
measures 60 feet long.
Scoring
The bowling score is cumulative; the score made in a frame is added to the running total of the
previous frames.
A strike is awarded if the bowler knocks down all their pins on the first roll in of the
frame.
A spare is awarded if the bowler knocks down all their pins with two balls rolled in the
frame.
The maximum possible score in a frame is 30, which would result from three strikes in a
row.
The maximum possible score in a game of bowling is 300, which represents 12
consecutive strikes.
Scoring in bowling involves a bonus system. The bonus for the strike is 10 plus the
number of pins knocked down on the next two balls rolled. The bonus for the spare is 10
plus the number of the pins knocked down on the next roll.
Add the actual pin count to the running total if a bowler knocks down less than 10 pins
with the two balls rolled in the frame.
Scoring continued
Tom
1
2
3
X
30
X
57
X
76
4
5
7 2 8
85
95
6
9
104
7
8
X
124
7
143
9
9
X
152
Symbols
X
Strike
9
9
Spare
Miss
Rules
Proper manners also known as etiquette is very important in bowling.
A bowling game consists of 10 frames and the bowler tries to knock down as many pins
as possible with one or two balls each frame.
The bowler with the highest score after 10 frames is the winner.
Lane Diagram
10
Pin Set-Up
X 8
180
Flag Football- Theory/Fact Sheet
This unit provides students an opportunity to acquire and practice fundamental skills of
football. Emphasis will be placed on the knowledge of the game, rules and team
strategies through participation. All students will be given the opportunity to participate
at any and all positions.
Safety Considerations
— Non-Contact
— Play stops when whistle blows
Terminology
Center- the offensive lineman who snaps the football to the quarterback
Down- when the ball becomes dead, each team gets four chances to try to score a
touchdown or advance the ball to achieve a first down
Dead ball- the ball becomes dead when the ball carrier’s flag becomes detached, when
any part of the ball carrier’s body other than the hands and feet touch the ground, an
incomplete pass, a fumble, and when the ball goes out of bounds
Defense- the team that does not have possession of the ball
End zone- the area between the goal line and the end line where touchdowns occur
Fake- a move made by a player for the purpose of deceiving an opponent
First down- the first of four attempts to move the football forward into the end zone or to the
center line
Fumble- the ball carrier drops the ball while in their possession
Handoff- an exchange of the football from the quarterback to a teammate
Interception- when the defense catches a ball that was meant to be caught by the
offensive team
Line of Scrimmage- imaginary line drawn from the forward tip of the football to the
sideline
Offense- the team that has possession of the football
Offside- Movement across the line of scrimmage before the football is snapped
Safety-an offensive player having possession of the football is downed in their own end
zone
Touchdown- an offensive player having possession of the football in the opponent’s end
zone
Equipment
— Waist belts & flags
— Football
— Down markers
Playing Area
— The playing area is 100 yards long by 40 yards wide
— The field is divided into four 20 yard zones and two 10 yard end zones
Players
Offensive
—
—
—
—
—
Center
4 Offensive Line Players
Quarterback
2 Halfbacks
Flanker
Defensive
—
—
—
—
3 Defensive Line Players
2-3 Linebackers
Cornerback
1-2 Safety
Scoring
— Touchdown- 6 points
— Extra Point- 1 Point
— Field Goal- 3 Points
— Safety- 2 Points
Rules
8 players on the field- 4 men, 4 women
Game starts with coin toss
Detached flag means the play is over
No blocking allowed
Only forward passes allowed
Must announce when attempting a kick
or field goal
Unlimited substitutions
Play stops when whistle blows
Diagram
E
N
D
Z
O
N
E
E
N
D
Z
O
N
E
Floor Hockey- Theory/Fact Sheet
The game of hockey is thought to be dated back to the ancient Greeks. The objective of
the game is to get the ball/puck in the opponent’s goal through dribbling, a series of
passes and shots within the boundaries of the playing area.
Safety Considerations
— Keep sticks below the waist
— Play stops when whistle blows
— Do not enter the goal crease
Terminology
Backhand- passes or shots using the back of the head of the stick
Crease- area in which the goalie is the only one to enter
Face off- starts the game off and occurs after each goal is scored or penalty is committed
High Sticking- when the stick comes above the waist
Holding- using your stick to hold another players stick
Hooking- using your stick to take another players stick away
Off-sides- when a player enters an area they are not allowed
Penalty- an infraction of the rules
Penalty Shot- an unobstructed free shot awarded for a penalty
Power Play- when a team plays with one less player due to a penalty
Slap Shot- a shot made using a slapping motion
Slashing- using the stick to hit another players stick or body
Two line pass- an illegal pass that crosses over two lines of the playing area
Wrist shot- shot made with a flick of the wrist
Equipment
— Sticks
— Goal keeper equipment
— Protective equipment
— Puck
— Goals
— Pinny
Players
— Three forwards
— Two defense players (right & left)
— Goalie
The defense players may only stay in the area by the goal. The three forwards score the
majority of the team’s goals, but must also play defense.
Scoring
A goal is scored when the ball/puck completely crosses the goal line in the opponent’s
goal. It must be shot with a stick in order to count, not kicked in. After each goal is
scored a face-off must occur at center court.
The game begins with a face-off. All players must be behind the center line on their side
of the floor. The ball/puck is dropped between the two centers that are facing each other
with their sticks on the floor.
Rules
Teams consist of 6 players. A substitution may be made when play is stopped.
A goal is scored when the ball/puck completely crosses the opponents’ goal line.
A player may not enter the opponents’ goal crease. If a goal is scored while an opponent
is in the crease the goal does not count.
Body checking, pushing, or other rough play is not allowed and will result in a timed
penalty. A penalty occurs when the offending team plays with one less player for a
period of time, this is known as a power play. The player that is removed from the game
for a certain time is the player who committed the violation.
A player must not raise the stick above the waist.
An offside pass occurs when the ball/puck is passed across two playing lines. When this
occurs a face-off is held in the opponents’ neutral zone.
Players may use their hands to catch/knock a high-flying ball/puck straight down to the
floor. They may not attempt to advance the puck with the hands. Only the goalie may
grasp the ball/puck with hands to stop play.
When the referee blows the whistle all play stops.
Floor
Hockey
Diagram
Golf - Theory/Fact Sheet
Through participation the students will acquire skills to enhance their quality of life and
fitness levels. The unit is designed to provide students with the fundamental knowledge
and etiquette for a life-time activity. Golf is an activity of discipline, focus and skill.
History
— Historians state that the game of originated in Scotland.
Safety Concerns
— Never walk in front of someone’s putting line
Terminology
Back nine- last nine holes on the golf course that will complete the round
Birdie- when a golfer scores one shot less then the hole requires
Bogey- one stroke more then the hole requires
Divots- marks left on the golf course after shots are made
Front nine- the first nine holes
Irons- clubs numbered 2-9 used for different shots at different distances
Par- when the hole is finished in the required strokes
Putter- golf club with a flat surface used on the green and other flat surfaces
Woods- golf clubs used to hit the ball further
Equipment
— Appropriate dress on the golf course should consist of long pants, shorts, and
a collared shirt.
— Soft spike golf
— Clubs
Playing Area
— A regulation golf course consists of a total of eighteen holes.
— A standard hole in golf consists of the tee-box, the rough, the fairway, sand
traps, water hazards, the green, and the flag-stick.
Scoring
The objective in golf is to get the ball from the teeing area into the hole on the green in
the fewest number of strokes.
The penalty for a bad shot is to replace the ball two club lengths from the spot of the
penalty and the ball cannot be any closer to the hole.
Man made objects such as water hazards require two penalty strokes when your ball lands
in or around them.
Rules
Each hole begins by the golfer hitting first shot from the tee-box.
The proper etiquette in golf is to allow the person who has won the previous hole with the
low score to go first on the next hole. This is known as “honors”.
In golf the golfer tries to get the ball on the green where the flag stick and hole are.
A good golf swing requires that the hips should face the hole when completed.
Anytime you lift or move the golf ball off any surface you must mark the spot where the
ball was.
The landing area for any tee shot should be to land in the fairway the area between the tee
and green.
Diagram
Handball - Theory/Fact Sheet
Handball is a game that requires the use of many fundamental motor skills and
coordination to participate in a life-time activity. This unit is designed to enhance eyehand coordination, speed and accuracy.
Terminology
Ace- a perfect serve that is not returnable by the opposing player/team
Fault- when a player steps over the outer edge of the service or short line during a serve
Forehand stroke – when the ball is approaching a player anywhere between knees and
chest height, the player must position himself/herself on either side of the ball. In the
forehand stroke, the arm starts out extended and away from the body and then crosses in
front of the chest. Long line- line that is 34 feet from the wall
Non-dominate return – when a player returns the ball using any of the strokes with
his/her non-dominate hand Overhead stroke – when the ball is approaching a player and it is over his/her shoulder,
the player’s arm starts behind the head and swings upward and then in front of the body.
The overhead stroke resembles a person throwing a baseball. Serve – a player must be in the service zone. A serve puts the ball in play. Service zone- area for a player to serve
Short line- line that is 16 feet from the wall
Spike- when a player slams the ball toward the base of the wall making it very difficult
for an opponent to return.
Out- when a player/team loses a serve.
Underhand stroke – when the ball is approaching a player and it is very close to the
ground, a player must swing his/her arm downward toward the floor in order to make a
play on the ball. The underhand stroke resembles the motion used in bowling. Equipment
— Ball
— Playing Area
Playing Area
— Handball is played on a court that measures 20 feet wide by 34 feet in length.
Scoring
— Handball matches are played up to 21 points.
— A point is only awarded to a player/team who serves.
— When a player serves and the opposing team cannot return the ball, 1 point is
awarded to the team or player that served.
— If the player or team who did not serve hits a ball that is not returnable by the
opposition, that player or team is awarded a chance to serve.
Rules
Players are allowed to serve and return the ball with either hand.
Handball is a fast-paced game that provides a vigorous aerobic workout.
Proper footwork is extremely important to being successful in handball.
Handball can be played on a court with 1 wall, or on a court with 3 walls.
Even though rules may vary based on the number of players in a match, handball can be
played with 1, 2, 3, or 4 people.
The line that is 34 feet from the wall is known as the long line.
The line that is 16 feet from the wall is known as the short line.
In order for a player to serve, he/she must be standing in the service zone.
When a player/team loses a serve it is called an out.
When a player steps over the outer edge of the service or short line during a serve it is
considered a fault.
A perfect serve that is not returnable by the opposing player/team is called an ace.
Similar to volleyball, players in handball can use a spike. This is when a player slams the
ball toward the base of the wall making it very difficult for an opponent to return.
Gloves are required in competitive handball.
Diagram
International Dance - Theory/Fact Sheet
This unit will provide students with the skills to perform and appreciate dance as an art and a
form of physical fitness as a life-time activity. Fitness can be achieved by applying the concepts
of rhythm, movement and bio-mechanics to execute various forms of dance. In addition, dance is
cultural, interactive and a method of non-verbal communication.
Safety Concerns
— Listen to directions
— Always warm up properly
— Proper attire and footwear
Terminology
Choreographed routines- formally arranged step patterns taught in the same sequence each time the routine is
performed.
Cueing- verbal and nonverbal techniques used to inform participants of upcoming movements.
Lifelong fitness- the ability to stay healthy and fit as you age
Tempo- rate of speed of music played; determined by counting the number of beats per minute
Warm-up- a five- to ten-minute period of mild exercise that prepares your body for more vigorous
exercise
Eight International Dances
— Samba
— Mambo
— Salsa
— Tango
— Rhumba
— Cha-Cha
— Merengue
— Bollywood
Samba
a.
Stand with feet shoulder-length apart. Keep feet this width as you come out of and
go into each new move.
b. Step back with right foot and do a quick bounce. Bring feet together. Bend knees
slightly coming back together to keep that “bounce effect”. Step forward with left
foot and do a quick bounce again. Bring feet together. Remember to bend knees
c. Take a step to right side and bounce, bring feet together. Bend your knees. The
music timing will also help you remember this. (This move is called a Cuban move)
d. Go back to left side and bounce, bring feet back together. Bend your knees again.
e. Move forward with left foot and turn slightly with your right foot. Propel body
around 100 degrees moving with your left foot and guiding with your right.
f. Transition right back in the Cuban move after the last step, which completes the
basic Samba steps.
Mambo
Leader
a.
b.
c.
d.
Stand with your feet together facing your partner
Place your right hand on your partner’s waist
Extend your left hand, palm up, to your side with your arm bent
Grasp your partner’s hand in a loose grip
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
Wait for music to start
Listen for first beat
On second beat, step back with your right foot
On third beat, shift your weight to your left foot
On the fourth beat, step forward with your right to bring your feet together again.
Shift your weight back to your right.
j. Pause for the fifth beat
k. On the sixth beat, shift your weight to your left foot and step forward
l. One the seventh beat, shift your weight back to your right foot
m. On the eighth and final beat, shift your weight back to your left and step back,
bringing your feet together.
Partner
a. Follow the leader
b. Place your left hand on their right shoulder
c. Bend right elbow and place of your right hand lightly on your leader’s outstretched
palm
d. Wait for the music to start
e. Listen for first beat
f. On second beat, step forward with your left foot
g. Continue following, in reverse, the direction of the leader
Salsa
a. Relax. Salsa is all about the rhythm and it’s hard to have rhythm when you’re tense
b. Listen to the music. You are to mimic the rhythm of the drums with your feet. Just
follow the general pattern they lay out
c. Take small steps in time with the music. The faster the music goes, the smaller your
steps have to be. Bend your leg, and then straighten it, with every step you take
d. Lead with the balls of your feet no matter which direction you’re stepping in. Don’t
wiggle your hips, the characteristic salsa hip and leg movements come naturally if
you make sure to shift your weight with every step
e. Remember to relax, breathe, and stand up straight. Remember keep your feet moving
to the rhythm
Tango
a. Face your partner and stand close together that your torsos are touching
b. If you’re the leader, place right hand on the middle of partner’s lower back. Extend
left hand out to side with arm bent and grasp partner’s right hand in a loose grip.
Your partner should place right hand lightly in your palm with their right elbow bent
c. On the first beat, walk forward slowly with left foot, placing down your heel first
and then toes. Your partner will mirror each movement on every beat throughout the
dance- in this step the partner will be moving right foot backward, landing their toes
and then their heel
d. On the second beat, step forward slowly with your right foot so it moves past the left
e. On the third beat, step forward slowly with your left foot then immediately slide
your right foot quickly to the right side and shift your weight to that foot.
f. On the fourth beat, bring your left foot slowly to your right, leaving your left foot
slightly bent as your feet come together. Your weight should still be on the right foot
g. Now shift your weight to your left foot and do a right forward rock step. While
making a half turn clockwise, quickly shift your weight back to your left foot. With
your right foot, slowly step forward to complete the half turn
h. Bring your feet together, bring your left foot up next to your right and repeat steps c-g
Rhumba
Leader
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.
Partner
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Stand opposite your partner
Place your right hand on their waist
Extend your left hand to chest height with your elbow bent and your palm raised
Grasp your partner’s hand in a loose grip
Listen to the 2/4 or 4/4 beat as the music begins
Step with your left foot when you hear the beat: two feet to the left
Follow with your right foot
Step with your left foot: two feet forward
Step with your right foot: forward two feet and to the right two feet, in one fluid motion
Bring your left foot to meet your right
Step with your right foot: backward two feet
Bring your left foot to meet your right
Repeat
Follower the leader
Place your left hand on your partner’s shoulder
Place your right in hand in your partner’s outstretched hand
Step forward when your partner steps back
Step back when your partner steps forward
Mirror your partner’s moves as they make their steps
Cha- Cha
Leader
a. Stand opposite your partner
b. Place your right hand high on your partner’s back, under their shoulder blade.
c. Extend left hand to chest height with your with your elbow bent and your palm
raised
d. Grasp your partner’s right hand in a loose grip
e. Listen to the rhythm of the music when it begins
f. Steps to the left and slightly backward with your left foot
g. Step forward with your right
h. Bring your left foot into your right and close your feet together
i. Step to the right and slightly forward with your right foot
j. Step forward with your left foot, rocking up on your right heel as you do so.
k. Step back with your right foot
l. Step to the left with your left foot and bring your right foot in to close the step
m. Repeat
Partner
a. Follow the leader
b. Place your left hand on your partner’s shoulder
c. Place your right hand in your partner’s outstretched hand
d. Step forward when your partner steps back
e. Step back when your partner steps forward
f. Mirror your partners moves as they make their moves
Merengue
Leader
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
Partner
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Stand opposite your partner
Place your right hand high on your partner’s waist
Extend left hand to chest height with your elbow bent and palm raised
Grasp your partner’s hand in a loose grip
Place your feet shoulder width apart
Bend your legs slightly
Lift your feet to the beat of the music. Drag or shuffle your feet lightly
Move your hips to the beat of the music
Follower the leader
Place your left hand on your partner’s shoulder
Place your right hand in your partner’s outstretched hand
Step forward when your partner steps back
Step back when your partner steps forward
Mirror your partner’s moves as they make their moves
Bollywood
a. Hands on right hip, right foot on toe, left foot flat.
b. Move right hip up and down using a 4 count, alternate sides for a total of 16 ct
c. Step back right, left, right then left, right, left. Arms at chest. Level, hands are palms
up bending back and forth towards body (come hither motion) Leaning to the side
that is going back
d. Step forward right, left, right then left, right, left. Arms are shimmying forward
slightly down up movement. Repeat steps c-d.
e. Around the world. Left foot stays in place right foot goes out to side (counter clockwise)
and makes full turn hesitating at each ¼ turn. Repeat with right foot in place (clockwise).
Arms are out to side.
f. Limp Step: one foot on toe other flat. Movement toe, flat, toe, flat. Body bends up
and down while doing hand roll
g. Crossover full turn: right over left spinout. Arms down at side at crossover, cross in, open
out while turning.
h. Take right foot step together, left foot step together. Arms at sides in a down up
movement.
i. Limp step in place, left foot in place right foot on toe doing touches in an around
motion. Arms: right foot right arm chest level, left arm aside head both using turning
light bulb movement.
j. Repeat step h
k. Limp step with left foot in place. Hands are at side of face palms out at eye level,
going twisting back and forth
l. Repeat step h
m. Limp step with left foot in place. Hands are lowered pointing towards toes in a
twisting motion.
n. Repeat step h
o. Jump to right side, touch, Jump to left side, touch. Hands over head. (raise the roof)
p. Repeat steps h-o
Lacrosse- Theory/Fact Sheet
The objective of the game is to sling a ball in the opponent’s goal using a long stick that
has a triangular head and a webbed pouch called a crosse as many times as possible,
while defending your own goal.
History
— French settlers in Canada adapted the modern game from an ancient American
Indian activity that was at once a sport, combat training, and mystical
ceremony.
— It became an organized sport in the late 19th century.
Safety Concerns
— When not playing the stick should be by the player’s side and held by the
throat or in the two hand ready position.
— Do not swing or twirl stick.
— Two hands must be on the stick during play.
— There is NO contact with any players.
— All play stops when the whistle blows.
Terminology
Cradle- keeping the ball in the crosse with a swinging motion
Crease- area in which only the goalie is allowed
Crosse- the top of the stick where the net is
Throat- portion of the stick where the handle and head join
Equipment
— Crosse
— Field/Court
— Goals
— Protective gear
Playing Area
— Men’s Field- 110yds x 40yds
— Women’s Field- 120yds x 82yds
Players & Positions
Men’s- (4) 15minute quarters
— Goalkeeper
— Three Defenders
Women’s – (2) 30 minute periods
— Goalkeeper
— Point
— Cover Point
— Third Man
— Two Defensive Wings
— Two Attack Wings
— Three Mid-Fielders
— Three Attackers
—
—
—
—
Center
Third Home
Second Home
First Home
Scoring
In order to score the ball must be shot into the opponents net. Scoring is unlimited in the
time allotted.
Rules
Game starts with a coin toss to determine possession.
There must be three complete passes before any shots are attempted on goal.
Each gender must touch the ball at least once before a shot can be attempted.
If stalling occurs a possession time limit can be imposed.
Both hands must remain on stick at all times during play.
No one is allowed in the crease. Players should be in constant movement.
Possession changes after each goal.
Diagram
Line Dancing - Theory/Fact Sheet
Line Dancing has been mainly associated with country-western music and dance. It can be seen
as folk dancing. Many folk dances are danced in unison in a single, non linear line with a
connection between dancers often. Line dances have accompanied many popular styles of music
since the early 1970’s. The music includes pop, swing, rock and roll, disco, Latin, and jazz. Line
dancing is practiced in social clubs, dance clubs, and ballrooms worldwide. Line dancing avoids
the problem of imbalance of male/female interaction, so people feel more comfortable. Safety Concerns
— Listen to directions
— Always warm up properly
— Proper attire and footwear
Terminology
Basic- one repetition of the main dance from the first count to the last without any tags or bridges
Chasse- one foot moves to the side, the other foot is placed next to it, and the first foot moves again to the
side.
Counts- the number of beats of music it would take to complete one sequence of the dance. Grapevine- one
foot moves to the side, the other moves behind it, the first foot moves again to the side, and the second
touches next to the first. There are variations: the final step can consist of a hitch, a scuff, placement of weight
on the second foot, and so forth. The name of the step is sometimes abbreviated to vine.
Lock step- A triple step backwards or forwards, starting on either foot, with the second foot slid up to and
tightly locked in front of or behind the first foot before the first foot is moved a second time in the same
direction as for the first step
Restart- is a point at which the basic dance sequence is interrupted and the dance routine is started again from
the beginning
Shuffle step- triple step to the front or the back, left or right side, starting on either foot. The feet slide rather
than being given the staccato (short and sharp) movement of the cha-cha.
Steps- number of movements
Tag/Bridge- is an extra set of steps not part of the main dance sequence that are inserted into one or more
sequences to ensure the dance fits with the phrasing of the music.
Triple step- 3 steps being taken in only 2 beats of music
Variation- when dancers who have progressed beyond beginner status will often replace a section of a dance
(say 8 beats) with a compatible set of steps
Wall- a wall is the direction in which the dancers face at any given time: the front (the direction faced at the
beginning of the dance), the back or one of the sides.
Weave- to the left or the right-this is a grapevine with a cross in front as well as a cross behind.
Five Line Dances
—
—
—
—
—
Alley Cat Electric Slide
Cha-Cha Slide
Mississippi Mudslide
College Hustle (music Love Train by O’Jays)
Dances
Alley Cat
Toe Touches to the Side
Touch the right toe to the right side
Touch the right toe next to the LF
Touch the right toe to the right side
Step next to the LF with the RF
Touch the left toe to the left side
Touch the left toe next to the RF
Touch the left toe to the left side
Step next to the RF with the LF
Toe Touches to the Back
Touch the right toe to the right back corner
Touch the right toe next to the LF
Touch the right toe to the right back corner
Step next to the LF with the RF
Touch the left toe to the left back corner
Touch the left toe next to the RF
Touch the left toe to the left back corner
Step next to the RF with the LF
Raise the Knees
Raise the right knee
Touch the right toe next to the LF
Raise the right knee
Step next to the LF with the RF
Raise the left knee
Touch the left toe next to the RF
Raise the left knee
Step next to the RF with the LF
Raise the Knees and Turn
Raise the right knee
Step next to the LF with the RF
Raise the left knee
Step next to the RF with the LF
Clap the hands together
Hold
Turn to the right
Hold
Electric Slide
Start by doing a grapevine to the right for steps 1-4and touch the left foot next to the
right foot while clapping on step 4. Then grapevine to the left for steps 5-8 clapping and step
touching the right foot next to the left on step 8 at the end of the grapevine.
Walk backward for 9-12. Step on the right then left then right and touch the left foot
next to the right and clap on step 12.
Step forward with the left foot for step 13 and tap the right toe at the left heel for step 14 ending
with a clap. On step 15 step backward on the right foot and tap the left foot at the right heel for
step 16 finishing with a clap. This sequence should resemble a rocking motion.
Repeat the step touch sequence, dance steps 13-16, for 17-20. Step forward with the left foot for
step 17 and tap the right toe at the left heel for step 18 and clap. On step 19, step backward on the
right foot and tap the left foot at the right heel for step 20 while clapping simultaneously.
Use the left foot to step 21 and quarter-turn to the left ending with a hop for a step 22. Now, the
group faces “west” and is ready to repeat the steps starting with the grapevine step 1. Continue
until the song ends.
Cha-Cha Slide
Grapevine step with a touch
Step back with left foot, step back with the right foot, step back with the right foot, step back with
the left foot, touch right foot beside left.
Hop forward with two feet (times will vary)
Stomp right foot in front, Stomp right foot in front
Cross the right foot over the left, step back with the left foot, step to the right with the right foot,
step forward with the left foot.
Make a slight turn to the left, step to the right with the right foot, step across right foot with the
left foot, step to the side with the right foot, touch the left foot beside the right.
Clap your hands (fast) to the beat.
Jump both feet out, jump and cross right over left, jump both feet out, and jump both feet
together.
Step to the left with the left foot, slide right foot to meet the left. "Slide to the right!" Step to the
right with the right foot, slide left foot to meet the right.
Do the slide to the opposite side.
Lean back toward the floor, bending down as low as you can go.
Pull yourself back up to a standing position, waving your arms above your head.
With your hands crossing from knee-to-knee, bend your knees and bounce to the beat.
Rock forward on right foot while kicking left foot back
Freeze and strike a pose...with attitude!
Mississippi Mudslide
Stomp forward with right foot, hold for 3 counts, stomp forward with left foot, hold for 3 counts
Rock forward on right, recover left, step in place: right, left, right. Rock forward on left, recover
on right, and step in place: left, right, left.
Angle your body slightly to the right as you moves toward the right side wall on counts 1-4, that
slight angle is the “turn to the right”. Step right foot right, step left foot behind /next to right, step
right foot right turning ¼ left, touch left toes next to right root. After the turn you shall have
squared up to the side wall (9:00).
Step left foot left, step right foot behind/next to left, step left on left foot, touch right toes next to
left foot
Walks back: right, left, right, left. Hop forward on both feet, hold for three counts with weight on
left.
Repeat
College Hustle (music Love Train by O’Jays)
Step right foot to right side, Touch left toe “in” beside Right foot Touch left toe “out” to left side,
Touch left toe “in” beside Right foot Step left foot to left side, Touch right toe “in” beside Left
foot Touch right toe “out” to right side, Touch right toe “in” beside Left foot.
Step right foot to right side, Touch left toe behind Right foot Step left foot to left side, Touch
right toe behind Left foot Step right foot to right side, Kick left foot across front of Right foot
Step left foot to left side turning 1/4 left, Low Kick right foot forward (facing 9:00 wall)
Step right foot to right side, Touch left toe behind Right foot Step left foot to left side, Touch
right toe behind Left foot Step right foot to right side, Kick left foot across front of Right foot
Step left foot to left side turning 1/4 left, Low Kick right foot forward (facing 9:00 wall)
Step right foot forward, Step left foot forward, Step right foot forward Kick left foot forward Step
left foot back, Step right foot back, Step left foot back Touch right toe beside Left.
Paddleball - Theory/ Fact Sheet
Life-time activities are an essential factor in maintaining overall wellness and physical
fitness. This unit will afford the student activity which they can participate in after high
school. Basic techniques and fundamentals will be introduced along with an opportunity
to participate in tournament play.
Terminology
Fault- an infraction of the rules
Service Line – line from which the person serves the ball
Side Out- when the team or player loses
Equipment
— Paddle- short-handled, and intermediate in size between ping pong paddles
and tennis rackets
— Ball- resembles a handball, has a rubber surface, and is harder and smaller
than a tennis ball.
Playing Area
— Racquetball Court- 40 feet long, 20 feet wide, by 20 feet high.
Scoring
Play is usually to 11, 15 or 21 points, with two points required to win. A score of 9 to
nothing, for a 21-point game, might be considered a shutout – an automatic win
Rules
The game is usually played singles or doubles.
The service line is 9 feet behind the short line; the server must stand between those two
lines. The service line is marked with lines at least 6 inches long. The sidelines are
continued about 3 feet behind the long line to help determine if a served ball is long (a
fault) or out (a side-out.)
There would be another pair on the other side of this wall. The fence at the top of the wall
helps keep balls from being lost.
There is a short line about halfway from the wall to the baseline, and the sidelines are
extended a few feet past the baseline.
The service line is indicated by ticks about halfway between the short line and the
baseline, and indicates where the serving player must stand when serving. The sidelines
continue to the top of the wall.
The server must drop the ball to the ground, and hit it when it bounces. The ball must
strike the wall, and hit the court surface between the short line and long line, and within
the sidelines. If the ball lands short or long, the server gets one additional attempt. If the
ball lands wide, or strikes the wall wide, the server is out.
Each player in turn may hit the ball on-the-fly or after one bounce. The ball must hit the
wall, within the sidelines, on the fly, and return, hitting the court surface between the
sidelines and before the baseline. Failure to do so results in a point, if the other player
served or a side-out if the server fails.
Diagram
Physical Fitness - Theory/Fact Sheet
The physical fitness unit will promote health and wellness as a life-time activity. In basic fitness,
there is less emphasis on improving the individual fitness levels of students as there is on helping
students gain the cognitive and affective skills necessary to take responsibility for their own
fitness level. The unit encourages the use of fitness assessment tools, team and individual
games, fitness equipment, exercise DVDs, and television as a means of reducing the risk
of cardiovascular disease.
Safety Concerns
— Exercise at least two or three times weekly
— Warm up before exercising
— Cool down after each session
Terminology
Cardiovascular endurance – the ability of the heart and lungs to supply exercising muscle
groups with enough oxygen to continue doing work.
Flexibility – the ability of the body to move through full range of motion at each joint.
Heart rate – the number of times a person’s heart is beating within a one minute time period.
Muscular endurance – the ability of a certain muscle group to contract repeatedly.
Muscular strength – the maximum amount of force a certain muscle group can exert at one time.
Physical fitness – a state in which the human body is in good health and has good cardiovascular
endurance, muscular endurance, muscular strength, and flexibility.
Benefits of Physical Fitness
— A “physically fit” person performs tasks without exhausting the body.
— Improves flexibility, strength, cardiovascular fitness and body composition
— Develop coordination and balance
— Provides opportunity for social interaction
— When we sweat, any liquid that evaporates off of our skin helps cool our body
temperature.
— When a person exercises, he/she is purposely breaking down and fatiguing that
particular muscle group.
— When the muscles that were exercises heal, they are stronger than they were before
the exercise.
— Eating healthy will benefit a person who exercises daily.
— Exercise is a healthy way of dealing with stress.
— Proper hydration is important in order for an athlete to perform at his/her best.
— Flexibility not only helps improve performance, but will help an athlete prevent
injuries during competition.
— Regular exercise will prolong a person’s ability to stay active as they age.
— The better a person’s cardiovascular fitness level, the faster their heart rate will
decrease and return to normal after exercise.
— Exercise should be a part of our daily routine.
— It is extremely important for YOU to take responsibility for YOUR own fitness level.
Power Walking- Theory/Fact Sheet
The objective of power walking is to give your whole body a thorough workout and a
new way to increase your physical activity. Students will also be able to participate in a
lifetime activity that reduces the risk of cardio-vascular disease, and take the appropriate
steps towards defeating obesity.
Safety Considerations
— Weather
— Course
Pedometer
The purpose of a Pedometer is to track the amount of steps you take throughout the day.
On average 2000 steps equals one mile.
Body Positioning
The position of the body is very important in power walking. In order to achieve full
effectiveness of the exercise it is important for you to consider how each part of the body
contributes to your overall health and success during power walking.
Head and Posture
— Head Level
— Eyes Ahead (20 yards)
— Relax Neck and Jaw
Arms
— 85-90 degree elbow bend
— Swing arms loosely and vigorously.
— Hands close to body.
— Relaxed hands loosely clenched fists
Torso
— Posture relaxed and straight (walk tall)
— Keep abdominals firm
— Shoulders should remain relaxed
Feet
— One foot should remain in contact with ground.
— Do not over stride
— Land on the heel, ankle flexed within your range of motion.
Hips
— Rotate pelvis forward and back horizontally.
— Avoid lateral hip motion.
Legs and Stride
— The knee of the advancing leg must be straightened when foot makes ground
contact.
— Move legs slowly at first then gradually increase leg speed/cadence.
— Maintain natural stride.
Rhythm and Movement Concepts - Theory/Fact Sheet
The unit will explore the biomechanics of the body and the way the body identifies to
tempos, beats, and measures of music. Identification of quality and quantity of energy
expended for demonstrating movement skills will be explored with the presence of music
or without, or with other forms of sound. The student will be able to create routines
which will assist in their overall health and fitness.
.
Safety Concerns
— Exercise in open areas with good lighting
— Listen to your body signals.
— Warm up before exercising
— Cool down after each session
Terminology
Accent –percussion, sustained
Beat -underlying pulse
Balance- a state of equilibrium or equipoise; equal distribution of weight, amount, etc
Counter-balance- a weight balancing another weight; an equal weight, power, or
influence acting in opposition; counterpoise
Force- an influence on a body or system, producing or tending to produce a change in
movement or in shape or other effects
Intensity -longs and shorts
Loco motor skills- moving skills such as walking, running, hopping, skipping, galloping,
sliding, chasing, fleeing, and dodging
Measure- eight measures
Pattern –combinations
Phrase- four-eight measures
Rotation- the act of rotating; a turning around as on an axis
Stability- being firm
Syncopation- a shift of accent when a normally weak beat is stressed
Tempo –fast, slow
Rope Jumping - Theory/Fact Sheet
The rope jumping unit will provide each student with a vehicle to improve and
maintain cardiovascular fitness, and improve loco-motor and non-manipulative skills.
Safety Concerns
— Exercise in open areas with good lighting
— Exercise at least two or three times weekly
— Warm up before exercising
— Cool down after each session
Terminology
Alternate Foot Jump - This style consists of using alternate feet to jump off the ground. This
technique can be used to effectively double the number of skips per minute as compared to the
above technique.
Basic jump-These are where both feet are slightly apart and jump at the same time over the rope.
Beginners should master this technique first before moving onto more advanced techniques.
Bell- a front-and-back jump keeping the feet together;
Can-can- a jump with one leg up and bent, followed by a jump with both feet on ground,
followed by a jump kicking the foot out
Combination jumps- There are many more difficult jump roping tricks that combine two or
more of these techniques to make a single trick. These combinations can also be used in Chinese
Wheel, Double Dutch, and Long Rope.
Criss-cross- This method is similar to the basic jump with the only difference being that while
jumping, the left hand goes to the right part of the body and vice versa for the right hand.
Double under- To perform a double under, the participant needs to jump up a bit higher than
usual while swinging the rope twice under his feet. It is possible to have the rope swing three
times under the feet (triple under). In fact, in competitive jump rope, triples, quadruples
("quads"), and quintuples ("quins") are not uncommon.
Jumping jack- a jump putting the feet apart and then together
Scissors- a jump putting one foot forward and the other back, then switching back-and-forth
Skier- a side-to-side jump keeping the feet together;
Toad- The toad is a complicated trick where the jumper performs the "Cross" maneuver with
their leg intersecting the arms.
Four Benefits of Rope Jumping
— Develops overall fitness
— Improves strength, cardiovascular fitness and body composition
— Develop coordination and balance
— Provides opportunity for social interaction
Additional Benefits of Rope Jumping
— Appearance
— Increased energy level
— Improved self esteem
Soccer Theory/Fact Sheet
The unit will provide students with an opportunity to develop an
understanding of the fundamental skills and knowledge of the game. Students
will utilize skills learned in order to participate in a modified or regulation game.
Students will have an opportunity to continue this life time activity to reduce the
risk of cardio-vascular disease.
History
—
—
—
—
—
Most popular game in the world
Known as “football” throughout the rest of the world
(l0th century) originated in England
(1870) brought to U.S. about
(1908) Became an Olympic medal sport
Terminology
Attacking team- the team that has possession of the ball
Center circle-where kickoffs are taken to start a game
Chest trap-when a player uses his chest to slow down and control a ball in the air
Clear-ball kicked away from the goal
Drop ball-a method of restarting a game where the referee drops the ball between 2
players
Forwards-players who main responsibility is scoring
Foul-violation of rules
Goal-consists of the net, posts and crossbar
Goalkeeper-only person on the field who touches the ball with their hands
Goal line-lines at each end of the filed
Corner kick-putting the ball back into play when it goes out over the end line by the
defensive team
Dribbling-moving the ball with your feet
Indirect kick-a free kick that must touch another player before entering the goal
Penalty kicks- result of a flagrant foul or overtime play taken from the penalty mark, 12 yards in
front of the goal
Throw-in putting the ball back into play when it goes out of bounds on the sideline
Trapping-stopping and/or controlling the ball.
Equipment
— Ball
— Goals
— Playing Area
Players and Positions
— Attackers/ forwards – main responsibility is scoring
— Midfielders / halfbacks – bridge between forwards and defenders
— Defenders / fullbacks – preventing opponents from scoring and protect the goalie
— Goalkeeper - main responsibility is prevent opponents from scoring
Benefits of Soccer:
— Provides a great cardiovascular workout & conditioning for legs
— Teaches cooperation and teamwork
— Can be played indoors or outdoors
— Fun and enjoyable
Rules & Regulations
A regulation game consists of two equal 45 minute periods
Games begin with a kickoff at midfield
A ball that passes over the goal line and was last touched by a defender is returned to play by
a corner kick
A ball that passes over the goal line and was last touched by an offensive player is returned to play
by a goal kick
A ball that crosses over the sideline is returned into play by a throw in
The ball is out of play when it has completely crossed the goal line; it completely crossed
the touch, line, or the referee has stopped the game.
The kickoff is used at the beginning of the game and each playing period, after a goal is
scored, and awarded to the team that did not score.
Major fouls consist of kicking or attempting to kick an opponent, jumping at an
opponent, striking or attempting to strike an opponent, pushing, holding or tripping an
opponent, or charging in a violent manner.
Minor fouls consist of being offside; playing in a dangerous manner, intentionally
obstructing an opponent, player shows disagreement of any decision by the referee, or
unsportsmanlike conduct.
Penalties for these fouls may range anywhere from a direct kick for major fouls, an
indirect kick for minor fouls, a
penalty kick for a foul in penalty
area, and Yellow and Red cards.
Soccer Field
Softball Theory/Fact Sheet
Safety Concerns
— Always wear the proper safety equipment
— Always stand behind the fence if not batting
Equipment
— The same basic equipment is used as in baseball
— Ball is slightly larger
— Playing field is slightly smaller
— Pitched underhand.
Players and Positions
— Pitcher – the person who pitches the ball
— Catcher – the person who receives the pitch if the ball is not hit
— First Base – stands to the left of the base and fields balls hit towards them and receives throws
from the infield.
— Second Base – stands between first and second base and takes the cut to any outfield
hits to right field
— Third Base –responsible for third base and balls that he or she can field
— Shortstop –stands between second and third base and is in charge of the infield, they
also take the cut to any outfield hit to the left side
— Left Field –takes care of most of the left side of the outfield and backs up balls hit
to center
— Center Field –stands in the center of the outfield behind second base
— Right Field –stands in the right field and backs up balls hit to center
Terminology
Base on Balls- batter is awarded first base after four balls were pitched out of the strike
zone
Batting Order-official order in which a team must come to bat
Catcher- person who receives the pitch if the ball is not hit
Double play -when two base runners are called out on the same play
Fly Ball -any ball batted into the air
Force out-when the runner has to advance to the next base to make room for the
following base runner
Grounder-a ball that is hit on the ground
Home Run-a four base hit and the batter scores
Inning -division of the game when each team gets an opportunity to bat and play the field
Infield -fair territory within the base paths
On Deck-next person to bat
Outfield- fair territory beyond the infield
Overthrow- throws above the fielder’s hand
RBI-run batted in
Triple Play-three outs on one batted ball
Walk-when a batter has four balls called and are able to advance safely to first base
Scoring
Each runner is brought home is called a run.
The team with more runs after seven (7) innings is the winner.
Rules
A regulation game is seven innings long and each team has nine players the two teams take turns
playing in the field and at bat for 7 innings, with the home team batting last.
Each player on the team bat in a specific order (batting order)
The batter tries to hit the ball delivered by the opposing teams’ pitcher
When batting, both feet must remain in the batter’s box until the ball has been hit
Each batter gets four balls and three strikes
Once the batter reaches first base, he or she is called a base runner
If the ball is caught off the bat and the base runner has left the base he or she was
occupying, they must return to that base before attempting to proceed (Tagging Up)
An out can occur several ways, if a ball is caught before touching the ground, a ground
ball is fielded and thrown to first base before the batter gets there, if fielder holding a ball
touches a base with a runner advancing to it, and runners are on previous bases, if a
player leaves a base and does not get back before a caught fly ball is thrown to that base,
or when the pitcher gets three strikes on the batter.
A strike is a ball swung at and missed, a ball hit into foul territory, and a ball not swung at but in
the strike zone
Softball Field Diagram
Speedball/Flickerball- Theory/Fact Sheet
The objective of the game is to score in the opponent’s goal as many times as possible,
while defending your own goal.
Safety Concerns
— When not playing the stick should be by the player’s side and held by the
throat or in the two hand ready position.
— Do not swing or twirl stick.
— Two hands must be on the stick during play.
— There is NO contact with any players.
— All play stops when the whistle blows.
Terminology
Soccer style pass– when the ball is on the ground, players are allowed to kick the ball to
one another.
Football style pass – when the ball becomes airborne, players are allowed to make aerial
passes similar to that of a quarterback in football.
Basketball style pass– when the ball becomes airborne, players are allowed to make
aerial passes similar to those used in basketball.
Catching – anytime a ball is in the air, players can catch the ball with their hands.
Soccer style dribbling – anytime the ball is on the ground, players are allowed to
advance down court while maintaining possession using a soccer style dribble.
Drop kick – when a player catches an aerial ball and then decides to drop it to the floor
and simultaneously kick it toward the goal or as a pass to another teammate
Heading – exactly the same as the skill used in soccer, players are allowed to “head” the
ball toward the goal or as a pass to another teammate.
Kick up – when a ground ball is intentionally kicked into the air and converted into an
aerial ball.
Overhead dribble / air dribble – when a player intentionally taps the ball in any
direction and catches it before it hits the ground.
Equipment
— Ball
— Field/Court
Playing Area
— Field- 110yds x 40yds
Scoring
— A field goal is worth 3 points.
— A penalty kick is worth 1 point.
— A touchdown is worth 1 point.
Rules
Speedball consists of 4 quarters.
Each team consists of 11 players.
When a team scores, the opposing team gets a kick-off.
A kick-off must travel the length of the field.
Any ball that is traveling in the air is known as an aerial ball.
A player can catch an aerial ball with his/her hands.
Once the ball is off the ground and into the hands of a player, that team is allowed to
make aerial passes to teammates until the ball hits the floor.
If two players on opposing teams both catch the ball at the same time and neither gain
immediate possession, the referee will stop play and call a tie-ball.
Any ball that is rolling or bouncing is known as a ground ball.
A player may catch an aerial pass and immediately place it on the floor to be played as a
ground ball.
The act of stopping or slowing the ball with any part of the body except the arms and
hands is known as blocking or trapping.
A touchdown is scored when a player who is outside the penalty area completes a pass to
a teammate who is behind the goal line.
Teams choose to play both man to man and zone defenses.
Diagram
E
N
D
E
N
D
Z
O
N
E
Z
O
N
E
Team Handball - Theory/Fact Sheet
History
The game was first played in the early 1900’s and has evolved into an Olympic sport with
both men’s and women’s teams.
Equipment
Men’s Ball- smaller version of a soccer ball size 3 weighing 15-17 ounces
Women’s Ball- also smaller version of a soccer ball size 2 weighing 12-14 ounces
Terminology
Attack- a team attacks when they have possession
Centerline- divides the court into two halves
Charging- when an offensive player runs into or over a stationary defensive player
Checking- obstructing an opponent from taking a shot using the body
Free Throw- taken from 3m line
Substitution Area- area designated for substitutions
Throw in- when a ball goes out of bounds and is thrown back in from the spot it went out
Throw off- the throw taken after the referee blows the whistle to start the game or after a
goal is scored
Playing Area
20m wide x 40m long
The playing area is sectioned with a center line down the middle and a 4, 6, 7, & 9m line
in each end zone.
Players
There are 6 court people and 1 goalie on the playing area at all times.
Scoring
Scoring is unlimited
Each goal is worth 1 point
Scoring goals in team handball occurs more often than it does in other sports such as
hockey and soccer.
Rules
The ball is advanced by passing, catching, and dribbling.
A player is allowed to run with the ball for 3 steps before and after dribbling.
A player is allowed to dribble the ball 3 times.
A player can hold the ball for 3 seconds before passing or attempting a shot at the goal.
In team handball, a team is allowed unlimited substitutions.
If a player commits a serious rule violation, unsportsmanlike conduct, or an illegal
substitution, a 2 minute suspension is issued.
Team handball is played on a court that is a little bigger than a basketball court.
The most effective way of moving the ball down court is passing the ball to teammates.
The duration of the game is two thirty minute halves with a ten minute half-time.
Possession is determined by a coin toss
Dribbling is unlimited, but double dribbles are illegal.
When there is a minor penalty/rule violation a free throw is awarded from the 9m line.
When a serious penalty is committed the throw is taken from the 7m line.
When the whistle is blown all play stops.
Tennis - Theory/Fact Sheet
This unit provides students with an introduction of the fundamental skills and etiquette of
tennis that students may participate competitively or as a life-time activity.
Safety Considerations
— Racquet control
— Communication to avoid collision
Terminology
Ace- serve not touched by opponent
Ad In- term used to describe the team that is serving and earns a point in a game that is
tied 40-40
Ad Out- receiving team earns one point after the score is tied 40-40
Deuce- score is tied at 40-40
Double Fault- when the server does not hit either of his/her two attempts into the proper
court
Love- a word meaning zero points
Match Point- one point from winning a match
Let- serve that hits the top of the net and bounces into the proper service court
Set- A set consist of six or seven games depending if a tie breaker is needed.
Serve- overhand hitting action to begin each point
Volley- shot hit before the ball bounces on the court
Equipment
— Racquet
— Balls
Playing Area
— A standard tennis court is designed and lined to accommodate singles or
doubles play.
— In tennis all lines are considered in play.
— The tennis court is wider for doubles play then it is for singles. The wider area
is known as the alleys.
Scoring
In tennis the scoring system is as follows 15, 30, and 40, game.
In tennis you are required to win six games in order to win the set.
player or players must win by two games.
To win a set the
Whenever there is a disagreement with the score you should always go back to the last
score that the opponents can agree upon.
To win a game the player or players must earn the required four points.
In a men’s tennis match you must win three out of five sets in order to win the match.
Rules
During the serve in tennis the ball must land in the opponent’s service court.
The opponent’s service court is divided into a left side or right side. The first serve
attempted by the server must land in the opponent’s right service box.
In tennis the serving player or players score is always announced first.
When serving the server must stand and contact the ball behind the baseline.
In tennis you can strike the ball in the air or when it bounces only once.
A set consist of six games or a tie breaker game to complete the set. When the number of
games in a set is tied at 6-6 a tie breaker system is used to determine the winner.
In a women’s tennis match in order to win the match you must win two out of three sets.
When serving, the server has two opportunities to get the ball in the correct service box.
In doubles play it is permissible for either player on the team to hit the ball twice in a
row.
The serve is retained by the same team player throughout each individual game.
Each tennis match is allowed to begin with a warm-up of five minutes, with the
opponents rallying back and forth with one and other.
After the serve any ball that hits the net is good and needs to be played.
During each set, players switch ends of the court whenever the total amount of games
played is an odd number.
Diagram
Track-Theory/Fact Sheet
This unit will introduce students to one of the oldest competitive sports dating back to
ancient Greece and the Olympics. Students will be given the opportunity to enhance their
gross body coordination, as well as, improve their individual speed and endurance
capabilities while participating in this lifetime activity.
History
— (776 BC) The original and only event at the first Olympics was a stadiumlength foot race or "stade", run on a track.
— (1876) Intercollegiate Association of Amateur Athletes of America was
formed.
— (1888) The Amateur Athletic Union of the United States was founded for
collegians and non-collegians.
— (1896) Track was included in the first modern Olympic Games.
— (1912) The International Amateur Federation was organized and sets rules
and approves world records.
— (1928) Women were first allowed to participate in track and field events in
the Olympics.
— (1970’s)USA Track & Field (USATF or USA T&F) was established.
Indoor Track
— Run during the winter.
— Most indoor tracks are 200 meters and consist of 4-6 lanes.
— The same events are held indoors as outdoors with few exceptions.
Outdoor Track
—
—
—
—
Season usually begins in the spring and lasts through the summer.
Most tracks are ovals of 400 meters in circumference.
Made with rubberized surface.
Tracks normally consist of 6-10 lanes.
Events
Sprinting
Sprinting is the shortest and fastest of the events. Short sprints and long sprints are 2 of
many events.
Middle Distance Runs
Middle distance runs are more strenuous than sprints. Athletes must regulate their speed
carefully to avoid exhaustion.
Distance Runs
During these events the runners need to balance their energy. These types of races are
very energy-consuming; require mental determination, and aerobic conditioning. In these
events stamina is a bigger factor than speed.
Relays
During these races 4 athletes run a given distance called a leg. Each runner must hand off
the baton to the next runner within the exchange zone, usually marked by triangles on the
track. During shorter races the baton is passed with a blind exchange so that the next
runner can continue looking forward. For longer runs, the runner looks back before
taking the baton.
For additional reading
“Track and Field,” Microsoft ® Encarta. Copyright © 1994 Microsoft Corporation.
Copyright © 1994 Funk & Wagnalls Corporation.
"Track and Field." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 2 Dec 2008, 07:01 UTC. 2 Dec 2008
<http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Relay_race&oldid=255375843
Ultimate Frisbee- Theory/Fact Sheet
The objective of this unit is for students to learn an exciting, non-contact team sport that
mixes sports such as Soccer, Basketball, and American Football into one demanding
game. Students will review skills such as catching and throwing, as well as, learning how
to track and catch a flying disc which requires a basic understanding of how to generate
and reduce air pressure which creates lift/spin.
History
— (1968) Columbia high school student in Maplewood, New Jersey created
team.
— (1979-1980) Ultimate Players Association (UPA) was formed.
— (2006) Ultimate became an accredited sport at UK universities for both indoor
and outdoor open division events.
Terminology
Backhand- throwing across the body
Force- amount of power behind the throw
Forehand/Flick-throwing with a wrist flicking motion that does not cross the body
Hand Block- batting the disc down while it’s in the air
Pancake/Sandwich- the act of catching the disc between two hands
Pivot- act of moving the body while one foot is planted on the ground
Pull- long, hanging throws
Stalling- taking more than 5 seconds to pass the disc
Turnover- occurs when the disc is dropped, batted down, or flies out of bounds
Equipment
— Frisbee/disc
— Area/Field markings
Playing Area
— 120 yards long by 40 yards wide
— End zones are 10 yards each.
Scoring
A point is scored when a player catches a pass in the end zone his team is attacking.
After a point is scored, the teams exchange ends. The team who just scored remains in
that end zone, and the opposing team goes to the opposite end zone. Play is re-started
with a pull by the scoring team.
Rules
Regulation games are played 7 on 7. Pick-up or informal games may have any number of
players.
The players line up at the edge of their respective end zones, and the defensive team
throws, or pulls, the disc to the offensive team to begin play.
A pull begins the game and each point. Pulls are normally long, hanging throws, giving
the offense poor field position and the defense an opportunity to move up the field.
The disc may be moved in any direction by completing a pass to a teammate. After
catching a pass, a player is required to come to a stop as quickly as possible, and then can
only move their non-pivot foot
A player has ten seconds to pass it. This period is known as the "stall", and each second is
counted out.
Under Ultimate Players Association (UPA) rules most games are played to odd numbers.
For instance, if the game is to 15, half comes when one team scores 8 points.
Possession changes when there is an incomplete pass, a throw away, a drop, a block, an
interception, an out of bounds, or a stall.
A foul occurs when contact is made between players.
All play stops on the whistle.
Diagram
Volleyball-Theory/Fact Sheet
The objective of the game of volleyball is to use any part of the body above the waist to
send the ball over the net into the opponent’s court, within the set boundaries, so that the
opposing team is unable to return it or prevent it from hitting the ground.
History
—
—
—
—
(1895) Originated in Holyoke Massachusetts
(1928) United States Volleyball Association is organized.
(1947) International Volleyball Federation is organized.
(1955) Pan-American Games is introduced.
— (1996) Olympic Games
Safety Concerns
— Use communication to avoid collisions
Terminology
Attack- sending the ball over the net in a forceful manner
Block-when a player jumps close to the net with both arms extended to block the
opponents spike
Dig- getting an attacked ball close to the floor
Dink- a light hit using the back of the hand or a closed hand to put the ball over the net
Forearm Pass/Bump- passing the ball using the forearms
Let Serve- when the serve hits the net and goes over
Rally Scoring- system of scoring in which a point is awarded for every serve and
resulting rally
Serve- the act of putting the ball in play
Serving Area- area behind the entire end line outside of the court
Set- placement of the ball to enable the spiker to hit the ball into the opponents court
Side Out- Side Out- when the serving team makes a fault and the receiving team gains
the serve
Spike- a ball hit with great force into the opponents area
Equipment
— Volleyball
— Net- Woman’s net is 7 feet 4 1/4” high., Men’s net is 7 feet 11 5/8” high. (8
feet)
Playing Area
— The playing area is 18M by 9m. (60 feet by 30 feet)
— The center line divides the court in half.
— The attack line is 9’10” from the center line, (10 feet)
— The end lines are the furthest from the center.
— The service area is anywhere behind the end line
Players
Each team is composed of six players and a maximum of eighteen substitutes. Each team
has a captain. The floor captain is the only player allowed to speak to the officials.
He/She along with the coach may request a time out.
Scoring
Rally scoring is used. A point is awarded for every rule infraction. A team must score
twenty-five points with a two or more point(s) advantage to win.
Rules
When the ball is served the front line players are at the net, the back line players
anywhere behind them on the court.
When there is a change of service (side-out) players must rotate in a clockwise direction.
(Only one position)
The server has five seconds to serve the ball over the net without touching the end line
before contacting the ball.
A foul is committed if the ball goes under the net, hits the net, over the net and lands out
of bounds, or the servers foot touches the line.
The ball may be hit with any part of the body above the waist, as long as the hit is clean
and the ball is not held, lifted, or carried.
Each team may contact the ball up to three times before returning it over the net. Except
in blocking, the same player may not hit the ball twice in succession.
Players may not make any contact with their bodies and the net.
When the referee blows the whistle the ball is dead and play stops.
After a block the team has three more hits. Each team is allowed two- sixty second time
outs. Each team may make up to eighteen substitutions in a game.
Diagram
Weight Training- Theory/Fact Sheet
The objective of weight training is the attainment of strength, which is an important goal of
physical fitness. Strength is achieved by a gradual increase of a load to a working muscle over a
period of time. After the exercised muscle adjusts to the initial load more weight can be added.
Benefits of weight training are increased strength, improved physical appearance, improved
cardiovascular endurance, and flexibility. Weight training is an activity that can be enjoyed at
any age.
Safety
—
—
—
—
Sufficient warm up exercises.
Spotters
No horse-play in training area.
Use of collars/clamps on
barbells and dumbbells.
— Partner training
— Use of belts and wraps for
heavy lifting.
— Alternate body part training.
Terminology
Free Weight- equipment such as barbells or dumbbells
Spotting- partner who monitors, guides, and coaches the exercise
Breathing- inhaling and exhaling during the exercise
Repetition- each individual movement during the exercise
Routine- a set workout that is performed
Set- a group of repetitions
Partner- person you train with
Rest Period- 80-90 seconds of non-activity between each set
Alternate Body Parts- training a different muscle group every day
Extension- to flex away from the body
Flexion- flex to the body
Upper Body Training- Muscles and Exercises
Chest (Pectorals) - Bench Press, Dumbbell Press, Incline/Decline Bench Press, Medicine Ball
Shoulders (Trapezius and Deltoids) - Military Press, Shoulder Press, Upright Rows, Front/Lateral Raises,
Arnold Press
Arms (Biceps and Triceps) - Bicep Curls, Dips, Triceps kick backs
Stomach (Abdominals) - Sit ups, Leg raises, Crunches, Stability Ball/Core Exercises
Back (Latissimus Dorsi) - Pull Ups, Rowing Movements, Bent/Seated Row, T-Bar Row, Lat Pull Downs
Lower Body Training- Muscles and Exercises
Upper Thigh (Quadriceps) - Leg Extensions, Squat, Leg Press, Step-Ups
Back of Leg (Hamstring) – Hamstring Curl, Stiff Leg Dead Lifts, Reverse Lunges
Lower Leg (Calf) – Raises
Cardiovascular Training (Lungs and Heart)
Treadmill – if available
Elliptical Trainer – if available
Jump Rope
Walking
Jogging
Stepper – if available
Yoga-Theory/Fact Sheet
Yoga is a form of exercise based on the concept that the body and breath are connected with the
mind. Yoga means union and consists of these key elements: proper breathing, proper exercise,
proper relaxation, proper diet, positive thinking, and tension reduction. The students will be
introduced to exercises designed to ease tensed muscles, tone up the internal organs, and to
improve the flexibility of the body’s joints and ligaments.
Proper Exercise: Yoga Asanas
The aim of proper exercise is to improve agility and strength. Each posture is performed slowly.
Violent movements are avoided because they produce a build up of lactic acid causing fatigue.
Proper Breathing
Most people use 1/3 of their breathing capacity. This can lead to stress and fatigue. Yoga
breathing teaches you to breathe through the nose concentrating on exhalation rather than
inhalation. This is done to cleanse the lungs of stale air and to eliminate toxins from the body. It
also improves your physical and mental health.
Proper Relaxation
The release of tension is vital to keeping the body healthy. Begin and end each session of yoga
exercises with relaxation. It is also important to relax between each of the poses.
Proper Diet
A diet made up of natural foods that are easily digested, such as, vegetables, grains, fruit, beans,
and dairy products, is suggested. This keeps the body vital and healthy and allows the mind to be
free of restless thoughts.
Positive Thinking
Positive thinking begins with learning how to relax the mind and focus mental energy inward.
This can help relieve stress and replenish energy. When done on a daily basis it enables a person
to think more clearly and positively.
Material Needs
— Mat
— Towel
— Music
— Comfortable clothes
Body Balance
Yoga exercises make each group of muscles work equally on the left and right side of the body to
achieve equilibrium. This keeps all parts of the body equally strong and flexible.
— Stretch to the same extent one each side.
— Stretch as far as possible.
Sitting Techniques
Sit cross-legged aligning your head, neck and spine. Keep your shoulders straight but relaxed.
Full Breath
Place one hand on your lower rib cage and one on your abdomen. Breathe in trying to fill the
lowest part of your lings, then the middle, and then the top. Feel your chest and abdomen expand.
Poses
Lying Down Poses
Used at the beginning of a session to prepare you mentally and physically for the work ahead.
It is also performed between postures to allow released energy to flow freely and to expel
waste products from the muscles.
Headstand Sequence
By inverting the entire body and balancing on your elbows, arms, and head, a plentiful supply of
oxygen rich blood can reach the upper regions of the body. The head stand rests the heart which
usually has to work against gravity.
Shoulder Stand Cycle
This cycle strengthens the muscles, improves spinal flexibility, and balances the thyroid gland.
This gland in the neck gives energy, equalizes the metabolism, controls body weight, removes
poisons from the blood, and produces a healthy complexion.
Forward Bends
Much of a person’s time is spent standing upright which can cause the spine to become
compressed. Regular practice of forward bends can help to keep the spine elastic, the joints
mobile, the internal organs toned, and the nervous system invigorated.
Backwards Bends
This position helps to tone the deep and superficial muscles of both the back and the abdominal
regions tone and strengthen. The backward bends allows for flexibility in the spinal column and
relieves tension in the lower back region.
Spinal Twists
After forward and backward bends the spinal twists give the spine lateral movement. During this
pose the vertebrae is mobilized and nourishment is given to the roots of the spinal nerves and the
sympathetic nervous system.
Balancing Poses
These poses require strong concentration. By improving one’s balance the core muscles are
worked and toned, concentration is improved, and mental tranquility may be achieved.
Standing Poses
By performing this pose you are able to give a complete stretch to the back of the body. In this
energizing position the joints are mobilized and the brain is supplied with an increased amount of
blood. Inequalities in the body may also be corrected.
Final Relaxation
This may be the most important part of a yoga session. It allows the mind to remain calm, the
muscles to remain relaxed, and the body to absorb the energy released by the
asanas.
Self-Reflection
This is beneficial for everyone, especially for those with stressful and busy lives.
During this time the mind is calmed and turned inward allowing the body to
recharge, increase physical stamina, and improve concentration.
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